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Section 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Geometrical Tolerancing Sheet Sizes, Title Block, Non-standard Formats Drawings Suitable for Microfilming Section 2 Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones, Allowances, Fit Tolerances Parallel Keys, Taper Keys, and Centre Holes Section 3 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length and Square Measures Cubic Measures and Weights Energy, Work, Quantity of Heat Power, Energy Flow, Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Section 4 Mathematics/Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes Section 5 Mechanics/Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures

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Contents

Contents

Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics Hydrodynamics

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Section 7 Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae 74 Speed, Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors 75 Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery 76 Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) 77 Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) 78 Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear 79/80 Section 8 Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips for Springs Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Copper-Tin- and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Comparison of Tensile Strength and Miscellaneous Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion Iron-Carbon Diagram Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Section 9 Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils

Section 10 Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types Noise Emitted by Gear Units Section 11 Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings Synoptical Table of Torsionally Flexible and Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive Clutches and Friction Clutches Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Symbols and Units of Translational and Torsional Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations Section 13 Bibliography of Sections 10, 11, and 12

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g. without specified roughness. Symbol without additional indications. Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc. Rz Examples Production method Any Material removing Non-cutting Centre line average height Ra: maximum value = 0. e. surface treatment or coating c = Sampling length d = Direction of lay e = Machining allowance f = Other roughness values. with specified roughness. Symbol with additional indications.25 mm 2. general explanations Kinds of tolerances.8 µm Mean peak-to-valley height Rz: maximum value = 25 µm Mean peak-to-valley height Rz: maximum value = 1 µm at cut-off = 0. Non-standard Formats Sheet sizes for technical drawings Title blocks for technical drawings Non-standard formats for technical drawings Drawings Suitable for Microfilming General Lettering Sizes of type Lines acc.1 Centre line average height Ra acc. 25 25 26 26 27 27 27-29 29 29-38 Symbol without additional indications. Ex lanation Explanation 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 22 23 . symbols. This is equivalent to the height of a rectangle (Ag) with a length equal to the evaluation length lm and with an area equal to the sum of the areas enclosed between the roughness profile and the centre line (Aoi and Aui) (see figure 1).Table of Contents Section 1 Technical Drawings Surface Texture Technical Drawings Surface Texture Method of indicating surface texture on drawings acc. Made without removal of material (non-cutting). Title Blocks. with specified roughness. with specified roughness. included tolerances Tolerance frame Toleranced features Tolerance zones Datums and datum systems Theoretically exact dimensions Detailed definitions of tolerances Sheet Sizes. 1.2 Position of the specifications of surface texture in the symbol a = Roughness value Ra in micrometres or microinches or roughness grade number N1 to N12 b = Production method. to DIN 1302 1. to DIN ISO 1302 Explanation of the usual surface roughness parameters Comparison of roughness values Geometrical Tolerancing General Application. Removal of material is not permitted (surface remains in state as supplied). Basic symbol. Symbol with additional indications. Symbol with additional indications.1 Symbols 23 23 24 Symbol without additional indications. Explanation of the usual surface roughness parameters 2. to DIN 15 Part 1 and Part 2 Ink fountain pens Lettering example with stencil and in handwriting Page 1. Removal of material by machining. to DIN 4768 The centre line average height Ra is the arithmetic average of the absolute values of the distances y between the profile heights and the centre line within the measuring length. The meaning must be explained by additional indications. Any production method. Removal of material by machining.

25 1. The term ”geometrical tolerances” is used in this standard as generic term for these tolerances. axis. .5 25 50 2. i. For surfaces which are generated by manufacturing methods of the group ”metal cutting”.3 0. according to which the tolerances of size. This standard gives the principles of symbolization and indication on technical drawings of tolerances of form. 5. .the space within a parallelepiped. from left to right.the space between two parallel planes. . Figure 3 Figure 4 500 1000 2000 N10 N11 N12 40 100 80 160 160 250 Figure 5 Suppl. 1 Roughness from to DIN values Rz to in µm 4768/1 24 25 . Rmax is stated in cases where the largest single irregularity (”runaway”) is to be recorded for reasons important for function. 4 and 5): .8 2 N2 0.e. . the tolerance zone is one of the following: .4 2. form and parallelism are in direct relation with each other. . Note: An exact conversion of the peak-to-valley height Rz and the centre line average height Ra can neither be theoretically justified nor empirically proved.the tolerance value in the unit used for linear dimensions.5 The datum feature is a real feature of a part. . form and position must be adhered to independent of each other. acc.3 A geometrical tolerance applied to a feature defines the tolerance zone within which the feature (surface.3 Maximum roughness height Rmax acc.4 16 N5 1. based on comparison measurements (see table ”Comparison of roughness values”). in the following order (see figures 3. measurement or gauging. General 4. to DIN 4768 (see figure 2) The maximum roughness height Rmax is the largest of the single irregularities z occurring over the evaluation length lm (in figure 2: z3).the area within a circle. This value is preceded by the sign ∅ if the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical.1 The particulars given are in accordance with the international standard DIN ISO 1101.the area between two equidistant lines or two parallel straight lines.5 0. 5.the symbol for the characteristic to be toleranced.3 250 N9 25 63 12. These compartments contain.4 Roughness grade numbers N. the tolerance applies to the whole length or surface of the considered feature.the space between two coaxial cylinders. form and position According to current standards there are two possibilities of making indications on technical drawings in accordance with: a) the principle of independence according to DIN ISO 8015 where tolerances of size. i. 5. In this case no special reference to DIN 7167 is required on the drawing.2 Mean peak-to-valley height Rz acc. b) the envelope requirements according to DIN 7167. According to the characteristic which is to be tolerated and the manner in which it is dimensioned.6 0. 5.6 63 N7 6. there is no direct relation between them.2 Relationship between tolerances of size. The N-grade numbers are most frequently used in America (see also table ”Comparison of roughness values”).Technical Drawings Surface Texture Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing 4. orientation.6 Geometrical tolerances which are assigned to features referred to a datum do not limit the form deviations of the datum feature itself.4 Unless otherwise specified.1 Geometrical tolerances shall be specified on drawings only if they are imperative for the functioning and/or economical manufacture of the respective workpiece.5 6.2 Indicating geometrical tolerances does not necessarily imply the use of any particular method of production.1 4 N3 0.. 5. The toleranced feature may be of any form or orientation within this tolerance zone. In this case reference must be made on the drawing to DIN ISO 8015. or median plane) is to be contained. 4.5 31. 5.5 1.e.8 32 N6 3. a diagram for the conversion from Ra to Rz and vice versa is shown in supplement 1 to DIN 4768 Part 1. location and runout. the capital letter or letters identifying the datum feature or features (see figures 4 and 5) Centre line S A oi + S A ui A g + S A oi ) S A ui Figure 1 le = Sampling length lm = Evaluation length lt = Traversed length z1-z5 = Single irregularities Start-up length Run-out length Figure 2 2.7 See Page 26 5. general explanations 5.8 Tolerance frame The tolerance requirements are shown in a rectangular frame which is divided into two or more compartments.the area between two concentric circles.3 20 3.2 8 N4 0. Otherwise.1 0. which is used to establish the location of a datum. Application.05 µin 1 N1 0. to DIN ISO 1302 In supplement 1 to DIN ISO 1302 it is recommended not to use roughness grade numbers. . . March 1985 edition.025 0.2 125 N8 12. and establishes the appropriate geometrical definitions.if appropriate.6 6. 5.15 12. 3. The form of a datum feature shall be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary to specify tolerances of form for the datum features.the space within a cylinder.8 4 0. to DIN 4768 The mean peak-to-valley height Rz is the arithmetic average of the single irregularities of five consecutive sampling lengths (see figure 2). the general tolerances according to DIN 7168 apply. unless a more restrictive indication is given. Comparison of roughness values DIN ISO 1302 Roughness values Ra Roughness grade number µm 0. that the size tolerances limit the form and parallelism tolerances. 2.

Where a common tolerance zone is applied to several separate features. Table 2: Additional symbols Description Toleranced feature indications direct direct Datum Dat m indications by capital letter Theoretically exact dimension Note: Whether a tolerance should be applied to the contour of a cylindrical or symmetrical feature or to its axis or median plane. To identify the datum. Coaxiality 5. Axial runout Included tolerances – Straightness – Straightness. the points of a geometric feature (point. for example ”6 holes”. 6 holes 6x 5. Common zone 1) Tolerances of position always refer to a datum feature or theoretically exact dimensions.on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line) when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself (see figures 9 and 10).9 Toleranced features The tolerance frame is connected to the toler-anced feature by a leader line terminating with an arrow in the following way: . The width of the tolerance zone is in the direction of the arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance frame to the feature which is toleranced.11. the tolerance specifications are given in tolerance frames one below the other (see figure 8). line. If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature. unless the tolerance value is preceded by the sign ∅ (see figures 15 and 16).7 Table 1: Kinds of tolerances. this is generally shown by datum letters. Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 15 Figure 16 as an extension of a dimension line when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane defined by the feature so dimensioned (see figures 11 to 13). Figure 17 5.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Remarks referred to the tolerance.1 When a toleranced feature is referred to a datum. symbols. ”4 surfaces”. Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 5. or ”6 x” shall be written above the frame (see figures 6 and 7). Parallelism Circularity. depends on the functional requirements. The same letter which defines the datum is repeated in the tolerance frame. Circularity Flatness Flatness Flatness – – Straightness.11 Datums and datum systems Datum features are features according to which a workpiece is aligned for recording the tolerated deviations.10 Tolerance zones The tolerance zone is the zone within which all Symbols Figure 14 Figure 18 26 27 . Parallelism. Flatness. Coaxiality Symmetry Runout tolerances Circular runout. included tolerances Tolerances Symbols Toleranced characteristics Straightness Flatness Form tolerances Circularity (Roundness) Cylindricity Parallelism O i t ti Orientation tolerances Perpendicularity Angularity Tolerances of position 1) Position Location tolerances Concentricity. 5. surface. a capital letter enclosed in a frame is connected to a solid datum triangle (see figure 18). Figure 13 on the axis or the median plane when the tolerance refers to the common axis or median plane of two features (see figure 14). the requirement is indicated by the words ”common zone” above the tolerance frame (see figure 17). median plane) must lie.

larity tolerance specified within the tolerance frame (see figures 31 and 32). These dimensions are enclosed. Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 29 Figure 35 28 29 .13. Datum ”B” is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder.1 apart.1 apart in a plane containing the axis. one of them may be replaced by the datum triangle (see figure 21). Figure 25 Figure 26 Secondary datum Figure 31 Note: If there is not enough space for two arrows. the datum letter may be omitted (see figures 23 and 24).Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing The datum triangle with the datum letter is placed: . A datum system is frequently required because the direction of a short axis cannot be determined alone. Figure 19 Figure 30 as an extension of the dimension line when the datum feature is the axis or median plane (see figures 20 and 21).2) the sequence of two or more datum features is important.11. Datum formed by two form features (common datum): 5.12 Theoretically exact dimensions If tolerances of position or angularity are prescribed for a feature. Datum system formed by one plane and one perpendicular axis of a cylinder: Datum ”A” is the plane formed by the plane contact surface.13 Detailed definitions of tolerances Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.2 Datum system A datum system is a group of two or more datums to which one toleranced feature refers in common. the axis being at right angles with datum ”A” (see figure 30). 29 and 30).1 Straightness tolerance The tolerance zone when projected in a Any line on the upper surface parallel to the plane is limited by two parallel straight plane of projection in which the indication is lines a distance t apart. In a datum system (see also 5. The datum letters are to be placed in different compartments. Datum system formed by two datums (short axis ”A” and directional datum ”B”): Figure 33 Figure 34 Any portion of length 200 of any generator of the cylindrical surface indicated by the arrow shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. A common datum formed by two datum features is identified by two datum letters separated by a hyphen (see figures 26 and 28). shown shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0.11. the dimensions determining the theoretically exact position or angle shall not be toleranced. The corresponding actual dimensions of the part are subject only to the position tolerance or angu- Figure 32 5. Indication and interpretation Figure 20 - Figure 21 on the axis or median plane when the datum is: a) the axis or median plane of a single feature (for example a cylinder).on the outline of the feature or an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from the dimension line). b) the common axis or median plane formed by two features (see figure 22). and the datum letter placed first should refer to the directional datum feature (see figures 27. Figure 28 Figure 22 If the tolerance frame can be directly connected with the datum feature by a leader line. where the sequence from left to right shows the order of priority. A single datum is identified by a capital letter (see figure 25). Primary datum Tertiary datum Figure 27 5. for example 30 . when the datum feature is the line or surface itself (see figure 19).

between two co-planar concentric circles 0.The surface shall be contained between two lel planes a distance t apart. contained between two coaxial cylinders 0. The tolerance zone is limited by two The considered surface area shall be coaxial cylinders a distance t apart. in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.13. Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 40 5.1 in the specified in two directions perpendicular vertical and 0.13.1 apart.1 apart.The axis of the bar shall be contained within epiped of section t1 ⋅ t2 if the tolerance is a parallelepipedic zone of width 0. Figure 50 Figure 51 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 ⋅ t2 and parallel to the datum line if the tolerance is specified in two planes perpendicular to each other. The toleranced axis shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone having a width of 0.03 apart. Figure 52 Figure 44 Figure 53 Figure 54 30 31 .2 in the horizontal and 0.2 in the horizontal direction.2 Flatness tolerance Figure 39 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral.08 apart.1 apart. parallel planes 0.3 Circularity tolerance Figure 41 The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0. The toleranced axis shall be contained between two straight lines 0. if the tolerance zone is only specified in one direction.4 Cylindricity tolerance Indication and interpretation The tolerance zone is limited by a parallel.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.5 Parallelism tolerance Figure 46 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The axis of the cylinder to which the tolerof diameter t if the tolerance value is ance frame is connected shall be contained preceded by the sign ∅.13.13.08. Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 45 5.1 apart.1 in the vertical direction and which is parallel to the datum axis A (see figures 53 and 54). Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and parallel to the datum line. Figure 42 Figure 43 The circumference of each cross-section shall be contained between two co-planar concentric circles 0. Figure 38 5. to each other. The tolerance zone in the considered The circumference of each cross-section of plane is limited by two concentric circles the outside diameter shall be contained a distance t apart. which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the vertical direction (see figures 48 and 49). which are parallel to the datum axis A and lie in the horizontal direction.

Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum line. Figure 59 Figure 60 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and parallel to the datum surface.01 perpendicular to the datum surface A. Figure 70 Figure 71 32 33 .01 apart and parallel to the datum surface D (figure 62).2 which is perpendicular to the datum surface.01 apart and parallel to the datum surface A (figure 63). Figure 68 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign ∅.1 ⋅ 0.1 apart. sign ∅.The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and parallel between two planes 0. Figure 69 The toleranced axis of the cylinder to which the tolerance frame is connected shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. placed anywhere on this surface.6 Perpendicularity tolerance Indication and interpretation Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder The toleranced axis shall be contained in a of diameter t parallel to the datum line if cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 67 The toleranced axis of the cylinder shall be contained in a parallelepipedic tolerance zone of 0. Figure 62 Figure 61 Figure 63 All the points of the toleranced surface in a length of 100. parallel to the datum surface B. to which the tolerance frame is connected.03 parallel to the tolerance value is preceded by the the datum axis A (datum line). Figure 57 Parallelism tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line Figure 58 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. The toleranced axis of the inclined hole shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.06 apart and perpendicular to the axis of the horizontal hole A (datum line). Figure 55 Parallelism tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface Figure 56 Figure 64 Figure 65 The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. The toleranced axis of the cylinder. the datum axis C of the hole. Perpendicularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and perpendicular to the datum plane if the tolerance is specified only in one direction. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.01 apart and to the datum surface. perpendicular to the datum surface.The toleranced axis of the hole shall be conlel planes a distance t apart and parallel tained between two planes 0. Figure 66 The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 ⋅ t2 and perpendicular to the datum surface if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other. The toleranced surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.1 apart and parallel to to the datum line. shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.13.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5.

13. with reference to the surface A (datum surface). The toleranced axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. 0. The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and inclined at the specified angle to the datum line.08 apart and perpendicular to the axis A (datum line). Figure 72 Figure 73 Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced surface shall be contained parallel planes a distance t apart and between two parallel planes 0. Figure 74 5.1 the axis of which is in the theoretically preceded by the sign ∅.13. face A.08 apart which are inclined at 60° to the horizontal axis A-B (datum line).8 Positional tolerance Positional tolerance of a line The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered line if the tolerance is specified only in one direction.05 apart and which are symmetrically disposed with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface with reference to the datum surface A and the axis of the datum cylinder B (datum line).08 apart and perpendicular to the horizontal datum surperpendicular to the datum surface.7 Angularity tolerance Angularity tolerance of a line with reference to a datum line Line and datum line in the same plane.05 apart which are symmetrically disposed about the theoretically exact position of the considered line. Indication and interpretation Perpendicularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum line The tolerance zone is limited by two The toleranced face of the workpiece shall parallel planes a distance t apart and be contained between two parallel planes perpendicular to the datum line. Figure 81 Figure 80 The axis of the hole shall be contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone 5. with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces). surface. Figure 75 The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder Figure 83 of diameter t the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the Each of the axes of the eight holes shall be considered line if the tolerance value is contained within a cylindrical zone of diameter 0. Figure 78 Figure 79 Figure 85 Figure 86 34 35 . Each of the toleranced lines shall be contained between two parallel straight lines 0. Figure 82 Figure 84 Figure 76 Figure 77 Positional tolerance of a flat surface or a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the theoretically exact position of the considered surface.08 apart which at the specified angle to the datum are inclined at 40° to the datum surface A. exact position of the considered hole.The toleranced surface shall be contained lel planes a distance t apart and inclined between two parallel planes 0. with reference to the surfaces A and B (datum surfaces). Angularity tolerance of a surface with reference to a datum surface The tolerance zone is limited by two paral. The inclined surface shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0.08 the axis of which is in the theoretically exact position of the considered line.

08 apart and symmetrically disposed with respect to the actual common median plane of the datum slots A and B.1 in any plane of measurement during one the axis by two concentric circles a revolution about the datum axis A-B. Cylinder of measurement Figure 102 Figure 93 Figure 94 Figure 101 36 37 . the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign ∅. Figure 97 Runout normally applies to complete revolutions about the axis but could be limited to apply to a part of a revolution.1 position by two circles a distance t apart at any position of measurement during one lying in a cylinder of measurement. the centre of which coincides with the datum axis. t2.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Indication and interpretation Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a parallelepiped of section t1 . which are 0. distance t apart. Figure 92 Circular runout tolerance .05 in the vertical direction and the axis of which coincides with the datum axis formed by the intersection of the two median planes of the datum slots A-B and C-D.13. 5. Toleranced surface Figure 96 Figure 89 5.01 concentric with the centre of the datum circle A. Figure 87 Coaxiality tolerance of an axis The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t. Figure 99 Figure 100 The tolerance zone is limited at any radial The axial runout shall not be greater than 0. to which the tolerance frame is connected. shall be contained in a cylindrical zone of diameter 0.08 coaxial with the datum axis A-B. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis if the tolerance is specified in two directions perpendicular to each other.13.2 in any plane of measurement when measuring the toleranced part of a revolution about the centre line of hole A (datum axis). The axis of the hole shall be contained in a parallelepipedic zone of width 0. The radial runout shall not be greater than 0. the revolution about the datum axis D. axis of which coincides with the datum axis.11 Circular runout tolerance Circular runout tolerance .1 in the horizontal and 0.08 apart and symmetrically disposed about the median plane with respect to the datum feature A. Figure 90 Figure 98 Plane of measurement The median plane of the slot shall be contained between two parallel planes.axial The axis of the hole shall be contained between two parallel planes which are 0. in a circle of diameter 0. Figure 91 Symmetry tolerance of a line or an axis The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically with respect to the datum axis (or datum plane) if the tolerance is specified only in one direction. to which the tolerdiameter t the centre of which coincides ance frame is connected.9 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance Concentricity tolerance of a point The tolerance zone is limited by a circle of The centre of the circle.10 Symmetry tolerance Symmetry tolerance of a median plane The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart and disposed symmetrically to the median plane with respect to the datum axis or datum plane. shall be contained with the datum point. Indication and interpretation 5. Figure 88 Figure 95 The axis of the cylinder.radial The tolerance zone is limited within any The radial runout shall not be greater than plane of measurement perpendicular to 0.13.

Title Block.1 Title block Formats w A3 are produced in broadside. Symbol Definition of the tolerance zone Circular runout tolerance in any direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement.2 Non-standard formats Non-standard formats should be avoided. The sheet sizes listed below have been taken from DIN 476 and DIN 6771 Part 6. the possible sectioning margin. Figure 103 A2 A3 A4 1) The actually available drawing area is reduced by the title block.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C. For the A4 format the title block area is at the bottom of the short side (upright format). The title block area is in the bottom right corner of the trimmed sheet.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.76) and DIN 6671 Part 6 (04. 38 39 . to DIN 476. This standard may also be used for other technical documents. Trimmed drawing sheet Figure 106 Title block 6. etc. Drawing area 6. Unless otherwise specified the measuring direction is normal to the surface.88)] 6. The runout in the specified direction shall not be greater than 0. 841 x 1189 Drawing area 1) a1 x b1 831 x 1179 a2 x b2 880 x 1230 Untrimmed sheet sentation of drawing forms even if they are created by CAD.Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing Technical Drawings Sheet Sizes. When necessary they should be created using the dimensions of the short side of an A-format with the long side of a greater A-format. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. Non-standard Formats Indication and interpretation Technical drawings [extract from DIN 476 (10. A series axb A0 Figure 104 A1 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 420 210 x 297 584 x 831 410 x 584 287 x 410 200 x 287 625 x 880 450 x 625 330 x 450 240 x 330 The runout in the direction perpendicular to the tangent of a curved surface shall not be greater than 0. the axis of which coincides with the datum axis by two circles a distance t apart. Cone of measurement The runout in the direction indicated by the arrow shall not be greater than 0. the filing margin. Sheet sizes The DIN 6771 standard Part 6 applies to the preTable 3 Trimmed sheet Sheet sizes acc. Figure 105 Circular runout tolerance in a specified direction The tolerance zone is limited within any cone of measurement of the specified angle.1 in any cone of measurement during one revolution about the datum axis C.

Type heights smaller by approx. line group 0.35.5 2. A3. 9. For the A4. 0.5 0.25 0. Recommendation: 2H-lead pencils for visible edges.5.2 Pencil drawings should be made in special cases only.5 and 0. 0. Type sizes Table 4: Type sizes for drawing formats (h = type height.35 40 41 . Lettering For the lettering . 7. A2 Line width 0. 12. Larger type heights are 10.25 0. 3H-lead pencils for hatching.1 The minimum space between two lines in a drawing as well as for lettering should be at least once.1 Line groups 0.1 The type sizes as assigned to the paper sizes in table 4 must be adhered to with regard to their application range. Texts and nominal dimensions Tolerances.5 0.35 A2.5 A0 and A1 b 1 0.the vertical style standard lettering has to be used acc.25 0. 0. vertical (ISO 3098).7 may be used as well. A3 and A2 formats. roughness values.35 0.7 0. 0. Indian ink fountain pen The use of the type sizes according to table 4 and the lines according to table 5 permits a restricted number of 5 different fountain pens (line widths 0. letters and dimensions.25 0. dimension lines and hidden edges.7 with the pertaining line width according to table 5 may only be used.35 0. for example for drafts. Assignment to the drawing formats A1 and A0 is prescribed.5 A4. lettering style B (ISO 3098).7. to DIN 6776 Part 1. A3 and A4 h 7 3.25 8.35 0.25 0. Lettering examples for stenciling and handwritten entries 12.5 0.7 0. General In order to obtain perfect microfilm prints the following recommendations should be adhered to: 7.25. In case of manual lettering the vertical style or sloping style standard lettering may be used according to DIN 6776 Part 1.Technical Drawings Drawings Suitable for Microfilming 7. 8. 20% will be accepted if this is required in a drawing because of restricted circumstances. Technical Drawings Drawings Suitable for Microfilming 10. b = line width) Paper sizes Application range for lettering g g h Type.1 Indian ink drawings and CAD drawings show the best contrasts and should be preferred for this reason.5 b 0.especially with stencil . A0 0. symbols 10 5 3. Lines according to DIN 15 Part 1 and Part 2 Table 5: Line groups. 9. drawing no.7 A1.1 Example for formats A4 to A2 11.35 0.7 0. but better twice the width of a line in order to avoid merging of letters and lines in case of reductions. 1 mm).35 0. line types and line widths Line group Drawing format Line type Solid line (thick) Solid line (thin) Short dashes (thin) Dot-dash line (thick) Dot-dash line (thin) Dash/double-dot line (thin) Freehand (thin) also permissible. lettering style B.

325 0.491 0.350 6.546 13.546 14.752 26.248 2 Tensile stress crosssection As 1) mm2 5.106 11.866 0.850 3.5 5 5 5.428 56.5 2.271 0.675 3.087 0.180 0.5 3 3 3.5 5.75 0.5 4 4 4.534 1.639 60.5 1.677 0.894 1.479 39.677 0.794 0.866 49.541 0.64952 P d + 1.013 4.144 0.587 50.863 12.019 4.5 4 4.160 9. to DIN 13 Part 28 with formula As p 4 d2 ) d3 2 42 43 .376 22. Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO Tolerance Zones.160 9.376 10.134 4.670 34.227 1.1 58.361 0.920 0.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 56 60 64 68 Pitch P mm 0.7 0.479 41.5 0.077 44.773 5.165 2.051 27.933 16.319 23.103 64.227 1.812 0.78 11.541 0.613 0. Allowances.8 1 1 1.077 42.459 2.866 D1 mm 2.75 2 2 2.376 20.5 1.402 39.211 31.61343 P H 6 0.624 1.093 34.188 8.681 3.647 7.353 1.103 Core diameter d3 mm 2.129 42.350 7.920 1.429 0.460 0.2 20.188 9.436 2.812 0.764 3.180 0.067 3.466 7.577 0.706 31.165 2.3 84.0 72.22687 P 0.752 23.773 6.141 3.252 56.294 17.933 20.402 36. 12. Fit Tolerances.5 2.374 3.454 2.977 2.252 53.115 0.1 28.853 11.110 3.580 4.534 1.722 0.706 2.587 46.917 6.480 5.436 2. Outside Dimensions (Shafts) Parallel Keys.433 0.25 1.534 1.307 0.545 4.217 0.108 0.3 115 157 193 245 303 353 459 561 694 817 976 1121 1306 1473 1758 2030 2362 2676 3055 1) The tensile stress cross-section is calculated acc.147 2.86 edition Nut D1 d2 d3 H H1 h3 R Bolt thread diameter d + 2 H1 D2 d + 0.14434 P 47 48 Nut thread diameter Diameters of series 1 should be preferred to those of series 2.866 45.977 3. and these again to those of series 3.722 0.253 0.767 0.505 H1 mm 0. Fit Tolerances.505 61.670 37.Table of Contents Section 2 Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) Page 43 44 45 46 Bolt Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse Pitch Threads) ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Cylindrical Shaft Ends ISO Tolerance Zones.217 0.577 0.289 0.101 0.727 33.074 1.5 4.752 48. Allowances.361 0.760 2.368 0.701 16.752 52.387 2.406 0.681 Round R mm 0.701 14.353 1.86603 P 0.650 0.147 2.647 8.072 0.433 0.067 3.650 0.046 57.376 9.6 0.129 40.947 1.5 6 6 Pitch diameter d2 = D2 mm 2.835 15.083 1.835 13.505 0.794 0.376 18.917 5.294 19.505 0.706 2.046 54.289 0.319 25. and Centre Holes ISO metric screw threads (coarse pitch threads) following DIN 13 Part 1.361 0.3 14.9 36.727 30.706 28.144 0.294 20.54127 P 0.093 36.6 48.466 8.840 2.353 1.760 3.933 18.624 1.03 6.379 0.026 10.894 2.026 10.25 1.374 3.5 3.613 0.433 0.248 3.78 8.454 2.840 1.428 60.211 29.767 0.688 4. Nominal thread diameter d=D Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 3 3.639 Depth of thread h3 mm 0.051 25.242 3. Taper Keys.083 1.

5 1.5 1.5 1.2 2.25 1.25 1 0.5 1.25 0.4 0.5 0.25 0.3 0.5 1.8 2 2.5 1.70 edition Diameter ISO Series toler1 2 zone Cylindrical shaft ends Acc.5 1.5 Standardization Cylindrical Shaft Ends Cylindrical shaft ends Acc.5 0.5 1.2 1. 1.6 0. 10.75 0.5 1.5 3 25 26 3 28 3.6 1.5 1.25 1.5 5 50 5 55 5.5 1.7 0.35 0.5 2.25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.75 2 15 2 17 2.82 edition ISO FLENDER works standard W 0470. 5.5 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Coarse itch pitch Series thread 3 0.5 2.5 35 4 38 4 40 4. 1.5 1.75 0.25 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.Standardization ISO Metric Screw Threads (Coarse and Fine Pitch Threads) Selection of nominal thread diameters and pitches for coarse and fine pitch threads from 1 mm to 68 mm diameter.5 1.45 0.5 4.75 0.5 1.5 1.5 1.88 edition Nominal thread diameter d=D Series Series 1 2 1 1.5 0.45 0.5 58 5.5 32 3.5 1.75 0. following DIN 13 Part 12. to DIN 748/1. to DIN 748/1.82 edition ISO tolerDiaLength ance ance meter Long Short zone Length tolerDiaLength ance ance meter Long Short zone Length mm mm 6 7 8 9 mm 16 16 20 20 23 23 30 30 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 80 80 80 80 110 110 110 110 110 110 140 140 m6 140 140 170 170 170 170 mm mm mm mm mm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 mm 210 210 210 250 250 250 300 300 300 350 350 350 mm 165 165 165 200 200 200 240 240 240 280 280 280 330 330 330 380 380 380 450 450 450 540 540 540 540 540 540 540 680 680 680 680 mm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 250 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 mm m6 180 210 240 270 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 1.70 edition Diameter ISO Series toler1 2 zone FLENDER works standard W 0470.5 1.5 1.5 3 3.8 1 1.35 0.5 1.5 1.5 1. 5.5 10 11 12 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 15 15 18 18 28 28 36 36 36 42 42 58 58 58 58 82 82 82 82 82 82 105 105 105 105 130 130 130 130 14 16 19 20 22 24 25 28 30 32 35 38 40 42 45 48 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 30 180 190 200 310 35 k6 220 350 240 250 260 410 410 410 470 m6 300 470 470 550 550 550 650 650 650 650 650 650 650 800 800 800 800 k6 40 50 400 n6 280 450 500 550 590 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 52 56 60 64 68 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 60 320 340 70 360 380 80 m6 90 105 120 400 420 440 450 460 480 500 650 690 750 790 140 560 530 600 630 160 44 45 .5 6 65 6 Pitches P for fine pitch threads 4 3 2 1.4 1.5 0.

