Acid Wash

During Acid wash, pumic stones are used. By the action of pumic stones, irregular fading affect is developed on the heavy garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, and sweater. The pumic stones act a brushing action on the garment fabric surface. The area where more brushing action takes place there more dicolour or fadding affect is developed and the area where less brushing action takes place less brushing action and takes place less fadding affect will be developed. The multi-layer fabric areas like –collar, calf, pocket, placket, side seam etc area will be brushed more than the single layer areas. As a result irregular fadding affect will be developed on the garments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on the garment by acid wash technique.

Objects of Acid Wash:
1. To produce irregular fading effects or old looking effect. 2. For soft feeling to wear the garments i.e. to improve softness. 3. To achieve the buyer washing standard. 4. To increase rubbing fastness.

Acid Wash Process:
A processor Acid wash of 60 kg batch of Denim Trouser as mentioned below:-

First Step: Pretreatment/Desizing.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Add water @ L : R = 1 : 10 .............. 600 litres. Start Machine. Add desizing agent @ 1 gm/litre .................600 Gms. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 600 Gms. Temperature............................. 60°c. Time........................... 20 mts. Drop the liquor. Rinse one for 3 minutes (cold).

Second Step:Hot wash
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 litres. Temperature............................. 60°c. Time........................... 5 mts. Drop the liquor. Here hot wash is used to remove the adhering materials from the garment surface. Unload the garments from the washing m/c in the trolley. Load the pre treated garments in the dryer m/c. Dry the garment completely & unload the garments.

Batch wt.. 16............. 7. 13..... Temperature....... Fourth Step:Whitening/Neutralization 1.. 3.......... 5. Then pre-treated garment 30 –40 kg per batch load in the dry washing machine.... Unload the treated garment separately. Drop the liquor.. 5.. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8... 10 –15 minutes........... 5. 12.. 560 litres................. 6......... Fifth Step: Soft Wash 1........ Load the per-treated stones (about 50 kg) in washing machine... Phosphoric Acid.560 Gms... 17........... Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre . Cold temperature..10 mts. 4. Then load the stones treated garment in another washing machine. Add Metabisulphite @ 5 gm/litre.... solution hit on garment surface as a result fadding will be developed. Start machine running for each batch . The pumic stones used for acid wash need to pre-treat in the following chemical solution: Water .. 21... Add water @ L: R = 1: 7..... 10.... 2... Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.. 2. 250 Gms........ Add Softner @ 1 gm/litre ..... Pumic stones with P.... 100 L Potassium per manganate.. The stones will pick up the solution.. Drop the liquor. 4. 19....... .... 70 kg........ Here detergent is used to remove the breaking stone dust and chemicals from the garment surface. Stire the solution in a stainless steel tub with dry pumic stone......... Then unload the garments... 20.. 18....... 6............. Machine running........... Third Step:Wash for Cleaning 1....... Then the soaked stones are dried in the open air for.. Stop machine running.... 2 to 3 hrs.............P. 14. 40°c -50°c....... Machine running....... 11..... 1000 Gms......... 3....... 294 Gms......... 2800 Gms.9........... Time ..... Time 5 mts.... 490 litres...6 gm/litre ...... 560 litres... 2. 490 Gms.... 15. 4.............. Soak the stones with the chemical solution . Add Acetic acid @ 0...... 3. 7 to 10 mts.......

It is a mater of experience.html#ixzz2CJIWKySw WIKI PIDIA Garment washing — Presentation Transcript  1. Eighth Step:Quality & Delivery. Not excess load the garments in the Acid wash processing.  After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery.  After hydro extraction the garments are sent to drying m/c for complete drying.blogspot.Sixth Step:Hydro Extractor Machine  Hydro extractor machine to remove excess water from the garments. Seventh Step:Dryer Machine. Read more: http://textilelearner. No water licks age in to the machine when treated pumic stone & garments in to the KOTHARI SUBMITTED BY: RAJEEV SHARAN DFT(AP-06) . Add some new stone after finishing on batch to maintain the volume for 2nd batch. Precaution:     Maintain the stock solution properly constant when comes socking the stone. GARMENT WASHINGSUBMITTED TO:Mr. VASANT R.

