G. £






of Agents for the sale of Punjab

Government Publications,

In the United Kingdom.

In India.


Co., 10,



Leicester Square, Loudon,



Chand &

Co., Imperial

Book Dep8t

Office, Delhi.

Kegan Paul Trench, Trubner &
Limited, 68-74, Carter Lane,

E. C,

GuLAB Singh and Sons, Mufid-i-'Am
Press, Lahore.








Bernard Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, London, W.

Manager, Punjab Law
Anarkali Bazar, Lahore.

Book Dep6t,

Fisher Unwin, Limited, No. Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C^


MuMTAz Ali & Son, Rafah-i-'Am



vernacular publi-


King and Son,


4, Great Westminster, London,



cations only)

S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, and 9, Pall Mall, London.

Rama Krishna & Sons, Book-Sellers and News Agents, Anarkali Street,

Gbindlay &

Co., 54, Parliament Street,


Proprietor, Nazir

Mathur, Superintendent and Kanun Hind Press,

S. "W.

Co., 2,

W. Thacker &
London, E. C.




B. Taraporevala, Sons Bombay.



LuzAC & Co., 46, Great Russell London, W. C.






Calcutta and

H. Blackwell, 50 and
Street, Oxford.

51, Broad


and Co., Calcutta.

Deighton, Bell


Co., Limited,


R. Cambray and Co., Calcutta.


& Boyd, Edinburgh.
Street, Dublin.


Thacker &



Higginbothams, Limited, Madras.
PoNSONBY, Limited, 116, Grafton
T. Fisher





the Continent.

Kalyanaram Iyer & Co., 189, Esplanade Row, Madras.

Ernest Leroux,
Paris, France.

Rue Bonaparte,

G. A. Natesan


Co., Madras.

Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Holland.

American Superintendent, Mission Press, Rangpon,



CSJ. Castes and Tribes of the People " in the Report on the Census in 1883 by of the Panjab published the late Sir Denzil Ibbetson. K. Being a reprint of the chapter on " The Races. Lnhore : Peintbd by the Supbeintendent. Govbenment Peintins. Punjab. 1916. Price Rs. .PANJAB CASTES. 4-0-0 or 6s.


. introductory Note ..... .. i The original preface to the Census Keport of 1881 ' . ... Castes . .— P6 P)9TlZ CONTENTS.. Page.. . Professional. .. —The Minor Landowning. .. Hi The Chapter in the Census Report of 1881 on and Tribes of the Pan jab ' Parti.. Races —The Biloch. . 38 97 164- ...... Menial and Artisan Castes . Part The RaceSj Castes 1 — Caste in the Panjab Jat.... II... . allied . . —Vagrant... 214 266 Part VI..and Agricultural Castes Mercantile and Miscellaneous Part —ReligiouS...... . Pathan and Rajput and Castes Part III.. . ....... . V.. — The Part IV. allied .. .


portion. but it may not be out of place to mention a few of its . and felt that by this course the volume will best of the the further object which the Government Panjab has in view. which formed "Ethnography " published in 1883. It at once attracted widesj)read attention^ it especially in view of the copious information which provided regarding the people oF the Province. and the Races. The There of figures are. and a work of more the greatest value both from the administrative and from the literary and scientific point of view. was comparatively small and they now difficult to procure outside Indian official circles. — but that is the — of the original Report. points on which later investigation suggests modification facts and opinions originally given. but it has been thought best to reproto annotate it or bring it duce the chapter as to date. It it is stands. and this chapter must always command attention and respect for its vigorous and comprehensive treatment of the subject. and to meet this demand the Punjab Government most important has determined to undertake the issue of the present volume. (afterwards Sir Denzil) Ibbetson of the Indian Civil Service and his Report on the Census was published in 1883. and more especially for the ethnological portion of it. of course. without any attempt up believed that in this is way the wishes of most readers will best be fulfil met. under the title of *' Panjab Ethnography " which contained a reprint of those portions of the Report which dealt with the Religions. but the chapter still on the Races. There are at the same time indications of a continuing demand for the Report. the Languages. the per- petuation of the memory of the original writer. are both of the Report and of the Ethnography. namely. The Census of the Panjab Province was carried out in 1881 by Mr. out of date and the territorial boundaries of the Province and the districts with which the chapter deals are now it considerably altered. and a separate volume was issued in 1883. alive to There are so many still whom Sir Denzil Ibbetson was personally known tion is that anything like a complete description of his career in this introduc- unnecessary. have necessarily lost something of their original importance progress made in scientific enquiry during the last thirty years. part of the The chapters on Religion and Language. as one of the most remarkaljle official The Report has always been recognised publications in India.INTRODUCTORY NOTE. This volume reproduces a portion only. no doubt. Castes and Tribes contains much valuable information that cannot be obtained elsewhere. are also. namely the chapter on the Races. Castes and Tribes of the Panjab. The number of copies published. though valuable and interestowing to the ing. however. Castes and Tribes of the people.

a scholar and a man of affairs. Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces. For the thoroughness of in India his erudition in many was unsur^jassed and as an administi^tor there are not a few who hold oui* him to have been the greatest Indian Civil Servant of in time. his quick indignation and his equally quick sympathy. Secretary to the Government of India in the Revenue and Agricultural Department. He was early in his service selected for the special posts of Settlement Officer of the Karnal District and Superin- tendent of Census Operations in the Panjab. Peter's College. but held that important post for all too short a time. his vivacious forg-et his personality his and commanding and original directions he conversation. educated at St.— INTRODUCTORY NOTE. entered the Indian Civil Sor\ace in 1870. succumbing to a fatal malady on the 21st of February 1908. His character and career are admirably summed up follows : an inscription placed by the Viceroy on whose Council he served on the walls of the Simla Church which runs as Untiring in Administration. Cambridge. his constant sense of humour. and St. . John's College. Adelaide. Fearless in doing right. No one to : whom tall Sir Denzil Ibbetson was known can ever presence. Loyal in co-operation. He subsequently filled from time to time the appointments of Director of Public Instruction and Financial Com- missioner in the Panjab. and after being ii outstanding features. and Member of the Viceroy's Council. 1847. devoted in friendship. He gave to India his love and his life. In 1907 he became Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab. He was born on August 30th.

they are often too detailed or too learned for the practical purposes of the District officer. have been of small use for future reference. further details may be found. for guidance on the occasion of future enumerations. by the modern Settlement Report in respect of revenue Secondly. and which subjects in stand with regard to such a position somewhat to that occupied matters. It intended to be constantly referred to in every The is mere results would ill serve this end in the absence of an interpreter.^ In the ordinary routine of formation often exists in print district lead. and would have served no purpose beyond that report is of furnishing the text for a Government office resolution. page 4'6S. That in- but in India libraries are few and books scarce while where the latter are available.. m ORIGINAL PREFACE TO THE REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF 1881. reference on shall FirHtly^ I officers have attempted to as a produce a work which shall be useful to District all handbook of similar the subjects dealt with in Ihe Census Schedules. I have steadily kept two main objects before me. apart from the intrinsic value of the results. . It would have been easy to write a short notice of some of the more obvious conclusions to be drawn from the Census totals of the Province as a whole to and such a notice would doubtless have technically sufficed as a report Government upon the operations which I had superintended. information is constantly needed regarding some feature or other of the society which . States took great pains with the Census . and drawing from them the more important conclusions to which they but he whose special business it is to do so. and at the same time to indicate is where. without at the same time explaining what they represent. it would Ijftve been ungracious to discuss their figxires less fully than our own. I have endeavoured to record in some detail the experience size of gained at this Census. A Census report not » Much of the length of the report is due to tlic exceptionally large number of the administrative (See section 929. A Census it is not meant merely for the information of the Secretariat. But it would . which can be done by no one but him who compiled them. which few will draw work.) The Native unite for which the separate fig\ire8 had to he discusfled. My pursuance of each of these objects has helped to swell the the report. and. It has been my endeavour to furnish such a sketch of the salient features of native society in the Panjab as will often supply the immediate need. if anywhere. of the Pro\nnce. In writing the accompanying report on the Panjab Census of 1881. of but small advantage to cast voluminous tables of naked figures at the heads of District officers. we govern.

A Census recurs only after considerable and it will not be necessary on each subsequent occasion to rcM'rite the whole of the present repoi-t. sub-ject. the new figures will be examined and compared with the present ones the old conclusions will be modified. and which will be immediately useful for the actual purposes of administrato I have not hesitated enter occasionally into general discussions . without compelling him to wade through irrelevant matter. while though Settlement and similar publications contain a vast mass of invaluable information regarding the people. and consolidated. iv ORIGINAL PREFACE. not to read It is it tlirongh. But the been enable operations will be repeated after intervals of ten years. Panjab and in experiment chief minuteness and accuracy of its detail. and our own as regai'ds the infinite ignor- ance of that material. a Census were of annual recurrence. an obtained. would have taken the place of the record of the experience which I have attempted to frame. to point out every defect that the test of actual practice disclosed in the scheme. intervals. and of the report will stand unaltered. compared. '^ office." with its permanent staff and traditions. the more valua})le will the I have therefore omitted nothing relevant that seemed to me to be interesting or useful. on the other hand. difficulties lie. light reading it and men take it up. If the present Census had been one for nothing more would have been needed than such a have explained to brief account of the operations as results would been the student of the how those results had If. The meagre report on the Census of 1868 afFords no record of the experience of the past or suggestions for guidance in the future. But the main groundwork I have not absolutely confined myself in the following pages to facts figures tion. respect of its The present Census was. Init to obtain from it information on some definite point. practically a first and one of most valuable results has been to show us where our all time. more will be corrected . the infinite diversity of the material to be dealt with.. Till my experience led me to think could be of use to my successor now nothing of the sort has been attempted in the Panjab. The difficulty of an Indian Census springs mainly from two sources . . simply because it occupied space. the fuller the information which he there finds on the report be to him. new ones drawn. and so long as ai-range- ment directs the student at once to the place where he find wliat he wants. l)e therefore more important that its \\\\\ should complete than that it sliould be brief. and to put forth every suggestion that in 1891. It has therefore my endeavour to record the experience now gained in such detail as may us to avoid past errors on a future occasion. and how and why we have on this occasion frequently failed to overcome them. it is scattered and fragmentary. Much will be added . . and needed to be reports collected.

of the people to us . one pnrt of the Panjab to another. I only present it for what it is worth. venture to think tlie tliat these digressions are not the least interest- ing portions of for the is vohime . :ind which would. Indian official literature is gradually gaining for itself students and European scholars are turning to it for the facts of which they find themselves in need. the more profoundly must we become impressed with the vastness of the field and with the immense diversity which it presents. fnich as roligion T v and caste. unintelligilile and I have ventured. relief. here and there. But I would always be .ORIGINAL PREFACE. it is almost im2)0ssible to make any I have not always stopped to say so made assertions. as it shall be true for the whole and I have not unfrequently were ex cathedra infallihili. to add at the expense of brevity matter which would perhaps be superfluous if addressed exclusively to Indian oflScials. and to express my own views on the matter. Our ignorance is among whom we dwell it surely in some respects a reproach for not only does that ignorance deprive it European science of material which greatly needs. Not only is our knowledge of the facts as nothing compared with our ignorance but the facts themselves vary so greatly from . to draw the attention of ray readers to the extraordinary interest of the material which such aljundance ready to the hand of collected all Indian officials. only as a But lies in if my chief object in entering upon these discussions has been. that while I have taken pains to obtain the l»est and most trustworthy information available. but ourselves. and in a report which must of necessity consist most part if of a dry discussion of figures. be of such immense of the customs and beliefs value to students of sociology. not unusually finds I not called to by official " it very unattractive or even repulsive. I at any rate for be amply repaid my JNIoreover. In his Village Communities " They {pages 34-5) Sir Henry Maine writes of Indian Settlement reports from beyond the limits of India. Yet I do not think that the uncertain . them which understood to mean. that " the elementary knowledge which the key to I see has for the most part never " been reduced to writing at all. on certain sul)3ects. that general statement whatever concerning Province. whose attention is I am it afraid I must add that the Eno-lish duty. also involves a distinct loss of administrative power to incline And if aught that I have written in this report should readers to a study of the social and religious shall any from among labour. : "constitute a whole literature of very great extent and varietv. any passage of general interest welcome. my phaenomena by which they are surrounded. and recorded. "reader. The more we learn of the people and their ways. in writing of the people. and that it will almost certainly be inapplicable to some parts at least of the Panjab." should of necessity be repulsive or no reason why an Indian report . and of the " utmost value and instructiveness. is But the reason it believe to be.

language. II. > . lu matters such as are discussed in this the next if value foiTiiation less report^ 1)est thing' to having them put rightly is . When I. the writer has not felt at lil)erty to in the first instance. occupations. were written six in the Thus last I had weeks allowed me within which discuss in the lacun<t 'n these sections. must not be judged by any literary standard. and which. treatment of these su})jeets back. which attaches to the information that I have recorded renders that inworthy of record. while Part II greater portion of Chapters VI which deals with Pathans and Biloches. and the XI and XII and of the first two Parts of Chapter rough. age. VI ORIGINAL PREFACE.. the faster shall we extend and improve our knowledge I of the matters discussed. But on the 26th of Feljruary the MS. though exceedingly incomplete.press. which have been sent to press often without even the most cursory revision. caste with the excep- tion of Pathans tion. when once trifling improve save by the most corrections. I received orders from the Paujab Government to the effect that the report must be finished without fail by the pleted only Chapters end of the following February. for the holes they will pick and the more pul>licly they will pick them. to fill XIII. in justice to myself. be allowed to make one explanation which is will account for much pages. is is hasty and imperfect. of my report was completely ready for The press has been kept fully . that sul)jects we can hope to arrive on at accurate information and sound generalisations. and Biloches. so publications far as they are due to the haste with all official have to be prepared. and the subsequent delay is due to the difficulty experienced in getting the report printed and published would suggest the pages of Panjdh Notes and Queries. a small periodical juat started 1 under the Editorship of Captain Temple of Ambdla.^ need not apologise for the many and which palpable defects of the report. and civil condition. educa- and infirmities. and the of Chapter these orders reached me. and it is only by patient and widespread inquiry and incessant and minute criticism. The portion of the report which was wholly written within these six weeks It is hardly to be wondered that my compi-ises some 260 pages of print. to have wrongly. Pages which have been written against time in type. and has not been touched since then. as a convenient medium for discussion. late only the wrongness he an intelligent wrongness for so them put we stimuthese inquiry and provoke criticism . Nothing would be so welcome to me as to find the officers of the Province setting to in work to more correct and supplement the information given my report . and IV. My own feeling on looking one of suqirise that I accomplished the task after any fashion whatever. I had comfirst two Parts of Chapter III . hurried and slovenly work that only too apparent in the following On the loth of January 1883. to increase and decrease of population. sex. But I must. supplied witli copy from the end of Octol)er 1882 wdiolly . and to summarise the results of our Census experience.

and to Mr. for much valuable help given stages of the operations and to Dr. Christie the for his copious . and Wilson. and add much that is valuable. for the personal attention they most kindly bestowed on the printing. so far as the unity of the Imj)erial scheme permitted. Anderson manner ill-fitted which he answered tract my numerous to inquiries prompt and complete about the peculiar and I interesting of which he was entrusted in charge.ORIGINAL PREFACE. Dickson and the Rev. without which I should scarcely have succeeded in getting the work are only a But these for few among the many who have helped me. Census Wherry done. and all Merk help un- sparingly given on points relating to the frontier tribes to Major Plowden language . I I can hardly have hope that I have it altogether escaped pitfall but that not fallen into more fre- quently. Barkley's notes on the Jalandhar my hands in MS. while every chapter of the for the report my in obligations to Mr. Tupper's work on Panjab Customary attests Law . Alex. vii how largely I am indebted to others for both facts and The greater part of the information contained in the report has been either taken from scattered publications and from district Settlement or Census I owe much to Mr. and for the and everything kind anxiety which he evinced from that to last to do anything might make matters easier for me. Tupper . is wholly due to the invalual^le assistance rendered me by Messrs. Douie. My ation warmest acknowledgments are due to Mr. Thomson. Cunningham. knowledge acquired in a small and very special this poi-tion . which does not even lie in the Panjab pnoper. I applied assistance to many ofiicers of many Departments. and to none in vain . Wilson's reports. Coldstream. C. Steedman. Plowden. patient Commisconsider- sioner of Census. in Sirsa both of which the writers placed in and to Mr. for the with which he listened to my first difficulties and suggestions. Mr. due to Messrs. and to their criticisms have enabled me to correct many their faults errors. for his ever ready help and counsel.. These gentlemen have carefully read the proofs of the report as they issued from the and press . Code of Tribal Custom district. Douie. O'Brien. hardly- earned so tedious and uninteresting a My for warmest thanks are valuable . 1 need hardly say ideas. Alex. Thus I have been throughout in the greatest danger of wi-ongly extending to the Province. or furnished me by correspondents. for speaking my whole Indian service had been confined to a single district (Karnal). of it. as a whole. W. and it is to the help thus received to possess is by me. In one respect practically was singularly for the task me . . Anderson. that whatever value my rej)ort may be found mainly due. and suggestive annotation of to my discussion of the vagrant and criminal classes in earlier Mr. I cannot express too strongly my also obligation to leisure them for undertaking and carrying through in task. for his careful examination of the sections on the Pathans and their to Mr.

which I due to a good feeling on their part for am indebted to them. My position as Superintendent of the Census was one of some delicacy officers for it obliged me to inspect. AuguU 1883. J .viii ORIGINAL PREFACE. That my relations with those officers is were throughout of the most pleasant and cordial nature. and report on the work of much senior to myself. Finally. criticise. which I experienced at the hands of District throughout the oper. : Simla Vie BOth ^ I- DENZIL IBBETSON. I would express ray grateful sense of the oourtesy and considerofficers ation ations..

and I am not quite sure that I know that " H^ words express very exactly my own feelings regarding caste in the Paniab. nor to marshal what I have recorded . (Being a eeprint of the cnAPTEn on < The Eaces. Castes and Tribes of THE People' in the Beport on the Panjab Census of 1881. 172] I. often sufficiently obvious. Tt would have ta£n me a« minv months to have digested and put into shape the whole of my material ^ . Vaisya. and not unfi-equently involved in some other proposition made in the very next paragraph. but simply my What I and its phLomena so propound in the following paragraphs tTU? ^::^:.SZ'''^ The popular and currently three ^^'^^'^^^^^^ ^^^ . ^^*^' *^«^g^fl?^ost every proposition made must be taken sub? ^?. which shall not presently be contrSed with equal truth as regards the same people in some other district.eneraHy iWed because I theory of mam (1) articles received theory of caste 1 take to consist of : that caste is an institution of the peculiar to that religion alone : Hindu religion.— CASTE IN of THE PANJAB. old agnostic c33. Province. not because I think that it IS anything even distantly approaching to the whole truth. absolutely tmeasit may be as regards one part of the The popular conception caste. and 'Owingto the limitation of the time aUowed me to complete the renort th^ w}inl« nf +w<. and I give my conception of caste with a crudeness of exposition which lack of time forbids me to modify.— PANJAB CASTES.V ject to limitations. My views are of little weight so long as they are not illustrated and supported by instances dmwn from actually existing fact Such instances I have in great abundance. chapter except Part II was written in less than three weeks.) PART IP. Mv experience is that it is almost impossible to make any statement whatever Ve^ garding any one of the castes we have to deal with. and wholly '' (2) that it consists primarily of a fourfold classification of people in |eneral under the heads of Brahman. Yet f shall attempt to set forth briefly what seem to me the fundamental ideas upon which caste is based . and in doing so I shall attempt partly to explain whyi^ 18 that the instituion IS so extraordinarily unstable/ diverse in different locahties IS is said to have cammed up his philosophy m the following words :-The only thing iVnow IS that I know nothm^^.-An working hypothesis as it at present stands but I shall nft ston . But I have leisure neither to record all my evidence. Kshatriya. and th^y will be found in part in the detailed description of castes which follow this d2 cussion.

no less than the tribcj based upon common descent . occupations. 334. 173] — at the root of the institution in its inception here we have two principles. each guild being self-contained and self-governed. and bound by strict rules. I were to say more than a religious institution . Now munity of occupation. each tribe being self-contained and self-sufficing. The — Among more advanced societies. and that Sudra has no present significance save as a convenient term of abuse to apply to somebody else consider lower than yourself. and that conversion from Hinduism to Islam has not necessarily the slightest effect upon (2) caste : that there are Brahmans who are looked upon as outcasts by^ those who under the fourfold classification would be classed as Sudras that there is no such thing as a Vaisya now existing . and nothing more. and that the fact that a generation is^ descended from ancestors of any given caste creates a presumption. the tribes have almost altogether disappeared . So long as was the hereditary nature of community of blood and comthe hereditary nature of occupation was in- . that that generation also is of the same caste. There is as yet no diversity of occupation. that it has (1) that caste is a social far connection whatever with the Hindu religion. and that the fundamental idea which lay [P. while the number of castes which can be classed under any one or under no one of the four heads. occupation. and has been transmitted from generation to generation throughout the ages of Hindu history and myth without the possibility of change. the common obiect of which is to strengthen the guild and to confine to it the Such were the trades-guilds of the secrets of the craft which it practises. in opposition to the popular conception thus defined. and if there is. is almost in- whom you numerable (3) : that nothing can be more variable and more difiicult to define than caste . (3) . according as private opinion may vary. Among all primitive hereditary nature oJ peoples we find the race split up into a number of tribal communities held together by the tie of common descent. But all modem middle ages as we first meet with them in Em-opean history. furno necessary ther than that under that religion certain ideas and customs common to all primitive nations have been developed and perpetuated in an unusual degree . the common object of which is to increase tlie strength and preserve the unity of the tribe. and we find in their place corporate communities or guilds held too-ether by the tie of common occupation rather than of common blood.— PANJAB CASTES. no two people are agreed as to where we shall look for him . a presumption lialile to be defeated by an infinite variety of circumstances. Now I should doubtless be exaggerating in the opposite dii-ection. inquiry into their origin and earlier constitution tends to the conclusion— and modern authorities on the development of primitive institutions are rapidly accepting that conclusion that the guild in its first form was. and bound by strict rules of marriage and inheritance. that it is very doubtful indeed whether there is such a thing as a Kshatrlya. but I think that I should still be far nearer to the truth if. where occupations have become dilferentiated. that caste is perpetaal and immutable.

The Brahman. so long* as the blacksmith's soa 3 must be and nobody else conld be a blacksmith^ the two principles were identical. as explained in the sections just referred to. the warrior. a difference of degree rather than of kind. violable. who were the only rivals he had to feai'. is but a division into the priest. descent and calling. and thus in a higher degree than in other modern nations to render identical the two prinAnd it is this ciples of community of blood and community of occupation. the latter is ever gaining in importance at the expense of the former . and in all societies these grades and distincAs civilisation tions are governed by two considerations. advances and the ideas of the community expand in more liberal growth. sections 211-12. 335. Kshatriya.CASTE IN THE PAN JAB. like the socialist's dream of equal division of wealth. But in India which. was priest-ridden to an extent unknown to the experience of Europe even in the middle ages. As the Brahmans increased in numbei'. but in their case special circumstances have combined to preserve in greater integrity and to perpetuate under a more advanced state of society than elsewhere the hereditary nature of occupation. the dominance of one special occupation gave abnormal importance to all distinctions of occupation. while in all the son has begun where the father left off. But the struggle for existence is too severe^ the conditions of existence too varied^ and the character and capacity of individuals too diverse to permit of this inviolability being long maintained . difference. to which I would here refer the reader. munities of India in whose midst the Hindu religion has been developed are no exceptions to this rule . the two princij)les of community of blood The antagonism still conand community of occupation become antagonistic. by degrading all other occupations and conditions of life. Vaisya. or the man who dies a trader been held in the same consideration as he who dies a The comstatesman . and James Smith are but the survivals in England of the four varnas of Manu. which makes us give a new name to the old thing and call caste in India what we call position or rank in England. Occupation the primary basis of caste. the question what a man is. the principle of hereditary occupation was to him as a class one of the most vital importance. Sudra. and the more modern development which substituted trader for husbandman as the meaning of Vaisya or " the people " did not sity alter the nature of the classification. John King. in no community has the son of the coal-heaver been born the equal of the son of the nobleman. sought to exalt his office and to propitiate his political rulers. a survival to a later age of an institution which has died out elsewhere rather than a new growth peculiar to the Hindu nation. and the Mlechchha or outcast who is below the Sudra. as I have already explained in chapter IV. the husbandman. the artisan. Edward Farmer. And from the moment when the hereditary natiire of occupation ceases to be invariable and inviolable. those numbers necessarily exceeded the possible requirements of the laity so far as the mere performance of priestly functions was concerned. who could at first claim no separate descent by which he should be singled out from among the Aryan community. Further. tinues. In every comnmnity which the world has ever seen there have been grades of position and distinctions of rank. — William Priest. these two considerations ever wholly ceased to operate . The whole basis of diverThe old division into Brahman. while it became impossible for them to keep up as a whole even . cease to exist from the very instant of ita birth. is ever more and more taking precedence of the question what But in no society that the world has yet seen has either of his father was. and in any but the most rudimentary form of society it must. of caste is diversity of occupation. and the menial .

power unimpaired form. Thns they ceased to be wholly priests and a large propoiiion of them became mere Levites. their foul imaginings. with their crowded Pantheon. Chap. to Muir's Sanskrit Texts. But circumstances had raised them to a position of extraordinary power . and still rnore to a Buddhist pamplilet called Vajra Shuchi which is translated at Vol. [P. if caste But if occupation was not necessarily transmitted by descent and varied with change of occupation in the earlier sera of Hinduism. and which for direct vigorous reasoning and scathing huruour would not disgrace the best days of English party polemics. or rather perhaps to checlc the natural course of social evolution which would have substituted the latter 'for the former and this they did by giving the whole sanction of religion to the principle of the hereditary nature of occupation. on the contrary.. IV. and of artificial purity and impinity. while the possibility of the individual rising from one caste to another was distinctly recognised. Hence sprang that tangled web of caste restrictions and distinctions. the semblance of sacred learning. neither caste nor occupation was even supposed It is often forgotten that there are two very distinct epochs in the post-Vedic history of the Hindu nations. I do not mean that the Brahmans invented the principle which they thus turned to their own purpose . The only means of preserving its overwhelming influence to the body at large was to substitute Levitical descent for priestly functions as the basis of tliat influence.' It was in the dark ages of Hindu history. Appendix IV. In the earlier epoch the priest was always a Brjihman . Vol. it is no ' For instances of the possibility of change of caste it will be sufficient to refer the reader to Cnnningham's History of the Sikhs. considerable license in this respect was permitted to the several castes. and probably almost unconsciously. and naturally. In the earlier Hinduism we find that. and their innumerable sects. and the cardinal importance of occupation had become a prominent part of the Brahminical teaching. by which time the caste system had assumed great strictness. Nor do I suppose that they deliberately set to work to produce any craftily designed effect upon the growth of social institutions. 174] 336. while caste distinctions were primarily based upon occupation. which has rendered the separation of occupation from descent so slow and so difficult in Hindu society. I have said that it is found in all primitive societies that have outgrown the most rudimentary stage. while Hinduism was a single and comparatively simple creed. though its hereditary nature had not yet been so emphatically insisted on. . This was the case even as late as the age of Manu. its earlier Indeed in in India to be necessarily or invariably hereditary. pages 296 // of Wilson's Indian Caste. about the beginning of an sera during which Brahrninism was substituted for Hinduism and the religion became a chaos of impure and degraded doctrine and sectanan teaching. of ceremonial obligations. The former may be said to end with the rise and the latter to begin with the growdng degeneracy of Buddhism. and which collectively constitutes what we know as caste. and the later is the epoch of the Puranas and Tantras. I. their degraded idolatry. I. or at most a philosophical abstraction . 4 PANJAB CASTES. that the theory of the necessarily hereditary nature of occupation seems to have taken its present form. and which affected in very different manners the form of the Hindu religion. their teaching took the form which tended most effectually to preserve that . in the later the Brahman was always a priest. which made respectively contributions of very different nature to that body of Hindu scriptures which we are too apt to confuse under the generic name of the Shastras. The earlier is the epoch of the Brahmanas and the Upanishads.

is infinitely slower and more difficult than then. truth of this assertion. have operated to create a There are certain rules which cm'iously artificial standard of social rank. which is all that caste means. I must adopt a somewhat extended definition of occupation. and is painfully effected by the family or tribe in the course of generations instead of by the individual in the The following pages will contain numerous instances of the course of years. and I have seldom stopped to comment on the facts. will be found to possess no inconsiderable weight . even so defined. for the purposes of the present enquiry it would almost be allowable to accept traditional origin . of caste. more often met with than instances of rise. or it would never have arisen. and that no . while the very fact of the general currency of a set of traditions. less true 5 that this is the case in the present day . traditions in di^^cussing the various castes . groundless as they may be in individual instances. must be observed by all at the risk of sinking in the scale. broadly speaking. Again. and so far their occupation is one and the same. But before proceeding to give specific instances of recent change of caste. as the foundation 337. social standing. depends very largely upon political There is the importance. the features of the caste system which are peculiar to Brahminical Hinduism. it might have been. that widow marriage shall not be practised . in an upward direction at least. for he who has with pride his ancestral origin. Where the actual calling of every-day life is the same. handicrafts in general. we have left the great body of agriculturists who constitute by far the larger portion of the This great body of people subsists by husbandry and cattle-farmpopulation. they are overlords as well as villains . that marriages shall be contracted only with those of equal or nearly equal standing . and hence springs the cardinal distinction between the occupation of ruling and the occupation of being ruled. though under caste restrictions now stand the change. — In India the occupation of the great mass of what may be called the Setting aside the priests and traders on upper or yeoman classes is the same. and which has already been alluded to. the one hand and the artisans and menials on the other.CASTE IN THE PAN JAB. such as growing or selling vegetables. widest distinction between the dominant and the subject tribes . imperfect as it is. the holders of more or less compact tribal territories . for though the tradition may not be true. and a tribe which has acquired political independence in one part of the country. Indeed. and must take a somewhat wider basis than that afforded by mere occupation. But they are also the ing. while he who has risen hastens to forget The political and artificial basis of caste. Instances of fall in the social scale are naturally sunk recalls it. that impure food communion shall be held with outcasts. and especially working or trading in leather and weaving . will there enjoy a position in the ranks of caste which is denied it in tracts where it occupies a subordinate position. But the evidence. They are. owners and occupiers of the land. that certain occupations shall be abstained from which are arbitrarily declared to be impure. shows as they that the theory of society upon which they are based is at least not repugnant to the ideas and feelings and even practice of the people who believe them. shall be avoided. and the whole body of tribal and caste tradition in I have not always thought it necessary to state their the Panjab supports it. whether present or belonging to the recent past.

like. but have "restricted themselves to the legitimate pursuits of the caste. who abstain fi-om other sorts of field work. Instances of the mutability of caste. and so forth . This is the great "touchstone of their creed. some of whom were Brahmans in the last generation. and the Chamarwa Sadhs and the whole class of the so-called Brahmans who minister to the outcast classes. such as scavengers. because they have ^'abandoned''' {idff dena) their priestly character. Witness the Taga Brahmans of the Dehli division. such as the practice of secluding the women of the family. There are " primarily two great distinctions in every tribe claiming to be of such exalted origin as the " Brahmins. the latter being partly regulated by a set of very arbitrary rules which are peculiar to Indian caste. and becomes a cultivator pure and simple. Many of these It is expensive to keep the women restrictions are exceedingly irksome. those who follow and those who abstain from agriculture. are no longer Brahmans in any respect beyond the mere retention of the name. and within a common occupation political prominence and social standing. nor held in the same reverence by the people rp_ j^Sj "at large. ev^au of the highest Brahman families. Thus we have. 6 PANJAB CASTES. It is neither tautology nor false logic to say that social standing is dependent upon caste and caste upon social standing. but these are of less general a])plicaiion than those fu'st mentioned. are not all equal. and the like. are held to be pure Brahmins " while those who have once descended to the occupation of husbandry retain indeed the name. as in the case of the Thavis of the hills. even at the cost of some loss of social position.— . will surely be accompanied by 338. Indeed in the hills the very practice of agricultm'e as a calling or at least the actual following of the plough is in itself sufficient to deprive a Brahman of all but the name of his caste . while the fall in the grades of caste which a disregard of the arbitrary rules of the institution entails. loss of social standing.. so impm-e that in many villages ." So again if a Brahman takes to handicrafts he is no longer a Brahman. — husbandmen " It will afford a tolerable idea of the endless ramification of caste to follow out the details of " even the Sarsut tribe as established in these hills. first occupation. he also ceases to be a Brahman. who are Tagas. as the extended basis of caste. and so there is a constant temptation to disregard these rules. for the two depend each upon the other in different senses. The Brahmans are generally as well as Levites. viz. and has to employ other Brahmans as priests. secluded. But when a Brahman drops his sacerdotal character.'^ there being very few. the custom of giving daughters in mari'iage only to classes higher than their own. The Dharukras of Dehli are admittedly Brahmans who have within the last few generations taken to widow marriage . The reader acquainted with the country will "know that Brahmins. eaters of carrion or vermin^ and the There are other and similarly artiRcial considerations which aifect social standing. Barnes " ploughing " should be read for " agriculture " or " husbandry. The Maha Brahman. Lyall points out that in the following quotation from Mr. for others have to be paid to do their work . ceases to receive food or alms as offerings accej)table to the gods. "but are no longer acknowledged by their brethren. Those who have never defiled their hands with the plough. and which are almost the only part of the system which is peculiar to it. for Mr. though classed under a common appellation. for their numbers are so great that they are obliged to supplement the income derived from their priestly office. The rise in the social scale which accompanies increased political importance will presently be followed by a rise in caste . it is still more expensive to purchase husbands for them from a higher grade of society. not Brahmans.

the priest into a Brahmin. not Mahajan being admitted to communion or intermarriage by the more orthodox classes bear the same title. wliose only claim to the title " was that their father or grandfather was the offspring of a Kanetni by a foreign Brahmin. so unfortunate that other Brahmans will not accept offerings at their hands^ are all Brahmans. are said to be Brahmin by original stock. Turning to the second of Manu^s four great classes. »t«. . The impossibility of fixing any line between Rajputs on the one hand. we have the whole traditions of the Panjab tribes of the Jat and Gujar status to the effect that they are descended from Rajputs who married below them. ' ' " I believe that Mr. " This is certainly the conclusion to which many facts point with regard to the Rajputs of "these hills. and growing "into general acceptance as Rajputs. The Raja was the fountain of honour.— CASTE IN THE PANJAB. 7 he is not allowed to enter the gatesj the D^kaut and Gujrati. and a Thakur to be a Rajput. that in former times. Campbell. The same process was. had says in his History of the Sikhs: " the conquering Mughals and Pathans been without a vivid belief and an ^' organised priesthood. and so on down to the bottom of the scale. and having abandoned widow marriage . and Jats. but are practically differentiated as distinct castes by their special occupations.'' In Sii'sa we have instances of clans who were a few generations ago accounted Jat being now generally classed as Rajputs. is fully discussed in the subsequent parts of this chapter. So the Chauhans of Dehli are no longer recognized as Rajputs since they have begun to marry their widows. As Captain Cunningham "It may be assumed as certain that. any ti'ibe or family whose ancestor or head rose to royal rank became in " time Rajput. on the Rajputs of the eastern hills. the present Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. Barnes says that in " Kangra the son of a Rajput by a low-caste woman takes place as a Rathi in Seoraj and other " places in the interior of the hills I liave met families calling themselves Rajputs." And Kangra is of all parts of the Panjab the place in which the proudest and most ancient Riijput blood is to be found. Two of the old royal and now essentially Rajput families of this district. I there point out that the only possible definition of a Rajput. and castes of similar standing on the other. in the Panjab at least. has preserved his ancestral status by strict observance of the caste rules enumerated above. and on the Thakar and Rjithi. and at the present day " the power of admitting back into caste fellowship persons put under a ban for some grave act of defilement is a source of income to the Jagirdar Rajas. while the Dasa Banya of the plains who has taken to the practice of widow man-iagc is a Banya only by name and occupation. before caste distinctions " had become crystallized. ceased to seclude their women. they would have adopted Vedism and become enrolled " among the Kshatriya or Rajput races. " Kotlehr and Eangahal. " the peasant into a Jat . or began to practise widow marriage and the fact that . for service done or money given . in their own country at least.. He who says : " Till lately the limits of caste do not seem to have been so immutably fixed in the hills as " in the plains. Mr. The extract there quoted from Mr. On " the border line in the Himalayas. between Thibet and India pi'oper. but a Kayath as soon as he becomes a clerk . LyalFs report sums up so admirably the state of caste distinctions in the hills that I make no apology for repeating it. has asserted that " there is no such thing as a distinct Rajput stock .. " I believe. we llnd the Mahajan a in the hills so long as he is a raerchant_. being the descendant of a family that has enjoyed political importance. having meanwhile practised greater exclusiveness in matrimonial matters. more or less in force in Kangra proper down to a period not very remote from : '« to-day. Gujars. the noble is changing into a Rajput. I have " heard old men quote instances within their memory in which a Raja promoted a Gii-th to be a " Rathi. and could do much as he liked. any one can observe caste " growing before his eyes . while the reverse process is no less common. is ho who. in the paragraphs on the Jat in general. Finally.

have taken to weaving and become Shekhs. the caste does not follow the occupation in the case of even each individual among these artisan and menial castes much more generally than we suppose. Indeed I have my doubts whether.who have begun to affect peculiar holiness and to marry only with each other. and now deny their Rajput and claim Qureshi^s A clan of Ahirs in origin . on daily around us. tions are for all practical purposes distinct castes. know next to nothing about their organisation. Lobars. it it one and the same tribe is often known as Rajput where has not risen to political importance. especially in towns the landowning classes whom they serve. is generally retained where the main occupation is not changed. and Nais of Sirsa are known to have been Jats or Rajputs who within quite recent times have taken to the hereditary occupations of these castes . and some of the Chauhans of Karnal. and those of a plough. Jatia Chamar because the latter works in the hides of impure animals . Rewari has begun to seclude their women and abandon widow marriage . and as Jat where The 339. A branch of the Wattu Rajputs of the too the landowning castes can rise. But it is certain that these lower castes have retained the organisation of the guild in extraordinary completeness long after the organisation of the tribe or caste has almost completely died out among : : Among [P. by an affectation of peculiar sanctity. and cities. as distinct from tribe. and I do not pretend to make anything more than a suggestion. Satluj. . and a Jat directly he lays hold There are no Rajputs because there are no Rajas . has. whose So fathers were born Rajputs. a third section has taken to agriculture and In all these and a thousand similar instances the seclooks down upon both. The ease with which Saiyads are manufactured is proverbial. have in the course of a few generations become Bodlas. and that men belonging by birth to other . and some of our highest Rajput tribes are beginning in the Salt-range to claim Mughal or Arab origin. Some of the Tarkhans. The Chandar Chamar will not eat or marry with the process is observable. On the frontier the dependence upon occupation of what there most nearly corresponds with caste. that this organisation is meant to protect the craft in the absence of the bond of common descent. presently he will be a Julaha pure and simple another does the same and becomes a Rangreta or a Bunia a Chuhra refuses to touch Within the castes the same night-soil and becomes a Musalli or a Kutana. and The process is going their next step will certainly be to claim Arab descent. One Chamar takes to weaving instead of leather-working and becomes a Chamar-Julaha . 176] We And it may be. Sahnsars of Hushyarpur were admittedly Rajputs till on\j a few generations agOj when they took to growing vegetables^ and now rank with Ai-ains. is notorious. But it is possible for Rajputs and Jats to fall still lower. being based upon and expressive of the hereditary occupation. A Machhi is a Machhi so long as he catches fish. and already the claim is commonly admitted. one section of the Kumhars will hold no communion with another because the latter burn sweepings as fuel . they no longer intermarry with the other Ahirs.8 PAN JAB CASTES. and will presently be reckoned a separate caste and there is a Kharral family lately settled in Bahawalpm. though the caste name. setting aside the absolutely degrading occupations such as scavengering. this section of the community abounds with instances. who are notoriously of pure Rajput descent are Jats because they till the land. and it is certain that what is now taldng place is only what has always taken place during the long ages of Indian history. and the chapter on the artisan and menial tribes the process is still more common.

and especially the old tribal customs are gradually fading away. The liberty enjoyed by the people of the Western Panjab is extending to their neighbours in the east. friction and inertia are largely due to a set of artificial rules which have been grafted on to the social prejudices common to all communities by the peculiar form which caste has taken in the Brahminical teachings. (5) the preservation and support of this principle by the elaboration from the theories of the Hindu creed or cosmo341. while they can now hardly be said to exist on the pm*ely Mahomedan frontier . There cannot be the slighest doubt that in a few - generations the materials for a study of caste as an institution will be infinitely less complete than they are even now. the classification being. it is next to impossible for the individual himself to rise . or separate itself after some similar fashion from the body of the caste to which it belongs.hereinfinitely difficult to rise in the scale. been and is now in process of being defeated in numberless instances. or of occupation. and this it can do only after the lapse of several generations. that the liquid is much more viscous. and I think that we shall see a still more rapid change under the influences which our rule has brought to bear upon the society of the Province. (4) the exaltation of the Levitical blood by a special insistence upon the necessarily hereditary nature of occupation . (3) the guilds based upon hereditary occupation common to the middle life of all communities . (3) the exaltation of the priestly ofiice to a degree unexampled in other countries . The nature and evolution of the institution of caste. affect social exclusiveness or special sanctity. Thus we see that in India. society is arranged in strata which are based upon differences of social or political importance. to loosen the bonds of caste. it is the tribe or section of the tribe that alone can improve its position. Thus. and the movement thereThis fore far slower and more difficult in the former than in the latter. while the rules which forbid social intercourse between castes of different rank render it So too.CASTE IN THE PANJAB. theory be con-ect. But here the classification is hereditary rather than individual to the persons included under it. and the introduction of railways much more. my correspondents note that the custom or restriction is fast dying out. As in all other countries and among all other nations. . and portions of it are scale are fixed continually rising and sinking and changing their position as measured by that scale . The whole theory of society is that occupation and caste are hereditary and the presumption that caste passes unchanged to the descendants is exceedingly But the presumption is one which can be defeated. them Sikhism did much to weakerj sign that these rules are gradually relaxing in the centre of the Panjab. and has already strong. conform more strictly with the arbitrary rules. Our disregard for inherited distinctions have already done something. It is extraordinary how incessantly. and an artificial standard is added which is peculiar to caste and which must be conformed with on pain of loss of position. and the only real difference between Indian society and that of other countries in this respect is. we have the following steps in the has been evolved in the Panjab (1) the trilml divisions common to all primitive societies . 340. in reporting customs. the graduations of the social but society is not solid but liquid. if my process by which caste — . But there is everj^ . as in all countries. — ditary. castes 9 fraternity and occupations may on adopting a new occupation be admitted to the which follows it. the friction and inertia to be overcome infinitely greater. during which time it must abandon a lower for a higher occupation.

Shekh. '^ Last year I was a weaver. which holds these people together. and given that the occupation is that most respectable of all occupations.^77] Thi'oughout the Western Plains. where Islam has largely superseded Brahminism and where the prohibition against marriage with another caste is almost universally neglected. and for all j^ractical purposes actually are Biloch or Pathan as truly as are the tribes who have certainly sprung from the Still more is this the case with the Mughal. Shekhs. you may choose to call it. common habitat. race. the more comprehensive classification of caste has become a mere tradition of ancestral status. ancestor be mythical. after waiting for a generation or so till the absurdity of the story is not too obvious. the true Mughals. and In a somewhat lower degree throughout the cis-Indus Salt-range Tract. or at least position. But even here the stock is not even professedly pure. and prescribing the conditions and degree of social intercourse permitted between Add to these the pride of social rank and the pride of the several castes. as he probably is. by what most nearly corresponds with it in some jDarts of the Province. and tribal association continued through several centuries. — C^. or whatever or custom. nation. there is still a very real bond of common origin.10 PANJAB CASTES. upon political But there are other forms which are assumed by caste. we find the distribution of the landowning classes based upon tribe rathei than upon caste. The fii'st type is based upon community of blood . The restrictions upon inter- . '' The process of manufacture in these cases is too notorious for it to be necessary for me to insist upon it. accept the fiction and admit the brand new brother into their fraternity. gonj of a purely artificial set of mles. but the existence of both in their present forms appears to be due to the example of those Musalman nations who have exerted such immense influence in the Panjab. next year if prices rise I shall be a Saiyad. but is he a Sial or a Chhadhar. which may in general be referred to two main types. declaring certain occupations and foods to be impure and polluting. blood which are natural to man. who sometimes but by no means always preserve the tradition of their separate descent. who arc only strangers in the land. and parent stock. Thus caste in the Panjab is based primarily upon Occupation. The purest types of the ethnic or national caste are the Pathans and Biloi:hes. common customs and modes of thought. the owning and cultivation of land. 342. 7iot is a man a Rajput or a Jat. " year I am a Shekh . that each of them includes in its tribal organisation affiliated tribes of foreign origin. and both differ from caste proper in the absence of those artificial restrictions which are the peculiar product of Brahminism. and the Immediate question is. for if the common ancestor. the second is a trades-guild pure and simple. and it is hardly to be wondered at that caste should have assumed the rigidity which distinguishes it in India. both untainted by any admixture of Hindu feeling Here the fiction which vmites the caste. this Saiyad. Both are strictly analogous to caste proper . is that of common descent from a traditional In the main it Is something more than a fiction. a Janjiia or a Manhds. and Saiyads. The necessity for community of present caste as a condiliou of intermarriage having disappeared. and which alone could reconcile a nation to restrictions at once irksome from a domestic and burdensome from a material point of view . It will be seen from my description of the two great frontier races whom I have quoted as types. regulating marriage and intermarriage. The tribal type of caste. and so long as the social position of the new claimant is worthy of the descent he clainjs. but are recognised to the full as being.

nor is the prejudice occupation. the break from Islam to Brahminism. Closely allied with these tribal or ethnic communities based upon identity is the association which binds together small colonies of Such foreign immigrants under names denoting little more than their origin. But isolation tinctions of caste and tribe in the countries whence they came. The degradation would not in the case of the former be ceremonial or religious. and the outcast who has adopted Islam is not recognised as a Musalman unless at the same time he abandon his degrading But the taint is not so markedly hereditary. as in all countries.CASTE IN THE PANJAB. this is The Pathan who should become a scavenger would no not indeed the case. the prejudice is can-ied into the very mosque. longer be recognised as a Pathan. from tribal position and freedom of occupation to the more rigid restraints of caste. and here the 343. Between these two extremes of the purely Mahomedan customs of the Indus and the purely Hindu customs of the Jamna we meet with a very considerable variety of intermediate conditions. where the great rivers enter the fertile zo)ie and the arid grazing grounds of the West give place to the arable plains of the East. but the immediate and individual loss of position would be as real as among the strictest castes of the Hindus. as already pointed out in the Chapter on Religion. So too. In the case of the impure occupations which render those who follow them outcasts. no broad classification of the people under a few great castes with their internal division into tribes. and to claim connection with the Mughal conThus we have querors of their country or the Arab founders of their faith. Yet the change is far less gradual than might have been supposed probable. taking place with some suddenness about the meridian of Lahore. and the better class of Pathan would not give him his daughter to In fact the difference between ihe condition of a Pathan who took to wife. 11 marriage are in actual practice almost as strict as ever. or rather this classiticatiou is of far less importance. or a token of a social rank which is more precisely expressed by the tribal name. The effect of occupation upon the tribal form of caste. These people have their own disare the Purbi. Thus we find on the frontier men of all castes engaging from poverty or other necessity in all occupations save those of an actually degrading nature. he would be held to have fallen in the social scale. of recent descent. weaving on the frontier and the Rajj)ufc who took to weaving in the Dehli Territory. the Bangali. indeed. . the Kashmiri. A Pathan who against menial occupations or handicrafts generally so strong. the which separate occupations one from another are relaxed. The submontane zone retains its social as well as its physical characteristics much further west than do the plains which lie below it. In fact the present tendency fvcn in the case of Rajputs^ and still more in that of lower castes of Indian origin^ is markedly to reject their original Hindu caste. became a weaver would still remain a Pathan. being little more than a memory of origin. such as we find in the Hindu portion of the Pan jab . but they are based upon present social rank^ without reference to the question whether that rank has vet received the impress or sanction of admission into the caste with which it wouUl correspond. lines 3 — artificial restrictions of caste can hardly be said to cease till the Salt-range is crossed. and would not be thought to be polluted though. would be precisely that between caste in India and social standing in Europe. nor would it be hereditary save in the sense that the children would be born in a lower condition of life . though he might still claim the name.

similar to these are the followers of divers occupations which are . their fellows in a land of strangers binds is them together in closer union. chiefly recruited from two very different castes is still more 344<. and he is generically classed as Kirar without regard to his caste. and they begin to class themselves as Purbi and forget their original divisions. signifies the those quasi-castes To this class probably belong the Mallah. and are for But even here the distinction is often all practical purposes sej^arate castes.. we should have a state of things corresponding exactly with what we find throughout the Province among the industrial classes^ where each so-called caste comprises under a common occupational term a number of sections of different geographical origin and of different habits. and in many eases this looseness of classification spreads to the people themselves. admitted. 12 PANJAB CASTES. the Nungar. Sabzi-farosh. matter of right. the Mashqi when not a J bin war. based upon minor differences in the occupation or in the mode of following it and community of origin in the remote past is often^ though by no means always. and anybody following the craft is admitted almost as a . and nothing more . And it is almost precisely the trades-guild of Europe in the middle ages. instances of similar confusion might be given. i78] basis of the organisation is hereditary. constitutes a bond which cannot be The resident Sikhs on the Peshawar distinguished from that of caste. and that the caste name is often merely a generic term used to include all who If the numerous agricultural tribes of the Indus follow the same occupation. and the only bond which unites the members of the guild is that of — occupation a bond which is severed when the occupation is abandoned and renewed when it is resumed. a Purbi to the people of the Panjab. I have already said that I am not at all sure whether this is not the case with the artisan castes in general in a far It appears to me that in the case greater degree than is commonly supposed. and they are commonly known as Bagri irrespective of whether they are Jats or Rajputs. who are included under the generic term Jat obsei-ved caste distinctions and refused to eat together and intermarry. The second type which I have included together with castes proper and the western tribes in my caste tables. The Hindu is a small class on the frontier. under the name of the section . and the government by common council or panchdyat are as complete as among the true castes. and is almost always known by a Persian or Arabic name. where the numl)ers concerned are small. of the menial and artisan classes the real caste is what I have already noticed. But there is no longer even the fiction of common origin_. Many more Even community of creed. Examples may be found even nearer home. It is found chiefly in the larger cities. while the case of the Bishnois of from The Purbi Hariana who are striking. that in the case of the caste or section of the caste the common — [p. the Qassiib. The class of Darzis or tailors is a good example of what I mean. and many of of whom I have to say that I cannot tell whether the name Somewhat anything more than the occupation of the people included under it. there is still this cardinal distinction. and the stranger is admitted voluntarily and deliberately whereas in the case of the guild there is no pretence to community of Idood. again owes its existence very largely to the prevalence of Mahomedan ideas. Here the caste organisation. the regulations of the fraternity. and shall presently describe more particularly. The trades-guild type of caste. The men of the Bagar are strangers in the Panjab. And even if my suggestion be well-founded. who refuse to hold communion with one another. frontier are a caste for all practical purposes .

in another merely signifies an occupation. the latter little more than a camelman in the centre of the Province. the types. .. Kathia. or at least to prevent the dissolution of the tie which bound them and which would have broken down in the ordinary course of social evolution. I ject to 345. religious and ascetic orders oi fakirs which. and besides these there are all Moreover. to the single caste^ of whicli the chapter on artisan and menial castes The Bharbhunja is almost always. the name which is applied to a time possible intermediate stages. to hedge it round and strengthen it by a network of artificial rules and restrictions which constitute the only characteristic peculiar to the institution of This I take to constitute the only connection between Hinduism and caste. all that it did was to bind the two together. in the absence of all pretence of conmiunity of blood and the purely voluntary nature of their association. Banya. I shall now consider how far that statement has to be modified. admittedly as my tables of upon caste. are in all societies the principal factors which regulate social rank. Biloch. Brahman. of which fact A rain and Biloch are two notable examples. the Jarr^h is almost always a Nai but it would not have been safe to claPs them as Jhinwar and Nai respectively. especially in the lower classes.^' and members of a . Many of them are subsome form of authority which is exercised by the order in its corporate capacity . and that conversion from Hinduism to Islam has not necessarily the slightest effect upon it. Rajput. Different types included in the caste-table'. that these restrictions and prejudices once engrafted caste on the social system. or of believers in a strange creed like the Bishnoi there is the true occupational caste such as the Nai. especially in the upper. tribes — Thus the figures of and castes include groups formed upon several very distinct There is the true caste in the Brahminical sense of the term. have therefore ranked them in my tables as castes. and the Chuhra. and shame of occupation. and the word caste is not really applicable to these classes. there is the occupation pure and simple as the Jarrah and Gharami. and it is obvious. and that when Brahminism developed caste. but many of them are absolutely fi'ee from restrictions of any kind. At the beginning of this chapan exaggeration of the truth. Jhinwar . there is the colony of foreigners like the Furbi and Kashmiri. almost If 13 not altogether confined. there is the common trades-guild like the Darzi and the Qassab. that caste has little necessary connection with the Hindu religion. and so I have shown them Yet anotlier form of quasi-caste is afforded by the separately in my tallies. I have attempted to show in the preceding paragraphs that pride of blood. The Musalm^n 346. caste or race in one part of the Panjab. the first meaning nothing more than a market-gardener in the Salt-range Tract. Effect of conversion . As a fact in the east of the Panjab conversion has absolutely no effect upon the caste of the convert. there is the ascetic order as the Gosain and Nirmala . and each in either case including an indefinite number of castes or tribes with nothing but community of occupation to connect them. are somewhat analogous to the trades-guild. such as the Pathan. CASTE IN THE PANJAB. I believe. the Chamar. — . These men abandon caste properly so called on entering the order to which they belong bxat it would have been absurd to omit them altogether or to show them under " Miscellaneous. in the east of the Province at least. the tribe or race based upon common blood. a furnishes so many examples. ter I stated. and so forth . and while thus perpetuating the principle of the hereditary nature of occupation and social status. mere change of creed has no necessary effect whatever upon their nature or their operation.

Gujar or Jat as his Hindu brother. and this latter will be dealt with more at length in that part of the present chapter which treats of those castes. In such (fthCS the convert not unfrequently takes the title of Shekh though even here a change of caste name on conversion is probably the exception. and the tribal customs which bind both Hindu and Musalman. Lis tribal restrictions are unrelated.14 Kajput. and there is now a tendency which is day l)y day growing stronger. At the same time there can be no doubt that both the artificial rales of Hindu caste. 179] _ . and with far greater rapidity among the Musalmans than among the Hindus. are those of India . whether Hindu or Musalman. Where the whole tone and feeling of the country-side is Indian. inheritance. have lately begun to relax. or has only lately ceased to do so. while in the west the people. In both cases those rules and customs are tribal or national. education has spread. I This is much less true of the middle classes of the towns and cit'es. as it is in the Eastern Panjab. tribal. or Jat poses exactly as is PAN JAB CASTES. And this difference is no doubt really due to the difference in religion. for he has already refused to avail himself even of the smaller license allowed by the Hindu priests and scriptures. and he recognises. or rather not only them. but the tribal rales of his frontier neighbours. as it is on the Panjab frontier. and almost the only difference is that he shaves his sealplock and the upper edge of his moustache. I believe that the laxity of the rules and restrictions imposed by the customs of castes and tribes which is observable in the Western Panjab. Where that tone and feeling is that of the country beyond the Indus. and adds the Musalman to the Hindu wedding ceremony. There has been within the last 30 years a great Musalman revival in the Panjab. for all social. The difference is national rather than religious. not indeed the prohibitions of Mahomet. and bound himself by tribal rules far stricter than those of either religion. They have no reason to be particularly proud of their a-te . The effect of conversion to Sikhism has already been noticed in the chapter on Religion. whether Hindu or Musalman. political. the Hindu even is almost as the Musalman. he even worships the same idols as before. rather than religious. the JNIusalman is simply the Hindu with a difference. Giijar. But the example of the Pathan and the Biloch has had a very great effect upon the Jat of the Multan division. or social intercourse. and among the Hindus no less than among the Musalmans.^ The fact is that the people are bound by social and tribal custom 347. is due far more to the example of the neighbouring frontier tribes than to the mere change of faith. have adopted in great measure. as has the effect of change of creed upon the menial classes . — — [ p. far more than by any mles of religion. more strict than those of his religion but less strict than those of his nation. His social customs are unaltered.e power of tribal custom. his rules of much ^ f marriage and inheritance unchanged . whether of intermarriage. The movement has as yet materially affected only the higher and more educated classes . while the superior education and the more varied constitution of the urbivu population weaken tl. but there can be little doubt that it is slowly working down through the lower grades of society. the social and tribal customs of Afghanistan and Bilochistan.tute the law of Islam for tribal custom in all matters. though by no means altogether. The laxity allowed by IMahomet in the matter of intermamage has no effect upon the INIusalman Jat of the Dehli division. and with it a more accurate knowledge of the rales of the faith. to subst. As I have already shown in the chapter on Religion. for they represent the in-educible minimum. repeats the Mahomedan creed in a mosque. The social and tribal customs of the eastern peasant. and administi-ative pur- a Rajput. ( : .

and a state of society most nearly approaching tbat which existed in the earlier epoch of Hinduism. Rajput power was most' . But I will briefly indicate some considerations which appear to me to point to the probable truth obligations. con-esponding with the later use of Vaisya . in which Mahomedan ideas have had no influence.^-m has found no entrance. and the Vaisya of the middle Hindu scriptures. all Awans. 16 348. nov nre the boundaries of these divisions more The other portion of rigorously fixed than we find them in those scriptures. in two very dissimilar parts of the Panjab. and the like. or precisely the only part of the Panjab into which Mahomedani. Khatri. but the three first con-espond almost exactly with the Brahman. the Pathan or Biloch as the case may be. The Brahminic influence was probably never but it is markedlyl so strong in the Panjab as in many other parts of India . | lying under the very shadow of the Mughal court. The Mahomedan invaders found in the Rajput Princes political enemies whom it was their business to subdue and to divest of authority but the power of the Brahmans threatened no danger to their rule. Kangra hills is fully described under the heads of Jats in general. The full discussion of this question would require a far wider knowledge of Indian comparative soc^iology than I possess. and that they left unimpaired. On the Indus we have the Saiyad and the Pir. On the Indus we appear to have caste as it is under the ^ Mahomedan. and the outcast or Mlechchha. Musalmdn I have said that caste appears to have been far more loose of my suggestion. Moreover. and in the Hinii^layas The state of caste relations in the of Kangra as it is under the Rajput. Effect of Islam in strengthening the bonds of caste. who correspond with the Kshatriya . or Arora. who cannot pretend to Kshatriya rank the Kirar or trader of whatever caste. One is the Indus frontier. on the Jamna as it is under the Brahman. the other is the Kangi-a hills. CASTE IN THE PANJAB. the so-called Jat. as in the Western Panjab. the contest between the Brahman and the Rajput for the social leadership of the people was prolonged and severe (see Muir's Sanskrit Texts. it is curious that we tind the institutions and restrictions of caste as such most lax. and includes the great mass of husbandmen of whatever caste they may be.^-^ -"impossible. in which Hinduism has remaine^d absolutely sheltered from attack from without. the most exclusively Hindu portion of the Province. . Jats. who is emphatically the ^' people " or Vaisya in the old sense of the ^'ord. Vol. the class of Ulama or divines who take the place of the Brahman . or in that portion of the Province in which. where Mahomedanism reigns supreme . I). the artisan or Sudra . and less binding in its earlier form than as it appeared in the later developments of Brahminism and we know that^ at least in the earlier and middle stages of Hinduism. been so wholesale or the country of the invaders so near as to change bodily by force of example the whole tribal customs of the inhabitants_. tlie Kshatriya. Rajputs the Province in which caste restrictions are most loose and caste divisions most general and indefinite is the Kangra hills . .— But if the atloption of Islam does not absolve the individual from the obligations common to his tribe or caste. Rajputs of . and in which the oldest Rajput dynasties in India have preserved tVicir supremacy unbroken up to wdthin the last eighty years. strongest in the Delili Territory. still less does its presence as such tend to weaken those Indeed it seems to nic exceedingly probable that where the invasion has not. Banya.. and that it bas done this by depriving the Hindu population of their natural leaders the Rajputs. The two last classes have no generic names. the Mahomedan conquest of Northern India has tightened and strengthened rather than relaxed the bonds of caste . and throwing them wholly into the hands of the Brahmans.



the Eastern Hills, Thakars and Rathis, Kanets, and Hill Menials, The whole matter is summed up in the quotation from Mr. Lyall ^iven on page 175. Here the Rajput is the fountain of honour, and the very Brahman is content Mr. Barnes writes of the Kangra Brahmans to accept rank at his hands.

have already stated, were the scats of petty independent princes, and in every " principality the Brahmans are arranged into classes of different degrees of purity. The Eaja was " always considered the fountain of all honour, and his classification, made probahly at the counsel In these graduated lists no '•'of his religious advisers, was held binding upon the brotherhood. "account was ever taken of the zamindar Brahmins, as they were contemptuously styled; they " were left to themselves in ignoble obscurity. Thus, in the days of Raja Dharm Chand, the two "great trhes of Kangra Brahmins,— the * Nngarkotias ' (from N'agarkot, the ancient name of " Kangia) and the Batehrns,' were formally sub-divided into clans. Of the Nagarkotias "Dharm Chand established 13 different families, of which, at the risk of being considered tedious, " I subjoin a catalogue."
hills, as I


So we find the Raja of Kangra bribed to elevate a caste in the social and the Raja of Alwar making a new caste of a section of the Minas, and prescribing limits to their intermarriage with those who had till then been

considered their brothers.

Under ]\Iahomedan rule the Rajput disappeared, and for the Hindu Hence the wide differences between population the Brahman took his place. In the Hills, the very caste in Kangra and caste in the Dehli Territory. stronghold at once of Rajput power and of Hindusim in its mxOst primitive form, we have the Brahman, but with a wide difference between the Brahman who prays and the Brahman who ploughs ; we have the Rajput, a name strictly confined to the royal families and their immediate connections, and refused to such even of those as soil their hands with the plough ; we have the great cultivating class, including the Thakars and Rathis of acknowledged and immediate Rajput descent who furnish wives even to the Rajputs themselves, and the Rawats, Kanets, and Ghiraths of somewhat lower status ; we have the Kirar or Mahajan, including not only traders, but all the Kayaths and the clerkly class, and even Brahmans who take to these pursuits ; we have the respectalde artisan class, the carpenter, mason and water-carrier ; and finally we have the Koli or Dagi, the outcast or Mlechchha of the hills. And from top to bottom of this social scale, no single definite line can be drawn which shall Each one precisely mark off any one caste or grade from the one below it. takes its wives fi-om and eats with the one immediately below it, and the members of each can, and they occasionally do, rise to the one immediately


P. 180


among tho landowning castes.—Within the Tribal divisions 349. caste the first great division of the landowning classes is into tribes ; and the tribe appears to me to be far more permanent and indestructible than the caste. i have already shown how in the west of the Panjab the broader distinctions of caste have become little more than a tradition or a convenient symbol for social standing, while the tribal groups are the practical units of which the comThere is, I fancy, little doubt that when a family or miinity is composed.
it changes the name of designation ; indeed it is probable that that designation not unseldom becomes the name of a new caste by which it is to Thus the widow-marrying Chauhan Rajputs of Dehli are be known in future. now known as Chauh^ns, and not as Rajputs ; while their brethren of the next district, Karnal, who have not infringed the caste rule, are known as Rajputs, and only secondarily as Chauhan Rajputs. This theory is in accordance with the tradition by which the constant recurrence of tribal names in different

section of a caste rises or sinks in the social scale, while

its caste, it

often retains

its tribal

castes is accounted for



\v\\\ tell

a Gujar woman ing to the rank of Gujars owing- to his infringement of caste regulations.* Indeed this is simply the process which we see in actual operation before our very eyes. As I have already remarked, the same tribe is known as Rajput in a tract where it has, and as Jat in a tract where it has not risen to political importance; but tlie tribal nan)c, indicating a far stronger and more enduring bond tlian that of common caste, still remains to both. Sir Henrv Maine has pointed out how two considerations gradually tend to Ije substituted for or added to the tie of conmion descent as the basis of tribal unitv, common occupation of land, and common subjection to tribal authority. He
wlieu a tribal commniiiiy r^ettks down fiually upon a definite space of "land, the Innd begins to be the Iwsis of society instead of the kiusliip. The change is exceed" i"gV gradual, and in some particulars it bai< not even now been fully accomplished; but it has •' been going on through the whole course of history. The constitution of the family through " actual blood relationship is of cour-e an observable fact ; but for all groups of men larger thau " the family, the laud on which they live tends to become the bond of union between them, at •' the expense of kinship ever more and more vaguely conceived." A ad again—" Kinship as the " tie binding communities together tends to be regarded as the same thing with subjection to com* " mou authority. The notions of Power and Consanguinity blend, but they in nowise supersede " one another."

by the people themselves. The Chauhan Gujars, for you that their ancestor was a Chaulian Rajput who married and that his descendants retained the tribal nanie^ while sink-

writes " From tho uiomcut

The institution of liatmdyah among the Biloches and Pathans, by which refugees from one tribe who claim the protection of the chief of another tribe are affiliated to, and their descendants become an integral part of the latter, is an admirable example of the second of these two processes ; and in the substitution of land for blood as the basis of tribal unity, we very probablv find the explanation of that standing puzzle of Indian tribal tradition, how the common ancestor managed to conquer the tribal territory single-handed, or how, if he had followers, it happens that all the living members of the tribe trace their descent from him, while the lineage of those followers is nowhere

Within the tribe the same basis of sub-division is often found to 350. the clans being apparently territorial, while the smaller septs are probably founded upon real descent. In fact it is exceedingly difficult to draw the line between tribe and clan, except where the two are connected by the present occupation of common territory and subjection to a common tribal authority. When a section of a great tribe such as the Punwar Rajputs

from the parent tribe and acquires for itself a new territory as did the Sials, the section becomes for all practical purposes a new and independent tribe, and the memory of the old trilie is to the new one what caste is to tribes in the west, a mere tradition of origin. So when a member of a tribe rises to such importance as to become independent of tribal authority, he practically founds a new tribe, evrn though he may still occupy the territory formerly held as part of the old tribal domain ; as, for instance, appears to have been the case with the Barar section of the Sidhu Jats. Perhaps the most striking instance of the degree in which tribal divisions depend upon political and territorial independence, is afforded by the Biloch
'There is another possible explanation of the tradition, and that is that the caste was inherited female line. There is no inconsiderable weight of evidence to show that this was the custom, at any rate among certain classes, within comparatively recent times. But the matter, like all other similar matters, needs further examination.
in the



who were orginally five. Of these two, the Rind and Lash^i, rose prominence and divided the nation into two corresponding sections. As to time went on the nation broke up into a number of independent tribes, each vnth a separate tt n-itory and organisation of its own ; and now, though every Biloch refers himself to either Rind or Lashari stock, the names are but a tradition of origin, and in the Panjab at least no Rind or Lashari tribe can be said to exist as such. The groups of tribes found in different parts^ of the Province who claim common descent from some one of the great Rajput races, the Bhatti, Chauhan, Punwar, and the like, are instances of the same process. The local tribes are now independent units, and can hardly be included under Thus the line of demarthe original tribal name save as a symbol of origin. cation between tribe and clan is no better defined than is that between caste and tribe. As soon as a section of a caste abandons the customs of the parent stock, whether as regards hereditary occupation or social habits, it tends to become a new caste. As soon as a clan separates itself from the territory and

Where organisation of the parent tribe, it tends to become a new tribe. the Indian tribal and caste restrictions upon intermarriage are still observed, the best definition would probably be obtained by taking endogamy and exogamy as the differentiae of the caste and tribe respectively ; a caste being the smallest group outside which, and a trn:)e the largest group within which But in a gi-eat part of the Panjab this test does not raan-iage is forbidden.
351. Tribal divisions among the priestly and mercantile castes. In the case of the castes or classes who, not being essentially landowners, possess no political or temtorial organisation, the basis of tribal division is very different. Here we have no compact tribes based upon real or fictitious community of





blood and occupying tribal


The Brahman has almost invariably

accompanied his clients in their migrations ; and indeed it will sometimes be found that the Brahmans of a tribe or of a group of village communities, being too small in number to be independent, have kept up the connection with their place of origin long after it has fallen into neglect or even oldivion among the landowning communities with whom they dwell. Thus we find Brahmans of different gotras or clans scattered haphazard over the country without any sort of tribal localization, and the same is true of the mercantile In both cases the divisions are wholly based upon real or classes also. imaginary common descent. The gotras of the Brahmans, the clans of the but they are not localised, and are thereKhatris and Aroras are innumerable fore probably more permanent than are the territorial tribes of the landowners. This a1 sence of tribal organisation is perhaps one of the reasons why, of all classes of the community, the Brahmans and traders observe most strictly the How far aiiififial mles which preserve tlie integrity of caste organisation. the Brahmini -al qotra is really tribal is a distinct question to which I shall

presently return.

But in the case of both the priestly and the mercantile classes, we find that their castes are broken up into sections, too large and too devoid of cohesion to be called tribes, and approaching much niore nearly to separate castes, both in the actual effect of the divisions upon social intercourse and These divisions are generally intermarriage, and pro1)ably also in their origin. known by geographical designations, such as the Gaur Brahmans of the ancient Gaur and the Sdrsut Brahmans of the Saraswati and the Panjab, the Uttar^dhi Aroras of the north and the Dakhani Ai'oras of the south, the



But the present Agarwill Banyas of Agroha and the Oswal Banyas of Osia. distinction between these sections is as a rule based upon difference of social and religious customs. It is not unnatural that, in the course of agcSj the strictness with which the artificial restrictions which regulate social and caste matters are observed should vary in different parts of the country ; and it is no less natural that, where the two standards come into contact, those whose standard is the stricter should look down upon those whose practice is more lax. Tlie Guur Brahman sees with horror his Sarsut brother eat bread from the hands of other than BriihnianSj and do a thousand things which to him would be pollution. The result is that the Gauv refuses to eat or intermarry with the Sarsut, and that for all practical purposes the sections are not one but two castes ; far more so indeed than, for instance, the Jat and the Glijar. Nor does it seem to me impossible that these sections may in some cases represent real diversity of race or origin ; that the Gaurs may have ])cen the Brahmans of Gam' and the Stirsuts the Brahmans of the Panjab, both called Brahmans because they were priests, but having nothing else in common. Again, among some of the Panjab trading castes great sections have been fixed within recent times, which are Ijased not upon geographical distribution, but upon voluntary divergence of social custom. Such are the great Dhaighar, Charzati and other sections of the Khatris described under that caste heading. Throughout all these great sections, whether geographical or social, the same triljal divisions are commonly found unchanged. The tribes or clans of the Gaur and Sarsut Brahmans, of the Uttariidhi and Dakhani Aroras, of the Agarwal and Oswiil Banya are in great part identical. Now where these divisions are really tribal, and based upon common descent, this must mean that the tribal divisions preceded the divergence of custom which resulted in the formation of what I have here called sections, and that the original stock was one and the same. But where, as is often the case, they are mere Brahmnical gotras, I do not think that this necessarily follows.^
and menial castes.— Among the same great sections, based either upon differences of custom which in turn depend upon geograj)hical distribution or, I believe in very many cases indeed, upon difference of origin, one section of an industrial caste being descended from Jats who have sunk in the social scale, another perhaps from Ahirs, while a third is the original stock to which the industry has been hereditary beyond the memory of the tribe. The Chamar of tlie middle Satluj will not internian-y with the Jatia Chamar of the Dehli Territory because the latter works in the skins of im])ure animals ; the Suthar carpenter from Sindh looks down upon and abstains from marriage with the Khati of the Malwa ; and so forth throughout the list. Among the menial castes moreover, as among the priestly and mercantile, we have a double classification and by the side of the great sections we find what correspond with tribal divisions. But among the menial castes, or at least among those who occupy the position of hereditary village servants, I believe that these divisions often have their origin rather in allegiance to the tribal master than in any theory of conmion descent. It has often been noticed that the menial castes denote their tribal sub-divisions by names famous in political history, such as Bhatti, Khokhar or Chauhan ; and our present papers furnish abundant instances. Now on the frontier a Lobar who is attached to the village of the Muhammadzai tribe will call himself Lobar Muhammadzai, while one




and menial


find precisely the



See further section 353 on the next pa ge.




lives in the service of the

Daulatkhel. will call himself Loha.and connection between the village rnemals There can be no douU that the hereditary and was in old times the agricultural comn.unities Nvhom they serve of the word acUcnpU voluntary, and that the former were in every sense not hnd explain in greater detail we still In fact, as I shall presently ylehcB. a tract peiTetuatejl owners of the tribal organisation of the ten-itorial of the village menials, where great integritv by the territorial org^anisation It seems to me more has died out among their masters all but its inemorv l)Ound more closely to the than probable that in old days, when menials were tribes were used to distinguish the tribes they served, the names of those instance Chamars serving i3hattis several groups of menials ; and that for serving Khokhars called would be called Chamnr tribe Bhatti, and those When the bonds grew less rigid and a change ot Cham^r tribe Khokhar. retained though t|ie reason masters became possible, the old name would be we should find Bhatti and Khokhai for it had ceased to exist, and thus In fact the process would be Chamai-s scattered throughout the Province. of the idea of sub3ection to a simply another instance of that substitution division, that of common blood as the basis of tribal common authoritv for





regarding which I 349.

have already quoted Sir H. Maine's language




have >aid that among the piiestly and corresponding with the true tribal divisions of the landowning classes, which runs through the great These divisions geoo'raphical or social sections which I have described above. are, among the Khatris and A.roras, in all probability real tribes denoting common descent, or at any rate special association of some sort, at an earlier

The Brahminical







of divisions

stage in the history of the caste, of the ancestors of all those who now Among the Brahmans and Banyas these divisions bear the same tribal name. are known as gotras, and it is not so certain that their origin, among the


is tribal. The word gotra, more commonly known under form of got, means a family or lineage, the descendants from a common ancestor, and it also means a fioek, those who shelter within a common fold. The Brahmans say that their gotras are named after the great Hindu Rishis, though it does not clearly appear whether the members of each gotra claim descent from the Rishi whose name it bears as fron) a It is curious that the names of many carnal or as from a si)iritual father.

at least,


of the founders of these gotras occur among the ancient genealogies of the prehistoric Rajput dynasties, the Rajas in question being not merely namesakes of, but distinctly stated to be the actual founders of the gotra j and

would be strange if inquiry were to show that the priestly classes, like the menials just discussed, own their tribal divisions to the great families At any rate, whatever their origin, to whom their ancestors were attached.^ the Brahminical gotras have among the Brahmans become absolutely hereditary ; and every Brahman, whether Gaur, Sursiit, Dalvaut, or otherwise belongs Thus, taking these great sections as to some one or other of these gotras. tribes, the gotra is wider than the tribe ; and while new tribes and clans can be and are constantly being formed, no new go'ra is possible.

For a curious

inbtaiice of classification of Erabniaiis into tribes

ruler, see the quotation

from Mr. Barnes given on page 179.

by tbe couiuiand of a Rajput [Census Report.]
liuo, like

' Is it possible tbat the gotra is a relic of descent tiivongli the female spoiuVmg pba3uomenon among the Australian and North American Indians ?



[Census Report.]



Hut thf Biahuiinitjal (/oira extends far beyond the body of Brahmans; for theory of the Hindu religion is that every Hindu, whatever be his caste, belongs to some one or otlier of them. The (j/oira thus defined is used only at marriage, on the occasion of sanl-al/n/, and in similar formal ceremonies; and the great majority of the Hindu peasantry do not so much as know that they have a pofra at all, much less what it is. But all the stricter Hindu castes, such as the Banyas and Khatris and Aroras, know and recognize their //otra. Indeed the Jianyas have, so far as I know, no tribal divisions within the great sections of Agarwal, Os^^al and the like, except these Brahminical goh-as. Thus the question suggests itself whether the universal currency of the same set of gotras throughout the whole Brahman caste, and their adoption by the Banyas, is not due to a wish to conform with the rale of Hinduism just enunciated, rather than to any real community of descent denoted by a common gotra. In any case these gotras are of singularly little importance. Except to the priests and mercliants and to some of the stricter and more educated classes they menu little or nothing; while although to those priests and merchants they do stand in some degree in the place of tribal divisions, yet as they are in no way localised their significance is almost wholly religions, and the divisions which are really importiint among these castes are what I have calhxl the great sections. It matters little or nothing whether a Brahman, a Banya, or an Arora is of the Gautama or of the Bharadwaj gotra j what we really want to know is whether he is Gaur or Sarsiit, Agar^^al or Oswal, Uttaradhi or Dakhani. The horrible trouble and confusion which resulted in the Census from the fact that the peasantry of the eastern Pan jab call their tribes by the same word got as is commonly used for the Bralnninical gntra^ will i)e noticed presently.
354. Tribal divisions of womeHo— curious question arose in the record of tribes in the Census schedules; namely, whether a woman changed her father''s tribal name for that of her husband on marriage. There is no doubt


and the more educated enumerators, knowing this, often objected to record the got or tribe of the wife as different from that of the husband. I asked some of my friends to make enquiries as to the custom in various parts of the Province, but in many cases the got and gotra have evidently been confused in their investigations and rejdies. But on the whole the result seems to With Brahmans, Banyas, Khatris, Kayaths, and Aroras be as follows. the woman^s got follows that of her husband. But this is almost certainly In some of the eases it must be so, as the secthe Brahminical gotra. tions do not intermarry, and there is nothing else to change. Among the Khatris it ^\•onld be interesting to know whether a Kapur woman marrying a Mahra m;\n would l)e considered a Ka})ur or a jMahra. Throughout the Western Plains Hindus change the clan; but here again they almost all belong to the castes mentioned above. In the hills and the sul)-montane tracts the tribe is certainly changed for in the lower hills there is a formal ceremony called got Jcnndla or "^ the tribal trencher,^' at which the w^omen of the tribe eat with the bride and thus admit her to the community. In the eastern districts the tribe is as co'tainly not changed at marriage, nor does a Ijov change it on adoption. It is born and dies unaltered with both man and woman. In Sirsa it does not change, for a man always speaks of his wife by her tribal and not by her personal nau\e; and the same custom olitains among the Dehli Gujars. On the other hand in Firozpur, which adjoins Sirsa, the
; ;

whatever that the Brahminical gotra follows that of the husband

custom of got l-undla

said to obtain.

of the west the wife is of standing which is nearly but not quite equal to that of her husband, she is often adThe point is practidressed by courtesy as belonging to the tribe of the latter.




the tribe does not appear to







The diversity of custom which prevails, added to cally important in this way. the interference of the educated enumerator, makes the record of tribal divisions for women of exceedingly uncertain value ; and it would have been better to At a future Census tabulate the males only for the several tribes and clans. the enumerator should be directed to record the clan or tribe of a married woman as stated by her husliaud, whether the same as his own or different.
The tribal organisation of the people. An extensive collection of upon the tribal organisation of the people, together with a most valuable dissertation on the general subject, will be found in Vol. II of Mr. Tupper's treatise on Tanjab Customary Law. The Panjab affords a peculiarly complete series of stages between the purely tribal organisation of the Pathan or Biloch of the frontier hills and the village communities of the Jamna districts. The territorial distribution of the frontier tribes in the Each clan of each tribe fastnesses of their native mountains is strictly tril al. has a tract allotted to it and within that tract the families or small groups of nearly related families either lead a semi-nomad life, or inhabit mde villages round which lie the fields which they cultivate and the rough irrigation works which they have constructed. In these they have property, but beyond them
facts bearing

[P. 188]

Where the there are no boundaries in the common pasture lands of the clan. tribe or clan has occupied a tract within our border in sufficient numbers to undertake its cultivation, the distribution differs little from that obtaining beyond the have indeed laid down boundaries which mark off areas held by border. groups of families ; but these boundaries are often purely artificial, and include


hamlets which are united by no common tie and separated fi'om their neighbours by no line of demarcation save one based upon administrative conveniWhen however the tribe conquered rather than occupied the tract, ence. and its cultivation is still in the hands of the people whom they subjugated, we find that they did almost exactly what we have done in the case last They drew arbitrary boundaries which divided out the land into described. great blocks or village areas, and each clan or section of a clan took one of these blocks as its share, left the cultivating population scattered in small hamlets over the fields, and themselves occupied central villages of some These two types are found more or less prevailing throughstrength and size. But in the great grazing out the Western Plains and Salt-range Tract. groimds we find, perhaps even more commonly than either of these, a third type which is not based upon any sort of tribal organisation. A miscellaneous collection of cultivators have broken up the land and so acquired rights in it, or have been settled by capitalists who acquired grants of land on condition This form of settlement was especially of bringing it under cultivation. encom-aged under Sikh rule when the cardinal principle of administration was to crush the gentry, to encourage cultivation, and to take so much from the actual cultivator as to leave nothing for the landlord.


In the east of the Province we find the village community about written ; and nowhere perhaps in more vigorous perBut it is a great mistake to fection than in the south-eastern districts. suppose that the village community wholly supersedes tribal organisation. The tribal maps of the Panjdb when published will show how very generally

much has been

and the turban of the parent village is first tied on his head. So too. " A " implies that kalau is larger than khurd. the village occupied by the descendants of " the common ancestor in the clde t line being. tribes 23 hold compact temtorieSj even where the village communities are Where this is the case the villages of the tribe constitute one or more thapas. To this day when a headman dies. I spoke " to the original tika village about it. of the priestly and menial castes. and being distributed among them by the headmen of the collective villages under the presidency of the headman of the parent village. or tribal groups of village communities held together by feudal ties and by the fact or fiction of conmion ancestry. all springing originally from one parent village. Under the Mughals the revenue administration used to be l)ased upon these thapas. When " Brabmans and the brotherhood are fed on the occasion of deaths. with the addition of the words k dnn and khurd ^big and little). The head village is still called the great village. This by no means tribal . and a part of the community would found a new village. but not ' a mother her motherhood. is especially interesting with reference to the remarks made in sections 351-52. This process would be repeated till the tract became dotted over with villages. and " quoted the proverb' ' A son may forget his sonship . " and if a landowner of a tribe other than that of the original owners is asked how he acquired property in the village. however small or reduced in circumstances. " The group of villages so bound together by common descent form a thapa.. based upon the tribal organisation of their clients and masters. In old days the subordinate villages used to pay some small feudal lees to the head village on " the day of the great Diwali. his invariable answer is " they settled me as a brother. as to this day the cattle of neigh]:)0uring villages belonging to the same tribe graze in common without The following description of the thapa organisation reference to boundaries.) make offeriugg . always on the edge of a drainage line from which their tanks would be filled.CASTE IN THE PANJAB. and they said that no village could change its thapa. " inconvenient | / " " " " " " " community having obtainod possession of a tract. and the Brabmans of the head village are fed first. It would be interesting to know whether the same holds good with the mercantile castes.' the turban " village. in course of time it would be foi' them all tj live together. In this way were divided the many villages known by the same name. till our time the definite boundaries which now separate each village from its neighbours were very indefinitely marked even in the cultivated tracts. it is from the thapa " villages that they are collected. as is proved by the manner in which they zig-zag in and out among the fields .' tika being the sign of authority formally " impressed in old days on the forehead of the heir of a deceased leader in the presence of the " assembled thapa. &c. ' the village of origin. while in the common pastures they were probably almost unknown. So among the menial castes. Douie notes that the members of once a year at the Satti of the tika village.^' 357. but only that the elder branch settled in kalan. and receive '• double fees. The vigorous organisation is taken from my settlement report of Karnal. who still retain an internal organization of far greater " vitality than the higher ca-tes liow po=se s. strongest.' " '•' ' ' ' ' It is curious to note how the fiction of common descent is preserved when strangers are admitted into these tribal groups or village communities. still " acknowledged as the head. the repi-esentative of the head village is always the " foreman of the caste jury which is assembled from the t'^ apa villages to hear and decide disputes. the other villages of the thapa " assemble to instal his heir. and are con" nected by sub-feudal ties which are still recognized. The people de cribe the facts by saying that of several brothers one settled in one village and one in another but this no doubt means that the parts of the community that migrated con<i<ted of integral families or groups of families descended in one common branch from the ancestor.. — all the villages included in the thapa (See paragraph 220 supra. The stranger who receives by gift a share of another's land is called a bhumbhdi or *' earth brother .' or ' the ftka village. the revenue being assessed upon the group of villages as a vvhole. The restrictions upon intermarriage will be given in some detail in Part II of Chapter VII in ^ Mr. In one case a village told me that it had changed its thapa because there " were so many Brabmans in its original thapa that it found it expensive to feed them. Marriage and intermarriage between tribes.

and in which only males niay take part . and must \)^y them for what they eat on the succeeding night. They niny )iot go into it or even drink water from a well in that village. and the fact to ignore all . the ])reparatory oiling of the bridegroom. the fight between the girPs and boy's parties at the door of the bride's house . because I wish to point out how obviously the rules and customs regulating marriage point to the former existence of marriage by captiire and. for it is shamei'ul to tnke anything from one's daughter or her belongings. while the curious rule against talcing a bride from a village marching with one^s own has already been discussed in section 136. Rathis and Rawats^ and Kolis and Dagis . especially the mle against marrying from a neighl)0uring village . Avliieh must be as far as possible mounted on horses. but remain outside in a place allotted to them. the rale that the girl shall wear nothing belonging to herself . all near older relatives. The reason why I allude to the subject in this place is. The strict rule of tribal exogamy which still binds all classes both Hindu and Musalman throughout the Eastern Plains. the formal nature of the wedding procession. The marriage customs of the people of Karnal will be found minutely described at pages 127 to 134 of my settlement report on that district." or " Oh my brother is dead. So does the use of the mark of the bloody hand at both villages. The boy's father can go to the girl's village by leave of her father. The bloody hand stamped on the shoulder of the boy's father by the girl's mother as he depai-ts. So do the rule Ijy which the boy's party must not accept food at the hands of the girl's people after the wedding. Tlie marking all the turnings from the village gate to the bride's house may be a survival of a very common intermediate stage. PANJAB CASTES.. the similar treatment of the bride bei)ig perhaps a later institution all point to marriage by capture. and the custom AA'hieh directs the girl to go off bewailing some one of her male relatives who has lately died. but the fiction was enacted with greater veri-similitude than now-a-days. that— " " " " " " and the village iuto wLieli his chniglitcv is inarried is utterly tabooed for Ler father. . the hiding of the girl from the boy's peoj^le at the wedding ceremoiiy . saying " Oh my father is dead. and it is unnecessary to repeat the information found described in the sections on Rajputs of the eastern hills. but not without. and the fiction by which the girl's father is compelled . the wife must never visit her fatlier's house without his special leave. of an intermediate stage when the capture had become fictitious. all jjoint to marriage by capture. Finally we have the rule that after the ceremonial goings and comings are over. and must not enter the village. perhaps less obviously." . Even her more distant elder relations will not eat or drink from the house into which the girl is married. Some of the suggestions I am about to make may very probably be fanciful but the general tendency of tlie facts is beyond the possibility of a doubt. The rule that the procession must reach the girl's village after midday. where the bridegroom visits the In-ide by stealth.184] the most persistent. 24 treating of civil condition here. A brief notice of some curious customs will be found in the present chapter under the head of Jats of the western sub-montane. and often throw most valuable light upon the origin and affinities of the tribes. payment of money by the bridegroom's friends. Customs of this sort are of all others The custom as to intermarriage in the hills will be [P. The subject is one of great interest and value^ and sadly needs more detailed inquiry." are very marked as is the fight with sticks between the bride and bridegroom. her elclev brother. excepting however the priests and traders who observe only tlie prohibitions of the Sanskiit scriptures . though they do not taboo the whole village.

washer•' man. by their occupatiim or bv [P. from a Gaur. any Musalman will eat from the hands of anv of the same faith. used as terms of abuse 25 Similarlyj all words denoting male relations by marriage are commonly or father. If the latter. and the following castes are absolutely impure " owing to their occupation and liabits. and daughter's husband. among the Hindus a Clujrati Hralnnan will eat paJeJci. Gujars. bvxt not kach'chi " . are generally distinguished by a piece of something tied round the stem— blue rag for " a Musalman. no superior tribe will eat or drink from tbc liaiids or vessels of an inferior " one. and Kolis and Dagis. which no " Hindu can do unless the vessel has never been used before. taking out tlie stem and using the hand with the fingers closed instead. Musalmans have lately become much less strict about '' these rules as governing their intercourse among themselves. or fried 'Iry witli gltl.'0^'. Lala . insomuch that if you call a Mco woman dohri. And. subject strictly to the above " rules. The pipes of a village.jput. but here the rale against a than in the east. red for a Hindu. but arc ceasing to do so. Brahmans and Rajputs will not " eat from any one below a Jat. or Kor. and they used to smoke " with carpeTiters. Social intercourse between castes. any ilusalmau will eat and drink without scruple from a Hindu .\U food is divided into palcJci roU. barber. and will often throw it auay if only a Musalman's " shadow falls upon it. clum. Of these the first two are considered so offensive. Pandit . ami dhdnah. is scrupulously avoided.-. and the superior cleanliness of metal over oartlicn vessels. Rahbaris and Ahi^rs eat and drink iu common without any scruples. bahnoi. susra. Iiut not in his house . of fire especially as exercised upon " ghi and sugar. jaiodi.— The rules regulating social intercourse between different castes as they exist in the Jamna districts are given in the following quotation from the Karnal Settlement Report. each caste will " drink water from a metal vessel if previously scoured with earth (nidnjna). are the foundation of a " broad distinction. Hindu eating from the hand of a Musalman seems to be even more strict than In all parts of the Province and among all classes any sort of in the east. sister's husband. But the reputed puril yiug influence. 185] formally used as an outward and visiltle token of in which the tribe. there will be " numbers of little eartlien saucers (rilcdlis) found on the spot. and so forth . but in this case they must be whole. " Broadly spcakiiiji'.— CASTE IN THE PANJAB. even from that of " leather-worker or sweeper . or other agnatic group takes a part as such. • ' ' ! '"' ' ! . ' Chaudhri ' or ' Muqaddam ' or— a specially ^leo usage dokra " or 'old man' ^sce Fallon) . 'I'lms. any Brahmau." a The extraordinary state of matters in the hills is described under the heads Hill Menials. the " Brahmans of Gurgaon. Avhcther polluted the natiire of their food. except with those whose kachchi bread they can " eat. Wilson writes "'father-in-law' [siUra^. a Gnur from a Taga. dyer {chJumpi). being often left about in the common rooms " and fields. ' Ihe Banyns. while if you address her as burhj/i. leather for a Chamdr.lat. ami their mere touch defiles food leather-maker. string for a sweeper. or ' not so treated. Tlie Musalmans of Sirsa call him 'uncle' (fdt/a or chdcha) . " Qur and most sweetmeats can be eaten from almost anybody's hand. This affords an easy mode of telling " whether a deserted site has been held by Musalmans or Hindus. '• Sahib ' or ' Sah . she will fly at you " with ' Do you call me your mother-in-law !'. respectable member intercourse Mith the impure castes.' 358. The potter is also looked '' upon as of doubtful piu-ity. clan. " Taga or Rajpiit from a . not broken. while even Hindus are raueh less strict So in the Sikh tract also. generally includes some sort of formal of food . wife's brother. ' Rai Sahib . Jats. " from the same people with whom tliey will eat pakJci bread but they will not drink or smoke " from earthen vessels. or Ror. that they are seldom used in their ordi- nary sense. and Icachcliiroti. where all caste restrictions are so \2l\. Giijar. sweeper. in-law. but no Hindu will touch " either palJci or kaclichi from any Musalman. .s. In the west of the Province. . or smoke it> pipes. Giijar. which really *' means exactly the same thing. while these three tribes themselves do not as a " rule eat or drink with any of tlie menial castes . and many of them now eat from " any respectable Musalman's hand. or use tlie same pipe-stem. Community is community 1 of Idood and any ceremony " There is a very general rule agaiust speaking of one's wife's father aa Mr. any Brahman or Taga from a lla.Ji ' or Misr Ji ' the Kayatlis. sdla.li ' the Meos. " These again will eat a goldsmith's paJcM bread. Rors. Excepting Brahmans and Tagas. she will reply Very well. for instance. so that " a friend wLsliing for a smoke may not defile himself by mistake. . and will smoke from a " pipe with a brass bowl. my son Very well ' : . blacksmith. partly perhaps because Musalmans eat from earthen vessels. a. especially in the cities.

and inchides Shekhs. The first includes the two great frontier races.shows the general distribution of castes throughout the Province. 360. for not only is the class within which any given caste should fall incapal^le of exact definition.—Abstract No. The distribution of these classes is very marked. It is divided into"^ six sections. The next class.TAB CASTES. Such are the Gakkhars and Awans of the Salt-range Tract. most of whom perhaps have no real title to the name under which they have returned themselves. who. the Kharrals and Daudpotras of the Western Plains. 28-9.2« PAN. and after that the Rajputs. Mahtams and the like. Indeed it will be apparent from the following pages that any but the roughest classification is impossible. while hardly less important in their particular territories.. The last class is headed Foreign Races. the Meos of Gurgaon. Tui-ks. but it varies in different parts of the Province. The distribution of each caste caste itself greater number who are landowners. the Salt-range Tract. the former. with the Thakars and Rathis whom it is so impossible to separate from them. the Sainis. to admit a eating together or confarreatio. Ahirs. In the sub-montane districts. more mony on is new member especially when the object of the cer«into the group. Next follow the minor agricultural tribes. administratively. who have settled in the Province at a far more recent date. are accompanied by a very large class of inferior cultivating classes of all castes who are. and the like. and is even more important socially. as at adoption or mariiage. as closely allied to them if not really entitled to be ranked with them. the hgures representing the proportion borne by each group of castes to every thousand of total population. are less numerous and less widely distributed than the four great races already specified. very commonly takes the form of a distribution of ^«. Still some sort of classification was necessary on Avhich to arrange the chapter. the Dogars and Rors of the Eastern Plains. Tajik and Hazara_. The first or landowning and agricultural group comprises half of the total population of the Panjab. is ' For instance.or 8weatmeat<«. The eating together . while many of them own no land and are mere artisans. It will of course be understood that the castes are grouped very roughly. the Eiloches and Pathans . The Biloches and Pathans are of course chiefly to be found in the trans-Indus districts but while the latter form the great bulk of the group in the districts where they prevail. and with the latter I have taken the TanaoH. while forming a very important factor in the agricultural community of the Panjab. Ghiraths. Kanets. Next follows the great Jat race. and I have therefore divided the various castes and tribes into three great groups. Mughals. and the Gujars of the hills. though these cannot be separated fi-om the still 359 *P. a term whose signifi. 64 next page. and Kaugra. Arain^. and in the south-east of the Province in Rohtak and Hissar. the minor dominant tribes. and politically than it is numerically. in these parts occupational as much as ethnic. in accordance with the custom of the lower Indus. includes all those castes which. the will be discussed more fully when the comes under consideration. cance aside. occupy a social and political position of far less importance thiin that of the dominant tribes.^ General distribution of agricultural castes. the ceremony of ^^0^ Tcundla described in section 354. Setting these districts the Jats are to be found in greatest predominance in the great Sikh States and districts. and one or two minor castes which are perhaps rather Rajput tribes than separate castes.^ grouped under the comprehensive name of Jat.