90 edition µm + 500 + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 – 100 – 200 – 300 – 400 – 500 ISO Series 1 abbrev. Allowances. to DIN 7157. allowances.Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones. Series 2 from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to 1 3 3 6 6 10 10 14 14 18 18 24 24 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 355 355 400 400 450 450 500 H7 P7 – 6 –16 – 8 –20 – 9 –24 –11 –29 N7 – 4 –14 – 4 –16 – 4 –19 – 5 –23 N9 – 4 –29 0 –30 0 –36 0 –43 M7 – 2 –12 0 –12 0 –15 0 –18 K7 0 –10 + 3 – 9 + 5 –10 + 6 –12 J6 + – + – + – 2 4 5 3 5 4 J7 + – + – + – 4 6 6 6 8 7 +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 H8 H11 + 60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 +110 0 G7 +12 + 2 +16 4 +20 + 5 +24 + 6 + + + + + + 20 6 28 10 35 13 + + + + + + 39 14 50 20 61 25 F8 E9 D9 + + + + + + 45 20 60 30 76 40 + + + + + + 60 20 78 30 98 40 +120 + 60 +145 + 70 +170 + 80 D10 C11 Standardization ISO Tolerance Zones. Outside dimensions (shafts) acc.5 –33 79 –79 –14 60 –60 0 115 –115 0 46 –46 +13 33 –33 +22 – 7 +30 16 –16 +46 0 +72 0 +290 0 +61 +15 +60 +37 +46 +24 +33 +16 +14. 1. DIN ISO 286 Part 2. Fit Tolerances Inside Dimensions (Holes) ISO tolerance zones.5 0 0 0 0 0 – 7 – 20 – 40 – 65 –110 –300 + 35 + 28 + 28 +15 + 8 + 8 + 2 + 2 – 4 –6.5 +20 +11 +11 + 2 + 2 – 7 –9.5 0 0 0 0 0 – 6 – 16 – 32 – 50 – 95 –290 + 28 + 23 + 23 +12 + 7 + 7 + 1 + 1 – 3 –5.5 11 12. 11.5 +31 +17 +17 + 4 + 4 –13 –14.5 –36 –88 –14 –66 0 –130 0 –52 +16 –36 +25 – 7 +36 –16 +52 0 +81 0 +320 0 +69 +17 +66 +43 +52 +27 +36 +16 +16 +34 +20 +20 + 4 + 4 –16 –16 –41 –98 –16 –73 0 –140 0 –57 +17 –40 +29 – 7 +39 –18 +57 0 +89 0 +360 0 +75 +18 +73 +46 +57 +29 +40 +18 +18 +37 +21 +21 + 4 + 4 –18 –18 – 45 –108 –17 –80 0 –155 0 –63 +18 –45 +33 – 7 +43 –20 +63 0 H7 +97 0 H8 +400 0 +83 +20 +80 +50 +63 +32 +45 +20 +20 +40 +23 +23 + 5 + 5 –20 –20 n6 m5 m6 k5 k6 j6 js6 ISO Series 1 abbrev. above nominal dimension 24 mm: u8 46 47 . DIN ISO 286 Part 2.66 edition.5 13 14. Inside dimensions (holes) acc.5 0 0 0 0 0 –4.5 – 9 –15 –22 – 36 – 90 f7 g6 – 2 – 8 – 4 –12 – 5 –14 – – – – – – 6 16 10 22 13 28 – – – – – – e8 14 28 20 38 25 47 – – – – – – d9 20 45 30 60 40 76 c11 – 60 –120 – 70 –145 – 80 –170 a11 –270 –330 –270 –345 –280 –370 + 6 – 5 +10 – 8 + 43 + 75 + 93 +120 +205 + 16 + 32 + 50 + 50 + 95 + 39 + 31 + 34 +23 +15 +18 + 9 +12 + 8 +5. 1.5 –11 –18 –27 – 43 –110 –17 – 34 – 59 – 93 –205 –400 –14 –35 – 7 –28 0 –52 0 –21 + 6 –15 + 8 – 5 +12 – 9 +21 0 +33 0 +130 0 +28 + 7 + 53 + 92 +117 +149 +240 + 20 + 40 + 65 + 65 +110 +280 + 64 +112 +142 +180 +120 + 25 + 50 + 80 + 80 +290 +130 +330 + 76 +134 +174 +220 +140 + 30 + 60 +100 +100 +340 +150 +390 + 90 +159 +207 +260 +170 + 36 + 72 +120 +120 +400 +180 +450 +200 +106 +185 +245 +305 +460 + 43 + 85 +145 +145 +210 +480 +230 +530 +240 +122 +215 +285 +355 +550 + 50 +100 +170 +170 +260 +570 +280 +620 +137 +240 +320 +400 +300 + 56 +110 +190 +190 +650 +330 +720 +151 +265 +350 +440 +360 + 62 +125 +210 +210 +760 +400 +840 +165 +290 +385 +480 +440 + 68 +135 +230 +230 +880 +480 F8 E9 D9 D10 C11 +430 +300 +470 +310 +480 +320 +530 +340 +550 +360 +600 +380 +630 +410 +710 +460 +770 +520 +830 +580 +950 +660 +1030 + 740 +1110 + 820 +1240 + 920 +1370 +1050 +1560 +1200 +1710 +1350 +1900 +1500 +2050 +1650 A11 + 48 + 37 + 41 +28 +17 +21 +11 +15 + 9 +6. Allowances. allowances. fit tolerances.5 +27 +15 +15 + 3 + 3 –11 –12. to DIN 7157.5 –13 –21 –33 – 52 –130 –20 – 41 – 73 –117 –240 –430 –120 –310 0 0 0 0 0 – 9 – 25 – 50 – 80 –280 –470 –16 –25 –39 – 62 –160 –25 – 50 – 89 –142 –130 –320 –290 –480 –140 –340 0 0 0 0 0 –10 – 30 – 60 –100 –330 –530 –19 –30 –46 – 74 –190 –29 – 60 –106 –174 –150 –360 –340 –550 –170 –380 0 0 0 0 0 –12 – 36 – 72 –120 –390 –600 –22 –35 –54 – 87 –220 –34 – 71 –126 –207 –180 –410 –400 –630 –200 –460 –450 –710 0 0 0 0 0 –14 – 43 – 85 –145 –210 –520 25 40 63 100 250 39 148 245 –25 –40 –63 –100 –250 –39 – 83 –148 –245 –460 –770 –230 –580 –480 –830 –240 –660 –530 –950 0 0 0 0 0 –15 – 50 –100 –170 –260 – 740 29 46 72 115 290 44 172 285 –29 –46 –72 –115 –290 –44 – 96 –172 –285 –550 –1030 –280 – 820 –570 –1100 –300 – 920 0 0 0 0 0 –17 – 56 –110 –190 –620 –1240 –32 –52 –81 –130 –320 –49 –108 –191 –320 –330 –1050 –650 –1370 –360 –1200 0 0 0 0 0 –18 – 62 –125 –210 –720 –1560 –36 –57 –89 –140 –360 –54 –119 –214 –350 –400 –1350 –760 –1710 –440 –1500 0 –20 – 68 –135 –230 –840 –1900 0 0 0 0 –40 –63 –97 –155 –400 –60 –131 –232 –385 –480 –1650 –880 –2050 h6 h9 f7 h7 h8 h11 g6 e8 d9 c11 a11 –17 –42 – 8 –33 0 –62 0 –25 + 7 –18 +10 – 6 +14 –11 +25 0 +39 0 +160 0 +34 + 9 + 59 + 45 + 50 +33 +20 +25 +13 +18 +11 + 43 + 34 + 34 +17 + 9 + 9 + 2 + 2 – 5 + 72 + 53 + 78 + 59 + 93 + 71 +101 + 79 +117 + 92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +190 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 s6 + 54 + 41 + 56 + 43 + 66 + 51 + 69 + 54 + 81 + 63 + 83 + 65 + 86 + 68 + 97 + 77 +100 + 80 +104 + 84 +117 + 94 +121 + 98 +133 +108 +139 +114 +153 +126 +159 +132 r5 + 60 + 41 + 62 + 43 + 73 + 51 + 76 + 54 + 88 + 63 + 90 + 65 + 93 + 68 +106 + 77 +109 + 80 +113 + 84 +126 + 94 +130 + 98 +144 +108 +150 +114 +166 +126 +172 +132 r6 +8 –8 Nominal dimensions in mm Nominal dimensions in mm –21 –51 – 9 –39 0 –74 0 –30 + 9 –21 +13 – 6 +18 –12 +30 0 +46 0 +190 0 +40 +10 +39 +24 +30 +15 +21 +12 +9. Series 2 P7 N7 N9 M7 K7 J6 J7 H11 G7 1) Up to nominal dimension 24 mm: x8.5 –24 –59 –10 –45 0 –87 0 –35 +10 –25 +16 – 6 +22 –13 +35 0 +54 0 +220 0 +47 +12 +45 +28 +35 +18 +25 +13 +11 +23 +13 +13 + 3 + 3 – 9 –11 –28 –68 68 –12 –52 52 0 –100 100 0 –40 40 +12 –28 28 +18 – 7 +26 –14 14 +40 0 +63 0 +250 0 +54 +14 +52 +33 +40 +21 +28 +14 +12. 11. Fit Tolerances Outside Dimensions (Shafts) ISO tolerance zones.66 edition. from to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to above to ISO abbrev. fit tolerances. Series 1 x8/u8 Series 2 1) 1 + 34 3 + 20 3 + 46 6 + 28 6 + 56 10 + 34 10 + 67 14 + 40 14 + 72 18 + 45 18 + 87 24 + 54 24 + 81 30 + 48 30 + 99 40 + 60 40 +109 50 + 70 50 +133 65 + 87 65 +148 80 +102 80 +178 100 +124 100 +198 120 +144 120 +233 140 +170 140 +253 160 +190 160 +273 180 +210 180 +308 200 +236 200 +330 225 +258 225 +356 250 +284 250 +396 280 +315 280 +431 315 +350 315 +479 355 +390 355 +524 400 +435 400 +587 450 +490 450 +637 500 +540 Series 1 x8/u8 Series 2 1) r6 s6 + 20 + 14 + 27 + 19 + 32 + 23 r5 + 14 + 10 + 20 + 15 + 25 + 19 + + + + + + 16 10 23 15 28 19 n6 +10 + 4 +16 + 8 +19 +10 m5 + 6 + 2 + 9 + 4 +12 + 6 m6 + 8 + 2 +12 + 4 +15 + 6 k5 + 4 0 + 6 + 1 + 7 + 1 k6 + 6 0 + 9 + 1 +10 + 1 Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm A11 +330 +270 +345 +270 +370 +280 +400 +290 j6 + 4 – 2 + 6 – 2 + 7 – 2 h6 h9 js6 h7 h8 h11 + 3 0 0 0 0 0 – 3 – 6 –10 –14 – 25 – 60 + 4 0 0 0 0 0 – 4 – 8 –12 –18 – 30 – 75 +4.90 edition µm + 500 Tolerance zones shown for nominal dimension 60 mm + 400 + 300 + 200 + 100 0 – 100 – 200 – 300 – 400 – 500 ISO abbrev.

3 11 7 4.6 1. The tolerance zone for 7.8 10 6 4.5 1.5 9. head .4 80 320 80 320 1) The tolerance zone for hub keyway width b for parallel keys with normal fit is ISO JS9 and 6.5 12 15 18 17 22 26 t4 ≈ mm 1.5 0.4 6.5 16 19 22 28 36 42 50 60 74 84 t2 min. Taper Keys.1 160 400 largest depth of the hub keyway.5 21 85 130 M24 21 25 130 225 M30* 26 31 225 320 M36* 31.3 13 16 M5 4.3 5.80 Form DS d4 mm 5.3 3.5 6 8 10 12 14 90 100 110 125 from to from to mm mm mm mm mm Parallel key and keyway acc.8 8.9 36 160 40 160 3.4 24 30 M10 8. Quantity of Heat Power.8 8.5 8.2 d3 mm 5 6.5 6 20 6 20 0.3 1.4 4.4 18 11 7. mm 12 14 17 21 25 30 37 45 53 63 77 93 105 t3 +1 mm 2.4 21 24 M8 6.2 4 5 6 7.5 4.9 6 36 8 36 1.3 19.6 5. see below l1 DIN 6885/1 6886 l Side fitting square and rectangular keys mm mm mm 6 8 2 8 10 3 10 12 4 12 17 5 17 22 6 22 30 8 30 38 10 38 44 12 44 50 14 50 58 16 58 65 18 65 75 20 75 85 22 85 95 25 95 110 28 110 130 32 130 150 36 150 170 40 170 200 45 200 230 50 230 260 56 260 290 63 290 330 70 330 380 80 380 440 90 440 500 100 Lengths mm I1 or I mm mm mm 2 1.4 28 17 11.1 110 400 110 400 and with close fit ISO P9.3 4.4 14 9 5. Drill diameter for tapping-size holes acc.8 10. 6886 and 6887 1 Editions: 08.8 4.4 16 10 6.2 0. Energy Flow.8 25.6 12.3 16 21 M6 5 6.15 10 4 12.6 10.3 0.5 13.1 140 400 140 400 2) Dimension h of the taper key names the largest height of the key. to DIN 6885 Part 1 0.8 1.4 28 140 32 140 2.7 Keyway Form DS (with thread) DIN 332/1 5.25 5.4 50 200 50 200 Taper and round-ended sunk key and y 3.1 9.6 6.4 d2 mm 3.2 14 70 16 70 2.3 38 48 60 71 t1 +2 mm 9 10 12.3 6 3.2 8 45 10 45 Square and rectangular taper keys 1.7 63 100 5 15.2 16.4 12 7. 11.2 5.4 70 280 70 280 ) y y 5.are equal to those of DIN 6886 16.2 14.3 9 5. and Centre Holes Dimensions of parallel keys and taper keys Depth of keyDiameter Width Height way in shaft d b h t1 above to 1) 2) Table of Contents Section 3 Parallel keys and taper keys y p y acc.0 1.1 280 400 16 18 20 22 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 56 63 70 80 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 320 360 400 Centre holes in h f i shaft ends (centerings) acc.8 3.6 1.9 14 9 5.6 0.68 12.4 32 20 12.4 18 90 20 90 2.7 1.4 50 31 19.5 10. P9 9.6 3.2 6.4 63 250 63 250 4.35 4.5 3.6 0.4 20 12 8. The shaft keyway 11.5 10 25 2 6.8 0.7 10 56 12 56 2.4 25 15 10.1 220 400 deter6886.2 1.4 8.4 45 180 45 180 3.83 1) 2) ) * 3) Cutting-off dimension in case of no centering Diameter applies to finished workpiece Dimensions not acc to DIN 332 Part 2 acc.4 45 28 17.1 200 400 Lengths according to DIN 6887 .6 13.1 180 400 keyway and hub keyway dimensions 13. to DIN 332 P 1 d ( i ) Part Dimensions of 60° centre holes Recommended Bore diameters diameter d 2) d1 a 1) above to mm mm mm mm 6 10 1.4 22 110 25 110 2.3 25 63 3.4 8 11 15 19 t5 ≈ mm 0. acc to DIN 6885 Part 1.3 20 Recommended diameters d6 2) d1 d2 d3 3) above to mm mm mm mm mm 7 10 M3 2. to DIN 336 Part 1 48 49 .3 8 5 3.1 250 400 mined 18.4 0.9 Form B DIN 332/1 4.3 8 10 12.4 22 13 9.8 7.Standardization Parallel Keys. Work.4 34.68 Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers Physical Quantities and Units of Time Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Physical Quantities and Units of Electrical Engineering Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering Different Measuring Units of Temperature Measures of Length and Square Measures Cubic Measures and Weights Energy.5 3.1 2.8 5 3 2.5 37 320 500 M42* 37 43 Form B b mm 0.8 7 4 3.3 0.4 36 22 14.5 2.9 2.9 56 220 56 220 keyway acc.4 32 20 12.4 4 2.67 4.2 10 13 M4 3.2 1.5 30 38 M12 10.4 2. and dimension tz the g g y.3 6.3 8 5 3.7 8.7 8.1 100 400 100 400 shaft keyway width b with normal fit is ISO N9 8.1 23 28.5 10.2 13 38 50 M16 14 17 50 85 M20 17.9 18.5 16 18 Minimum dimensions t mm 3.3 31.4 40 25 15.taper keys with gib not 14. to DIN 6886 k t 4.3 2.6 2.8 2.9 1. Heat Flow Pressure and Tension Velocity Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion Page 50 50 51 51 52 53 53/55 55/56 56 57 57 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 Depth of keyway in hub t2 DIN 6885/1 6886/ 6887 2) Lengths.2 44 55 65 d5 mm 5.0 3 1.8 12.4 5.1 125 400 125 400 10.4 0.4 90 360 90 360 with close fit ISO P9.3 6.

**Physics Internationally Determined Prefixes Basic SI Units
**

Internationally determined prefixes Decimal multiples and sub-multiples of units are represented with prefixes and symbols. Prefixes and symbols are used only in combination with unit names and unit symbols. Factor by which the unit is multiplied 10–18 10–15 10–12 10–9 10–6 10–3 10–2 10–1 Prefix Atto Femto Pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci Symbol a f p n µ m c d Factor by which the unit is multiplied 101 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018 Prefix Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Tera Peta Exa Symbol da h k M G T

**Physics Derived SI Units Legal Units Outside the SI
**

Derived SI units having special names and special unit symbols SI unit Physical quantity Name Plane angle Solid angle Frequency, cycles per second Force Pressure, mechanical stress Energy; work; quantity of heat Power, heat flow P E Electric charge Electric potential Electric capacitance Electric resistance Electric conductance Celsius temperature Inductance Radian Steradian Hertz Newton Pascal Joule Watt Coulomb Volt Farad Ohm Siemens degrees Celsius Henry Symbol rad sr Hz N Pa J W C V F Ω S °C H 1 rad = 1 m/m 1 sr = 1 m2/m2 1 Hz = 1 s–1 1 N = 1 kg . m/s2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg/ (m . s2) 1 J = 1 N . m = 1 W . s = 1 kg . m2/m2 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 kg . m2/s3 1C=1A. s 1 V = 1 J/C = 1 (kg . m2)/(A . s3) 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 (A2 . s4)/(kg . m2) 1 Ω = 1 V/A = 1 (kg . m2)/A2 . s3) 1 S = 1 Ω–1 = 1 (A2 . s3)/(kg . m2) 1 °C = 1 K 1 H = 1 V . s/A Relation

– Prefix symbols and unit symbols are written – When giving sizes by using prefix symbols and without blanks and together they form the unit symbols, the prefixes should be chosen in symbol for a new unit. An exponent on the unit such a way that the numerical values are symbol also applies to the prefix symbol. between 0.1 and 1000. Example: 1 cm3 = 1 . (10–2m)3 = 1 . 10–6m3 1 µs = 1 . 10–6s 106s–1 = 106Hz = 1 MHz Example: 12 kN 3.94 mm 1.401 kPa 31 ns 1.2 ⋅ 104N 0.00394 m 1401 Pa 3.1 . 10–8s

instead of instead of instead of instead of

– Prefixes are not used with the basic SI unit kilo- – Combinations of prefixes and the following gram (kg) but with the unit gram (g). units are not allowed: Units of angularity: degree, minute, second Example: Units of time: minute, hour, year, day Milligram (mg), NOT microkilogram (µkg). Unit of temperature: degree Celsius Basic SI units Basic SI unit Physical quantity Name Length Mass Time Electric current Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Symbol m kg s A Thermodynamic temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity Kelvin K Physical quantity Name Symbol Basic SI unit

Legal units outside the SI Physical quantity Unit name Round angle Gon Degree Minute Second Litre Minute Hour Day Year Ton Bar Unit symbol 1) gon ° 2) ’ 2) ’’ 2) l min h d a t bar 2) 2) 2) 2) Definition 1 perigon = 2 π rad 1 gon = (π/200)rad 1° = (π/180)rad 1’ = (1/60)° 1’’ = (1/60)’ 1 l = 1 dm3 = (1/1000) m3 1 min = 60 s 1 h = 60 min = 3600 s 1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s 1 a = 365 d = 8 760 h 1 t = 103 kg = 1 Mg 1 bar = 105 Pa

Plane angle

Volume

Time

Mass Mole Candela mol cd Pressure

1) A symbol for the round angle has not yet been internationally determined 2) Do not use with prefixes

50

51

**Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lengths and Their Powers
**

Physical quantities and units of lengths and their powers Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name m (metre) N.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: Basic unit L.U.: µm; mm; cm; dm; km; etc. N.A.: micron (µ): 1 µ = 1 µm Ångström unit (Å): 1 Å = 10–10 m L.U.: mm2; cm2; dm2; km2 are (a): 1 a = 102 m2 hectare (ha): 1 ha = 104 m2 L.U.: mm3; cm3; dm3 litre (l): 1 l = dm3 N.: moment of a force; moment of resistance L.U.: mm3; cm3 N.: formerly: geometrical moment of inertia L.U.: mm4; cm4 N. : 1 rad ) 1 m (arc) 1m ) ) 1m m 1 m (radius) 1m

**Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Time and of Mechanics
**

Physical quantities and units of time Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name N.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: Basic unit L.U.: ns; µs; ms; ks Minute (min): 1 min = 60 s Hour (h): 1 h = 60 min Day (d): 1 d = 24 h Year (a): 1 a = 365 d (Do not use prefixes for decimal multiples and sub-multiples of min, h, d, a) L.U.: kHz; MHz; GHz; THz Hertz (Hz): 1 Hz = 1/s N.: Reciprocal value of the duration of one revolution L.U.: min–1 = 1/min L.U.: cm/s; m/h; km/s; km/h 1 km h ) 1 m s 3.6 N.: Time-related velocity L.U.: cm/s2 N.: Gravity varies locally. Normal gravity (gn): gn = 9.80665 m/s2 ≈ 9.81 m/s2

l

Length

t

Time, Period, Duration

s (second)

A

Area

m2 (square metre) m3 (cubic metre) m3 m4

V H Ι

Volume Moment of area Second moment of area

f

Frequency, Periodic frequency Rotational frequency (speed) Velocity Acceleration, linear Gravity Angular velocity Angular acceleration Volume flow rate

Hz (Hertz) s–1

n

v a g

m/s m/s2 m/s2 rad/s rad/s2 m3/s

1 rad

**1 degree ) 1 o ) p rad 180
**

90 o ) p rad 2

ω α

.

L.U.: rad/min L.U.: °/s2 L.U.: l/s; l/min; dm3/s; l/h; m3/h; etc.

L.U. : mrad, mrad α,β. γ Plane angle rad (radian) Degree ( o) : 1 o ) p rad 180 o Minute ( ) : 1 ) 1 60 Second ( ) : 1 ) 1 60 Gon (gon) : 1 gon ) p rad 200 N.A. : Right angle +(L) : 1L ) p rad 2 Centesimal degree (g) : 1g ) 1 gon Centesimal minute ( c) : 1 c ) 1 gon 100 c cc cc Centesimal second ( ) : 1 ) 1 100 Ω, ω Solid angle sr (steradian)

N. : 1 sr ) 1 m 2 (spherical surface) 1 m 2 (square of spherical radius)

2 ) 1 m2 m

V

Physical quantities and units of mechanics Symbol Physical quantity Mass SI unit Symbol Name kg (kilogram) N.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: Basic unit L.U.: µg; mg; g; Mg ton (t): 1 t = 1000 kg N.: m’ = m/l L.U.: mg/m; g/km; In the textile industry: Tex (tex):1 tex = 10-6 kg/m = 1 g/km N.: m’’ = m/A L.U.: g/mm2; g/m2; t/m2 N.: r = m/V L.U.: g/cm3, kg/dm3, Mg/m3, t/m3, kg/l 1g/cm3 = 1 kg/dm3 = 1 Mg/m3 = 1 t/m3 = 1 kg/l

m

m’

Mass per unit length Mass in relation to the surface Density

kg/m

m’’

kg/m2

r

kg/m3

52

53

**Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics
**

Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity Mass moment of inertia; second mass moment Rate of mass flow Force Weight Torque Bending moment SI unit Symbol Name kg . m2 N.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: Instead of the former flywheel effect GD2 2 GD 2 in kpm 2 now : J ) GD 4 L.U.: g ⋅ m2; t ⋅ m2 L.U.: kg/h; t/h L.U.: µN; mN; kN; MN; etc.; 1 N = 1 kg m/s2 N.A.: kp (1 kp = 9.80665 N) N.: Weight = mass acceleration due to gravity L.U.: kN; MN; GN; etc. L.U.: µNm; mNm; kNm; MNm; etc. N.A.: kpm; pcm; pmm; etc. L.U.: Nmm; Ncm; kNm etc. N.A.: kpm; kpcm; kpmm etc. N.: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 L.U.: Bar (bar): 1 bar = 100 000 Pa = 105 Pa µbar, mbar N.A.: kp/cm2; at; ata; atü; mmWS; mmHg; Torr 1kp/cm2 = 1 at = 0.980665 bar 1 atm = 101 325 Pa = 1.01325 bar 1 Torr ) 101325 Pa ) 133.322 Pa 760 1 mWS = 9806.65 Pa = 9806.65 N/m2 1 mmHg = 133.322 Pa = 133.322 N/m2

**Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
**

Physical quantities and units of mechanics (continued) Symbol Physical quantity SI unit Symbol Name N.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 Nm/s L.U.: µW; mW; kW; MW; etc. kJ/s; kJ/h; MJ/h, etc. N.A.: PS k m/s kcal/h PS; kpm/s; 1 PS = 735.49875 W 1 kpm/s = 9.81 W 1 kcal/h = 1.16 W 1 hp = 745.70 W N.: 1 Pa . s = 1 Ns/m2 L.U.: dPa . s, mPa . s N.A.: Poise (P): 1 P = 0.1 Pa . s L.U.: mm2/s; cm2/s N.A.: Stokes (St): 1 St = 1/10000 m2/s 1cSt = 1 mm2/s

J

P

.Power

.

W Watt) Heat flow

m F G M, T Mb

.

kg/s N (Newton) N (Newton) Nm Nm

Q

η

Dynamic viscosity Kinematic viscosity

Pa . s

ν

m2/s

Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer Symbol Physical quantity Thermodynamic temperature Celsius temperature Heat Quantity of heat SI unit Symbol Name K (Kelvin) N.: Note L.U.: Further legal units N.A.: Units no longer allowed N.: Basic unit 273.15 K = 0 °C 373.15 K = 100 °C L.U.: mK N.: t °C The degrees Celsius (°C) is a special name for the degrees Kelvin (K) when stating Celsius temperatures. The temperature interval of 1 K equals that of 1 °C.

p

Pressure

Pa (Pascal)

T

pabs pamb

Absolute pressure Ambient atmospheric pressure Pressure above atmospheric Direct stress (tensile and compressive stress) Shearing stress Extension Work

Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal) Pa (Pascal)

Q

J

**1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L.U.: mJ; kJ; MJ; GJ; TJ N.A.: cal; kcal
**

a) m+ p c

pe

pe = pabs - pamb a L.U.: N/mm2 1 N/mm2 = 106 N/m2 H

Temperature conductivity

m2/s

λ [ W/(m . K)] = thermal conductivity m [kg/m3] = density of the body cp [J/(kg ⋅ K)] = specific heat capacity at constant pressure

σ

N/m2

τ ε W, A E, W

N/m2 m/m

L.U.: N/mm2 N.: ∆l / l L.U.: µm/m; cm/m; mm/m N.: 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws L.U.: mJ; kJ; MJ; GJ; TJ; kWh 1 kWh = 3.6 MJ 36 N.A.: kpm; cal; kcal 1 cal = 4.1868 J; 860 kcal = 1 kWh s α,h

Enthalpy (Heat content) Entropy Heat transfer coefficient

N.: J

Quantity of heat absorbed under certain conditions L.U.: kJ; MJ; etc. N.A.: kcal; Mcal; etc.

J/K

1 J/K = 1 Ws/K = 1 Nm/K L.U.: kJ/K N.A.: kcal/deg; kcal/°K L.U.: W/(cm2 . K); kJ/(m2 . h . K) N.A.: cal/(cm2 . s . grd) kal/(m2 . h . grd) ≈ 4.2 kJ/(m2 . h . K)

J (Joule) Energy

W/(m2 . K)

54

55

00 + 0. s / W = 1 A 2 .67 R G 1) 1) 1) The triple point of water is +0. m) L.01 + 100.A.15 + 273. nC. 1C=1A. m / (s . K) N. mcd/m2.: µm / (m .: pF. Heat Transfer and Electrical Engineering Physical quantities and units of thermodynamics and heat transfer (continued) Symbol Physical quantity Specific heat capacity Coefficient of linear thermal expansion Coefficient of volumetric expansion SI unit Symbol Name J/(K . etc.: µΩ. m / (s .: µS. 1 Ω = 1 V / A = 1 W / A2 1 J / (s .38 ) 5 9 5 9 TR tF Different measuring units of temperature Degrees Celsius °C tC tC tC tC T K + 273.A.s 1 Ah = 3600 As L. N.A. etc.02 + 212.: mcd. kcd L. mS. 1 asb p cd m Nit (nt): 1 nt = 1 cd / m2 Stilb (sb): 1 sb = 104 cd / m2 1 Im = 1 cd .U.: Units no longer allowed N. K) m3 / (m3 . K) = K–1 N. A) = 1 A . K).: Heat capacity referred to mass N. kS 1F=1C/V=1A. Ω = 1 N . kA. K). kC 1 V = 1 W / A = 1 J / (s .00 + 459.U.U.15 5 c 459.: pC.A. nA.: klm 1 lx = 1 lm / m2 c I αl K–1 L cd / m2 αv. deg). Reciprocal of electric resistance 1 S = 1 Ω–1 = 1 / Ω. deg) Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Lighting Engineering.37 + 273. etc. kΩ.: Note L.00 + 255.16 + 373.78 0. kcal / (kg . kg) N.: TK TK TK Kelvin K TK 273. deg).67 0.: Note L.: Units no longer allowed 1 J/(K .: Apostilb (asb).: µV. etc.: m3 / (m3 . mΩ. sr L.U.: Basic unit L.15 – 273.67 + 491.U. µC.67 ) t F T R + 459. cm / (m .15 9 R Degrees Fahrenheit °F tF tF tF tF 9 5 T K + 459.: Temperature unit/volume ratio N.15 5 t + 32 9 F 5 T + 273.A.: Further legal units N.69 + 671. mm / (m .U.U. The triple point of pure water is the equilibrium point between pure ice. kV.67 + 491.15 ) t c 255. K) = K–1 N.25 hPa). A2) = 1 N . Quantity of electricity Electric voltage Electric resistance Electric conductance Electrostatic capacitance SI unit Symbol Name A (Ampere) C (Coloumb) V (Volt) Ω (Ohm) S (Siemens) F (Farad) N. s2/ (N .: Temperature unit/length unit ratio L. Luminance Luminous flux Illuminance SI unit Symbol Name cd (Candela) N. kg) = W .Physics Physical Quantities and Units of Thermodynamics.: Further legal units N. γ K–1 Φ E lm (Lumen) lx (Lux) Physical quantities and units of electrical engineering Symbol I Physical quantity Current strength Electriccharge.: cd / cm2. 1 2 N.: pA.00 + 32. MV. µA.67 U Comparison of some temperatures 0. mA. air-free water and water vapour (at 1013.: Note L.67 32 ) 9 5 tC Degrees Rankine °R TR TR TR TR 9 5 TK Q 9 t ) 273. Different Measuring Units of Temperature Physical quantities and units of lighting engineering Symbol Physical quantity Luminous intensity Luminous density.01 °C. m / (m .U.00 0. G = 1 / R L.U.A.: Further legal units N. s / (kg . s2 / J = 1 A2 .s/V = 1 A2 .U. µF.00 + 32.: Units no longer allowed N. mV.15 – 17. etc.U.: cal / (g .: Basic unit 1 cd = 1 lm (lumen)/sr (Steradian) L.U. A2) L. A) L.U.00 – 459. Temperature comparison of °F with °C C 56 57 . etc.

