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Civil Engineering Formulas Chapter 1: .Civil Engineering Formulas Updated! Add more formulas. Contains all the essential formulas and equations civil engineers need for a wide variety of design applications.

1 shows such a list of USCS units withcorresponding SI units and symbols prepared by a civilengineer who normally uses the USCS.3. TABLE 1.such as Table 1.356 1.1 Commonly Used USCS and SI Units * USCS unit square foot cubic foot pound per square inch pound force foot pound torque kip foot gallon per minute kip per square inch SI unit square meter cubic meter kilopascal newton newton meter kilonewton meter liter per second megapascal SI symbol m2 m2 kPa Nu N-m kN-m L/s MPa Conversion factor ** 0.894 4. the value used to convert from USCS to SI units. Find. To permit even wider use of this text. this chapter contains the conversion factors needed to switch from one system to the other. opposite each known unit.2 from Table 1. the SI units are much more widely used than those of the USCS. For a typical engineering practice.1 were obtained from Table 1. Hence. Table 1. Recognize -here and now.2831 6.that the most difficultaspect of becoming familiar with a new system of meas-urement is becoming comfortable with the names andmagnitudes of the units.the unit from the othersystem.Conversion Factors for Civil Engineering Practice Conversion Factors Civil engineers throughout the world accept both the United States Customary System (USCS) and the System International (SI) units of measure for both applied and theoretical calculations. However. 5. The SI unitsshown in Table 1.0929 0. For engineers unfamiliar with either system of units.3 by theengineer. ** multiply USCS unit by this factor to obtain SI unit . from a table of conversion factors. both the USCS and the SI units are presented for essentially every formula in this book. 3. Numerical conversion is simple. Thus. the user of the book can apply the formulas with confidence anywhere in the world.3.355 0. once you have set up your own conversion table. we suggests the following steps for becoming acquainted with the unknown system: 1.448 1. Inserteach appropriate value in Table 1. Prepare a list of measurementscommonly used in yourdaily work. Apply the conversion valueswherever necessary for theformulas in this book. 2.06309 6. 4.an actual tablewould be many times this length. Insert.89 * This table is abbreviated.

to convert pounds per cubic inch to kilograms per cubic meter.04687310004046. use the formula for the USCS units (when the formula is given in those units) and then convert the final result to the SI equivalent using Table 1.Be careful. as in scientific notation.the reverse procedure should be used. Where a conversion factor cannot be found. m pascal.01. See the U. Thus.788026 E+04 1.768 E+4. Pa pascal.013250 E+05 9. atm (standard) atmosphere. You can.2 Typical Conversion Table * To convert from square foot foot per second squared cubic foot pound per square inch gallon per minute pound per square inch pound force kip per square foot acre foot per day acre cubic foot percubic meter persecond To square meter meter per second squared cubic meter kilogram per cubic meter liter per second kilopascal newton pascal cubic meter per second square meter cubic meter per second Multiply by ** 9.427641 E-02 MPa 4. Thus. TABLE 1. representing the power of 10 by which the given conversion factor is to be multiplied before use.4535924 kg and 1 in3= 0.S. find 1 lb = 0.3 Factors for Conversion to SI Units of Measurement * To convert from acre foot. 9. multiply by 4. the factor to be used to convert square feet to square meters.when using formulas containing a numerical constant. TABLE 1. followed by a positive or negative number.2903041/1000.831685 E-02 * This table contains only selected values.233489 E+03 4. atm (technical =1 kgf/cm2) bar To cubic meter.048 E-01 2.000000 E+05 square meter. as in converting acres to square meters. 1 lb/in3 = 0. simply use the dimensional substitution. or National Bureau of Standards.806650 E+04 1. however.290304 E-02 3.4535924 kg/0.046873 E+03 1.to convert the constant to that for the system you are using.046873 E+03 2. for the square foot conversion factor.8. or 2. Then.S.894757 4. both available from the U.680.309 E-02 6. Pa pascal.09290304.767990 E+04 6. m meter. m 3 2 Multiply by 1. ** The E indicates an exponent. Pa . Department of the Interior Metric Manual.The International System of Units (SI).000000 E-10 1. For the few formulas given in SI units. Government Printing Office (GPO). for far more comprehensive listings of conversion factors. acre ft acre angstrom atmosphere.00001638706 m3.3.00001638706 m3 = 27. For a positive exponent.448222 4.

