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Cartilla Didactica de Negocios y Contabilidad

Cartilla Didactica de Negocios y Contabilidad

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MINDS ARE LIKE PARACHUTES - THEY ONLY FUNCTION WHEN ARE OPEN. SO, OPEN YOURS.

THOMAS DEWAR

LIBRO GUIA DE NEGOCIO Y CONTABILIDAD “CARTILLA DIDACTICA”

REALIZADO POR LUIE FERNANDO SUAREZ

DOCENTE

LUIS FERNANDO SUAREZ

INSTITUCION EDUCATIVA AMERICA SEDE PEDRO JUSTO BERRIO

PUERTO BERRIO 10 DE ABRIL DEL 2011

INTRODUCTION

This primer is performed as a useful resource to strengthen some necessary fundamentals in terms of the technical vocabulary of the commercial, accounting and business needs a person who studies and works in this area.

READINGS
1. WHO INVENTED THE WORD “PERFECT”, ANYWAY?

Ok, you‟re looking in the “Segunda Mano” for a new job...we all know that feeling of anticipation – what‟s going to be in there for me? – as your eyes skate down the page looking for that one job that suits you, or at least seems interesting enough to spend a stamp on. If nothing looks good under your preferred job heading, you may entertain the idea of looking in other fields – but as you search through, you start to realize that the offers in your field, the strangest offers, the ones you don‟t understand, and those you‟d never admit to even reading, have one thing in common.... “Imprescindible hablar inglés”. And you ever-so-nonchalantly flip over to the “formación” section of the want ads – “Academias de Inglés” From my experience in preparing students for interviews in English, I have basically found that there are two types of interviews. This of course is not the be all and end all of job interviews, but here are some tips for both types I‟ve seen – and some common questions... Interview 1 – The "Guy just want to see if you speak English (even if we can’t)" interview. This tends to be common in jobs such as sales, administration, secretarial jobs, IT, some legal positions, travel and tourism, business, marketing, advertising, well, you name it! And is usually a combination interview – part in Spanish and part in English. Depending on the amount of English that you would actually have to speak if you were to land this job, the interview may be more or less rigorous. I have seen everything from students being interviewed by someone who hardly speaks English at all, to being interviewed by a native. However, this type of interview tends to be less job specific (they usually ask the labor-related questions in the Spanish part of the interview) – and more geared towards how well you “speak English”. From what I

have been told and have seen, the English part of this interview tends to last around 15 minutes, and sometimes even less. This interview can be more difficult in the sense that the interviewer‟s only job is to pay attention to how you speak English, or rather, how well you speak English. So, you may feel more under pressure as far as vocabulary and structure. However, it is easier in the sense that the questions asked are usually quite basic and colloquial, and are only intended to get you to speak in different tenses and in a variety of contexts. Some of the common questions in these types of interviews (among others) are: 1. Tell me about yourself. (this is such a fun question to answer!) 2. Where are you from? 3. What is there to see in your town? 4. What do you do in your free time? (answering “I study English in my free time” is a “PELOTA” answer! Don’t insult your interviewer) 5. How did you learn English? 6. How long have you studied English? 7. Have you traveled to any English-speaking countries, spent time abroad? 8. How did you like (country)? 9. How long were you in (country)? 10. Tell me about your experience in (country). (this type of question , “tell me about...”, usually comes up when you are being a “listo” and only giving short answers to avoid speaking and they want to hear you talk more.) 11. What was (country) like? (this is, among other things, to see if you really went to this place, so if you haven’t, and you’re telling “porky pies” (lies) you better get “googling” your chosen place before the interview!!) 12. Did you like the people? (Please, if your interviewer is from the same country you studied in, and you hated the people and/or the food, maybe this isn’t the time to show how honest you are.) 13. What are you doing now to keep up your English skills? (Needless to say, picking up “Guiris” at bars is not a good answer.) 14. How have you had to use English at work in the past? 15. What did you do in your last job? 16. What are your strengths and weaknesses? (even more fun than question #1! Trust me, we all “work too hard” – be creative with your weakness!) Interview 2 – The –"¡Cágate lorito! ¿Por qué no fui a Oxford a estudiar - por mi cara bonita - cuando mis papis me lo ofrecían?" - interview. Yes, the interview of all interviews!!! The, “I‟m going to work for a foreign company” interview. Undoubtedly this can be a more difficult interview to handle. First of all, your interviewer will most likely have impeccable English skills. You need to be comfortable with your English speaking skills – confident. The good thing about these interviews is that the minor mistakes (unless it‟s for a UN translator or something of that sort) usually don‟t count so much against you. I‟m not saying you can get away with murder, however the interviewers aren‟t usually as hung up on grammar as your COU English teacher was. Usually the interviewer is interested in your skills in your field, if you can speak fluently and confidently, and if you understand what they are asking you. Listening comprehension plays a big role in these interviews (in all interviews). One of our worst enemies are our own nerves when we listen to someone speak in another language – we get so nervous about not understanding them, we actually end up getting confused, all on our own. Or, at the

first word we don‟t understand, we lose the next ten, stuck on that one darn word and/or freaking out. What‟s this, you say? AAAAGH! Phrasal Verb!!! Freaking out?

According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary (great resource, by the way): FREAK function: verb intransitive uses: 1: to withdraw from reality especially by taking drugs -- often used with out 2 : to experience nightmarish hallucinations as a result of taking drugs -- often used with out 3 a : to behave irrationally or unconventionally under the influence of drugs -- often used with out b : to react with extreme or irrational distress or discomposure -- often used with out Ok, we‟re talking about 3b here, the modern definition. The other 3 are what my parents were probably doing in the late 60‟s. (Just kidding Mom and Dad!) Anyway, and in summary – the important thing is to relax and to not get hung up on that one stupid word! If you find yourself in a situation where you find it really difficult to understand the interviewer, you have to make every effort to go with the flow and get the idea of what they are asking or saying. And move on! The same goes for when you are speaking and can‟t remember a certain expression. Get over it and work around it! By doing this, you are also showing your problem-solving skills in English, demonstrating that you can SURVIVE in these situations. Ok, enough chit chat– Here are some more common questions to prepare for this type, or any type of interview. You then have to add on other questions specific to your field and practice, practice, practice! 2. Tell me about yourself. / How would you describe yourself? (you’ll never escape this question!!!) 2. Why did you leave your last job? 3. What did you like most/least about your last job? 4. What do you see yourself doing five years from now? Ten years from now? 5. What are your long range and short range goals and objectives? 6. Why did you choose this career? 7. Why did you go into (profession)? (this is another way of asking question 6) 8. How well do you work with people? 9. Do you work better alone or in a team? 10. How would you describe your work ethic? 11. How well do you work under pressure? 12. Why should we hire you? /Why should we hire you over the other candidates? 13. What makes you qualified for this position? 14. What qualities do you think make up a good (job title)? 15. What's one of the hardest decisions you've ever had to make? 16. What two or three things are most important to you in your job? 17. What accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? Why? 18. Describe the most rewarding experience of your career thus far. 19. What do you think it takes to be successful in a company like ours? 20. In what ways do you think you can make a contribution to our company? 21. Why did you decide to seek a position in this company? 22. What can you tell us about our company? 23. What do you know about our competitors? 24. What two or three things are most important to you in your job?

In private companies. CEO .Chief Executive Officer – This person is the top executive responsible for a company's operations. How do you feel about traveling? 26. What are your strengths and weaknesses? (ha! ha! ha! you’ll never escape this one either!) 2. Chairman of the Board – This person is appointed to be the head of the Board of Directors. "Directors" are usually officers who form part of the Board of Directors. Would you be willing to live in another country? 27. This person is . They develop global strategies. A GENERIC CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY Board of Directors A board of directors is a group of people who either control or execute (or both) the general business affairs of a corporation. the Chairman of the Board may also be the CEO (as well as the President).25. Two Main Executive Officers The executive officers manage the whole company. This person reports to the board of directors.

the third most important (in fact. The existence and titles of these departments depend on the corporations themselves (i. Sometimes the titles vary in different countries depending on the laws governing corporations there. Regional Manager).e. the least important) is what you say. Director. "Vice-Presidents in Charge of Departments ("Vice-President" or another title. (i. etc. It is too easy to concentrate all your efforts on the content of your presentation neglecting the 'performance' aspect of it. PRESENTING IN ENGLISH A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 1 – Looks. VicePresident of Sales. their cultures and their particular needs. Projects. Marketing. the CEO appoints a president. IT (information technology). Executive Vice-President. Regional. workers with very similar titles can have very different job-descriptions. Purchasing.e. There are a variety of titles for the people who are in charge of the departments in companies: Vice-President. Executive Director. Country (i. etc. Human Resources. Human Resources Director. R&D. etc. The titles that companies give their employees depend on their company‟s origins. Legal. Also. Accounting. Manner and Voice Have you ever been asked to make a presentation in English? Being able to present professionally in English can give your career a boost and propel you up the corporate ladder.) Departments: There are usually a variety of departments in companies: Sales. There are also a variety of tagsthat accompany these titles: Executive (i. their needs and company culture). the hierarchical structures in different companies can be very different.e. Workers with very similar job-descriptions working in different companies may have completely different titles and salaries. etc. Executive Manager. Finance. the second most important is how you talk. President – “President” is a title in many corporations.). Production. Country Manager). . etc. The title of the departments themselves can serve as part of the employees‟ titles: Sales Director. Accounting Manager. Also.e. Other times.sometimes also the president of the company. Support. Surveys have shown that to capture and then to keep an audience's attention the most important thing is how you look and how you move your body (body language). which can create a need for very different departments 3. Manager. In some cases the president acts as the “Chief Operating Officer” under the direction of the Chief Executive Officer.

The majority of the presentation will be 'ad hoc' (or unscripted) in that you will be using your own words as you follow the pre-prepared plan. you should derive approximate timings for each part of the presentation as a help in estimating the duration of the talk and as a means of reviewing your progress as you speak. However. This will allow the audience to understand the structure of the presentation and to follow its logical flow. Your presentation will have an introduction. you should write a script for the first part of the introduction and the last part of the conclusion beforehand and learn both by heart. Just wait and see and all will become clear. talk slow and don't talk too much”. this part will also be applicable to any language but both will be invaluable for non-native English speakers preparing presentations in English. don't look at your Powerpoint presentation when you're speaking. the first thing you have to do is to be smart. Don't talk too quickly. The introduction will include a summary of the main part (what you are going to say) and the conclusion will also include a summary of the main part (what you said). Next thing. use your hands. OK. Chinese and even Spanish! So how will it give you any particular help when you present in English? Well. a main part and a conclusion. make eye contact with members of the audience. In addition. Keep them on their toes. The main part will be divided into sections or topic areas. Stress important words or phrases for emphasis and pause afterwards to ensure the audience understands the significance of the points and have time to absorb them. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion. you just have to buy a new outfit at El Corte Inglés. You may have noticed that in Part 1 all the advice could equally apply to giving a presentation in German. Don't put your hands in your pockets or look at the floor. This makes it easy for the audience to follow the presentation and to differentiate the main subject matter from background contextual content. How you talk. You should print a copy of the scripts and the plan and keep them make the presentation. A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 2 – Planning and why all this Preparation is Important. Bear this in mind when you are planning your presentation and you'll be starting off on the right foot. Now. what about body language? Well. Listen to the way that politicians speak. The actor John Wayne once said: “talk low.So. the ones that you know the audience would likely want to ask themselves. try to face the audience. Use repetition and contrast opposing points again for emphasis. Ask rhetorical questions. within reach as you . move around. that's easy.

By effective planning you will save on the concentration needed to navigate the talk giving yourself the opportunity to be more relaxed and natural.. Secondly. mobile phone or watch but if you use a wrist watch. for nonnative English speakers.. take it off and put it in front of you.. you will be able to ease your way into the presentation allowing yourself to get over the most nerve-racking part of all.. Similarly.. However. Furthermore. We will cover this issue in the next episode.. Manner and Voice (Part 1) and Planning (Part 2) important for your English presentation? First of all.” “To go back to what I was saying . Keep your hands above your waist and use movement and body language to complement your voice in putting across your message. A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 3 – The Performance The obvious problem when presenting in a language other than your own is nerves. You need more time and energy (perhaps better described as concentration) to convert what you want to say into English words and sentences than you do in your native language. reducing the mental effort involved with navigating your way through the various stages of the presentation.. You will need to decide if you you prefer taking questions during the talk or leaving them until the end. Do not turn your back on the audience when referring to the screen and try not to read verbatim from the displayed text. it will give you time and help you conserve your mental energy.. it is the professional way to do things and will give you the best chance of giving an effective talk.So.... your audience can read. talk precisely and clearly.” “To move on to my next point . Language to help you navigate the talk may include: “To start off then .. by preparing your introduction beforehand. don‟t forget. As we mentioned before..... the first five minutes.. This will allow you to concentrate on the content of your talk... so make sure you have some kind of timer available. by speaking more slowly and pausing you will give yourself time and you will conserve your energy.. by carefully planning your presentation we have reduced the amount of ´thinking on your feet‟ that you will need to do.... you will save the energy involved in producing 'ad hoc' language and you will ensure that during the most important stages of the presentation (the beginning and the end) you will say what you planned to say........... By memorising parts of your presentation... Don‟t forget it is important to check the progress of the presentation against the schedule.. a pre-rehearsed ending to the presentation will ensure you don't forget to leave the audience with the important points clear in their minds.. why are Looks.. use emphasis and pauses to „punctuate‟ your points. So.. This could be a wall clock. and most importantly.” . Keep your notes (with timings) in front of you and refer to them when you need to..

....” Language to help you with your visual material may include: “Take a look at this.. . I know you know who your readers are..... 4............. inform..” “As you can see. persuade.. motivate action and instruct. THE "4-STEP" GUIDE TO REPORT WRITING Writing reports in English can be timeconsuming but with practice and a plan you can do it. 1) Think Why am I writing? It sounds obvious but if you don‟t know exactly the purpose of your report.” “I'd like to point out.... imagine the person or people you‟re writing about and put yourself in their shoes asking yourself the following questions: Who are my readers? (Prioritise your readers based on your purpose: Key and non-key readers) What background information or knowledge do they have? What are their attitudes to the subject matter of the report? What are they looking to find in the report? .. recommend.. in the next episode we will look at how to deal with unanticipated events and the language needed to overcome potential problems.....” “To sum up then . ......” You may ask... but how much information do you know about them? Close your eyes. Who are my readers? Yes.” “To summarise ... ........“To give you an example of what I mean ..” “To digress for a moment . . ...... how will your readers know? Possible purposes include: to educate.. “what about questions and interruptions?” Well.. Here are some practical tips to a simple “4-step guide” to get you started. .

Group all your ideas together that require a similar action. next steps and follow-up. Content 4. Structuring the report depends on the purpose of your report and the readers. 3. Executive Summary and Recommendations 2. Include it in the executive summary and also put it in the beginning so the reader knows what follows will support your key message and will help the readers reach a conclusion. conclusions reached and recommendations.. Keep it brief. Write The order in which you present your ideas is critical. but option 2 offers a better long term solution. your findings.What is my key message? Once you know the purpose of your report.” instead of “It is recommended that …. For example “We recommend that …. The Executive Summary is your secret weapon to grabbing the attention of the reader by giving them a taste of the benefits inside your report. Conclusion 5. For example: Option 1 will be the best in the short term. you must decide what your key message is. I always assume that most readers are very busy and so will not read all the report. Separate each idea and focus on it entirely. 2. What action do I want my readers to take? What outcomes do you want? What do you want your reader to do after reading your report? This is where you deliver your recommendations. A mind-map is an excellent visual tool to organise this. so you can guide the reader and prove to the reader that your ideas have merit. Plan While reading all of part (1) jot down any ideas you have and slowly expand them. Most business reports follow this typical structure: 1. to the point and ideally no more than 1 page. It should include. Introduction 3. Instead they will skim read using your contents page and executive summary to guide them and they‟ll thank you for doing that. purpose. It has to have a logical flow. background information. Be confident in your recommendations and give them importance by using the active instead of the passive voice.” Be clear and to the point. . Appendices Lets be realistic. key issues. who has time to read a 15-20 page report in English? Readers will only read your report if it has something that benefits them.

4. graphics and colour. you either have a very strange team or I'm inclined to think the answer is the second day. So here are some quick Be tips to keep up the morale of your team: cheerful and transmit happiness as in the previous example. . Make main ideas and recommendations stand-out by using bullet points. It's as simple as saying "good job" or "thank you". Secondly someone with a high level of English or a native to check and critique the clarity and simplicity of your ideas. MOTIVATING STAFF A woman waits a good while at the counter to pay for her purchase. Which day will your team be more efficient? Now. ask your colleagues if they can recommend a translator with expertise in your industry or sector. Revise Only keep the ideas you‟re 100% confident in. Use motivational words. If you can‟t find two proof readers. but I assure you she won't be doing any word of mouth marketing for you.Use layout to help the reader skim read and quickly find the information they want. This type of attitude doesn't only have negative effects in customer service. but also in other areas of the company: Imagine you arrive to work stressed and grumpy. 5. headings. bolding. Do you think this customer will return? Perhaps. Make sure everyone knows what's expected from them. subheadings. smiling and pats on the backs. Firstly someone who is knowledgeable in the area to check and critique the technical content of your ideas. growling at everyone in your team. Find two proof readers you know to read and critique your report. When an employee finally attends her she doesn't receive a smile nor a "thank you". Now change that situation to a happy start.

retired. MEETINGS Technology was supposed to be the answer to the work-life balance and whisper it. Well surprise surprise. Chairman of Southwest Airlines explained to Mark Morrison (Managing Editor at BusinessWeek) the importance that the motivation of his people had played in the success of the company. Well dig deep and honestly ask yourself and colleagues. such Establish a good Make employees feel part of the company through as profit sharing.. Guide them and never forget that a good leader can delegate all except their responsibility. recent research has said that most managers spend at least 60% of their time in meetings in comparison to 45% in the 1970´s. And also. sick. He pointed out that they are always in touch with their employees even when they are not at work: maternity leave. talking over a coffee or by using technology such as instant messenger. I'm sure you are not too different from your team members. "Do we really need to meet?" Maybe you can solve issues through other communication tools. showing that they value them as individuals. MEETINGS. Managers complained that at least 50% of their time spent in meetings was a complete waste of time. Talk about their goals and help them develop and achieve these goals. Herb Kelleher. you say "of course we need to meet". decrease the number of meetings! I just didn‟t believe the techies. Think about what makes you tick. Make time for people.Talk to your employees on a regular basis and tell them when they are doing things well. here are tips I compiled from the experts: Do we need to meet? "What a stupid question". Be fair and consistent in your disciplinary system when they fail to perform. . 6. MEETINGS. Motivating is a full-time job.. Be disciplined. stock options or similar schemes. generous profit sharing schemes and stock options created the necessary team spirit that is essential for success. rewarding system. Provide leadership. not just as workers. you can never relax. So what can be done? Well it‟s not rocket science. Schedule regular periods where you can dedicate more time to them.