229 168.505 .01 sq in = 6.057 0.03531 35. 10–6 9.152 – – 0. 10–6 37.01 1 100 10000 – a – – – – – – 0.9 .01 0.9144 1609.2642 0.0254 0.1076 10.609 1.136 4.142 l 1 Imp pint = 4 gills = 0.77 .02841 l 1 Imp gill = 5 ft oz = 0.75 231 69.7 kg (GB / USA) 1 berkowetz = 163.121 km) Astronomical units of measure 1 light-second = 300 000 km 1 l. 107 = 0. Work.968 1 Japan: 1 tsubo 1 se 1 ho-ri 1. 107 1.1 .704 .685 .301 .2 0.648 .949 m 1 myriametre = 10 000 m Russia: 1 werschok = 44. 10–3 3.102 0. 1 tdw = 1016 kg Other square measures of the Imperial system 1 sq mil = 1 S 10–6 sq in = 0. 109 4186.3030 m 1 ken = 1.01732 – 0.559 .2 l 1 US barrel = 42 gallons = 158.3333 1 1760 2027 1.8 426.1855 .307 km) 1 internat.25 .27 2. distances to the stars) = 3. 103 293 .138 km2 = 3.818 m 1 ri = 3.7457 1 1.163 .03342 0.9842 106 1000 1 1 grain = 1 / 7000 lb = 0.04536 1 long cwt (GB/US) = 28672 1792 112 1.108 km Typographical unit of measure: 1 point (p) = 0.546 0.04047 m2 1 sq rod = 1 sq perch = 1 sq pole = 625 sq surv link = 25. 103 = 778. 106 .29 m2 1 sq chain = 16 sq rod = 4.1383 0.829 m 1 engineer’s chain = 100 eng link = 100 ft = 30.056 0. saschen 1 dessjatine 1 kwadr. 106 273.001 1 1 German statute mile = 7500 m 1 geograph. werst = 0.001 1 Physics Cubic Measures and Weights.37 l 1 Imp quarter = 8 bushels = 64 gallons = 290.06102 61.653 . 103 1.452 mm2 1 sq surveyor’s link = 0.8929 0.34 kg (USA) 1 funt = 32 lot = 0.155 15.0254 mm 1 line = 0.36 36 .1336 m 1 arschin = 0.102 377.804 1.4 . 1012 3.8 .252 Btu 1.12 1 – 1016 1.6 0. 103 1.3768 . 1 thermi (French) = 4.3861 cm2 6.84 .9863 1 1.6 kg (USA) 1 hyaku kin = 1 picul = 16 kwan = 60 kg (J) tdw = tons dead weight = lading capacity of a cargo vessel (cargo + ballast + fuel + stores).25 0.3 1853.6 10.853 10–6 0. 1 astronomical unit (mean distance of the earth from the sun) = 1.101 l 1 US peck = 8 dry quarts = 8.655 .87 1 0.95 kg (F) 3.067 J 58 59 .8 914. 10–3 94.016 1g = 0.807 .1111 1 – – 0.029 m 1 surveyor’s chain = 100 surv link = 20.0254 µm 1 mil = 1 thou = 0. 10–15 277. 10–6 kcal 0. (light-year) = 9.88 1057 264.22 220 cm3 16.) 4 p 1 circular mil + sq mil + 0. 10–7 37.1012 km 1 parsec (parallax second.496 .47 a 1 township (US) = 36 sq miles = 3.581 .552 cm3 1 Imp ft oz = 8 ft drachm = 0.625 m2 1 Imp minim = 0.29 83.6 0.7355 0.002205 – – – – 1 0. i.785 1.5461 l 1 iImp pottle = 2 quarts = 2.811 l 1 US bushel = 4 pecks = 35.0006452 mm2 1 sq line = 0.02205 0.0833ft lb = 0.001 1 1000 m3 – 0.8 .2 m 1 stat league = 3 stat miles = 4.281 .0005067mm2 (circular area with 1 mil dia. 106 J. 10–15 1 107 1 0.7112 m 1 werst = 1.12 m 1 furlong = 1000 surv link = 201.e.828 km Other measures of length of the metric system France: 1 toise = 1.205 0. 10–3 392.8 l (for crude oil) 1 US cord = 128 cu ft = 3.8929 – 907.1365 l 1 imp gallon = 4 quarts = 4. 1015 372.5506 l 1 US dry quart = 2 dry pints = 1.01968 – – 1000 1 0. 10–6 kWh 0.12 1 0. 10–12 238 .092 l 1 Imp bushel = 4 pecks = 36. 106 = 1.1337 0.9464 3.01442 29.047 a 1 acre = 4 rood = 40. 10–6 0.02835 – 1 lb (pound) = 256 16 1 0.9917a = 15.356 .094 1094 Stat mile Naut mile – – – 1 1.2 0.98 .4732 l 1 US liquid quart = 2 liquid pints = 0.0508 1 short ton (US) = – 32000 2000 20 17.9 202 672.001 10–6 1kg = 564.003906 – – – – 1.0592 cm3 (GB) 1 Imp ft drachm = 60 minims = 3. 1 in lb = 0.36 277.807 1 9.3 860 1 0. 107 3. 10–9 2.8326 0.4 m = 4 arc minutes at the equator (1° at the equator = 111.3 35.5682 l 1 Imp quart = 2 pints = 1.452 929 8361 – 1 100 10000 – – – dm2 0.61 – 0.05 50802 50.78 .7978 g (CIS) 1 short quarter = 1/4 short cwt = 11.3002 1 4.008929 – – 453.1 in = 2.5058 m2 = 4.2 0.05 19.25 1 – 0.06452 9.36 kg (USA) 1 kwan = 100 tael = 1000 momme = 10000 fun = 1 quintal = 100 livres = 48.02 61023 cu ft – 1 27 0.5 .9 1055 107. 10–9 3.7 .1605 – 0.324 .59 – – – – 0.772 0.331 1.08333 1 3 5280 6080 3.8326 4 1 3.6 .46 .5396 mm 25.26 l.01639 28.35 kg (GB) 1 lot = 3 solotnik = 12.6 – – sq mile – – – 1 – – – – – 0.9072 1 long ton (GB/US) = – 35840 2240 22.39 – – 946.102 .7646 – – – – 106 0.01 1 100 km2 – – – 2.76 1076 – – sq yd – 0.067cm 2(circular area with 1 in dia.8684 1 – – 0.9 . Quantity of Heat Cubic measures Unit 1 cu in 1 cu ft 1 cu yd 1 US liquid quart 1 US gallon 1 imp quart 1 imp gallon 1 cm3 1 dm3 (l) 1 m3 = = = = = = = = = cu in 1 1728 46656 57.92 807. 10–6 1 in oz = 0.42 km2 ft lb = 1 = 0.356 0.51 . 10–3 2510 2545 3413 3.7376 = 7.4536 – 1 short cwt (US) = 25600 1600 100 1 0.0929 0.6214 – – – 0.2082 0.4 3785 1136 4546 1 1000 106 dm3 (l) 0.01196 1.36 0.5 641. 106 = 2. 10–6 0.01 1 100 10000 ha – – – 259 – – – 0. mostly given in long tons.Physics Measures of Length and Square Measures Measures of length Unit 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 stat mile 1 naut mile 1 mm 1m 1 km = = = = = = = = Inch in 1 12 36 63 360 72 960 0.8361 – – 0.01 1 100 10000 – – m2 – 0.376 mm Other measures of length of the Imperial system 1 micro-in = 10–6 in = 0.072 kpcm. 103 270 26. quantity of heat Work 1 ft lb 1 erg 1 Joule (WS) 1 kpm 1 PSh 1 hph 1 kWh 1 kcal 1 Btu Russia: 1 kwadr.54 mm 1 fathom = 2 yd = 1.481 24. 106 J Common in case of piston engines: 1 litre-atmosphere (litre . atmosphere ) = 98.273 l 1 Imp peck = 4 pottles = 9.75 kg (J) (J) 1 kilopound = 1kp = 1000 lb = 453. 10–3 1.37 39 370 Foot ft 0.409 kg (CIS) 1 pud = 40 funt = 16.4 20 1. mile = 7420.04014 0.00177 – 1 oz (ounze) = 16 1 0.03937 39.4 .) 4 Other square measures of the metric system Energy.85 .2659 g (CIS) 1 stone = 14 lb = 6.7376 .38 kg (CIS) 1 long quarter = 1/4 long cwt = 12.094 .68 1.0625 0.953 .y. Energy. 1012 2. 10–6 2.696 cm3 1 US fl oz = 8 fl drams = 0.03527 0.02778 0.113 Nm.48 1 1. 10–6 27. 1 therm (English) = 105. 10–3 41. 106 = 3.01 1 1 dram = 1 0.8 0.001 1 1000 km – – – 1. 10–3 23.24 km2 p 1 circular in + sq in + 5.05 0. 109 398.0625 – – – – 28. work.8 kg (CIS) 1 quintal or 1 cental = 100 lb = 45. 106 367.233 = 1.5643 0. 1012 2.5 1550 – – – sq ft – 1 9 – – 0.0616 cm3 (USA) 1 US fl dram = 60 minims = 3.04464 45359 45.92 7.02832 0.55 .281 3281 Yard yd 0.201 0.0925 ha = 1. nautical mile 1 German nautical mile (sm) 1 mille marin (French) } =1852 m = 1 arc minute at the degree of longitude (1° at the meridian = 111.4 304.4 0.1183 l 1 US liquid pint = 4 gills = 0.087 .341 1.35 0. 10–6 .014 26.785 l 1 US dry pint = 0.02957 l 1 US gill = 4 fl oz = 0. 10–3 632.5522 m2 = 1.32 764.5 gallons = 119.4 – – 1 1000 106 m 0.87 .6 erg J = Nm = Ws kpm PSh hph 0.9464 l 1 US gallon = 4 liquid quarts = 3.31 US liquid US Imp quart quart gallon 0.3048 0.0648 g (GB) 1 solotnik = 96 dol = 4.2 880 Imp gallon – 6. 10–6 10–7 0.001 1t = – 35270 2205 22.286 .927 km 1 US minim = 0.24 l 1 US liquid barrel = 31.0668 km Japan: 1 shaku = 0.5121 .196 119. archin 1 kwadr.48 m 1 rod = 1 perch = 1 pole = 25 surv link = 5.94 l Weights Unit dram oz lb short cwt long cwt short long ton ton g kg t Square measures Unit 1 square inch 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square mile 1 cm2 1 dm2 1 m2 1a 1 ha 1 km2 = = = = = = = = = = sq in 1 144 1296 – 0. 10–12 948.45 mm 1 saschen = 2.201 4 – – – 1.344 . 10–9 9.001 in = 0.725 .y.306 m2 = 0.8 1 0.

107 7. heat flow Power 1 erg/s 1W 1kpm/s 1 PS (ch) 2) 1hp 1 kW 1 kcal/s 1 Btu/s = = = = = = = = erg/s 1 107 9.341 1 0.645 1 87. h FF = m .305 26.9678 2048 73556 96. velocity 1 lb/sq in=1 psi = 68948 68.279 54.6 0.12 1 J W W=F.2 1 – – 10197 1 10 – – – – 2.67 0. angular acceleration N F *) F=m.0005 1. 1 barye (French) = 1 µb.001 1 1000 – bar = daN/ cm2 kp/m2 Torr= kp/cm2 kp/mm2 mm mm p/cm2 = at WS QS – 1.102 .089 0.2048 – 0.9 5.001 10.406 0. rs .02 kp/m2.102 1.001 1 100 – – – 0.01 1 – – 0. flywheel effect: 1 kgm2 = 3418 lb in 2 v+s t s=v.9 – – 70.7 0.Physics Power.6 1.a * *) m 2 v2 M=J.355 . Pressure and Tension. h = m .252 1 Physics Equations for Linear Motion and Rotary Motion SI SymSym unit bol Basic formulae Linear motion distance moved divided by time Definition Uniform motion Velocity Angular velocity Angle of rotation Distance moved atm Rotary motion angular velocity = angle of rotation in radian measure/time m/s rad/s rad m/s m v ω r v s v+ s2 ) s1 t2 ) t1 + s + const.6972 745.s work in unit of time = force .692 5.614 4.457 .36 0.α J J N Ek Ep FF Ek Ek + J 2 weight . acceleration accel. Velocity Power.434 1.665 W.4788 – 4.1 1 1000 105 – – 1. 108 10. angular velocity Power Non-uniform (accelerated) motion Force In case of any motion Energy W P P+W+F t v P+W+M t p 1 psi = 0.575 1.0145 14.00689 N / mm2 1 N/m2 (Newton/m2) = 10 µb. 109 1010 41.7068 1000 102 1. energy flow.0102 750. 10–3 9.84 . 10–3 13.1 0.239 0.0142 14. t angular acceleration equals change of angular velocity divided by time lb sq ft lb sq in long ton {sh ton} sq in – sq in – – Uniformly accelerated motion Acceleration Angular acceleration – 0.92 inches Hg = 0 mm QS = absolute vacuum.87 .6 W=M.1782 0.04 1.0167 0.3591 51.0072 – – – 0.1341 .447 m/min 60 1 16.7457 0.807 . 10–12 94. 1 hpz = 100 pz = 1. 10–3 2. 109 W kpm/s PS hp kW kcal/s Btu/s 10–7 0.71 – – – 0. g . ”inches Hg” are calculated from the top.02 0.8929 – 0.7 76.7 – – force .785 0. 10–6 948.014 1 0. 0.5 75 1 0.95 0.7112 – m/s m/s m Circumferential speed Distance moved Uniform motion and constant force or constant torque Work 1 Torr = 1 mm = QS at 0 °C 1 atm (pressure of the atmosphere) 1 lb/sq ft 1.92 mile/h 2. ω2 (rs = centre-of-gravity radius) *) Momentum (kinetic energy) equals half the mass .882 0. Energy Flow.4 137.0114 1 Potential energy (due to force of gravity) Centrifugal force Ep = G . 10–3 10–3 239 .033 – 760 1 2116 14. 10–9 0.9484 4187 426. height p2 Velocity Unit m/s m/min km/h ft/min mile/h = = = = = m/s 1 0. atmosph.278 0.136 .415 1.7356 – – 0.) 1 kp/mm2 = Velocity 980. 1 piece (pz) (French) = 1 sn/m2 ≈ 102 kp/m2.1 1 long ton/sq = in (GB) 1 short ton/sq = in (US) – – – – 154.15 . 10–3 9. 60 61 .07 106 735.6 1.635 – – – motion accelerated from rest: = 98.013 10332 1033 1. 10–6 9. 10–12 1 0. angle of rotation in radian measure = 478.9 .36 . i.t acceleration equals change of velocity divided by time r+ r t Pressure and tension Unit 1 µb=daN = 1mbar=cN/cm2 = 1 bar = daN/cm2 = 1 WS at 4 °C 1 p/cm2 kp/m2=1mm mbar µbar = = cN/ dN/m2 cm2 1 1000 106 0.804 .0373 0. 10–3 735. 109 7. Heat Flow. 0 inches Hg = 760 mm QS and 29.968 1055 107.237 0.0183 1.7501 angle of rotation ϕ = ω .0102 0.7355 0.00133 13.36 1.22 1422 v2 2s a+v+ + t 2s t2 v+a t+ 2 a s p2 2r m+p + + 2 t t 2r p +m v+r p +r t+m 2 t m t 1 kp/cm2=1at = (techn.06 1 0.0689 703.595 kg/dm 3.0064 0.4 .8 0.0051 0.807 1 13.6 0. second power of velocity.341 .187 1 3. 10–9 10–10 23. second power of the angular velocity.e.333 0.055 0.296 .9869 2089 – – 0.9863 0.55 .344 . The specific gravity of mercury is assumed to be 13. **) Kinetic energy due to rotation equals half the mass moment of inertia .4882 – – – 1. t p + r2 ) r1 t2 ) t1 + r t + const. In the USA. accelerating force = mass . t m+ p2)p1 t2 ) t1 + p t + const.07 = 980.9807 10000 98067 98. torque = second mass moment .7 0. motion accelerated from rest: 1 poncelet (French) = 980. distance moved torque .82 km/h 3.02 1020 0.622 0.72 3. 10–3 1.1 1 144 – – – 1 2240 2000 – – 1 0.5 140.00136 2.31 0.0001 0.5 – m/s2 rad/s2 m/s2 a α a v v s a+ v2 ) v1 t2 ) t1 + v + const.068 152.ϕ work in unit of time = torque .609 ft/min 196.33 .9807 – – 1333 2.4 136.0703 – – 157.1758 0.048 0.78 1 – – – 0.01934 s+v 2 t+a 2 2 t2 + v 2a r +p 2 angle of rotation 2 t2 + p 2m = – 1013 1. 10–7 0.

.Table of Contents Section 4 Mathematics/Geometry Calculation of Areas Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Areas Calculation of Volumes Page 63 64 Square A = area A = a2 a d A U = circumference Polygon A a A1 ) A2 ) A3 h1 ) b h2 ) b h3 2 a 2 Rectangle A d a b Formed area A r 2 (2 3 + m) 2 0. ] 62 63 .785 d2 d r2 m a A h Circular ring U 2rm m Trapezium A m h A m 4 (D 2 + d 2) m (d ) b) b m {a ) b} 2 b {D + d} 2 r2 m o Triangle A a {a 2 {2 h A} h} Circular sector A 360 o {b r} 2 o} {r m b 180 o Equilateral triangle A a2 3 4 a 3 2 Circular segment A r 2 { o m} + sin 2 180 1 [ r(b + s) ) sh] 2 d s h 2 r sin Hexagon 3 A d s 2 3 a a a2 2 3 ^ b 2 a r (1 + cos ) 2 { o m} 180 r ^ {D d m} a 4 {D ) d} m 2 m (a ) b) [ 1 ) 2 s tan 2 4 Ellipse A U b m Octagon A d s 2a 2( 2 ) 1) a 4)2 a( 2 ) 1) 2 U 1 {a + b} 4 {a ) b} {a + b} ) 1 64 {a ) b} 6 4 {a + b} ) 1 256 {a ) b} .16 r2 a2 ) b2 Parallelogram A a h Circle A d2 m 4 0.

Mathematics / Geometry Calculation of Volumes Table of Contents Section 5 V = volume Cube V O d a3 6 a2 O = surface M = generated surface Frustum of cone V M {p h} ( D 2 ) Dd ) d 2 ) 12 {p m} (D)d) 2 2p p h {D + d} 2 2 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Deflections in Beams Values for Circular Sections Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures Page 66 67 68 69 a 3 m ) h2 Parallelepiped V O d a b c 2 (ab ) ac ) bc ) a2 ) b2 ) c2 Sphere V 4 r3 p 3 4.189 1 6 r3 p d 3p O 4p r2 d2 Rectangular block V A h Spherical zone V M {p 6 2 r h} (3a 2 ) 3b 2 ) h 2) p h (Cavalier principle) Pyramid V {A 3 h} Spherical segment V {p h} 3 2 s ) h2 4 p h2 r + h 3 6 2 r p h p ( s 2 ) 4h 2 ) 4 M Frustum of pyramid V h (A ) A ) A 2 1 3 1 h A1 ) A2 2 A 2) Spherical sector V O 2 3 {p 2 h r} r2 p (4h ) s) Cylinder V M O d2 p h 4 2 2 r r p p h (r ) h) Cylindrical ring V O D p2 4 d d2 D p2 Hollow cylinder V {h 4 p} (D 2 + d 2 ) Cylindrical barrel V {h p} ( 2D 2 ) d 2 ) 12 Cone V M O m r2 r r p p p 3 h m ( r ) m) d 2 2 Prismatoid V h ( A ) A ) 4A ) 1 2 6 h2 ) 64 65 .

αB.1098 r 4 F {24E } q 1+2 x 2 ) x 5q 4 0 x fm q 3 {24E } {384E } q 2 F axis 1-1 = axis of centre of gravity A B 2 66 67 . fmax. qo Deflection (mm) Lengths (mm) Modulus of elasticity (N/mm2) Line load (N/mm) F 3 w(x) α. fm. Angle (°) Forces (N) F. x1. l. w1. b.Mechanics / Strength of Materials Axial Section Moduli and Axial Second Moments of Area (Moments of Inertia) of Different Profiles Cross-sectional area W1 W2 Mechanics / Strength of Materials Deflections in Beams Section modulus bh 2 6 hb 2 6 Second moment of area 1 2 bh 3 hb 3 12 12 f.5756 r 1 w(x) x r 1+ 4 {3r} [r 8+8 (9 r) r 4 0. x2 E q. w2 a.1908 r 3 0. α1.5413 R 4 F p 2 F 3 x 1+ w(x) {16E } F 4 x 3 l 2 x F 3 2 f {48 E } tan m F 2 {16 E } 6b 2 ) 6bb 1 ) b 2 1 1 F 36 (2b ) b1 ) h3 A B F 2 F 3 a b 2 x 1 x2 l+ 1 b ab x2 2 ab F 3 x w (x ) 1 1 {6E } 1) 1 a f a 2 b 2 tan m {3E } 1 f 1) 2a b W1 BH 3 + bh 3 6H 1 BH 3 + bh 3 12 x1max a (l ) b) 3a for a > b change a and b for a < b F 3 w (x ) b a 2x 2 2 2 {6E } b F 3 F 1) a + x 2 b fmax f { ) b} 3b ) b 3a tan m 2 f 1) a 2b F A F B F a 2 f w(x) x 2 a W1 W2 r D3 32 D3 {2E } a 1+ a + 1 x 3 F 3 {2E } a l 2 1+ 4 a 3 tan m F 2 1 {2E } F 2 2 {2E } a 1+ a 10 1 2 rD 4 64 D 4 20 x F 3 w(x) a W1 W2 r 32 D4 + d4 D (r ) s 2) rsr 2 1 2 {2E } x 2 x 1+ x + 1 a 3 2 fm F 3 {8E } a 1+ 4 a 3 2 tan m a 1+2 a r ( D4 + d4 ) 64 rsr 3 1 ) (s 2r) 2 a or in case of thin wall thickness s: W1 W2 1 2 FA = FB = F F 3 x 1 a w (x ) 1 1 rsr 3 W1 W2 ra 2b 4 rb 2a 4 ra 3b 4 x {2E } 1 x1 3 3 + a 1) 2 a x1 a 2 a ) 1) 3 tan m f F 2 a a 1) {2E } 3 2 F a 2 a 1) {2E } 3 1 F 2 2 {2E } a 1 2 F 3 2 w (x ) rb 3a 4 r 3 (a 1b 1 + a 3 2b 2 ) 4 2 (b + b2) thin r 2 a (a ) 3b) s 4 2 2 {2E } x2 a x2 1+ F 3 fm a {8E } tan m FA = FB = F F 3 w (x ) a x1 W1 1 a1 1 1 1 {6E } F 3 x2 1+ x1 2 x F 3 1 f a 2 1) a F 2 tan m {3E } A {6E } a l or if the wall thickness is s W1 W1 with e a1 + a2 b1 + b2 2 (a + a 2) 1 w (x ) 2a 2 2 {6E } a q 4 F ) x2 3a x 2 + a 3 2 x F 3 2 a fmax a tan m 9 3E tan m B a 2 tan m A r a (a ) 3b) s 4 1 e F 2 {6E } tan m F A F B F 1) 2)3 a 0.5413 R 3 6b 2 ) 6bb 1 ) b 2 1 12( 3b ) 2b 1 ) 1 3b ) 2b 1 h 3 2b ) b 1 h2 5 16 3 R4 0. FA.625 R 3 1 2 0. α2. αA. FB Ι Second moment of area (mm4) (moment of inertia) F 3 f {3E } F 1+ 3 x 1 x ) 2 2 3 {3E } tan m F 2 {2 E } W1 W2 a3 6 1 2 a4 Fp 12 q 4 w(x) {8E } q 1+ 4 x)1 x 3 3 4 f q 4 {8E } tan m q 3 {6 E } W1 W2 bh 2 24 for e hb 2 24 2 h 3 1 2 bh 3 hb 3 36 48 F p w(x) 5 qo 4 x) x 4+5 {120E } qo f qo 4 {30E } tan m qo 3 {24 E } W1 W2 W1 for e 5 3 R 8 0. w. x1max.

050564 0. 140. 21. 840. 460.6900 241.1499 1.643673 0.6636 931420. 500.2058 23.462 2074.8739 125663.6 For bending and torsion Surface roughness Rt in µm Surfaces with rolling skin Resistance to breaking of the material Rm for tension compression bd = 1.978 19.000001 0.131 1.069558 19.4447 66. 9.9787 26.0719 0.7849 482749.2399 82447.142 3.5332 82.5724 8362.718 132.000039 0.5597 8.010 5921. 36.824 1933. 42.599 47. 34.6435 39.015 3945. 760.000545 0.261 3. 100.158 6.910473 48.1945 1.877076 129.701321 654.780267 185.364 120.617 1304.3629 9.782 1.344 1667.0133 482.0716 0.313 7. 2) Reduced stress σv with: For the frequently occurring case of comσ = single axis bending stress bined bending and torsion.194 3631. 82.7854 0.2411 19.264653 315.005635 0.1748 113.289 4559. Design strength of the member D bo S ßk bd with: σD = ruling fatigue strength value of the material bο = surface number (≤ 1) bd = size number (≤ 1) ßk = stress concentration factor (≥ 1) S = safety (1.617 66.012930 0.667229 348.341 12.6602 718.5726 0.9364 10857.2432 2.781 96.3978 25.1551 2.6994 823549.3601 4099. 600. 220.545 2. 150. 70.8573 12.395 0.302 0. 10.0337 0.220112 0.503 45.0454 1.001607 0.3201 1471962. 780. 23.2718 13.7662 181.1572 358908.1107 417392.3442 12271. 74.843266 770.858 320.184 55.9537 785. 640.6286 1.6796 35.821 63.460 4778.7731 43096. 17.3269 3216.803 283.732 143 139 153.000002 0.069 8.593 1420.874 530.103957 601.9973 5749. 56.265 52.000123 0.578 1.6056 1637661.503 1541.361 380.000100 0.805345 2.6517 66903.0576 30. 29.617 0.7569 26087. 78.940 52.970 2525.1126 4908738.563844 462.6734 0.5791 62444.195 23.8538 30869.467 4993.159807 0.000301 0.000030 0.1722 4527664.011 2.2894 33673. 940.700 25.208 1.1239 441.296061 0.4475 84.168 4.003451 0.834 5.327 1.9167 147. 195.719 2.605 7.9324 2.8587 4.385 0.000022 0.5664 15.9196 9555.7703 Ιa cm4 858.226 2.7410 2169.5155 81542.460 1087.336 416. 60.1472 6.3740 2155.1743 1049555.611 37.1402 0.032 2219.5906 402.2 . 105.7113 3220623.112834 Area: Mass: Density of steel: A m r Second mass moment of inertia (mass moment of inertia): J d mm 115. 48.0491 0.020711 0.023110 0.028526 0.681 3848.635 21.0234 2943747. A cm2 103.010437 3.042156 0.387 1.229 7542.0172 3.476 452.929 Wa cm3 149.964 7853.042 9.4924 1357.1304 58.879084 113.809021 0. 620.255979 0. 12.885524 34. 85 p d2 l r d2 Diffusion of stress in structural members: loading types Axial section modulus: Polar section modulus: Wa Wp a p Axial second moment of area (axial moment of inertia): Polar second moment of area (polar moment of area): d mm 6.365 47. 130.0 Static bending.6612 4580.4100 0.0503 0.242443 8.0619 221.6972 201.3401 3516585.232967 164.567567 710.4076 76447.002398 0.077067 0.2157 0.185 5.8463 13804.071 3216.062 213.610 6939.000410 0. dynamic torsion: α0 ≈ 0. 920.8558 39760.615 271.537 88.095667 4.213060 99.1986 0.805 6082.3680 46589.121 3751.9109 2485. 90.362 5026. 1017.1963 163. 16.0201 0.1680 1533.016478 0.148 355.1726 98. 8. 62.6460 191. 66. Reduced stress on the member v Alternate area/Area of fluctuation Permissible stress perm.. 86.2 Coefficients of fatigue strength σD Stress-number diagram Stress σ Stress-number curve Damage curve Endurance limit Fatigue limit Fatigue strength under alternating stresses σW Example: Tension-Compression Coefficient of fatigue strength Fatigue strength diagram acc. 92.0145 13736.390153 0.638 2850.3207 2685120.840 4536. 25.7188 3216. 64.1551 21.6739 36. 145.115 1256.008721 0.3313 0.841 129.539 1.980968 28.3217 0.004817 0.000003 0.004091 0.5890 50.418 58.982 In case of stresses below the damage curve initial damage will not occur to the material.2960 2219347.6087 3.1171 7097.5559 10.6496 130. 420.4268 58188.9830 1816972.648 314.835 3.133 415.5116 725331. 54.5553 621. 180. 170.000016 0.601 d3 32 p d3 16 p d4 64 p d4 32 J/I kgm2/m 0.4910 4169220.485 40. 80.248 340. 804.469 268.000064 0.791702 87. 135.3116 169.8389 1178588.785 0.0336 50265.466 2.233075 1.5367 39782.365 554.715 188. A cm2 0.4225 1401.643 61.8540 65597. 240.5638 11499. 110.033 890.8539 6397. 860.503 0.865 10.000011 0.335 20.6507 3.7 2 ) 3 (m o ) 2 v Alternating bending.000352 0.566 13. 84.740 22.5198 1932.3398 365.548 5281.5340 1.2750 55.0758 21205.671947 Mass/ I kg/m 81.205 15.499 0.0982 0.221 2463..998 2.884 631.590 95.Mechanics / Strength of Materials Values for Circular Sections Mechanics / Strength of Materials Stresses on Structural Members and Fatigue Strength of Structures p 4 p 4 7.168391 505.114315 1.031567 0.000256 0.376 static Maximum stress limit: Mean stress: Minimum stress limit: dynamic o m u sch 0 sch 2 alternating o ) w 0 m w u + o m u oscillating m) a v (initial stress) m+ a Ruling coefficient of strength of material for the calculation of structural members: Resistance to Fatigue strength under Fatigue strength under Resistance to breaking Rm fluctuating stresses σSch alternating stresses σW deflection σA Yield point Re.011388 0. 572.5414 1017.758 211.7828 43.034844 0.421 28.4824 54130.721 148.909 5.097 122.025711 0.464 3. 44.722806 0. 1134.2170 3.8908 41.2320 219786.991 3421.6884 p Mass /I kg/m 0.6586 399.530667 75.274 30.456 483.7854 0.7060 152745.856 28. 88.5481 7853.0200 183984.9816 9546.3105 2010619.205 16.096 19.160 3561.2249 30.4406 1895.009988 0.1554 572.131 3376.902727 1.009 2642. 615.374 5447.762 35.6930 555497.912 4774.1176 1319167.413 16.8739 596.055210 0.5468 269. 210.726 6. 155.188152 0.8693 33.840 4145.825 226.018504 0.038334 207.555 280.2832 7. 185. 18. 68.521786 4.950 1.079 10.637864 552.2485 0. 880.000808 0.769 5808.2608 306796.961 33. 72. 13.000181 0.540 86.551 3.442 1520.253 26. 15.938 165.528 254.936 13. 706.5156 kg dm 3 d4 l r 32 J/I kgm2/m 0.9347 244.3748 322.8760 1198.9556 117.531 1661.3984 21.745 49. 720. 32.3920 268.7359 28.159 346.348573 65.6058 673.4590 17. 24.062772 0.637 1385.3807 727.8588 131.0 Diameter of component d 68 69 Surface number bo Size number bd . 907.0460 6283.297297 146.210 31.001030 0.9462 36643. 125.9547 1.7476 215.298767 12.9909 3638.212 36.984 3. 52.801 4.736981 6.903 1809.619 18.042 1.5153 0. 740.570 234.630 26.7820 51471.8598 5152.944329 16. 14.134791 0.3571 71569.007579 0.5694 76.270 2. 46.170 34.098129 257.4021 0.010 222.3737 1.1326 2650.006553 0.990 8. 19.495 2123. 480.779 449.834 167. 26.0489 2833.810 55.893 298.0212 0. 660.191 32.293 0. 1000.437557 383.4823 0.166997 56.1696 0.000051 0.9761 5. alternating torsion: α0 ≈ 1.033 Wa cm3 0.195 112.6173 72.920 360.980 240.7151 3832492.001294 0.7598 22431.973 74. to SMITH Resistance to breaking Rm Yield point Re Resistance to deflection σA Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses σSch Mean stress σm Number of cycles to failure N 270.599 4350.4719 3.338 2685.725 6647.509 30.1886 62.093676 0.237 22. 190.476 70.5120 294.6629 16286.2981 331.458 41.179 188.7967 25735. 900. 165.126 385.038370 0.9808 1725.014623 0. 120.046 14.784 50.317 38.3916 299. 580.729202 23.0491 30171.389 490.1307 0.2745 18.008 45.046217 0.112931 285.557 1693. 400.000474 0.815 199.1018 0.556905 3.222 0.8198 490.903 9.3870 6.3934 86858.9042 15.7504 23397.0964 46.000624 0.853 4.572 1193. 250.123 6361.438 246.9034 71.034 3196.433 3019.636 0.017 5541.692 201.1978 636172.506497 40.715 43. 40.179 11.109269 231.1965 1045. 76. 230.902 24.000216 0.7536 92401.123 157.726 5682.852 178.0064 0.7393 48.334 712.549 6. 38.498811 1.529 298.2354 12. 22.6072 260576.088 60.3084 98174.882 78.0163 19174.6706 Ιa cm4 0.309 5. 175.079 2827. 540.1581 15458.001973 0.524 4. 560.9848 1630.4971 2443920.571223 0.767 2.752 300.081081 10.156656 2.869 113.2655 54.000081 0.456 43.002889 0.504 4300.876 380.127 7.130 176.1853 7273.3326 526.505068 0. 7.535 2369. 20. 50. alternating torsion: α0 ≈ 1.778 7238.870 3021.5497 63. Rp0.3550 93. 980.2736 8.280 986. 800.3650 1194.876 11.118 1797.2448 10.3982 909.0623 351. according to τ = torsional stress the distortion energy theory: α0 = constraint ratio according to Bach Alternating bending.0322 0.000008 0.6397 0.2694 0. 160.000150 0.9092 1.0605 19155.888 1. 30.8275 4603. 200.5804 5. 27.0118 0.495 4.1420 104.227 6165.9909 3858.9175 2.3572 1. 520. 680.510 39. 820.004347 1.717 2290.746 0. 28.155 4.954 5218.451 4071. 11.3944 2. 58.627 138.9920 17241.9270 28224.000005 0.7255 1.4421 5387.695490 421.854 15. 260. 960. 440.404 326.654 67.340676 0.9575 102353.334 104.671 17.444832 0. 95.717 799. 700.