187] people of very different social positions. while beyond the Indus it is hardly represented. and the like. the Rajput to a great In the Hill States^ with the exception of extent takes the place of the Jat. the Hindu religion being most prevalent and commerce most important. consists of the priestly. for the great mercantile castes come next after the Brahmans in strictness of religious observance but indefinitely inferior if the comparison be made from a social or political The Brahmans are naturally most numerous in the Hindu and standpoint. where they are assisted in the cultivation by a numerous class of village menials. Chamba. and in them that there is most hope for an idle man who wishes to live at the expense of his fellows. The proportion of minor dominant tribes naturally varies from district to district. who looks upon agriculture as degrading. But the figures are of no very certain significance. As a whole they occupy a position superior to that of the landowning classes if measured by a religious standard. The next great group and mercantile castes. Rajputs are few. and especially the religious element. a very large proportion of the industrial and menial work being done on the frontier by members of the dominant and agricultural tribes. but still more I suspect because it is in these districts that the wealth of the Province is concentrated. is most largely represented. said of th( minor agricultural castes. who prefers to do his own cultivation is numerous. and its numbers are tolerably constant throughout Taking the cis-Indus Panjab. the former being extraordinarily numerous in the hills where Hinduism is stronger than in any other part of the Pan jab. since the line of demarcation between Thakar and Rathi who have been classed with Rajputs. 27 and throughout the cis-Indus districts of the Western Plains^ excepting Muzaffargarh which goes with the truns-Indus . and their distribution The same may be is discussed in the section devoted to their consideration. the iSaiyads in the Musalman portions of the Province. its composition for castes as a whole. wandering pedlar. by separate They are least numerous in the sub-montane tract and in the castes. while they bear the highest proportion to total population in those tracts where the Hill Rajput. and the abnormal figures for Chamba are due to this cause. The ascetic orders are chiefly to be found in the eastern and central districts. are naturally far more numerous than the Saiyads. The mercantile castes are found in . they form the the trans-Indus districts . the professional groujo as a whole. who are but foreign immigrants in the Panjab. and Kanels and GIraths who have been classed as minor agricultural tribes. partly perhaps because they are more common among Hindus than among Mahomedans.CASTE IN THE PANJAB. and are ivnportant by their social and political position rather than by their numbers. Eastern Plains. is exceedingly difficult to draw. But it noticeable that where the Jat. Jogis. ascetic. Taking the landowning and agricultural largest proportion of the population in 361. and where. who form an integral portion of the stock from which the Hindu population has chiefly sprung.y:roup. and not. The minor professional group consists of Nais. these castes are found only in small numbers. as in the rest of the Province. General distribution of professional castes. chiefly because the Brahmans. and includes from the priestly Brahman to the — . the religious and mercantile elements of societies are most numerous. Mirasis. the group being too miscellaneous in is its distribution to present very general features. professional. its numbers decrease steadily from east to west . and this occupational restraints which I have already is due to the freedom from noticed as prevailing on the frontier.


rH rH .CASTE IN THE PANJAB. %% W iDi-iiOiNr-i^XMO foo^t^eo-^L-~d-^r-iai^t^<j> • pH (N *N 0> r^OSOSOOWSOOOO r-H O t^ »0 (M * l> GO t^ 5<l M 00 •* r-l w N o> : « rH cc 1/3 eo »i« I • TH rH rH Cq (M (M eO *N .

The tribal constitution of the population possesses much more political and administrative importance in the classification f . and this partly because. as I have already pointed out. 64 on the opposite page'^^' will serve as a clue to the arrangement of the detailed description of he various castes. the hereditary restrictions upon occupation are more lax. There the menial classes are more numerous than in the neighbouring districts because the tract is to a great extent newly settled. Among the village menial castes who perform so larg'e a part of the agricultural labour in the Panjab. the principal mercantile castes of these parts. namely the leather-workers. have risen in the social scale by the acquisition of land or at least by the substitution of husbandry for menial callings. their place is taken by the scavengers. The matter is one of considerable moment. and the nature of the results obtained. how wholly impossible class them by occupation with even approximate accuracy. and to a less degree in the Western Plains. Thus it is to the classes into which I have divided them in the abstract have no very Still certain broad facts are brought out by the figures. The last of the three groups comprises all the lower strata of society. — The rough adopted in Ai)stract No. and particularly on the Indus frontier . the trading-castes are least numerous in the hills. and land is so plentiful and the demand for agricultui'al labour so great that the lower classes have flocked into these districts. The miscellaneous class is largely composed of Kashmiris. — 368. when I come to discuss these castes in greater detail. greatest abundance in the south-western districts . and the system followed has been the subject of adverse criticism both within and without the Province. and the poor Pathan thinks it no shame to earn his bread by callings which would involve social degradation where caste-feeling is stronger but also very largely because on the lower Indus the menial who cultivates becomes a Jat by mere virtue of the fact. Arrangement and contents of the caste-chapter. The vagrant tribes are chiefly to be found in two parts of the Province. the vagrant. definite significance. and in the submontane and central districts where wealth is greatest and the standard of cultivation highest. In the centre of the Panjab. where commerce is very much in the hands of the Brahmans. and I shall show gipsy tribes. the leather-workers prevail throughout the eastern districts. and to a less degree in Hissar.so PANJAB CASTES. The menial and industrial class as a whole is most numerous in the hills where they have much of the cultivation in their hands. and the industrial classes. and in the great Kashmiri colonies of Amritsar and 362. General distribution of menial castes. the hills and the great Sikh states. whereas in the rest of the Panjab he would have retained his menial caste unaltered. and partly by the watermen. I shall close this part of the chapter by discussing the system adopted for the record of castes and tribes and their sub-division at the present Census. It is curiously scanty in the west. not because commerce is there peculiarly extensive^ but because the Aroras. A complete index of castes and tribes will be found at the end of the volume. and though retaining at present their caste unaltered. and is classed as such. are not mere traders^ but largely follow all sorts of Setting these districts aside occupations both industrial and agricultural. scavengers and watermen. border. In Sirsa. the exact opposite is the case. . criminal. who are chiefly to be found in thi districts on the Kashmir Ludhiana. the village menials. on the Rajputana border and under the central and western hills.

and it would have been sheer waste of time to attempt any such comparison. three main units of social and ethnic classification to deal with in the Panjab . In the east caste is of primary importance. and indeed it may be said that the statistics which disphiy it arc almost the most valiTable results The remaining. 29.CASTE IN THE PANJAB.000 Musalman Jats returned for the Multan division. and even conflicting statements may have escaped my notice. 31 Panjab than in most other parts of Northern India. and what I have for want of a better word called the section of the caste. and a description of the caste so far as my knowledge enaljles me to describe it. of 205. Thus I shall often be found to repeat myself.000 in J hang. l^eginning from the end.000 in Montgomery. the sequence of ideas will often appear to be broken and irregular. been wi-itten. Among the agricultural . and new There was no time to re-write what had once facts were brought to light.parts of the chapter will he devoted to of a Panjab Census. Maps showing the distribution of the landowning castes and tribes have been prepared for each district and state and though it would have been impossible without great delay and expense to reproduce them with the present Report. a perusal of tlie foregoing paragraphs will have made it clear that we have . . T. and only 63 in Multan.000 are in Muzaffargarh. It is not only that our knowl'nlge is as nothing compared with our ignorance of the subject that is unavoidable. and indeed I have carried out this intention to some extent with regard to the Biloch and Pathan tribes. tribes the time allowed me was too short to permit of any such treatment of the subject and I was compelled to arrange the castes roughly in classes and to content myself with stating the leading facts regarding each. In Dera Ismail Khan and Shahpur this column is actually blank. the caste or race. 17. One apparent omission in my treatment of the subject calls for a word of explanation. 188] 159. Detailed tables of tribes and clans are now in course of preparation which will embody all the sub-divisions of castes entered in the schedules of the present Census. I find that in the Census of 1868. Now these three units are of very different value in different parts of the Province and among various classes of the_ community. an examination of the figures for each caste. But 1 have to feel that of the information that I have collected only a portion has been utilised^ while even that portion has been hastily put on record without any attempt to arrange or dio-est the I had intended to make some attempt at classification of the material. To take one instance only. As I proceeded with the work faults in the classification became only too apparent. the tribe proper. and all that I could do was to add the new to the old. But the present chapter must be taken as only a rough preliminary outline of the suljject. 364. and I have not been able even to read over again what I had written before sending it to press. various castes based in some measure upon what appeared to be their ethnic affinities. and to examine carefully the question of the probable origin of each with the help of the whole of my material . The chap<"er has been written backwards. new lights were thrown upon what had gone before. the sections on which were written before orders regarding the early comBut as regards the remaining castes and pletion of the report were received. But I found that the classification followed in 1868 had so evidently varied from district to district that the figures were devoid of any determinate meaning. among the landowning com- munities of the west it is little more than a tradition of ancient origin. The crudencss and imperfection of this portion of the work are to me a source of great regret. I had prepared tables comparing the caste figures of the present with those of the last Census. Scheme adopted for the record of castes and tribes— Unless I have utterly failed to express tlie iacts. I hope that the material thus collected will be more fully utilised on some future occasion.

''got ya considting Commissioners we translated our headings shdJch. was the tribe or sub-division of the caste and that the people could probably have given readily enough. filled up by District and Settlement Officers from all parts of the Province. " and I did not rightly estimate the relation between the Eajput But the worst mistake of all was the use of tribes of tl.32 classes PANJAB CASTES.' zdt ya firqah. who told him he was of " the Pethinesi got. To these instructions was appended a sample schedule lilled up by M-ay of example. If we had a-ked for two only we should have run the risk of afterwards to select our figures. " and •' got or among We In the east the first difficulty we encountered was the translation of the-e headings. whatever it might have been. but " tliat some one in the village had consulted the Brahmans at Nirmand. After usl qav. as is the case in a very lai-ge number of cases. " Xow all this trouble was obviously caused liy asking for i\\G gotra. The addition of asl the wjrd asl or " original " with ca<te. for got or -^hakh but the people knew what a got was. and consulted many natives of different castes. In the east qot is the universal word for trilie among the peasantry. Agarwal in the second. And the use of the word got set people to find out what was the Brahminical gotra of the person under enumeration. would hare returned himself as Khatri Kapur and the other as Khatri Charzati . What was needed was to substitute tlie local term. It did not matter that I had asked for <]ot or shdkh. the columns were there with separate headings. everywhere it is used by Brahmans.Faujab and the great huh or royal races. insomuch that the na. Ghatwal. And another most fertile cause of error mu^t have been tlie ettbrts that were made to attain uniformitv. " " dan. Gaur. and the use of the word " got. zdt for tribe or clan. Another great cause of error was the insistence with which the Census Staff demanded that all three columns should he filled up for each person. or other stock from which they are so fond of claiming descent . In the eastern districts the word was perfectly understood. of two Brahman brothers one would have appeared as Brahman Sarsut and the other as Brahman Gautama . as Eajput or Pathan was to be shown in the first. and that an uncommon one. The better and more intelligent " classes know their /7o/ . in the west it is unknown >ave in the latter sense. Ml". there were errors in for I had not propei'ly apprehended the nahire of the very examples given in the instructi us what I have called " sections. and what I said I wanted plainly enough in the instructions. the priestly and mercantile classes il is almost meaningless. and it was explained that the original caste column was intended to contain. of two Bilot-h brothers one would have lieeu recorded as Biloch Rind and the other as Biloch Laghari . and others did ncit wish to be behind them.' The instructions issued for filling up these columns will be found in general letter C. or tribe as it now stands. . " induced many of the tribes of the western districts and Salt-range Tract to return. and what we want is the section Wliat we did was to attempt to record all three facts. .i. used for religion and z/it for caste in the west qaum for caste.. * ' Errors in the record of castes and tribes. The headman of the village when asked " of what got he wa~.Tat and Gujar as names of occupations. The latter word is not commonly used in connection with family or tribe . Banyas and the like for the Brahminical gotra . at section 13 of the enclosed instructions to enumerators and at section 25 Tlieir general tenour was that the caste or race such of the enclosed instructions to supervisors. The result i« that many of the Jats entered as the third bending the name of the Rajput tri))e from wliicli they claim to liave sprung. not their caste. More than this. The staff was warned against the loose use of the terms . and the whole village followed him. but the ilughal. ' ' ' . . Kureshi. the former is In Plach and every enumerator insisted upon each person having a got.m.. and one after another the District Officers in their reports point out the difficulty of getting entries for all three." Now qaum is . not the caste of traditional origin. and in the west it is the one great fact to be ascertained . sept. Bliaradwai in the that the . AVhat I wanted. Anderson found a village all tutored as of one _9'o#ra. l)ut that did not mattter . and I knew nothing of any portion of the Panjab had no conception how utterly different the divisions of the population and the relations between For my sample schedule I procured specimens tribe and caste were in the west of the Province. In many districts committees weje 365.iputs call their royal races not kult hut gots . its principal section such as Bind. tliese instructions . yet there were several mistakes in the schedule in fact I believe it would be impossible to frame a set of entries which should not contain errors if judged by the varying standards current in different parts of the Panjab. Of two Khatri brothers one getting one we did not want and missing one that we did want. the tribe is most important. therefore divided tabulation would liave given u< wholly meaningh'ss and imperfect figures. our caste column into three sub-columns headed ' original caste or tribe. even if they did not know what was their got. the reason being that in many cases there were only facts enough f'lr two. and it doubtless tempted many imdoubted Jats to record their Rajput origin. where they existed. I had said that I only wanted two entries where there was no >ccond sub-division. "On " inquiry from the people themselves they said they really did not know what was their got. intending of the caste. . but the actual caste to whicli tlie people were recognized as now bidonghig. and lieuce the confusion. .— I should explain that when I drafted except the Jamna districts. As for the local term for smaller tribes or clans they vary almost from district to district and from caste to caste. section 5. . Appendix D.9. could not even pronounce tlie word. and its secondary sub-section such as Chauhan.^'o^ if there was any was always to go into the third column and that third column where tliere was only one division the second column was to he left empty. But in tine hills and in the Western Plains it is only used in the sense of gotra.

difflcultles of a record of caste. but the Census economy prohibited the employment of men of this stamp. Answer. information. " Bhattis are Rajputs. 1 have had no experience in the Panjab east of the Having spent three years in Gujrat. is entered in the first of the " three sub-divisions of column 7 I noticed many entries of this description. " There are a considerable number of Mahomedan Piajputs in the Western Panjab. Dhunds. and shoe-making is his trade. ' some" times ' Syal ' the clan.. I do not deny that the " three columns could be filled up correctly for each caste by an intelligent enumerator who " understood exactly what was wanted. : ' " Similar errors crept into the entries of the village artisans. Now any member of these tribes if asked what his ' kaum ' was " would reply Bhakhral or Sati. would ensure with absolute certainty the ruin of a caste Census as au independent means of acquiring . " in the Rawalpindi Division. * This is p tit—Funwdr one of the mistakes Sid I. Mr. and that it is often impossible to draw a clearly marked line between two castes of similar standing. and " other similar tribes . Bhakhrals. I think Eavi. especially those of Rajput origin. Yet many of these I have no doubt will be put down as weavers " in the * asl kaum ' column. Panwar. The entries opposite the name of Mahomed Ibrahim are 1. but in the case of agriculturists I think more definite instructions would " ha\o left the tabulation entries nuich more trustworthy. ' P]duoated natives are almost more apt tlian we ourselves to go wrong iu such mattersj for we at least are free from prejudice and are ready to admit our ignorance and a comniittco composed of the Tahsildars and Extra Assistants of a district with power to decide upon the entries of caiites and tribes. What is your tribe (A. I define a caste I quote the passage iu full : " " " " the exception of the three columns relating to caste no difficulty was found in filling the schedules up. and 2 in Dera Ismail Khan.e. A Syal would be sure to answer thus. — * ' " I now venture to criticise some of the specimen entries attached to the enumerator's in" structions. lield 33 and n sclicine of entries decided upon and prescribed for the guidance of all enumerators. as the case might be. Question. Bharwana Question. that the zemindars know far " more about their ancestry and ti'ibal divisions tliat they actually do. have heard they are descended from I wonder if there are ten men who '' this got of the Rajput tribe. oil-presser. danger of all such attempts in my section ou Difticulties and Suggestions in Chapter XIII under the head ' Discretion to be allowed iu enumeration.family {got or «' shdlch) ? his sub-division as his asl kaum Answer. &c.ers an enumerator would get from a «' representative Syal zamindar. Jodras. If the Mochi was a Janjiiha originally his asl kaum ' is Rajput. &c. or men of low caste " who have risen in the world. He will inevitably give — — — — — -. that my remarks will apply to the Mahomcdan population of most districts west of the " With " Chenab.' Entries of this description naturally depreciate the tabulation results considerably. You would iu nine " cases out of ten have to put some distinctly leading question before you ascertained whether he " claimed to be a Rajput or not. or shoe-maker without being a weaver. I know exactly what ausv. sets forth the difficulties so ably and completely that attainment. In fact the tribe proper is afar more definite and permanent unit than the caste. Rajput . or shoe-maker. " In Jhang weaving had been taken to as a livelihood by many persons who were not "of the weaver tribe.. Alpials.. Shekhs.— But even supposing that I had not umde instructions and examples.— CASTE IN THE PANJAB. as Mr. St^edmau. Finlay very truly wrote. by caste. If he is a Janjuha by fiction then "Janjuha must be put down as he states. Syal . What is yoiu. " These three columns assume. converted H Indus. and who was acquainted with the tribes whose members " he had to enumerate ." — I have already referred to. known as Syals " or Chaddhars in Jhang.^ «' he IB a Panwar Rajpvit. In fact most of " the Rajputs of this district would give Rajpiit as their got.— QtoHi only knows. oil-presser. A man may ply the trade of a " weaver. Janjuhas. Shekhs. The result is that sometimes Rajput the ' asl kaum. &c. I have discussed tlu. Again men of these low castes are very fond of claiming " relationship with the higher tribes. Inherent in any mistakes my have attempted to show in the preceding pages that it is almost impossible to aud difficult to define a tribe. Awan. " his zat Janjuha. aud sometimes Chachkana the sept or family. Or he might very probably give the " sub-division to which he belonged.iBe of village artisans. ' placing their tribe as the ' asl " kaum. Syal. 2.aM»i) ? •' Question. and supposing that they had been rigidly followed according to their intention. What is your clan (xdt) ? Answer. It will be understood that my remarks regarding these three columns are solely applicable to the Western Panjab. the difficulties inheieut iu the case are still so enormous that a really accurate record which should be correct in all its details wouhl have been quite beyond hope of 366. i. «' I can confidently assert that not one man in a hundred of the Syals is aware that 3. I saw many entries " such as these 'asl kaum' Mochi Now Janjuhas and zat ' Janjuha. Satis. 3J in Jhang. The «iUtry should have been ^' Mdj' . Bhatti. &c. who has criticised the scheme more severely and at greater length than any other officer. Budhals. also advance most ungrounded claims in the way of descent " Apparently there is no escape from these difficulties in the c.

I do not think much is gained by working out returns showing the total popnlation " of the Bharwana. all other agriculturists must be Jats . another as Rdjput Bhatti. or descendants of the son-in-law of the prophet as the Shahpur Khokbars state. and then the tribesmen " are quit« unaware that their tribal name is that of their old get. Steedman in his . As it was. aiid Bugdial families. What arc the asl Tcaums in each district ? I notice that in one of the " specimen entries Gujar is so entered. Are they converted Rajputs as many " claim. but if they are not I ask who are the numerous " tribes who reside in the Chach and Siud Sagar Doabs and along the left hank of the Chanab ? "What is their as/ Tcanm'^ Their Hindu origin is undoubted. proposal Who is to issue detailed instructions concerning the agricultural tribes of each district. I think too for the " Mahomedan population two columns would have been enough. The truth is that the present Mahomedan trihes of the Western Pan. we sh( uld have tabulated them all separately. or mere " Jats as their enemies allege. As for ' got ' he prohahly has never heard " the word. and also to give a few general instructions " as to how doubtful tribes were to be treated.. In " Jhang and D era Ismail Khan and Sliahpur the JMahomedan agriculturists are usually divided " into Rajputs and Jat? in local parlance. one of our three C'^himns was commoidy occupied by the name of some wholly unimportant sept or family. Nothing less than a direct question as to whether he is a Eajput or a his dan as his zdf. They are not Rajputs. Ghakkar. I have not room here to go fully into this question. and if it had been possible to carry it out to the end as very conit had been intended to do when the instructions were framed. and a third as Qutbshahi Khattar. Chvichkana. but " every Patwari and most zamindars would understand what is meant. by recording all three and rejecting for three facts were available and one ourselves the useless one otherwise if we had had two columns only. There are various theories as to whether the Gujar is a " separate tribe of Tartar or Hindu oridr. while a Jat admits that he is a member of the tribe. Here the enumerators would he warned to ask the '' I would individual whether he was a Kamin by trade only or both by trade and tribe. excluding Rajputs and other tribes who ha\e migrated from the other side of the " Indus. They are " an inflnential tribe in Jhelam. In the second case only can they be an asl kaum. and Awan " population. another as Awan Kbattar. If in the " tabulation of different districts the tribe is sometimes entered as an asl kaum ' and at others as " a branch of the Rajput and Jat tribes. and then classed them as might be decided upon after cons. to issue them . Who are these ? '' It is not unlikely that they were the original inhabitants before the immigration of the Hindu " settlers. asked whether he is a Jat " he will at once denv it. the enumerator being warned " of the custom of calling all agriculturists Jats. one of them might have been wasted on the useless fact. If' they " were they would claim their relationship. The question Are you a Rajput or a Jat ? would " clear up most cases of doubt where the tribe was originally Hindu. Firozal. the Reasons why the scheme did not work. As far as my limited experience goes I think it would be an easy matter to settle this " point beforehand for all the main tribes of each district. thing. the results are likely to be misleading. I " have noticed it in the Final Report of the Jbang Settlement." ' We I have already explained the reason why three columns were taken instead of two. Then again there " are tribes who are admittedly of ancient standing and yet have no traditions. There are no restrictions on " iotermarriage between members of the different families. It seern'^ unnecessary to ascer" tain the numbers of each sub-division. though " iramigratits from Hindustan. supposing one man bad entered himself as Jat Bhatti and as the final ca-^te table. as Jat^. to tabulate "all the entries.' Take the Khokbars.' In some few instances only is the name of the flot ' preserved.-jah. ' the Pathans. Muglials. wanted two facts only . The village Kamins '' would al=o be included in the same list. and /^f-ii to classify them throughout and produce the results Thus. But my object is I think attained. We want to know the total Syal. lertitiun and inquiry. I think that on the whole the scheme was Ihat could have been adopted . And I do not agree with Mr. I mean that if a Rajput i-. Adnial. " Jat will elicit from him the fact that he is a Eajput. I believe that results of Wliat was intended was this to record everysiderable accuracy would have beou obtained. and how is it to be ensured that the same tribe is classed similarly in two districts ? (Cerent 867. " and that is to indicate how vcr^' nece-^sary it is that instructions should be given separately for "each district as to « hat tribes are to be considered' Asl kavun. I do not mean to " assert that. &c. and Gujrat. or one man as Qureshi Khattar. l)ut we hoped that it would all be recorded b( st — — 1 Would not this suggest to the artisan the setting up for himself of a mythical origin from ? some aaste of glorious renown . but we wanted to make sure of getting them in the many cases where was not wanted. Then all tribes who came from the other side of '' the Indus would also be ' a«l kaum. or whether it is an offshoot of the great Jat tribe. It was not expected that the material would l)e properly arranged in tl c schedules . have forgotten their 'pots' entirely and very often their' asl " kaum.84 " and PANJAB CASTES.' they were not Rajpvits and who were of '' arbitrarily class all agriculturists who admitted that " undoubted Hindu origin. This clas'^ification is perhaps not ethnologically accurate.' ' ' ' " The next question is. Biloches. Shahpur.

range tract. the principles on which the selection was made being explained in the Cliapter on Compilation. or Mughal. while the subI certaiidy had not. Still almost all the large numbers have been separated from these two entries. but only certain selected entries were taken out to bo used in the Census Report. But I have picked out the figures in each case and put them side by side in the ah-tracts contained in the Fcction on these two castes. 369. been done. and I do not believe that any divisions were nnmlicred by tens of thousands. tlie very faintest conception of how numerous the entries would be. Rajput. These errors however aifect only those cases where the tribe was returned and not the caste. as corrected in this chapter. but their claim to the name is often admitted. But there are exceptions to this statement. he was treated as such although the tribe he gave might raise suspicion as to the correctness of the returns. that some tribes or castes have been wrongly shown as Mughal and Shekh . The great mass of each caste returned themselves rightly and are shown correctly in our tables the items that are wrongly clashed are wholly insignificant in their total amount as compared with the items that are rightly classed. The In the Dcrajat he is IShatti is a Rajput in Rawalpindi because there Rajputs are recognised. persons who belonged to the same tribe and returned that tribe as their caste will have been diiSerently classed in difPerent divisional offices. for reasons given in the Chapter on Tabulation. anu unt to this . and that some ot the artisan castes have been shown as belonging to the higher castes. and what was done was to deal with the entries in the first or caste column only. such as Sial. 368. and they have become in a way affiliated to the nation. recent converts to Islam. Many people. body else concerned had. and are shown under those headings respectively in the final tables. or classed under one heading in one division and returned separately and then classed by myself under another heading in another division. a Jat. would return themselves as Shekh . returned their caste as Paoli or Tarkhan. and hardly affect the general distribution of the population by caste. to allow the Divisional Officers to class'fy for themselves where there appeared to be no reasonable doubt as to the classification. that all sorts of low caste men. other parts of the Province. At any rate it was obviously quite out of the ((uestion to tabulate and examine them all before compilation . which exists in actual fact fully as much as in the figures . because there no distinction is drawn between Jat and Rajput. according to individual taste. And it must be remembered that though the cases in which the errors detailed above occurred are numerous^ the total figures affected are seldom large. which therefore do not give the total niimbcr of Gakkhars in the Panjab. and I think the error which has not been It is now in each man's power to transfer the corrected may be taken as exceedingly fmall. there. Thus the considerable errors in the caste tables. d2 . who were following the trade of weaver or carpenter.— The figures for tribes and The manner in Bub-divisions given in this chapter are professedly only rough approximations. while the Derajat returned them separately and I classed them as Pathans. The distinction between Jat and Eajpiit is so irdefinite and so variable that it can hardly be This however has called a mistake to class a tribe as Jat in one place and Rajput in another. and I have not was as favourite a supposititious origin as Shekh is had the details worked out so carefully. that there is a confusion between Jat and Rajpvit and between Pathdn and certain allied races. and I had the figures examined with a view to separate these. and the details will be found in But I did not know that in some parts of the western Panjab Mughal the text of this chapter. such as Dilazak. But when we came to examine the schedules we found that the separate entries in the caste column alone were numbered by thousands. I believe there were thousands of so-called castes returned in the Multan division which only included ten or fifteen people in the whole division. ' : m as a whole the errors are probably insignificant. have returned themselves as Path<ans who do not really belong to the race . Khokhar. so far as the compilation of the final Census Table VIII was concerned. The figures for the sub-divisional entries were tabulated in detail . There were certainly hundreds. So some low caste men returned their caste as Eajpiit or Mughal or Quiesh out of joke ' a-i several Deputy Commissioners note. For instance. though the adoption of that hereditary occupation had been in many cases too recent to have brought about a change of caste. The other figures for any tribe from Jat to Rajpiit or vice versd. Moreover the errors. —Thus the figures as now given in the abstracts and appendices of this report are liable to error in several ways. For Shekhs I was prepared. On the other hand some men of good caste. Again. So with Pathims. In the first place many members of a caste or tribe entered as their caste some race to which they are pleased to refer their origin in remote antiquity. This last error was for the most part confined to the Western Plains.CASTE IN THE PANJAB. With tlie headings for which tliey returned separate figures I dealt as is described in the Cliapter on Compilation. where the tendency to claim Mughal origin Taking the Province m Error in the figures for tribes and sub-divisions. if they must he so called. Nature and degree of error in the flnal figures. Pathan and so forth. I knew chief exceptions are in the case of Mughals and Shekhs. to 35 be arranged afterwards. do represent actual facts. They are probably greatest in the cis-Indus Saltstrongest. Avhile some of the higher castes have been included in the artisan castes merely because they followed their occupation. Thus the Bhattis will have been classed as Jats by the Dcrajat and as Eajputs by the Eawalpindi office. So the Langahs were classed as Jats in Multan. Even those entries I was comjielled. Where a man returned himself as Jat. some Gakkhars returned themselves as Gakkhar and others as Mughal.

another 1. and would head them Quam and ShdJch. Sir H. a mine of information regarding the castes of the eastern districts.000 as Rajput Punwar. and other figures wrongly omitted because of some variation Another source of error doubtles-: was the uncertainty regarding the in the spelling. occurred most often with the Jat tribes. figures referring to two different tribes must often have been .-joined together. Brahman Bashisht instead of Brahman Sarsiit. 36 PANJAB CASTES. It will 370. rather tb an the confusion and perplexity which the three columns cause to those concerned in the enumeration. a^ rendered by the enumerating staff. aud those the most important from an administrative point of view. and sucli people appear among the Jat tribes both as Sidhu and as Bhatti. 1 hope that the task will be made much easier by next Census. But 1 do not think they worked as well in practice. as Dhariwiil. I would let the patwaris. the first place the spelling of local names ol" tribes. edited by Mr Beames. Suppose tbat 1. though those for females must he tabulated in the first instance in order to allow of transfer of entries from one caste heading to another. or at least the numbers I had all cases iu which the same people were entered twice over shown in a affected small. The detailed tabulation is now in progress. and arrange them in order of numbers . What then is best to be done at next Census ? be seen that many of the difficulties are due to the intrinsic difficulty of the question and to the varying nature of caste in the Pan jab. before compiling his final caste tables. I would tabulate both males and females for tribes and clans. and more esjiecially in those of recent Unfortunately they deal almost exclusively with the landowning and cultivating castes. In crept into the wcrk of tabulation. exercise their discretion about entering high castes for menials or artisans. is. so far as it goes. so that we had peDple retiirning tliemselves ai Jat Sidhu Bhatti. Elliott's Races of the N. in order to fill up their three columns. But on the whole I think it would be better to accept the fact that the entries must ho incomplete. . auother thousand as Sial Puuwar. In very many cases it would not. and so forth. acquainted with tlie names of the clans.hin the next few years to bring out Rut beiides inaccuracies that will have detailed tables of tribes and clans for the whole Panjab. in two columns. Dhaliwal and Dbaniwal some I knew ito represent separate tribes.000 in all. which they were tahulated and the final figures compiled will he explained iu Book 1 1 under the heads Tabulation and Compilation. 1881 are almost perfect in theory. . but the second and third being infinitely less so . years. whatever scheme be adopted . Above all things I would avoid the words asl and oot. and I hope wii. woman's clans discussed iu section 354. while the whole is rendered much less useful than it might be by the absence On the ancient form of the institution of any index save one that maddens the anxious inquirer. Banya Kasih instead of Banya Agarwal. On a future occa-iou I would tabiJate subAgain many of the people are presented twice over divisions of castes for males only. This was quite unavoidable so long as only one tribal division was tabulated . as the classified list would show the tabulator how to class the tribe J and I would hope that the second column at any rate would generally give tribe. Thus iu future I would have but two columns. — . Sara and Sarai.. I believe that the three columns which tliey erroneously tliought thoy were hound to fill up. who. of the Panjab castes is to be found in tlie numerous Settlement Reports. entered the Rajput tribe from which they claimed origin as well as their own Jat tribe. The way in which they will facilitate the treatment of the subject is explained in the section on Tabulation. In one respect. and a fourth 1. Sherring's Ilindu Castes contains much information of a sort. returned themselves as Rajput Punwar Sial. There would be entries like Biloch Rind instead of Biloch Laghari. If I had had such a classified list my task on this occasion would have been easy enough and it is I think one of the most valuable results of the present Census that it has given us Witli such a list the three columns of the schedule of materials for the preparation of such a list.000 Table' VIII as Rtljput Punwar or 6. This double entry siderable I have mentioned the fact of their double inclusion in the text. separate memorandum attached to the tribes table.000 All the 4. The most detailed and accurate information available in print regarding certain. directing them to show the caste by which tlie people were commonly known in the village. Proposals for next Census. I hope by then to have brought out classified lists of all the tribes and clans returned in the present Census. P. . and caused a good many of our difficulties. varied extraordinarily. puzzled both people and staff.000 Sials Thus the Sial are Puuwar Eajpiits by origin.. however. and would prefer the certainty of error of the two columns. I would show in njy tribal tables tlie figures for males only. Bibliography.000 people would be shown iu as Eajpiit Sial. W. as Biita and Bhutta. — 371. So far as this is the case no scheme will help us. hut as a fact the cases in which this happened were few. Such an examination would do an immense deal towards increasing the accuracy of the caste figures but it was impossible in tlie pi'esent Census owing to the double sub-division.000 Sial and 3. Chhi'na and Clu'ma some I an\ In working with a staff not always still in doubt about. but in the details of tribes we should have 3. I would not care whether caste or tribe was entered in the first column. Some were evidently mere variations. and 1 would have the Deputy Superintendent personally examine the tribal tables for all above say 500. The whole process was intended to he mei'ely a rough one. there are several causes of error inherent in the material. as Sidhu and Sindhu. the first volume being really valuable. who shoiild make the preliminary record. and wherever the numljers were at all con.

and Vol. or indeed regarding any of the menial and outcast classes. At the head of the section on Pathaus and Biloches I have noticed the books which may be most usefully consulted.CASTE IN THE PANJAB. and there are many small pamphlets which contain useful information. But on the whole it is wonderful how little has been published regarding the specially Panjab castes. Campbell's Indian Ethnology I have not seen . but it should be instructive. In the case of the other castes I know of no works that deal with any one particidar. or indeed with our Paiijab casi^es iu general save those specilied above. . Sir Geo. Wilson's treatise on Indian Caste. The second volume of General Cunningham's ArcJiceological Reports has a dissertation on Punjab Ethnology by way of introduction. 37 of Caste. I of Muir's Sanskrit Texts are the authorities.

65 below Abstract No. . showing Biloches. AND ALLIED 372.— THE BILOCH. Pathans. and with them two or three races found in tho Province only in small numbers whichj though not Pathan by origin or indeed in name. PATHAN.— Of the Panjab castes and tribes I shall [P. have by long associa- tion with the Pathans become so closely assimilated to them that it is : best to take them here. I9i] discuss the Biloch and Pathan who hold all our trans-Indus frontier. The figures will be found in Abstract No. and Allied Races for Districts and States. PART II. 65.— 38 panjab castes. RACES. first Introductory and General.

Districts AND ALLIED RACES.BILOCH. . and Allied Races for and States— conchded. Pathans. 65. PATHAN. 39 Abstract No. showing Biloches.

Yet restrictions of caste. 373. have caused their example to produce a wonderful effect upon the neighbouring Indian races . These two great races present many features of unusual interest. far more than to the mere political supremacy of a Mahomedan dynasty or adoption of the Mahomedan creed. constantly recurring among the various tribes as the name of clans who are wholly distinct from one another. Among both the tribal organisation still siu'vives^ in parts at least. often called Mirkhel among the Pathans. Mongol. which we found to be the practice on some parts of the frontier when we annexed the Panjab. Political considerations rendered it far more important to obtain lor administrative purposes fairly correct statistics of tlic Eiloch and Pathan tribes than of the more settled tribes of the cis-lndus Panjab. many of the entries did not show full details of the tribe and clan. and after a time invents a fiction There can of common descent by which to account for their presence. and other elements have in a similar manner been absorbed into the tribal or caste organisation of the Aryan stock. I may however mention two of theu' most striking customs. I attribute the laxity of caste rules and observances which characterises the people of our Western Plains. and their freedom from the irksome and artificial the comparative license which their tribal customs permit them in the matter of intermarriage. and my own ignorance of the subject so comi)lete. foiiunately we know but little of them. such for instance as the dedication by passing under spears of the fighting men of the tribe when about to go to war. The difficulties mainly arose from three causes. who have the exclusive privilege of performing certain priestly functions connected. The point has already been noticed in section 347. while it still exists in full force among both the Biloches and the Pathans of Independent Territory. not with the !Mahomedan religion but with tribal ceremonies. the prevalence of the vesh or periodical distribution of land among the comi)onent households of a clan. be little doul^t that the process which we know has taken j)lace among the Pathan and Biloch has not been without examj^les among the other races of the Panjab. though it is not impossible that in doing so the Pathans only re-entered a country which their ancestors had left more than a thousand years ago. Pathan and the care with which they keep up their genealogies. in the most complete integrity. are both foreigners in the Pan jab boundaries within the last few hundred years. and it is the proximity of these races. In the first place the same T\ord is. enable us to point to both nations for undoubted examples of the process by which a race possessed of pride of blood in an extreme degree affiliates to itself sections of other races. It is the existence of a Levitical clan. The Pathans and the Biloches its political proper. and have entered 874. and what little information I have been able to collect I have not had leisure to record in the following One is pages. The second custom is also one common to both nations. gives them a place in its tribal organisation on condition only of subjection to the sitpreme authority. But when 1 took up the question I found the difficulties fo great. Thirdly. to which. Secondly. the same clan. especially among the Biloches. and the force of that example daily set before them by nations living next door. is affiliatt'd to a larger tribe in one district wliilc in another it forms a distinct tribe of itself. especially among the Pathans. Tabulation of tribal statistics. and that aboriginal. that I obtained the sanction of Government to have these figures compiled by the Deputy Commissioners of the frontier districts. and the only hope of classing such entries rightly — . though not I believe to all their tribes. Some of the Unsocial and tribal customs of these people are exceedingly curious. and affords lis examples of one extreme of that series which terminates at the other in the compact village communities of our jMoreover the intense tribal feeling of the Biloch and eastern districts. often only giving the Dames of the sept or family .40 PANJAB CASTES.

Each and clans for which he wished to obtain the other districts concern- separate figures for his own district. BILOCH. and several Deputy Commissioners recommended that Untwal.. and I had to rewrite it as best I could with very incomplete materials. : — rp inoT -• The Biloch presents in many respects 376. S. 18^). Fryers' Settle' ment Report of Derah Ohdzi Khdn and 'M. Pi'rozpur. Amritsar. as Biloch. Meaning of Biloch —Bibliography. a nation which traces (1) holds the lower Sulemaus . the word Biloch is u-ed for any Musalman camelman whatever be his caste. For other districts and for Native States tlie figures were compiled to the best of our ability in the Central OlHce in accordance with the joint list already mentioned. The political organia very strong contrast with his neighbour the Pathan. but in all these districts except the first five the word is used for camelmeu also. Sarbau. Rawalpindi. 1S71) chiefly statistical. It is almost certainly of The Pathan tribe will be noticed under the Pathaus of Derah Ismail. Frontier give most valuable accounts of the iJiloch tribes . Douie. and Sbahpur. a great part of the MS. it is impossible to say how many of the men returned as Biloch because they keep camels arc of true Biloch origin. many of ray notes had been destroyed. of the tribes The system adopted was as follows. and the figures were tabulated in accordance with that joint list. (3) Any Musalman camelman except in the extreme east and the extreme west of tlie Panjab . Description of tlie Biloch. 18). sation of each is tribal . and Jalandhar divisions. reported in Dehli. and Dames' Biloch Vocabulary (J. and Bannu. B. and Rawalpindi .' -Tlio : Pan jab to denote the following people — word Biloch origin is variously used in the now The Biloch proper. Rohtak. and A criminal tribe settled in the great jungles below Thanesar. The headmen of these people are called Malik. is in all probability a small body of true Biloches who have become affiliated to the Pathans. Douie had left India and Biloch than that given in the following pages.. lay in having the classifioatiou AND ALLIED RACES. joint list A THE BILOCH (CASTE 375. and by no means free from error. (4) A small Pathan tribe of Derah Ismai'l Khan. But in the upper grazing grounds of the Western Plaius the Biloch settlers have taken to the grazing and breeding of camels rather than to husbandry . No. The Biloch tribal figures were then compiled on tlic spot in the two Derails and Mu/affargarli. Karnal. In Sirsa we have Punwar Rajputs from Multan who are known as Biloch because they keep camels. moi'c properly called Baliich. was lost in the office . but while the one yields a very large measure of obedience to a chief who is a sort of limited monarchj the other recognises no Both have most of the virtues and authority save that of a council of the tribe. and a very short time in which to — complete it. PATHAN. Liidhiana. (2) its from the direction of Makran. . chiefly in the Lahore division. A. Gujranwala. To both hospitality ' I had. W. Amritsar. many of the vices peculiar to a wild and semi-civilised life. tribe will be described under vagraut and gisjiy tribes. Gm'gaon. and I have classed some five hundred Musalmans who returned themselves under this name. he sent copies to all 41 made on list Deputy Commissioner ed.ACi^vGgox's Gazetteer of the N. and thus the word Biloch has become associated with the care of camels. di'ew up a the spot. excluding the Multan and Derajat divisions. The following books will be found to contain information regarding the Biloch nation Hughes' Bilochistdn. Hissar. and the figures cannot be separated. IX. Settlements of Biloches proper are. insomuch that throughout the Peshawar. Of this list was then drawn up incluilinjj all tribc^ or clans mentioned in any one of these district list<. It also true Biloch stock. written a far more complete account of the But after Mr. Douie's BilocJii jK^imaA translated . and those for Patbans in the Peshawar Uivi-iion. both including collections of Bilochi folklore. be a camelman and every Bibliography. Our figures for the most part refer to the true Biloch of the lower frontier and to their represcn* tatives who are scattered throughout the Panjab. a useful compilation of perha]is somewhat doubtful authority Brace's Memorandum on tlie Derah Ohdzi District (Panjab Selections. with the valuable assistance of Mr. while the Settlement Reports of those other districts in which Biloches are found in any numbers contain much useful information. every Biloch being supposed to The criminal Mahomedan camelman to be a Biloch. Pottiugcr's r^areis «w 5-j7ocAisf<f« and iS'iM(i/» and Massous' Travels in the same countries. Lahore. and Biloch should be taken together as one caste. Derail Isniai'L Khan.

will keep her a quarter of each year for each leg of which he is master.'''' If he cannot afford a whole mare he will own as many legs of one as he can manage . the women and children of his enemy are safe from him. is dropped A into his mouth from the point of a sword before he is given the breast. obliged to wear a coloured uniform. ' a perpetual . his features finely cut. faithful to his word. knife and shield . As TheTe is. but the houses are of the poorest possible description. servility. a " stone or cairn of cursing. though one very different from that of modern Europe . the Biloeh mar« having four legs. in the hills above Haraud. after which she passes on to the owner of the remaining legs. frock reaching to his heels and pleated about the waist. As a revenue payer he is not so satisfactory.— 42 PANJAB CASTES. a proverb " A with his saddle on a horse has his saddle on his head. both as the first duty of man . and looking upon courage as the highest virtue. the time Biloeh is nomad in his habits he does not seclude his women . His frame is shoiter and more spare and wiry than that of his neighbour to the north . as degrading. and. her and she plaits her hair in a long queue. and he is very filthy in person. and whose But the one attacks his enemy from in front. clothes may be red or white . the prophet is Mahomet. " God " will not favour a Biloeh who does not steal and rob and " the Biloeh who '' But he has steals recures heaven to seven generations of his ancestors. and the Biloeh breed of horses is and less of Till quite lately he killed his colts celebrated throughout Northern India. he wears a smock effeminacy. the one is bound by his promises. and the woman hangs herself by order. the true Biloeh of the Derajat frontier is one of the pleasantest men we have to deal with in the Panjab. both follow strictly exaction of " blood for blood a code of honoui* of their own. insomuch that he will not enter our army because he would there be His wife wears a sheet over her head. but he is extremely jealous of female honour. less bloodhe has less of God in his creed thirsty. child is born to him. symbolical of pertinacity. and his preference for mares is expressed in the man with his sa^ldle on a mare has his saddle on a horse . making him but a poor husbandman. though generations of independence have given to him too a Frank and open in his manners and without bold and manly bearing. considering cleanliness as a mark of He usually carries a sword.''' become much more honest under the civilising influences of our rule. when on the war-trail. and the pride which looks upon manual labour He is an expert rider. and his nose aquiline . his want of industry. In the plains he has settled in small When a male villages . and all these must be white or as near it as dirt will allow of." erected as memorial of the treachery of one who betrayed his fellow. 377. ass^s dung in water. for he says. in short. he wears his hair long and usually in oily curls and lets his beard and whiskers gTOw. temperate and enduring. less treacherous. and less fanatical than the Pathan : the devil in his nature. fairly truthful when not corrupted by our Courts. horse-racing is his national amusement. as soon as they were born . and wide drawers . The Biloeh of the hills lives in huts or temporary camps. a long sort of nightgown reaching to her ankles. In cases of detected Even adultery the man is killed. He is a thief by tradition and descent.^ the other by his interests . " man '''' His face is long and oval. loose drawers and a long cotton scarf . both believe in one God whose name is Allah. ''' look upon the is a sacred duty and the safety of the guest inviolable . the Biloeh is less turbulent. other from behind . and wanders with his herds from place to place.

and there finally settled in the country which is now known as Bilochistan. but when the account grows complicated it can be settled by betrothals^ or even by payment of cattle. It is described in the Chapter on Languages. 43 tally of lives due is kepi.succession to agnates . Like many other Musalman races of the frontier they claim tv) be Qureehi Arabs by origin. This would be about 680 A. Thus Jalal migi'ation. and they therefore sent forty-four boys dressed up in girls' clothes. but tend to keep property in the family by confining. and were settled at Halab or Aleppo. but singularly ignorant of their religion and neglectful of its rites and observances . Fryer's Settlement Report of Derah Ghazi. sprang four sons. Rind. if their account of tlieir ejection from Arabia be true.^ — Khan. (2) the middle of the seventh century. while some hold them to be of Turkoman stock .) ^ Ml'. and even among them it is being gradually superseded by Multani or Jatki. But their fathers had never given their daughters in wedlock to a stranger.. w^here they lived quietly for some time. D. They have no written character. so far as the Pan jab is concerned. Hot. and a daughter Jato. Their account of their origin is that they are descended from Mir Hamzah. Five of their tril^es still bear these names. They fled to the hill country of Kirman in Persia. chiefly consisting of ballads describing the events of national or tribal history. . They moved south-eastwards into Kech Makran or the tract between Afghanistan and the coast of the Arabian Sea. From least BB early as (1) the beginuiUi? of the Fryer quotes authorities for the occupation of the Makran Mountains by Biloehes at fifth century. though some of the leading and more educated men are said to be trying to introduce the shara into their tribes. the second of the Umeyid Caliphs. He accordingly demanded a wife from each of the forty-four bolaks or tribes into which they are said to have then been divided. then but partially inhabited. and so increased in numbers that the King became desirous of binding them io himself by ties of marriage. or at least that portion of the nation which later on moved northwards to our border. Their language is a branch of the old Persian. and a Biloch Chief has been known to learn the language in order to talk it to English officials. and apparently contains many archaic forms which throw light upon other modern developments from the same source. the Chief under whose leadership they made their last and Korai. AND ALLIED RACES. and I believe that all Biloch tribes still consider themselves as belonging to one or other of these sections. : 194] 378. they were expelled by Yaziz. Lashari . 19. BILOCH. p. though all traces of them have long since been lost. The question is discussed at pages 19^ of Mr. between the various tribes or families . and fled before the deception could be discovered. and of love-songs . were divided into two great sections under those names. they uow belong almost without exception to the Sunni sect. the language of the plains. Early history of the Biloch. The rules of inheritance do not follow the Islamic law. till. PATHAN. and though they once called themselves and were called by old historians " friends of Ali/"" ancl thouo-h. and local poets are still common among them. beyond the tribal organisation of the Derah Ghazi Biloehes . they must have originally been ki^hiah. The Biloehes are nominally Musalmans. siding with Husen. but the Rind and Lashari xppear to have been pre-eminent and the Biloehes. a Qureshi Arab and an uncle of the Prophet. It is now hardly spoken. their customs are said to support the latter theory their features certainly favour the former. (D^rah Ghizi Settlement Report. and no literature but they are passionately fond of poetry.

a tribe believed to be of Dravidian origin. which shows that their names are not older than to their occujiation of their present territories. while the Khosa '^ remained in Kech and the Hot in Makran. the Rind.Tatoi moved northwards into the country about Kelat. as will be explained when those tribes come under discussion. or other natural feature.King of Khorasan. to the west of tlie lower Sulem^ns. but apparently they had not yet encroached upon the Suleman range which lay to the east of them. left sole possessors of the hill country of Kelat (for the Jatoi also consider themselves as belonging to the Rind section of the nation). the Mazari and Drisbak. and as there is now no localised tiibe bearing the name of Rind. Yielding to the pressure thus put upon them. -This name should fix the date of the coute^t. "the Lashari in Gandava.* and who appear to have followed in their tracks. and drove the Lashari out into Haidarabad and Tatta in Sindh. but it is probable that these events took place at least two centuries earlier. the Kelat tribes moved eastwards into the lower Sulemans^ driving the Pathans before them along the Shoran is probably another reading of Sara wan. spread as far north as the Bolan . Their claims were to be decided by a horse-race held in Rind Territory. wlio trace their descent from Hot^ claim to belong Some five hundred years after their settlement in Kech the Rind section. nephews of Mir Chakar and Mir Gwahram Khan. From this event the Biloches date the growth of their present tribal organisation . " the Rind settling in Shoran. and the Jatoi in Sevi and Dhadon. when we learn more and not Uravidian. to be Iranian . ruled over by a Hindu prince with the Sindhi title of Jiim and the name of Nindava. Several of these tribes have taken their names from the localities which they now hold. s One account postpones the occupatiou of the lower Sulemans by Biloches to the expedition with Hum^yiin to be mentioned presently. Advance of the Biloclies into the Panjab. called to their aid Sultan Husen. Mir Chakar and Mir Gwahram are renowned in Biloch story as the national heroes. and the Rind. the converse seems more ' Gaudava probable. century. in 1-1. the Turks or Mughals under their Arghun leader invaded 15th Kachhi and"^ Sindh.^ The Biloches had thus 379.^^^ They are said to have disjDOSsessed and driven into Sindh a Jat people.D. the ti'act may have been called after the tribe . gradually split up into the tribes which we now find on the Derah Ghazi border. But it is also true that there is a tendency to refer all past events to the time of any famous incident. About the same time the Brahoi. and which was held bv Pathans. Lashiiri. but 1 have been unable to identify the Mir Chakar soviiruigu in question. but where the name belongs to a mountain. lived in the time of Humayun. drove the the Biloch out of the fertile valley of — Kelat and established a supremacy over their northern tribes. thought probable by some that the Brahoi language will be found. Sevi and Dhadon are doubtless other forms of Sibi and Dadar. and . It is trae that about the time of Humayiin's conquest of India the Pathans of the Derah Ismail frontier were at their weakest. 3 When the name applies to a tract. while a Jat population occupied the valley of the Indus and the But about the middle of the country between the Sulemans and the river. and it is not unnatural that any great event should be referred to them. and twice took Sibi. where they no longer exist as an individual tribe. north of Gandava and south-cast of Quetta. south-east of Sarawan . and as almost all the great tribes of our frontier claim to be of Rind extraction. 44 PANJAB CASTES. it is probable that the Rind. in which the hosts loosened the girth of their rivaFs saddle. the country between Quetta and Kelat is on the northern frontier of Mudh. who is also described as Sultau Shah Husen. A fight resulted. the Chiefs of the Rind and Lashari sections. who were at first worsted. whose capital was After a time the charms of a \voman led to jealousy between the at Kelat. 4 It is about it.. King of Persia. Maknui. about the middle of the I6th century . such as the march to Dehli with Humayun.79 and in 1511 A. river..

Many of these latter took serviee with the Langiili rulers of Multun and were granted and about 1480 A. being confined for the most part to the hills and the land immediately under them. the They are said to have consisted chiefly of great Rind hero of Biloch stoiy. Chanab. founded the three Derahs which still bear their names.''"' Figures showing the distribution of the Biloches will be found in Abstract No. . and died and was buried at Satgarh in that district. to the north of the Ravi in Montgomery. whom they had previously harassed in his retreat. Mir Chakar eventually settled in Montgomery. Tucker. 65. BILOCII. a Rind tribe. lands along. In 1555 a large body of Biloches accompanied Humayun. where they still form an important element of the population even in tracts owned by Biloches. more especially in the southern and northern portion of Derah Ghazi and just above the Derah Ismail border while in Bahawalpur and Muzaffargarh they form a large proportion of the whole population. Gopang. Ismail Klian and Fatah Khan.the river the two sons of Malik Sohrtib KhaUj and Ghiizi Kbau. and do not hold that dominant position among their neighbours which is enjoyed by the organised tribes of Derah Ghazi. But outside the Derah Ghazi Khan district. [P.^ Thus the Southern Biloches gradually spread up the valleys of the Indus. AND ALLIED RACES. Laghari. But for all practical purposes"^ the frontier tribes are ' The subsequent history of these tribes is related in section 385. on the right bank 0^ ^^® Chanab and along the Jahlam in Jhang. rather than as a military caste which ruled the country but left the occupation of the land to the Jats. Drishak. all Dodai Biloohes and of Rind extraction. in his victorious re-entry into India. the Biloch settlers own no allegiance to any tribal Chief. Many of them have been settled in their present holdings within comparatively recent times or. which position they and their descendants maintained for nearly 300 years. 195] P 38-9 The tribal organisation of the Biloches now covers the whole of our southern frontier as far north as the boundary between the two Derahs. displacing a Jat population and driving them down to the river. are altogether external to the political organisation of the nation. and they hold considerable areas on the Satlu] in Multan. while all the noi-them tribes beyond our border acknowledge the supremacy of the Brahoi Khan of Kelat. a supremacy the reality of which has always varied with the personal character of the Khan.— Sohrab Khan.. the chief of the Dumki. . or at any rate of those on our frontier . D. under the leadership of Mir Chakar. son of Iliiji Khiin. overcame the Lodis of Siti)ur_. where a consideral^le tract. Tribal organisation of the Biloches. and indeed along the greater part of the river border of that district. is the nominal head of the Biloches. It is probable that many of the Biloch settlements in the eastern districts of the Province sprang fi-om Humayun^s attendants. and establislied themselves as independent rulers of the low-er Derajat and IMuzaffargarh. have acquired them "as cultivating proprietors. and which it is probable that our own frontier policy has lately saved from total extinction. PATHAN. to use the words of Mr. still partly held by Biloches. and on the latter river in Shahpur.* 380. There is also a large Biloch element throughout the river lands of the Indus in both the Derahs. and Jatoi. was granted to him by the grateful sovereign. while the Derah Ghazi tribes came down from their hills into the pachhdd or sub-montane tract. and Satluj . page 191. 45 range^ wliile the Bilocbos from SinJh began to spread tap the Indus. but stretching east to the Indus in the neighbourhood of Rajanpur.

. The tribal names are often patronymics ending in the Bilochi termination dni^ such as Gurchani. or more clans descended from a single ancestor.not always of the strongest. they took refuge with the Khetran.amsd)/ahs or dwellers beneath the same shade. having property in without any actual demarcation defined . The clans are ased upon common descent . and still bearing its name. The sept is of course only an extended family. Fryer eays that cousins commonly intermarry. But round these have collected a number of affiliated sections . and our village or matzah is in these parts merely a collection of hamlets included witliin a common boundary for administrative purposes. a body of 10.^ and this appears to be the only restriction. live in families. and are held together by a common nationality against outsiders only. 1 division of a Biloeh tribe is sufficiently well the people are cither wholly nomad or.000 troops .. though probably true on the frontier. The tribe {tnma. Thus the large and compact village community of the Eastern Panjab is unknown. 46 independent both PANJAB CASTES. even in two different tribes. Balachani . and identity of clan name. of which tribe they now form a clan. and consists of a cong^lomeration of clans bound together by allegiance to a common Chief. though bearing a ]5iloch name and talking the Bilochi language. The 1 A Persian tribe furnishing a ^ (? Turkoman) word meaning 10. tract occupied by each but within this area case within oui* frontier. and he is bound to protect them antl they In this manner a small section formerly belonging to the to obey him. They then become his h. or in some few cases in the Pashto zai. Marriage within the sept is forbidden. is a political and not an ethnic unit. of which it will sometimes contain as few as a dozen. Laghari tribe.000 troops. almost certainly indicates a common ancestor. three. An individual is commonly known by the name of his clan. Below the jo/^ff^/^' come the families. but of the surrounding pasture lands.'n}) under its chief or tumanddr is sub-divided into a small number of clans (para) with their ijuqaddams or headmen. are not allowed to be of Biloeh race and are almost certainly Jat. each inhabited by only a few their cultivated lands and irrigation works. is most certainly not so beyond the tribal limits. of forelg-ners and of one another. . The Biloches freely marry Jat women. a district or But Mr.000 body of 10. the great Khan of Kelat who assisted Ahmad Shah in his invasion of Dehli. and leaving its tribe to claim the protection of a neighbouring Chief. and each clan into more numerous septs (/^/^a^/i). Probably every tribe contains a nucleus of two. Thus the Laghari tribe includes a section of Nahar Pathjins (the family from which spining the Lodi dynasty of Dehli). but this assertion. who are not Biloeh but who are Khetran.. reduced the Hasanni tribe and drove them from their territory. though the first wife of a Chief will always be a Biloehni. the sept being comparatively unimportant. and it is not very uncommon for a clan or a portion of a clan to quarrel with its brethren. as is the small hamlets. The tribe. And the Gurchani tribe includes sections which. at least in its present form. Rind triljes are sometimes found to include Lashari clans. They say that they never give their daughters to Jats . for the cohesion between the various parts of a tribe or clan is. has attached itself to the Qa-rani while there is a Jiskani section in both the Drishak and the Gurchani tribes. Thus too. So when Nasir Khan. Even strangers are often affiliated in this manner.

QS^ shows the principal clans. 66 on the next page* shows tlie figures the main Bihjdi tribes^ Abstract No. The tribe traces its descent from Hot. of which they occupy the southernmost portion. was so busy that he was unalile to pay any attention to the matter. •P. of which the Mazar^ni live beyond Sibi and the Bolan and are almost independent of the ti'ibe. The figures for Ijoth the is Lunds are certainly. the country beyond our southern border. Mazari. 52. in Muzaffargarh. They say that about the middle of the 17th century they quarrelled with the Chaiidia of Sindh. and is divided into four clans. and Afghanistan on the north. as tribes. their western boundary being the hills and their eastern the river. but obtaining grants of land in the lowlands gradually shitted eastwards towards the river. and the Gurchani and the Leghari partly independent. Khetran. her nominally subject to the Khan oi' Kelat. and of these the Marri. corporate coherence. ivalpur. Their country extends over the Siudh f ronti(T into Jacohabad. Sindh. The last. The Marri. Laghari. while the Nutkani has recently lost its in iividu. It is to be regretted that the opportunity which a Census affords only at long intervals of obtaining an accurate detail of the Ghazi tribes. where the columns for sub-divisions of caste have not been filled up with sufficient care. and moved into the Siahaf valley and Marao plain. Kachhi of Kelat on the west. Bozdar. noted under the respective rp 197-1 The Mazari (No. Tibbi Lund. Mr. Nuthani. Eoihan is their headquarters. in Dcrah Ismail Khan. In other districts it is much larger. in ]^. son of . They have four clans. who occupy the angle between the frontiers of the Panjab and Upper prffidatory. and the Bugti or Zarkanni (No. AND ALLIED RACES. and Shambani or Kiazai. are also called Zarkanni' and their clans are the Ralicja. but our returns show only 9. the Ghazaui. . LS per cent. sections of the same name occur in different tribes.Iultan. Fryer puts their fighting strength at 4. The tribe is wholly nomad and The Bugti. and Sargani • of which the first two are the more numerou-:. while the Marri lie still further west.—Abstract No. and 19 per cent. Loharani. —It is only in Derah Ghazi Khtin and on its frontier that we have to do with Biloch tribes having a distinct tribal and political organisation. for in these details the districts where the JMloch element has any importance. and Nutkani . They are. 381. and stretches northwards as far as tlmrkot and the Pitok pass. The points in which the figures are untrustworthy are indicated below. errors in tabulation are almost unavoidable. Marri. in Derah Ghazi Khan. PATHAN. Mazaraniand Bijarani. while a clan of one tribe will bear the tribal name of another tribe.000.BILOCH. separates the main tribe from our border. Sori Lund.ality as a tribe. Bugti and Khetran are wholly. Unfortunately. Elsewhere in the Panjab the tribal tie is merely that of common descent. Tlie organised Biloeh tribes of tlie Derajat. and the tribe possesses no The Derah Ghazi tribes are in the main of Rind origin. Qasrani.Talal. Khosa. from whom I had hoped for great assistance. They are both of Rind origin. 47 tP. and "one or two of the results which the Derah Ghazi figures gi\e are patently absurd. Both these tribes are pure Rind. the Bugti on the south. 48-9. Masidani. Balachani. 50-51 t?. which is an almost independent section. is The percentage of the Biloch population not included in small 382. Drishak.000 souls in the Province and there are very few beyond our border. and the hill country to the west now occupied by the Bugti. and those for the Gurchani possibly wrong. 15 per cent. For this reason the tribal and clan figures were tabulated in the district offices. 11) are practically found only in Derah Ghazi Khan. As has already been explained. Rustamani. Thus. Phono-. Tribal statistics. The Marri. the Shambani territory lying just behind it. beginning from the south. being only 9 per cent. are the most powerful and consequently the most troublesome of all the Biloch tribes. though the chief is a Balachani. 01' and ra' ' A sept of their Baheja clan is also called Zarkanni. G7t gives those for minor tribes for certain districts only^ while Abstract No. 38) hold are wholly independent. Musuri. Gurchani. not being found within the Panjab. the Deputy Commissioner of Derah Ghazi. who hold a large area bounded by the Khetran on the east. should not have been made the most of. Bugti.

66.190] . Abstract No.4.8 PANJAB CASTES. showing the principal [P.

4 10 Jalandhar Pivteion. 5. Nabha and Faridkot.fi22 Montgomery. Firozpur.649 282 66 4. J hang.548 3.796 8.175 I 9.170 British Territory.398 4. PATHAN.546 5.327 5. I . 842 157 78 Mnltan. 10.783 14 I 5.8 Lahore. Araritsar Division.671 1.BILOCH.511 9. 317 374 977 Muzaffargarli. I 16.675 3.418 4.230 5 1.'597 1. 21 121 I Rawalpindi.105 2.639 4. AND ALLIED RACES.418 4. 5.668 .244 Total Provinco. 24 1.705 13 2 Derah Ismail Khan 3."7 270 6S4 1. Qnjrat. 317 7 Hipsar Division. 4.-3S7 268 . 11 Dehli Division.3il 371 333 74 Bahawalpur. Jhelam. 36 Peshawar Division. 176 ShahpnT.724 1. 49 U 17 18 .076 3.788 8.516 5.666 1 2. Anibala Division. 14 Bannn..4ftO 774 53 41 2. 118 Oujranwala.437 .072 .615 Derah Ghazi Khan.138 i 5. 17 1 8.781 4.. Bilcch Trlbfs for Districts and States.

showing [P. 67. Abstract No.50 PANJAB CASTES.196] .

tory. PATHAN.132 1. ! 42 42 6 1. &o.629 1.844 1. MazafiUrgarh.344 j 1. AND ALLIED RACES. 1. a 10 271 748 795 612 Derah Ismail Khan. Bahawalpur 46 472 78 12 23 182 15 99 284 Total Province. b2 . 40 175 2 135 Other distrlots.094 528 33 1. Derah Qhazi Khan. 1. Derah Ghazi Khan. minor Blloch Tribes. 22 64 23 45 Other districts. Bahawalpur.629 1.397 1. Territory.132 1.132 962 842 795 747 Total British Terrl.397 I 1.004 848 795 747 Total Province 43 44 45 46 47 I 48 49 50 51 DlSTBIOTB AlfD 24 363 84 Derah Ismail Khan. 46 472 78 12 23 182 15 99 284 Total British.629 293 505 303 960 842 Muzaffirgarh.. BILOCH. 51 27 28 20 r' 80 32 33 34 36 DlSTlIOTS AITD Staibs.259 1.301 1.

68. 196. showing the principal Blloch Clans. Abstract No. [P.] .52 PANJAB CASTES.

and this fact renflcrs the tribe They hold no portion of the hills. the names of their tepts end in the Biloch patronymic termination dni. PATHAN. . the chief belonging to the first of the-e. and they are now for all practical purposes a Biloch tribe.^ a .. page 205 brother of Tarin.be numbei-s some 5. or towards the end of the 17th century.. But the Emperor Akbar drove out the main body of the ti-ibe. and general appearance. which divides them from the Khosa. They are certainly not pure Biloch. amon.. Vol. the figures given for this tribe evidently include those of the Sori Lund mentioned below. The Tibbi Lund (No. Bughlani. page 259. and Lur. They are composed of Liinds. The Talpur dynasty of Sindh belonged to this tribe. The Drlshak (No. while their territory does not extend much to the ea^t of the Sukmaas. of which the chief The last four are true Bilochcs are the Durkani. 8) are also wholly confined to the Ghazi district. The tr.600 fi. which is the Gurcbani northern border. lying -catterel about between (he Pitok pasi on the north and the Sori pass on the sout'i. the ancestor of the Abdali . 37) are an independent tribe living beyond our border at the back of the Laghari..163 See Macgregor's Gazetteer of the North. and S ibziini. Sargani. They are not found in any other part of the Panjab than Dcrah Ghazi.. and in consequence exceedingly wealthy. who was adopted by the Blloches and married among them. and the last throe Rinds . 383. The chief belongs to the Aliani clan.-irkhan valley of the L igliari hills... the Haddiani. and they took refuge in the B.. Unfortunately.d under the authority of the Tibbi Lund tumanddr. They are divide 1 into eleven clans. They are said to have descended into the plains after the Mazdri. are descended from people who went there during the Talpur rule. Biloches.. Arbani and Jiskani. they speak a dialect of their own called Khetranki which is an Indian dialect closely allied with Sindhi.. 246 605 273 2. and ai-c held by \* *P. Rinds and Khosas. but these outlying settlements own no allegiance to the tribe. capital cultivators..West Frontier. where they occupy a small area in the midst of the Gurchaui country.. Ki.osa. The latter is the most turbulent of all the clans.324 . -who are not too proud of their affiliation to the Gurcbani. son of Ja'al Khan. where they are said to have settled alter their return from accompanying Humayun. 4) own the Mari and Dragal hills. .. may have returned themselves as Lashari simply... II. cted the Patban hollers fi'om the present Gurchani holdings. .. . 22) occupy the country from. prai^'tically confined to the Ghazi district.^hting men. Their original settlement was at Vahoa in the country of the Qasraui of Derah Ismail Khan. t j the Saklil Sir . They are of pure Rind origin and are divided into four sections. 18) A'illage-. Pjithdns.ri. La<hj. The Khetran (No. It is probaljle thai. lyin<? AND ALLIED RACES. Jiskani. 1.. the Lund clau comprising some two-thirds of their whole numbers.000 fighting men. and their boundary extends further into the mount. lu this Census they returned themselves as follows within British Territory Total. The Gurchanl (No. Their head-quarters are at Chhotl Zerin. Mingwani. They are the least warlike of all the Biloch tribes. the remainder of the tribe being said to have descen led from Gorish. but claims dc-ccnt from Hot. They have lately been given fresh lands and are graluiUy settling down. Their headquarters are at Asnl close to Rajanpur. and m fact probably a form of the Jatki speech of the lower Indus. The Laghari (No. 66-71 rii*ny to he Pathans. expelling the Ahmadanis who then held the present Laghari country. . The Gurchanl tribe is said to possess 2. They are also found in considerable numbers in Derah Ismail and Muzaffargarh . 87 in the Pathan table of tribes.iins than that of any othe. and on his return to have collected a It is not Biloch following and cj. and Haibatani. . nil 5S many of their are tlic most acattercd of the Dcrah Gliazi tribes. a grandson of Raja Pdifrasen of Haidarabad. border. and they and the Petafi used to rival the Khosa tribe in lawlessness of conduct. He is said to have accomp^nied Humayuu to Dehli. of which the fi:st inhabit the hills beyond our border anl are not subject to our rule. Petafi. three sections were only quite recently unit>.. for an acco^ont cf ita origin. These all of true Rind origin. they are in reality a remnant of the original Jat population ..d country.664 ./ar pasj a little to the north of Derah. decended from Miana (No. and they do not in some cases intermarry with Pathans But they confessedly resemble Biloches in features. and still hold t'le surrounding tract and look to the Laghari chief as their protector. where many of them still live and hold land between the Qasraui and the rivei-. and are not subject to us save through their connection with the trib".553 . and are.of the tribes subject to us . the Kiira pass. It appears probable that the representatives of several of the Northern Biloch tribes which are now found in Sindh. Shekhani. habits. or were in 18G0. -. Aliani.Tat population on the hank of the Inrlns. The tribe belongs to the Rind section. It^ sections are the Kirmani. Gulfaz. and are les-! powerful than it sh mid he from its numbers. and so have been included The whole of the Durkani and about lialf of the Lashari live beyond our in the Lashari tribe. — Derah Ghazi Khan Total Province ' . 32 1.BILOCH. ^ and there is still a considerable Lhghari colony in that Province. impossible that a considerable number of the Lashari clan. Derah Ismail Khan 340 1. nomadic and inveterate thieves.

Ihey are more civilized than most of the transfrontier Jalalani. and from whom ^ Dbariwal in the name of an important Jat tribe. which holds a compact territory stretching eastward to the Indus and between the Northern Khosa and the Qasrani. Laghari. Shahwani. and at the same t'me the one riatel clan. their territory lying on either side of the boundary between the two Derahs. Jarwar. The tribe is a poor one. as they are called to distinguish them from the Tibbi Lund. The tribe once enjoyed considerable influence and importance. Jafirani. The Chief belongs to the The Khosa is the mu. holding rights of superior ownership political organization. : The Lund (No. 'i'hey are -aid to have sct'. In 1S59 Ma. and Rustamani clans. 67 shows over 2. the hittu' bc'ng an oiT^hoot of the Klict 'an aiUliated to the Khosa. once an important Biloch tribe which was crushed by Nasir Khan. and stretch ing from the foot of the hills nearly across to the river. 6) occupy tlie country between the Lngliari and the Qasrani. they are. the Lashkarani. with the matchlock rather than with the sword. and Rustamani. Vaswani. of which the Gaujura represents the them are affiliated the DhariwaU or Chaeha who say that they are Dodai Ililoches. 16) are the northernmost of the tribes which retain their political [P.000 men as having been within the Panjab at the time of the Census. Unlike all other Biloches they light tribes and are of all the Biloches the strictest Musalmans. been crushed out of tribal existence in the early days of Ranjit Singh's rule." lani and l-ani are the mo-t imp n-taut. and took roi'uge with the Khttniii of whom they are now almost independent. Garzwani. and extends to the bank of the Indus. and they have apparently been included with the Tibbi Lund (No. and are divided into six clans. only f. 198] organi- sation. or desei'ved to wrote " be J and a Khosa who has not committed a murder or debauched his neighbour's wife or destroyed " his neighbour's landmark is a decidedly creditable specimen. . none of which are important. almost all of them in the Ghazi district. and Gurchani. the Hasanni.jor Pollock " It is rare to Unci a Khosa who has not been in prison for cattle-stialiiig. and still more outside it. which next to the Gurchani bears tlie worst ciiaracter for lawlessness. The Bozdar are of Rind extraction. vince. wliich is concerned. Abstract No. who are by origin Lodi Pathans." The Qasrani (No. original Khetran nucleus. 13) are a tribe peculiar to Derah Ghazi Khan. Budani. Jarwa:". But the event recent that it still retains much of its tribal coherence and of the characteristics of its race. having over the whole of the Sanghar country. They are great graziers. Khiibdin. hawcviTj extensive lands in Sindh. of whicli tiie l^abebrave-t of the liiloches. They are of Rind origin. 49) or Sori Lund. They hold from the Saughar Pass on the north to the Khosa and Khetran country on the south . Their name is written (^aizarani or Imperial. Their territory diviiles that of the are a small tribe which has only lately risen to importance. their territory being divided into a northern j. Chaknini. while to great extent in the Devajat itself. Ladwani. Tlie other four are Jaggel. and they have the Liiui and Musa Khcl Pathans on their western border. and being confined to the hills both within and beyond our frontier and the sub-montane strip.ik\ a southern portion by the territory of the Lunds. and is divided into seven clans. But there are many other Biloch tribesj and among them some of those most numerously represented in the Panjab. The figures given for this tribe are obviously absurd. is so 384. Jiuidaiii.— The tribes above enumerated are the only ones to be found within or immediately upon our border whieh have a regular tribal organisation. a " goat. but with the exception of a certain number in Bahawalpur.it industrious of the organised tribes . were granted them by Humayiin in return for military service. These live in scattered villages about Kajanpur and among the Laghari tribe. and very iiidepeulent ot tlicir Cliief and arc " admitted to be among the They are true Itinds and are divided into six clans. They are not pure Eiloclics. whieh occupy large areas in the south-western districts of the ProThey no longer hold compact territories exclusively as their own. and have no connection with the parent tribe. Zarlani. so far as the Panjab Tliey liold. 22) are an independent tribe situated beyond our frontier at the back of the Qasrani Territory. Nuhani. Bakrani. Ghulatnaui. they have lost their peculiar language and habits^ and can hartlly be distinguished from the Jat population with whom they are more or less intermixed. and are divided into the Dulani. But it no longer possesses a The Nutkani (No.54 The tribe as it PANJAB CASTES. now stands is composed of four clans. and their name is said to be derived from the Persian buz. Sihani.led (rigiunlly in Kech . and MalirwaTii. none of which are important. the Haidarani. while to The KhOSa (No. and are not found in the Panjab in any number beyond the Derah district.)uud in Derail Ghazi. The broken Biloch tribes of Derah Ghazi. Khosa into two parts. The Bozdar (No. and the Nahar or I'^abai'. They a c one of the most powerful tribes on the border. the great Khan of Kclat." And even now the description is not very much exaggerated. 8).

^ the Kulachi and the Jiskani. 335. the Chandia. " The Hots and Korai are joined together " they are equal with the Rind. who still occupy the Bhakkar and Leiah tahsils. After them come the Rind. the Lagliari. by the Gandapm. but early in the 17th century the independence of the Jiskani un ler Biloch Khan was recognised. Gurmiini. moved southwarJs and su "jugatcd to himsflf the givatec ptrt. the Konii. With Ghazi Khan came the Jiskani. a compact tra^t in Sindh between Shikarpur and the Lashari/ CTopiing. of the Leiah ^ounay. and was almost from the beginning subject to the Hot. Derah Ismail. About the same time the Hot were over- — . In about 1750 1770 A. where many of them are still to be found and a few years later the Kalhoras.— I have already stated that the three sons of Malik Sohriib Khan and G^. At the zenith of their power the Hot. a Jiskani Jiskani. and D. trace their descent. intermingled with the Jats of the Kachi or low riverain tract. Mamdani. Biloch tribes of Derah Ismail. BILOCH. while the Indus separated the Hot from During the latter half of ihe 1 6ih century Daud Khan. the Petafi. from the centre of the Muzaffargarh district to the Salt-range Tract. Qandrani. the Mihrani. and Jiskani held sway over almost the whole of the Indus valley and of the f/ial between the Indus and the Chanab. and the descendant of one of Ghazi Khan's followers. 3 Soe note to the preceding paragraph. The upper hills are held by Pathans. exjpelled from Sindh. thrown after a desperate struggle The Biloches of 38S. (he Ahmadani. Dera Ismail are now confined to the low lands. name merely denotes common descent. Hajani. and it is from Biloch Khan that the Jisaini. its common owners district the Bilocli is intc'rmingled . though without political organisation. Their most iinporlant tribes are the Rind/ the Jatoi^ who still hold as a tribe. The party of Fatah Khan never seems to have attained to any importance. with the exception of the Qasrani and Khetran of the southern border who have already been noticed in section 383. for the representatives and tribesmen of Ghazi Khan are locally known as Mihrani. who occupied the cis-Indus tract above Bhakkar. the northern boundary of Sanghar and Leiah being the northern boundary of the Mihrani. Dodais. Mihrani. and Maliani. Tlie -""iloch tribes of tribal than in any other and the Muzaffargarh. Sanjrani. . while with the Hots came the Korai whose name is associated with them in an old Biloch verse.uzi Khjin.Pathans. the Gurmani.—In Muzaffargarh more perhaps with the Jat population. Mandraui. 55 they differ in little but race. AND ALLIED RACES. Of the four last all but the Petafi seem almost confined to Derah Ismail. Sargani. Mastoi. were driven out of Derah Ghazi by the Jiskani and fled to Leiah. joined with the always turbulent Sargani to crush the Jiskani rule. and those of Fatah Khan as Kulachi. The history of the Biloches of the Derah Ghazi lowlands is briefly sketched in the next paragraph. and Indus. » It is possil)le that some Biloclies may have returned themaelves as Ri:ul orLashari with reference to their original stock rather than to their present tribe and that aome of the La^hari clans of the Gurchani tribe may have been included in the Lashari tribe."'' The Korai do not appear to have exercised independent rule. who sided with the Kalhoras or Sarais of Sindh in their struggle with Ahmad Shah Durrani.. A^voar di-ipersed his trii)e. founded Derah Ghazi. the Gashkori. and the Mihrani. The tiibal name of Dodai seems to have been soon dropped. those of Ismail Khan as Hot. the Hot. The principal tribes are the Lashari. or perhaps the leaders were of a different tribe from their followers . the Jatoi. These all lie scattered along the edge of the Indus.rah Fatah Khun. PATHAN. D.

U IPANJAB CASTES. — 389. would appear to have descended existing from the hills eastwards towards the river and the four most insignificant of the broken tribes. the Daudpotra of Bahawalpnr. the Ravi. the Jatoi. the Chanab. which latter tribe has penetrated in some numbers as high up as Lahore. — [p 199J and the Dasti. the Khosa. and a few Khosa in Bahawalpur these exceptions not one of the above tribes is represented in the Panjab outside the Ghazi district_. and all the remaining tribes which possess any numerical importance in the Panjab except four Derah Ismail tribes to be mentioned presently. and the Ahmadani. Biloch immigration the district has formed the borderland between the Lodi of Sitpur. and what information I have been But the above sketch of their able to collect is given in section 378. distribution enables us to follow with some certainty the later The organised routes by which they arrived at their present settlements. the Jatoi. the Sanjrani. the Lashari. the Jatoi. as they are without exception strongly represented on the lower course of the river. Biloches of the Eavi are chiefly found in the bar of the Montgomery and Jhang districts. ^ Se« note to section 384. the Mashori. the Chandia having perliaps passed up the left bank.^ the Korai. They are probably descendants of the men who under Mir Chakar accompanied Humayun and received a grant of land in Montgomery in In the Jhang and Shahpur districts. up the Indus in very great numbers. A few Laghari are found in Derah but with Ismail and Muzaffargarh. the Jahlam. They consist almost wholly of Jatoi and Rind. the Mastoi. the Lashari. the principal tribes to be found are the Rind. tribes of Derah Ghazi. The most important are the lUud. So indeed are the Hot. on the Jahlam return for their services. and the Gurmani seem to have confined themselves chiefly to the valley of the Indus. and the Langah of Multan. the Gurmani. the Hajani. and especially in the former. and the Sahrani. A very considernumber of Biloches are scattered along the lower Indus and Satluj in able Bahawalpur and ^lultan. including the Nutkani. of which the last two are hardly found elsewhere. the Rind. where they occupy themselves in camel-breeding. The Biloch tribes of the Ravi. . the Petafi. The reason doubtless is that since the possess no sort of tribal coherence. and the right bank of the Chanab. Derah Ghazi. seem to have spread up the Indus from below. and not The Rind and the Jatoi seem to have come at all in the hill country. and to have spread high up that The Lashari river. the Gopang. with the single exception of the Nutkani which was till lately organised. and the Korai. the Gopang. while less numerous bat still important are the Chiindia. as they are found in Derah Ismail but not in Derah Ghazi. . and the Korai are the tribes most numerously represented. holding but little land as cultivators. The 388. Course of migration of the Biloch tribes. The Gopiing. . except the Qasrani whose hill territory extends On the other hand all the larger broken tribes of into Derah Ismail. and the Satluj. The Chandia. the (. 387.' and the Hot.'handia. Then came the Laghari.— Of the original location of the tribes I know next to nothing. the Hot. seem to have followed the same course. and the Korai followed in their track in slightly smaller numbers. tlie ]\Iihrani of Derah Ghazi. but avoided to a great extent the Ravi valley. upper Jahlam. and Chanab. the Hot. The Biloch tribes of the Lower Indus and Satluj. the Lashari.

on which the selection of tribes for tabulation was based (see Chapter on Tabulation.Tadun. Such names as Daulat Khel. and especially on the Bannu border. probable that the Gashkorl either came across the hills in the south of the disti'ict. but are said to have accompanied the Rind in their wanderings. Tlius far greater accuracy will have been secured than would otherwise have been possible. IS39). and Mahaminadzai recur in many separate ti'ibes . and his honour proportionally goes up. and on the Thai road in Kohat and the Swat lu the second place. while the seasons of drought and distress which preceded the Census drove many of the frontier hill-men into our districts in search of employment. canal in Peshawar. and MiWcw'^ Races of Afyhdnistdn. Uilazak. As for the figures for the separate tribes. So too the very numerous Fawindahs of Derah Ismail only wintir in the Panjab.t'ally independent tribes. Pour THE PATHAN (CASTE 390. As already stated in section 885. and the number thus temporarily added to our Pathan ])opnlatiun is exceedingly hirge (section 398). No.BILOCH. many and bitter disputes caused by the preparation of the genealogical trees during the Bannu He writes " A Settlement. almost the whole of the local trade across the border is in the bands of independent tribes whose members come into our districts in considerable numbers with merchandize of sorts . but that is AND ALLIED RACES. the treneral tendency to claim kinship with the dominant race would produce Moreover tho origin of some of the tribes on the Peshawar frontier is tloubtful. Again. 6). who during the " last three ceiituries were frequently raided upon by Afghans. Bellew's I^ti«t«/2(it. But the lists of tribes received from some of the districts. or are a local sub-division of some larger tribe which followed Tlie Korai are Rind. if serving away from his home. hi accounted for by their seat of Grovernnient having. and ths Settlement Reports of the districta »f tbe northern .— The figures given in Table VIII A. and the figures represent very fairly the general distribution of the race. who. at least so far as regards the figures of those districts. Plowden't of translation of th« Kalid-i-Afghdni. the same effect. " Pashto. abn<)4 certninly include m. the Jiskani and Kulachi apparently had their origin as tribes in Leiah and Derah Fatah Khan.Afghani called Afghdnisti'm and its Inhabitanis {Lahore. while essei. the Jiskani. PATHAN. Ismail. Eiphinstone's iCffSK^. London. It would seem while the j\Iihrani were driven there from Derah Ghazi. : -. and tribes. Tajik. Khetran. hold land within our border. i874). . the Gashkorl. frontier tribes represented in the Panjab by only a few score of person? being included. no certain classification could be made. come down in considerable numbers in the winter to cidtivatc their fields. where the first three occur in small number-?. but by the Deputy Commissioners of the several frontier districts. not by my central office. got into tho habit of inventing " histories of Afghan origin as n protection against ill-treatment " and even where this motive was absent. many are not British subjects at aU. the Kulaehi. and the attempts made by Jat clans to be recorded as Pathans. while in the summer tliey retreat to their cool valleys in independent territory.been Derah tribes. So too the constant recurrence of the same clan name among fhe various tribes was a certain source of error. under the head Pathiin. were in some instances very imperfect and the classification exceedingly faulty . : must be remembered that of those who are really Pathan and returned Such tribes as the Bar Mohniand of the Peshawar frontier. and where the schedule entry of sub-divisions did not specify the tribe. Major Waco writes " The tribes in the west and north. the Gopang and the usual track along the river. Figures and Bibliography for Pathans. tribes of considerable numerical importance in British Territory being omitted. the Dasti are not pure Biloch. " low-caste man born and brought up in a Pathan couutr}^. It goes down if he can talk "invariably affixes Khan to his name and dubs himself Pathan. -while the ilE^uros to be discussed in tlie following pages show that snch tribes as Tanaoli. are found in Derah Ismail and nowhere else save in Muzaifargarh. Book II).uiy pfi'sons whose Patliaii origin is to say the least doubtful. the two last of whicli are comparatively insiiG^nificant." Still the great mass of those returned as Pathans are probably really so. and their affiliiition with the Pathans incomplete^ and thus they would set up a claim to Mr. Usmanzai. it as such. Thorbu'^n notices the be Pathiin which the true Pathan would indignantly repudiate. The best authorities on the subject of the Pathan nation as a whole are Dorn's translation Niamat Ullah's History of the Afghans {Oriental Translation Committee. clans.west of the Pan jab.. they were classified. Priestly's translation of the Haiyat-i. and tho Mihrani. and septs being mixed up in a perfect chaos of cross-classification. Fi'roz Khel. and even ]\Iughals have returned themseh'es as Pathans.