This person needs to be respected by all attending. Trust is broken.blogs.. those people who prepare answers to key issues before going into a meeting.. what should be included and not included. In the summary the meeting leader should gain commitment to action points by meeting attendees.... forums.". Also it makes sure that people do what they say and when! So keep meeting minutes accurate. to the point and relevant. taking meeting minutes. When giving invitees background information.. PAUSE (2 seconds). brief. etc. because. Before you go to meetings.... Leading a meeting Some cultures (e.. action-orientated and get all attendees to agree to what they said... Both methods have their merits. Why why why? Well. achieve their goals quickly and painlessly. while also giving you time to think. If you do have a meeting.. is the meeting leader or chair. those meeting minutes provide clues if you need to meet again and if so. Pauses focus attention on what you have to say.. North Americans and Northern Europeans) use meeting agendas to prevent rambling and irrelevancy. motivation plummets and nobody takes the meetings seriously. but someone has to keep a record of what was said by everybody.g. have a strong personality to control the meeting covering all major points/issues and to promote an inclusive atmosphere. Prepare well achieve either Surprise surprise. . tongue-tied unsure of the correct English expression or phrase to use.. Make sure you book the meeting room and check it has everything you need. emails. keep it brief. say something like "We should consider. just say no and explain why. Do what you say We‟ve all been to meetings. remember past occasions where you‟ve communicated successfully in English and focus on how great you felt afterwards. be clear about what you want to as the meeting leader or as an attendee. what is important to both. Meeting Minutes It‟s the worst job in the meeting. people assume it's important. So think before you agree to an action point and if you‟re over stretched. Secondly use pauses and eye contact... Tongue-tied We‟ve all been in international meetings where we wanted to speak but we couldn‟t and sat in silence. Other cultures hate being constrained by such a rigid structure and prefer to have more free flowing meetings.. Only invite those who are essential and relevant to the meeting issues. where attendees agreed to action points and then at the next meeting turned up and gave excuses. like a projector and teleconference facilities.. Take a deep breath and quickly relive that feeling before you speak during the meeting. Shoddy work helps nobody..

Lilli Cloud.The Boutique Agency . interrupting and shouting at people we don‟t agree with. However. founder of Cloud Communications explains in BusinessWeek (Business Week) that there are four types of agencies: . you can put yourself in hands of professionals and depending on your needs and characteristics choose the type of PR agency that best fits you. what can we do to generate publicity? Well.The Small Agency . GENERATING PUBLICITY According to Al and Linda Ries in their book "Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR" the importance of PR is changing and they argue that PR has become the most effective way to build a brand.The Independent Consultant In this article she explains the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. This maybe acceptable in some cultures but others find it confrontational and not the best way to facilitate cooperation. Well-known brands like Body Shop. I‟m not suggesting we‟re rude people or we lack manners. So agree meeting ground rules before starting a meeting and don‟t be afraid to remind people of these during the meeting! 7.Respect people Well. we often forget our manners. However in the heat of the moment. So. yet their brand awareness is huge. if you are more adventurous here is a quick seven step guide to start generating publicity for your company or project: . Often we become emotional and make issues personal and make personal comments instead of keeping things objective. PlayStation and Harry Potter spend very little on advertising.The Big Agency .

STEP 2: Develop a database of contacts .com.publish it on your Web site. this will increase the likelihood of generating publicity. etc. These seven steps are developed in more detail in Al Lautenslager'sarticle on Entrepreneur.brainstorm ideas on possible stories and bring this down to around 12 topics which cankeep you going for at least 1 year. this will increase the chances of it getting itpublished. STEP 3: Determine the story .Decide in which section the news you will generate best fits in and find outwho's the primary editor or reporter of this section. TELEPHONING TIPS .make a list of all the publications. STEP 5: Send the press release . TV channels you want to reach. STEP 6: Other uses for your press release . mail it to customers and prospects.STEP 1: Determine your target .Study a few press releases on similar topics and write a short story using a similar style. place them on handouts and fliers. Make sure the story is news and not just promotion.dedicate time to improve your relationships with those that decide what gets published. radio stations. 8.here the importance of step two and developing a good database of contacts. STEP 7: Develop relationships with contacts . STEP 4: Write the press release .

. Speak loudly and clearly . it will make them feel you are not with them. Your notes will help you come back to things you want to say and remember the important details once the call has finished.Although people say it's the first impression that counts.Although you should speak in a low tone to avoid the shrillness of the phone.If the phone call is difficult or very important prepare it well before calling. make an effort to slowdown the conversation. but I'm not going to provide a full training course. Take notes .This week's topic is about a very common business tool. Don't be provoked . there is no rush. Although the widespread use of email has reduced its use. the not so important ones too. repeat concisely what you have agreed on to avoid confusion. don't waste time and confuse your caller by looking for pens. You can do this by first being modest and asking the caller to speak slowly as English isn't your native tongue and during the conversation speak slowly yourself and repeat information as the person speaks. but I will outline some interesting tipswhich you may use: Smile . giving you that extra time to think and digest the information.Smile when you pick up the phone. etc. yet few people ever do specific telephone skills training. but never use the keyboard. by speaking slowly you transmit calmness and confidence. the telephone. I also recommend you pay special attention to the preparation and think through the imaginary phone call to recreate the situation. Your notes will also be useful here. you should get you voice across without confusion and speak into themouthpiece and do not place the phone under your chin. info. ..In the end. If the telephone call is in English.. Hang up gently .Stay calm in all situations.Take notes and never interrupt your caller. the phone is still a very important tool for business communication. Also. Resources at hand . It is in your interest to set a slow pace to help you understand and not get lost half way through the call. If you think you are speaking a touch too slow. a friendly response will calm down even the most beastly of creatures. Are you sure you're making the most of that time or could you improve? As always. Slow down .. and about all those wonderful tips I have found out there on the net. you are probably speaking at just the right speed. I'm sure there's room for improvement. there's no need to cause a bad last impression by slamming down the receiver and causing a loud noise at the other end of the line. Think specially about what you want to achieve and the objections that may arise. Repeat Agreements .Don't be in a hurry. by smiling you'll project a friendly and interesting voice which is always important.Have all your resources at hand. Now just think of all those important phone calls you have made during the last month and well. Prepare .

if you arrive too early. Make a Good First Impression Fourth. the culture. Get your support from friends and family before the interview. Public Relations and Human Resources.9. 4. On the other hand the “Brave Researcher” wants to know about the company. (For more on this type of vocabulary. A smile. It‟s a pleasure meeting you”. although we all consider ourselves open-minded and fair. Research the Company (Section titles not in MP3) First. So. such as Sales. see: Corporate Hierarchy) This critical information enables them to paint a picture in their minds of the exact culture and candidate profile the company is seeking. 2. you‟ll get there faster and it looks incredibly unprofessional to arrive with someone. . “Hello I‟m (first name) (last name). but there are strategies and techniques that can certainly increase your chances. They call all the departments that communicate information about the company. 10 STEPS FOR GETTING THE JOB YOU WANT! There are no sure ways to guarantee that you get the job you want. 2. Arrive late and you‟ll start the interview with an apology and provide the interviewer with evidence that you‟re not time conscious. Direct eye contact for trust. not too early or too late. go to an interview alone. you‟llput pressure on the interviewer and they‟ll react badly to this and resent you disturbing their work. arrive on time. Also starting with an apology puts you into a subordinate role in the interview as opposed to the role you want as an equal and possible future colleague. how do you prepare? Well most of us adopt the “Chicken Researcher” approach. Here are ten steps that trainers recommend: 1. their jargon and the type of people who work there. Arrive on time Third. we usually make judgements about people in the first 2-5 minutes of meeting them. Marketing. relying on the Internet and asking friends. so you‟ve got the interview. Why? Well. how do wemake the right first impression? 1. discussed later in point 6. This picture is then used as a reference point for all their answers and “pacing”. 3. Go alone Second. 3. too embarrassed to speak to the company directly.

” talks about the powerful psychological impact of.” “lead. you‟re not asking for the job as a favour.4.” “I believe I fit the profile you are looking for. Remember you‟re talking to a potential colleague and an equal. Daniel Goleman. 6. Be like the Interviewer Sixth. So how can we use this in an interview? Well. don‟t take a subordinate role.” “What you are offering looks like a long term position. You decide.” “effective. never ever criticise your previous employers. Next use “Action Words” when answering. it‟s the language of achievers. Then try reading the body language of the interviewer and subtlycopying some of it. Be natural and concentrate on the things that the company has done or does that have impressed you. “People like people who like them” and “People like people who ARE like them”. try and sit next to or beside the interviewer as opposed to a confrontational position of directly opposite. examples include: “implement.” “I‟m excited about the position. align yourself with the interviewer. if the interviewer offers you the choice of where to sit. not on the negative.” Pacing includes learning and using the company‟s buzz words or jargon. Lean forward in your seat slightly and try the phrases: “My background fits this position well. Finally.” “initiate. Buzz words are popular words the company and its employees use when talking about the company or describing its products or services. Be Equal Fifth.” “motivate. A firm but gentle handshake. Concentrate! . There are two ways of viewing an interview. Use your research about the company to give compliments about the interviewer and their company.” etc. One good technique is. Focus on past successes.” 7. Action words are dynamic and energetic. you believe you have the skills and personality this company needs to continue being successful.” “innovate. the famous author of “Emotional Intelligence.” “persuade. It looks incredibly unprofessional. flattery will get you everywhere. find an area of agreement and start to lead the interviewer toward the job offer. inappropriate and tarnishes your image. Be Positive Seventh. 9. it‟ll enhance your image with the interviewer. either as a problemsolving situation of “the interviewer and me against the problem” or as a confrontational situation of “the interviewer against me”. one technique to use is “Pacing. 5. but not all of it as it‟ll become obvious. 8. We all love to receive flattery and compliments as long as it‟s natural and not fake. Flatter the Interviewer Eight.

. 2.Nine. at the end of the interview you want to make a confident and long lasting impression on your interviewer. 10. How? 1. but we‟ll discuss that later. a competitive style.University of Pennsylvania. names. continue listening for information.” A firm but gentle handshake. First let‟s try to understand why it is important to know what mix of negotiation styles you have. “To have formal discussions with someone in order to reach an agreement. “It sounds like a great opportunity” or “I'll look forward to hearing from you. 3. Recent research by Professor G. etc. Richard Shell from the prestigious Wharton School of Business. titles. where you win and the other person loses! But if that was always the case. Direct eye contact for trust.” And a long lasting agreement and commitment comes from cooperation. 10. as the interview reaches its natural end you start to lose your concentration. The words. identified 5 common negotiation styles and how those styles interacted. how do negotiations break down? What are the reasons for people breaking agreements? The Cambridge English dictionary defines a negotiation as. Make a Long-Lasting Impression Ten. WHAT NEGOTIATION STYLE DO YOU HAVE? Films and media like to show that there is only one negotiation style that matters. 4. A smile. Don‟t! Maintain concentration and be as attentive as possible. to use in the second interview or follow-up letter! How? One technique is to drink a coffee before the interview to maintain your concentration for longer. buzz words. and finally.

information exchange. How can you prepare an effective negotiation strategy if you don‟t know how you will react under pressure. Knowing whatoutcomes the interactions of different negotiations styles produces enables you to better choose the most effective negotiation strategy to reach an agreement with them. Once you‟re aware of your negotiation style you know what can realistically be improved and what can‟t. The greatest fear people have about negotiations is the fear of what they will lose. . These can all be greatly reduced from increasing your knowledge of the negotiation process and negotiation strategies. a fake. threats and time. then to be an effective negotiator you need to generate trust between yourself and the other person. you become more aware of the other person‟s negotiation style and also how different negotiation styles interact. explicit bargaining. in different situations and conditions? The answer is that you can‟t unless you know your own negotiation style first. Remember. Trying to be competitive when you hate competition will make you appear fake and you‟ll lose trust. the negotiation process can be divided into the following stages: preparation. If reaching an agreement in a negotiation is based on cooperation and cooperation is based on trust.For most cultures of the world. Trust comes from being natural and being yourself. and commitment. Let's concentrate on the negotiation process: firstly preparation. not from trying to be something you‟re not. Other fears include a lack of alternatives. Neither can you prepare effective responses to what the other person does in the negotiation without self-awareness. you‟re not that good an actor! If you‟re more aware of your own negotiation style.

giving the other person what they want in order to reach an agreement and preserve the relationship. A “Problem-Solver” negotiation style produced the best outcomes but is also the hardest to implement due to the complexity of most negotiations.Professor G. What mix of negotiation styles are you? 1. They believe if they win. Firstly. 3. If not. Avoider (B) Avoider (A) Compromiser (B) Good Bad Good Good Bad Good Accommodator Competitor Problem (B) (B) – Solver (B) Bad Bad Bad Good Good Bad Good Bad Bad Good Good Good Good Good Good Compromiser Bad (A) Accommodator Bad (A) Competitor (A) Bad Problem – Bad Solver (A) His research showed that people who have the same negotiation style quickly understood each other and produced a “Good” outcome. Avoider: Hate conflicts and avoid them at all costs. We can all learn. Accommodator: They like to resolve conflict by solving the other person‟s problems. 5. 4. Finally if you don‟t have a problem-solver negotiation style. If the other person is also an accommodator then they return the favour and help solve their problems. Compromiser: Their priority is to maintain a productive relationship. Problem Solver: The most imaginative thinkers who think about fair “win/win” solutions and greater solutions that “make the pie bigger. So they will make a compromise first. 2. the other person takes and gives nothing in return. Richard Shell‟s research identified 2 things. you lose. don‟t worry. Contrary to popular opinion the “Competitor” produced more “Bad” outcomes than “Good” as most people thought they were difficult. Competitor: They like to win and be in control of the situation. practice and adopt the habits of the most effective negotiators: .” Secondly. what outcomes (Good or Bad) these negotiation styles produced when two people (A and B) interacted together in a negotiation. Hence making an agreement with an Avoider very difficult. Effective negotiating is as much about attitude as style. there are 5 negotiation styles and most people have a mix of these negotiation styles.

Use Pareto's rule: 20% of the effort will provide 80% of the reward. which is the next tip. Could someone else be doing it? Just by having these questions in mind your change in attitude will help you make the most of your time. (This one may be easier: Activity 2. Too often we hear ". So here are some tips grouped in the three previously mentioned categories. 2.I don't have time to organise!" when we should be thinking ". 4. It's the third link at the bottom of the page.. Spend time planning and organising. ask yourself the followingquestions . Does your task help achieve your goals? 4.how much time do I lose each day because I'm not organised?" I highly recommend that you read the story Sue McMillin tells in her article to see how important this point is.and not just now but frequently at work. Goals will give you a sense of direction and will help you plan and prioritize. Set goals. Reduce unused time: 1. If you combine this simple tool with other tips below you can turn it into a powerful time management system. so the key is to identify and concentrate on that 20%. Prioritize. Use a to-do list.. Is the task going to add value to your work? 3.A willingness to prepare High expectations The patience to listen A commitment to personal integrity 11.) Or simply read the text below and listen to: Now. . before I continue with the tips I found. Spending five minutes to make a to-do list will help you work through your tasks quicker. Do fewer things: 3. Is the task you're working on a top priority? 2... SAVE TIME Read and listen to this article in this interactive activity: Save Time Activity. This will help you keep on the right track: 1.

Then. Break up tedious tasks. Do the most important tasks in your prime time. targeted for immediate response. . These tasks usually have short-term consequences and you should be concentrating on those with long-term and goal-related implications. nobody will listen to you or even worse. your most productive time of the day. Answering the wrong questions. ADVERTISING ERRORS In her BusinessWeek article at Marketing with an Spanish Accent she points out two major errors. they are interested in satisfying their desires. 12. When you avoid doing something you don't like. Creating Ads instead of campaigns. This will help you get it out of the way. Consumers are not interested in products. The second mistake she points out is the use of stereotypes. i. Each ad should make one single point. 4. don't forget that when motivated you work faster and better . Do the right thing right. you'll probably get rejected. I reckon that mistakes in advertising are quite common so I decided to look for an article that could point out a few more common errors: 1. Take less time: 7. Everyone is attracted by advertising that not only attacks our needs and desires but. 2. 5. 6. Eliminate all trivial tasks and those that don't add value to your work. . does so in our language.e. The quest for instant gratification. 8. Reduce urgent tasks. you should make as many ads as you have points to transmit. no-one likes to be classified into a stereotype or do you? Well if you talk to a stereotype. I believe this is true for any segment. The most important one is the need to think like Hispanics and to talk to them on a Personal level. And to finish. Repetition is essential to establish retention. Prime Time. Learn to say "NO". achieving goals orsticking to your to-do list.I mean by this that they talk to me in way that I understand and feel comfortable. You must prove what you claim. 9. Excess reach. Now.so reward yourself for completing tasks. Otherwise. Unsustainable claims. 3. This increases its effectivity. so trying to reach a larger target than your budget allows will decrease effectivity. If you have done all the above you should be doing the right thing (effectiveness) now you must concentrate on being efficient. don't create a permanent image of your brand. One ad can't tell the whole story. try breaking it up into smaller tasks. your ad will be ignored.5. These ads. This varies from person to person.

I find the last one particularly interesting because there are many adverts on TV which I either don't understand or I spend all day singing their music. but I can never remember what they are advertising. Great production without great copy. What's better? A clever. ingenious advert that leaves people with their mouths open trying to understand what the ad really means or a clear message explaining the reasons why you should buy the product in an informative but persuasive manner. . Here are just a few things you shouldn't do when advertising:Advertising Mistakes. Sometimes it's more about saying the right thing because saying the wrong thing to the right people is useless.6. 7. Overestimating the importance of the qualitative targeting.

False. 2. What are the benefits of using two proof readers? Motivating Staff Comprehension Quiz. c. True. It's possible. What are the 4 steps of the “4-step guide”? 2. a. b. True. Why do your ideas have to have a logical flow in the flow? 6. It doesn't say. GAMES AND EXCERCISES A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part Comprehension 1. . c. It doesn't say. Comprehension Discussion Questions 1. Herb says that keeping close contact with employees helps increase motivation.ACTIVITIES. Punishments are bad for motivation? a. 3. What is an executive summary used for in a report? 5. b. Yes. c. No. b. Why do readers skim read? 4. Name 3 purposes of writing a report? 3. False. Will the woman return to the shop? a.

Meetings Comprehension Quiz Comprehension Discussion Questions 1) What are the alternative communication tools to a meeting? 2) What meeting preparation can you do? 3) What ways can you lead a meeting? 4) Why is important to commit to action points in a meeting? 5) How should meeting minutes be? 6) How can you solve being tongue-tied in meetings? 7) Why have meeting ground rules? .

How would you change the 10 steps? Why? 2. Describe your favourite negotiators? 5. what type of people (negotiation style) do you like to negotiate with? Why? 3. In your opinion what is the key factor to having a successful interview? 3. When have you been most effective in negotiations? 4. In your sector which negotiation style is the most typical? Why? 6. Comprehension Discussion Questions 1. In your opinion.10 Steps Jobs Comprehension Quiz. When have you been most effective in an interview? What were the reasons for this? Discussion Questions 1. Do you think there are more or less than 5 common negotiation styles? 2. Can you think of other habits of effective negotiators? .

and often dishonestly is good at dealing with Money exports is money given by an employer to someone who cannot work because of illness are given by employers to employees to buy meals in some restaurants is the money which can be officially used in a country were gold coins .SPECIAL EXERCISES 1. pieces of spiral is when wages and prices take turn to grow in short intervals payment is what a company pays to workers who are no longer needed order is an instruction to a bank to pay some money at regular times to another bank is involved with companies rather than with people is a large gathering at which companies show and sell their products is a sum of money that has been saved or kept for a special purpose charges very large amounts for lending money to someone . A nest 18. Sick 8. A loan is regularly paid by the government to people who do not have a job. you are completely without Money 5. The services 3. The gravy 6. If you are stony 12. Unemployment 2. A 16. Someone who is sharp- 7. Legal 11. price index is a measurement of the changes in the cost of basic goods and life is an exciting way of living in which rich and successful people enjoy is a way of making money quickly. Services supplied to foreign countries such as banking are called 10. An 13. A bank account 15. Luncheon 9. In the past. easily. A 14. The themselves 4. A trade 17.

you want more money from your . A ticket can be used many times within a limited period and is cheaper than paying separately for each use. A joint20. In a economy some industries are controlled privately and some by the government. 17. Mail is a way of buying goods in which you choose 15. 11. A fundis a person or event which collects money. it is deserved because lots of rise. 4. 3. Hard is money of a type that has a value in other countries than its own. . If you live from hand to to live without suffering. Free is an economic system in which private businesses compete with each other. 14. An organisation which is profit does not make a profit intentionally (usually charity). . A wage is the smallest amount of money that an employer is allowed to pay someone. If you ask for a employer. 12. In an market a country allows companies from other countries to do business there. A person's purchasing A card is a credit card which you can get if you earn a lot of money. 13. 16. company is owned by the group of people who have shares in the company rate is the amount that it charges on money that it lends you $ is the sign. 8. In hire the buyer pays part of the cost immediately and then makes small regular payments. A bank's 1. is their ability to buy goods.19. 9. A country's national/public is the total amount of money that is owed by its government. If something is hardwork was done. 6. you have just enough money 10. 5. 7. 2.