Gieck. g V)g V ( N. kN) FH is equal to the hydrostatic force of pressure on the projection of the considered surface 1. 2. Gieck. 29th Edition. xD mxy y sA m. 2 is resolved into a horizontal component FH and a vertical component FV. Buoyance The buoyant force FA is equal to the weight of the displaced fluids having densities and ’. Gieck Verlag.e. The line of application runs through the centre of gravity. FV is equal to the weight of the fluid having a volume V located (a) or thought to be located (b) over the surface 1. D-7100 Heilbronn) Hydrodynamics (Source: K. Technische Formelsammlung. 2 on the plane perpendicular to FH. Technische Formelsammlung. D-7100 Heilbronn) Page 71 p1 72 P2 po ) g h1 p 1 ) g (h 2 + h 1) Pressure distribution in a fluid p1 ) g h Linear pressure Hydrostatic force of pressure on planes The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only i.Table of Contents Section 6 Hydraulics Hydrostatics Hydraulics Hydrostatics (Source: K. Gieck Verlag. mm Hydrostatic force of pressure on curved surfaces The hydrostatic force of pressure on the curved surface 1. the following applies: FA For > = < g V ( N.and y-axes 70 71 . kN ) k density of the body applies: k the body floats in k the body is suspended k the body sinks } a heavy liquid S = centre of gravity of plane A D = centre of pressure Ιx. without consideration of pressure pο. Fv g V (N. 29th Edition. kN ) FA If the fluid with density ’ is a gas. Ιs = moments of inertia Ιxy = product of inertia of plane A referred to the x. F yD g g y s A cos p ms mx ys ) y sA y sA hs A .

2 gH 2 Hh (without any coefficient of friction) r A 2 gH . V 2 r b 2 g (H 2 3 3 2 + H1 3 2 ) Vessel with excess pressure on liquid level v . V : volume flow rate b: width of opening 72 73 . 2 gH r A 2 gH Vessel with small lateral opening Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear (Types of protection) Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear (Gases and vapours) Vessel with wide lateral opening V v s . 2 A pü pü V 2 v: discharge velocity g: gravity : density pü: excess pressure compared to external pressure ϕ: coefficient of friction (for water ϕ = 0.62 for sharp-edged openings) (ε = 0.97) ε: coefficient of contraction (ε = 0. V F Vv .97 for smooth-rounded openings) F: force of reaction . 2 (gH ) A pü ) pü V 2 (gH ) ) Vessel with excess pressure on outlet v .Hydraulics Hydrodynamics Table of Contents Section 7 Discharge of liquids from vessels Vessel with bottom opening Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Speed. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors Page 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 v .

.50 0.83 4. Pab = U .09 0.1-kW motor and a 132-kW motor dependent on the load P U P U cos P U cos 30.962 0.73 P U cos 0. cos .85 0.73 .30 1.7 1.10 43.5 58 22 14.4 18.033 0.43 0.023 0.2 0.02083 0.32 5.0 2.33 0. homog.35 1.15.0164 0. r m m mm 2 n f Series connection of resistors: R R1 ) R2 ) R3 ) ) Rn Direct current a) Metals Aluminium Bismuth R total resistance m Lead Rn individual resistance m Cadmium Iron wire Gold Shunt connection of resistors: Copper 1 ) 1 ) 1 ) ) 1 1 Magnesium Rn R1 R2 R3 R Nickel R total resistance m Platinum Mercury individual resistance m Rn Silver Tantalum Electric power: Tungsten Current consumption Zinc Power Tin P U b) Alloys Aldrey (AlMgSi) Bronze I Bronze II Bronze III Constantan (WM 50) Manganin Brass Nickel silver (WM 30) Nickel chromium Niccolite (WM 43) Platinum rhodium Steel wire (WM 13) Wood’s metal c) Other conductors Graphite Carbon. .0 48 36 18 2.13 0.015 0.. .9 3.43 0.5 9.0. p = 2 n 50 2 60 1500 min +1 Efficiency: r P ab P zu 100 % 1) Example: Efficiency and power factor of a four-pole 1.7.3 0.84 13 6.73 U cos 1.04 61 7.Electrical Engineering Basic Formulae Electrical Engineering Speed.1 0.046 0.014 22 65 70 Resistance of a conductor: l l R A p A R l γ A = = = = = resistance (Ω) length of conductor (m) electric conductivity (m/Ω mm2) cross section of conductor (mm2) specific electrical resistance (Ω mm2)/m) Power output P / PN 1) Pab = mechanical output power on the motor shaft Pzu = absorbed electric power 74 75 .05556 0. η Single-phase alternating current: Pab = U .2066 0.20 0.063 0.2 16.055 0.5 8.12 n = speed (min -1) f = frequency (Hz) p = number of pole pairs Example: f = 50 Hz. .069 0.1-kW motor Three-phase current P 1. r Three-phase current: Pab = 1.32 15.107 0.135 0. Retort graphite 36 0.061 0.02778 0. Power Rating and Efficiency of Electric Motors p Speed: m mm 2 m Ohm’s law: U R U R R U Material Power rating: 60 p Output power 1) Direct current: .. cos .0769 0.92 2.54 Power factor cos ϕ Efficiency η Single-phase alternating current 132-kW motor 1. U .045 0.0278 1.01724 0.0 7.

dust may not enter to such an amount that operation of the equipment is impaired (dustproof). access from housing side – Design/Explanation Fastening or Installation 4 V1 2 end shields without feet flanged at the bottom 5 V3 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields without feet flanged at the top 6 V5 with feet fastening to wall or on substructure V6 with feet – fastening to wall or on substructure 1) For equipment with degrees of protection from 1 to 4. 2) For degrees of protection 3 and 4.Electrical Engineering Types of Construction and Mounting Arrangements of Rotating Electrical Machinery Types of construction and mounting arrangements of rotating electrical machinery [Extract from DIN/IEC 34.5 mm Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm (grain sized foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools. uniformly or non-uniformly shaped foreign bodies with three dimensions perpendicular to each other and above the corresponding diameter values are prevented from ingress. if necessary end shields turned through -90° design B3. the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes. protection of persons against contact with live parts Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 12 mm (medium-sized foreign bodies) 1) Keeping away of fingers or similar objects Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 2. by hand.83)] Machines with end shields. feet on RH side when looking at input side B7 with feet B8 with feet fastening on ceiling B 35 with feet installation on substructure with additional flange 2 3 Machines with end shields. however. Degrees of protection for protection against contact and foreign bodies (first type number) First type number 0 1 Degree of protection (Protection against contact and foreign bodies) No special protection Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 50 mm (large foreign bodies) 1) No protection against intended access. e. access from housing side mounting flange close to bearing on input side. vertical arrangement Design Symbol Figure Bearings Stator (Housing) Shaft free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top free shaft end at the bottom free shaft end at the top Explanation General design mounting flange close to bearing on input side. the respective expert commission is responsible for the application of this table for equipment with drain holes or cooling air slots. 3) For degree of protection 5.80)] Example of designation Design/Explanation Fastening or Installation installation on substructure Explanation General design Type of protection DIN 40050 IP 4 4 Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number B3 – mounting flange close to bearing.5 mm (small foreign bodies) 1) 2) Keeping away tools. feet on LH side when looking at input side wall fastening. access from housing side B5 flanged An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 1 mm Protection against harmful dust covers. 76 77 . if necessary end shields turned through 180° mounting flange close to bearing. however. access from housing side design B3. if necessary end shields turned through 90° design B3. Part 7 (4. The ingress of dust is not entirely prevented. horizontal arrangement Design Symbol Figure Bearings 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields 2 end shields Stator (Housing) with feet without feet Shaft free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end free shaft end Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Contact and Foreign Bodies) Types of protection for electrical equipment [Extract from DIN 40050 (7.g. 3) Complete protection against contact Protection against the ingress of dust (dust-tight) Complete protection against contact B6 with feet wall fastening. wires or similar objects having a thickness above 2.

switchgear. It may not have any harmful effect on equipment (enclosure) inclined by up to 15° relative to its normal position (diagonally falling dripping water). 50020] Example of designation Symbol for equipment certified by an EC testing authority Symbol for equipment made according to European Standards Type of protection Explosion group Temperature class Types of protection Type of protection Flameproof enclosure Symbol d Gap-s Scheme Application Heavy-current engineering (commutator) motors. It may not have any harmful effect (splashing water). No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (flooding). generators 5 Oil-immersion enclosure Sand-filled enclosure Increased safety o Switchgears.80)] Example of designation Designation DIN number Code letters First type number Second type number An enclosure with this designation is protected against the ingress of solid foreign bodies having a diameter above 1 mm and of splashing water.. switchgears. It may not have any harmful effect (dripping water). water may enter provided that it has no harmful effect.Electrical Engineering Types of Protection for Electrical Equipment (Protection Against Water) Types of protection for electrical equipment [Extract from DIN 40050 (7. terminal and junction boxes. Protection against water falling at any angle up to 60° relative to the perpendicular. Protection against heavy sea or strong water jet. Degrees of protection for protection against water (second type number) Second type number 0 1 No special protection Protection against dripping water falling vertically. transformers. lighting fittings. transformers q Capacitors 6 e 7 Squirrel-cage motors. Protection against water spraying on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. and other spark generating parts Ex EEx d II B T3 2 Pressurized enclosure p 3 4 Especially for large apparata. lighting fittings. Intrinsic safety i Low-voltage engineering: measuring and control devices (electrical equipment and circuits) Potentially explosive atmosphere 78 79 . It may not have any harmful effect (hose-directed water). measuring and control devices 8 1) This degree of protection is normally for air-tight enclosed equipment. For certain equipment. 1) Degree of protection (Protection against water) Type of protection DIN 40050 IP 4 4 Electrical Engineering Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear Explosion protection of electrical switchgear Example of designation / Type of protection [Extract from DIN EN 50014 . however. Protection against dripping water falling vertically. Protection against water if the equipment (enclosure) is immersed under determined pressure and time conditions. Protection against a water jet from a nozzle which is directed on the equipment (enclosure) from all directions. The equipment (enclosure) is suitable for permanent submersion under conditions to be described by the manufacturer (submersion).. It may not have any harmful effect (spraying water). current transformers. No harmful quantities of water may enter the equipment (enclosure) (immersion). motors.

9mm < 0...5 .II Explosion group Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Case Hardening Steels Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Cold Rolled Steel Strips for Springs > 0...8 mm ≥ 0.450 G3> 200.and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium Casting Alloys Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Comparison of Tensile Strength and Miscellaneous Hardness Values Values of Solids and Liquids Coefficient of Linear Expansion Iron-Carbon Diagram Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels 1) For definition. Annex A Classification of areas according to gases and vapours Zone 0 Areas with permanent or long-term potentially explosive atmospheres. atmosphere permanent or long-term probably during normal operation (occasionally) rarely and at short terms practically never Ignition sources (n) additionally 80 81 .I EEx....135 Permissible limiting temperature °C 360 240 160 110 80 A B C Temperature class Ignition Maximum temperature surface temperature °C °C T1 > 450 450 T2 > 300 300 T3 > 200 200 T4 > 135 135 T5 > 100 100 T6 > 85 85 Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Round Steel Wire for Springs Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Ignition temperature of gases and vapours in °C Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Copper-Tin.. Zone 1 Areas where potentially explosive atmospheres are expected to occur occasionally. to gases and vapours [Extract from DIN EN 50014 . see EN 50014...200 G5 from 100. 50020 EEx.61 Sch Ex Explosion class EN 50014 . Zone 2 Areas where potentially explosive atmospheres are expected to occur only rarely and then only for short periods. 3n Ignition group Ignition temperature °C G1> 450 G2> 300.45 ..9 mm ≥ 0. 50020] Designation of electrical equipment Designation acc.. to Firedamp protection Explosion protection Classification according to gases and vapours For flame proof enclosures: maximum width of gap > 0.300 G4> 135....5 mm For intrinsically safe circuits: minimum ignition current ratio referred to methane 1) Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Page 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 90 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 96 97 97 97 98 VDE 0170/0171/2.0..45 mm 1 2 3a .0.Electrical Engineering Explosion Protection of Electrical Switchgear Table of Contents Section 8 Explosion protection of electrical switchgear Designation of electrical equipment / Classification of areas acc. Safe area ZONE Potentially explosive atmosphere Existing explos.8mm < 0.

Rp 0.1151 1. Re.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.1 τtW τF 0.7 σbW 0. Rp 0.g.4 Re 0.Materials Conversion of Fatigue Strength Values of Miscellaneous Materials Conversion of fatigue strength values of miscellaneous materials Tension 3) Material Structural steel Quenched and tempered steel σW 0.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.7 σbW 0. for spring steel σdSch ≈ 1.40 Rm – 0.7033 1.0601 1.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.7 Re – – C 22 C 35 C 45 C 55 C 60 Ck 22 Ck 35 Cm 35 Ck 45 Cm 45 Ck 55 Cm 55 Ck 60 Cm 60 28 Mn 6 38 Cr 2 46 Cr 2 34 Cr 4 34 Cr S4 37 Cr 4 37 Cr S4 41 Cr 4 41 Cr S4 25 CrMo 4 34 CrMo 4 34 CrMo S4 42 CrMo 4 42 CrMo S4 50 CrMo 4 1.0501 1.0535 1.7034 1.0503 1.6580 1050 1250–1450 1050 1250–1450 900 50 CrV 4 1.7220 1.4 Re – – 0.36 Rm 0. Rp 0.1180 1.7 Re Materials Mechanical Properties of Quenched and Tempered Steels Quenched and tempered steels [Extract from DIN 17200 (3.87)] Mechanical properties of steels in quenched and tempered condition (Code letter V) Diameter Steel grade up to 16 mm Yield point (0. R e.1181 1.0402 1.40 Rm ing steel 2) Grey cast iron 0.2 MateGr) rial N/mm2 no. min.1191 1. determined on round section test piece of about 30 mm diameter.35 Rm Torsion 1) τtSch 1.7006 1.6582 1000 1200–1400 900 1100–1300 800 30 CrNiMo 6 1. Rm and Re of core material. e.2 0. 3) For compression.25 Rm 1.7039 1. Rp 0. R e.7226 1.5 σbW 0.2 above 100 up to 160 mm Yield point (0.7218 1.1203 1.37 Rm 1.7225 1.6τtW – 0.30 Rm 1.2 Gr) N/mm2 min.6 σW – σbW Bending 1) σbSch σbF 1.30 Rm 0.1221 1.5 Re τtW 0. 2) Case-hardened. σSch is larger.3 ⋅ σSch For grey cast iron σdSch ≈ 3 .1209 1. R e.7035 1.8159 900 1100–1300 800 1000–1200 700 30 CrMoV9 1. Rp 0.7227 1.2 above 160 up to 250 mm Yield point (0.1223 1.6τtW 0. σSch Ultimate stress values Rm Re σW σSch σbW σbSch σbF τtW τtSch τtF Tensile strength Yield point Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Yield point Fatigue strength under alternating stresses Fatigue strength under fluctuating stresses Yield point Type of load Tension Tension Tension Tension Bending Bending Bending Torsion Torsion Torsion 700 700 780 780 850 850 900 900 690– 840 700– 850 800– 950 800– 950 800– 950 850–1000 850–1000 900–1100 900–1100 800– 950 900–1100 900–1100 1000–1200 1000–1200 1000–1200 640– 790 600– 650– 700– 700– 750– 750– 800– 800– 750 800 850 850 900 900 950 950 550 800– 950 450 650 900–1100 550 700 900–1100 590 700 900–1100 590 750 950–1150 630 750 950–1150 630 800 1000–1200 660 800 1000–1200 660 700 800 800 900 900 900 900–1100 1000–1200 1000–1200 1100–1300 1100–1300 1100–1300 600 650 650 750 750 780 700– 850 800– 950 800– 950 900–1100 900–1100 900–1100 36 CrNiMo 4 1.1170 1.7038 1.7003 1.25 Rm Light metal 0.7707 1050 1250–1450 1020 1200–1450 900 900–1100 600 1000–1200 700 1100–1300 800 900–1100 1100–1300 650 800 800– 950 550 900–1100 600 1000–1200 700 850–1000 600 1000–1200 700 82 83 .2 above 40 up to 100 mm Yield point (0.49 Rm 1.8 σbW 0.4τtW 1.1201 1.7 Re Symbol Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Tensile strength N/mm2 Rm Case harden0.2 above 16 up to 40 mm Yield point (0.6 σW 1.7037 1.30 Rm 1.45 Rm σSch 1.7 σW 1. R e.44 Rm 1.41 Rm 1.3 σW 1.7228 350 430 500 550 580 350 430 430 500 500 550 550 580 580 590 550– 700 630– 780 700– 850 800– 950 850–1000 550– 700 630– 780 630– 780 700– 850 700– 850 800– 950 800– 950 850–1000 850–1000 780– 930 300 370 430 500 520 300 370 370 430 430 500 500 520 520 490 500– 600– 650– 750– 800– 500– 600– 600– 650– 650– 750– 750– 800– 800– 650 750 800 900 950 650 750 750 800 800 900 900 950 950 – 320 370 430 450 – 320 320 370 370 430 430 450 450 440 350 400 460 460 510 510 560 560 450 550 550 650 650 700 – 550– 630– 700– 750– – 550– 550– 630– 630– 700– 700– 750– 750– 700 780 850 900 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 400 500 500 550 550 650 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 650– 800 750– 900 750– 900 800– 950 800– 950 850–1000 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 450 450 500 500 550 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 700– 850 700– 850 750– 900 750– 900 800– 950 750– 900 800– 950 900–1100 800– 950 900–1100 1) For polished round section test piece of about 10 mm diameter.41 Rm 1.6511 900 1100–1300 800 1000–1200 700 34 CrNiMo 6 1.

. Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating 84 85 ....0070 U.0060 U.. untreated 2) This value applies to thicknesses up to 25 mm only C 60 and C 50 lie approximately between Ck 45 and 46 Cr 2. C 30 and C 25 lie approximately between Ck 22 and Ck 45.. 32 Cr 2..0037 U.. 470. 410. N – – – St 37-2 1. N St 44-3 St 44-3 1..0050 U. N 235 225 215 205 195 360..0036 U. 25 tion 1) Symbol MateMate rial no. 540 ≥3 >16 >40 >63 >80 >100 ≤16 >100 ≤100 ≤40 ≤63 ≤80 ≤100 290 185 175 2) St 33 1. 490. 340 360 340.. 680 630 490. 660 610 590.0570 U N U N 430. Fe 360-BFN St 37-3 1.0144 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength c) Torsional fatigue strength St 52-3 1. DIN 17200 (in quenched and tempered condition.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Quenched and Tempered Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of quenched and tempered steels.. 770 710 690.80)] Steel grade TreatSimilar steel Tensile strength Rm Upper yield point ReH in N/mm2 ment grades in N/mm2 for product (minimum) for product thickness in roduct roduct condicondi thickness in mm mm EURON..... 570.0116 U N Fe 360-C Fe 360-D Fe 430-B Fe 430-C Fe 430-D Fe 510-C Fe 510-D Fe 490-2 Fe 590-2 Fe 690-2 St 44-2 1... N St 70-2 1.. 580 540 275 265 255 245 235 510.. C 35 . <3 Fe 310-0 – Fe 360-BFU 310.0044 U. U hot-rolled. 510 470 To be agreed upon To be agreed upon – 235 225 215 215 215 R St 37-2 1.0035 U. 900 830 355 345 335 325 315 St 50-2 1... N Quenched and tempered steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 34 CrNiMo 6 30 CrMoV 4 42 CrMo 4 36 CrNiMo 4 50 CrV 4 34 CrMo 4 28 Cr 4 C 45 C 22 like 30 CrNiMo 8 like 30 CrNiMo 8 like 50 CrMo 4 like 50 CrMo 4 like 50 CrMo 4 like 41 Cr 4 like 46 Cr 2 like Ck 45 like Ck 22 St 60-2 1..0038 U. 670. test piece diameter d = 10 mm) Materials General-Purpose Structural Steels General-purpose structural steels [Extract from DIN 17100 (1. N 295 285 275 265 255 335 325 315 305 295 365 355 345 335 325 1) N normalized... N U St 37-2 1. N. C 40..

7149 1.7326 1. Treatment condition C G BF BG Meaning treated for shearing load soft annealed treated for strength treated for ferrite/pearlite structure Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating 86 87 .7323 1.1121 1. see DIN 17210 510 635 635 735 735 635 635 735 735 685 835 835 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 640– 790 640– 790 740– 890 740– 890 740– 890 780–1030 880–1180 880–1180 1080–1380 1080–1380 880–1180 880–1180 1080–1380 1080–1380 960–1280 1230–1480 1180–1430 For dia. 30 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.7321 1. DIN 17100 (test piece diameter d = 10 mm) Materials Case Hardening Steels Case hardening steels. 390 390 440 440 440 For details. Quality specifications to DIN 17210 (12. 63 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.5920 c) Torsional fatigue strength 17 CrNiMo 6 1.7325 1.69) from SI tables (2.7015 1.1974) of VDEh Steel grade Treatment condition 1) For dia.1141 1.7131 1.1140 1. C 10 Ck 10 C 15 Ck 15 Cm 15 15 Cr 13 16 MnCr 5 16 MnCrS 5 20 MnCr 5 20 MnCrS5 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength 20 MoCr 4 20 MoCrS 4 25 MoCrS4 25 MoCrS 4 15 CrNi 6 18 CrNi 8 1. 11 Yield point Re N/mm2 min.7147 1.5919 1.0301 1.0401 1.7139 1.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of General-Purpose Structural Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of general-purpose structural steels. – – – – – – 440 440 540 540 – – – – 540 685 685 640– 940 640– 940 780–1080 780–1080 – – – – 780–1080 1080–1330 980–1280 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 – – – – – Symbol Material no. the Brinell hardness is different. 295 295 355 355 355 440 590 590 685 685 590 590 685 685 635 785 785 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 490– 640 490– 640 590– 790 590– 790 590– 790 690– 890 780–1080 780–1080 980–1280 980–1280 780–1080 780–1080 980–1280 980–1280 880–1180 1180–1430 1080–1330 For dia.6587 1) Dependent on treatment.

7103 1. 1.Materials Fatigue Strength Diagrams of Case Hardening Steels Fatigue strength diagrams of case hardening steels. 88 89 .5029 1.0446 1.1248 1.85)] Cast steel grade Yield point Re Rp 0 2 e.8159 Com arable Comparable grade acc.1274 1.2 Symbol Material no.0552 1.0603 1. 0. test piece diameter d = 10 mm) Materials Cold Rolled Steel Strips for Springs Cast Steels for General Engineering Purposes Cold rolled steel strips for springs [Extract from DIN 17222 (8.1221 1.1269 1.0605 1.1203 1. 200 230 260 300 N/mm2 min.0558 Loading type I: static Loading type II: dynamic b) Bending fatigue strength Loading type III: alternating The mechanical properties apply to specimens which are taken from test pieces with thicknesses up to 100 mm.0601 1. Tensile strength Rm Notched bar impact work (ISO-V-notch specimens) Av ≤ 30 mm > 30 mm N/mm2 min.0420 1. to EURONORM 132 1 CS 55 2 CS 55 1 CS 60 2 CS 60 1 CS 67 2 CS 67 1 CS 75 2 CS 75 2 CS 85 CS 100 – – 67 SiCr 5 50 CrV 4 Degree of conformity 1) F F F F F F F F F F – – f F Tensile strength Rm 2) N/mm2 maximum 610 620 640 640 670 690 740 800 800 740 a) Tension/compression fatigue strength 50 CrV 4 c) Torsional fatigue strength 1) F = minor deviations f = substantial deviations 2) Rm for cold rolled and soft-annealed condition.1231 1.0535 1. in so far as the wall thickness is ≤ 100 mm. 380 450 520 600 Mean value 1) J min. 35 27 27 27 35 27 22 20 Case hardening steels not illustrated may be used as follows: 25 MoCr 4 like 20 MnCr 5 17 CrNiMo 6 like 18 CrNi 8 GS-38 GS-45 GS-52 GS-60 1. Furthermore. the yield point values also apply to the casting itself. 1) Determined from three individual values each.0904 1. DIN 17210 (Core strength after case hardening.79)] Steel grade Symbol C 55 Ck 55 C 60 Ck 60 C 67 Ck 67 C 75 CK75 Ck 85 CK 101 55 Si 7 71 Si 7 67 SiCr 5 Material no. for strip thicknesses up to 3 mm Cast steels for general engineering purposes [Extract from DIN 1681 (6.

7043 0.3 1160–1300 GGG-40 GGG-50 GGG-60 GGG-70 GG-35 GG-30 GG-25 0.77)] Properties in cast-on test pieces Grade Material Symbol Number 0. Nodular graphite cast iron [Extract from DIN 1693.84)] Grade of wire Diameter of wire mm 0.6025 840 0. 100 2) 130 110 95 80 180 155 130 115 225 195 170 155 270 240 210 195 315 280 250 225 Brinell hardness 1) Round steel wire for springs [Extract from DIN 17223.6030 960 0.7060 0.7070 Wall thickness of casting mm from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 from 30 above 60 mm up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 up to 60 up to 200 Thickness of cast-on test piece mm 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 40 70 Tensile strength Rm N/mm2 390 370 390 370 450 420 600 550 700 650 0.6010 0.6035 1080 The values apply to castings which are made in sand moulds or moulds with comparable heat diffusibility. 1) These values are reference values.Materials Round Steel Wire for Springs Materials Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron Nodular Graphite Cast Iron Lamellar graphite cast iron [Extract from DIN 1691 (5.2 N/mm2 250 240 250 240 300 290 360 340 400 380 90 91 .6015 Wall thicknesses in mm above 5 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 10 20 40 80 up to 40 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 20 40 80 150 Tensile strength 1) Rm N/mm2 min.3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 – – 1720–1970 1520–1750 1410–1620 1320–1520 1260–1450 1210–1390 1160–1340 1120–1300 1090–1260 1060–1230 – – – – – – – – – – A B C Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 – 2370–2650 1980–2220 1760–1970 1630–1830 1530–1730 1460–1650 1400–1580 1350–1530 1310–1480 1270–1440 1240–1400 1210–1370 1180–1340 1160–1310 1130–1280 1110–1260 1090–1230 1070–1210 1050–1190 1030–1170 1020–1150 – – – 1980–2200 1840–2040 1740–1930 1660–1840 1590–1770 1540–1710 1490–1660 1450–1610 1410–1570 1380–1530 1350–1500 1320–1470 1290–1440 1270–1410 1240–1390 1220–1360 1200–1340 1180–1320 1160–1300 2800–3100 2660–2940 2230–2470 1980–2200 1840–2040 Compressive strength 2) σdB N/mm2 – 600 HB 30 – 225 205 – – 250 235 – – 265 250 – – 285 265 – – 285 275 – – GG-20 1740–1930 1660–1840 1590–1770 1540–1710 1490–1660 1450–1610 1410–1570 1380–1530 1350–1500 1320–1470 1290–1440 1270–1410 1240–1390 1220–1360 1200–1340 1180–1320 GGG-40.07 0.85)] D Grade Material Symbol GG-10 GG-15 Number 0. 2) Values in the separately cast test piece with 30 mm diameter of the unfinished casting.7040 0.2% proof stress Rp0. Part 2 (10.7050 0. Part 1 (12.6020 720 0.