right-every-time finishing.  3. Hydro extract the garment to 70 to 80% pick up. The drum is turned for 20 min there should not be excessive dripping of chemicals from the garment. Turn the garment right side out.  Tumbling processDip process: - Dip the garment inside out in finishing chemical keeping MLR 1:5. which add value to the basic textile material. The domestic readymade garment sector is booming. More environmentally friendly and application method. METHOD OF APPLICATION:There are two methods of garment finishing. Cure at 150—160°C  6. It makes garments attractive. comfortable & finishing can incorporate desirable properties. Cost reduction through process integration and minimizing the consumption of all utilities. This method is being . Iron/steam press the garment to set the creases at desired places.  Finishingof textile fabric is carried out to increase attractiveness and/or serviceability of the fabric. right-on end time.  4. Cost reduction through minimization of effluent treatment cost. Chemical compatibility to provide one-shot multifunctional finishes. and garment processing has emerged as one of the important production routes towards meeting quick changing demands of the fashion market  5. If so more tumbling time is allowed. GARMENT FINISH Unless any product is characterized by value addition it is now impossible to survive in this highly competitive world market. Tumble method: - In this process the garment are placed (inside out) into a machine with sealed (not perforated) cylinder and application of recipe by either pumping or spraying.  Dip process. Improve process control. 2. Differentfinishing treatments are available to get various effects. Greater innovation in chemical finishes. Processing is important to make a usable but finishing gives value addition to it. Washing machine may be used. monitoring and automation. The need for competitive strategy that utilizes. Finishing is the heart of textile processing. Value addition = {(Technology) + (Innovation)} x Quality. Quick response through right-first-time. Tumble dry at 70°C to moisture content 10—12 %. Rotate the garment for 20 min.

cuffs.Washing down of garments is the latest development infashion technology. which can be obtained by washing ingarment from only. creasing etc. After saturation the garments are hydro extracted tumble dry at 70°C to 10—20 % pick up moisture content. absorbency. Five good reasons can be attributed forwashing the garments. Tumble rotation speed 20-30 rpm. Denim washing It is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide strength Indigo jeans were once the only item processed by the garment wash method Emphasis is on Comfort And Softness. To create a trend in fashion with consistentquality & brand image with range of finishes. Wash down effectsIt can be achieved by a variety of garment processingtechniques which are mainly dependent on physical and onchemical abrasion of the surface dye there by producingdifferent wash down or break-in looks. Important features: - MLR should not be less than 1: 0. To influence appearance by altering thenature of yarn of fabric or lusture. Washing brings out special effectschanging the feel and look of garments. To create abrasion & related effects.etc develop a contour. Cure at 150—160°C for 8 10 min. Tumble drying temp. pockets. Should not be more than 70°C. Minimum time of tumbling should be 20 min. To influence physical properties such as softness. The iron and steam press the garments to remove/set creases.  10. To create shrinkage & effects of shrinkage like puckering of garments.85 for the garment weighing 600 gm and 1:1 for those weighing more than 600 gm.  9.  7.In garment washing the seams. handle.  8. Moisture retention after drying should be 10-12%. waistband.used more and more due to the fact that there is no wastage of chemicals. Fashion Trends Favor The Broken-in Look And Worn/Faded seams that can only be achieved through garment processing . drape or fall .

0 grams/liter. Press. faded either regular or irregular looks are produced by subjecting the dyed garments to severe washing treatments In order to accelerate the garment wash effect and to give garments an even more unique appearance. if previously turned. heavyweight denim versus lightweight chambray).e. Some chemical suppliers offer special products that accelerate the wash down process. desirable look and softer hand. A number of synthetic detergents can be used. removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn. PROCEDURE1. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent. Available equipment.9. and Process flow.11. Depending upon garment type (i. The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment.. 11. Any of these procedures can be modified To fit a particular situation. dependent upon the particular dyestuff used. Mechanical washes Stone wash  Micro sanding2.5 to 2. STONEWASH In the process of stone washing. Drain and rinse.6.  15. .  13. Drain. Rinse. Load machine with garments.5. Also. The liquor ratio can range from 10:1 to 20:1. alkaline products such as soda ash or caustic soda can be added in amounts ranging from 0. Also. hardness. if required .10. Invert garments.8. Apply softener.4. Wash/tumble action for 20-60 minutes. DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES:1. Chemical washes Denim bleaching Enzyme wash Acid wash  12.2. abrasive stones were introduced to the wash bath.  Variations in composition.  14. some of these procedures yield garments suitable for over dyeing. freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumice stones It means Pre washed. abraded. size shape and porosity make these stones multifunctional. depending upon desired effect. Tumble dry. which may create a whole new look. Pumice stones give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper. Garments can be inverted to minimize unwanted abrasion streaks (especially useful when preset creases are present).7.3. Fill machine with water and heat to 60◦C.12.