The gold bank. A is a business that lends you money if you want to means it has too little money to be able to develop. A building buy a house. socialist spends money wastefully but claims to support a is for the expenses of the king or queen and royal bank exchanges cheques with other banks. 18. A bottomed investment can be trusted completely because it is certain to succeed. The money. 20. A down is an amount of money which is only part of the total . Under A fair society The civil family. A credit called A something. rate is used to decide how much to charge for lending is the amount of gold held by a national money is given by a parent to a child every week or 19. Priceshoppers compare the prices of two similar products and buy the cheaper one. robbery is charging an unreasonably high price for The extra money paid to someone because their job is dangerous is The income is the money which you can spend as you want and not on basic needs. money is measured by counting money kept by banks and people. is when it is difficult to borrow money from banks. usually from a catalogue. money.what you want. A loan is what a bank lends to you until you can get the money from somewhere else. month. A cheque has been signed but does not yet have the amount of money written on it.

is what you earn by hard physical work. account you usually leave money for a long time. A $50 gift value. Factory for. it is the best that is possible or The year is a period of twelve months for which a business plans its management of money. . without a profit being added. A down-andis a person who has no job or home and is unlikely to get either of these. The on. it needs a lot of money to buy buildings and equipment. A money. of living is the amount of money that you need to live it is good value for the money paid. The buildings. The price is the price it costs to make. prices are the prices which a factory sells its goods assets of a business are things of value such as benefit is additional to your pay but is not in the form of can be exchanged in a shop for goods of that Powerful bankers from Switzerland are sometimes called the of Zurich. If an activity is cost- If a business is intensive. A officer looks at travellers' bags to make certain they are not taking goods into a country without paying taxes. If a service is first available. An entrance cinema or theatre. A In a Your daily store is a shop which sells its goods at cheap prices. it contains a larger amount of the goods that you are buying for a lower price.cost. is what you pay in order to be allowed into a If it is -sized. The economy of a country is the income of those people .

is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in In Britain and New Zealand. 14. machine (ATM) is a formal expression for cash The price is the amount of money someone wants when they sell something. is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 9. A money. 3. 10. can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. conventions or doctrines generally observed in is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. A bank is an arrangement with a bank where the customer puts in and withdraws money from. the taxes. 13. trademark etc. 7. debt is a loan that is not likely to be paid back. 1. In a An paid. 8. 15. A A A you give information about what you earn every year. retailers. 6.who do not pay taxes. accounting. 17. 2. are a dozen or so concepts. In Britain. A Automated dispenser. time. is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. too old or ill to work. 5. salary is what a person earns before other sums of A bank is a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account. 11. 12. This ex is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by Your is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 16. is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. 4. is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are is the government office which collects the main is paid in relation to how much you earn. .

A A A Your tax is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay.18. trademark etc. is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. 5. 3. Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are Revenue is the government office which collects the In Britain.com assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 1. 20. . tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. In Britain and New Zealand. is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. 9. 11. is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. In a tax Gross Excise Cash time. A personnel allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. 10. tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. An account paid. 17. 1. is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. 4. 6. 19. 13. 12. A ledger is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. A management guru is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. 2. 16. 20. is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. A A trade A tax A personal A management you give information about what you earn every year. A ledger accountant is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. . is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not are a dozen or so concepts. is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 2. Accounting accounting. the main taxes. 14. conventions or doctrines generally observed in year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. This exercise is brought to you by www. national too old or ill to work. 18. 8. 3. 15. 19. 7.nonstopenglish. Value retailers.

The Economic year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. national welfare is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. Direct tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Your tax credit is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 16. Income duty is paid in relation to how much you earn. 10. In a tax statement you give information about what you earn every year. A tax selector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. Excise allowance is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. 9. Cash Now is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. Accounting laws are a dozen or so concepts. 13. Accounts receivable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. 15. 11. 6. 18. In Britain and New Zealand. 5. Gross income tax is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 14.4. 20. 12. 7. 8. Inheritance duty is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. 17. Tangible assets such as copyright. A trade angel is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. . . the Inland Office is the government office which collects the main taxes. In Britain. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty. 19. Work Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Choose the best word to form compound nouns related to accounting and taxation.

. A management _____ is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. allowance duty obligation tariff tax 9. In a tax _____ you give information about what you earn every year. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. health health service insurance mortgage redistribution 13. The _____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Cash _____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. accountant booker booking clerk writer 2. admittance report return sheet statement 11. Account _____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. national _____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. Taxing Monetary Fiscal Economy Economic 14. Value _____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers.1. A tax _____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. In Britain and New Zealand. income law payables return turnover 10. British Financial Income Inland Tax 12. surplus return on demand in time flow 8. returner officier inspector clerk captain 4. Accounting _____ are a dozen or so concepts. accountant advisor guru lawyer trainer 3. the _____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. In Britain.nonstopenglish. A ledger _____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. angel banker capitalist creditor debtor This exercise is brought to you by www. norms policies politics principles rules 7. A trade _____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. unpaid taxable receivable payable paid 6.com 5. Excise _____ is tax raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Gross _____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid.

debts. allowance 1. 8. 12. control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. Your tax _____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been A margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. This exercise is brought to you by www. tax-free no-tax income duty-free allowance 20. 10. _____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. 11. 9. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 6. cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. Excise Income Inheritance Land Value added 19. Corporate Direct Income Indirect Selective 17. 4. is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. _____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn.nonstopenglish. are the buildings and machines owned by a business.com The bank has lost $703 million as a result of I can put this lunch on my expense False Capital Capital Capital A A deducted. A journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. .Abstract Added Income Paid Set 15. _____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that companies earn. trademark etc. duty-free income limit tax-free -free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 14. . 5. is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 3. Dead Income Inheritance Land Road 18. Your personal _____ is the amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. My employer will pay for it. accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. 13. _____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Abstract Dream Intangible Tangible Theoratical 16. 2. 7.

Capital equipment. 20. 17. 5. 14. 18. 19. 6. is the amount of money a person earns. A sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 2. 8. Capital business. 11. A line is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 16. 10. 7. 9. . such as income tax. account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. 4. My employer will is the money that a person has to pay to the government.15. is money which is spent on buildings and False is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. are the buildings and machines owned by a Capital are profits made by selling buildings or machines. (US English) A direct 1. . is the amount of money a person earns. 12. I can put this lunch on my expense pay for it. A A A pay A pay counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. A line is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 13. A counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. contains a person's pay. (US English) A margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. A account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of debts. A pay A pay contains a person's pay. 3.

are the buildings and machines owned by a business. is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a . A A A A A A is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. This exercise is brought to you by www. . 12. 16. 3. control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. A margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. A is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. 20. is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. 2. 15. is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 8. is the money that a person has to pay to the government. such as income tax. 10.15. 18. such as income tax. 18. 16. 1. systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 14. 5. 6. 9. 17. 11. goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. 7. is the amount of money a person earns. 19. is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted.com is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. 19.nonstopenglish. 17. 4. A direct is the money that a person has to pay to the government. free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. My employer will pay for it. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of I can put this lunch on my A A . 13. A journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items.

3. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 11. packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. . 4.company. packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's pay which they A profit is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. 17. A line cost is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. Creative is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. 9. 18.nonstopenglish. A current (US checking ___) is a bank account which usually earns little interest and to which you have quick access. 1. . A pay box is an envelope containing a person's pay. 8. is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. 5. 14. systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. 7. (US English) 4. My employer will pay for it. 10. such as income tax. 12. 6. 19. 13. 20. Capital Capital Capital A bean A balance is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 2. 16. 3. 15. This exercise is brought to you by www.com is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. A (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns little profit and to which you have quick access. (US English) 20. 2. I can put this lunch on my account. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad . A company sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. (US English) accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. are the buildings and machines owned by a business. is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A coin counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. 1. DutyA Credit A sales A profit Petty A A receive. goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. A item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government.

12. 1. 10. . A profit rate is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. . 11. Credit check systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. A sales ledger is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. . The bank has lost $703 million as a result of wrong debts. An indirect tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 6. A profit account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. Capital profits are profits made by selling buildings or machines. I can put this lunch on my expense box. writer setter producer fighter counter . Duty-less goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. . document graph line paper sheet 2. Capital goods are the buildings and machines owned by a business. 19. A bean _____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company.5. My employer will pay for it. Petty money is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. such as income tax. Selective accounting hides what has really happened. 18. A balance _____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 9. 14. 20. 13. 7. Capital interest is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 15. 16. 8. A salary packet is the amount of money a person earns. A profit costs is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. . Wrong accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 17.

booking accounting bookmaking audit auditing 14. A profit _____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. A _____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns.nonstopenglish. A _____ account (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns low interest and to which you have quick access. Capital _____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. interest line sum mark margin 4. A _____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. A profit _____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. Credit _____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. assets expenditures goods shares stakes 12. fail fiend free friendly less 16. fee pay prize salary wage 10. A sales _____ is the book which contain a list of all company sales arranged by date. bank black credit current profit 7. Duty-_____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. gain loss margin plus tax This exercise is brought to you by www. I can put this lunch on my _____ account. My employer will pay for it. Capital _____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. (US English) queue bad line set row 8. wage salary purse pay employee 9. Creative _____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. check control proof restraint watch 15. Capital _____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. costs expense investment return spending 13. . wins stakes profits losses gains 11.3. book journal logging note notebook 6.com 5. A _____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's earnings.

_____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government.costs expenditure bank expense employer's 17. Petty _____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. A personal is an amount of money that you can earn before you are subjected to tax. 4. 9. 2. A tax is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. is a person who writes accounts in the A management is a person who advices companies on how to make profit. bank note cash coin dollar money 18. In a tax you give information about what you earn . 3. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. 12. A ledger ledger. Cash is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. is raised on products such as tobacco and 8. Gross is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. _____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 5. 1. such as income tax. 7. Excise alcoholic drinks. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad _____. Accounts are sums of money owed by a company such as invoices received but not paid. A year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Bad Black False Intuitive Wrong 20. 11. Accounting are a dozen or so concepts. A trade is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 10. 6. profit loss loans debts customers 19.

In Britain and New Zealand. 20. and often dishonestly. such as copyright. tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. the Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. tender or: currency 4. . trademark. easily. 15. tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. A joint-____ company is owned by the group of people who have shares in the company. 13. This tax can be reclaimed by retailers. In Britain.: train 3. 18. Your tax is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. stock or: venture 5. Luncheon ____ are given by employers to employees to buy meals in some restaurants.every year. 19. ANSWERSTO THE EXERCISES 1. standing . vouchers 2. 14. patent etc. Value Tax is paid to the government on goods and services. assets can only be turned into money with difficulty. A ____ order is an instruction to a bank to pay some money at regular times to another bank account. Legal ____ is the money which can be officially used in a country. tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 17. The gravy ____ is a way of making money quickly. national is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. 16.

fair or: show 17. Unemployment ____ is regularly paid by the government to people who do not have a jo benefit or: allowance 1. pieces of ____ were gold coins. In the past. retail or: consumer 8. Someone who is sharp-____ is good at dealing with money. A trade ____ is a large gathering at which companies show and sell their products. shark 7. Sick ___is money given by an employer to someone who cannot work because of illness. A ____ bank is involved with companies rather than with people. $ is the ____ sign. A bank's ____ rate is the amount that it charges on money that it lends you. The ____ life is an exciting way of living in which rich and successful people enjoy themsel ves. merchant 12. pay 10. The ____ price index is a measurement of the changes in the cost of basic goods and servic es. inflationary 15. you are completely without money. high 16. A nest ____ is a sum of money that has been saved or kept for a special purpose. eight 18. Invisible 14. An ____ spiral is when wages and prices take turn to grow in short intervals. If you are stony ____. redundancy 9.6. A ____ payment is what a company pays to workers who are no longer needed. lending or: interest 13. broke 20. nosed 11. dollar . Services supplied to foreign countries such as banking are called ____ exports. A loan ____ charges very large amounts for lending money to someone. egg 19.

A fund-____ is a person or event which collects money. mouth 14. you have just enough money to live without suffering.2. raiser 4. enterprise or: market 10. season 7. mixed 15. earned or: won 12. A ____ wage is the smallest amount of money that an employer is allowed to pay someone. Free ____ is an economic system in which private businesses compete with each other. power or: ability 5. If something is hard-____. you want more money from your employer. it is deserved because lots of work was done. Hard ____ is money of a type that has a value in other countries than its own currency 11. non 9. A person's purchasing ____ is their ability to buy goods. If you live from hand to ____. gold 6. debt 3. A ____ card is a credit card which you can get if you earn a lot of money. minimum 8. A ____ ticket can be used many times within a limited period and is cheaper than paying sep arately for each use. A country's national/public ____ is the total amount of money that is owed by its governmen t. In a ___ economy some industries are controlled privately and some by the government. pay 13. If you ask for a ____ rise. An organisation which is ____-profit does not make a profit intentionally (usually charity). In an ____ market a country allows companies from other countries to do business thereop .

purchase 17. reserve 20.: bridging or: bridge 4.en 16. A ____ loan is what a bank lends to you until you can get the money from somewhere else. society 6. A building ____ is a business that lends you money if you want to buy a house. order 18. capitalized or: capitalised 7. blank 3. A ____ cheque has been signed but does not yet have the amount of money written on it. ____ money is measured by counting money kept by banks and people. ____ money is given by a parent to a child every week or month. Broad 5. Price-____ shoppers compare the prices of two similar products and buy the cheaper one. The ____ rate is used to decide how much to charge for lending money. In hire ____ the buyer pays part of the cost immediately and then makes small regular pay ments. Under ____ means it has too little money to be able to develop. The gold ____ is the amount of gold held by a national bank. Mail ____ is a way of buying goods in which you choose what you want. Correct: Pocket 1. conscious 19. A ____ socialist spends money wastefully but claims to support a fair society champagne or: . usually from a cat alogue. base 2.

: gnomes . copper 11. gate 17.designer 8. squeeze or: crunch 12. token or: voucher 20. A ____-bottomed investment can be trusted completely because it is certain to succeed. The civil ____ is for the expenses of the king or queen and royal family.: fringe 19. Powerful bankers from Switzerland are sometimes called the ____ of Zurich.: fixed 18.: daylight or: highway 14. danger 13. A $50 gift ____ can be exchanged in a shop for goods of that value. payment 16. clearing 10. The ____ income is the money which you can spend as you want and not on basic needsdi sposable 15. Factory ____ prices are the prices which a factory sells its goods for. A down ____ is an amount of money which is only part of the total cost. A ____ benefit is additional to your pay but is not in the form of money. A ____ robbery is charging an unreasonably high price for something. The extra money paid to someone because their job is dangerous is called ____ money. The ____ assets of a business are things of value such as buildings. list 9. A ____ bank exchanges cheques with other banks. A credit ____ is when it is difficult to borrow money from banks.

An entrance ____ is what you pay in order to be allowed into a cinema or theatre. If a service is first ____.: deposit or: savings 8. it is the best that is possible or available. it needs a lot of money to buy buildings and equipment. cost 11. without a profit being added. If it is ____sized. discount 7. . black 15. fee 4.1. A down-and-____ is a person who has no job or home and is unlikely to get either of these. If an activity is cost-____ it is good value for the money paid. The ____ price is the price it costs to make. economy 5. 12. financial 3. bread 9. In a ____ account you usually leave money for a long time. Your daily ____ is what you earn by hard physical work. A ____ salary is what a person earns before other sums of money. customs 10. The ____ economy of a country is the income of those people who do not pay taxes. A ____ store is a shop which sells its goods at cheap prices. The ____ of living is the amount of money that you need to live on. it contains a larger amount of the goods that you are buying for a lower price.: capital 14. If a business is ____ intensive. effective 13. class 2. A ____ officer looks at travellers' bags to make certain they are not taking goods into a coun try without paying taxes. out 6. The ____ year is a period of twelve months for which a business plans its management of m oney.

basic 16. A bank ____ is a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account. statement 17. A bank ____ is an arrangement with a bank where the customer puts in and withdraws mon ey from. account 18. A ____ debt is a loan that is not likely to be paid back. bad 19. Automated ____ machine (ATM) is a formal expression for cash dispenser. teller 20. The ____ price is the amount of money someone wants when they sell something. asking

1. ____ is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. Value Added Tax 2. A ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. trade creditor 3. In a ____ you give information about what you earn every year.: tax return 4. A ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. tax inspector 5. Your ____ is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. tax allowance 6. A ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. personal allowance 7. In Britain, ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. national insurance 8. A ____ is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. management accountant 9. A ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. ledger clerk

10. ____ can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright, trademark etc. Intangible assets 11. In Britain and New Zealand, the ____ is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inland Revenue 12. ____ is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Inheritance tax 13. ____ is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Indirect tax 14. ____ is paid in relation to how much you earn. Income tax 15. ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. Gross income 16. A ____ is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Fiscal year 17. ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Excise duty 18. ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. Cash flow 19. ____ are a dozen or so concepts, conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Accounting principles 20. An ____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. account payable

1. In a tax ____ you give information about what you earn every year. return 2. Accounting ____ are a dozen or so concepts, conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. principles

3. An account ____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. payable

4. ____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright, trademark etc. Intangible 5. In Britain, national ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. insurance 6. A tax ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. inspector 7. In Britain and New Zealand, the ____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inland 8. ____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Inheritance 9. ____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Indirect 10. ____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. Income 11. Gross ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. income 12. Cash ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. flow 13. A ____ year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Fiscal 14. Excise ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. duty 15. A trade ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. creditor

16. A ledger ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. clerk 17. A personal ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. allowance 18. Your tax ____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. allowance

Indirect tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Accounting laws are a dozen or so concepts. Accounting principles are a dozen or so concepts. conventions or doctrines generally observed i n accounting. 6. Accounts receivable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. accountant 1.19. A ledger accountant is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. 8. Excise allowance is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. 5. 7. Added 20. . A management accountant is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. Direct tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 3. Cash flow is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. A trade angel is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. Excise duty is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. A trade creditor is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. A management ____ is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. A personnel allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. 9. A management guru is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. 4. 10.A tax inspector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. or: Cash Flow is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. A personal allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. Value ____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. or: A tax man is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay.: A ledger clerk is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. 2. Cash Now is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in ti me. Accounts payable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. A tax selector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay.