m3 cubic meter. heat capacity) British thermal unit.930711 E-01 watt per square meter kelvin.19002 E+00 1.barrel (for petroleum 42 gal) board foot. Btu (International Table)/h British thermal unit. Btu (International Table)*in/(h)(ft2) (oF) (k .640000 E+04 8. W 2. m3 joule. C kelvin. of mercury (0oC) centimeter.186800 E+03 joule per cubic meter.8 TK = (tF + 459. cubic foot.15 tC = (tF .523907 E-02 4.359737 E-03 1. J/m3 cubic meter. s second.33322 E+03 9.) calorie (mean) candela per square inch. m3 joule.32)/1.thermalconductivity) British thermal unit.616409 E+04 1.067075 E-10 8. J/kg 2. cm. Btu.589873 E-01 2.8 . m2 second.05587 E+03 watt per meter kelvin. thermal conductance) British thermal unit. J candela per square meter. cm. m square meter. Pa pascal. J 1. Btu (International Table)/lb British thermal unit.725895 E+04 3. s radian. W/(m2*K) 5. rad kelvin.745329 E-02 TK = tC+273. Pa meter.550003 E+03 1.678263 E+00 joule per kilogram. cd/m2 pascal. board ft British thermal unit.326000 E+03 joule per kilogram kelvin.80638 E+01 2.67)/1. Btu (International Table)/(h)(ft2) (oF) (C. J/kg*K 4. Btu (International Table)/ft3 bushel (U.S. W/(m*K) 1. cd/in2 centimeter. K o 3. Btu (International Table)/(lb) (oF) (c. of water (4oC) chain circular mil day day (sidereal) degree (angle) degree Celsius degree Fahrenheit degree Fahrenheit cubic meter. (mean) British thermal unit.011684 E+01 5.442279 E-01 watt. K degree Celsius.

ft3 (volume or section modulus) cubic foot per minute.290304 E-02 2. ft2/s cubic foot.933471 E+00 1. survey) foot. ft (U. cd/m2 joule. ft /h (thermal diffusivity) square foot per second. of water (39.828804 E+00 3. ft3/min cubic foot per second.080000 E-03 3. ft. ft2 square foot per hour.290304 E-02 2.426259 E+00 1. m2/s cubic meter. K*m2/W kelvin meter per watt. fL foot pound force.580640 E-05 9. K kelvin square meter per watt.214011 E-02 .98898 E+03 9. m pascal.831685 E-02 8. m/s meter per second squared. K*m/W newton.degree Rankine ( F)(h)(ft2)/Btu (International Table) (R.048000 E-01 3. ft foot. ft/s foot per second squared.719474 E-04 2. ft/s2 footcandle. ft poundal 2 o kelvin.076391 E+01 3. m3 cubic meter per second. N meter. ft4 (area moment of inertia) foot per minute. m meter.048000 E-01 1.2oF) (pressure) square foot.355818 E+00 2. ft/min foot per second. m/s2 lux. fc footlambert. m2 square meter per second. m/s meter per second. J TK = TR /1. ft*lbf/min foot pound force per second. m3/s cubic meter per second.048000 E-01 3.S. m2/s square meter per second. W joule. m3/s meter to the fourth power. thermal resistance) (oF)(h)(ft2)/(Btu (International Table)*in) (thermal resistivity) dyne. ft3/s foot to the fourth power.000000 E-05 1. lx candela per square meter. W watt.259697 E-02 1. J watt.355818 E+00 4. m meter. ft*lbf/s foot poundal.8 1.761102 E-01 6. dyn fathom foot.048006 E-01 2.630975 E-03 5.831685 E-02 4. Pa square meter. ft*lbf foot pound force per minute. m4 meter per second.