and size for the particular end product.0 part weight stones:1 part weight garments). Rinse. STONE WT. De-stone and tumble dry.5 TO 3 /1 It depends on the degree of abrasion needed to achieve the desired result.5 . Liquor ratio approximately 5-8:1. Scouring additives can also be used. depending upon desired effect. Load garments into machine (ratio usually 0.  19. shape. pocket and seems  17. Refill and tumble with stones 30 to 90 minutes.  As the stones are used. Degree of colour fading  Garments to stone ratio  Washing time  Size of stone  MLR  Load of garments  Stone weight 0. Selection of stone Stone should be selected of the proper hardness. It should be noted that large. BACK STAINING OR RE-DEPOSITION: The dye removed from denim material after the treatment with cellulose or by a conventional washing process may cause "back staining‖ or "redeposition‖.3.  Drain.5-3  18. A machine used for stonewashing should not be used to dye delicate articles or when abrasion would be detrimental to the fabric. Rinse. Press. The stones not only abrade the fabric but also gradually abrade the inside of the rotary drum. Re- . Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent. It‘s gives used look because of varying degrees of abrasion in areas such as the waistband.  20.A variety of natural and synthetic stones are available for stonewashing with perhaps the most widely used being pumice or volcanic rock. Apply softener (garments can be transferred to another machine for softening). /FABRIC WT. Stones can be reused until they completely disintegrate or washed down the drain. softer stones would be used for light weight fabrics and more delicate items. they slowly disintegrate. hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavy weight fabrics only. Smaller. Extract and unload.  16.  21. reducing the severity of the stonewash effect over a period of time. = 0. PROCEDURE Load stones into machine. Liquor ratio 5-8:1 at 5070◦C. Separate garments from stones (garments can be transferred to another machine). if required.

 Water pollution during disposal of used liquor. and increases production costs. stone wash process starts with pumice stone addition in rotary drum type garment washer. because of varying degree of abrasion in the area such as waistband. Back staining and re deposition. The process is non-selective.  23. Due to ring dyeing and heavy abrasion fading is more apparent but less uniform. Process time varies from 60-120 mins. Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans in the washing machines get abraded. pocket.  22. This reduces quality of the products and life of equipment. material to liquor ratio and load of garments. resulting in less contrast between blue and white threads. LIMITATIONS OF STONE WASHING: Quality of the abrasion process is difficult to control outcome of a load of jeans is never uniform. There are many limitations and . size of stones. Stones may turn into powder during the process of making the garment grayish in color and rough too Provides rougher feel than enzyme wash Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts  25. seam and body. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY STONES: Damage to wash machineries and garment due to stone to machine and machine to stone abrasion Increase in labor to remove dust from finished garments. little percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion.coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads. The degree of colour fading depends on the garment to stone ratio.  26. Intermediate replacement of wash liquor. STONEWASH EFFECT: In traditional washing process. washing time. REMEDY OF BACK STAINING Adding dispersion/suspension agent to wash cycle.  Stone wash process gives ―used‖ look or ―vintage‖ on the garments. Using alkaline detergent like sodium per borate with optical brightener as after wash  24. volcanic rocks or pumice stones are added to the garments during washing as abradant. Normally after desizing. Stone wash effect is one of the oldest but highly demanded washing effects.