He is of stalwart make. 3 The colour and cut of the clothes vary greatly with the tribe. who shave their heads. there is little or nothing. As the proverb For " The Pathan is one moment a saint. and his proud. obligations. baggy drawers. D — barhario of all the racjes : . . sandals. It is easy to convict him out of his own mouth . centuries he has been. especially about the leading men. and often their beards also. and Paget's Expeditions against the N. and know what truth or faith is^ insoaiuch that tlie saying Afghan be imdn and though he is not has pa-sed into a proverb among his neighbours without courage of a sort and is often curioudy reckless of his life. so that they look down upon the Pathans of the hills. even in the riverain to the original type itself. plentifully oiled. but " use him. Nanaiodtai or the right of asylum. and their proverbs have it —" A hill man is no man. •The Pasbto word tarhdr either for 3 is used indifferently for " cousin " or for " enemy j" and tarbiirwali "cousinhood" or for "enmity. — — : — on our frontier at least." and again." " When he is little play with him when he is grown up he " is a cousin tight him. and the next a devil. Such is the Pathan in his home among the fastnesses of the frontier But the Pathans of our territory have been much softened by our rule and by the agricultural life of the plains. not even language." is This not true of the northern Pathans. " Don't class burrs as grass or a hill man as a human being. free. But he Paujab. And there is a sort of charm about him. he does not vindictive in the highest degree is bloodthirsty^ cruel. The true Pathau is perhaps the most with which we are brought into contact in the His life is not so primitive as that of the gipsy tribes. and which he quotes with It imposes upon him three chief pride under the name of Pakhtunwali.^" At the same time he has his code of honour which he observes strictly." says 391.-W. exceedingly a country like India. greatest. He life in the rugged fastnesses of his mountains and there is an air of masculine independence about him which is refreshing in He is a bigot of the most fanatical type." The nearer he is to the frontier the more closely the Pathan assimilates while on this side of the Indus. active . and extraordinarily superstitious. . all who may demand it. Frontier. ranges. scription of the Pathans. : — . or to meet him on equal terms if it were possible to take advantage of him. subject to no man. which compels him to shelter and protect even an enemy who comes as a suppliant ." " Keep a cousin poor. and a sheepskin coat with its wool inside . he would scorn to face an enemy whom he could stab from behind. as a rule jealously secluded. a sheet or blanket. to distinguish him .-W. Frontier Tribes. leads a wild. do Macgregor's frontier contain full iufovmation concerning the Pathans of the Panjab border.— : 58 PUNJAB CASTES. and are wrinkled drawers down to their ankle?. which almost makes one forget his treacherous nature. however meanly.^' are some of his proverbs " A cousin's tooth breaks upon a cousin.' and his national arms the long heavy Afghan His women wear a loose shift. here " A Pathan's enmity smoulders like a dung-fire. features are often of a markedly Semitic type. His hair. and Meluiastia or open-handed hospitality to And of these three perhaps the last is. and a wrap over the head Both sexes are filthy in their persons. his favourite colour is dark-blue. as Gazetteer of the N. hangs long and straight to his shoulder f he wears a loose tunic. wide knife and the matchlock or jazail. h'adal or the necessity to revenge by retaliation ." " Speak good words to an enemy very softly " gradually destroy him root and branch.

though some few of the more educated families have lately begun to follow the Musalman law.BILOCH. Among the tribes of our territory a woman's nose is cut off if she be detected in adultery . to which are attached stone towers in commanding positions which serve as watch-towers and places of refuge for the inhabitants. the stoning to death of " blasphemers.38-9. Origin of the Patlian. authority in favour of their Semitic origin. and tend to keep jiroperty within the agnatic society. Their rules of inheritance are triljal and not Mahomedan. while wife will generally be a Pathan. and there is a formidable array of weighty Saul. and their own assertion that Khalid ibu Wdlid the Qureshi was of the same stocik with themselves. they have considerable colonies along the left bank of the Indus till it finally leaves the Salt-range.* They are the dominant race throughout the whole tract west of the Indus as far south as the southern border of the tahsil of Derah Ismail Khan. seldom sleep far from the walls of the village. They intermarry very closely. The question of their descent is discussed and authorities quoted in Chapter VI of the Peshawar Settlement Report. and most of the blood feuds for which they are so famous originate in quarrels about women. and they hold the northern Besides those tracts which are territorially portion of the Bhakkar thai. endogamous and beyond the border he probably fii-st even in British Territory the P. 392. 65 on page 191. Their social customs differ much from tribe to tribe. " and he Dr. the periodical distribution of land. the offering up of sacrifices. and in Dr. there are numerous Pathan colonies scattered about the Province. The figures showing the distribution of Pathans are given in Abstract No. held by Pathans. On this side of the Indus they hold much of the Chach country of Hazara and Rawalpindi.Jews. and so forth . or who migrated to Ghor where the fugitive . PATHAN. most of them descendants of men who rose to power during the Pathan dynasties of Dehli. but the poorer tribes and the poorer members of all tribes are prevented from doing so by their poverty.—The Afghans proper claim descent from the first Jewish King. which roughly divides the Pathan from the Biloch. Bellew^s Eaccs of Afghdnistdn} Mr. " some peculiar customs obtaining " among the tribes of purest blood. As a race they strictly seclude their females. Small raids from the hills into the plains below are still common . except among the poorest classes. and it is a favourite joke to induce a Pathan woman to unveil by saying to her suddenly " You have no nose " The Pathan pretends ! to be purely is so . » . and beyond the Indus the people. The Pathtins arc extraordinarily jealous of female honour. even in British Territory. This supposition would explain the name Sulemaui which is often applied to the Afghans. 59 from his nelglibours of the same religion as himself. AND ALLIED RACES. Thorburn quotes in support of their Jewish extraction. for instance the Passover-like practice " of sacrificing an animal and smearing the doorway with its blood in order ''to avert calamity. and were Qureshi Arabs who lived in Syria and there became intermiuglcd with the .Jews took refuge with them. or rather perhaps from the wilder to the more civilised sections of the nation. avoiding only the prohibited degrees of Islam. ISellcw suggests that the original Afghans were the Solymi of Herodotus. At the same time Patluin women are beyond the Indus seldom if ever married to any but Pathans. The Pathans beyond and upon our frontier live in fortified villages. and received grants of land-revenue which their children often increased at the expense of their neighbours during the tui'moil of the 18th century.

are also Sliialis. though the common name and tradition of common descent are still carefully preserved in the memory of the people. . Tiiere are several Shiali clans among the Orakzai of Tirah on the Kohat border. Pashto. Turk. becoming merely associated. Not a few deny that there is any distinction whatever between the ori^iuMl Afuhan and Pathan stocks. The constitution and early history of the nation according to Dr. which is conterminous with tlic territory of tliese clans. who are not brought into contact with the I have however been obliged to adopt some one theory of the constitution of the nation as a basis for ray classification of tribes . There is groat conflict of o])inion concerning both the origin and constitu. menials. and its action is chiefly confined to traders. the common language of all three. Tribal organisation of the Patlians. hating homogeneous the Biloches. It is described in Chapter Y. Beilew's account are discussed in the paragraphs presently following. who are protected by but not received into the tribe. Each section of a tribe. with the tribes among whom they have settled.[P. 201] tion of the Pathan nation. Bellew. is distinctly Aryan^ being a branch of the old Persian stock. They are Mussalmans. Saiyad. though these are for the most part officers of our frontier original Afghans. but as a rule people of foreign descent preserve their tribal individuality. is in full force among the Pathans as among the Biloches. or as they call them Rafazis. and other dependents of foreign extraction. occupying as it does the mountain country lying between the Persian emj^ire on the west. The people of the Samilzai tapah of the Kohat di4rict. the nation to Avhich tlie two names are now applied indifferently in Persian and Pashto respectively. the Mongol on the north. or due to errors in enumeration. ' . All own allegiance to the Shiah Saiyads of the Orakzai Tirah j while everywhere many of the tribes which claim Saiyad origin are Shiaha. and the tribe is now the practical unit. without exception sect.60 PANJAB CASTES. But with the foraier though it does protect in many cases families of one tribe who have settled with another. But whatever the origin of Afghans and Pathans proper may be. The tribe in its constitution among the Pathans than — is probably far more among The 52 Hindus shown in the tables are probably traders liviug under Pathan protection.^ 393.Afghan or Ban-i-Israil to distinguish himself from the Palhan proper who is of Indian. are protected by the tribe with which they dwell. the Indian on the east. The nation is divided genealogically into a few great sections which have no coi-porate existence. points out that most of the learned men who reject the tradition of Jewish descent have no personal acqiiaintauee with the Afghiin people. who probably has a greater knowledge of the Afghans of Afghanistan as distinct from the Panjab frontier^ and especially of the old histories of tlie nation. sections 322-3 of this Report. includes as at present constituted many tribes of very diverse origin. by which strangers ancestor. and the Ghilzai who is probably of mixed Turklsli and Persian extraction. and the Biloch on the south. and 1 have therefore adopted that of Dr. it seldom accounts for any considerable portion of the tribe . and for the most part bigoted followers of the Sunni and persecuting Shiahs. and other clans have occasionally been affiliated to it . and not intermingled. The Afghan proper is said still to call himself indifferently Ban-i. and the tribe is usually descended in theory at least from a common The hmmdyali custom described in section 380. than any other of the authorities who have treated of the matter. Thus a blacksmith living in an Utmanzai village will give his clan an Utraanzai but his caste will of course remain Lobar. Even then they generally claim Pathan origin on the female side.

) * Either from Durr-i-Baurdn " pearl of the age " or from Dtin-i-Durrdn pearl of pearls. a specially Pathan In many. Both terms are used indifferently for Ijoth the larger and smaller divisions.' But the two words are not used as synonyms by the people themselves. " while KJul is an Arabic word meaning an association or company. AND ALLIED RACES. 61 however small. > When Yakub Khan." The title was adopted by Ahmad Siiah Abdali when he ascended the throue. Zai l)eing the conniption of the Pashto zoe meaning " son.BILOCH. tan. together with a tribe of Indian have long been blended. comparatively recent times. The original Afghans are a race of probably Jewish or Arab 394. still distinguish themselves as the true Afghans. clan. so all inhabitants of Afghanistan are now in common parlance known as extraction .^ The stock of names being limited. 3 In Hindustan they are often called Rohillahs. . patronymics formed from the name of the common ancestor by the addition of the word Zai or Kkel.—The words Pathan and Afghan by the natives of India to designate the nation under discussion. from Rohi the mountain country of the Pathans (Roh = Koh. the nomenclature is exceedingly puzzling. PATHAN. These people are included by the Pathans under the generic and semi-contemptuous name of Hindki a term very analogous to the Jat of the Biloch frontier. usually the eldest In-anch of the tribe. or Highlanders. just as the English and Scotch who early in the 17th century settled among and intermarried with the Irish are now called Irish. Moreover the title which genealogical accuracy would allot to a tribe or clan is often very different from that by which it is known for practical purposes. and The tribe. are used indifferently origin mth which they . each tribe and within the tribe each clan occupying a clearly defined tract or country. and which includes all Mahomedans who. the people having preferred to be called by the name of a junior ancestor who had acquired local renown. The tribe is split up into numerous clans. The frontier tribe whether within or beyond our border has almost without exception a very distinct corporate existence. whose Malik is known as Khan. the land and smaller villages being largely in the hands of a mixed population of Hindu origin who cultivate subject to the superior rights of the Pathans. being of Hindu origin. and sept are alike distinguished by these again into septs. our ill-fated Resident Major Cavagnari was lately living at Kabul under the Amir those who favoured the British were known as Cavagnarizai. but by no means in all tril)es. have been converted to Islam in . though they are in the Indus Valley often the owners merely rather than the occupiers of the country. and they. over which they have now held sway for more than a century. on the east by the middle course of the Indus.man who is known as Malik. and which is bounded on the north by the Oxus. in allusion to the Abdali custom of wearing a pearl stud in the right ear.2 Constitution of the Pathan nation. . certain names recurring in very different tribes in the most maddening manner. a mountain. and the national party The ending zai is never used by the Afridi. '• . a democratic council composed of all the Maliks.* and class all non-Durrani But they have lately given their name to AfghanisPashto-speakers as Opra. though still a very distinct section of the population. has its leading. as Yakubzai. House. or since the rise of Ahmad Shah Durrani as Dui-ranis. on the south by Bilochistan. there is a Klum Kliel or Chief title. the country formerly known as Khorasan. 2 The Dilazak are often called Hindkis by the true Pathans. But he is seldom more than their leader in war and their agent in dealings with others he possesses influence rather than power and the real authority rtsts with the Jirffak. as having come from India and not from Afghanistan. and on the west by the Persian desert and. and acts as chief of the whole tribe.

from the Indus to the Helmand and from the soui-ees of the [P. the internal affinities of those tribes. Bellew. and just as Insh. are not Pathans . and Gilzai. gave the title of Pathan. But it is said to be doubtful whether the distinction which he so strongly insists upon between Pathan proper and Afghan proper really exists or is recognised by the people while the Jewish origin of any portion of the nation is most unceitain. 202] Swat river and Jalalaljad to Peshin and Quetta. pleased with his eminent services. our a?ra. and Welsh speaking the English langaagc are commonly called Englishmen. though not of Pathan origin . and Dr. the Gandarii of Herodotus and one of the four great divisions of that Pactyan nation which is now represented ])y the Pathans proper. But the division of the nation into tribes. and bade him direct Meanwhile. to which they were converted by a small body of their tribe on their return from Aralua. The origin and early history of the 395. and Solomon^s commander-in-chief and the builder of his temple. the Pathdn proper. as it affords a convenient framework on which to base a description of those tribes. and it is this word of which Pathan is the Indian corruption. where they had fought for Mahomet under their leader Kais. or at any rate of such tribes of these races as we have here to deal with . their language. The Afghans and Gilzais spread into their country and adopted their language and customs . who have retained their Persian speech. The traditions of the true Afghans who trace their name and descent from Afghana. the races thus included being the Afghan proper. The Afghans early embraced the creed of Islam. as also the Scyths with the Scots. the son of Saul. so all who speak the Pakhto tongue came to be included under Thus the Afo:hans and Gilziiis are Patlians by virtue of the name Pathan. Their language is called Pasbto or Paklito and they call themselves Pukhtana^ or PakhtoThey speakers . Thence they emigrated eastwards into the mountains of Ghor and the modern Hazdra country. 62 PANJAB CASTES. and the theories which account for them are only accepted by me to serve as connecting links which shall bind them into a consecutive story. and to him they say that the Prophet. and the Hazara. the Syrian word for rudder. Scotch.! . namesake of Sanies father. It is from this Kais or Kish. and the general account of their wanderings are all beyond question . the son of Jeremiah. Afghan. Early history of the Afghans. that the modern genealogists trace the descent alike of Pathans. an irruption of Scythic tribes from beyond the Hindu Kush into the Indus Valley drove a colony of the Buddhist Gandhari. various tribes which compose the Afghan nation are much disputed by I have in the following authorities of weight who hold very different views. Afghans. and seem half them with the Picts of Britain. and certain Pathin and Brahoi tribes with Cambrians and Ligurians * — inclined to connect . though only one of them is of Afghan race. the Gilzai. sketch followed the account given by Dr. the Tajiks and Hazaras. besides tribes of less importance living on the confines of the country. say that they were carried away from Syria by Nebuchadnezzar and planted as colonists in Media and Persia. of our rera the whole of the Safed Koh and Northern held in the early centuries Snleman systems. from their homes in the Peshawar valley north of the Kabul river and in the hills circling it to the north . who married a daughter of Khalidibn-Walid a Qureshi Arab and Mahomet^s first apostle to the Afghans. the Tajik. Bellew and Major James identify them with the Pacfciyans of Herodotus. The true Pathans are apparently of Indian origin. about the 5th and 6th century of his people in the true path. while all five are Afghans by virtue of location.

BILOCH. PATHAN. The Afridi still call themselves Aparide. The whole dan have now become blended into one nation by long association and intermarriage. and the many tribes of Turk extraction included in the Karlanri section who came in with Sabuktagin and Taimui' . such as the Scythic Kakar. while the original Afghans remained in Kandahar^ where in the middle of the 18th century they made themselves rulers of the country since known as Afghanistan. AND ALLIED RACES. At the beginning of the Mahomesera the Afridi held all the country of the Safed Koh. They soon settled as the dominant race in their new homes. The other three nations included under that name were the AparytcB or Afridi'. Abdali or Durrani and Shirani. while the Dadi have been practically al^sorbed by their Kakar invaders. when Arab apostles with the title . firstly the original Afghans of Jewish race whose principal tribes are the Tarin. It is probable that this tradition of Jewish that of their Gandhari kinsmen. all alike of Indian origin. . the invaders have adopted the Pakhto language.. given by Ahmad Shah the title of Bar or " upper " Durrani. where they estal)lished themselves and founded the city which they named Gandhav after their native capital. It is not certain when the Afghans of Ghor moved down into the Kandahar country where the Gandhari colony was settled but they pi'obably came as conquerors with the Arab invaders of the 1st century of the Mahomedan a?ra. Thus the Afghan proper includes. The Afridi were nominally converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni but the real conversion of the Pathan tribes dates fi'om the time of Shahab-ul-din Ghori. some classing them as Sarbani aud ^ 2 . These latter returned about the first half of the loth century of our tera to their original seat in the Peshawar valley which they had left nearly ten centuries before . while the Dadi held modern Sewestan and the country between the Kandahar Province and the Sulemans. who include the Yusufzai. and other tribes of Peshawar. The various accounts given of Karlan's origin all recognise the fact that he was not a Pathan by birth and even the affiliation of the Karlanri is doubtful. But around this nucleus have collected many tribes of foreign origin. and shortly afterwards moved their The tribes that returned to the Peshawar country were capital to Kabul. There is no/ in Pashto proper.and these foreigners have so encroached upon the original territories of the Pactyan nation that the Khatak and Afridi now hold but a small portion of the countries which they once occupied. and secondly the descendants of the fugitive Gandhari. the Satragyddse or Khatak^ and the Dadicse or Dadi. origin was little more distinct than is the similar tradition of Norman descent which some of our English families still preserve. and adopted their language . to distinguish them from the Abdali Durrani who remained at Kandahar. not Ghurghushti. as distinguished from the neighbouring Pathans of whom I shall presently speak^ though the original stock of Ghor still called themselves 13an-i-Israil to mark the fact that their origin was distinct from . Mohmand. and all alike have accepted Islam and have invented traditions of common descent which express their present state of association. the Satragyddse held the Suleman range and the northern part of the plains between it and the Indus. These three nations constitute the nucleus of the Pathans proper. and which is now called Kandahar. 63 they emigi'ated en masse to a kindred people on the banks of the Helmand. I have said that the Gandhari were one of the four great divisions of the Pactiya3 of Herodotus. 396. and in course of time the two races became fused together into one nation under the name of Afghans. the Rajput Waziri. intermanied with and converted the Gandhari.

divisions of the Pathan nation. 70. and T have hardly I have. The figures given. Saiyads. customs. This grouping corresponds fairly well with 66-71. to be succeeded not long after by that of the Durrani. their present distribution : P« 7J-5 . on page 206t are in many ways f I have already explained that the Deputy Commissioners unsatisfactory. have accompanied Chengiz The Pathan genealogies. conquered the tract between Jalalabad and Kelat-i-Ghilzai. teem with obvious absurdities. their name being '^ swordsman. Unfortunately the figured details for the various tribes which I give In Abstract No. who though not usually acknowledged as Pathans. In the beginning of the 18th century they revolted against their Persian rulers. The Hazaras are Tartar by origin. I have included in my account of the Pathans a few allied races. and it is new apparent that these lists were drawn up far more with regard to the political needs of each district than with reference to any ethnic or triljal system of classification. in which last they hold some hill fastnesses in independent sovereignty. Tanaoli. Balkh. of the frontier districts were asked to prepare li^-ts of the tribes for which figures should be separately tabulated for each district. probably concocted not more than 400 years ago. we have little concern in the Panjab. and I shall therefore take the tribes in order as they lie along our Ijorder. however. and they will therefore afford a useful basis for a discussion of I give in Abstract the tribes with which we in the Panjab are concerned. of Saijad and Indian converts who were called Shekli spread through the The country. They first rose into notice in the time of Mahmud Ghaznavi. The former are the remnants of the old Persian inhabitants of Afghanistan. and Kandahar. and the word is now loosely used to express all Pathans who speak Persian and are neither They are scattered through Afghanistan. the Turkish word for than as a corporate tribe. Jodiin. and settled among. beginning from the south where they march with the Biloches.it Kandahar. and as a rule claim Saivad origin. married with^ and converted the Pathans. however. But they are based upon the existing affinities of the people whom they trace back to Kais . Swati. whom Not long afterwards they they accompanied in his invasions of India. descendants of these holy men still preserve distinct tribal identity. No. have by long association become closely assimilated with them in manners. They occupy all the mounformed by the western extensions of the Hindu Kush between Ghazni. and Tiirkistan. and Shilmani.'^ who early settled. established themselves under Mir Wais as independent rulers . Tribal affinities and statistics. in the Siah-band range perhaps as mercenaries rather of the Ghor mountains where they received a large admixture of Persian blood. and are supposed to tain countrv Khan in his invasion. and their rule disappeared. Hirat. will probably satisfy all administrative requirements though they are so full of double or incomplete classification that they are of little use to me in the description of the tribes. nor Hazaras. which were 397. — by locality. and are called Dilazak. 69 on pages SOi and 205* a table showing the traditional grouping of the ?. The Gilzai are a race probably of Tui-kish origin. grouped the figures alluded to them in the following pages.64 PANJAB CASTES. another form of Khikhi. and character. But a quarter of a century later they were reduced by Nadir Shah. Persia. true Afghans. and overran Persia. and spread east and west over the country they now hold. They chiefly occupy Hazarn.308] With the remaining races of the Tajik and Hazara which form part of the Pathan nation in its \videst sense. The official spelling of the name is still Ghaleji at Kabul and Kandahar. [P.

in Abstract No. and return l>y the same route to their homes in the hills about Ghazni and Kelat-i-Ghilzai! When the hot weather begins the men. and long strings of camels laden with the goods of Bukhai-a and Kandahar . tril>C8or section-* multiply witli genera" tions ." "Ainou^ 398. Hirat iind Bukhara with the Indian and ]']uropean merchandize which they have brought from Hindustan. a trade which is almost in their hands. Rajputana. " so the mistake which has occurred is that. so tbat the information contained in the figures is connected as closely as possible with the grouping of the tribes which I have followed. and there sedujed and married his daughter Bibi Matto. from the same root as ^o?^a/. from Parioindah.BILOCH. some were " placed under the name of the old ancestor of the family. comparatively unimportant. move off to Kandahar. flocks.'Curred. and Sarwani Pathans. to . Baitan was living in his original home on the western slopes of the Siahband range of the Ghor mountains. and others under the nam" of a more modern or lower generation. a Pashto word for " to graze. leaving their l)elongings behind them. rather than Pawindah. Thus the Ghilzai (the Tiirk term for swordsman) arepruhahly of Turk extraction. Indian converts in Afghanistan. Pathan tribes of Derah Ismail Khan. Bellew point: out that I'aitan has an Indian sound . flocks. known in Afghanistan. Beckett's Pei^hawar Census Report : — Miiliaumiailan. entirely Dr. in the early part of the Sth centmy. 711 the serial numbers of the tribes shown in Al)stract No. Dehli. In October they return and prepare to start once more for India. of a few men who>e origin wa^ the same. Lahore. and some twothirds of their fighting men in the great grazing grounds which lie on either side of the Indus. belong almost all the tribes of warrior traders \v'ho are included under the term Paivindah. witli Indian and Persian ailmixturcs. Ghilzai were the most famous of all the Afghan tribes till the rise of the Durrani power. and from the difhoulty pointed out in the following quotation from 'Mv. The figm-es being tabulated on tbe spot by a local staff are probably as accurate as the material Rut errors must have o. 65 on the l)asis of he tribal classinciition adopted in Abstract No. which embraces the Ghilzai. PATH AN. and are now hardly dynasties. numbering many thousands. for instance as tlie descendants increase tlieir branches or sections iucreasc with tlieui. and are But while. some under the name of an intermediate Similarly tho^e •'ancestor. 60. His descendants in the male line are known as Bitanni. recurrence of the same clan name in different tribes.. To the Ghilzai and Lodi. Entering the Derail Ismail Khan district. —Tlie tribes of our lower frontier belong almost exclusively to the lineage of Shekh Baitan^. and have added below eaih headiiig. march in military order through the Kakar and Wazii i country to the Gonial and Zho^) passes through the Sulemilns. Lodi. Amritsar. herds. <' who should have bceii catered under the original branch were shown under numerous branches. they leave their families. Benares. In the spring they again assemble. the Persian word for a bale of goods or.'''"2 They are almost whollv engaged in the carrying trade between India and Afghanistan and the Northern States of Central Asia. a prince of Persian origin flying before the Arab invaders took refuge with him. while Shekh is the title given. Cawnpore. with their families. perhaps more probably. They assemble every autumn in the plains east of Ghazni. G9 which it may be considered to include.. c-pecially among Afghnn-s. 1 iu conlradistinction to Saiyad. and while some wander off in search of employment. and forming enormous caravans. while the Lodi section gave to Delili the Lodi and Sur The Sarwani never rose to prominence. both from the constant will permit of. 1 AND ALLIED RACES. others pass on with their laden camels and merchandize to Multan. • The pronunciatiou is Powindah. third son of Kais. and even Patna. and especially to the former. From him are descended the jNIatti section The of the nation.

69.TAB CASTES. Abstract No. showing the [P.66 PAN. 204] ^ Origin and natural Divisions and .

Notes.BILOCH. . Principal Divisions of tli3 AND ALLIED RACES. P4THAN. 67 Pathan Nation.

showing the [P.68 PANJAB CASTES. 69. 205] . Abstract No.

Practically a separate tribe Chief clan Utmanzai and Ahinadzai Hybrid origin. and Kliaibar Afrldi (IvCiki Khel. Sepah). Fawindoh country. Chief clans Bulaqi. 1 Both banks of Eirer Tochi of Bannu border. . Mountains west of Khost and hills Peshawar border. Begani of BhopAl belongs t o tliis tribe. 82. and in "59" 407 4u7 "eiT Kurram. and now separate tribes.a Khel.'ir (clans Baizai and Jliranzai) and Simil. and east of Kohat south-east of Peshawar. 57 affiliated to Karl&nri Kurram. MIranzai and Koh. with which his descendants arc still Country round and west of the Takht-i-Suleman on the Derah Ismail Khan border.5 II Clans Warshpun and Kajiu (septs Dhanne North. Zakha Khel. north-east of Chief clans Adam Khel. Kamar Khel. 'c Notes. centre. Hills between Khost and Zurmat. Between Hazara and North Ghilzai countries. Bannu. South-west corner ^ Head of Khost 406 406 K urram valley valley Kurram ^ [" I Khost Should perhaps be classed as Durrani (Nos. between the Ghilzai. Scattered 4u3 408-9 Probably of Scattered through India _67_ 58 Includes elans of distinct origin.West of Derah Ismail Khan and Tattc). Chief elans G. "^ Saiyad tribes affiliated to the Shirani. 53 54 403 This and No. BILOCH. 402 associated. and allied himself to the Kakar branch ol the Ghurghusht section. Mountains of Tirah west of Adai Khel.it valleys in north-west of Kohat district. Very probably Turks who came in with Changiz and Taimur. See No. bat of doubtful Pathan origin. 56 on southrange. tribe in the Ghilzai 401 4ul j4in 29 "30" . NawAbs of Purrukhabad are Ban gash. PATHAN. or Eastern Two and Akora North-west slopes of Safed Koh. Descended from Sharkabun by a Kakar mother. and north-east border of Kohat. west of Shinwari. 31 includes several clans of true Pathbin origin. and adjoining Suleman parts of of 401 mountains.' / South-west of Derah Ismail North-west of Derah Ismail Khin Khan 31 Bellcw allies the Kakar to the Gakkhars. South. Baizai valley . Al. and west of Teri or Western. representatives The the his ancient brother 396 Dadicae.. Khaibar Accompanied Ydsufzai to Peshawar Perhaps of Turk origin Formerly closely associated with No. Unimportant. 11. all called Kakar after the chief tribe. with many clans of mixed on the Bannu border North-west of Bannu district Hills A on 405 4«4 Unimportant Pathin origin doubtful Claim descent from Khugiani. ! Of Rdjput origin. and Biloch territories and the Suleman mountains. Qambar Khel. Tari Tarkai. . No longer a separate tribe Ditto ditto Scythic origin. territorial sections. South Derah Ismail Khan. Tarin. f j them is still The larger portion of settled in Phekhiiwatti of 412 35 and Haidarabad. west border of Peshawar south of Kabul river. They include several clans of distinct " origin. 83). S'S- 69 Nation— continued. No. Present Holdings. 86. Principal Divisions of the Pathan AND ALLIED RACES. Chief clans Alfzai and Bahlolzai Koh. tribe. Banks of Swat river to Araug Baran and in Baizai valley. Shirani (luarrellcd" with his brothers. Malikdin Khel. Spin. 405 Hills on north-west frontier of 405 Derah Ismail Khan. 396 32 33 34 [•Kakaristan in south-east of Afghanistan. __^______^^_ separated Ancestor from Northern slopes of Western Safed 405 39 through a feud.

69.70 PANJAB CASTES. Abstract No. 70 . showing the Origin and natural Divieions and AflSnitics.

Notes.BILOCII. AND ALLIED RACES. 71 Principal Divisions of the Pathan Nation — concluded. . PATIIAN.

498 47.677 2.011 I5r: Native States Province .749 1.168 . Tribal Divisions. Lalhjrc 884 536 Rawalpindi .667 1.590 5 1.453 2 6 140 10 201 30.771 1 2. 10 11 14 to 23 Dolill (T'..199 100 Faimu 544 193 40.099 3.793 1. Abstra: No.099 3.667 1.383 14.962 British tory.910 1.363 2.371 3.386 1 5.561 I 57 47. TerriI 11..092 3. Dcmli^ 192 67 15 2. Nidzi W ^5 o 12 13 XoR. pages 66-71.377 3. Derail Gliazi Kliaii.7^ PANJAB CASTES. of Abstract 2 to 13 No.^<J6] Serial No.765 21 35 3.314 3.546 36.161 2.368 13.280 Pe-^hawar Hazara Kohiit 294 279 97 1. 63 5.328 2. L035 33 9 12 30 71 298 23 1.643 2. Ghilzai Lohani.085 1 2..768 Ismail KLaii.387 14.irgaon Karnal 536 81 456 38 16 Eohtak Airibala 1 32 .. showing the distiibution of the pri:icii)al [P.646 G. 10 GHILZAI LoDi Section. 70.203 3.117 Jalandliar 117 65 25 21 Hushyarpur.546 36. 69.749 1.

Sectiox. AND ALLIED RACES. PATHAN NATION. .BILOCII. n 11 12 13 14 1 IG 17 18 19 2U 21 22 ^(1 NATION. Piithan Tribes for Districts and States. PATIIAN.

75 PANJAB CASTES. Abstract No. . 70. showing the distribution of the principal Soial No.

and States 36 75 Districts — concluded.551 98.156 40. 37 38 31 35 39 40 41 42 43 NATION.BILOCII.414 95.977 . ^ 64 to 72 f5 75 76 to 77 3.083 1.466 1.i PATH AN.641 478 36 921 1.901 1.080 929 637 41 2. 1 Yiisufzai.550 26 11 296 27 215 400 204 595 41 27 1 992 96 12 33 70.890 1.854 4. Indian Skction. Pathan Tribes for 32 3.235 652 5.426 3. AND ALLIED RACES. Original Aeojjan Section.

a small Persian tribe of Ispahan origin who had become associated with them in their nomad life. Akbar's reign the Ijohaui.^ ^6 PANJAB CASTES. settled in the northern part of the district immediately under the Sulemans. when they crossed the trans-Indus Saltrange and settled in the country now held by the Marwat in the south of the Bannu district. It is not to be wondered at that these warlike tribes cast covetous ['20'. the assistance of the Bakhtiar. where they lived quietly as Paioindahs for nearly a century. while the Sarwani With them came the settled south of the Luni in Draban and Chandhwan. but it has become so prominent as practically to absorb the other clans. or western PashtOj and have little connection with the settled tribes of the same stock. Balueh. while the The Lohani are divided into four great tribes. Wrongly spelt .^ About the beginning of the 17th century the Daulat Khel quarrelled with the Marwats and Mian Khel and drove them out of Tauk. the Prangi and Sur tribes from which these dynasties sja'ang. expelled the former. Ghori. and they crossed the Sulemans. These Pawindah tribes speak the soft of the Census. 2 The Daulat Khel is really only a clan of the Mamu Khel tribe. where Babar mentions them as cultivators in 1505.lator throughout Mr. who had been expelled by the Suleman Khel Ghilzai from their homes in Katawaz in the Ghazni mountains. Daulat Khel. when in the early days of rebellion. seem to have migrated almost bodily from Afghanistan into Hindustan. They first settled with the Shii'anl Afghans and a section now lives at Margha in tlie Ghilzai country. the Lodi tribes were too weak to resist them expelled the remaining Prangi and Sur from Tank. another Lodi tribe. killing many. 399. the Prangi and Sur holding Tank and Rori. In 1877 the numbci* of these traders which passed into the district of Derah In the year Ismail Khan was 76yilJ0. held as they During the reign of the Lodi and Sur Sultans of Dehli (li5U to 1555 A. the Marwat. alliance with the Gakkhars. and reduced the latter to The Mian Khel passed southward acros" the Luni river and.^ Mic4n Khel. location. already . were by a peaceful Jat Early in the loth century. and with it the tribe. and their neighbours the NiazI. where they found a mixed Awan and Jat population. Khasor. about the time of Shahab-ud-din population. and other tribes who occupied the branch of the Salt-range which runs along the right bank of the river. eyes on the rich plains of the Indus.* drove the Sarwani. the number was 49^39:2. where the Niazi rose to great power. and to give its name to the whole tribe. ' The Pawindahs arc well described at pages 103^ of Dr. Tucker gives much detailed iuformatioTi conccruirig them at pages 184^ of his Settlement Report of Derah Ismail Klian. and still hold their original In the early j^art of the 15th centviry the NIazi.D. the Prangi and Sur tribes of the Lodi branch Avith their kinsmen the Sarwani. Bcllcw's Races of Jfcjhdnistdn. and at pages 18/f of Priestley's translation of the Haiydt-i.Afghan i. The ]Marwats moved northwards across the Salt-range and drove the Niazi eastwards across the Kurram and Saltrange into Isa Khel on the banks of the Indus.). then almost uninhabited save by sprinkling of pastoral Jats. another Lodi tribe. with servitude. •They arc a section of the Bakhlinri of Persia. and Tator. and is engaged in the puwt»daA trade ^ but has little or no conuectiou with the Bakhtiar of D erah Ismail. while Mr. one of their These last waxed insolent and revolted in tribe being Su!)ahdar of Lahore. . Tucker's settlement report. remainder fled into Hindustan. and in 1547 Sultan Salim Shah Suri crushed the At any rate. of which nearly half were grown men. followed their kinsmen from Ghazni into Tank.

Tliey —— JIarere sijekhi . the crest of the range being held by the ]\Iusa Khel and Zinari. the only Pathjin tribe of importance. description of now proceed to give a brief tribes of Derah Ismail Khan continued. descended from the hills into Finally.Tat and Biloeh. descent into the plains has been described in section 400. cultivating laud inimediatdj under the hills and pasturing their flocks beyond the border. They still own a large tract of hill country.. this quarrel the .tarvani Usi tariinl. They are divided into two main clans.. .' Gandapur. Beyond the Indus the Baluch who hold the north of the Bhakkar tlml are . These are the most recently located of the trans-Indus tribes of Derail Ismjiil Khan. in which indeed most of them live. subjugating the Biloeh inhabitants and encroaching northwards upon the Babar. out of tlieir country into Hindustan. Their territory only includes tlie ea-t<'rn slopes of the SulcniaiiiJ. PATHAN. Their head-quarters are at Paniala in the trans-Indus Salt-range. They were settled w'. left them and joined the Kiikar from whom his mother had come and his descendants are now classed as (Ihurglmshti and not as Sarbani. 77 weakened by feuds with the Sur. and these again into nuniornus septs. one of tlie sous of Us'aryarii. acquired a good deal of the plain country below the hills at the foot of wldch they still live. They are a fine manly race. and whose progeny are shewn in the margin. AND ALLIED RACES. The ]Mian Khel and Gandapur wore deprived of many of their eastern villages in the beginning of this century by Nawalj Muhammad Khan Saddozai^ Governor of Leiah. The Pathan llie — : — fllannar U-. the Ushtarani proper. they still talk Pashto and are fairly pure The other Pathans of the Khasor hills.^Gnidapur I I ^ I j- | Their forced to take to agriculture. and then to have turned southwards down the left bank. so much intermixed with Jats as to have forgotten their native tongue. But a quarrel with tlieir neighbours the Musa Khel put a stop to their annual and they were ^vestward migration.BILOCII. But while in the extreme northern portion of the tract the population is almost exclusively Pathjin. are. They are by descent Sarbaui Afghans but their ancestor. the plains below and subjugated the Jat and Biloeh population. living at a distance from the frontier. the Pathans holding only the superior property in the land. A few of them are still paiviudnhs.. about a century ago. Tlie Uslitaraui proper arc tlio ucsceiidauts of Hannar. \ | 3 j I . In Daulat Khel were assisted by the Gandupur. all the cis-Indus Pathans.^'aivad wlio settle! among and married into tlie Shirani section of Afghans. cpmrrelled with the ]\Iusa Khel.. a Saiyad tribe affiliated to the Shirani Afoluuis. many of them are in our army and police. cultivating largely ^vitli their own hand-. and turning eastwards below the Salt-range to the river.. The Shirani Afghans had been settled from of old in the mountains aliout the Takht-i-Sulernan. - Amarkhel . having quarrelled with his brothers. the proportion lessens southwards. a Shirani tribe. They also hold the trans-Indus Salt-range. About the time that the Lohaui came into the district. havin. Thus the Pathans hold a broad strip of the trans-Indus portion of the district running northwards from the border of the Khetran and Qasrani Biloches (see section 3SP)) along the foot of the hills and including the western half of the plain country between them and the Indus. .. They are much hai'assed by the independent Bozdar (Biloeh). like Pathans.— I various trilic-i lieginnino. and the Sulemans as far south as the Biloeh border. from tlie south The Ushtarani. a . which is cultivated by a subject population of . a Saiyad tribe of Ushtan'mi stock (see next paragraph) and the latter were settled by them at Rori and gradually spread over their present country. though trans-Indiis.th tlie Shiranis to the south of the 401. 400. and they arc quiet and well behaved. and till about a century ago they were wholly pastoral ^w^-pawindali. Takht i-Suleman. the Aliniadzai or Ainazai and the Gagalzai. . and they seem to have spi'ead across the river below Although jMianwali. the Babar.

and have never had any recognized Chief. . The Bitanni include all the descendants in the male line of Baitan. Indeed the tribe is a scattered one. the latter of which hold the south-west quarter of their tract. Sir Herbert Edwardes considered them " the most superior race in the whole of " the trans-Indus districts. moved. They have no common Chief.— The coming of this tribe to the district has been described in section 399. Ismail. ." They are extremely democratic. They have a hereditary Khan who has never possessed much poM-er. Tliey hold some 260 square miles of plain country between the Gandapur and the Babar. border of Tank and Baunu.Iian Khel. Tliey are divided by locality into the Braban and Miisa Khel sections. most of them beins: able to read and write. brutal and uncivilised and their hereditary Khan in the paivindah traffic. and under their Chief Katal Khan the Daulat Khel They ruled Tank and were numerous and powerful about the middle of the 18th century. while the Gurbuz They now hold the hills on the west contested with them the possession of the Ghabbar mountain. Chandwan being The result of their their chief town . from the Ghabbar on the north to the Gomal valley on the south. They are a rude people just emerging from barbarism. they include by affiliation height of their prosperity about the middle of the 18th century. and the town of Kulachi is their head-quarters. the third son of Kais.— The origin of the original stock. They originally occupied the western slopes of the northern Sulemans but. [P 208] The Mian Khel are a Lohani tribe whose coming to the district and subsequent movements have already been described in section 339. Besides the some off-shoots of the Shirani. Some of them are still engaged in the pawindah traffic. Taji'n. leaving the business tribes. and most honest tribe of the subSuleman plains. The manner in which they obtained their present country is described in section 339. occupying some 550 square miles.ini and 'J. The Eabar other side of the Sulemans of the plains hold some 180 square miles between the U4itar. wiry. Till some 50 years ago they lived wholly beyond our border. dealing in the more co=tly descriptions of merchandize. They cultivate but little themtelves. Gandapur has been described in section 399. A small Saiyad clan called Koti is affiliated to the Bitanni. quietest. Sunnis. but they now cultivate more largely than any other Derah Ismail Pathans. and Warshpun.md pastoral tribe. quarrels with the Ushtarani has just been mentioned. Sheikh Baitan had four sons. one living wholly within our border. and the Eauizai section of the Yusafzai tribe. though of Persian origin. — The Daulat Khel. comprising an area of 460 square miles abutting on the Suirmans to the west. Tliey are a peaceable people with pleasant faces. the Miishezai section of the Ghurghu-hti Pathans." and their intelligence has given rise to the saying " A Babar fool is a " Gandapur sage. and the trilie has thus been much weakened. through the Gomal Pass and occupied the eastern side of the north of the range. but lost their eastern possessions some VO years later. they being confiscated by the Saddozai Governor of Leiah. while the other holds the hill country opposite. Kajin. They were criginally a poor pazvindnh . They hold the whole of the northwestern part of trans -Indus I) erah Ismafl east of Tank and south of the Nila Koh ridge of the Salt-range." Uirifdessncss. being the richest. The Babar are a tribe of the Shirani thoiiffh they are now quite separate from forms their stock whose affinities have been described in section 400. chiefly south of the Takwara. now form one of their principal sections. as far north on its junction with the Salt-range and as far west as Kanfguram. and are much addicted to commerce. with a few of those of Warshpun. and " A hundred Bitanni eat a hundred sheep. They are a civilised tribe. but keen-witted. They are divided into two sections. and his descendants still live with the Sarbani Afghans. said to be descended from slaves of Tajin. in the time of Bahlol Lodi. With them are associated the "Fakhtiar (see section 339) who. Some time after the Waziri drove them back to beyond Garangi. They still engage They are lawless. In their disputes many of the tribe left for Hindustan where their Lodi kinsmen occupied the throne of Dehli. The proverbial wit of the countryside thus expresses their stupidity and ' Tlie drum was beating in the plains and the Bitanni were dancing on the hills . but on the The two have now little connection with each other. has hut little power. The greater number of them still engage in the trans-Indus trade .78 are all PAN JAB CASTES. the Shirani proper. Tlie Tajin branch is chiefly represented by the clans Dhanne and Tatte. .ins where they now form a large proportion of the Pathau population. They are of medium weight. of agriculture to their Jat tenants. and inveterate thieves and abettors of thieves and they have been called the jacknls of the Waziri. and more civili-ed than most of the pawindah Tliey seldom take military service. and they are the richest of all the patoindah tribes. and include the Mahsud and Ghora Khel clans of the tribe. many of them still residing in Kmdahar and other parts of Khoras-in. The tribe consists chiefly of the descendants of Kajin. Ismail was adopted by Sarban. and cultivate but little themselves. being hard pressed by the Ghilzai." . in a But The bomidary between the Ushtarani and Eahar was originally the Ramak stream. and active. war between them the former drove the latter back beyond the Shiran stream which now common boundary. while their advent in the plains has been described in section 400. Their principal clan was the Katti Khel . but of late they have spread into the Tank plr. They also hold some I md in the Bannu district at the mouth of the parses which lead up into their hills. They reached the The Gandapur.

They are a lawless set and great robbers. Their two clans. a petty clan of the Tabarak Kaka. and originally held the tract along the Suheli But within the last 50 years Marwat immigrants have stream in the North-east corner of Tank. 2 Macgregor says they are c^uiet and inoffensive. They settled in Tank with the Uaulat Khel Lohani. PATIIAN. and trade with Bukhara. They are a poor tribe. and the Miani. which have been described generally in section 398' although not holding lands in the district. and arc the dominant race in the tlic dis trict. perhap. but differ from the Ghilzai They are the least settled of all the paivindahs. with the Nur Khel and Malli Khel. Their chief wealth is in flocks and herds.— These tribes. The Ghorezal. the Bara Khel and Dari Khei. The Kharoti say they are an offshoot of Tokhi. They bring but little merchandize with them. The Mian Khels have sections are still ah-eady closely connected. They are fine strong men and fairly well behaved.l the DiuTani into Iliudustan. who repudiite the claim. Border. encroached largely on their eastern lands. under the fojt of the Salomslna. He considers them and the Na-ar to be of different origin from the mass of the Ghilzai. The Nasar claim descent from Hotak. But the Tokhi say they are descended from a foundling whom the tribe adopted. They hold the country about the sources of the Gonial river in Warghiin south by east of Ghazni. and winter in the Derajat and in physique. 3 One story makes them the descendants of a gang of blacksmiths who in the 14th century accompanied the Mi'an Khel on cue of their return journeys to Khorasan and settled there. Dr.) turn novthwa'ds. with the earliest Pathan the Salt-range where it leave* north of the cis-Indus pjrtion of Lodi tribes. of the lower Saltthe Lodi. or the ridge. and <hey are now small and feeble. though not bearing The Suleman Khel [P. but closely allied to those of our plains. a small come in corner between tribe of uncertain origin affiliated to the i:ivadors. They are a rough sturdy lot. and in fnct been described in section 401. is a Katti Khel. and many of them work as laboirrers or carriers. are of considerable administrative interest. and the proverb runs "A dead Kundi is better than a live one. and other tribes.^ of have become the nucleus of a Biloch tribe . The Kundi are a small pawindah clan who claim descent from the ancestor of the Niazi. the best of characters. * They are a is inhabit the Warrak valley and the country betft'ceu small. summer in the Ghilzai country. mother of Hotak mentioned above. and warlike of all the Ghilzai and hold a large tract stretching nearly the whole length of the Ghilzai country. hold iands in the Gonial valley. a small colony of Shekhs who settled some 503 year> ago the trandapuranl Miaii Kliol c )Uiitry. Pawiudah. A portion of the Miani are independent pa^vindaliK. but go downcountry in great numbers. which latter is one of the Patoindah tribes of Pathans. and landowning The Dutanni Gomal. Thty are now almost extinct. The Khetran. but fairly well behaved. It Pathan origin. but the Hotak tay that they are a Biloch clan. Those who trade with India come chiefly from the hills ea<t of Ghazni and winter in the northern trans-Indus tract. and they act as carriers rather than as traders. "2 — The Pawindah Tribes. the former lying south and the latter They graze their flocks during summer on the western slopes of the not th of the Liini river.3 They speak Pashto. brokers or dalldls between the merchants and other pawindahs. The principal tribes are noticed below : a grandson of Ghilzai . The BalUCh.' They seem to have They hold the country round Paniala. powerful. having no home of their OAvii. tribe Andar. at the foot of the Inlu. and merely dependent on them.islng sufficient importance in a to merit detailed desci'iptiou are The Zarkani.— — BILOCII. 79 But since that accompanie. are the most uumeroas. The Tator have been mentioned in section 899. the Waziri hills and not perhaps impossible that these may be of Biloch origin. The Khasor. and the Uaulat Khel completed their ruin. while 351 men of Derah Ismail returned themselves in this Census as caste Biloch.— The trihc-i not po^se. range which runs down the right bank of the Indus. but well-to-do tribe. Bellew identifles them with the Arachoti of Alexandes's historians. and points out that they still live in the ancient Arachosia. . They were very roughly treated by Nadir Shah. where they act a. hold a small area on the Tank and Kulachi frontier. Sulcmans.t. form a small tribe which claims kinship with Tliey liold the Kliasor range. 402. The Xawab of Tank. as enormous numbers of them spend the cold weather iu the pastures on either side of the Indus. and they winter in the Tank tahsil. AND ALLIED RACES. the principal jagirdar of the district. an insigniticaut pawindah clan of the Shlrani tribe. 20?] ^'•'it>es. and brought Ijack mucli wealth time the Bitanni and other tribes have eucroaclied. The trading to some extent indistinguishable.

with their head-quarters at Shawal. Towards the close of the 13th century^ the Mangal. They are divided inti the Shirani proper who bold the greater part of tlie tract. The descendants of the first are no longer distinguishable . whose stronghold on the Indus was destroyed by Ahmad Shah in 1 748. we find the Marwat and the — Niitzi. Tiiis seems improliable. They occupy the country round the Takht-i-Suleman. Isa Khel settled in the south and the Mushani in the north of the country between the Kohat Salt-range and the Indus. and. to The Tokhi were the most proniineut of nil the Cihilzal tril)es till the Ilotak gave rulers Kandahar ahout 1700 A. have already been described in section 399. * The figures for Biloch include 351 Andar in this district. The Border tribes. while further north lie the Wa/iri and Bannuchi of the great Karlanri sevtion of Pathans. and that of the Bannuchi invasion at about 1. with Kelat-i-Ghilzai their principal centre. . who with their Daur kinsmen then held the hills lying east of the Khost range in the angle between the Kohat and Bannu districts. They hold the valley of the Taruak and the north valley of the a-. The migration of the Niazi from Tank across the Salt-ra)ige.D. finally drove the Gakkhars. wiry. and Khaku. eastwards across the Salt-range. . They are of medium height.300 A. a tril)e of the Kodai Karlanri. The most impcrtant trilies on the Dcrah Ismail — The Shirani have already been mentioned and their origin described in ?ection 400. They are largely nomad. and wild and manly in their appearance. the northernmost of the Indian descendants of Baitan. Argaiidah. sweeping dowai the Km-ram valley. blankets.Afghdni says that they held Lakkl and were driven out across the river by the Khatak. hounded to the north by the Zarkanni stream and to the south by the Ushtarani border.* The Andar occupy border are. who retui'ned themselves as Biloch Andar. the Qasvani Biloch and the Ushtarani.D.The Kalul-i. and occupied the country between the Kurram and Tochi rivers which they now hold in the north-western corner of the district. 403.80 PAN. Bannu district. and their principal occupation is agriculture. the descendants of Shitak. have overshadowed the other clans and given The their names to the most important existing divisions of the tribe. the Rabar of our plains described in section 401.3 and after a struggle lasting nearly a century and a half with their quondam allies the Gakkhars and their Jat and Aw^iin subjects. left their Karlanri home in Birmil. Bahai. The Wazfri will be described when I cone to the the Shirani. and established themselves in Mi an wall. crossed the Sulemans into the Bannu disAbout trict. ^ Tlie Kalid-i-Afghfhii fixes this dale at Ihe middle of the 121 h century. svhile the Isa Khel among the Jamjil.TAB CASTES. while the Sarhang crossed the river . Their ancestor Niazai had three sons. and live south and we^t of Shalgar. were driven from their homes by the Waziri. and Tlieir dress consists of a couple of coarse active. a Kakai Karlanri by his wife Mussammjit Bannu. and tlie Ilanni. Jamal.aziii. and how the Marwat followed them and drove them across the Kurrain. beginning from the south. a century later the Bannuchi. an affiliated tribe of Saiyad origin. and settled in the valleys of the Kurram and Gambila rivers. The Pathan tribes of Bannu. With them are associated the Mu>a Khel Kakar. nearly the whole of the extensive district of Shalgar south of Gl. their principal habitat being the low valleys to the east of the Takht. and the Musliani and Sarhang clans among the Khaku. On the southern bonier of the marching with Derah Ismail. and the small tribes of Hiripal and Jalwani lying to the south of the Shirani proper. and the j\Iah>ud Wazi'ri. drove the JNIangal and Ilanni back again into the mountains of Kohat and Kurram where they still dwell. border tribes of Bannu (section 404\ The Tarakki winter about Kandahar. already described in sections 883 and 401. who arc descended from an Andar woman.

whose history will be sketched in sections 406-7. who have within the last 60 years occupied a small tract on the north-eastern border of the Thus Pathans hold all trans-Indus Marwat at"^ the foot of the hills. The transIndus Pathans. Their most important clans are the Miisa Khel. They are a simple. lying. Acha Khel. With them are associated a few of the Niazi who remained behind when the main body of the tribe was expelled. their «• Their Isakhi clan. cowardly. with the scattered representatives of the former inhabitants of their tract who remained with them as hamsdyah. 81 the same time the DauV. however. secretive. beginning from the south The Marwat hold almost the whole of the Lakki tahsil. and the Kurram and a line drawn from its mouth due east across The Niazi hold hills ." : and the the southern portion of Isa Khel and the country between Mianwali so much of the Bannu district as is contained between the Saltrange on either side the Indus. "Keep a Marwat to look after asses. '" The Banmichis are bad specimens of Afghans . between the Kurram and Tochi Their history is narrated in section 403. and slow-witted people. which they still hold. Bannu. drove the Banniichi out of the Shawal their hills. a tribe of evil repute in every sense of the occupied the l)anks of the Tochi beyond om. I now proceed : to a detailed description of the different tribes. and as much of the cis-Indus portion of the district as lies north of a line joining the junction of the Kurram and Indus with Sakesar. At first their visits were confined to the cold season . and Tapi. inoffensive. that is to say the south-eastern half and the whole central portion of the country between the trans-Indus Salt-range and the Waziri hills. century they began to encroach upon the plain country of the Marwat on the right bank of the Tochi. Their hereditary enemies the Khatak say of them : •' his stomach well filled and his feet well worn. with the partial exception of the Niazi. the Niazi speak Hindko. Their women are not secluded. envious. " Who virtiies stunted. At word. but early in the present century. They are at present perhaps more hybrid than any other Patliau tribe.— BILOCH. can Sir Herbert Edwardes says of them " worse be said of any race ? They have all the vices of Pathans rankly luxuriant." rivers. Some 400 years ago the Bangi Khel Khatak. PATTTAN. great bigots. they occupied the country thus vacated. is famed for the beauty of its women. and capital cultivators. The Bannuchi hold physique. still preserve the memory of They are of inferioi their separate origin and distinguish themselves as Bannuchi proper. The latest comers are the Bitanni (see section 401). moving from homes in Birmil. They have attracted to themselves Saiyads and other doctors of Islam in great numbers. the peak at which the Salt-range enters the district and turns northwards. AND ALLIED RACES. Within the last fifty years they have begun to retrace their footsteps and have pas-ed southwards over the Salt-range into Derah Ismail. speak Pashto of the soft and western dialect ." The descendants of Shitak. Their history has been sketched in section 399. Khuda Khel. and have not hesitated to intermarry with these. especially east of the Indus. and with the families of the various adventurers who have at different times settled amongst them . out at that point. all in other words a . and by " a stretch. strongly attached to their homes. and of pleasing appearance. however. in the period of anarchy which accompanied the establishment of the Sikh rule in Bannu. occupied the trans-Indus portion of the district above Kalabagh and the spur which the Salt-range throws This they have since held without disturbance. where they occupy small tracts wrested from the Kundi in the northern corner of Tank and along the foot of the hills and from the Balucli in the Paniala country. insomuch that " Banniichi in its broadest sense now means all Mahomedaus. Bahram. and for 350 years confined themBut during the latter half of last selves to the hills beyontl our border. manly. good cultivators. even Hindus long domiciled within the limits of the irrigated tract originally " occupied by the tribe.border. the central portion of the Banuu tahsil. and of the Bannuchi on the left bank of the Kurram." " marries not an Isakhi woman deserves an ass for a bride. The Marwat are as fine and law-abiding a body of men as are (o be found on our border. ancestral "When the Darvesh Khel Waziri (see above). they finally made good their footing in the lands which they had thus acquired and still hold. 404.

The Waziri are descended from Suleman. while of the Darvesh Khel country. and Kbatak. lie the Mahsud clan of the same tribe. of which a grammar has just be( n submitted to Government for api>roval. The Kbatak will bo described when I di. but they have of late years encroached upon the plain country of the Marwat. and Gurbuz. They wcve till lately wholly nomad and pastoral . The Hasan Khel. muscular. and with but little common feeling. Lalai had to fly by reason of a blood fend. owning no common head. divided into tbe Alizai and Eablolzai .' especially during the spring months. About the close of the 14th century the Waziri began to move eastwards. and still show their origin in speech and physiognomy. They are tall. and still retain much of tbe Patban pride of race. Their two main sections are the Mah=ud and Darvesh Khel. 2 This is according to the genealogies. they drove the Urmar Afghans. while from Slusa Darvesli are descended the Utnianzai and Ahmadzai clans. The large number of Waziris shown in the Bannu district is partly due to the Census having been held on the night of the weekly fair. son of Kakai. They are stiU in a state of semi-barbarism. * The original seat of the iribc M-as in the Birmil bills. where it joins the lower ranges of the Safed Koh. . The whole of the Bannu portion beyond our border is occupied by the Dai'vcsh Khcl Waziri. The Waziri are one of the most powerful and most troublesome tribes on our border.-cuss the Koliat tribes. The two great sections are practically independent tribes. and as far south as the Gomal pass." Minor tribes are the Mughal Khel clan of Yusufzai who conquered a small tract round Ghcriwal some seven centuries ago. Thorburn estimates the Waziri population of the purely Waziri border villages alone at 13. then held by the Kbatak wlitm they dro\e northwards. the Ahmadzai occupy the southern and the Utmanzai the northern parts. drove them back beyond Garangi to the low hills on our immediate frontier. They are exceedingly democratic and liave no recognised headmen. and once occupied the hiUs between their Mahsud and Darvesh Khel brethren. They thus obtained possession of all that confused system of mountains which. But the Urmar are probably of Hindki origin. where his descendants the Lalai Waziri are still settled. along the Derab Ismail border. From Mab=ud are descended the Mahsud Waziri. and are one of the Karlanri tribes. which increases the difficulty of dealing with them. Miisa. They first crossed the Khost range and drove tbe Banniichi out of Shawdl. The Gurbuz. But Mr. Banniichi.^ oiit of the hills south of the Tochi on the lower Bannu and Tank borders to take refuge in the Loghar valley near Kabul. Mah-ird. for the proverb says The Niazi like rows. c-ossing that river. the former holding the hills to the south. They are indifferent cultivators. taking the whole of their country Irom the Sham plain to the Koliat \ alley. and north of the Daur who hold the trans-border in banks of the Tcchi river. an important Utmanzai sept. They seem to be a quarrelsome people. descendants of Urmar. They still nominally hold the Birmil country. the Mahsud being pre-eminent for tui-bulence and lawlessness. and now hold cultivated lands — Bannu and Kohat. active. though the Suleman Khel and Kharoti Ghilzai winter there with their flocks. Khiz:ai had three sous. and their customs differ in several respects from those of the Pathans in genci-al. The Waziri. and speak a Panjabi dialect known as Urmari. and dislodging the Bitanni from Kaniguram. as already narrated. ' Dr. an unimportant tribe. and during their stay the Waziri are confined to their walled villages. Tliey are strict Sunuis. usually joined under the title of Darvesh Khel Waziri. A section of them is still independent and engaged in pawindah traffic. they disputed the possession of the Ghabbar peak with the Bitanni. The cis-Indus branch is the more orderly and skilful in agriculture. Tbe Isa Khcl is tbe predominant and most warlike section . and the latter those to the north of the Tochi river and the Khasor pass . runs northwards along our border to Thai and the Kurram river. and courageous. Bellew makes them tbe Wairsi sept of the Lodha tribe of Pramara Kajpiits j and says that they crossed from the Indus riverain across the Sham plain into the Birmil hiUs. They are well described 'nit\\e Rai^ at -%• Afghani {]i^gcfi 221 ffoi the translation). while south of them. — 405. On the Bannu border distress owing to failure of rain had probably made the number of such persons unusually high at the time of the census. spending the summer about Kandahar and wintering in Derab Ismail. Then. where. Suleman had two sons. hold the extreme north-western portion of the tract. starting from the Gomal pass which marks the northern extremity of the Sulemans proper. and occupied the hills of the Bannu and Kohat border north of the Toehi. Lalai and Kbizrai.523. and settled in !Ningiahar on the northern slopes of the western Safed Kob. Tlieiv history and distribution Lave been rclaled in sections 399 and 403. behind the Bitanni country. son of Sharkabiin and near kinsmen of the Abdali. and there are always many members of the tribe scattered about the district * in search of work or of opportunities for theft. He gives no authority for these statements. but they all make gooi solliers. They have now returned to their original seat west of the Khost range. the Indus.82 PANJAB CASTES. accompanied the Waziri in their movements. west of the Khost range which separates them from their kinsmen tbe Baunucbi descendants of Shitak.

held the hills to the west of our border. they joined with the Khatak who had quarrelled with the Orakzai.Towards the close of the 13th century'^ they. the Khatak of the the Kakai section of the Karlanri. while the Bangash. AND ALLIED RACES. PATHAN. 5 Mr. Malik Akor was the boundary between the two tribes. while the Khatak A century later the Bannuehi drove. who beiug in their turn driven northwards by the pressure of Biloch tribes moving up the Indus valley.i— The Pathans of Kobat belong almost entirely to two great tribes. and who still occupy the valley. a Qui-eshi tribe of Arab descent. which does not agree with the held by tlie Banniichi. Being presently driven out by the Turi* and Jaji. as already related in sectioii 40o. The original home of the Khatak. wbicb stretches across the centre of the Kohat district to the Indus. son of Kakai. done my hcst to supply the defect from other soui'ces. 3 The Kalid-i AfgJidni places the migration in the middle of the 12th centmy. 211] 406. where they held the valley of Shawal now occupied by the Waziri. I have. leaving behind them the Chamkanni. witb the Mangal and Hanni. however. the leader of the Khatak. The struggle was prolonged for nearly a century . but rose in rebellion against their •) masters. and the Canuuchi migration at about 1300 A. increasing in number and being pressed upon by the Ghilzai. a tribe (perhaps of Persian origin) who had taken refuge witb them. and he was granted an extensive tract of land south of the Kabul river between Khairabad and Naushahra on condition of his .D. Merk. lived in the country about Gardez in Zurmat. * Unfortunately tlie Settlement Officer of Kohat went on furlough without reporting his Consequently I have far less full information regarding this than regarding any other settlement. moved eastwards. two tribes of the Kodai section of the Karlanri.Afghani. frontier district. is g2 . Bellew says that the Khatak held aU the plain couuti'y of the Indus as far south as Derail Ismail Khan till driven out hy the Waziri. while the latter took the northern and north-western tract consisting of the Kohat and Miranzai valleys up to the base of the Orakzai or Samana range and the hills between Gada Khel and Lachi were then fixed and still remain as In the time of Akbar. and the Bangash. but l)y the close of the 15th century the Orakzai had been driven into the lower of the ranges which form the eastern extremity of the Safed Koh and lie along the northwestern border of the Kohat District. held all the valley of Kohat in the north and north-east of the district fi'ora Resi on the Indus to Kohat . 2 Dr.ni origin. the two last descending into the Bannu district and settling along the Kurrara and Gambila. however. At this time the Orakzai. 83 [P. and drove the latter out of Kohat. moved to the north and enst and occupied the hilly country. emigrated eastwards en masse and settled in Kurram. the former taking all the southern and central portions. The Pathan tribes of Kohat. passed onwards into the hills then He gives no authority for this account. but who are perhaps of Awan stock^ though now Pathans for all practical purposes. The Khatak and Bangash then possessed themselves of all the northern and central portions of Kohat and divided the country between them.BILOCH. tribes of doubtful origin who claim descent from Khugiani. and not long after this the Khatak. The Turi were originally Tiamsdyahs of the Bangash. tells me that the Khugiani claim Durrd. already alluded to. then uninhabited. while another section still lives in a state of barbarism about Kaniguram as the subjects of the Waziri. and that the claim admitted by the Durranij and supported by their genealogies. But in the latter part of the 14th century the Bangash. traditions of the Khatak themselves as related in the Kalid-i. and the bulk of whom now occupy the north-east corner of the Kurram Yalley. in common with the other sections of the Karbinri. quarrelling with the Bannuehi. another tribe of the Kodai Karlanri. the Mangal and Hanni out of Bannu. was the west face of the northern Sulemuns.

and the western half of the Lundkhwar valley in the north of They crossed the Indus and are said to have at one time conquered Yusufzai. j)0ssessing exclusive revenue jurisdiction. about the cis-Indus plains .belonging to the Enliiq. The most important clans of the Tari section are the Anokhel to which the chief's family belongs. and the Mir 2 3 of Karldn. grew up in the tribe. possessed themselves of the strip of land along its north bank from the junction of the Swat river to the Indus and for a short distance along the right ]iauk of the Indus. The Nawab of Khatak holds the Teri tract in jagir. in the very heart of the Mandanr country. rose to such distinction that the whole section. son of Burhau. with their capital at Akora. the eastern or Akora faction holding the north-eastern portion of Kohat and all the Khatak country of Peshawar. guarding the high road between Attak and Peshawar. 84. the whole of Kohat is held by Patbjins. and in the centre of the hills they first occupied. founder of the Karlanri division of the Afghans.^ Luqman had two sons Turmau and Bulaq. and which includes the septs of the upper and lower Mohmandi ^ who hold the right hank of ' tlae Indus below Attak. and across the Salt-range to the Indus at Kalabagh . and a Saiyad village here and there. on the Kabul river. south-west of Kohat. Bellew interprets those names as meaning respectively Mongol and Chinese. and they now hold a broad strip running along its ri. including the south-eastern corner occupied by the Saghri clan. Tliey have absorbed several small tribes of doubtfnl origin. but after his permanent. and large criminal and police powers. while the western or Teri division hold all the remainder of Kehat. the time of Shah Jahiin the Khatak crossed the river. and with the excej^tion of a narrow strip of land stretching along the northern border of the Teri Khatak from Togh to Dhoda which is held by the Niazi (see section 400). Dangarzai. whieh commaiuls They have the approaches to Swat on the one hand and Buner on the other. The western section have their caj^ital at Teri. The Khatak. son of Turnian. Dr. This brought him into contact with the ]Mandanr of Yusufzai who hehl the country opposite on the Their quarrels were continual . About the middle of the 18th century two They temporarily combined to accompany and in his invasion of Hindustiin . is culled by his name. 407. and the adjoining territory of the Bangi Khel Khatak of Bannu.. and at length in left bank of the Kabul river. son of Kakai. and the left bank of the river as There are other Khatak holdings scattered far south as Mari in Bannu. But about the middle of the the Awan country as far east as the Jahlam. and t'ria Khel belong to the Tari section. They are descended from Luqnian suruamed Khatak. but their owners have no connection with the . The doscendants of the hitter are still known as the Bulaqi section while Tarai. also encroached on the Mohmand and Khalil who lie to the west of their Peshawar temtory.. while the Jalozai. PANJAB CASTES.ht bank from a little above the junction of the Kabul river to Kalabagh. all Kohat save the j)ortion occupied by the Bangash in the north and north-west of the district. the whole is in the hands of the Bangash and Khatak. and now only 1 7th century they relinquished the greater part of this tract hold Makhad in the Rawalpindi district. tribe. valley of the Kohat District are quite distinct from the Mohmand . the Tari proper and the Tarkai. Kakai was sou The Mohmandi of the Khwarra of Peshawar. and also pushed across the plain and acquired a position about Jamalgarhi to the north of Mardan. Meanwhile they had gradually spread southwards to the trans-Indus Salt-range and the Bannu border.— The history of the Khatak trihe has bccu sketched above. including two main clans. Durrani departure the division became parties assist Ahmad Shah Thus with the exception of a few Awan villages in the Bangash country. the Mugiaki andSaniiui.





[P. 212j

valley in tlic centre of the Teri tract. Among the Hulaqi the the Saghri, with its practically independent Bangi Khcl sept. These hold the right bank of the Indus above Kalabagh, while the Sagliri, with tlie Habar family of the Bangi Khcl, also occupy the cis-Indns possessions of the tribe. Most of the Khatak in Yiisufzai are also Bnlar[. The K;ika Khel section of the Khatak arc descended from the famous saint Shekh Ralii'm Kar, and arc consequently venerated by all northern Pathaus. The Khatak are a fine manly race, and differ from all other I'atluins in features, general appearance, and many of their customs. They are the northernmost of all the Pathans settled on our frontier who speak the soft or western dialect of I'ashlo. Thty are of a warlike nature and have been for centuries They are active, industrious, and " a at feud witli all their neighbours and with one another. " most favoui'able specimen of Pathan," and are good cultivators, though their country is stony and unfertile. They are also great carriers and traders, and especially hold all the salt trade with Swat and Hnucr in their hands. Tliey are all Sunnis. Tlie Mai-wat, the licreditavy enemy of the " Friendship is good with any one but a Khatak Khatakj says may the devil take a Khatak " and "A Khatak is a hen. If you seize him slowly he sits down; and if suddenly he clucks." " Though the Khatak is a good horseman, yet he is a man of but Another proverb runs thus " one charge." The Bangash. The early history of the Bangash has been narrated above. Since they settled down in their Kohat possessions no event of importance has marked their history. They claim descent from Khali'd ibn Walid, Mahomet's apostle to the Afghans of Ghor, ' and liimself of the original stock from which they sprang ; but they are Pathans " as regards character, cus" toms, crimes, and vices." Their ancestor had two sons Gar and Samil, who, on account of the bitter enmity that existed between them, were nicknamed Bunkasli or root destroyers. These sons have given their names to the two great political factions into which not only the Bangash themselves, but their Afridi, Orakzai, Khatak, Turi, Zaimusht, and other neighbours of the Karlanri branch are divided, though the division has of late lost most of its importance.^ The Gari are divided into Miranzai and P.aizai clans. The Baizai hold the valley of Koliat proper; the Miranzai lie to the west of them in the valley to which they have given their name ; while the Samilzai occupy the northern portion of Kohat and hold Shalozan at the foot of the Orakzai hills, where they are independent, or live in Paiwar and Kurram under the protection of the Turi.

who hold the Chaniifra

most important elan




The Bangash Nawabs of Furrukhabad belong to this tribe. Border tribes. The tribes on the Kohat border, beginning from the south, are the Uarvcsh Khel Wazi'ri, the Zaimudit, the Orakzai, and the Afridi. The Waziri have already been described in section 405. The Zaimusht are a tribe of Spin Tarin Afghans who inhabit the hills between the Kurram and the Orakzai border on the north-west frontier of Kohat. They belong to the Samil faction. The early hist jry of the Orakzai has been given in section 406. With them are associated the Alfkhel, Mi'shti, the Shckhan, and some of the Malla Khel, all of whom are now classed as Orakzai of the Hamsayah clan, though, as the name implies, distinct by descent. The Orakzai hold the lower south-eastern spurs of the Safed Koh and the greater part of Ti'rah. They

are divided into five great clans, the Allezai, Massozai, Daulatzai, Ismailzai, and Lashkarzai, of which the Daulatzai and Massozai are the most numerous. The Muhammad Khel is the largest They are a tine manly sept of the Daulatzai, and, alone of the Orakzai, belongs to the Shfah sect. tribe, but exceedingly turbulent. They are divided between the Samil and Gar factious. There

are a considerable number of Orakzai tenants scattered about the rulers of lihopal belong to this tribe. The Afridi will be described




The present the border tribes of


408. The Pathan tYibes of Peshawar. The Pathans of Peshawar belong, with the exception of the Khatak described above^ almost wholly to the Afghans proper, descendants of Sarban ; and among them to the line of Karshabun or the representatives of the ancient Gandhari, as distinguished from the true Afghans of Jewish origin who trace their descent from Sharkhabun. I have already told, in section 395, how during the 5th or 6th century a Gandhari colony emigrated to Kandahar, and there were joined and
> Dr. Bellew thinks that they and the Orakzai are perhaps both of Scythian origin, and belonged t the group of Turk tribes, among whom he includes all the Karlanri, or, as he calls them, Turklam-i, who came in with the invasion of Sabuktagin in the 10th and Taimur in the 16th century of our asra. " Dr. Bellew is of opinion that these names denote respectively the Magian and Buddhist religions of their ancestors. The present division of the tribes is given as follows by Major James Samil. Half the Orakzai, half the Bangash, the Mohmand, and the Malikdin Khcl, Sepah, Kainr, Zakha Khel, Aka Khel, and Adam Khel clans of Afrfdi. Qdr. Half the Orakzai, half the Bangash, the Khali'l, and the Kiiki Khel and Qambar Khel clans of Afridi. The feud betw^eea the two factions is still very strong and bitter, and is supplemented by the sectaiian animosity between Shi'ah and Sunni,




by the Afghan stock of Ghor who Mended witli them into a single Their original emigration was due to the pressure of Jat and Sc3rthic tribes who crossed the Hindu Kush and descended into the valley of the Kabul Among those tribes was probably the Dilazak/ who are now river. classed as one of the Kodai Karlanri^ and who were converted by IMahmud Ghaznavi in the opening of the 11th century. They extended their sway over the Rawalpindi and Peshawar districts and the valley of the Kabul as far west as Jalalabad, driving many of the original Hindki or Gandhari inhabitants into the valleys of Swat and Buuer which lie in the hills to the north, and ravaging and laying waste the fertile plain country. Amalgamating with the remaining Hindkis they lost the purity of their faith, and were described as infidels by the Afghans who su1)sequently drove



The Kandahar colony of Gandhari was divided into two principal sections, the Khakhai and Ghoria Khel, besides whom it included the descendI give below the principal tribes which trace ants of Zamand and Kansi. their descent from Kharshabun for convenience of reference

Hold the Peshawar

fYusuf zai


plain north of the Kahul river, called British Yusufzai, the Chamlah valley on the Peshawar border, and part of the Haripur tract in Hazara.





Hold Swat, Euner, Panjkora. and Dir; the
north of the Yiisufzai plain.











river. mand. ^ Bar Moh- ( Hold mountains north of Kabul river and west of the Swat-Kabul Toab. C mand. \ f Hold Peshawar plain on right bank of Kabul (^Daudzai J river to a little below the junction of the Bara river. (. Khalil Hold the Peshawar plains between the Daiidzai and the Khaibar. r Muhammadzai Hold Hashtnaghar, the plains east of Swat river in Peshawar.



Plains ]\Ioh- (

Hold Doaba ; the plains in the angle between the Kabul and Swat rivers. Hold Bajaur tract west of Swat. Hold plains of Peshawar on right bank of Bara

1 Others


war i f Shin

Hold part of Khaibar mountains and the
ern slopes of the Safed Koh. Scattered.


I Others

About the middle of the 13th century they were settled about the headwaters of the Tarnak and Arghasan rivers, while the Tarin Afghans held, as

hold, the lower valleys of those streams.

As they

increased in

numbers the weaker yielded to pressure, and the Khakhai Khel, accompanied by their first cousins the Muharamadzai descendants of Zamand, and by their Karlanri neighbours the Utman Kliel of the Gomal valley," left tlieir homes and migrated to Kabul. Thence they were expelled during the latter half of the 15th century by Ulugh Beg, a lineal descendant of Taimur and Babar's uncle, and passed eastwards into Ningrahar on the northern slopes of the Safed Koh, and into the Jalalabad valley. Here the Gugiani settled in eastern and the Muhammadzai in western Ningrahar, the Tarklanri occupied
* Dr. Bellew seems doubtful whether the Dilazak were of says the name is of Buddhist origin,


or of Edjput extraction.


- Another story makes the Utman Khel descendants of one Utman, a follower of Mahmiid Ghaznavi, who settled circa 1,000 A. D. in the country which they now hold.

to include




while the Yiisiifzai (I use the word throughout in its widest sense both the Mandanr and the Yusufzai proper) and Htm an Khel moved still further east through the Khaihar pass to Peshawar. Here they settled peacefully for a while ; but presently quarrelled with the Dilazak and expelled them from the Doaba or plain country in the angle between the Swat
K{il)ul rivers, into which they moved. They then crossed the Swat river Hashtnaghar and attacked the Eastern Shilmani, a tribe probably of Indian origin, who had only lately left their homes in Shilman on the Kurrara river for the Klmibar mountaius and Hashtnaghar. These they dispossessed of Hashtnaghar and drove them northwards across the mountains into Swat, thus acquiring all the plain country north of the Kabul river and west of Hoti Mardan.



[P. 213]

409. Meanwhile the Ghoria Khel whom they had left behind in the Kandahjir country had been following in their track ; and early in the 16th century they reached the western mouth of the Khaibar pass. Here they seem to have divided, a part of the Mohraand now known as the Bar Mo'hmand crossing the Kaljul river at Dakka, while the remainder went on through the pass to the plain of Peshawar lately vacated by the Yusuf zai, where they defeated the Dilazak in a battle close to Peshawar, drove them across the Kabul river into what are now called the Yusufzai plains, and occupied all the flat country south of the Kabul river and west of Jalozai. This they still hold, the Daudzai holding the right bank of the Kabul river, and the Khalil the left bank of the Bara river and the border strip between the two streams facing the Khaibar pass, while the Mohmand took the country south of the Bara and along the right bank of the Kabul as far as Naushahra, though they have since lost the south-eastern portion of it to the Khatak. Meanwhile the Bar Mohmand made themselves masters of the hill country lying north of the Kabul river as far up as Lalpura and west of the Doaba, ancl possessed themselves of their ancestral capital Gandhilra, driving out into Kafiristan the inhabitants, Avho were probably their ancient kinsmen, the descendants of such Gandhari as had not aecompanied them when, two centuries earlier, they had migrated to Kandahar. They then crossed the Kabul river, and possessed themselves of the country between its right bank and the crest of the Afiidi hills to the north of the Khaibar pass.

While these events were occurring, the Gugiani, Tarklanri,' and Muhammadzai, who had been left behind in Niugrahar, moved eastwards, whether driven before them by the advancing Ghoria Khel, or called in as allies against the Dilazak by the Yusuf zai. At any rate they joined their friends in Doaba and Hashtnaghar, and attacking the Dilazak, drove them out of Yusufzai and across the Indus. They then divided their old and new possessions among the allies, the Gugiani receiving Doaba, the Muhammadzai Hashtnaghar, while the Yusufzai, Utman Khel, and Tarklanri took the great Yusufzai plain. Dming the next twenty years these three tribes made themselves masters of all the hill country along the Yusufzai, Hashtnaghar, and Bar Mohmand border, from the Indus to the range separating the Kunar and Bajaur valleys, the inhabitants of which, again the ancient Gandhjiri who had abeady suffered at the hands of the Bar INIohmand, they drove east and west across the Indus into Hazara and across the Kun'am into Kafiristan. This country also they divided, the Tarklam'i taking Bajaur, and the Utman Khel the valley of the Swat river up


section of the Tarklan,'!

remained in Lughman, where they




Arang Barang and


its junction with the Panjkora, while the Yusufzai held the hills to the east as far as the Indus and bordering upon their plain Some time later the country, including lower Swat^ Buner, and Chamlah. Khatak obtained from Akbar, as has already been related in section 406, a Thus the grant of the plains in the south-east of the Peshawar district. Khakhai and their allies held all the country north of the Kabul river from the Indus to Kunar, including the hills north of the Peshawar border, but excluding those lying west of Doaba which were occupied by the Bar Mohmand ; while all the pfain country south of the Kabul was held, in the east by the

Khatak, and in the west by the Ghoria Khel. These last attempted to cross the river into Yusufzai, but were signally defeated by the Yusufzai, and have How the Khatak pushed across into the never extended their dominions. The Dilazak, thus expellYusufzai plain has already been told (section 406) ed fi-om their territory, made incessant efforts to recover it ; until finally, as the cause of tumult and disorder, they were deported en masse by the Emperor Jahangir and scattered over the Indian peninsula. When the Yusufzai settled in their possessions they divided the hill and plain country equally between But feuds their tAVO great sections, the Mandanr and the Yusufzai proper.

sprang up amongst them which were fomented by the Mughal rulers ; and early in the 17th century the Yusufzai expelled the Mandanr from Swat and Buner, while the Mandanr in their turn expelled the Yusufzai from the greater

Thus the Yusufzai now hold Swat, Buner, and part of the Yusufzai plain. the Lundkhwar and Ranizai valleys in the north-west of Yusufzai ; while the INIandanr hold Chamlah and the remainder of the plain country.
Peshawar continued.— The plain Mohmand.— I now proceed to Passing from Kohat into Pesliawar throngli tlie country of the Khatak, who have ali-eady been described in section 407, and turning west, we first come to the lower or Plain Mohmand, who occupy the south-\\est corner of the district, south of the Bara Tliey are divided into five main sections, the Mayarzai, Musazai, Dawezai, Matanni and stream. Sarganni. Their headmen, in common with those of all the Ghoria Khel, are called Arhdb, a title They are good and industrious cultimeaning master, and conferred by the Mughal Emperors.* Theii' relation with the Bar Mohmand, vators, and peacefully disposed except on tfie Afridi border. from whom they are now quite separate, differing from them in both manners and customs, is des410.

The Pathan

tribes of

describe the tribes in


cribed in section 409.

The Khalil occupy the left bank of the Bara, and the country along the pass. They have four main clans, Matuzai, Barozai, Ishaqzai, and Tilarzai, Barozai is the most powerful. They are not good cultivators. There are some of the

front of the of which the


be found in Kandahar. The Daudzai occupy the left bank of the Kabul river as far down as the junction of the Bara. The Mohmand and Daudzai are descended from a common ancestor Daulatyar, son of Ghorai the Daiid had three sons, Mandkai, Maunir, and Yusuf, from whom progenitor of the Ghoria Khel. Mandkai had three sons, Huseu, Nekai, and Balo, of are descended the main sections of the tribe. whom only the first is represented in Peshawar. Nekai fled into Hindustan, while Bale's few descendants live in parts of Tirah. The Gugiani hold tlie Doaba or plain country in the angle between the Kabul and Swat rivers. They are descended from Mak, the son of Khakhai, by a hamsdyah shepherd who main-ied Mak's They are divided into two great sections, Hotak and Zirak. daughter Gugi, whence the name. Macgrcgor says that other Pathans do not recognise them as of pm-e Pathan blood. The Muhamraadzai- lidd llashtnaghar, a strip of territory some 13 miles broad running down the left bank of the Swat river from our border to Naushahra. Tliey are descended from Muhammad, one of the sons of Zamand ; and with them are settled a few descendants of his brothers, from Their clans arc Prang, Charsadda, cue of whom, Kheshgi, one of their prinicipal villages is named. Bazar, Utmanzai, Turangzai, Umarzai, Sherpao, and Tangi with its two septs Barazai and Nasratzai. The Baizai. The Yusufzai proper are divided into the Badi Khel (now extinct), Isazai, Iliaszai, Tlie Akozai arc further divided into three clans, tlie Ranizai ^ who hold the Malizai, and Akozai.

Arbab is the plural of the Aralnc Rah or Lord a term often applied to the Deity. The tribe is often called Molimaudzai or Mamauzai, and their ancestor, Mohmand or Maman. ' The Haiydt-i- Afghani calls the Ranizai a sept of the Baizai. This seems improbable, as they descend from different wiveB of Ako.



westcru portion of the liills between Yiisufzai and Swat, the Khwajazai who occupy the country between the Swat and Panjkora rivers, and the Baizai. The last originally hold the Lundkhwar valley country in the centre ol' tlie northernmost jjortion of the Peshawar district, and all the eastern hill between tliat and tlie Swat river. Tlie hills tlicy still hold but tlie Khat:ik have,^ as already recounted Kliel Karlanri, whoni the [P. 214] in section 406, obtained all the western portion of the valley, while the Utman Baizai called in as allies in a fend with their neighbours and kinsmen the Ranizai, have obtained

south of these last. They its north-east corner, and the Baizai now IxAd only a small tract to the are divided into six septs, Abba Khel, Aziz Khel.'Babozai, Matorczai, Miisa Khel, and Zangi Khel. The last lies south of tlie Hum range which divides Swat from Buner. The other five originally held the Baizai valley and tlie hills to the north ; but since the irruption of the Khatak and Utman Khel, only the first three hold laud in our territory.

The Mandanr hold
as follows

the remainder of the Peshawar district.

They are divided


main clans



1 Amazai
r Alizai. Kanazai. C Akazai.
'Manezai. Malakzai. Ako Khel. Khidrzai. l^Mamuzai.



Mishranzai. Kishranzai. Daulatzai.









by origin a branch of the Utmanzai by a second wife of Utmau, but they are from them. The Usmanzai occupy all the northern and western port'ona of the Mandanr tract, the Kamalzai lying to the west immediately south of the Lundkhwar valley and stretching as far down as the border of the Bulaq Khatak, while the Amazai lie to the east and Of the septs, the Kishranzai, who hold Hoti and Mardan, and the south-east of the same vaUey. Daulatzai lie to the north, and the Mishranzai and the Ismailzai to the south of the respective tracts. while the South of the Amazai and between them and the Khatak territory come the Razar Utmanzai and Saddozai hold the extreme east of the district on the right bank of the Indus, the Saddozai lying to the west and the Utmanzai to the east. These latter also hold a small area in the south of the independent Gadun valley, and early in the ISth century were called across the Indus by the Gujars of Hazara as allies against the Tarin Afghans, and appropriated the Gandgarli tract from Torbela to the soiithcrn border of Hazara. In this tract all three of their main septs are represented, the Tarkheli section of the Ah'zai holding the southern half of the tract, and stretching The Khudu Khel, a Saddozai sept, occupy the valleys between across the border into Attak. Chamlah and the Gadun country. The valley of Chamlah on the Peshawar border and north of the Gadiin country is occupied by a mixture of Mandanr clans, in which the Amazai, whose Ismailzai The Mandanr, living almost wholly within sept hold the Mahaban country, largely preponderate. civilised and less imoiu- territory and long subject to the rulers of Peshawar, are perhaps more

The Saddozai


practically separated


patient of control than any other Pathan


The Afridi.— Dr. Bellew says that the he identifies with the Aparytae of Herodotus, originally lield the whole of the Safed Koh system between the Kabul and the Kurram river, from the Indus to the headwaters of the Kurram and the Pewar ridge. But since the great Scythic invasions of the 5th and succeeding centuries, they have been successively encroached upon by tribes of very diverse origin ; first by the Orakzai and Bangash to the south, and later by the Waziri and Turi to the south-west, the Khatak to the east, and the Ghilzai, Khugiiini and Shinwari to the west. They now hold only the central fastnesses of the eastern extremity of the Safed Koh namely, the Khaibar mountains, the valley of the Bara and the range south of that valley which separates Kohat from Peshawar, and the northern parts of Ti'rah, which they recovered from the Orakzai in the time of Jahangir.^ The Pathan historians trace their descent from Buvhan, sou of Kakai, grandson of Karlanri, by his son Usman surnamed Afridi, and sav that in the 7th century the Khaibar tract was held by Rajputs of the Bhatti tribe and Yadubansi stock, subjects of the Raja of Lahore, who were constantly harassed by the Afghans of Ghor and the Sulemans ; and that about the end of the century the Afridi, then of the in alliance with the Gakkhars, obtained from the Lahore Government all the hill country west

The Pathan


of the

Peshawar border.




Indus and south of the Kabul river on condition of guarding the frontier against invasion. The Afridi are divided into five clans, of which the Ula Khel and in it the Zakha Khel sept is tho

Some say

that the Khatak, as well as the


Khel, were called in as


agaiLSt the


Mita Khel are no longer to be found in Afghanistan and the Mirl Khel have been with the Malikdin and Aka Khel. Some of the principal divinons are showa

largest, while the

amali-amated below

Mita Khel.
Miri Khel.
Bassi Khel.

Aha Khel

Madda Khel.
Sultan Khel.

Miro Khel.

r Fu'oz Khel
Mainia7ia Khel

( KiiTci



(K'lmar Khel.



Ula Khel (Khaibar


MaliJcdtn Khel. Qambar Khel.


Zalcha Khel.

Hasan Khel.

Adam Khel


Ashu Khel.
for practical pm-poses they are divided at present into eight clans, viz., Kilki

Khel, Malik-

din Khel,

Qambar Khel, Kamar Khel,



Aka Khel, Sepah and Adam Khel, whoso

names are printed in italics in the above table. The Adam Khel, Mdio include the Hasan Khel and Jawaki septs so well known on om* border, occupy the i-auge between Kohat and Peshawar, from Akor west of the Kohat pass to the Khatak boundary. The Hasan Khel hold the land along the southern border of the Peshawar and the Next to them come the Aka Khel who hold the low north-eastern border of the Kohat district. range of hills from Akor to the Bara river, the Bassi Khel sept lying nearest to British territory. These two clans occupy the south-eastern corner of the Afridi c untry, and lead a more settled life than their kinsmen, being largely engaged in the carriage of wood and salt between Independent Tlie other tribes are in some degree migratory, wintering in the lower Territory and British India. hiUs and vaUeys, while in the hot weather tliey retire to the cool recesses of tlie upper mountains. Xorth of the Bira river is the Kaiiiri plain, But their general distribution is as follows which forms the winter quarters of the Slalikdfn Khel, Qambar Kliel, Sepah, and Kamar Khel. The Qambar Khel pass the summer in Ti'rah. The Sepah's summer quarters are in the Para valley ; while the Kamar Khel spend the hot mouths in the spurs of the Safed Koh between Maidau and Bara, and are better cultivators and graziers and less habitual robbers than their kinsmen. The Zakha Khel are tlie most wild and lawless of tlie Afridi clans. Their upper settlements are in tlie Maidan and Bara districts, and then- winter quarters lie in the Bazar valley north of Landi Kotal, and in the Khaibar from Ali Masjid to Landi Kotal. Their children are christened by being passed backwards and forwards through a hole made in a wall after the fashion of a burglar, while the parents repeat "Be a thief ; be a thief, " an exhortation which they comply with scrupulously when they arrive They are notorious as liars and thieves, even among the lying and thieving at years of discretion. The Kiiki Khel hold the eastern mouth of the Khaibar, and the pass itself as far as Ali Afridi. They Masjid. In summer they retire to the glen of Kajgal, north of Maidau, in the Safed Koh. The trade in firewood, and offend rather by harbouring criminals than by overt acts of aggi-ession. All the Karlanri, with the single Afridi is the most barbarous of all the tribes of our border. but most of all the Afridi. '' Ruthless exception of the Khatak, are wild and uncontrollable " cowardly robbery and coldblooded treacherous mm-der are to an Afridi the salt of life. Brouglit up "from earliest childhood amid scenes of appalling treachery and merciless revenge, nothing has yet "changed him as he lives, a shameless cruel savage, so he dies, i' et he is reputed brave, and " that by men who have seen him fighting and he is on the whole the finest of the Pathan races of "our border. His physique is exceptionally fine, and he i; really braver, more open and more " treacherous than other Pathans. This much is certain, that he has the power of prejudicing " Englislimen in his favour and few are brought into contact with him who do not at least begin " with enthusiastic admiration for his manliness." * He is tall, spare, wiry, and athletic hardy and active, but impatient of heat. His women are notoriously unchaste. His is only nominally a Musaluian, being wholly ignorant and intensely superstitious. The Zakha Khel removed the odium under which tliey suifered of possessing no shrine at which to worship, by inducing a sainted man of the Kaka Khel to come and seltle among them, and then murdering him in order The Afridi are intensely demoto bury liis corp e and thus acquire a holy place of their own. cratic, the nominal Chiefs having but little power. The MuIIagori. North of the .ifridi come the MuUagori, a small and inofTensive tribe who They hold Pathan origin is doubtful. are associate! with the hill lilohmand, but whose the Tartarah country north of the Khaibar range. They are noted thieves, but confine them:




[P. 215]



selves to petty offences.

Macgregor's Gazetteer of the North-Western Frontier, verb. Afridi.

The Shinwari



arc tlic only brancli of the dcsccTidants of Ki'uisi, tliird son of Karsliabuii,Tlioy lie west of the ^fullagori, hold the hilb retain a corporate existence as a tri])c. to the north of the western end of tlic Khaibav pass, and thence stretch along the northern slopes They are divided into four great clans, Sangu of the Safed Koh np to Ihe Khugiani territory. Khel, Ali Shcr Ivhel, Sepah, and Mandozai. The Kliaihar Shinwari belong to the Ali Sher Khel, and live in the Loargi valley at Landi Kotal. Their principal septs arc Pi'ro Khel, Mir Dad


Khel, Khiiga Khel, Shekh Mai Khel, and Snleman Khol. They are largely engaged in the carrying trade Ijeweeu Peshawar and Kabul ; and are stal'.vart, hardworking and inoffensive, though much addicted to petty thieving. They probably came up to this part of the country with the Ghoria Khel (see section 409),

The history of the hill or Bar Molunand has been related in section They liold the hills to the west of the Doiiba between the Kabul river and Bajaur and the Utman Khel country, the southern portion of Kunar, and some of the northern hills of the Khaibar. They have also spread across our border along the Kabul river, between the two branches Their of which the Halimzai clan hold a small area lying between the Daudzai and the Gugiani. principal sections arc Baizai, Khwaczai, Tawczai, Utraanzai, Kukozai, and Tarakzai, the last of which is divided into Plalimzai, Isa Khel, Burbiin Khel, and Tarakzai prox)er. The Halimzai and The Khan of the Tarakzai proper bold land on our border, the others living further west. Lalpura, Chief of the Molimand, who belongs to the Tarakzai clan, probably enjoys more real power than any other tribal Chief among the Pathans of our immediate border. Tlie Mohmand

The Bar Mohmand.


" You have only almo-;t as great a savage as the Afridi, while his venality is even greater. " got to put a rupee in your eye, and you may look at any Mohmand, man or woman. " They formerly gave much i rouble on our border.


The Utman Khel. The history of the Utman Khel has al.-eady been sketched in sections They occupy both banks of the Swat river beyond our border as far up as Arang

Barang, and have, as stated in section 41u, obtained a portion of the Baizai valley of Lundkhwar. The two chief clans are Umar Khel and Asfl Khel, the former of which liold the hills on the Peshawar frontier, while the latter who live on the Swat river are the more powerful. " They " are described as tall, stout, and fair, often going naked to the " waist. The women labour like the men^ and everything shows " the absence of civilization. They are a sober people, with B^df Khel " none of the vices of the Yusufzai. "- They give us but little


The Yusufzai proper. The hi tory of the Yusufzai has already been related in sections 40S-9. Their main divisions are shown in the margin. The holdings of the Akozai clans have already been described in section 410. The Isazai hold the Malizai north-cast slopes of Mahaban, and the mountainous country on both sides of the Indus in Hazara and the Gadun valley. The Malizai hold eastern and the Iliaszai western Buner. The Ranizai and Baizai septs of the Akozai hold all the hills beyond the northern border of 'u=ufzai, the former to the west and the latter to the east. Beyond them in Buner lie the Salarzai sept of the Iliaszai, and again between them and the Chamlah valley are the Niirazai of the Malizai clan, which includes the Abazai section. The Yusufzai are incredibly superstitions, proud, avaricious, turbulent, merciless, and revengeful. But tliey are of a lively, merry, sociable disposition, fond of music and poetry, and very jealous of the honour of their women. Their tribal constitution is distinctly democratic. The Jadun Country. —South of the Yusufzai territory come Chamlah and the Kliudu Khel territory already noticed. The southern parts of the country between Peshawar and Hnzara constitute the Jadun or Gadiin country. The holdings of other tribes in this valley have already been noticed. The Jadiin themselves occupy all the eastern portions of the valley and the southern slopes of Mahaban down to the Indus, as well a^, a considerable area in Hazai'a. They are described in section 417.

The Pathan Tribes of Hazara. The Hazara mountains on this Indus were from a very early date inhabited ])y a mixed population of Indian origin, the Galckhars occupying the portion to the south and having authority over the Rajputs of the eastern hills, while a Gujar population held most of the northern and central parts of the district. In 1399 A.D. a family of Karlagh Turks came into India with Taimur, settled in the Pakhli
side of the
^ Dr. Bellews say-, they came from Persia in the time of Nadir Pathans. ^ Macgregor's Gazetteer, voce Utman Khel.

