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WHAT IS WITRICITY?
WiTricity,a portmanteau for "wireless electricity", is a trademark of WiTricity corporation, an American engineering company, referring to their devices and processes which use a form of wireless energy transfer including resonant energy transfer etc., the ability to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires using oscillating magnetic fields. The term WiTricity was used for a project that took place at MIT, led by Marin Soljačić in 2007.
1) Nikola Tesla he is who invented radio and is referred to as “Father of Wireless”. Nikola Tesla is the one who first conceived the idea Wireless Power Transmission and demonstrated “the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conductivity as early as 1891. In 1893, Tesla demonstrated the illumination of vacuum bulbs without using wires for power transmission at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Wardenclyffe tower shown in Figure Was designed and constructed by Tesla mainly for wireless transmission of electrical power rather than telegraphy .
INVENTION( AND HISTORY ): Scientists have tried to develop methods of wireless power transmission that could cut the clutter or lead to clean sources of electricity. While the idea may sound futuristic, it isn't particularly new. Nicola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. One of his more spectacular displays involved remotely powering lights in the ground at his Colorado Springs experiment station. Tesla's work was impressive, but it didn't immediately lead to widespread, practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then, researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use.
Warden clyffe Tower 2)A physics research group, led by Prof. Marin Soljacic, at the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT) demonstrated wireless powering of a 60W light bulb with
where one was connected to a receiver.5 meters (8. The experimental design consisted of two copper coils. may “capture” some portion of that oscillating magnetic field. and the other to a transmitter. Intel reproduced the MIT group's experiment by wirelessly powering a light bulb with 75% efficiency at a shorter distance. WiTricity Corp. was the resonant source. they were able to light a 60W light bulb from a power source seven feet (more than two meters) away. One of the coils. Marin Soljacic who provided the inspiration for the experiment and invention of witricity. Soljačić’s dream of finding a method to wirelessly connect mobile electric devices to the existing electric grid was realized. and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN) has experimentally demonstrated an important step toward accomplishing this vision of the future. was connected to a 60 watt light bulb. which in turn. It was Prof. The power source and capture device were suspended in mid-air with nylon thread. PRINCIPLE: Magnetic Induction: A loop or coil of conductive material like copper. was soon launched to carry this technology forward from the MIT laboratories to commercial production. The inventors of witricity are the researchers from the team from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2008. each a self-resonant system. It was while standing in the kitchen one night. brought close enough to the first. the inventors of witricity managed to transmit power across seven feet through the air to instantly light up a light bulb. cell phones without any cords. The other coil. there was no physical connection between the source and the appliance. potentially useful for powering laptops. If a conductive loop is connected to an AC power source. A second conducting loop. carrying an alternating current (AC). MIT team experimentally demonstrates wireless power transfer. A team from MIT's Department of Physics. He then tried out his experiment using two coils of copper. the resonant capture device. Thus Prof. it will generate an oscillating magnetic field in the vicinity of the loop. generates or induces an . but the theoretical predictions of high efficiency over distance were proven experimentally. connected to an AC power supply. They are the people who had coined the phrase of witricity and this invention can change the way electricity is used today. Realizing their recent theoretical prediction. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.2 ft). By placing various objects between the source and capture device.40% efficiency at a 2m (7ft) distance using two 60cm-diameter coils in 2007 . at distances that ranged from a few centimeters to over 2. With the help of these two coils of copper. the team demonstrated how the magnetic near field can transfer power through certain materials and around metallic obstacles. that on staring at his mobile phone that he had thought it would be nice if his mobile phone would take care of its own charging instead of him having to periodically charge it. Not only was the light bulb illuminated. is a very efficient structure for generating or capturing a magnetic field.
thickness of the glass. and overcome the forces of friction and inertia that keep the train still—and. begins vibrating. the train moves. the wine glass is the resonant oscillating system. In this example. and can eventually even shatter. electric energy can be transferred from a power source to a powered device. The child can make the swing go higher if she properly coordinates her arm and leg action with the motion of the swing. An electric transformer is a device that uses magnetic induction to transfer energy from its primary winding to its secondary winding. interacts with a second object and induces an electric current in or on that object. One simple example is a locomotive pulling a train car—the mechanical coupling between the two enables the locomotive to pull the train. Sound waves traveling through the air are captured by the glass. The child swings back and forth at a rate that is determined by the length of the swing. without the windings being connected to each other. the glass absorbs energy. Some common examples of devices based on magnetic induction are electric transformers and electric generators. work on the principle of a primary coil generating a magnetic field and a secondary coil subtending as much as possible of that field so that the power passing though the secondary is as close as possible to that of the primary. This type of electrical power transfer from one loop or coil to another is well known and referred to as magnetic induction. Energy/Power Coupling: Energy coupling occurs when an energy source has a means of transferring energy to another object. and the sound energy is converted to mechanical vibrations of the glass itself.electric current in the second coil. Resonant Magnetic Coupling: Nonresonant coupled inductors. The resonant frequency of the glass depends on the size. clear note. In contrast to the example of mechanical coupling given for the train. It can be thought of as the natural frequency at which energy can most efficiently be added to an oscillating system. and how much wine is in it. shape. The swing is oscillating at its resonant frequency and the simple movements of the child efficiently transfer energy to the system. In this way. It is used to “transform” AC current at one voltage to AC current at a different voltage. magnetic coupling does not require any physical contact between the object generating the Resonance: Resonance is a property that exists in many different physical systems. Magnetic coupling occurs when the magnetic field of one object energy and the object receiving or capturing that energy. This requirement that the field be covered by the secondary results in very short range and . Another example of resonance is the way in which a singer can shatter a wine glass by singing a single loud. A playground swing is an example of an oscillating system involving potential energy and kinetic energy. When the singer hits the note that matches the resonant frequency of the glass. such as typical transformers. The current generated in the second coil may be used to power devices.
