Ansoft Maxwell v12 2D User Guide-Machine Design Reference Guide | Finite Element Method | Sensitivity Analysis

Ansoft Electrical Machine Design Reference

Revision: June, 2008

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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference

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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference

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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference

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Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference

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e.• General Shortcuts 3D Modeller Shortcuts Set model projection to standard isometric projections: Alt + Double Click Left Mouse Button at points on screen • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Help: F1 Context help: Shift + F1 Close program: CTRL + F4 Copy: CTRL + C New project: CTRL + N Open: CTRL + O Save: CTRL + S Print: CTRL + P Paste: CTRL + V Cut: CTRL + X Redo: CTRL + Y Undo: CTRL + Z Cascade windows: CTRL + 0 Tile windows horizontally: CTRL + 1 Tile windows vertically: CTRL +2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select face/object behind current selection: B Face select mode: F Object select mode: O Select all visible objects: CTRL + A Deselect all objects: CTRL + SHIFT + A Fit view: CTRL + D Zoom in.): F4 Render model wire frame: F6 Render model smooth shaded: F7 • ALT + Right Mouse Button + Double Click Left Mouse Button at points on screen: give the nine opposite projections Predefined View Angles 7 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference . screen center: CTRL + E Zoom out. screen center: CTRL + F Shifts the local coordinate system temporarily: CTRL + Enter Drag: SHIFT + Left Mouse Button Rotate model: Alt + Left Mouse Button Zoom in / out: Alt + SHIFT + Left Mouse Button Switch to point entry mode (i. draw objects by mouse): F3 Switch to dialogue entry mode (i.e. draw object solely by entry in command and attributes box.

boundaries. etc. mesh operations. materials. result plots.Full Integration of RMxprt and Maxwell RMxprt and Maxwell are now fully integrated. excitations. motion setup. For Maxwell 3D. solution setups. This includes geometry. this includes geometry and materials 8 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference . All RMxprt data is exported to Maxwell 2D in version 12.

click on Maxwell 2D > Analyze All 9 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference .Full Integration of RMxprt and Maxwell Motion setup Geometry Boundaries Excitations Mesh operations Solve setup Results plots Materials Ready to solve! In menu bar.

Materials Geometry Materials 10 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference .Integration to 3D: Geometry with Skew and End-turn.

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Symmetry: Even (Flux Normal) Symmetry: Odd (Flux Tangential) 22 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference .

(Flux can exit and re-enter the boundAnsoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference (Flux can not escape the bound23 .

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in drawing units. that the triangle surfaces may be from the true-curved geometry’s surface Normal Deviation is the maximum angular difference.Surface Deviation is the maximum spacing. that a triangle face’s normal can have from the surface normal for the true geometry which it is meant to represent Aspect Ratio refers to the maximum allowed aspect ratio of all faces 28 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference . in degrees.

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3. There is no limit on how many forces can be calculated. 4. but not required. For a Magnetostatic simulation. 6. A Force calculation can also be assigned in the Transient solver in Maxwell 2D V12. 32 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference . To assign Torque/Force calculation in a Magnetostatic simulation: select the object (s) > right mouse click > Assign Parameters 2. The moving torque calculated in a Transient simulation is the torque on all objects INSIDE the band (not including the band). moving torque is assigned by the solver automatically. A Band object is recommended in Magnetostatic simulations. The band is a dummy air/vacuum object between moving and stationary parts. This is not the case for V11.1. In a Transient simulation. 5. A Band object is required for Transient simulations with motion. a user must manually assign the torque parameter on all objects inside the band.

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.View > Set Solution Context .. Double click 37 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference .

Statistical: Shows the distribution (Histogram) of a design output like force. volume or weight. Useful after performing an optimization in Optimetrics to fine tune the optimal variable value and see how the design results are affected. Tuning: Variable values are changed interactively and the performance of the design is monitored.C force.L.Parametrics: Define one or more variable sweep definitions. R. Optimetrics automatically changes the design parameter(s) to meet the goal. each specifying a series of variable values within a range. Easily view and compare the results using plot or table to determine how each design variation affects the performance of the design. second derivative of the regression. first derivative of the regression. torque or loss caused by a statistical variation (Monte Carlo) of input variables. 38 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference . such as field values. Sensitivity: Determine the sensitivity of the design to small changes in variables in the vicinity of a design point. Outputs include: Regression value at the current variable value. torque. Optimization: Identify the cost function and the optimization goal. The cost function can be based on any solution quantity that can be computed.

Geometry Excitation Materials Frequency Speed Torque/Force Inductance 39 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference .

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distributed.3X 43 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12—Electric Machine Design Reference . 15 min Solve time.Parametric variations: 1296 Solve time. 30 min Speed improvement: 5. 8 CPUs: 2 hr. one processor: 13 hr.

00 0.00 8.40 0.00 4.00 2.00 Core Loss PMSM_OC_EMF XY Plot 2 PMSM_OC_EMF Curve Info 1.1402 0.80 0.00 -0.00 0.00 Ansoft Corporation 150.00 0.2271 Optimized Design Setup1 : Transient Moving1.00 -3.20 0.00 -150.Torque Imported Nominal Design 2.00 0.00 7.00 8.00 InducedVoltage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient -2.20 0.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-1 .60 Bradial 0.00 0.80 1.00 1.00 3.60 Y1 [V] 0.40 -50.6379 0.20 2.60 0.00 MX2: 5.00 Curve Info CoreLoss Setup1 : Transient Y1 [NewtonMeter] 1.80 CoreLoss [kW] 0.00 10.20 0.00 0.00 1.20 -100.00 0.00 0.00 Curve Info InducedVoltage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient -1.40 Norm alizedDis tance 0.00 8.20 XY Plot 2 PMSM_CT Curve Inf o Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns' 1.00 6.00 100.4031 Time [ms] 6.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 2.Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Ansoft Corporation 1.00 MX1: 0.00 0.00 Time [ms ] 6.00 0.5877 0.4354 50.00 Time [s] 5.00 10.00 Ansoft Corporation Cogging Torque PMSM_CT_Verify Ansoft Corporation 3.

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine: Contents RMxprt Basic Theory Review Example Add Unique Winding Arrangement Setup Parametric Problem Export Design to Maxwell 2D Maxwell: Open Circuit Back EMF Define Material Core Loss Characteristics Set Lamination and Stack Factor Consider Power Loss in Magnets Solve Problem and Review Results Maxwell: Cogging Torque Review Maxwell Setup Create Variables Apply Mesh Operations Solve Nominal Problem Setup Optimization Problem Review Pre-Solved Optimization Results Maxwell: Rated Condition – Functional Voltage Source Modify Rotor Geometry using UDP’s Winding Setup Definitions and Variable Definition Choosing Optimal Time Step Solve Problem and Review Results Drive Design Create a Machine Model Use the Model in Circuit Simulation Notes: 1. Basic understanding of Finite Element is required Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-2 . RMxprt/Maxwell V12 or higher is required 2. Basic knowledge of electric machine is required 3.

0 10.023 A_PHASE_N2 B_PHASE_N1 E5 E3 IB ROTB2 RB A 0.0 -1.0 0 -200.023 A_PHASE_N1 ROTB1 E1 ROTB2 E5 E3 IB RB A 0.023 A_PHASE_N2 B_PHASE_N1 + VBC V + VBC V IC A RC 0.27 t 0 10.023 B_PHASE_N2 C_PHASE_N1 C_PHASE_N2 EMF1 175 R2 R6 EMF1 175 R4 VGE4 + V R2 A R6 R4 VGE4 V A + AM_IGBT ICA: E2 E6 E4 E2 E6 E4 AM_IGBT ICA: ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_6:=ON theta>90 AND theta<150 ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_2:=ON theta>150 AND theta<210 ctrl_2:=ON ctrl_3:=ON theta>210 AND theta<270 ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_6:=ON theta>90 AND theta<150 ctrl_1:=ON ctrl_2:=ON theta>150 AND theta<210 ctrl_2:=ON ctrl_3:=ON theta>210 AND theta<270 ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_1:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_2:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_6:=OFF ctrl_5:=ON ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_5:=OFF ctrl_3:=OFF ctrl_4:=OFF ctrl_4:=ON theta>30 AND theta<90 ctrl_6:=ON theta>330 OR theta<30 ctrl_5:=ON theta>270 AND theta<330 ctrl_3:=ON ctrl_4:=ON ctrl_5:=ON ctrl_4:=ON theta>330 OR theta<30 Drive System Integration with Manufacturer’s IGBTs Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual Equivalent Circuit Model : High Fidelity Physics Based Model theta>30 AND theta<90 ctrl_6:=ON ctrl_5:=ON theta>270 AND theta<330 ctrl_3:=ON ctrl_4:=ON Complete Transient FEA -Transient System Co-simulation P1-3 .27mt -100.00 17.00 0 Torqu IA IB IC 400.0 0 10.0 V_A Von Mises stress 200.0 0 Drive System using System Level IGBT’s and Analytical Motor Model Thermal and Stress Analysis EMSSLink1 EMSSLink1 EMF2 175 R5 R3 R1 MASS_ROTB1 IA E1 A EMF2 175 R1 MASS_ROTB1 IA A R5 R3 RA 0.00 17.27 t -300.023 A_PHASE_N1 ROTB1 RA 0.00m 17.0 200.023 B_PHASE_N2 C_PHASE_N1 C_PHASE_N2 IC A RC 0.Electric Machine Design Suite A Complete Solution for Modern Electric Machines and Drives Design Design Requirements Size/Weight Efficiency Torque Speed Cogging/Ripple Inverter Matching Thermal Stress Manufacturability Cost Fast Analytical Solution: Narrow the Design Space Transient Analysis using FEA Parametric Analysis Magnetostatic/Eddy Current Analysis using FEA Parametric Analysis Optimization Parametric Analysis Optimization Simultaneous Equations: Field Equation: ∇ ×υ∇ × A = J s − σ Circuit Equation: Motion Equation ∂A − σ∇V + ∇ × Hc + σv × ∇ × A ∂t if − C duc =0 dt df di N f l dA dΩ + R if + L f + uc = us S f a ∫∫ dt dt mα + λω = Tem + Texternal IGBT EMF D2 IGBT D3 ECELink ω FM_ROT 175 IGBT IA A ROT1 + T IB A_PHASE_N1 + VBC V A ROT2 B_PHASE_N1 IC A C_PHASE_N1 EMF 175 IGBT IGBT ECE A AM_IGB ICA: PP:= ON:= OFF:= THRESH:=4 HYST:= EQU theta_elect := PP * ECELink theta := MOD(theta_elect Phase Curre 1.0 0 -500.0 Phase Voltag To 300.00 500.

RMxprt: Background ASSM: Adjustable-Speed Synchronous Machine Rotor speed is controlled by adjusting the frequency of the input voltage Unlike brushless PMDC motors. Rotor can be either inner or outer type Can operate as a generator or as a motor Motor Mode: Sinusoidal AC source DC source via a DC to AC inverter Generator Mode: Supplies an AC source for electric loads Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-4 . ASSM does not utilize the position sensors.

ASSM: Background Input voltage U is the reference phasor. The d.and the q-axis currents can be obtained respectively as follows: Id   sinψ  I =   = I Iq  cosψ     ψ = tan −1 Id Iq Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-5 . let the angle I lags U be φ. the power factor angle I = I∠ − ϕ Let the angle I lags E0 be ψ.

ASSM: Background OM can be used to determine the direction of E0 OM = U − I ( R1 + jX 1 + jX aq ) Let the angle E0 lags U be θ. then the angle ψ is ψ = ϕ −θ For a given torque angle θ : Xd − R  1 R1   I d  U cosθ − E0  =  X q   I q  − U sin θ     Solving for Id and Iq yields: Id  1 I  = 2  q  R1 + X d X q  X q (U cosθ − E0 ) + R1U sin θ   R (U cosθ − E ) − X U sin θ  0 d  1  Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-6 . which is called the torque angle for the motor.

ASSM: Background The power factor angle φ is ϕ = ψ +θ The Input electric power is P = 3UI cos ϕ 1 The Output mechanical power is P2 = P − ( Pfw + PCua + PFe ) 1 Pfw : Frictional and Wind Loss PCua: Armature Copper Loss PFe : Iron-core Loss Torque: T2 = Efficiency: η= P2 ω P2 × 100% P1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-7 .

mxwl Select Setup1 under Analysis and click the Right Mouse Button (RMB) and Choose Analyze Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-8 .RMxprt: Base Project Open the RMxprt project located on your desktop by double clicking on PM_SyncMotor.mxwl Save the project under a new name: File > Save As > c:\Training\PM_SyncMotor.

RMxprt: Results Select Setup1. click the RMB and choose Performance Choose a Solution Set Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-9 .

click the RMB and choose Performance Choose a Performance Curve Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-10 .RMxprt: Results Select Setup1.