02 2.0980.02 3.0940.01 2.01 3.03 2.03 2.0962.04 2.01 2.0975.1061.04 2.1061.03 2.01 3.2381.2% proof stress 1) Rp0.01 Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Condition on delivery 0.2381.63 Sand-mould cast iron as cast Sand-mould cast iron annealed and quenched Chilled casting as cast Chilled casting annealed and quenched Sand-mould cast iron as cast Sand-mould cast iron temper-hardened Chilled casting as cast Chilled casting temper-hardened Sand-mould cast iron as cast annealed Chilled casting as cast annealed Sand-mould cast iron temper-hardened Chilled casting temper-hardened High-quality casting temper-hardened Sand-mould cast iron as cast Sand-mould cast iron temper-hardened Chilled casting as cast Chilled casting temper-hardened Chilled casting temper-hardened Casting method and condition on delivery 0.1052.2581.1098.63 3.1090.01 2.0970.Materials Copper-Tin.2211.81)] Material Symbol G-CuAl 10 Fe GK-CuAl 10 Fe GZ-CuAl 10 Fe G-CuAl 9 Ni GK-CuAl 9 Ni GZ-CuAl 9 Ni G-CuAl 10 Ni GK-CuAl 10 Ni GZ-CuAl 10 Ni GC-CuAl 10 Ni G-CuAl 11 Ni GK-CuAl 11 Ni GZ-CuAl 11 Ni G-CuAl 8 Mn GK-CuAl 8 Mn Number 2.1060.and copper-zinc-tin casting alloys [Extract from DIN 1705 (11.2371.02 Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Continuously cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting Centrifugally cast iron Sand-mould cast iron Chilled casting 0.2371.3241.01 2.81 3.1060.1060.0975.2211.2381.0962.61 3.02 3.01 2.02 3.44 3.2% proof stress 1) Rp0.02 3.2 min.82 3.45 3.1052.62 3.01 2.1052.62 3.1086.2581.3241.2581.02 2.03 2.01 2. in N/mm2 140 150 140 160 180 170 140 150 140 130 130 120 130 120 140 90 90 Tensile strength 1) Rm min.1096.2581.0975.2211.04 2.1090.0980.01 2.03 2.1061.04 2.01 2.1050.03 2.01 3.1093.01 3.81)] Material Symbol G-CuSn 12 GZ-CuSn 12 GC-CuSn12 G-CuSn 12 Ni GZ-CuSn 12 Ni GC-CuSn 12 Ni G-CuSn 12 Pb GZ-CuSn 12 Pb GC-CuSn 12 Pb G-CuSn 10 G-CuSn 10 Zn G-CuSn 7 ZnPb GZ-CuSn 7 ZnPb GC-CuSn 7 ZnPb G-CuSn 6 ZnNi G-CuSn 5 ZnPb G-CuSn 2 ZnPb Number 2.2381.0970.62 3.0970.03 2. in N/mm2 Condition on delivery 180 200 200 200 230 250 270 300 300 300 320 400 400 180 200 500 550 550 500 530 600 600 600 700 700 680 680 750 440 450 1) Material properties in the test bar 92 93 .61 3.2371.03 2.01 2.2 min.02 2.01 2. in N/mm2 260 280 280 280 300 300 260 280 280 270 260 240 270 270 270 220 210 Materials Aluminium Casting Alloys Aluminium casting alloys [Extract from DIN 1725 (2.0975.3241.2 in N/mm2 70 up to 100 70 up to 100 80 up to 110 80 up to 110 80 up to 110 180 up to 260 90 up to 120 210 up to 280 70 up to 100 70 up to 100 80 up to 110 80 up to 110 190 up to 240 200 up to 280 200 up to 260 80 up to 100 120 up to 160 80 up to 100 120 up to 180 120 up to 160 Tensile strength Rm in N/mm2 150 up to 200 150 up to 200 170 up to 230 170 up to 230 160 up to 210 220 up to 320 180 up to 240 240 up to 320 150 up to 200 150 up to 200 170 up to 230 170 up to 230 230 up to 310 250 up to 340 260 up to 320 140 up to 190 200 up to 280 150 up to 200 220 up to 300 200 up to 280 1) Material properties in the test bar Copper-aluminium casting alloys [Extract from DIN 1714 (11.86)] Material Symbol G-AlSi 12 G-AlSi 12 g GK-AlSi 12 GK-AlSi 12 g G-AlSi 10 Mg G-AlSi 10 Mg wa GK-AlSi 10 Mg GK-AlSi 10 Mg wa G-AlSi 11 G-AlSi 11 g GK-AlSi 11 GK-AlSi 11g G-AlSi 7 Mg wa GK-AlSi 7 Mg wa GF-AlSi 7 Mg wa G-AlMg 3 Si G-AlMg 3 Si wa GK-AlMg 3 Si GK-AlMg 3 Si wa GF-AlMg 3 Si wa Number 3.01 2.0940.04 2.2211.1090.and Copper-Zinc-Tin Casting Alloys Copper-Aluminium Casting Alloys Copper-tin.61 3. in N/mm2 Tensile strength 1) Rm min.0940.0980.3241.02 2.3241.2 proof stress Rp0.01 2.

1 76.0 87.5 48.0 32.4 50.6 74.1 89.8 71.1 42.95 HV (Vickers hardness) Determination of Rockwell hardness HRA.9 68.3 58.6 73.6 37.3 53.7 60.4 71.2 95.2 in N/mm2 20 °C 39 43 46 39 61 47 62 50 °C 37 32 39 32 60 44 44 100 °C 25 30 27 27 36 27 30 Rockwell hardness HRB HRC HRA HRD 1) Vickers Tensile hardstrength ness N/mm2 (F>98N) 1155 1190 1220 1255 1290 1320 1350 1385 1420 1455 1485 1520 1555 1595 1630 1665 1700 1740 1775 1810 1845 1880 1920 1955 1995 2030 2070 2105 2145 2180 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 Brinell hardness 2) F N 0.0 46.0 95.8 71.Materials Lead and Tin Casting Alloys for Babbit Sleeve Bearings Materials Comparison of Tensile Strength and Miscellaneous Hardness Values Vickers Tensile hardstrength ness N/mm2 (F>98N) 255 270 285 305 320 335 350 370 385 400 415 430 450 465 480 495 510 530 545 560 575 595 610 625 640 660 675 690 705 720 740 755 770 785 800 820 835 850 865 880 900 915 930 950 965 995 1030 1060 1095 1125 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 310 320 330 340 350 Brinell hardness 2) F N 0.8 57.2 59.3 64.4 77.3 34.5 63.4 55.4 65.8 50.3392 2.1 70.2 51.1 27.8 59.7 61.7 63.9 The figures in brackets are hardness values outside the domain of definition of standard hardness test methods which.1 47.7 44.3 75.3792 Brinell hardness 1) HB 10/250/180 20 °C 18 21 22 16 25 22 28 50 °C 15 16 22 16 20 17 25 120 °C 14 14 16 14 12 11 19 0.2 82.3391 2.6 54.6 41.8 70.8 78.3 33.1 72.0 24. to DIN 50103 Part 1 and 2 Determination of Vickers hardness acc.7 69. Furthermore.2 41.7 67.1 81.3 73.6 26.3 74.3 61.6 76.2 55.3390 2.7 43.9 47.0 67.8 62.9 64.1 74. to DIN 50145 94 95 .6 62.2 43.3791 2. however.8 66.1 54.9 79.8 84.2 58.0 96.6 54.9 342 352 361 371 380 390 399 409 418 428 437 447 (456) (466) (475) (485) (494) (504) (513) (523) (532) (542) (551) (561) (570) (580) (589) (599) (608) (618) 1) Material properties in the test bar 67.82)] Grade Material Symbol PbSb 15 SnAs PbSb 15 Sn 10 PbSb 14 Sn 9 CuAs PbSb 10 Sn 6 SnSb 12 Cu 6 Pb SnSb 8 Cu 4 SnSb 8 Cu 4 Cd Number 2.2 79.5 70.3 61.8 (102) 25.9 45. the Brinell hardness values in brackets apply only if the test was carried out with a carbide ball.8 105 109 114 119 124 128 133 138 143 147 152 156 162 166 171 176 181 185 190 195 199 204 209 214 219 223 228 233 238 242 247 252 257 261 266 271 276 280 285 295 304 314 323 333 41.0 69.0 83.5 58. to DIN 50133 Part 1 Determination of Brinell hardness acc. HRB.3 75.8 72.8 41.7 85.4 35.1 49.0 78.3 68.6 44.1 51.7 85.5 22.7 23.4 60.3790 2.3 70.7 65.3 73.0 48.4 69.1 63.4 83.8 74.3 46.3 76.5 45.0 62.7 76.8 66.5 92.4 76. ASTM E 18-74 (American Society for Testing and Materials) 2) Calculated from HB = 0.1 51.8 65.7 56.2 66.5 47.0 67.3 21.0 HRD 1) 52.3 44.5 90.4 49.2 29.4 (104) 27.6 78.1 43.0 52.1 (101) 24.8 73.1 20.8 57.8 42.102 + ) 30 D2 mm 2 Rockwell hardness HRC HRA 36.7 55.7 85.0 53.8 58.1 46. and HRD acc.0 80.3 81.2% proof stress 1) Rp 0.2 64.4 67.3 80.0 78.7 76.0 99.5 67.2 65.0 80.4 78.4 62.1 99.3 60. in practice are frequently used as approximate values.8 (105) 28.8 59.5 79.9 63.8 75.2 62.8 31.102 + ) 30 D2 mm 2 Lead and tin casting alloys for babbit sleeve bearings [Extract from DIN ISO 4381 (10.g.2 75.1 84.0 68.8 81.2 62.5 68.7 77.2 61.7 81.0 56.9 75.3 46.5 74.8 39.1 61.8 70.8 64.3 65.5 64.8 80.8 65.7 69.8 82.5 72.3393 2.3 66.0 56.1 60.5 62.6 80.5 29.0 77.5 94.2 69.7 98.4 49.5 63.7 38.3 56.5 63.0 64.3 56.4 84.8 53.7 71.7 40.3 57.5 85.4 67. to DIN 50351 Determination of tensile strength acc.8 40.5 51.7 52.0 85. HRC. e.6 83.7 48.5 91.9 66. 1) Internationally usual.5 64.0 61.6 68.3 72.1 76.0 96.5 93.

1.8 271 8.0.25 1.6 2990 54 6.83 15 0.81 ≈1300 0.. alloyed Manganese Marble Red lead oxide Brass (63Cu37Zn) Molybdenum Monel metal Sodium Nickel silver In Ir Cd K Ca Co U V Bi W Cs Ce Zn Sn Zr Sec. monoclinic Barytes Selenium..9 11.16 0.53 1.2.400 65 24 > 360 > 40 > 150 357 102 338 – W/(mK) 0.81 20 13.34 Coefficient of linear expansion α The coefficient of linear expansion α gives the fractional expansion of the unit of length of a substance per 1 degree K rise in temperature.1.17 0.59 3.3 1800 8.58 7. For the linear expansion of a body applies: m l ) lo + + T where ∆l: change of length lο: original length α: coefficient of linear expansion ∆T: rise of temperature Coefficients of linear expansion of some substances at 0 . cementite + ledeburite Melting + primary cementite Primary cementite + ledeburite (cubic face centered) Mixed crystals Pearlite Mixed crystals (Ferrite) γ-m.73 1..8 – 0.8. strong Silicon fluid Pitting and tooth root fatigue strength of case hardening steels.1 7.1..1.2.3.2 8.6.7 – – 1530 81 30..74 1..300 > 175 316 380.400 34.72 20 ≈0.7 7..2 850 – 2572 – 125 0.27 1.cem.94 5.5 16 11.6.210 80 210..9 1450 14 8 1450 16..31 22.05 15 1.4 14..0.6 2.1..35 – 0..2 1. B Ether Benzine Benzole.2.28 8.23 7.....6 1480 0. dry Lithium Magnesium Magnesium.14 0.3 1. plain + low-alloy stainless 18Cr8Ni non-magnetic 15Ni7Mn Tungsten steel 18W Steanit Hard coal Strontium Tantalum Tellurium Thorium Titanium Tombac Uranium 99... Fatigue Strength Values for Gear Materials Mean density of the earth = 5.5 17.8 2.83 15 1.2 1490 69.95 15 0..13 10 0.6 110 – 2.. GG-25) Steel.6.96 119 0.2 2300 106 1.3 ≈2.9 8..Materials Values of Solids and Liquids Materials Coefficient of Linear Expansion.5 ≈3800 168 1200 58 – 0.24 2.67 5.5 1850 22 Iron-carbon diagram Mixed crystals Mixed crystals Melting + δ-mixed crystals Melting (Cementite) γ-mixed crystals (austenite) Melting + γ-mixed crystals γ-mixed crystals + sec.5 1.1.54 797 0.26 – 0.9 5.69 2..13 44 – 1770 70 ≈250 0.8 0.2.85 ≈2 11..95 8. plain and low-alloy Steel.5 1.6.26 7.7 1133 28 6.64 0.3 1.20 658 204 1040 128 630 22.99% Vanadium Soft rubber White metal Bismuth Wolfram Cesium Cement.1 2.1.12.5 3..6 3..96 20 ≈0. stainless (18Cr 8Ni) Steel.100 0.73 15 0..4 1...24 7.72 ≈2..) Borax Limonite Bronze (CuSn6) Chlorine calcium Chromium Chromium nickel (NiCr 8020) Delta metal Diamond Iron.83 2..8.2 232 65 6.175 0.145.013MPa at 20 °C MP C °C 35 25.2 2.13 0.86 0...3 ≈2000 ≈1.6.83 21.2.75 – 936 58.5 17 18.8 2.29 2..7 6..5 8.52 39 58 12.4 802 – – 0.1 300..9.5 10..5 7.93.15 1.380 290 150.5 1670 15..615 1200 0.4 0.1700 0.cem.5 12 0.25 1.5 1580 – 4.4 1250 30 1290 2..15 0.3 321 92.45 ≈700 0.7 2300 – 740 – 1565 – 910 64 774 – 1800 69 1430 52.0..84 15 0..5 – – ≈1300 – 80.69...17 2000 81 – 0..23 – 0...55 20 1.0.0..8 0..86 2.92.5.7 – 3.9.13 Thermal Melting conductivity λ point at 20 °C t in °C W/(mK) ≈1600 11. rhombic Sulphur.89 3..83 20 0.9 1460 47..1. common Coke Constantan Corundum (AL2O3) Chalk Copper Leather. pure Grease Gallium Germanium Gypsum Glass.3 2050 12.5 ≈1500 2.12 – 15.85 7.58 2.2 10.55 3.3.5 ≈2. + pearlite + ledeburite Ledeburite 2. Primary cementite + ledeburite Pearlite Boiling Thermal oint point conductiat vity λ 1..33 1420 83 3.29 0. crude Cobalt Salt.8 2..8 15 0.8. GG-20.8 8.5..89 5 700 – 21 3175 71 12.2.14 0.125 0.25 455 4.4 8.2.23 16.35 – 0.28 18.1 8.2. pure Diesel oil Glycerine Resin oil Fuel oil EL Linseed oil Machinery oil Methanol Methyl chloride Mineral oil Petroleum ether Petroleum Mercury Hydrochloric acid 10% Sulphuric acid.3 1960 88 8.83 7.6 1.32 2.. window Mica Gold Granite Graphite Grey cast iron Laminated fabric Hard rubber Hard metal K20 Al Sb As Ba Be Pb B 2.8 0.. fire Slate Emery Sulphur.698 704 – 960 – – 1..6 22.15 179 71 657 157 650 69.8 1480 9.8 19.2 3410 130 1.9 52 0.21 0.9 8..45..87 29 – 2. Iron-Carbon Diagram.2.07 112.13 4.517 g/cm3 Symbol Density p g/cm3 Porcelain Pyranite Quartz-flint Radium Rhenium Rhodium Gunmetal (CuSn5ZnPb) Rubidium Ruthenium Sand.91 15 0..8 950 38 1.. 100 °C Substance Aluminium alloys Grey cast iron (e.2.. 24 10.5.7 900 116 2600 145 ≈1300 19....9 8...7 8..2 6.91 20 0.63 1.99% Uranium 99. + pearlite Sec..6 8.66 20 0. hard Cerium Zinc Tin Zirconium Melting point t in °C Thermal conductivity λ at 20 °C W/(mK) Values of solids and liquids Symbol Density p g/cm3 Agate Aluminium Aluminium bronze Antimony Arsenic Asbestos Asphaltum Barium Barium chloride Basalt.5 960 407 2.17 156 24 2450 59. natural Beryllium Concrete Lead Boron (amorph.72 3.335 950 104.43 2.7 1450 26 2.79 630 – 6.1.4 220 0.10.2 – 0.7 ≈1800 38 4.1 19.86 419 110 7.8 – 0.15 0.14 0.4 34.8.42 ≈1..7.22 Cu Li Mg Mn Substance (liquid) Symbol Density p g/cm3 at °C 0.g.14 2. red Silver Silicon Silicon carbide Sillimanite Soapstone (talcous) Steel..5 11..5 0.2.. DIN 17210 Hardness on finished gear Symbol HV1 16 MnCr 5 15 CrNi 6 17 CrNiMo 6 720 730 740 σHlim N/mm2 1470 1490 1510 σFlim N/mm2 430 460 500 Hg 96 97 .2.5 126 1020 48 1452 59 2415 54.4.2 2.9 1.. dry Sandstone Brick.94 20 (cubic body centered) Carbon content in weight percentage Cementite content in weight percentage Mo Na Ni Nb Os Pd P Pt Nickel Niobium Osmium Palladium Paraffin Pitch Phosphorus (white) Platinum Polyamide A.7 ≈2000 ≈0.1 0.7 97.35 1063 310 – 3..9.1 1890 31.1 63.9.9 0.3..2.92 1083 384 – 0.5 8.98 8.2 7...184 1600 23.6.43 2500 – 1552 70.9...65 – ≈1 327.c.5 ≈1650 ≈1 3..6 1500.1...7 ≈1520 1..4.67 1280 1.8 9.209 29..cem.13 0.34. rapid machining steel Copper Brass CuZn37 Bronze CuSn8 α [10−6/K] 21 .... + sec.4 1816 1.93 20 0..14.14 0...26 20 0.8.65 1000 159 1.47 0.5 4 2200 11.5 Substance (solid) Substance (solid) Ra Re Rh Rb Ru S S Se Ag Si Cr C Fe Ga Ge Au C Temperature in °C Sr Ta Te Th Ti Woods Indium Iridium Cadmium Potassium Limestone Calcium Calcium oxide (lime) Caoutchouc.4 1.

Materials Heat Treatment During Case Hardening of Case Hardening Steels Heat treatment during case hardening of case hardening steels acc.7149 1.7321 1.7131 1. For direct hardening. In special cases.7016 1.0401 1. the chosen carburizing agent.1140 1. Hardening after isothermal transformation Table of Contents Section 9 Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity Page 100 101 102 103 104 Direct hardening from carburizing temperature Single hardening from core or case hardening temperature Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Direct hardening after lowering to hardening temperature Single hardening after intermediate annealing (soft annealing) (d) Hardening after isothermal transformation in the pearlite stage (e) and cooling-down to room temperature Double hardening a b c d e carburizing temperature hardening temperature tempering temperature temperature intermediate annealing (soft annealing) tem erature transformation temperature in the pearlite stage Usual case hardening temperatures Grade of steel Material number 1. the provided course of process. 2) In case of direct hardening.1141 1. to DIN 17210 Usual heat treatment during case hardening A.7139 1.0301 1.7028 1. as well as on the effect of the quenchant. quenching is carried out either from the carburizing temperature or any lower temperature. 98 99 . the shape and cross section of the work piece to be hardened.1121 1.7027 1. carburizing temperatures up to above 1000 °C are applied. Quenchant c Tempering °C Symbol °C C 10 Ck 10 Ck 15 Cm 15 17 Cr 3 20 Cr 4 20 CrS 4 16 MnCr 5 16 MnCrS5 20 MnCr 5 20 MnCrS 5 20 MoCr 4 20 MoCrS 4 22 CrMoS 3 5 21 NiCrMo 2 21 NiCrMoS 2 15 CrNi 6 17 CrNiMo 6 880 up to 980 860 up to 900 780 up to 820 150 up to 200 830 up to 870 1) Decisive criteria for the determination of the carburizing temperature are mainly the required time of carburizing. carburizing usually is carried out at temperatures below 950 °C.6526 1. In particular if there is a risk of warping.6587 a Carburizing temperature 1) b Case Core hardening hardening temperature 2) temperature 2) °C °C 880 up to 920 With regard to the properties of the component. Direct hardening or double hardening B.7333 1. and the plant available. as well as the required structural constitution. lower hardening temperatures are preferred.6523 1. the selection of the quenchant depends on the hardenability or casehardenability of the steel.7323 1.7147 1. Single hardening C.5919 1.

Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Mineral Oils Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Poly-α-Olefine Base Viscosity-temperature-diagram for mineral oils Viscosity-temperature-diagram for synthetic oils of poly-α-olefine base Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature (°C) Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) Temperature (°C) 100 101 .

These oils comply with the minimum requirements as specified in DIN 51517 Part 3.2143 3.1775 (1) (2) Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) slope thermodynamic temperature 1) auxiliary quantity at 40 °C auxiliary quantity kinematic viscosity (3) (4) t [°C]: temperature 3 15 [kg/dm ]: density at 15 °C [kg/dm3]: density υ [cSt]: kinematic viscosity η [Ns/m2]: dynamic viscosity Density 15 in kg/dm3 of lubricating oils for gear units ) (Example) 2) VG grade ARAL Degol BG ESSO Spartan EP MOBIL OIL Mobilgear 626 .39900 0.890 100 0.50192 W = m (2.7231 3.895 0.36990 0.917 0.45225 0.001 η=υ = 15− (t – 15) .905 0.900 0. They are suitable for operating temperatures from -10 °C up to +90 °C (briefly +100 °C).890 0.42540 0.15 [K] Dynamic viscosity η .900 0.880 0.895 150 0.889 0. 636 OPTIMOL Optigear BM TRIBOL Tribol 1100 68 0.920 0. Viscosity-temperature-diagram for synthetic oils of polyglycole base m [–] 3..885 0.890 0. 102 103 .3201 3.876 0.22278 0.47717 0.0007 .895 0.49575 – lgT) + W40 W m + 10 10 ) 0.8 m [-]: T [K]: W40 [-]: W [-]: υ [cSt]: 1) T = t + 273..885 0.910 0.904 0.901 220 0. 0.895 0.905 0.920 680 0.882 0.934 Temperature (°C) 2) Mineral base gear oils in accordance with designation CLP as per DIN 51502.18066 0.2958 3.4610 3.30178 0.6214 3.33813 0.930 0.3151 3.912 460 0. 0.900 0.910 0.905 0.5562 3.890 0.920 0.890 0.Lubricating Oils Viscosity-Temperature-Diagram for Synthetic Oils of Polyglycole Base Lubricating Oils Kinematic Viscosity and Dynamic Viscosity for Mineral Oils at any Temperature Kinematic viscosity υ Quantities for the determination of the kinematic viscosity VG grade 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 W40 [–] 0.4020 3.907 320 0.7664 3.901 0.26424 0.900 0.

4 14 1.3 13 1.5 85 11 15 19 24 30 40 50 250 65 214 316 464 696 1020 1484 2132 3152 1 EP 2.5 55 65 6.6 46 6.5 8.0 20 2.5 35 4.7 17 1.3 23 3 4 6 8 12 16 24 33 47 67 98 1.5 5 5 EP 6 6 EP 6.Lubricating Oils Viscosity Table for Mineral Oils Table of Contents Section 10 A rox. viscosities in mm2/s (cSt) at 20 C cSt 40 C cSt Approx.8 68 10 15 22 32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 4 5 8 11 15 21 30 43 61 90 125 180 250 360 510 740 1.9 19 2.2 2 2 EP 3. Saybolt assignment universal AGMA to seconds lubricant (SSU) at motorN° at 40 °C car motor 50 C 100 C (mean 40 °C gear oils value) ) oils 1) 1) cSt Engler cSt SAE SAE Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears Concepts and Parameters Associated With Involute Teeth Reference Profile Module Tool Profile Generating Tooth Flanks Concepts and Parameters Associated With Cylindrical Gears Geometric Definitions Pitch Addendum Modification Concepts and Parameters Associated With a Cylindrical Gear Pair Definitions Mating Quantities Contact Ratios Summary of the Most Important Formulae Gear Teeth Modifications Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Scope of Application and Purpose Basic Details General Factors Application Factor Dynamic Factor Face Load Factor Transverse Load Factor Tooth Flank Load Carrying Capacity Effective Hertzian Pressure Permissible Hertzian Pressure Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity Effective Tooth Root Stress Permissible Tooth Root Stress Safety Factors Calculation Example Gear Unit Types Standard Designs Load Sharing Gear Units Comparisons Load Value Referred Torques Efficiencies Example Noise Emitted by Gear Units Definitions Measurements Determination via Sound Pressure Determination via Sound Intensity Prediction Possibilities of Influencing Page 106/107 108 108 108 109 109 110 111 111 111 112 113 113 113 114 115-117 118/119 119/120 120/121 122 122 122 122 122 123 123 123/124 124 124/125 126 126 126/127 127 127 127/128 128 129 130 130 131 132 132 132/133 133 134 5 7 10 15 22 32 2 4 9 – 8 (1.5 25 3.4 4 4 EP 5.5 45 10 W 5.6 7 EP 8 EP 15 W 20 W 20 30 85 W 40 50 70 W 75 W 5W 16 25 46 36 68 49 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000 1500 68 92 114 144 169 225 324 345 550 865 1340 2060 3270 5170 8400 219 137 80 W 90 140 1) Approximate comparative value to ISO VG grades 104 105 .7 E) 12 (2 E) 21 (3 E) 34 55 88 4. Approx. ISO-VG assignment DIN to previous 51519 DIN 51502 Mean viscosity (40 °C) and approx.5 15 2.3 EP 4.

Pressure angle Angle α in the circular ^ ) m+ 180 measure Transverse pressure angle at the tip circle ad b cp d da db df dw e ep f gα h ha haP haPO hf hfP hfPO hp hPO hprPO Degree rad Degree αat αn αP Degree Normal pressure angle Pressure angle at a point of Degree the standard basic rack tooth profile mm Pressure angle at a point of αPO Degree the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile αprPO Degree αt αwt β βb εα εβ εγ η ζ p Degree Degree Degree Protuberance pressure angle at a point Transverse pressure angle at the reference circle Working transverse pressure angle at the pitch circle Helix angle at the reference circle mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Degree Base helix angle – – – – Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio Total contact ratio Efficiency Degree Working angle of the involute mm mm mm – m/s N/mm – – – m2 mm N/mm2 Radius of curvature Tip radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Root radius of curvature of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Effective Hertzian pressure Allowable stress number for contact stress Allowable Hertzian pressure Effective tooth root stress Bending stress number Allowable tooth root stress p aPO p fPO mm mm σH N/mm2 hwP k m mn mt mm σHlim N/mm2 σHP σF σFB N/mm2 N/mm2 – mm mm mm σFlim N/mm2 N/mm2 Note: The unit rad may be replaced by 1. radius Tip radius Base radius Radius of the working pitch circle Tooth thickness on the reference circle Tooth thickness on the tip circle Tooth thickness of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth thickness of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Gear ratio Circumferential speed on the reference circle Line load Addendum modification coefficient Generating addendum modification coefficient Number of teeth Gear teeth surface Tooth thickness deviation Load value D Fn Ft G HV1 KA KFα KFβ KHα KHβ Kv LpA LWA P RZ SF SH S T V40 Yβ Yε YFS YR YX Zβ Zε ZH ZL ZV mm N N kg – – – – – – – dB dB kW µm – – m2 Nm mm2/s – – – – – – – – – – Construction dimension Load Nominal peripheral force at the reference circle Gear unit weight Vickers hardness at F = 9. 106 107 .Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and units for cylindrical gear units Cylindrical Gear Units Symbols and units for cylindrical gear units a mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Hz mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Centre distance Reference centre distance Facewidth Bottom clearance between standard basic rack tooth profile and counter profile Reference diameter Tip diameter Base diameter Root diameter Pitch diameter Spacewidth on the reference cylinder Spacewidth on the standard basic rack tooth profile Frequency Length of path of contact Tooth depth Addendum Addendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Addendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum Dedendum of the standard basic rack tooth profile Dedendum of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile Tooth depth of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Protuberance height of the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Working depth of the standard basic rack tooth profile and the counter profile Tip diameter coefficient Module Normal module Transverse module modification n p p pbt pe pen pet pex pt prPO q r ra rb rw s san sp sPO u v w x xE z A As BL 1/min N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm Speed Sound pressure Pitch on the reference circle Pitch on the base circle Normal base pitch Normal base pitch at a point Normal transverse pitch Axial pitch Transverse base pitch. reference circle pitch Protuberance value on the tool’s standard basic rack tooth profile Machining allowance on the cylindrical gear tooth flanks Reference circle radius.81 N Application factor Transverse load factor (for tooth root stress) Face load factor (for tooth root stress) Transverse load factor (for contact stress) Face load factor (for contact stress) Dynamic factor Sound pressure level A Sound power level A Nominal power rating of driven machine Mean peak-to-valley roughness Factor of safety from tooth breakage Factor of safety from pitting Enveloping surface Torque Lubricating oil viscosity at 40 °C Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Tip factor Roughness factor Size factor Helix angle factor Contact ratio factor Zone factor Lubricant factor Speed factor ZX α ^ – Size factor Transverse pressure angle at a point.

leads to warping of the teeth and growing of the root and tip circles. H The same tool for all numbers of teeth. H The direction of the normal force of teeth remains constant during meshing. Compared with other tooth profiles. i. Table 1 Selection of some modules m in mm (acc.5 1. an infinitely variable change-speed gear unit with primary or secondary gear stages presents the most economical solution even in case of variable speed control. /1/ Tip line Counter profile Datum line Standard basic rack tooth profile Root line Fillet Tooth root surface Tooth centre line Figure 1 Basic rack tooth profiles for involute teeth of cylindrical gears (acc.e.75 2 2.25 1.1 Standard basic rack tooth profile The standard basic rack tooth profile is the normal section through the teeth of the basic rack which is produced from an external gear tooth system with an infinitely large diameter and an infinitely large number of teeth.4.and finish.5 4 4. normally it does not touch the root circle .3 Tool reference profile The tool reference profile according to figure 2a is the counter profile of the standard basic rack tooth profile according to figure 1.2. as a rule. the tooth depth by hP = 2 m + cP. mainly gear units with case hardened and fine-machined gears are used for torque and speed adaptation of prime movers and driven machines. the dedendum by hfP = m + cP and thus.1 m up to 0.1.2. the transverse module in a transverse section is mt = mn/cosβ. pre-machining tools are provided with protuberance flanks as shown in figure 2b.1 Concepts and parameters associated with involute teeth 1. H Advanced stage of development.2 Module The module m of the standard basic rack tooth profile is the module in the normal section mn of the gear teeth. In order to prevent the tip circle of the mating gear from touching the fillet it is necessary that a check for meshing interferences is carried out on the gear pair. module m has been standardized in preferred series 1 and 2. output torques can be doubled or tripled in comparison with gear units without load sharing. to DIN 780) Series 1 Series 2 1 1.1 to 1. Especially for cylindrical gears with a relatively large number of teeth or a small module there is a risk of generating a notch in the root on finish machining. The tooth thickness sPO of the tool on the tool datum line depends on the stage of machining. The finish-machining tool removes the machining allowance on the flanks. When load sharing gear units are used. On the tool. see table 1. Inside the gear unit the load is distributed and then brought together again on the output shaft gear. to DIN 867) a) Tool datum line b) Protuberance flank Figure 2 Reference profiles of gear cutting tools for involute teeth of cylindrical gears a) For pre-machining and finish-machining b) For pre-machining with root undercut (protuberance) 108 109 . and for finishmachining tools sPO = p/2. gear units have the best efficiencies.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 32 28 1. Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1.1 Introduction In the industry. In comparison with other gear units.2. protuberance value prPO. see figure 3b. the tooth flanks are fine-machined by hobbing or profile grinding or removing material (by means of shaping or generating tools coated with mechanically resistant material). After carburising and hardening.2.e.4 m. As a rule. however. H Good availability on the market. In industrial gear units mainly involute gears are used. – The bottom clearance cP between basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is 0. H Generating different tooth profiles and centre distances with the same number of teeth by means of the same tool by addendum modification. the pressure angle at a point of the tool reference profile αPO = αP is 20°. 1. – Between module m and pitch p the relation is p = πm. the tooth thickness for pre-machining tools is sPO < p/2. Therefore.2.2 Geometry of involute gears The most important concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears and cylindrical gear pairs with involute teeth in accordance with DIN 3960 are represented in sections 1. they require less space for the same speeds and torques. – The addendum is fixed by haP = m. Load sharing gear units mostly have one input and one output shaft. as well as the tip radius of curvature ma PO must be so dimensioned that the active tooth profile on the gear will not be reduced and the tooth root will not be weakened too much. figure 3c. For industrial gear units. H Uniform transmission of motion even in case of centre distance errors from the nominal value.machining. sP = eP = p/2. protuberance pressure angle at a point αprPO.1. They generate a root undercut on the gear. for example. cylindrical gears are subjected to a heat treatment which. The uniform sharing of the load between the individual branches is achieved by special design measures. the technical and economical advantages are basically: H Simple manufacture with straight-sided flanked tools. which. – The working depth of basic rack tooth profile and counter profile is hwP = 2 m. Between pre. – The nominal dimensions of tooth thickness and spacewidth on the datum line are equal. The pre-machining tool leaves on both flanks of the teeth a machining allowance q for finishmachining.1. The pre-machining tool generates the root diameter and the fillet on a cylindrical gear.Cylindrical Gear Units General Introduction Geometry of Involute Gears 1. as a rule. have quenched and tempered or nitrided gears. In order to limit the number of the required gear cutting tools.5 3 3.2. gear units with case hardened gears have higher power capacities. For a helical gear with helix angle β on the reference circle. To avoid this. Cylindrical gear units 1. Motion is transmitted without slip at constant speed. /1/ 1. Further. i.like on the tooth profile in figure 3a. From figure 1 follows: – The flanks of the standard basic rack tooth profile are straight lines and are located symmetrically below the pressure angle at a point αP to the tooth centre line. On cylindrical gears with small modules one often accepts on purpose a notch in the root if its distance to the root circle is large enough and thus the tooth root load carrying capacity is not impaired by a notch effect. For a spur gear β = 0 and the module is m = mn = mt.