Shah, and settled



including the valley of Kangar. A small number of them came across the Indus with the Utmanzai. wrested a considerable portion of the Haiipur plains from the Gujars early in the 18th century. called across the Indus by the Gujars as allies. hut are now few and unimportant. and still live ihere. . Afghans hold the country between the Gandgarh range and the Indus. Tribes of Indian origin hold the whole south and south-east of the district and the eastern hills as high up as Garhi Habibullah op2:)03ite jMuzaffarabad. and the plains for some little distance southeast of the junction of the Siran and Dor. have by long association become assimilated with the Pathans in language and customs. came with a heterogeneous following from Swat. then known as the kingdom of Pakhli. while the Jadun came over from their original seat between Peshawar and Hazara and possessed themselves of the tract south of Abbottabad. the Dilazak were driven out of Peshawar across the Indus. whatever their origin. With the Utmanzai came also a few Panni. to whom they were attached as retainer. and approjoriated the northern half of the district.scribed in the discussion of the Peshawar tribes. the Tanaoli holding the Tanawal tract in the west centre of the district between Abbottabad and the Indus. . much of which belongs to the semiindependent Nawab of Amb. But the Turks who gave their supposed to have come wilh Cliangiz Klijin and not with Taimur. plain in the north and centre of the distrietj and established their rule over the whole of the district. about Sn'kot. During the Lodi and Sur dynasties migrated to India. A few Tarin Afghans. and the adjoining Haripur plains are held by a mixed population of Awans and Gujars.t cousins of the Abdalt.-!. the Jadun holding the Dor valley from Bagra upwards to Mangal. During the first 20 years of the 19th century the Durrani lost their hold on the district. As the Afghans who had possessed themselves of the trans-Indus tract opposite the Hazara District increased in nu:nbers and extended their rule. and were presently followed by the representatives of the old Gandhari. the present inhabitants of <ind Swat and Buner the mountains north and east of Peshawar. drove out the Karlagh. now known by their name as Tanawal .' I have already related how. successive bands of the old inhabitants crossed the river and settled in Hazara.ara Turks. especially dm-ing the reign of Bahlol Lodi — Major Wace says they were a clan of the Ila/. This may be broadly described as follows. and occupies the Gandgarh coimtry. while the Swatis hold the whole mountain country north of Mansahra and Garhi Habibullah. The Utmanzai have been already fully de. about the middle of the 16th century. that is the northern and central portion. and are allied to the Kakar Pathans. is held by tribes which. The Tarkheli is one of the principal Utmanzai clans in Hazara. many Pathans ^ Non-Frontier Pathans. the Gakkhars holding the south of the tract along both banks of the Haro river. Karrals. a Kakar sect. and the distribution of tribes gradually assumed its present form. 413. and the Utmanzai. The remainder of the district. something like anarchy j^revailed. and have confused tlic two invaders in their traditions. About the end of the 17th century 2 a Saiyad named Jalal Baba. and Sarraras occupy the hills in the south-eastern corner of the district. About the same time the Tanaoli crossed the river and occupied the hill country between Abbottabad and the river. and now occupy the north-eastern end of the Gandgarh range. It should perhaps be put a century name to (he district are earlier. who are still settled among them. while above them the Dhunds.This is tlie date given approximately by Major AVace. ancestor of the famous Saiyads of Kagan. appropriated the Gandgarh tract along the bank of the river from Torbela to the boundary of the district.9^ PANJAB CASTES. the Tarin drove out or subjected the Gujar families of the Hazara plain. The Mishwani are descended from a Saiyad father by a Kakar woman. fir. Perhaps tliey were the same men.

^ 8. Orakzai.737 the serai-independent Chief of Amb. But as a rule the Patlians who have settled away from the frontier have lost all memory of their tribal divisions. The Pathans of Guriani and Gohana in Rohtak They are said to have settled in the time of Iljrahim Lodi. from which they were driven across the Indus by the Yusufzai some two centuries ago. RACES ALLIED TO THE PATHAN. Those are Kakar. AND ALLIED RACES. conquered Multan and founded the tribe well known in the Pan jab as Multani Pathans. who. When the Zamand section was broken up. But there can be little doubt that they are of first find them in the trans-Indus Aryan and probably of Indian stock. took refuge in Multan. 1.ufzai including the Mandanr. Afghanistan by internal fends or by famine. and many of this tribe are still to be found in Ludhianah. and indeed almost all their national characteristics. have returned themselves as Pallal. were driven out of Afghanistan by the Mian Khel and Bakhtiar in the time of Humayun. Of these Sarwani. a Barlas Mughal. and have taken refuge in the The tribes most commonly to be found in plains east of the Indus. They are two great tribes. and the north of Ambala. and are now those of Humayun. the Karlanri tribes and the Zamand Pathans. 54). for what reason I do not know. The Tanaoli (Caste No. Nawab Muzaffar Khan of jNIultan was fourth in descent from Shah Husen. and settled in the plains of Hindustan and the Panjab. Those naliirally ])elonge(l to the Ghilzai section from which those kings sprang. Rupar. and some of the Afghans of Panipat and Ludhianah are said to be descended from this stock. of Jhajjar in the same district are said to be Yusufzai. PATHAN. the Hindwal and Pallal. and many of them obtained grants of land in the Pan jab plains and founded Pathan Many more Pathans have been driven out of colonies which si ill exist. and they say that they are named after some other place of the same name in Afghanistan. the great Ghilzai Chief. 93 and Slier Sbiili Siir. deported the Mita Khel sept of the Afridi to Hindustan . and their territory forms thejdfftr of hill country into Of the 4(1. In the time of Bahlol Lodi. Hindustan are the Yu^.kinsmen who were expelled by Mir Wais. and Babar. The descendants of Zamand very early migrated in large numbers to Multan. of which the latter Occupy the northern portion of Tanawal. . the Lodi^ Kakar. and being early supplemented by other of then. Sarhind was ruled by members of the Prangi tribe from which he sprang. known as Kasuria Pathans. whose two sons Hind Khan and Pal Khan crossed the Indus some four centuries ago and settled in Tanawal of Hazara . as already related.964 as Dafral. the Khweshgi clan migrated to the Ghorband defile. and a large number marched thence with Babar and found great favour at his hands and One section of them settled at Kasur. to which Province they fm-nished rulers till the time of Aurangzeb when a number of the Abdali tribe under the leadership of Shah Huseu were driven from Kandahar by tribal feuds. Jahangir. the most widely distributed are the Yusufzai of whom a body of 1.BILOCH. and . They now occupy Tanawal or the ex- — We tensive divided between the river and the Urash plains. But large numbers of Pathjins also accompanied the armies of Mahmud Ghaznavi^ Shahab-ul-din.000 Plazara Tanaolis. basin of the Mahaban.200 accompanied Babar in his final invasion of India. The reigning family of Maler Kotla belong to the Saripal clan of the Sarwani Afghans. The Tanaoli are said to claim descent from Amir Khan. a sept of the Pallal. 414.

But the descendants of these for the . that at length Jahangir deported them en masse and distributed them over Hindustan and the Dakhan. but their dwell. industrious. 145). In reality Of the S^O^S persons entered in my tables as Tajik. and from Kandahar to Balkh. They hold the Parapomisus of the ancients. but now-adays the word is used throughout Afghanistan to denote any Persian-speaking people who are not either Saiyad.nd important and niled the whole centuries. 44 others have returned themselves as Hazara Pathans.'ribes to the beginning of the 13th century. They were the inhabitants of already been noticed in sections 408 and 409. and are apparently of Seythic origin and came into the Panjab with the Jats and Katti in the 5th and 6th They soon became powerful r. Besides these there are 1. educated Extra Assistant Commissioner^ a native of Peshawar. and their worldly possessions. In the first half of the 13th century the Yusufzai and JMohmand drove them across the Indus into Chach-Pakhli. — '''' Acting upon the advice of an 415.94 PANJAB CASTES. The Hazaras of Kabul have abeady been noticed in section 396. which he as . valley as far as the Indus and the foot of the northern hills.. They are des -ribed at length by Dr. — [P. 1^519 they are distinct. Afghan. I unfortunately took the figures for Tajik and Dilazak together under the head Tajik. but retain the physical and physiognomic characters of the race. . the Peshawar valley before the Pathan invasion.— Besides the 38 Hazaras shown Peshawar district in table VIII A. General Cunningham says that in Babar's time the Karlulu (? Karlaghi) Hazaras held the country on both banks of the Sohan in Riiwalpindi and he refers to them the wellknown coins of Sri Hasan Karluki of the bull and horseman type. and intelligent. But their efforts to regain their lost territories were such a perpetual source of disturbance. without specifying any tribe. and in the interior of their territory are almost wholly independent. Bellew as peaceable. of whom 39 are in Kohat. The Dilazak and Tajik (Caste No. and indeed the great mass of the Tanaolis They are an industrious and peaceful race of cultivators . Scattered families of them are still to be found along the leit bank of the Indus in Hazara and Rawalpindi. It is probable that clans were not recorded in the territory where the Hindwal. and were settled in their present al^odes by Changiz Khan. Bellew in Chapter XIII of his Baoes of Afghani stein. and in the towns they are artisans and traders while almost all the clerkly classes of Afghanistan are . " the Tanaoli^s word bad faith has given rise to the saying '^ is naught. and are '^ as pure Mongols as when they settled 600 *' years ago with their families. Tandwali he-qauli.076 as Hinclwal. extending from Kabul and Ghazni to Hirat. The Tajik are apparently the original inhabitants of Persia . 217] Tajiks. their flocks.'"'' They intermarry only among themselves. faithful. But this certainly does not represent the whole number of Hazaras who were in the Panjab at the time of the Census. Dilazak who have returned themselves as Pathans. of whom 825 are in RawalThe origin and early history of the Dilazak have pindi and 695 in Ilazara. Amb only 1. and so returned themselves. and it is j)robable that most of them have returned themselves as Pathans simply. In the villages they cultivate. They are described by Dr. 183). They are almost certainly Mongol Tartars. They have now almost wholly lost their Mongol speech. or Hazara much as Jat or Hindki is used on the upper Indus to denote the speakers of Panjabi or its dialects.546 are really Dilazak. 416. Hazaras (Caste No. The .

"" The Jadun clans returned in our tables are shown in the margin.. They are for the " most part entirely illiterate. Many thousands of •' over their them come to the Panjab every cold season in search of lal)Our either on the roads. The Jadun or Gadun. 18th century. . The Jadun. and amongst the Afghans they are considei-ed a faithful.. Bellew makes them a Jadun clans. and about a hundred years later they took the Bagra tract from the few remaining Dilazak who held it. two of whose sons fled. They occupy all the southeastern portion of the territory between the Peshawar and Hazai'a borders. and they arc generally very poor and hardy. many of whose descendants migrated from Gujarat some 1. on the expulsion of the Karlagh Turks by Saiyad Jalal Baba (section 412) they appropriated the country about Dhamtaur .876 Mansur . The Swatis have without exception returned themThey number 28.962 are in Hazara and 279 in Rawalpindi. and very much in the hands of their priest". they spread u]) the Dor valley as high as Aljljottabjul. 2. — . In their own country they have the reputation of being a brave and hardy wall-buildcrs. 95 people are appavoiitly returned as Turks and not as Hazaras. but this appears to be incorrect. and in most of the larger towns the servant-maids arc purchased slaves of this people. &c. . because of a blood feud to the mountains of Chach and Hazjira.718 naries.Indus they are always known Gadun.429 are in Hazara and 392 in Rawalpindi. and the southern slopes of Mahaban . Dr. Their history in the Ilazara Dr. the Sunui Afghans hold them '' in slavery. while shortly before the Sikhs took the country their Hassazai clan deprived the Karral of a portion of the Nilan valley. and when Jahangir finally crushed the Early in the Dilazak. and were afterwards found in the hills of Kabul and Kandahar. selves as Pathans. 3. Many thousands of them find employment at Kabul and Ghazni and Kandahar '' during the winter months as labourers in the two former cities mainly in removing the snow from " the house-tops and streets. as a " very simple-uiiiiJcd people. " race. and they will.." down '' — They 417. of whom 28. — people. or as well-sinkers. ]\Iansur. Cis-Indus.256. . be discussed later on under the former head. of which the last is not represented among the trans-Indus Jadun and has lost all connection with the parent tribe. They are divided into three main clans. as either Gadiin or Jadun.. In consequence of their being heretics. are all Shiahs. a great-grandson of Ghurghusht. Gakkhar clan. The Swati. Salar. the founder of the Rajput Yadul)ansi dynasty. the Dilazak first drove them out of the plain country into the northern hills of Swat and Buner.— BILOCH.421 Hassazai true Pathans of Hazara call them Mlatar or merceSalar . however almost certaili that the Jadun are of Indian origin and it has been suggested that in their name is preserved the name of Jadu or Yadu.100 years before Christ. The original Swatis were a race of Hindu origin who But as has ont-e ruled the whole country from the Jahlam to Jalalabad. AND ALLIED RACES. PATIIAN. industrious and intelligent people " as servants. as the * name is commonly applied to all descendants of the miscellaneous as Trans. . they It is say. of whom 16. 418. from the Pashto equivalent for lakhan or '' one who girds his loins. The 6. They claim descent from Sarhang. already been recorded in sections 408-9. and Hassazai. as they are called indifferently/ have returned themselves as Pathans to the number of 17. having even forgotten its old Pashto lano'uao-e. Bellew describes the Hazaras district has been sketched in section 412. are governed by tribal and clan chiefs whose authority " people is absolute. and later on the Yusufzai expelled them from those fastnesses and drove them east and west As now existing they are probably a very mixed into Hazara and Kafii-istan.906 soids.

Afghan histories. The Shilmani are probably of Indian origin. and they are credited with even attemptbad faith is ino. above and below ground. They are often confounded with the Degan in the eai-ly distinct people. while is very niixed^ Gujars forming by far his tract Awans and Saiyads are numerous. and this at their own request. a name also included in our figures. cruel. of which the first claims Tajik.the crop famous in European folklore. I am afraid that some who are not realy Shilmani have been The tribe is sometimes called Sulemani. Gheliari. The Swatis are cowardTheir ly. the Awiins lie chiefly to the south. A few of them are scattered through the Hazara district. occupy Kagan and the north-eastern portion. while there is a separate tribe called Sulemau Khel and it is not impossible that there has been some confusion. The Swati are often wrongly confused with the Degan. the devil by the old device. They are divided into three great clans. Prom there they migrated to the Tatara mountains north of the Khaibar. and they still hold a But they are fast dying out of existence as a village in the Tatara range.218] and had The Shilmani. and of miserable physique. and Mitrawi. homes in Shilman on the banks of the Kurram. of They are all Musalmiins of the Sunni sect. At present the jNIamiali and Mitrawi. known as the sections of the Tarli or lower Pakhli. [P. a section cf the Utli or upper Pakhli. applied to Afghans proper. 174 in Rawalpindi. and Ningrahar.557. Lughman. grasping. The Shilmani have all returned themselves as Pathans. — ^ At the Hazava settlement genealogical trees were prepared for the Swatis only for the last four or tive generations . and the Mitrawi Durrani origin but all three claims are almost certainly unfounded. the largest element. and extend into the hills beyond its But the population of western border. and 200 in Dehli. whence a section About tlie end of the 15th of them moved on via Peshawar to Hashtnaghar. while the Ghebari. The Pakhli tract is their chief seat. and laz}'.96 following of Saiyad of the PANJAB CASTES. Bajaur. the Mamiali Yusufzai. another branch of the original Hindu inhabitants of north-eastern Afghanistan. 419. while the Saiyads of Kagan are well known to fame. They occupy the whole Jalixl mentioned in section 412. now only found in Kunar. . deceptive. century the Yusufzai drove them out into Swat. of whom 969 are in Hazara. where they found a refuge with Sultan Wais and presently became sub jects of the advancing Yusufzai. Mamiali. their . as to have gone back further would have exposed in too public a manner their miscellaneous origin. hold the southern and south-western portions of their tract.^ Mansalna tahsil of the Ilaziira district excepting the south-western corner which forms part of Tanawal.to cheat dividino. a proverb in the country . and their numbers are 1. The Gujars are chiefly graziers in the frontier glens of the northern mountains. .

and who moved into the Panjab about a century before Christ. Awans. Vol. Indeed the distinction 420. 71 below* shows the disof Jats. Tha origin of the Jat. Perhaps no question connected with the ethnology of the Panjab peoples has been so much discussed as the orignn of the Jat race. P. and holds that they probably entered the Panjab from their home on the Oxus very shortly after the Meds or IVIands. and the Jats to belong to a later wave of immigrants from the North-west. and there is no need here to anticipate my remarks. General and Indroductory. and include the great mass of the dominant land-owning tribes in Their political is even greater than the cis-Indus portion of the Province. The Jats seem to have first occupied the Indus valley as far down as Sindh.. 99 PART III. pages 51 to 61 to 101 (Madras Reprint. I. as the line separating them is almost impossible of definition. Zanthii of Strabo nnd the Jatii of Pliny and Ptolemy . ti-ilnition — 98-9 between Jat and Rajput is in many parts of the Province so indefinite. — The former identifies them with the the Jats to be of Indo-Scythian stock. RAJPUT. and certain castes which I have taken with the The hitter. By the time of Babar the Jats of the Salt-range Tract had been subdued by the Gakkhars. Suffice it to say that both General Cunningham and Major Tod agree in considering . customs retain the clear impress of Indian origin. 1). whither the Meds followed them about the beginning of the present tcra. in Tod's RdjastJidn. Their customs are in the main Hindu. But before the earliest Mahomedan invasion the Jats had spread into the Panjab proper. It is not my intention here to reproduce any of the arguments adduced. of the total population of the Panjab. 1880) in Elphin?tone's History of India. H .— THE JAT. probably of Scythian race. while they afford to the ethnologist infinite matter for inquiry and considerntion. . Major Tod classes the Jats as one of the great Rajput tribes. AND ALLIED CASTES. their numerical importance. who also A\ere Indo-Scythians. No. two castes can hardly be said to have any signifi- The two together constitute nearly 28 per cent. that separate figures for these cance at all. They will be found in detail in the Archaological Survey Reports. pages 130 to 187. and Janjuas. though in the Western Plains and the Salt-range Tract the restrictions upon intermarriage have in many cases come to be based upon considerations of But even here the marriage ceremony and other social social standing only. W. . while as early as the 7th century the Jats and Meds of Sindh were ruled over by a Brahman dynasty. AND ALLIED CASTES. pages 250 to a53. and in Elliot's lUces of the N. origin and distribution of these castes is fully discussed in the following pages. II.. RAJPUT. I. JAT. where they were firmly established in the beginning of the 11th century. and extends his idttntification with the Getse to both races but here General Cunningham differs. Rajputs. Vol. pages 52 to 75 and 96 Vol. Abstract No. THE JAT (CASTE 421. holding the Rajputs to belong to the original Aryan stock.

96 PANJAB CASTES. e8 a O <j o < m H Pm y-i < < <1 n & o .

JAT. C<|CD coTjt AND ALLIED r-t CASTES. l-» 99 -H c*» 0505IM eo-^i^ MNOS i-HcorH r-i t". ioi>cooi'-ii--'— -^ (D ia CO (O CO I CO -^ rCO OOSOOMCOQ -^t^corHcors^ 03 C5CO cor^ rH (M rH i-l CO . RAJPUT.

Are the Jats and Rajputs distinct ? But whether Jats and Rajputs were or were not originally distinct. and that the people A\dio thus in the main resulted from the blending of the Jat and the Eajput.100 It PANJAB CASTES. I believe that those families of that common stock whom the tide of fortune has raised to political importance have become Rajputs almost by mere virtue of their rise . and prefeired his title of Jat Sikh to that of the j)roudest Rajput. If tliese two ever were distinct. and of — from degrading occupations. deliberately persecuted him wherever and whenever he had tlie power. may be tbat the original Eajput and the original Jat entered India at my mind the term Rajput is an occupational rather than an ethnological expression. Turks. but are supposed to be descended from the hair [jat] of the aboriginal god Siva. attaining a dominant position in their territory. who resented his assumption of superiority and his refusal to join him on equal terms in the ranks of the Khalsa. the distinction between Jat and Rajput being social rather than ethnic.'' * For the last seven centuries the process of elevation at least has been almost at a stand-still. and that their descendants have retained the title and its privileges on the condition. and Kasahgotri who claim connection with the Rajputs . of observing the rules by which the higher are distinguished from the lower castes in the Hindu scale of precedence . I think that the two now form a common sto3k. but also Rajputs or "sons of Rajas. Her. 435) are known as asl or original Jats because they claim no Rajput ancestry. Under the Sikhs the Rajput was overshadowed by the Jat. We have seen how the Pathiin is by no means free from foreign elements. that they belong to one and the same ethnic stock . Under the Dehli Emperors king-making was practically impossible. different periods in its history. began to affect social excluslveness and to observe the rules. both from their almost identical physique and facial character and from the close communion which has always existed between them. and Mughals. Those who tr-ansgresscd these rules have fallen from their liigli position and ceased to be Rajputs . tliongh to 422. while whether this be so or not. and how it was sufficient for a Jat tribe to retain Its political independence and organisation in order to be admitted into the Biloch nation . Shivgotri or of the family of Siva. while such families as. strictly enforced. though It Is probably in the main AryoThe Man. it is almost certain that they have been for many centuries and still are so intermingled and so blended into one people that It Is practically impossil^le to distinguish them as separate wholes. But if they do originally represent two separate waves of immigration^ it is at least exceedingly probable. and whatever aboriginal elements may have been affiliated to their society. the Jats of the south-eastern districts divide themselves into two sections. On the frontier the dominance of refraining . and Bhular Jats (section Scythian. and a rich and almost virgin field for investigation Is here open to the ethnologist. It is indeed more than probable that the process of fusion has not ended here. have Ijccome not only Rajas. if Scythian be not Aryan. we know how a character for sanctity and social excluslveness combined will in a few generations make a Quresh or a Saiyad . and it is almost certain that the joint Jat-Rajput stock contains not a few tribes of aboriginal descent. of rigidly abstaining from widow marriage. of preserving their jDurity of blood by refusing to marry with families of inferior social rank. people have assimilated Salyads. Many of the Jat tribes of the Panjab have customs which apparently point to non-Aryan origin. and the names of the ancestor Bar of the Shivgotris and of his son Barbara are the very words which the ancient Brahmans give us as the marks of the barbarian aborigines.

whose only claim to the title " was tliat their fatlier or grandfather was the offspring of a Kanetni by a foreign Brahmin. Barnes says that in " Kangra the son of a Rajput by a low-caste woman takes place as a Rathi in Seortij and other " places in the interior of the hills I have met families calling themselves Rajputs. insomuch that even admittedly llajput tribes of famous ancestry. who have indeed retained the title of Rajput because the caste feeling is too strong in those parts and the change in their customs too recent for it yet to have died out. Two of the old royal and u.JAT. communion. : — " Till lately the limits of ca-^tc do not seem to have boon so immutably fixed in the hills as in " the plains. have lost their caste by yielding to the tem^jtations of . lOl Pathans and Bilochcs and the general prevalence of Maliomedan feelings and ideas placed recent Iiidian origin at a discount. and led the leading families who belonged to neither of these two races to claim connection. The Ilaja wa-s the fountain of honour.ijputs since they took to the practice of karewa . or intermarriage. and growing " into general acceptance as Rajputs. in Karnal we have Rajputs who within the living generation have ceased to be Rajputs and become Shekhs.)w essentially Rajput families of this district. between Tliibct and India proper. " is a source of income to the Jagirdar Kajas. we have the Gaurwa Rajputs of Gurgaon and Dehli. Mr. 221] where llajput dynasties with genealogies perhaps more ancient antl unbroken than can be sliown Ijy any other royal families in the world retained their iudependenco till yesterday. have begun to follow the [P. has asserted that " there is no such thing as a distinct Rajput stock. AND ALLIED CASTES. it is probable that no elevation to the rank of Rajput has taken place within recent times. in the section which treats of the Rajputs and kindred castes. On "the border lino in the Himalayas. within the shadow of the city where their ancestors once ruled and led the Indian armies in theh* last struggle with the Musalman invaders. reverse process of degradation its existence. not with the Kshatriyas of the Sanskrit classics. where Brahminism is stronger than in any other part of the Panjab and Dehli too near to allow of families rising to j)olitical independence. The same xn-ocess was. because poverty and loss of land forced them to weaving as an occupation while the Dehli Chauhan." : from Rajput to lower rank which will be found if needed. and at the present day the power " of admitting l)ack into caste fellowship persons put under a ban for some grave act of defilement. and so on down to tlie bottom of tlie scale. the " peasant into a Jat. But many Rajput 423. Campbell. but who have. In the eastern districts. such as (lie Kliokhar. which is the same thing in India. for all purposes of equality. " more or less in force in Kangra proper down to a period not very remote from to-day. the twin in'ocesses of degradation from and elevation to Rajput rank are still to be seen in operation. any one can observe caste " growing before his eyes . for service done or money given . the priest into a Brahmin. we have the Sahnsars of Hushyarpur who were Rajputs within the last two or three generations. the noble is changing into a Rajput. Kotlebr and Bangahal. that in former times before caste distinctions " had become crystallized. ceased to be R. any tribe or family whose ancestor or head rose to royal rank became " in time Rajput. . " viz. and where many of them still enjoy as great social authority as ever. the present Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. Setting aside the general tradition of the Panjab Jats to the effect that their ancestors were Rajputs who married Jats or began to practise widow-marriage. " I believe that Mr. Mr. RAJPUT. are said to bo Brahmin by original stock. I believe. I have lieard " old men quote instances within their memory in which a Raja promoted a (jirth to be a llathi. But in the hills. in their own country at least. The Raja is tliere tlie fountain not only of honour but also of caste. "and a Thakar to l)e a llajput. Tliis is certainly the conclusion to whicli many facts point with regard to the " Rajputs of these hills. but witli the Mughal conquerors of India or the aureslii cousins of the Prophet . Lyall writes ^ example. but have ceased to be so because they grow vegt.'tables like the Arain . is The too common to reqiiire proof of families have ceased to be Rajputs. and could do mucli as he liked. together with further instances of elevation..

" The soil. control. profane by many. the Sial. the Gondal. Tunwar. the peasant. while the two together constitute 27 per cent. fodder. In the Salt-range Tract the dominant tribes. He is independent and he is self-willed . though when he does go wrong he " takes to anything from gambling to " mui'der. in default of rival castes as enemies. and all I can now attemj)t is to state the conclusion to which my enquiries have led me. are Rajputs when they are not Mughals or Arabs w^hile : Indian origin who cannot establish their title to Rajput rank are Jats. the Janjua. The same tribe even is Rajput in one distnct and Jat in another. and to hope to deal with the subject in more detail all agricultural tribes of on some future occasion. the Tiwana are commonly spoken of as Rajputs. to fall back upon each But as a rule a other for somebody to quarrel with. the tribal ties are strong. lu the Sikh tract. In point of numbers he surthe most important of the Panjab peoples. and that they ought to be supported by a greater wealth of But I have no time to instance than I have produced in the following pages. and the one which asserts the freedom of the individual most strongly. Finally. while the great ruling tribes. as in Rohtak. I have indeed no time to record more than a small proportion of them . And from an a3Conomical and administrative point of plains of the five rivers. independence indeed and patient vigorous labour are his strongest characterisThe Jat is of all Panjab races the most impatient of tribal or communal tics. I do not mean however that he is turbulent as a rule he is very far from being so. In the Western Plains the freedom of marriage allowed by Islam has superseded caste restrictions. more sturdy. clothes^ hemji. the revenue-payer par excellence of His manners do not bear the impress of generations of wild the Province. In tracts where. and Jcarewa. passes the Rajput who comes next to him in the proportion of nearly three to one . Pnnwar. for there can be no Rajputs where there are no Rajas or traditions of I know that the views herein set forth will be held heretical and Rajas. of the whole population of Politically he ruled the Panjab till the Khalsa yielded to our the Province. but he is reasonaldc. and families who were lately known as Rajputs have sunk till they are now classed with Jats . and will not be said nay by any man. as I have said.^' : — As usual the proverbial wisdom of the though perhaps somewhat too severely villages describes : him very fairly. Manhas and the like. The Jat is in every respect 424. But he is more Sturdy honest. Ethnologically he is the peculiar and most prominent product of the arms. with perhaps a preference for stealing other people's wives and cattle. on the frontier the Pathau and Biloch have overshadowed Jat and Rajput alike . freedom which marks the races of our frontier mountains. families who were a few generations ago reputed unit of caste. the Jat is content to be a Jat. and social rank is measured by the tribe rather than by the larger But even there.102 PAiSTJAB CASTES. the Jat tribes have the field to themselves. all the proudest tribes of Rajputana are included in the name and have sunk to the level of Jat. peaceably inclined if He is usually content to cultivate his left alone. and Bhatti. fields and pay his revenue in peace and quietness if people will let him do go . more industrious. Jat is a man who does what seems right in his own eyes and sometimes what seems wrong also. and not difficult to manage. view he is the husbandman. according to its position among the local tribes. The position of the Jat in the Punjab. has never since the rise of Sikh power wished to be anything else. and are compelled. Jats have now risen by social exclusiveness to be recognised as Rajputs. marshal my facts . . and their smaller brethren as Jats. and no less manly than they.

The Banya with his sacred thread. or rather perhaps it means a great deal more than any single word can afford to mean if it is to be of any practical use. lower castes. Thus the word Jat in Rohtak or Amritsar means a great deal . a Rhat. though ]\lr. the Jat occupies a position which is shared by the Ror. '^'^ : — ' ' — . The 160. from the simple fact that he jjractises widowmarriage. who have no i^oints in common save their Mahomedan religion. immigrant from his rainless jirairies where he has been held in bondage for centuries. 4.'iOO . and a widow and the seventh Jat/^ woman as landowners and yeoman cul. " The Jat's and his women and children alike work with him in the fields '' " The Jat stood on his corn bal)y has a plough handle for a plaything. The Khatri. the Mali.— Such being the si ate of things.000 ilalis. the Aram. in Muzaffargarh or Bannu it means nothing at all. A Jat. The nature and m3aning of the flgures. while the people whom they have subdued or driven by dispossession of their territory to live a semi-noinad life in the central steppes are more often classed as Jats . But the Jat looks down upon the Banya as a cowardly spiritless money-grubber. Jats proper.500 Kutiinas. the Rajput. 4. I shall briefly describe each class in the remarks prefixed to the various sections under which I discuss the Jat tribes and 1 shall here do nothing more than briefly indicate the broad The Jat of the Sikh tracts is of course the typical Jat of the distinctions.000 Julahas. is 103 tiie " ^rass ^' fil)re. as I have said. I think that the Jat stands next after the Brahman. Rajputs. If they eattlieir fill they do harm. The Jat of the southeastern districts differs little from him save in religion . and the Ahir. ami {. There are. and Jat the herdsman or camel grazier with a soft f. Panjab. all four eating and smoking together. and the two classes respectively indicated by the term in these two parts of the Province must not be too readily confounded. but they cannot rival the Jat The Jat calls himself zaminddr or husbandman " as often as Jat. On the Lower Indus the word Jat is applied generically to a congeries of tribes. He is of course far below the Rajput. Jats and Jats. a small scale tivators. those six are best beaten a caterpillar. like a wound. it is. 0''Brien says that in Jatki. AND ALLIED . Jat the cultivator is spelt with a hard. probably takes precedence of the Jat.000 Jats of Derah Ghazi Khan include 5. and ignorant of cultivation save in its rudest form. impossible to draw any sure line between Jat and Rajput. it may be imagined that our figures do not always convey any very definite meaning. 425. his strict Hinduism. and he it is whom I have described above.P. the Saini. in the rhyming proverbs of the country side " Come my daughter and be married if this husband dies there " are plenty more. is better '' when bound/^ In agriculture the Jat is pre-eminent. their agricultural occuIn the great western grazing grounds pation." But among the widow-marrying castes he stands first.'" " heap and said to the king's elephant-drivers Will you sell those little '' donkeys V " Socially. who is far superior to the Banya in manliness and vigour. and their subordinate position. commonly applied to those tribes who have attained supremacy. But among the races or tribes of purely Hindu origin. though on the Bikaner border the puny Bagri Jat. CASTES. 3. are perhaps more skilful cultivators on . and mongrels. and the state of things in the Salt-range Tract is very similar. RAJPUT. silk.J AT. . The Jat father is made to say. and his twice-born standing. 2. these four are best 222] ff ]iunyry.000 Tarkhiins." " The Jat. the Gujar. looks down on the Jat as a Sudra. Indeed the word Jat is the Panjabi term for a the latter term being political grazier or herdsman . contrasts strongly with the stalwart and independent husbandman of the Malwa. and the Khatri. however. The market-gardening castes. and society in general agrees with the Jat.

while the great central plains of the jMiilwa itself are probaljly the original home of many of the Jal. while on the frontier both upper and lower. tribe i)eing there the recognized unit rather than the more compreliensive caste .Ihang the Sial will ha\e been rightly classed as liajputs. and especially more systematically than I have done. leaving any more elaborate treatuunt for a future The tigures for tribes are. 7.700 Machbi<. allowed the time necessary for such an undertaking . eastwards from Bikancr and the JNIalwa. The Bliartpur Jats are themselves said to be immigrants who left the banks of the Indus in the time Whether the Jats of the great plains are really as late immiof Aurangzeb. have been very probably da-sed as Jats. but it does ijrcvail in a smaller degree throughout to the south-western districts. sonic discretion in classifying these entries under larger heads. The Jats of the south-eastern districts and the Jamna zone have for the most part worked up the Jamna valley from the direction of Bhartpur. while many of them trace their origin from the Jammu Hills. must only be taken as approximations. Plains have almost without exception come up the river valleys from Sindh The Jats of the western and central sub-montane or Western Riijputana. Jaisalmer. with which some of them still retain a traditional connection. nece-sarily imperfect. and which would richly repay detailed investigation. the site of the modern Rawalpindi. 2. they are almost wholly conhned to the cis-Indus tracts and the immediate Indus riverain on both sides of the stream. their I had intended to attempt some sort of grouping of the great J at tribes on the basis of But I was not ethnic affinities. The Jats of the Central and Eastern Panjiilj have also in many cases come up the Satluj valley but many of them have moved from Bikaner . and I ha\e tlierei'ore roughly grouped tlio tribes by locality so far as my figures served to indicate it.'^ the central Sikh districts and States. grants as they represent. but some of them retain a traditional connection with Ghazni. in Sindh where they form the mass of the ])opulationj in Bikaner. and Marwar.^)00 Moclii*. and occasion. in the south-eastern districts. and liurrieJly stated the leading facts of which 1 was in possession regarding each. 1 had indeed hoped to treat the subject more fully. Beyond the Panjab. The [?• whole question is one on which we are exceedingly ignorant. ( )n the LoAver Indus and Clianab tlie entries in the caste column were numbered liy thousands.i(u Panjab castes. take their place. In no other district does this confusion Mallalis. all picl. and in the Under and among the hills and in the Rawalpindi division Rajputs Derajat. while in Derah Ghazithey will. and Grwalior upwards.g is shown in Abstract No. I cannot say. Thus Distribution of the Jats. The Jats of the Indus are probably still in the country which they have occupied ever since their first entry into India. where they probably equal in numbers all the Rajput races jmt — and along the upper valleys of the Ganges and Jamna from Barelij Within the Province their distribution Farrtikhabad. prevail to anything like so great an extent .ed men drawn from tlie very district with the figures of which they were dealing. tliough some few have . in . 71 on page 219. have also in part come by the same route . straight into the Alalwa. which perhaps refers to the ancient Gajnipur. and so forth. Thus our tigures are far from complete j but I have douc my best to indicate in the following paragraphs the uncertainties and errors in classilication as far as I could detect them. or to lind out with exactness wliat our figures do and what they do not include. Jats are cliiefly found 426. though they have been driven back from the foot of the SulcmAns on to the The Jats of the Western river by the advance of the Pathan and the Biloch. Tiie coni'usion is not wholly due to the entries in the schedules. tribes of the Sikh tract. They are especially numerous in «p gy. and till the detailed clan tables are complete it will be impossible separate these incongruous items. as already explained in section 369. or ^vhether their story is merely founded upon a wish to show recent connection with the country of the Rajputs. and it was al)solutely necessary to allow the staff of the divisional otHees. moved in 2i23] . too'ether. somewhat similar to that which 1 have attempted for the Pathans. with ei^ual correctness ^o far as local usage is concerned.

and in tables — the Salt-range Tract. But the liiloches say that they do not give their " daughters to Jats. Some bear the Rajput title of llai. — AND ALLIED CASTES. or of some race such as Saiyad or Pathan Avhom they had been accustomed to look upon as their equals. perhaps forget their ]\Iachhi origin. " man (Jat) bites its tail. . No tribe is pre-eminent in birth or caste. . contemptuoulsy included all cultivating tribes who were not Biloch. Nor do they trace their " origin to common stock. This is. if not indeed still further east and north. or even the word Machhi itself. howcvei'.— JAT. until the people themselves have lost It is possible that our own officers may the very memory of their origim have emphasized the confusion by ado])ting too readily the simple classification of the population as the Biloch or peculiar people on the one hand and the Jat or (jrcntile on the other. on a rough examination of the clan tables of the Jats of the Multan and Derajat divisions and Bahawalpur. greatly As Mr.'''' However caused. This 1 believe is correct. RAJPUT. and much of Multan. " he will generally name some sub-division or clan quite unknown to fame. But the fact that in this part of the *r. 0''13rien writes as follows of the Jats of Muzaffar- garh : " In tlii^ clI-. a Biloch story many instances of Jats married to Bilochcs " could be named. and tliat the so-called Jat is not so ignorant of his real origin as is commonly su2)2JOsed. though Muhammadans. There arc 165 in the Sananwan tahsil alone. Parihars. Bhattis. Mv. he is a better Jat than we are. under the generic name of Jat. . The I at>. to a less extent. C'hanal). JNIuzaffargarh. Bilochcs.Tat also meaning an agriculturist irrespective of his In conversation about agriculture I have been refei'redto a Saiyad "race. I give on the next page'^" a list of castes which. of that nondescript class known as Jats on the Indus^ and. It is probable that not long hence these latter will drop the Machhi.tTict the word Jat luchulcs that congeries of Muhanimadan tril)C3 which are " not Saiyads. and Jataki agriculture.Jatti would include " Kajpiit^.Toyas. spelt Avith a soft instead of a hard i. denotes " The camel cannot lift its load . and Jahlam. " The Jat tribes arc exceedingly numerous." ^ . Jats of the Western Plains. and Jat Miichhis who had taken to agriculture. and others bear the names of well-known tribes of KajiiLitana. associate a Brahmin with the Mulla at marriage ceremonies. A curious instance of the manner in which the word is used in these joarts is afforded by the result of some inquiri( s I made about the Machhi or fisherman The reply sent me was that there were two caste of Derail Ghtizi Klutn. "The fact is that it is impossible to define between Jats and Musalman Rajputs.'''' The fact seems to be that the Bilochcs who came into the districts of the lower frontier as a dominant race. I detected among the Pan jab tribe quite over-shadows * Among the organised Biloch tribes of the frontier. Biloch girls arc not given to Jats. but they have no hesitation in marrying into other tribes. Geucrally . castes. K-oe remarks " If you ask a Jat his caste increases the tlifficulty. Piitliaus or Quroshis. And the "dilUcidty is rendered greater by the word . and " others. the result is that in the Derajat. " There is not a Jat in the dislrict who has any knowledge. while " Piinwars. however. Besides this. 105 First of all then let us purge our 427. the word Jat.Tats marry into " their own tribe. and become Jats pure and simple . According to tliis de(hiition . and indeed almost supersedes caste. in the lower valleys of the Satluj. have always been rocnutcd from the IJajinlts. the camela eamel grazier or camel driver. Certaiu Jat tribes have nances and traditions which " seem to connect thorn more closely with Hindustan. IMachhis or fishermen. the word Jat means little more than the heading " others or unspecified " under which Census officers are so sorely tempted to class those about whom they know little or nothing. " They have no large divisions embracing several small divisions. They give their " daughters freely to Rilochcs in marriage. " Zaildar with the remark— Ask Auwar Shah . though they may not improbably retain as their elan name the old Machhi clan to which 106-they belonged. once a Rajput. of his ancestors that "would uot say that he wa-. real or fancied.

72. 224] Caste. showing other Castes [-p. . Abstract No.106 PANJAl} CASTES.

JAT. AND ALLIED CASTES. a . 107 returned as Jats in Multan and the Derajat. IIAJPUT.

The ancestor of " each tribe was. of pure Rajput origin. The tribes who claim to be Arab or Mughal will be discussed either under their proper head or under Shekhs and Mughals.— 108 — . He scornfully rejected t. the tribes are commonly known by their tribal names rather than by the name of the caste to which they belong or belonged and the result is that claims to Rajput. Mr. word used Jat being essentially a sub-divisions of the . and I have classed them as Rajputs as they are coni' monly recognized as such by their neighbours. and had then to fly to Sirsa or Bhatiier. than that he should be a Jat who has taken to keeping a cook-sliop and tlie men shown below would probably haye been more properly returned under the rcspectiye castes opposite which their numbers are A more careful examination of the figures ^vould probably given. . There.Tats of those parts." The last words of this sentence convey an important distinction. and I have been obliged to decide Thus the Sial are admittedly the question in a rough and arbitrary manner. But the line between Jats and Rajputs is a difficult one to draw. he joined the Kharrals in their maraud" ing expeditions. PAN JAB CASTES. Purser thus expresses the matter as he found it in Montgomery 428. but for practical convenience in this " part of the world. or now-a-days not unseldom to Arab or Mughal origin. As a fact these people are generally known as Sial and Sumra rather than as Jats or Rajputs and the inclusion of them under either of the latter headings is a classification based upon generally reputed origin or standing. looking upon cultivation as an inferior occupation which ne leaves to Arains. but they are commonly known as Jats. tlic cultivation of land " or the pasturing of cattle.hc proposals of tlie Dehli Emperor for a matrimonial alliance " between the two families. and such like people. or Baba Farid. and But in either case I shall show the I have discussed them under that head. On the Upper Indus the word Jat. Xext he came to the Ravi and was converted to Islam by Makhddm Baha-ul" Haqq. Fm-ther to the north and difficulty is of a . great central grazing grounds of the Western Plains he is often pastoral rather than agricultural. Mahtams. Many are recognized " Jats. away from the Biloch territory. 1 would class as Jats all Muhammadans whose ancestors were converted from " Hiudusim and who are now engaged in. . but are called by the one comprehensive " term Jat. rather than upon any current and usual designation. In Kamar Singh's time tliey took to agricul" ture and abandoned robbery a little. or Ilindki which is perhaps more often used. The But in the Jat of the Indus and Lower Chauab is essentially a husbandman. it is more probable that a man who returns himself as Jat by caste and Bhatyara by tribe or clan should be a Bhatyara who has taken to agricultui-e. and now under the English Government they have quite given " up their evil ways. Sial or Sumra who have returned themselves as Jats side by side with those who have returned themselves as Rajputs. The Sumra are probably of no less pure Rajput extraction. Ethnologically I am not sure of my ground . or some other plate in tliat " neighboui'hood. are generally set up. and so his descendants became Jats. so that the figures may be as complete as possible. being a stout-hearted man. the somewhat different nature. Steed man writing from J hang says : " There are in this district a lot of tribes engaged in agriculture or cattle-grazing who have " no very clear idea of their origin but are certainly converted Hindus. for agncultni'isls only. east. than as Jats. and resided at Hastinapur or Dara" nagar. Then. or derive their maiTitenuuce from. and are honest and well disposed. as a rule. : " There is a wonderful uniformity about the traditions of the different tribes. and tlie detailed clan tables will give us much information on the subject. as already explained. and more belong to an enormous variety of tribes. is applied in scarcely a less iudefinite sense than in the Desajat . have increased the num])ers . a Eajpiit of the Solar or Lunar race." Mr.

1). most of the Jat clans are returned as Rji jputs also. The Multan Tahi'm say that their more immediate ancestor Sambhal Shah came to that place some 700 years ago on a marauding expedition. the higher Riijput trij)es. They are. are carefully excluded . Bhutta." " Get round a Pathan by coaxing but heave a clod at a Hindki. and Tod mentions au extinct Rajpiit tribe which be calls Dahima. as far as our figures go. or Rajput. Saiyad. and are Faid not unfrequently to work as butchers and cotton scutchers .— The Tahim claim Arab origin. Jat tribes of the Western Plains. The tiibes may be divided into three groups. Even there. cut it off." '' Kill a black Jat ralher than The Jat of Derah Ghazi is described as " lazy. AND ALLIED CASTES. but as being by caste Jat and Rajput respectively. Muzaffargarh. dirty. however. and Derah Ghazi Khan. The Tallim (No. and the figures for them will l. they merely give the numbers who have returned their tribe as one of those shown in the abstract.'' '' " brass. Khichi. excluding the trans-Salt-range and the sub-montane tracts.'^ " When the Jat is pros" perous he shuts up the path (by ploughing it up) when the Kirar (money: — : " Jat like a wound is better prosperous he shuts up the Jat. as belonging to these tribes. and Siimra lie chiefly westwards of the valley of the Jahlam-Cliauab . and ruled at Multan for 40 years. Chhadhar and Dhiidhi show the numbers who have returned themselves . RAJPUT. however. 1 . and to be descended from an Au>ari Qui-esh called Tamim. he will still use a mat for a pocket-handkerchief.— Abstract No. while the Bhatti. and a black snake. 73 on the next page* give. 109 Beyond while in the Salt-range Tract the meaning is but little more precise." The Jat is such a fool that only God can take care of him.''' " Though a Jat be made of gold." The The Jat inferior race. have a Tahi'm clan. the principal Jat tribes of the Western Plains that is to say west of Lahore. Jat or Ilindki includes both Rajputs and Awjins. the Indus. In bis invasion of India during the latter part of the 14th century. «umra. of which I can only quote one or two '' " An ordinary refined. Dhiidhi.". Gakkhar. The complete The double columns under figures cannot be obtained till the detailed clan tables are ready. who inhabited the plains « of Tahim. and Jat means any Mahoniedan cultivator of Hindu origin who is not an Awan. O'Brien gives at page he holds in the centre and east of the Panjab." and pursued them into the desert . and It is said that the Awaus thei'e were Talu'm Govrrnors of those parts under the Dehli Emperors. (Jats). Chbina. writes '' : — veal Jat cUms of the Rawalpindi division have a prejudice against the name Jat.e found Major Wace further on when I discuss the Jats of the sulj-montane tracts. as Bajpiits of the Western Plains. "because it is usually applied to camel-drivers. Pathiin." " lender) is A [P. 225] The Pathjin proverbs are even less complimentary. the Tahi'm Bhutta. Qureshi. and indeed all who talk Panjabi rather than Paslito. or it may be merely that the butchers and cotton scutchers have a Tahi'm clan called after the tribe.JAT. The Tahim are not wholly agriculturists. almost confined to Bahawalpur and the lower Indus and Chenc4b in Multan. such as Janjua.-. and to the graziers of the bar whom they look " down upon as low fellows. They formerly held much property in the Chiniot taJisil of Jhang." <tp . the Chhadhar and Sipra lie to the east of that line . Sial. Langah. and will be discussed when I come to the It must be remembered that these figures are very imperfect. ignorant. Joya. in these parts of the country is naturally looked upon as of and the position he occupies is very different from that which Mr." . no douht that the principal agricultural " tribes wliom we cannot class as Rajputs are really of the same race as the Jats of the Lower " Panjab. and do not include those who have returned only sub-sections of those tribes. Taimur encountered his old foes " the Gtta. he will leave a bad smell as he passes you." " Though " a Hindki be your right arm. Rut there is. after which he was killed and his followers scattered. . In the Salt-range Tract. '' If a Hindki " cannot do you any harm. still his hinder parts are of "Avhen bound.p 429. 78 of his Multdni Glossary a collection of the most pungent proverbs on the " Though the Jat grows subject.^^ " man's ribs would break at the laugh of a Jat. and Wuttu are Rajputs rather than Jats. I think. Punwar. Langah.

231 2.460 20. Astract No.110 PANJAB CASTES.348 1 2.431 4.085 69 9.819 Native Staten.598 20. 73.205 2.214 82 66 207 560 'i". Terri- 9.664 Total East.558 ai8 2.101 2. Plains 757 194 2.196 12.849 2..821 Jhang Montgomery Muzafl'argarh 640 894 1. Province 2.558 .101 Bahawalpnr 13.196 12.142 2.366 169 3.WESTERN Bhutta.083 2. Langih.550 10.431 4.891 9.650 10il96 12.249 52 08 Lahore Gujranwala Firozpui' 98 345 38 73 311 42 159 " 196 57 234 6 ' 25 2.539 194 5.612 192 4.696 1.305 4.670 294 401 30 Shahpur 'l62 Multan 2. Ladhiaiia 36 847 Jalandbar HuBhydrpur 9 691 1.310 205 625 882 Eawalpiiidi 4 321 5 93 Jhelam Gujrat 6 1.364 479 11 31 464 284 2 20 '" 1 233 2.014 3.633 659 Amritsar Gurdaspur Sialkot 69 20 '655 ' 241 17 'l69 91 936 1 2.190 20 3 341 177 1.862 23. Terri- 9.411 951 887 410 British tory.162 2 778 2.598 13.848 2. Suinra.083 2.229 Derah Ghazi Khan Bannu 72 1. showing the J at [^.862 1.509 Derail ISTiiiil Khan 765 2.492 1.^261 JATS.108 22.650 10.891 9.558 218 Patiala 063 194 1.361 British tory.144 96 41 174 1 2.

Ill _ PLAINS.JAT. RAJPUT. Tribes of the Western Plains. AND ALLIED CASTES. .

chiefly in Patiala The Chhadhar (No.D. though the two have certainly been confused in our tables. and perhaps those for Firozpur also. 1460 (extent of reign not Sultan Hussain . The Chhina (No. section 436. section 438). but are far most numerous in are found along the whole length of the Chanab and Jhiiug. But since tlicm have opulence and importance of Pirzadah ]\Iurad Bakhsh Bhutta. That there are Chln'na in Sialkot appears from the fact that the town of Jamki in that di>trict was founded by a Chhiua J at who came from Sindh and retained the title of Jam. Tl e figures for Derah Ismafl Khan are probably understated. Here again the Sumra seem to have spread. as Governor. I have added the figures in Abstract No. and Biita. instead of or in addition to agriculture. The and Derah Ghazi Khan. and Lak are all Punwar Rajputs by origin. : — known ).'' least. chiefly found on the lower Indus. 2). far up the Satluj and Clianab into the central districts of the Province. The Chhina of Derail Ismail Khan are chiefly found in the cis-Iudus portion of the district. 3). They were originally an Afghan tril-e who came to " Multan from Sivi and Dhiidhar for purposes of trade. 6).— Mr.112 PANJAB CASTES. INIultan. the princes of Dhat. seized Sheikh Yusaf and sent him to Delhi.-in from " 1445 to 1526 A. Langah. Chief of the Langahs.550 Langah who had returned their caste as Langah. Some 2. In Jhang most of them have returned themselves as Bajputs.— The Blmtta are said by Tsh: O'Brien to have traditious connecting the rise to with Hiiulu-. D.^— Mr.000 of the Sumra have retm-ued themselves as Rajputs. For ten days the city was given up to Siiltan Husain was made prisoner ''plunder and mas acre. Farishtah is apparently the authority for their Afghan origin. 73.Ihang border and the Indus. or Bhutta shown scattered over the Eastern Plains are perhaps mcmhcrs of the small Bhutna Bhutra clan of Malwa Jats. it is curious that they should not be fouAd in the intermediate districts through which they must have passed. Tiiuwar. them The Bhatta (No. In the confusion that followed the invasion of Tamerlane Multan became " independent of the throne of Dchli. In 1445 A. ''and died shortly after. O'Brien thus describes the Langah " in the Multvn and :Muzaffargarh districts. " shown in the margin. as there Ihey hold a great portion of tlie l^iah ihal between the . These latter seem to trace their origin from Dehli. One account is that they are emigrant^ from such a story I fear too ohvionsly suggested hy the name. Harral. the Sindhi equivalent for Chaudhri. and most of the Langahs were slain. c^'u'" Mahmud Sultan Sultan Husaiu St ^^^^ . They claim to be descended from EajaTur. and thev chiim to le descended from Solar Rajputs. It is ]n'oi)nble tliat the Chliina here shown for Giu'daspur.. Jliang. 750 tlicy expelled tlie I'v.. Uchh (in Bahawalpur) hefore the Saiyads came there. Unfoitunately we dasstd 2. 430.. and gave their names to Umrkot and Umrasumra or the Bhakkar country on the Indus. 5.-l Arab : — — O'Brien invaders " from Sindh and Multan. Muzaffargarh. who in remote limes held all the Rajputana deserts. " A tribe of agriculturists The Langah (No. which is doubtful to say the Pirzadah Murad Bakhsh Bhutta of Multan says that the Bhutta. head of "the shrine of Sheikh Bahauddin. and the inhabitants chose Slieikh Yusaf. describes the Siimra as originally Rajpiits " In A. The Sumra(No. after a siege of more than a year " by Shah Hasan Arghnn. But the Lansah are described by Tod as a clan of the Chaluk or Solani tribe of Agnikula Rajpiits.— The Chhadhar Ravi valleys. iutrrduced an armed band of his tribesmen *' into the city hy night. Yet if the Chhina spread up the Chanab into Sialkot and the neighbouring districts in suibh large numbers as are shown for Chima in those districts.Tat tribes of the sub-montane tract. where they have for the most part retui-ned themselves as Rajputs. 4). These I take to be distinct from the Chima Jat^ of Sialkot and Giijranwala. 1518 to 1526. He identifies the Soda \\ itli Alexander's Sogdi. in " 1526. anoHier Rajput tribe. The LangAh dynasty ruled Multan for eighty years. accordiig to oui' figuns. should go with the Chima who are described in section 432 among the . According to our figures thr Panjab Langah are almost confined to the lower Indus and Chanab. They are said to have held as r«aking potterv or weaving. They are. Governor of Sindh. Chenah and Jahlam.. according to our figures.. The kings " of Multan belonging to the Langah tribe are Sultan Kutabaddin 1445 to 1460. when it was expelled by the Sanima. many of Blmtan— taken to calling themselves Fi'rzadahs. under Patluins. Jat tribes of the Western Plains continued. Khnrral. " whose daughter had been married to Sheikh Yusaf. and eventually settled at Rapri and the "neighbourhood. (See also Buttar.D. Rai Sahra. They say that they . Kurcshi. of Multan. and furnished the country with a dynasty wliich ruled in Mult. " The r ynasly terminated with the capture " of Multan.." and Tod describes them as ene of the two great clans Umra and Siinira of tic Soda tribe of Punwar Rajputs. in Shahpur.taii. and proclaimed himself king " with the title Sultan Kutabuddin. ] Diites not > known. durii>g which time '' Biloches succeeded in establishing themselves along the Indus from Sitpur to Kot Karor. who inhabited Multan and Jaisalmer and were driven out of the latter by the Bhatti at least 700 years ago. They also often ijractise other crafts. The •' Laugahi of Multan and Muzaffargarh are now very insignificant cultivators.

Joya. took some country from the Sial. Dhudhl. Punwar. They claim to be Chauhan Rajputs by origin. behind us and enter the Laliore and Amritsar divisions directly. Thence they came to . Janjua. The Jats who composed the great mass of the Khulsa — — . But in Multan the Langriul say that their ancestor was a Hraliman Charan from Rikaner who was converted by Sultan Samran. After these came the Mekan. Rai Bhupa. wliero were converted by Slier Sliali oi' Uclili. that they are almost the worst tliieves in the district. They soon paid the penalty of their pride. that is. and are poor cultivators. The Jat indeed. claims for himself Rajput origin. Khichi. Steedman says that in Jhang. and they refused to join his standard. and will be discussed under Rajputs. for all the tribes of sufficient importance to be discussed separately that have returned themselves from this tract as Jats. which gives its name famous battle-field of Sabraon. Harral. Mr.— The Kharral will be discussed separately with the smaller The Harral claim to be descended from the same ancestor. left their lioinc in Rajputiiiia in tljey to be a sub-division of the fiil tribe of . &C.selves as such. Bhakral.)! the abstract. Mr. and settled at Kot Kamalia in Montgomery. JNIanhas. which is their home.. Then follow the true Jats. we find the line between Jat and Rajput sufficiently clearly marked. The Langrial are not separately sliown . Jhandir. ! V. and agricultural tribes. But a Varaich does not say that he is now Rajput. whence they spread over the Multan lar.Jhaiip.Tats. wliere they founded an important cohniy and spre. and thence to Kamalia in the Montgomery district. and Wattu will be described under Rajputs. AND ALLIED CASTES. Varaich. The equality of all men preached by Guru Govind disgusted the count. tradition makes them a branch of tlie Ahirs. He is a Jat and content The fact is that within the pale of Sikhism Rajputs were at a disto be so. and tlicre to claim Solar Rajput origin. These tribes will be found described under Shekli.\d in smaller nnmliers up tlie Clianab and Ravi.TAT. but with a bad reputation for cattle-lifting. and Ran j ha. we come within the circle of Sikh influence as distinguished from mere j^olitical supremacy. — The tribes which I shall next 431. where onlv thev are found on the left bank of the Upper Chanab. though often classed as Jats. here as elsewhere. thence they moved to Jhang. haughty Rajputs. and to have come to the Upper Chanab in the time of Akbar. They apjiear to be found also in Rawalpindi and Sialkot. however. Jats of the western sub-montane. in fact. The Sialkot Bhano'u say they came from Nepal. and — These district. as they claim Qureshi origit. They originally settled in Rawal])indi . and Marral. Tliey are not an important tribe. U3 iho time of ]\rn1ininmafl filiori aiitl settled in Baliawalpur. the greater number of their members have returned them. The Marral seem to have been once of far greater importance than now in the Jhang district. Gujranwala and Sijilkot districts. whom I have endeavoured to arrange in order of locality from Avest to east. to be perhaps aboriginal. to the The Sipra (No. Init by another son and to be Punwar Rajputs who came from Jaisalmer to Uchh. I have included in the Abstract the so-called Jat tribes of the Salt-range Tract . 7)— appear The Bhatti." because their ancestor used to keep open house to all the beggars and faqirs of the neighbourhood. but they eventually fell before the rising power of the new comers. Stecdman doscrihcs them as good agriculturists. Tliey are however curious as being a nomad jjastoral tribe who form almost the sole inhabitants of the Multan steppes. appear to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Jhang The Bhangu do not even claim Rajput origin The Nol held the ccmntry about Jhang and the Bhangu that about Shorkot when the Sial came to the district. . owning large flocks and herds which they pasture in tlie central steppes.Ihang. &c. of the Gujrat. They derive their name from lanr/nr a " kitchen. are really Rajputs rather than Jats. PtAjrUT. The Nol and BhangU. They too are found cliiefly ou the Jahlam and lower Chanab and arc most nmnerous in . Khagga. The Jats of the Salt-range and of the great plains below it I have already described sufficientBut directly we leave the Salt-range ly in the preceding sections 427-8. and less given to cattle-theft than their neighbours. Sial. With them. Chima. Gondal. The Hans. the Ttirar. as the Kharral. and being bad cidtivators. arnd they Such are Dhanial. 227] The Kharral. who belong to the Salt-range sub-montane and will also bo treated as Rajputs. discuss arc those of the foot of the hills west of Lahore. They are a fine bold-looking set of men..

They have also crossed tlic Charial) into Gujranwala where tliey held a tract of 41 villages. practice.— The Varaich . to absolute power. Varaich.* I liavo already explaired that the first seven tribes. 17. Gil. which may perhaps connect this group of tribes with the ancient Malli of Multan. and I much regret that I have no time to treat it more fully. They say that their ancestor Tarar took service with Mahmiid Ghaznavi and returned with him to Ghazni ." i is one of the largest Jat tribes in the Province. Roe's translation of Arain Chand's Histori/ of Sidlkot. Gujranwala. with especial harshness. idle and troublesome. and have spread along under tlie hills as far as Ludhiana and Maler Kotla. who as a native-born leader of the people should have joined them. except perhaps on the confines of the Gujranwala bar. Nothing could be more instructive than an examination of the origin. The most extraordinary thing is Sialkot Jat tribes of the western SUb-raontane. They would seem to point to aboriginal descent. which belong *P. The Tarar claim Solar Eajpiit origin. and they still hold 170 villages in that district. Another point worthy of remark is the frequent recurrence of an ancestor Mai. but this is more a matter of convenience than of ethnic classification. al)Out the group of Jat tribes found in the large numlier of customs still retained by them which are. stract siderable The Tarar (No. and they have lately begun to intermarry within the tribe. was a Jat who "came into India with Mahmiid Ghaz)iavi and settled in Gujrat. moved from Mhatner to Gujriit whence the tribe spread. Tlicy intermarry with Gondal. Gondal. and limits of this group of customs. wliere the tribe grew powerful and partly dispossessed the original Gujar lords of the soil. about the junction and within the boundaries of the three districts of Gxijrat. while others are connected with the hills of Jammu. 432. wiU be treated as and dircussed with Rajputs. and the great plains. while according to a third account their ancestor was a descendant of The Varaich (No. or of the Salt-range Tract where everybody who is not an Arab or a Mughal calls himself a Rajput . not shared by any other people. about half the Gu. The Jat tribes now to be considered are. from whom tliey are descended. and occupy the same social position as do those of the Eastern Plains.— The fis:ures for the tribe will be found in AbNo. 116to the Salt-range and it^ vicinity. Some of them are still Hindus. 74 on the next page. the last under Jats . Thus the Jats we are considering are far more clearly marked off from the Rajputs than are those of the Western Plains where everybody is a Jat. The whole group strikes me as being one of exceeding interest. Some of their traditions point to Sindh . Virk. but say that their ancestor Dhiidi. They will be found described in Mr. whom indeed they resemble in all respects. and their personal feeling led them to treat the Rajput. apparently from the Bliatti of Bhatner. Only on the edge of the group. and Tarar claim some to be Jats and some to be Rajputs. on the common Ijorder line of the Sikh tract. and I shall notice one or two of them in the following paragraphs. but that his son Lohi. The first two I have decided to describe under Rajputs. do the Mekan. 8). so far as I know.iranwala — and nearly all the Shahpur Tarar having adopted tins course. 9). Another story is that their ancestor was a Surajbansi Rajput who came from Ghazni to Gujrat. though on less favourable terms than those allowed to the Gujars who held tlie remainder .11* rose PANJAB CASTES. They hold laud on both sides of the Upper Clianab. the Salt-range. Their general policy led them to cut off such poppy heads as had not spning from their own seed . essentially agricultural. indeed there is if anytliing a tendency here to call those Jats who are admitted to be Rajputs further west. and Sliahpur. In ALbar's time they held two-thirds of the Giijrat district. and the Rajput who had despised them was the peculiar object of their hatred. The old Settlement Reports are full of remarks upon the decadence if not the viitual disappearance of the Rajput gentry in those districts where Sikh sway was most absolute. They are described as " nvariably lazy. Ranjha. This is the only one of the tribes to be here discussed of which any connumber of the members have retiirned themselves as Rajpiits. and who would if he had done so have been a very important element of additional strength to the cause. They do not always even pretend to be Rajputs. Another story dates their settlement from the time of Humjiyuu. and other leading Jat tribes of the neighbourliood .

aie practically confined to the Sialkot District.— The Ghumman claim descent from R5ja Malkir. They own 37 vJlagos in Gujranwala which is their home. mans. who came from and two of his sons were Aulakh and Deo who gave their names to two Jat tribes." TheHinjra (No. — ol show no Hinjra in Hissar. 433. family of this tribe rose to imjwrtance under the Sikhs. "Rija. The Bajju Rajputs are said to have had till quite lately a custom by which a Musalman girl could be turned into a Hindu for purposes of marriage. both which facts point They are a powerful and united tribe. 10). appear to be known as Chung or Varaich indifferently in the Lahore district. or Bajju Jats and Rajputs have given their names to the They say that they foot of tiie Jammu hills in the Sialkot District. a custom perhaps brought They are described. 229] The Hfnjra of the Gujranwala irtV are a pastoral tribe. They strongly to aboriginal descent. and that their ancestor Hinjrano came from the neighbourhood" of His^ar to Gdjranwala and lounded a city Their immediate ancestors are Hal and Dhol. His two sons Kals and Lis escaped in the disguise of falconers. His grandson where his son founded a village on the Beds in the time of Ala-ul-din Ghoii. Their ancestor's name is said to be Mahaj. by temporarily burying In the betrothals of her in an underground chamber and ploughing the earth over her head. One of his descendants Sanpal married out of caste.2^ of his Funj iL Chiefs. They marry with the best local tribes. AND ALLIED CASTES. But anothei They have the same marriage ceremony story refers them to Raja Jagdeo. 115 of Kisrali to Dehli and wiis settlerl by Jalal-ul-clin Piroz Shah sonio five centuries ago to Gnjrauwdhi. spread both east and west under the hills. will not intermarry with the Mrin Jats. and to examine the alleged connection between the two sections In the Hissar Settlement Ri.JAT. and as the Sahi. while Kals married a Jat girl in Pasnir. a Lunar Rdjput Saltand gi-andson of 114 ja Dalip of Dehli. Tlio Bajju Rajputs admit Bajwa Jats. Butthcro is little doubt The Wazirabad their first home. The descenBijwa Jats and Bajju dants of both live in the Bajwat. and they. They claim to be Saroha Rajputs. worship tlie — Jhand tree. and that their movement lias l)een eastwards. and also u-e the goat's blood in a similar manner in have several very peculiar customs. but retain all Griffin at pages 409 . They are found They have.'port it is «tatcd that " the Hinjraon Pachhadas trace of the tribe. and his son Ghumman. in common with the Sindhu and Chima of in any numbers only in Giijrat and Sialkot. Many of them are Musalare said to marry within the tribe as" well as with their neighbours. and have spread both eastwards and The Chima westwards along the foot of the hills. [P. and only 30 in Sirsa . but they may have been returned as Hinjraon. but are said to be distinguished as from Dehli by Rai Rajputs. but have aboriginal extraction. RAJPUT. several other singular customs resembling tht se of the Sahi Jats already confined to Sialkot. who from Mukiala or Malhiana in the time of Fi'roz Shah and took service in Jammu.—The Deo (No. and returned Ui found the tribe. The Nagara is one of their principal clans. with them from MultSn . Another story has it that their ancestor Rai Jaisan was driven their relationship with the Pitora and settled at Karbala in Si5lkot.— The Deo They claim a very ancient origin but not Rajput. a Chauhan Rajput. called Uskhab. 1% . but hold 42 villages in Gujranwala. with whom The Ghumman (No. and Dhol (the same name as among the Hinjra) was the ancestor of The Chima have the pecnliar marriage customs described under the Sahi their present clans. They they have some ancestral connection. first to Kangra and then to Amritsar. out of Multan in the time of are Solar Rajputs and that their ancestor Raja Shali'p was driven Sikandar Lodi. It would be interesting to know tlie names of these clan*. They their trilial and many of their Hindu customs. Lis went to Jammu and there married a Rajput bride. a Surajl)ansi Rajput. founded the preThis tribe worships an idol made of gi-ass and set within a square drawn in the cornpJ' sent tribe.— The Chima are one of the largest Jat tribes in the Pun jab. 14). 15). and its history is narrated by Sir Lepel They are almost all Musalmans. '* They are all Muhammadans in this their origin to a Saroha Rajput ance-tor called Hinjraon. these parts. but quarrelsome. was called Rana Kang. though they have spread in small numbers eastwards as far as The Bajwa (No. and they say that half their clans still live in the Hi^sar country. Our figures "district though in other places Hindu Hinjraon Pachhadas are to be found. some peculiar marrriage cutsoms. perhaps 11). say that some 25 generations back their ancestor Chilma. Jat tribes of the western sub-montane continued. fled from Dehli after the defeat of Prithi Raj by Shahab-ul-din Ghori. but retain their old customs. settling on the llavi near Lahore. from whom are descended the Jaujda Rajputs of the camf range Tract. and they are said to be served by Jogis and not by Rrihmans. and they have this tribe dates are used. Jats. The Sahi also claim descent from a Solar Rajput who went to Ghazni with Mahmiid. 13). Thev (No. honour of their ancestors. the ruins of which still exist. They are most numerous in Sialkot. making the bridegroom cut off a twig of the Jhand tree (Proiopis sf'icigera) and so forth . like most of the tribes discussed in this section. " the Saki jungle " in Hindustan. Bajwat or country at the - The Bajwa almost Patiala.. 12). such as cutting a goat's ear and marking their foreheads with the blood. Karan wlio went from tlie tribe tlio city whence that Giijrat was in His><ar. moved The Sahi (No.

228] . showing Jat tribes [p.116 PANJAB CASTES. Abstract No. 74.

AND ALLIED CASTES.227 366 2.119 1.515 1.AIONTANE.396 .396 25.517 64.179 443 149 502 219 3.285 13. fififi 1. 117 Western Sub-montane.718 13. WESTERN SIIU-.008 292 1.722 1.645 267 89 19.003 30 2.200 67.354 470 2.344 289 3.505 61.789 154 5!784 2.855 041 169 603 'lil61 1.202 10..405 252 409 12.718 2.839 751 362 504 35.1PUT.476 5.044 122 20 1.350 35. of the UA.429 125 102 59 202 33 59 110 160 22 64 482 600 220 40 61.lAT.253 3 57fi 1.205 1.7S3 155 611! 1 .

They are stalwart. The Sarai (No. (See further the Sara Jats of the central districts. and to are described separately. settle down and take to agriculture. The Lodike are considered to be a clan of the Kharrals of the Montgomery district. I cannot identify these There are said to he Sarai Rajputs in Sialkot.t They rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs . The word guraya is said to be used for the Nilgai (Porcax picfa) in Central India. They are almost confined to the southern Tliey intermarry with Jat^". They claim The group of Jats we have now to con434.27 souls. be confined to Gujranwala. being one of the most prosperous tribes in the district. who arc The Sarai are raid to be a welldiscussed under the head Shekh and who claim to be Qureshi. 18). sider are the typical Jats of the Panjab. Tlicy are chiefly found in Sialkot. and among them this has happened only in Gujranwala^ on the extreme outskirts of the tract. and Gurdaspur. and collectively form perhaps the — A . so far as our figures go. Sialkot. same peculiar marriage customs as the Sihi Jats already described. The Dhotar and Lodike. industry. There can hardly be any connection between them and the Sarais of the Kalhora family of Derail Ghazi Khan. The Goraya (No. and claim to be descended from a Solar Rajput who emigrated from Hindustan or. in which district they hold 81 villages to be descended from Chatta. of the house at weddings. to the Gujranwala bar some ten generations ago. portion of the districts of Gurdaspur and Sialkot. and they cut the goat's ear and the Jhand twig. clan Sarai.. the Kharral head-quarters. In the 10th generation the Chauluin King of Dehli. The Kalilon claim descent from Raja Vikramajit of the Lunar line through Raja Jagdeo of Daranagar. ". The^ are now found in Gujranwala. sturdy yeomen of great independeuce. section 436.like the Sahi . from an ancestor called Sarai who settled in the Hafizabad t hsil. and agricultural skill. who In Gujranwala they are said to be of Solar Rajput descent.600 A. Rana their founder came from the Jammu liiUs in the time of the Emperors. whence they spread into Sialkot. They own 31 villages in Gujranwala and are They have the excellent cultivators. chiefly found in Gurdaspur 17). and brother of the ancestor of the Chima. Thev also propitiate their ancestors by pouring water over a goat's head so that he shakes it off. All that I have said in the preceding section (§ 481) regarding the absence of any wish on the part of the Jats of the Khalsa to be auglit but Jats^ api^lics here w^ith still greater force. according to another story. Tliej were converted to Islam aboi. — — The Chatta— Appear L to and number 2.Tats. where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live. especially eastwards. was Dahru who came from Sambhal in Moradabad. a grandson of Prithi Rai. Jats of the Sikh tract. their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at pages 402^ of his Panjdb Chipfn. not with Rajputs. known Jat clan in . 16).Tats arc. some 500 years ago. The only tribe among this group of which any considerable numbers have returned themselves as Rajputs are the Virk .D. The Goraya are said by one account to be descended from the Saroha family of Lunar Rajputs. and the hi=. including all those great Sikh Jat They occupy tribes who have made the race so renowned in recent history.Talandhar and the neighbouring di>trict3. though they have spread somewhat. and to have come to Gujranwala a^ a nomad and pastoral tribe from Another story is that they are descended from a Sombansi Rajput called Gm'aya whose Sirsa. They are mostly Hindus.Tats already described. — The Sarai .tory of 1. very similar to those of the Sahi . to the banks of the Chanab and married among the Jat tribes of the Gujranwala District. Sidhu claims indeed llajput origin. They are sometimes said to be a clan of the D billon tribe.118 PANJAB CASTES. though there are a few on the upper and middle Satluj also. of whom 1. and " gave their name Sehl or Selir a'< a titular appellation to the country and its princes " and its inhabitants the Sehrais. These men are the backbone of the Pan jab by character and physique as well as by locality.951 have entered themselves as tribe Sindhu. the central districts of the Panjabj the upper Satluj^ and the great Sikh States of the Eastern Plains. — and Sialkot.454 Dhotar returned in our tables. from Ghazni some 20 generations back. Tod makes Selirai the title of a race of Punwar Rajputs who founded a dynasty at Aror in Siudh on the eastern bank of the Indus. have come from the Rivi.) Of the Sarai of Gurdaspur 4. as otherwise stated. Under his descendant Soli or Sodi they left Daranagar and Their marriage customs are settled near Batala in Gurdaspur. who are Bhattis descended people with certamty. But he is now a Sidhu Jat^ and holds that to be a prouder title than Bhatti Rajput. A third tradition is that grar^dson Mai came from the Lakki thai some 15 generations ago.428 are found in Giijrdnwala. There are 1. and appear again in the Sindhu figures which will be discussed presently. from Chatta or. and led a pastoral and marauding life till reverses at the hands of the Virk forced them to They do not give their daughters to the local Jat tribes. The Kahlon (No. anil apparently with good reason.

and shortly afterwards moved from Amritsar to Jalandhar Sir Lepel (iriffin is of opinion at tlie invitation of the Gils to take the place of the ejected ilanj. an examination of which might produce interesting and valua]>le results. Dehli court. and Her tribes.— The Dhillon is one of the and most widely distributed Jat tribes in tlie Province. from almost every district. tribe. 1). whether they renUy refer to tlie same tribe. and under the hills to the east of those two The numbers returned for the Deldi District are curiously large. he settled in Amritsar and married a Gil . while others have it that it was Ghadni in Bikaner. If this be true they liave probably moved up the Satluj. 435. The husbandmen.-injha near Firoz Shall from Afghanistan to India. " Tlie Bluilar. the Jopur. being sui'passed in numbers by the SidluT only. The Sindhu of Karnal worship Kala Mahar or Kala Pir. confines of the Manjha and Malwa but they are returned in small numbers from every division in the Panjab except Dehli. Saj. and under the hills fi-om Ambala in the They claim descent from the Raghobansi branch of east to Sialkot and Giijr inwala in the west. Loharu. and the standard of agricultural practice among those at any rate of the more fertile northern I would call districts is as high as is reached in any portion of the Province. and Man tribes call themselves asl or " original ^j. Man. The Jalandhar Sindhu say that they came from the south to the Manjha some two or three centuries ago when the Pathans dispossessed the Manj Rajputs. are I . and held some office at the They are said to be divided into three great sections. AND ALLIED CASTES. from which they came . and Jau. among as two and a half tribes. The tribe rose to some political importance about the end of last century. Vachra. the Biij. Her. 12021 so far as Abstract No. The Bhular (No — . Tlie Sindliu have the same peculiar marriage customs already described as practised by the Sahi Jats. 360 jf. whose chief shrine is said to be at Thana Satra in Sialkot. and 417 to 428 of the same writer's Panjdb Chiefs. ruling a considerable tract in Gujranwala and Lahore till subdued by Ranjit Singh. and was connected with the Rajas of Jammii. whose title is Bhula Mahadeo. which tribe several families have risen to political importance. — Jats. can give but scanty information. Nams (Mai again !) the founder of the Manhas tribe of Rajputs. The Dhillon (No. Tlie Siudhu is. especially the Virk appear to be the Giijranwala and Lahore which they own 132 villages. Districts. and Peshawar. special attention to the curious traditions of the Bhular. but they a I'e found all along the upper Satluj. the Her only counting as a lialf. They claim origin from a Manh^s Rajput called Virak. There are three girl. Tlie head-quarters of the in — former The Sindhu (No 3).i£ccpt Dujana. and not in Afglianistan. Their head-quarters would appear from our ligures to be Gujraiivvala and Amritsar . and are said to have sprung from the Jat or " Matted hair " of Mahadeo. which was of capital importance under tlie Sikhs. so far as our tigures go. and the to the Panjdb. but they are found in large numbers along the whole cour. and I doubt somevvliat disti'icts. have risen to of political importance. and Sanda. is given is great detail at pages 225 ff. or accompanied Mahmud to Ghazni. . RAJPUT. and are commonly reckoned But the bards of the Man. order to which they appear to occur from west to east.JAT. main sections of the tribe. say that the whole of the Man and Bhular and half the Her tribe of Rajputs were the earliest Kslialriya immigrants from Rajputana The head-quarters of the Bhular appear to be Lahore and Fi'rozpur. largest The Virk (No.e of the Satluj from Fi'rozpur upwards.-. the second l*i gest Jat tribe. They say that their ancestors were taken by the Solar Rajputs through Ram Ghaudar of Ajudhia. 230] Unfortunately the Settlement Reports of this finest peasantry in India. They say that the Malwa was tlieir original home. and from every Native State of the Eastern Plains e. Rawalpindi. and then spread along westwards under the hills. their alleged place of origin. and returned during the thirteenth century or in the reign of Sliortly afterwards they settled in the M. 75 on the opposite page* gives the distribution of the tribes I have an'anged them roughly in the it is shown by our figures. who left Jammu and settled at Ghuchli in Amritsar . The Jat tribes of the Sikh tract. 119 [P. Their head-quarters are the Ami'itsnr and Lahore districts. but they marry freely witli the Jat They say that tlieir ancestor Virak was descended from Malhan ti'ibes of the neighbourhood. part of the country are often poor or even aljsent altogether. Like the Goraya tliey claim to be Saroha Rajputs by origin. 2). The political history of the that the real origin of the tribe is from North-Western Rajpiitana.Jat His de-cendants sliortly afterwards moved westwards into Gujranwala. while much of Thus except regarding such tribes as the tract consists of Native States. But another story makes them descendants of a Siirajbansi Kajpiit named Lu who lived at Kharmor in the Malwa. and in Gujranwala nearly a third of them have returned themselves as Rajputs. and to have come from Sirsa.Tats the Sikh tract essentially •P. Lahore. Some of the Sindhu say that it was Ghazni in tlie Deccan. and Pataudi. their ancestor. Leaving Parghowal in Jammu.

showing the L^'- ^3i] . 75. Abstract No.J 20 PANJAB CASTES.

JAT. AND ALLIED CASTES. KA. Jat Tribes of the Sikh Tract.irUT. 10 . Ul SlKll TRACT.

Chauhan. The Jat tribes of the Sikh tract continued. Raja of Garb The tribe rose to some impjrtance under the Mithila and a Waria Rajput.Tats. and are said to Their ancestor is also said to be a clan of the Sekhu tribe with whom they do not intermarry. Several of the leading Sikh families belong he found at pages 177 to 183 and 307 to 314 of Sir Lepel That writer states that there is "a popular tradition in the Panjab Griffin's Pa h/«6 Chiefs.~Tlic stated. 8).812 were entered in my tables the whole upper valley of the Satluj. their head-quarters are the Lahore and Firozpur Districts . Siir. and throxighout Of (he number shown. or from the Buta of Hushyarpur to be described in section 438. and Riipach. 10) The Pannun — and Gm'daspur so far as The Mahal Amritsar. is the largest and most nn])Ortant of the Jat trilics of the Panjab. Bur. tribe. for from it have sprung the great Phulkian families of Patiala. in other words for an indeflnite lie — period. which is derived from a root — meaning " strength. it would appear probable that there was the original homo of the in . His descendants overran Hissiir and Sirsa and gave to the latter tract the name of Bliattiana. Sidhu. the ancestor of the tribe.122 The Man liceii PANJAB CASTES. of ^vhom 2. The name Bal. The Her is the third of this group ni tribes. the second of tlie ad . he was a lineal descendant of I'irthi Pal. indeed had not it been that I wished to keep the three together. especially in the northern districts and along the Satluj. and from Dhiil. District. to the cast of that of the Bhiilar . 5). is sprung tlie Barar tribe. 13). 6). — Amritsar District The Gil (No. Devi. The early history of the tribes tribes The SidhU and Barar (Nos. w. as have 417 in Gujranwala. and under the hills as far west as Sialkot. from Hindustan. and recurs in all sorts of claim Solar Rdjput ancestry. The pure iJhatti Rajputs of Ebattiaua still admit theia. of spelling Her. So far as our figures show. a Bliatti Rajput and founder of Jaisalmer. or according to another story. but they arc found in the northern Malwa.Tats of the eastern sub-montane. (No. but they are found all along the Beas and Upper Satluj. The Sidhu trace their origin to Jaisal. found to this and their history will tribe. is a famous one in ancient Indian History. but I am informed that this is merely another way Of c mrse they returned themselves an Aher .Iat of Raghobansi Rajput descent who lived in the Firozpur District . as 8. which have been .st.relationship with the Sidhu and Barar.hutta Jat> of the Western Plains.ay that theu' ancestors came from Ghazni ." forms and places. and Ji'nd. — selves as Tiirar Odi. The Her (No. and the history of its princip. and father of Shergil.Tat wife. but they also own five villages in Sialkot.as a . have been a Rajput of royal race who came from Malwa. their ancestor. (No. who was driven from his kingdom by a successful rebellion and took refuge with Prithi Raj. The Gil is one of the largest and most important of the Jat tribes. and their home appears to north of the Satluj .figures go. Eajput ancestry Man. 11) — is Tiieir ancestor is said to a small tribe which appear to be chiefly found in . "which makes all of the Man tribe brave and true. chiefly on the Upper Satluj.715 of the 8. be descended from a Siirajbansi Eajput who came from the Lakki jungle and settled first in Gujranwala. The Odi would appear from our figures to be confined to the Firozpur They appear to be a clan of the Dhariwal tribe. They s. so far as om. (No. 436. by a Ehiilar . not as Aher or Ahir liy caste. the founder of another Jat tribe. The head-quarters of the Aulak Jats would appear to be in the 12). 5.ancestor one Raja Lui Lak. 7).— The BTittararea I am not quite sure that small tribe found. 14— 15). From the fact that the JIan both of Jalandhar and of Karnal trace their origin to the iieighljom'hood of Bbatinda. The Bal are another tribe of the Beas and Upper Satluj." The home of the Man is in the northern Mabva. Sidiiu had four sons. as well as in the Manjha and west They are said to be of Solar descent. . They are found however in considerable numbers under the hills from Ambala in the east to Gujrat in the we. they are distinct from the F. But another stoi'y makes their . Sikhs. a Lunar Rajput. 9). the descendant of Bur. Gil. The Buttar (No. being found in every district and state of the Panjab oa^^t of Tjahore.786 were in Hushyarpur. do sometimes claim. The Bal (No. who married a Jat wcjiuan of tlie (tbaggar. with its branch the Banlr or Sidhu-Barar.Tiilaidhar and have been a Rajput from Modi in the Malwa. as Aher. The Odi (No. They are chiefly found in Amritsar onv figures show . Among them was Klu'wa. The Aulak (No. and the Barar family of Faridkot. and their ancestor Aulak lived in the Manjha. Nabha.al — family is told at pages 352^ of Griffin's Panjab Chiefs. with whom they will not intermarry.Tat tribes. as has just and it is said that Thdkur Rajputs of the Man tribe are still to be . who say that they have lived there for a thousand years.Jaipur (see further Dalai in section 440). and had by her Sidhu.— The U • 232J . I should have taken the Her with the . They are related to the Sekhu and Deo tribes. but they too are widely distributed. They are shown in the On the other hand the 390 Odi of Gujrat have returned themAbstract under both headings.722 Odi in Firozpur and 787 more in Nabha have returned them-elves as Dhariwal Odi. There is a very old village called Her in the Nakodar /a^^/Z of Jalandhar which is still held by Her Jats. of the Ravi. the last Hindu King of Dehli.already described They are said to in section 429.

The Sara (No. " Either Barar or some descendant of his migrated to Bhatimla. " The Barars are not equal to the other tribes of Jats as cultivators. hut whether I have done righly iu including the Gurgaon Ral Barar I cannot say. unless indeed they are the same as the Man. their head-quarters being the north-western corner of the Malwa. But another tradition traces them to Raja Salon (? Salvahan). 19). This crime is said to have originated in a " deceit that was once practised upon one of the chiefs of Xabha by which his daughter was " betrothed to a man of an inferior ti'ibe . and I can detect no difference now between the proportionate number of female children " in the Bai-ar villages and in villages inhabited by other castes. whence they migrated to the Panjab.Tats of the western sub-montane. and all the most notorious criminals of this description that have been apprehended and '' JDrought to justice under our rule were Barars. The Chiefs of all these states belong to the same family. where their original home was. whence his offspring " spread over the neighbouring lands. 20). and as Rai Barar in tturgaon. indeed the whole is a political history of the descendants of Sidhii . The liarar who arc shown in the Ahsfract have returned thcmselve-. The name of their aiice3tf)r was Sidhu. 21). The Bhattis " of Sirsa who embraced Muhammadauism were also originally Bhatti Rajputs. Some further details of their early ancestry will he found at page 8 of the His-ar Settlement Report. Brandreth thus descrihes the Barar of Firozpiu. chiefly found in the Upper Malwa. and Bhudaur in this district. Female infanticide is said to have been practised " among them to a great extent in former times. and Sahi. Mehraj. who came from the Deccau and settled at Kahlor. described under . this horrid practice has been almost entirely discontinued of late " years. The original home of the trihe was the Malwa. Amritsar. and Gurdaspur. and the most peaceful and contented portion of the population of the ti'act. They are — 17).—The Mangat would appear from our figures to be almost confined to Ludhiana and the adjoining portion of Patiala. of the same family as the Rajputs '' of Jai^almer. but are very numor nis in Ambala and Lulhiana. Mokatsar. — . and the adjoining parts of Patiala. thiis appearing twice over in the Abstract. in Ludhiana. I am told that a few years ago there was scarcely " a young girl to be found in any of the Barar villages. a . Firozpur. and founded the tribe. — and The Gandhi (No.Tat tribes in the Province They are found in greatest numbers in Patiala. About them also I have no particulars to give.at tribes who bear these names are sprung from them. The Chahil (No. They wear finer clothes " and consider themselves a more illastrious race. 5ludki.JAT. — The Mangat (No. or Ludhiana. and related to the " Barars. Moreover. the whole of Faridkot. wliile the leading minor families are noticed at pages 429 t<) 436 of lii^ Pdtijdh Chiefs. Dhaniwal. Bhuchon. The Dhindsa (No. and The Dhaiiwai (No. The Dharfwal. " Jhumbha aid Mallaudh. sixbsequeutly entered into au agreement with all his tribe to put to death all the " daughters that should be born to them hereafter. The Chahil appear to be one of the largest .Jat woman. " From all accounts. The rest are returned as Barar simply. whence they are called indifferently both Sidhu and Barar. settled at Matti in the Malwa about the time of Akbar. said to be Bhatti Rajputs. ai'e also Darauagar. but their descent is traced to some common ancestor before the time of Si. Chima. aJid that the four J. The Dhindsa would appear to be confined to Ambala. and the intervening country . They found chiefly on the Upper Satluj and iu the fertile district to the west. Hut they have al-^o spread across the Satin j into Lahore.220. Sidhu Harar in the Native States and. Mr. Chhina. Sidhu Barar and Barar are synonymous .~ " The liarars are sai 1 to have heeii Bhatti Rajputs. a-. . It is said that Raja Agarsen Siirajhansi had four sons Chahil. but they also have crossed the Satluj into the fertile district to the north-west. hook it is still there that they are found in largest numhers. They are said to he descended from a Bhatti Rajput who 13 generations ago left the Malwa and settled in Giijranwala.lhu. Amritsar. and though he considered himself bound to complete the " marriage.358 iu Nahlia have returned their trihe as Sidhu and their clan as Barar. and extend all along under the hills as far west as Gujraawala and Sialkot. a Lunar Rajput who lived in .Jammu. Ludhiana.^ Panjdh Rajas . 26. The Sara Jats are. They occupy almost the whole of ilaquas Mari. Many of them were desperate dacoits in fonner " years. is AND ALLIED CASTES 123 toll in lullilctail at pages 1 to 10 and 546 to 518 of Griflfin'. I presume that they are distinct from the Sarai noticed under . whose " grandson was named Barar. " Sultan Khan. the adjoining portion of Patiala. however. and to take their name from their place of origin say that Akbar married the daughter of their Chief Mahr Mithra. Nabha.— The Gandhi seem to be chiefly found in the same tract with the Mangat just mentioned. three ways. Mr. Their original liome was Malwa. I have no information to give about them. and other districts. and are now in possession of a very large tract of " country. and are included in hoth columns. Brandreth describes them as splendid cultivators.Jats of eastern sub-montane.915 persons in Firozpur and 2. so far as our figures go. According to another story their ancestor was a Tiiuwar His son Birsi married Rdjpiit called Raja Rikh. RAJPUT. Faridkot. Jalandhar. to the number of 4. in order to prevent the possibility of such a " disgrace occurring again. a great part of Patiala." -. and whose two sons Sara and Basra were the eponymous ancestors of two Jat tribes. 18). They claim to be descended from Saroha Rajputs. or Dhaliwal for the name is spelt in all 16). in Fi'ro/pur.

Tara Singli ttheba {sic). The Randhawa (No. Mr. close up under and even among the hills . confined to Hushyarpur. lived in Bikaner some seven centuries ago. The Bains (No. and Patiala. possessed itself of a very considerable tract of country. though 3). They give their uamo to Baiswava. their ancestor Sohal belonging to the family of Mahag. Tliey occupied a position of some considerable political importance iu their own tract during the early days of Sikli rule. or tlie easternmost portion of the Ganges-. Jats of the eastern sub-montane. There is no definite line of demarcation between them and the Sikh Jats to the south or the Jats of the western sulj-montanc to the west and perhaps the only real distinction is that. the first are Hindus. and Kajjal.—The shall next dosL-ribe lie to the north of the .I:i4 PANJAB CASTES^ 437. — . tliough hey have spread westwards even as far as Rawalpindi. Bains is one of the 36 royal families of Rajputs. speaking broadly. Abstract No. was himself of this race and a native of Kang on "the Satluj. as far as our figures go. a Jadu or Bhatti Rajput. 1 — The Buta (No. In the Sikh tract the political position of the Jat was so high that he had no wish to be called Rajput under the hills the status of the Rajput is so superior that the Jat The only one of these tribes of which has no hope of being called Rajput. any considerable number have returned themselves as Jats as well as Rajputs is the Manj. I have no information regarding tlicm. and that tlieir anco-tor IJaiiis came eastwards in tlic time of Fi'roz Shah. Tliey say lliat tliey are by origin Janjiia Rajpiita. whose ancestor came from Hushyarpur to Jalla near Sarhind iii Niiblia soino twelve generations ago. Here again there is no confusion between Jats and Eajputs. 76 on the opposite page gives the figures for these tribes roughly arranged in order from west to east.ramna doab. save that they have never enjoyed the political importance which distinguished the Sikh Jats under the Khalsa. l)ut who are also found iu considerable numbers in Lahore. 4). and the third ]\Iusalmans. father ot Kaug. Their tradition i^ tliat tlu^y is found chiefly — "was their leader at the time of the conquest.— The head-quarters of the Baius appear to be in Hushyarpur and Jalandhar. 2). and ray information is correspondingly imperfect. or were connected " with it Ijy marriage when tliey establislicd their authority there. Here the tribe increased in numbers.— The small group of Jats whkh 1 Sikh Jats just discussed.separate j'^^/rs on both sides of the "river. though the reason of the precision wuth which they are distinguished is exactly the opposite of that already discussed in the case of the western sub-montane and Sikh Jats. all along under the foot of the hills from Aniljula to Gurdaspur. who : in the angle between the Bcas and Satluj. The Jat tribes of the Eastern Sub-montane. Tiie Buta are. and that only in Gurdaspur on the extreme confines of the tract. Barkley writes of tlie Jiilaudhar Kang " Most of the Sikh Sardars of the Nakodar fnhsil either belong to this tribe. and rose to some political importance. The Sohal i^No. 6). Tlic history of the Randhawa family is fully detailed at pages 200 to 218 of the Panjdb Chiefs. and am not at all certain that tliey arc distinct from the Hhutta of the Western Plaius (section '129) and the Buttar of the Sikh tract (section 430). A few Randhawa have shown themselves also as Bhatti in Gujranwala and as Virk in Firozpur. but on the village being "swept away l)y the river they dispersed themselves in theii. Then I shall consider wdth the Rajputs of the same name. Jalandliar. Hushyarpur. The Kang (No. fifth in descent from him. : Raudliawa is a large and widely spread tribe whoso head-quarters appear to lie the Auiritsar and Gurdaspur disti'icts. In this tract the Settlement Reports are even more meagre than in the last . but they are also found along the Satluj. The Sohal are said to be of Cliauluin Rajput origin. where it is said that eighteen Sardars at one time resided . and are apparently found banks and oven on the Lower Indus." The Kang are said to claim descent from the Solar Rajputs of Ajudhia through their ancestor Jogra. Ambala and Firozpiir. but 'J'od believes that it is merely a sub-division of the Siiryabansi section. the second Sikhs. migrated to Batala which had some time before been founded by Ram Deo another Bhatti. 438. They appear to lie to the nortli of the Kaug. In character and position there is nothing to distinguish the tribes I am about to notice. The Sardai-s of Alawalpur iu JahiTulhar are Bains. Their founder Randhawa. and eastwards into Ambala and tlic ailjoining Native States. though in smaller nunibei's. 5). — This tribe tliey liave crossed the latter river into iu buiall numbers all along its came from (larh Ghazni. though of course followers of all three religions are to be found in almost every tribe.