RMxprt: Add New Winding Arrangement Double click on Stator > Winding Click on Whole-Coiled Select Editor 1 2 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-11 .

RMxprt: Add New Winding Arrangement In the Winding Editor Panel. click the RMB and select Edit Layout Deselect Constant Pitch Change the Layout as shown Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-12 .

RMxprt: Add New Winding Arrangement View the new winding arrangement by placing the mouse over one of the A phase coils in the drawing window and click the RMB selecting Connect One Phase Coils. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-13 .

RMxprt: Performance Solve the problem by selecting Setup1 under Analysis and click the Right Mouse Button (RMB) and Choose Analyze Select Setup1. click the RMB and choose Performance Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-14 .

next to Conductors Per Slot type in CPS 1 2 Click on Stator and in the Properties window.RMxprt: Add Variables Click on Winding and in the Properties window. next to Length type in Depth 1 2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-15 .

next to Length type in Depth Select menu item RMxprt > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametrics Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-16 .RMxprt: Add Variables Click on Rotor and in the Properties window.

RMxprt: Parametric Setup Click on Add and setup the two variables as follows: 2 4 1 Current > RMSLineCurrentParameter Power > OutputPowerParameter Misc. > EfficiencyParameter 3 Click on the Calculations Tab > Setup Calculations and add the following Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-17 .

RMxprt: Parametric Solution Select ParametricSetup1 under Optimetrics. click RMB and select View Analysis Results Select Table and then click on Efficiency Parameter Efficiency increased from 89% to over 98% while maintaining output power Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-18 . click the RMB and Analyze Select ParametricsSetup1.

click the RMB and select Create Maxwell Design 4 1 2 deselect Choose 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-19 .RMxprt: Create Maxwell Design Select Setup1.

Setup Results Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-20 .Maxwell 2D: Base Design Motion Boundaries Winding Mesh Material Assignment Soln.

click the RMB and select Properties Change the Type to Current with a value of zero Repeat this for PhaseB and PhaseC Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-21 . Excitation Select the PhaseA winding.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.

75/2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-22 . click the RMB and select Properties Decrease the size of the element by half. Mesh Ops Select Length_Magnet under Mesh Operations.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. Just type in 3.

Select Length_Main under Mesh Operations. RMB and select Properties Decrease the size of the element by 4.96/4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-23 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. Just type in 10. Mesh Ops.

RMB and select Properties Decrease the length of the “Maximum Surface Deviation” to 190 nm.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. This yields an angular segmentation of Θ = 0. Select SurfApprox_Mag under Mesh Operations.25 deg. Mesh Ops. D = r (1 − cos(Θ / 2)) r is the inside radius of the stator which is 81mm Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-24 .

Select SurfApprox_Main under Mesh Operations.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. Mesh Ops. RMB and select Properties Decrease the length of the “Maximum Surface Deviation” to 190 nm Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-25 .

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. AspectRatio = SF not of triangles P1-26 . Three possible operations: D D = Maximum Surface Deviation D = r (1 − cos(Θ / 2)) r Θ Θ = Maximum Surface Normal Deviation ri ro Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual 2 * ri 2 = ShapeFactor (2 D ) ro 1 3 * ri = SF (3D) AR=2 ro 1 Aspect Ratio of Cells. Mesh Ops.

Mesh Ops. Select Band in the modeler tree. 0. RMB and select Properties Decrease the SegAngle value to 0.25deg.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.25 degrees NOTE!: This small value for angular segmentation. is needed only for very sensitive calculations such as Cogging Torque Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-27 .

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. RMB to select Properties Select Mechanical Tab and change speed to 1 deg/sec Select Setup1 under Analysis and RMB to select Properties Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-28 . Mechanical Setup Select Motion Setup1 under Model.

Solution Setup Change to Save Fields tab 1 3 2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-29 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.

00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual .00 0.Torque [NewtonMeter] Click the RMB in the plot and select Export Data. Save the plot on the desktop. the X-Axis represents both time and position.e.00 -2. i. 10 sec = 10 deg P1-30 0.00 -1. Results Solve the cogging torque problem by selecting Setup1 under Analysis.00 5.00 1.00 Moving1.00 Time [s] 10. Since the speed is held constant at 1.Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque.Torque Setup1 : Transient 2.00 Torque Maxwell2DDesign1 Curve Info Moving1.00 15.0 deg/sec.00 -3. RMB and select Analyze: Once the problem is solved double click on Results > Torque Ansoft Corporation 3.

Results Select menu item View > Set Solution Context. RMB to select Fields > A > Flux_Lines Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-31 . In the drawing window hit CTRL+A to select all objects.Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque. and choose zero seconds.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque. Results Double Click on Legend to change plot properties Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-32 .

RMB to select Animate Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-33 . Results Select Flux_Lines1 under A under Field Overlays.Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque.

RMB and select Rename. Rename Design Rename Maxwell2DDesign1 by selecting its name in the project tree. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-34 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque. Change the name to PMSM_CT for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Cogging Torque.

Variables Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Mag_0 under NdFe30_N and choose Properties 3 1 2 In the Value field type in the name PoleEmbrace Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-35 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging torque.

Optimization Variables Change the field for the ThickMag to MagnetThickness and accept the default value of 7.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.5mm 2 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-36 .

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. 2 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-37 . Optimization Variables Change the field for the Offset to PoleOffset and accept the default value of 0mm.

Optimization Variables Select CreateUserDefinedPart under InnerRegion under Vacuum and choose Properties 1 2 In the Value field type in the names: PoleEmbrace MagnetThickness PoleOffset Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-38 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.

Optimization Variables Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Rotor under M19_26G_SF0.950 and choose Properties 1 2 In the Value field type in the names: PoleEmbrace MagnetThickness PoleOffset Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-39 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque. Optimization Variables Select menu item Maxwell 2D > Design Properties and change the value of the variables just defined: Select the Optimization radio button and Include each variable: Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-40 .

Optimization Variables Modify the variable to see the effect on the geometry For this exercise.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque.5 mm 0.6 < PoleEmbrace < 0.9 0 < PoleOffset < 30 mm PE MT Pole Offset Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-41 . the range for each is: 6.5 mm < MagnetThickness < 9.

by selecting menu item Draw > Arc > Center Point Using the mouse select the origin. any point in the air gap along the X axis and any point in the air gap at the 45 degree angle. Double 3 click to end 1 2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-42 . Air Gap Arc Create an arc in the air gap to be used for post processing purposes. it will be modified in the next step. Any value used if valid.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization.

Air Gap Arc Select CreateAngularArc under CreatePolyline under Polyline1 under Lines.8. RMB and select Properties Change the value for the starting point to 80. This will place the arc between the band object and the stator ID Select Polyline1. In the Properties window change its name to AG_Arc Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-43 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization. 0. 0.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization. Variables Select menu item Maxwell 2D > Field > Calculator Perform the following commands to calculate the radial component of the flux density in the air gap Quantity > B Scal? > Scalar X Function > PHI Trig > cos Multiply * Quantity > B Scal? > Scalar Y Function > PHI Trig > sin Multiply * Add + -.this adds the express to the stack Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-44 .this gives Bx*cos(PHI) + By*sin(PHI) Add … > Name: Bradial -.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization. Variables Continue to calculate the average radial component of the air gap flux density Select Bradial under Named Expressions Copy to Stack Geometry > Line > AG_Arc Integrate Number > Scalar > Value = 1 Geometry > Line > AG_Arc Integrate Divide / -.this adds this expression to the stack Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-45 .this give the average radial flux density in the air gap Add … > Name: Brad_Avg -.

this adds this expression to the stack Select the Maxwell 2D Design PMSM_CT and in the Properties window change the variables back to their default values Even though the design variables and thus the geometry has changed. the solution is automatically reloaded. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-46 . once the design variables are set to their previous values.this converts from m2 to mm2 Multiply * Add … > Mag_Area -. there is no need to solve the problem again. Variables Continue to calculate the area of the permanent magnet Number > Scalar > Value = 1 Geometry > Surface > Mag_0 Integrate Number > Scalar > Value = 1e6 -.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization.

RMB to select Create Field Report > Rectangular Plot Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-47 . Variables Plot the radial flux density in the air gap by selecting Results.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization. Brad AG Plot B_rad on the AG_Arc 5 1 2 3 6 10 7 8 9 4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-48 .

00 0.40 0.60 0.20 0.20 0. Bradial 0.60 0. Save the plot on the desktop.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization.20 Click the RMB in the plot window and select Export Data.80 0.00 0.80 1.40 Norm alizedDis tance 0.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-49 . Brad AG Plot of B radial in air gap at time zero Ansoft Corporation 1.20 XY Plot 2 PMSM_CT Curve Inf o Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns' 1.00 -0.

Optimization: Solution Setup Change the Stop Time of the Simulation from 15 seconds to 3.75 sec. Select Setup1 under Analysis and RMB to select Properties Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-50 . The cogging torque waveform is symmetric after 3.75 sec) and to save simulation time we only need to solve up to this point.75 deg (equal to 3.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization, Variables Select Optimetrics and RMB to select Add > Optimization

Next to Optimizer select Genetic Algorithm

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Click on Setup

Change the values as shown here

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Cogging Torque Peak Nominal Value* = 2.2 N-m
Maximum Value** = 5.5 N-m Optimal Goal = 0.2 N-m (subjectively chosen, we want to reduce CT by >10x) Normalize Solution Range: 1 to 10
G1 = 1 + (max(abs(Torque)) – 0.2) * 9 / 5.3 Objective: G1 = 1.0
*Note:

The Peak Nominal Value is when:
MagnetThickness = 7.5 mm PoleEmbrace = 0.85 PoleOffset = 0 mm

**Note:

The Maximum Value is determined when these values are a Maximum:
MagnetThickness = 9.5 mm PoleEmbrace = 0.90 PoleOffset = 0 mm

The maximum value of cogging torque may lay outside these parameter values, i.e somewhere else in the solution domain. These values are used just to define a range for the objective.
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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Nominal Bavg Value = 0.76 Tesla
Range*: 0.50 < Bavg < 0.81 Tesla Optimal Goal = 0.76 Tesla (we want to maintain the Air Gap Flux Density) Normalize Range: 1 to 10
G2 = 1 + (Brad_Avg – 0.5) * 9 / 0.31 Objective: G2 = 8.55

Magnet Area
Range*: 220 < Mag_area < 510 mm2 Normalize Range: 1 to 10
G3 = 1 + (Mag_area – 220) * 9 / 290 Objective: G3 = 1.0

*Note:

The Range was calculated by simulation the minimum and maximum values:
MagnetThickness … 6.5 mm and 9.5 mm PoleEmbrace … 0.6 and 0.9 PoleOffset .. 0 mm and 30 mm

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup In the Calculation Expression field type in the function as shown below

1

2

3 4

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Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Include Calculation for the average radial component of the flux density in the air gap 1 3 2 4 Type in the rest of the expression and then click on Add Calculation 5 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-56 .

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Include calculation for Magnet Area 1 2 3 Type in the rest of the expression and then click on Add Calculation 4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-57 .

Range and select 0ns for time zero 1 3 2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-58 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup For the calculation expressions for Brad_Avg and Mag_Area click on Calc.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Set the Goal and Weigh for each objective Cost1 = (G1 – 0.75)2 * W2 Cost3 = (G3 – 230)2 * W3 Cost = Cost1+Cost2+Cost3 where G1 = max(abs(Torque)) where G2 = abs(AirGap_Bavg) where G3 = Mag_area Note: The Cogging Torque and Air Gap Flux Density have equal weight.2)2 * W1 Cost2 = (G2 – 0. which is twice that of the magnet area Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-59 .

ansoft.zip To solve the problem. select OptimizationSetup1 under Optimetrics. RMB and select Analyze Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-60 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Click on the Variables tab and change the values accordingly: This problem takes too long to solve during the class.com/download/ChinaTraining/PM_SyncMotor_Opt. The full solution can be downloaded from Ansoft’s FTP site: ftp://ftp.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Results Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-61 .

Select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_CT. RMB and select Paste Select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_CT1. RMB and select Copy Select the project name PM_SyncMotor. create a second Maxwell 2D design and solve the problem with the optimized design variable values. and change the design name to PMSM_CT_Verify Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-62 .Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Setup Since the field solution was not saved for each variation in the optimization solution. RMB and select Rename.

Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify Select the design PMSM_CT_Verify and in the Properties window change the design variables to the Optimized value Increase the Stop Time to 7.5 sec and then solve the design: 1 2 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-63 .

30 Optimized Design [NewtonMeter] 0.20 -0.00 P1-64 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual .00 3.00 7.30 -0.00 6.00 4.20 0.10 0.50 0.10 -0.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify Plot the Cogging Torque Ansoft Corporation Cogging Torque PMSM_CT_Verify Curve Info Optimized Design Setup1 : Transient 0.00 2.40 0.00 1.00 Time [s] 5.00 -0.40 -0.00 8.50 0.