the trans- Machining allowance q Root undercut a) b) Notch c) Figure 3 Tooth profiles of cylindrical gears during pre. the number of teeth z and thus also the diameters d.1 Geometric definitions In figure 6 the most important geometric quantities of a cylindrical gear are shown. The involute which is always lying in a transverse section. π d = p z. For a helical gear. the corresponding angle is termed normal pressure angle αn. Many geometric quantities of the cylindrical gear are referred to the reference circle.2.2.and finish-machining a) Pre. Between the base helix angle βb and the helix angle β on the reference circle the relationship is sinβb = cosαn sinβ. A straight line inclined by a base helix angle βb to the envelope line in the developed envelope is the generator of an involute surface (involute helicoid) of a helical gear. thus pet = pbt = πdb/z. The base diameter db is given by the reference diameter d. see figures 6 and 7.2 Pitches The pitch pt of a helical gear (p in the case of a spur gear) lying in a transverse section is the length of the reference circle arc between two successive right or left flanks.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Pre-machining Finish-machining 1. The angle invα is termed involute function. at the point of intersection of the involute with the reference circle. df are negative values. the reference circle periphery corresponds to the product of pitch p and number of teeth z.2. and in the axial section the axial pitch pex = pet/tanβb. When generating tooth flanks.2.e.and finish-machining down to the root circle b) Pre-machining with root undercut (protuberance) c) Finish-machining with notch 1. the straight pitch line of the tool rolls off at the reference circle. With the number of teeth z results pt = πd/z = πmt. is described by the transverse Base cylinder envelope line Involute of base cylinder Involute helicoid Base cylinder Involute pressure angle at a point α and radius r in the equations invα = tanα − r = rb / cosα ^ verse pressure angle at a point α in the transverse section is termed transverse pressure angle αt. The normal transverse pitch pet of a helical gear is equal to the pitch on the basic circle pbt. an envelope line of the base cylinder with the base diameter db generates the involute surface of a spur gear. The reference circle is the intersection of the reference cylinder with a plane of transverse section. Figure 5 Involute in a transverse section Figure 7 Pitches in the transverse section of a helical gear Generator Involute of base cylinder Developed base cylinder envelope Figure 4 Base cylinder with involute helicoid and generator 110 111 . see figure 13. The interrelationship with the helix angle β at the reference circle is tanαn = cosβ tanαt. figure 4.4 Generating tooth flanks With the development of the envelope.1. this is equal to the pressure angle αPO of the tool. by db = d cosαt. Hence.2 Concepts and parameters associated with cylindrical gears 1. db. i. figure 5. in the normal section the normal base pitch at a point pen = pet cosβb is resulting from it. see figures 5 and 7. Figure 6 Definitions on the cylindrical gear Developed involute line 1. the equation for the reference diameter thus is d = mt z. If a tangent line is put against the involute surface in the normal section at the point of intersection with the reference circle. Right flank Left flank Tooth trace Reference cylinder Reference circle d da df b h ha hf s e p Reference diameter Tip diameter Root diameter Facewidth Tooth depth Addendum Dedendum Tooth thickness on the reference circle Spacewidth on the reference circle Pitch on the reference circle (1) (2) rb = db/2 is the base radius. On a spur gear αn = αt. Since mt = p/π.2. and the angle ζ= ^ + invα = tanα is termed working angle. da. In the case of internal gears.2. Therefore.

the working pressure angle is equal to the transverse pressure angle on the reference circle.3. In the case of both a zero gear pair and a V-zero gear pair.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears 1. The working pressure angle αwt is the transverse pressure angle at a point belonging to the working pitch circle. and the finishing point E is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driving gear. i. and it is negative if the datum line is displaced towards the root of the gear. An addendum modification is positive. however. The working pitch circles divide the centre distance a = rw1 + rw2 in the ratio of the tooth numbers.e. i. In the case of internal gears the tip points to the inside. one has to give the following generating addendum modification coefficient for the manufacture of a cylindrical gear: XE = x + As q + mn sin αn 2mn tan αn (3) Datum line of tool = straight pitch line 1. In order to take into account tooth thickness deviation As (for backlash and manufacturing tolerances) and machining allowances q (for premachining).25 mn. The distance (x · mn) between the straight pitch line and the datum line of tool is the addendum modification. In the case of a helical external gear pair one gear has left-handed and the other one right-handed flank direction.3 Concepts and parameters associated with a cylindrical gear pair 1.e. αwt = αt. With the common tangent on the pitch circles it includes the working pressure angle αwt. if the datum line of tool is displaced from the reference circle towards the tip.ad)/mn .(x1 + x2). and the pitch circles are simultaneously the reference circles. Further criteria for the determination of addendum modification are contained in /2/. i. the tip diameters of both gears become larger (on an internal gear with negative tip diameter the a) Straight pitch line b) Datum line of tool Straight pitch line c) Figure 10 Transverse section of an external gear pair with contacting left-handed flanks absolute value becomes smaller). have an addendum modification x = 0.2 Mating quantities The gear ratio of a gear pair is the ratio of the number of teeth of the gear z2 to the number of teeth of the pinion z1. Figure 8 Different positions of the datum line of tool in relation to the straight pitch line through pitch point C.2. The line of action with contacting left flanks in figure 10 is the tangent to the two base circles at points T1 and T2. i. thus dw1 = 2 a/(u + 1) and dw2 = 2 a u/(u +1). In a cylindrical gear pair either the left or the right flanks of the teeth contact each other on the line of action. x1 + x2 ≠ 0. the tip diameters of both gears become smaller. In the case of internal gear pairs k > 0. figure 10. x1 = -x2. Working pitch circles with diameter dw = 2rw are those transverse intersection circles of a cylindrical gear pair. dw = d. In the case of external gear pairs k < 0. thus u = z2/z1. For zero gear pairs and V-zero gear pairs k = 0. and x is the addendum modification coefficient.3. The upper limit xmax takes into account the intersection circle of the teeth and applies to a normal crest width in the normal section of san = 0. /3/. One mostly strives for a greater addendum modification on pinions than on gears in order to achieve equal tooth root carrying capacities for both gears. However.e.1 Terms The mating of two external cylindrical gears (external gears) gives an external gear pair. x < 0 c) Positive addendum modification. In the case of a zero gear pair both gears have as addendum modification coefficient x1 = x2 = 0 (zero gears). see /1/ and /3/). both gears have addendum modifications (V-gears). An addendum modification for external gears should be carried through approximately within the limits as shown in figure 9. i. see figure 8. This is true for both external and internal gears. see figure 19.e. a straight pitch line parallel to the datum line of tool rolls off on the reference circle. a hob). that is either right-handed or left-handed. and the pitch circles are not simultaneously the reference circles. In the case of a helical internal gear pair. in the case of a V-gear pair the centre distance is not equal to the zero centre distance. The addendum modification factor is k = (a . The mating of an external cylindrical gear with an internal cylindrical gear (internal gear) gives an internal gear pair. The addendum modification coefficient x refers to gear teeth free of backlash and deviations. For a V-gear pair. x > 0 Figure 9 Addendum modification limit xmax (intersection circle) and xmin (undercut limit) for external gears dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn (for internal gears. 1. In the case of a V-zero gear pair. figure 11. A positive addendum modification results in a greater tooth root width and thus in an increase in the tooth root carrying capacity. The length of path of contact gα is that part of the line of action which is limited by the two tip circles of the cylindrical gears. the sum is not equal to zero.e. Changing the flanks results in a line of action each lying symmetrical in relation to the centre line through O1O2.2. When falling below the lower limit xmin this results in an undercut which shortens the usable involute and weakens the tooth root. The starting point A of the length of path of contact is the point at which the line of action intersects the tip circle of the driven gear. a) Zero addendum modification.g. In the case of small numbers of teeth this has a considerably stronger effect than in the case of larger ones. x = 0 b) Negative addendum modification. both gears have the same flank direction.3 Addendum modification When generating tooth flanks on a cylindrical gear by means of a tooth-rack-like tool (e. The addendum modification limits xmin and xmax are represented dependent on the virtual number of teeth zn = z/(cosβ cos2βb). that is with x1 + x2 = 0. The subscript 1 is used for the size of the smaller gear (pinion).2. One of the cylindrical gears in this case may. In the case of zero gear pairs and V-zero gear pairs. If in the case of V-gear pairs the bottom clearance cp corresponding to the standard basic rack tooth profile is to be retained (which is not absolutely necessary). and /4/. 112 113 .2. According to figure 10 it is determined by cos αwt = db1/dw1 = db2/dw2.2. then an addendum modification is to be carried out. i.e. which have the same circumferential speed at their mutual contact point (pitch point C). and the subscript 2 for the larger gear (wheel or internal gear). the centre distance is equal to the zero centre distance ad = (d1 + d2)/2.

3 Contact ratios The transverse contact ratio εα in the transverse section is the ratio of the length of path of contact gα to the normal transverse pitch pet. z1 = 18 .e. the number may be reduced to z1 = 10. and along the double lengths of paths of contact AB and DE two pairs of teeth are simultaneously in mesh. as a rule.4 Summary of the most important formulae Tables 2 and 3 contain the most important formulae for the determination of sizes of a cylindrical gear and a cylindrical gear pair. The number of teeth of the pinion is determined with regard to silent running and a balanced foot and flank load carrying capacity.. the transverse contact ratio gives the average number of pairs of teeth meshing during the time of contact of a tooth pair. β = 10 up to 15 degree is given. The addendum modification limits as shown in figure 9 are to be observed. Thus. i. E Starting and finishing point of engagement. as a rule. the addendum modification coefficient should be within the range of x1 = 0.e.6 and from IuI > 2 the width within the range b1 = (0. da2. εβ = b/pex. With an increasing total contact ratio. while the generation of noise is reduced. db2.2 to 0. Centre distance a is determined either by the required power to be transmitted or by the constructional conditions. In the case of helical gear pairs it is possible to achieve that always two or more pairs of teeth are in mesh simultaneously. see figure 13. as the ratio of the facewidth b to the axial pitch pex.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Driven Driven Line of action 1. Driving Line of action Figure 11 Length of path of contact AE in the transverse section of an external gear pair A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement C Pitch point 1. In the case of spur gear pairs. For the helix angle.. Along the individual length of path of contact BD one tooth pair is in mesh. If a high foot load carrying capacity is required. i. εα = gα/pet. see figure 12. the load carrying capacity increases. The righthand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact B when the left-hand tooth pair leaves the mesh at the finishing point of engagement E.3.2. owing to the helix of the teeth. When designing a cylindrical gear pair for a gear stage. dw2 and the virtual number of teeth zn2 are negative. respectively C Pitch point Length of path of contact Figure 13 Pitches in the plane of action A Starting point of engagement E Finishing point of engagement 114 115 .2. the left-hand tooth pair is in the individual point of contact D while the right-hand tooth pair gets into mesh at the starting point of engagement A. 23. from the output quantities of tables 2 and 3 only the normal pressure angle αn and the gear ratio u are given. i. df2. in exceptional cases also up to 30 degree. εγ = ε α + ε β. The total contact ratio εγ is the sum of transverse contact ratio and overlap ratio. According to figure 12.e. Driving Figure 12 Single and double contact region in the transverse section of an external gear pair B. D Individual points of contact A. The overlap ratio εβ gives the contact ratio. and this for both external and internal gear pairs. also the centre distance a or ad and the gear ratio u as well as the diameters d2. On the pinion.35 to 0. The following rules for signs are to be observed: In the case of internal gear pairs the number of teeth z2 of the internal gear is a negative quantity.45) a. at approx.

Item Formula u= z2 z1 mt (z1 + z2) cosαt 2a z 1 + z2 (invαwt – invαt) 2 tanαn x1 + x2 tanαn + invαt z1 + z2 Transverse module Transverse pressure angle Base helix angle Reference diameter Tip diameter (k see table 3) Root diameter Base diameter Transverse pitch Transverse pitch on path of contact. Transverse base pitch Transverse pressure angle at tip circle Transverse tooth thickness on the pitch circle Normal tooth thickness on the pitch circle Transverse tooth thickness on the addendum circle Virtual number of teeth Gear ratio Working transverse pressure angle (“a” given) Sum of the addendum modification coefficients (“a” given) Working transverse pressure angle (x1 + x2 given) Centre distance (x1 + x2 given) Reference centre distance Addendum modification factor **) Working pitch circle diameter of the pinion Working pitch circle diameter of the gear Length of path of contact Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio tanαt = cosαwt = x1 + x2 = sinβb = sinβ cosαn d = mt z da = d + 2 mn (1 + x + k) df = d – 2 (haPO – mn xE) db = d cos αt pt = πd z = π mt π db = pt cosαt z invαwt = 2 a= ad = k= cosαt mt (z1 + z2) cosαwt 2 mt (z1 + z2) 2 a – ad – (x1 + x2) mn cosαt 2a = d1 cosαwt u+1 cosαt 2au = d2 cosαwt u+1 1 2 dw1 = dw2 = gα = pet = pbt = d cos αat = b da st = mt ( π + 2 x tanαn) 2 ( da12 – db12 + u IuI da22 – db22 ) – asinαwt εα = εβ = gα pet b tanβb pet b = min (b1. *) For an internal gear. *) For internal gear pairs. see equation (3) addendum of the tool Formula mt = mn cosβ tanαn cosβ Table 3 Parameters for a cylindrical gear pair *) Output quantities: The parameters for pinion and wheel according to table 2 must be given. see equation (1). z is to be used as a negative quantity. b2) sn = st cosβ sat = da zn = ( dt s + invαt – invαat) **) Total contact ratio εγ = εα + εβ z cosβ cos2βb **) For invα. 116 117 . as well as either the centre distance a or the sum of the addendum modification coefficients x1 + x2.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Table 2 Parameters for a cylindrical gear *) Output quantities: mm mn degree αn β degree z – x – – xE mm haPO Item normal module normal pressure angle reference helix angle number of teeth *) addendum modification coefficient generating addendum modification coefficient.2.3. z2 and a are to be used as negative quantities. further the facewidths b1 and b2. **) See subsection 1.2.

the load causes bending and twisting of pinion and wheel shaft. – Maximum operating temperature 95 °C. Root relief may be applied instead of tip relief which. a calculation of load carrying capacity for scuffing will not be considered in the following.1 Scope of application and purpose The calculation of the load carrying capacity of cylindrical gears is generally carried out in accordance with the calculation method according to DIN 3990 /8/ (identical with ISO 6336) which takes into account pitting.even though limited . There is a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise. the carrying portions and thus the contact ratio increase so that the generating levels drop.e. In the case of longitudinal correction. Noticeable deformations of the elastic gear unit components result from it. the contact ratio is reduced under partial load because of incomplete carrying portions. Design. tooth root bending stress and scoring as load carrying limits. to DIN 3960. manufacture. Because of the relatively large scope of standards. the flanks on pinion and wheel are relieved at the tips by an amount equal to the length they are protruding at the entering and leaving sides due to the bending deflection of the teeth. a multiple of the manufacturing form errors. d Tooth pair getting into engagement Further. as well as settling of bearings. The deflection at the tooth tips is. a gradual load increase is achieved on the tooth get- 118 119 .. and a load reduction on the tooth leaving the engagement. Thus. AGMA.. C . This has to be taken into consideration especially in the case of checks of contact patterns carried out under low loads.3 Load carrying capacity of involute gears 1. In the case of modified gear teeth. In the case of profile correction. – Subcritical operating range. is much more expensive. In DIN 3990. 7/.5 Tooth corrections The parameters given in the above subsections 1.1 to 1. – Use of prescribed gear oils with sufficient scuffing load capacity (criteria stage ≥ 12) and grey staining load capacity (criteria stage ≥ 10).. Non-uniform load carrying occurs along the face width which also has a negative effect on the load carrying capacity and generation of noise.200 N/mm2. the local maximum load rise is always lower than the theoretical uniform load distribution under full load. Longitudinal correction 1. Tooth flanks in DIN quality 6 or better. as a rule. – Effective case depth after carburizing according to instructions /12/ with surface hardnesses of 58 . making the noise generating levels increase in the lower part load range.as a rule for 70 . where method A is more exact but also more time-consuming than method B.. The application standard /10/ according to DIN 3990 is based on simplified methods.0. 100% of the permanently acting nominal load /5. – Quality of material and heat treatment proved by quality inspections acc. 6. 62 HRC. 35 m/s. – Sufficient supply of lubricating oil. – Cylindrical gears out of case-hardened steel. pitch circle velocity lower than approx. British Standard.Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Geometry of Involute Gears Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears facewidth are achieved.3. b Tooth pair being in engagement c. however. – Flank fatigue strength σHlim y 1.2.is always more meaningful and therefore is exclusively decisive in borderline cases.. Gear pairs which are only slightly loaded do not require any modification. – Gears with required tooth corrections and without harmful notches in the tooth root. With increasing load. This leads to meshing interferences at the entering and leaving sides. according to Niemann. for instance. Line of action Pinion Wheel Figure 16 Tooth corrections designed for removing local load increases due to deformations under nominal load Bending Torsion Manufacturing deviation Bearing deformation Housing deformation Running-in wear Effective tooth trace deviation Fβ = Σf-yβ Load distribution across the facewidth w 1.4 refer to non-deviating cylindrical gears.compared with the simplified one . and housing deformations. intentional deviations from the involute (profile correction) and from the theoretical tooth trace (longitudinal correction) are produced in order to attain nearly ideal geometries with uniform load distribution under load again. B. different methods A. pinion and wheel body. etc. are suggested for the determination of individual factors. life factors ZNT = YNT = 1. Figure 14 Cylindrical gear pair under load 1 Driving gear 2 Driven gear a. heat treatment and operation of industrial gear units are subject to certain rules which lead to a long service life of the cylindrical gears. however. Those rules are: – Gear teeth geometry acc. The following calculation method for pitting resistance and tooth strength of case-hardened cylindrical gears is a further simplification if compared with the application standard. without losing some of its meaning. see figure 15. i. fine machined. ting into engagement. to DIN 3990 /11/. however. In order to restore the high load carrying capacity of case hardened gears and reduce the generation of noise. The load-related form corrections are calculated and made for one load only . As a rule.. It has to be expressly emphasized that for the load carrying capacity of gear units the exact calculation method . At low partial load. usual profile and longitudinal corrections are illustrated. a high load utilization of the gear units is possible. selection of material. Certain conditions must be adhered to in order to attain high load carrying capacities which also results in preventing scuffing.2.universal validity it still is relatively time-consuming. Because of the high-tensile gear materials. The standard work is the FVA-Stirnradprogramm /9/ which includes further calculation methods. i. gear unit manufacturers have such a tool at hand. the tooth trace relief often is superposed by a symmetric longitudinal Profile correction crowning.2. the calculation in accordance with this method may be carried out only by using EDP programs. see figure 14. however. This results in skewing of the tooth flanks which often amounts considerably higher than the tooth trace deviations caused by manufacture. Under partial load. Because of its . contact patterns which do not cover the entire tooth depth and Figure 15 Deformations and manufacturing deviations on a gear unit shaft In figure 16. Therefore. – Gear unit designed for fatigue strength.e. uniform load carrying along the face width and a reduction in load concentration at the tooth ends during axial displacements is attained. With it. The running-in wear of case hardened gears amounts to a few micrometers only and cannot compensate the mentioned deviations. and other.

1. Alternatively. the quantities listed in table 5 are required. so that the calculation procedure is partly considerably simplified. In order to be able to carry out the calculation for a cylindrical gear stage. The geometric quantities are calculated according to tables 2 and 3. one can also start from the nominal torque of the prime mover if this corresponds with the torque requirement of the driven machine. however. In case of doubt one should. b2) – 120 121 . a number of factors can be definitely given for the calculation of the load carrying capacity according to DIN 3990.1 S 106 P/(d1 n1) v = π d1 n1/60 000 βb = arc sin(cosαn sinβ) zn1 = z1 / (cosβ cos2βb) zn2 = z2 / (cosβ cos2βb) mt = mn / cosβ αt = arc tan (tanαn / cosβ) αwt = arc cos [(z1 + z2) mt cosαt / (2a)] pet = πmt cosαt db1 = z1mt cosαt db2 = z2mt cosαt gα = 1 2 – mm Table 4 Basic details Abbreviation P n1 a mn da1 da2 b1 b2 z1 z2 x1 x2 αn β V40 Rz1 Rz2 Meaning Power rating Pinion speed Centre distance Normal module Tip diameter of the pinion Tip diameter of the wheel Facewidth of the pinion Facewidth of the wheel Number of teeth of the pinion Number of teeth of the wheel Addendum modification coefficient of the pinion Addendum modification coefficient of the wheel Normal pressure angle Reference helix angle Kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil at 40 °C Peak-to-valley height on pinion flank Peak-to-valley height on wheel flank Unit kW 1/min mm mm mm mm N m/s Degree – – mm Degree mm mm – – Transverse pitch – – Degree Degree Length of path of contact cSt µm µm Transverse contact ratio Overlap ratio Base diameter of the pinion Base diameter of the wheel mm mm mm u IuI Transverse pressure angle Working transverse pressure angle Degree ( da12 – db12 + da22 – db22 ) – asinαwt mm – εα = gα / pet εβ = b tanβb / pet b = min (b1. In the further course of the calculation. Usually. however.3. carry out the calculation in accordance with the more exact method. Table 5 Derived quantities Designation Relation Unit Gear ratio Reference diameter of the pinion Transverse tangential force at pinion reference circle Circumferential speed at reference circle Base helix angle Virtual number of teeth of the pinion Virtual number of teeth of the wheel Transverse module u = z2/z1 d1 = z1 mn/cosβ Ft = 19. They are derived from the basic details according to table 4. the details listed in table 4 must be given in the units mentioned in the table.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears If these requirements are met.2 Basic details The calculation of the load carrying capacity is based on the nominal torque of the driven machine. they are contained in the workshop drawings for cylindrical gears. does not necessarily mean that the load carrying capacity is reduced. Non-observance of the above requirements.

1 Effective Hertzian pressure The effective Hertzian pressure is dependent on the load.50 1. to table 6 KV Dynamic factor acc.0003 z1 v u2 1 + u2 (4) 1.3. and a directly made longitudinal correction by approx.60 1. If possible. For normal cylindrical gear teeth without longitudinal correction. and for pinion and wheel is equally derived from the equation KA Kv KHα KHβ u + 1 Ft u d1 b (8) Table 6 Application factor KA Working mode of the driven machine Working mode of prime mover Uniform Moderate shock loads Average shock loads Heavy shock loads Uniform 1. z2.50 1.3 General factors 1. Since very often it is not possible to carry out the one or other method without great expenditure. Exact methods based on comprehensive measurements or calculations or on a combination of both are very expensive. see table 4.2 Dynamic factor With the dynamic factor KV. As a rule. with b = min (b1.25 1.50 Moderate shock loads 1. (10) or (11) With ß according to table 4 applies: Zβ = cosβ (9) 1. σH = ZE ZH Zβ Zε 1.3.0 (7) 1.3.. to equ. to equation (4) KHβ Face load factor acc. For pinion and wheel the same effective Hertzian pressure σH is assumed. he makes longitudinal corrections in order to 1. d1 acc.2 Permissible Hertzian pressure The permissible Hertzian pressure is determined by σHP = ZL Zv ZX ZR ZW σHlim SH (12) ZL. Face load factor KFβ for the determination of increased tooth root stress can approximately be deduced from face load factor KHβ according to the relation KFβ = (KHβ )0.25 1.10 1.1 . as a consequence of which estimations made to be on the safe side mostly result in higher factors. In the case of slim shafts with gears arranged on one side.3. i. or in the case of lateral forces or moments acting on the shafts from external sources. additional dynamic forces caused in the meshing itself are taken into consideration.3. to figure 17 Zβ Helix angle factor acc.25 (1 + 112 ) 2 V40 (13) σHP permissible Hertzian pressure in N/mm2. It is dependent on the characteristics of the driving and driven machines.3. it is calculated from Kv = 1 + 0.3..0 and in extreme cases even at 2. all additional forces acting on the gears from external sources are taken into consideration. The application factor is determined by the service classification of the individual gear.0003 b (5) attain uniform load carrying over the facewidth. for the face load factors for gears without longitudinal correction the values may lie between 1. (9) Zε Contact ratio factor acc.4 Transverse load factors The transverse load factors KHα and KFα take into account the effect of the non-uniform distribution of load between several pairs of simultaneously contacting gear teeth. σH ) σHp. the face load factor lies within the range of KHβ = 1. to table 5 KA Application factor acc.85 2.00 Heavy shock loads 1. Under such conditions. 1.1.18 (b/d1)2 + 0.4. as follows: KHβ = 1.25. 1. It is of different size for pinion and wheel if the strengths of materials σHlim are different. are not exact. (5) KHα Transverse load factor acc. 40 to 50%. the masses and stiffness of the system. The lubricant factor is computed from the lubricating oil viscosity V40 according to table 4 using the following formula: ZL = 0.25 or higher σH Effective Hertzian pressure in N/mm2 Further: b is the smallest facewidth b1 or b2 of pinion or wheel acc.4. it can be determined by means of different methods.3.4 Tooth flank load carrying capacity The calculation of surface durability against pitting is based on the Hertzian pressure at the pitch circle. Zv. b2). and addendum modification coefficients x1.00 or higher 2.15 + 0. and the operating conditions. According to /8/.3. x2.75 Average shock loads 1. to table 4 Ft.9 (6) With εα and εβ according to table 5 applies: Zε = ε 4 – εα (1 – εα) + β for εβ < 1 (10) εα 3 Zε = 1 εα for εβ + 1 (11) Figure 17 Zone factor ZH depending on helix angle β as well as on the numbers of teeth z1. Under the conditions as laid down in subsection 1.91 + 0. reference values are given in table 6 which equally apply to all gears in a gear unit. the face load factor can be calculated according to method D in accordance with /8/ dependent on facewidth b and reference diameter d1 of the pinion.75 1.5.3 Face load factor The face load factor KHβ takes into account the increase in the load on the tooth flanks caused by non-uniform load distribution over the facewidth.3.e.1 Application factor With the application factor KA. If required. Factors 122 123 . the factor KA should be determined by means of a careful measurement or a comprehensive analysis of the system.5. Simple methods.00 1. It must not exceed the permissible Hertzian pressure σHp. 60 to 70%.3. the gear unit manufacturer carries out an analysis of the load distribution over the facewidth in accordance with an exact calculation method /13/. As a rough rule applies: A sensibly selected crowning symmetrical in length reduces the amount of KHβ lying above 1. to equ. see subsection 1. the result for surface stress and for tooth root stress according to method B in accordance with /8/ is KHα = KFα = 1.5 and 2.75 2. ZE = 190 N/mm for gears out of steel ZH Zone factor acc.3.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears 1.3.35 1. u.2. to equ. however. as well as the couplings.0 by approx. Taking z1. to equ. (7) 2 ZE Elasticity factor. ZR. v and u from tables 4 and 5. ZW and ZX are the same for pinion and wheel and are determined in the following.