usually requires a magnetic core. The current inside the source induces an oscillating magnetic field. 2. it turns out that significant power may be transmitted between the coils over a range of a few times the coil diameters at reasonable efficiency. If resonant coupling is used. . 4) The energy of the oscillating magnetic field induces an electrical current in witricity device 5) This can be used to charge battery or directly can be used to light bulb. Generating power by placing satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting the power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of WPT. each coil is capacitively loaded so as to form a tuned LC circuit. Moving targets such as fuel free airplanes. 2) Circuit converts standard ac to higher frequency and feeds to witricity source. Using resonance can help efficiency dramatically. Over greater distances the non-resonant induction method is highly inefficient and wastes the vast majority of the energy in resistive losses of the primary coil. 3) The witricity device to be powered is tuned to the same frequency as the source and in the process called RESONANT MAGNETIC COUPLING power is transferred from source to the device. fuel free electric vehicles. The blue and red color bands illustrate their magnetic fields. The coupling of their respective magnetic fields is indicated by the connection of the color bands. Magnetic coupling occurs when two objects exchange energy through their varying or oscillating magnetic fields. WORKING: 1) AC power is taken from the source and given to circuit. etc. moving robots and fuel free rockets. Two idealized resonant magnetic coils. USEAGE: 1. Resonant coupling occurs when the natural frequencies of the two objects are approximately the same. shown in yellow. If the primary and secondary coils are resonant at a common frequency.
the magnetic near field has the ability to “wrap around” many metallic obstacles that might otherwise block the magnetic fields. In many applications. gypsum wall board. relying instead on the magnetic near field. WiTricity’s applications engineering team will work with you to address the materials and environmental factors that may influence wireless energy transfer in your application. power levels and use in home environments. 3. This enables WiTricity technology to be used in applications as diverse as powering a wireless mouse or keyboard (milliwatts) to recharging an electric passenger vehicle (kilowatts). glass. commercial.)Energy Transfer via Magnetic Near Field Can Penetrate and Wrap Around Obstacles The magnetic near field has several properties that make it an excellent means of transferring energy in a typical consumer.) Scalable Design Enables Solutions from milliwatts to Kilowatts WiTricity systems can be designed to handle a broad range of power levels. plastics. The benefits of highly efficient energy transfer over distance can be achieved at power levels ranging from milliwatts to several kilowatts. Neat and easy Installation . efficiency can exceed 90%. Most common building and furnishing materials." No actual studies or reports are claimed of the specific technology. brick. We define efficiency as the amount of usable electrical energy that is available to the device being powered.)Radiation levels The company's FAQ  claims that it uses a "non-radiative mode of energy transfer. and concrete are essentially “transparent” to magnetic fields—enabling WiTricity technology to efficiently transfer power through them. In addition. although it does claim that "WiTricity .) Highly Resonant Strong Coupling Provides High Efficiency Over Distance WiTricity's mode of wireless power transfer is highly efficient over distances ranging from centimeters to several meters. When a WiTricity powered device no longer needs to capture additional energy.The other applications of WPT are Ubiquitous Power Source (or) Wireless Power Source. just start up the wireless device and you're ready to rumble BENIFITS: 1. textiles. 4. or industrial environment. divided by the amount of energy that is drawn by the WiTricity source. such as wood. Mobility . 4. WiTricity technology operates in a “load following” mode. the WiTricity power source will automatically reduce its power consumption to a power saving “idle” state. Magnetic fields interact very weakly with biological organisms — people and animals — and are scientifically regarded to be safe.since no cable running here and there. 3. And WiTricity sources only transfer energy when it is needed. transferring only as much energy as the powered device requires. 2.user device can be moved easily within the wireless range. Wireless sensors and RF Power Adaptive Rectifying Circuits (PARC). Contact WiTricity to learn the efficiency and distance ranges that can be achieved in your applications.
Reference: http://www. demerits.witricity.howstuffworks.witricitypower. By this we are able to know greater possibilities for transmitting power with negligible losses and ease of transmission in the years to come.products are being designed to comply with applicable safety standards and regulations.wikipedia.e." As of November 2010. It is envisaged that wireless energy would bereally accomplished with a advantage of easy implementation and cost effective i.org http://www. the merits. Technological developments in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT).com/ .com http://en. CONCLUSION The concepts of Microwave Power transmission (MPT).. Wireless Power Transmission history and basic implementation of Power System is discussed elaborately. no clinical field study radiation levels from in-home tests are reported on the WiTricity web site. cost of transmission and distribution overhead would become less and moreover it is important that the cost of electrical energy to the consumer would also be reduced compared to existing systems. applications of WPT are also discussed in this paper.com http://www.
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