The Fiscal year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. In Britain and New Zealand. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty . or: The Financial year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. In Britain. 12. In a tax statement you give information about what you earn every year. 18. 19. In Britain. the Inland Office is the government office which collects the m ain taxes. In Britain and New Zealand. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty. 13. A ledger _____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. the Inland Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. accountant 2. Gross income tax is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. Intangible assets such as copyright. Inheritance tax is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died.11. national insurance is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. The Economic year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Your tax allowance is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 14. Gross income is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 1. A management _____ is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. 15. Income tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. 16. 20. Work Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. Income duty is paid in relation to how much you earn. In a tax return you give information about what you earn every year. Value Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. national welfare is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. Inheritance duty is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. Tangible assets such as copyright. 17. accountant . Your tax credit is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax.

health . In Britain. British 12. A tax _____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. allowance 9. Gross _____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. returner 4. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. national _____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. In a tax _____ you give information about what you earn every year. Account _____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not p aid. admittance 11. Accounting _____ are a dozen or so concepts. angel 5. Excise _____ is tax raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks.3. A trade _____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. norms 7. In Britain and New Zealand. the _____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. Cash _____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in t ime. unpaid 6. surplus 8. income 10.

A ____ journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Dead 18. _____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. The _____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Abstract 15. Your tax _____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. tax 2. Corporate 17. _____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Excise 19. tax-free 20. trademark et c. A direct ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. allowance 1. Your personal _____ is the amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. Taxing 14. such as income tax.: sales . Value _____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. _____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that companies earn . _____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. Abstract 16.13.

A ____ account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. ____ control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. ____ cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. (US Engli sh) ítem 9. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. A ____ margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. Petty 6. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment.: investment 10. bean 16. A ____ counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. ____ -free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax.3. A line ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. A ____ margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. packet 8. current 13. Duty 12. Creative 15. gains 11. ____ accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. A ____ sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. profit 5. balance . A pay ____ is the amount of money a person earns. A pay ____ contains a person's pay. Credit 14. packet 7.: profit 4.

The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ debts. assets 5. accounting 11. bean 4. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. account 1. bad 2. A ____ sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. My employer will pay for it. gains 6. A ____ counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. I can put this lunch on my expense ____ . current 9. balance 3. False ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Creative 8. A ____ account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. (US English) item . The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ debts. accounting 20. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. assets 19. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. I can put this lunch on my expense ____. investment or: expenditure 7. A line ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a comp any. ____ accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. bad 18. account 10. False ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money.17. My employer will pay for it.

Petty cash . profit 13.12. tax 20. A ____ margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. A pay ____ is the amount of money a person earns. Petty 16. Capital investment 4. ____ cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. ____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. A pay ____ contains a person's pay. ____-free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. ____ control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money Credit 19. packet 14. Creative accounting 5. ____ is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items.: profit 17. A direct ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. False accounting 3. A ____ journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. such as income tax .: Duty 1. sales 18. ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. A ____ margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deduc ted. ____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. packet or: check 15. Credit control 2.

(US Engli sh) line item 20. pay packet 17. My employer will pay for it. current account . I can put this lunch on my ____ . A ____ is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. A ____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. profit margin 14. A ____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. balance sheet 19. ____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. A ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. A ____ is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. A ____ (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns little profit and to which you have quick access. Duty-free 7.: expense account 11. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ . profit margin 12. direct tax 13. ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. bean counter 18. A ____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. A ____ is the amount of money a person earns. such as income tax. ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business.6. Capital assets 8. A ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. Capital gains 9. pay packet 16. bad debts 10. A ____ is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. sales journal 15.

A ____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. A current ____ (US checking ___) is a bank account which usually earns little interest and to which you have quick access. A sales ____ is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. control 6. cash 5. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. direct 9. A bean ____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. My employer will pay for it. ____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. assets 4. Duty. expense 10. Credit ____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. account 2. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad ____ . journal 15. debts 8. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. I can put this lunch on my ____ account. A ____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. Petty ____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. Creative ____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really h appened to it.1. gains 13.: accounting 3. (US . counter 7. investment 14. free 12. False 11.____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. such as income tax.

A profit account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. A current account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. A profit ____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. 5. A pay packet is the amount of money a person earns. 7. sheet 1. A balance ____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A company sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts A balance sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A profit ____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. A pay box is an envelope containing a person's pay. A bean counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. pay 20. 3. A profit margin is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted.: A profit margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. A line cost is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a compa ny. A pay packet is an envelope containing a person's pay. margin 18. A ____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns.English) line 16. A profit rate is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. A coin counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. (US English) 4. 6. A ____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. A profit costs is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. A salary packet is the amount of money a person earns. 8. . (US English) A line item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 2.: pay 19. margin 17.

Duty-less goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. I can put this lunch on my expense box. 14. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad debts. such as income tax. A direct tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 13. 12. such as income ta x.or: A wage packet is the amount of money a person earns. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of wrong debts. Capital gains are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 10. Credit check systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. My employer will pay for it. 9. 11. A sales ledger is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Capital profits are profits made by selling buildings or machines. Capital investment is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Capital assets are the buildings and machines owned by a business. Credit control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. or: A sales book is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Petty money is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap ite ms. Wrong accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Duty-free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. Petty cash is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. My employer will pay for it. or: Capital expenditure is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. . Capital interest is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Selective accounting hides what has really happened. 15. 16. 18. Creative accounting hides what has really happened. False accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. I can put this lunch on my expense account. 17. 19. A sales journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Capital goods are the buildings and machines owned by a business. 20. An indirect tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government.

bank 7. assets . Capital _____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. A profit _____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. wage 9. writer 3. book 6. A balance _____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A sales _____ is the book which contain a list of all company sales arranged by date. interest 4. A _____ account (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns low interest and to which you have quick access. A bean _____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. A _____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's earnings. A _____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns.1. A profit _____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducte d. document 2. (US English) queue 8. wins 11. fee 10. A _____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a com pany. Capital _____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. gain 5.

A ledger ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. Creative _____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. Capital _____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. . _____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. fail 16. Petty _____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap item s. I can put this lunch on my _____ account. booking 14. costs 17. Duty-_____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. Bad 20. bank note 18. A direct 1. Credit _____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. check 15. such as income tax. _____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. costs 13. A management ____ is a person who advices companies on how to make profit. clerk 2. profit 19. accountant 3. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad _____.12. A personal ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are subjected to tax. My employer will pay for it.

In Britain and New Zealand. pa tent etc. Cash ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in ti me. This tax can be reclaime d by retailers. trademark. such as copyright. In Britain. A tax ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. Gross ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. income 12.: Added 16. In a tax ____ you give information about what you earn every year. Accounting ____ are a dozen or so concepts. . Excise ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. A ____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. flow 10. the ____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. A trade ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them creditor 6. payable 9. national ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who ar e too old or ill to work. fiscal 7. ____ assets can only be turned into money with difficulty. insurance 15. principles 8. inspector or: man 5. return 13.: Inland 14. conventions or doctrines generally observed i n accounting. Accounts ____ are sums of money owed by a company such as invoices received but not pa id.allowance 4. duty 11. Value ____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services.

____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Your tax ____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. Indirect 18. Income 20.Intangible 17. allowance . ____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. ____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. Inheritance 19.

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS .

I want to change some dollars/euros/pounds.. Here is my card. Can you change this into .Tiene/Tienes (formal/informal) un catálogo? Do you have a catalog? Tengo una cita con ... Puedo probármelo? Can I try it on? Puedo probarlo? Can I try it? Dónde están los vestidores? Where is the fitting room? Está demasiado largo It's too long Está demasiado corto It's too short Está demasiado apretado Puedo pagar en efectivo? Can I pay cash? Puedo pagar con tarjeta? Can I pay by credit card? Acepta?/Aceptas? (formal/informal) Do you accept . Cuánto cobra/cobras (formal/informal) de comisión? How much commission do you charge? Quiero cambiar algunos dólares/euros/libras... ? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) cambiar estos cheques de viajero? Can you change these traveler's checks? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) cambiar esto a . Cuánto cuesta la entrada? How much is the entrance fee? Cuál es el precio por día? How much does it cost by day? Cuál es el precio por hora? How much does it cost by hour? Cuál es el precio por semana? How much does it cost by week? Es gratis? Is it free? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) ayudarme? Can you help me? Puedo ayudarle/ayudarte? (formal/informal) Can I help you? Qué le/te (formal/informal) gustaría? What would you like? Qué está/estás (formal/informal) buscando? What are you looking for? Sólamente estoy viendo I'm just browsing | I'm just looking around Me gusta este I like this one Me gustan estos pantalones I like these trousers/pants Me gusta esta playera I like this t-shirt Me gusta esta chaqueta I like this jacket Me gusta esta blusa I like this blouse Me gusta este traje I like this suit Me gustan estos lentes I like these glasses Me gustan estos zapatos I like these shoes Busco ... Cuál es la tasa de cambio? What is the exchange rate? Cuál es la tasa de inflación? What is the inflation rate? Dónde puedo cambiar dinero? Where can I change my money? Dónde puedo sacar fotocopias? Where can I make photocopies? Dónde está el banco más cercano? Where is the nearest bank? Dónde debo firmar? Where should I sign? Puede reparar esto? Can you repair this? Dónde trabajas? Where do you work? Cómo te ganas la vida? What do you do for a living? Soy maestro I am a teacher Soy estudiante I am a student Soy un autoempleado I am self-employed Trabajo en un restaurante I work in a restaurant Trabajo en un supermercado I work in a super market Trabajo en una tienda I work in a shop Soy médico I am a doctor/a physician ........... I'm looking for .. I have an appointment with ..? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) darme un costo aproximado? Can you give me an estimate of the cost? Acá tiene/tienes (formal/informal) mi tarjeta...

. de "World Trade Organization". I am size .It's too tight Está demasiado flojo It's too loose No me queda It doesn't fit Me queda muy bien It fits quite well Qué talla es/eres? (formal/informal) What size are you? Soy talla .. de "questions and answers". Organización Mundial del Comercio banquero especialista en inversiones abrev.. de "statistics". No entiendo estas tallas I don't understand these sizes Tiene uno más grande? Do you have a larger one? Tiene uno más pequeño? Do you have a smaller one? Me gusta el color I like the color No me gusta el color I don't like the color Tiene este en rojo/azul/amarillo/verde/morado/rosado? Do you have this in red/blue/yellow/green/purple/pink? Tiene uno más barato? Do you have a cheaper one? De qué está hecho? What is this made of? Soy psicólogo I am a psychologist Soy programador I am a programmer Soy ingeniero I am an engineer Soy mecánico I am a mechanic Soy escritor I am a writer Soy conductor I am a driver Soy actor / actriz I am an actor/an actress Soy trabajador social I am a social worker Soy político I am a politician Soy empleado I am employed English to e-biz new-media company flop stats WTO investment banker Q&A's Spanish negocios relacionados con internet empresa involucrada en los nuevos medios de comunicación negocio o producto que no ha tenido éxito abrev.. estadísticas abrev. preguntas y respuestas Origin / Proposed by BusinessWeek Forbes The Economist The Economist Forbes The Economist Forbes .

bulk up portal 1.activities-6-certificate .Jesus of Nazareth (El reino del cielo está adentro de usted y está fuera de usted.Oliver Wendell Holmes.that . Thomas Dewar (Las mentes son como los paracaídas .-drop2-slump 3-discharge.-decrease.rollof.withdrawal...-lossMr Xavier 4-form.the .are registered 4--certificate.of.registered 45--certificate..) **** .It is felt that a disciplined mind leads to happiness and an undisciplined mind leads to suffering.proves . .clients.where . mantener gran cantidad de mercancía en inventarios portal The Economist Mr Agustí Miralles cuenta propia 1 concerning self employment 2 on one's own Ms Claudia Hidalgo baja- 1-fall.) **** .inscription. una vez expandida por una nueva idea.withdrawalfrom ... nunca recuperá sus dimensiones originales.students.tax-paying .funcionan solamente cuando están abiertas.1 concerning employment by someone else or working for someone else 2 on behalf of someone else Ms Claudia Hidalgo apostilla alta-1 cuenta ajena . -etc.is .where .students.proves . entry.-retirement.service.) **** . Sr.-bodies-etc.the -roll.. and in fact it is said .Minds are like parachutes .into. .they only function when open. never regains its original dimensions.Your mind. annotation 1 admission..tax-paying .etc.active service. .The Kingdom of Heaven is inside you and it is outside you.active .ofretirement.clients.that . inclusion -2.footnote.new client...of. once stretched by a new idea. comprar en grandes cantidades 2. (Su mente.employee.from.employees.bodies-etc.activities-5-certificate .into ..the discharge-of..Garriga etc.entry.new .-3form.institutions.institutions.employees.

pueden cambiar los aspectos externos de sus vidas. .) **** .William James (El descubrimiento más grande de mi generación es que los seres humanos. AS WELL AS FOUR WORDS PROPOSED BY COLLABORATORS: I just read your report. y se ha dicho que traer disciplina a la mente de uno es la esencia de las enseñanzas de Buda. Acabo de leer tu informe.) **** .Larry Dossey (El jardín es una metáfora para la vida. He‟s a piece of work. She always gets things done.) THESE ARE A FEW TERMS FROM BUSINESSWEEK. cambiando las actitudes internas de sus mentes. Déjame que te diga que verdaderamente es un trabajo excelente. you drown by staying there. The good news is that: You don't know how great you can be! How much you can love! How much you can accomplish! And what your potential is! Anne Frank (Cada uno tiene adentro de él un pedazo de buenas noticias.Dalai Lama (Se nota que una mente disciplinada lleva a la felicidad y una mente indisciplinada lleva al sufrimiento. entonces usted estará muerto.Edwin Louis Cole (Usted no se ahoga cayendo en el agua. . Las buenas noticias son que usted no sabe ¡Cuan grande usted puede ser!¡Cuánto usted puede amar! ¡Cuánto usted puede lograr! ¡Y cuál es su potencial!) **** . con connotación negativa.Henri Kaiser (Los problemas son solamente oportunidades en ropa de trabajo. FORBES AND THE ECONOMIST. .Problems are only opportunities in work clothes.) **** .that bringing about discipline within one's mind is the essence of the Buddha's teaching. by changing the inner attitudes of their minds. Let me tell you it is truly an excellent piece of work. 2) Alguien complicado. and gardening is a symbol of the spiritual path. He just came and started giving orders. . Contexto coloquial: Varios significados: 1) Alguien extraordinario. She‟s a real piece of work.Uncertainty can lead to paralysis. He‟s a piece of work.) **** . no sé si vendrá de ahí.You don't drown by falling in the water.The garden is a metaphor for life.The greatest discovery of my generation is that human beings. Una buena traducción que he encontrado para ambas opciones es „ser la leche‟… Lo dejo ahí . . He just came and started giving orders.Everyone has inside of him a piece of good news.) **** . y el cultivar un huerto es un símbolo de la trayectoria espiritual. can change the outer aspects of their lives. usted se ahoga permaneciendo allí.Jim Citrin (La incertidumbre puede llevar a la parálisis. Una buena traducción sería „es la leche‟ (también en significado negativo y con connotación de alguien „complicado”) I do not know how she does it. Y si usted se vuelve un indeciso. A veces decimos en castellano que alguien „es un pieza‟. And if you become indecisive you're dead..

sino también una „visita‟. payroll: Nómina Association of employers: patronal Trade union: sindicato Staff cutback: Reducción de plantilla Personnel cutback: Reducción de personal Labour reform: Reforma laboral Minimum wage: Salario mínimo Rise in unemployment: subida del paro Fall in unemployment: bajada del paro Black market: Trabajo negro . „Cold-calling‟ significa llamar/visitar a un cliente potencial. sin que éste lo solicite. le sirvan: Unemployment rate: Tasa de desempleo Social Security contribution: cotización a la Seguridad Social Company closure: Cierre de empresa Reason for dismissal: Causa de despido Be on the dole: Cobrar el paro Contract for tenure: Contrato indefinido Permanent employment: Empleo fijo Collective redundancy: Despido colectivo Unemployed: Desempleado Termination of contract: Rescisión de contrato End of contract: Extinción del contrato Severance pay: finiquito Reduced day: Jornada reducida Wages.COLD-CALLING (REALIZAR LLAMADAS/VISITAS COMERCIALES NO SOLICITADAS) He aquí una expresión de difícil traducción y muy usada en el ámbito de los negocios. He recogido una lista de términos comunes sobre ámbito. Un „cold email‟ es un correo no solicitado. Las ventas a domicilio de un típico comercial (door-todoor salesman) sería un ejemplo de „cold-calling‟. páginas amarillas. pero enviado con fines comerciales. Aprovecho la ocasión para recordar que „call‟ no sólo es llamada en inglés. Así pues. Espero que si alguien está buscando trabajo. se suele hacer „coldcalling‟ tras obtener contactos de bases de datos. Esta expresión se usa también para correos electrónicos. listas comerciales… UNEMPLOYMENT (PARO) Desgraciadamente esta palabra y términos relacionados están muy de moda.

También se habla de „consumer complaints‟. Se hizo „famosa‟ durante el momento de crisis hipotecaria estadounidenses y ahora. literalmente. más recientemente. * Ámbito jurídico: en este caso. El término con la preposición „out‟ es ahora parte del lenguaje económico-financiero y significa „rescate financiero‟ (o „ayuda financiera‟) y en algunos casos. La definición que da el Cambridge es la siguiente: When someone helps a person or organization that is in difficulty. * Ámbito médico: en este campo. con la crisis griega. quejas de los consumidores. se trata de una „reclamación‟ o „demanda‟ y suele ser de derecho civil (aunque no siempre). „Rent to own‟ significa. o una dolencia o síntoma de carácter „leve‟. usually by giving or lending them money. Se trata de una de esas expresiones que si queremos traducirlas al inglés habrá que aprenderla tal cual. AFECCIÓN) He aquí una palabra que puede tener distintos significados según el ámbito donde se aplique: * Ámbito comercial/empresarial: se trata de una „queja‟. especialmente el financiero. RECLAMACIÓN. se recomienda no usar „queja‟ en el ámbito médico. esta palabra es cada vez más frecuente. ¡por otra parte! COMPLAINT (QUEJA.RENT-TO-OWN (ALQUILER CON OPCIÓN A COMPRA) Se trata de un término para referirse al „leasing‟ (arrendamiento) inmobiliario. BAILOUT (RESCATE FINANCIERO) A raíz de ciertas noticias recientes. en función del contexto. „alquiler para luego ser el propietario‟. demandante. hace referencia a una „afección‟. „plan de rescate financiero‟. se deriva „complainant‟. De este término. Un cliente puede presentar una queja („file a complaint‟) ante el departamento de una empresa. Al traducirse. que será el denunciante. querellante. ya que como se observa sería aplicar una traducción más propia de otros ámbitos. Example: A government bailout . por ejemplo. tan de moda en algunos ámbitos. Esta palabra procede del contexto legal („bail‟ es la típica fianza que alguien paga para sacar a una persona de la cárcel). sin intentar traducir palabra por palabra… nuestra tendencia natural. aunque en español la estructura usada es otra.

Creo que se emplea más en Reino Unido también. habilitar. „disempower‟: „restar autoridad‟ o „debilitar‟ en algún contexto. Me aparece ahora en el contexto de „patient empowerment‟ (pero podría aparecer en el ámbito de negocios también). marketing y moda. Significa „dar poder‟. Otra expresión equivalente: „to be on trend‟.EL CHISTE DE LA SEMANA… HOW ABOUT IF… ? TREND RIGHT (A LA MODA) „Que se ajusta a las tendencias actuales‟ o bien „a la moda‟. Otras sugerencias para „empower‟: facultar. CAPACITACIÓN) Se usa esta palabra en muchos contextos. Usado en contexto de negocios. Eso es exactamente lo que significa este término. . Abogo más por „responsabilización‟ o „corresponsabilización de los pacientes incluso‟. EMPOWERMENT (RESPONSABILIZACIÓN. Y para su contrario. He leído „empoderamiento‟. autorizar. término que chirría en mis oídos pero se usa cada vez más. también se emplea con la expresión „to be on trend right‟. capacitar.