4031 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-65 .6379 MX2: 5.00 3.00 -3.2271 Optimized Design Setup1 : Transient Moving1.4354 In plot window.00 2.00 Curve Info 2.00 1.00 8.1402 -1.00 6. RMB and select Marker > Add X Marker Optimized Design Nominal Design 0.5877 0.Torque Imported Nominal Design 2.00 4.00 0.00 MX1: 0.00 7.00 -2.00 0.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify In the plot window RMB to select Import Data and pick the cogging torque plot that was exported earlier. Ansoft Corporation Cogging Torque PMSM_CT_Verify 3.00 Time [s] 5.00 0.00 Y1 [NewtonMeter] 1.

20 0.Maxwell 2D: Cogging Torque Optimization Verify Plot the air gap flux density Ansoft Corporation Air Gap Flux Density PMSM_CT_Verify 1.20 0.80 1.40 0.20 Curve Info Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns' 1.00 0.40 0.60 NormalizedDistance 0.00 0.00 -0.20 0.60 0.00 P1-66 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual .80 Bradial 0.

Maxwell 2D: AG Flux Density In the plot window RMB to select Import Data and pick the Air Gap flux density plot that was exported earlier.40 0.60 0. Ansoft Corporation Air Gap Flux Density PMSM_CT_Verify 1.40 0.60 NormalizedDistance 0.00 P1-67 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual .20 Curve Info Bradial Setup1 : Transient Time='0ns' 1.20 0.00 -0.80 1.20 0.20 0.00 Bradial Imported Nominal Design 0.80 Bradial 0.00 0.

1 2 3 The target optimized value is 0.Maxwell 2D: AG Flux Density Determine the average air gap flux density.76T 4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-68 .

Maxwell 2D: Magnet Area Determine the magnet area. 1 2 The area of the magnet for the nominal design was 383 mm2 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-69 .

Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF Select the design PMSM_CT_Verify. RMB and select Rename. RMB and select Copy Select the project PM_SyncMotor. Change the name to PMSM_OC_EMF Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-70 . RMB and select Paste Select the new design PMSM_CT_Verify1.

RMB to select Properties Select the Mechanical tab and change the speed to 3600 rpm Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-71 .Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF Select MotionSetup1 under Model.

Core Loss Setup Calculate the core loss coefficients from multiple core loss curves Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-72 .Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.

950 and then select View/Edit Material 1 2 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-73 . Core Loss Setup Select the Stator and in the Properties widow click on the material M19_26G_SF0.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.

tab 1 2 5 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-74 .Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. Core Loss Setup Add the core loss curve for 60Hz 3 Choose the file 4 M470-65A-60Hz.

tab 1 2 5 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-75 . Core Loss Setup Add the core loss curve for 100Hz 3 Choose the file 4 M470-65A-100Hz.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.

tab M470-65A-1kHz.tab M470-65A-400Hz. Core Loss Setup Continue to add the following curves: M470-65A-200Hz.tab Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-76 .Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.tab M470-65A-600Hz.tab M470-65A-700Hz.

Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. Change the conductivity to 625000 S/m Material properties are global quantities. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-77 . Thus when modifying materials that are common to various designs. Magnet Loss Select Mag_0 and in the Properties next to Materials click on NdFe30_N and then on View/Edit Materials. the solutions to the designs become invalid. the affect all designs.

each one should have a separate excitation of zero amps. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-78 .Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. If there were more than one magnet. Magnet Loss Select Mag_0. RMB to select Assign Excitation > Current By assigning zero current to the magnet it is assured that total current into and out of this magnet is zero.

Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. Magnet Loss Select Excitations. RMB to select Set Eddy Effect Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-79 .

RMB to select Set Core Loss.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. Core Loss Select Excitations. Add Core Loss for the Rotor and Stator Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-80 .

Solution Setup Modify the solution setup by selecting Setup1. RMB and select Properties 2 The time step is determined by: 1 deg 3600rev 360 deg 1 min 21600 deg * * = = sec 46. Thus 10 msec is ~2.2 msec.3u sec min rev 60 sec 1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual The frequency is 240 Hz. which gives a period of 4.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.5 cycles P1-81 .

RMB to select Analyze After the problem is solved. click on Results.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. Results Solve the transient problem by selecting Setup1 under Analysis. RMB to select Create Transient Report > Rectangular Plot 1 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual 2 P1-82 .

00 -150.00 8.00 2.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-83 .00 InducedVoltage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient -100.00 Curve Info InducedVoltage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient -50.00 10.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.00 Y1 [V] 0.00 Time [ms] 6.00 XY Plot 2 PMSM_OC_EMF 100. Results Ansoft Corporation 150.00 4.00 0.00 50.

RMB to select Create Transient Report > Rectangular Plot 1 2 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-84 .Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF. Results Click on Results.

00 4.00 Curve Info CoreLoss Setup1 : Transient 0.00 2.40 0.80 CoreLoss [kW] 0.00 Time [ms] 6.20 1. Results Ansoft Corporation Core Loss PMSM_OC_EMF 1.00 P1-85 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual .20 0.00 0.60 0.00 8.00 10.Maxwell 2D: Open Circuit Back EMF.

Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition To solve the problem for the rated condition. Rotor. RMB and select Paste Select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_OC_EMF1. and InnerRegion Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-86 . select the Maxwell 2D design PMSM_OC_EMF. and change the design name to PMSM_Rated Delete the Mag_0. RMB and select Rename. RMB and select Copy Select the project name PM_SyncMotor.

Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select menu item Draw > User Defined Primitive > SysLib > RMxrpt > IPMCore. Modify the Values as shown below. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-87 .

Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select the object IPMCore1 and then Edit > Arrange > Rotate Select Modeler > Boolean > Split Select Edit > Arrange > Rotate and use -45 degrees about the Z axis Select Modeler > Boolean > Split in the XZ Plane Keeping Fragments on the Negative Side Select Edit > Arrange > Rotate and use +45 degrees about the Z axis Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-88 .

Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select IPMCore1 and in the Properties window Name: Rotor Material: M19_26G_SF0.950 Select Rotor. This will create two magnets. RMB to select Edit > Paste Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Rotor1. RMB to select Properties Change InfoCore to 1 Select Rotor1 and then Maxwell Model > Boolean > Separate Bodies. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-89 . RMB to select Edit > Copy In the drawing window. Change the name of the magnets to Mag_0 and Mag_1 and change their color.

RMB to select Edit > Paste Select CreateUserDefinedPart under Rotor1.Maxwell 2D: New Rotor Geometry Select Rotor. RMB to select Edit > Copy In the drawing window. RMB to select Properties Change InfoCore to 2 Select Rotor1 and in the Properties window Name: Duct Material: Vacuum Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-90 .

950 and select NdFe30 and then Clone Material(s) 2 1 3 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-91 .Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition. PM Setup Select Mag_0 and in the Properties window click on the material M19_26G_SF0.

PM Setup Change the name to NdFe30_NV for North Pole V Core Cartesian CS with the pole aligned with the X axis Repeat the same for Mag_1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-92 .Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition.

Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition. PM Setup The drawing tree should look like this Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-93 .

Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition. Zoom into Mag_0. PM Setup A local coordinate system needs to be create for each magnet. Magnetization will be along the X axis P1-94 . Select the Create Relative CS Icon 1 3 2 4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual A local CS is create with X and Y axis as shown.

Magnetization will be along the X axis P1-95 . Select the Create Relative CS Icon 1 3 2 4 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual A local CS is create with X and Y axis as shown.Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition. PM Setup Zoom into Mag_1.

Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition. PM Setup Select Mag_0 and in the Properties Window change Orientation to RelateiveCS1 Select Mag_1 and in the Properties Window change Orientation to RelateiveCS2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-96 .

Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, PM Mesh Ops. Select Mag_0 and Mag_1, RMB to assign mesh operations

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Excitation Select Rotor, Mag_0, Mag_1, and Duct. Select Moving1 under Motion, RMB to select Add Selected Object

Select PhaseA under Excitations, RMB to select Properties

163.299 * sin(2*pi*240*time+18.2635*pi/180)

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Excitation Select PhaseB and then PhaseC under Excitations, RMB to select

Properties.

VB = 163.299 * sin(2*pi*240*time+18.2635*pi/180-2*pi/3) VC = 163.299 * sin(2*pi*240*time+18.2635*pi/180-4*pi/3)

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Excitation Select Excitation, RMB to select Setup Y Connection

1 2 3

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Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition, Solution Setup Select MotionSetup1 under Model, RMB to select Properties and then Data to change the Initial Position, and then Mechanical to set the speed

Select Setup1 under Analysis, RMB and select Properties

This problem takes too long to solve during the class. The full solution can be downloaded from Ansoft’s FTP site:
ftp://ftp.ansoft.com/download/ChinaTraining/PM_SyncMotor_Rated.zip
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00 0.00 50.60 CoreLoss [kW] 1.00 Y1 [A] 300.00 100.00 87.00 Ansoft Corporation 1.70 1.00 200.40 1.00 Curve Info Current(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 500.00 1000.00 -100.00 Winding Currents PMSM_Rated Ansoft Corporation 600.00 Time [ms] 100.00 Torque Quick Report PMSM_Rated Curve Info Moving1.00 400.00 50.50 1.00 -3000.00 92.00 -2000.20 85.00 -4000.50 90.00 Time [ms] 100.Torque [NewtonMeter] 0.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-102 .50 100.00 -1000.00 97.90 Core Loss PMSM_Rated Curve Info CoreLoss Setup1 : Transient 1.30 1.Maxwell 2D: Rated Condition.Torque Setup1 : Transient 2000.00 Moving1. Results Ansoft Corporation 3000.00 0.00 0.80 1.50 Time [ms] 95.

0 Commander” window. Note: The model is not simply a linear model you can typically find from a textbook any more. Create Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Model from RMxprt: Double click on the original RMxprt design. choose “Simplorer Model” from the list and select a path where you want the model to be saved. in “SSC 7. This model can also be used as both motor and generator. click on Programs > Editor. open the model file we just created from RMxprt (*. 2. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-103 .sml). click on menu RMxprt > Analysis Setup > Export ….Simplorer: Drive Design 1.0. It has nonlinear effect considered for both main and leakage flux magnetic paths.5. View the text of the model: Run Simplorer V7.

drag and drop “RMxprt” component on the schematic. with electrical nodes on the left and mechanical nodes on the right. Use the RMxprt created model in Simplorer as a generator: Open a new Simplorer Schematic. click on the “Add Ons” tab of the “ModelAgent”.sml)”. click on “interfaces”. Select the model > Open > OK. you should have the model show up like the following graph. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-104 .Simplorer: Drive Design 3. browse to the location where the model was saved. Double click on the “RMxprtLink1” and then click on “Import Model (*.

00m 2.00m 40.00 0 0 20.Simplorer: Drive Design 4.00m Rotor Position (Deg -3.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-105 .00 84.55f -100.00 R_Load.00k 40.00 -362.00m 0 0 20.OMEGA [rpm] -300.02)) C B A ROT2 RMXROT1 C := 1u R_Load R := 1k C1 D5 D3 D1 + ω D6 D4 D2 RMxprtLink1 V_ROT1 DC Link Voltage 92.00m -94.V [V] -50.00 Back EMF (A-B 50.00 0 20.00 RMxprtLink1.00m 40.00m 40. Details of each component are shown on the next page.00 0 20. Build the rest of the schematic like below.V [V] 0 VM1.00 50.00m Input Speed from Shaft -200.Pos 1. B6U1 B6U + V VM1 VALUE := 1000*(1+(t>0.00k V_ROT1.

Simplorer: Drive Design 5. ModelAgent > Add Ons tab > power > Line-commutated Converters > B6 Diode Bridge Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-106 .

Simplorer: Drive Design 6. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Circuit > Passive Elements > Resistor and Capacitor Note: Select the component and right mouse click to Flip or Rotate the component. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-107 . ModelAgent > Basics tab > Measurement > Electrical > Voltmeter 7. Or you can use quick shortcut “F’ for Flip and “R” for Rotate.

ModelAgent > Basics tab > Physical Domains > Mechanical > Velocity-Force-Representation > Rotational_V > Angular Velocity Source Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-108 .Simplorer: Drive Design 8.

Simplorer: Drive Design 9. define simulation parameters as seen from the picture. or Alt + F12. or just double mouse click on any empty space on the schematic. Click on Simulation > Parameters. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-109 .

Simplorer: Drive Design 10.V.OMEGA (rpm). V_ROT1. VM1. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-110 . ModelAgent > Displays tab > Displays > 2D View Create plots of R_Load. RMxprtLink1.V. Run the simulation and view the results. 11.Pos.

Maxwell 2D and Simplorer Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P1-111 .This completes the one day training course on permanent magnet synchronous machines using Ansoft’s RMxprt.

