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My notes for edX 8.02x "Electricity and Magnetism"5.0

|Views: 1,647|Likes: 9Published by serenity3290

My notes, mostly from the lectures. Not 100% is covered, and they are absolutely not a substitute for the lectures themselves.

Also contains (my own) homework and exam solutions.

Also contains (my own) homework and exam solutions.

My notes, mostly from the lectures. Not 100% is covered, and they are absolutely not a substitute for the lectures themselves.

Also contains (my own) homework and exam solutions.

Also contains (my own) homework and exam solutions.

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/130354955/My-notes-for-edX-8-02x-Electricity-and-Magnetism

10/17/2015

text

original

- Preface/disclaimer
- 1.1 Coulomb’s law
- 1.2 Electric ﬁelds
- 1.2.1 Multiple charges
- 1.2.2 Electric ﬁeld lines
- 1.2.3 Dipoles
- 1.3 Electric ﬂux and Gauss’s law
- 1.3.1 Quick facts
- 1.3.2 Slower this time
- 1.3.3 Gauss’s law
- 2.1 Electrostatic Potential Energy and Electric Potential
- 2.1.1 Electrostatic Potential Energy
- 2.1.2 Electric potential
- 2.1.3 More on electric potential
- 2.2 Electric ﬁelds inside hollow conductors
- 2.3 High-voltage breakdown and lightning
- 2.3.1 Electric breakdown
- 3.1 Capacitance and Field Energy
- 3.1.1 Field Energy
- 3.1.2 Capacitance
- 3.2 Dielectrics
- 3.2.1 More on capacitors
- 3.2.2 A bit on van de Graaﬀ generators
- 3.3 Current, resistivity and Ohm’s law
- 4.1 Batteries and EMF
- 4.1.1 Kirchhoﬀ’s rules
- 4.1.2 Basic circuit analysis
- 4.2 Magnetic Field and Torques
- 4.2.1 The B Field
- 4.3 Review for Exam 1
- 4.3.1 That’s it
- 5.1 Moving Charges in Magnetic Fields
- 5.1.1 Moving charges, radii and special relativity
- 5.1.2 Isotope separation
- 5.1.3 Particle accelerators/cyclotrons
- 5.1.4 Cloud chambers and bubble chambers
- 5.2 Biot-Savart Law
- 5.3 Ampere’s law
- 5.3.1 The magnetic ﬁeld of a solenoid
- 6.1 Electromagnetic induction
- 6.1.1 Lenz’s law
- 6.1.2 Magnetic ﬂux
- 6.1.3 Faraday’s law
- 6.1.4 The breakdown of intuition
- 6.2 Motional EMF and dynamos
- 6.2.1 Changing the area
- 6.2.2 Eddy currents
- 6.3 Displacement currents and synchronous motors
- 6.3.1 The amended Ampere’s law
- 6.3.2 Displacement current
- 6.3.3 Synchronous motors
- 7.1 How do magicians levitate women?
- 7.1.1 The human heart
- 7.1.2 Aurora borealis
- 7.1.3 Superconductivity and magnetic levitation
- 7.2 Inductance and RL circuits
- 7.2.1 Direct-current RL circuits
- 7.2.2 Alternating-current RL circuits
- 7.2.3 More on magnetic levitation
- 7.3 Magnetic materials
- 7.3.1 A short note on motors
- 7.3.2 Magnetic dipole moment
- 7.3.3 The source of magnetism in matter
- 7.3.4 Magnetization
- 7.3.5 Paramagnetism
- 7.3.6 Diamagnetism
- 7.3.7 Ferromagnetism
- 8.1 Hysteresis and electromagnets
- 8.1.1 Ferromagnetism and hysteresis
- 8.1.2 Maxwell’s equations
- 8.2 Review for Exam 2
- 9.1 Transformers, Car Coils and RC circuits
- 9.1.1 RC circuits
- 9.1.2 Transformers
- 9.1.3 Spark plugs / “car coils”
- 9.2 Driven RLC circuits and resonance
- 9.3 Traveling waves and standing waves
- 9.3.1 Traveling waves
- 9.3.2 Standing waves
- 9.3.3 Musical instruments
- 10.1 Resonance, electromagnetic waves
- 10.1.1 Radar and measuring distance
- 10.1.2 Radio
- 10.2 Index of refraction and Poynting vector
- 10.2.1 Poynting vector
- 10.2.2 Waves due to accelerating charges
- 10.2.3 Spherical waves and the Poynting vector
- 10.2.4 Photons and radiation pressure
- 10.2.5 Polarization
- 10.3 Snell’s law, refraction and total reﬂection
- 10.3.1 Total internal reﬂection
- 10.3.2 Frequency and wavelength in refraction
- 10.3.3 Dispersion, prisms and white light
- 10.3.4 Primary colors
- Week 11
- 11.1 Polarizers and and Malus’s law
- 11.1.1 Polarization by reﬂection
- 11.1.2 Polarization by scattering
- 11.1.3 Scattering demonstration and Rayleigh scattering
- 11.2 Rainbows
- 11.2.1 Other atmospherical optical phenomena
- 11.2.2 Polarization of rainbows
- 11.3 Review for Exam 3
- 12.1 Double slit interference and interferometers
- 12.2 Gratings and resolving power
- 12.3 Single-slit diﬀraction
- 12.4 Doppler eﬀect and the Big Bang
- 12.4.1 The Doppler eﬀect and light
- 12.4.2 Big Bang cosmology
- 12.5 Farewell special
- Homework problems
- 13.1 Week 2