Otra palabra usada para referirse a las actas es „minutes‟ y a veces para diferenciar ambos términos. sistemáticamente. globalmente. En sentido figurado. La iniciativa cuenta con apoyo generalizado/a todos los niveles. En contexto empresarial y legal. que algo falla o no cuadra: „something doesn‟t add up‟. esta expresión significa: „happening or having an effect on people at every level and in every area‟. sería „to balance the accounts/the books‟.BALANCE SHEET (BALANCE DE SITUACIÓN) Y más… Asset: activo Liability: pasivo Gross: Bruto (Gross income/revenue: renta/ingresos brutos) PROCEEDINGS (ACTAS DE UNA REUNIÓN) „Proceedings‟ es una de aquellas palabras con múltiples significados. Ejemplo: The initiative has across-the-board support. prefiere reservarse „sesión/acto‟ para „proceedings‟ y dejar actas para „minutes‟. en todos los casos/ámbitos. Across the board (en su totalidad) Según el diccionario Cambridge. Un sinfín de posibilidades para expresar lo siguiente: que abarca todo aquello que la palabra que modifica o complementa. „something‟s wrong here‟. Es decir: en general. en su totalidad. suele referirse a las actas que se toman en una reunión. en términos generales. Aquí os dejo CUADRAR LAS CUENTAS (BALANCE THE ACCOUNTS/THE BOOKS) ¿Cómo se dice „cuadrar las cuentas‟ en inglés? En sentido literal. es decir. que los números no salen. . es decir.

Algunos términos… Tax avoidance: evasión fiscal Tax concession: beneficio fiscal Tax haven: paraíso fiscal Raise taxes: subir impuestos Tax return: Declaración de la renta File/Prepare your taxes: Preparar/presentar la declaración GO BELLY UP (ESTIRAR LA PATA) He leído que esta expresión viene de cuando un animalillo muere y queda panza arriba (traducción literal de esta expresión). claro) en el sentido de „retener‟ (impuestos). y como metáfora. También puede significar „fracasar‟. hay que ver en qué contexto se emplea (me refiero a traducirla correctamente) pero desde luego. . La terminología tributaria es muy amplia pero también muy necesaria de conocer. Es bastante claro y mediante el contexto. A partir de ahí. pero viéndolo también me gustaría señalar algunas palabras muy útiles en todos los contextos… Funding: financiación Investment: inversión Profitable stores: tiendas rentables Government bailout: ayuda gubernamental (para sacar a alguien de un apuro) Federal loans: préstamos (créditos) federales The stock market: la bolsa Tumble: caer Wipe Out: erradicar Drop: descenso (A drop in revenues) Revenues: Ingresos Lay off: despedir Company performance: rendimiento/desempeño de la compañía Cutbacks: recortes Union: sindicato Staff: personal TAX WITHHOLDING (RETENCIÓN DE IMPUESTOS) „To withhold‟ se usa sobre todo en economía (y en derecho tributario.BANKRUPCY (QUIEBRA) Os invito a ver este interesante vídeo sobre la situación de GM. Es un término muy habitual y va bien conocerlo Otro término relacionado es: „tax withholding allowances‟ (deducciones en las retenciones de impuestos). „estira la pata‟. Por supuesto. ha pasado a emplearse esta frase para referirse en el ámbito de negocios a una empresa que „muere‟. es fácil conocer el significado clave del vocabulario. cada vez se ve más en prensa. „cierra sus puertas‟ o coloquialmente.

En muchas ocasiones se usa en inglés. Otra expresión de difícil traducción sería: Effective “bottom line” decision making: Toma de decisiones con impacto en los resultados… En sentido general. „Crunch‟ significa „crujido‟ en inglés. no confío en ella CREDIT CRUNCH (CONTRACCIÓN DEL CRÉDITO) Hay muchas formas de traducir esta expresión: contracción del crédito. . „Bottom Line‟ tiene un significado específico en el ámbito de los negocios (resultados económicos finales. crisis de crédito.Ejemplos: Roubini Says Stocks Will Drop as Banks Go Belly Up So more and more industries are likely to go belly-up… Nota: Por cierto. tener ganancias. „Balance final‟ creo que expresa bastante bien el concepto que quiere dar a entender el inglés. así como las indicaciones o recomendaciones que hay que seguir. el resultado final). Este término ha gozado de mucha popularidad en la prensa… He aquí un vídeo que explica el concepto. la imagen de la foto no sé si es un pájaro o un avión. Se incluyen aquí características del producto o propuesta. en cifras positivas). beneficios o ganancias netas) y también un significado general (lo importante de algo. Se trata de la información previa del cliente a la empresa. BOTTOM LINE (BALANCE FINAL) He aquí un término que suele dar problemas al traducir. Como opuesto habría: don‟t keep the bottom line red (en números rojos). Otra acepción es la de „reunión informativa‟ que se da en una empresa respecto a un proyecto o producto. „Keep the bottom line black‟ significa mantener los resultados en negro (es decir. en definitiva. reducción crediticia. podemos usar esta expresión como equivalente de „Lo importante aquí…/En resumen…/En definitiva…‟ (Traducción libre): The bottom line is I don‟t trust her Lo importante aquí es que no confío en ella En resumen. pero sí que está „belly up‟ BRIEF O BRIEFING (INSTRUCCIONES) Otro término que a menudo da problemas.

. lo que contrastaría con otro término „Nearshoring‟ (deslocalización pero más próxima. se refiere a una deslocalización externa. dentro del mismo huso horario). parece que el „offshoring‟ está de moda. leyendo un interesante libro y es la primera que me ha venido a la cabeza. como sugiere el prefijo off-.OFFSHORING (DESLOCALIZACIÓN) Vaya palabreja he elegido para empezar este blog… pero la encontré ayer. algo que podríamos traducir como „externalización‟. En tiempos de crisis. También se le llama „outsourcing internacional‟. término que aparece a menudo en prensa. „Offshoring‟.

paying off: amortización Amount: monto de una deuda Analysis: análisis Anti trust laws: leyes antimonopólicas Article: artículo Assembly: asamblea Assets: activos At sight: a la vista Auction: subasta pública Auditory: auditoría Aunvity: anvalidar .VOCABULARY Acceptance: aceptación Account: cuenta Accountant: contador Accounting: contabilidad Accounts payable: cuentas por pagar Accounts receivable: cuentas por cobrar Accrued assets: activos acumulados Accrued: causado Acquisition costs: costos de adquisición Acquisition: adquisición o compra Actives: activos ADR: American depository receipt Advising bank: banco avisor Amortization.

. ACT OF GOD : (acte de Dieu) caso fortuito. intermediario. AGENT : Agente. AIRPORT OF DEPARTURE : Aeropuerto de salida AIRPORT OF DESTINATION : Aeropuerto de destino. ALL LINE INSURER : Asegurador autorizado para emitir toda clase de seguros. ACTUAL WEIGHT : (A / W) peso real. AFORO : Arqueo. AIR MAIL TRANSFER : Transferencia de fondos por correo aéreo. ADVISE of shipment : aviso de embarque. ACTUAL FAULT : Culpa real. ALEATORY CONTRACT : Contrato aleatorio. ADVISING BANK : Banco avisador. capacidad. AIR WAY BILL : (AWB) Guía aérea. ADVISE of dispatch : aviso de expedición o despacho. AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE : Carta de transporte aéreo. o representante. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION : Información contable. AGAINST DELIVERY : Contra entrega. AFTER DERRICK POST : Poste de carga de popa. AGAINST ALL RISKS : Contra todo riesgo. La totalidad del saldo pendiente de pagos será exigible cuando cualquiera de los vencimientos deje de ser atendido por el deudor. ADVANCED LETTER OF CREDIT : Carta de crédito anticipada. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT : Acuse de recibo. ADVANCED PAYMENT : Pago anticipado. ADVISE : Aviso. ALL RISK CONTRACT : Seguro contra todo riesgo. AD VALOREM : Ad valorem. ADMIRALTY LAW : Derecho marítimo. ACCIDENT : Accidente.Automatic cash: cajero automático Automatic cashing: cobro automatizado Average price: precio promedio AWL: airway lading: conocimiento de embarque aéreo ABOARD : A bordo. ACCEPTANCE : Aceptación. ALTERATION : Agravación material/ alteración. AGREEMENT : Acuerdo / contrato. ALLOWED : Permitido. ABOVE PAR : Por encima de la par. ACCEPTED FOR CARRIAGE : Aceptado para transporte. AFTER PERPENDICULAR : Perpendicular de popa. ACTS OF PUBLIC ENEMIES : Actos de los enemigos públicos. ACTS OF WAR : Actos bélicos. ALL CHARGES TO GOODS : Todos los gastos a cargo del vendedor. AIRCRAFT : Avión. por avalúo. ADDITIONAL PREMIUM : (A/P) prima adicional / suplemento de prima. ACCIDENTAL DEATH : Muerte por accidente. ACTUAL CASH VALUE : Valor efectivo real. ADVISE of arrival : aviso de llegada. AFFREIGHTMENT : Fletamento. ACCELERATION CLAUSE : Cláusula que frecuentemente se usa en los Estados Unidos para los contratos que prevén pagos escalonados. ADHESION : Adhesión.

AVERAGE ADJUSTER: Liquidador. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF INSURED VALUE : Ajuste de índice variable. premeditado. AVERAGE : Avería. Particular : Avería particular. ARBITRATION AWARD : Laudo arbitral. ASSURER : Asegurador. ARBITRATION : Arbitraje. AUTOMATIC COVERAGE IN CUSTOMS : Cobertura automática en Aduana. ANTICANCELLATION LAWS : Leyes que restringen el derecho de los aseguradores a cancelar pólizas. ARBITRATION CLAUSE : Cláusula de arbitraje. limitando generalmente su responsabilidad. AVERAGE . ASSIGNS : Derechohabientes. B/L: bill of lading: conocimiento de embarque Back to back: crédito documentario Balance of payments: balanza de pagos Balance of payments: balanza de pagos Balance of trade: balanza comercial Balance sheet: balance general Balance: saldo Balanced fore card: cuadro integrado de costo Balloon payment: pago al final Banker's acceptance: aceptacion bancaria Bankruptcy: banca rota Banning: banca . AMENDMENT : Modificación. AUTOMATIC REINSTATEMENT INSURED LIMIT : Cláusula de reposición automática de suma asegurada. ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS : Cesión del producto del crédito. AS IS : Tal cual. AMOUNT : Monto. AUTOMATIC PREMIUM LOAN CLAUSE : Cláusula de préstamo automático.AMBIGUITY : Ambigüedad. AMERICAN LLOYDS : Forma de organización autorizada en algunos estados en la cual sus miembros toman el riesgo como particulares. Ral : Avería gruesa. ARSON : Incendio intencional. ANNEX : Anexo. ASHORE : En tierra. AUTOMATIC COVERAGE CLAUSE : Cláusula de cobertura automática. ASSIGNABLE CREDIT : Crédito cedible. ANCHOR : Ancla. ASSURED : Asegurado. APPLICANT : Ordenante. to ASSESS THE RISK : Apreciar el riesgo. ANNUITY RENT : Seguro de renta. AVERAGE . AT SIGHT : A la vista. en el estado en que se encuentra. to AMEND : Modificar. ASSIGNMENT : Cesión. ASSESSMENT : Valuación.

BARREL : Barril. Remitting bank : banco remitente. BAG : Bolsa. B. tendencia Bid: oferta Bill of change: letra de cambio Bill: cuenta Blue chip company: gran compañía Bond: bono Book keeping: contabilidad Borrowing: préstamo Bottom price: precio mínimo Brand: marca de fabrica Breadwinner: asalariado Break down: análisis Break even point: punto de equilibrio Breakage: rotura Budget: presupuesto Bulk: masa. BARRATRY : Baratería. saco. Claiming bank : banco peticionario. BANK TO BANK REIMBURSEMENT AGREEMENT : Acuerdo de reembolso entre bancos. BARTER : Trueque. Correspondent Bank : banco corresponsal / banco pagador / banco negociador. Drawee bank : banco librado. Issuing bank : banco emisor. BALE : Fardo o bala (para algodón). Transfering bank : banco transferente. BANK RATE : Tasa de interés bancario. Reimbursing bank : banco reembolsador.A. : Recargo por combustible.Barter: trueque Basis of assessment: base gravable Be in debt: estar en deuda. BAILEE: Comodatario. adeudar Bear market: mercado bursátil en declinación Bench mark: punto de comparación Bench marking: proceso de comparar continuamente una organización con líderes del mundo. Nominated bank : banco designado. BARGE : Barcaza. BAREBOAT CHARTER : Fletamento a casco desnudo. BARGE-CARRYING SHIP : Embarcación de recreo. Bias: sesgo. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS : Balanza de pagos. .F. BANK CHARGES : Gastos bancarios. BANKER'S ACCEPTANCE : Aceptación bancaria. BANK : Banco. volumen Bull market: mercado bursátil en alza Business card: tarjeta de negocios Buyer: comprador Buying power: poder adquisitivo BAD STOWAGE : Arrumaje defectuoso / defectuosa distribución de la carga. Confirming bank : banco confirmante.

Long bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque largo. BOW : Proa. BLUE PETER : Bandera de despedida. in bond : en depósito. Stale bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque demorado o vencido. oficina de reservas. BEAM : Manga. BID : Oferta. BLANKET POLICY : Póliza universal o general. BOOM : Pescante de grúa. Dirty bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque sucio. Primary beneficiary : beneficiario primario. BOTTOMRY CONTRACT : Contrato de préstamo a la gruesa. (BOTH DATES INCLUDED) : Ambas fechas comprendidas. BREAKAGE : Rotura. Common carrier bill of lading : carta de porte de un transportista público. BRANCH : Sucursal. BID BOND : Garantía de oferta y cumplimiento. BERTH TERMS : Términos de muelle. BINDER : Certificado de Cobertura. BENEFICIARY : Beneficiario. Inland bill of lading : documento que cubre todas las formas de transporte terrestre por líneas regulares. BOW ANCHOR : Ancla de proa. BILL OF EXCHANGE : Letra de cambio. BELOW PAR : Por debajo de la par. BOND OF INDEMNITY : Fianza. BLANK BACK : Dorso en blanco. adjudicación. First beneficiary : primer beneficiario. BOOKING OFFICE : Despacho de pasajes. Short bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque corto. BRIDGE : Puente de navegación. BOOKING NUMBER : Número de identificación o reserva. BLOCKAGE : Bloqueo. BELLIGERENT POWER : Potencia beligerante. BOND. Second beneficiary : segundo beneficiario. Through bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque directo. Direct bill of lading : conocimiento sin transbordo. BOARDING : Abordaje.D. Blank bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque en blanco. Non negotiable bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque no negociable. Clean bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque limpio. caución. Contingent beneficiary : beneficiario secundario.I. Negotiable bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque negociable. BERTH : Muelle. BOW THRUSTER : Hélice transversal.B. BORROWER : Prestatario. BILL OF LADING (B/L) : Conocimiento de embarque. BLADINGS : Abreviatura de «bill of lading». On board bill of lading : conocimiento a bordo. . BONA FIDE HOLDER : Tenedor de buena fe.

seguro y flete Circulating capital: capital circulante Claim: reclamo Clean credit: crédito sin necesidad de garantías Clearing: compensación Client: cliente Coaching: asesoría personal COD: cash on deliver: pago contra entrega COD: Cash on delivery : entrega contra reembolso Collateral: activo dado en prenda Collect: cobro en el destino Comissions: comisiones Commitment fee: comisión de compromiso Commodity: mercadería Company: compañía . C&F: valor incluyendo costo y flete Capital flight: fuga de capital Capital gains: utilidades de capital Capital goods: bienes de capital Capital market: mercado de capital Capital rationing: racionamiento de capital Capital stock: acciones de capital Capital: capital Carnings: ganancias Carrier: transportador marítimo Cash balance: saldo de caja Cash cows: vacas lecheras Cash flow audience: flujo de caja del inversionista Cash flow: flujo de caja Cash on hand: efectivo en caja Cash payment: pago al contado Cash: contado Ceiling price: precio tope CEO: chief executive officer: presidente Change: cambio Check: cheque CIF: valor incluyendo costo. BURIAL INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos de sepelio. BROKERAGE : Corretaje. BULK : Masa. BULK CARGO : Carga a granel. BULKHEAD : Escotilla BURGLARY : Robo. volumen. BUY-BACK : Convenio de recompra. BROKER : Agente.BROCHURE : Publicación / folleto. productor. BROKERAGE FEE : Comisión de corretaje. intermediario. BUSINESS INTERRUPTION : Pérdida de beneficios. BULBOUS BOW : Proa bulbo. BUYER : Comprador.

Carriage by sea : transporte marítimo. cargamento.F. CARRIER : Transportador. porteador. transportista. CAN : Bombona. Carriage by land : transporte terrestre. CARRIAGE : Transporte. CAPITAL ASSET : Bien de capital. CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT : Ley de Transporte Marítimo de Mercaderías. to CALL AT : Hacer escala. CARGO SHIP : Barco de carga. Carriage by air : transporte aéreo. CARTAGE : Transporte efectuado por medio de camiones. CARGO : Carga. : Recargo por diferencia de cambio. . CABLE TRANSFER : Transferencia por cable. CAPTURE : Apresamiento. C. CARGO TERMINAL : Terminal de carga. tocar (puertos). CASE : Caja de metal o madera.A. CARTOON : Caja de cartón.Competition: competencia Competitiveness: competitividad Compound interest: interés compuesto Concern: compañía Conciliation: conciliación Consolidated debt: deuda consolidada Consultation: consulta Consumer goods: bienes de consumo Consumer price index: índice de precios al consumo Consumer: consumidor Consumption: consumo Contribution founds: aportación de fondos Convertibility: convertibilidad Cost benefit ratio: razón beneficio costo Cost of living adjustment: ajustes por inflación Cost price: precio de costo Cost volume profit analysis: análisis de sensibilidad Cost: costo Counter trade: comercio Counter trade: trueque Coupon: desprendible Credit card: tarjeta de crédito Credit: crédito Creditor: acreedor Currency: circulante Currency: moneda Current account: cuenta corriente Current account: cuenta corriente Custom house: aduana Customer: cliente Customers duty: derechos arancelarios CABLE SHIP : Barco cablero.