00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-1 .00 RSpeed [rpm] 10000.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='3' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='3.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='315V' Moving1.00 50.00 0.00 70.00 -200.2' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.00 100.00 Winding Currents 6_Modified Curve Info Current(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 80.00 200.00 Moving1.00 15000.00 XY Plot 1 8_DesignSweep Ansoft Corporation 300.00 Time [ms] 150.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='2' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='2.00 -400.00 -300.00 200.2' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='315V' 50.00 -100.00 Efficiency [percent] Y1 [A] 200.2' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='315V' Moving1.2' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.00 50.00 100.00 XY Plot 2 3_FreqSweep Curve Info Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='1' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='1.00 -100.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='4' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='4.00 Curve Info Moving1.00 0.00 100.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='315V' Moving1.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance Ansoft Corporation 300.00 200.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='6' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='6.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 -500.00 60.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.00 40.00 0.00 100.00 -300.00 10.00 30.00 -200.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='5.00 -10.Torque [FootPounds] 0.Three-phase Induction Machine Ansoft Corporation 90.00 5000.00 Time [ms] 150.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.

Basic knowledge of electric machine is required 3. Basic understanding of Finite Element is required Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-2 . Design Sweep Add Design Variables and Change Variable Values Set up Parametric Sweep Run Design Sweep and View Results VII. Nominal Maxwell 2D Design Create an Maxwell 2D Design from RMxprt Change Simulation Time Step Set up Save Solution Fields Set Eddy Effects for All Bars Run Simulation and Review Quick Report Measure Position Change of Each Time Step Create Mesh/Field Plots and Animation VI. RMxprt Basic Theory Main Features Open and Run an Example and View Results Modify the Design and View New Results Create a Variable-Voltage Variable-Frequency Design IV. RMxprt -> Maxwell 2D Create an Maxwell 2D Design from RMxprt Review Maxwell 2D Transient Setup V.Contents I. Drive Design Create Induction Machine Model Drive Simulation Notes: 1. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Set up Variable Simulation Time Step Create output Variables for Stator Teeth and Stator Yoke Flux Densities Change Angular Velocity Set up Force Calculation Multi-frequency Core Loss Run Simulation and View New Results II. Locked Rotor Simulation Change Initial Position and Angular Velocity Change Bar Conductivity Run Simulation and View Results III. RMxprt/Maxwell V12 or higher is required 2.

RMxprt Basic Theory R1 I1 X1 X2 I2 U1 RFe Xm R2/s 2 Pm = 3 I 2 R2 s T2 = Tm − T fw P2 = T2ω 2 cos ϕ = P1 mU 1 I 1 Tm = Pm P1 = P2 + Pfw + PCu 2 + PFe + PCu 1 + Ps ω η= P2 × 100% P1 Main Features Optimization of Winding and Coil Arrangement Winding Editor Supporting Any Single.and Double-Layer Windings More than 20 Slot Shapes for Single and Double Squirrel-Cage Rotor Pear type with round shoulder Pear type with tapered shoulder Trapezoid type with tapered shoulder Trapezoid type with round shoulder Nonlinear and Distributed Parameters at Any Operation Condition Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-3 .I.

for example: “IM3_Calss” Change RMxprt Design name from “yzd132-4” to “1_Original” 3. RMxprt Open and Run an Example and Review Results 1.I. Run simulation and view results Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-4 . Save As to your preferred location and name. Menu item File > Open: …\Ansoft\Maxwell12\Examples\RMxprt\indm3\yzd132-4 2.

Copy the design “1_Orginal” and paste into the project. Change the stator winding slot and wire to rectangular wire 3.I. Run simulation and view results Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-5 . change the new design name to “2_RectWire” 2. RMxprt Modify the Design and View New Results 1.

FreqSweep and VoltSweep. RMxprt Create a Variable-Voltage Variable-Frequency Design 1. Assign VoltSweep and FreqSweep to Rated Voltage and Frequency respectively Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-6 .I. Create three new design variables: ScaleFactor. click on menu item RMxprt > Design Properties 2.

RMxprt 3.I. Create a Parametric sweep Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-7 .

5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='4' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='4.00 XY Plot 1 3_FreqSweep Curve Info OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='1' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='1.00 15000.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-8 . Run parametric sweep and view results: torque vs.00 0.00 OutputTorque [FootPounds] 50000.00 40000.00 RSpeed [rpm] 10000.I.5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance 80000.00 5000. speed Ansoft Corporation 90000.00 60000.00 10000. RMxprt 4.5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='3' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='3.00 70000.00 30000.5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='5.5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='2' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='2.00 20000.00 0.5' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='6' OutputTorque Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='6.

00 60.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='6' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='6.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='5.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='4' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='4. speed Ansoft Corporation 90. View results: efficiency vs.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='3' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='3.00 RSpeed [rpm] 10000.00 0.00 Efficiency [percent] 40.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='2' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='2. RMxprt 5.00 5000.00 15000.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-9 .00 20.I.00 10.00 30.00 -10.00 50.00 70.00 XY Plot 2 3_FreqSweep Curve Info Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='1' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance ScaleFactor='1.00 0.5' Efficiency Setup1 : Performance 80.

RMxprt -> Maxwell 2D Create a Maxwell 2D Design from RMxprt 1. Create Maxwell design 2. Change the new Maxwell 2D design name to “4_Nominal” Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-10 .II.

II. Review Maxwell 2D setups Motion setup Boundaries Excitations Materials Mesh operations Solve setup Geometry Result plots Ready to solve! Click on menu bar Maxwell 2D > Analyze All Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-11 . RMxprt -> Maxwell 2D 2.

Change design name to “5_Nominal2” Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-12 . Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 1. Right mouse click on Setup1 under Design 1_Original > Analysis > Create Maxwell Design 2.III.

Add Save Fields 5.III. Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 3.001s 3. Change simulation time step to 0.001s 4. Change simulation time step to 0. Run simulation …… Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-13 .

00 50.00 7. Review other Quick Reports Torque 5_Norminal2 Curve Info Moving1.00 Y1 [A] 0.00 Ansoft Corporation 300. View results: Output Torque vs.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-14 .00 50.00 Moving1.00 -100.00 Time [ms] 150.00 200.00 0.00 Winding Currents 5_Norminal2 Curve Info Current(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 200.00 100.00 100.Torque Setup1 : Transient 300.00 Time [ms] 150.00 200.III.00 -200.00 0.Torque [FootPounds] 0.00 -200.00 -400.00 200.00 -300.00 -100.00 -300.00 100.00 100. Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 6.00 -600. Time Ansoft Corporation 400.00 -500. Time and Phase Currents vs.

Time plot 9. it is 8.III. Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 8. Change Trace Type to “Discrete” 10.7767 deg Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-15 . Add Position vs. Add Delta Marker to measure position change of each simulation time step.

Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 11. turn Grid invisible 13.III. Menu bar View > Coordinate System > Hide 14. Menu bar View > Grid Setting. Double click on bottom left corner to change at what time step you want to view the plot Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-16 . Plot mesh: CTRL+A to select all objects > right mouse click > Plot Mesh 12.

Plot fields: CTRL+A to select all objects > right mouse click > Fields > A/H/B etc. Uncheck Plot Visibility to avoid all plots on top of each other Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-17 .III. Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 15. 16. Right mouse click on the picture > Copy Image. try paste into Microsoft Word or Power Point 17.

III. Nominal Maxwell 2D Design 18. Export the animation to .avi or . Create animation: right mouse click on the item under Field Overlays > Animate 19.gif format and import into Power Point for presentation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-18 .

Copy Design 5. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Set up a Variable Simulation Time Step 1. Double click “Setup1” under “Analysis”. paste and change name to “6_Modified” 2. time)” Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-19 . Add and edit design dataset “Time_Step” 4. Click on menu bar Maxwell 2D > Design Datasets 3. change Time step to “pwlx(Time_Step.IV.

IV. Double click on MotionSetup1 under Model. Check “Consider Mechanical Transient if you want to simulate mechanical transient Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-20 . Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Change Angular Velocity 1. click on “Mechanical” tab in the Motion Setup window 2. Change Angular Velocity to 1350 rpm 3.

You can assign as many Force calculations as you may need. There is no need to assign Torque calculation. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Set up Force Calculation 1. Select object “Bar” > right mouse click > Assign Parameters > Force 2. moving torque is assigned automatically in Transient Solver with rotational motion 3. This is different from V11 2D.IV. where the Force calculation is “hidden” in Transient and you can only calculate one force at a time Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-21 .

Zoom in stator tooth and yoke area. In the next few steps we will use “Calculator” to create “Named Expression”: “Stator_Tooth_Flux” and “Stator_Yoke_Flux” 4. to center point. 3. draw two lines called “Stator_Tooth” and “Stator_Yoke” 2. Pay attention to use “Snap to” feature. like to vertex. Click on menu item Maxwell 2D > Fields > Calculator Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-22 . Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Create Output Variables for Stator Teeth and Stator Yoke Flux Densities 1.IV. etc.

Number. Geometry > Line > Stator_Tooth.IV. Do the same for “Stator_Yoke_Flux” Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-23 . Add. 0. Quantity > B. Stator_Tooth_Flux 7. * 6.25 (stator stack length in meters). Mag. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design 5. integration.

change material name and Electrical Steel as Core Loss Type Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-24 . Click on Clone Material(s).IV. Select both Rotor and Stator.920 button in the Properties window 2. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Multi-frequency Core Loss 1. click on material M19_24G_SF0.

IV. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Multi-frequency Core Loss 3. Click on Calculate Properties for > Core Loss versus Frequency Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-25 . Type in Mass Density = 7650kg/m^3 4.

Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Multi-frequency Core Loss 50Hz 100Hz 200Hz 400Hz Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-26 .IV.

00 -100.00 50.00 -300. position vs.00 Time [ms] 150.00 Winding Currents 6_Modified Curve Info Current(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient Current(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 400.0000 Y 356.00 m2 m1 -500.00 200.00 Y1 [A] 0. current.00 -100.00 Ansoft Corporation 300.00 200.00 100.00 -200.00 100.00 -300. compare with results from Design 5 Ansoft Corporation 300.00 44.5000 Position Quick Report 6_Modified Curve Info Moving1.00 d(m1.00 200.00 -400.IV.00 200.00 -200.0000 0.00 100.m2) Delta(X) 1.Torque Setup1 : Transient Ansoft Corporation Name X 1800.00 600. Run simulation 2.0000 m1 m2 45. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design Run Simulation and View New Results 1.00 1400.00 Moving1.1235 50. View existing plots: torque.00 Name 0.00 1200.00 Torque 6_Modified Curve Info Moving1.Torque [FootPounds] 0.00 Time [ms] 150.00 0.1000 Slope(Y) 8.00 Moving1.Position [deg] 1000.00 1600.00 50.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-27 .00 Time [ms] 200.Position Setup1 : Transient 200.1000 InvSlope(Y) 0.00 100.00 150.00 100. time.00 800.00 Delta(Y) 8.00 0.4000 364.

IV. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design
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3. Create Stator tooth/yoke flux density plots 4. Right mouse click on Results > Create Fields Report > Rectangular Plot
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IV. Modifying Maxwell 2D Design
5. Create Force vs. Position plot 6. Create Core Loss vs. Time plot

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V. Locked Rotor Simulation

1. Copy Design 6, paste and change name to “7_LockedRotor” 2. Double click on MotionSetup1 and change Initial Position and Angular Velocity

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V. Locked Rotor Simulation

3. Change Bar Conductivity to Simulate High Temperature Effect, use “cast_aluminum_75C” 4. Run Simulation and View Results
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VI. Design Sweep
1. Copy Design 6 and paste into the project, change design name to “8_DesignSweep”Variables 2. Right mouse click on the name of the design > Design Properties, add “LengthFactor = 1.2”

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Click menu bar Maxwell 2D > Design Settings. change Model Depth 4. Do the same for PhaseB and PhaseC resistance Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-33 . Design Sweep 3.VI. Click on PhaseA and change Resistance 5.

Design Sweep 6. Do the same for PhaseB and PhaseC voltage Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-34 . Click on PhaseA and replace voltage with “Volt_Mag” > Enter > with default value 315V 315V 7.VI.

VI. change DiaGap in the Properties window to “Stator_ID” 9. Design Sweep 8. Change the default value to 150mm Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-35 . Click on CreateUserDefinedPart under Stator.

Design Sweep 10. Right mouse click on Optimetrics > Add > Parametric Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-36 .VI.

2' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='315V' Moving1.00 -400.00 100.VI.00 XY Plot 1 8_DesignSweep 200.00 100.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-37 .Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='315V' Moving1.00 Time [ms] 150.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.2' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='315V' Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.00 Curve Info Moving1.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1' Stator_ID='148mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1.2' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='315V' -500.00 50. View Results : right mouse click on Results > Create Transient Report > Rectangular Report Ansoft Corporation 300.00 -100.00 Moving1.00 -200.00 0.Torque Setup1 : Transient LengthFactor='1.00 200.00 -300.2' Stator_ID='150mm' Volt_Mag='300V' Moving1. Design Sweep 11.Torque [FootPounds] 0. Right mouse click on Optimetrics > ParametricSetup1 > Analyze 12.

click on menu RMxprt > Analysis Setup > Export …. It also has eddy current effect considered for bars in order to more accurately model start-up performance of this machine. Create Induction Machine Model from RMxprt: Double click on the RMxprt design “1_Original”.0 Commander” window. It has nonlinear effect considered for both main and leakage flux magnetic paths.VII. click on Programs > Editor. choose “Simplorer Model” from the list and select a path where you want the model to be saved.0.sml). View the text of the model: Run Simplorer V7. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-38 .5. Drive Design 1. 2. Note: The model is not simply a linear model you can typically find from a textbook any more. in “SSC 7. open the model file we just created from RMxprt (*.

Select the model > Open > OK. browse to the location where the model was saved. you should have the model show up like the following graph. drag and drop “RMxprt” component on the schematic. click on the “Add Ons” tab of the “ModelAgent”. with electrical nodes on the left and mechanical nodes on the right. Double click on the “RMxprtLink1” and then click on “Import Model (*.VII. Use the RMxprt created model in Simplorer: Open a new Simplorer Schematic. click on “interfaces”. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-39 . Drive Design 3.sml)”.

00 MASS_ROT1.00 Phase A Current 251.00 Torque FM_ROT1.00m 0 1.00m 1.VAL SIMPARAM1 500.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-40 .00m 1.V 537.50 0 472.2 kg m % RMxprtLink1 ROT1 ROT2 ~ ~ ~ PHI = 0° T PHI = -120° PHI = -240° N RMX T STEP1 LoadStep THREE_PHASE1 Line to Line Voltage VM1.Iterations 990.00m 1.I 1.00 0 500. 3PHAS A * sin (2 * pi * f * t + PHI + phi_u) + VM1 V FM_ROT1 AM1 A A B C MASS_ROT1 J := 0.52k 1. Build the rest of the schematic like below.VII.00 0 500.00 10.00 SIMPARAM1.00 -57.OMEGA [rpm] -208.00m 1. of Iterations 25.00 0 0 500.00 200. Drive Design 4.50 0 -540.00 AM1.00k 0 Speed No. Details of each component are shown on the next page.TORQUE [Nm] STEP1.

Drive Design 5.VII. ModelAgent > Add Ons tab > power > Power System and Cable Models > Ideal Three Phase Power Supply Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-41 .

Drive Design 6.VII. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Measurement > Electrical > Voltmeter and Ammeter 7. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Measurement > Mechanical > Velocity-Force-Representation > Torque Meter Note: Select the component and right mouse click to Flip or Rotate the component. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-42 . Or you can use quick shortcut “F’ for Flip and “R” for Rotate.

Drive Design 8.VII. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Blocks > Sources Block > Step Function Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-43 .

ModelAgent > Basics tab > Physical Domains > Mechanical > Velocity-Force-Representation > Rotational_V > Mass Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-44 . Drive Design 9.VII.

Drive Design 10. ModelAgent > Basics tab > Physical Domains > Mechanical > Velocity-Force-Representation > Rotational_V > Torque Source Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-45 .VII.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-46 . define simulation parameters as seen from the picture. Drive Design 11. Click on Simulation > Parameters.VII. or just double mouse click on any empty space on the schematic. ModelAgent > Basics > Tools > Simulator Parameters 12. or Alt + F12.

Iterations. Run the simulation and compare the results with RMxprt. STEP1. AM1.VII.OMEGA (in rpm) and SIMPARAM1. Drive Design 13. MASS_ROT1. ModelAgent > Displays tab > Displays > 2D View Create plots of VM1.VAL. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-47 .TORQUE.V. FM_ROT1.I. 14.

Maxwell 2D and Simplorer Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator V12 – Training Manual P2-48 .This completes the one day training course on Three-phase Induction Machine using Ansoft’s RMxprt.

Topic – Motor Application Note Study of a Permanent Magnet Motor with MAXWELL 2D: Example of the 2004 Prius IPM Motor Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

D.C.. B. C. Ott. We will also use Oak Ridge National Laboratory testing results in this note. C. The single layer windings are made of 3 phases. S.D.G. The stator has 48 slots. Jr. L.. It is a 8pole permanent magnet motor with embedded magnets. S. W. S.Topic – Motor Application Note Study of an electrical machine The Electro Mechanical software package provided by Ansoft enables extensive electrical malchinesimulation. L. R. Marlino. C. Hsu. This motor is public. Ayers. and Mechanical Losses. No-Load Back EMF. Torque Property. J. L. Coomer. Oland Oak Ridge National Laboratory Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . H. Ayers. Hsu. W. Hsu. W. Note: This application has not been done with the collaboration of Toyota References: Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Torque Capability. Ph. We will cover static and transient simulations. This application note will use the 2004 Toyota Prius motor as basis. Wiles Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Design and manufacturing Assessment J. Coomer Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report C. W. W. Miller. we therefore have the full set of parameters. C. Ayers. This application note details the simulaton of an electrical machine with Maxwel2D. J. C.

Topic – Motor Application Note Overview of the Study: GETTING STARTED Creating the 3D Model Reducing the size of the 3D Model Material properties of the machine Applying Master/Slave Boundary Condition STATIC ANALYSIS DYNAMIC ANALYSIS COGGING TORQUE Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

Setting Tool Options To set the tool options: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example. 4. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Maxwell 2D Options 2. 3D Modeler Options Window: 1. Click the General Options tab Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: Checked Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked 2. Maxwell Options Window: 1. select Programs>Ansoft>Maxwell 12.Topic – Motor Application Note Getting Started Launching Maxwell 1. Click the OK button 3. verify that the following tool options are set : 1. click the Microsoft Start button. Click the Operation tab Automatically cover closed polylines: Checked 2. To access Maxwell. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler Options. Click the OK button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Click the Drawing tab Edit property of new primitives: Checked 3.

or select the menu item File > New. Select the menu item Project > Insert Maxwell Design. Select Units: mm (millimeters) Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . click the icon on the Standard toolbar.Topic – Motor Application Note Opening a New Project To open a new project: 1. Change the project name to Prius 3. Right mouse click on Maxwelldesign1 and select Rename. then select the menu item Rename. Change the name to 1_Whole_Motor Set Model Units Select the menu item 3D Modeler > Units. In an Maxwell window. 2. or click on the icon 4. Right mouse click on the project name.

These primitives can describe all the main parts of motors.Topic – Motor Application Note Creating the 2D Model Maxwell has number of User Defined Primitives for motor parts. Create the Stator: A User Defined Primitive will be used to create the stator Select the menu item Draw > User Defined Primitive > Syslib > Rmxprt > SlotCore Use the values given in the panel below to create the stator Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

Topic – Motor Application Note Creating the 2D Model (Continued) Click on the just created object in the drawing window and in the panel on the left change its name from SlotCore1 to Stator Note: the material will be applied afterwards Create the Rotor A User Defined Primitive will be used to create the rotor Select the menu item Draw > User Defined Primitive > Syslib > Rmxprt > IPMCore Use the values given in the panel next page to create the rotor Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

Topic – Motor Application Note Creating the 2D Model (Continued) Click on the just created object in the drawing window and in the panel on the left change its name from IPMCore1 to Rotor Create the Magnets The same User Defined Primitive can be used to create the magnets. Select the object Rotor. but with different parameters. An object Rotor1 is created Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Ctrl+V commands. Copy and paste the object using the Ctrl+C. UDPs can be computed to generate different topologies.

Topic – Motor Application Note Creating the 2D Model (Continued) On the modeler tree. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . double click on the command ‘CreateUserDefinedPart’ of the object Rotor1 Change the InfoCore line from 0 (Core) to 1 (Magnets) Change the name of the object from Rotor1 to Magnets Change the magnets color from default to a light red.

Topic – Motor Application Note Creating the 2D Model (Continued) Create the Windings An User Defined Primitive will also be used to create the windings. change its color to yellow Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Select the menu item Draw > User Defined Primitive > Syslib > Rmxprt > LapCoil Use the values given in the panel below to create the coil Change the Material from vacuum to Copper Select the object LapCoil1.

Topic – Motor Application Note

Creating the 2D Model (Continued)
Select the object LapCoil1, and to apply a rotation of 7.5 deg along the Z axis, right mouse click, and select the menu item Edit > Arrange > Rotate or use the icon.

Select the object LapCoil1. This coil constitutes the first coil of Phase A. We now duplicate this coil to create the first coils of Phase C and B. Right Mouse click, and select the menu item Edit > Duplicate > Around Axis or use the icon.

Change the Name of objects LapCoil1_1 and LapCoil1_2 to PhaseC and PhaseB. Change the color of PhaseC to dark green and the color of PhaseB to light blue. Rename Lapcoil1 to PhaseA.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator

Topic – Motor Application Note

Creating the 2D Model (Continued)

Select the objects PhaseA, PhaseB and PhaseC. Right Mouse click, and select icon. Enter 45 the menu item Edit > Duplicate > Around Axis or use the degrees and 8 for the total number. This will create all the required coils.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator

Topic – Motor Application Note

Creating the 2D Model (Continued)
The geometry of the motor is completed.

Depending on the solver and the motor performance data that we want to look at, we might have to add more objects (for meshing or movement setting). Save the project. Click on the Maxwell design ‘1_Whole_motor’, right mouse click and select ‘Copy’.

Click on the project name, right mouse click and select ‘Paste’. Change the copied design to 2_Partial_motor. We can take advantage of the topology of the motor to reduce the size of the problem. This motor has 8 pair of poles. We can only use one height of the motor. This is valid because the stator has: 48 slots (8 is a divider of 48). The 3-phase winding has also a periodicity of 45 degrees. From now on, the Maxwelldesign ‘2_Partial_motor’ will be used. We have saved a copy of the whole geometry as it will be used later for other studies.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator

Topic – Motor Application Note

Reducing the size of the 2D Model (Continued)
Select all the objects from the modeler tree (or you can use the ctrl-A command). Right mouse click and select Edit > Boolean > Split or use the toolbar icon . Select the XZ plane and keep the positive side.

Note: During the process, a lot of messages will appear in the dialog box. These messages inform that some objects no longer exist as they entirely lie outside the remaining model. We obtain half of the motor. Maintain the objects selected, right mouse click and . Enter -45 deg for select Edit > Arrange > Rotate or select the toolbar icon the rotation around the Z axis.

Maintain the objects selected, Right mouse click and select Edit > Boolean > Split or use the toolbar icon . Select the XZ plane and keep the negative side. Maintain the objects selected, right mouse click and select Edit > Arrange > . Enter 45 deg for the rotation around the Z Rotate or select the toolbar icon axis

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator

Topic – Motor Application Note

Reducing the size of the 2D Model (Continued)
The 3D model now looks like below

Rename PhaseA to PhaseA1 and PhaseA_7 to PhaseA2. Rename PhaseB, PhaseB_7, PhaseC and PhaseC_7 to PhaseB1, PhaseB2, PhaseC1 and

PhaseC2.

We can now create the Region around the motor. Most of the flux is concentrated within the motor, so we do not need to have a large Region.

Select Draw > Line 1. Using the coordinate entry field, enter the box position X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key 2. Using the coordinate entry field, enter the relative size of the box dX: 200.0, dY: 0.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key 3. Click Enter a second time to finish the drawing

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator

Also. Enter the parameters as specified in the panel below: Rename the Region from Polyline1 to Region. Make sure that Vacuum is the selected material.Topic – Motor Application Note Reducing the size of the 2D Model (Continued) Select Polyline1. you might want to modify the render of the Region by increasing the transparency. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Right mouse click and select Edit > Sweep > Around Axis.

the Face CS also moves along with the object. The Prius’s PMs are oriented as shown below.Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor Permanent Magnets characterization. When the object moves. we will create a face CS for each magnet. the orientation cannot be given through fixed coordinate systems (CS). we need to create separate objects for each magnet. Switch the select mode from Object to Face by clicking on the ‘f’ button or by using the toolbar icon: Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Select the object Magnets. The use of face CS is required. Since the magnets will rotate. The Prius Permanent Magnets (PMs) are high-strength magnets. In order to define PMs magnetization orientation. Right mouse click. Face CS are CS that are attached to the face of an object. Therefore. select Edit > Boolean > Separate Bodies. Rename the objects from Magnets to PM1 and from Magnets_Separate1 to PM2.

Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) Select the face of the magnet PM1 as shown below To create the face CS attached to this face: 1. You need to enter the direction of the X axis. using the “snap to vertex symbol”” . Select the menu item 3D Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Face CS or select the toolbar icon 2. Snap the mouse pointer to one of the corner of the face. It expects the center of the face CS that has to be on the selected plane to be selected. This defines the CS center. The modeler is in draw mode. Snap the mouse point at another vertex of the face as shown below Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 3.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) The face CS is created. Make sure to have the X axis looking toward the air gap Reset the working CS to the Global CS by clicking on Global as shown below. Repeat the same operation to create the face CS PM2_CS attached to PM2. Change its name from FaceCS1 to PM1_CS. Its default name is FaceCS1.

so click on the Add material button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . The Prius magnet is not part of the default library. click on the Material button (the default material is Vacuum). To enter into the material database. Modify the Orientation of the object by selecting the PM1_CS coordinate system.Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) Edit the attributes of the object PM1. This CS will be the reference for the magnetization direction.

select the “Permanent Magnet” entry.Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) We have a special menu to enter Permanent Magnet parameters. Enter the values given below to define the magnet strength Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . At the bottom of the View/Edit material window.

you can use the same material for N36Z_20 for PM2. If it is not the case. If the definition of PM2_CS is consistent with PM1_CS ( X axis in the direction of the air gap). you would need to enter -1 for the X component. Edit the attributes of the object PM2. Click on the Validate button before closing the window to check the material definition. If the X axis was in the opposite direction. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) Change the material name to N36Z_20. leave the X orientation to 1 and 0 for the Y and Z components. If the coordinate system PM1_CS is such that the X axis goes in the opposite direction of the air gap accordingly to the image below. you can clone the material N36Z_20 and change the orientation to be consistent with the PM2_CS axis. Modify the Orientation of the object by selecting the PM2_CS coordinate system. This CS will be the reference for the magnetization direction.

add a new material called M19_29G.Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) Steel definition The stator and rotor shares the same material. The steel is non linear. change the Relative Permeability from “Simple” to “Nonlinear” Click on the BH curve button in the Value column. To enter the non-linear B-H Characteristic. change the affected material. The BH curve entry window appears Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . In the material database. Select the objects Stator and Rotor. Edit their attributes.

54 0.33 1.1 7957.2 1.563994494 3.3 2.57 159.63 1.66 79.67 1.58 1.28 25.2 1527756 B 0 0.52 1.77 1591.46 636.05 0.5 3183 4774.44 1.83 47.8 1.5 2.61 795.15 0.36 0.36 1.46 31.15 318.28 1.779889874 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .74 63.3 477.1 2.1 0.65 0.7 15915 31830 111407 190984 350138 509252 560177.6 6366.99 1.9 2 2.Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) Enter the B-H characteristics with the values given below H 0 22.

therefore we leave the conductivity to 0.Topic – Motor Application Note Material properties of the motor (Continued) We neglect the Eddy current in this example. Validate the material before exiting the View/Edit material window Make sure that M19_29G is affected to the Rotor and Stator. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

stranded loss and eddy current loss (or proximity loss). We need to enter the loss values of the steel. A dedicated menu enables the user to enter the data. In the Transient solver. and double click the Material definition of the Steel M19_29G Use the pull down menu to enable core loss for Electrical Steel material Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . we are able to compute coreloss (or hystereris loss). Extend the project tree.Topic – Motor Application Note Coreloss This section is only necessary if you wish to compute the coreloss of the motor. We will only consider coreloss in this document.

Click on Edit Dataset in the Frequency Window Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . A special menu allows the coefficients to be derived from manufacturer core loss data Select at the bottom of the material definition window from the pull down menu Core Loss versus Frequency The Core Loss versus Frequency menu pops up. We provide the data for several frequencies: 1. Kc. Click on Add 5. Select W/kg for the Core Loss Unit 3 2.Topic – Motor Application Note Coreloss (Continued) The Maxwell solver requires the coefficients Kh. Enter 7872 kg/m for the Mass density of the Steel 3. Enter 50 Hz in the Edit window 4. Ke and Kdc.

6 1.34 0. 200.7 2.25 Accept the setting Using the same method enter the loss curves for 100.3 0.6 0.12 2.3 20.9 1 1.8 0.73 2.4 14.51 8.3 0.8 0.2 1.3 7.5 0.31 1.08 1.5 0.1 2.7 0.5 0. 1000 Hz 100Hz B 0 0.7 1.9 26.1 0.6 0.4 73 90.7 0.2 1.1 P 0 0.2 0.67 7.91 2.4 0.8 3.4 0.92 200Hz B 0 0.9 29.37 0.2 0.3 1.5 35.7 0.05 3.9 1 1.23 6.5 1.2 0.09 0.33 4.68 0.1 1.5 P 0 0.9 400Hz B 0 0.99 3.1 1.22 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.97 5.94 6.3 1.4 1.03 0.31 0.1 1.Topic – Motor Application Note Coreloss (Continued) Enter the loss curve at 50 Hz: 50 Hz B 0 0.07 0.4 46 58.43 0.5 12.2 0.8 1.3 0.1 0.8 R P 0 0.79 1.21 0.8 1000Hz B 0 0.4 1.4 0.63 12.4 1.3 1.42 1.9 1 1.88 10.01 1.9 1 1.2 1.5 0.4 0. 400.4 1.6 0.1 0.13 0.15 4.3 1.1 0.38 1.2 1.6 0.04 0.99 3.1 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .61 3.84 9 11.51 4.5 P 0 0.16 0.9 1 1.9 24.7 0.54 0.2 1.92 1.98 3.39 4.4 41.55 0.47 2.83 1.2 17.51 2.6 0.5 14.1 0.7 0.26 5.4 0.2 0.7 18.1 1.4 35.8 0.3 0.5 P 0 0.

Topic – Motor Application Note Coreloss (Continued) The coreloss coefficient are automatically calculated Accept the setting. The material definition now includes the coreloss coefficients Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

The Hfield at every point on the slave surface matches the (plus or minus) H-field at every point on the master surface. Right mouse click. then select View> Show In Active View as shown below Change the Select mode to Edge Select one of the bounding line of the Region Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Applying Master/Slave Boundary Condition The Master and Slave boundary condition takes advantage of the periodicity of the motor. Two planes are to be defined: the master and slave planes. Select the object Region from the active view.

select Assign Boundary > Master The vector u is defined correctly.Topic – Motor Application Note Applying Master/Slave Boundary Condition (Con’d) Right mouse click. Accept the setting. Select the opposite edge of the Region Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

select Assign Boundary > Slave 1. 4. The model represents one pole out of height. For the Master Boundary. 2. Since we represent an odd number of poles. We first need to give the reference of the master condition. since we haven't changed the default name. Select Master1 Select Swap direction for the u vector definition if the vector u does not have the same direction than the u vector of the Master condition. 3.Applying Master/Slave Boundary Condition (Cont’d) Topic – Motor Application Note Right mouse click. the condition at the slave surface is Slave = -Master Accept the set up Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

select the five segments of the outside limit of the Region.Topic – Motor Application Note Applying Zero Vector Potential Boundary Condition At the limit of the Region. Select Assign Boundary > Vector Potential 1. Use the Ctrl button to allow multi selections Right Mouse Click. Put 0 Weber/m for the value Name the condition Zero_Flux Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 2.

No Load Study The first analysis that will be performed consists in computing the fields due to the permanent magnets. Click on the project name. Select the 6 coils. Uncheck the radio button “Model” from the property window. and Hide the coils by selecting the menu item View > Hide Selection > Active view or using the toolbar button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Note that the Name of object line is empty since we have selected several objects. The Coils are not needed in the model since no current is defined. Leave the Coils selected.Topic – Motor Application Note STATIC ANALYSIS We will study the different static parameters of the motor. Click on the Maxwell design ‘2_Partial_motor’. Then. right mouse click and select Paste. Change the copied design to ‘3_Partial_motor_MS’. right mouse click and select ‘Copy’. Save the project.

so it is not necessary to enter dedicated mesh operations. However. Select the Rotor. Right Mouse Click and Select Assign Mesh Operation > Inside Selection > Length Based Restrict the length of elements to 5 mm. Rename the mesh operation SA_Stator Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . The non linear resolution will be faster with a small aspect ratios for the elements in the steel. it is always a good idea to start with a decent initial mesh in order to reduce time computation since we know where the mesh needs to be refined for a motor.Topic – Motor Application Note se Apply Mesh Operations The adaptive meshing is very effective. We want to minimize the number of elements for the curved line of the slots. Input 30deg for the Maximum surface deviation Select 5 for the Maximum aspect Ratio. Right Mouse Click and Select Assign Mesh Operation > Surface Approximation. Rename the mesh operation Rotor Select the Stator.

Rename the mesh operation Magnets Apply Torque computation Select the objects PM1. Right Mouse Click and Select Assign Mesh Operation > Inside Selection > Length Based Restrict the length of elements to 3 mm.Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Mesh Operations (Continued) Select PM1 and PM2. PM2 and Rotor. Right mouse click and select Assign Parameters > Torque Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

Enter 10 for the maximum number of passes Enter 0. enter 15% for the refinement Make sure that the Non Residual is set to 0. right mouse click on Analysis and select Add Solution Setup: 1. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 2. 4. Click Ok to record the analysis setup Analyse Right mouse click on the setup et select Analyze or click on the icon. 3.1% for the error In the convergence panel.Topic – Motor Application Note Add an Analysis Setup From the project manager.0001%.

Topic – Motor Application Note Post processing The computation takes 7 passes to converge.5mN. the torque is given for a one meter depth motor. Different angles between the rotor and the stator would give different values. This gives 2. Select the Solutions tab. selecting the menu item Convergence Torque value. which sounds reasonable: the value is very small in regards to the full load operation. The Convergence panel can be seen by right mouse clicking on Setup1.082 (to account for the motor length). Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . The torque for the full motor needs to be multiplied by 8 (symmetry factor). then by 0.m.

This saturations appears just because of the magnets strengths. Enter the center of the arc: 0. Select the menu item Draw > Arc > Center Point or use the corresponding toolbar icon 2. Select the Rotor. The steel is highly saturated close to the magnets as expected. Right mouse click again and select Fields > B > Mag_B. PM1. Plot the magnetic flux strength H in the air gap. We obtain the distribution of B on the objects. Accept to continue to draw a non model object. Draw an arc. select All Object Faces. PM2 right mouse click. We need to draw a postprocessing line to view the field: 1.0 mm and hit enter Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Stator.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) Plot magnetic flux density.0. This will not invalidate the existing solution 3.

56. right mouse click. 0 . Enter 56.70996.575/ √2= 56. Enter the last point of the arc. 0 mm and hit enter. This point lies on the plane XY. This point is at the middle of the air gap on the YZ plane. 0 mm and hit enter. 80.575.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) 4. 6. and select the menu entry done 7. To finish the arc. Enter the first point of the arc. 5. Name the polyline airgap_arc and accept the object Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .70996. move the mouse on the drawing area. with a 45° angle with the X.70996(…). Enter 80.axis.

right mouse click. 10.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) 8. A new folder ‘Lines’ has appeared on the object tree. then select the menu item Fields > H > H_vector. move the mouse on the drawing area. Select the line airgap_arc. containing the new defined arc. 9. Accept the Field plot setting Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

double click on the scale zone: 12.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) 11. The vector plot of H appears with the default setting. You can modify the default settings in the different tabs like below: Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . To customize the display.

In this design. Change the copied design to ‘4_Partial_motor_MS2’. right mouse click and select ‘Copy’. Select the 6 coils from the modeler tree. The number of turns and the electrical topology are only taken into account for the inductances calculation. In the property window. Click on the Maxwell design ‘3_Partial_motor_MS’. the sources are given in terms of currents. Unhide the coils by selecting the menu item View> Show selections> All views Apply Excitations The coils are partially represented in the model. For instance. Click on the project name. right mouse click and select Paste. The excitation is realized through a balanced three phase system. therefore we only enter the total current in each phase. We need to enter the current that flows in and out inside each coil. in our example. In the Magnetosatic solver. We do not need to model each turn at this stage. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . we apply: 1500 A to PhaseA -750 A to PhaseB -750 A to PhaseC. select the radio button Model. we apply current in the coils: we need to include the coils in the model.Topic – Motor Application Note Full Load Study Save the project.

select the menu item Apply Excitation > Current Rename the Excitation PhaseA2 Enter 1500A As the default current direction plotted in red is good.Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Excitations (Cont’d) Switch the selection mode to face Enter Excitation for Coil PhaseA2: 1. 5. 3. leave Positive Validate the Excitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 6. Right mouse click. 4. Select the PhaseA2 2.

Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Excitations (Cont’d) Switch the selection mode to face Enter Excitation for Coil PhaseA1 1. Select the PhaseA1 2. 3. Right mouse click. 4. select the menu item Apply Excitation > Current Rename the Excitation PhaseA1 Enter 1500A As the default current direction plotted in red is good. 6. leave Positive Validate the Excitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 5.