andcycle time dependent upon type of fabric and desiredeffects.drawbacks associated with stone washing process.  29. leaving the interior of the fiber as it is.0Acid Cellulase: high abrasion higher back-staining than neutral cellulases pH 4.Add cellulase enzyme (amount. Neutral cellulase:It works best at pH 6 however its activity is not adverselyaffected in the range of pH 6-8 and show maximum activity at55°C.5-5. This technology also helps to conserve water.5 – 1 gm/l Lube pro VX ( crease inhibitor) 0.5 – 1 gm/l Americos White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) 1 – 2gm/l Treat at 50C and pH – 5 for 30-45 mins  31.5 and exhibit optimumactivity at 50°C.2. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent.5 optimized pH and temperature = maximum activity of the enzyme  30. energy and environment  27.5. Cellulase enzyme is classified into two classes: Acid Cellulase:It works best in the pH range of 4.5 – 1 gm/l White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) 1 – 2 gm/l Treat at 50C and pH – 5 for 30-45 minsNeutral celluloseRecipe and Condition Americos cellucom 110 OM (OWG) 0. PROCEDURELoad stones in machine (normally 0. which can be overcome by using new enzyme based washing technology. Rinse. by removing the indigo present in the surface layer of fiber. manufacturers . Neutral Cellulase:These are the enzymes which are active between pH: 6-8 lower abrasion than acid celluloses low back staining pH 6 8.0 part weightstones: 1 part weight garments) if applicable. Cellulase attacks primarily on the surface of the cellulose fiber. Acid celluloseRecipe and Condition Cellulose 450 AP (OWG) 0.  28. pH. ENZYME WASH Cellulase enzymes are natural proteins which are used in denim garment processing to get stone wash look on to the denim garments without using stones or by reducing the use of pumice stone. time. Load garments.5 .5 . temperature.5 – 1 gm/l Lube pro VX ( crease inhibitor) 0.

 Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive.  Environmental friendly treatment. Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to absence of stone. Adjust pH as recommended. Tumble 30-90 minutes. Use of softener can be avoided or minimised.flenced surface can be obtained without or a partial use of stone.  Drain. Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem. Puckering effect can also be obtained  35. To remove the colour only on the surface of the garment and produces a frosted appearance In this wash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by optical brightening. More reproducible effect can be obtained. Separate garments from stones if used (garmentscan be transferred to another machine). Less damage to seam edges and badges. Press.Drain. Fancy colour . if require  33. Advantage of enzyme washing Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained without severe damage to the surface of yarn.  36. PROCEDURE: Soak the stones in solution of sodium hypochlorite (5 to 10%) or potassium permanganate (3 to 6%) for 1-2 hrs Stones . De-stone and tumble dry. labour intensive operation of stone removal is not required. Extract and unload. Homogenous abrasion of the garments.recommendations should befollowed).  32. It allows more loading of the garment into machines  34. Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster. Prevents tendency of pilling after relatively short period of wear. Easy handling of floor and severs as messy sludge of stones does not interfere. ACID WASH It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (5 to 10%) or potassium permanganate (3 to 6%) for localized bleaching resulting in a non uniform sharp blue/white contrast. Rinse well (70◦C). Apply softener. Can be applied on cellulose and its blend. Due to absence of stone. The advantage of this process is that it saves water as addition of water is not required.

should be drained of excess liquor with help of mesh Placed stones and garments in machine Tumble for 30 mins or until desire effects are achieved. Results are dependent up on the dyestuff. but came with added dangers. not using any chemicals. washing or rinsing. porosity ) Rinse Apply softener Tumble dry Press. and pollution  38. Used in various ways: - Flat surfaces (tables. expenses. It is a water free process therefore no drying required. Limitations of acid wash: Acid washed. It is purely mechanical process. sometimes seated) Various templates can be used to create a 3D effect. SAND BLASTINGSand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive materialin granular. if req. additives. Advantages : Pure chemical process Water free process therefore no need drying Variety of distresses or abraded looks possible Any number of designs could be created by special finishes  42. Wrinkle Free Finish (or) Ant crease Finish (Or) Wash.N-Wear Finish Cotton fabrics are mainly selected for apparels because of their . Any number of designs could be created by special techniques  41. stones. Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone wash.diamine -tetra acetic acid as chelating agent. indigo dyed denim has a tendency to yellow after wet processing. sometimes standing. fabric. MICROSANDINGThere are 3 ways for this technique: Sandblasting Machine sanding Hand sanding or hand brushing  39. ironing boards) On the dummy (inflatable dummies.Remedy: Manganese is effectively removed during laundering with addition of ethelene. sometimes flat. Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible. and concentration of chemical. The major cause is residual manganese due to incomplete neutralization. and equipment In some cases. stones can be used ( resoaking. powdered or other form through a nozzle at very highspeed and pressure onto specific areas of the garment surface to betreated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look.  40.  37.