gr gram. hp (550 ft*lbf/s) horsepower. W second.S. m cubic meter. h hour. m/s2 cubic meter.590170 E+03 2. in Hg (32oF) (pressure) inch of mercury.4884 E+02 6.4570 E+02 3.S. in3 (volume or section modulus) inch to the fourth power. m pascal.K. in inch of mercury. hp (boiler) horsepower.38638 E+03 3. standard g gallon.000000 E+04 7. kg kilogram. kg square meter. in/s meter per second squared. m3 meter to the fourth power. Pa square meter. gal (U. in2 cubic inch. m/s .570796 E-02 6.785412 E-03 4.S. m3 cubic meter.451600 E-04 1. m cubic meter.404884 E-03 3. rad kilogram.000000 E-01 1. m3/s degree (angular) radian. g hectare.309020 E-05 9. W watt. W watt.381264 E-08 6. gal (U. hp (electric) horsepower. ha horsepower. s second. Pa pascal.000000 E-03 1.free fall. m3/s cubic meter per second. gal (U.K.37685 E+03 2.600000 E+03 3. m4 meter per second.) hour. in H2O (60oF) (pressure) square inch.460000 E+02 7.479891 E-05 1. liquid) per day gallon.46043 E+02 7. h (sidereal) inch.638706 E-05 4. in4 (area moment of inertia) inch per second.806650 E+00 4.80950 E+03 7.456999 E+02 9. hp (U. liquid) gallon.540000 E-02 cubic meter per second.546090 E-03 4. gal (U. gal (Canadian liquid) gallon.546092 E-03 4.162314 E-07 2. dry) gallon. s meter. hp (water) horsepower. Pa pascal.S.540000 E-02 3. m2 cubic meter. m 3 3 3 9. W watt. in Hg (60oF) (pressure) inch of water. liquid) gallon. liquid) per minute grad grad grain. gal (U. W watt. m2 watt.

mi2(international) square mile. kWh kip (1000 lbf) kipper square inch.000000 E-06 2. mi (international nautical) mile. N*m kilogram. statute) mile per hour.S.000000 E-08 1. mi mile. kgf kilogram force meter.806650 E+00 9. m/s candela per square meter.540000 E-08 1. kgf*s2/m (mass) kilogram force per square centimeter.806650 E+00 pascal. m meter.589988 E+06 2.S.183099 E+03 1.000000 E+00 2. L liter maxwell mho microinch.777778 E-01 3.806650 E+04 9. Wb siemens. oC newton. mi (U.852000 E+03 2.144444 E-01 3.852000 E+03 1. kip/in2ksi knot. mi/h (international) degree Celsius. mi (U. m meter. µm mil.806650 E+00 9. kg*m kilogram force second squared per meter. statute) mile. kgf/cm2 kilogram force per square meter.000000 E-03 1.15 9. µin micron. m/s joule.806650 E+00 9.609347 E+03 1. kgf/mm2 kilometer per hour. m3 weber.kelvin.S.273.470400 E-01 . S meter.600000 E+06 4. m meter. m square meter. Pa pascal.806650 E+06 2. kg tc = TK .894757 E+06 5. N newton meter. Pa meter per second. m2 square meter. Pa meter per second.609344 E+03 1.448222 E+03 6. cd/m cubic meter. N pascal.589998 E+06 4. J newton. m meter. Pa pascal. m meter. mi2 (U. km/h kilowatt hour. m/s 9. K kilogram force.540000 E-05 1. kn (international) lambert. m2 meter per second. m meter. nautical) square mile. kgf/m2 kilogram force per square millimeter. mi (international) mile.