Right mouse click. Select the PhaseC2 2.Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Excitations (Cont’d) Switch the selection mode to face Enter Excitation for Coil PhaseC2 1. 5. 4. choose Negative Validate the Excitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . select the menu item Apply Excitation > Current Rename the Excitation PhaseC2 Enter -750A As the default current direction plotted in red is not good. 6. 3.

6. Right mouse click. Select the PhaseC1 2. 5.Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Excitations (Cont’d) Switch the selection mode to face Enter Excitation for Coil PhaseC1 1. select the menu item Apply Excitation > Current Rename the Excitation PhaseC1 Enter -750A As the default current direction plotted in red is not good. 3. choose Negative Validate the Excitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 4.

Right mouse click. select the menu item Apply Excitation > Current Rename the Excitation PhaseB2 Enter -750A As the default current direction plotted in red is good. 4. 3. Select the PhaseB2 2. 6. 5. leave Positive Validate the Excitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Excitations (Cont’d) Switch the selection mode to face Enter Excitation for Coil PhaseB2 1.

Select the PhaseB1 2. 4. 3.Topic – Motor Application Note Apply Excitations (Cont’d) Switch the selection mode to face Enter Excitation for Coil PhaseB1 1. leave Positive Validate the Excitation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Right mouse click. 6. 5. select the menu item Apply Excitation > Current Rename the Excitation PhaseB1 Enter -750A As the default current direction plotted in red is good.

Topic – Motor Application Note Inductance computation We are interested by the inductances computation. The source set up is independent from the winding arrangement: we have only entered the corresponding amp-turns for each terminal. When looking at the inductances. We also want to group all the coils of the same phase. Enter 9 for the six coils. This will enable us to have the inductance of the entire winding Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . The inductances are computed for 1 turn at this stage. We define in this panel the number of turns for each coil. right mouse click and select Assign > Matrix Include the 6 phases in the matrix computation. we obviously need to enter the number of turns for the coils and also how the coils are electrically organized. Select the Post Processing tab. Select Parameters in the project tree.

they hit the group button.Topic – Motor Application Note Inductance computation (Cont’d) Select the PhaseA1_in and PhaseA2_in entries. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Name The group PhaseA Repeat the operation for the 3 phases Analyse Right mouse click on the setup et select Analyze or click on the icon.

The Convergence panel can be seen by right mouse clicking on Setup1. selecting the menu item Convergence Inductance values. The inductance for each coils appears. Select the ‘Solutions’ tab.Topic – Motor Application Note Post processing The computation takes 6 passes to converge. It is assumed that each coil has only one turn. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

In this case. so we are far from the optimized excitation value to obtain a maximum torque. we have not synchronized the position of the rotor poles with the winding currents.m. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Different angles between the rotor and the stator would give different values. Select from the pull down menu Torque1.083 (length of the motor). Select the ‘Solutions’ tab.Topic – Motor Application Note Post processing (Cont’d) Select the radio button Post Processed. This gives around 47N. The torque for the full motor needs to be multiplied by 8 (symmetry factor). then multiplied by 0. The inductance for each winding is displayed Note: it is possible to export the inductance matrix to Simplorer using the Export Circuit button Torque value.

right mouse click and select the menu item Fields > H > H_vector Validate the setting Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Post processing (Cont’d) Plot the H field on the plane XY. Select the plane XY belonging to the global Coordinate System in the modeler tree Move the mouse pointer to the drawing area.

Double click on the scale zone On the ‘Color Map’ tab. Also. then Enter 1 and 1e6 for the limits. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Check the Log button to have a log scale. the H vectors are too small. uncheck the ‘Real time mode’ button and change the number of colors to 50 On the ‘Scale tab’ .Topic – Motor Application Note Post processing (Cont’d) With the default parameters. Check the Use Limits button.

make sure the right plot context is selected. The H field is stronger around phase A as the input current is higher. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . On the ‘Plots’ tab. then uncheck the Mapsize and Arrow tail buttons. reduce the size of the arrow.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) On the ‘Marker/Arrow’ tab. then modify the Vector plot min and max to 1 and 5 We obtain the following plot.

Topic – Motor Application Note DYNAMIC ANALYSIS We will study the transient characteristic of the motor. right mouse click and select Paste. right mouse click and select ‘Copy’. Save the project. Change the copied design to ‘5_Partial_motor_TR’. Select the design name from the project manager. Click on the project name. Right mouse click and change the solution type from Magnetostatic to Transient: Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Click on the Maxwell design ‘2_Partial_motor’.

Enter 9 for the number of conductors Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Leave the default name as it will be automatically affected using the object’s name 2. PhaseB2. The sources definition is different. we use stranded conductors (the exact number of conductors is required for each winding) as the current can be an arbitrary time function. In Magnetostatic. PhaseC1 and PhaseC2. Since the geometry changes at every time step. PhaseA2. In transient analysis. In Transient. Maxwell does not re-mesh at every time step adaptively for obvious time reason.Topic – Motor Application Note The transient solver acts differently from the Magnetostatic solver mainly because: There is not adaptive meshing. We need to create dedicated coils and windings. PhaseB1. Right mouse click and select the menu item Assign Excitation > Coil 1. Create Coils Select the 6 coils PhaseA1. we will build a good mesh valid for all the rotor positions. we were only interested in the total current flowing into conductor.

in the Project Manager Tree Right mouse click and select Properties Switch the polarity from Positive to Negative Repeat 1-3 with Coil PhaseC2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 3. Select PhaseC1. We need to change the orientation of the coils for PhaseC1 and PhaseC2: 1.Topic – Motor Application Note Create Coils (Cont’d) The six coils definitions are processed. 2. 4.

the A-phase has to be in the opposite axis to the d-axis.A+ Maxwell model parts 30° Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . The phase sequence is A+C-B+ At t=0. Therefore we have to move the initial position of the rotor by 30 deg such that the pole be aligned at the middle of A+A- Bd-axis BC+ C+ AAAB+ AC+ B+ C+ BCA+ CB. The excitation is a 3 phase balanced current. The excitation is such that the flux due to the permanent magnet is maximized in synchronization with the rotor movement.Topic – Motor Application Note Motor excitation The IPM motor is such that the rotor is in synchronism with the phase excitation.

Thet is load angle in radian therefore its value is Thet_deg * pi /180 Imax the peak winding current of the motor. its value is 3000 Omega. the number of pair of poles. its value is 250A. the speed of the motor in rpm. the pulsation of the excitation in degrees/s. its value is Omega * pi / 180 Thet _deg the load angle of the motor . Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . its value is Poles/2 Speed_rpm. enter 20 deg. for instance. we use 20 degrees in this study.Topic – Motor Application Note Create Parameters for excitations We need to define parameters that will be used to define the excitation Select the menu item Maxwell 2D> Design Properties The parameters window appears Click on the Add button to add the number of poles of the motor Enter Poles in the name area 8 in the value area Click on OK to accept the parameter Using the same method enter: PolePair. its value is 360*Speed_rpm*Polepair/60 Omega_rad the pulsation in rad/s.

The motor is excited with a balanced three phase connection. At each time step. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . the phases have a 120 degree shift. A winding needs to be defined for each parallel electrical excitation of the motor. The load angle is also added.Topic – Motor Application Note Create Parameters for excitations (Cont’d) The design properties panel will eventually look like: Create Windings The terminals are meant to define the excitation paths in and out of the model. The actual excitation is defined through the definition of windings. A sinusoidal excitation is applied.

4. 2. select the menu item Add Coils 6. 3.. Select Stranded because each terminal has 9 turns Enter winding current: Imax*sin(Omega_rad*Time+Thet). Click on OK Right mouse click on the winding PhaseA from the project tree. then select the menu item Add Winding 1. Select the 2 PhaseA coils (using the Ctrl button) and click on OK Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Enter PhaseA for the name. right mouse click on Excitations.Topic – Motor Application Note Create Windings (Cont’d) Winding PhaseA. 5. Time is the internal reserved variable for the current time. From the project tree.

right mouse click on Excitations.Topic – Motor Application Note Create Windings (Cont’d) Winding PhaseB. From the project tree. then select the menu item Add Winding.. Repeat the same operation using : Name the Winding PhaseB The winding current is Imax*sin(Omega_rad*Time-2*pi/3+Thet). From the project tree. It is shift by +120 degrees from PhaseA. then select the menu item Add Winding.. Select the 2 PhaseB t coils Winding PhaseC. It is shift by -120 degrees from PhaseA. right mouse click on Excitations. Repeat the same operation using : Name the Winding PhaseC The winding current is Imax*sin(Omega_rad*Time+2*pi/3+Thet). Select the 2 PhaseC coils The project tree should now have the terminals sorted under each Winding: Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

If you wish to have them considered. Rotor2 and Rotor3 Accept the Setting Note: you need to have the coreloss parameters defined in the material setup Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Rotor. expand the project tree window.Topic – Motor Application Note Add Coreloss computation The coreloss are not activated by default. right mouse click on Excitations> Set Core Loss Select the steel objects: Stator.

then Select Edit > Copy 2. Select the object Region. This will separated the moving part from the fixed part of the project. Some rules apply for the definition of the band object for motor applications: The band object must be somewhat larger than the rotating parts in all directions (except at the boundaries) The band object should be a facetted type cylinder of wedge It is very advisable to have an air object that encloses all the moving object inside the band object. Use the Ctrl+V key combinaison to paste the Region. This will facilitate the mesh handling around the air gap To create the Band object. 4. Change the name of the object from Region1 to Band Expand the history tree of the Object Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . the band. we will clone the region and adapt the parameters: 1. 3. Right Mouse click.Topic – Motor Application Note Add Band object The moving parts (rotor and permanent magnets) need to be enclosed in an air object.

0.0 mm instead of 200. The inner diameter of the stator 80.575. Leave the material to Vacuum. Double Click on the Sweep AroundAxis command. Enter 80.Topic – Motor Application Note Add Band object (Cont’d) 5. 7. Double click on the CreateLine command. The rotor radius is 80. Change the Number of Segments from 5 to 45 so that each segment of the line covers one degree 8.95mm.0. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .0 for Point2 6. We pick the middle for Band object .2mm.

right mouse click. then double click on the CreateLine command Edit the Point2: Enter 80. 0 mm This operation resizes the object to strictly cover the rotor and the permanent magnets Rename the Band1 object to Band_in Note: We will assign the motion after the mesh operations because we will have to add objects dedicated to the meshing in the moving part Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Add Band object (Cont’d) We now create an object that enclosed the moving objects inside the Band.4. 0. Select the Band object. the select the menu item Edit > Copy or use Ctrl-C. Expand its history tree. A new object Band1 has been added to the object list. Paste another copy of the Band object by right mouse clicking and selecting Edit > Paste or with the Ctrl-V.

we create a couple of objects inside the rotor. Using Mesh operations. we will define a decent mesh for the full transient simulation. Select the menu item Draw > Line or select the icon from the toolbar.0 mm for the position of Point2 and hit Enter twice 3. Highly saturated zones To achieve this requirement. Enter 80.0 . Enter 78.0 . then mesh operations will be applied to these objects in order to have a nice mesh around the ducts. It is required to have a good mesh density around this area.72. close to the air gap. 1.Topic – Motor Application Note Mesh Operations The transient solver does not use adaptive meshing because this would require to refine the mesh at every time steps. Name the line Rotor2 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .0 mm for the position of Point1 and hit Enter 2. leading to very high computation time.2. The Rotor is designed to be highly saturated around the permanent magnets.

As a consequence. therefore our mesh object Rotor2 has to have true surfaces. Note that The Rotor object has been created with an UDP which produces true surface. we enter 0 for the number of segments. Enter the parameters as below. Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . right mouse click and select the menu item Edit > Sweep > Around Axis.Topic – Motor Application Note Mesh Operations (Cont’d) The line looks like below: Select the Rotor2 object.

for the same reason. we do not need to apply Boolean operations. Sweep the rectangle around Z axis Change the material property to M19_29G Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . assign some color and transparency. Note: because of the finite number of pixels on the computer’s screen. Draw a line with dimensions: 2. Also. Also. the object Rotor2 seems to intersect with the ducts but this is not the case. 3.Topic – Motor Application Note Mesh Operations (Cont’d) Change the material property of Rotor2 to M19_29G. true surfaces are represented as facetted surfaces. You can modify the default visualization setting using: View > Visualization Setting Repeat the same operation to create the object Rotor3: 1. Note: since Rotor2 is entirely inside Rotor.

select Assign Mesh Operations > Inside Selection > Length Based. PhaseA2. PhaseC1 and PhaseC2. Validate Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . select Assign Mesh Operations > Inside Selection > Length Based. Name the operation PMs 2. Name the operation Coils 2. 1.PhaseB2. Validate Select the permanent magnets PM1 and PM2. Check the button Restrict Length of Elements 3. Check the button Restrict Length of Elements 3. Enter 3mm 4. 1. Enter 4mm 4.Topic – Motor Application Note Mesh Operations (Cont’d) Select the six coils PhaseA1. PhaseB1. Uncheck the button Restrict the Number of Elements 5. Right mouse click. Right mouse click. Uncheck the button Restrict the Number of Elements 5.