3. to table 4.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears For the speed factor.3. to table 6 KA KV Dynamic factor acc. σHlim Endurance strength of the gear material. The following only approximately applies to internal gears: YFS = YFS∞ (≈ value for x = 1.0 and z = 300). see tables 4 and 5. σF Effective tooth root stress in N/mm2 The following factors are of equal size for pinion and wheel: mn. σF < σFP. b2 Facewidths of pinion and wheel acc.9 x ZX x 1. degree 1. If the facewidths of pinion and wheel are different. it may be assumed that the load bearing width of the wider facewidth is equal to the smaller facewidth plus such extension of the wider that does not exceed one times the module at each end of the teeth. the load-dependent tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel are different.6. see /11/ 1. They are calculated from the following equation: sF = Yε Yβ YFS KA Kv KFα KFβ Ft b mn degree The size factor is computed from module mn according to table 4 using the following formula: ZX = 1.513 R z 3 (1 + IuI) d1 ] 0.08 (15) For a gear pair with the same tooth flank hardness on pinion and wheel. from Flank hardness HV1 ZR = [ 0. the work hardening factor is ZW = 1. see subsection 1. Ft acc. to equation (4) Face load factor acc.005 mn (17) (18) with the restriction 0. 124 125 . see tables 4 and 5. Under the conditions as described in subsection 1. to equ.157 40 1+ v (14) degree The roughness factor can be determined as a function of the mean peak-to-valley height RZ = (RZ1 + RZ2)/2 of the gear pair as well as the gear ratio u and the reference diameter d1 of the pinion.e. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality. to tables 4 and 5 Application factor acc.5.3. Figure 19 Tip factor YFS for external gears with standard basic rack tooth profile acc. case hardened. (20) Yβ The following factors are of different size for pinion and wheel: b1. to equ.1 Effective tooth root stress As a rule. material quality MQ may be selected for pinion and wheel. to equ. the following applies using the circumferential speed v according to table 5: Zv = 0. (19) Helix angle factor acc.3. 1650 N/mm2 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the quality of the material.93 + 0.1. SH required safety factor against pitting.0 (16) Figure 18 Allowable stress number for contact stress σHlim of alloyed case hardening steels. case hardened. figure 18 shows a range from 1300 . For pinion and wheel it shall be shown separately that the effective tooth root stress σF does not exceed the permissible tooth root stress σFP...05 – 0. see table on page 97. i.5 Tooth strength The maximum load in the root fillet at the 30-degree tangent is the basis for rating the tooth strength. to DIN 867 depending on the number of teeth z (or zn in case of helical gears) and addendum modification coefficient x. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality. to equation (6) KFβ Transverse load factor acc. (7) KFα Yε Contact ratio factor acc. For gears made out of case hardening steel.

case hardened.0 has been fixed in the standard. KFβ = 1. helix angle factor Zβ = 0. Under the conditions according to subsection 1. They are case hardened and ground with profile corrections and width-symmetrical crowning. relative surface factor YRelT = 0. special design gear units are used. roughness factor ZR = 1.625 ) Yε ) 1 Yβ = 1 – εβ β 120 (20) with the restriction Yβ + max [(1 . 1. the output torque can be increased further only by means of load sharing in the gear unit. shaft 1 each being the HSS and shaft 2 being the LSS. length of path of contact gα = 98.. In such cases. however. to table 4 and the overlap ratio εβ acc.20 [acc. overlap ratio εβ = 0. pinion and wheel widths b1 = 360 mm and b2 = 350 mm.0. The cylindrical gears are made out of the material 17 CrNiMo 6.489. YST = 2. Factors YST. virtual numbers of teeth zn1 = 26. addendum modification coefficients x1 = 0.8 µm. 126 127 . first the permissible Hertzian pressure σHP = 1470 N/mm2 is determined from equation (12) without taking into account the safety factor.98 for 8 mm < mn ) 16 mm (22) = 0. dynamic factor KV = 1. The safety factor against pitting is found by SH = σHP/σH = 1470/1251 = 1. however. base helix angle βb = 9.3. tip diameter da1 = 615. see subsection 1. 1. the most economical drive solution. zone factor ZH = 2.3. Some typical features of the one or other type are described in the following.4.842 mm. nominal circumferential force on the reference circle Ft = 800. circumferential speed on the reference circle v = 4.0.7 Calculation example An electric motor drives a coal mill via a multistage cylindrical gear unit. σFlim Bending stress number of the gear material. Stress correction factor YST = 2. With speeds n1 and n2. The effective tooth root stresses σF1 = 537 N/mm2 for the pinion and σF2 = 540 N/mm2 for the wheel can be obtained from equation (18). the permissible tooth root stresses for pinion and wheel σFP1 = σFP2 = 797 N/mm2 can be obtained from equation (21) with the bending stress number σFlim = 500 N/mm2.01 mn (23) with the restriction 0.0205 mn). transverse pressure angle αt = 20. Among others.94.927. the highest output torques of gear units are limited by the manufacturing facilities. Load carrying capacity of the tooth flanks: Elasticity factor ZE = 190 N mm 2.978.48. face load factor KHβ = 1.8 ) YX ) 1. numbers of teeth z1 = 25 and z2 = 47.28 and YFS2 = 4. normal pressure angle αn = 20 degree. speed factor ZV = 0. is the stress correction factor of the reference test gears for the determination of the bending stress number σFlim. YFS2 Tip factors acc. (1– β/120)]. the safety factors are determined about 10 to 20% higher for the expensive final stages. reference diameter of the pinion d1 = 558. the Hertzian pressure for pinion and wheel is σH = 1251 N/mm2. 1.425 N. tip factors YFS1 = 4.. gear units without and with load sharing are shown.852 mm and db2 = 984. contact ratio factor Zε = 0. normal module mn = 22 mm.6 Safety factors The minimum required safety factors according to DIN are: against pitting SH = 1.96.4 mn.326.5 mm and da2 = 1100 mm. Application factor KA = 1.485 mm. The safety factors against tooth breakage referring to the torque are SF = σFP/σF: for the pinion SF1 = 797/537 = 1. YRrelT and YX may be approximately equal for pinion and wheel.879.041 mm. ϕa0 = 0. Load sharing gear units are.829.3. αpro = 10 degree. see /11/ 1.05 – 0. case hardened.5. kinematic viscosity of the lubricating oil V40 = 320 cSt.3 Comparisons In the following. working transverse pressure angle αwt = 22. The low speed gear stage is to be calculated. 520 N/mm2 is shown in figure 20 depending on the surface hardness of the tooth Figure 20 Bending stress number σFlim of alloyed case hardening steel. It is not equal for pinion and wheel if the material strengths σFlim are not equal. load sharing gear units playing an important role there. mean peak-tovalley roughness Rz1 = Rz2 = 4. base diameters db1 = 523. higher safety factors are usual. With the allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) σHlim = 1500 N/mm2.1. The safety factor referring to the torque is SH2 = 1.18 (for ha0 = 1.027.0. For gears out of case hardening steel. normal transverse pitch pet = 65. In figure 21. standard helical and bevel-helical gear units with fixed transmission ratio and size gradation are applied.88.992. Adding further gear stages in order to achieve higher transmission ratios thus does not change anything about the following fundamental description. work hardening factor ZW = 1. For multistage gear units.0. size factor ZX = 0. a strength pertaining to quality MQ may be used as a basis for pinion and wheel see table on page 97. this is true for high torques above the range of standard gear units. coal mill with medium shock load). For standard reference test gears. For common gear units the last or the last and the last but one gear stage usually come to approx.342.0 against tooth breakage SF = 1.3.3. because of symmetrical crowning the calculation may be made with a smaller value]. to table 5 follows: Yε = 0. helix angle β = 10 degree.391 degree.047. depending on the surface hardness HV1 of the tooth flanks and the material quality.3 mn. Lubricant factor ZL = 1. Given: Nominal power rating P = 3300 kW.4. With the helix angle β acc. 1.50 (electric motor with uniform mode of operation.1 Standard designs In the industrial practice. These single-stage to four-stage gear units according to the modular construction system cover a wide range of speeds and torques required by the driven machines. prO = 0. depending on module mn : mn ) 8 mm YRrelT = 1. According to equation (8).08 and zn2 = 49.178. But there are also cases where no standard drives are used. Then. By approximation YδrelT = 1. SF Safety factor required against tooth breakage. YST For the relative surface factor (surface roughness factor of the tooth root fillet) referring to the standard reference test gear the following applies by approximation.Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Cylindrical Gear Units Load Carrying Capacity of Involute Gears Gear Unit Types flanks and the material quality. transverse contact ratio εα = 1. a range from 310 . among others they are also used in standard design.. Preferably.38.96 for mn > 16 mm and for the size factor YX = 1. since gear cutting machines can make gears up to a maximum diameter only.832. KHα = KFα = 1.4.25 + 0.2 Load sharing gear units In principle.03. Load carrying capacity of the tooth root: Contact ratio factor Yε = 0.738. Calculation (values partly rounded): Gear ratio u = 1. pinion speed n1 = 141 1/min. relative sensitivity factor YδrelT = 1.339 mm. size factor YX = 0. single-stage and two-stage gear units up to a ratio of i = 16 are examined.123 m/s.18.244 degree. centre distance a = 815 mm. to figure 19.2 Permissible tooth root stress The permissible tooth root stress for pinion and wheel is determined by σFP = YST YδrelT YRrelT YX σFlim (SF) (21) Flank hardness HV1 σFP permissible tooth root stress in N/mm2.3.0.4 Gear unit types 1. Also for risky applications a higher safety factor is given. different types of gear units are used. transverse module mt = 22. 70 to 80% of the total weight and also of the manufacturing expenditure. also widely used for lower torques as they provide certain advantages in spite of the larger number of internal components. the transmission ratio can be obtained from the formula i = n1 / n2 (24) YFS1.6.0. They account for the complex stress condition inclusive of the notch effect in the root fillet.284 degree.00 for = 0.48 and for the wheel SF2 = 797/540 = 1. YδrelT.310 and x2 = 0. helix angle factor Yβ = 0. 1. and in most cases even higher for the cheaper preliminary stages. as a rule. Without taking into consideration the safety factor.83. In practice.203. ML modest demands on the material quality MQ normal demands on the material quality ME high demands on the material quality.018.75 εα cos2β (19) with the restriction 0. Combined with a standard electric motor such gear units are. YδrelT is the notch relative sensitivity factor (notch sensitivity of the material) referring to the standard reference test gear.25 εβ). to equation (5) follows KHβ = 1.

so that in figure 21 a size comparison to scale is illustrated. to the weight of the gear unit G when comparing the weights. referred torques for the gear units shown in figure 21 are represented. F.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types The diameter ratios of the gears shown in figure 21 correspond to the transmission ratio i = 7. The idler gears rotate as planets around the central axle. The large internal gear is an annulus gear which in the case of gear unit E is connected with shaft 2. F.3. in figure 22..1.. In order to achieve equal load distribution between the three intermediate gears of gear units E. E. i. The gear units have the same output torques.5 N/mm2. and in the case of gear units F and G with the housing. F.4. B.6 N/mm2. 1. In gear units F and G. D. The idler gears in gear units C and D have different diameters.3. The value of the gear ratio u is always greater than 1. Gear unit C has double load sharing. gear unit B has two stages. it is possible to compare cylindrical gear units with different ultimate stress values of the gear materials with each other in the following examinations. E.0. In gear unit D the load of the high-speed gear stage is equally shared between three intermediate gears which is achieved by the radial movability of the sun gear on shaft 1.4). the load value is the tooth peripheral force Fu referred to the pinion pitch diameter dw and the carrying facewidth b. Dimension m mm m mm2 kg mm2 m2 Units of the basic details T2 in mm BL in N/mm2 D in mm G in kg A in m2 The permissible load values of the meshings of the cylindrical gear units can be computed from the pitting resistance by approximation. F. Further explanations are given in table 7. as shown in /15/ (see section 1. BL ≈ 7 . According to /14/. and C are with offset shaft arrangement. The torque T2 is referred to the construction dimension D when comparing the sizes. the better the respective gear unit in comparison with the others. Size comparison to scale of gear units with the same output torque.. planet gears and sun gears out of case hardening steel BL = 2. and G with coaxial shaft arrangement. application factor KA and factor of safety from pitting SH. In gear units E. and G the sun gear on shaft 1 mostly is radially movable. Load value BL is a specific quantity and independent of the size of the cylindrical gear unit. Ratio i c) Torque referred to gear teeth surface Ratio i d) Full-load efficiency Figure 22 Comparisons of cylindrical gear unit types in figure 21 dependent on the transmission ratio i. Uniform load distribution is achieved in the high-speed gear stage by double helical teeth and the axial movability of shaft 1. web and shaft 2 form an integrated whole.5 N/mm2.3. Explanations are given in table 7 as well as in the text. Transmission ratio i = 7. Gear unit weight G and gear teeth surface A (= generated surface) are one measure for the manufacturing cost.4. Gear units A. planetary gear stages with annulus gears out of quenched and tempered steel. dependent on the transmission ratio i. BL = Fu b dw (25) 1.1 Load value By means of load value BL.2 Referred torques In figure 22. 128 129 . The following applies for practically executed gear units: cylindrical gears out of case hardening steel BL = 4. Gear units C. Both gear units are without load sharing. In the low-speed gear stage the load is shared six times altogether by means of the double helical teeth and the axial movability of the intermediate shaft. In gear unit G. and G have two stages and are load sharing. The higher a curve. and is negative for internal gear pairs (see table 3).e. with BL in N/mm2 and allowable stress number for contact stress (pitting) σHlim in N/mm2 as well as gear ratio u. and gear units D. using the following formula: Figure 21 Diagrammatic view of cylindrical gear unit types without and with load sharing.. double helical teeth and axial movability of the idler gears guarantee equal load distribution between six branches. cylindrical gears out of quenched and tempered steel BL = 1. and to the generated Table 7 Referred Torques Comparison criteria Size Weight Gear teeth surface Definition δ= γ= α= T2 D3 BL T2 G BL T2 A3/2 BL surface A of the pitch circle cylinders when comparing the gear teeth surfaces...3. and G the idler gears of one shaft have been joined to one gear so that they are also considered to be single-stage gear units. 10-6 u u+1 σ2Hlim KA SH2 (26) Ratio i a) Torque referred to size Ratio i b) Torque referred to gear unit weight Gear unit A has one stage.

Level correction (dB) +T + T 2 (27) Correction curve A Frequency (Hz) Figure 23 Correction curve according to DIN 45635 /16/ for the A-weighted sound power level or sound pressure level 1. Measure of intensity is the sound pressure p which is the difference between the highest (or lowest) and the mean pressure in a sound wave detected by the human ear.15. for instance. The lossfree coupling performance of planetary gear units F and G results in a further improvement of the efficiency. It is to be taken into consideration. Space requirement and load carrying capacity of the planetary gear bearings decrease considerably. 106 Nm. 1.3. have the highest torque referred to size and weight for ratios above i ≈ 7. A minimum of weight is approximately achieved by a transmission ratio division of i = 5 . the planetary gear bearings are arranged in the planet carrier for ratio i < 4. The sound power LWA is the A-weighted sound power emitted from the source of sound and thus a quantity independent of the distance. The comparisons show that there is no optimal gear unit available which combines all advantages over the entire transmission ratio range. Furthermore. more planetary gear stages are to be arranged in series so that the advantage of a better efficiency compared to gear units B. Apart from sound pressures at certain places.3 Efficiencies When comparing the efficiency. At γ1 = 30 m mm2/kg and γ2 = 45 m mm2/kg according to figure 22b. see figure 24. only the power losses in the meshings are taken into consideration. and D is lost. D. With regard to the gear teeth surface. the weight for the HS stage is approximately 10.986 . C. The efficiencies of the two stage gear units B. For a point source of sound it results from the sound power LW divided by the spherical enveloping surface 4 πr2.3 N/mm2. 0. that internal gears require higher manufacturing expenditure than external gears for the same quality of manufacture. output torque T2 = 3 . e. For higher transmission ratios. if compared with other gear units. air borne noise is emitted. The recording instrument stores the sound pressure or sound intensity over a certain period of time and writes the dB values in frequency ranges (bands) into the spectrum (system of coordinates). there is not enough space for the rolling bearings of the planet gears in the stage with i = 4. with a better load value BL = 4 N/mm2 this gear unit has a weight of 68. With increasing ratio. The sound pressure can be determined for a single frequency or . the physical sound pressure value at the different frequencies is corrected according to rating curve A.3. see figure 23.9 t and for the LS stage approximately 30 t. From the outside surfaces. however. the sound pressure at a threshold of audibility po = 2 . load value BL = 2. they come to approx. Under full load. Similar definitions are valid for gear unit height and width. the weights of modular-type gear units are usually higher. but also on bearings. which is a total 40. the same prerequisites are valid. However. It is dependent on the distance to the source of sound. Also the wall thickness of the housing is in a fixed relation to the construction dimension D /15/. the construction dimension D is larger than the sum of the pitch diameters by the factor 1. the referred torque decreases considerably. however.4 Example Given: Two planetary gear stages of type F arranged in series. The sound intensity is the flux of sound power through a unit area normal to the direction of propagation. Reference value is.as a combination . Like the sound pressure. This mainly occurs in the meshings. since the housing dimensions are determined according to different points of view. sound powers and sound intensities of a whole system can be determined. the gear unit weight G. figure 22d. and G show better efficiencies owing to lower sliding velocities in the meshings compared to gear units B. For ratios above i = 8. the sound intensity is dependent on the distance to the source of sound. gears without addendum modification and numbers of teeth of the pinion z = 17 are uniformly assumed for all gear units /15/. however. Referred to size and weight. 1. which have only external gears. however. For ratios i < 4. 106 Nm. E.Cylindrical Gear Units Gear Unit Types Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units For all gear units explained in figures 21 and 22.1 Definitions Noise emitted by a gear unit . and the gear teeth surface A can be determined by approximation by figure 22 for a given transmission ratio i. Gear units C and D. The internal gear pairs in gear units E. 130 131 . The efficiency as a quantity of energy losses results from the following relation with the input power at shaft 1 and the torques T1 and T2 h) 1 i 1 All gear units shown in figure 21 are based on the same coefficient of friction of tooth profile µz = 0.06. unlike the sound pressure it is a directional quantity. and D which only have external gear pairs. In comparison to a gear unit of type D with the same transmission ratio i = 20 and the same output torque T2 = 3 . Very small frequency ranges. total transmission ratio i = 20.5. The sound power can be converted to an average sound pressure for a certain place. The two planetary gear stages of type F together have a power loss which is by 45% higher than that of the gear unit of type D. The sound power is transmitted from the sources to the outside gear unit surfaces mainly by structure-borne noise (material vibrations). the construction dimension D. the torque referred to the gear teeth surface is more favourable only in case of small ratios. Thus. the smaller the transmission ratio in the planetary gear stage. planetary gear units do not have such big advantages if compared to load sharing gear units having external gears only. F.98. For planetary gear units. no absolute values are used but amplification or level quantities in bel (B) or decibel (dB). 85% of the total power loss for common cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings. 4 of the HS and LS stage. With a given torque T2 and with a load value BL computed according to equation (26). From the gear unit power a very small part is turned into sound power.g.like all other noises . 10 -5 N/m2. C. and G are lower because the power flow passes two meshings. or by oil movements. It is therefore higher than that of other comparable load sharing gear units. planetary gear units F and G have the highest torques at small ratios i.is composed of tones having different frequencies f. In order to take into consideration the different sensitivities of the human ear at different frequencies. 10 Hz or 1/12 octaves are termed narrow bands. The sound pressure decreases with increasing distance from the source of sound. load sharing gear units having external gears only are more favourable because with increasing ratio the referred torque decreases only slightly.4. The single stage gear unit A has the best efficiency. so that a comparison is possible. C. In general.971. Usually.9 t.5 Noise emitted by gear units 1. concentrically enveloping the source of sound.985 = 0.for a frequency range (single-number rating).5.4. the planetary gear becomes the pinion instead of the sun gear. F. however. and this all the more.2 t according to figure 22 with γ = 11 m mm2/kg and is thus heavier by 67%. For all gear units. fan blades. The total efficiency according to figure 22d is η = 0. the output torque referred to size and weight is the most favourable for the planetary gear unit. In addition. The advantage is a better efficiency of η = 0.

foreign influences are eliminated in the simplest way. log P / kW (dB) Frequency (HZ) Figure 25 One-third octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level.41.26.5. fo = upper band frequency. log P / kW (dB) 85. In VDI 2159. corrections for background noise and environmental influences are to be made. two minutes. transmitted power. 10 cm. The lines are determined by mathematical equations. fo / fu = 1. This procedure requires a larger number of devices to be used. Figure 28 exemplary illustrates a characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units. The total level is the common logical value for gear unit noises. or fo = fm . by means of a special measuring device containing two opposing microphones.4 . to VDI 2159 /17/ 133 . hardened. 1.1 + 12. the upper frequency is as twice as big as the lower one. Histograms occur in the one-third octave spectrum and in the octave spectrum. circumferential speed: 1 up to 20 ms-1 Output torque: 100 up to 200000 Nm No. The pressure level is valid for a certain distance. Machine enclosing reference box Measurement surface The results correspond to the sound power levels as determined in accordance with DIN 45635.and 80%-lines are drawn. Similar characteristic diagrams are also available for the other gear unit types mentioned. Frequency (HZ) Figure 26 Octave spectrum of a gear unit (sound intensity level. one can base the calculations on experience. An analyzer computes the intensity or power levels in one-third octave or octave bands. manufacturing quality and speed.e. cylindrical gear units with sliding bearings (high-speed gear units).7 + 15. the bottom is not taken into consideration. it is a very quick one. When the gear unit is placed on a reverberant base. however. 1. that 80% of the recorded industrial gear units radiate lower noises.2 Measurements The main noise emission parameter is the sound power level. see figure 28. see figures 25 and 26. see example in figure 27. However.3 . see figures 25 and 26. DIN quality 5 to 8 Figure 28 Characteristic diagram of emissions for cylindrical gear units (industrial gear units) acc. fo = fm . see VDI 2159. the equations according to VDI 2159 are: Total sound power level LWA 77. In case of octaves. for example.83 Dip lubrication Probability 90% Installation: Rigid on steel or concrete Power rating: 0. Gear unit manufacturers. log P / kW (dB) 87.9 . In most cases.6 + 6. reference values are given. too. because in general. mostly have own records. for example. Furthermore.41 and fu = fm / 1. In the VDI guidelines 2159 /17/.g. A-weighted) Bandwidth Sound intensity level dB(A) In order to really detect the noise radiated by the gear unit alone. In the one-third octave spectrum (spectrum with 1/3 octaves). (Frequency) Figure 24 Narrow band frequency spectrum for LpA (A-weighted sound pressure level) at a distance of 1 m from a gear unit. The 80%-line means. 1. It is not easy to find the correct correction values.9 . The measurement surface ratio LS is an auxiliary quantity which is dependent on the sum of the measurement surfaces. Within the characteristic diagrams. fu = lower band frequency.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units range) is a single-number rating. The VDI guidelines are based on measurements carried out on a large number of industrial gear units. fine-machined. planetary gear units and worm gear units. A-weighted) The total level (resulting from logarithmic addition of individual levels of the recorded frequency 132 Sound power level LWA Figure 27 Example of arrangement of measuring points according to DIN 45 635 /16/ Type: Cylindrical gear units with external teeth mainly (> 80%) having the following characteristic features: Housing: Cast iron housing Bearing arrangement: Logarithmic regression LWA = 77. Above all. other noise radiating machines are in operation in the vicinity. 50%. The mean of the levels is taken via the specified time. The results can be seen on a display screen. bevel gear and bevel-helical gear units.2. Main influence parameters for gear unit noises are gear unit type.7 up to 2400 kW Input speed (= max.7 + 4.5. log P / kW (dB) 71. in general 1 m from the housing surface as an ideal parallelepiped.3 x log P/kW dB Rolling bearings (80%-line) Lubrication: Certainty rate r2 = 0.5.1 + 12. speed): 1000 up to 5000 min-1 (mostly 1500 min-1) Max. they can also be recorded or printed. 1. For this purpose. of gear stages: 1 to 3 Mechanical power rating P Information on gear teeth: HS gear stage with helical teeth (b = 10° up to 30°). sound pressure levels LpA are measured at fixed points surrounding the gear unit and converted to sound power levels LWA. e.3 Prediction It is not possible to exactly calculate in advance the sound power level of a gear unit to be made. i.2. for instance.2 Determination via sound intensity The gear unit surface is scanned manually all around at a distance of. fm = mean band frequency. For the 80%-lines.5. 1. Bandwidth Sound intensity level dB(A) 3 distinction is made between cylindrical gear units with rolling bearings.4 . the bandwidth results from 1.12 and fu = fm / 1. a Gear units Cylindrical gear units (rolling bearings) Cylindrical gear units (sliding bearings) Bevel gear and bevel-helical gear units Planetary gear units Worm gear units For restrictions.12. log P / kW (dB) 65.1 Determination via sound pressure DIN 45635 Part 1 and Part 23 describe how to determine the sound power levels of a given gear unit /16/. information on speed variators can be found in the guidelines.0 + 15. fo / fu = 2.

2 dB. in special design and manufacturing expenditure. module reduction) for the same size. Sometimes. the only way is to enclose the gear units which makes possible that the total level is reduced by 10 to 25 dB. is calculated at a distance of 1 m with a measurement surface S = 21 m2 and a measurement surface ratio LS = 13. log S (dB) (28) (29) S = Sum of the hypothetical surfaces (m2) enveloping the gear unit at a distance of 1 m (ideal parallelepiped) Example of information for P = 100 kW in a 2-stage cylindrical gear unit of size 200 (centre distance in the 2nd gear stage in mm). gear unit noises can be positively influenced. of standard quality: “The sound power level. lubrication and cooling are also important. distribution of masses. A sound screen does not only hinder the propagation of airborne noise but also the heat dissipation of a gear unit. dependent on the conditions. in any case.5.2 ≈ 89 db (A). is 102 + 2 dB (A). Attention has to be paid to it.13. tolerance + 2 dB. with rolling bearings. Room and connection influences have not been taken into consideration.Cylindrical Gear Units Noise Emitted by Gear Units Table of Contents Section 11 The measurement surface sound pressure level LpA at a distance of 1 m is calculated from the total sound power level LpA = LWA – Ls (dB) Ls = 10 . determined in accordance with DIN 45635 (sound pressure measurement) or according to the sound intensity measurement method. type of rolling bearing. Housing design.4 Possibilities of influencing With the selection of other than standard geometries and with special tooth modifications (see section 1. that no structureborne noise is radiated via coupled elements (couplings.2. such a procedure results in a reduction in the performance (e.” Note: For this example.5). connections) to other places from where then airborne noise will be emitted. a measurement surface sound pressure level of 102 . and it requires more space. If it is agreed that measurements are to be made they will be carried out on the manufacturer’s test stand. In some cases. 1. Individual levels in a frequency spectrum cannot safely be predicted for gear units because of the multitude of influence parameters. Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive Clutches Friction Clutches Synoptical Table of Torsionally Flexible and Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive Clutches and Friction Clutches Page 136 136 136-138 138 138 138 139 140 134 135 . however.g.

Compensating shaft misalignments (radial.000 Nm. Electrodyn. Damping torque and speed impulses. Such inserts absorb the coupling forces and prevent the elastic-viscous flow of the elastomer.Shaft Couplings General Fundamental Principles Rigid and Torsionally Flexible Couplings 2. 136 137 . Radial tooth couplings are self-centering and transmit both high and alternating torques. Air bag spring. The BIPEX coupling is a flexible fail-safe claw coupling in compact design for high power capacity and is offered in different sizes for maximum torques up to 3. The flexible properties of the couplings are generated by means of metal springs (coil springs. For rubber-flexible couplings. Shaft couplings 2.3 Torsionally flexible couplings Torsionally flexible couplings are offered in many designs. angular). DIN 740 /18/). large RUPEX couplings are often used on the output side between gear unit and driven machine. In case of couplings incorporating elastomer elements. Claw. plastics). the achievable damping values are around ψ = 0. 2. Radial tooth Pin and bush. as a rule. tyre couplings).700 Nm. leaf springs) or by means of elastomers (rubber. axial. drives are consisting of components like prime mover. In some couplings (e. torsional vibrations are taken into account by reducing the drive to a two-mass vibration generating system. Flange. Membrane. Another highly flexible tyre coupling with a simple closed tyre as flexible element mounted between two flanges is the ELPEX-B coupling. a distinction is made between couplings of average flexibility with torsion angles of 2 up to 5 degree and couplings of high flexibility with torsion angles of 5 up to 30 degree.000 Nm are drives with periodically exciting aggregates (internal combustion engines. The quasi-statical torsional stiffness of an elastomer coupling increases at dynamic load (up to approximately 30 Hz. The coupling is suitable for plug-in assembly and capable of absorbing large misalignments. gear unit. The optimized shape of the barrelled buffers and the conical seat of the buffer bolts facilitate assembly and guarantee maintenance-free operation. Rings of different elasticity are suitable for optimum dynamic tuning of drives. Steel plate. Sound isolation. 100°C. and compensation of shaft misalignments with low restoring forces. Centrifugal force. Such components are connected by couplings which have the following tasks: . ring couplings. all clutches are disengageable when stationary. and large-volume claw couplings with cellular elastic materials. Since the coupling hubs are not only offered in grey cast iron but also in steel. Couplings with elastomer elements primarily subjected to compression and bending have non-linear progressive stiffness characteristics. Shaft couplings Couplings Clutches Rigid Flexible Positive Friction Torsionally flexible Clamp. (–) reduced] by the average load (+). In its three-part design it is suitable for simple assembly and simple replacement of flexible elements. depending on the type. or to a combined form of stressing. Main functions are the reduction of torque impulses by elastic reaction. Gear Friction Hydrodyn. Damping leads to heating of the coupling. The coupling is available as fail-safe coupling and as coupling without failsafe device. and torques. The dynamic stiffness of a coupling is influenced [(+) increased. They are designed as clamp. Torque transmitting thread inserts have been vulcanized into the rings out of high-quality natural rubber. Rolling contact joint. flange and radial tooth couplings and allow the transmission of high torques requiring only small space. (*) Cone.Reducing the torsional vibration load. and the subgroups rigid/flexible couplings and positive/friction clutches. the couplings are also suitable for high speeds. and period of use (–).Transmitting an as slip-free as possible motion of rotation.000 Nm. Overrunning. universal joint Gear. The dynamic loading capacity of a coupling is determined by the damping power and the restricted operating temperature of elastomers of 80°C up to max. reciprocating engines) or extremely shockloaded drives with large shaft misalignments. the oscillation amplitude (–). transfer of resonance frequencies by variation of the torsional stiffness. Interrupting the motion of rotation (clutches). Typical applications for ELPEX couplings which are available for torques up to 90. influencing and displacing the resonant ranges. Coil spring. Figure 29 Overview of possible shaft coupling designs 2. . show a linear behaviour. For couplings incorporating flexible metal elements. Foettinger Plate. In case of clamp and flange couplings (with split spacer ring). Limiting the torque. test frequency 10 Hz) by approximately 30 to 50%. flange couplings. temperature (–). while flexible elements (without fabric insert) merely subjected to shearing generate linear stiffness characteristics. and the heat loss has to be dissipated via the surface. oscillation frequency (+). A distinction is made between the two main groups couplings and clutches. Universal joint. Because of their capability to transmit high torques.8 up to 2 (damping coefficient ψ. The coupling is made in different types and sizes for torques up to 62. Multiple disk.2 Rigid couplings Rigid couplings connect two shaft ends and do practically not allow any shaft misalignment. Oldham coupling Claw.g.1 General fundamental principles In mechanical equipment. Examples of highly flexible couplings incorporating elastomer elements are tyre couplings. Leaf spring. Tyre. or by using torsional vibration simulation programs which can compute detailed vibration systems for both steady and unsteady conditions. bending and shearing. Friction Eddy current (*) In case of additional gearing. Due to the symmetrical design the coupling is free from axial and radial forces and allows large shaft misalignments even under torque loads. Depending on the type. When designing drives with torsionally flexible couplings according to DIN 740 /18/. The coupling halves are connected by means of bolts (close fitting bolts). Flange. the torsional flexibility is between 2 and 25 degree. Cardan Rigid. Examples of couplings incorporating elastomer elements of average flexibility are claw-. The coupling is especially suitable for plug-in assembly and fitting into bell housings. The N-EUPEX coupling is a wear-resistant pin coupling for universal use (figure 30) absorbing large misalignments. The ELPEX coupling (figure 32) is a highly flexible ring coupling without torsional backlash which is suitable for high dynamic loads and has good damping properties. Examples of flexible couplings incorporating metal elements are coil spring and leaf spring couplings. Electrical insulation. Shaft Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings The diversity of possible coupling variants is shown in the overview in figure 29. the flexible elements of the coupling are subjected to compression (tension). The RUPEX coupling is a flexible fail-safe pin and bush coupling which as a universal coupling is made in different sizes for low up to very high torques (106 Nm) (figure 31). radial disassembly is possible. . unless a progressive characteristic has intentionally been aimed for by design measures. damping of torsional vibrations by internal damping in case of couplings with flexible rubber elements. It is available in different sizes for torques up to 20. The stiffness characteristics. pin-. Pin and bush. shafts and driven machine. the flexible elements are reinforced by fabric or thread inserts. and frictional damping in case of couplings with flexible metal elements. Automatic disengaging. and pin and bush couplings. Damping is achieved by means of friction and viscous damping means.