CASH IN SAFE : Dinero en caja. Import charges : gastos de importación. INSURANCE.R. Charges at origin : gastos en origen. CLAUSE : Cláusula. CHARTER PARTY : Póliza.P. CIVIL WAR : Guerra civil. CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE : Certfiicado de cobertura. Additional charges : gastos adicionales. contrato de fletamento. Ex-warehouse clause : cláusula ex-fábrica (ver anexo). CASH IN TRANSIT : Dinero en tránsito. Seguro y Flete) . CLAIM : Denuncia. CHARTER : Buque que se fleta por un tiempo determinado y se arrenda en su totalidad para el transporte de personas o mercaderías. la custodia o el control del asegurado.C.) : libre de apresuramiento. Both to blame and collision clause : cláusula de colisión por culpa concurrente.). CHARGES : Gastos. & S. cargador. Discount charges : gastos de descuento. Cancellation clause : cláusula de rescisión. Weight charge : cargo por peso. General average clause : cláusula de avería gruesa. Charges at destination : gastos en destino. Deviation clause : cláusula de cambio de ruta. Continuation clause : cláusula de prórroga de cobertura.A. FREIGHT) : Cláusula CIF (Costo. Minimum charges : gastos mínimos. reclamo de indemnización de siniestro. Free of capture. CLAUSE (COST. Ex-mill Clause : cláusula de cambio de ruta.) : libre de avería particular (L. CIVIL COMMOTIONS : Conmociones civiles. to CHECK : Revisar. Ex-works clause : cláusula ex-fábrica (ver anexo).P. & C. CHARTERER : Fletador. C. CENTER LINE : Línea de crujía.S. Care. tumultos y conmociones civiles.A.CASH : Efectivo / contado. custody or control exclusion clause : cláusula que excluye respon sabilidad del asegurador sobre los bienes que se encuentren bajo el cuidado. Cesser clause : cláusula en la que se establece la cesación de responsa bilidad.C.) clause : libre de huelgas. Free of particular average clause (F. Free of strikes. CHECK : Cheque. CENTER PROPELLER : Hélice central.I. apoderamiento. clause (F. CIVIL STRIFE : Contienda civil. riots and civil commotions (F. Constructive total loss clause: cláusula de pérdida total virtual. Contestable clause : cláusula de rescisión. to CHART : Fletar. CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN : Certificado de origen. Salvage charges : gastos de recupero.seizure. Consular Charges : gastos consulares. etc. etc. Export charges : gastos de exportación.F. CASK : Tonel. .

COLLISION : Choque. COMPULSORY INSURANCE : Seguro obligatorio. Seaworthiness Clause : cláusula de navegabilidad. CLEARANCE FOR CUSTOMS : Despacho aduanero. CLEAN COLLECTION : Cobro simple.Institute Cargo clause : cláusula para seguros de carga. CONSIGNEE : Consignatario. COMPENSATION : Indemnización. CONDITIONS: Condiciones. to COLLECT : Cobrar. Unseaworthiness conditions : condiciones de innavegabilidad. COMMODITY RESTRICTIONS : Restricciones a las mercaderías. destinatario. COLLISION PARTIAL LOSS : Daños parciales por accidente. COASTING TRADE : Comercio de cabotaje. Reasonable dispatch clause : cláusula de prontitud razonable. CONFIRMING BANK : Banco confirmador. CLEAN TRANSPORT DOCUMENT : Documento de transporte limpio. CLEARANCE : Despacho. CLEARING : Compensación. COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS : Documentos comerciales. COMBINED TRANSPORT : Transporte combinado o mixto. CLIPPER SHIP : Navío rápido. Lien Clause : cláusula en la que se establece el derecho de retención sobre las mercaderías. CLEARANCE FORMS : Formularios de despacho. COLLISION TOTAL LOSS : Daños totales por accidente. Coverage conditions : condiciones de cobertura. COLLECTION : Cobro. CLEAN ON BOARD : Libre a bordo. CONCEALMENT : Reticencia. Warehouse to Warehouse Clause : cláusula de depósito a depósito. COINSURANCE : Coseguro. CONSIGNMENT : Expedición. COALER SHIP : Barco carbonero. Paramount Clause : cláusula Paramount o cláusula principal. CONFERENCE : Conferencia. COLLISION DUE NEGLIGENCE : Abordaje culpable. COMMODITIES : Mercaderías. CONFERENCE LINE VESSEL : Buque que pertenece a una Compañía que forma parte de la Conferencia. CLEARING AGREEMENTS : Acuerdos comerciales suscriptos entre dos países por los cuales se compran cantidades específicas de productos por montos determinados por un tiempo establecido. Seaworthiness conditions : condiciones de navegabilidad. . abordaje. COASTER SHIP : Barco de cabotaje. CLEAN DOCUMENT : Documento limpio. COMPENSATORY RIGHT : Derecho compensatorio. CONFERENCE'S TARIFF : Tarifa de la Conferencia. Unavoidable collision : Abordaje fortuito o casual.

20' tandard container : contenedor clásico de 20 pies.) : contenedor completo. CRANE : Grúa. granelero. cubrir. to COVER : Mantener cubierto. CONSULATE : Consulado. CONTAINER SHIP : Buque portacontenedor. COSTS OF RECOVERY : Gastos de recupero. to CONSOLIDATE : Consolidar. Car container : contenedor para vehículos. CREDIT : Crédito. CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY : Responsabilidad contractual. COUNTER TRADE : Intercambio compensado / compensación bilateral. CONSORTIUM : Consorcio.L. CONSOLIDATION : Consolidación. refrigerado. COUNTER PURCHASE : Compra compensada. CONSULAR CHARGES : Gastos consulares. Con-air container : cont. CONSULAR INVOICE : Factura Consular. Less than container load (L.C.C. CONVOY : Buque de pasajeros. . Reinforced container : contenedor reforzado. Dry bulk container : cont. COVERAGE : Cobertura. Insulated container : contenedor insulado (INS). Country of destination : país de destino. por conveniencia del armador o buque).F. Pier container : contenedor «pier» (contenedor llenado en zona portuaria con personal de estiba. CONTAINER : Contenedor. Full container load (F. Open top container : contenedor descubierto (OT). House container : contenedor «house» (llenado por cuenta y responsabilidad del tomador del flete).L. COUNTRY : País. Automatic coverage : cobertura automática. Cattle container : contenedor para ganado.CONSIGNOR : Comitente. CONSULTATION : Consulta / conferencia. Flat rack container : contenedor con plataformas con laterales.) : contenedor refrigerado (RF). CONSOLIDATOR : Consolidador. CRATE : Embalaje de tablas. COURIER : Mensajero. Country of origin : país de origen o procedencia.) : contenedor de grupaje. CONSTRUCTIVE TOTAL LOSS : Pérdida total virtual. CONTAINERISE : Embalar (carga general) en grandes recipientes para facilitar su transbordo. CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT : Contrato de fletamento. CRAFT : Embarcación menor. Reefer container (R. Superventilated container : contenedor superventilado (SPV).

Assignable credit : crédito cedible. CREDITOR : Acreedor. C. CUSTOMS DUTIES : Derechos de Aduana. CUSTOMER : Cliente. CURRENCY : Moneda (de un país). CUSTOMS UNIT : Unión Aduanera. Divisible credit : crédito divisible. CURRENT ACCOUNT : Cuenta Corriente. CLAUSE (CLAUSE COST AND FREIGHT) : Cláusula C. CUSTOMS WARRANT : Certificado de Aduana. Irrevocable credit : crédito irrevocable. CUSTOMARY RISKS : Riesgos corrientes. & F. CREDIT DATE : Fecha del crédito. CUSTOMS ENTRY FORM : Formulario de Declaración de Aduana. Pre-advised credit : crédito preavisado. Direct credit : crédito directo. (costo y flete) Data business: comercio electrónico Data cash: banca electrónica Deal: negocio Dealer: vendedor Debt limit: nivel de endeudamiento Debt: débito Decision: decisión Deck load: carga en cubierta Deck: cubierta Default: incumplimiento Deferred payment: pago a plazos Deferred: diferido Deficit: déficit Deflaction: deflación Delivery: entrega Demand: demanda Deposit: deposito Depreciation: depreciación .& F. Transmissible credit : crédito transmisible. Back to back credit : crédito subsidiario. CUSTOMS : Aduana. Revocable credit : crédito revocable. CREW : Tripulación. Indirect credit : crédito indirecto. Currency rate : tipo de cambio. CUSTOMS DEALER / CLEARER : Despachante de Aduana. Foreign currency : divisa. Fractionable credit : crédito fraccionable. Transferable credit : crédito transferible.

DAMAGES : Daños y perjuicios.Devaluation: devaluación Devise: divisas Disbursement : desembolso Discount: descuento Dividend: dividendo Down payment: pago inicial Draft: letra de cambio Drawing: giro Duty: arancel DAILY INDEMNITY : Renta diaria. DISABILITY : Incapacidad. DECLARED VALUE FOR CARRIAGE : Valor declarado para el Transporte. DELAY : Demora. DESCRIPTION : Descripción. DECLARATION : Declaración. DEMURRAGE : Sobreestadía. DECLARED VALUE FOR CUSTOMS : Valor declarado para la Aduana. salida. siniestro. DEPARTURE : Partida. DEAD FREIGHT : Falso Flete. DEPTH : Profundidad. Delivery against payment : entrega contra pago. DETAINMENT : Detención. cambio de ruta. DECLARATION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS : Declaración de mercaderías peligrosas. DEBTOR : Deudor. . DATE OF PICK-UP : Fecha de recogida. DIMENSION : Dimensión. Delivery date : fecha de entrega. DECK : Cubierta. DEATH : Muerte. DATE OF POST RECEIPT : Fecha de recepción en correos. DERAILMENT : Descarrilamiento. DAMAGE : Daño. DEDUCTIBLE : Franquicia. DEBT : Deuda. DEPOSIT : Depósito. Deckload : cargamento sobre cubierta. DEADWEIGHT : Peso muerto. Delivery order : orden de entrega. On deck : sobre cubierta. DIRECT LOSS : Pérdida directa. DEFERRED PAYMENT : Pago diferido o a plazo. DELIVERY : Entrega. DEVIATION : Desviación. DEPOT : Depósito / estación de ferrocarril. retraso. Under deck : bajo cubierta. Delivery against acceptance (d/a) : entrega contra aceptación.

desembarque. DOUBLE INDEMNITY RIDER : Suplemento de seguro de vida que brinda doble indemnización. DISCLAIMER ON THE TRANSMISSION OF MESSAGES : Exoneración respecto a la transmisión de los mensajes. DISPONENT OWNER : Armador disponente. DISCLAIMER FOR ACTS OF AN INSTRUCTED PARTY : Exoneración respecto de los actos de terceros intervinientes. Documentary draft : cobranza documentaria. DIVIDEND OPTIONS : Opciones para el pago de dividendos que surjan de pólizas de seguro de vida. DOCKYARD : Astillero. . DISBURSEMENT : Desembolso. DISCHARGE : Descarga. DOMESTIC ROUTING : Rutas internas o nacionales. to DRAW : Girar. DRAWEE : Girado. DOCUMENTARY CREDIT : Crédito documentario.Partial permanent disability : incapacidad parcial permanente. DOCUMENTARY TRANSFER : Transferencia documentaria. DISMEMBERMENT : Pérdida de miembros. in DISTRESS : En peligro. DOUBLE BOTTOM : Doble fondo. Sight draft : letra a la vista. DISTRIBUTOR : Distribuidor. DRAW BACK : Devolución de los derechos de importación que gravan los insumos importados que se utilizan en la elaboración de mercaderías que luego se exportan. DO NOT STORE IN A DAMP PLACE : Colocar en lugar seco. DRAFT : Efecto de comercio / letra de cambio. Total permanent disability : incapacidad total permanente. librar (documento). Temporary disability : incapacidad temporaria. DRAMSHOP EXCLUSION : Exclusión de responsabilidad por daños originados por despacho de bebidas alcohólicas. (verbo) descargar. DISCREPANCIES : Discrepancias. DISCLAIMER ON EFFECTIVENESS OF DOCUMENTS : Exoneración respecto a la validez de los documentos. Transport document : documento de transporte. to DISTRIBUTE : Distribuir. desembarcar. DRAWER : Librador. DOCUMENT : Documento. muelle. DISCLAIMER : Exoneración. DOCK : Dique. to Release Discrepancies : Liberar discrepancias. DISCOUNT : Descuento. DISABILITY INCOME INSURANCE : Seguro por incapacidad. to DISCOUNT : Descontar. DISPATCH MONEY : Prima de celeridad de embarque.

) : Seguro de responsabilidad profesional. DUMPING : Exportación a un precio inferior al valor nominal. DUE AGENT : Debido al agente. DRUM : Tambor. EFFECTS NOT CLEARED : Efectos pendientes de cobro.T.D.: Salvo error u omisión. EXPEDITED DELIVERY SERVICE : Servicio de entrega urgente. E. ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL (E. EXCEPTED PERILS : Riesgos excluidos. ENDOWMENT INSURANCE : Póliza de seguro total.) : Hora estimada de partida. suplemento. DUNNAGE : Material utilizado para sujetar la carga. tipo de cambio Expenditure: desembolso Expense: desembolso Expenses: gastos Exporter: exportador Exposure: exposición. .DROPPAGE : Caída. DRY DOCK : Dique Seco. EQUIPMENT INTERCHANGE RECEIPT : Recibo de intercambio. EMBARGO : Embargo. DUE CARRIER : Debido al transportista. ERASURE : Raspadura. In duplicate : Por duplicado.A. ESTIMATED TIME OF DEPARTURE (E. EXEMPTION : Exención. EMBASSY : Embajada. Earning report: estado de resultados EBIT Economic profit: valor económico Economic trend: coyuntura económica Economy: economía Efective rate per annuu: tasa efectiva anual Effective rate: tasa efectiva Effective: efectivo Empowerment: empoderamiento Enterprice: empresa Entrepreneur: empresario EPS: ganancias por acción Escision: particion de una sociedad en dos o entregar de parte a otras existentes EVA: economic valúe added Exchange adjustment: ajuste de cambio Exchange rate: tasa de cambio.) : Hora estimada de llegada. DAMAGE FOLLOWING : Daños materiales por terremoto. ENGINE ROOM: Sala de máquinas. EARTHQUAKE. EXPLOSIVE : Explosivo. E. DUPLICATE : Duplicado. FIRE FOLLOWING : Incendio por terremoto. ENTRY/IMMEDIATE DELIVERY : Declaración de Aduana / Entrega inmediata. EARTHQUAKE. & 0. & O. ENDORSEMENT : Endoso de póliza. ERRORS & OMMISSIONS INSURANCE (E.T. riesgo EARNMARKED : Reservado / asignado.

CLAUSE (Free Alongside SHIP) : Cláusula F. EXTENSION FOR SAFE BURGLARY : Suplemento de ampliación de cobertura a horas en caja. FINANCING : Financiación. EXTRALARGE : Recargo por exceso de medida.EXPORT : Exportación. floating: cheques girados y no cobrados Floating debt: deuda flotante FOB: franco a bordo Foreign exchange: divisas Forward: cobertura en moneda extranjera Forwarder: despachador Forwards: mecanismo de protección ( en garantía en el exterior) Free cash flow: flujo libre de efectivo Freight: flete Fund transfer: translado de fondos Fund: fondo Future worth: valor futuro FACTORING : Cobro por factores (sistema de cobro mediante el cual el exportador cede a la empresa de factores las cuentas a cobrar de sus clientes extranjeros). . FEE : Derecho / canon / tasa.A.S. FAIR PRICES : Precios justos. EXPOSURE : Exposición ante un riesgo. FIRE : Incendio. EXPORT PACKING : Embalaje de exportación. EXTRA EXPENSE INSURANCE : Seguro para gastos extraordinarios. EXPORT LICENSE : Licencia de exportación. to FINANCE : Financiar. EXPORTER : Exportador. (libre al costado del buque) . Unfriendly fire: fuego hostil. to EXPORT : Exportar. F.S. EXTENDED COVERAGE EXTENSION : Prórroga.A. Friendly fire: fuego no hostil. Accidental fire: incendio causado en forma accidental. Face value: valor nominal Face value: valor nominal Factory: fabrica Fair price: precio justo FASB: normas contables Fee: comisión inicial Finance evaluation: evaluación financiera Financial backing: apoyo financiero Financial ratios: razones financieras Financing evaluation method: método de evaluación financiera Financing: financiación Firm: compañía Fixed assets: activos fijos Fixed price: precio fijo Float. FACULTATIVE REINSURANCE : Reaseguro facultativo.

Ocean freight : Flete marítimo. FIT FOR CONSUMPTION : Apto para consumo. FORE DERRICK POST : Poste de carga de proa. Gambling: apuesta Golden parachute: "paracaídas dorado" indemnización Good will: buena imagen Goods: bienes Gross benefit: beneficio bruto Gross income: ingreso bruto . F. FLIGHT NUMBER : Número de vuelo. FLAMMABLE SOLIDS / SUBSTANCES : Sólidos/sustancias inflamables. FLASH POINT : Punto de inflamación. FLAT : Plataforma. FORCED CALL : Arribo forzoso. FRANCHISE : Franquicia. FULL DETAILS TO FOLLOW : Siguen detalles completos. FREE PORT : Puerto libre. FLAT RACKS : Plataforma con laterales rebatibles.C. FIRE INSURANCE : Seguro contra incendio. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS : Líquidos inflamables. FREIGHT : Flete.) : Riesgo de apresamiento excluido. FLEET POLICY : Seguro de flota de vehículos. FREE FROM GENERAL AVERAGE (F. FOREIGN INSURER : Asegurador extranjero. FRAGILE : Frágil. FUNNEL: Chimenea.& S. FIRST LOSS ABSOLUTE : A primer riesgo absoluto. FIRST LOSS RELATIVE : A primer riesgo relativo. Freight collect : Flete a cobrar/pagadero en destino. FLOOD INSURANCE : Seguro contra inundación. FREIGHT CONFERENCE : Conferencia de Fletes. FREIGHT PLANES : Aviones de carga. FORECASTLE : Castillo de proa. to FORFEIT THE PREMIUM : Perder la prima. FORWARDER/FORWARDING AGENT : Embarcador / Agente de embarque.FIREBOAT : Barco bomba. FLOATING POLICY : Póliza flotante. FREE OF CAPTURE AND SEIZURE (F.) : Libre de avería particular.& S. FREE SHIP : Barco neutral. Freight prepaid : Flete pagadero en origen. Inland freight : Flete terrestre.O. Advanced freight : Flete pagado por adelantado. FLOOD : Inundación.C.CLAUSE (FREE ON BOARD) : Cláusula libre a bordo .B. FORWARD PERPENDICULAR : Perpendicular de proa. FLIGHT : Vuelo. FREIGHT FORWARDER : Transitario / Agente de embarques / Agente despachador. FRAME : Estructura.

HOUSE BILL OF LADING : Conocimiento de embarque marítimo interno (hijo). HANGER : Soporte colgante / gancho. GROSS PREMIUM : Prima bruta. GROUP HOSPITALIZATION INSURANCE : Seguro colectivo de asistencia médica. HEAVY LIFT : Mercadería pesada / recargo por sobrepeso. HANDLING OUT : Manipuleo de salida (del contenedor). Unsound goods : mercaderías defectuosas. HATCH : Compuerta / escotilla. HOUSE AIR WAYBILL : Guía aérea interna (hija). GOODS : Mercaderías. HOPPER TANK : Tanque alimentador. HEAVY WEATHER : Tempestad. GRACE PERIOD : Período de gracia. GROSS WEIGHT : Peso bruto. HAZARD : Riesgo. HIRE : Renta. GROUPAGE : Agrupamiento Hard currency: moneda dura Harvesting strategy: sacar el efectivo producido Hedge: cobertura Hedging: cobertura High income housing: vivienda suntuaria Hire purchase: venta a plazos Hurdle rate: tasa de corte HAIL : Granizo. HINDRANCE : Obstáculo. HEALTH AUTHORITY : Autoridad sanitaria.T. GROSS REGISTER TONNAGE (G. HANDLE WITH CARE : Manejar con cuidado. GROUP LIFE INSURANCE : Seguro de vida colectivo. HANDLING CHARGES : Gastos de manipulación. GOOSENECK : Sustentante.R.GEAR : Guinche. HULL : Casco. HARBOUR DUTIES : Derechos portuarios. HOSTILE ACT : Acto hostil. Damaged goods : mercaderías averiadas. GOAD : Guinche. HOSTILITIES : Hostilidades. GLASS : Vidrio / cristal. GENERAL AVERAGE : Avería gruesa. obstáculo.) : Tonelaje bruto de registro en metros cúbicos. GOODS TRAIN : Tren de carga. . HOMEOWNERS' FORMS : Seguro combinado familiar. Lawful goods : mercaderías autorizadas. Dangerous goods : mercaderías peligrosas. HANDLING : Manipuleo de la carga. HOLD : Bodega.

INCOMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS : Instrucciones incompletas. IN BOND : En depósito.A. INSTALLMENT : Pago parcial a cuenta / cuota. INSURABLE INTEREST : Interés asegurable. IN BULK : A granel. . INLAND MARINE INSURANCE : Seguro de transporte marítimo interno.A. to IMPORT : Importar.R. INSOLVENCY : Insolvencia.N.) : Cuenta de Retiro Individual. IMPORTER : Importador. INDIRECT LOSS : Pérdida indirecta. INLAND FREIGHT : Flete interno. INCUR NO CHARGES : Sin gastos. IMPORT : Importación.IBF : international banking facility: transacciones en eurodolares en Estados Unidos Importation: importación In land freight: flete terrestre Income : renta Income policy: política de ingresos Income statement: estado de ganancias y perdidas Income tax: impuesto sobre renta Income yield capacity: rentabilidad Increase: incremento Inflation: inflación Inherited audience: flujo de caja del proyecto futuro Initial investment: inversión inicial Input: insumo Installment: crédito Insurance: seguro Interchange: intercambios Interest rate: tasa de interés Internal rate of return: tasa interna de retorno Inventory: inventarios Investment: cartera Investment: inversión Invoice : factura IOU: I owe you: le debo IRR : international rate of return: tasa internacional de retorno Issuing company: compañía emisora Item: partida ICEBREAKER : Rompehielos. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNT (I. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ANNUITY (I. INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT : Accidente del Trabajo.R. INDUCEMENT : Recargo que suele aplicarse cuando un buque debe escalar en un puerto no habitual y la carga no devenga un flete considerado suficiente. INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT : Transporte fluvial. IN TRANSIT : En tránsito. IMPORT DUTIES : Derechos de Importación IMPORT LICENSE : Licencia de importación.) : Renta de retiro individual.

INTERLINE AGREEMENT : Acuerdo interlínea. INTENDED VESSEL : Buque previsto. Product Liability insurance : seguro de responsabilidad civil de fabricantes. Marine insurance : seguro marítimo. Air Travel insurance : seguro contra accidentes por aeronavegación. Burglary insurance : seguro contra robo. Hail insurance : seguro contra granizo. INSURED : Asegurado. Accident insurance : seguro de accidentes personales. Life insurance : seguro de vida. Workers' compensation insurance : seguro de accidentes del trabajo. Collision insurance : seguro contra daños materiales (al vehículo). Group life insurance : seguro de vida colectivo.) : Oficina de Servicios de Seguro.O. Consular invoice : factura consular. Coprehensive insurance : seguro contra todo riesgo. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF ARBITRATION : Tribunal Internacional de Arbitraje. Automobile insurance : seguro del automotor. Export credit insurance : seguro de crédito a la exportación. Annuity insurance : seguro de renta. All risk insurance : seguro contra todo riesgo. Government insurance : seguro nacional para veteranos de guerra. INTERNATIONAL TRADE : Comercio Internacional.INSURABLE RISK : Riesgo asegurable. INSURANCE : Seguro. to INSURE : Asegurar. Title insurance : seguro de título. Unemployment insurance : seguro de desempleo. INSURANCE CONTRACT : Contrato de seguro. Theft insurance : seguro contra robo. Fleet policy insurance : seguro de flota de vehículos. INTEREST : Interés. INSURANCE COMPANY : Compañía de Seguros. Aeronautic insurance : seguro aeronáutico. Endowment insurance : seguro dotal Errors & Omissions insurance : seguro de responsabilidad profesional. INSURANCE POLICY : Póliza. Compulsory insurance : seguro obligatorio. Deposit insurance : seguro de depósitos bancarios. Fire insurance : seguro contra incendio. INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE (I.INSURANCE BROKER:Productor de Seguros / intermediario. INVOICE : Factura.S. Insurance contract : contrato de seguro. Livestock insurance : seguro de animales / seguro de ganado. Hull insurance : seguro de casco. INSURER : Asegurador. Flood policy insurance : seguro contra inundación. Homeowners' insurance : seguro combinado familiar. Liability insurance : seguro de responsabilidad civil. .

KEY EMPLOYEE LIFE INSURANCE : Seguro de vida sobre empleados indispensables.U. KEEL : Quilla. LATENT : Oculto. Issuer of documents : Emisor de documentos. ISSUING BANK : Banco emisor. Join. Label : etiqueta Labor: mano de obra Lakeover: adquisición hostil Lend: prestar Letter of credit: carta de crédito Leverage rate: índice de apalancamiento Levy: gravamen Liabilities: pasivo Liquidity ratios: razón de liquidez Liquidity: liquidez Listed securities: acción cotizada en bolsa Load: cargamento Loan: prestamo Long term capital flows: flujo de capital a largo plazo Long term debt: deuda a largo plazo Long term loan: préstamo a largo plazo Loss: perdida Low income housing: vivienda popular Lump sum: pago global LABEL : Etiqueta.Proforma invoice : factura proforma.venture: acuerdo de cooperacion entre empresas de dos paises Joint venture: actividad empresarial conjunta entre socios de países diferentes Junk bond: bono basura JETTISON : Echazón. I.O. LABOR DISTURBANCES : Disturbios laborales. KEEP DRY : Mantener en lugar seco. LATENT DEFECTS : Vicios ocultos. ISSUANCE DATE : Fecha de emisión. sin cláusula a la orden. JOINT SURVEY : Peritaje. ISSUING CARRIER : Transportador emisor. . LANDING CERTIFICATE : Certificado de descarga. to ISSUE : Emitir. KEEP IN COLD PLACE : Mantener en lugar fresco. ISSUER : Emisor. KEGS : Barriles pequeños (generalmente usados para transportar productos químicos). KEEP UPRIGHT : No dar vuelta. (I OWE YOU) : Vale/reconocimiento de deuda en papel sin timbrar.

cabarraje. Cumulative letter of credit : carta de crédito acumulativa. LOAN : Préstamo. Letter of credit payable at . LEADING MARKS : Marcas de identificación. Irrevocable letter of credit : carta de crédito irrevocable. LENGHT ON WATERLINE : Eslora en flotación. Documentary letter of credit : carta de crédito documentaria.. Non-cumulative letter of credit : carta de crédito no acumulativa. Subsidiary letter of credit : carta de crédito subsidiaria.. Green clause letter of credit : carta de crédito con cláusula verde. Long term loan : préstamo a largo plazo. LETTER OF INDEMNITY : Garantía bancaria. LASH BARGE : Barcaza lash. LLOYD'S agent : agente del Lloyd. LINER VESSELS : Buques de línea.LAY DAYS : Tiempo de estadía. to LOAD : Cargar. Medium term loan : préstamo a mediano plazo. Revolving letter of credit : carta de crédito rotativa. LIFEBOAT : Bote salvavidas. Deferred letter of credit : carta de crédito diferida. LENGHT : Eslora. LIABILITY : Responsabilidad civil / obligación. Divisible letter of credit : carta de crédito divisible. LENGHT BETWEEN PERPENDICULARS : Eslora entre perpendiculares. LOAD LINE DISC: Disco de línea de carga. LIGHTER : Lancha. Short term loan : préstamo a corto plazo. LIEN : Derecho de retención. LOAD : Carga.. Non-confirmed letter of credit : carta de crédito no confirmada. Standby letter of credit : carta de crédito standby. LOADING GEAR : Equipo de carga.. Non-transferable letter of credit : carta de crédito intransferible. LIGHTERAGE : Lanchaje. Red clause letter of credit : carta de crédito con cláusula roja. LINER TERMS : Términos de línea. LEAKAGE : Derrame. Transferable letter of credit : carta de crédito transferible. Confirmed letter of credit : carta de crédito confirmada. Advanced letter of credit : carta de crédito anticipada. LIQUIDATION OF THE ENTRY : Liquidación de la declaración de Aduana. días. LIFT HERE : Levántese aquí. LEVY : Embargo. . cargamento. Indivisible letter of credit : carta de crédito indivisible. LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C) : Carta de crédito. Sight letter of credit : carta de crédito a la vista. LIFE ANNUITY : Renta o pensión vitalicia. LENDER : Prestamista.days : carta de crédito pagadera a .

MARINE ADVENTURE : Travesía marítima. MARITIME CONFERENCE : Conferencia marítima. MARINE INSURANCE : Seguro marítimo. LOSS : Pérdida. MARK : Marca. MALICIOUS DAMAGE : Daños producidos con malicia.LOCK OUT : Cierre patronal. LOSS RATIO : Porcentaje de pérdida. . LOADING CHARGES : Gastos de carga. MADE IN : Fabricado en. MARITIME LOAN : Préstamo marítimo. MARINE CONTRACT : Contrato marítimo. MARINE RISK : Riesgo marítimo. MAIN MAST : Palo mayor. MARITIME PERIL : Riesgo marítimo. Handling mark : marca de manipuleo. LUMP SUM : En cifras redondas. MANIFEST : Manifiesto. LUMP SUM FREIGHT : Flete proporcional. M&A: mergers and acquisitions: fusiones y adquisiciones Manager: gerente Manufacturer: fabricante Manufactures products: productos manufacturados Market price: precio de mercado Market research: estudio de mercado Market: mercado Matched timing: tiempo apareado Meeting: asamblea Merger: fusión Monetary adjustment monetary correction: corrección monetaria Money growth: crecimiento del dinero Money received: ingresos Money: dinero Monthly payment: mensualidad Mortage: hipoteca Most favored nation treatment: tratamiento de nación mas favorecida Movement: movimientos MACHINARY BREAKDOWN : Rotura de maquinarias. Entry manifest : manifiesto de carga. Actual loss : Pérdida real. importe alzado. LOT : Lote. MARITIME COMPANY : Compañía marítima. MARITIME LAW : Derecho marítimo.

Informative mark : marca informativa. MARKET : Mercado. Standard mark : marca estándar. Foreign market : mercado externo. MULTIMODAL : Multimodal. MARKING : Marcado. MOORING PIPE : Pasacabos. MASTER BILL OF LADING : Conocimiento de embarque principal (madre). METHOD OF PAYMENT : Forma de pago. turnover: cifra NAMED PERIL CONTRACT : Contrato que cubre los riesgos especificados. National income: ingreso nacional Net cash flow: flujos netos de efectivo Net present value: valor presente neto Net price : precio neto Net worth: valor neto ( patrimonio) Net: red NF: no founds: sin fondos Nominal rate: tasa nominal Non profit corporation: empresa no lucrativa NPV: Net present value: valor presente neto Number. MATE : Piloto. MILL CERTIFICATE : Certificado de fábrica.) : Recibo provisorio / reci-bo sin observaciones / recibo de a bordo. amarrar. NAUTICAL MILE : Milla náutica. MAJOR MEDICAL BENEFITS : Beneficios médicos suplementarios. MISREPRESENTATION : Declaración falsa. MERCHANT : Negociante.R. MASTER AIR WAYBILL : Guía aérea principal (madre). comerciante. MEDICAL-PHARMACEUTICAL ASSISTANCE : Asistencia médico-farmacéutica. MATURITY : Vencimiento. MOORING WINCH : Guinche de amarre. . MOORING : Amarradero. NEGOTIABLE : Negociable. MATERIAL DAMAGE : Daños materiales. MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT : Transporte multimodal. MEANS OF CONVEYANCE : Modalidad de transporte. NEGLIGENCE : Negligencia. MERCHANDISE : Mercadería. MATOR (MATERIAL ORDER): Pedido de materiales. MUTINY : Motín. MATE'S RECEIPT (M. MONTHS SIGHT : Meses vista. to MOOR : Anclar. MISTATEMENT OF AGE CLAUSE : Cláusula de ajuste de indemnización en caso de declaraciones falsas. MIDDLEMAN : Intermediario. MASTER : Capitán.

NOTICE OF DAMAGE : Denuncia de siniestro. ORDER : Orden. NON DOCUMENTARY CONDITIONS : Condiciones no documentarias. to OPEN A LETTER OF CREDIT : Abrir una carta de crédito. NON-FORFEITURE OPTIONS : Opciones de pago. NON OWNED AUTOMOBILES : Vehículos de terceros. to order of. NON NEGOTIABLE : No negociable. ON STREAM : Llave en mano. NON FULFILLMENT : Incumplimiento.. NET PROFIT : Beneficio neto. ORIGINAL : Original. OWNER : Armador. NON OWNERSHIP LIABILITY : Responsabilidad sobre bienes de terceros. NON DELIVERY : Falta de entrega. Offer: oferta Open market: mercado libre Operation costs: costos de operación Operation expenses: gastos de operación Operation: operación Ordinary shares: acciones comunes Output. OPTION TO CONSOLIDATE : Cláusula de consolidación.: a la orden de . NON NEGOTIABLE SEA WAYBILL : Documento de embarque marítimo no negociable. NOTICE OF SHIPMENT : Declaración de embarque. ON BOARD : A bordo.. NO FUNDS : Sin fondos. OVER INSURANCE : Sobre seguro. OPEN ACCOUNT : Cuenta corriente.. ORDER NUMBER : Número de pedido. OVERDRAFT : Descubierto en cuenta. OUTSIDER : Buque que realiza un tráfico cuyo itinerario coincide a grandes rasgos con el que sirve la Conferencia sin que éste (o su armador) la integren. OFFSET : Compensación. OTHER RISKS : Otros riesgos. OPEN HERE : Abrir aquí. production: producción Outstanding shares: acciones en circulación ODD : Impar. OUTFIT : Equipamiento. OTHER CHARGES : Otros cargos. NOT TO BE DROPPED : No volcar. NULL AND VOID : Nulo.. NOTICE OF READINESS : Carta de alistamiento / notificación de arribo. . to NEGOTIATE : Negociar. Order of payment : orden de pago.NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT : Documento negociable. NEW JASON CLAUSE : Cláusula restrictiva de responsabilidad del transportista / cobertura de los riesgos resultantes de la cláusula New Jason.

PACKING BOX/ CASE : Cajón.D. PACKET : Paquete o fardo pequeño. PACKING LIST : Nota o lista de empaque. PALLET-LESS UNIT LOADS : Unidades de carga sin paletas.Pay in cash: pagar en efectivo Payback period: periodo de recuperación Payment advance: avance Payment in arrears: pago atrasado Payment: pago Payroll: nomina Period: período PIB: gross national product Planing: planificación Political economy: economía política Pre investment: pre inversión Preference shares: acciones preferentes Preferential trading system: sistema de comercio preferencial Price control: control de precios Price earning rate: relación precio ganancia Price elasticity: elasticidad del precio Price fall: caída de precios Price freeze: congelación de precios Prive list: tarifas Price: precio Prime rate: tasa preferencial Profit margin: margen de beneficio Profit: beneficio Profit: ganancia Profit: utilidad Project life cycle: ciclo de vida del proyecto Promissory note: pagare Promissory quota: pagare Providers: proveedores Proyect evaluation: evaluación de proyectos Proyection: proyección Purchase: compra Purchasing power: poder adquisitivo PACKAGE : Bulto. PALLET : Paleta de carga. Double entry pallet : paleta de doble entrada.) : Pagado. Sole base pallet : paleta de base única. . paquete. Plain pallet : paleta plana. PAID (P. PARCEL : Paquete. Four-entry pallet : paleta de cuatro entradas. PACKING : Embalaje. PARTIAL SHIPMENT : Embarque parcial. PASSENGER LIABILITY : Responsabilidad civil hacia terceros transportados. PARTIAL DAMAGE : Daño parcial. caja de embalaje.

POISONOUS SUBSTANCES : Sustancias venenosas. PLACE OF DEPARTURE : Procedencia. Endowment policy : póliza de seguro total. Port of loading / shipment : puerto de carga. Excepted perils : riesgos excluídos / riesgos no cubiertos. Maritime perils : riesgos de la navegación / riesgos marítimos. Deferred payment : pago diferido. PIER : Muelle. PERILS: Riesgos. VIRGINIA: Fallo de la corte suprema de los E. PLACE OF DESTINATION : Destino. PORT : Puerto / babor.C. del año 1868 que estableció que el seguro no constituye un comercio.E. PAYMENT : Pago. Port of call : puerto de escala. PLATE GLASS : Cristales. PERISHABLE : Perecedero. Life insurance policy : póliza de seguro de vida. POINT OF ORIGIN : Punto de origen. PIRACY : Piratería. Covered perils : riesgos cubiertos / riesgos asegurados. PILOT : Práctico. Intermediate port : puerto intermedio. Payment date : fecha de pago. . PILFERAGE : Piratería.U. Port of arrival / port of discharge / final port : puerto de llegada o destino. tomador.): Por ciento. PAYLOAD : Pasaje o carga aérea / carga útil. Port of distress : puerto de arribada forzosa. Time policy : póliza temporaria.PASSENGER SHIP : Barco de pasajeros. Sight payment : pago a la vista. POLICY HOLDER : Tenedor. Floating policy : póliza flotante. Voyage policy : póliza por viaje. POOL AGREEMENTS : Convenios de explotación en común.U. PAUL vs. PERFORMANCE BOND: Garantía de buena ejecución. PIECE : Bulto. Payment in installments : pago en cuotas. to PAY : Pagar. Open covered policy : póliza de cobertura abierta. POINT OF DESTINATION : Punto de destino. POOP : Popa. POLICY : Póliza. PERSONAL ACCIDENTS : Accidentes personales. PER CENT (P.

QUALITY : Calidad. PROFIT : Beneficio. Port dues : derechos portuarios. PROVISION : Cláusula. PROFIT SHARING PLAN : Plan de participación en las utilidades. PROPOSAL FORM : Propuesta de celebración de un contrato. QUOTE : Cotización / término utilizado para indicar el comienzo de un texto copiado. PRIVITY : Complicidad.Port of unloading / discharge : puerto de descarga. PRICE : Precio. Unit price : precio unitario. PROMPT NOTICE : Aviso inmediato. PURCHASE ORDER : Nota de pedido / orden de compra. PROHIBITED : Prohibido. Net price : precio neto. Gross price : precio bruto. QUANTITY : Cantidad. PURCHASE : Compra. Quota: cupo QUALIFIED RECEIPT : Recibo condicionado / recibo con reservas. ganancia. Total price : precio total. QUOTATION REQUEST : Pedido de cotización / pedido de precios. to PURCHASE : Comprar. QUOTATION : Cotización. Index price : precio índice. PRINCIPAL : Capital. Port of refuge : puerto de refugio. Rate of growth: rata de crecimiento Rate of interest: rata de interés Rate of return: tasa de rentabilidad Rate: índice Raw material: materia prima Real interest: interés real Receipt: recibo . estipulación. PROPELLER : Hélice. PROOF OF LOSS : Prueba del siniestro. Replacement price : precio de reemplazo. PROMISSORY NOTE (P/N) : Pagaré. QUAY : Muelle. PURCHASER : Comprador. Port side : banda de babor. PRO RATA : A prorrata. QUALITY CERTIFICATE : Certificado de calidad. PROBABILITY : Probabilidad. PROXIMATE CLAUSE : Causa directa.