Right mouse click. 5.Topic – Motor Application Note Mesh Operations (Cont’d) Select the Rotor. 1. select Assign Mesh Operations > Inside Selection > Length Based. 3. Enter 4mm 4. Name the operation Staor 2. Validate Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Check the button Restrict Length of Elements 3. select Assign Mesh Operations > Inside Selection > Length Based. Name the operation Rotor 2. Check the button Restrict Length of Elements Enter 4mm Uncheck the button Restrict the Number of Elements Validate Select the Stator. Right mouse click. 4. Uncheck the button Restrict the Number of Elements 5. 1.

Topic – Motor Application Note Assign Movement Select the Band object. The initial position of this synchronous motor is such that the A phase is opposite to the daxis. d-axis 30° A- A+ Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . right mouse click and select the menu item Assign Band In the Type tab: check the Rotate motion button Make sure that the Global:Z axis is selected Select the Positive direction In the Data tab: Enter 30 deg for the initial position.

The force. Right mouse click on Model in the Project tree. Accept the setting Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . then select the menu item Set Symmetry Multiplier Since we model 1/8th of the motor (our model spans on 45°). Enter 83. Click OK to validate the setting of the Band object. torque will be rescaled to take into account the full model.82mm for the motor depth. All quantities will be automatically be rescaled to the correct size. Select the Model Depth tab. Enter 8.Topic – Motor Application Note Assign Movement (Cont’d) In the Mechanical tab: enter 3000 rpm for the speed.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . To achieve reasonable accuracy. set the Non linear residual to 1e-6. On the General tab enter the stop time and the time step. 2. On the Save Fields tab Select Linear Step For Start. put 15ms For Step Time. put 250us Click on Replace List 4. to have faster results. we use a time step of 250 us.5 degrees.Topic – Motor Application Note Add an Analysis Setup Right mouse click on Analysis in the Project tree and select Add Solution Setup: 1. put 10ms For Stop. In the Solver Tab. At 3000 rpm. it corresponds to 4. The total simulation time is set to 15ms 3. In this study. a revolution takes 20ms (3000 rpm means 50 revolutions per second or 1/50 s for one revolution) . we want to have a time step every 1 or 2 degrees.

mesh operations and so one. Check the project using the Validate button Maxwell checks the geometry. The model is validated but some Warning is displayed in the message box: Eddy effect are not taken into account in our design which is what we decided Select the Analysis Setup1 in the project tree. right mouse click and select Analyse Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . excitation definitions.Topic – Motor Application Note Solve the problem The setup is completed.

The mesh statistics are available in the corresponding tab Performance curves can be displayed during the simulation. you can update the plots: right mouse click on the Torque Quick Report entry and select Update Report Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . right mouse click. Torque versus Time. Select the menu item Results in the project tree. select the Analysis Setup. As the simulation continues. right mouse click and select Mesh Statistics. then select the menu item Create Quick Report Choose Torque The Torque up to the current time is displayed.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing The full simulation takes some minutes. The mesh size appears in the profile of simulation. To display the profile.

Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . We can see that there are a lot of ripples in the Torque. some manufacturers modify slightly the rotor shape around the magnets or add a second layer of internal magnets. This is due to the unique structure of the IPM motor (Internal Permanent Magnets).Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) At the end of the simulation the Torque looks like below Ansoft Corporation 300. The torque value is around 240 N.m Flux linkage versus Time. This value is compatible with measurement. The ratio between the torque and the torque ripples is almost 10 percent. Also the control strategy plays a big role into preventing the ripples. The peak torque for this motor is about 400 N.00 0.00 20.00 Curve Info Moving1. right mouse click. Select the menu item Results in the project tree.LoadTorque Setup1 : Transient Moving1.00 The LoadTorque (in red) is zero as we are in motor mode.00 Torque Quick Report1 5_Partial_Motor_TR 250.00 0.Torque Setup1 : Transient 100.00 50. then select the menu item Create TransientReport > Rectangular Plot.00 200.m.00 Y1 [NewtonMeter] 150. To limit the ripple.00 Time [ms] 15.00 5.00 10.

00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Select Winding in the Category Column 2. Select FluxLinkage(PhaseA). Select Close Ansoft Corporation 0.40 0.00 -0.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) To include the flux linkage for each coil: 1.00 5. FluxLinkage(PhaseB).20 -0.40 XY Plot 2 5_Partial_Motor_TR Curve Info FluxLinkage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient FluxLinkage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient FluxLinkage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 0.00 Time [ms] 10. FluxLinkage(PhaseC) in the Quantity column 3.00 15.20 0. Select New Report 4.10 Y1 [Wb] 0.30 0.10 -0.30 -0.

The reason is that the time step is too high.00 -400.00 Time [ms] 10.00 -100. the Induced Voltage will have a more realistic shape: Ansoft Corporation 500. the time steps is way to high to have accurate Induced Voltage.00 300.00 -500.00 -100.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .00 -200.00 -300. As the induced voltage is a derived quantity.00 -300.00 5.00 100.00 200. right mouse click.00 XY Plot 1 5_Partial_Motor_TR_small Curve Info InducedVoltage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 0.00 300.00 Y1 [V] 0.00 200. then select the menu item Create TransientReport > Rectangular Plot. Maxwell needs to derive the total flux .00 -200.00 400.00 400.00 15.00 Time [ms] 10. If you re run the simulation with a time steps of 50us (instead of 250 us). Select the menu item Results in the project tree.00 5.00 15.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) Induce Voltage versus Time.00 100.00 -400.00 -500.00 Y1 [V] 0.00 XY Plot 1 5_Partial_Motor_TR Curve Info InducedVoltage(PhaseA) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseB) Setup1 : Transient InducedVoltage(PhaseC) Setup1 : Transient 0.00 The curves are not really smooth. Use the same method to plot the Induced Voltage Ansoft Corporation 500.

Select the menu item View > Set Solution Context or double click on the “Time=-1” icon in the modeler window 2. right mouse click and use the Plot Mesh button Plot magnetic flux density. Select all the object. Select the time 0. 1.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) Plot the Mesh.01s from the pull down menu Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

01s is displayed. Stator2.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) 3. 6.2 for max Close the Window Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . 8. Change the scale by double clicking on the Scale aera 7. Go to the Scale Tab and enter 0 for min and 2. Right mouse click and select Fields > B > Mag B Accept the Setting The B field at 0. 5. Select the Stator. 4. Stator3. PM1 and PM2 objects.

Select Maxwell2D > Fields > Animate. You can export the animation using the Export button from the animation button Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Make sure that the sweep variable is Time Select the time values Accept the setting The animation is displayed once the frames are calculated.Topic – Motor Application Note Post Processing (Cont’d) Plot magnetic flux density (Animation). It is possible to animate the fields.

This is the chosen method Click on Optimetrics in the Project tree. We will not discuss this method in this write-up. This method requires the combination of parametric sweeps in magneto-static and the circuit simulator Simplorer. Right mouse click and select the menu item Add > Parametric The parametric setup panel appears Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . We can propose two approaches: Realize an Equivalent Circuit Extraction of the motor. A parametric sweep of the load angle will therefore take a long time. If the load angle is modified. the use of the Distributive Solve is necessary. Realize a parametric transient simulation. To cut the simulation time.Topic – Motor Application Note Parametric Study The setup that has been solved was with a load angle of 20 deg. the simulation has to be restarted.

the parametric rows are displayed Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Enter 60 deg for the last value 3. Push the Add button Select the ‘Table’ tab.Topic – Motor Application Note Parametric Study (Cont’d) Select the Add button to include a design variable in the sweep Select Thet_deg from the pull-down menu: 1. Enter 15 deg for the step 4. Enter 0 deg for the first value 2.

Under the Category column. This panel enables the user to change a design variable. select the Range Function button. select the Override button. select Torque 3.Topic – Motor Application Note Parametric Study (Cont’d) Select the General’ Tab. select Moving1.Torque 4. For instance. and change the current value. 5. Under the Quantity column. Click on Add Calculation 10. Select avg in the Function pull down menu 8. Click on Done Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Click on ok 9. Setect the Math Category 7. Select the Setup Calculations button 2. Select the Specified radio button 6. if you wish to run the parametric sweep with a peak winding current of 400 A. Select the Calculations Tab 1.

right mouse click and select the menu item Analyse Results. Right mouse click on Parametricsetup1.Topic – Motor Application Note Parametric Study (Cont’d) The sweep setup panel contains the desired quantity In the Options tab. you can choose to save fields and meshs for all the variations Accept the setup Run the parametric sweep. select the Parametricsetup1. To run the sweep. and select View Analysis Result All the plots are now available for any variation Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

To compute accurately the cogging Torque. Change the copied design to ‘6_Partial_motor_CT Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . Click on the project name. Its computation is very sensitive to the mesh. Click on the Maxwell design ‘5_Partial_motor_TR’ . right mouse click and select Paste. right mouse click and select ‘Copy’.Topic – Motor Application Note COGGING TORQUE The Cogging Torque corresponds to the torque due to the shape of the teeth and the permanent magnets. when all the coils excitations are 0. This method will not lead to excellent results as the error due to the mesh will be different for each position (the mesh will change for every row). The torque is a very small value in regard to the full load torque. as its value is in the same order of magnitude of the mesh noise. one could solve a parametric sweep in Magnetostatic (the input parameter being the angle between rotor and stator). The preferred method is the use of the transient solver with motion: We will move the rotor at the speed of 1 deg/s The mesh will remain unchanged for all the positions thanks to the Band object : the mesh inside the Band object will rotate with the rotor Each time step will be independent of the other The adaptive mesh will not be used therefore the simulation time will be shorter Save the project.

Since the mesh has to be well defined in the air gap. We will change the speed. 3.75 . we will add an object so that we have enough layers of element: 1. Rename the object Band_in1 into Band_out.0 mm This create a third layer in the air gap Stator Band_out Band Band_in Rotor2 Rotor3 Rotor Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .0 . Copy and Paste the Object Band_in 2.Topic – Motor Application Note Creation of an air Object We derive the set up for the cogging torque calculation from the Full load setup. Expand the history tree of Band_out and change the CreateLine command: Replace 80.0 by 80.0 .4 . the excitations and some meshing operations.

Band_out Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Increase the segmentation of air objects For the dynamic analysis. the ojects Band. Expand the history tree of the objects Band. Change the number of segments from 45 to 135 Repeat 1-2 for the objects Band_in. Band_in and Band_out: 1. we reduce the span of each segment. In order to reduce mesh error. 3. Double click on the SweepAroundAxis command of the Band object 2. Band_in had one segment every degre.

right mouse click. and delete the MotionSetup1 Select the Object Band. and select Assign Band Enter the following parameters for the Motion Setup In the Type Tab.Topic – Motor Application Note Meshing Operations We need to reassign the Band. Expand the project tree of the current design. for Motion Type: Rotation around Z axis Leave the Data tab unchanged In the Mechanical tab. enter 1 deg_per_sec Accept the Setting Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .

Rotor3 and Stator. Stator: Change the maximum length from 4mm to 3mm Select the objects Rotor. Right mouse click and select Assign Mesh Operation > Surface Approximation Name the meshing operation SA_Rotor_Stator Set the minimum normal deviation to 1 deg Ignore the other settings Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .Topic – Motor Application Note Meshing Operations We also need to change the meshing operations. and under Mesh operations. The mesh density that was good enough to compute the full load torque won’t be accurate enough for the cogging torque Expand the project tree. Rotor2. edit the Meshing operations Rotor.

Lower the non linear residual to 1e-4. We will solve over 15 s in order to have two periods (remember: the speed is 1 deg/s) We set the time step to 0.125 s to have a very smooth curve.Topic – Motor Application Note Create the Analysis Setup We can delete the coils as they are not needed in the cogging torque simulation Select the 6 coils and delete them Expand the analysis setup already defined and edit it: One pole pair takes 7.5 mech degrees. Accept the Setting Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator . An higher time step is still valid if you want a faster result.

right mouse click on Setup1.50 1. As expected. It takes a couple of minutes to solve From the project tree. and select Create Transient Report > Rectangular plot. The Trace window pops up From the Category column select Torque From the Quantity column.00 1.00 5. select Moving1.00 -0.00 0.00 Cogging Torque 6_Partial_Motor_CT Curve Info Moving1.00 15.Torque [NewtonMeter] 0.Torque Select New Report Select Close The Torque trace appears.50 -1.75 N.Topic – Motor Application Note Analyse From the project tree.00 -1.m. right mouse click on Results.Torque Setup1 : Transient Moving1. and select Analyse. The peak value is about 1.50 -2. the cogging torque is periodical.00 Time [s] 10. Ansoft Corporation 2.00 Ansoft Maxwell Field Simulator .50 0.

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