s kilogram. oz (avoirdupois) ounce. ozf ounce force*inch. kg*m2 pascal second. kg/m2 kilogram per pascal second meter.000000 E+01 5. fluid) ounce.45322 E-12 1. N*m kilogram per square meter. m3 cubic meter. kg/m2 kilogram per square meter. Pa*s .732417 E-01 2. ozf*in ounce per square foot. kg/(Pa*s*m) kilogram per pascal second meter. p (absolute viscosity) pound. Pa radian.72135 E-11 5. liquid) poise.506105 E-04 4. s second. dry) pint.S.K.731765 E-04 1. lb/ft*s kilometer per hour.000000 E-01 4. kg kilogram square meter. kg kilogram. kg/(Pa*s*m) cubic meter. oz (U. oz (troy or apothecary) ounce. mmHg (0oC) minute (angle) minute.780139 E-01 7. m3 cubic meter. rad second.488164 E+00 pascal second.535924 E-01 3. fluid) ounce force.908882 E-04 6.609344 E+00 1. lb (troy or apothecary) pound square inch.S.mile per hour. N newton meter. kg cubic meter. pt (U. pt (U. Pa*s kilogram.S. oz (avoirdupois)/ft2 ounce per square yard.051517 E-01 3.33322 E+02 2. oz (avoirdupois)/yd2 perm (0oC) perm (23oC) perm inch.390575 E-02 5. kg kilogram.74525 E-11 1. Pa pascal. mi/h (international) millibar. kg/(Pa*s*m) kilogram per pascal second meter. km/h pascal.926397 E-04 1. lb (avoirdupois) pound.000000 E+02 1.957353 E-05 2.110348 E-02 2. m 3 3 1.061552 E-03 3. perm*in (23oC) pint. kg/(Pa*s*m) kilogram per pascal second meter.983617 E+01 2.45929 E-12 5. m newton.834952 E-02 3. min minute (sidereal) ounce. perm*in (0oC) perm inch. lb*in2(moment of inertia) pound per foot*second. mbar millimeter of mercury.841307 E-05 2. oz (U.

S. lbf/ft pound force per square foot.029210 E+00 4.198264 E+02 1.448222 E+00 1.101221 E-03 9. lb/h pound per cubic inch.000000 E+03 3. kg/m3 kilogram per second. kg/m2 kilogram per cubic meter. kg watt. lb/gal (U.882428 E+00 1. qt (U. lbf/in pound force per square inch.463529 E-04 5. kg/m3 kilogram per cubic meter. lbf/in2 (psi) quart.788026 E+01 1. N newton.290304 E+00 2.535924 E-01 5.767990 E+04 7. N/m pascal. liquid) rod second (angle) second (sidereal) square (100 ft ) ton (assay) ton (long. kg/m3 kilogram per second. m kilogram.601846 E-01 9. N/m pascal. lb/s pound per cubic yard.259979 E-04 2. Pa cubic meter. 2240 lb) ton (metric) ton (refrigeration) ton (register) ton (short. liquid) pound per gallon. m3 cubic meter.K. m kilogram. s square meter.894757 E+03 1. dry) quart.pound per square foot. 2000 lb) 2 kilogram per square meter. kg kilogram. Pa newton per meter. lbf pound force foot. kg/s kilogram per cubic meter. lb/yd3 poundal pound*force.916667 E-02 1.516800 E+03 2.751268 E+02 6. lb/gal (U.972696 E-01 9.848137 E-06 9.S. kg/m3 newton. kg/s kilogram per cubic meter. rad second.932764 E-01 1. lb/in3 pound per minute. kg/m3 kilogram per cubic meter.459390 E+01 4.831685 E+00 9.382550 E-01 4. kg 3 2 3 4. N*m newton per meter.071847 E+02 . qt (U. lbf/ft2 pound force per inch. N newton meter. kg kilogram. lb/ft2 pound per cubic foot. lbf*ft pound force per foot. lb/min pound per second.016047 E+03 1.S. m meter. lb/ft3 pound per gallon. kg/s kilogram per second. m radian.559873 E-03 4. W cubic meter.977633 E+01 1. liquid) pound per hour.355818 E+00 1.

155815 E+07 year (365 days) year (sidereal) Last Update: 22 May 2006 Quick jump to: Conversion Factors Last Update: 16 February 2007 Back © 2005 :: CivilPark.361274 E-01 7. s second. yd square yard.186553 E+03 8.328939 E+03 1. kg/m3 newton. m second. kg joule. Wh yard. m2 cubic meter. yd 3 kilogram per cubic meter. m square meter. ton)/yd3 ton force (2000 lbf) tonne.896444 E+03 1. kg/m3 kilogram per cubic meter.600000 E+03 9.645549 E-01 3.ton (long per cubic yard. s 3 1. J meter.000000 E+03 3. ton)/yd3 ton (short per cubic yard.153600 E+07 3.com :: CivilPark International :: All rights reserved . N kilogram.144000 E-01 8. yd2 cubic yard. t watt hour.

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