-1 lO — •ti.I JAT.'j 2 o •IBUus < •3UCJI ^ Oi CD CO t^ f-H * CO O O 05 CO CD CD t-^ f 1 •c.-. 2.H^qpiicji . ^ eo CS r-l 00 rH Ti CO •3u!!5[ .-o O "? . P.5 rt Cl sis "3 go 3 c3 2 S .uiM]inn!ji in •lllBK 43 £ Q e3 -a -= Q a i-H C-l W O t^ CD GO co'r-T co" C^ !< .-1 ^ IM omm •fu^H 4* a . 0_ uo 125 I00 ^ •ivAuni •«nin i-t 00 CO »o 03 OO 00 CO "sintJU p.i -i .3l AND ALLIED CASTES.-I ivAuni bJO CO Ci I rH M rt rt o CO •Bnm . ^-^ ^1 CO r-H 3iut.'. •\v^Y^<a. RAJPUT.

and the adjoining territory of Patiala.ni-.— The PANJAB CASTES.! 126 The Ithwal (No. Directly we leave the south-eastern districts and pass into the Sikh tract. So essentially is the Jat a husbandman. differing however in little save religion from the great Sikh Jat tribes of the Mahva . and Hissar.h them from the original Jat tribes of the neighbourhood who are collectively called J lele. the two sections abstaining from intermarriage and having in some respects different customs. a good deal below the Rajput. and Bor enjoy . The social standing of the Jat is that which the Gujar. and very few of them appear to have come from the Panjab to the Jamna. and the fall of Bhartpm. inhabiting as they do the wide unirrigated plains of the central States. even among the Jats . while in the Musalman districts they do not work at all in the fields. If the social scale is regulated by the rules of the Hindu religion they come below Banyas.6?^« or widow-marriage. in fact these four castes eat and smoke together. the few among them who are Musalman being known as Mula or " unfortunate. .'^ and dating their conversion almost without exception fi-om an ancestor who was taken as a hostage to Dehli and there forcibly circumcised. who are admittedly better Hindus. But unless two distinct names have been confu-ed. 439. the last are distinguished as Dese and the Musalman Jats as Pachhdde or western but these terms appear to be unknown to the people in The Jat Jat . such as Arain and Mali. The last group of Jat tribes that I have to discuss is fliat which occupies the Jamna districts. even a better cultivator than the and that. they have a curiously large colony in Dehli. from Rajputana and the Panjab. where the Bagri Jat from the Bikaner prairies. that meeting place of races. Rohtak. which appears to be completely separated from that of Ambala. if anything. Their traditions show them to — have come up either from Bikaner and Rajputana. Indeed these men were not unfrequently received back into caste on their return from captivity. though still known as Mula.made such an impression on their minds that old men still refer to it as t he fera from which they date events. that when asked his caste he will quite as often reply zaminddr as Jut. chiefly because liis women assist him so largely in the field. They stand at the head of the castes who practise /f«. to distino. They arc saiil to be descended from a Surajbansi Kajput called Maharaj who received tlie Tiickj'amc of Unthwal from bis love for camel-riding Jalaiidliar. Ahir. and their descendants are in this ease Hindus. though perhaps the latter. The eastern Jats are almost without exception Hindu. Ludhianah. except ploughing for which they have not sufficient strength. and so especially is he the husbandman of these parts. Sikh [P. The Jats of Gurgaon indeed still look upon the Baja of Bhartpur as their natural leader. But the manly Jat despises the money-grubbing Banya. and sowing which is under all circumstances a prerogative strictly confined to the made sex. and all other castes and tribes agree with him. or northwards along the Jamna valley. In the extreme south-eastern corner of the Panjab the Jats who have come in from the north and west. and the Musalman Jat from the Satluj valley. Jind. women cease to perform the harder kinds of field-work. 234] . 7). They call themselves Jat not Jat. the Sikh Jat from the ^Idlwa. The Jats of the south-eastern districts. are of slightly finer physique than their neighbours of the damper riverain. are known as Dhe. Jtlnval or Uthwal seem to be found chiefly in Ambala. the two names being in that sense used as synonymous. l)ut far above the castes who grow vegetables. performing all sorts of agricultural labour whether light or heavy. meet the Jat of Hissar. of these parts is. and arc the same people in every respect as the Jat of the Jaiana-Ganges dodb and the lower Jamna vallev. In Sirsa again.

or a jewel ()ja^) in their women's noses. but commonly using the name of the clan and not of the tril)e. being numerous in the north of Delili and the south of Karnal. and I have often been assured by Jats. Their head-quarters are at Ahulana in the Gohana tnhsfl of Rohtak. tliei'r AND ALLIED CASTES. Ahulana is said to have been founded 22 generations ago. ? 7 on the opposite page. and occasionally the Mandahar " faction.Tat tribe of that name. Even Sir H. They claim descent from Saroha Rajputs. joining the Haulanias. nor to wear any red clothes. the distinction between Jat and Rajput is definite and well-marked. though I do not think that here a family could raise itself from the former to the latter caste by discontinuing the custom.passage from my Settlement Report of tlie after a .Tats over stunted Bjtgri and the indolent enervated Jat of the Satluj is most strikingly apparent. " owing to their successful opposition to the Rajputs.g" Mr. I quote the following. and who were. in the south-eastern districts.castes who have for the most part taken the one side or the other. The " Jats and Rajputs seem. Elliott seems to have been unaware of the existence of these factions. '•and the Latmar Jats of Rohtak joining the Dchias. RAJPUT.ascendancy the Rajputs would not allow Jdts to cover their heads "with a turban. and Karnal. into two factions Imown as Dehia and Haulania. and '• which objected in consequence. 1 \ —This is the only one of the ti-ibes now under consideration who trace theii" origin from Ghar Ghazni . Maconachie quotes a Dehli tradition which makes two brothers from and ''om the respective ancestors of the Haulania Rajputjina called Rajputs of the tiodb and the Haulania Jats of Rohtak. and in many cases t have little or no information to give concerning them. And in framing my zails I had to alter my " proposed division so as to separate a Dehia village which I had included with Haulanias.— JAT. disturbances " took place in the Rohtak district between these two factions. The Ghatwal (No. The Ghatwal are often called Malak.** the tribes being roughly arranged from north to south down the Jamna valley. having originally come from Hawana near Dehli. Thus the country side was " divided into two factions . Here again. The Dehia Jats. and the ^fandahars of the Nardak " ravaged the Haulanias in the south of the tract. as would appear to be possible elsewhere. though I do not believe it." Karnjil and Panipat " The Deliias are called : *P. retaining the tradition of common tribal descent. growing powerful. The figures for the tribes we are to consider are given in Abstract No. The Dehia is also called the Jat. I suspect that our figures for Rohtak are considerably under the truth. In the mutiny. and " thus the old enmity was strengthened. the Giijars and Tagas of the tract. became jealous of the " supremacy of the Ghatwals and joined the Mandahars against them.ict except the Jaglans. and they are shown in this abstract. and even they place that city in the Decean and not in Afghanistan. " Some one of the Emperors called them in to assist him in coercing the Mandah. There seems a great tendency in these parts to split up into small clans. the accepted heads of the Jats in these parts. the Jaglaii Jilts of thap'a Naultha. The Jat tribes of the South-Eastern Districts. the Jat always practising and the Rajput always abstaining from karewa . The tril^es in this group are neither so large nor so important as those of the Sikh tracts. nor to put a crown (jwor) on the head of their " bridegroom. and they occupy the country between it and the Jamna. and the Hiida Jats of Rohtak. not because they are retm-ned as Jats especially in this part of the Panjab. " as natural enemies .ar Rajputs. Mom 440. that they " would not dare to go into a Rajput village at night. and most of " the Jats of the tr. There is an extraordinary division of the Jats of Dehli. to consider each other.Tats. They also used to levy seiguorial rights : — . and indeed of the other land-owning. 128^'^'^' . whose head-quarters are Dher-ka-Aliulana in Gohana. a title they are said to have obtained as follows " In the old days of Rajput . 127 respective lionies. The last five tribes will be considered under Rajputs . The Haulania faction is headed by " the Ghatw.al or Malak . with its head-quarters about Bhatganw " in Sunpat. independently of these divisions. but because the Rajput tribes to which they belong will be discussed under the head of Rajputs of the Eastern Plains. There the superiority of the Sikli and Dese . and gives its name to the Haulania faction already mentioned. Rohtak. and then westwards along the southern border of the Province. tribally speaking.

11.409 24.926 15...561 12..216 1 13.958 123 12.334 1.56 11..485 37 3.746 Guvpaon Kanial 4.392 2.850 1.608 Native States ]'rovinco 1.098 1.561 i 12..763 49 3 749 718 Hissar 2. 452 6.815 2.434 109 261 8.800 7. Abstract No.883 140 94 14 Anibala Lnilliiaiia 48 20 03 60 359 2. 11.826 . 138 133 British Territory .814 15.50 2.867 24. 29 238 Sialkot Ranali)iiuli . showing the Jat Tribes [p. .1.869 1 Rnhtak Sii-M 2.678 12.951 1. 77.814 15.470 1.558 122 5..409 24.531 163 6.958 127 lUS Bahawalliiir 797 T.232 441 9. 315 287 230 I 1..848 12.065 13 1 10.204 80 •liiiil 101 00 635 8 93 Total Eafiteni I'lniiif.070 249 22 2.112 287 240 ! 1.698 20...20: 14.219 1 61 617 4. 235] .573 Patiala 77 102 ' 108 1.TATS OF THE 6 6 8 9 10 i-s I M Delili 4.678 12...930 Jalniidlmv 5.jtaniill StatoP 1 BritiRh Territory.128 PANJAB CASTES.74U I ..410 11 1.116 j 4.709 fiarJasinir .918 I 11.

AND ALLIED CASTES. of the South-Eastern Districts. 129 SOUTH -KASTERN DISTRICTS 11 . JAT.. RAJPUT.

These tribes are said to be descended from a TheJakhar Chauhan Eii. there is a distinct Rathi tribe of Jats who claim to be by origin Tunwar Rajputs. for while they were Brahmans the the former alone of all Jat tribes latter were their clients. and over those of the Bngar " near Kalanaiir and Dadri. This is the tribe which has given its name to the Dehia faction menTlicy are found on the north-eastern border of the Sampla and the adjoining tioned in section 439. in 8). Rohtak. to denote found in Dehli and Gurgaon as well as in Rohtak. Even to this day Rii^puts will not allow inferioi. but not with the Dagar or Salanki.as they are of but little importance. said to The Rathi (No. The Local Brahmans apparently admit the truth of thi. in" several parts of India. and But compare the account of the origin of the Man given in these four tribes do not intermarry. and Kadian Jats. From him sprang the AhLlwat. and to this day a Jat with a " ample " red most probahly a Ghatwal. The Sahrawat claim to be descended from Sahra." Piru. Malak rather than Ghatwal. This is probably the Manik Rai Chauhan Another account mnkes then. They declare that they [p. whose original home was about Prithi Raja. They are only found in Rohtak and Karnal. Man. The Ahlawat (No.4 story. Hissar and Ji'nd.iputs.si-l)rethren. — — The Sahrawat (No.ancestor Dhadhij. They thus acquired the title " oi Malah (master) and a redturhan as their distinguishing mark . Tlie scattered entries probably reier to a few Gwalas or Ahirs who have been returned as Jats. Mare. Gurgaon. and the of Raia Anangpal Tunwar. 9). The Ghatwals ohtained some siiceesses over the Eii. figure. 6). for the last two of which I do not show separate The Sangwan are most numerous in Jind and Hissar. portionof the Sunpat /a X«?Z of Rohtak and Dehli. andSangwan (Nos.Thajjar taJisU of Rohtak. and removed tlie ohnoxious prohihitions. 3 and 14). The Dehia (No. and the three tribes do not intermarry. " especially over the !Mandahars of the dodh near Deohan and Jlanglaur. It is Sirsa as synonymous with Pachhada. and whose four sons founded the Jakhar. The Dehia is one of the 36 royal tribes of Rajputs. In Rohtak. I cannot explain.— The Golia or Gawalia are a very curious tribe. They claim to be descended from a Chauhan — — R :'nput named Manik Rai by a Dhankar Jat woman. and Jun Jats who do not intei-marry. and are among the oldest inhabitants of the ti'act. who holder held gMts or passes in the hills by which the hill tribes were wont to make predatory incursions into pagi'i is . inter-marriago in Karndlalso. They now intermarry with Jat^. I may notice that there are tosrcther. and perhaps Pal vet in Rohtak they appear generally to he called figures. Deswal.some 30 generations ago. In Rohtak their settlement dates from some 25 generations back. Its members worship a common ancestor called Sadu Deb.Patiala territory. The Golia (No. The same four tribes have a tradition of common descent and a prohibition against section 435. mean " strong-handed " or zahardast. 10). They claim to be descended from a Rathor Rajpiit By her he wlio settled in Rohtak and married a Bargiijar Jat woman some 30 generations back. — — . 5).castes to wear red clothes or virgin hrifles." Fanshawe says that the title is a mere nickname conferred by a Malik or chief called Rai Mr. The tribe is found in Rohtak. colonv in Rohtak. and especially in Monghyr and its neighbourhood. it is The Khatrl (No. who came from Rikaner. in Dehli. and Sewiig (? Sewal) Jats have sprung.iput only 20 generations back. adioinino. 7\— The word Rath is used in Musalman Jats or Rajpiits from the Satluj. They came from Indor to Rohtak some 30 generations ago. — I Rohtak and Patiala. tribes of low-class assignments of revenue on condition of defending the R'\ipiits called Ghatwiib. the plains below. The D agar are numerous in Dehli and Giirgacn and there is a small I have no information concerning them. The Dagar (No. Dehli Olian. Biima. son of Haria Harpal. the confluence of the Satluj with the Indus. and to be found also The Dalai (No. They are descended from a brother of Tliey are the* ancestor of the Rohal and Dhankar Jats. 236] were originally Brahmans who lost caste by inadvertently drinking liquor placed outside a di?tiUer'8 house in large vessels ignl). and Karnal. however. loin clothes in their villages. Sangwan. and so have been adopted as $H4. though I ordered the two names to be taken is the cause of the smallness of the Rohtak this Who the Ghatwal of Bahawalpixr are. 2). The Ahlawat are said to be descended from a Chauhan Riljput who came from Sambhar in Jai]nu. son of •who founded Hansi. a son or grandson They are almost confined to Dehli.' They are probably the Dahise of Alexander. Tliis tribe appears to be very numerous have no information regarding them.ISO " froiTi PANJAB CASTES. in Rohtak also . This is another of the great Rohtak tribes. 4). and apparently in Ludhiana. while the Jakhar are almost confined to till u£rh there is a small colony of them Gurgaon and the adjoining . though perhaps doubtful whether these last are the same tribe. had four sons from whom the Dalai. and is found also in the adjoining territory of Dehli. while when they first lost caste would give them their daughters to wife.

131 I have said that the Dhankar are of the same stock as the Rathi. insist that "the fruits of " commerce (for marriage is now out of the question) between their females and males of the "sacred order shall be ranked as Kshatriya. "they were permitted to give their children so begotten the patronymic title only.Thajjar iu Rohtak. Purser says of them :—" In selves as Bhatti Rajpiits. and has spread into the neighbouring portions of Gurgaou and Rohtak.— The Bahnfwal are found chiefly in the Hissar division and Patiala. How the aborigines of the Nepal Himalayas rose to be Kshatriya is well told by Hodgson in his Essay on the Military Tribes of Nepal. where they have probably returned themMr. and how the Rajputs merely I might indeed have gone further. and yet they bore the proud title cognominal of the «' martial order of the Hindus. TheDhankar(No. but the reason is not explained. would be classed as Rajput. but have spread into Hissar and Dehli.JAT. aind extensively " ramified tribe of Khas originally the name of a small clan of creedless barbarians. 12). But women they gave not only Kshatriya rank and privileges. The Pawania (No." And even now in spite of the yearly increasing sway of Hinduism.— The Sangwana. and the detaclied portion of Patiala and. 17). The only fact I liave concerning them is that they will not intermarry with the Deswal . RAJPUT. 15). I do not propose 71. Thus too the key to the anomalous " nomenclature of so many stirpes of these military tribes is to be sought in the nomenclature of the " sacred order. and are perhaps nothing more tlian a local clan of — The PhOgat (No.^ He is discussion of the Rajput. but in love of robliery they yield to none of the tribes. wear the thread." So again. more has been published about The great authority is Tod's Rdjdsthdn. my and have said that a tribe of any caste whatever which had in ancient times possessed supreme power throughout any fairly extensive tract of country. views as to the identity of the I have already expressed in sections 422-3 Jat and Rajput stock as it stands at present. was then divided. the Khas stiU. I have no information regarding them. which they claim to be by descent. became pure Khas. not " the rank of Kshatriya. but Brahminical patronymics." . The Pawania are a Hissar tribe who are also found in Rohtak. But their childi-en again. and they called their first converts among them Kshatriya. consist of the royal families of that stock.— The distribution No. They are also found on the Lower Satluj in Montgomery. curiously enough. AND ALLIED CASTES. Sirsa. He points out that when the Brahmans were driven up'into the hills by the advancing tide found conquest. " From these two roots mainly sprang the now numerous. The Bahniwal (No. re descended from the ancestor of the Jakhar already but they are also found in Rohtak and Hissar. page 219. and (CASTE No. The Rajputs shown of the Panjab. It seems to me almost certain that some of the so-called Rajput royal families were aboriginal . of the Rajputs allied races is in Abstract to enter into any detailed description or much the same all over Northern India.— The Nain are chiefly found in the detached portions of Patiala. or real Kshatriyas in point of privilege and rank though no longer so in "name. and him than about any other Indian caste. they wedded with the aboriginal women whom they to render this possible it was necessary to conciliate the people among whom they had come to dwell . and of the efforts of Brahmans in high oflice to abolish the custom. mentioned. in Ambala. I have no information Jind. They were Khas. but now the — " proud title of the Kshatriya or military order of Nepal. The Sangwan (No. not Kshatriya. are almost confined to . They the Katlii tribe. 14). Their head-quarters arc in Jind ." In the 15th century tlic Bahniwklheld one of the six cantons into which Bikaner trouble in 1857.— This tribe possesse! some importance in Jmd. if they married for two generations with the •' Khas. while to their own offspring by the hill of Mahomedan there. and assume the patronymic title. when the Rajput immigi-ants from the plains took aboriginal women in concubinage (and concubinage among the hill people is for all purposes of legitimacy and inheritance the same as marriage). 13). The Nain (No. to give regarding them. 16). 2). — THE RAJPtlT 441. and were in the land of their nativity entitled to every prerogative " which Kshatriya birth confers in Hindustan. while both Elliott and Sherring give much useful information. and notably the Chandel. They gave much " numbers they are weak . predominant.

With the Rajputs I take the Thakar and Rathi who are lower grades of Rajputs rather than separate castes.9[ ^. and Jamna valley. p^ 98. and the Biloch I have already explained in section 4-22. and the few there are are unimpoitant. if the Turanian is not as in Nepal admitted to Kshatriya rank. looking upon all manual labour as derogatory and upon the actual operation of ploughing as degrading . A reference to my description of tlie Kanets of our hills will show that something of the same sort has gone on in the Panjiib Himalayas. coinprising both dominant tribes of proud position such as the Janjua and mongrel Rajputs from the Jaramu hills. The small number in the Hill States is curious. which now hold the hills on either bank of the Jahlam. and belonging for the most — and Bikaner. it is at any rate impossible to draw any line among the Aryan races. for pride of blood is the very essence of their Rajputhood. Pride of blood is their strongest characteristic. and still more of the Thahars and Rat his. They are.* shows the distribution of part to the Bhatti of Jaisalraer is Punwar. The Rajput tribes of the Panjab. so ancient that their very origin and advent to their present abodes are lost in the past . all above which shall be Rajputs and all below it non-Rajputs. It will be noticed that I do not mention the Rajputs of the Sikh tract. Finally we have the Rajputs of the Kangra hills of whom the Katoch may be taken as the type. in most parts of the Panjfib plains. though necessarily in a much lower degree. 71. Next come the Rajputs of the river valleys of the Western Plains. many of them hardly or not at all to be distinguished fi-om Jats. will show how. since here the Aryan and not the ahorigine was predominant . and of the Phulkian States of the Eastern Plains. and it is only the poorest class of Rajput who will himself follow the plough. and the Rawat whose position is still more difficult of definition. Abstract No. and retain the feudal perhaps any other non-menial caste. The third group Rajputs and allied castes. 442. and descendants either of the Yadubansi (Bhatti) dynasty of Kashmir and the mythical Raja Rasalu of Sialkot so famous in Panjab folklore. but they exercise their calling in a gentlemanly way.m PANJAB CASTES. seldom admitting strangers to share it with them. for here again they are insignificant both in numbers and importance. The Rajputs of the Panjab may be broadly divided into four groups. each of which I shall discuss separately First come the Rajputs of the Dehli Territory in the following paragraphs. which Avill be found in this section under their respective headings. As the Kaugra proverb runs " In the seventh generation the Ghirathni becomes a " queen/' — men. They are lazy and poor husbandmen and much prefer pastoral to agricultural pursuits. The reason why the Rajput disappears before the Sikh. apparently of Punwar origin. on page 219. cattle-stealers by ancestral profession . the Pathan. and there is certainly honour among Rajput are fine brave instinct tlian The Rajputs of the Panjab more strongly developed C^' 237. of the central districts. Nor have I mentioned the Rajputs of the frontier districts. and the description of the Hill Rajputs. for the most part belonging to the two great tribes of Chauhan and Tunwar which gave Dehli its most famous dynasties. and the Rajputs of the lower hills which fringe the Panjab Himalayas. As a fact they are few. They are very tenacious of the integrity of their communal property in the village lands. thieves. the tiibal heads wielding extraordinary authority. and their predecessors the the Rajputs of the western hills including the Salt-range Tract. . or of a group of tribes.

AND ALLIED CASTES. respectively. They are more than usually inaccurate. and so forth by tribe. ^rather than that the people in question actually claim that they are Bliatti or Chauhan at the present moment. and Bhatti. first under tlioir tribe or Jcul. and again under their clan or got. as well as state the local clan to which he beyond all doubt belongs . — Abstract No. 78 below gives the numbers entered for various tribes under their Jat tribe as well. while multitudes of persons appear twice over in the Abstracts. if indeed these last ean be separated at In the Dehli division and Rohtak the Jat has all from Ralhis and Rawats.JAT. refer to people who have retm-ned themselves In the gi'cat majority of cases this as Jat by caste. and shows how extensively this sort of entry has been made. and thus we have members of the same clan and descendants of the same ancestor i-etm-ning themselves as belonging to different tribes. In many cases they have returned Abstract No. groups to which they belmig. 133 There only the ruling families are Rajput. the mass of the peasantry eonsisting of Kanets or Ghiraths. CLANS. It must be remembered that such of the figures as arc shown for Rajput tribes in the Abstracts of the following pages under the head Jat. but such Rajputs as there are are Rajputs in very deed. Cliauhan. but still more because the Rajputs are divided into a few gi'eat tribes or royal races as they are commonly called. The figures for tribes will bo given under the respective Tribal statistics for Rajputs. largely taken the plaee of the Rajput . 443. JOINT LIST OF JAT AND RAJPUT CLANS. Almost every Rajput will refer himself rightly or wrongly to some one of the great kills. RAJPUT. Jat and Rajput. In the Multiln division the number of Rajputs returned is very large . if indeed any distinction can be drawn between the two. partly because a Rajput is BO ditlicult of definition. Bagri Bhakial Bahuiwal Bhatti Bliutta Chhadhar Chauhan Dhanial Dhudhi Gondal J an j mi Joy a Kharral KIn'chi Khokliar Langah Mahal Mandaiiai Manilas Manj Mckan . and each of these tribes again into innumerable local clans or sachi or gots. latter entry represents mere traditional origin. showing Tribes entered both as Jat and as Rajput. but I have already shown how large a proportion of them should more jiroperly be classed as Jats. 78. British Tebbitoby. the Jculs of the Rajput annals.

78.134. Abstract No. showing Tribes entered both as Jat and as Rajputcouehided. PAN. ~ JOINT LIST OF JAT AND RAJPUT CLANS. . Clans.TAB CASTES.

and his dynasty ruled there for three and a half centuries. Firozpur. and thercfoi-e to be Solar Rajputs .ir. who arc probably Chauhans. Before the seat of their power was moved to Dehli. The Chauhan of the Dehli district have taken to wi>low-marriage. turbulent. The Jat Chauhans. Half the number are in Gurgaon.939 men are shown as Bhatti Tunwar. aiid to them belonged royal families. is still occupied very largely by Rajputs in the west by the Tunwar. and some 900 of other tribes have shown In Shahpur 6. Ajmer the last Hindu ruler of Hindustan. But Chaululn being perhaps the most famous name in the Rajput In Karnal 1.700 persons are returned as Gondal Chaulian. l). In Dehli itself. Hissar. many Rajexceedingly numerous in Amhala. they are less numerous than might have been expected.— The Mandaluir Ambala and the neighbouriug portion of Patiala. Sankarwal. the city of D<>hli on the western India. and have perhaps sometimes returned themselves as Chauhan only. where there is a considerable settlement of Tiinwar Rajputs. AND ALLIED CASTES. abdicating in favour of his Chauhan grandchild Pirthi Raj. iu whose time the Musalmans conquered NorthAn early Anangpal Tiiuwar founded in 792 A. on the Ambala border and once the seat of the Pundir. When ejected from Dehli they are said to have settled at Piiuchn in Karnal. most part Jat tribes of alleged Chauhan origin. separating the Chauhan and other Rajputs who hold the Jamna districts to the cast of them from the great Jat tribes of the Malwa which lie to their There is. Init generally with something more of the gentleman about him than we find in the more rustic Jat. have returned themselves as Chauhan also. too. But they have in more recent times spread down below the Chauhan into They were settled the Jamna riverain of the Karnal district. piits of various tribes which have no real connection with the Tunwar have returned it. with Gharaunda as a local centre. The Rajput tribes altliongli a su))-ilivisioii ol' The Chauhan (No. retained their pre-eminent position. with minor centres They lie more or less between the Tiinwar and at Safidon in Jind and Asaiidh in Karnal. but for the most part by the Chauhan whose central village is Jundla in Karnal. in generally i'cckone<l as one of tlio 36 royal tribes of Rajputs. ruins of the ancient Indrapat. and are connected with the Chauluiu family of Nimrana. Pundir. and Dehli with its last Indian rulers. The Chauhan is one of the Agnikula tribes and also one of the 36 Tod calls them the most valiant of the whole Rajput race. But they are The name being a famous one. The Chauhan appear from our figm-es to be numerous throughout the remaining districts of the Dehli and Hissar divisions and in Giijranwala. and who occupy all the country lying immediately to the east of the Tiiuwar tract in Ambala and Karnal and the adjoining parts of Patiala.iilul)aiiHi. They now occupy Hariana or the greater part of the Hissar district. and Sirsa.000 persons of other Jat tribes. and there still dwell the genealogists and bards of the Chauhan of the Nardak of Karnal and Ambala. origin. indeed. Thus among the Jats. Rawalpindi. . and thence to have spread both north and south. and Sambhar in Jaipur seem to have been their home. though here the confusion is more excusable. 79 on the opposite page* gives the distribution of these tribes. the . 445. and this themselves as Chauhan also. and drove the Pundir across the Jamna. The Jatu of Hariana are a Tunwar clan. and Jind. Chauhan of the tract. 2).I.^ Shah. 3). clans numerous in the Panjab.200 men iu Karnal are returned as Chauhan Tvinwar. Kandahar. their fellow Rajpiits. however. Thus So in 1. a Chauhan colony to the north-west of them on the Lower Qhaggar in the west. It fiirnislicd India with tlio dynasty of Vikraiiiaditya. and Panihjir Rajputs are said to be desfiended from Lavva. The Tunwar (No. a small State now subject to Alwar. Nabha. JAT.Jind. 1.000. The Tunwar are the westernmost of the great Rajput tribes of the Eastern Panjab. in Gujranwala 2.200 Chima and nearly 1. They then fixed their capital at Kalayit iu Patiala. the beacon of later Hindu chronology. and so in many minor The Khichi and Varaich are also Chauhan instances. being justiiied by origin though not by modern usage. in Firozpur 600 Joya and 200 Sidhu. Bargiijar. — are almost confined to the Nardak of Karnal. and in Jahlam 2. are probably for the accounts for the so-called Chauhans of this district. said to They are have come from Ajudhia to occupied the tract into the Siwaliks and across the Ghaggar respectively. and are no longer recognised by The Chauhan of Gurgaon have. 850 Punw. Rawalpindi 1. and in Giljriit 650 Gondal. This tract.D.~Tho Tunwar. After their ejectment from Dehli they are said to have crossed the Jamna to Sambhal in Muradiibad. and stretch across Karnal and the south of Patiiila into the west of the Ambala district.. probably in the time of Bahlol Lodi. however. 135 # p 136-37. and were chastised at Samana in Patiala by Firo.300 Mandahar.520 annals. The Mandahar.200 Tunwar. in these parts before the advent of the Chauhan. the ancient Kurukshetr or battle-field of the Kauravas and Paudavas. many people who have no title to it have shown themselves as Chauhan. RAJPUT. a sou of Riim Chandi'a. themselves descendants of the Pandavas. and in Karnal aj driving the Chandel and Bra Rajputs who . the last Tunwar llaja. It is therefore natural tliat the Tunwar should bo found chiefly in the eastern districts of the Province. and Shahpur. Al)stract No. The Mandahar (No. of the Eastern Plains. All these figures are shown twice over. All this country was held by the Pundir Rajpivts till the Chauhan came over from Sambhal under Rana Har Rai some 20 generations ago. Hissar district and Patiala. The figures are of course shown twice over The figures for Tunwar Jats probably represent nothing more than traditional in each case. 6. Anangpal.

79.136 PANJAB^CAStES. 239] . Abstract No. showing the Rajput [P.

no5 175 613 1.138 8.121 91 5 141 979 1.428 32 1.266 2.946 908 2.515 2.665 5.916 12.713 2.442 4.020 102 24 613 317 350 57 4.141 3.345 I 1.r.957 11.580 10.983 2. 187 KASTKRN PLAINS.983 283 6.957 11.141 908 1. 25 " 3 106 281 108 2.289 73 5.494 113 7.712 6 ino 40 ir.661 . 10 14 176 1. RAJPUT.745 18.296 24 20 199 551 2 32 6 "707 1.250 12. AND ALLIED CASTES.JAT.519 5.261 l.144 131 956 2 7 8 572 31 M-.138 8.247 223 "236 106 68 '"so 1-0 3.049 3.074 2.946 2.647 520 493 271 824 295 262 1:15 1.519 2.251 5.354 45 "246 118 162 29 57 386 25 68 5.903 12. Tribes of the Eastern Plains.916 16 204 49 3 2.515 198 2. 261 "345 13 1.818 4.770 5.

but the two being looked upon as separate tribes. and are called by Tod "the " most illustrious of all the tribes of Ind. In fact the Tduwar of Hariana are said to have beeu divided into three clans named after and descended from three brothers. They are most numerous in the latter district. In Dehli 1. and once ruled from Bhiwaui to Agroha. and are included also under Gaurwa. but tliey are the lowest clan who are recognised as of Rajput stock. indeed they appear to occupy much the same position in the submontane as the Rathis or even the Kanets do the higher ranges. and Pundir commanded the Lahore frontier under Pix-thi Raj. Their licad-quarters are now at Anupshahr on the Ganges.138 least PANJAB CASTES. mostly in Dehli and Gurgaon. They There can. The Pundir (No." The BargUjar No. 7).580 persons have returned themselves as . as a Rajput tribe.790 Rajputs retui'ned as Gaur. but are found also in some numbers under the heading of .sar. A few Mandabdr arc found cast of the Jamna in Saharanpur. 5). Gaur. Hahri. who claim to be Chauhan Rajputs who The Bagri (No. and Rajputs where they enjoyed political power. and it is certain that they are not very old holders of their present capital of Solina. with local capitals at Piindi'i. and they held much of Alwar and the neighbouring parts of Jaipur till dispossessed by the Kachwaha. Jatu." while the Dehli Chauhan are said to be "the best Rajput cultivators in " the district. that they came from Jalandhar about the middle of the loth century . and the only one except the Gahlot which claims descent from Lawa son of Riim Chandra. The Rawat is probably akin despised outcasts. 4). 6) and sure that these figures do not include some Gaur as well as Gaurwa Rajputs The Gaur are that (see the last sentence supra) for the name was often spelt Gaura in the papers. and as a L" •240J The I have shown the three sets of figures side by side in Abstract No. tlie Gurgaon Bargiijar say a colony of them in Gurgaoa on the Alwar border. whom again it is most difficult to separate from the Rathis . and are still known as Jatu Punwar ka daula or the Jatu-Punwar boundary. and " clannish in disposition. In oui' tables we have 1. and otherwise decent and orderly. The word Bagri is applied to any Hindu Rajput or Jat from the Bagar 10). Only 4. be little doubt that the Chandel practise widow-marriage as a matter of course. and those chiefly in Dehli and the south of Patiala. or prairies of l. and probaldy have no connection witli tlie Bagri of llissiir and its neiglihourhood. and are fully described by Elliott and Sherring. tribes of the Eastern Plains continued. The Jatu (No. They are 446. of which clans Jatu was by far the largest and most important. It would is very difficult to separate these people from the Rathis of the Kangra hills . The Gaurwa (No. for Gurgaon are certainly very far below the truth. and at length the sandhills of Mahm were fixed upon as tlie boundary between them. 8). Of the Karual Jatu 500 liave returucd themselves as Chauhdn also. however. as the buildings of the Kambohs who Our figures held it before them are still to be seen there and are of comparatively recent date. both they and the Chauhan practising widow-marriage. but they uere dispossessed by the Chauhan under Rana Har Rai. 9). the ruins of which are still to be seen in the iourse of Solar race. — . but stm'dy in build. — I am not at The Rajput all described by Mr. and they are not shown Gaurwa would seem to be applied generally to any Rajputs who have lost rank in the Abstract. — they do not intermarr}'. and for tlie most part fled beyond the Jamua. Rawat is found in the sub-montane districts. and downi tlie whole length of the Jamna valley. and Pundrak . and probably the same as the Chandal of the hills of whom we hear so much . 79. They are found in the central Jamna-Gangcs dodh. The Gurdaspur Bagi'i are Salahria wlio liave sliown themselves also as Bagar or Bhagar by clan. They are the hereditary enemies of the Punwar of Rohtak. and it is not impossible that these men became Chanals where they were conquered and (jther Rajpi'its. The Rawat (No. bnt the tribe appears to be very local. are of aboriginal stock.i'kaner. separate caste." Chauhan of Dehli.Tadu. The original seat of the Panjah Pundir was Thiinesar and the Kurukshetr of Karnal and Amhala. The Pandi'r would appear to belong to the Dahima royal race of which " Seven centuries have swept away all recollection of a tribe who once afforded one Tod says They were the most powerful vassals of the of the proudest tliemes for the song of the barl. to the Rao sub-division of the Kanets. In Dehli however they form a distinct clan. and the Chandel Rajput« also have a Rao section. the next heading. I think. Or it may be that tlic word is a misreading for Nagri.075 persons have shown themselves as Rawat Gaure. Raghu aud Satraula. The Jadu (No. Maconachie as '• especially noisy and quarrelsome. Ramha. but there is still Curiously enough. one of the 36 royal families to which belonged the Rajput Kings of Bengal. They are. The connection between They are of the Mandahar and Bargdjar has already been noticed under the head Mandahar. south of Alwar. and arc still most numerous in tliat district and the neighbouring portions of Rolitak and Jiud. still found in the Indi'i pargannah of Karnal and the adjoining portion of Ambala. Tlie Jatu are said to be a Tiinwar clan who once lield almost the whole of His." But the name has been almost overshadowed by Bhatti.Jat in Siiilkot and Patiala. The Rawat has been retui-ucd as a Jat tribe. and are included ( — under botli lieads. and barely if at all admitted to communion with tlic : — — m while under no circumstances would even a Katlii marry a Rawat woman. Their old capital was Rajor. by the practice of kareioa. They are admittedly a clan of Chandel Riijputs . which lie to the south and west of Sirsa and llissar.— The Jadu or Jadubansi are of Lunar race.—The Bargiijar are one of the 36 royal families. the title of their dominant branch in modern times.

but the rale of the Sikh. but were di-iven higher up by the Uogars. to Hindu Rajputs. to agriculture. am told. descended from R5ja Karan of the Mahahharat. applied in the eastern and eastern districts to an>j Musalman Rajput. The next group of Kajput those of the great Western Plains. which he would resent as only slightly less abusive than chotikat. though it is unusual in the Sikh States for Jats to claim the title of Rajput. of (he tribes that I shall discuss The Rajputs Western Plains. 11). still in a half-hearted sort of way. and leaving agriculture to the Artiin. and are probably greater " thieves than either. they have been wont to content themselves with holding the country as dominant tribes. and in their turn expelled the Giijars. if it afforded ample opportunity for fighting. They once held the river valley as far down as that town. 80 on the next page"'^ shows the distribution of these tribes.JAT. First come the royal races 447. that in Firozpur and Gurdaspur his Hindu brethren would also call him Rangar. ! The Naipal (No. The old tradition is not forgotten .—Raugai. on conversion to Islam.Tats. Those of Sialkot. cut off the choti or Hindu scalplock. and are therefore not returned under the head Naipal. fighting a good deal and plundering more.— The Naipdl are a clan of the great Bhatti tribe. The Rangar or Musalman Rajputs bear the worst possible reputation for is applied to any uncouth fellow. I think . however. Traditionally averse from manual labom* and looking upon the touch of the plough handle as especially degrading. TheRangar. 14). This is. near blood relations " being permitted to enter into the marriage compact. which " was not often the case. i*i/^AQ 140-43 They are roughly arranged according to locality. pastm-ing their great herds in the broad grazing grounds of the west. and such small folk. The Atiras (No. 13). RAJPUT. Abstract No.—The Rathor are one of the 36 royal races. a term of contempt applied to those who have. 12). I have already said much regarding the position of the Rajput in this part of [P. soincwliat contemptuous. but considered to be .ia a term. They appear almost independent under the Ahluwalia rulers and to have " paid a small rent in kind only when the Kardar was strong enough to compel them to it. lull to be a Rajput tribe. Brandi-eth says of them :— " They resemble very much in their habits the Dogars and Giijars. I have no further information regarding the tribe. There are Barhaiya Rajputs in the Azimgarh and Ghazi'pur neighbourhood. who are found on the Satluj nbo\-e l-'irozpm-. and I only notice it here hecause the Rangar are though wrongly. say they arc of Lunar Rajput descent.^ The Baria (No. and the difficulty of drawing any line between him and the Jat of the neighbourhood. The tribe is practically confined to Patiala and Nabha. but are nowhere numerous. Wilson notes that he has heard Rangar applied The word is often spelt and pronounced Ranghar. but their more modern dynasties are to be found in Marwar and Bikancr. the Mahtam. They are retiu-ned from many districts in the Paujab. and it is possible that many of them have shown Bhatti only as their tribe. where they are found in small numbers." All the Naipal have returned themselves as Bhatti as well. The Rathor (No. Their ancestor Mai ( ) came from Jal Kahra in Patiala about 500 years ago. not Rajputs. I southoften. Mr. looks as if they were not Rajputs at all. Mr. They have lost more of their Hindu origin than either the Dogars or " Gujars. Their old seat was Kanauj.— The Baria of Jalandhar arc said to be Solar Rajputs. 241] t^c Panjab. I cannot find it mentioned in any of the authorities. AND ALLIED CASTES. and the name of the ancestor Mai. destroyed much of their influence. the Kamboh.—This tribe is returned from Patiala only. and Solar Rajputs. if common to the tribe. and in their marriage connections they follow the Muhammadau law. Here the great Rajput tribes have spread up the river valleys as conquerors. and the order and equal justice which have accompanied British rule have compelled all but the most wealthy to turn then" attention. 139 igar. — are ^ unusual.

323 619 569 241 8 Bahftwalpur Total Hill States 21.022 7 Shahpur 1.657 3. Firozpur 94 3. Abstract No. 140 MNJAB ~ CASTES.722 86 6 1.065 864 ! ! 587 1 95 1 8 676 10.836 4.878 396 9.959 282 204.004 . 829 267 2. .571 79 862 43 362 329 122 114 10 87 5.188 2.995 4'JU Mi)utgomci'y MuzafL'argarli 3.767 12.301 11.. 814 524 145 71 2.767 55 24 Anihala Ludhiaua ..677 Lahore Gujviuiwala . Watit.2^2 2..083 284 72G 1.242] ~ RAJPUTS OF THE PUNWAU.563 aO.043 649 1.665 1.831 107 British Territory Native States Province• • 94.375 15.038 a.00^ 16.057 134 100 24G 11.600 2. showing the Rajput [p..854 9.704 21.528 6. 80.632 485 19 1.282 Faridkot .056 6.988 13...963 Nablia Kapurtliala .971 1. JIn<liyarpiir 237 367 43 Kaiigra Amritsar Giivdaspur Sialkot ..587 311 538 716 10.317 1.509 590 2.484 2.372 205 5 3. M Dehli Pi 566 . 292 7.035 British Territory Patiftla 94.lalniidhar .682 2. 380 2..430 ii. .236 1.935 118 '166 100 " 107 3.926 739 312 704 Rawalpindi Jlielam 7.749 12..775 214 14 126 401 "^786 Rohtak Sirsa .795 4..241 9.287 7.919 I I 405 16.476 14.. BlIATTI.959 76 23 780 204.846 17.l 867 3 141 1.liii.392 12.858 887 17.435 *" 46 155 241 Total Eastern Plains 887 16.179 2.207 .610 9..008 13.. 71 653 2. Gurgaon Kainal Ilissar 1.442 582 53.569 38.561 363 107 454 110 167 13 283 Derail Ismail Derail Gliazi liaumi Khan Khan 193 262 4 53.190 27 43 Multan ..598 117 10.874 3.287 426 137 1..151 7.027 3.569 3.193 95.174 Gujrat 646 125 ..304 10.665 17..151 I 1.484 3.B53 61.Iliaiig 4.477 12.262 242.890 17.963 244 3.789 5.

Tribes of the Western Plains. AND ALLIED CASTES. RAJPUT. .JAT. 141 WESTERN PLAINS.

536 21 161 9 5 6 24 13 43.272 611 6.953 6) 51 161 Eawalpindi Jhelam Gujrat Shahpur .661 Gurdaspur Sialkot 5 7 221 137 719 1.276 325 47.lalandbar ..957 4.202 2.366 7.. .IPCTy OF 10 SlAL.791 Lahore Gujramvala Firozpur .520 256 1. .354 24.166 14 IS 859 3.403 23. .437 2.374 6. showing the Rajput HA. 193 349 367 433 285 141 16 102 58 1. Husliyarpiir 31 333 1. 5.154 24 203 1.. Plains 113 133 10 76. . 142 PANJAB CASTES.093 7..957 49 86 107 132 Bahawalpur Total Hill States British Territory 1^093 273 17.243 82 11 230 11 65 443 1.. THE Ranjha.924 139 69 19.601 . .037 36.648 2.453 Montgomery JSIuzalfargarh 152 151 115 10 26 868 lOi) 168 Derah Ismail Khan Derah Ghazi Khan 571 Bannu British Territory Patiala 706 207 76.230 47.301 17.220 10 43. 828 576 78 2.220 388 53 48 47.490 10.825 71 258 143 162 1 305 196 649 122 155 Multan J hang 560 437 1. . GONDAI.903 10 Nabha Kapurthala Jind Faridkot ..714 3 Rohtak Sirsa 51 6 1 4 13 246 38 35 Ainbala Ludlilana 76 5 . Dehli Gurgaon Karnal Hissar . 4 10 1 i)l "" 269 '" 17 22 273 46 Total East.276 189 17.593 Kangra Auiritsar . Abstract No. . .956 43. 5 2 1 ::3 2 6 1..903 Native States Province ••• 256 77.490 10. 80.091 14 103 '6.213 53 7^490 10.789 1.601 6..684 2.






Tribes of the Western Plains





of Punwar and Bliattij Avho have held between them from time immemorial the comitrv of tlie lower Satluj and the deserts of Western Eajputana. They are the parent stocks whence most of the other tribes have sprung^ though as they have moved up the river valleys into the Panjab plains they have taken local tribal names which have almost superseded those of the original race. Thus the figures for all these tribes are more or less imperfect^ some having retm-ned the local and some tlie original tribe only^ while others have shown both and are entered in both sets of figures. Next to these races follow the Wattu, Joya, Khichi, and Dhudhi^ who hold the Satluj valley somewhat in that order. They are followed by the Hiraj and Sial of the Chenab and Lower Jahlam, and these again by the tribes of tlie Upper Jahlam and the Shahpur bar. Of these last the Ranjhaj Gondal^ and Melcan would probably not be recognised as Rajputs by their neighbours the Tiwana^ Janjua, and the like. Last of all come five tribes who have already been considered under Jats. From what has already been said as to the confusion between Jat and Rajput in these parts^ it might be expected that many of these people will have been retm-ned as Jats ; and in such cases the figures are shown side by side. But in the case of at any rate the Bhatti and Punwar^ it does not follow that these men are not Jats ; for in many instances they have given their Jat tribe, and added to it the Rajput tribe from which they have a tradition of origin.
448. Rajput tribes of the Western Plains. The Punwar (No. 1).—The Pun-n-ar or Pramara was once the most important of nil the Agnikula Eajpiits. " The world is the Pramara's " is an ancient saying denoting' their extensive sway and the A^aw Kot Mdrihthali, extending along and below the Satluj from the Indus almost to the Jamna^ signified the indni asfhal or arid territory occupied by them, and the nine divisions of which it consisted. But many centuries have passed since they were driven from their possessions^ and in 1826 they held in independent Bway only the small State of Dhat in the desert. It will be seen from the Abstract that the Punwar are found in considerable numbers up the whole course of the Satluj and along the Lower Indus, though in the Dcrajat all and in the Multan division many of them are shown as They have also spread up the P>eas into Jalandhar and Gurdiispur. There is also a very Jats. large colony of them in Rohtak and Hissar and on lhe~ confines of those districts indeed they once held the whole of the Ilohtak, Dadri, and Gohana country, and their quarrels with the Jatu
; ;

Trinwar of Hissar have been noticed under the head Jatu.

The Bhatti (No. 2).— Bhatti, the Panjab form of the Rajputana word Bhati, is the title of the great modern representatives of the ancient Jadiibansi royal Rajput family, dcsceudants of Krishna and therefore of Lunar race. Their traditions tell that they wore in very early times driven across the Indus; but that returning, they disposFCsscd the Langah, Joya, and others of the country south of the Lower Satluj some seven centuries ago, and founded Jaijalmer. This State they still hold, though their territory has been greatly circum-cribed since the advent of the Rather; but they still form a large proportion of the Rajput subjects of the Rathor Rdjas of Bikaner. At one time their possessious in those \ arts included the whole of Sirsa and the adjoining portions of Hissar, and the tract is still known as Bhatliana 'I'he story current in Hissar is that Bhatti, the leader under whom the Bhattis recro^sed the Indus, had two sons Dusal and Jaisal, of whom the latter founded Jaisalmcr while the former settled in Bhaltiana. From Dusal sprang the Sidhu and Barar ,Jat triljes (see section 43f)), while his grandson Rajpal was the ancestor of the AVattu. (IJut see further, section 449 infra.) According to General Cunningliam the Bhatlis originally held the Salt-range Tract and Kashmir, tl eir capital being Gajnipur, or the site oi modern Rawalpindi ; but about the second century before Christ they were tb-iven across the Jahlam by the Indo-Scythians, and their leader, the Raja Rasalu of Panjab tradition, founded Sialkot. The invaders however followed them up and dispersed them, and drove them to take refuge in the country south of the Satluj, though their lule in the
Kashmir valley remained unbroken till 1339 A.J). The Bhatti is still by far the largest aud most widely distributed of the Raput tribes of the Panjab. It is found in mimense numbers ail along the Lower Satluj aud Indus, though on the former often and on the hitter always classed as Jat. It is hardly less numerous on the Chenab, the Upper Satluj, and the Bcas, it is naturally strong in Bhattiana, there is a large colony in the Delili distwct, while it is jierhaps most numerous of all in the seats of its ancient power, in Sialkot, Gujrat and the Salt-range country. And if we reckon as Bhatti the Sidhu and Barar Jats of the Malwa, who arc admittedly of Bhatti origiu, we shall leave no ^jortiou of the Panjab proper in





Many of those returned as Bhatti are also a largo "Rliatti population ig not to be found. returned an lielongiiig to otlicr trilies, hut tliese form a wholly insignificant fraction of the whole; and the only largo numherss appearing twice over appear to he tlie 1,100 Xaipal of Ffrozpur already alluded to," 2,000 "Bhatti Tun war (sic) in Rawalpindi, 2,400 Khokhar and 1,600 Kiiarral in Bahawalpur, 1,700 Kashmiri .Tats in Cnijranwtila. In this last caso the word is prohahly I5hat, a great Kashmir triho, and not Bhatti. But if the Bliatti formerly held Kashmir, it is not impossihle that the two words are really identical. Perhaps also Bhatti has in many cases been given as their tribe by .Tats or low-class R.ajputs, or even by men of inferior castes who returned themselves as .Tats or Rajputs for their own greater exaltation. But if this be so, it only shows how widespread is the fame of the Bhatti within the Panjab. Almost every menial or artisan caste has a Bhatti clan, and it is often the most numerous of all, ranking with or above the

in this respect.
it is

strange, if the Bhatti did hold so hirgo a portion of the Panjab as General Cunningham almost universally they trace their origin to Bhatner in Bhattiana or at least to its Either they were expelled wholly from the Upper Panjab and have since returned neighbourhood. to their ancient seats, or else the glory of their later has overshadowed that of their earlier dynasties, and Bhatner and Bhattiana have become the city and country of the Bhatti from which all good Bhatti trace their origin. The subject population of Bi'kaner is largely composed of Bhatti, while Jaisalmer is a Bhatti State and it seems impossible that if the Tftatti of the Higher Satluj are immigrants and not the descendants of the residue of the old Bhatti who escaped expulsion, they should not have come largely from both these States, and moreover should not have followed the river valleys in their advance. Yet the tradition almost always skips all intermediate steps, and carries us straight back to that ancient city of Bhatner on the banks of the long di-y Ghaggar, in the Bi'kaner territory bordering on Sirsa. The Wattu Bhatti of Montgomery, while tracing their origin from Raja Salvahan, the father of Raja RaSalu of Sialkot, say that their more immediate ancestors came from Bhatner ; the Nun Bhatti of Multan trace their origin to the Dehli country; while the Bhatti of MuzafPargarh, Jhang, Giijr^nwala, Sialkot, Jahlam, and Pindi, all look to Bhatner as the home of their ancestors. It is probable either that Bhatner is used merely as a traditional expression, or that when the Ghaggar dried up or the Rathor conquered Bi'kaner, the Bhatti were driven to find new homes in the plains of the Panjab. Indeed Mr. Wilson tells me that in Sjrsa, or the old Bhattiana, the term Bhatti is commonly applied to any Musalman .Tat or Riijpiit from the direction of the Satluj, as a generic term almost synonymoiTS with Rath or Pachhada.




In Multan the Nun, a Bhatti clan, are the dominant tribe in the Shtijabad tahsil, where they some four or five hundred years ago. The Mittru Bhatti of Multan came from Bi'kaner. The Bhatti of Montgomery are probably Wattu and Khichi who will be described presently. The Bhatti of Jhang hold a considerable tract called Bhattiora in the Chiniot uplands north of the Chanab. They came first from Bhatner to the right bank of the Jahlam near the Shahpur border, and thence to Bhattiora. They are described as " a fine race of men, industrious agriculturists, " hardly at all in debt, good horse-breeders, and very fond of sport. They do very little cattle" lifting, but are much addicted to carrying off each other's wives." The Bhatti of the Gujranwala Idr, where they are the "natural enemies of the Virk," are descended from one Dhir who eighteen generations ago left Bhatner, and settled in the Nur Mahal jungles as a grazier and freebooter. His grandson went further on to the banks of the Ravi, and his son again moved up into the uplands of Gujranwala. The modern descendants of these men are described as " a muscular and noble" looking race of men, agricxiltin-ists more by constraint than by natural inclination, who keep " numerous herds of cattle which graze over the pasture lands of the hdr, only plough just sufficient " to grow food for their own necessities, and arc famous as cattle-lifters and notorious thieves." The Bhatti of Gujranwala enjoyed considerable political importance in former times, and they In Sialkot the Bhatti claim descent from Bhoni seventh in still hold 86 villages in that district. descent from their eponymous ancestor Bhatti, who came to Gujranwala from Bikancr, and thence None of these Bhatti of the hdr will give their daughters to the neighbouring Jat to Sialkot. tribes, though they will take wives from among them without scruple. In the Salt-range Tract the Bhatti seem to hold a very subordinate position as Bhatti, though it may be that some of the innumerable Rajput tribes of those tracts may consider themselves Bhatti as well as whatever In Kapiirthala and Jalandhar they have lost position greatly in their local name may be. recent times. Till dispossessed by the Ahluwalia Sikhs, the Rais of Kapurthala were Bhatti Rajputs.

449. Rajput Tribes of the Satluj.— The Wattu (No. 3).— The Wattu are a Bhatti clan, of whose origin the Hissar story has been given in section 448 above. The Sirsa tradition appears to be that one Raja Junhar, a descendant of the Bhatti Raja Salvahan of Siakot, was settled in where he had two sons Achal and Batcra. From the latter sprang the Sidhu and Barar Bhatner, The former again had two sons Jaipal and Rajpal, of whom Jaipal was the ancestor of the Jats. Bhatti proper, and Rajpilcf the Wattu. The Wattu date their conversion to Islam by Baba Farid, from the time of Khi'wa who ruled at Haveli in Montgomery, and was succeeded by the famous Wattu Chief Lakhe Khan. They hold both banks of the Satluj in the Sirsa district, and the


parts of Montgromcrv

mid Balmwalpiir, from I'acrerolii 16 uiilos above Fazilka, to PhnlaLi below rbein tlic Joya. Tbey are said to bavc crossed river and spread into tlie tlien almost nninliab'.ted prairie^ of Sirsa only sjme five greiicrations ago, wlien Fazil Palel Raiia came from Jhang near Havcli and settled tlic iinoccupied riverain. There is also a small sect ioai of them on the llavi in the Montgomery district. It is not impossible that some of the Wattu have returned themselves a- Bhatti simply, for some few have returned themselves under both heals. The tribe was formerly almost purely pastoral, and as turbulent and as great marauders as other pastoral tribes of the neighbourhood ; and the habits of the Ravi 'Vat tu, who gave trouble in j 857, have hardly changed, Ikit the Satluj Wattu who possess but little jungle have taken very generally to agriculture, and Captain Elphiiistone s.ays that "some of their estates are well cultivated, their herds have diminished, and many of "them cannot now be distirgnished in apjiearaiice from peaceful Arains or Khokhars. The change ''in their habits has indeed been rumarkable, as they still speak with exultation of the Kardars they " used to kill during the Sikh rule, and the years in which they paid no revenue because the Sikhs " were unable or at; aid to collect it." Mr. Purser describes the Wattu as "priding themselves "upon their politeness and hospitality. They are of only moderate industry, profuse iu expenditure on special occasions, indifferent to education and exceedingly fond of cattle." He classes them however with the Katliia, Kharral, Sial, Tiahra'wal, Hiloch and Joya as "essentially robber tribes " and more or less addicted to cattle-stealing." This I suspec; simply means that these are the dominant tribes of the tract, who look upon a pastoral as higher than an agricultural life. The Joya (No. 4) and Mahar.— The Joya is one of the 36 royal races of liaiputs, and is descnhed in the ancient chronicles as " Lorils of tlie Jangal-des," a tract which comprehended Hariaua, Jjhaiti.M'a, I^hatner, and Xagor. They also held, in common with the Dehia with whom tl.eir name IS always coupled, the banks of the Indus and Satluj near their confluei'ce. Some seven ceutxu'ies ago they were apparently driven out of the Indus tract and partly subjugated in the Bagar country by the Bhatti; and in the middle of the 16th century they were expelled from the Joya canton of Bikiiiier by the Rathor rulers for attempting to regain their independence. Tod remarks that " the Rajputs carried fire and sword into this country, of which they made a desert. Ever since " it has remained desolate, and the very name of Joya is lost, though the vestiges of considerable " towns bear testimony to a remote antiquity." The Joya however have not disappeared. They still hold all the hanks of the Satluj from the Wattu border nearly as far down as its confluence with the Indus, though the Bhatti turned them out of Kahror, and they lost their semi-independence when their possessions formed a part of the Bahawalpur State / they hold a tract iu I'lkaiior on the bed of the old Ghaggar just below Bhatner, their ancient seat and they are found in no inconsiderable numbers on the middle Satliij of Lahore and Fi'rozpur and on the lower Indus of the Derajat and Muzaffargarh, about a third of their whole number being retiirncd as Jat-;. The Multan bar is known to this day as the Joya hdo-. General Cunningham says that they are to be found in some numbers in the Salt-range or mountains of Jud, and identifies them with tlie Jodia or^Yodia, the warrior class of India in Banini's time (45U B.C.), and indeed uur figiu'es show some 2,700 Joya iu Shalqmr. But Panini's Jodia wciild perhaps more probably be the modern Gheba, whose original tribal name is said to he Jodra, and Gheba a mere title. The Joya of the Satluj and of Hissar trace their origin from Bhatner, and have a curious tradition current apparently from Hissar to Montgomery, to the effect that they cannot trace their Rajput descent in the main line. The Hissar Joya make themselves descendants in the female line of Sauieja, who accompanied the eponymous ancestor of the Bhatti from Mathra to Bhatner. The Montgomery Joya have it that a lineal descendant of Benjamin, Joseph's brother, came to Bikaner, married a Raja's daughter, begot their ancestor, and then disappeared as a /<)<?:>. The tradition is perhaps suggested by the word joi meaning "wife." The Montgomery Joya ^ay that they left P>ikaner in the middle of the 14th century and settled in Bahawalpur, where tliey became allies of the Lai:gah dvnasty of Multan, but were subjugated by the Umidpotra in the time of Xadir Shah. The Multan .Joya say that they went from Bikaner to Slndh and tlicnce to Multan. This is probably due to the f.act of their old possessions on the Indus having died out of the tribal memory, and been replaced by their later holdings in Bi'kaner. They are described by Captain Elphinstone as " of smaller staUuv than the great Ravi '' tribes, and considered inferior to them in regard of the qiialities iu which the latter especially " pride themselves, namely bravery and skill in cattle-stealing. They possess large herds of cattle



tliein lie tlic Docrars,



bank of the


" a id are bail cultivators." 'i'he ]\Ialiar are a small tribe on the Satluj opposite Fazilka, and are said to be descended from Mahar, a "brother of the Joya. Thev r .-e said to be quarrelsome, sillv, thievish, fond of cattle, " and to care rtth' for agricultural pursuits." The Khichi (No. 5). 'J'he Klifclii are a Chauhdn clan, and are said to have cnaie originally from A jmer, the old seat of the Chauh.-in power, thence to Dehli, and from Dehli to the Satluj during the Mughal rule This is probably a n)ere tradition of the movement of the Clauhaii centre

from Ajmerto Dehli. They arc found along the lower and middle Satluj, and the Ravi from Multan to Lahore, there are a few of thtni on the Chanjib, and there are considerable numbers of them iu the Dehli district. In Montgomery they are found chiefly on the Ravi, where they used to be hand-in-glove with the KhaiiMl but mended tiieir wiiys under the later Sikli rule and are uow
jieacefnf liusbandmen,





s^ome confusion in tlioH' fiptire-, and that some The Dhudhi (No. 6). I su-ipect th.'vt tlicre of the Dii'l or Duilliwul Rajput-; of tlio oastcru suh-niontaiie liavc heen included with the Dliudhi of The former will be described ill their pr.i per jdace. The latter are a small Punvvar tho Satluj. Their original clan found with their kinsmen tho Rutlior scattered along the Satluj and Chaiiab. seat is said to have been in the Mailsi lahsi'l of Multan, where they are mentioned as early a^ the first half of the 14th century. When tho Deldi empii'e wa^ breaking up thoy spread along the rivers. One of them, Haji Sher jMuhammnd, was a saint whose filirino in Multan 5s still '• renowned. They are said to be fair agriculturists and respectable members of society."

The Hiraj is a Sial clan whi^h 450. Rajput tribes of the Chanab. The Hiraj (No. 7). It is possible that holds a tract on the banks o\ the Ravi just aliove its junction with tlie Chanfib. some of the dan ha\'e returned themselves as 8ial simply, and are therefore not represcnied in the figures. The Hirnj oi Multan have returned themselves as Sidl Hiraj to the number of 3,380, and are shown in both columns.
Sial (No. 8).— The Sial is politically one of the most important tribes of the Western As Mr. Steedman observes, the modern history of the Jhang district is the history of the Sial. They are a trilie of Punwar Rajpiits \\ho ro-e to promiiieiKC in the tirst-lialf of the 18th century.^ Mr. Steedman writes : " They were till then probably a pastoral tribe, but little given to " husbandry, dwelling on the hanks of river, and grazing their cattle during the end of the cold and " the iirst mouths of the hot weather in the low lands of the Chanab, and during the rainy season in " the uplands of the Jhang bar. The greater portion of the tract now occupied by them was prob"ably acquired during the stormy century that preceded the conquest of Hindustan by the " Mughals. During this period the country was dominated from Bhera, and sometimes from " Multan. The colh ctlon of revenue from a nomad population inhabiting the fastnesses of the Idr " and the deserts of the ihal could never have been easy, and was probably seldom attempted. Left



"alone, the Sidl applied themselves successfully to dispossessing those that dwelt in the land the " Xols, Bhangus, Mangans, Marrals, and other old tribes amusing themselves at the same time with " a good deal of internal strife and quarrelling, and now and then with stiffer fighting with the " Kharrals and Biloches.

" Then for 200 years there was peace in the land, and the Sials remained quiet subjects of the Lahore Subah, the seats of local government being Chiniot and Shorkot. Walidad Khan died in " 1747, one year before Ahmad Shah Abdali made his fir-t inroad and was defeated before Dehli. " It is not well known when he succeeded to the chieftainship, but it was probably early in the " century for a con.siderable time must have been taken up in the reduction of minor chiefs and " the introduction of all the improvements with which Walidad is credited. It was during " Walidad's time that the power of the Sials reached its zenith. The country subject to Walidad " extended fi-om Mankhera in the Thai eastwards to Kamalia on the Ravi, from the confluence of the " Ravi and Chanab to the ilaka of Pindi Bhattian beyond Chiniot. He was succeeded by his ''nephew InayatuUa, who was little if at all inferior to his uncle in administrative and military " ability. He was engaged in constant warfare with the Bhangi Sikhs on the north, and the '' chiefs of Multan to the south. His near relations, the Sial chiefs of Rashidpur, gave him constant " trouble and annoyance. Once indeed a party of forty troopers raided Jhang, and carried off the " Khan prisoner. He was a captive for six months. The history of the three succeeding chieftains " is that of the growth of the jiower of the Bhangis and of their formidable rival the Sukarchakia " misl, destined to be soon the subjugator of both Bhangis and Sials. Chiniot was taken in 1803, " Jhang in 1806. Ahmad Khan, the last of the Sial Khans, regained his country shortly after in " 1S08, \mt in 1810 he was again captured by the Maharaja, who took him to Lahore and threw him " into prison. Thus ended whatever independence the Sial Khans of Jhang had ever enjoyed. "

" The Sials are descended from Rai Shankar, a Punwdr Rajput, a resident of Daranagar " between Allahabad and Fattahpur. A l)ranch of the Puuwars bad previously emigrated from their " native country to Jauupur, and it was there that Rai Shankar was born. One story has it that " Rai Shankar had three sons, Seo, Teo, and Gheo, from whom have descended the Sials of Jhang, " the Tiwanas of Shahpirr aud the Ghebas of Pindi Gheb. Another tradition states that Sial was " the only son of Rai Shankar, and that the ancestors of the Tiwanas and Ghebas were only " collateral relations of Shankar and Sidl. On the death of Rai Shankar we are told that great " dissensions arose among the members of the family, and his son Sidl emigrated during the reign " of Allauddin Ghori to the Panjdb. It was about "this time that many Rajput families emigrated "from the Provinces of Hindustan to the Panjdb, including the ancestors of the Kharrals, " Tiwanas, Ghebas, Chaddhars, and Punwar Sials. It was the fashion in those days to be converted "to the Muhammadan religion by the eloquent exhortations of the sainted Bawa Farid of " Pak Pattan and accordingly we tiiid that Sidl in his wanderings came to Pak Fattan, and there " renounced the religion of his ancestors. The Saint blessed him, aud prophesied that his son's " seed should reign over the tract between the Jhelam aud Chanab rivers. This prediction was not

* General Cunningham states that the Sial an; supposed to be descended from Raja Hiidi, the Indo-Scytbian opponent of the Bbatti Raja Rasalu of Sialkot ; but I do not find this tiuditiou mentioned elsewhere.




" very accurate. Baba Farid died abont 1264-65. Sial and his followers appear to have wandered " to and fro in the Rechna and Jctch doahs for some time before they settled down with some "de^ee of permanency on the right bank of the .Tliolam. It was during this unsettled period that " Sial married one of the women of the country, Sohag daughter of Bhai Khan Mckhan, of Saiwal " in the Shahpur district, and is also said to have built a fort at Sialkot while a temporary resident " there. At their first settlement in this district, the Sials occupied the tract of country lying "between Mankhera in the /7(aZ and the river Jhelam, east and west, and from Khushab on" the " north to what is now the Garb Maharaja ilaka on the south."

The political history of the Sial is very fully described in the Jhang Settlement Report from which I have made the above extract, while their family history is also discussed at pages 502 _^ and 520 of Griffin's Panjdb Chiefs. Tlie clans of the Sials are very numerous, and are fully described by Mr. Steedman in his Jhang Report, who remarks " that it is fairly safe to assume that " any tribe (in Jhang only I suppose) whose name ends in ana is of Sial extraction."
Tlie head-quarters of the Sials are the whole southern portion of the Jhang district, along the bank of the Chanab to its junction with the Riivi, and the riverain of the right bank of the Chanab between the confluences of the Jahlam and Ravi. They also hold both banks of the Ravi throughout its course in the Multan and for some little distance in the IMontgomery district, and are found in small numbers on the upper portion of the river. Tliey have spread up "the Jahlam into Shahpur and Gujrat, and are found in considerable numbers in the lower Indus of the Derajat and

Muzaifargarh. Who the Sials of Kangra may be I cannot conceive. There is a Sidl tribe of Ghiraths ; and it is just possible that some of these men may have returned their caste as Sial, and so have been included among Rajputs. Mr. Purser describes the Sial as "large in stature and of a "rough disposition, fond of cattle and caring little for agriculture. They observe Hindu ceremonies " like the Kharral and Kathia, and do not keep their women iu imrdah. They object to clothes of " a brown {lUJa) colour, and to the use of brass vessels."

451. Rajput tribes of the Jahlam,—The Ranjha (No. 9).— The Ranjha are chiefly found in the eastern uplands of Shilhpur and Gujrat between the Jahlam and Chanab, though they have in small numbers crossed both rivers into the Jahlam and Giijranwala districts. They are for the most part returned as Jats except in Shahpur. They are however Eliatti Rajpvits ; and though they are said in Gujrat to have laid claim of late years to Qurcshi origin as descendants of Abii Jahil uncle of the Prophet, whose son died at Ghazni whence his lineage emigrated to the Kerana Idr, yet they still retain many of their Hindu customs. They are described by Colonel Davies as "a peaceable and well-disposed section of jwpulation, subsisting chiefly by agriculture. In physique " they resemble their neighbours the Gondals, with whom they intermarry freely." They would perhaps better have been classed as Jats.

The Gondal (No. 10).— The Gondal hold the uplands known as the Gondal bar, running Tip the centre of the tract between the Jahlam and Chanab in the Shahpur and Gujrat districts. They are also numerous in the riverain of the right bank of the former river in the Jahlam district, and a few have spread eastwards as far as the Ravi. They are said to be Chauhan Riijputs, and 1,388 in Jahlam and 6,674 in Shahpur have shown themselves as Gondal Chauhan, and appear in both columns in consequence. But I do not think these men have any connection with the Gondal whom our figures show as so numerous in Kangra and Hushyarpur. I "have had the figures for these last districts examined, and there is no mistake about the name. Who the Gondal of the hills are I do not know, as I can find no mention of them ; but 3,451 of the Kangra Gondal have also returned themselves as Pathial.i The Gondal of the plains are probably as much Jats as Rajputs, as they appear to intermarry with the sui-rounding Jat tribes. Colonel Davies writes of tliem " Physically " they are a fine race, owing doubtless to the free and active life they lead and the quantities of " animal food they consume ; and if we except their inordinate passion "for appropriating the cattle " of their neighboui's which in then- estimation carries with it no moral taint, they must be pro« nounced free from vice." They say that their ancestor came from Naushahra in the south to Pak Pattan, and was there converted by Baba Earid j and if this be so they probably occupied their present abodes within the last six centuries.

The IWekan (No. 11). The Mekan are a small tribe said to be of Punwrfr origin and spring from the Kame ancestor as the Uhudhi already described. They occupy the Shahpur b<ir lying to the west of the Gondal territory, and are also found in smaller numbers in Jahlam and Gujrat. They are a pastoral and somewhat turblent tribe. The Tiwana (No. 12) The Tiwina hold the country at the foot of the Shahpur Salt-range and liave ])laycd a far more prominent part in the Panjab history than their mere numbers would render probable. They are said to be Punwar Rajputs, and descended from the same ancestor as the Sial and Glieba (see Sial supra). They "probably entered the
» Mr. Anderson suggests that Gondal may be the name of one of the Brahmiuical gotras. This would explain the extraordinarily large numbers returned under this heading; but I cannot find a that name in any of the lists to which I have access. ^o^raof This much appears to be certain; that there is no Gondal tribe of Rajputs in Kangra which numbers over 17,0UU souls.

together with
settled at Jaliangi'r





tlio Sial, and certainly before the closo of the 15th They century. on the Indiw, hut eventually moved to their present abodes in the Sh^hpur thai, where they built their chief town of Mitha Tiwana. The subsequent history of the family is narrated at pa^'cs 519 to 531) of Griflin's Panjab Chiefs and at pages 40 _^ of Colonel Davies' Shahpur licport. The Tiwana resisted the advancing forces of the Sikhs long after the rest of the district had fallen before it. Tlicy are now " a half pastoral, half agricul" tural tribe, and a fine hardy race of men who make good sold icrs, though their good qualities " are sadly marred by a remarkably quarrelsome disposition, which is a source of never-ending " trouble to them.selvcs and all with whom they arj brought in contact."

The Rajputs of the Western Hills.—I have already described the by llajputs in the Salt-range Tract. The dominant tribes, such as the Janjua, have retained their pride of lineage and their Rajput title. But many of the minor tribes, although probably of Rajput descent, have almost ceased to be known as Rajputs, and are not nnfrequenlly classed as Jat. Especially the tribes of the Hazara, Murree, and Kahuta hills, though almost certainly Rajputs, are, like the tribes of the Chibhitl and Jammu hills, probably
position occupied

of very impure blood.






Tract are exceedingly

The names of many which almost always denotes that the name is taken from their place of origin^ and a little careful local enquiry would probably throw much light on their migrations. The great Janjua tribe appears to be Rathor ; and from the fact of the old Bhatti rale which lasted for so long in Kashmir, we should exj^ect the hill tribes, most of whom come from the banks of the Jahlam, to be Bhatti also. But there is perhaps some slight ground for believing that many of them may be Punwar (see Dhund infra). If these tribes are really
interesting, partly because so little is

known about them.


them end

in lU,


descendants of the original Jadubansi Rajputs who fled to the Salt-range after the death of Krishna^ they are probably, among the Aiyan inhabitants of the Panjab proper, those who have retained their original territory for the longest period, unless we except the Rc'ijputs of the Kangra hills. The grades and social divisions of the Hill Rajputs are dwelt upon in the section treating of the tribes of the eastern hills. The same sort of classification prevails, though to a much less marked extent, among the western hills ; but the Janjua are probably the only one of the tribes now under consideration who can be ranked as Mian Sahu or first-class Rajputs. Abstract No. 81 on the next page* shows the distribution of these tribes. They are divisible into three groups, roughly arranged in order from north and west to south and east. First came the tribes of the hills on the right bank of the Jahlam, then the Salt-range tribes, then those of the cis-Jahlam sub-montane, and last of all the Tarars who have been already discussed as Jats. I had classed as separate castes those persons who returned themselves as Dhunds and Kahuts, under Nos. 74 and 103 in Table VIII A. But I have brought those figures into this Abstract alongside of the Dhunds and Kahuts who returned themselves as Rajputs. The ligures for these tribes are probably more imperfect than those for any other group of the same importance, at any rate so far as the tribes of the Salt-range are concerned. In that part of the Panjab it has become the fashion to be Qureshi or Mughal or Awan, rather even than Rajput ; and it is certain that very many of these men have retiu'ned themselves as such. Till the detailed clan tables are published the correct figures will not be ascertainable.


The Dhundj

tribes of the Murree and Hazara Hills.— The Dhund and Satti (Nos. 1, 2).— and Kctwal occupy nearly the whole of the lower hills on the right bank of the

^ This Is not pure patronymics.


indeed, iu the case of the Gakkhai's, whose clan



end iu


and are

81. showing Rajput [p 210] . Abstract No.150 PANJAB CASTES.

158 38.110 4. Hushyarinir.698 1.690 610 524 67 84 20 168 56r) 154 53 42i 7. Amb. 1. 134 1.iffarj:raih. 475 1--8 255 1 : 21 5 Baniin. 12 JAIfJDA. Amritsar.156 6f>9 543 1. Lahore.944 18 3.058 516 5. 151 Tribes of the Western Hills.il. Alultan.158 38.l.419 49.578 4.645 2.618 444 l. Native States. 38.49 424 15 216 8.9i2 1.611 937 2.058 2'. RawfiJpiiitli 614 19 Jhelam.835 1.698 2.Jhaug.147 5 9. Sialkot. 4.937 481 7 28. 9245 9.832 Giij rauwal. 7 1.711 2 2n5 7rt Pirozpur. irVJl>nT. HaNHAFI. AND ALLIED CASTES.519 15. 128 136 55 11 2.228 British Territory. 39 I'lO lfi.419 . Pliius Bahawalpur.228 British Territory. 1.355 Total Hill States. 2.724 295 20 84 5.245 8. 38. GurdAspur.i.110 340 6 6.703 t 2.964 44 92 233 44 12.994 66 Qujrat.236 9.883 1.877 890 191 Hiss.932 10. Derail Ismail Khan.727 896 732 30 263 1. 24 773 Muz.199 158 143 1. 82 029 577 Total East.645 8..ir. Hazar».815 19 2.645 3. .305 38.114 1. 520 202 133 1.434 49 640 6.645 8.)AT. 1.716 Kangra.585 .646 4.570 9.646 1.563 8.31)3 3. WESTEim HILLS.078 162 3 366 966 963 .173 74 Shahpur.552 8.228 Province.245 8.570 6.552 11 38.424 6.

but were always a turbulent set. *p. the Dhoonda. 158Tlie Alpial hold tlic soutliern corner of the Fatah JJiang (ahsil of Rawalpindi. Tlie Bhakral are found in some numbers in Jahlam and Giijrat. whose Sir Lepel Griffin remarks that the Dlnind " have ever been a lawtraditional enemies they are. and descend into the valleys during the cold weather. and dangerous population. from All. when they go up as high as they can. dangerous by their close connection with the Karral and Dlnind of Hazara. for Bahawalpur may bo 1 do not know . and if .15a PANJAB CASTES. the paternal uncle of the Prophet . while another tradition is that their ancestor Takht Khan came with Taimur to Dehli where he settled . But I find that 8. They claim to he descendants of Abbas. and a Ketwal woman. 82. Dhund. and are included in both figures. The history of these tribes is told at pages 592^ of Sir Lepel Griffin's Fanjdh Chiefs. and one tradition makes him brought up by a Brahman. ^Vho tlie 3. The Dhanial (No. Chibh.— Tiie Ketwal belong to the same group of tribes as the Dhiind and Satti. but left unpunished in Hazara. Here again I did not take out separate figures." Both tribes broke into open rebellion in 1857. The Bhakral (No. that the Dhani country in the Cbakwal tahsil of Jahlam takes its name . and it is not impossible that these tribes may be Punwar clans. and the Dlnind were severely chastised Mr. 4). and many others. Stcedman says :" The hillmen of Rawalpindi in Rawalpindi. On the other less untractable race." This much appears certain. Satti. claim descent from Ali. They do not approve of widow-marrlagc. I had not taken out separate figures for the Budhal. Kulu Rai is a Hindu name. but their courage is not equal to their disposition to do evil. His son Khaliira or Kulu Rai was sent to Kashmir and married a Kashmiri woman from whom the Dhiind are sprung. which appears to he one of the Dhund clans. They were almost exterminated by the Sikhs in 1837. being separated from the Satti l)y the Ketwal. com-se absurd. and most of the serious crime of tiie surrounding country used to be ascribed to them. cattle for a livelihood. Both these tribes probably came from tlic Jammu territory across the Jahlam. Most of them have been returned as Jats. all originally occupants of the hills on this part of the Jahlam.59. They have a good deal of pride of race." The Ketwal (No. and they are now few and unimportant. Major Wace writes of the Dhiind and Karral " Thirty years ago their acquaintance with the " Muhammadan faith was still slight. — The Dhanial also appear to belong to the group of hill tribes of the It is from them Salt-range Tract and of probable Rajpiit blood which we arc now discussing. They claim descent from Alexander the Great (!) and say that they are far older inhabitants of these hills tlian either the Dhiind or Satti . also i^^' '^*'^3 The Alpial.— These are two more members of the same group of tribes. page 25U*) are Alpial of the Fatah Jhang talis/ (. holding but little laud and depending chieily on their appearance.099 show themselves as Punwar also. 3). In Hazara 1 have classed as Dhiind 2. Bib. : " to observe it. feeble. like the Dlianial. and there appears still to be a colony of them in those parts. They stand high in the social scale. and all probably more or less connected. Jatlatn in the Hazara and Rawalpindi districts. Of the three the Dhiind are the most northern. being found in the Ahhottahad tahsU of Hazara and in the nothern tracts of Rawalpindi." — . are said to have sprung but this the These traditions are of Satti deny and claim descent from no less a person than Nausherwan. The P. " which they cultivate simply and industriously. They are " a bold lawless set of men " of fine physique and much given to violent crime. Dhiind. Perhaps there has been some confusion of names.085 of ihe Mawj I'ujputs of Rawalpindi (see Abstract No. while below them come the Satti." hand Major ^Yace describes both the Dhiind and Karral as " attached to their homes and fields. probably came up from the soutli. and hold the hills to the south of the Satti country. and are more careful . Colonel Cracroft considers the Dhiind and Satti of Rawalpindi a " treacherous. but are rather squalid in are not of very tine physique. Soruteah. For the rest their character is crafty and " cowardly.000 odd Bhakral returned. who hold considerable areas in the south-cast portion of tlie Rawalpindi district. Sarrara and Tanaoli tribes. Bheeba. son-in-law of the Prophet.udlitil." and rendered especially. From another illegitimate son of his the Satti. They are admit. The rank and tile are poor. and though they now know more of it. relics of their Hindu faith are still observable in their social habits. They have a great dislike to leaving the hills.so. and begat the ancestors of the Jadwal. Of the Rawalpindi Bliakral 5. and that his descendant Zorah Khan went to Kahiita in the time of Shah . 5) and Budhal. He says that the Satti are a iiner and more vigorous race and less inconstant and volatile than the Dhiind. and tlielr marriage ceremonies still hear traces of their Hindu origin. and supposed by him to be extinct. who arc the bitter enemies of the Dhiind. that the Dhiind. They seem to liave wandered tlirough tlie Khusluib and Talagang country before settling in their present abodes.776 persons who returned themselves as Andwal. but the tribe was apparently almost exterminated by the Dhiind at some time of which the date is uncertain. Tliey are a fine martial set of men and furnish many recruits for the army. I find among the Punwar clans mentioned by Tod. but it is improbal)Ie that tliey sliould be of the same tribe as those of the Salt-range Tract. tedly a Rajpiit tribe. though they are now chiefly found in the lower western hills They claim to be descended of the Murree range. and Dhoonta .Tahan. are all of Hindu origin. especially in the hot weather. Jeebra.

—I have But they probably belong classed the Kahut as a separate caste under No. all but 293 have shown Mughal as their clan. joined Babar's army. and to have retained their independence in a singular degree. to the group we arc now considering. Rteedman sees no reason to doiii)t the tradition. for whom I have no separate figiu'es . not addicted to crime. and Mr.iys that the Gheba traditions trace that tribe. They occupy the hills of the eastern half of the Kahiita tahsil m Rawalpindi. and I therefore show them in Abstract No. spirited fellows who delight in Held sports. claim to be a Janjua clan and descendants of Kaja Mai. real or imagined. — — 454. 6). Besides the Kahiit shown under No. They most probably belong to the group of Rajpiit or yuasi-Rajpiit tribes who hold the hills on either hank of the Jahlam. wlio will bo described under the head Mughal. as already noticed under the head Dhiind. and in°Hushyarpar General Cunnhigham thinks that they are Aryan. RAJPUT. of whom 89 are in the Peshawar division They may have returned themselves as Mughal or some caste other than Rajpiit. Gakkhars and neighboiu-ing tribes till Ran jit Singh subdued them. The Jodra are said to have come 'from Jammu. and the Gheba the western half of the Fateh J hang ?. for whom I liavo no separate figures. The tradition which makes the Sial. the two tracts marching with each other.« A 5z7 in Rawalpindi. and with these two are commonly associated the Kasar. or sons of Anil. or as some other Rajpiit tribe. The Kanial 1)elong. it is not at all impossible that this group of Rajput tribes may be of Punwar origin. formerly with swords. and. These three tribes occupy the Dhaiii country in tahstl Chakwil of Jahlam j the Kahiita holding Kahutani or its southern portion.. or to join in hand-to-hand fights fol. and are ever ready to turn out and fight out their grievances." The same writer says that the Gheba are " a fine. masterful. " They do not approve of widow-marriage. Tlic Kharwul. but they are foimd in small numbers throughout the Multiin and Derajat divisions. whence also Colonel Cracroft s. They also appear to stretch along the suh-montano as far east as Giijrat. 7) and Mair. and said to be Awan. lends some support to the statement. and the fact that the town of Pindi Gheb was built and is still held by the Jocka. Tiwana. Awan. The more respectable Mair call themselves Minhas. An amended genealogy is given at page 520 of GriHin's Punjab Chiefs.— The head-quarters of the Janjiia are the eastern Salt-range. Tcno. Here they held their own against the Awans. They now occupy the eastern half of the Pindi Gheb. as indeed are the Dhiind also. still bear their name. but I have put them in the Abstract among the tribes with whom they are probably connected by origin. full of fire and energy. The hi. 81 and discuss them here. and hold a largo portion of the south-eastern corner of the Rawalpindi district . and Gheba descendants of Saiuo. The Jodra and Gheba. and are " a fine strong " race. that the Gheba is really a branch of the original Jodra tribe that quarrelled with the others. and a branch of the Anuwan. The Gheba arc said to have come to the Pan jab some time after the Sial and Tiwana. 177 Rajpiits have returned their tribe as Kahiit. Steedman. and to have settled in the wild hilly country of Fateh Jhanoand Pindi Gheb in Rawalpindi. thou^'h their " readiness to resent insult or injury." The Januja (No. according to Mr. Colonel Cracroft describes the Jodra as "fine. Thomson is quoted at length under the head Mughal. or as Rajput simply without specifying any tribe. decidedly superior to the ordinary Rajputs. the Mair the centre.766 Kahiit returned from Jahlam. AND ALLIED CASTES. 8). and connects Janj the first syllable of their name. With them I notice the Mair. have horses and hawks. and took the name of Glieba which till then had been simply a title used in the tribe . All three state that they came from the Jammu hills. I am informed. or according to another story from Hindustan. A graphic description of their character by Sir. The Rajput tribes of the Salt -range. are notorious. with the old kings of the Hund on the Indus who are said by Masaudi to have borne the name of Chach or Jaj. and their factions with the Jodra and Alpiai. 103 of Table VIII A. I have no separate figui'es for these tribes. " and now with the more humble weapons of sticks and stones. hardy race of men. and Chach a tract in Rawalpindi.TAT. 103. to which I must refer the reader. 153 The Khafwal. and not by the Gheba. the three sons of Rai Shankar Punwar. probably the same word as the well-known Manhas tribe presently to be described . They now belong to the Salt-range and not to the Jahlam hills. it is quite possible that some of them may have returned themselves as either Awan or Mughal. and it may be that the Mair have been returned as Manhas Rajpiits. though unfortunately I cannot remember who was my authority.. to that miscellaneous body of men who call themselves Rajputs.their " rights in land. and to have held their present tract before the Gheba settled alongside of them. They are sometimes Their bards claim for them Mughal origin. and the Kasar the north. the only Gheba who have returned themselves as such being apparently 105.—The Kahut (No. Of the 8. Table VIIIA. and Gheo. and the Kahiita hills of Rawalpindi now held by the Ketwal and Dhanial.story of the Gheba family is told at pages 538 X/^' and of the Jodra family at pages 535 /yof Sir Lepel Griffin's Punjdb Chiefs. and were located by him in their They seem to have been ever violent and present abodes which wci'e then almost uninhabited. and arc of much the same class as the Budhal and Rhakral. and socially hold much the same position as " other Janjuas. The Kanial (No. has already been noticed under the head of Sial. are often " brawlers. and the town of Kahiita now in the hands of the Janjua. Six Lepel GrifHu is inclined to think that they are a branch of the Yadubansi — . The Sial and Tiwana appear to admit the relationship.

and says they are tiie only undoubtedly and admittedly Rajpiit tribe in Jahlam. nor is the mother allowed to eat meat. 7-11 as Salahria. and are attached to the State of Kashmir. Jahlam. — The Thakar (No. Hindus. and 775 as Raghbansi j while in Gurdaspur 2. one of whom Nahm Cliaud(^i') bocame king uf Kangi-a. Tl>e liills above this territory are their proper home. but were gradually dispossessed Ijy the Gakkhars in the north and by the Awans (if they be a separate people) in the west . but the -tory is prubal)ly untrue. that they went tlrst to Kashmir. and then to Jammu. then to Sialkot. Thomson in liis Jahlam Report. Some say that before this conquest they first settled in Sialkot. a-!. bad men of business. I).Rajput Salaria Thakar. Ho too makes them Rathor Rajputs from Jodhpur. Tlie first Chibh to become a Musalman was one Sur Sadi of the time of Aurangzeb. Rrandreth states that only the descendants of his brother Wi'r are now known as Janjua. I have suggested under the head Dhund that the Ciiibh may pei'hap^ be Puuwar. hence the Chibh. bvit especially in the two first. enjoy the title of Raja . The tribe has also given its name to the Chibhal. rheni a branch of the Yadu st<. at lea-t in the cis-Jahlam tract. at lea 4 on the female side. either from J jdhpuv or from Kanauj tolhe Jahlam and built Malot. and with great pride of race. which is exactly what they held at the time of liabar's invasion.c of the ancients.279 men returned them elves a. others. The history of the tribe is tola fully at paragraphs of Hrandreth's Jahlam Report. 10). The Thakar Rajpiit: diown in the Abstract are almost all Salabrif ^ Rajputs of Siiilkol. however. especially in the cavalry . They themselves say they arc descemlmts of Ra. and wliose liistory has been brieily sketched under the head I'hatti and Abu Fazl also make-. They pour water on a goat's head at mukldioa. 50^ 455. The Manhas intermarry with the Salahria and oMier seeond-clav^ Rilj puts of the neighbourhood. and use the salutation J'a I They are for the most parr. The history of the Chibh chiefs is related at page 583 of the Fanjdh Chiefs. They say that their ance-t^n' came from A judhia and conquered J ammu. they follow the plough. and Gurda-pur. but ^ — Mr. where 5. S> 921 of the Nabha Thakar are Cliauhan. in Rawalpindi. They still occupy a social position in the tract whicli is second only to that of the Gakkbars. He died a violent death and is still venerated as a martyr. They art shown again under the head Salahria. now diicfly represented by the Phatti.! laving !). Within the Pan jab the Chibh are found almost entirely in the northern portion of Gujriit under the Jammu hills. 1. If this be so." If so. with line hands and feet. Rajput tribes of the Jaramu border. but I have been unable to find the passag''. 11). who migrated about 980 A. i . " They have h-iwcvt-r a wonderful story about a son of une of tlie kings of Persia luarryleg the dan Jrer of a IMJa in the iJucai'. and the Janjua genealogies show a striking uniformity iJi only giving from 18 to 23 generations since Raja Mai. poor agriculturists. and therefore occupy a very inferior position in the local scale of Rajput precedence. tlie connection of the two tribes by traditional de-cent from a common ancestor follows. the old name of the Salt-range . their position must once have been much higher than it now is . and that of its leading family at pages 002 fj of the Fanjdh Chiefs..Jud with the Awan l)c accepted.ia Mai Rathor. mueb given to military service. lie describes them as physically well-luuking. They do not permit widow marriage. like the Janjua. but to be now confined to the royal branch who do not engage in agriculture. The Chibh arc identilied by some with the Sib. and look down upon their cultivating brethren who are commonly styled Manhas.325 arc Virk who have shown themselves as ^Manhas also. and founded the city of that name. ! — — rp „ on ["-248] The Chibh (No. The Manhas (No. l54 PANJAB CASTES. they.400 years ago. and arc always addressed as Raja. In Sialkot 765 Manhas have returned themselves also as Bliatti. who held Kashmir iill tlie Mahoniniedaii conquest of the Panjah. Sialkot. Now-a-days. and the Mahomedan Ciiibh ofi'er the scalploeks of their male children at his tomb. though I believe that they do not now occupy those hill-. Brandi-etli says that Ma jor Tod comes to the same conclusion . 9).ck. or hill country of Kashmir on the left bank of the . The Janjua once held almost the whole of the Salt-range Tract.laiilam along the Hazara border. The signiticauce of the expression Thakar is discussed under the head of Rajputs of the Eastern Hills .> h( de cendan^s. The name Jamwal appears to have been the old name of the whole tribe. Rajputs. and consider that his shaking his head in consequence is pleasing to their ancestors. The Manhas or Jamwal claim tSolar origin by direct descent from Ram Chandra. and they now bold only the central and eastern parts of the range as tribal territory. His sou Chibb Chand became ruler of Bhimbar . and ha\e settled at Bhimbar in the Jammu hills. and till" the Sikh rule they did not cultivate theui-elves. The Cliibh claim to be descended from the Katoch Rajputs of Kaiigra. One of his sons is said to have been called Jiid. Saiyads and Gakkbars do not hesitate to marry their daughters . They call their eldot ^ou Raja and the youngrr one? Jliau.080 arc also houTi as Raghban>i f-o of the Jat ^Manhas of Giijrauwala. and if the identification 1)y General Cunningham of B:ibar's . All seem agreed that they moved into Jammu from the plains. The Manhas ai-e found in large numbers throughout the country below the Jammu border. and Mr. Their ancestor Chib Chand is said to have left Kangra some 1. till which ceremony the child is not considered a true Chibh. The tribe is very fully described by Mr. The Chibh is a tribe of good position . The Manluis are real hudjandmen.