REINSURANCE : Reaseguro. to REJECT : Rechazar. REMITTANCE : Remesa. RATE OF EXCHANGE : Tasa de cambio. RATE : Tarifa. REEL : Carrete. REPAYMENT : Reembolso. RENTAL CONTAINER : Alquiler de contenedor. REGULAR MEDICAL INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos médicos extraordinarios. REIMPORT : Reimportación. Direct reimbursement : reembolso directo.Recession: desaceleracion Reciprocal trade: acuerdo comercial Redemption: amortización Repayment: reembolso Refund: reembolso Rentability: rentabilidad Required return: retorno sobre la inversión Return on assets: retorno sobre activos Return on equity: retorno sobre el patrimonio Revolving found: fondo de rotación Roucher: comprobante Runaway inflation: inflación galopante RADAR MAST : Palo de radar. RANGE LIGHT : Luz de alcance. Commodity rate : tarifa especificada. REBELLION : Rebelión. RANCE agent : agente de seguros. Temporary rate : tarifa temporaria. with surcharge : tarifa de clase superior a la normal. REASONABLE DISPATCH : Prontitud razonable. . RADAR SCANNER : Antena radar. RAIL TRANSPORT : Transporte ferroviario. RED LABEL : «Etiqueta roja» (mercaderías peligrosas). with reduction : tarifa de clase inferior a la normal. RATE OF INTEREST : Tasa de interés. General reimbursement : reembolso general. Specific Commodity Rate : tarifa para mercadería específica. Indirect reimbursement : reembolso indirecto. RATE CLASS : Tarifa de Clase. Class rate. RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES : Sustancias radioactivas. REJECTION : Rechazo. Class rate. Additional reimbursement : reembolso adicional. RECEIPT : Recibo. RAW MATERIAL : Materia prima. RECOVERABLE : Indemnizable. REINSTATEMENT : Rehabilitación (de póliza). REIMBURSEMENT : Reembolso.

RETAILER : Vendedor minorista. RISK : Riesgo. RESHIPMENT : Reembarque. RESTRAINT : Restricción. Extraordinary risk : riesgo extraordinario. ROYALTY : Canon pagado al creador de un producto por el derecho de utilizarlo en su provecho. ROUND TRIP : Modalidad del fletamento a tiempo por la cual el armador fletante cede el buque por un período expresamente no determinado. RIDER : Suplemento. alzamiento. Credit risk : riesgo de crédito. RIDERS : Cláusulas particulares adicionales. RIGHTS : Derechos. RETAIL PRICE : Precio minorista. sin dar al fletador la opción de apartarse de dichas zonas sin su previo consentimiento. endoso. RETAIL : Venta minorista. Sale: venta Security: seguridad Set back: contratiempo Settlement: saldos Share turnover: movimiento accionario Share: acción Shareholder: accionista Shares of stock: acciones Shares outstanding: acción en circulación Short term loan: préstamo a corto plazo Simple interest: interés simple Sinking found: fondo de amortización Speculation: especulación Statement of accounts: estado de cuentas Stock company: compañía anónima . REPLACEMENT COST INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos de reposición.REPAYMENT GUARANTEE : Garantía de reembolso. ROAD TRANSPORT : Transporte por carretera o rodoviario. Manufacture risk : riesgo de fabricación. RIOT : Tumulto. REVOLVING CREDIT : Crédito rotativo. to RESHIP : Reembarcar. ROTOR SHIP : Barco de rotores. RESTRAINTS OF PRINCES AND RULERS : Restricciones impuestas por la autoridad. REVOCATION : Revocación. RUDDER : Timón. ROUTE : Trayecto. to RESCIND : Rescindir. REVOLUTION : Revolución. REPORTING FORM : Póliza por declaraciones. REPLACEMENT COST : Valor de reposición.

Stock corporation: compañía anónima Stock exchange: bolsa de valores Stock holder: accionista Stock holders: patrimonio Stock index: indicador bursátil Stock market: bolsa de valores Stock pile: acumulación de inventarios Stock: capital Stockbroker: corredor de bolsa Storing: almacenamiento Sum: suma Supply: oferta Surcharge: recargo Surrender value: valor de salvamento Surtax: sobretasa Swap: cambalache SACK : Saco / saqueo. . SHIPOWNER : Armador propietario. SENDER : Remitente. SHIPPING DOCUMENT : Documento de embarque. SHIPWRECK : Naufragio. SAMPLE : Muestra. SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE : Certificado de navegabilidad. SAID TO WEIGHT : Dice pesar. SAFETY : Seguridad. SEAWORTHINESS : Navegabilidad. SHEER : Arrufo. SEA WATER : Desgaste natural por el uso del buque. expedidor. SAID BY SHIPPER TO CONTAIN : Dice contener según el cargador. SEIZURE : Apoderamiento. Partial shipment : embarque parcial. SEA WAYBILL : Documento de embarque marítimo. Complete set : juego completo. SHIPPING COMPANY : Compañía naviera. SETTLEMENT OPTIONS: Opciones de pago. SCRAP VOYAGE : Último viaje de un buque. SCUTTLED SHIP : Buque que se fue a pique. fletador. SAMPLE ORDER : Pedido de muestra. SHIP : Buque. SHIPPING NOTE : Nota de embarque. SALVAGE : Salvamento. SHORT DELIVERY : Entrega menor que la cantidad solicitada. SHIPPING agent : agente marítimo. SET : Juego (de documentos). to SHIP : Embarcar. SHIPMENT : Expedición / embarque. SELLER : Vendedor. SHIPPER : Cargador.

jerarquia Board of Directors .Consejo de Administración business affairs .Presidente del Consejo de Administración CEO .departamento de informática purchasing department .sociedad anónima.departamento de apoyo IT department . Tax: impuesto Technical study: estudio técnico To debit: adeudar To go into debt: contraer deuda To owe: adeudar Trade: comercio Trading year: ejercicio económico Transaction: operación Transport: transporte Turn over: rotación Unemployment: desempleo Up turn: alza Valorization: valorización Value added network: red de valor agregado Value engineering: generación de valor Venture capital: capital de riesgo Wholesaler: mayorista Winery: bodega Winset on line: bolsa electrónica Working capital: capital de trabajo SPECIAL VOCABULARY .Vicepresidente (máximo directivo por debajo del Consejero Delegado) sales . corporación Chairman of the Board .contabilidad finance .ENGLISH TO SPANISH corporate .ventas human resources .desarrollar Vice-President .recursos humanos accounting .de la empresa hierarchy .asuntos de negocios corporation .Consejero Delegado develop .SHORT FORM : Abreviado.departamento de compras .finanzas support department . SIDE LIGHTS : Luces de costado.

To bear in mind – to remember a piece of information when you are making a decision or thinking about a matter . . Learn by heart .improvisado.tu aparencia.proyectos R&D .jerarquía corporativa.when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time .sincronización. Propel .the context and circumstances of the presentation .ten lo presente.elegante. How you look . To keep people on their toes – to keep people attentive and prepared .your appearance . .puede que te hayas dado cuenta.improvised.forma. . Ensure . . . allow: permitir Furthermore: also to say something in a language other than your own: to say something in adifferent language. Allow . Smart .in advance of something. Background .encuesta.investigación y desarrollo tags . . .improvisado.simplemente espera.memorizar. interpretación. .affecting or relating to a person or thing. Corporate Ladder – the hierarchical structure of a company. often with a lot of force .Improvised. . Beforehand .entrar en materia.set of clothes worn for a particular occasion or activity . Neglect .hacer que las personas presten atención. Get down to business .despues. Ad hoc . The higher you are up the ladder.empezar con buen pie.contacto visual.the way that something is done or somebody behaves . To think on your feet: to make a quick decision or give an answer quickly. Rhetorical questions . earlier.an investigation of opinions done by asking questions .rendimiento.to make sure that something happens . ritmo. . To ease your way (in context): to begin an activity in a way that makes it more comfortable or easier. la habilidad de hacer algo en el mejor momento.to not pay enough attention to something .having a clean.extremely useful. Boost . Afterwards . Survey .probable or expected . the more senior you are . Timing . valor incalculable.questions asked to produce an effect and not to get an answer .permitir.etiquetas Manner .lanzar. fomentar.estimular.muy útil.the ability to do something at the right time. .preguntas retóricas. appropriate and relevant to.to push or move something somewhere.memorize.de antemano. Performance . To start off on the the right foot – to begin a project or challenge in an effective way .fondo.a tu alcance. .permit.a very good possibility. Just wait .making it possible for you.near enough so that you can touch it or pick it up. Likely . . Invaluable . is usable. ponerse manos a la obra. Within reach . tidy and stylish appearance .something that helps something else .It is probable that you noticed before now (having the consequence in the present that now you know what the author is speaking about). .how well or badly something is done .dándote la posibilidad. Be applicable to .to simply remain in expectation. You may have noticed . aplicable a.la mejor oportunidad.projects . ir al grano.asegurar. Eye Contact . The best chance .probable.conjunto.start work on. Unscripted .at a later time . To get over: to feel better after something or someone has made you unhappy or nervous. Outfit . Giving yourself the opportunity .desatender.

rendir. morale . put yourself in their shoes . . customer service .People paid to read motivating staff .the capacity to get people to do things. .opción de compra de acciones profit sharing scheme .the general motivated attitude of a group of workers. growling . .just.Encourages people to do something.gruñendo.Read quickly searching for main or key information executive summary . . to point out . . tips .the method the employer uses to motivate his workers. stock options .consejos.Something that takes a long time to do.to make aware of.To communicate your main ideas jot down .the "bar" where you pay for things.liderazgo. motivate action .motivando los empleados.irritable.marketing del boca a boca.mostrador. fair . a purchase .marketing consisting of people telling each other. To digress: to move away from the main subject you are writing or talking about and to write or talk about something else.Nerve-racking / nerve-wracking: describes something that is difficult to do and causes a lot of worry for the person involved in it.motivating the workers at a company.To get the attention of logical flow . background information .malhumorado. to go back .a soft friendly open handed hit on the back.to continue with. to rehearse: to practice.I am sure and you should be also.work that increases the value that buyers receive from their purchases. time-consuming . rewarding system . . .una compra. . reach a conclusion .a buy.making a low threatening sound like an animal (for example: a tiger).lo que te hace funcionar. . . . To sum up: to describe or express briefly the important facts or characteristics about something or someone. .alegre. superar.The area or topic you're writing about. .Information about the area you‟re writing about that helps the reader. grumpy .servicio al cliente.Imagine the situation from somebody else‟s perspective .to succeed in dealing with a problem.un buen rato. (to pre-rehearse . I assure you . .moral (en el sentido de alentar).palmaditas en la espalda.to handle. . .A system by which workers receive part of the profits of a company.Write down something skim read . tratar.te aseguro.the thing that motivates you to do something. .happy.sistema de recompensa. to move on .practical advice.to return. programa de reparto de beneficios. counter .to do something well.justo. . a good while .To follow a logical order proof readers . word of mouth marketing . cheerful . what makes you tick .a long time. perform .to practice beforehand) To put across: to express your ideas and opinions clearly so that people understand them easily. . to overcome . to deal with . pats on the back . subject matter . Verbatim: using exactly the same words as were originally used.Main summary grabbing the attention of . señalar. leadership .the right to buy stocks at a specific price. .To arrive at a conclusion deliver your recommendations .

asuntos. . . Tips .to talk about something informally in a stress-free place.asistente. . . Waste of time . .limitar. . . Issues . Achieve .hacerlo breve. quiet way.making sure you don‟t let stress at work affect your health. Painlessly .not less than . Background information . . Whisper . Rambling .analyse in more detail the answers to your questions. .spending time badly . . Complain .mantener la exactitud de las actas. . Tools .al menos. Shoddy work . sin sufrimiento. Taking meeting minutes .to restrain or limit. .pérdida de tiempo. cuestiones.que divaga. Dig deep .the people who are invited to an event.information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem. . Keep meeting minutes accurate .in touch .lograr.the lack of a relation of something to the matter at hand.in a satisfactory way.tomar las reuniones en serio.badly done work. maternity leave .group leader. Talking over a coffee . . .to appear or come. Turn up .write the notes of the meeting correctly.abrumado con mucho trabajo. .invitados. Over stretched .writing down everything that is said by everybody in the meeting.aparecer o llegar.to keep talking about the main topic set for a conversation without getting distracted.chapuza. Chair .herramientas. . To the point (stick to the point) .a promise to do something.presidente. . información que es esencial para entender una situación o problema.equilibrio entre la vida y el trabajo.orden del día. . .analizar más profúndamente las respuestas a tus preguntas.too much work to do at one time.la motivación cae en picado.not focusing on one point at a time.compromiso. Keep it brief . .pasar tiempo en reuniones.a list of major points/issues to be discussed in the meeting.asegurarse.in a way that is without pain.Motivation drops quickly.entusiastas de los ordenadores o informáticos.to speak in a soft. .susurrar. Successfully . . .recopilar.to reserve the meeting room.reservar la sala de reuniones. Action points .es algo simple o no muy difícil como lo sería la ciencia de los cohetes. Techies . .an instrument that helps you do something. Motivation plummets . Take the meetings seriously .to say that you are irritated or unhappy because of something . Clue .irrelevancia. . At least .mantenerse centrado en la cuestión principal de la conversación.hablar informalmente sobre algo en un bar o similar. .IT (information technology) workers or people good with technology.to establish something without a doubt.en contacto.to do something in a way that doesn't last very long. . . Meeting agendas . .it is something that is simple and common sense.de una forma satisfactoria. Constrained . levantar actas.to respect the meetings. Attendee .follow-up actions people have agreed to do. Tongue-tied .de forma indolora.to be successful in reaching an objective. reunir consejos prácticos. It's not rocket science .to use time in meetings.consejos prácticos.quejarse. .a scheme by which a pregnant female worker can stay home with pay. Invitees . Book the meeting room . . Irrelevancy . . Compile tips .not being able to talk because of nerves.baja por maternidad Work-life balance . .to gather or bring together different tips. .puntos de actuación.evidence that helps solve a mystery.problems or worries that somebody has about something.helpful practical advice . con éxito.a person who attends an event. Make sure . .pista. Spend time in meetings . Commitment .in contact.

no pierda el tiempo take notes .publicidad brand awareness .publicado customers .extendido skills training . Make personal comments . .confianza a touch too slow .recordar algo a alguien.clientes potenciales handouts .tranquilidad confidence . .alcance news . . In the heat of the moment . . Lack manners .mejorar likelihood .las reglas establecidas para la reunión. . . Keeping things objective .enterarse bring this down to around .polémico. argue . describir tips .tomárselo de forma personal.justo la velocidad correcta don't waste time .marca advertising .el que mejor te encaje adventurous .toma notas . . Make issues personal .to act and think in a rational way.mantener la objetividad de la situación.aprovechando improve .argumentar brand . Confrontational .un poco demasiado despacio just the right speed .meeting rules that everybody agrees to.después.no hay prisa calmness .enorme publicity .folletos improve .Afterwards .to help people to remember something.folletos fliers .to be argumentative. Take a deep breath .in an intense emotional moment.no es la mejor manera.apuntar.noticia find out .nota de prensa published .reducirlo a aproximadamente keep you going .notoriedad de marca huge . Ground rules .clientes prospects . . Not the best way .formación de habilidades making the most . .to breathe one time deeply.mejorable outline .mantenerte press release .objetivo reach .insultar o atacar de forma personal.exposición mediática that best fits you .probabilidad widespread .after something. .ser maleducado.mejorar room for improvement .there are better ways to do something.aventurero target .to not behave in a correct and proper way.respira hondo.to feel personally attacked.to insult or attack in a personal way. .objeciones que puedan surgir there is no rush .consejos smile .en la excitación o nerviosismo del momento. Remind people .sonreir objections that may arise .

gestión de tiempo goals .Shaking someone's hand in a positive and soft way. Fake ." but with extra emphasis. moves. To get your support .A word or phrase saying that you're sorry for something you've done.lista de tareas pendientes tasks . help and encouragement (usually from friends and family). A follow-up letter . complaining .Frequently used terms and words related to a specific sector. To resent somebody .This phrase means "never. Apology . To put pressure on someone . Subtly .To form opinions about people.Something that makes your image look bad.tareas tool .tener en cuenta make the most .herramienta time management .barbilla slamming down the receiver . causing anxiety.To find sympathy.conseguir tus metas in mind .Willing to listen to and accept other ideas and treating everyone equally. To paint a picture in your mind .siguientes top priority .To give someone compliments.To guide someone towards a specific topic or issue in a conversation.Matching or copying the speed at which someone talks. Tarnishes your image .Move only your upper body closer to something or somebody.Construct a detailed profile or image of something or someone in your mind. etc. To lead the interviewer toward something .prioridad máxima add value .This is a letter that you write after your interview to ask for or about more information about the job.To understand what somebody is thinking from their body movements.micrófono del teléfono chin .paso lento Guarantee .añade valor achieve your goals .To further improve or increase the quality of something.consejos following .evite shrillness .aprovechar spend time . Open-minded and fair .concisely .muy recomendado to-do list .In a way that is indirect and clever.To give a good image of yourself when you meet them. industry or career. To enhance . A firm but gentle handshake . walks. Jargon or buzz words .To remain angry with somebody about something that happened. To make the right first impression .tono alto mouthpiece .emplear tiempo highly recommend .conciso avoid .inutilizado tips . Pacing . Read the body language of somebody .False and artificial. Lean forward .To strongly persuade someone to do something. Flattery . To make judgements about people .colgar con fuerza el auricular slow pace . Chicken Researcher .metas . Never ever .protestando lack . runs. and not very noticable or obvious.A promise or something that insures that something else will happen.Someone who is afraid to meet or speak to people when researching.falta unused .

aprovechar mistakes .forma o manera spend all day .señalar no-one .advertisment .rechazado I reckon .texto (de un anuncio) ingenious .ingenioso persuasive .búsqueda brand .campaña qualitative targeting .alcanzar un público objetivo cualificado useless .pasar todo el día .anuncio advertising agency .efectividad efficient .consumidor point out .objetivo unsustainable claims .reward .errores consumer .eficiencia tedious .advert .tedio sticking to your to-do list .alcance target .nobody .reclamos insostenibles prove .convincente manner .bastante común quest .en vez de campaign .Yo opino quite common .marca reach .fundador ad .mantenerse al la lista de tareas founder .nadie rejected .agencia de publicidad take advantage .inútil copy .recompensa effectiveness .probar (proporcionar evidencias no testear) instead of .

com/monografia/libro_de_frases_espanol_english_inglesnegocios_business/2818-4 http://es.com/doc/15899653/Cartilla-Ingles-Ciclo-III-6 http://www.wikibooks.com/watch?v=5X5sjDj4e_wFRASES DE ERNST FISCHER http://www.org/wiki/Ingl%C3%A9s/Introducci%C3%B3n http://inglesparaprofesionales.la/diccionario/espanol-ingles/libros-de-contabilidad http://www.curso-ingles.com.wikilearning.youtube.com/lang/es/allexercises/ http://diccionario.scribd.ar/autor/ernst-fischer.reverso.htm http://mymemory.html http://www.com/2009/11/28/proceedings-actas-deuna-reunion/ http://es.CIBERGRAPHY http://inglesparaprofesionales.html http://es.nonstopenglish.htm#list http://www.madridteacher.ctv.net/ .com/category/ingles-denegocios/page/2/ http://www.frasesypensamientos.wordpress.com/articles/perfect-interview.com/business-english/general-management/67emailwriting.wordpress.translated.es/USERS/amiles/wordlists.net/negocio-espanol-ingles/p%C3%A9rdidas http://www.bab.

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