The most commonly used cross-linking agents arenothing but resins.  46. the anti-crease finish is given.Wear finishes. It is an undesirable property and hence the crease resistant finish is to be given.  43. When a load is applied on to cotton fabric. viscose and cuprammonium rayon are finished with resinDepends on1. Object of Anti-crease finish Cotton.durability. The hydrogen bonds form. MECHANISM OF CREASE FORMATION Cotton cellulose molecular chain contains OH groups in both amorphous and crystalline region. As the resins are used. Quality of cotton5. To keep the fabric flat smooth and free from undesirable creases  44.The introduction of cross-links imparts dimensionalstability and elasticity to the fibrous material anmakes it crease resistant and crease recoverable. between the adjacent chains in the crystalline region are broken and new hydrogen bond are formed at the folding points and in amorphous region. Method to prevent creasesThe method of minimizing the formation of creasesinvolves cross-linking the OH groups of adjacentcellulosic chains by means of cross-linking agents. Amount and type of catalyst3. Amount and type of resin2. it is also called as Resin finishing. The main headache with the cotton fabric is CREASE formation during washing. Hence the creases are formed. the cellulose chain bends and this bending remains permanent since the chains are Inelastic.  Usually cotton. Process preceding finishing and possible damage  45. To prevent it. viscose fabrics form creases during washing. laundering and in use. comfort to wear and ability to take up a wide range of dyestuffs. The resins react with OH groups ofcellulose forming cross links which is durable . It is called as Anti-crease finish or Crease resistant or Crease recovery finish or Wash-n. ability to with stand the rough laundering. It is called as Anticrease finish or Crease resistant or Crease recovery finish or Wash-nWear‗ finishes. which do not allow the chain to return. Curing conditions4. good absorption. linen. laundering and in use. It is a permanent chemical finish.

drape and handle It imparts a smooth and quick drying property It improves the Dimensional stability and weight It increase the strength of rayon in both wet and dry states It gives resistance to degradation by light and laundering It improves the fastness to light and wash It prevents the inter-molecular slippage in the fiber It becomes partially water proof and rot proof.I-2gpl soap or TRO and 2-4 gpl soda ash at 50 -60°C for 10 min acidity is neutralised Softening and drying . Advantages of resin finishing It improves the Crease Resistance and Crease Recovery property It reduces the shrinkage of fabric during laundering It improves the resilience. chances of human error are slim.rinsed in water with softener Stentering  51. It is water free fading of denim.8 .10 gpl catalyst for cross linking reactionPE emulsion 20 gpl LubricantReactive softener 30 gpl softener  50. This technique enables patterns to be created such as lines and/or dots. Also called spray painting in denims.  48. PN)DMU/DMDHEU 80 -100 gpl cross-linking resinMgCl2 . PIC. text or even pictures. Process Padding in two bowl padding mangle with 80% expression at room temperature Drying in stenter with minimum tension at 70 80°C Cure at 120°C -150°C for 2-5 min Cross-linking and polymerization takes place Washing and soaping . images. LASER TECHNOLOGY It is a computer controlled process for denim fading. Disadvantages It decreases the tensile strength and tearing strength It decreases the abrasion resistance It gives harsh and stiff feel It gives an unpleasant odour It turns yellow after chlorine bleaching  49. ResinsDMU Di Methylol UreaDMEU Di Methylol Ethylene UreaDMDHEU Di Methylol Di Hydroxy Ethylene UreaTMM Tri Methylol MelamineRecipeFor Shirting cloth (Cotton. This technique has relatively high cost . 47. Being an automatic system.