- 13.1.1 Problem 1: Motion of charged particle in electric ﬁeld
- 13.1.2 Problem 2: Three plates capacitor
- 13.1.3 Problem 3: Electric ﬁeld, potential, and electrostatic potential energy
- 13.1.4 Problem 4: Electric ﬁeld of a charged ring
- 13.1.5 Problem 5: Two spherical conductors
- 13.1.6 Problem 6: Two conducting hollow cylinders
- 13.1.7 Problem 7: Speed of an electron
- 13.2 Week 3
- 13.2.1 Problem 1: Spherical capacitor
- 13.2.2 Problem 2: Coaxial cylinders
- 13.2.3 Problem 3: The eﬀect of a dielectric medium on capacitance
- 13.2.4 Problem 4: Coaxial cable with dielectric
- 13.2.5 Problem 5: Capacitor network
- 13.2.6 Problem 6: Resistances of conducting wires
- 13.2.7 Problem 7: Resistor network
- 13.3 Week 4
- 13.4 Week 5
- 13.4.1 Problem 1: Lorentz Force
- 13.4.2 Problem 2: Motion of a charged particle in magnetic ﬁeld
- 13.4.3 Problem 3: Cyclotron
- 13.4.4 Problem 4: Rectangular current loop
- 13.4.5 Problem 5: Resistor network
- 13.4.6 Problem 6: Coaxial current loops
- 13.4.7 Problem 7: Parallel plate capacitor
- 13.5 Week 6
- 13.5.1 Problem 1: Ampere’s law in action
- 13.5.2 Problem 2: Intuition breaks down
- 13.5.3 Problem 3: Helmholtz coils
- 13.5.4 Problem 4: Spinning loop in a magnetic ﬁeld
- 13.5.5 Problem 5: Loop in a magnetic ﬁeld
- 13.5.6 Problem 6: Electrodynamic tether
- 13.5.7 Problem 7: Motor
- 13.5.8 Problem 8: Auroral zone
- 13.6 Week 7
- 13.6.1 Problem 1: Magnetic energy of a solenoid
- 13.6.2 Problem 2: Displacement current
- 13.6.3 Problem 3: RL circuit
- 13.6.4 Problem 4: RL circuit
- 13.6.5 Problem 5: Opening a switch on an RL circuit
- 13.6.6 Problem 6: Self-inductance of a toroid
- 13.6.7 Problem 7: RL circuit
- 13.7 Week 8
- 13.8 Week 9
- 13.8.1 Problem 1: RC circuit
- 13.8.2 Problem 2: RC circuit
- 13.8.3 Problem 3: RLC circuit
- 13.8.4 Problem 4: An LRC circuit
- 13.8.5 Problem 5: Design a ﬂute
- 13.8.6 Problem 6: Width of resonance peak
- 13.8.7 Problem 7: Standing wave
- 13.8.8 Problem 8: Traveling wave
- 13.8.9 Problem 9: Lightly damped undriven circuit
- 13.9 Week 10
- 13.9.1 Problem 1: Traveling electromagnetic waves
- 13.9.2 Problem 2: A standing electromagnetic wave
- 13.9.3 Problem 3: E-M waves - Maxwell’s equations, and the speed of light
- 13.9.4 Problem 4: Polarized radiation
- 13.9.5 Problem 5: Polarization of electromagnetic radiation
- 13.9.6 Problem 6: Poynting vector
- 13.9.7 Problem 7: Intensity of the sun
- 13.9.8 Problem 8: Snell’s law in action: ﬁber optics!
- 13.10 Week 11
- 13.11 Week 12
- 13.11.1 Problem 1: Primary rainbow
- 13.11.2 Problem 2: Polarization of primary rainbow
- 13.11.3 Problem 3: Glassbow
- 13.11.4 Problem 4: Secondary rainbow
- 13.11.5 Problem 5: Diﬀraction pattern
- 13.11.6 Problem 6: Optical resolution of the human eye
- 14.1 Midterm 1
- 14.1.1 Problem 1: Electric ﬁeld on the surface of a conductor
- 14.1.2 Problem 2: Non-conducting charged planes
- 14.1.3 Problem 3: Incandescent bulbs
- 14.1.4 Problem 4: Circuit
- 14.1.5 Problem 5: Point charge in a hollow conducting sphere
- 14.1.6 Problem 6: Charges on an equilateral triangle
- 14.1.7 Problem 7: Capacitor network
- 14.2 Midterm 2
- 14.2.1 Problem 1: RL circuit
- 14.2.2 Problem 2: Non-conservative ﬁelds
- 14.2.3 Problem 3: Bainbridge mass spectrometer
- 14.2.4 Problem 4: RL circuit
- 14.2.5 Problem 5: Magnetic ﬁeld of a loop
- 14.2.6 Problem 6: Magnetic ﬁeld of a current-carrying ribbon
- 14.2.7 Problem 7: Magnetic ﬁeld of a rotating charged sphere
- 14.3 Midterm 3
- 14.3.1 Problem 1: RC Circuit
- 14.3.2 Problem 2: RLC circuit
- 14.3.3 Problem 3: Energy ﬂow of a capacitor
- 14.3.4 Problem 4: Electromagnet with small air gap
- 14.3.5 Problem 5: RLC Circuit
- 14.3.6 Problem 6: Electromagnetic wave
- 14.3.7 Problem 7: Radiation pressure on the Earth
- 14.4 Final Exam
- 14.4.1 Problem 1: Loop in a Magnetic Field
- 14.4.2 Problem 2: Non-conducting inﬁnite sheet and inﬁnite parallel slab
- 14.4.3 Problem 3: RLC circuit
- 14.4.4 Problem 4: Plane electromagnetic wave
- 14.4.5 Problem 5: Loop in a magnetic ﬁeld
- 14.4.6 Problem 6: Charged particles in a magnetic ﬁeld
- 14.4.7 Problem 7: Diﬀraction pattern
- 14.4.8 Problem 8: Capacitor washers
- 14.4.9 Problem 9: Circuit
- 14.4.10 Problem 10: An LC circuit
- 14.4.11 Problem 11: Dielectric sphere
- 14.4.12 Problem 12: Parallel RLC