Ui a-. lint the name would appear to imply little more than traditional origin. 155 ami the two also sonu'tlmes ii<oil Iiy tlio liit-h as a title of digiiitv.ijpiit. and 775 of those of Suilkot.igri. became subjects of the Musalman .080.sumed by many other races in the hills. and ha\e been included under both Salahria and H. deprived of thi4r Rajput rulers. but they have also retained their independence longOften invaded. lu all these cases the men are shown under both headings. The extracts are long . 456. It is here then that we may expect to find caste existing most nearly in the same state as that in which the first Musalman invaders found it when they entered the Panjab.— The t-alaln-ia are Sonibaiisi Rajputs who trace tlieir descent from one Raja Saigalof fahidou^ antiquity. and from liis descciidant 'Chandra Gupta. and arc shown under both headings. The Katil (No. regarding whom I have no The Raghbansi (No 14). Tliey say that their eponymous aiu'cstor came from tlic Doccan in the time of Sultan Mamd. heads of the bride and bridegroom with goat-' blood at their weddings. commander of a force sent to suppress the insurrection of Shuja the Kholdiar. In the Paiijab they are chiedy found in the Hill States and the sub-montaue of Gurdaspur and Sialkot. Thus of the Gurdaspur Raghbansi 2. The Tliakar returned from Sialkot under No. an. The Rajputs of the Eastern Hills.isle.' oii'ered to no ' ' .in in the time of Haldol li )di. The constitution of Rajput society in these hills will best be explained by the following extract from Mr. that I do not hesitate to give them. not merely by the proportion which the number of real or nominal Hindus bears to the total population. — Gurdaspur.— JAT. Not only are the Plill Rajputs probably those among all the peoples of thu Panjab who have occupied from the most remote date their present ai^odes. I'ut by the general feeling of the country the " appellation of Riijpiit is the legitimate right of those oidy to whom I have here restricted " it. Thus the Kiingra Hills are that portion of the Panjab which is most wholly Hindu. whether belonging to the L'ogar circle of municipalities across " the Ravi.o as Ragar or Bhag. often defeated. 13). and by the further extracts which I shall make under the head Thakar and Rathi. l)ut the matter is so important as ]> earing upon the whole question of e. The Raghl)ansi Rajputs are perhaps most numerous in the eastern part (d the Norlh-Wetern I'rovineos. or to the .' " When accosted by their inferiors they receive the peculiar salutation of Jai Dya. have returned themselves as Mauhas also. In Ourdaspur 3.also found in Ourdaspur and Lahore. 12). Tho^e also " with whom they condescend to marry are included under this honourable category.— The last. Barnes .712 of the Salahria are shown al. words arc often confused. " The de-cendanis of all these noble houses aiv distinguished by the honorary title of Midn<. hut they am .ir. or tighten them ])y throwing the still Hindu population. Mr. It is certainly here that the Rrahman and Kshatriya occupy positions most nearly resembling those assigned them by Manu. hut still employ Rivilunaiw.lalandhar circle on this side of the river. The Salahria (No. They mark the fore_ . and have been included in the figures for both tribes. as. The name " 1. the Rajas of Kangra Hills never really est. Tliakur is AND ALLIED CASTES. and in many respects the motit interesting' group of Kajput tribes thai I have to discuss. RAJPUT. 11 of the Abstract arc for the most part tt'alahria.are a Rajput clan in iuforumtiiii save that they intei'marry with (he SaUdiria. are those of the Kangra and Simla Hills and the sub-montane tract at their foot between the Bcas and the Jamua. more wholly into the hands of their priests. The Katil . Their head-quarters are in thcea tern portion of Suilkot. (hough there are a few in the Jamna districts also.l do not marry within the tribe. Rajputs of tlio liill. but still more because there has never — been any Musalman domination. is es-entially R. which should either loosen the bonds of caste by introducing among the converted people the sibsolute freedom of Islam in its purity. and it was reserved to Ranjit Singh to annex to his dominions the most ancient principalities in Northern India. and settled at Suilkot and that his descendants turned Musahn. Barnes^ Kangra Report. while 741 of the Sidlkot Salahria show themselves as Maidias and 317 as IJbatti. They are for the most part Mahomcdaii. writes " : Any member of a royal house.

" lion of the privileges of caste. this prejudice. and as there are endless caste. The Raja Dhian Singh. an artificial growth is promot" cd to alford the necessary privacy. In " meetings of the tribe and at marriages the Rajputs undetiled by the plough will refuse to sit at " meals with the Ral Bah. Those who " wish to visit their parents must travel in covered palanquins. and when " Mian Padma. 25. The prejudice against the plough is perhaps the most inveterate of all . and " only those of decent caste and respectable character are allowed to come even as far as the " mandi. the inferior lirst repeats the salutation and the courtesy is " usually retm'ued. for instance. and to this day refuse to associate with his descendants. thirdly. Any deviation from the austere rules "of the caste was sufficient to deprive the offender of this salutation. and rather than brave " the public gaze they kept their apartments and were sacriliccd to a horrible death. he is reduced to the second " grade of Rajputs . '' duly signed and sealed hy Ranji't Singh. Their emaciated looks and coarse clothes attest the vicissitudes they have undergone to " maintain their fancied purity. and the loss was " tantamount to excommunication. The seclusion of their women " is also maintained with severe strictness. and delayed presenting the deed until the Niirpur " chief should hail him with this coveted salutation. the " Sikh Minister. Tliere was no friendly wood to favour the escape of the women. un" deterred by the menaces of Ranjit Singh. that step can " never be recalled. In former days great importance was attached to the Jai Dya uuautho" rized assumption of the privilege was puni<hed as a misdemeanour hy heavy fine and imprison" mcnt. felt the force of The Raja of Kangra deserted his hereditary kingdom rather than ally his sisters to Dhian Singh. either on the crest of " a hill which commands approaches on all sides. secondly. or on the verge of a forest sedulously preserved " to form an impenetrable screen. in the height of his prosperity and power. " " " " " The giving one's daughter to an Inferior in caste is scarcely a more pardonable offence than Even Ranji't Singh. to the national expression of Vive le Roi. or plough driver. " and immolated their female relatives to avoid the disgrace of Ranjit Singh's alliance . is the sword . when used L"" together.000. the plough is the insignia of a " lower walk in life. and Del. himself a Mian of the Jammu stock. desired to extort the Jai Dya from Raja Blur Singh. such. AVheu natural defences do not exist. never appear at public assemblies. The hereditary "chief refused to compromi-^e his honour. he must never accept money " in exchange for the betrothal of his daughter and lastly. In the quantity of waste land which abounds in the hills. But Bhir Singh was a Raja by a long line "of ancestors. but not the equal of the Katoch The Rdjpiits of Katgarh.' : ' '^^^-l honour unsullied. but this " alternative involves a forfeiture of their dearest rights. in the Xurpui' pargauah. must scmpulously observe four fundamental plough . The Rdja co\dd extend the honour to high-horn Rajputs not strictly belonging to a Royal " clan.—first. to avoid the " indignity of exclusion. a renegade Pathauia. he must never di'ive the "marriage to an inferior. or the king for ever. The derivation " of the phrase is supposed to be Jai. Ho held in his possession the grant of a jagi'r valued at Rs. beyond whose precincts no one unconnected with the " household can venture to intrude. A privileged stranger who has business with the master of the " house may by favour occupy the vestibule. . The Rajputs delight to recount stories of the value of "this honour. " the fallen chief of Niirpur. removed about fifty paces from " the house. married his daughter to the Sikh monarch. taking unfrequented roads through thickets and ravines. and the exchange of a noble for a ruder profession is tantamount to a renuncia" -. or military class. victory. being synonymous. deprived him and his immediate connexions of the Jai " Dya. and many. and those too poor to afford a cou" veyance travel by night. Tlie dwellings of Rajputs can always be recognised by " one familiar with the country. and Dhian Singh was a Raja oidy by favour of Ranjit Singh. and they would rather follow any pre* Hence the word Jaikari commonly used to denote fii'st-class Rajpiits in the hills. and the vicissitudes endured to prevent its ahuse. as he is contemptuously styled . he must never give his daughter in much below his rank . his female household must observe strict " seclusion. no Mian will marry his daugliter. A Katoch's house in the JMandi territory accidentally caught fire in broad " day. The houses are placed in isolated positions. voluntarily set lire to their houses prince. This prejudice against agriculture is as " old as the Hindu religion . Some " say it is sacrilegious to lacerate the bosom of mother-earth with an iron plough-share j others de" clare that the offence consists in subjecting sacred oxen to labour. But even this concession is jealously guarded.* " gradations even among the Mi'iins. his brethren. agriculture. In every occupation of life he is made to feel his degraded position. In front of their dwellings. stands the maudi ' or vestibule. as the Sonkla or the 5lanhas. to preserve his name and maxims . a " ready livelihood is offered to those who will cultivate the soil for their daily bread. Among themselves the same salutation is interchanged . and preferred beggary to affluence rather than " accord the Jai Dya to one who by the rules of the brotherhood was his inferior. The offender at once loses the privileged salutation . The probable reason is that the " legitimate weapon of the Kshatria. himself a Jamwal Mian. and he must go a step lower in the social scale " to get a wife for himself. nor marry himself " A Miiin.' A remarkable instance of the extremes to which this seclusion is carried occtirred under " my own experience. ' ' " It is melancholy to see with what devoted tenacity the Rajput clings to these deep-rooted " prejudices. king . and I have heard various reasons given in explanation of it.156 "other PAN JAB CASTES.

then those Many of these are of Hushyarpur. the Rathi naturally seeks a broader definition. They select secluded spots " for their dwellings.JAT. Unfortunately the Settlement Reports give little or report. many a day tliey watcli in vain subsisting on "berries and on game accidentally entangled ini their nets. 157 Some lounp^e n. the Miiin would restrict the term (Ra. "Altogether. and their alliance is eagerly desired by " the Mians. and those only are legitimately entitled to rank as Rajpvits who are themselves the mem"bera of a royal clan. " Next to the royal clans in social importance are those races with whom they are connected It is not " by marriage. Others will stay at home. and very few of them engage in agriculture. These^ petty chiefs " have long since been dispossessed. and the " other carries the hawk ready to he sprung after any quarry that ri?es to the view. the Rajputs of proximate descent from ruling that throughout chiefs entered themselves in the present Census as Kshatriyas. "easy to indicate the line which separates the Rajprits from the clans immediately below him. necessity is a hard task-master. " However the prospect of starvation has already driven many to take the plough. . if they can afford it. and thus pro" long existence over another spaTi. so as to include his own <' pretensions. and very little to eat. and in the same manner barter their flesh for other necessaries of life. Among these (second-class) tribes " the most eniinent are the Manhas. All these tribes affect most of the customs of Ra jpiits. see the Finally I may state extracts quoted under the head Thakar (section 459) the Hill States. It is probable that all these royal families sprang from a common stock. '* AND ALLIED CASTES. with a gun one Rajput beats the bushes. 158S9- Abstract No. and " known in the hills by the appellation of Rathi. they exchange the gnme for a liitle meal. but have generally taken to agriculture.wny tTinir time on ttic tops of the carious pursuit tlian submit to tlic disgrace. and then those of Jalandhar and Ambala. of the Hill Rajfollowing Kangra proverbs illustrate Mr. At the close " of the day. They occasional" ly receive the salutation of Jai Dya.jpvit) " to those of royal descent . but it is easy to foresee that " the struggle cannot be long pi'otracted . but all traces of what that stock was seem to be lost in obscurity. or." : On this the better Rajput families Mr. no information regarding these tribes or clans while Mr. " mountains. those of the higher hills coming first. sometimes you get double value. Lyall notes that there are now-a-days not many even of who do not themselves do every kind of field work He also points out that ihe Rajputs of the second other than ploughing. themselves from mere Rajputs. Coldstream s from which I had hoped for much information. and pass their time in spoi-ting either " with a hawk. if tliey have been successful. has a levelling ten" dency . Still the name of Rina is retained. mere local clans named after their principal seats. at last when fortxinc grants "them success they despatch' the prize to their friends below. and the number " of seceders daily increases. I am inclined to think that the limit I have fixed will be admitted to " be just. service is no longer to he procured. spreading nets for the capture of liawks . and to many the stern alternative has arrived of tak" ing to agriculture and securing comparative comfort. and Sonkla Rajputs. and their holdings absorbed in the larger principalities which " I have eumerated. Jalandhar. Jurial." : : A »P. or enduring the pangs of hunger and death. immure their women. RAJPUT. is wholly silent on the . " So long as any resource remains the fatal step will be postponed. and sooner or later the " pressure of want will eventually overcome the scruples of the most bigoted. puts of the sub-montane of Hushyarpur. great rolling of drums. who tame and instruct the bird " for the purpose of sale. The RajI have taken two figures together. The marksman armed with a gixn will sit up for wild pigs " returning from the fields. and Ambala differ little if The at all from those of the Eastern Plains who have already been described. 82 on the next page* gives the figures for the several tribes roughly grouped by locality. to which they are considered but little inferior. In this particular consists their chief dis" tiuction from the Mians. sence of any definite line of demarcation between Rajput and Thakar. are very particular with whom they marry or betroth " in marriage. For the abgrade might more properly be called Thakars of the first grade. The two former are indeed " branches of the Jammuwal clan. to distinguish . though just and liberal. The' honour of the alliance draws them also within the exclusive circle. Barnes' description " It is bad to deal with a Rajput . puts " and sometimes nothing at all " and " Rajput's wedding is like a fire of " maize stalks . Our administration. Another class " of Rajputs who enjoy gi-eat distinction in the hills are the descendants of ancient petty chiefs or " Ranas whose title and temire generally preceded even the Rajns themselves. or are connected in marriage with them.

Abstract No. Plains Maiidi Uiiaspur Total Hill States . 82. showing the Rajput IIAJPITS OP THE 6 Auibala Liidliiaiia Jalandliar Huslnarinir Kangra Ainr'itsar Gnrdaspuv Sialkot Laliore Firozpiiv Rawalpindi British Territory Patiala Nablia Kapurtliala Malor Kotla Kalsia Total East.158 PANJAB CASTES.

144 7.596 405 7. L59 Eastern Hills.144 .144 7. EASTI'IRN HILLS. AM) ALLIED CASTES.J AT. tribes of the RAJPUT. 10 11 12 13 14 SI 20 37 G.

contain some semblance of the truth.. and are probably local clans . by the side of which fhe noblest names " of Europe seem but as of yesterday. „-„ . I have. The Pathania (No. name (No. Rajputs where dominant.-W. and Dharwal (Nos. and as SAwwia means earth. Kangra dynasty. Some of the Kangra Rathor have returned their clan as Dharwal.ur border. the Eastern Hills. a dynasty which dates from certainly some centuries before Christ. guarded by difficult passes. . 11). though not from good authoritv. whose tree shows nn unliroken lineof four hundred and seventv kings. the Katoch clan has four grand di\'isions. is expressed in the following proverb :. and are fully described in Ellioft's Races of the N. Thev sav they are descended from an ancestor called Bhumi who was formed from the sweat on Phagwati's forehead . not of his clan but of his patronymic. They are "chiefly found in ih& Hushydrpur and Kangra districts. To a stranger he gives no ^1 " detail. however. by ice and by snow. and with little wealth to tempt invasion.1.. and the clan still holds ''^^^^' (No. it may be that their division completes the triplet of the Sun. The Chandel andPathial (Nos. The Riiuas of the Bit er. outcastes where subjects. They are said to bo of the same stock as the'Katoch. thoiigh still retaininc: the " generic appellation of the race. 8). one after another. lay altogether out of the path of the II " Invading ai-mies which. that the Pathania Rajputs only occupied Pathankot some five or six centuries ago. They are returned chiefly from the Native State of Bilaspur.. and whose kingdom once included the whole of the Hoshvarpur and Jalandhar districts. Tliey are chiefiy found i'n Hushyiirpur. Manaswal or tableland of the Hu<hyarpur Siwiiliks were Dudwal Raj jputs. Tlie ancient name of the kingdom is said to have been Katoch." '" ' -' . 9.Taswiin diin in the low •11 nils '^J'^ of Hushyarpur. Mr. arc further distinguished by the name of tlie estate with M-hich "they are more immediatily identified. A Rajput interrogated by one who he thinks will understand these refined distincll tions. appear to be exceedin2:ly imperfect. " the first possession which "the family occupied on their emigration to this neighbourhood from Hindustan .. con jecture must take the place of f ruth but " it is not difficult to imagine that those long genealogies. The Goleria are the ruling family of Goler. and the flatterer fine rice.— — 160 PANJAB CASTES. Sometimes. Indeed the divisions themselves do not seem fo be very clearly marked. poured down upon tlie plains of Hindustan from the north-west. Sir Lepel Griffin writes thus of the Katoch of Kangra.—The Katoch.. individuals left the rp 2501 " court to settle on some estate in the country.— The Kilchi is said to be a clan of the Mani to Hushyarpur. The figures for tribal divisions of tlio Eajputs of the Hill States subject. and a branch of the Katoch stock the Dharwal . —The Katoch 457.-. 5). 4.2.451 persons have entered themselves as Gondal Pathidl. I cannot identify. and arc shown under both headings. the Their pride " man Moon. and their roval dynasties may have been already ancient when Moses^was leading the Israelites out of Egypt. They are nearly allied with the Katoch house of Kangra. These quiet mountain valleys. Rajput trifces of is the family of the " : ." The Katoch claim to form a third section of the great Rajput stock." In the house of the Katoch the M-orkgets ^coarse flour. each of which includes other subordinate deII nominations. The Laddu Kilchl and Khoja (Nos. received a tradition. will give the name. and the Earth-born races. It is not impossible that they are the same stock as the Chandal. Here a peaceful race. As the family increased. Barnes writes : " Each class comprises mmicrong sub-divisions. Surajbansi and Chandrahaiisi being the other two.— The Dudwal are ihe ancient ruling family of DufiirpiU'. 10. may have quietly II lived for thousands of years. The^ Dudwal Dufii-j . Provinces. ^- the tract. and" the Greeks were steering their swift ships to II 3).. though" not so frequently. in quick succession. In Kaugn 3. 7).— This is the tribe to which the ruling family of Niirpur in Kangra belongiod^and is said to take its name from Pathankot in Gurdaspur. and their descendants. " though in this case it would seem more probable that they gave their name to the town. with no ambition urging them to try I' their strength against their neighbours. Tlni^a among the Pathanias orNurpur IMians I' Ihere are twenty-two recognised suh-divisions the Golerias are distributed into thirteen distinct II tribes .— The Jaswal arc the ancient ruling family of fhe . but ranges himself under the general appellation of Kshafriya or Rajput.— The Chandel are one of the 36 roval races. and are said o to take their from Dada in Kangra on fhe Hushyar]. . Goleria. . It would be interesting to know how this lowest of all properlv lie classed as first-class Tliakars. the designation of the ancestor furnishes a surname for his posterity. and the neighbouring Hill Rajas " Antecedent to what are called historic times. 6).

are the most widely distributed of all the sub-montane They hold the south-western portion of the Jalandhar and the north-western portion of the Ludhiana district. The Thakar. and eventually settled near Philaur. They say that Raja Man. but were dispossessed by Tara Singh Gheba and the Sindhanwala Sikhs. are the lower classes of Hill > For the greater part of the description of the Rajputs of the Jalandhar district. They are Kachwaha Rajpilts. After the dissolution of the Dehli Empire the Manj Rais of Talwandi and Raikot riiled over a very extensive territory south of the Satluj. and the Jalandhar traditions refer their conquest of the tract to the time of Ala-ul-din Khilji. Those of Hushyarpur. but — Nam tlicir Nam Nam The Ghorewaha (No. are said to have settled at Hatvir in the south-west of Ludhiana. The Rahon Ghorewaha. 556 as Manhas. and some of the adjoining Patiala territory. Barkley is disposed to put the Ghorewaha conquest of their present territory at some five centuries ago. In the time of Akbar their possessions would seem to have been more extensive than they are now. Rai Amba. 14)^. who are all Musalnuiuj. as do those of the Rhatti of Jalandhai'.. say their anccstoi. as I 458. Nakodar. it would appear that if the tradition has any foundation. (Caste Nos. whoso 15). and are to be found in all the adjoining districts and States. two Manj Rajpiits. The Manj (No. — gi-andson Rai occupied their present abode for 1. Mr. —The Manj A The Taoni are also Bliatti and descendants of Raja Salvahan. Thakkar) and Rathi. 60. till dispossessed of it by the Ahliiwalia Sikhs and Ranjit Singh . a name which. and to the north of them the Naru. descendants of Kash. 13).JAT.was a Raghhansi Rajput who came from Ajudhia. Their genealogists live in Patiala. A third story makes the common ancestor a son of a Raja of Jaipur or . had two sons Kachwalia and Hawaha. 161 are with the exception perliap-t of tlio Manj. Rathi. father of Raja Rasalu of Sialkot. many or most of whom are still Hindu. Tlio pnr. CASTES ALLIED TO THE RAJPUTS.279 have also shown themselves as Kilchi. The AND ALLIED CASTES. I indebted to the kindness of Mr. North of the Satluj the Jlanj never succeeded in establishing a principality . whence their descendants spread into the neighbouring country .J kbari the Manj are wrongly shown as Main. suggests an origin from eastern irindiistan or Central India. entered the service of Shalulb-ul-din Ghori. I cannot say. and figures for tliese castes are given in Abstract No.D. but whether they are of the same stock as the Manj of Ludhiana and Jalandhar.Talandhar about Philaur. Rajpiits.lodhpur. 12).the second son of Rama. and even earlier than this the Manj Nawabs of Kot Isa Khan had attained considerable importance under the Emperoi's. am of M .800 years. and Rawat 82). but they held a large tract of country in the south-west of the Jalandhar district about Taiwan. 98-9. 39.*^ has ah-eady been describcxl in section 445. Nam spread oi' TIio (No. Barklcy points out. The Manj say that they are Rhatti Rajputs. and Malsian. The two brothers met Shahab-ul-din Ghari ( !) with an offering of a horse. There are also some 9. The Thakar (or. The original settlement of the Jalandhar was Man. and received in return as large a territory as they could ride round in The division of their country took place while they were yet Hindus. who has given me access to a most valuable collection MS. though many wci'e still Hindu after the time of Shekh Chachu. As however they state that Shekh Chachu was converted by Makhdum Shah Jahania of TJchh. and are found in small numbers in all the adjoining districts. and their genealogists still live in Kota and Bundi in Rajputana. sixth in descent from Kash. who was converted in the time of Mahmiid Ghaznavi. who are still Hindus. Barkley. as they trace their origin from Jaipur. of whiih they occupy the eastern corner. Tan is their eponymous ancestor One of his descendants. They are said to have The Taon (No. 71 on page 219. and settled at Rajwara in Hushyarpur. To the west of them are the Manj. Some 600 years ago Shekh Chachu and Shekh Kilchi. and held much of it in ^'rfofr under the Mughals. The Manj are now all Musalman. and 903 as Gondal. notes made when he was Deputy Commissioner of that district. and those of the adjoining nortliern portions of Jiilandhar say that they arc Chandrahansi and eame from the hills j while those of the east of .— The The Rawat believ^e it more properly should be. RAJPUT. Ala-ul-diln Saiyad must be meant. a title which is said to belong In the properly to the Ghorewaha of Lvidhiana. and that they are of the lineage of Hawaha. who died in 1383 A. The Naru held the Hariana tract on the Jalandhar and Hushyarpur border till the Sikhs' dispossessed them. a day . hence their name. would seem to have immigrated more lately than the rest of the tribe. tlio most widely iH'ad-quartnrH are the dis< rict^ of Jalaiidiiar and Husliyarvvoulil appear to dilTer in tlieir accounts of tlieir own origin. so that their settlement in their present tract was probably an early one. —The head-quarters of the Ghorewaha are the Jalandhar district. including the Kalsia State. Of the Hushyarpur Naru 1. and descended from Raja Salvahan. is said to have They occupy the low hills and sub-montane in tho north of Ambala district built Ambala. i/in-i. if our figures are to be accepted as correct. *P.000 of them shown in the Pindi district. as Mr. They are almost all Musalman. These last are the Alpicil of that district who have returned themselves as Manj Alpial . tho Hill l^ajputn.

and are extremely temperate and Irugal in their habits. a practice reprobated by the Shastras and not countei-anced by the highest castes. the otlier hand. and by illegitimate connections. or exchange them". do not reach the standard defined in section 456 which would entitle them to be called Rajput. from which indeed their distinguishing names " are generally derived. no other of the Hill States returns either Thalars or Rathip. wlio are styled by that title. so far as it is capable of definition. On the other " hand. in the following section. the air and climate are not equally adapted " to the development of the human frame. Speaking of . and he has little idea of the extent and " ramifications of his tribe. " but are apparently an amalgamation of lioth. The best " families ainojig the Thakars give their daughters in marriage to the least eligible of the Rajputs. "secluded hills." . Each class holds possession of its peculiar domain. 252] " the labours of the field. and unaffected they are devoted to agriculture. A R. It is a. and the different habits and •' associations created by the different localities have impressed upon each caste a peculiar " physiognomy and character. " and thus an affinity is established 1)etwecn these two great tril)es. — . their " features are rrgular and well-defined the colour visually fair. In origin they belong neither to the Kshatriya nor to the Sudnx class.rare to find a Rathi in the valleys as to meet a Ghirath in the mors. however favourable to vegetable life. The offspring of a Rajput father " by a Sudra mother would be styled'a Rathi.' — . Thus no Kauets but numerous Riithis are retiu-ned fi-om Cliaraba. Rathi : — Mr. the Ghirath is dark and coarse featured his body is stunted and sickly goitre is fearfully " prevalent among his race . and it i^ a remarkable fact that in all level and irrigated tracts. Lyall says " Our Kangra term Ratlii is a rough word to apply to any Ijut tlie lowest class ." Their ranks are being constantly increased by " defections from the Rajputs. " The lUthis are attentive and careful agriculturists. On the death of an elder brother tl'ie widow lives II " with the next brother. ' They form a society quite sufficient for his few'wants. and prevail tlirongliout tlie Niirpur and " Niidaon parganabs. and the reflection occurs to the mind that. he is entitled to recover her value from " the husband she selects. . tliough tliey are admittedly Rajputs and give tlieir daughters to Rajputs.athi is cognizant only of the sects which immediately surround him. TLe Rathis and the Ghiraths constitute the two great cultivating tribes in " these hills . "^ . the Ghiraths abound while in the poorer uplands. not unacquainted with I' " the use of arms honest. The Rathis generally arc a robust and handsome race .' The sects " of the Rathis are innumerable no one could render a true and faithful catalogue of them. Altogether. where the " crops are scanty aud the soil demands severe labour to compensate the husbandmen. Even Mr. however teeming and " prolific the soil.athis are the best bill subjects we possess their manners are simple. Iiaji)u1s wlio. quiet. Barnes writes thus of the distinction between Thakar and " The Ratliis are e-sentially an agricnltural class. the R. and their limbs athletic.iey take money for their daughters. Here lie makes Thakars first class Ratliis. and acceptixl as such by the brotherhood. " T. The line Ijetween Rajput and Thakar is defined. . The line l)etween Thakar and Rathi may be roughly said to consist in the fact that Riithis do and Thahars do not ordinarily practise widow-marriage . Lyall on the other hand seems inclined to class Thakars as second ov third class Rajputs." and speaking of Kulu. although they do not affect to be Rajputs. They '' are affronted at being called Rathis. The higher sects of the Rathis are generally styled Thakars. but arc on the other hand above the Rawat. They avoid wine. wherever the soil " is fertile and produce exuberant. the term Rathi being often added as a qualification by any one who " himself pretends to unmixed blood/^ : : On 459.162 PANJAB CASTES. The R. " They are as numerous as the villages they inhabit.athis generally assume " the tln-ead of ca-te. Again tlie line between Rathi and Kanet is exceedingly difficult to draw in fact in Chamba Rathi and Kanet are considered identical and are said to eat and marry together^ and it is said that Ratlii is in Chamba and Jammu only another name for the same people who are called Kanet in Kulu and : Kangra. liaving probably included the former with Rajputs and the latter with Kanets. if she leaves bis household. . . as if " exorcised and invigorated by the stubborn -oil upon which their lot is thrown. though the term Rathi is commonly ai)plied by Rajputs of the ruling houses t) all below t!i!^m. or. Mr. Their women take little or no part iu [P. industrious and loyal. lie says '' The " children of a Brahman or Rajput by a Kanet wife are called Brahmans and " Rajputs. manly. the Rathis " predominate.

774 Rakor. and marries her " whereupon the whole clan begins to give its daughters to Mians. 163 the caste tables which he appends to his reports. The best line of distinction however " is the marriage connection . and take daughters in mai-riage from the Rathis. So " agaiu a Raja out riding falls iu love with a Pathial girl herding cattle. like Shih Dial Chaudhri of Chetru. and 1. The term is understood to convey " some degree of slight or insult the distinction between Thakar and Rathi is however very loose.'' " Of the Thakars of Kangra 2. and a few as " first class Sudras. In " the statements most of the Thakars have been enter(Hl as second class Rajputs.029 Changra. *P.000 show themselves as Kasib. Khatris. The Rathi does not seem to be a favourite in Kangra. . if asked iu " what way he is better than a Rathi. Mahajans. and a widow woman all need to be kept weak.007 are shown as Panglana and 294 as Balotra. ih-st grade Rajput . And the quotation from the same report given on page 221"^ may be referred to. but not a Rathi's. A Thakar. Most of the Thakars entered in this last class might more properly have beeu " classed as Rathis. and " must take it up with him or stay where he is. lie writes ])opiilation • . : " The Rajput clans of tlio second gmdo might more properly ho called lirst grade Thakars "among the most distinguished and numerous of them are the Habrols. and his whole clan gets a kind of step and becomes Thakar Rajput. The whole thing reminds oue " of the struggles of families to rise in society iu England. the Mailes. and the movement much slower. marries his daughter to an " impoverished Raja. the Nanglos. will say that his own maimers and social customs.— JAT.273 have shown their tribe as Phul. 459a. Kirars. In Gurdaspur 1. for : . " the Indaiu'ias. in which he classes the Hindu under the heads of first grade Bralmian second grade Brahman grade Rajput . are more like "those of the Mian class than those of the Rathis are. " if strong they will do mischief. 1.304 as Jarautia. a goat. and except that the tactics or rules of the game " are here stricter and more formal. and 4. marrying brother's widow. RAJPUT. the Gumbaris.000 altogether show Kasib as their clan. the Hanials. the Ranats. W2 . " particularly in respect of selling daughters.101 Mangwal. Among the Rathis of Kangra there are 1. second grade Sudras . Some 6. 454. .879 Dharwal. the Mian will marry a Thakar's daughter. 74 and 103). tlie Dhatwals. 1. Thakars. the barley in the mill /' and " A " Rathi. the Palhials. a devotee. Here are two proverbs about him ''The Rathi in the stocks.632 Gurdwal. AND ALLIED CASTES.350 Chophal. The Dhund and Kahut (Caste Nos.— These have been already discussed together with the Rajputs of the Western Hills in sections 453. 1. No " one calls himself a Rathi. or likes to be addressed as one.113 Goital. &c . and her daughter can then marry a Mian. " The Rathi's daughter marries a Thakar.716 Barhai. second first grade Sudras. " A rich man of a Rathi family. as a man cannot separate himself entirely from his clan. The Nurpur Thakars are all no better than Rathis. 1. There is a local saying t liat there are as many clans of Rathis as there are different kinds of grass. 101. Rathis. Altogether 15. " They marry their daughters to the Mians. In Chamba there are 2. except that the numbers iuterested " iu the struggle are greater here. 518 Phawiil. which is probably only their Brahminieal gotra. the Ranes." : . 1. &c.078 Balotra. &c. 3.

But no general grouping of castes in the Panjab can hope to be exact and this appeared to be the most convenient place in which to discuss them. In the second group I have included those cultivating tribes who. The tribes discussed in this part of the chapter complete the essentially land-owning or agricultural triljcs of tlio Panjala. Minor dominant tribes. The Brahmans and Saiyads cultivate largely. such as Shekh or INIughal.— MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. PANJAB CASTES. The tribes or castes which I have included in Abstract No. With the Western Plains group are included the Kathia. Taga. while in others an obviously false origin has been invented. — . and have not.: 164. the Kliokhar. like the Jats and Rajputs. which purport to denote foreign origin. PART IV. yet occupy a social position somewhat similar to theirs. while the mercantile classes own large areas . Awan. comes last l)y himself. for whom I have no separate figures indeed it will be apparent from a pci-usal of the following paragraphs that the figures for all these minor castes in the western half of the Province are exceedingly imperfect. Not only are the lax use of the word Jat and tlie illdefined nature of the line separating Jats from Rajputs already alluded to sources of great confusion. and Khagga. Many. Hans. and 460.^^^3 wliich I propose to discuss in this part of the present chapter under three castes heads. *p. or with some of the great Mahomedan conquerors. but the sreneral idea of the classification has been to include in the first such tribes or castes as. They are divided into four groups. 83 on the next page* are those which are. Ror. perhaps most of them. occupy a subject or subordinate position. and the Dogar. and Khattar of the Salt-range Tract. but they will be more conveniently dealt with under a separate head in the next part of the chapter. MINOR DOMINANT 461. — The figures for each group will be found prefixed to the detailed discussion of the castes which compose it. INIiuor Dominant Tribes.i6667. The third group includes that miscellaneous assortment of persons who bear titles. while not of suflicient Foreign Races. Kharral and Daudpotra of the Western Plains. who is more widely distributed than tlie rest. are really of Indian origin. risen to political prominence. Meo and Khanzadah of the Eastern Plains . TRIBES. wliile the Gujar. . dominant in parts of the Panjab. the Karral. I liave roughly grouped the tribes and ^^. No very definite line can be drawn between the several groups . and many of them are neither agriculturists nor land-owners. Introductory and General. and cither are or have been within recent times politically dominant in their tribal territories. but are not so numerous or so widely spread as to rank with those great races. Indeed many of them are probably tribes rather than castes or races . while forming a very large and important element in the agricultural section of the population. Gakkhar. but many of these tribes have set up claims to an origin which shall connect them with the founder of the Mahomedan religion. at least within recent times. though in some cases their origin has been forgotten. Minor Agricultural and Pastoral Tril^es. magnitude or general importance to rank with the four great races which have been discussed in the two preceding parts of the chapter.

— The Karrals are returned for Hazara and I have no information concerning them save what Major Wace gives in his Settlement Report of that district. Sials. and though they now know more of '^ it. but which lack of time compels me to pass by unnoticed. — of . Mughal. their conversion to Islam '' modern date. which they cultivate simply and industriously.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. I will only note how the tendency on the frontier and throughout the Salt-range Tract is to claim Arab or Mughal. tribes discussed in this section is a subject had hoped to examine. from whom are respectively descended the Tiwanas. but was a descendant of Alexander the But the strangest story of all is that a queen of the great Raja Great Rasalu of Panjab folklore had by a paramour of the scavenger class four sons. 101). and are more careful to observe it. just as are the Awans and Janjuas of the southern portion of the same tract . They are said too to have recently set up a claim to Kayani Mughal origin. and to include them under their proper caste headings . that they conquered Kashmir and Tibet and ruled those countries for many generations. and not those of the tables. and it is the figures thus given in the text. The Karral (Caste No. or what not . This last is certainly untrue. and Karrals. and Dhunds.^' This would make the Karrals one of the Rajput tribes of the hills lying along the left bank of the Jahlam . mountain country of the Salt-range and the great plateaus of the Western Plains are the most interesting sections of the Pan jab land-owning classes. in common with the Gakkhars . Saiyads. and the figures of rhe Abstract alone are exceedingly misleading. He WTites '' The Karral country " consists of the Nara ihiqah in the Abbottabad tahsil. but were eventually driven back to Kabul. only : ! [P 255] The Gakkhars are the ancient rulers *^^The Gakkhar (Caste No. whence they entered the Panjab in company with Mahmud Ghaznavi early in the lUh century. and in the rest of the The two groups of tribes which occupy the Province to claim Rajput origin. . for till we have the full detail of clans we cannot complete the classification. from whom they emancipated them" selves some two centuries ago. They intermarry with Gakkhars. For the rest. and I have been informed by a native oflicer that they claim Rajput origin. They are attached to their homes and " their fields. Seo. Their own story is that they are descended fi'om Kaigohar of the Kayani family then reigning in Ispahan . The Karrals were " formerly the subjects of the Gakkhars. Thirty years ago their acquaintance with is of comparatively ^' the Mahomedan faith was still slight . 68) the northern portion of the cis-Indus Salt-range Tract. Originally Hindus. 462. that their ancestor came from Kayan. or. that should be referred to. as a variety. " their character is crafty and cowardly/'' Major Wace fui'ther notes that the " Karrals are identical in origin and character with the Dhunds. 165 Thus we find many of them returned or classed as Shekh. Teo^ Gheo. need the most careful examination. and Kam. Ghebas. relics of their former Hindu faith are " still observable in their social habits. even if they did not found a dynasty there. Even these are not complete. I have in each case endeavoured to separate the numbers thus returned. . and would reward it with the richest The ethnic grouping of the I which return. for Ferishtah relates that in 1008 Mahmud was attacked by a Gakkhar army Sir Lepel Gritfin thinks that they were in the neighboiu'hood of Peshawar. and it appears probable that they at one time overran Kashmir.

. U2 10.420 9. 1..647 114.643 65 . showing the Minor MINOR DOMINANT [P.551 49.457 488 532.094 9..'960 Gurgaon KainAl UisEar Eohtak Sirsa 34.137 18.. 70 569 60 119 10.315 1 1 489 15.305 14.073 Kangra Amritsar Gurdaspur Sialkot .789 Province 682. 101 12 162 68 77 79 46 65 Dehli 48 i.106 516 438 1...485 2.443 Rawalpindi Jahlam Gujrit . Total Hill States . 626 825 286 20.612 1.731 14..126 18.733 566 14.312 26 ..753 4. 2.162 4.239 2..470 .413 25..C09 75 347 14. Maler Kotla Kalsia Total East. •« 3.86.163 399 600 4 191 302 24 27 148 British Territory PatiAla 10.084 Bah&walpuT 4 Maudi Chamba N&han Bil&Bpur N&lagarh . British Territory Native States 10..789 10.647 14.417 2..771 Hushyarpur 4..861 Ambala LudhiAna Jalandh...853 2.908 951 112 27 108 358 Derah Ismail Khan Derah Ghazi Khan 6 6 50 99 Bannu Pcshiwar Hazara Kohiit .128 .. I 18.866 2.606 16..265 Maltan Jhang 235 '" Montgomery Mnzafiargarh 14 7 7..437 49...613 18 07.163 163..551 16.084 40.006 Lahore Gujrfnwala Firozpui .696 11.338 39.839 11 1..789 582... 9.839 6 11 1.475 18. -^ Shahpur 114 124. Abstract No 83.856 13. Tlains .214 1.723 213 236 1.245 86.245 36.283 4.834 92.383 .ir . 4 1 3. 153 19.067 1.402 1.246 .457 14 7 412 1.745 393 10.815 189 1..099 1.079 4...445 65.l6o PANJAB CASTES.029 48.399 1.61a 438 1.305 8.095 10.305 I ...845 118.418 26. .338 39.667 9.855 1.954 140 4.5 36 NAbha Kapnrthala Jind Faridkot .920 75 6.418 25.. 254] FlGHBES.

Sirsa.460 4. 17. 37 50 13.757 627.442 Rawalpindi. Karnal.986 12. Jind.317 2 73. Jhaiig. Jahlaiii.417 1 1 28 30 12 British Territory.226 3. 25.445 3.032 750 116 15 161 55. Kalsia.376 4. Bannu. 6 336 "" 35. Nahan.3u2 8. Si^'lkot. 449 234 219 Eohtak. Shahpur. 67 Province.759 18. Plains BahSwalpiu-. Amritsar. Jalaiidhar.948 Khan.755 553.567 103.514 00.168 43. 51. 206 Koh5t. Muzaffargarli.899 62 374 8. 1 P. I 31 Ddili.083 Mandi. Kaiigi-a.403 18. 25 828 56.5586 34 123 QjH Q M H a 0. PatiAla.304 6 5 2 1 1 74 British Territory.678 351 64 3.671 1 25. Hissar. 1 I 115999 828 116.426 3. Ludhiana. Derail Ismail Peshawar.P55 21.445 Total Hill States.013 Anibala. 115.987 3. Kapurthala.836 20.898 8.259 907 2. Hushyarpiu-.924 93.571 11.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AG RICULTUR AL Dominant Tribes TRIBES. . Malor Kotb. 1. .466 5.086 Total East. Gujraiiwala. Gujral. Lahore. Montgomery. Firozpiu'.7 for Districts and States.077 30.491 Nabha. Hazara.000 34 123 101 12 162 77 79 46. Derah Ghazi Khan.755 553. Bilaspur. PbOPOETION pee OV TOTAL POPULATION. Gnrduspur. 604 238 365 63 77 Multan. CASTES. 27 Native States.304 68.805 1. Chamba.740 645 2. Naiagarh.642 7. Favidkot.359 5.079 1. 7 1 6 1167 66 Gurgaon. 456 1.

a custom among them as soon as a female child was born. without " either religion or morality. whicli being observed by any of the other husbands. . set up a claim to Mughal origin . and at pages 574 to 581 of Griflin's i'anjdh Chiefs. Thomson as compact. or still earlier under one of the Scytho-Parthian Kings. :— " Dui'ing the residence of Muhammad Ghori at Lahore on this occasion.). in apparent imitation of the Awans. Jahlam. . who moved from Hyrkania to Abryan on the Jahlam under either Darius Hystaspes (circa 500 B. of whom about half are in Rawalpindi. holding the child in one hand and a '< knife in the other. some by force and others by persuasion.C. and perhaps 4. At present pindi. On the whole there seems little use in " going beyond the sober narrative of Ferishtah. he withdrew till the signal was taken away. and 93 in Kohat.) they continue to profess " tlie faith of Islam. II of the Archaeological Reports. to •' carry her to the door of the house and there proclaim aloud. the Ghakkars who " inhabit the country along the hanks of the Ni'lali up to the foot of the mountains of Siwalik. were easily induced to adopt tlie tenets of the true faith . husbands she left a mark at the door. This barbarous people continued to make incursions on the Muhammadans till in the latter end of this king's reign their chieftain was converted to the true A great part of these mountaineers. i. General Cunningham identifies the Gakkhars with the Gargaridse of Dionysius. sinewy.D. " They have now. and at the present day (1609 A. 183/ The Gakkhars however did not hesitate to assassinate Muhammad Ghori on his return from Lahore. while much ment information as to their early history is given in Brandreth's Settle" The Report of the Jahlam District. It wa-. but not first-class cavalry in Upper India . having very little notion of any faith while a captive. and holds them to be descendants of the great Yueti or Takhari Scythians of the Abar tribe. Thomson says " Turanian origin of the Gakkhars is highly probable .543 in Hazara. the Gakkhars arc practically confined to the RawalHazara Districts. 592 in Jahlam. emigrauts from Khorasan who settled in the Panjab not later than 300 A. " exercised unheard of cruelties on the Muhammadans and cut oft' the couimimication between the " provinces of Peshawar and Multan. and many of the Rawalpindi Gakkhars returned themselves as Mughals. The whole origin and early history of the tribe will be found discussed at pages 22 to 33.D.168 PANJAB CASTES. These Ghakkars were a race of wild barbarians. but the rest of the " theory is merely a plausible surmise..D. with little or no religion. they are still Shiahs. By this means they had more men than women which occasioned When this wife was visited by one of her the custom of having several husbands to one wife.861 were in Rjiwalpindi. religion. Ghori^s invasion in 1206 Ferishtah writes of them during Muhammad A. and points out that. Vol. raise the total number of Gakkhars to 31. but not large boned making capital soldiers and the best light proud and self-respecting. like the Persians and unlike the other tribes of It is at any rate certain that they the neighbourhood. persons who returned themselves in Rawalpindi as Mughal Gakkhar. from the Jahlam to Haripur To the figures given in Table VIII-A should be added 1. *' and much given to polyandry and infanticide.549 others who returned themselves as Mughal Kayani. who represents the Gakkhars '' as a brave and savage race.881. at the same time most of the infidels who inhabited the mountains between Gliazni and the Indus were also converted. held their present possessions long before the Mabomedan invasion of India. As Mr. " Briggs' Ferishtah. of whom This would 3. and vigorous. and 464. that any person who wanted a wife might take her otherwise she was im- " " " " " " " " " mediately to be put to death. while I am told that some of the Gakkhars of Chakwal entered themselves as : Rajputs. They are described by Mr. living mostly in the hills. where they are found all aloug the plateaus at the foot of the lower Himalayas.

The Awan (Caste No. where they once held siderable extent. " Thus the character of the "savage Gargars""^ seems to have been softened and improved by The Gakkhars do not seem always to time. the railway " principal men are very gentlemanly in their bearing. 12).MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL agriculturists . Their local distribution in the Jaldam District is fully described in Mr. and in times of commotion they would Gakkhab CLAyS. which are very well marked. is strong. 465. that they keep their women very strictly secluded. and show unmistake'' ably their high origin and breeding. 169 with no contempt for labour. . and marry only among the higher Rjijputs.included all who returned themselves as the Salt-rang. are looked '' up to in the district as men of high rank and " position. " Some of their . have returned their clans. Colonel Craeroft notes tliat they refuse to give their daughters in marriage to any other elass except Saiyads. I give in the margin the figures for a few of the largest. with whom have been Qutbshahi. They still cling to their traditions " and. and in the western The Awans. are essentially a tribe of independent possessions of very conand central portions of which they are still the dominant race. and a rule of inheritance disfavours Gakkhars of the half-blood. " assuredly take the lead one way or the other.'. Thomson's Settlement Report. since many work as coolies on Their raee feeling but preferring" tervice in the army or police. CASTES. though the Sikhs reduced them to the most abject poverty. and among them only when they eannot find a suitable match among themselves.

and although they " cannot boast of the truthfulness of other hill tribes. Steedman says " The Awans hold a high. a conclusion towards which some of the traditions of Derah Ismail Khsm also are said to point. II. Mr. •deniify them with the Jud. occur immediately below The Awans still employ Hindu Brahmans as the name of Qutb Shah. they are remarkably " free from crime. and who were so called from the old name of Mount.Glutb Shah. Colonel Davies thinks scarcely more favourably of them. in which tree their descent is traced from . strenuous but slovenly cultivators . but " not the highest place among the tribes of the Rawalpindi District. Major Wace also is inclined to give the Awans a Jat In the genealogical tree of the Kalabagh family which used to be the origin. chief family of the tribe. Babar describes the Jud and Janjuas as having been from of old the lords of the Salt-range and of tlie plain country at its foot between the Indus and the Jahlam. Mr. : . keeping up at the same It is almost certain thai time their connection with their Jalandhar homes. and mentions that their minor Chiefs were called Malik. manners. Thomson considers the whole question in sections 73-74 of his Jahlam Settlement Report. He writes '' The Awans are a brave high-spirit^xl race but withal exceeding'' In point of cliaracter there is little in them to admire . violent. " Mr. that they may have accompanied the were in former times in the imperial service at Dehli. they " are constantly in hot water tlieir quarrels leading to affrays and their affrays " not unfrcquently ending in bloodslied. and adduces many strong reasons in support of his conclusion that the Awans are a Jat race who came through the passes west of Derah Ismail Khan and spread northwards to the country near Sakesar. . : . a title The Jalandhar Awans state that still used by the headmen of those parts. and think? both the Awans and the Janjuas Anuwan or descendants of Ann it probable that they held the plateaus which lie north of the Salt-range at the time of the Indo-Scythian invasion which drove them southwards to take [ArchcBological Reports. . and turning from Hirtit to India. and prone to keeping alive old feuds. Sc'veral Hindu names. forming independent clans by whom the Chief of Kalabagh was acknowledged as tlie head of the tribe. but not tall . . such as Rai Harkaran. headstrong ly indolent '^ and irasciljle to an unusual degree. occupants of the Mianwali Salt-range Tract for the last 600 years. Brandreth is of opinion that they are more probably " descendants of the Bactrian Greeks driven soutli " from Balkli by Tartar liordes. and given to faction strong and broad shouldered. and dispossessed the Janjua llajputs of the General Cunningham. is inclined to Salt-range country. family priests. The Awans have been almost the sole Mr. . Vol. " and that they entered the Panjab not more than some 250 years ago as a conquering army under leaders of their own.170 PAN JAB CASTES. they came into that district as followers of one of the early Emperors of Dehli who brought them with him from the Salt-range and it is not impossible Many of them forces of Babar. and essentially a peasant race. Salt-range. Brandreth^s theory is incorrect. on the other hand. whom Babar mentions as being descended from the same ancestor as the Janjuas and occupying the western Salt-range at the time of his invasion. As a rule 466. As a set-off against this it must " be allowed that their manners are frank and engaging. Mr. Thomsoii describes the Awans as frank and pleasing in their but vindictive. He would make Sakesar which is still tlie tribal centre of the Awan race. I may add that some of the Awans of Gujrat are said to trace their origin from Sindh.) refuge in the mountains. page 17^.

and (lie " ehiidren of a low-caste woman by an Awan are not considered true Awans. as opposed to the Gakkhars and . '' 17 " (hey do not g"ive their daiii^hters in marriage to other tribes. as Mr. The Awans . Thomson describes tliem as distinctly belonging to the zaminddr or peasant class.Tanjuas who are Sahu or gentry. The liistory of the Awans is sketched l)y Sir Lep«d Griffin at pages 570// of his Panjiib Chiefs. In Jahhiin their position would scarcely seem to be so high as in Rawalpindi.1 MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES.

184 3.589 8. . .126 11 36. Rajput Khokhar.800 1.702 1.785 1.895 22.745 427 161 2.385 6. 17a PAN JAB CASTES.731 9.848 18. while only in the Rawalpindi District ob State.690 1.137 42.016 1..'' 468.346 16.310 1.524 and Khokhar by tribe. and other high class Rajputs. " Since then they have become more civilised and less addicted to deeds of " violence. 58). Khokhar How is far this in- clusion 894 5.870 8. and all those of the ed frontier. whom the detail has already been given in section 466_. Ghebas.376 3.033 4. Sialkot .236 me that Dadan Khan Khokhars and Mr. But in the Shekhs. The Khokhars are ordinarily considered a Rajput tribe. Jodras.331 enquiry it would appear that Khokhars did very generally return themselves as Jats or Rajputs.831 and are Multan separate for the divisions figures shown caste.. tells Geand Total 152. .040 2. Caste Khokhar.110 221 42. and the like. Thomson in Pind the are said to Jat be from entirely distinct Rajput Khokhars. of the Khokhars of the western districts again.157 2. Multan 236 6. Barkley points out as Khokhars and added to the figures given above.866 2.404 295 1.113 10. of as mythical as the Awiin's own story.675 276 134 1.649 55.011 1.884 6..533 4. Socially the Khattars hold an intermediate place.159 3.) Many themselves.380 I cannot say exactly till the detailed clan tables ready.388 men.702 1. and Jat Khokhar respectively.349 1.310 123. Awans. and most of the Khokhars of the central districts have so return- KuOKHAES. though in Jalandhar at least they are said to intermarry rather witli then' own clan.375 6.937 8.881 133.265 7. the traditional ancestor of the Awans and the claim Is often admitted by the Awans themselves.682 3.115 10 Jhang Montgomery Muzaffargarh 951 Khan Derah Ghazi Khan Banuu Derail Ismail 18 20 12 70 2. . liave returned themselves as Awan by caste and Khokhar by clan. Total.967 9.964 7. . than with their Rajput neighbours.310 45. (Small numbers omitted in the details but included in the totals.906 8. Bohtak Sirsa .208 5.185 2. .. . the Panjab Khokhars appear to be admittedly of Rajput origin. the head The Khokhar (Caste No.728 2.095 3.239 2. 27 1.388 khars returned themselves as Rajput or Jat by caste due to Khohaving actually Jahlam Gujrat Shahpur . Awans.058 963 5. though of com'se Thus no fewer than 18. Caste Rajput.. Caste Jat.081 3. ranking below " Gakkhars.013 4.100 3. . especially the latter.696 11. .208 4. are But from local Kapurthala Bahawalpur British Territory Native States Province . Lahore Gajrauwala Firozpur . 393 10. .767 Jalandhar Amritsar Gurdaspur.6 S2 3.605 1. The figures in the margin show those who are returned the In the east of as Khokhar.. and should probably be counted Mr..— The figures of Table VIII A under Khokhar only represent a fraction of the Khokhars in the Panjab. Add Awan Khokhar ^ 3S. have been returned as Jats . Khokhars have set up a claim to be descended from Muhammad the Avest the eldest son of tlutb Shah of Ghaznl. and how far to the action of the divisional offices.243 2. Rawalpindi 961 2.745 1.

In Jhang too they once ruled over an extensive tract lying east of the Jahlam. and the country side. whence they spread along the hills . Steedman suggests Koh Kerana. . but they are also found. for the Awan tradition is apparently spreading. lying south of Slmlipur. The Khokhars of Gujrat and Sialkot have a tradition that they were originally settled at Garh Karanah.^ . Find Dadan Khan is said to have taken its name from a Khokhar Chief who founded it and was Raja of those parts in the time of Jahangir . Major Tod gives Khokra as one of the clans of the R^thor Rajputs. 469. and not given to crime. in the Jhang district. The Khokhars of Shahpur are said to be split up into innumerable clans. The Khokhars are most numerous along the valleys of the Jahlam and Chanab^ and especially in the Jhang and Shahpur districts . Steedman describes the Khokhars as among the best of the agricultural classes. Mr. is told at pages 589^ of Griffin''s Panjab Chiefs. the Khokhars intermarry with the local Rajput tribes.4-12 of the Khokhar Rajputs have returned their main tribe as Bhatti. though I should add that Major Tod thinks Khokhar may be a misreading for Gakkhar. In Akbar''s time the Khokhars were shown as the principal tribe of the Dasuva parganah of Hushyarpur . . and the Mahomedan historians tell us that the Khokhars held Lahore and were powerful in the Upper Bari Locih at the time of Tainmr's invasion. Colonel Davies notes . 173 annals of Jaisalmer given by Major Tod narrate the quarrels between the Khokhars and the Bhattis of Jaisalmer long before the time of Mahomot . On the whole it would appear most probal)le that they are really Rajputs^ perliaps not of the purest descent while the low repute in which Rajputs are held on the frontier would account for the rise of tlie claim to Qureshi origin. which they cannot identify. The English Editors generally suggest Gakkhar as an emendation probably because they do not know the word Khokhar. which at one time possessed some importance. but in Jhang Mr. and the history of the family. 1 ^ : . Sir Lepel GrifRn indeed separates the Khokhar Rajputs from those Khokhars who claim kindred origin with the Awans. and that they then went to Jammu. and the concentration of the Khokhars of the plains on the Jahlam and the Chanab. even among those Khokhars who are still recognised as Rajputs throughout At the same time the Khokhars are so widely spread. and especially in Lahore.^ and were ejected by Tamerlane . have been at one time or another so powerful that Khokhar is almost as favourite a name as Bhatti for the clans of the lower castes in the Panjab and it may be that there is a distinct Khokhar caste apart fi'om the Khokhar RajputSj just as both are certainly distinct from the Khokhar Chiihras. and not upwards from the south. where the prohibition against marriage out of a Musalman tribe. hardworking. are alone important . but it is doubtful whether this is allowable. though in smaller numbers. lend some colour to the theory that they si^road downwards from the hills. which would quickly spread among In Sirsa. and 'the wide diffusion of those of the sub-niontane tract. and of the struggles between the Janjuas and the Khokhars for the possession of the tract. MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL that the CASTES. among whom tbe Nissowana. In Bahjiwalpur I find that 2. the caste is very strictly observed. on the lower Indus and the Satluj.that many of the social customs of the Khokhars of Shahpur denote Hindu origin and this would be quite decisive against the Qutb Shahi myth. notorious for their thieving propensities and generally lawless character. and also all along the foot of the hills fi'om the Jahlam to the Sathij. thrifty.


In turbulence and courage tliey have been " always considered to excel nil the others except the Kathias but the tract occui/ied by them " has been gralually denuded by the rapid extension of cultivation. The cultivation in their villages is. who was killed in September 1857 by a detachment under Captain Ulack. the Wattu. Purser adds that they are table to travellers. 175 There are now very few in the Multan district to their pivsont lorrllory. and " their activity and endurance are remarkable. mere well-cultivation " being too laborious a task even for their dependants. which they arc said to have acquired from the Sial in return for aid afforded to the latter against the Nawab of . Khagga. therefore. and Hans. in no less than five insurrections. " and had given him a groat influence over the whole of the Great Ravi. but they hold a considerable area in the south of Jhang. priedatory. ever impatient of control.Tats they pretend to a descent '• fi'om the Rajputs. " Ahmad Khan. In ca^e of disturbances. Kharrals in his Gugaira Report " Tlic Kbari-als ' are the most iiorthernly of the Great Ravi * tribes. thievish. headed " the combined tribes. and thievish tribe.ali ire district. bad cultivators and " notorious thieves. and that they In still follow many Hindu customs. Like all the other . where it was almost impossible to follow them. they submitted with the greatest reluctance to Hindu rule . the Kharral proprietors contenting themselves with realizing their shai-e of " the produce. This success had spread hi-. renown far and wide." . their features are very marked. which appears to have been mainly planned and organized l)y him.' found aloni^ the Satluj. and as the Kathias 1. and '' The Dogar. however. thout^h in small nnmlters only^ lends some support to the story of their having come upwards from Captain Elphinstone thus describes the : ' ' below.' as was proved by the " outbreak of 1857. They occupy ft great " portion of the land hetwcen Gugaira and the T. — — — ' ' wasteful in marriage expenditure^ hospilittle taste for agriculture . and " extend some distance into ttc GuiniTiwala district. and nobody seems to have But there are 3. to the Ravi valley of the Multan and Montgomery districts . These men have been inConnnissioner of Montgomery after local inquiry.^' Great Ravi It The Kathia.'" In Gujranwala they are said to be " idle. the Bhatti. the fact of their heinij. and were so entered in the settlement. their persons generally tall and handsome. and comes next in importance among them to the Kharral. up Init . heavy jungle. and with : ""^ : " nomad and 4f72. savage. and like that class look down with some contempt upon men who handle the " plough. They only possess land in tracts inundated by the rivers. they have had at more " recent periods tu evacuate their o^^'n lands on the approach of large military forces. troublesome. their chief object the plunder of the Khatris and llitidns having usually " been accomplished at the expense of a moderate fine imposed on them under the name of " Nazarana. of what formerly constituted " their greatest strength. The Kathias are almost confined cluded under the head Rajput iu our tables.972 in Multan who claim to be Punwar Rajputs. on both sid:s of the river. is not shown in our tables as a separate caste. almost exclusively left to the Vysiwans " and inferior castes. and " it was as much as Diwan Sawan Mai and the Sikhs could do to restrain them j '' for wlienever an organised force was sent against them they retired into the " marshes and thick jungles. thus " sustaining much damage by the destruction of their villages.— The Kathia is another of the tri])es. More fanatic than other Mahomedan " tribes.— MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. have returned their caste as Punwar . and their habits INIr. and " delighting in strife and plunder. especially on the occasion of marriage. which to a certain extent all " jiroved successful.878 men in Montgomery and returned himself as Kathia. Sir Lepel GrifRn *' Through all historic times tbe Kharrals have been a writes of them " turbulent. Lahore they appear to bear a no better character than in Montgomery .' after the conclusion of peace. Their most celebrated leader. In " stature the Kharrals are generally above the average height. it is proThis is the explanation given by the Deputy bable that these are the Kathias. therefore. and the there is a Persian proverb " Kharral are all rebellious and ought to be slain.

and placed under his charge " an important post near tlie Court. one of the principal Kathiawar Stales. the only way that his 8. From there they went to Sirsa and "then to Bahawalpur. The " Kfitliias are Punwar Rajputs.— ire — PAN JAB CASTES. Tlius the Kathias obtained a footing in this district. but plundered the others whenever they could get a chance. "when Alexander ' : " In their habits the Kathias differ little from the other Jat tribes. Before the accession of " Ranjit Singh they lived chiefly on cattle grazing and plunder. however. have a tradition that they came to their present territory from the Panjab via Sindh and Kach. They then settled at Mirah Sial in J hang. different account of their migra- He says : " The Kathias have been identified with the 'Kathaioi' of Alexander's time. of course. Multan. and after conquering them was so much " attracted by the beauty of the country. gives a somewhat tions. 'J'hey always held "by the Kamalia Kharrals. the consumption of wheat among them is very inconsiderable. them in his Montgomery report : " Tlie remarkable fact tLai a people called ' Katliaioi ' occupied a part of t1ie Gugaira district iuvaded the Paujab. . this account of their " origin mu^t be altogether fictitious. about the time of Tamerlane's invasion. Here they "quarrelled with the llilochis and had to leave. who also claim descent from Raja Karan. The question is elaborately discussed by General Cunningham at pages 33 to 42 of volume II of his Arch aological Reports. overcome by "a large army with which he attacked the imperial forces "superior numbers. to make ciuiuiries on the subject. the Kathias proper. who In their stronghold of Sangala so stoutly resisted the victorious army of Alexander. and in Volume I." ' ' ' ' Mr. Their own account of their origin is. But a Pandit of Gujarat who was sent Into the Panjab by the Kaja of Jazdan. They state that a prince named * Khattya ' reigning in "Rajputana.' who take a prominent part at all marriage festivities. All the Kathias claim descent from this prince. that lie remained and received a grant of the whole tract "for himself and his descendants. Originally they resided in Bikaner. Siirajbausi. Saadat Yar Khan " obtained the release of their leaders (who were imprisoned on account of tliis affair) on condition of "their settling on the Ravi. According to " their account they are descended from Raja Karan. an "undoubted sign of theii* conversion to Muhammadanism having been of recent date. the line is only brought down to a few of the princi" pal families of the tribe. " too earh-^ marriages would be detrimental to the physic|ue ' of the race. 1880). " whence they emigrated and founded the State of Kathiawar. "After brooding for some time over this great outrage tn Rajput honour. and at last induced him to embrace the Muhammadan faith. but. like many other popular traditions of this kind. and like nearly all Jats of the Great Ravi do not allow their children "of either sex to marry until they have attained the age of puberty. tells me that the Kathiawar Kiljputs. Ihit an examination of their "alleged pedigree shows that. as they justly consider. There are two main divisions . Like the Kharrals and Fattiauas "they still keep up Hindu Parohits.000 descendants manage to arrange the " matter is by assuming that the prince had no less than 150 sons . however. Thej are supposed to be the same people as the Kathsel. pages 101^ of Captain Elphinstone thus describes Tod''s Rdjasthun [Madras Bejrrint. Their chief and favourite " article of food is buttermilk . was compelled to yield up one of his sisters in marriage to the Emperor of Dehli. They " stole the cattle of Alawal Klu'in of Kaunilia. and was made a prisoner after nearly all his adherents had been slain. far different. because. whilst in a pedigree prepared by "the chief mirasi of the tribe. in which the increase of oif spring in the different generations is "arranged with more accordance to probability. Some time afterwards he was sent with a force to subdue a " portion of the Ravi tribes who had risen in insurrection. or the valley of the lower Ghaggar. After much " enquiry on (he subject. he contrived to assemble he was. He was "then conducted with great honour to the Court of Dehli. They are "a handsome and sturdy race." This would make the Kathias of the Kavi immigrants from Kathiawar. I have come to the conclusion that the Kathias of the present day have a " strong claim to be considered the descendants of the same Kathaioi ' who so gallantly resisted the " Macedonian conqueror. and the " Baglielas. The Kuthia tradition Is that they were driven out of Sarsa Ranla. who was killed pursuing them. Like all " Jats they take a particular pride in tracing their descent Irom a Kajput prince aboiit the time of "their conversion to Muhammadanism under the Emperor Akbar. Purser. Xextthey crossed over to Kabula and went onto Daira Dinpanah. iuvests the Katliia tribe with :i peculiar interest. luifortunate"ly for the credibility of this story. where the Emperor treated him with "kindness.

. he found the an*' cestor of the family a man of reputation in his native district of Shikarpur. The Daudpotra (Caste No. and not wanting in courage .^' {History of the SikJis. It is only within the last few years that the principal Dogars "have begun to wear any covering for the head. though occasionally said to be Hajputs but all that is certain about tlieir origin is that their ancestor Daud Kluui was a Julaha by occupation. The Firozpur Dogars are all descended from "a common ancestor named Bahlol. Bambu. Both accounts are very probably false. while another story makes him a Wattu Rajput. " The Shiih made him deputy of the upper third of the province. "especially in the Firozpur ilaqua. and in which they resemble the Afghans. some respectable persons among them. Lawrence. the Dogars preserve "evident traces of some connection with the Hindus in most of their family customs. wore their long hair over their shoulders without any coveHng either of " sheet or turban. but. " Sir H. Besides the numbers shown in Table VIII A as Daudpotras. whence they spread gradually along the banks of the f^atluj. Brandreth in his Firozpur Report : " In luy account of the Firozpur ilaqua I have already alluded to the Dogar:^. " and makes it probable that there is ^ ery little Chauhan blood in their veins. 11. as is the case with " the poorer classes still. The Firozpur Dogars consider themselves superior in rank " and descent to the other sub-castes. but may be regarded as Biloches changed by '' long residence in Sindh. though susceptible to " kindness. and " entered the Firozpur district about 100 years ago.287 are in the Multan district. There are also considerable colonies of them in Hissar and Karnal They are thus described by Mr. they appear to have been always troublesome subjects. is very remarkable. 46). and " too fond of their own f i-ee mode of life to willingly take service as soldiers.— The Dogars of the Panjab are found the upper valleys of the Satluj and Beas above the lower border of the Lahore district." ' . Their founder Daud Khan is said to have been the son of one Jam Junjar of Shikiirpur. Cunningham relates their origin thus " When : Sindh. but they are called Mahu Uogars. of whom 1. " and sinewy. 1. The tribe is practically confined to Eahawalpur and the neighbouring portions of Multan. In establishing themselves on the Satluj. almost without exception. those of Khai the descendants of Langar . &c. who are supposed " to be converted Chauhan Rajputs from the neighbourhood of Dehli. ' ' ' N .— MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL and CASTES. and brother of Muhammad the ancestor of the Kalhora dynasty of Siudh .421 persons have retui-ned themselves as Shekh Daudpotra. and tenacious of what they consider their rights. from Mahu the grandfather "of Bahlol.* The Jewish face "which is found among the Dogars. " Like the Gujars and Naipals they are great thieves. if not by caste. and have also spread westwards along the foot of the hills into Sialkot. as the Parchats. At one time infanticide is said "to have prevailed among them. There are. They migrated first to the "neighbourhood of Pak Pattan. part of which was once included in the Bahawalpur State. however. and are remarkable for having.3. They fabulously trace "their origin to the Caliph Abbas. as 177 The Khagga and Hans appear lo liave returned themselves are described in section 50?) under the head Shekli. becoming " suspicious of the whole clan.) to establish his authority in '* Nadir Shah proceeded — in 474. 79). who knew the Dogars well. Eahlol had three sons. " Their favourite crime is cattle-slealing. formerly the whole population. notwithstanding the "fondness with which they attempt to trace their connection with that ancient family of Rajputs. resolved on removing it to Ghazni. The Dogai's of Firozpur and " Mullanwala are the descendants of Bambu . "The Chopura Dogars occupy Mandot. writes of them that 'they arc tall. Qureshi^ 473. and prefer pasturing cattle to cultivating. large acjuiline noses they " are fanciful and violent. Notwithstanding the difference of physiognomy. but I do not think there is much trace of it at the present day. the Chopuras. There are many other sub-castes of the Dogars in "other districts along the banks of the Satluj. The tribe " then migrated up the Satluj and seized lands by force. they " reduced the remains of the ancient Langahs and Joyas to still further insigni" ficance.— The Daudpotra are the reigning family of Bahawalpur^ and usually claim to he Qureshi Arabs. the descen" dauts of Sammu live in the Kasiir territory. The Dogars (Caste No. They are very particular to whom they give their daughters "in marriage though they take wives from all the other families. and Sammu. however. handsome. in which they " resemble the Hindus much more than the orthodox Muhammadans. Langar. note. the Topuras.

They are not good cultivators. of which the village of Amin. probably from the The Dogars of Lahore and Firozpur are Satluj across the Sirsa district. being found only on the river banks the very worst reputation. claim to be Chaulian and ihe other Punwar Rajputs^ and he notes their aUeged advent from Pak Pattan.protection against Ran jit Singh . Purser notes that tbey are divided into two tribes^ one of which 475. ^^hcther their own or other people's. but further north they seem to have settled down and become peaceful husbandmen. and is Rajput neighbours. some of the largest are shown in the margin. They are fine stalwart men. They appeal.to have that their origin was probably in the Satluj valley. The Dogars fjlood. and during the next forty years to have jDOSsessed themselves of a very considerable portion of the district. entered the Firozpur district about 1760 A. 55). where the Pandavas arranged their forces before their last fight with the Kauravas. Of their origin I can say nothing certain. they The Dogars have are praciically all Musalmans.''' The Aroras are often calleil Roras in the east of the Punjab. 476. though I believe that Dogar. or perhaps Doghar. yet I can hardly l)clieve that the frank and stalwart Ror is of the same origin as the Arora.— The real scat of the Panjab Rors is in the great dhdk jungles south of Thancsar on the borders of the Karniil and Amjtala districts. whom they much resemble in their In Lahore and Firozpur they are notorious cattle-thieves.178 PAN. Their social standing seems to be al)Out that of a low-class Rajput . but it lapsed in i835. and appear from the passage quoted above to have I suspect retained till quite lately some at least of the habits of a wild tribe.D. They are more peaceful and less grasping in their habits than the Jats. In 1808 we recognised the Dogar State of Firozpur. The Ror (Caste No. If they ever did move from Dehli to the Montgomery district^ it can hardly have been since the Ghaggar ceased to fertilize the intervening country^ and the date of the migration must have been at least some centuries back . is the tika or head village. : the Dogars is probably very doubtful. Mr. a strong liking for cattle. and took it under om.TAB CASTES. and still The Rajput origin of strenously denied by their to retain are They habits. of very much the same type as the Jats.^. and the Dogars of Hissar came to those parts from the Panjab. where they hold a chaurasi nominally consisting of 84 villages. while their turbulence rendered tliem almost independent of the Sikh Government. they bear essentially a riverside tril)e. seem to be originally a pastoral rather than an agricultural tribe. But the Rors have spread down the Western Jamna Caual into the lower parts of Karufil aud into Jind in considerable numbers. often classed with Gujais. returned hardly any large clans . and are consequently readily admitted as tenants where the latter would be kept at arm's length. is used in some parts of the Province to denote one of mixed Another derivation of the name is doghgar or milkman. their women also working in the fields. They have the same story as the Aroras. They are said also to hold 12 villages beyond the Ganges. hut not their previous migration from Dehli. of their having been Rajputs who escaped the fury of Paras Ram by staling that their caste was aur or "another. whom they almost equal as husbandmen. The Amin men say that thev came from Sarabhal in Muradal)ad l»ut this mav onlv be in order to : .


Hindu. The men wear the " dhoti and Tcnmri. Several of the respective clans are identical " in name (Singal. I find it stated that Mewas o is a name given to tlie fastnesses in "the Aravalli hills.. Dingal. Balot) . 967 aftrr siabduiugthe Minas. Id. * ' ' ' ! " to Ulwar territory . Palis. were the original masters of the State of Amber or Jaipur. and when the sanctity of a " threatened place has been urged. of the ancient sovereignty of " the tribe. " Meos do not marry in their Pal or clan. but the ceremony itself is performed " by the Kazi. " i'he Meos are now all Musalmans in name . and in later time as against the Mawas. and some know the Tcalima. they have become generally well " behaved . Their dress is. and would like a school. at certain places where there are mosques. who in Gurgaon are known only as a " body of professional criminals. " they have often shown little respect for Hindu shrines and temples . whose children they receive into the Meo community. vho broke up the " large turbulent villages into a number of small hamlets. and I should bo inclined to add that both are probably representatives of the earlier non-Aryan inhabitants of the countrj'. but tl eir village deities are the same as those of "Hinda zamindars. In Tod's RajasthSn. ' However.7t c^iV/^?'. or note fixing the date of a marriage.st proceeding is to " erect a ' Chabutra * to ' Bainijl' or Hanumaii. " In 1857 they assembl»»d. Like the women of low Hindu castes they tattoo " their bodies. only applies . Meos. Thus the Holi is with Meos a season " of rough play. carried oflf cattlo. on the same " authority. The similarity between the words Meo and Mina suggest "that the former may be a contraction of the latter. as the Ipgendstell. Their women. but they are lax about forming connections with " women of other castes. Xai. but did not succeed in " plundering any town or village in Ulwav.. The point in which they " chiefly fail is working their wells. however. as I intejiret it. and his "ladylove Sisbadani Mini seems to show that they formerly intermarried. " . page 76. " Bakhtiiwar Singh and Banni Singli (during the first-half of this century). Tliey keep too several Hindu festivals. " To this Mr. the term for a community of any of the aborignial mountain races . Kolis and others make their retreat. aud a story iold of one Daria ISIeo. in British. In British territory they plundered Firozpur and " other villaees. hut I believe the women are seldom or never allowed to have them. the efEect of the schools is to make them more observant of religious " duties.D. Meos are often mentioned. the seasons of which they entirely neglect.-ts "to write the p. II. As already stated " Brahmins take part in the formaliiies preceding a marriage. These facts incline " me to the belief that the Meos are such of the aborginal Mi'na population of the Aravalli bills as " were convert m1 to Muhammadanism. Charming' adds My own enquiries on the subject were : . burnt state ricks. say their prayers. or monthly conjunction of the sun and moon. as Mi'na Meos and in the *' older Mnhammadan historians and in Tod. and not paJijamds.^er " still the regular prayers. They call themselves by Hindu " names. Dulot. in common with Hindu " Ahirs. they have no scruples about getting drunk when opportunity oifcrs. and Shabrat and " they likewise observe the Janamashfami. &c. " " " " imperfect when they were interrupted by my transfer a conclusion which I find has also been adopted by Major Powlett.180 PANJAB CASTES. will. when plunder was to be obtained. Meos are generally poor and live " badly . Indeed. — from Gurgaon but they led me to . The men often wear " gold ornaments. the retort has been ' Turn to JDeo. Few know the Tcalima. another token. its import is a " defile or valley. and fev. " Tod also states that in Jaipur the Minas are still the most numerous tril)e. I find expeditions against their country spoken of as " expeditions against the Mawasat. and when they make a well the fir. and is considerel as important a festival as the Moharram. Pundlot. cease from labour . These latter. This. : . in Ulwar. there are grounds for believing that many spring "ffom the same stock as the Minns. " As agriculturists. it is probable enough that apostate Eajputs and bastard sons of Eajputs founded " many of the clans. and Pal is the term given to the main Sub'• Divisions of the Meos and also of the Mi'nas. Dusehra and Diwali. with the exception of Ram j' and Singh ' is a frequent affix though not as common as " Khan. However. " Tliough Meos claim to be of Rajput origin. whom they do " not confine. to whi^h Minas. and when a British force came to restore order many were hanged. but they return to tlieir former habits when opportimity occurs. religious observances " are better maintained. and that their name is probably a corruption of Mewasati " or the men of the mountain passes. Ham Meo !' You may be a " Deo (God\ but I am a Meo " As regards their own religion Meos are very ignorant. which would seem farther to connect the " two. Meos are inferior to their Hindu neighbours. which I only put forward tentatively. that the Minas and Meos are connected. although not in Gurgaon. They often keep Brahmin prie. Gujars. Perhaps other enquiries may be able to confirm or refute this " theory. lu Bulandshahra caste " called Meo Minas is spoken of in the Settlement Ke]iort. a practice disapproved by Musalmans in general. for which they lack patience. do more field work than the men indeed one often finds women at work " in the crops when the men are lying down. Vol.' " On the Amawas. fitted for cultivation and defence . it is said. " the Rajput kingdom of which was founded by liliole Rao about A. &e. and possess large " immunities and privileges formerly the tika of sovereignty was marked by blood taken from " the groat toe of a Mfna of Kalikbo. in fact.

These Meo sub-tribes still possess " a strong feeling of unity and the power of corporate action. Signal 11. 3. 262] there is a thirtociifch Palakhra or little Pill Paliat. and it may- be that some of the Meos returned from other districts than Gurgaon and those bordering upon it. 5. 4. the Landawats. 9. are not true Meos. 7. Uimrots. Niii. 8. and the Darvvals in the country south of Niih. 181 1. the Chirklots in the south-east of Niih and *'in the country round Punahana. 10. Dimrot. 12.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. Landawat." " Be^iicles tlicsc The are principal Meo sub- divisions returned in shown in Ambala and perhaps elsewhere the word Meo seems commonly to Gurgaon In the margin. Kalcsa or Kalsakhi. Ratawat. Balant. G. The Pals which are strongest " in Gurgiion are the Dahngals in the north of Niih . and Dulots in the Firozpur " valley. 2. Dulot. Cliirklot. be Men used as equivalent to or fislierman . . Yunglofc. Dahngal. Danval.

or " the son of a Khan " is precisely the Musalman equivalent to the Hindu Rajput or " son of a Raja " and there can be little doubt that the Khanzadahs are to the Meos what the Rajputs are to the Jats. whence they were driven by the Balas into Gujarat of the Bombay Presidency .D. Rajputs. I have a suspicion that they are more intimately pritness to its former greater importance. were converted to Islam in the i-eign of Firoz Shah (A. and they commonly say that this is their only got. to the north of Firozpur.the Pirozpur tahsil professs to have been formerly Khanzadaln. These Tochari or Kushan arc the Kaspeinei of Ptolemy . and that their ancestors Lakhan Pal and Sumitr Pal. and to have become Meos Their traditions also. and were shortly afterwards separated from their northern Ijrethren by Indo-Scylhian wave from the north. whom they seem to me to resemble in personal appearance. At first they are said to have lived at Sarahta near Tijara. Chamiirs. and Kotila. Channing adds : " " " " " " " " " '' " " " " " " " " " Khanzadas are a race who were fovmorly of much more importance tlan at present . 1351 to 138S). and when this is filled with water the only road to the pass lies along a narrow strip of land between the lake and the hill. and now in this district own only a few villages near Niih and Trace> of their former importance exist at Sahna. only the Jats. who gave Lakhan Pal tlie name of Xahir Khan and Sumitr Pal the name of Bahadur Khan. About a century before while his son Christ their Chief conquered Kabul and the Peshawar country . corresponding very nearly with the the Gujrat district. They do not ordinarily intermarry with Meos. Bund-i. I am inclined to suspect that the Khanzadas are the repre" sentatives of the noble class among the aboriginal population. Kaspeira. a tribe of Eastern Tartars. wholly surrounded by the hill. The remains of a breastwork along the face of the hill and across the mouth of the pass still exists while on tlic hill al)Ovc the The village now belongs to Mcos. Kasyapapura. and about the end of the 9th century. they possessed 1. and in the middle of the second century of our lera. To this Mr. had begun to move soutliwards down the Indus. who dwelt at Tahangarh in Bharatpur. and he left his son in charge of an independent province whose capital was fixed at Peshawar . and afterwards However this m. with those of more than one clan of Mcos. the village i. Some of the buildings bear village is a small ruined fort. the first Buddhist Indo-Seythian prince. Ala Khana the Gujar king of Jammu. ceded the present Gujar-des. The Guj jar (Caste No. and those of the Panjab as the Kator Before the end of the 3rd century a portion of the Gujars or Little Yuchi. and from that tiine the Yuchi of Kabul are known as the Great Yuchi. annexed Kashmir to the kingdom of the Tochari. 263j Hima .situated in a small valley. the mixed caste of Arains. agree. the attacks of the White Huns recalled the last king of the united Yuchi to the west. that they were the ruling race in Mewat duwn to the time of Rahnr since then tliey have gradually declined in importance. Probably about the beginning of the 8rd century after Christ. and Pathans among dominant castes. they claim to have been formerly Jadu Rajpiits. " villages in. . which point to Sarahta as their ancient home. so well known to the Panjal) Numismatologist. except where a small funnel-like pass give^ entrance to it. connected than they acknowledge with the Meos. and Chuhras exceeding ihcm in point of number. They are identified by General Cunningham with the Kushan or Yuchi or Tochari. there is no doubt according to tradition. Kotila wa^ one of their chief fortresses . In front of this pass is the Kotila iiul. and his successor the no less familiar king Kanishka. and the Brahmans. If my supposition that the " Meos are converted Minas is correct. Tod mentions an Asil or un" mixed class among the Minas known as Mainas. 8) . the The Khanzadahs of Gurgaou have returned themselves as Jadubansi in column for clan. but the Mco inhabitants of five .iy be.-. — The Gujars are the eighth largest caste in the Panjab. In the middle of the . to the king of Kashmir. The town of Gujrat is [p. 480. was one of their chief cities. I " tliink it will be found.5th eentury there war< a Gujar kingdom in southwestern Rajputana.484 village. or Multan. Kadphises.— 182 PANJAB CASTES. and in recognition of their high descent called them Khanzadahs and made them bear rule in Mewat. " " by intermarriage. Khanzadah. extended his sway over the whole of Upper Pan jab and the banks of the Jamna as far down as Mathra and the Vindhyas.

The figiires showing their distribution are given in Abstract No. .-) increase rapidly towards tlio north. and thence again to Firozixir via Kasur. They are specially numerous along the bank-5 of the Upper Jamna.inwala in the Rcchna-Doab. they are almost confined to the riverain lowlands. Kohli. and from tlie Hazara monntains to the Peninsula of " Gujrat. such as Gujr. of the Arcltasological Reports." 166- In the Panjiib they essentially belong to the lower ranges and sub-montane and though they have spread down the Jamna in considerable numbers. . There alone have they retained their dominant position. and in the " contiguous districts to the west of the river. In the Southern Panjab " they are thinly scattered.^ But throughout the hill country of Jammu. tracts . all possessing a common speech. and Pathans. and specially towards Gujarat. . and in the Saharanpur district. or perhaps even Mughals.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL said to have ])ven l)uilt or restored CASTES. Janjiias. Even there he is a bad cultivator. and in that district they form V6\ per cent. they are tlie oldest inhabitants among the tribes now settled there but in the west the Gakkhars. that they moved thence to Riinia in Sirsa. The Rajas of Rewilrl to the south of Dehli are Gujars. Steedman is of opinion that the tigures for the Gujars of Eawalpindi are very much under the mark. and more given to keeping cattle than to following the plough. They are numerous about Jahlam " and Hassan Abdal. and in the east the Rajputs have always been too strong* for them. Rajputs. II. Tliroughout the Salt-range Tract. and tli'y must therefore have entered those districts before the conversion of the great mass of the caste. of the total population. but their number. a very probable date. Here they are a purely pastoral and almost nomad race. 183 hy All Kluin Gujar identitication in the will The grounds for Gcnieral Cunningham's I)c time of Akbar. In the higher mountains they are almost unknown. Init fliey aio more numerous in " the Western States. where they have "given their name to several imporianL places. The Firozpur Gujars say that they came from Daranagar in the south of India. and throughout the Hazara districts . and long ago dejirived tliem of political importance. In the Peshawar district almost any herdsman is called a Gujar. near Jagadri and " Ruriya. true Gujar herdsmen are found in great numbers. and Gujar Khan in the Sindh Sagar Doab. It is Impossible without further investigation to fix the date of tlie Gujar colonization of the lower districts. and that many of them must have been returned as Jats. Gujrat is still their stronghold. found in full detail at pages 61 to 82 of Vol. where they form a large part of the " population. Mr. and one of the " northern districts of Gwalior. and Palas. is The present al Cunning-ham : — distribution of the Gujars in India thus described by Gener- " At tlie present day tlio Gujars arc found ill groat number-. To the east they occupy the petty State of Samptar in Bandelkhnnd. to the cast of the Indus. taking their herds up into the higher ranges in summer and descending with them into the valleys during the cold weather and it may be said tliat the Gujar is a cultivator only in the plains. and probably under the eastern hills also. 83 at page 254*. Gujrat "in the Cliaj Doab. which is still called Gujargar. Chibhal. and away in the Independent Territory lying to the north of Peshawar as far as the Swat river. iu every jiart of the North" West of [ndiaj from the ludus to the Ganges. They arc found only in small bodies "and much scattered througlioul Kastern Kajputiiua and Gwalior. They are almost exclusively Mnsaluuin except in the Jamn i districts and Ilushyarpur. which is a Hindi dialect quite distinct from the Panjabi or Pashto current in those parts. The ]\Iusalman Gujars of all the eastern half ^ On the other hand. and Hazara. which during the la<t century was actually called " Gujarat. and they are also found in considerable " numbers in the Dardu districts of Chilas. The Jalandhar Gujars date their conversion from the time of Aurangzeb. and it may be that some of those who are thus returned are not true Gujars by race.

gardener is a better market quiet and industrious. will not do field-work save of the lightest kind . tliough not secluded. the Raugar and the Gujar " two . of precisely the same pliysical 481. wearing petticoats It is noticeable that Gujrat is instead of drawers. Awans. the monkey. is to my mind conclusively negatived by his cast of countenHe is of the same social standing as the Jat.'' Again : " The dog and the cat two. to the Gujars what Bhatner and Bhattiiina are to the Bhatti. and a wretched cultivator . 265] sive praise in the Maliar or Arain a district held by Gakkhars. Steedman gives a similar account attractive qualities. " and " When all other castes are dead make friends with a " Gujar. they were a constant thorn in the side of the Dehli Emperors. their women. thrifty and industrious. if it were not for these four one might sleej) with one's door " open :" so ^' The dog. and tlien keep the Rs. a hilly home and a constant desire for *' other people's cattle. and I " do not know that he improves much with the march of civilization. and the Gujur change their minds " at every step . " and " many of them are fine men in every way.— 184 PANJAB CASTES. his women." qualifications of But further west his Such is the Gujar of the Jamma districts. Wilson.^' The Gujars have been turbulent throughout the history of the Panjab. The Gujaris a fine stalwart fellow. Tliomson says that the Gujars of Jahlam are the best farmers in t he district (i)crliaps not exces. Hazara as " a simple all-enduring race. : : : : : '' a highlander. and red instead of Ijlue. Their character as expressed in the proverbial wisdom of the countryside is not a high " A desert is better than a Gujar wherever you see a Gujar. " The Rajput will steal cattle-thief was once explained to me thus by a Jat " your buffalo. with no '^ ambition Ijut to be left alone in peace with their cattle and fields ." As Mr.''' says But he is far inferior in both personal character and repute to the Jat. and the theory of aboriginal descent which has sometimes type as the Jat been propounded. though and that they are than (Salt-range) Jats." Mr.[P. Ahir. writes Tlie Giijar villages in Gurgaon have on the whole stood better than the Jats. But he will not send his father to say he knows where it is " and will get it back for Rs. of the Gujars of ^ Mr. 2U and the buffalo too. Gujar. but with few . though " of course there are exceptions . He is lazy to a degree. Maconachie remarks '^ Though the Gujar possesses two . and Gola are all four hail fellows well met. for instance. men who have given up the traditions of " the tribe so as to recognize the advantage of being honest far " generally. 20. liowcvcr. of the Province still retain more of their Hindu customs than do the majority of their converted neighhours. a place to which there is a traditional tendency to refer their origin. Our Gurgaou Gujars are very little given to thieving. and I have rather " a high opinion of them.^ Major Wace describes the Gujars of character would seem to be higher. hit one " him. ferior . The Gujar will. but the two eat and drink in common without any scrapie and the proverb " The Jat. and almost as the lafc bad times better than those of almost otiier caste " well as tlie Aiiirs. '^ On the contrary he is generally a mean sneaking cowardy fellow . while his foiulness for cattle exThe diiference between a Gujar and a Rajput tends to those of other people." '< — . more likeable Mr. or perhaps slightly inance. and are still ever ready to take advantage of any loosening of the bonds of discipline to attack and plunder their neighbours. he never seems to have had the love of fighting and '' the character for manly independence which distinguishes this class elsewhere. : and Rajputs).

Tira. and is I believe held by many. Barkley writes " At present. But the social standing of Jats.. ghee. that Jats and Gujars. by Mr. The Gujars are a fine. well-grown women. Barnes is both graphic and interesting — pensities. and " in these hills are not distinguislied by the bad pre-eminence which attaches to their race in the "plains. the early historians a connection between the migrations and location of Gujars and Rajpiits which has struck me as being more than accidental . and Nadaun. The men graze the cattle. " There they arc known as an idle. and Rajputs. the Gujars the cowherds of the hills. India at different times or settled in separate parts. of the liilU arc (luite unlike the caste of the same designation in the plain-. 185 So the Giijars of HushyarRawalpindi. compared to the Musalmans. and I am afraid the imputa" tions agahist their character are too well founded. " Their habits of frequenting public markets and carrying about their stock for sale unaccompanied "by their husbands undoubtedly expose them to great temptations .'' and gives instances of their criminal pro: . It is. hut above and below they are both addicted to pastoral habits. They " abound particularly about Jowala Mukhi. the latter being of liigher rank than the former. with peculiar and handsome features.''' But in Firozpur again ]\Ir. and so forth.sual . butter-milk and ghee. It is " still generally true that they occupy themselves more with grazing than " with agriculture but this is by no means invarialjly the case. however. possible that the Jats were the camel graziers and perhaps husbandmen.'''' In Jalandhar Sir Richard Temple describes them as " here as elsewhere of pastoral habits. but they are a small sect. and " The — " other produce of their herds. with little earthen pots filled with milk. The Gujars are found all over the district.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. calling them " excellent cultivators. But we must know more of the early distribution of I have noticed in the tribes before we can have any opinion on the subject. rejoicing in waste. The women repair to the markets every morning with baskets on their "heads. and this because It may be that they are the same there is a close communion between them. During the hot weather the Gujars usually " drive their herds to the upper range. and of the castes below them as Tarkhans. There are some Hindu Gujars "especially towards Mandi. Rajput the reason for differentiation is obvious. The Gadis keep "flocks of sheep and goats and the Gujar'a wealth consists of buffaloes. These people live in the " skirts of the forests. They are tall. the more he deteriorates and the more unpleasant he makes himThe following description of the Gujars of Kangra self to his neighljours. they afford a classificathe Ahirs the cowherds of the plains. and frequently lie out for weeks in the " woods tending their herds. and perhaps Ahirs also. In " the hills the Gujars are exclusively a pastoral tribe. I do not see why they should ever have separated if they were once the same. and enemies to " cultivation and improvement ." and Mr. Chamars. and at the same time attain condition from the temperate climate and the "immunity from venomous flies which torment their existence in the plains. Gujars. each of these pots "containing the proportion required for a day's meal." It has been suggested. and " greatly addicted to tliieving.''' pnr are said to l)e " a (piict and well-behaved set. but the . they are probably as little " given to crime as any other large class in the agricultural population. but " more industrious and less predatory than u. and may be " seen every morning entering the bazaars of the hill towns. " manly race. and my reason for thinking In the case of Jat and so is precisely because they eat and smoke together. where the buffaloes rejoice in the rich gi-a-s which the " rains bring forth. after thirty years of British rule. and maintain their existence exclusively by the sale of the milk. and Ahirs being practically identical. Thus it would appear that the further the Gujar moves from his native hills. : Gujar-. Brandreth descriljes them as " unwilling cultivators. But I think that they must have either entered in their far-distant origin. Banyas. Their women are supposed to be not very scrupulous. They are never known to thieve. returning home about the afternoon " with their baskets emptied of their treasures. worthless and thieving race. They are mild and inoffensive in manner. they cultivate scarcely at all. which fills up the gap between and is absolutely continuous with the similar classification of the castes above them as Brahmans. are all of one ethnic stock . tion by occupatiou of the yeoman class. and If this be so.