safety clutches). ELPEX-S Figure 31 Flexible pin and bush coupling. ventilators. all flexible couplings can be used as clutches. even with the shaft rotating (mechanically. a distinction is made between cylindrical. in three parts Figure 33 Highly flexible claw coupling with cellular flexible elements. membrane and steel plate couplings. magnetical). electrical. The larger the number of friction surface areas. torquedependent (slip clutches. which always have to be designed as double-jointed couplings with floating shafts (spacers) of different lengths. The ZAPEX coupling is of compact design. always transmit uniformly and are very short. and uniform friction effect (non-chattering). fail-safe claw coupling absorbing large shaft misalignments. The couplings have linear stiffness characteristics. Dependent on the friction element and the number of friction surface areas. Typical torsionally rigid couplings are universal joint. and with the use of different flexible elements they are suitable for optimum dynamic tuning of drives. Torsionally rigid couplings are very compact. the smaller the size of the clutch. Constant velocity joints. The clutch is actuated externally. ZAPEX Figure 32 Highly flexible ring coupling. turbines. pin and bush. The large-volume cellular flexible elements show very good damping properties with low heating and thus allow high dynamic loads. absorbs large shaft misalignments. friction clutches are most commonly used which may contain either dry. pumps. Fields of application are.6 Friction clutches In friction clutches.4 Torsionally rigid couplings Torsionally rigid couplings are used where the torsional vibration behaviour should not be changed and exact angular rotation is required. however. flange and disk clutches. cycle rate. torsionally rigid plate coupling for the absorption of shaft misalignments (angular up to 1 degree). suitable for high speeds. input and output shaft in one plane). It is lubricated with oil or grease. Plug-in assembly is possible. The couplings are of compact design and are suitable for torques up to 80. gear. and owing to its all-steel design is suitable for high ambient temperatures (up to 280°C) and high speeds. the dynamic load increasing with the diffraction angle. torques are generated by friction. hydrodynamic). The PLANOX clutch is a dry-friction multiple disk clutch with one up to three disks. Gear couplings of the ZAPEX type (figure 34) are double-jointed steel couplings with crowned gears which are capable of absorbing shaft misalignments (axial.or wet. A wide range of ARPEX couplings is available . The clutch is made in different types and sizes for torques up to 3 S 105 Nm. Fields of application are. Uniform transmission of torque is guaranteed by spring pressure even after high cylce rates. This universal coupling can be used in drives with high dynamic loads which require low frequency with good damping. speed-dependent (centrifugal force. RUPEX Figure 34 Gear coupling. The ELPEX-S coupling (figure 33) is a highly flexible. Of the different clutch types. hydrodynamic or electrodynamic effect. radial and angular up to 1 degree) without generating large restoring forces. It is actuated externally by mechanical. Shaft Couplings Synoptical Table of Torsionally Flexible and Torsionally Rigid Couplings Figure 30 Flexible pin coupling.000 Nm.from the miniature coupling up to large-size couplings for torques up to > 106 Nm. Many claw. cooling. which has been designed with overload protection for application in general mechanical engineering. drives for materials-handling equipment as well as for control systems. The coupling transmits torques very uniformly. pneumatic or hydraulic force. Further criteria are wear. ELPEX Figure 35 All-steel coupling. conveyor drives.Shaft Couplings Torsionally Flexible Couplings Torsionally Rigid Couplings Positive and Friction Clutches This coupling features high flexibility without torsional backlash. rolling mills. among others. ARPEX 138 139 . and in addition offers large safety reserves for the absorption of shock loads. The coupling is maintenance-free (no lubrication) and wear-resistant and owing to its closed plate packs allows easy assembly. idle torque. The ARPEX coupling (figure 35) is a doublejointed. Universal joints allow large angular misalignments (up to 40 degree). universal joints must always be arranged in pairs (same diffraction angle. In order to avoid pulsating angular rotation (2 times the torsional frequency). with plate packs. however. With the use of long floating shafts large radial misalignments can be allowed. but shaft misalignment has to be absorbed at the same time. service life. they have to be greased with oil or grease (exception: steel plate and membrane couplings). forks on the intermediate shaft in one plane. or gear couplings can be used as clutches by axially moving the driving member. and dependent on the direction of rotation (overrunning clutches).(oil-lubricated) friction elements. With the additional design element of interlocking teeth. among others. paper machines. 2. hydraulically. and transmits very high torques (depending on the size up to > 106 Nm).5 Positive clutches This type includes all clutches which can be actuated when stationary or during synchronous operation in order to engage or disengage a machine to or from a drive. N-EUPEX. and permits easy assembly and disassembly (radial). 2. 2. cement mills. cone. pneumatically.

torque increases with the second power.g. Fluid couplings are mainly used for starting great masses. As safety elements for limiting the temperature. the motor accelerating itself at first and then driving the machine. Speed-controlled clutches are designed as centrifugal clutches with segments. FLUDEX type 140 141 . The clutch is made in different sizes for disengagement torques up to 56. e. Fluid couplings have the same characteristics as turbines. The torque which is generated by friction on the lateral area of the output part increases as the square of the input speed. and for limiting overloads during starting and in case of blockages. the clutch operates without slip. The FLUDEX coupling (figure 36) is a hydrodynamic fluid coupling operating according to the Föttinger principle without mechanical friction. balls. fusible safety plugs and electronically or mechanically controlled temperature monitors are used. The torque limiter is ready for operation again when the mechanism has been re-engaged during standstill. During steady torque transmission little operating slip occurs which heats up the coupling.500 Nm. Torque is transmitted by the rotating oil fluid in the coupling accelerated by the radial blades (pulse exchange). retaining springs which transmit torques only from a specified operating speed on. rollers). Table of Contents Section 12 Vibrations Symbols and Units General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Mass Mass Moment of Inertia Symbols and Units of Translational and Torsional Vibrations Determination of Stiffness Overlaying of Different Stiffnesses Conversions Natural Frequencies Evaluation of Vibrations Page 142 143-145 145/146 146/147 147 147 147 148 149 150 150 150/151 151/152 Outer wheel drive 1 Blade wheel housing (outer wheel) 2 Cover 3 Fusible safety plug 4 Filler plug 5 Impeller (inner wheel) 6 Hollow shaft 7 Delay chamber 8 Working chamber 9 Flexible coupling (N-EUPEX D) 10 Damming chamber Figure 36 Basic design of a fluid coupling with and without delay chamber. Speed-controlled clutches allow soft starting of heavy-duty driven machines. After running up. The coupling parts on the input (pump) and output (turbine) side are not mechanically connected and thus wear-resistant. and power capacity is proportional to the third power of the input speed. or with pellets (powder.Shaft Couplings Friction Clutches Fluid Couplings The AUTOGARD torque limiter is an automatically actuating safety clutch which disconnects driving and driven side by means of a high-accuracy ball-operated mechanism and interrupts the transmission of torque as soon as the set disengagement torque is exceeded. This permits the use of smaller dimensioned motors for high mass moments of inertia and a high number of starts. for separating torsional vibrations.

angle. Dependent on the mode of motion of the mass. sin (ω . a distinction is made between translational (bending) and torsional vibrating systems as well as coupled vibrating systems in which translational and torsional vibrations occur at the same time. mi M (t) Mo Mo* ne n1. Vibrations Nm/ rad N/m m m m – m 2. During vibration.e. bending stiffnes Diameter Inside diameter Outside diameter Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Mean coil diameter (coil spring) Natural number Modulus of elasticity Frequency. output speed Influence factor for taking into account the mass of the shaft when calculating the natural bending frequency α γ δ ε η λi Λ π= r ϕ. natural radian frequency of the damped vibration Natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration Radian frequency of the excitating vibration o Ω Period x A ω t = = = = A . i. distance between bearings Mass Time-variable excitation moment Amplitude of moment Reduced amplitude of moment of a two-mass vibration generating system Natural frequency (vibrations per minute) Input speed. influencing each other. A vibration is free and undamped if energy is neither supplied nor removed by internal friction so that the existing energy content of the vibration is maintained. such as displacement. h p ^ p ^ stat ψ ω Amplitude Vibration Amplitude Angular velocity. fe f F F (t) G i iF la lp J. a distinction is made between free vibrations and externally forced vibrations. figure 39a. pressure. The state of a vibrating system can be described by suitable variables. the kinetic energy of the mass and the energy stored in the spring are converted at certain intervals of time. see figure 37. ϕi ^ . In this case the system carries out steady-state natural vibrations the frequency of which is determined only by the characteristics of the spring/mass system (natural frequency). The simplest form of a mechanical vibrating system consists of a mass and a spring with fixed ends. rad Length of overhanging end Cross-sectional area Amplitude of oscillation Damping energy. t + α) α = Phase angle Figure 38 Mathematical description of an undamped vibration with and without phase angle 142 143 . to DIN 740 /18/ 3.1 General fundamental principles Vibrations are more or less regularly occurring temporary variations of state variables.Vibrations Symbols and Units Vibrations General Fundamental Principles a A A AD. The vibration variation with time x can be described by the constant amplitude of oscillation A and a harmonic function (sine. velocity. and whether the vibration takes place without energy losses (undamped) or with energy losses (damped). Ji J* k k’ l m. t Amplitude Radian frequency Time Note: The unit “rad” may be replaced by “1”. f (f = natural frequency in Hertz) and time. see figure 38.142 kg/m3 rad rad rad/s rad/s2 rad rad rad rad – rad/s rad/s rad/s Time Period of a vibration Torque Volume Magnification factor. Dynamic/ static load ratio Displacement co-ordinate (translational. electric voltage/ current. elastic energy t T T V V x ^ x s s Nm m3 – m m rad rad 1/s rad – – – 3. x = A . cosine) the arguments of which contain natural radian frequency ω = 2π ..718 N/m2 Hz m N N N/m2 – – m4 m4 kgm2 kgm2 Nms/ rad Ns/m m kg Nm Nm Nm 1/min 1/min – Torsional stiffness Translational stiffness. . bending) Displacement amplitude Phase angle Phase angle with free vibration Damping constant Phase displacement angle with forced vibration Excitation frequency/natural frequency ratio Inherent value factor for i-th natural frequency Logarithmic decrement Peripheral/diameter ratio Specific density Angle of rotation Angular amplitude of a vibration Angular velocity (first time derivation of ) Angular acceleration (second time derivation of ) Vibratory angle of the free vibration (homogeneous solution) Vibratory angle of the forced vibration (particular solution) Angular amplitude of the forced vibration Angular amplitude of the forced vibration under load ( = 0) Damping coefficient acc. and vice versa. Ae c c’ d di da D Dm e= E f. a periodic conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy takes place. natural frequency Deformation Force Time-variable force Shear modulus Transmission ratio Number of windings (coil spring) Axial moment of area Polar moment of area Mass moment of inertia Reduced mass moment of inertia of a two-mass vibration generating system Viscous damping in case of torsional vibrations Viscous damping in case of translational and bending vibrations Length. sinω . the mass acting as kinetic energy store and the spring as potential energy store. n2 q m m2 m. Translational vibration generatig system Bending vibration generating system Torsional vibration generating system Figure 37 Different vibrating systems with one degree of freedom Further. 3. temperature. and the like.

when the applied frequency is at the natural frequency of the system. Diesel Otto engines. uniform. (Example: natural bending frequency in highspeed gear units). In this standard. J1. a Fourier analysis may often be helpful where periodic excitation processes are resolved into fundamental and harmonic oscillations and thus in comparison with the natural frequencies of a system show possible resonance points. the amplitude of oscillation grows until the energy supplied by the excitation force and the energy converted into heat by the damping energy are in equilibrium. propeller.Vibrations General Fundamental Principles Vibrations General Fundamental Principles Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators lead to high loads in the components and therefore are to be avoided or to be quickly traversed. figure 39c. c) From the output side: Principle of the driven machine.g. 2 o [Hz] 30 (36) ) k J* ( 2 . In damped systems. A free. energy can be supplied to or removed from the vibrating system. solutions can be calculated only with the aid of numerical simulation programmes. Displacement x Free two-mass vibration generating system a) Undamped vibration (δ = 0) Figure 40 Torsional vibrators J. i. drives). nonuniform. unsteady processes. All technical vibration generating systems are subject to more or less strong damping effects. for instance. influences from bearings. turbines. simplified solution proposals for shock-loaded Fixed one-mass vibration generating system and periodically loaded drives are made. loads with steady as well as unsteady excitation can be simulated for complex vibrating systems (linear. δ = damping constant) If the vibrating system is excited by a periodic external force F(t) or moment M(t). ) c J* + ( 2 o 2 M(t) J1 ne (31) k J [1/min] [1/s] (37) (38) damping constant with J* J1 1 (32) (33) J2 J1 ) J2 ωo = natural radian frequency of the undamped vibration in rad/s fe = natural frequency in Hertz ne = natural frequency in 1/min Damped natural radian frequency: Natural radian frequency (undamped): ωο o c J [ rad/s] (34) 2 o + 2 o 1 + D2 (39) 144 145 . As a rule. periodic meshing stiffnesses). the amplitudes of oscillation decrease in accordance with a geometric progression. ö c) Stimulated vibration ( δ < 0) Time t Figure 39 Vibration variations with time (A = initial amplitude at time t = 0. has n-1 natural frequencies. the drive train having been reduced to a two-mass vibration generating system. Drive systems with torsionally flexible couplings can be designed dynamically in accordance with DIN 740 /18/. For unsteady loaded vibrating systems with one or more masses. The range of the occurring amplitudes of oscillation is divided by the resonance point (natural frequency = excitation frequency. piston compressor. As a rule. if during each period of oscillation a certain amount of vibrational energy is removed from the vibration generating system by internal or external friction.. In technical drive systems. universal-joint shaft. With the periodic external excitation force. load as a function of time. a damped vibrating system does no longer vibrate with its natural frequency but with the frequency of the external excitation force. With EDP programmes. unbalance.e. This applies even more to vibrating systems with non-linear or periodic variable parameters (non-linear torsional stiffness of couplings. alignment error. e. A damped vibration exists. vibrations are excited by the following mechanisms: a) From the input side: Starting processes of electric motors. b) From transmitting elements: Meshing. critical vibrations) into the subcritical and supercritical oscillation range. If a constant viscous damping (Newton’s friction) exists.g. system short circuits. a minimum frequency distance of 15% or larger from a resonance point is required. In case of simple vibrating systems with one or few (maximum 4) masses. periodic excitation functions can be described by means of sine or cosine functions and the superpositions thereof.. Technical vibrating systems often consist of several masses which are connected with each other by spring or damping elements. )c J ( 2 o M (t) J (30) Natural frequency: fe o ( Two-mass vibration generating system with relative coordinate: . Such systems have as many natural frequencies with the corresponding natural vibration modes as degrees of freedom of motion. Resonance points may Differential equation of motion: One-mass vibration generating system: . in undamped systems the amplitudes of oscillation grow at an unlimited degree. Then. ö . After a building-up period. this is a forced or stimulated vibration. o c rad s (35) )k J 2 . however. Resonance exists. non-linear. control actions. for technical vibrating systems (e.2 Solution proposal for simple torsional vibrators Analytic solution for a periodically excited one(fixed) or two-mass vibration generating system. time-variable = angle of rotation [rad] . figure 40. and overvoltages of resonance. starting shock impulses. ( ϕ = ϕ1 – ϕ2 for 2-mass vibration generating systems as relative angle) = angular velocity [rad/s] (first time derivation of ö ) = angular acceleration [rad/s2] (second time derivation of ö ) J1 ) J2 J1 J2 b) Damped vibration (δ > 0) ö .. When analysing vibration processes. 3. analytic solutions for the natural frequencies and the vibration variation with time can be given for steady excitation. where mostly only the lower natural frequencies and especially the basic frequency (first harmonic) are of importance. J2 c k M (t) = mass moment of inertia [kgm2] = torsional stiffness [Nm/rad] = viscous damping [Nms/rad] = external excitation moment [Nm] . parameter-excited) and the results be represented in the form of frequency analyses. figure 39b. All these natural frequencies can be excited to vibrate by periodic external or internal forces. unfixed torsional vibration system with n masses.

. spring and damping elements without mass.04. a general vibration generating system has to be converted to a calculable substitute system with point masses. Magnification factors V and phase displacement angle ε.04 gear couplings.0.0.001. by h = 0 and h= 0 (initial-value problem).04.01 shafts (material damping of steel) D = 0..Vibrations Solution Proposal for Simple Torsional Vibrators Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping): D D k 2 o Vibrations Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations a) Free vibration (homogeneous solution h) (40) h A e {+ t} cos ( t+ ) (43) Magnification factor V o c 4 ψ = damping coefficient on torsionally flexible coupling.. determined by a damping hysteresis of a period of oscillation acc.g. to Flender brochure damping energy elastic deformation energy AD Ae b) Forced vibration (particular solution p) p Reference values for some components: D = 0. conditions. In damped vibrating systems (δ > 0) the free component of vibration disappears after a transient period.V [kg] [kg/m3] One-mass vibration generating system: Mo * Mo Two-mass vibration generating system: J2 Mo * Mo J1 ) J2 (47) (48) c) Magnification factor Mo * c V cos (m t+ ) ^ V = volume [m3] r = specific density (49) Figure 41 Damping hysteresis of a torsionally flexible component V 3.4.. Frequency ratio: (46) 3.2) torsionally flexible couplings D = 0.01.0.0..2 Mass moment of inertia p 1 (1 + 2) 2 ) 4D 2 2 ^ stat M (50) M* o J = r 2 dm: general integral formula Periodic excitation moment M(t) Mo cos m t (41) ^ p = vibration amplitude of forced vibration = vibration amplitude of forced vibration at a frequency ratio η = 0.1 Mass m = r. .4 Formulae for the calculation of vibrations For the calculation of natural frequencies and vibrational loads. all-steel couplings.4.. (42) ) p 146 147 Phase displacement angle ε Constants A and γ are determined by the starting . damped and undamped vibrations at periodic moment excitation (power excitation). to DIN 740 /18/ and/or acc.08 gear teeth in gear units D = 0. e.. 3. stat Circular cylinder: 1 r J d4 l p (kgm2r 32 d = diameter [m] l = length of cylinder p mr Mo = amplitude of moment [Nm] Ω = exciting circuit frequency [rad/s] Total solution: h The magnification factor shows the ratio of the dynamic and static load and is a measure for the additional load caused by vibrations (figure 42). universal joint shafts Static spring characteristic for one load cycle M* o c (1 + t+ ) 2) 2 1 ) 4D 2 2 cos(m (44) 2 D 2 Frequency ratio m o Phase angle: tan 1+ m o (45) Figure 42 Magnification factors for forced.15 (0.3 Solution of the differential equation of motion ^ p 3..

f o o Coordinate of running time In case of a positive value. Frequency is the reciprocal value to a period of vibrations. A ^ max. Symbols and Units Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Table 8 Symbols and units of translational and torsional vibrations Term Mass. Velocity is the instantaneous value of the velocity of change in the direction of vibration. the spring recoil N S m is proportional to deflection. Radian frequency of excitation Resonance exists at η= 1. angle) Amplitude Oscillating velocity Inertia force.ϕ k’ k N NSm Nm rad d4 32 32 (d 4 + d 4) a i Nm Linear springs N S m/rad N In case of linear springs. for D ≥ 1. Spring moment Attenuation constant (Damping coefficient). For D < 1. m2 m rad*) m rad m/s rad/s Translatory vibrating mass m. Vibration frequency of the natural vibration (undamped) of the system For a very small attenuation ratio D < 1 becomes ωd ≈ ωo. . Difference between phase angles of two vibration processes with same radian frequency. In case of Newton’s friction. m) δ = k/(2 .. The damping ratio is the relation between two amplitudes. π / ωο f = 1/T = ωο/(2 . A Unit kg kg . a damped vibration exists. 1/s 1/s – – – – s rad rad s Hz rad/s rad/s rad/s The damping factor is the damping coefficient referred to twice the mass. π) ωο = 2 . time-dependent value of vibration amplitude Amplitude is the maximum instantaneous value (peak value) of a vibration. the damping N S s/m force is proportional to velocity and Nms/rad attenuation constant (linear damping). p p In (x n x n)1) In ( ^ n ^ n)1) ^ ^ Shaft : I p Hollow shaft : I p Tension bar E I A Ip = polar moment of inertia l = length d.1 S 1010 N/m2 148 149 . π seconds. Oscillating velocity. Torsionally vibrating mass with mass moment of inertia J Instantaneous. Radian frequency is the number of vibrations in 2 . Moment of inertia forces Spring rate. an aperiodic case exists. The d’Alembert’s inertia force or the moment of inertia force acts in the opposite direction of the positive acceleration. 1) For steel: E = 21 S 1010 N/m2. x x . one cycle apart. Mass moment of inertia Instantaneous value of vibration (displacement. π .. vibrations per sec. Torsion bar c G I Ip m J c’ c c’ . Attenuation constant for rotary motion Damping factor (Decay coefficient) Attenuation ratio (Lehr’s damping) Damping ratio Logarithmic damping decrement Time Phase angle Phase displacement angle Period of a vibration Frequency of natural vibration Radian frequency of natural vibration Natural radian frequency (Natural frequency) Natural radian frequency when damped Excitation frequency Radian frequency ratio d 3. it is a lead angle. c D3 m . J) D = δ/ωο xn ^ ^ c N m E = modulus of elasticity 1) A = cross-sectional area x n)1 ^ ^ n n)1 Cantilever beam c 2 D 1 + D2 t α F f Shaft : 3 E Ia l3 Ia 64 N m d4 64 (d 4 + d 4) a i F f ε = α1 − α2 T = 2 . = force = deformation at centre of mass under force F Ia = axial moment of area Hollow shaft : I a Transverse beam (single load in middle) c F f 48 E l3 Ia N m c m c J 2 o Transverse beam with overhanging end c F f l 3 a2 E Ia (l ) a) N m a + r2 rad/s – = distance between bearings = length of overhanging end Ω η= Ω/ωο *) The unit “rad” may be replaced by “1”. x c. di. da = diameters of shafts δ = k’/(2 .4.Vibrations Terms. Time during which a single vibration occurs. . Torsional spring rate Spring force. . x.3 Determination of stiffness Explanation Table 9 Calculation of stiffness (examples) Example Coil spring G 8 d4 if N m iF = G = d = Dm = number of windings shear modulus 1) diameter of wire mean coil diameter Stiffness Symbol Quantity m J x ϕ ^ x max. G = 8.

..5 Conversions If drives with different speeds or shafts are combined in one vibration generating system. Bending : f e + 1 2p c m (60) fe + 1 2p c m1 ) m2 m1 m2 (61) 3.4. Torsional vibration loads in drives. 2nd.966 3π 10. for calibration. (51) c (59) (52) Parallel connection: Rule: The individual springs in a parallel connection are always subject to the same deformation. which is measured at a vibrational frequency of 10 Hz (vibrational amplitude = 25% of the nominal coupling torque). much time for fixing the strain gauges. This applies.. for instance.i + p d 8 i l 2 E r Hz (64) i = 1st. Since torques in shafts are generated via bearing pressure in gear units.853 2π 7. This requires. vertical). f e. taking into account dead weights (continuum). horizontal. can be measured directly on the shafts by means of wire strain gauges. and mode of stress (tension. The dynamic torsional stiffness is greater than the static torsional stiffness. etc. 1.927 λ2 4.i + 1 2p mi l 2 m/s2 For the solid shaft with free bearing support on both sides.. mi = masses in [kg] b) Natural bending frequencies of shafts supported at both ends with applied masses with known deformation f due to the dead weight fe + q 2p g f [Hz Table 10 λ-values for the first three natural frequencies. see figure 43. For couplings the dynamic stiffness is given. single stiffnesses are to be added where arrangements in series connection or parallel connection are possible. they are subjected to different deformations. equation (63) is simplified to: f e. however. This is particularly helpful if the geometric structure is very complex and very difficult to acquire.. Ji = mass moments of inertia in [kgm2] Translation. Series connection: Rule: The individual springs in a series connection carry the same load. conversion to the common reference speed has to be carried out first.694 7.81 gravity f = deformation due to dead weight [m] q = factor reflecting the effect of the shaft masses on the applied mass q = 1 shaft mass is neglected compared with the applied mass q = 1. E Hz r A (63) Slope = dynamic stiffness Figure 43 Static and dynamic torsional stiffness λi = inherent value factor for the i-th natural frequency l = length of shaft [m] E = modulus of elasticity [N/m2] I = moment of area [m4] r = density [kg/m3] A = cross-sectional area [m2] d = diameter of solid shaft [m] 150 151 . the stiffnesses and masses are to be converted to a reference speed (input or output). Natural frequency f in Hertz (1/s): One-mass vibration generating system: Torsion : f e + 1 2p c J (58) Two-mass vibration generating system: fe + 1 2p J1 ) J2 J1 J2 Measuring the stiffness: In a test. for example. in case of dynamic loads. 3. compression.13 solid shaft without pulley c) Natural bending frequencies for shafts. general formula for the natural frequency in the order fe. dependent on the direction of load of the rubber material. dependent on mode of fixing Bearing application λ1 1.6 Natural frequencies a) Formulae for the calculation of the natural frequencies of a fixed one-mass vibration generating system and a free two-mass vibration generating system. belt drives. to rubber materials of which the resilient properties are dependent on temperature. however.4 Overlaying of different stiffnesses To determine resulting stiffnesses. Examples of application are torsionally flexible couplings and resilient buffers for vibration isolation of machines and internal combustion engines. These components often have non-linear progressive stiffness characteristics. 3rd .09 common values when considering the shaft masses q = 1.03 .069 λ3 7. load. c ges c1 ) c2 ) c3 ) ) cn (54) c = torsional stiffness in [Nm/rad] J. Slope = static stiffness g = 9. stiffness can be determined by measuring the deformation.875 4.855 10. i.Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Evaluation of Vibrations 3.4.4. shearing). structure-borne noise is generated which can be acquired by sensing elements at the bearing points in different directions (axial.5 Evaluation of vibrations The dynamic load of machines can be determined by means of different measurement methods. load frequency. as a rule. 1 c ges 1 1 1 1 c1 ) c2 ) c3 ) ) cn (53) 3. order of natural bending frequencies. Translation: F N m c f F = applied force [N] f = measured deformation [m] Torsion: T Nm rad c T = applied torsion torque [Nm] ϕ = measured torsion angle [rad] Measurements of stiffness are furthermore required if the material properties of the spring material are very complex and it is difficult to rate them exactly. Conversion is carried out as a square of the transmission ratio: Transmission ratio: i n1 n2 reference speed speed (55) c’ = translational stiffness (bending stiffness) in [N/m] m.730 π 3.210 (62) Conversion of stiffnesses cn2 and masses Jn2 with speed n2 to the respective values cn1 and Jn1 with reference speed n1: C n1 J n1 c n2 i 2 J n2 i 2 (56) (57) Before combining stiffnesses and masses with different inherent speeds. signal transmission and evaluation.

7. For the evaluation of noise.. Dependent on the vibration velocity.5.5 4.. . the amplitudes of vibration displacement. 20/ is consulted for the effective vibration velocity.. as a rule. to VDI 2056 (“Effective value of the vibration velocity” in mm/s) Good up to 0.. 11. and 12 154/155 Table 11 Boundary limits acc. 1. as a rule. over 300 kW and installation on highly tuned. and possibly developing machine damages. and “non-permissible”... displacing the resonance) are required. improving the alignment. 2.. VDI guideline 2056 1) or DIN ISO 10816-1 /19. see /20/ 152 153 .. If vibration velocities are in the “non-permissible” range.. 75 up to 300 kW and installation on highly tuned.8 . 16/.. . up to approx. rigid or heavy foundations. Page Bibliography of Sections 10.. 15 up to 75 kW without special foundation.1 . alignment errors. velocity and acceleration can be recorded and evaluated in a sum (effective vibration velocity) or frequencyselective. to VDI guideline 2056 1) for four machine groups Including gear units and machines with input power ratings of . .. from approx.8 2. 4. verification by calculation). 18 from 18 up 1) 08/97 withdrawn without replacement. bearing noises.8 Still permissible 1.. the vibrational state of a machine is judged to be “good”... replacing defective machine parts. over 75 kW and installation on broadly tuned resilient foundations (especially also steel foundations designed according to lightconstruction guidelines). a distinction is made between four machine groups (table 11). rigid or heavy foundations.1 up Range classification acc. sound pressure level and sound intensity are measured. To evaluate the actual state of a machine.. Gear unit noises are evaluated according to VDI guideline 2159 or DIN 45635 /17..1 from 7. 15 kW without special foundation. .. Dependent on the machine support structure (resilient or rigid foundation) and power transmitted.000 Hertz..8 .5 ..5 up Machine groups K G up to 1. from approx. see subsection 1.. 11 from 11 up T up to 2. up to 1.8 2..5 Non-permissible from 4... “acceptable”. measures to improve the vibrational state of the machine (balancing..Vibrations Formulae for the Calculation of Vibrations Table of Contents Section 13 Dependent on the requirements.7 .8 . The structure-borne noise signal reflects besides the torque load in the shafts also unbalances.. meshing impulses. 4. taking into account structure-borne noise in the frequency range between 10 and 1.7 Acceptable 0.. “still permissible”.1 1..8 1. M . 7 7 .8 . Structure-borne noise is emitted from the machine surface in the form of airborne noise and has an impact on the environment by the generated noises. or it has to be verified in detail that the vibrational state does not impair the service life of the machine (experience.

December 1987 FVA-Stirnradprogramm: Vergleich und Zusammenfassung von Zahnradberechnungen mit Hilfe von EDV-Anlagen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). H. G. 12 DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears.: Vergleichskriterien für Grossgetriebe mit Leistungsverzweigung. und Winter. Application standard for industrial gears. Heidelberg..16 Hösel.: Ermittlung von Tragbild und Flankenrichtungskorrekturen für Evolventen-Stirnräder.und Biegebeanspruchung. Part 5: Endurance limits and material qualities. Frankfurt am Main DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. March 1987 edition. Th. Parameters and design principles. VDI-Verlag. divided into 3 grades of accuracy.. July 1978 edition Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin. Zahnradgetriebe-Grundlagen. 30.: Maschinenelemente. Getriebe allgemein. 1983 DIN 45635: Measurement of noise emitted by machines. December 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. G. Berlin VDI-Richtlinien 2159: Emissionskennwerte technischer Schallquellen. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin /13/ /2/ FVA-Ritzelkorrekturprogramm: EDV-Programm zur Ermittlung der Zahnflankenkorrekturen zum Ausgleich der lastbedingten Zahnverformungen (jeweils neuester Programmstand). (08/97 withdrawn without replacement) DIN ISO 10816-1: Mechanical vibration .Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts. Draft May 1987 Beuth Verlag GmbH. April 1984 edition Part 23: Measurement of airborne noise. Enveloping surface method. October 1964. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. Part 11: Detailed method. Stirnradgetriebe. Berlin VDI-Richtlinien 2056: Beurteilungsmasstäbe für mechanische Schwingungen von Maschinen. Tokyo (1985) Sigg. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. August 1986 edition. August 1981 edition. Part 1: Airborne noise emission. Part 3. H. Berlin Niemann. New York (1965) Theissen. Bd. Berlin FVA-Arbeitsblatt zum Forschungsvorhaben Nr. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berechnungen mit dem FVA-Programm “Ritzelkorrektur”. FVAForschungsvorhaben Nr. VDI-Bericht 488 “Zahnradgetriebe 1983 . parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear pairs. August 1963 edition. July 1985 DIN 740: Flexible shaft couplings. Getriebegeräusche. Semi-Annual Meeting of the AGMA 1965.Bibliography Bibliography /1/ DIN 3960: Definitions. Part 1: Introduction and general influence factors Part 2: Calculation of pitting resistance Part 3: Calculation of tooth strength Part 4: Calculation of scuffing load capacity Beuth Verlag GmbH. Springer Verlag. New York. 3rd edition.: Maschinenelemente 2. 10772 Berlin /14/ /3/ DIN 3993: Geometrical design of cylindrical internal involute gear pairs. Part 2. Paper 109. Beuth Verlag GmbH.mehr Know how für morgen”. February 1989 edition Part 12: Simplified method. Springer Verlag Berlin. Berlin DIN 3992: Addendum modification of external spur and helical gears. March 1964 edition. Beuth Verlag GmbH. FVA-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. 1. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. Gear transmission. Frankfurt am Main /15/ /4/ /16/ /5/ /6/ /17/ /7/ /18/ /8/ /19/ /20/ /9/ /10/ /11/ /12/ 154 155 . Stand Dezember 1976. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Zeitschrift Antriebstechnik 22 (1983) Nr. VDI-Handbuch Schwingungstechnik. Enveloping surface method. Heidelberg. August 1997 edition. Berlin DIN 3994: Addendum modification of spur gears in the 05-system.: Profile and longitudinal corrections on involute gears. Frankfurt am Main Niemann. Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik. J. Band II. Berlin DIN 3990: Calculation of load capacity of cylindrical gears. 8: Grundlagenversuche zur Ermittlung der richtigen Härtetiefe bei Wälz. Beuth Verlag GmbH. Basic method.

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