“Point charges* Q*1,* Q*2, and* Q*3 reside on three corners of a square with sides of 1 m; the distance from* Q*2

to* P*3 is 2m (see diagram).”

(a) What is the electric potential,* V*, at* P*1? (Normalize the potential to be zero at ∞ and give your

answers in Volts). (Note:* P*1 is located at the “unoccupied” corner of the square.)

Well, we begin by calculating the electric potetial* V* for each of the charges alone, using* V* =* Q
*

4*π *0*r*:

154

*V*Q1 = −11·10−6

4*π *0*r
*

*V*Q2 = −3·10−6

4*π *0*r
*

*V*Q3 = −7·10−6

4*π *0*r
*

The question then asks for the potentials at* P*1,* P*2 and* P*3. All we have to do is to add the three potentials

above, while substituting the distance to that point from each charge for* r*. That is a mess to write, but

easy to do, so I’ll leave that to the reader. It’s either as simple as 1 m or 3 m, or you’ll have to use the

Pythagorean theorem.

(b) Are there points or surfaces in space (other than inﬁnity) where V is zero?

Yes. We have both positive and negative charges, which means we will have both positive and negative

potentials at diﬀerent locations in space. Potentials don’t charge abruptly, so in an area where the po-

tential transitions from positive to negative or vice versa, there will be a point where it exactly equals zero.

(c) What is the electrostatic potential energy of the system? Express your answer in Joules.

To solve this, we add up the electrostatic potential energies of each pair of charges:

*U*total =* U*12 +* U*13 +* U*23

Since* U* =* qV*, this is the potential at each point times the charge at that point, e.g.

*U*12 =* V*1·*Q*2

*U*13 =* V*1·*Q*3

*U*23 =* V*2·*Q*3

For* r*, part of the potentials, we use the distance between the two charges in question.

The answer to the question is then* U*total.

(d) Suppose we release the three charges so that they can move freely in empty space. How much energy

is released in the form of kinetic energy?

This is the only question of the homework so far that I didn’t solve on my own, even with the book and

Google. The correct answer is “The question is not well deﬁned”, if I’ve understood it correctly because

the answer depends on the order you release the charges in, and (I think?) the times you do so.

I still don’t see how there can be anything but one correct answer, if you release them all exactly simul-

taneously, though, even if we haven’t learned how to calculate it.

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