621 8.533 180 1.175 1. showing C^.403 19.627 2.279 89.018 1.600 1.782 652 2.655 7'W 1 100 336 1.186 PANJAB CASTES.312 3.111 1.156 StatcB of Plaine.065 3.627 51. East.145 15.691 67 4.232 309 3. 134 167 2.163 2.810 3. Tcrri. 264] GrjAB Dehli Gurgaoii 2.260 3.020 439 277 692 Lahore Gujranwala Firozpur 445 125 1.036 6.667 1.629 21 324 Kanial 2.662 6.143 4.268 British tory. 84.325 4.020 206 779 Rawalpindi .194 1.427 45.750 1.209 13.lahlam Gujrat 280 20 269 5.526 13 1.080 54.171 135 118 209 418 Amritear GurdAspur Sialkot 153 1.560 1.772 645 4.491 749 2.208 1.140 134 1.301 1.299 565 1.010 336 3 10 2.417 676 797 92 8 422 61 274 307 Hiesar 116 389 101 189 4 Rohtak 42 Ambala Lndhiana 240 10 1. Abstract No.277 167 4.289 695 1.594 3.126 1.207 1.168 82 25 312 60 166 290 38 870 1.624 4.989 Native StatesProvince 134 4.092 PeshAwar Hazara 13 195 8.318 1.285 JSlandhar Hushyirpur KAngra 546 646 60 388 2.014 16.140 12.684 21.457 3.824 22.152 3.646 3.314 119 319 167 7.103 . 4.449 612 3.

261 8.095 7.681 908 1.687 541 54 338 27 389 340 451 1.218 1.139 6. 14 782 208 1.417 1.055 1.910 211 197 215 167 1.690 1. 187 Tbibeb.319 3.139 4.921 2.491 809 31 2.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL Gujar tribes for districts. CASTES.319 .467 1.

including the Mr. but tliey comprise G9 per cent. MINOR AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL 483. unless it be that nightsoil : is 1 generally used for " What and a Rajput would say Do you take " me for an Arain ? " if anything was proposed which he considered derogatory. it Ijefore it subject needs an iuiLaense deal of work upon ready for drawir. Wilson notes tliat the Gujars and the Bargujar tribe of Rajputs are often found together. and probably include most of the great original tribes. Saini. He is perliaps the most skilful and industrious cultivator we possess. tP. In Bijnor they are said to be identical. —The Gujar tribes and clans appear to be numerous. have been ranked with the major and some of those with the minor tribes. Gujar Tribes. 45 and 31). ' [ p. the low-class cultivators of the hills. producing three or even four crops within the year from the same plot. 85 on page 366t are not separated from the castes and tribes already discussed by any clearly defined Indeed it is quite a matter of ojiinion whether some of these should not line. and apparently new local su))-divisions have sprung up in many Still the distribution of the main tribes for which I give figures on places. and that some of the higher tribes of the same caste will not marry with them. The group of castes for which the figures are given in Abstract No. 484. of those of Gujrat.— The Sainis would appear to be only a sub-division of the Mollis. The Khatana and Chechi far surpass the others in number. and are pastoral rather than agricultural. Some of these are closely allied to the vegetable-growers . and is most numerous In tlic vicinity of towns where manure is ])leiitiful and there is a demand for his produce. and other cultivators of inferior tlieir fertilisation status. The cultivation of vegetables is looked upon as degrading by the agriagricultural The minor — cultural classes. Mahtam. 190• and pastoral tribes. The second class comprises the Kanet and Ghirath. They may be divided into three classes. and in the hills where the proud Rajputs look upon labour at the plough as degrading. He is found under the name of Mali only in the Jamna zone. But the group now to be discussed very generally hold an inferior position among the agricultural community^ and seldom if ever occupy the position of the dominant tribe in any considerable tract of countrv. and I am informed that the two intermarry in many. and some of them almost undistinguishable. and Baghban. tlie Mdlakdra or florist of the Purans.g conclusions. . the opjwsite page* in iVbstract No. The first consists of the market gardeners proper or growers of vegetables.188 PANJAB CASTES. It is probable that the Sainis are a Mali tribe. all four of whom are probably closely connected. Ahir. Arain. but not in all.au be said to be even very 482. is generally a market or nursery gardener. and includes the Mali. though here again the lines of the demarcation are indistinct. of the ^'• other castes of equal im2)ortance. Gujars of the Province. 186The figures only include 47 per cent. know not. It is least numerous in the Derajat where the comprehensive name of Jat embraces all cultivators of this class. The class as a whole is to be found in largest number in the fertile districts of the eastern plains and submontane tract. The Mali and Saini (Caste Nos. parts of the Nortli-West Provinces. why I . 84 is far more general than is tbe case with *P. and suggests that the latter may be to the Giijars what the Khanzadahs are to the Meos and what most Kajpilts are to the Jats. TRIBES. others again to the Ghosi and Gaddi which constitute the third class. 267] . and does wonders with his land. The Mali. and the Kamboh.

as they more often own land or even whole villages. and those not always merely names of other and dominant tribes. The Arains.but not to have reached the Chanab valley. Unfortunately the Peshawar divisional officer has Included those who returned themselves as Arain or Maliar under Baghban. Most of the few Malis shown for Province. Barkley writes of the Sainis " They consider themselves the same as tlie Malis of tlie of that district " North-West Provinces. of the Sainis are Sikhs. of are which district some of the largest clans shown In the margin. but are numerous In some parts of the Ambala district. and means simply a gardener. The Sainis of Rupar In Ambala are described •' an ill-conditioned set. But It Is commonly used for the Arain in the west of the Panjab and even as far east as Jalandhar there are two villages of the same name. or as they are called on the Jamna Rains. of which the one which Is held by Arains Is often distinguished by the addition of BdgJihdndn to Its name. But In the western half of the Panjal) excepting on the Satluj.541 Sainis showed their clans Mr. l)ut Mr. The Mails and position among The largest of the Mali sub-dlvlslons are the SAIia Phul with 11. of the clans of Arains and of Sainis In Jalandhar bear the same names." They appear from our figures to lie all along tlie foot of the hills between the valleys of the Jamna and Ravi . Mr. but refractory and Intriguing. and Maliar (Caste Nos. Rain." Sainis. Biighban. are probably a true caste In the Satluj valley and throughout tlie Eastern Plains. ^'' " Mali. Both they and the Mails are properly tribes of Hindustan rather than of the Panjali. 7 and 65). MINOU LAND-OWNING AND AGRTCULTURAL CASTES. and to be connected with the Arains. occupy a very Inferior the agricultural castes . but of the two the Sainis are probably the higher. The word Baghban Is the Persian equivalent of the Hindi word Mali. and Maliar are in J hang and Rawalpindi a very mixed body of men. the Panjal)i form of Mali and some of them as Phulara or Phulwara (but see section 485 for the inclusion of Maliar under Arain) distrietp. Steedman writes: Arain. though the " latter know nothing of the relationship. eastern portions of Hissar. and I cannot give separate figures for them. They are not found west of the " Chanab. as It would not appear to have penetrated so far westwards. first-rate cultivators. The Sainis do not appear to have returned any large clans except In Hushyarpur. as T have just explained. are probably a Mali tribe. the western districts were retui-ned as Maliar. the word seems to be used for any market-gardener. and the remainder Hindus. and are less generally mere market gardeners than are the Malls. like all vegetable growers. The Arain. The Baghbans of the Rawalpindi division are discussed below. 485. but It Is probable that these have no connection with the caste under discussion. sub-montane and who.655 Mughals have returned their tribe or clan as Salnl . Barkley notes that some as Salahii. . Baghban. About 10 per cent. In Rawalpindi no fewer than 3.. and In Gurdaspur where 1.646. and the BhagartI with 15. — . l)y tlie . The said to claim : Sainis. are Rajput origin in Jalandhar . his 189 place bein^ taken by the Saini in the eastern Arain or Baglibun in the remainder of tlie He is almost always a Hindu.658 persons.

068 41.. MalcrKotla 3.141 389 41.831 41.063 153 81..716 140.114 20 4 ESwalpindi Jahlam Gujrat Shahpar Maltan Jhang .324 43.701 11..99?- . 210 6.013 21.067 44.585 1. 13.031 7...574 53 23...940 1.740 2.294 1.879 93.907 Rohtak Sirea 36 •1.911 B6..„ 20 13 Khan DerahQhazi Khan Bannu Derail Ismail 22 59 3..017 642 Bahiwalpur 29.r>S4 1..830 250.011 153 14 14.881 27.790 1.061 7 676.632 676.740 51.842 433 122 .T 60 1.512 160.817 2(».553 271. 12 British Patiila Territory 52. 85.854 22 2..222 345.716 Amritsar Gurddspur Sialkot .614 65.241 4 101 Jalandhar .252 1. 37o 1.553 14.229 2.180 10.063 153 74.102 0..470 20.708 55.031 12.124 9.52 140.500 3. .993 7.133 38.831 123.151 Pcshiwar Hazara Kohat .095 2.742 Anibala Ludhiiina Simla 63.102 18.915 169 .3.889 3.775 157. 269 1 33 1 314 .983 65.0.043 2 15.090 24 123.386 8.251 13. Abstract No.323 38.793 108. Montgomery Muzaffargarh 49 . showing Minor [p.740 328 '"* 1.041 81.777 7.051 304 50 11 30.182 39.216 74.'.993 Nabha Kapurthala Jind Farfdkot Kalsia Total Eastern Plains .077 22.190 PANJAB CASTES.210 800.06ii 73 2..991 1..203 157.672 21 1.118 1...602 20 9.031 Mandi Chaniba 436 5 354 1 3S4 "* 08.673 10.993 1.104 12 "3.964 21.240 5.714 9.601 152.693 719 96 180 116 '"1.532 1.53 81. 52.941 12 9 21.870 British Native States Province Territory ..142 14 Lahore Gnjrinwila Firozpur 62 106 94. Hushy&Tpur 195 407 14.639 61.738 2.994 13. 266] MINOR AGKICULTUEAL AND Fig 45 31 65 20 29 147 Dehli Gurgaon Karnal Hissar 12.971 " 680 21 Total Hill Slates 434 2..981 6.801 1. 232 29 92 87.681 NAhan Biliepur Bashahr Nilagarh Snket 58 .



OF Total Popuiatioit. 33 27 23 101 IB 2 16 29 12 16 .MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. Agricultural and Pastoral Tribes— concluded. 193 PASTORAL TRIBES-coNCinDEB.

" The IMaliar of the Rawalpindi division for the most part returned their clan as Janjua. : [P. are time castes in the eastern half of the Province. They do not seem to have got much below the Lahore border. and many of the Arains emigrated across the Ganges and settled near Bareli and Ram])ur. Mr. and to have come '^ up to this district from the Dehli part of the country. Arain. Sindhu. but Were ejected some four centuries ago by Saiyad Jalal-ud-din of Uchli.D. This is rendered more pro" bable by the fact that the Arains of Saharanpur arc said to have come from " Afghanistan. I have added them to the figures for Baghban in the Abstract. but that in the Western Panjab. central. Purser writes ^' The Ariiins of Montgomery know nothing " of their origin. Qutbshahi (Awan). and 16*3 per cent. or Bhattl. vegetable growers of low standing among the cultivating classes. Maliar. strongholds are the Jalandhar. They are almost without exception Musalmans. and to have some affinity mth the Kamboh. They are usually " supposed to be Mahomedan Kambohs. Mr. . and Barar. The Arains are found in great numbers throughout the northern. not detected till after the tables were in print. Wilson thinks it probable that both classes are really 486. They claim some sort of connection with Jaisalmer Till the great famines of 1759 and 1788 A. They two do not intermarry. Chachar.194 PANJAB CASTES. throw much light upon the real affinities of these three castes. and the latter undoubtedly came " from the west. for Muzaffargarh and the two Derahs are very imperfect. and Baghban are commonly used as mere names of The detailed clan tables. Amritsar. they are said to have held all the lower valleys of the Choya and Ghaggar. they are found in very large numbers their position is higher. connected l)y origin with the Hindu Kambohs. to have come from the neighbourhood of JNIultan.''' I find that the Arains of Firozpur and Lahore also trace their origin from Uchh or Multan. the figures Abstract were returned as Maliar. In Sirsa the Satluj Arains meet those of the Ghaggar. like tlie Arains of Lahore ajid ]\Iontgomcry. and would appear to be a true Panjab tribe. the Maliars of Rawalpindi and Jahlam were entered as Maniars under Caste No. so it is likely the Arains did too. will one and the same occupation. to an occupation rather than a caste. " Their chief divisions are Gahlan. of the total population. as there they are general cultivators rather than market gardeners. 268] . but after the latter date the Bhattis harassed the Sumras. They marry only with the Ghaggar and Bareli Arains. skilful and industrious. and it follows that all the Rawalpindi and Jahlam Baghbans of the So too. such as Wahand. and not as Baghban. but like all Where. The Satluj Arains in Sirsa say that they are. » P. and western portions of the Eastern Plains and throughout the Rabut west of Lahore the name must be taken walpindi and Multan divisions Their to refer. though some of them give what are apparently true Arain clans. " the names denoting occupation rather than caste. when published. however. 10"3. and are invariably held in " very low repute. and Lahore divisions. 106107. and moi-e especially the districts of Jalandhar and Lahore and the State of Kapurthala where they form respectively 17 "4. They are admirable cultivators. as Abstract No. except on the Satluj. and are supposed to be akin to the Kamboh. Chandor. but the Arains of the Ghaggar valley say they were Rjijputs living on the Panjnad near Multan. but the fact is that by an unfortunate error. the country became disturl^ed. They claim to be Surajbansi Rajputs. 72 on page 224'* shows that some thousands of Arains or Maliars in those districts On the whole it would appear that ^Miiliand Arain returned then caste as Jat. Khokhar. 47. Table VIII A gives no Arains or Baghbaus in the Rawalpindi district.

20) . in Kangra proper. perhaps then a permanent river flowing into the Indus. but there does seem some reason to think that they may perhaps be akin to the Kambohs. even surpassing the Sikh Jats from Patiala . The Kanets claim to be of impure Rajput origin. as many of the Kambohs are Musalm^n. He further states that they are settlers from the south. while Of the Artiins of Jalandhar Mr. they moved on into the Jamna districts and Cis-Satluj tract generally. and there gained for themselves a position of some importance. l)ut state that the Kambohs are the illegitimate and they the legitimate descendants of a com)non ancestor.—The Kanets are the low-caste cultivating class of all the eastern Himalayas of the Panjab and the hills at their base. 487. 34^ in Montgomery. The Kanet (Caste No. The Jalandhar Arains themselves say they are descended from Rai Chajju of Ujjain who held the whole of the Sirsa district in y«^ir . The country they inhabit is held or governed by Hill Rajputs of prehistoric are far too proud to cultivate with their the Kanets as husbandmen. Abstract No. XIV elaborately discussed by of his Archaeological . 195 that the Ghaggar Arains the others moved gradually up the Satluj into their present place. but there is little doubt that they are really of At the same time it is most difficult to separate them from aboriginal stock. and who employ Rathis {q. while the Karnal Rains also trace their origin from Sirsa.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL Kambohs who have become MusahniinSj and in CASTES. and that their original country is said to extend from Hansi to Multan. He describes the Arains of the Ghaggar as the most advanced and civilised tribe in the Sirsa district.. clans. throughout which tract they form a very large proportion of the total popula- Beyond this tract. which I am informed is an Ai-ain clan. Ambala. and perhaps spread along the foot of the hills across the line of movement of their brethren who were moving up the Their alleged connection with the Malis is provalleys of the larger rivers. As the Ghaggar dried up and the neighbouring country became more arid. v. though the Hissar Arains are said to be merely Mahomedan Malis. while those of the Jalandhar Arains whose history he has traced have come from the direction of Hissar. and that at an early stage in their history a section of them moved up the Ghaggar. Of these 850 were in Multan. and 103 in Muzaffargarh. The Arains of Firozpur. that none of their settlements are much older than 250 years. their place is filled by Ghiraths. ancestry. bably based only upon common occupation . emigrated a body from Mnltan. though the difference must be more than one of religion only. page 251 1). and Hissar also trace their origin from Uchh or its neighbourhood. the greater part of whom own hands. over whom they themselves claim superiority. The whole question of their origin General Cunningham at pages 135 to 135 of Vol. Barkley says that they are commonly believed to be descended from Kambohs. On the whole it would appear probable that the Arains originally came fi-om the lower Indus and spread up the five rivers of the Panjab . and that even those who are ashamed of so commonplace an origin are not prepared altogether to disclaim the relationship. Ludhiana. and in Chamba both have been included under the is latter head. 86 on the opposite page^ shows some of the largest Arain I have included under the head Arain 987 persons who have returned themselves as Bhohar. and he considers them at least equal in social status with the Jats. tion. as far west as Kulu and the eastern portion of the Kangra district.

485 6.622 26.286 |4.485 1 1.260 2.120 6.836 I 302 1.792 1.485 6.081 6.867 GajrAt 33 663 SlialijiuT Maltaii 258 Jhang Montpomery Mu7afraTgarh 86 70 British Terri. I 1.037 Jalandhar 1. Abstract No.80914.809 4.506 . I I 9.126 5.256 .141 UubTiyurpuT 1.196 PANJAB CASTES.863 2.668 7. 269] 9 10 12 a Arobala 6. [P.809 4. i 217 34 270 Lu'lhiana 8 1.340 Lahore Qajrunwala 6.898 4.951 120 2.486 32 8'J 113 10 697 8.804 155 75 23 571 1.167 382 1.704 3..387 13.571 1.821 4.119 Native States Province 607 i 26| 790 54 9.298 I 7.263 2.424 .829 6.13..862 3. 86.837 1.712 13 424 8.372 1 5. | ..113 130 18 305 58 184 333 Firozpur 3 500 2 377 4.508 tory..• 47 .714 862 423 I 1S3 .116 973 AiriTitsar ir>o 514 l-i2 123 278 1.912 7.250 21.924 27.423 Qurdaspur Sialkot 10 127 935 34 253 360 251 895 1..826 21.619 5.107 j 8...

603 6.784 2.894 1.031 Hushyarpar.401 33.856 335 3.28. Ten i.131 1.487 1. l. 1.106 383 Native Statoa. 815 1.385 1.628 5.646 521 422 2.5aG 987 10 Montgomery.251 1. 16.267 10.559 69 24.628 24.815 557 |32.988 895 801 329 2.131 Gujr?!.053 Multan. 830 .(104 7. 208 17 1. 5.541 71 276 1.715 Lahore. 3 88 208 1. 162 350 352 Shall pnr. 956 10.9^5 495 980 814 110 1.098 6.927 757 Gurdaspur.i 12 26 3.215 13.860 1.892 1.153 10.686 32.711 668 2. 359 1. 9d7 2.016 . Province. 1.187 2.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL showing Arain Clans.243 1.001 Ambala.580 10 217 2.210 580 1.114 British tory.931 Jalandhiir.355 30. 'la.295 352 31 1.»29 Aniritsar. Muzaffargara.644 7 Sialkot.409 32 9.126 8.815 557 33.864 3. CASTES.076 16 901 9 Qujraow Firozpur.014 185 l.262 2.630 8.295 15.477 8. 113 150 12 1.099 3.537 Ludhi&na.272 504 2. 30 34 11 026 463 1.704 3.002 8. 197 13 17 22 23 139 65'.122 139 Jhaug.684 24.561 3. 520 772 4.708 2.080 7.213 4. 377 33 J 3.479 46 2.054 342 3.233 1.

" daughter of a Kulu rakhas or demon. classics PAN JAB CASTES. greater respecters of Brahmins. the rest are pure Tibetan. handsome figures. will eat cows and bullocks which have died a natural death. but he will not give his daughter to a Kanet. occupied the whole SubHimalayan tract from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. at least in Kulu freely eat together and intermarry.. with a ruddy colour showing in their cheeks others are as dark as the ordinary Panjabi. or nearly " so.— 198 Keports. and conform altogether to Hinduism " those wlio obeyed were called Kassiyas. Just " as the fiat his claim to be Rajputs who have lost grade by taking to the plough. and it is probable that the Khasias are really descended fi-om intercom-se between the Aryan immigrants and the w^omen of the hills. " Both of these stories perhaps point to the conclusion that the Kanets and Dagis are of mixed Mughal and Hindu race. so he and his children by her became Dagis. and " less devoted to the worship of their local divinities. but the Mongolian element predominates over the Indian. The Kanets are " divided into Kassiyas and Raos. for a twice-born man wears the janeo or sacred thread. . and. into two great tribes. is not admitted by the Raos. Lyall thus describes the Kanets of Kulu 488. Bhim Sen F^ndab. wliich implies mixed blood. will in a few generations rank as Thakar. Of the ^' so called Kanets of Lahul " he writes that they are " a mixed race. had each a son by the of the same stock. " is otherwise probable. as one can see that the foreign priests round the Rajas were always " striving to make the Kulu people more orthodox Hindus. while the Rao does not. and is of opinion that they belong to that great Khasa race which. but not oi^t of the same dish or plate. They intermarry and eat " and drink together out of the same cooking pot. before the Aryan invasion. like all other classes of the peojile. will marry a Kanet woman. the Khasia and the Rao. The Kassiyas wear the janeo. which. The A distinction between Khasia and Rao is still sufficiently well marked. or the offspring '' of Rajputs by Sudra women. but strong and active. or woman of Tibet. will tribes deny the fact. and the offspring of the latter. They never wear the sacred The social status of the Kanet appears to be very low. however. and generally have Some are hardly darker than Spaniards in complexion. driven up into the hills by the advancing wave of immigration. He identifies them with the Kunindas or Kulindas of the Sanskrit and of Ptolemy. by me at page 236* mpra. and the story " . ^ *P. now separates the But the Kanets are divided Ai-yans of India from the Turanians of Tibet. In Lahul even a Brahman or Thakar will take a Kanet woman as a second-class wife. so the Kanets say that they are the children of women of the hills " by Rajputs who came up from the plains. Mr. One of these sons married a Bhotanti. Khasia observes the period of impurity after the death of a relation prescribed The Khasia the Rao that prescribed for an outcast. nor will he eat from the hand of a Kanet." In Lahul tlie Kanets. : "Tlie Kanets are often classed by other Hindus as on a par with the Rathis of Kangra. and " connects the caste name with the word Karana. Those of the former however can never rise to full . who are known as Gam. But the diswhere the two tinction is apparently breaking down. . It is a fact " that at the present day the former are more Hindu in all observances than the latter. and pretend " to some superiority. tliough his Avife will do so. which is quoted at some length by General Cunningham. 131. By one story both Kanets and Dagis were originally '' Two sons of the demi-god. The Raos say that the origin of this division was that a Raja " of Kulu ordered the Kanets to reform their loose practices. " who fed him with yak's flesh. though the Khasia. Hodgson in his Essay in the Military tribes of that country. '' [p. The process by which the great Khas tribe of Nepal thus grew up is admirably described by Mr. less fully. if asked. and which. The other son was ''ancestor of the Kanets. 270] " Many of those who live in the lower valley are no doubt descendants of " Kanet settlers from Kulu and Bangahal . A Sunar thread. General Cunningham says as much of the Kanets of Kanawar." He adds that they are not tall. and those who stuck to their old ways Raos.

. and the Punwar from Nahan.859 Mangal. the Pangalana from Suket. The Ghirath. whose women were not ashamed to be seen nor to work in the fields. and they are incessantly employed during the whole year in the various processes " of agricultui'c. returned as together. and Jubbal . The fathers will not eat from the hands of sons begotten in this manner. Chauhan Rao . They amount altogether to 111. many sit half the day " wrangling with customers until their store is disposed of The men are constantly seized for " begar. In the Amritsar division all the Ghiraths except 128 were as identical. 8. Their fertile lands yield " double crops. the Riipin.. unless Pangalana be a misreading for Mangalana Kanet 1. prevalent about Haripur and Nurpur. and the Tons valleys to the Rao and the tract west of the Pabar Mr.233 38. The more refined castes preferred the advantages of privacy and seclusion. General Cunningham says tliat the Kanets liave three principal clans Mangal. The name belongs to a Brahminical gotra. and in actual numbers exceed any other individual caste. which is only another name for Girths. or . and are considered by Mr. and Rao. Chauhan.507 souls. Lyall the lower ranges. 2. They form a considerable item in the population of these hills.285 Pangalaiia. They are bound again in the Hul Doon. The Girths predominate in the valleys of Palum. The Jalandhar divisional office took the three names The Ghiraths of Kangra and Hushyarpur are thus described by : Mr.. Bahti. With the Girths I have associated the few Jats that reside in this district. Khasia 4.' or Haripur valley. our papers are shown in the More than half the margin. " Chang.— . Barnes " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " previous remarks (quoted on page 251* uuder the head Rathi) will have introduced the reader to the Girths. The Girths lielong to the Sudra division of Hindus. Anderson notes that the Khasia are more common basin to the Mangal. These localities are the strongholds of the caste. Keonthal. General Cunningham assigns the upper valley of the Pabar to the Chauhan. milk and other products to the markets for sale . although containing the finest lauds.685 32. mangoes. Kangra. — 199 MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. and Rihlo. although accompanied by a sterner soil and diminished returns.—The Ghiraths fill the same position in Kangra proper and the hills below it as do the Kanets in the part to the east. Tlie Chauhan will almost certainly be Khasia.. though they are commonly known as Brahmans. 5. They abandoned the fertile valleys to less fastidious classes.. are also the only accessible portions of the hills. and this fact apparently accounts for the localities wherein they are found. as it appears that one and the same people are known as Ghiratli much in Kangra. to carry travellers' loads. 67. Tbakar .. 29) . " vegetables. 12. or to assist in the various public buildings in .of rice. 3. and the Rao in Seoraj. the Khasia from Bashahr and Kangra . and the Changs. misunderstood.. The open valleys. There is a common saying that there are 360 varietie. equality with the pure Brahman. and the men were not degraded by being pressed as porters.. Punwiir ... Kasib . in Kulu proper. Suket. The Girths are subdivided into numerous sects. ' My " The Girths are a most indefatigable and hard-working race. The principal Kanet divisions returned in 489. the analogy arising from the Girthn being the usual cultivators of rice. Lasturi . Nahan. and is probably no tribe at all and only returned because the heading of the schedule was The Chauhan are principally returned from Mandi. but will smoke with them.356 7. With respect to the Mangal I have no information. although they are scattered elsewhere in every portion of the district. nor do I find it in my papers. and that the sub-divisions of the Girths are equally extensive. the lower Pabar_.. ana Chang (Caste No. 7.218 29. and as Bahti in the eastern and Chang in the western portion of All three intermarry freely. tribes.. In addition to the cultivation of their fields.129 3. Kasib are in Bashahr. . . and generally possess the richest lands and the most open spots in the hills. 6. ..067 7. the Girth women carry wood. or forced labour. With them I have included the Bahti and the Chang.

and probably returned through misapprehension. The others occur in both districts. and Chhora and Bhattu only in Kangra. but the LodhaS of Dehli would appear to be 'A very low social standing. It is said that there are two distinct castes of Lodiias. The Amijala Lodhas cultivate hemp largely. They are almost without exception Hindus. They take money for theii daughters. " As the rice bends They are essentially agricultural. 147).— Having thus disposed of the two great inferior cultivating caytes of the hills. " To look at their frames. They say they were Rajputs but were excluded from the caste because they took to practising /^arc 2^ <? or rp ^yn >vidow-marriage. 105 and 142). jjut will not marry them except by karewa. The Reya (Caste No. and witli little or no hair on their faces. F/oin these details it will be perceived that the Girths have uo easy " time of it. aud though intemperate. more resembling the Tartar physiognomy than any other type. The Lodhas are said to be numerous In Hushangabad." to be of Rfijput origin by mixed marriages or but I have no trustwortiiy information on the subject. for " You can't make a Ghirathni a widow. " course of loiistruction. I shall take the others as far as possible in order of locality from east to west. They are now quite separate. and Tierhaps this may account for he apparent confusion. and their ener^es aud powers of endurance must be most clastic to boar np against " this incessant toil. Tlic younger " brother takes his brother's widow. The eight largest are given in the margin. They own nine villages in l)ehli.— These are two well-known cultivating castes of Hindustan. they appear incapable of sustaining such fatigue. Chhabru is found only in Hushyarpur. though sometimes the younger women may be called pretty. and are found in the Panjub chiefly in the Jamna districts. they are very litigious " and quarrelsome j but their disputes seldom lead to blows . In the Paujab 1 f .'" " can no more make a saint of a Ghirath than expect chastity of a buffalo/'' and they practise widow-marriage. but seldom exchange them. They trace their origin from Mahrauli where the Qutb pillar stands. The Reyas are a small Hindu caste found only in the Dehli district.200 PANJAB CASTES. in the ear the Ghirath lifts his head. 491. and the names of their clans are soinetinies Rajput and sometimes not. and altogether their character. Bluirdwa] is another Brahminieal gotra. 490. The Girths being Sudrasdo not wear t]\cJai>eo or " thread of caste. " any more than you can turn a hill buffalo into a barren cow. and it is rare to see a " handsome face. and the proverb says '* " You Their social position is low. though not so peaceable and manly as the '* Kathi. The men arc '• short ill stature. dark and sickly " in complexion. they are still " thrifty. if she leave his protection. I'oth mcJi and wonn'n have coarse '• features. a Girth seldom wastes his substance in drink. he was entitled by the law of " the country to her re-titutiou aud under us he should at all events receive money com- — "pensation. frequently disfigured by goitre (which equally affects both scxoO. The Lodha and Kachhi (Caste Nos. : — The Ghii-aths have returned few large sub-divisions. The Kachhis are said to be the market gardeners of Hindustan^ aud of low standing. and to be distinct from the Lodhi outcasts of Central India.'"' The Ghiraths ai'e said illegitimate intercourse. and work it up into rope. They eat and smoke with Jats and agricultural castes of similar standing". though a few of them have moved on westwards to the great cantonments. one spelled with the hard and the other with the soft d. has many valuable and endearing traits. Both sexes are " extremely addicted to spirituous di'lnks. Although industrious cultivators. In their dealings with one anotiier they " are honest and truthful.

and the tombs and mosques that they have left show that they must have enjoyed a consIderal)le The military. the Kambohs. There is a Persian proverb current in the NorthWest Provinces " The Afghans. Nabha. 201 believe they are generally engaged in the cultivation of water-nuts and similar produce . Indus country. one of which came up the river from the Multan country and the other down the valley from the neighboui-hood of Kapui-thala^ both movements having taken place under the Sikh rule.001) men and distinguished himself greatly in Bengal. unless at a very remote period. and ar'i both of much the same social standing and The detailed clan tables will probablv throw light on agricultural repute. Lahore. the Kambohs take money for their daughters. is not a meie agriculturist. a water-nut) as commonly as Kachhi. Kambohs and partly by Arains. but the fact that 4U per cent. TJiey seldom engage in market-gardening. But this is probably a mere social custom and not a caste rule. of them are Hindus and 23 per cent. But the social standing of the Kamboh is on the whole superior to that of the Arain. Musalman Kambohs held Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago . though in Kapurthala. He not unfrequently engages in trade. both being Musalman. while his wife not unfrequently lends money even where he Is a mere husbandman and under Akbar a Kamboh General called Shahljaz Khan commanded 5. and clerkly Kambohs are said to be disposition. tinguished as Qalmi or '' men of the pen. and very markedly so where the latter is a vegetable-grower. They ai-e said by some to be ancient inhabitants of Persia^ and the Karnal Kambohs trace their origin from Garh Ghazni . and as low down the Janma valley as Karnal. : . They arc especially numerous in Kapurthala. The Satluj Kambohs of Montgomery are divided into two branches. Purser accepts this tradition as evidently true. They are found valley as low down as Montgomery. The Kamboh (Caste No 33. throughout the northern portion of the Eastern Plains. 492. The Kamboh. and even takes service in the army or in offices or even as a private servant. Sikhs is conclusive against their having had any extra-Indian origin. Firozpur. mercantile. the stronghold of the Kambohs. moreover. but they are no less industrious and skilful than the Arains. and Maler Kotla having returned themselves as Musalmans^ although Musalman Arains are also numerous in In Jalaudhar the village of Bhalowal is owned partly by those tracts. But whether the supposed relationship has any further basis than the fact that they both came from the west. indeed in many parts they are called Sing-hiiri (from Singhcira. while the Arains do not. and Mr. Indeed in Montgomery a man Musalman and Kamboh if Hindu. Patiala. and say that their ancestor The Kambohs of Bijuor also trace their origin to the transfled to Kashmir. and the Kashmiris . all three . the question. and there has quite lately been a very large influx of Kambohs from the northern tracts of Patiala into the great dhdk jungles between Thanesar and the river.)— The Kambohs are one of the finest cultivating cas?tes in the Panjub. They claim descent from Raja Karan. The Jamna Kambohs seem to have come into the valley from the west.^^ and not to intermarry with the agricultural section of the caste.MINOll LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. The Kambohs do not seem to beai" as high a character for honesty as they do for skill. I have in section 486 noted the fact that Arains and Kambohs arc commonly supposed to be closely in the upper Satluj appears to be called Arain if he is that this is not always the case is evident from the fact of a very considerable proportion of the Kambohs of Amritsar. It is perhaps doubtful related. their It is said by some that the chief distinction is that clans were not recorded.

202 PANJAB CASTES. rogues {badzdt). it " was the Kambohs who were trusted by the rich bankers for onrrying'' theu' cash in the disguise oiyaqtrs." The Kambohs are said to be exeeptionTheir locaally numerous in ]Mirat. tion under the hills lends some slight support to their tradition of origin t from Kashmir. Benton of Karnal describes them as "notoriously deceitful and treacherous. " On the other hand Sardar Gurdial Singh states_. I know not on what authority^ that '^ during he reign of terror in India. ." and Mr.

and along the foot of the hills between Jalandhar and Gujrat. " " They are a low Hindu caste. to bury their dead. " Only two Mahtam huts and calls itself river banks. tallies curiously in some respects with that of the Bahrupia Mahtams of Gujrat given by Captain Mackenzie at section 71 of his settlement report of that district . and working in sarr " was their chief occupation. districts. and one of their ancestors was a kanungo. Tho Mahtain (Caste No. The first malita was dis"throne. Elliott's description of the Bahrup Banjaras at page 54. and were in turn deprived of it by the Ghorewaha Rajputs probably not less than five centuries ago. " missed. the hardworking Hindu Mahtams are still moving family '' by family and village by village eastward away from the Ravi and Chanab. " They are great hands at catching wild pigs . in grass huts on the ever. and are consequently not admitted to religious equality by the other Musalman?. but it is in cutting down the jungle on inundated " lands that they excel. Select Glossary. Akbar was then on the Kanuugos were called ma^/a. and tlieu Fettled at Mahtpur in Jalandhar. eat wild pig and retain most of their Hindu customs. and in some parts they apparently retain their wandering habits. 17 & 54). They adopted the custom of marriage with widows according to the "iovm oi chaddnr diilna. even in the Multan division.^ tams. and prefer " cultivating lands flooded by the rivers. or as they are called in the Jalandhar division Mahton (nasal n). but about one-fifth are Musalman. and were included under Bahrupia in Table VIIIA. Labanas and the Labanas and Mahtams of the Satluj appear closely to resemble each other. Cunningham " (History of the Sikhs. His descendants emigrated aud settled along " the banks of the rivers as they found quantities of Siirr in such situations. They appear. " They are of medium stature and stoutly made. The Mahrestored them to their proper place in Abstract No. are found chiefly in the Satluj valley. But the Musalman section. They are also called Bahrupias/ which name " is a corruption of ' Bho-rAp-ias' and means people of many modes of life.' This would seem " to give the Mahtams a western instead of eastern origin as claimed by them. There is a Bahrup tribe of Banjaras or.JFest Provinces. and thus they got their name. This is the more probable as I find that the Jalandhar Mahtams trace their origin from Jammu. Where they are not proprietors of the " whole village. ' ' ' 495. and especially on the middle Satluj. Their story is " that they were Rajputs. in which case it is possible that the Satluj group have come u]) from Rajputana. 494. by origin they are vagrants. page 266. page 17) says. At the same time I should note that the Mahton of Hushyarpur and the neighbourhood appear to hold a much higher social position than the Mahtams of the Satluj and it may l)e that the two are really distinct. they have devoted themselves to husbandry and are skilful and laborious cultivators. Though industrious tbey do not care much for working wells. howThey live.^'' fig-ures of : — and are looked down on by their neighbours. and so heciime Undvas. 51). most of which are in good condition.— — 203 MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. Sardar Gurdial Singh indeed goes so far as to say that the • . There has been a confusion in the Table VIIIA oAving to tlie fact that the Mahtams are also called The Mahtams of Gujrat and Siallcot returned themselves under Bahrupias. It was not till the Nakkai chiefs held sway that they settled down " permanently in this district. while everywhere they are still great hunters. Volume I of his Races of the North. They are quarrelsome and addicted to petty thieving. . They own a good " many villages (19). 85. and as many again Sikh. because they turned " their hands to any business they could find (yet c/. they reside in a separate group of huts at some distance from the main dbddi. while the sub-montane group are merely a western continuation of the Banjaras of the lower hills. and on the whole it seems probable that the Mahtams are Banjaras or Labanas. I. I have that name. The great majority of them are classed as Hindus. using But in many nooses like those of the Bawarias described in section 575. whence the saying Mr. They are of exceedingly low caste. Purser thus describes the Mahtams of Montgomery Khairpur. as they are called in the Panjab. being almost outcasts . conquered Rahon from the Gujars. in Muzaffargarh.

and perhaps like them a sub- They are called Giidi almost as often as Gaddi. closely resembling the Ghosi. and is often applied to any cowherd or milkman of that religion. just as Gwala is used for a Hindu cowherd. and that their social lie thinks that the name may standiug°is not much below that of llajputs. whom they conThe point needs to be cleared up by inferior to themselves. however sometimes butchers. 2/3] 498. as they must not drink water at his hands They are Ghosis are a purely pastoral caste. is only f 'AUuI in the eastern districts. ! [ i>. in the Panjab proper. but will reject it if there is any suspicion of its having been The watered by the latter. On the other hand. division of the Ahirs. Karnal. as used necting link between the two classes. or of any The Ghosi proper other caste. have taken place from the fact that a descendant of a Rfijput father by a widow of another caste married by kareioa is called Garra with Indeed it is not quite impossible that here we may have the conthe hard r. entered as Ghasiara or grass-cutter. at any rate in the Panjab. Ahir. especially in the districts where the classes come into contact. though they have lost caste to ploughing and practising widow-marriage. and Kharral of the same tract. It might perhaps have been better to take them — with the Kharrals. Mabtou of Husliyjirpur are of good Rajput blood. is applied to the inhabitants of the mountain range between Kangra and Chamba and of its continuation in the latter State. entirely distinct classes of people.^' while the 337 of the jNlultan division are shown as Her. At any rate the word Gaddi. It is perhaps probable that these men ''' in the section on the same as those discussed under the head " Sarera are But I have separated them. they have settled down as cultivators and own several vilThey are poor husbandmen. further enquiry. The Sarrara (Caste No. Chibhal. 118). The Sarraras which are found in Hazara belong to a race inhabiting cei-tain. They are chiefly found in the Abbottabad tahsil. and according to Major Waco belong to the same ethnic group as the Dhund. But the 235 persons shown as Ghosi in the Rawal'* pindi division are. whom General Cunningham is inclined to identify with . How these came to be classed as Ghosi I cannot explain.— These figures appear to include two The Musalnian Gaddis of Dehli. 125). Satti.. whether Gujar. but in Karnal. or the hill country of Kashmir on the Hazara border. 81). scout tlie sider utterly 496. probably for Ahir. and Ambala are apparently a tribe found in the upper dodb of the Jamna and Ganges. but in the Panjab the name is only used for Musalmans. The Gaddi (Caste No. Wilson says that the Labanas of Sirsa would Rajputs of the . Ghosi. They are all IMusalman. And a further confusion ma}' possibly lages. Anderson also gives the Hushyarpur ]\Iahtons high S()cial standabove. where they are most numerous. The term is commonly applied to almost any inhabitant of thai region but the true Gaddis. though a few have strayed into the large cantonments to the west.— The Ghosi is I believe an Ahir tribe. idea of connection with the ]\Iahtams of the Satluj. It was not done by my It is said that Hindus will buy pure milk from the ^Nlusalman orders. wliieh lie says is a title of honour current among the by taking hills and this agrees with the Montgomery tradition quoted Mr. Mr. where they are purely agricultural. as their identity is not at all Hill ]\Ienials. PANJAB CASTES. Our detailed tables of clans will doubtless throw light on the question. 204.. be derived from Malta. according to my papers. 497. They are by hereditary occupation milkmen . The Ghosi (Caste No. ino".

" Tliey are ahnost all shepherds.' and their Their peculiar caste. At present our rule has materially "weakened the te . and perhaps a present of walnuts or potatoes for his " master are the usual contents. " tion in the ranges immediately above Lahore favour the tradition that originally they were " fugitives from the cities of the plains before the Mahomedan inroads. and in some places the Brahman Gaddi will marry the Khatri Gaddi. It was a rule with " these simple people. with flaps to pull down over the ears "flocks. 205 the ancient Gandavidio. They are a semi-pastoral.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND : AC. made very capacious and loose. In featnre-j. ' Above this altitude' there is little or no cultivation. their women are chaste and modest. The Khatri or tnie Gaddis are the best of tlie classes. The front is usually adorned with a garland of di'ied flowers. and under this appellation are included Brahmins. but the great majority live on the 'heights above. manners.— they " constantly meet together. which they feed half the year (the " winter months) in the valleys of Kangra. are Khatris. Khatris. Like " all the inhabitants of mountainous regions they are frank and merry in their manners. however. "and sometimes fastened in the shape of a turban. they arc found from an elevation of 3. " in case of severe weather. and is both modest and becoming.^'' that iu Chamba. which they make up at homo out of the wool from their own The men don a remarkable high-peaked cap. Many Gadis "cultivate the winter crops or wheat in Kangra. tied up in an untanned leather pouch. posiKhatri.' as the province on the other side of the snow is designated. and " number among them the best It is not improbable -shepherds. semi-agricultural race. "round the waist. "Their garment fits rather tighter about the body. with a loose streamer behind by way "of ornament. or Gangaridco. and tlie richest and most influential men. and returning with their flocks grow the " summer or rain crop at Barmor. for their eminent regard for truth. the seeds of parasitical plants growing *' The rest of their dress is a frock. They hold lands on this side and also in Chamba.000 feet.ure of the Chamba Chief. The "head-dress is a chaddur.— their featiires are regular.' or sheet. and a few Rajputs and " Rathis. dross. The term 'Gadi' is a " generic name. the increasing acclivity of the range "opposing insurmountable obstacles. In the body of this frock the Gadi stores " the most miscellaneous articles . " Sipi. to pay a similar penalty *' I am afraid our institutions have taught them greater independence. and in " former days were considered subject to Ijoth States. dialect ' "they differ essentially from all the rest of the population. but are known by the names of Badi. " They are grear tipplers. They preserve a tradition among themselves that their "ancestors originally came from the Panjab. RI CULTURAL CASTES. The Khatri and Rajput Gaddis intermarry . secured in the forests. "or with tufts of the Impeyau pheasant. They "are not a very widely-diffused race. and — Mr. to allow free motion in walking. Barnes tlius describes them " The GadH . but locally distinguished from the jdndre or ' ' ' cotton-clad Hindus. The majority. and at these festive meetings the natural hilarity is considerably " enhanced by deep iDotations. seldom deserting their husbands. and many continue all the year round on this " side of the range acknowledging no allegiance whatever to Chamba. and do not in any way resemble the Khatris of the i^Iains. " They all wear woollen clothes. His legs are generally bare.000 foot up to 7. The Gadis wear the thread of caste. they are remarkable.500 or 4. Hali.are tlic mn<t remarkable race in the hilh. They are all Hindus. and fitting tight at the ankle The women "over which it lies in folds so as not to restrict the action of the limbs. A few of them have wandered down into "the valleys which skirt the Itase of this mighty chain. with " two or three young lambs just born. singing and dancing in a style quite peculiar to themselves. In person they are a comely race. whenever fined by the Kangra authorities. only reaching to their ankles. They extend over the greater part of Chamba. and that during the horrors of the Maliomedan " invasions the population of the cities fled from the open country before their invaders and "took refuge in these ranges. and for the other half drive across the range "into the territories of Chamba. Impure castes are not styled Gadis. their true home. are apparently of Khatri origin. and are much stricter in Hindu customs "and observances than most of the inhabitautf of the higher ranges of the Himalaya. aid the sub-divisions of the caste correspond "exactly with the triiies among the Khatris existing in the plains of the Panjab at the " present day. with a black woollen cord. crime is almost unknown " among them . iit that period almost uninhabited. thrown loosely over the upper portion of the body. his own meal. secured with the same woollen cord. The Gadis are a very simple and virtuous race. The Gadis reside exclusively n))on the snowy range which divides Chamba from Ivangra. even "among the hill population. " wear the same frock. and the expression almost^ always mild " and engaging. The greater portion of "their wealth consists of flocks of sheep and goats. " and the infraction of this custom is now more frequent than the observance.' &c.The women frequently are " very faif and beautiful. and are found also on the southern face " of the Badrawar hills across the Ravi. the Riijput and Brahman Gaddis are less . but occasionally he wears woollen ''trowsers very loose at the knee. or red beads. "inhabit the skirts of the Kangra snowy range. into the Chamba treasury.

properly be confined to. and every convert of low caste wlio wishes to glorify himself assumes one of these titles. because they bear titles properly foreign to India and for the most part lay claim to foreign origin. but they have been classed with the priestly castes. Arabs are returned in the Panjab from the Multan and Peshawar divisions. and not Arab. So if an outcast or man of impure calling becomes ]\Iusalm^n and retains his occupation. and are neither so proud of their origin as to wish. may have returned themselves as The true Shekhs are of course of Arab Arab. though still recognized as relations by their brethren of the village whence they came. degrading. whether truly or falsely so called. or at 501. [P. : in Kangra. The proverb says " The Gaddi is a good natui'ed fool . As Mr. The Saiyads might have been included in the group. very generally abandon that name on their conversion to Islam and adopt the title of Shekh. Foreign Races. The present group is divisible into three sections. and is still a Rajput or Jat though I have known Musalman Rajputs who had fallen in life and taken to weaving call themselves Shekhs. . such as Dinddr or IMusalli. 17) S/ieM is an Arabic word meaning an and proliably corresponds very closely among the tribes of Thus the title should Ai-abia with Chaiidhri among those of the Panjab. in which Arabic is returned as the mother-tongue of only 63 persons. while tribes whose origin is lowly or has been forgotten. elder or Chief. 274] The Arab (Caste No. 140).'' : — *P.'" And asrain '' Gujars and Gaddis.207. least substitutes for it another only slightly less entirely his caste name or is known by an new .— 206 PANJAB CASTES. but the Shekhs and jNIughals are for the most part mere pretenders. What Rajput Mughal.'^ numerous than : FOREIGN RACES. That they have not come direct from Arabia is shown by the language table. and in the west of the Pauj^ib to the ]\Iusalmau . If a Rajput or Jat turn IMahomedan he retains his caste name. the Turk and Mughal. nor so degraded by their occupation as to be compelled to retain their original caste name. The Shekh (Caste No. The Gaddi are a simple and rustic people. I have called the groups of which the figures are 409. are is to the Hindu. 275] but I believe that such men when their settlement in the Panj fib is of any long standing. origin . The last two and probable many of the Ai-abs and Turks are tme foreigners. given On the next page* in Abstract No. but I do not think it likely. he also retains one. ask for his cap and he gives " In no-man's-land one makes fi-iends with " vou his coat. chiefly — [p. But tlic class which lie l)etween these two extremes. It is possible that some of our Shekhs. Sheikh. 500. Saivad. always call themselves Shekh or Qureshi. This is hardly to be wondered at. 87 Foreign Races.s. for Peshawar is a city in which may be found representatives of almost every Eastern nation. and is very generally assumed by tribes of true Arab descent. It will presently be seen how little real right many of them have to the names they bear. . and pride of religion is a " perpetual inducement to escape fi'om the admission of an idolatrous ancestry. But it has been degraded to a much more vulgar use. the Ai-ab and Shekh. and is the half-way house between India and Asia. More than half the Arabs in the Panjab are to be found in Peshawar itself. where I believe men of true Arab extraction are somewhat numerous. and have a good claim to the names they bear . They are probably Ai'ab merchants from Bombay. Thompson puts it " Pride of race " leads to the invention of some royal progenitor. and the Ghulam and Qizilbash. trace their descent fi-om the people of the Prophet or of one of the Mahomedan conquerors of India.

676 9.523 Total East.603 2..428 83 . Patiala 2.400 Ambala Ludhiana Simla Jullundur Hoshiirpur 28.996 1 4. 7.297 153 3. G. .342 327.906 7. 2.617 2.649 5. 95 3. 341 eo6 926 4.702 f-.557 2.000 OF Total PoPUtATioN.391 188 25.538 5.. 207 FlOtTBES.842 327..MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL Abstract No. Plains Bahiwalpur Chaniba .335 3.129 3. 676 495 10 PeshSwar Hazara 1.676 33 827 1. UO 126 37 130 181 14 17 126 37 130 181 •5 a a Uehli Gargaoii Karntil 60. . Khan Banna D....635 95. showing Foreign Races..861 8..928 8.585 102.222 5..446 .789 3.290 2.662 1.361 8.945 119 678 Total Hill States British Territory 2. I.214 14... Jhelam Gujrat . CASTES..446 441 441 Native States Province .169 3.335 4.280 . 25.979 8..450 4.103 .733 5..842 372..157 13.'168 11.537 Lahore GujianwiiJa Ferozepore R<iwalpindi .122 1.098 4. 35 297 "l 576 Khan D.412 7.195 10.337 4.524 8.839 1.636 17. Eangra Amritsar Gurddspnr Si^lkot 10.983 8.418 23 Kohat 9..347 889 British Territory. Pbopoetioit pee 1.601 3.713 4.618 44.928 14.169 11.620 1 23 Muzaffargarh.317 5 697 Hissar Rohtak Sirsa 414 694 855 677 160 1.447 3..853 6.576 6.„ Shahpur Mooltan Jhang Montgomery 475 .806 1.720 6.046 5.499 12.740 5.407 2..546 2.680 11.150 £6.248 3. 87.334 2.920 6.535 95.446 441 N&bha Eaparthala Jind .229 2.

and hold a high character for sanctity. especially in the west of the Province. ponsible for the unceiiainty of meaning which attaches to these figures. Such arc the descendants of Baha-ul-haqq the renowned saint of Multan. There are certain agricultural tribes whose claims lo Qureshi origin appear to and these men I be valid." and in Derail Ismail Khan the Naumuslim Shekhs are described as " a lazy thriftless set of cultivators. and INIuzaffargarh districts. . are often possessed of great influence. It was most certainly a mistake to do so. In one respect I myself am resthe largest sub-divisions can be examined. throw much light upon Meanwhile only a few of the tme composition of our figures for Shekhs." Moreover many of the inferior agricultural Musalmiin tribes of Indian descent have. who are known as Hashmi Qureshis.tribal name as the sub-division of the Shekhs to which they belong. . Jhang. have probably or almost In these certainly returned themselves as Shekhs in the present Census. . when published. This year if prices rise I shall be a Saiyad. In Rohtak they are said to " supply recruits to our armies and jails with praiseworthy indifference. District and State. With them I shall discuss some of the larger sub-divisions of Shekhs which have been returned in our papers. 502. the " next year a Shekh. and it is to be hoped that the detailed clan tvlhcs will. and whose family is described at pages 490jf of Griffin''s Punjab Cliicfs. The figures below show^ the number of people who liave returned themselves as Qureshi : — QURESHI SHEKHS. The Shekhs who have returned themselves as Jats in the Multan and Derajat division are shown in Abstract No. and I shall give separate figures for them below. They are chiefly found in the Llultan. how^ever. In manv cases the titles here given are no less misleading than the original title of Shekh." The true Qureshis of the southwestern districts. 72. last cases they will in all probalullty have often shown then. '' The Is a Persian provcrl) first year I was a weaver (Jiilaha) . Tribes and castes included under Shekh— Qureshi. set up a claim to Arab orig-in and though they are still known by their tribal name. page 29A* *^-J^^' Shekhs do not bear the best of characters in some parts.— 208 There : PANJAB CASTES. such as the Khagga and Hans of Montgomery included under the head Shekh.

Mr. the Shekhs of Panipat commonly style themselves Ansari .to the Faruqii^ or descendants of Umar the second Caliph. margin .501 are in Ambala. where they settled at Pakka Sidhar in the Montgomery district.560 persons have so returned themselves. and have preserved none of their former influence.— Ansari or " auxiliaries " was the title given to the believers of Medina who welcomed Mahomet after his flight from Mecca . admitted their true origin. Muhajarin. In the time of Alamgir the Hans tribe.— The Khaggas are another tribe which I have classed as Shekh. under their chief Shekh Qutb.539 One large section of in Multan." and their descendants still retain the title. Khagga is said to mean a peculiar kind of fish and the name was given to Jalal-ud-din by his spiritual . Khaggas. but they would appear to have now returned themselves as Muhajarin. our Shekhs have so returned themselves. or to the Sadiqis or descendants of Abul Bakar the first Caliph. " teacher on the occasion of his rescuing a boat over- " taken by a storm.491 of our Shekhs have. and those who ^ As many as 7. of whom 1. But here again returned are shown in the margin." but which. a title derived from tlie same root and meaning " the true . claim to belono. " Tliey claim to be Qureshi.^ The included among the regret having numbers according to our returns are given in the The Hans.21 5 of claim descent from these men style themselves Ansari. but 1. both of whom were Qureshi by tribe. and name as the first '' " '' Khagga. when about the middle of the 18th century the streams which fertilized their country dried up and they lost their home. since they claim Qureshi origin. The faithful who accompanied Mahomet in his Hajirah or flight from Mecca were called Muhajarin or " the fugitives or emigrants. The numbers but had better have kept separate.437 of them arc in Bahawalpui'. but it is very probable that many of the — — as Shekh or Qureshi Hans. 1. At present they do not own a single entire village.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL Qureshi have anv CASTES. The Hans and Khagga. Purser thus describes them : "The Khaggas came to the Montgomery district "after the conquest of Multan by Ran jit Singh. and the rest scattered about the Province. But the term Sadiqi is often confused with Sidqi. disciple of Muhammaxl Irak. and are doubtless the men of Panipat just alluded to. many Naumuslim— means nothing more than a new Musalman . In the Karnal district 8. and only 3. in tlie east of the Panjab at any rate. Ansari. These men are scattered in small numbers about the Province. 503. probably returned themselves as many of them have Shekhs or Qureshi. by returning themselves as Shekh Naumuslim. Jalal-ul-din." . is commonly used as an equivalent to Naumuslim to distinguish converts of Indian descent from original Mahomedan immigrants. 209 Among those who so style themselves real title to the name. The Hans is one of the tribes which I Shekhs. and not They say they emigrated from' Arabia to Afghanistan and "thence to the Panjab. Hans have returned themselves as _ attained trict independent rule over a portion of that dis- and retained their independence till the time of the Sikhs.

Miana. probably invariably. 48) have been most erroneously classed as Shekh. to the number of 1.— Sarai. " particularly fi*ee from ill deeds of every description. claim to be Hashmi Qureshis. but are not a very important tribe.287 are in Multan. The Kokara or Nekokara.— I shall not attempt to touch upon the debated question of tlie distinction between Turks and Mughals. who came from Bahawalpur some 450 years ago. and though they do not openly profess to be religious directors. whence their name. and 17 of the third. 19 of the second. chiefly — The Jhandir are also said to be of Qureshi origin. Some account of their history will be found in Mr.210 504. and others.646 in Firozpur. Of the Bodlas returned as Shekhs 144 are in Hissar. It will be sufficient to say tliat a Turk in the Panjdb means. or son of a Shekh. The Sarai. : — — used in the west of the Panjab to denote any holy man and his descendants will often style themselves Miana. O'Brien's Glossary. and they g'enerally bear a semi-religious character. known as the Mian Sahib Sarai. and I have no separate Tod makes the Sarai descendants. and its inhabitants the Sehrai. There are 3. There appear to have been only 383 of the first. But in Hazara at least and probably in other parts of the frontier. 749 in Sirsa. 2. its princes. Besides the classes discussed above. They were included with Shekh in the divisional office. the castes shown in the margin appear from a rough examination of the Shekh sub-divisions to have returned themselves as Shekhs in the numbers shown against each. They are described in their proper places. Miana. or perhaps only figures for them as yet. any newconvei-t to Mahomedanism is often called a Miana. namesakes. 349 in Montgomery. and most of them are cultivators. Besides these. a Kaurava Rajput and in ancient times prince of Sindh and founder of Aror on the Indus. Pirzadah. much . He says " Sehl or Sehr became a titular " appellation of the country. a Turkoman native of Turkistfin and of Mongolian race." (See further Sarai under Jats of the western sub-montane. They hold land iu Gujrtinwala also. Of the Daudpotras 1.256 in Gujranwala. descendants of the Kalhora Kings of Sindh who have settled at Hajipur in Derah Ghazi Khan. Shekhzadah. who are found in the Jhang district. The Sarai family are the 505.444 in Lahore. In Gujranwala many of them are faqirs. I have with some hesitation classed them as Shekh rather than with Ulama. — Mian is : The Turk (Caste No.282 in the Rawalpindi and 188 in the Derajat division. Fryer's repoii: on that district. 339 in Firozpur. and in Mr. In the Lahore division the Bharais (caste No.'^ They own land in the extreme south of the Jhang district. and 254 in Bahawalpur. They are said to have been the standardbearers of one of the great saints. The Nekokara and Jhandir. 126). section 433). In the Dehli terri506. and they are tity about the tribe. men returning themselves under the following names have been classed as Shekh Shekhra. and 1.. or descendants of ap«^y or Musalman spiritual guide . there is a certain odour of sanc]\Iost of them can read and write. Thus the head of the Sarai family just described is RETTTEyED AS ShEKHS. a contemptuous diminutive of Shekh . of Sehl. PANJAB CASTES.

accustomed to describe the Mughals of the Empire as Turks. for men of low caste to call themselves Mughals just as throughout the Province they call themselves Shekhs. p2 . .D. "they are now at a discount. the number of true Mughals in these parts is certainly much smaller than would appear from our figures. " Of the Mughals. though of high descent. excepting Dehli. and Swati countically confined to tlu' of try. or were attracted thither under the dynasty of his descendants. probably either entered the Panjab with Babar. . use the word as synonymous with '^ official " .MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES. Ghebas. and Hazara. . The word Turk is a Tartar word meaning a " wanderer '^ thus in poetry the Sun is called " the Turk of China. On the Biloch frontier also the word Turk is commonly used as synonymous with Mughal. they account themselves above all " other classes except Saiyads. Dhamtaur. for the two words are only different forms of the same name. But more than this. '^ that is of the East. The Turks of the Panjab are pracin Hazara district. Even on the frontier the Mughals do not " The Mughals tyrannize over the cultivator. Monckton as " an unhappy '' race. : The Mughals are distributed very widely over the Province . Sattis.263 Rawdls . They are probably to be found in greatest number in the neighbourhood of Dehli. and was politically attached to Kashmir. Some. '' " cultivator over the earth " and again Trust not the MughaPs letters. the capital of that dynasty and I believe that the great majority of those who have returned themselves as Mughals in the Eastern Punjab really belong to that race. apparently confined to Dehli and the Rawalpindi and Peshawar divisions. The Mughal (Caste No 37). . Those that might be admitted their equals. despise them while to lower classes they " themselves will not stoop and the consequence is that social relations are " sometimes at a dead-lock. and more especially in Rawalpindi. which apparently included the Tanawal. Puffed up with pride of birth. It is certain that a very large number of these men are not Mughals at all.f>12 Kahdrs in Hazara. along the route of the Mughal armies. But as will be presently explained. Many of these have already been noticed. 211 tory indeed the villagers. first letters."" of their territory .— The Mughals proper or Mongols.^^ The description applies with equal tnith to the Mughals of the Dehli territory. Jahlam. there is a tendency. then armies. or " the Turk of the Sky. Among the clans. and even among themselves each house reckons " itself higher than its neighbour.655 Saiuis and 1.) and possessed themselves of the Pakhli tract in the Hazara district. 507. probably a considerable number of them. The Mughals of Gujrat are described by Mr. and I have heard my Hindu clerks of Kayath caste described as Turks merely because thev were Government employ. and where they find a more kindred people than in the great Panjab plains. and arc doubtless tlie representatives the colony of Ktirlagli Turks who came into the Panjalj with Tamarlane (1399 A. belong to agricultural tribes locally known by tribal names. who have set up an almost certainly groundless claim to Mughal origin.'^ The Turks of Gurdaspur are said to be ropemakers by occupation (see further sections 412 and 416). such as Gakkhars. They are also numerous in the Rawalpindi division and on the upper frontier. but are. most numerous in the western districts. l^hese men were dispossessed by Swatis and Tanaolis from across the Indus about the and the Turks now returned are doubtless beginning of the 18th century their descendants. and the bear a good name. and the like. . Thus we find among the sub-divisions of those returned as Mughals l. and in Rawalpindi 3. '^ such as Chibs or Gakkhars.


Besides the number of Qizilbash returned as such. though some of them have taken to shop-keeping and other occupations*.347 under the name of Ghulam Khanazad. . and are generally attached to their hereditary masters. and which his son Shah Tumasp compelled Humayun to wear when a refugee at the Persian Court. good horsemen. where they were located by Nadir Shah. whence their name. But the class described above does exist in Peshawar in considerable numbers. 213 " of the headmen are personally very engaging. If so. 278] 509a. The Peshawar men show their clans as Turlvhel Ghulam and Malekhel. our Ghulam Khanazads are probably nothing more than Qizilbtishes. but 1 believe Qizil is correct. 66 were entered as See also the preceding Pathans. which was invented by the founder of the Sophi dynasty of Persia. These men are returned from the Peshawar district to the number of 3. They are said to be descendants of captives in war who were made slaves {ghulam). 181). of whom 48 were in Derah Ismail Khan. who formed the backbone of the old Persian army and of the force with which Nadir Shah invaded India. and notably Mir Jumlah the famous minister of Aurangzeb. — [P.200 families of Qizilbash in the city of Kabul alone. Many of the great Mughal ministers have been Qizilbash. as the distinguishing mark of that sect. . which is based upon the information of a highly educated gentleman in our political service. an intolerant Shiah. and from ]Multan to the number of 99 to the name of Khanazad simply. Ghulam (Caste No 130). keen sportsmen.MINOR LAND-OWNING AND AGRICULTURAL CASTES.— The Qizilbash ^ are a tribe of Tartar horsemen from the eastern Caucasus. They are still chiefly employed in domestic service. ^ In the caste table the word is spelt Kizal. and still form an important military colony and exercise consideraThey are not uncommon throughout Afghanisble influence in local f)olitics. himself a Native of Peshawar. Since writing the above. They are said to take their name from a red cap of peculiar shape which they wear. I find that Muhammad Ilaivat Khan states in his Haiydt-i. The latter may be an error for Khauzadah. There are some 1.Afghani that the Qizilbash of Kabul described below are collectively known as Ghulamkhanah. The Qizilbash (Caste No. tan. " with frank manners and a good j)resenee and it is sometimes difficult to " understand how they should have such a mean side to their character/' 509. paragraph under the head Ghulam.

but they will be discussed further on. artisan. for whom I have been unable to find a place elsev/here. The last I give in this al^stract so as to complete the group . where also will be found the figures showing their distribution throughout the Panjab. as is the case with so many of the religious orders next to be discussed . PROFESSIONAL. The first includes the priestly castes such as the Brahman and Saiyad . the two groups should occupy very different positions among the followers of their respective faiths. and menial classes on the other. between the merchant Khatri and the pedlar ]Maniar. 216" ^'^• be divided into three classes. general discussion of them to be profitable and I shall consider each under its separate heading.279] PKIESTLY CLASSES. Muhammadan priests. 511. while the LJlama are professedly a miscellaneous collection of persons returned under entries most of which should never have appeared at all in the caste column. Priestly castes. the fourth the great mercantile castes such as the Khatri and Arora . But it has already been pointed out in the Chapter on Religion that there is really : .214 PANJAB CASTES. given in Abstract No. and I shall confine my remarks at present to the priestly and religious castes. such as the Kashmiri and Kayath. the Mirasi. yet there is a connection between the priestly Brahman and the serai-priestly Nai. The line between the merchants and shop-keepers on the one hand and the carriers and pedlars on the other is exceedingly ill-defined. while in the sixth are included those miscellaneous castes. while the Bodlas are almost certainly a clan of Rajputs who have acquired a character for sanctity.— The classes discussed in this part of the They are in fact all chapter form an exceedingly heterogeneous collection. AND MISCELLANEOUS CASTES. but notoriously is not. sind /aqirs. . The Brahmaus are of course the very type of a Hindu caste. and the Muhammadan religion as such has no organised priesthood. Hindu priests. and entitled as such to reverence and support by the ordinances of the Hindu religion the Saiyad merely claims respect in virtue of his descent from the son-in-law of the Prophet.— The figui'es are and of which the group of castes which I am about to discuss. I have divided the castes now to be considered into six groups. both in the The groups are too diverse in their character for any figures and in the facts.— RELIGIOUS. The title of a Saiyad should be. and the Bhat . PART v. 'J^he Chishtis again probably include both spiritual and carnal descendants of their Chief. those that are left after separating the landowning and agricultural castes on the one hand. MERCANTILE. the fifth the earners and pedlars such as the Banjara and Maniar . while the pujiiris of our tables probably belong for the most part to what is now a real caste. religious. 510. [P. They include some of the highest and some of the lowest castes in the Province.'^ may *P. though the word itself is merely the name for an occupation. Theoretically. General and Introductory. But the Muhammadan group is not so homogeneous. and mendicant orders oi faqirs . the second the various ascetic. as distinct from orders. confined to the descendants of a common ancestor . The Brahman is a priest. the third the minor professional castes such as the Nai. and the vagrant. 88 on the next page.

settle with them in their They accompany their new homes. west of the Province. but he is consulted as to omens and auspicious names. section 236. . At the same time the distinction between the Saiyad and the Qui-eshi Shekh as regards the spiritual reverence paid them is probably. They are poor husbandmen. their migrations. insomuch that in the hills a Brahman who ploughs is scarcely recognised as a brother by the higher classes of the caste. He concerns himself but little with the spiritual guidance of the people. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. the first hundred pages of Sherring''s first volume and the whole of the second volume of Wilson^s Indian Caste are devoted to him alone. The figures of Abstract No. He is grasping. where it rises as high as from 13 to 15 per cent. Throughout the remainder of the Panjab the proportion steadily changes with the prevailing It is highest in the sub-montane and Jamna tracts where the people religion. while in the Western Plains and beyond the Indus may be said comparatively speaking to disappear. much has been written and published concerning him. maximum in the hills of Kangra and Simla. dates. but a small proportion of the total number and the remainder are pure Levites. The the Brahmans Brahmans have no territorial organisation. outnumbering I shall not attempt to discuss his origin and all but Jats and Rajputs.— The Brahman or Levite of the Hindu system is the third most numerous caste in the Panjab. for their pride of caste and the fact that a large part of their subsistence comes to Ihem without the necessity of toil render them impatient of manual labour and like the Rajputs they look upon the actual operation of ploughing as degrading. These men supple. excepting only the educated Pandits or Padhas. and overbearing. except perhaps in the ceremonial functions. 512. exceedingly small. but their sacerdotal functions being pm'cly passive. is their saintly character. while he holds himself aloof from the clients whose pockets he preys upon. it is the former rather ed under the present group are by no means Musalm^n as regards the spiritual them and indeed that if either than the latter. it is still smaller in the cisIndus Salt-range Tract . and Colebrooke''s Essays contain much valuable information on the subject. and events. ment the offerings of their clients by jiractising agriculture very extensively and it may be said that wherever the Brahmaris are numerous they are. land-owners and cultivators. and he officiates at all These duties however employ. The classes includ. The Brahman (Caste No. . it gradually decreases from east to west.RELIGIOUS. theoretical position . little to 215 choose between the in Hindu and the bondage which their superstition enfolds purely priestly . Yet even where his position is most readily admitted he has failed to make himself beloved. In social position the Brahman is of course pre-eminently first in the Hindu portion of the Panjab. and receive clients in grants of land to hold or cultivate The function and position of the Brahman in his sacerdotal character have been already described in the Chapter on Religion. 88 showing the distribution of the caste in the Panjab The proportion of Brahmans to total population reaches its are very striking. being markedly smaller in the central and Sikh districts . are essentially Hindus . though he is thought but meanly of on the frontier. and declines to . inflated with pride in his own descent and contempt for that of others. they are also But their most distinctive characteristic large owners and cultivators of land. ready to be fed or receive offerings in the name of God. at least in the south-western districts. the most Hindu portion of the Province. and I have therefore separated them from the landowning and agricultural classes. caste has the advantage. 3). quarrelsome.

TAB: CASTES.216 PAN.S o 00 00 o is . ^ 5 s S CO a C3 .a .

JS!2 AND OTHER £2 "> CASTES.'" *a>-*oioo5M coww ea 2 Tfir5o5-*t^-^co SSnS^nS S " ina>T!.H '..-I fH i-H IM CO CDCOCCi—(NPSiO CD OCO"<1'aOt^OC^ 2SS2rlS*' 5O<CC0i-l'NO5u5 roOSOCO OO'^t-OJ^ Co'cO-vi'i-T * CD o «D 05 . '" '" CO ^ ooio^jTcD oocDr-T •"jTint^ ^ ^ irT pos-^^cococ^ t>OOlOO(Mt^ "i'-'^ l^COCOfH oo iO era »ra ^ N CD O lOC^-^ CCWC^ t-H COOIO OD '^ oT ricO'-'OO ^lOCOi-i" iitOTj" -^icoe-i lO —_o -^cooo t^CDOO Co"'''" CffNcf Z.-.R.us 53S 2SE.ffl«j_. 00 CO_0 Oi_CD ^ CV3 I^IO •« OH lO 3S r-T -S t-CD^Sr-lSS 00 S. t~ 5 rt 00 - lOCD't^inr-ri-Tr-r rt" OT Oi CO Zt^^ COOIN ^°.'i^. o ooeon 217 ""55 f-trHi-i "> iSSSflSS*'. ""S^ w lo * r-i ih tn n co "JI-HrH t4 1ft CO . JJ - ODaoo>ot^i.2S T? 5^ ^ iHcoao 00 Co'io'lO-STjI-loto "^ 00 C0 1 _ OOlO'J'^ CIO . .'^i. « CD ^. Tirt-r0OJ»eriM''» 05-I « * ^ 3 --i i^ '^ CO .-( COOt^ (M CO la (MOTN lOrJI rH ^ £« J5 lO tS 'O -a.'".*'.ococDo^oti O^'* O Tl<_00 l^CO <^< oo IM Z. PROFESSIONAL S22I2 . '".RELIGIOUS. OCCtJIOOI-OIM l-H m 03 CO uo t^ t^ <M -1 r-c .»? t^ 05t-t- n-l If? r-t C-1 lO <M N t-H co-^iooo 0-^<MC^ O 0» M 0» I—icoco t^(N'»3i iftiAO "^^ <'' i-tCOI>.

each grade marrying from the one below and giving their daughters to the one above. chiefly in the Dehli district. ?. '' with the community i. —The Ikahminicial gotras is The Brahman caste or class . from which the Brahmans of the plains. Tlie Gaur 8." So their avarice is expressed in the saying '' The " ]\Iulla. — The Jive Gaurs {north of the Vindhyas). I append a description of some of the principal divisions of the Brahmans to be met with in the Banjab. Gurjara or Gujarati (of Gujarat in Siudb) B. except perhaps in the extreme west. beyond the Saruswati). — A. the denial of the superiority claimed by the higher castes which distinguished the teaching of Guru Govind not being acceptable to the Brahman. see below). 2. Karnata (of the Caruatic). 89. . It may be -^aid that a lino drawn north-east and south-west Of these great divisions Janina and south-eastern through Simla and Batiala roughly divides the Gaur from the Sarsiit. Saraswat or Sarsiit (of the Banjab. The figures are given below in Abstr. ^18 associate himself PANJAB CASTES. and a goat are of no avail in time of necd/^ Whore Brahmans hold any considerable share of a village trouble and disputes are sure to fol"As famine from the desert. The mixed class of Pahari Mahajans is described below under merIn the hills of Hazara on the banks of the Jahlam these cantile castes. 9. a " Brahman. Pahari Mahajans also are really Brahmans. and the these four castes were not " born on giving day. the Bhat. The Hill Brahmans universally eat meat. They too are divided into grades. probably not Bengal." and their love of good living by the proverb " Dine " with a Brahman and jog along the road with a Kirar " (the Kirars being On the whole the Bnvhman has but little real influence over great talkers) the Hindu peasant. tlie Banjab Brahmans belong for the most part to the Gaur in the districts and the eastern hills. The The The The The Maharashtra Mahratta country). Barnes given at pages 175* and the hill Rajputs.5U0 Musalmiin Brahmans. — The Jive Dravidas (of the (south of the Vindhyas). The Sikhs employ Hindu Brahmans as their parohits or family priests in exactly the same way as do the Hindus and Jains. have already been df^scribed divided into ten great sections. all based upon geographical distribution. a social and tribal organisation almost exactly corresponding with that of The quotations from Mr. They again are divided into two groups each containing live sections. (of Gaur. and in Kulu even Kanet women. The divisions of the Brahmans. 5.pou which he lives. Of the total number of Brahmans only about 7.000 are returned as Sikh. 6. It is probable that some of the jans. : . and to the Sarsiit in the remainder of the Brovince.16 in the These men are known as Huseni Brahmans. as follows in section 353. The Maithila (of the Mitliila country). Tailanga or Audhra (of the Telugu country) Dravida (of the Tamil or Dravida country). The The Kanyakubja (of Kanauj). and are said to receive oblations name of the Hindu gods from Hindus and in the name of Allah from Musalmans. 3. who are also called Dhakochi. the Brahman. 1. 10. seem to include the whole Brahman In the Peshawar division 185 persons are returned as Brahman. 6 fP. which differs in customs and standing and do not intermarry. 179t bear upon the subject.. so comes low . There are also 3. and these I have classed as Brahmans. and must refer the reader for fuller details to the authorities quoted in the beginning of section 512. and the villages have a proverb '^ evil from a Brahman. ]\Iahajaus. while the lower classes will marry Kayath or Banya. 4. and the reverence paid him is largely traditional or due The Brahmans of the hills have to the conservative tendency of the women. The Utkala (of Orissa). a few districts in which only Sirall numbers are shown being omitted. A Diim. : — Dum .ict No. 513. 7. scrupulously abstain.Mahacaste.

-o — COOCg 'ii Til ©"SI CO CD ooioco 03 03 C4 03 03 — O o . .^01 rt"« r-T ff^ .a o 00 00 ^ »a -— " ' 00 t^N O— CO COIM rjl I—I f-t la Sr:S <M t^ C4 s3SK CO 03 NcbcCD I> CD -^^ -H N O t>. OOO « f— — <M 00 »0 C" C^JOOWCO 03 00 QD — I>03lO c:3 CO 00 'titiqov o •(JtlSIBg O CO 03 CO C9 coeq lo N rt •* i-T N t»t~o ^* lO ^H O — CO_ I c^s-aio CO <-<_o_ qsjes SiSS (M f-H O o 2H?S t* Oa ^ ^Kg Kgo O Oi (35 -^ 00 CO CO »i^ ^ ^^ ira CO t^ ^ CO jT^GO" GO CO r.CO ^^^*-i. o oW Q QCO a^Sfil^tc CDCOrH -H 03 f-( H a M^fWCX^O OiCQO 03 05 CO t^Tjff-H r-HMTjt lOt5 51^ •^ ^H i-i lO 00 CD U5 •—4 U3 lo 00 . [P.2 .RELIGIOUS.-^ -H TO t-'^jToj Q Cm O a .^ I> O ^ CO •inco . aOf-<^ao 05 io« ^ t^Ot" CO 04 00 C-NA •»n8I9g a •imQ O) to CO CO CO C* rH t* i-H lO"* M cocot^ ^ OS 00 00 C>1 00 lo ^ ^ ^ ^ 52 S C. •!»?i«rno 219 01003 •<s> 5 00 00 a t« X CQ ^ o •fj?qov CO i-i 00 eq t^ oi t^ in) 03 t^ CD I0^l> C^t^CO QO 00 ^Tf-Tc^f ^ ^ U3 cq U3 00 t>. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES.

Tb. looks at his face in it. Especially " they take the offerings of Wednesday. in Rajpiitana The following description is taken I'rom my their home. &c. sesame {til) or urad. " black blankets or clothes. No Hindu of any caste will eat any sort of food at their bands. goats. eating and smokHe jng with mobt of the stricter Hiudu castes. second-hand clothes.— These men are scattered in small numbers all over the Province. near Ajmer. their interests clash. the two demons who cause eclipses by attacking the sun and moon. wliich is Dakotra Brahmans are fortune-tellers and astrologers. and the part of the Panjab defined above . sesame. aud at ' weddings they sit with tho lower castes . disowned him so Jasrat consoled him by pro" mising that all Brahmans should in future consult his cbiUlren.. - father of Ramchandar. Suds. just as does the Gaur..— There ha< been much dispute about tbc is position of the Gaur fr6m nameil.M. and are consulted by every class "on all subjects but the dates of weddings and tlie names of children. iron. " day after death. The Gaur Brahman.— ^20 PANJAB CASTES. and takes his name from the Saruswati whicli lies near his eastern boundary. " drank of the nectar of the gods instead of the wine of the jins. Jasrat wished to propitiate him. In old days they possessed the power of prophecy up to 10-30 A. however. They will not take oil. or buff'alo calf in Mag. and Kayatbs. aud they are separated from Bengal by other sections of the caste. such as black things and dirty clothes. green clothes. because. when sitting at dinner with the gods and jins. buffaloes. aud Ivet. The Pushkarna Brahmans take One section of them is their name from the sacred lake of Pushkar or Pokhar said to have been origmally Beldars or Ods who were raised . The Gaur " Brahmans will not take any black offerings. who puts gold in glii. No Gaur would take them. Saturday " accordingly rained tire on Jasrat's city of Ajudhia. salt. fi"om wboae hands they will not eat broad. or green or dirty clothes . . An exception. " The Dakauts arc pre-eminent as astrologers and soothsayers. that to " Rabu being given at the begiuning. as they take many '' now failed them. scape-goats of the Hindu religion. aud upon whom they look down. or who weighs " himself against satndja and makes an off'ering of the grain. " which is seven grains mixed with a piece of iron in them these belonging to the grahe whose " offerings are forbidden to them. who. and that to Ket at the end of the transit. The Gujarati and Dakaut Brahmans. and if they wish to make them they have to give them to their «' own sister's sons. The promise has been fulfilled. are given to the Gujarati as " being unlucky. and gives it to a Gujrati. At every harvest the Gujarati takes a small allow" ance {seori) of grain from the thrashing floor." '' The Dakaiits came from Agroha in tlie Dakhau. They also take a special offering to Rahu made by a sick " person. including the stomach and therefore the " nectar.e Gujarati lirahmans probably })elong 1o the Gurjara section already mentioned. however. while they will not eat ordinary bread from his hands. such as a buffalo or goat. aud their fate is to receive all the unlucky '' They arc the " off'erings which no other Brahman will take. and he is certainly much less rigid in his observance of caste rules. is the more worthy. and came from Northern They belong to the Panj Gaur group. but this has They aud tlic Giijaratis arc always at enmity. «' of the same offerings. and two " gvahin for Rahu and Ket. Khatris. or : Karnal Report " Offerings to Brahmans are divided into hdr a. and perhaps in some parts of the plains also. but the " Brahmans feared to take the oiTeriug for dread of the consequences so Jasrat made from the <' dirt of his body one Daka Rishi who took the offerings. such as Bauyas.r\di graha for the days of the week. but will take old clothes " if washed. Riija Jasrat. When anybody wishes to offer to Brahmans from llness or other " cause. Tlieir traditional place of origin is Hariana. Tliey are so unlucky that no Brah" man will accept their offerings . The sun and moon told of him " aul Bliagwau cut him into two parts. nov gatnaja. He is said to be less grasping and quarrelsome tiian the Gaur. and the Gaurs will not eat on the 13th day if this has not been done. . But " they take inauspicious offerings. " The Gujarati or Bias Brahmans who came from Gujarat in Sindh are in some respects rp 2S21 " the highest class of all Brahmans . though of course they only eat food cooked by a '' Brahman. The gi-ahins Ave most commonly offered during an eclipse. while Sir George Campbell would make it another foim of the word Ghaggar. " bad excited the anger of Saturday by worshipping all the other ^r^Aa but him. wliicli this section The Sarsut Brahman is the Brahman of the Panjab Proper. and their present home is the portion of the ^'o^th-^Vesfc Provimts lying west of Ah'garb and Mathra. The Dakaut Rajpiitaua. The Gaur Brahmans arc far more strict in all caste observances than the Sarsiit Brabmaus. he consults a Brahman who casts his horoscope and directs which offering of the seven " yraA'is should be made. Saturday. is made in favour of a black cow. . gats flesh in the hills. General Cunningbam suggests that Gaur is the old name of Gonda. nor oil. " Tiicse tTO are parts of a jin (Raksbas). thej^ are always fed first . and satndja. reckoned as a separate section. and was the ancestor of Dakauts by a " Siidi'a woman. To them appertain especially the Rahu offerings made at an " eclipse. of which Rahu. of which they are sometimes. and they bless a Gaur when they '' They arc fed on the 12th meet him. A butfalo which has been possessed '• by a devil to that degree that he has got on to the top of a house (no difficult feat in a village) " or a foal dropped in the month of Sawan. on wliich the Gaurs advise. The other Brahmans.

but in Haziira proper the Muhials perform be forbidden in our army. or Doghla Brahmans. ' <• ' ' * " rising. and is considered so imjure thai in many villages he is of the dead man. of a mixed collection of Nais. Moyal or Mial Brahmans. Those of the great shrines. Chamarwa and Gurra Brahmans.— Pujarl means really nothing but an officiating priest at a temple or shrine. Bhojeis. and cultivate laud. priestly functions and receive alms and oblations just like other Brahnmns. are called Bhojkis .ctity from the goddesses whose service they have entered The word is evidently <' connected with the Sanskrit root 'bhoj to feed." 283] . and make obeisance to him. as the enlistment of Erahmans is said to This is their own account . Yet on the whole it seems most probable that they are true Brahmans by descent. The Pujaris and Bhojkis (Caste No. who are said to be so named from the seven Mnhi'ns or clans of which they c( nsist. They object to be called I'rahn ans.— RELIGIOUS. but have fallen from their high position. They claim to be but if so. it is said. 514. and though they wear the sacred thread it is perhaps possible that their claim to Brahman origin is unfounded. They appear to occupy much the same position as the «« «' Ganga Putras of Benares.—This is a suh-seetion of the Sdrsut section. though they are the hereditary priests " of these celebrated temples. drink wine *' and are a debauched and profligate set . who all intermarried. Another story derives their name from a place called Mava. and I have included under the head Pujari 1. Brahminical rank as They The Mahabrahman or Acharj. and Jogis. The Bhojkis are said by Mr. and with are whom other Gaur Brahmans of the Dehli Territory wh ) have taken to widowBrahmans will not intermarry. if I remember right. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. the men are constantly in the '' Courts involved in litigation. They are all priests of Devi. 394 Pnjaris Mabomedan. and the women are notorious for their loose "^ morality. Barnes to be " not " Brahmans.'-' Colonel Jenkins of Kangra writes of them as follows : The Bhojkis are perhaps a unique feature of this district. They are much the same as the Dasa P. an^d profligate. of whom the distribution is shown in the margin. Tliey still worehip the pickaxe.ire the Brahmans who minister to the Chamars.274 persons returned as Bhojkis. since when they have abandoned all performance of priestly functions or claim to a sacerdotal character. have certainly sunk in the social scale. They are fomul in some rmiiihers in the western districts of the Panjab. hut especially take service in the army or as clerks. base informing. This is the Brahman who performs the funeral ceremonies. and other outcastes. as no ordinary Brahmins '' Sarsnt Brahmins would eat kachi rasoi ' with them. plaguy fellows' " are Of the 3. Kangra and Simla hills have grown into a distinct caste. and the probability is that they arc' mere ' Jogis ' who have obtained a retlccted sai.' They are << very quarrelsome. high position under the Mughals. eat flesh. was translated Early " . they intermarry among themselves alone. Brahmans. hedstead and all. — The Muhial. Tliey are often called Chamarwa Sddhs. such as Jawalamukhi and Bawan. They are not recognized as Brahmans by the other classes .— These Aheris. not allowed to come inside the gate. which.l Pujaris and Bhojkis shown in Table VIII A. and are mere strict in caste matters than the Sarsi'it. These are almost certainly Bukhari? '^x people. After the cremation he is seated on the dead man's bedstead and the soth lift him up. They are almost They say that certain of their ancestors rose to confined to the sub-montane Salt-range Tract.9?. They all w^ear the " sacred thread . (o 221 a reward frr excavating Hie tank. nro the hereditary Brahinars of the Rajputara Ehatlas. Rajputs. litigious. They are attached to the great •' temples at Kangra and Jaft-alamukhi and are supported by the income. and in the majority of But the Pnjarls of the shrines in the cases would be a Brahman or fapr. He then receives the hedstead and r 11 the wearing apparel He rides on a dinkey. and may be well characterized by the famous epithet " of)dpo(f>OLTO(TOKO(povTOCtKoraciaTr(jjp()^. < They intermarry among themselves and with a class of Jogis called Bodha Pandits. and is'taken from the nature of their duties. ' now deserted. 120). sad litigious.' Dharukra Brahraans marriage. composed originally. or perhaps . and their name is said to be a corruption of Pujki.

though lie makes use of his supposed saintliness. ''' '' . enjoyed considerable political importance during the latter days of the Mughal empire. At the best he has no cattle. section 277. a land-owner and cultivator on a Indeed. Lazy. In the eastern half of the Panjal) they form a comparaout the Province. Levite. Mahomet^s daughter. and will be found described at length in Mi. or at the least a large scale. Certainly an immense number The saying is of those returned as such have no real claim to the title. at any rate in the west of the Panjab. and I am surprised to find Saiyads more numerous among the latter than among the former.The true Saiyads are the descendants son-in-law of Mahomet. The Saiyads of Kag^n who came into Hazara with Saiyad Jalal Baba hold the whole of the Kiigaii valley. the without dots. Lahore. of All. and to false claims to Saiyad origin set up most commonly in a wholly Musalman tract. These men for the most part came in with the Mahomedan conquerors or under their dynasties. the words Puj^ri and Bukh. The abject state of bondage in which the Saiyads and other holy men hold the frontier races has been described in the Chapter on Religion. But dii-ectly the tively small meridian of Lahore is passed the Saiyads form a markedly larger portion of the population. except in Dehli itself. *' The Saiyad is emphati" cally the worst cultivator I know. with whom many of these Eastern Saiyads are connected. Pathans to Islam were called Saiyads if they came from the west and Shekhs if fi'om the east.. to compel offerings to which The Saiyad of the ordinances of his religion give him no sort of claim. such as the Bangash of Kohat and the Mishwani. " He is the worst revenue payer in the district . Saiyads. and "thinks that his holy descent should save his brow from the need of sweat" ing. claim Saiyad origin. he has no capital. who were originally Shiahs and were called '' the friends of Ali. thi'ee groat commercial towns. At the same time the Biloches. The Bara Saidat of the Jamna-Ganges Bodb. that the large number of Saiyads in the north-west of the Panjab is due. and Amrltsar. the Saiyad as such is neither .iri being identical if wi'itten They are found only in Jalandhar. Eoe^s Settlement Report.'' reverence and respect Saiyads far more than do those bigoted Sunnis the Pathans . for to him a lighter assess- . and he grinds down " his tenants to the utmost. element in the population. " Last year I was a Julaha this year I am a Shekh next year if prices and if " generation " be substituted for year /' rise I shall be a Saiyad The Saiyads are found scattered throughthe process is sufficiently common. and intensely ignorant **and conceited. no less than the Brahman.102 Saiyads in the Pan jab. thriftless. Our tables show 248. there are LFlavi Saiyads who are said to be descended through other wives. At the worst he is equally poor. and I believe that the word properly inBut cludes only those descended from him by Fatima. being largest of all on the Pathan frontier and in the SaltMany of the range Tract. dirty. and the Saiyads of the Multan district occupy a prominent position. The Saiyad is. Karnal is thus described in my Settlement Report. of Bukhara. while the Brahman is by birth a priest. and it may be that some of these have returned themselves as Saiyads The Apostles who completed the conversion of the instead of as Pathans. . and holy. and it is probably to the descendants of the former. and only slightly smaller on the lower Indus. The Saiyads (Caste No. Pathan tribes.222 PANJAB CASTES. 515. the . he will not dig till driven to it l)y the fear of starvation. and were granted lands or revenue which their descendants still hold and enjoy. 24). but it is impossible to say how manv of these are of true Saiyad stock.

and do not give their daughters to other than Saiyads. many whom . PROFESSIONAL " ment only means greater sloth. The mean- sortment of people. Hasan-Husaini the descendants of Abdul Qadir Gilani who sprang from an intermarriage between the two branches. The numbers returned are given in the margin. Divisions of the Saiyads. The Saiyads of the Western Plains are chiefly Bukhari and Husaini the Gilani Saiyads are found chiefly in the centre of the Panjab and the Salt-range and western sub-montane. and the Mashaidi in the Salt-range Tract. " enough. The way the lands now held by them were originally " acquired was in most cases by gift." [P. 223 Mr.— RELIGIOUS. 284] In Afghanistan the Saiyads have much of the commerce in their hands. I have included under this heading a large number of persons who have denoted their caste by some word which expresses nothing more than a certain degree of religious knowledge or standing among the Mahomedans. while the Zaidis are said to be a branch of the Gardezis. The Bukhari Saiyads seem to be of the Husaiui section. land-owners they make In learning. the Husaini in Jahlam. character allows them to pass unharmed where other Pathans would infallibly be murdered. and Zaidi who are descended from Zaid Shahid. Besides the people who have returned themselves as Ulama." The Saiyads as a rule follow the IMahomedan law of inheritance. '' May God not give kingship to Saiyads and Mullas. He LOW views most matters from rather a hard worldly than a superstitious standiwint. '' Many a family or community would now cancel the ancestral deed of gift under which some " Saiyad's brood enjoys a fat inheritance. But in the villages of the east many of them have adopted the tribal customs of their neighbours. Even the Biloches do not love the Saiyad they say. Thorburn thus describes the Saiyads Bannu " : rule the Saiyads are land-owners not tenants. the Bakhari in Rawalpindi. The " struggle for existence caused by the increase of population since annexation has knocked much " of the awful reverence the Pathan zamindar used to feel towards holy men in general out of "him. Though many of them still exercise considerable influence. a grandson of Husain. The terms so included and the numbers returned under each are shown in the margin. Here and there certainly " honourable exceptions are to be found. Thus the descendants of Abdul Qadir are often known as Gilani so the Gardezi or Baghdadi Saiyads are an important branch of the Husainis." But on the frontier any person who can read and wi-ite and possesses sufficient religious kno\vledge to enable him to conduct the devotions in a mosque claims the title. "their hold as a class on the people at large is much weaker than it was thirty years ago. and once owned a large portion of the Sarai Sidhu iahsil of Multan. the plural of which is Ulama or " the learned men. while in the west the Hindu prejudice against widow-marriage has in many cases extended to them. Ulavi descended from Ali by other wives than Fatima. AND OTHER CASTES. But they also have a second set of divisions named after the places whence their ancestors came. The Ulama (Caste No. Any divine learnecl in the faith of Islam claims the title of Alim. But for the criminal consequences which would ensue " from turning them out neck and crop. general intelligence. the Shirazi in Jahlam and Shahpur. as their holy : 516. the Jafiri in Gujrat.— This of is a perfectly miscellaneous as- cannot claim to have any priestly character. m — : 517. The Panjab Saiyads are primarily divided into Hasani descended fn Hasan and Husaini descended fi'om Husain the sons of Ali." of . and bad. and even in speech and appearance. they are hardly dis" tiugnishable from the Pathans or Jats amongst whom they live. 70). the spiritual consequences would be risked willingly As a "too. lazy.

as they perform "^ no priestly functions. but cling to the title. In the Dcrajat Mian means any saint or holy man or teacher. and are generally Shialis. '•' Religion. They should not be classed as Mullas or priests. The Indian Chishtis are also said to be followers of Khwajah jMufn-ul-din of Chisht. form of the same word. Of our Qfizis 1. who died in 471 Hij and was At any rate there perhaps the same man as or a disciple of Banda Nawj'w. 946 in Hazara. as it carries with it a certain amount of " consideration. and the title used to be almost confined to the heads of the more celelu-ated shrines but it is now used by those of smaller shrines Makhdumana is another also. Ulama is expressed in the proverbs quoted at pages 143-4 iu the Chapter on . have developed into a caste which is found In the lower Satluj and ehielly In the Montgomery district. are members of the Chlshtia order in the Pan jab. Indeed Major Wace says that among the Hazara Pathans any one who has studied the religious books is called Akhundzadah or Mulla indifferently. whether carnal or spiritual. 116). I suspect there are very many of those classed in our tables The popular opinion of the as Ulama who have no better claim to the title.725 are iu In Derah Ghazi the Qazis Sialkot. Maulvi is a doctor of divinity who teaches the precepts of tlie faith. 354 in Rawali)indi. The Mulla or are said all to be Awans. But the celebrated Baba Farid of Pak Pattan was a Chishtia faqir . means the head of a shrine. and to call themselves Ulama. Peshawar. Miana has been Mullazadah is of course nothing more than the dediscussed under Shekh. and very often pretend that they are " Saiyads. but is now often used \)j the descendants of such persons. But ]\Ir. and the descendants of these men are known by the above names. though they would appear to be found in other parts of the Panjab also. and the descendants of his relations and children. Of those returned as such 2. possibly the attendants of the celelirated shrine of Sakhi Sarwar at Nigaha. chief of i-cnown. and which in 518. 2. but are slow to admit this. Qazi is the Mahomedan law-doctor who gives opinions on all religions and But the descendants of a famous Qazi often retain the title. Of the . such are ahiiost wholly in the Lahore and Rawalpindi divisions.— This heading includes two different Chislitia is an order of ISIaliomedan faqirs They arc much given founded by Banda Nawaz who is jjuried at Kalbargah to singing. Mulwana or Mulana appear to be merely other forms of Mulla .479 are in Derah Ghazi. The Chishti or niany respects much resembles tlie Bodlas next to be described. generally a descendant of the saint who presides over the management . and are very shrine.665 men have shown their tribe as Akhund Khcl . Under this head of Ulama should probably be included scendant of a Mulla. and 4^129 are Mujawir is the hereditary guardian of a in Gurdaspur and l^TOl in Gujrat. or perhaps rather denotes the descendants of a Makhdum. and 166 in Bannu. all these people Makhdum are returned from the Derajat. " They are mostly Gujars and " Awans. Under the head Pathans 3. and these arc Chishtia /a^/y^ by reason of their belonging to that order. legal questions. Akhiind is a title given to any spiritual the Akhundzadah and Akhund Khel. and Multan divisions. and by any who claim descent from any saint. Those who returned themselves as inff of Ulama bas just been described.128 in Peshawar. They cultivate land or graze cattle like any other " Pathans. The Chishti (Caste No. Beckett points out that many of these are men who cannot show any claim to the title.224 PANJAB CASTES. classes of people. 542 in Amritsarj and 241 in Gurdaspur. and there are several well-known Qazi families.

and then moved to Montgomery where Baba Farid settled at Pak Pattan. the collected in monasteries or shrines where they live quiet keeping open house to travellers. training their neophytes for Faqirs of . girls to wife.^ The different figures classes simple. and especially snake-bite and hydrophobia. — but what the origin of 519. If I had known how largely this had been the case. nnd are probably mere members of the order. ASCETIC AND MENDICANT ORDERS. They were till lately a wholly pastoral tribe. they are recognised saints. 889 in Eirozpnr. and are included under the head Shekh. as the figures are utterly and for this reason I do not give details of Faqirs in . 520. that the great mass of these faqirs entered the name of their order not under " tribe " but under " sect ". and Farazi. silly. and have given the numbers to be added on this account to the figures of Table VIIIA in each case in the following paragraphs. in Hissar. still hold a jdgir. the proceeds of which they now supplement by cultivation. I have had them picked out again. But the real reason of the failure of our figures to show details is.435 of them have entered themselves as Qureshi and Of these 144 are not as Bodla. There is a saying " You can tell a Chishti by his squint-eye ". I should not have tabulated separately even the few orders that are shown in Table VIIIA. and daughters only to Bodlas. — misleading Absti'act . PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. who have for some generations enjoyed a character for peculiar sanctity. 225 Chishtis of our tabic the whole 887 of the Dehli division and 140 of those of the Lahore division returned themselves as Chishtia faqirs. and as we were forbidden to tabulate any sects except Shiah. Mr. and who now claim Qureshi origin from Abu Bakr Sadiq and 2. where they occupied the Bahak parganah which they still hold. I now turn to the community which is commonly consideration of that section of the included under the generic term of Faqir. my on page 280. it may be I know not. offices included the various orders under the general term. 172). and their Wattu origin is undoubted. though representing with fair accuracy the total numbers of this The divisional class. The other figures I cannot separate. Purser savs that the ancestors of the Montgomery Chishtis are supposed to have come from Kabul to Lahore 600 years ago. but that was easily remedied. The ascetic and mendicant orders. the details were not worked out at all. They came up from Multan through Bahawalpur to Montwhere they are described by ]\Ir. They have no relations with the other Qujeshis of the neighbourhood. and can curse with great efficacy. Wahabi. and conceited." From Montgomery they spread into Sirsa. and like them they claim Qureshi origin . and 254 in Bahawalpur.— The Bodlas are a small section of the Wattu Rajputs of the lower and middle Satluj. They are credited with the power of curing disease by exorcism. are Many generally peaceful lives. though they give their . and it is not impossiThey take Rajput ble that some of them have returned themselves as Shekh. Sunni. 749 in Sirsa. gomery. 349 in Montgomery. First come the religious orders pure and members of these are of the highest respectability . The Bodla (Caste No. They still marry Wattu girls. are wholly imperfect so far as the details are concerned. comprehend at least three if not four very people. Like the Bodlas they were till lately wholly nomad. Purser as " lazy. I must first point out that our figui'es.RELIGIOUS.

while their nadi or spiritual children. or at some shrine or temple where one of their So too the monasterial orders travel about among their order officiates. if they have committed their spiritual direction respectively to a Bairagi and Chishti ffnru and pir. but having no connection whatever save by origin with the order of that name. and Pirs if Musalman. and these men are But besides these both Hindu and Musalman ascetics have their called Chela. renouncing But these men marry and have bindi or carnal caste and worldly pursuits. we have no means of orders. Still even these men are members of an order which they have deliberately entered. not ascetics . The Hindus at any rate have their neophytes who are undergoing probation before admission into the order. extorting alms by the threat of curses. often hardly knowing the names of the orders to which the external signs they wear would show them to belong. known respectively as Scwak and Mnrtd. but most of the Hindu orders are divided into the Sanyogi and Viyogi sections of which the latter only of celibacy. disciples. I have said that many all of the is members of of these orders this are is pious. who wander about the country seducing women. still less with the special tenets of any particular sect. while among the Musalman orders celibacy is takes vows seldom even professed. instance. the chela s just mentioned. Now it is not probable that such men have returned the name of the order as and it is certain their caste. and exercising a wholesome influence upon the people of the neighboui'hood. and relying on their saintly character for protection.2-26 PANJAB CASTES. without any acquaintance with even the general outlines of the religion they profess. liut travel about begging and visiting though even here they generally have permanent headtheir disciples quarters in some village. though even among good. being the case with the Many them . and though their numbers are unfortunately large. Such are many at least of the Bairagis and Gosains. them the mle is seldom strictly observed . and have some right to the title which they bear. respectable men whose influence wholly for good. for . and will have been included under J^aqir. orders are made up of men who have voluntarily entered them. . How far this custom is general I cannot say but we have just discussed one instance of it in the case of the Chisliti of Montgomery. Such however as live in monasteries are generally The professed ascetics are called Sadhs if Hindu if not allways celibate. Some of the orders do not keep up regular monasteries. though this may occasionally have happened Thus so far the that none of them have returned themselves as Faqir. Such men would return their caste as Bairagi. order as much as do their spiritual guides that is to say a Kayath clerk may be a Bairagi or Pathan soldier a Chishti. an immense number of these men whose influence is almost wholly for Some few of the orders are professedly celibate. And it often happens that the descendants whether carnal or spiritual of a Bairagi. may after admission to the order return to their homes. and these latter belong to the . who borrow the garb of the regular orders and wander about the country living on the alms of the credulous. Such men are mere beggars. and I know of villages held by Bairagis under precisely similar circumstances in Karnal. But are far from notoriously profligate debauchers. . will grow into a separate caste known by the name of Bairagi. There is disciples and collect the offerings upon which they partly subsist. But a very large portion of the class who are included under the name Faqir are ignorant men of low caste. children .

To the figures of the table must be added 1. though they . 165). In the Panjab the word is commonly used to denote the followers of Shankar Acharj. The Hindu orders of ascetics. though Jats by caste. and Cunningham in an Appendix to his History of the Sikhs give many particulars about the Sikh sects and orders. have no longer any connection with the order. and would include the Gosdins. The word Sany^si really means nothing more than the ascetic But as commonly used it corresponds stage through which every Brahman should properly pass. They are most numerous in the Jamna districts.368 males and 594 females. among which may be the 12th disciple of Ramanand. generally have in their hands the custody of petty shrines.— I?airagi. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. from Farnikhabad upwards. or as it is more correctly spelled Vairagi. Like them the Gosains are often collected in monasteries. It is a sect rather than an order and the Jats of a large village in Karnal are Sadhs by sect. said f o have been founded by Sri Anand. who have dropped their original castes and are now known as Bairagis. about half of whom are in the Amritsar and another quarter in the Lahore division. almost all in the Hiss^r district. while Pir includes any Mahomedan holy man. The Gosain appears to be almost confined to the South-eastern districts. To the figures of the tables must be added 100 men and 13 women. pages 227^). 53). but it is also used to include all Saiva classes of ascetics except perhaps the Jogi. though to the figures of Table VIII A must be added 2. the guardianship of cemeteries. one of the most respectable of the Hindu orders. mostly in the HissSr district. 95). but many of the wandering mendicants also call themselves Bairagis. ^^^1 The subject of the religious orders of the Hindus is one of the greatest complexity the cross divisions between and the different meanings of such words as Jogi. 521. For these services they often receive small grants of land from tlie village. Sany^si. Sadh is properly nothing more than the Hindu equivalent of Musalmdn word F(r . the Nimanandi whose chief object of reverence is Salig Ram. ITiey are very commonly but not at all necessarily celibate. and Sadh are endless and no one who was not deeply versed in the sectarian system of Hinduism could hope to deal with I shall therefore not attempt to do more than jot down the subject fully. Thoir distinctive mark is a string of brown crinkled beads. an exceedingly respectable class of faqirs. 227 Besides the occupations described above.621 females who returned themselves as /nj^V^. 102). the Radhahalabhi who especially affect the worship of Radha the wife of Krishna. the Faqir class separating them. The priests of the menial classes are often called Sadh. — The Sadh (Caste No. and affect great personal the — and their religious ceremonies consist in eating together. in its meaning. They are also like the Bairagis while many of them officiate as priests in the temple of Siva.824 males and 727 females. They are divided into several sections. or rather Sadh applies only to a Hindu devotee. villages held by descendants of both the children and the disciples of the Bairagi monks. and Firozpur districts often but not always celibate. But there are in Karnal. and similar semi-religious offices. so far as our figures go. and who are to be found in almost equal The Bairagis of the monasteries are numbers in the Amritsar.— The Bairagl (Caste No. Our figures show Sadhs chiefly for the Dehli district and Rohtak. {See AVilson's Hindu Sects. Q2 . %» cleanliness. The Sanyasis are said to be ordinarily buried in a sitting posture. The sect was founded by one Birbhan some 200 years ago. — The Gosain (Caste No. To the figures of Table VIII A must be added 1. signifies any one devoid of passion. the menial service of village temples and mosques. and the Rdmaniiji who adore Mahadeo . . mentioned the Ramanandi who worship Ram Chandra. The student will find a mass of information on the subject in "Wilson's Sects 0/ the Hindus s while Trumpp in his introduction to his Adi Granth. But the word is especially applied to a set of Hindu Unitarians who are chiefly found in the Upper Ganges-Jamna doah. yet the paucity of females show that the figures refer to a religious order.238 males and 1. a Vaishnava sect .RELIGIOUS. and perhaps in other parts of the Province. and not burnt. which would appear to connect them with the Sadh sect . though these last two would appear to be They are for the most part collected in monasteries and are Saiva rather than Vai5hnava. seem specially to affect the districts of the eastern sub-montane. The Sadhs do not smoke. The Gosain is a Saiva order corresponding in many ways with the Bairagis among Vaishnavas. and is as indefinite It is indeed specially applied to the Tridandi Rdmaniijas. The Sanyasis. But the word is usually applied in the Panjab to a regular order of Vaishnava devotees. Lahore. . The SanyasI Caste (No. among the followers of Siva with Bairagi among the followers of Vishnu. by cultivating which they supplement the alms and offerings they receive. a few rough notes on some of the most important orders.

It is said that tiie Nirmalas and the Udasis are not unfrequently confused. and lead a vagabond life.^)47 which is of cour>c absurd. Not two years ago one of these wretches was caught at Rohtak in the . They are confined to the Sikh tract. They were nihavg or 'reckless' soldiers of the a^rfi or 'Immortal. They practise Hindu rites. or the Charandasi S^dhs and the Chamarwa Sadhs The Jogi. smeared with blood and human ordure. and follow the Hindu rites throughout.273 females of the Augar clan. So at least says Trumpp. and tbey are now hardly true Sikhs. being founded before the time of Guru Govind. The Sikh orders of ascetics. They live almost entirely in monsateries and are almost always celibate. 84). Tliey arc governed by a Council known as the Akhara which makes periodical visitations of the Nirmala Societies thoughout the Panjab. Amr Das. and used to be much respected at Amritsar. who is quoted in the text. Hindu Hlak or sectarian mark. and profligates and vagabonds join thv'^'n.587 males and BOO females. use the sticks together as they beg. The latter too are Saiva. These famous soldier fanatics. They were founded before the time of Guru Govind. My figures show 816 only but I have been told by an intelligent native that he can remember that in his yoiith they were common objects. The . the Baba Nanak. wandering about the streets stark naked leading a jackal by a string. bangles of steel on the wrist.944 females. — The Akali or Nihang. where there is a considerable Nirmala community. They have a high reputation for morality. though it is said that they are now degenerating. which probably accounts for their calling themselves Hindus. They again. Tlie Kanphatta is also called Darshana. together with miniature daggers. are represented in my tables by a total of . show only a small number scattered through the Sikh tract.logis bury their dead in a sitting posture. and have taken to wearing red clothes and practising Hindu rites. and beat two small black Although a Sikh order. The order was founded by Guru Govind in person. They are said to bear a high character. But they have of late years relapsed into Hinduism. They are hardly recognised as Sikhs.750 females of the Kanphatta. have returned themselves as Sikhs. They wore white clothes. They are for the most part celibate. They are notorious for gambling.act of devonring the body of a newly buried child which he had dug out. — 522. 152). but live on the offerings of the faithful. The greater part of them. It will The Aghori or Aghorpanthi Is an order which has happily almost died out. h^\-e for the most part returned themselves as Hindus.720 males and 1. they are all entered as Hindus. T?ut besides respectable Jogi Faqivs. What is the derivation of ogre ? Wilson says they look up to Teg Bahddur. The figures for Jogi given in Table VIII A include 3. and debauchery. To the figures of Tabic VIII A must be added 7.j!^ ^loundcd by Sri Chand. and carrying the same substances in a skull with which to bespatter him who refused them alms. drunkenness. but these figures are of course exceedingly incomplete. and quoits of steel on their conical blue turbans. and excommunicated by the seclnd Guru. is more probably right. though not usually so. to which nnist be added 112 males and 15 females. and are sometimes collected in Many live at home. and 1. The Nirmalas or ' without stain ' were originally strict Sikhs and followers of Guru Govind.228 the PANJAB CASTES. as their founder. Query. for purity of morals. and an iron chain. . of the Chamfirs. The former are priests of Siva and are generally to be found in Shivalas. and differ monasteries. wear the filalc or sect mark.— The Udasi or Nanakputra \ . engage in worldly pursuits. and it was they who withstood the attempted innovations of Banda. who were the Ghazis of the Sikhs. and is controlled by a head abbot or Mahant.' .658 males and 1. They wear blue chequered clothes." kj-^„ (Caste No. They wear ropes of black wool on the head and neck. knives. They gCLerally add Shah to their names. lived chiefly at the centres of Sikhism. They are almost confined to the Sikh tract. begging and singing songs of a mystic nature. the father of but Trumpp. however.— The Suthra Shahi (Caste No 163\— This order was founded by a Brahman called Sucba under the auspices of Guru Har Rai." They are now numerous and vjdely distributed. To the figures of the table must be added 1. little from their neighbours. of whom 500 are in Amritsar and 300 in Jalandbar.' and Bhula Singh Akali was Ranji't Singh's great leader. ' — i p_ 287] 2 Guru Govind. and the naked section or Udasi Nanga are always so. will presently be discussed under the head of Minor Professional be explained that the word orig:inally means nothing more than one who of mental abstraction acquired the power of clairvoyance and similar the low-class Jogi Rawal there described there are two sets of exceedingly the Kanphatta who pierce their ears and the Augar who do not. _^ They are a public nuisance and disavowed bv the Sikhs. —The Jogi there has by the practice faculties. thieving. Trumpp says of them " there is no order or regular discipline among them. though our figures. The Udasi of eldest son The Nirmala (Caste No. They do not beg. but are more secular. and had considerable influence in the Sikh councils. Castes. Kabfrbansi Sadlis of the JaUhas.127 males and 1. and reject the Granth of Guru Govind but revere the Adi Granth of Baba Nacak.

—The Madaris are followers of Zindah Shah Madar. and means one which must be added. £36). and political rather than religious.968 males and I7. and are still recruited from outside. There arc however a few in the districts of the Western Plains.322 males and 1. To the figures of the table must bo added 2. They are chiefly recruited from low casles. and an Akali ' married. and so forth. Candidates for admission to the orders shave completely. are the priests of Sakhi Sarwar Sultan. Their - glory who wishes to imply that he is alone will say that ho is with 125. and conduct parties of pilgrims to the shrine at Nigdha. and to be secure against venomous snakes and scorpions. 48).928 females.000 Khalsa. though the Panjdb Jalalis are sometimes said to be followers of Sher Shah Saiyad Jalal of Uchh.476_females. To the figures of Table VIII A must be added 20. and is said to have died at Makanpur at the mature age of 383 years after expelling a demon called Makan Deo from the place. 63). and are branded on the right shoulder. They wear their hair matted and tied in a knot.600 in Jdlandhav. and often levied offcringg by force. figures In their habits they resemble Sikhs. 5. chiefly from Si'dlkot Batala and Pathankot and in Amritsar and Kapiirthala.200 in Amritsar. and he was a converted Jew who was born at Aleppo in A. but they revere in the the Adi Grauth only. 143). They were warriorpriests. or rules of life. They go about beating a drum and begging in the name of Sakhi Sarwar. — — 84 males and 106 females. where they assumed the direction of religious ceremonies and the duty of convoking the council of the Khdlsa. and belong to the be shara section of Mahomedan orders who regard no religion. The Benawa (Caste No. play musical instruments. The Husalni garding them. The Benawa faqirs are the followers of Khwajah Hasan Basri. They circumcise boys in the western districts. peculiarity of having (Caste No. though they call themselves Musalman. The Bhardis are almost confined to the central and sub-montane districts and states. most of whom are My Kangra 523. are a peculiar class found only in faqi'r. and Lahore divisions. They were dreaded even by the Sikh Chiefs for their fanaticism and turbidencc. 3.153 The Benawa are almost entirely confined to the Jumna districts and Rohtak. 6. himself a JaXiVifaqir.500 in Firozpur. females. Jalandhar and Firozpur. Too Bharais of the Lahore division were included under Shekh iu the divisional office. His name was Bazi-ul-din Shah. and are for the most part Sikhs.' The Diwana Sadh or " ma I saints " wear uncut hair. D. To the figures of the table must be added 2. hang about mosques.700 are in Arabala. beg.300 in Sialkot. make ropes. of whom some 5. He is supposed by some to be still alive '(whence his name). 2 000 in Hushyarpur. The Malang are said to be a branch of the Madari.—The Bhardia. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. There seems to be a colony of these men who are distinguished by the title of Darvesh. and a very large feather in their turbans. 111). The Musalman order of ascetics—The Bharai (Caste No. breath. creed. and have been already alluded to in section 221 in the chapter on Religion. the celeMakanpur in Oudh. and are said to take their name from the fact that the Prophet gave his coat {pairdhan) to one of their ancestors as a reward for circumcising a convert after a barber had refused to do so The real origin of the name is probably to be found in the fact that the pilgrims to Nigdha call each other Fir bhra or " Saint-brothers.444 in Lahore. My tables show only 851 males and 659 females under that head.400 in Ludhiana. show 495 males and 346 females.256 in Gujranwala and 1. mostly in Patiala. 2. Mahomet having given him the power of living without brated saint of His devotees are said never to be scorched by fire. 229 Their head-quartors used to bo at Amritsar. mostly from the Jdlaudliar. They are hardly ascetics. burn their clothes.RELIGIOUS. and 1. where the Sultani belief is most prevalent. Women who enter his shrine are said to be seized by violent pain as though they were being burnt alive. and often act as Mirasis with whom they are sometimes confused. the bites of which they have power to cure. district. the founder of the Sarwardia order. They cultivate a little land. 160). Maler Kotla.— The Husainis are confined to Gurgaon. Uarvesh is simply another word for who begs from door to door {dai. Thus they are very generally distributed throughout thj eastern half of the Panjdb. Indeed on the lower Indus they supersede the Nai as circumcisors. and the order is now fast dwindling away. 1050.646 in Firozpur. they number 1." door "). go to a house where there has been a death and chaunt the praises of the deceased. yet the small number of women seem to show that they have not yet formed into a separate caste.483 males and 2. . The Darvesh (Caste No.— The Jaldli order was founded by Saiyad Jalal-ul-din of Bukhara. I have no information re' They may perhaps be Husaini Swyads. But the Darvesh of our tables. 2. a necklace of shells. and present the more females than males among their numbers. In the four western divisions they seem to be almost unknown. to the figures of The Jalali (Caste No. They also receive the offerings of the local shrines. or Pirhais Pirahis as they are often called. The Jalalis are common iu Central Asia. but who he is I cannot say unless he be the same asi Hasan Basri of Basra near Baghdad. Amritsar." or ! The Madari caste No.

525. the Jogis and RaAvals who are for the most part astrologers and semi-religious .014 females. aud the Akhund of Swat belonga to the order. 289] . there is uone but thee !" : The NaqShbandia are followers of Khw^jah Pi'r Muhammad Xaqshhaud. tary bearer of formal messages from one village to another. prepares tobacco for the village rest-house. with bowed head and eyes fixed on the ground. my figures give The Chishti /ay/'r* 2. their rights and duties being The castes of the group may be divided into three regulated by custom. whose shrine i. of Basra near effort. their social status is very low. such as news of auspicious events. Bbtit. formal congratulations. the same footing as the ordinary village servants. and on all these occasions receives suitable gratuities. Notwithstanding all this he is one of the impure castes. The Qadlrl (Caste No. To the numbers shown in Table VIII A must be added 2. and Lahore divisions. 21). and circumcision is commonly performed l)y a Nai. At wedding ceremonies too he plays an important part. ' — — MINOR PROFESSIONAL CASTES. The Sarwardia. The Nai (Caste No. and the Bahrupias and Bhands who are actors and story-tellers.710 males aud 2. almost all in the eastern half of the Province.— The Qadiri are the followers of the celebrated Saiynd Abdul Q^dir Pfr Diistagfr. He is the heredithe village guests. the by a Chuhra. which seated. far above the Cham6j. and where I should place the castes which I have included in I should class this group. 288] when a Musalman. most of the Sxmni divines of the North-West Frontier are Qadri. embassy sent to conclude a betrothal. figures only per- sitting — {See above under " Benawa"). On the other hand. for the most part in the Ambdla. and gesticulating. and he is generally the agency through which the preliminaries of match-making are conducted. News of a death is never carried by him. and they are invested with a sort of ^?ms«. and he shaves and shampooes the villagers. [P. his being a barber he is a true village menial. and somewhat below the Loh^r. and In respect of often called Hajjam. next indeed lo that of the Brahman He is also the himself.* Many of them are in some measure allied to the priestly classesj they have f unctic»ns t o perform in connection with weddings and similar ceremonies. and repeating Alldh Yd-alld-hn' till they work themselves into a frenzy and »t last sink down exhausted. measured tones ejaculated by a powerful and in The Chishti.'-sacred character. They worship by leaping up are the followers of Banda Nawaz whose shrine is at Kalbargah. they receive customary fees for the pef ormance of those functions. They sit for hours repeating the foUowiug declaration " art the guide. They worship by f«ctly silent and motionless. My thow 287 males and 219 females. the Jarvah or surgeon is usually a Nai by caste. however.. and attends upon But he is much more than a barber.— " They are the They worship is followers of Hasan Basri Baghdad. and in the cities. for his occupation as a barber At the same time every N6i is not prepared proper is considered degrading. leech of the country. in company with a Brahman. classes. —The Nai is [P. Beside> those clashed under Cliishti. standing much on the same level as the washerman. and many of them are retained by the villagers on — « p. but always He forms moreover. (See Section 518 nhove). and the distribution of which is shown in Abstract No. letters fixing the dates of weddings. 90 on the next page. the word Alldhu.S30 PANJAB CASTES. I have felt great doubfe as to how 524. they have many points in common with the menials . and purely professional. the Nai. '' Thou Amritsar. chaunting at short intervals if The devotee often articulated with a suppressed breath and as faints with the exertion. is the barber of the country. and Mirasi who are real village servants though of a very special character .at Baghdad. 175). thou art the truth. The minor professional castes. 28833.181 females. chiefly in the Amritsar Division.329 males and 2. and the like.

605 6. Multan.. himself of admitted Brahman origin . But as he often lives too far off to be summoned to ordinary weddings. Madho. but this seems hardly possible. The Jaga or Bhat genealogist. and A Sikh barber would appear a contradiction in terras . and He appears to be known as Jajak in the west cleans the ears of his patients. cuts the nails.. PROFESSIONAL to handle AND OTHER CASTES. I have included under the head of Bhat the following entries— Charan. 217 in the Ambala division. I believe that all our own barljers are Musalraiins because a Hindu Ntii who shaved a Christian would be considered as polluted. he is . 13 in the J alandhar division . writes up its genealogies to date. and the genealogy of the bridegroom.RELIGIOUS. 73. . and in a less degree Sikh among Sikhs. and Peshawar Rai is a mere honorific title for a Bhat. . though the entry in the original table is clear enough... Nai who had shaved a Chuhra would not be permitted to toucdi a Jat... 3 two in the central districts.555 . sections. and as Kangera or " comb-man " in the Hills. . The other three entries divisions.. page 224*). is a hereditary servant.981 4. He is par excellence genealogist of the Rajputs and Brahmans. but besides the functions enumerated above. of its total population.. In Gurgaon of the Province. Khokhar . . like the Mirasi. both of whom give a good deal of information concerning the caste.Tats (see Abstract No. But he is a bard of a very superior sort. the Charan and Birm Bhats are bards and heralds and compose verses in honour of the ancestors of great men so at least say Sherring and Elliott. are Musalmans. to which class the great mass of our Bhats belong. he shampooes. 13 in the Hissar division. Rai. the crow among birds. The Nai tribes . a bard and genealogist.. The Hill State of Nahan indeed retm-ns Bhats as forming 11 "4 per cent. The Bhat (Caste No. and ~ the last two in the west of the The Musalman Nais of Karnal are said to be divided into two Province. I show a few of the largest in the margin.221 Bhatti 14^816 5.laga or Bhat proper is the genealogist and historian. and Hissar divisions. . 62) -The Bhat or Bhat as he is ofcen called in 526. and clans are very numerous. Sikhs. Jaga. being least common in the Derajat.' ""f are most numerous in the Dehli ^^^l o «J 2. Bhanbheru 2. and he is found in largest numbers in the eastern and sub-montane districts where Hindu Rajputs form the largest proportion of the population. . the next 16. as well as by the more common : term Hajjam. for a everyl)ody's jioll. On the whole about 55 per cent.. 12. Baligu 1. Hindus and Musalman among Musalmans. are names of great Bhiit tribes . The first two ^'\^''^. The Nais are po^mlarly known " the jackal is the sharpest as a class of great astuteness. . or as some people call him panegyrist. At great weddings he attends and recites the history and praises of ancestors. so called because their women wear or once wore the Hindu petticoat or gdgra. and the proverb says '' The Nais beasts. and it appears that while the . and the Nai among men/' among are very uniformly distributed over the Province. and receives his fees. 202 in the Rawalpindi. where however some of them appear to have returned themselves as They are apparently Hindu among .. a Mirasi or Dum — .. 6 per cent. the Turkia who came in with the Mahomedan conquerors and the Gagrel or converts from Hinduism. ^ ^^. Musalman barbers are sometimes called Ustan. and far removed above the level of the Mirasi. though he performs the same office for some Jat tribes . 231 The outcast tribes have their own Nais. the Panjab is. the remainder Hindus. . Gola 10. each local clan having its own Bhat who pays them periodical visits.^..026 Basi 1.



however.^' The social position of the Mirasi. and the whole class being commonly It fact no one of my divisional offices called Dum-Minisi by the people. There are said to be Musalman bhats in Sialkot who have migrated from the Jhaug uplands A and are much addicted to thieving . who have The Dum and Mirasi (Caste No. and the type of all uncleanliness to a Hindu . and 77 in the . 72. though they do not eat with their clients and merely render them professional service. The word Mirasi is derived from the Arabic mirds or inheritance . as I understand — The class is that the word Dum is there applied to workers in bamboo. — 106- weapon. tribes have their Mirasis who. but he attends at weddings and on similar occasions to recite Moreover there are grades even among Mirasis. who takes the place of the Bh^t on such occaThe status of the Bhat is high and in Riijputana thev are said to The Bhat is ahnost always Hindu.'" The Mirasi is almost always a Musalman. he is also a musician and minstrel . must be carefully distinguishas absolutely synonymous. nor a fiddle-bow a good faqirs. Lahore. " four were not born on giving day the Mulla. Whether it is true of the Madho Bhats also I am not so certain.ihman origin. and Multan divisions. is exceedingly low. returned their caste as Madho. and in Bahawalpur and the other On the lower Indus mauy of them would States which march with them. sions. the Brdhman. the Bhat caste.iran. Under this head have been 527. ed from the Dom or Domra. 234 is PANJAB CASTES. . Rajputs often employ Mirasis in addition to Bhats. *P. and most of the men who play the musical instruments of the Panjab are either ]Mirasis. and the Mirasi is to the inferior agricultui-al cases and the outcast tribes what the Bhat is to the Rajputs. andL^* ^90] "the Dum.. and is notorious for his exactions. often retaiued in addition. the former being the Hindu and Indian and the latter the Musalman and Arabic name. but is most numerous in the Amritsar.* page 224. are considered impure by the Mirasis The Mirasi is generally a hereditary servant like the of the higher castes. schedule entries j Dhadhi. and the two words are used throughout the Province The Dums. as of all the minstrel castes. as also from the Dum of the Hill States. distributed throughout the Province. and this is tnie of the Jiiga and Ch. the founder of the ]Madhavi sect of minstrel mendicants . 37 in Ambala. which he makes under the threat " These of lamj)Ooning the ancestors of him from whom he demands fees. who are ordinarily called Bhats. whom I have classed as Dumna and not as Mirasi. The Mtidhos would appear to be named after Madho. a very considerable number of those given their caste as Bhats show Madho as their tribe. who however claims Brahman origin. . and the Bhatra. seem to have returned themselves as Jats see Abstract No. Jogis. as just stated. The outcast genealogies. Bhiit . the executioner and corpseburner of Hindustan. but I much doubt whether they belong to I have said that the Bhats are of undoubted Br. Even Jats employ Mirasis. Rawalpindi. 478 in MuMu. and. The few Hindus returned fi'om the hilly aiul sub-montane districts are very possibly Dumnas I have included uuder the head of Mirasi the following returned as Dums. few are Sikhs. is Besides the 217 persons mentioned above who called ^Madho in Rawalpindi. included both Dum and Mirasi. or " The Dum does not make a good servant. and it is doubtful whether these last are not really Mirasis. 25). though the hereditary genealogist of many of the Jat tribes is the Sansi . even M^here his possess great influence. But the Mirasi is more than a genealogist . separated the two entries. the Bhat. and still fewer Musalnnius clients have become Mahomedans.

always remembering that those for Jogis include respectable Jogis. while those for Rjiwals. the flute. and Sarnai. but the real number is probably greater. 228 have been discussed in the earlier portion of this section. of whom 5. CASTES. and wander about the country beating a drum and begging. The Jogi-Rawals of Kathiawar are said to be exorcisers of evil spirits. and the kettle drum. In Sialkot the Jogis pretend to avert storms from the ripening crops by plunging a d^awn sword into the field or a knife into a mound. Benton writes: "The Jogi is a favourite character in Hindustani " fiction. and to worship a deity called Korial. practising surgery and physic in a small way. which again is derived from ramal " sand " with which the Ai-ab magicians divine . who are followers of Gorakhnath and priests and worshippers of Siva.897 persons. or to practise astrological and necromantic arts in however small a degree. at page 286. Gosains. The word Jogi or Yogi means a student of the Joga school of philosophy. 109 in Derajdt . do not. which teachs how.143 of this class. writing charms. as well as Naqiircbi. .' and the result is that every rascally beggar who pretends to be able to tell fortunes. a regular religious order of Hindus. and other religious orders.RELIGIOUS. all been included witb Mirasi in the offices of one or more divisions. by suppression of the breath. and so forth . or. They males. who are commonly — known as Jogis. Rawal and Nath (Caste Nos. to obtain supernatural powers of divination. and probably a part of the a Jogi. largest tribes returned for Mirasis seem to be the Chunhar with 13. The Khariiila is said to be a so probably he should not have been included. and The detailed tables of clans will. — * See Wilson's Sects of the Hindus. 528. settling in the villages. or at least the Musalraan section of them. and practising exorcism and divination . The last three are simply words meaning players upon the flageolet. from the Arabic BaniMal a diviner. These men are fully as respectable as the Bairagis. eke out their earnings from these occupations by the offerings made at the local shrines of the malevolent godlings or of the Saiyads and other Musalraan saints (see sections 216 and 226) for the Jogi is so impure that he will eat the offerings made at any shrine. when publishthe Kalet with 4. telling fortunes.769 are They are all Hindus. . 40 and 80). The Dhadhi appears only to sing and not to play any instrument. bave Labore. and in tlie Derajat at least is said not to intermarry with the Dum. and the like. are called in the centre of the Paujab Rawals.* The second class is that miscellaneous assortment of low-caste faqirs and fortunetellers. give complete information on the subject. and accepting suitable offerings. ed. but I have no further information concerning him. and the two sets of figures must be taken together. The Jogi. First are the Jogis proper. and for references to further authorities. the present figures include 9. or sometimes Jogi-Rawals. both Hindu and Musalraan but chiefly Musalmau. They are a thoroughly vagabond set. He there appears as a jolly playful character of a simple disposition. These people.4)93. sacrificing goats. second sight. So far as the sub-divisional tables help us. 235 Jalandhar Rababi. 3 in Besides tbcse numbersj tbe above terms. Hindus of the eastern districts who have been returned as Jogis. The figures ^under the head Jogi include two very distinct classes of persons. pages 130^ for a very interesting account of both classes *fl Jogis. The two sort of Mirasi. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER . mental abstraction. Kbarialaj 37 1. which includes both the Augar Jogis and the Kanphatta Jogi ascetics. buys himself a druiu and calls himself and is called by others These men include all the Musalmans. who are all Musalmans. Mr.

. and like him the clothes of the deceased. .244 1. One or more in almost every Natb household has his ears pierced in honour of Siva." and denotes an actor. and are not recruited from without. but the Rawals of the district appear to have retui'ned themselves either as Jogis or more probably as Mughals.781 as Jogis.. who enjoTS the fullest liberty and conducts himself in the most eccentric fashion under the cloak of religion without being called in question.048 530 Of the figures given in Table VIII A.. to personate a long lost relative. . and meanwhile the Banyas of their villages support their families on credit. But in some districts a family or colony of Bahrupias has obtained land and settled down on it. as 1. the Rawals . it is derived from the Sanskrit hahu " many " and rupa. to recite at the Muharram stories of the doings of Mahomet. taking the place of the Acharj of the plains in the funeral ceremonies of the Kanets.853 The Bahrupia is in its origin a 529. a mimic. is refused. "form. . 291] . profession of acting in the Panjab. They occupy much the same social position as the Jogi-Rawal of the They are understood to have returned themselves as Jogis and to be plains. the remainder being: Jogis. The Naths of the higher hills. but they travel about the Central Provinces and the Deccan and even visit Boml)ay and Calcutta^ and there pilfer and rob. Kawals classed Jalandhar . in addition to their usual pursuits. to be repaid with Some interesting information regarding interest on the return of the father.. to ask that it may be given on condition of the Bahrupia succceeding Some days later the Bahrupia in deceiving the person who refuses it. included in the figures now under discussion.325 3... and receiving They also consecrate new houses.337 .. XMII of lb69 of the The town of Rawalpindi is named after Panjab Police Department.. or will again visit the house in the disguise of a pedlar. and is called a Kanphatta Nath. 128) .508 2.. purify them when they have been defiled. and They may be drawn from any caste. They now form a true caste. throw off his disguise. . milkman. a village revenue-free. though these men have apparently returned themselves It is probable that the figures do not include all who follow the as Shekhs. 434 17. and when it or characters.. Kangra Amritsar Gurdaspur 764 2. One of theii' favourite In the Province itself they seldom venture upon open crime .. No. Lahore Gujranwala Kapurthala Other places . but they also perform certain semi-sacerdotal function. . correspond very closely with the Jogis of the plains. purely occupational term .263 of There they are said.. Rohtak there are Chuhra Bahrupias. .. and so become a caste Thus there is a Bahrupia family in Panipat who hold as much as any other. accounts of his miracles... all the Hindus are men returned as Jogis.842 2. The Bahrupia (Caste No. sell his goods without being detected. Hushyarpur 2. Of the JNIusalmans the numbers shown in the margin were returned as Rawals..236 1PANJAB CASTES. though they make little pretence to an ascetic character and live chiefly by growing vegetables . a not." The Rawals of the Panjab devices is are notorious cheats. They are often absent for long periods on these expeditions . where the worship of Siva is prevalent... them will be found in Selected Papers. many of them having returned their time — what [P. and hymns in his praise. and in claim the stipulated reward. 1. Sidlkot . the Mughals of Rawalpindi give Rawal as their clan.. or one who assumes many forms One of their favourite devices is to ask for money.

joker. are conducted by one They may be or other of the castes which I have included In this abstract. and Bhatlas . fifth or Mahomeflan group Is confined to the central and western districts and the Salt-range Tract. The first or Banya group Is almost confined to the eastern and south-eastern divisions of Dehli. The second or Sud andBhabra group Is found only in the districts that lie under the hills on the northern border of the Province from Ambala to Rawalpindi. and Finally. Lahore. Parachas. who are commonly known as Bahrupias Tlie exclusion of these see section 494 on Mahtams. though a few of them have spread along the north of the Eastern Plains and into the Hill States. The Bahrupias of Gurdaspur are said to work in cane and bamboo. the third of Khatris. and not retui-ns for — The Bhand (Caste No 141). being most numerous In the Jalandhar. and being of fair social standing they do not sell vegetables . but both also wander about the country and perform to street audii nces. and Ambala. and is often also called Basha. this head include both Basha and Naqqal. and Pahari Mahajans . Khakhas. of the north-west of the Province. 530. The name comes from the bu-ffioon.RELIGIOUS. The Bhand is not a true caste any more than the Bahrupia." He is separate from and of a lower proBoth are commonl}' kept by Rdjas and fessional status than the Bahrupia. Merchants and Shop-keepers. but are Mahtams. the fourth of Aroras . HIssar. but with these exceptions almost the whole of the mercantile and commercial transactions of the Province. The group of mercantile castes for found in Abstract No. — and other wealthy men like the jester of the early English noble. and the fifth of Khojahs and 531. Hindi Bhdnda " Inii^ooning. The third or Khatri group constitutes a large proportion of the mercantile classes of all the centre and. Dhiinsars. it is certain that the their occupation. The territorial distribution of these groups Is very well marked. Amrltsar. The entries under MERCANTILE AND SHOP-KEEPING CASTES. the former statement is certainly not true in the Panjrib. On the whole this class constitutes 7 per cent. Bahrupias in Sialkot and Gujrat do not refc r at all to what I here call Bahrupias. But in the districts of the Multan and Derajat divisions and in Bahawalpui.the proportion rises to from II to 17 percent. West of Lahore they are practically unknown. and Rawalpindi divisions. 237 On the other hand. extending also Into Peshawar and Kohat. the crossing the Satluj In Sirsa to meet the Banya group of the east. the first consisting of Banyas. — which the figures will be . of the population of the Province. in tho?e districts figures reduces the total number of Bahrupias in the Province to 386. nor do they traffic in cattlo being for the most part Hindus they will not sell liquor or meat . and I have altered the fio-nres of Abstract No. excluding the frontier. and to the central Native States. 91 on the next page"^ practiThey do not cally hold the whole commerce of the Panjab In their hands. and I understand that they are often Mirasis by caste and probably have'in many case?i~o returned themselves. divided Into five groups. The fourth or Ai'ora group have the IMultan and Derajat divisions and Bahawalpur almost to themselves. Bohras. engage in the carrying trade. but Elliott seems to imply that Bahrupia is a caste and Bhjiad an occupation . The Bhiind or Nnqqal Is the story-teller. This however is . the second of Suds and Bhabras . excepting as a general rule petty hawking and pedling. 90 accordingly. PROFESSIONAL caste AND OTHER CASTES.

274 711 138 40 610 1 6. Plains 118.088 16.451 1.806 225 31 345 124 6 2.801 40.226 19.801 1. Jahlam Gujrat Shahpur 219 288 9 562 20 122 24 12 Maltan J bang Montgomery Muzaffargarh 248 ....329 Nabha Eapurthala Jind Faridkot Maler Kotla Kaleia .764 14.554 210 BahAwftlpur 486 4 498 1. .699 43. Abstract No...120 Kdugra Amritsar Gardaspur Sialkot 1..4U 86..828 121.015 Bawalpindi 2. 91.944 711 219 980 610 8..604 3.775 687 1.042 3.665 6.828 75. « 3 Derah Ismail Khan Derah Ghazi Ehan Bannu Peshawar Hazara 37 98 116 4 38 OS 65 S 889 475 121 Kohat 41 British Territory Patiala 816.064 11 Bashahr Ndlagarh Suket Total Hill States 33 32 14 2.722 1.088 6.069 8. 6 17 177 708 2 7 132 36 3.743 11.602 5.076 676 1.215 3. showing the [p 292] MERCAN Fi 14 173 112 cgCU Dehli fiurgaon Karnal 42.795 2.088 16.385 401 47 Hoshyarpur .093 160 11.800 1.126 1..081 3 11 3 826 421 327 British Territory Native States Province 816.597 .669 4.064 .309 118 1 134 1. 40.470 10.336 3 368 926 41 Mandi Chamba K4han Bildspnr 2 98 333 129 171 018 3.121 487.238 PANJAB CASTES.238 13.119 133 2.896 11.800 1.591 89 1.055 8..693 481 16..496 57 484 4 245 75 240 414 6 HiBsar Rohtak Sirea Ambala Ladhiana Simla Jdlandhar .069 T«tal East.669 2..756 1.773 Lahore Gujranwala Firozpur 479 6 617 940 677 721 1.309 41.804 10. 837 76 4.686 14.637 2.

492 l.069 2.613 1. Mercantile and Shop-keeping Castes.135 35.788 380.578 10.077 2.778 18.383 1 202 1.015 15.411 15.842 45.164 16.692 176 799 35 2.333 2.871 689.970 21.358 91 187 62 295 8.760 31.297 285 3 820 2 40 296 236 1.794 16.613 664 21.483 3.941 17.068 4.883 1.081 22.136 30.163 61.041 24.189 664 664 21.793 33.740 419.964 35.960 1.260 33.899 88.286 13.944 331 22.957 61.POS 3.664 6 149 102 364 190 762 316 110 ' 1.784 20.827 266 2.868 19.162 638 501 29.882 .216 15.657 179 1.440 17 6. 239 16 179 44 104 4.686 66.138 466 7.233 603 880.863 1.790 1.446 66.478 76.068 780 6 5.455 6.196 4.998 5.170 210 8 1.174 29B 748 23 213 1.297 4.017 32.146 37.440 61.399 17.267 1.318 734 1.746 9.790 7 639.995 461 1 41.034 241 62 67 44.041 51.079 13. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES.RELIGIOUS.487 46 570 99 12 7 1.378 231 1.693 3.345 23.100 5.483 601.780 7.306 12.976 1.967 1.181 12.301 9. TILE.

Jahlam Shahpur Multan Jhang Montgomery MazaSargarh . 91. Abstract No.000 112 75 Dehll GargaoD Hissar Bohtak Sirsa Ambala Ludhiana Simla Jalandhar Hushyarpur Kangra Amritsar Qutdaspur Sialkot Lahore Gujranwala FiTOzpur Rawalpindi .. rerah Ismail Khan Derah Qhazi Khan Bannu Peehawar Hazara Kohat British.. Territory Patiala Nabha Kapurthala Jind Faridkot Maler Kotla Kaleia Total East. Plains Bah^walpuT Mandi Chamba Nahan Bilaspur BaBliahr 4 Nalaparh Saket Total Hill States British Territory Native States Province . showing the Mercantile MEBCAN Pbopobtiow psb 14 173 1...2 40 PANJAB CASTES.

Derah Ghazi Khan. Bannu. Peshilwar. 5 25 8 22 6 29 36 37 43 Hazara. Niihan. Ambala. 16 AND OTHER CASTES. Gnjrunwiila. Saket. Kalsia. 139 114 120 100 100 102 73 Maltan. Kapurthala. Nalagarh. PROFESSIONAL and Shop-keeping Castes Tile.Tind. Native States. 3 ' 12 9 7 22 1 Faridkot. Sirsa. 15 22 1 Nabha. Jhanj. 23 1 Amritsar. Firozpur. Qnrgaon. 12 65 Total East. Total Hill States. . 7 8 5 Derah Ismail Khan. Pat i Ala. 20 12 29 1 ] 72 67 70 34 68 55 64 57 British Territory. 24. Chamba. Siiilkot. Plains. Kohilt. Montgomery. 60 61 26 36 18 33 11 5 90 72 Rawalpindi. Rohtak. Mandi. Hissar. 35 83 126 172 164 141 108 112 112 87 Shahpur. 16 35 14 36 49 20 15 21 92 58 72 Lahore. Province. Jahlam. . Bashahr.1 conchuled. GuJTat. Karnal.— RELIGIOUS. Gurddspnr. Kiingra. Simla. Bihispar. Miizaffargarh. OP TOTAL PoPtTLATION. 109 BahdwalpuT. Hushydrpnr. 179 44 104 Dehli. Lndhidna. Maler Kotla. British Territory. Jalandhar.

In the central districts and the Salt-range Tract the proportion is large. but aFter that anything and everyThroughout the Eastern Plains the proportion is very uniform. who is a trader first indeed. due. and ]\Iarwar are of the most extensive nature. as the name implies. probably because the Khatris like the Aroras by no means confine themselves to commerce as an occupation. and it is curious that while spreading so far to the east of Bikaner. then a thief. not to the fact that a larg-er proportion of the population of these parts is eng-agcJ in commerce. is great. but at the same time his social standing is from one point of view curiously higher than theirs. but it is very rarely indeed that he follows any other than The commercial enterprises and intelligence of the class mercantile pursuits. But the Banya of the village. . lives solely He holds a considerable area of land in the east of for and by commerce.^' which is confined by usage to the caste He spends his life in his shop.rprising how much reasonableness and honesty there is in their dealings with the people so long as they can keep their business transactions out of a court of . " First beat a Banya. The Banya (Caste No. notwithstanding the title of Mahajan or " great folk. for these tracts include none of the commercial centres of the Panjab. and tte needs of the people are simple and easily supplied. they sliould have obtained so little hold to the west of that In the Panjul) they are practically found in any great numbers country. he is generally admitted to be of pure Vaisya descent. out the hills and submontane districts the proportion is singularly low. " He who has a Banya for a friend is not in want of an countryside S '' enemy. . and he will not eat or drink at their hands and religious ceremonial and the degrees of caste proper are so interwoven Avith tlie social fabric that the result ing position of the Banya in tlie grades of rustic society is of a curiously The Banya is hardly used by the proverbial wisdom of the mixed nature. and the results are to which he belongs. only in the Dehli and llissar divisions. and the dealings of some of the great Banya houses of Dehli. for he is. he does not practise widow-marriage. They perform functions of the most cardinal importance in the village oBConomy. justice. and in the Central States of the Eastern Plains. the Province . and it is su.—The word Banya is derived from the Sanskrit hdnijya or trade and the Banya. looked down upon by the peasantry as a cowardly monev grubljer . what they are not. but to the peculiar versatility of the Arora of the southwestern Panjab. 532. . " and. '^ And indeed the Banya has too strong a hold over the husbandman for there to be much love lost between them. who represents the great mass of the caste. and North-Western India up to the nu'ridiau of Laliore. Yet the money-lenders of the villages at least have been branded with a far worse name than they deserve.Vmljula. of the caste which are most numerously repi'csented in the Panjab is NorthWestern Rajputuna. and Indeed the origin and strongliold of at any rate those sections of Kajputana. he wears \hQ janeo or sacred thread. and Firozjmr though curiously enough there appearg But thg to be a considerable colony of them in Gurdaspur and Sialkot. class forms the main commercial element of the population [P. thing*. He is apparent in his inferior physique and utter want of manliness. Uq^ The Banya 293] of Noi-thern . word Banya is generically used for " shop-keeper " all over the Paujtib. 14) . Bikaner.242 PANJAB CASTES. is a poor creature. his periods of purification are longer than theirs. a strict Hindu. Throughnaturally risino^ highest in the districts which include large cities.

It is sometimes said that Banya is no true caste at all. and if caste is used in the same sense as tribe. as of common origin distinct from that of the Khatris and other castes whose avocations are the same as their own . The great sections do not interman-y and very possibly represent stocks of different origin . these sections are doubtless separate castes. I do not think the Ao-garwal and Oswal Banyas are separate castes any more than are the Gaur and Sarsut cases seem to me analagous. of the whole. is Agroha in tfte Hissar district. and when . and it is just possible that in some eases other mereantile eastes have been included in the This Iiowever cannot have happened to any considerable extent figures. and Rohtak. especially in Dehli and among the more wealthy classes of the cities. most of whom are to he found in Patiala. 243 excepting even the frontier where Kirar is tlie more usual term . and not a collection of tribes of distinct descent united only bv Brahmans. such as we find among Rajputs. really occupy the position of castes . according to siierring. But the great mass of them are Hindus. are generally of the Digauibara sects (see section 259.. and these may perhaps be Banyas by occupation rather than by caste. and Elliott points out that the fact that throughout the North-Western Provinces the Aggarwal Banyas are supposed to be specially bound to make offerings to Giiga great saint from the neighbourhood of Agrolia..Tains. or the figures for the sub-divisions oE each caste would at once show what had happened. Only 0-84 per cent. all Aggarwals refer the origin of the sectioc. whether rightly or wrongly. are Hindus. Hissar. Oswals. the Aggarwjils. bears Pi'r. and the like. anvthing con-esponding with compact tri})al divisions. . and recognise each other. Chapter IV). The Aggarwals are often Jain. . 533.— The divisions of the Banya caste with which we are coucerned in the Panjab are shown in the margin. The Jains constitute 7 per cent. and are confined to the Deldi division. . and this is in a sense true. Of the Banyas of the Panjab about 92 per cent. Buc the place to which Banya Aggarwal Oswal Mahcsri Saralia .'' and that the great divisions of the Banyas. and Guga Pfr is the greatest of the snake-gods. or the tract bordering upon Rajputana. or Jats.351 supra). and whence they are said to have spread over Hindiistiln after the taking of that place by Shahab-ul-din Ghori in 1195. they rather spread from centres of origin. They have. and almost invariably of the Vaisbnava sect. The divisions of tlie Banya Caste. In all the non-agricultural found distributed widely among the poj^ulation. Pathans. The two castes who are identity of occupation (see further section . But the great divisions of the Banya caste occupy identical social and religious positions. It is curious that the proportion of Jain Banyas should not be larger in Sirsa. save in the sense in which such caste names as Chamar and Chuhra are only occupational terms. the testimony to the truth of the tradition. the great stronghold of Western Jainism. They do not move into and occupy a large tract of country . The Aggarwals or north-eastern division of Banyas include the immense majority of the caste in every district throughout the Province. Nabha and Rawalpindi. and. and from which they take their name. is impossible. The eighteen sous of Agar Sen are said to have married the eighteen snake-daughters of Raja Basak. I think that the term Banya must be taken to describe| a true caste of supposed common blood. a tradition of of a far distant origin on the banks of Godavery. are Sikhs. diffusing themselves among and accompanying the agricultural tribes in their movements. Only some 500 souls are returned as Musalmans. RELIGIOUS. but merely an occupational term equivalent to " shop-keeper. once the capital of a Vaisya Raja of the name of Dasa Agar Sen. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHP]R CASTES. . But if the word is used in its purely Brahminical sense.

though most part Vaishnava occasionally . 294] t . The detailed tables when In any case. Their distribution in the Panjab Tliey are for the is shown in the margin. They do not intermarry with other Aggarwals.. home . The word means hybrid. any more than are the agncultural Tngas .Tains. Hissar . and when Jains. Hindus. as is admitted by the Brahmans devotions. . that they excel as minstrels. is in P. 244.. and still have suh-divisious bearing Rajput names. themselves.. ready will clear up this point. They take their name from Dhosi^ a flattopped hill near Niirnaulj where their ancestor Chimand performed his They are of Braliminieal origin. tables of sub-divisions of castes now in course of preparation from the papers of the Panjab Census will tell us something about them. some of them have risen to eminence in The great Ilemu. The third or north-western section is Mahesri who arc most numerous in Bikaner.. Rohtak .G08 Dhusar Brahmans as Brahmans in the schedules.TAB CASTES... of whom 1. and are exceedingly 534-.841 Kalsia Hill States 28 971 868 191 TOTAL 11. Their relations with the Aggarwals are much closer than are those of the Oswtls. Gurgaou Karnal.. which is a synonym for Dasa. Their distrihntion in the Panjab is shown in the margin.000^ and all but tliroe are Hindus. The D.088 Sirsa 1. Wilson says that those of Sirsa claim Rajpiit origin. Oswals or south -western section of the caste trace their origin from Osia or Osnagar. I find 1.s of the Dhunsar Rewari in Gurg-aon. The three great sections.755 Total Amritsar Saraua. The Saralia Banyas arc returned in the localities shown in the margin. Gujarat and South-Western where they are exceedingly 467 51 1. almost . The head-quarter. Mr. Oswal and The 15a)iyas possess the Brahminical cjotras.asa llany. Delili . but owing to some dispute left Agroha and settled in Sarala.899 I the other sections of the caste. Sherring states that the Dhunsars have a traditioji of origin in the neighljourhood of Benares before migmting to Dehli. their real. It is to be hoped that the detailed Little appears to be known of the minor sub-divisions. — at [P. though. Delili . They are almost exclusively clerks or merchants.. wns a Dhunsar of liewari. like the Khatris. but was restored to life by IMahesh or Mahadcoj hence their name.378 numerous. Ambala Simla P.863 They are very generally Jains.ijputi'uia. Mahesei. but it appears Mahesri. They say that their ancestor was turned into stone for an outrage upon a faqtr. and like the latter they employ Brahmans to minister to them. < are The Dhunsar (Caste No. They arc as strict as other Aggarwals. 525 490 530 285 920 2. Tlie PAN. To the figures given for them above should be added 1.atiala 9.. that they also have other sub-divisions of the main sections of the caste. the leader of the Indian army at the army and the Court. a town in !M:irwar.. are said not to intermarry. from which they take their name. the second battle of Panipat. I have been able to discover nothing regarding their origin or the distinction lietween them and KoLtak 527 20 TOTAI... The total number in tlie Panjab is under 1.always of the Swetiimlmra sect. returned. Patiala Other place: 262 70 3. and not in any way data or impure. and it is possible that some of hem may liave recorded themselves Indeed.5G0 are in Gurdaspur but whether these are the same men as the Dhunsars of Ilewari I eannot say.. 1 OSWAL.664 in Ambala who have returned themselves as Gata.as are said to be descendants of an illegitimate son of an Aggarwal. a town not far from Agroha. They are a branch of the Aggarwals. they are no longer Brahmans. The Dasa Banyas are not properly a distinct section of the caste.' and is used for memljcrs of other castes wlio have departed from the custom of the caste or whose descent is not pure. 173).485 Firozpur Multan Other places 145 177 198 5. Agsarwivl. . Gurgaon Hissar Sirsa .

The Bohra (Caste No. The Pahari Mahajans (Caste No. and the districts that lie immediately under them as far west as Amritsar. Barnes says that " the " Kayath of the hills. to begin again da capo.— As I have just remarked. Gordon Walker. The Sud (Caste No. Bcamcs gives Wuhora as the true form of the wo^d. and occupy a social position markedly inferior to that of either the Banya or the Khatri.665 Bohras shown in our tables^ 56(3 are found in the Dehli division. 124). while a Mahajau clerk would be called a Kayath. It will be noticed that in those Hill States in which Bohras are numerous.^' and Major Wace writes of Hazara " The Hill Brahmans or Mahajans keep '' shops. though in Gujrat it is specially applied to a class of Shiah traders who were converted to Islam some 600 years ao-o. They seein to be numerous in the North- 535. Janeo or sacred thread made : . and 3. and vice versa j and there can be little doubt that both the Banyas and the Bohras shown for the Hill States are the same as the Pahari Mahajans next to be discussed. strict 245 West Hindus of the Vaisliuava sect. Thus Mr. and who are notorious for making money by marrying their daughters. Settlement of the iiii'ormatiou recorded below. who have of of Kungra. taking the place of the " Banya " of Hindustan.105 in the Hill States The first are Brahman money-lenders from Marwar. I believe.— The Suds are gii^^ost entirely confined to the lower hills. securing the dower. Officer of Ludhiiiua. 112). Of the ^3. such as Rjithis and Rawats. unknown outside the Panjab. and they are. a Brahman as a money" lender. or take service. tov much . am indebted to tlic kindness of Mr. In Gurdaspur I am told that there is a Small class of traders called Bohras who claim Jat origin. the Banyas and Bohras returned for the Hill States should proljably be They appear to be a mixed caste sprung from included with these people. Banyas are hardly represented in the returns. and the word is used in the same general sense in the south of Rajputana and in Bombay. But the term is in the hills really occupational rather than tlie name of any caste . 537. PEOFESSIONAL. Provinces. Their head -quarters are at Ludhiana and the neighbom-ing town of Machhiwara. and have already acquired a most une viable notoriety for unscrupulous raj^acity. unlike his namesake of the plains. and to be admitted to intermarriage with the lower classes of Rajputs. : -''^) : ' 2 I Mr.AND OTHEll CASTES. 536. and it appears that a Brahman shop-keeper would be called a Mahajan.''' In the hills any money-lender or shop-keeper is apparently called a Bohra (from the same root as beohdr or '^ trade. and a Banya as a ruler :— God's curse be on you . who is found in the hills only as a foreigner. They wear a. late years begun to settle in the districts on the Jamna. will not intermarry with these Pahari Mahajans. There is a '^ A Bohra's 'good morning V is like a message from the angel rustic proverb " of death " and another '' A Jat to guard crops. belongs to the '* Vaisya or connnercial class and wears the janeo or sacred thread. and then running away with both. 75)2. cultivate.UELIGIOUS. The Hill Bohras are said to be exceedingly strict Hindus. They are almost wholly mercantile in their pursuits though occasionally taking service as clerks.— Tiie ligures unJer tlie heading of Bohra include two very distinct chisses of men. the intermarriage of immigrants from the plains belonging to the Banya and Kiiyath castes and are generally either traders or clerks. In the Panjab all the Bohras are Hindus. as well as act as priests.''^ The true Banya of Hindustan.

leave your bundle on this side. of which the latter corrcsjoonds or chichdn(hybrid) exactly with the Basa and Gata Banyas already described. They are divided into two main sections. very lax in the They indulge freely in meat and wine. do not intermarry. and they have lately made what appears to be a really successful effort to reduce The extensive sugar trade of their marriage exjDenses by general agreement. and a he. the Uchilndia or Sud of the I find however that some of hills and the Newandia or Sud of the plains. some 20 miles from Hushyarpur. They are all traders. The Suds forbid marriage in all four gots. The Bhabras . observance of their religion. and extend as far Indeed there west as R. I have only come across two facts which seem to throw light on their origin. Oswiils .ited discussion in the journal of the Anjuman. where there are remains of a very ancient and extensive town. Sialkot. " If a Sud is acute and prosperous men of business. except that they do not penetrate so far into the hills. but whether this means that they are Oswal Banyas by caste or Swetambara Jains by religion I cannot say. They also disthe Siids of Hushyarpur trace their origin from Sarhind. are almost entirely in their hands. inquiries from so^ne leading Siiils.^46 of PANJAB CASTES. With and in and social position resemble very closely the Kiiyaths. hut are. of the Bhabras have returned themselves as Hindus. three instead of six strands. Further information regarding this caste is greatly needed.^^ villages is a mere child in their hands. They are of good physicpie. and generally the agricultural money-lending of the richest part They are proverbially of that district. As vSome of them are said to be a fact I believe that all Bhabras are Jains. 88). or perhaps a Banya also. The Bhabras of Hushyarpur make annual pilgrimages to a village called Fattahpur in the hills. habits. returned themselves as Jains and though some 11 per cent. and the latter and their offspring gola. the exception of a few who are Sikhs they are ahnost all Hindu. and there worship at an ancestral shrine. The Bhabra (Caste No. and have their iiead -quarters in the towns of Hushyarpur and They occupy very much the same territorial position as do the Suds. doglda These two sections. I attempted to make current. Ludhiana. they belong almost exclusively to the Swetambara or more lax sect of the Jains. as already explained in Part IV of the Chapter on Religion. calling the former hhara. of the Jain religion. tinguish the Suds who not do practise widow-marriage from those who do. The tribe is apparently : The Bhabras appear to be a purely 538. customs. and many of them practise widow-marriage. and there is a saying The husbandman of the '^across the river.iwali)Indi instead of stopping short at Amritsar. an ancient one. 295] . yet. for the most part of an opprobrious nature. the ransacking of the Sanskrit classics for proof of their Kshatriya origin. in comparison with the other mercantile castes. A precisely similar difficulty with regard to the significance of the term Oswal is discussed in section 259. but I can obtain no delinite informaVarious fanciful derivations of the tribal name are tion as to its origin. seems to be some doubt whether the word Bhabra is not as much a religious as a caste term. — [P. and consider themselves Hindus first and Jains afterwards. and are an intelligent and enterprising caste with great power of combination and self-restraint . and here again show how much less their tribal customs have been affected by their religion than have those of the Banyas and Khatris. but the result was the asseml)ling of a Panchayat. Panjiib caste. and whether it signifies anything more than No Suds have a Sud.

'• Trade is their niaiu occupation . I shall treat the whole kindred as " generically Khatris. as may be gathered from what I have already said. not only for the sake " of ransom. and doing a good deal beyond tliose limits. And. The Bh. but are quite capable of using the sword when nccessaiy. be carried off in the middle ages with a view to " render them profitable. . Governor of Multan. indeed. and very many of Ranjit Singh's chief functionaries. " 1 do not know the exact limits of Khatri occupation to the west. " shop-keepers. they have. No. doe< the banking business and buys and sells the grain. and his notorious siiccessor Mulraj. the great Commissariat Contractor of Agra. who thereupon said that their This woukl se^jarate them from the Banyas. handsome race. and Mr. they are in the Paujal) the chief civil admmistjators. So far as the Sikhs have a priesthood. though in fact. amouj " a rough and alien people. lately informed me that he also is a Khatri. and it is samewhat singular that. he is not. and the Sodis and Bedis of the present day are. Altogether there can be no doubt that these Khatris are one of the most acute. Superior to them in physique. moreover. and a Pathan will steal another man's Khatri. 16). they are.— The Khatri occupies a very diffepeople of the Panjab from that of the castes which we have just discussed. On the other hand many of the Gnrdiispnr Bhahras are said to be Osvval and Kandelwal Banyas . but in fact tliey features. I believe. The proper Khatris of higher grade will often deny all con" nexion with them. In Afghanistan. In Turki-ian. He claims. and have almost all literate work in their hands. to get " on with the people better than most traders and usurers of this kind. they have risen to high administrative posts. fair. and they " are certainly mixed up with Khatris in their avocations. but of equal mercantile " enei-gy. They find their way far into Central Asia. they are very generally educated. Wilson says that in Sirsa the Sikh immigrants from Patiiila call the Oswiil Banyas Bhabra. or Roras. like them. or at least only admit that they have some sort of ba>tard kindred with " Khatris l)ut I think there can be no doubt that they are cthnologically the same. Both Nanak and Goviud were. too. the whole trade of " the Panjab and of most of Afghanistan. Khatris. and a relative of that man of undoubted energy. the Khatris are as a rule confined to the position of humble dealers. The Emperor Akbar's famous minister. The Aroras whom he classes with the Khatris I shall describe presently 539. and money-lenders . Joti Par<had. Thus then they are in fact in the Panjab. No village can get on Avithout (he Khatri who keeps " the accounts.two wives under any circumstances whatever. Vambery speaks of them with " great contempt. The Khatris are a very fine. There is a record of a Khatri l>ewan of Badakshan or Kuuduz . in manliness. but in that capacity the Pathans seem to look at them as a " kind of valuable animal . besides engrosuiug the trade which the Mahratta Brahmins have not. and in energy. as 1 have said. Under Tur" coman rule they could hardly be otherwise. somewhat lower. while giving a religion and priests to the Sikhs. but also as he might " steal a milchcow. They are not usually military in their character. faith (bhu) was great. The Khatris are staunch Hindus . they themselves are comparatively seldom Sikhs. so far as a more energetic race will permit them. they are not much known to Europeans. a mere shop-keeper. or as Je\vs might. called Rors. " Speaking of the Khatris then thus broadly. They are the only Hindus known in Central .— RELIGIOUS. Diwau Sawan Mai. the priesti or gurus of the Sikhs. but certainly in all " Eastern Afghanistan they seem to be just as much a part of the established community as they '' are in the Panjab. Todur Mai. euergetic. were Khatris. (Caste The Khatri rent position among the : " " " " " " " " " " '' '' '• " " " " " " '' Iiave broader and more distinguishing Besides monoiiolisiiig the trade of the Paiijal) and the greater part of Afghanistan. 1 dare say. of a Khatri Governor of Peshawar under the Afghans. and remarkable races in India. and. but the validity of the claim is as doubtful as are most other matters connected with the fourfold caste system. " There is a large subordinate class of Khatris. as is frequently done on the Peshawar and Hazara frontier. PROFESSIONAL of AND OTHER CASTES. Thoy seem. except locally hi the Panjab.tl)ras have a curious rule ag-ainst one man marrying. as yellow-faced Hindus of a cowardly and sneaking character. Imt the further they got the " more depressed and humiliating is their position. was a Khatri . 247 Jalandhar attribute their name to their refusal to wear the janeo or sacred thread at the solicitation of one J3ir Swami. Even under Mahomedan rulers in the west. all that jMahratta Brahmins are in the Mahratta country. to be a direct representative of the Kshatriya of Manu. The following extract from Sir George Campbeirs Ethnology of India describes the position of the Khatri so admirably that I shall not venture to spoil it by condensation.

These are " evidently Khatris. Khan Chaud. it is curious that. to reach the western coast in the Bombay market I " cannot find that they have any considerable place. In others again than the total Khatri population. Thus in Giijranwala 963 Khatris have returned themselves as Kapur Charzati. arc found in Agra. deputation of 52 {bdwan) of their members to represent their case at court . chiefly in Multan and Jhang where and these men are said to belong are Hindus. Tbc question of the sub-divisions of the Khatris is exceedingly complicated. and sent a riage upon the Khatris. Some •2. 296] tiou in accordance with which certain Khatri tribes refuse to intermarry with any save a certain specified number of their fellow tribes. but this would be explained if the Aroras be considered a branch of the Khatris. It has also terrildy confused the entries in the schedules. and Patna . Khatri " traders are numerous in Dchli. Sarin. 249 they include more than three-quarters of the total Khatris of the Province. As Sir George Campbell remarked. mercantile i j and " The Khatris arc altogether excluded from Brahmin Kashmir. It hardly appears east of Ludhiana. and Khokhriiu. In Sindh. and have a large share of public offices. Within recent times there has sprung up a system of social gradua. are paid to have been originally Khatrls (they are '' a curiously handsome race). as a rule. for Khatris of the same tribe may be in one part of the Province Charziitis. 92 below*. the eastern boundary of the Sikh religion. in which. owing to my own ignorance of the matter. first the four real important of the artificial divisions alluded to above." Chhezdti. and the Bahri section. and occupies an important position in the western Hill Although the Khatris are said to trace their origin to Multan. with a " numerous colony of Kashmiri shawl-weavers. " ho who marries into four tribes . " Chdrzati. they are commonly chiefly to the known as Khojahs Kapur section. take service. of them should belong to it. 540. The It will be noticed that i«p distribution of the main sections is shown in Abstract No. and or the Mabomedan customs —hence Sarin — while Sham . they States. They were therefore called followers of The headings memorialists were called Bdwanjai from the number of the deputation or of the clans respectively reprcscnled by the members of the deputaTiie Khokliran section is said to consist of the descendants of certain tion . In the hills however the " 'Kaika-/ on the ca4 bank of the Jahlam. " he who only marries into two and a half houses . Lucknow. nor does it penetrate into the eastern hills. Khatris who joined the Khokhars in rebellion. The divisions of the Khatri Caste. This purely artificial and social classification has obscured the original tribal divisions of the caste . and least of all on the actual frontier . many them bold tlicy arc '^o uamerous that they cannot all be rich and land. and in another Barazatis and so forth. It is strongest in the central districts where Sikhism is most prevalent. Ludhiana is a large and thriving town of mercantile Khatris. but that the percentthe number classified is larger age unclassified is very large in some districts. Bahi-i. and so in other cases also.248 " «' PANJAB CASTES. The rest . are far less prominent in the southern districts of the Western Plains. intimately connected as the Khatris always have been and still are with the Sikh religion. though there they are principally connected with Panjab " firms. I find in Captain " Burton's book au account of a race of pretended Kshatriyas who are really Banias of the " Nanak-Shahi (Sikh) faith and who trade. tribal sections." : Witliin the Panjab the distribution of the Khatri clement is very well marked.[p. and in the interior of the Kangra hills there is an interesting " race of fine partiarchal-looking shepherds called Gaddis. " lie who marries into six ti'ihes . portion of Sikhs r^hould double and treble in the Jahlam and Rawalpindi districts. hence Biinjahi. then the four most six of the most important clans. This is due to the same figures being in some cases repeated twice over. " The Khatris do not seem.()00 are Musalman. and follow various avocations. and 80 appear under both heads . cultivate. one of the /lawcAffj/a^i or artificial divisions was shown as a tribe. In the Panpib of Asia. but the Eastern Ayin Khatris were afraid to sign the memorial." and so on. most of whom are Khatris. and with whom the other Khatri families were afraid to intermarry . of the lineage of Mahr Chand. assisted by an unfortunate mistake iu the sample schcdulos issued with the instructions to enumerators. and in the Rawalpindi division and Hazara. of the Abstract include three different kinds of divisions. however. and are well known " in the Bara Bazaar of Calcutta. and the distinctions thus cieated have been formulated iu a set of names such as Dhaighar. only 9 Nor do I understand why the proper cent. is said to be that Ala-ul-diu Khilji attempted to impose widow-marThe Western Khatris resolved to resist the innovation. and finally The origin of the division into the four sections called Bunjahi.

i>aOi-i lO »0 r-( 00 tCcc^Ti^(^f CDQOOSO ' i^i ^'' -v-T o xi CM •uqvu IOCS cot- >0 CD CD «5 •uutg O 00 PJCD in i-hCDO co'cd*'-*' coco oo ^ oco CO — »0 C5 CD O^CO c^ O »— o 'T-1 2 o c-i -jt crj O lO CI t^ CD-* c-i C^l co-^ t^CO t^co Tjl 1^ 00 — cnnfco CDO'tC CD •uiV.q(i = t> i-H (M •apuioqa. a faiO o<.zrm.cq3!t.runfj CT CO ic" CD* < ^ =3 01 >.1 « BELIGIOUS. PROFESSIONAL •qjag AND OTHER CASTES. 249 eooj(M "Wjoqicm 200 •ouui'qjf 'W o --H ^3 C4 CO 05 Ococo OlOT * -lao^ jjejco •iiidcH *t»l-.t: "3 3^ 5 (ij« ml^ih .3 a XI "73 to =s 3 <>^ S d 2 rt'tf.CT> CD C^ CO 00 03 rf CI CD C-) f-H MPaa —•CO CO •-! <Heo'i< t-coo COtHCO •RPOS "UyzauUD •!V.j t-( CO w :d •i^vzipqo N •^ W3 rt > ^H •J.

and the Seth. though tlie Bhatias of Derah Ismail Khan are dcscril)cd as belonging to a " widely spread and enterprising They are often supposed to be Khatris. — common Jahlam whence a few have made their way into Hazara and Rawalpindi. the Kapur. They claim descent from Sodlii King of sou of Kal Rai King of Lahore. Sodhis plaved an important part during the Sikh rule. and who. iliiugh it will not give its daughters to inmarriage. the fir-t three of social ranl^ are the Marhotra or Mahra. thus separated from the rest of the caste. Tliese four clan^ belong to the IVvhri section of the caste. The Khakha (Caste No. where they appear to form the leading mercantile element. . undoubted. their Rajput They are numerous in Sindh and Gujarat origin appears to be unquestioned. Like the Khatri. . he is no mere trader . greatest numbers in the Kashmir hills lying along the left ]>ank of the 541. than half the Aroras of the Panjab dwell in the Multan and Derajjit divisions. Tlfey afe commonly said to be the de-^ceudants of The men. and of the Sodliis at is also the great centre of the Nihang devotees. They stand distinctly below the Khatri and perhaps below the Arora. The Arora (Caste No. our figures refer are now sufficiently distinct. 542. Klialcha is said to he a not unBut the people to whom epithet to apply to any petty Kbatri trader. or Rora as he is often called. though their Khatri origin is. both in a social and in a mercantile sense. along the lower valleys of the Indus and Satbij.where Baba Nanak settled and died. The Bedi and Sodhi clans belong to the Bunjahi tribe. . while Seth is a ttrm new conused for anv rich hanker.'' Jahlam they are said to follow the Khatri divisions of Bahri. The Bhatia (Caste No. 10). hut al-o such families of the mother's clan as arc closely connected and thus reduce the clans available for intermarriage to two and a half. 69).["• 297] was known as Vedi. orio-inally . and are for the most part engaged in petty shoi)-kceping. Kapur Chand.250 PANJAB CASTES. and in mercantile community. Anandpur in Hu4iyarpur. the two clans dating from long before Baba Nanak. the Khnnna. But these arc fahlcs. but thi< appears to be a mistake. and The stitute the i)haighar and Charzati divisions which stand highest of all in the social scale. and to hold the They have spread into place which the Aroras occupy higher up the Indus. is 543. I Tliey are in fact coiiverted Khatris. More Satluj he is only found in the immediate neighbourhood of the river. and tlie Bedis from Ksilpat Rai. studied the Vedas at The modern head-quarters of the Bedis is at Dera Nanak iu Gurdas. 179). In this Province however they occupy an inferior position. ' witli her the father's clan. marrica only within each other's families. coming from Bhatner. The Arora. and eschew meat and liquor. and arc found in believe. Bunjahi. The most impm-tant in point of of the Western Plain>. and unlike the Banya. being indeed most numerous in Sialkot and Gujnit. Sir George Campbell calls them ''a curiously handsome people. which pui. who being deprived of liis kingdom by his nephew. I should say that each it in division will take wives from the one below it. The name would seem to show that they were Bliatis (called Bhatti in the Panjab) l)ut 1)0 that as it may. — the . brother of Kal Rai and Benares and Ka^ur. three Khatris who went to Dchli in attenrlnuce upon one of Akbar's Rajput wives. Charzati. and the Rajputana desert. and owe most of their Guru Ram Diis fluence and importance to the fact that Baba Nanak belonged to the former and these and Guru Har-rovind to the hit tor. for the same division into F>ahri an<l Buiijahi appears amongr the Brahmans The number of dans is eTiornious. They trading classes of the Western Panjalj do not practise widow-marriage." . who have taken to commercial piu'suits. not only origin of the term Dhai^har lies in the fact that the families of that division exclude. but his social . Rai. and up the whole the Panjab length of the Chenab as high as its dcltouchure into tlie plains. trader par excellence of the Jatl<i-s])caking or south-western portion of Panjab. which are said to he called after the names of the three men just mentioned.— Tlie Bhatias are a class of Rajputs. &c. Jaisalmer. that is to say of the lower vaUcys of our iive rivers while higher up East of the upper their courses he shares that position with the Khatri. DhaiThey are very strict Hindus far more so than the other ghar.

position is 251 upon simply no (loul)t because ht is looked down being a Hindu in the portions of the Province which are his He is commonly known as a Kinir. and many of them are found in both sections. to avoid which thev denied their caste and described it as /lur or another. exogamous. Origin and divisions of tlie Aroras. acquisitive race. The - The detailed figures. indeed. the term is most eommonly applied. Some of them fled northwards and some southwards. the section being endogamous and the clan. and But the Arora is the person to whom is so used even in the Kaugra Hills. as All Aroras are said to be of the Kasib ffoim. and the rest as Hindu. weave matting and baskets. . is now represented by the modern Rori. and Khatris repudiate the name altogether The Arora is active and enterprising. he makes a most admiral )le to Lahore/'' cultivator. as the Multan and Lahore Khatris are Khatris of Multan and Lahore. a word almost synonyspecial habitat." So again " You can't make a friend of a Kirar any mow. during the persecution of that people by Paras Ram. or the boatman at his ferry . Uttaradhi and Dakhana.Religious. and do goldsmith's work. and even more contemptuous than is the name Banya in far inferior to theirs. industrious and thrifty. secreti\'e. and his character is thus summed up by Mr. for if you do they Avill break '' your head/' Again " Trust not a crow. partly as The word Kirar. mous with coward. or the " Kirar at his shop. But it has been suggested with greater probability that. but possessed of few manly " qualities. Further details will be found in sections 34U and 264 of Chapter IV on the Religions of the Kirar : : : of the people. very " necessary and useful it may be in their places. appears t" ]n' applied to all the east of the Province. 544. are really Munna (shaven) Sikhs. " When an Arora girds up his loins. The Uttaradhi and Dakhana do not intermarry. Sir George Khatri sub-divisions. professional and other castes. Thorburn " A cowardly. and both despised and envied by the great Musalman tribes of Bannu. as distinct from the J3inyas of Hindustan.'' Yet the peasant has a wholesome dread of brass : . usual. some 7 per cent. But he is a terrible coward and is so branded in the proverbs of the countryside " The thieves were four " and we eighty-four the thieves came on and we ran away. and is the Hindu trader of those countries . a dog. The number of clans enormous. and a large proportion of the Aroras of the lower Chenab are purely He is found throughout Afghanistan and agricultural in their avocations. and hence the names of the two g-reat sections of the caste.— The Aroras claim to be of Khatri origin. the lower Chanab and Satluj. while in the Western Panjab he will sew clothes. the Western or Panjubi traders. or a Kirar. he makes it only two jniles (from Jhang) He will turn his hand to any work. Damn the thieves " Well done us " And again " To meet a Rathi armed with a hoe makes a "company of nine Kirars feel alone. especially on Sikh. when published. as But many of the so-called Hindus. as derogatory. even Turkistan. and it will presently be seen that they follow some of the The Khatris however reject the claim." A few of the Aroras are returned as INIusalman." The Arora is of inferior physique. while the Hindu Aroras of the Indus worship the river. ! ! : when in his proper place. or followers of Baba Nanak. Campbell (see section 539) is of opinion that the two belono* to the same They say that they became outcasts from the Kshatriva stock ethuic stock. will show how far the identity of divisions extends. than a Satii of a " prostitute. '^ Vex not the Jat in his jungle. hence their name. make vessels and copper. even Avhen asleep. so the Aroras are Khatris of Aror the ancient ' capital of Sindh.

the Dahra and the Dakhanadhiiin but the Dahra sub-section is so important that it is often counted as a third section. women section ivory l>racelets. 93 on the next page. Abstract No. and the section is divided into two sul)-sections. The Bahri and the Dakhanadhain claim social superiority.252 PANJAB CASTES. from. So it is said that in some places the Dahra women alone wear white. and the term Dakhana api^lied to the Dakhanadhains alone. sections. but not give daughters to. is of the northern or Uttariidlii section wear red ivorv bracelets antl the divided into two sub-sections called Bahri and Buniiihi (see Khatri The women of the southern or Dakhana section wear diA-isionSj section 54lJ). The figures are given in Abstract No.* It will be noticed that the Dakhauas are far strongest in the southern and southwestern districts. 296] . tlie other sub-section of their respective *Below. and will take wives white . showing the Divisions of the Aroras. 93. and the Dakhana women spotted bracelets of both colours. [r.

Paracha is used for the Mahomedan pedlar. liquor. These Mahomedan traders. Jhang '' district are : with their own CARRIER AND PEDLAR CASTES. They say that their place of origin is the village of Dangot in the Bannu district. They account for their name by deriving it from pdrcJia " cloth " one of the principal staples of their trade. chiefly in cloth. the traffic in cattle. but have not entered the Derajat or Muzaffargarh in any numbers .RELIGIOUS. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES.itriSj and marrying only among tliemselves. But unfortunately the word Par. though to the figures of Abstract No. 10 of March 1879. 72 (page 224*) for these last districts. where Para -has ai'e a recognised and Avealthy caste. while in the eastern districts and in the Derajat. Monckton hands. They have seven clans and give their daughters only to Parachas. I cannot give separate figures for these." for they apparently include many distinct classes who will have sprung fi'om different centres of very interesting They appear to be most numerous in Lahore. &c. with the exception of the trade in meat. and Khojalis are Kiiyaths. though they will occasionally take They will wives of foreign origin. or at least petty traders . 91 must be added those of Abstract No. It appears that these men buy cotton piece-goods in Dehli and hawk them about the villages of their own districts. whether called Khojah or Paracha. chiefly hawkers and i)edlars. and tea. and vegetables. Some of the Parachas of Ambala seem to have returned themselves as Paracha Khel. being converted Kli. but own a great many wells and carry on trade to a " considerable extent. Their head-quarters are at Mukhad in Pindi. their western the Jahlam-Chanab. Their eastern boundary is the Satluj valley. to be A " They do not cultivate thus described by Mr. Carriers. account of a recent development of trade by the Khojahs of Gujrat and Sialkot is given in Panjab Government Home Proceedings No.bhais also used in the central districts for any petty Mahomedan trader. deported by Zaman Shah. 546. " and addicted to fraud and forgery in the prosecution of their claims. The fact seems tliat in the Rawalpindi and Peshawar divisions. and the figures cannot safely be taken separately. where Khojahs are commercially importThus in our tables the ant. — . They do not practise cattle-stealing. there is at least a very definite section of them with head-([iTarters at Mukhad on the Indus in Rawal])indi who are a true caste. and have spread southwards into the central and eastern districts of the Western Plains. Khojah is used for miscellaneous ]\Jahomedan traders. They still retain the Hindu title of Raja. 253 Now the Pariichas also arc Maliomcdan tvndcrs . divisional offices have in many cases included Paracha under Khojah and Khojah under Paracha. and that they moved to Mukhad in Shahjfehan^s time . conversion. They are supjiosed to have been converted from " Hinduism. whence they carry on an extensive trade with the cities of Central Asia." The Parachas of the Salt-range Tract require a word of separate notice. which they say the Khojahs of those parts still retain. indigo. not marry with Khojahs and have dropped the Hindu ceremonial at their weddings. selling on credit till harvest time^ and The Khojahs of the the business has now assumed very large proportions. are found all along the northern portion of the Province under the hills from Amritsar to Peshawar. but another account is that they were Khatris of Lahore. silk. Probably it is hardly correct to say of them that they have " spread " or " entered . and to have been not unnaturally classed as Pathans by the tabulators. and there are also large colonies at Attak and Peshawar. I have said in the hands of the group just discussed. Pedlars. but are a litigious race. and they are found throughout the whole of the Salt-range Tract. commerce of the Panjab was that tlie Cattle-merchants.

derived from banij " a trader ^' or perhaps from banfi '' a pedlar's pack " is used in the west of the Panjab as a generic term for " pedlar. and Iniy up large numbers of cattle which they take back again for sale as the summer approaches and it is principally these men and the Banjara carriers fi-om Rajputana to whom our figures for Hindu Banjaras refer. when the spring harvest has been cut. yet an immense deal of traffic in cattle goes on quietly among the villagers without the iiitervention of any outsider . P. The word Banjara is apparently sometimes used for an . two overlap it into three sections. the Rahbaris. the Bhatras. and petty pedling and hawking'. The Railway mountain is fast destroying the carrying trade of these people except in the tracts.— This and the following or Labana be identical. The sellers of meat the canying trade. " with him. of the Province many persons have been shown as Banjara in consequence of their occupation only. 547.. the plough oxen of the unin-igated Eastern Plains find employment in carrying the produce of their villages to the line of rail or to the great city marts. . third class includes the Kunjras and the Tambolis. the Banjaras.")5l-56. The But it must be understood that. being called Banjara in the eastern But Banjara. and there is no body his stick in his hand. and that the third is incomplete. The headmen of the Banjara parties are called Naik (Sanskrit Nayaka '* chief ") and Banjaras in general are not uncommonly known by this name. pages . and in bringing back salt and other products not indigenous to the tract. I. and before the early rains of autumn have softened the ground sufficiently for ploughing to be possible. and the Kangars. the Jamna districts and Eastern States in the cold weather Avith letters of credit on the local merchants. . and the pedlars and Imclcsters of the Province. and the group which I am now ahout to describe consists of the traA. . " From Sir II. and includes the rest of the pedlars of the Province save only such as belong to the Khoja and Paracha castes just discus-ed. tliough I shall presently show that the first The first section includes considerably. jara caste is said to have its habitat in the sub-montane tract from Gorakhpur The Banjiiras of the North-West Provinces come annually into to Hardwjir. while in the early months of the hot weather. of whom a long and very complete description will be found in Elliotts 7?flc<?5 <?/ ^/^y? A //'. 94). to caste are said The Banjaras of the eastern districts are a well-marked class. and some of the The second class consists of the Maniars.lers in cattle. both Greengrocers. They are the great travelling traders and carriers of Central India. There is " The Banjara goes into the jungle with a simile ajjplied to a dying person '' He is ready for the journey. districts and Labana in the whole of the Panjab proper. The Musalman Banjaras are probably almost all ]")edlars. and liqnor will be discussed tinder the head of miscellaneous artisans . and these castes include most of the professional carriers and cattle-dealers.254 PANJAB CASTES. the Deccan and Rajputana and under the Afghan and ]\I\ighal Empires were the commissariat of the imperial forces. ElliotJ/s description they seem to be a very But the original Bancomposite class. Vol. though there are no castes in the Panjab besides those above mentioned whose hereditary occupation it is to trade in cattle and carry merchandise. including sections of various origin. The Banjara generally (Caste No. pedlars of the Panjab. I have divided the carriers. the Labanas. and the Untwals .^' and I have Indeed it is to be feared that in that part therefore kept the figures distinct.

of the Lal)anas are retui'ned as Sikhs and almost all the rest as Hindus. which will he discussed presently. the Diitla with 4.) About 30 per cent.* as cultivate at all.925 persons along the whole foot of the hills. though many of them are returned in the Bahawalpur tallies as Hindus.> niprn. and in most of them the strength and spirit of progress were as apparent in the ' Labanas as were the opposite qualities conspicuous in their Gujar opponents Their principal " village is Tanda (which means a large caravan of laden bullocks) and is an instance of what I " have above alluded to. and to be the same as the Mahtams of Montgomery. 7~ (page 224t) shows that 4. Tliev lorrespoiid to the Banjaras of Hindustan. 548. the Labanas would stand their ground. and are merely the Panjahi representatives of that class of Banjaras already alluded to who inhabit the sub-montane tracts east of the Ganges. PROFESSIONAL oculist. The Labanas of Gujrat are thus descri))ed Ijy Captain Mackenzie : are also a peculiar people. not as a sulistitnte for trade. 549. Mahtam. hunting and making roj)es and grass mats for sale. the Maliaua with 2. But the greater part of the caste have returned no large divisions.500 Musalmans among them.537 and the Bhagiana with 2. 122).015 persons. in some former period.ighted and less provident lords of the Manor had. 255 Baden-Powell states. With the exception of Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur. and peihaps improve the " opportunity by extending their grasp over the best lauds in the village. Several cases of this nature came to light during " settlement. Allowed to reside by the Gujar proprietoi'S of Mota. The Labana (Caste No. if not actually l)elonging to.— These men are generally associated with the caste just discussed. (See further under Mahtam. hut " as an additional means of livelihood. " They have been recognized as pr. 94. The Rahbari (Caste No. but feudal ory to their former landlords the Gujars of " Mota. so at least section 49. In anarchical times when the freaks or '' feuds of petty Govei'iiors would drive the Jat< or Gujars to seek a temporary abiding place away " from their a nccstr.100 souls. The Labanas of Jhang are said to have come from Jaipur and Jodhpur. in which their shoiter" .317 of the Bahawalpur Labanas were returned as Jats. the vugrant and probably aljoriginal triljes whom we and it may be that at least some shall discuss in the next part of this chapter (See further under sections of the Labanas are of the same stock as they. Little is known of the sub-divisions of the caste. permitted them to " take up their ahode for purposes ol commerce. AND OTHER CASTES. there being only some 1.al village. Latterly they have taken to agriculture. they got possession '' of the soil. They also possess much spirit." There is a curious colony of Labanas on the lower Indus who are said to have settled there under the Sikh rtile. both in the Amritsar and Lahore divisions and the Gahri with 1. while they also carry merchandise from place to place only . and who are almost all Mnnna Sikhs or followers of Biiba Nanak.) JNIr. they are almost wholly confined to the hill and suh-montane districts. They are generally fine substan" tially iniilt people. On the whole the Labanas appear to be by origin closely allied with. built a kasba. paying to them annually iu recognition thereof. large herds of camels.— RELIGIOUS. They are the carriers and hawkers of tlie hills. and settled on the banks of the river where they lead a sort of semiThey hardly savage life. Tlielr status anioiigst SikLs is iiiucli the same as " that of the ]\Iahtams.'prietors. and in every point of importance swamped the original proprietors. .— This is a camel-breeding caste found in the eastern and south-eastern districts of the Panjab and in the adIn the extensive jungles of these tracts they pasture joining Native States. The largest seems to be the Ajrawat with 4. 52). section 495 svpro. chiefly in Gujrat and Lahore. Their numl)ers are much under-stated in Aljstract No.. carrying ou an extensive " trade hy means of large herds of laden bullocks.173 souls. a svim equal to one-tenth of the Governlialifinas " The " ment demand. Abstract No. As a section of tlie com" munity they deserve e^ery consideration and eni'ouragement. . chiefly in Lahore . These men have almost entirely given up traffic and trade.

3 rt c3 < .256 PANJAB CASTES.


. but this is probably due to some confusion of BluUra with Bhat.. would appear to be good.nni&ri hechhna being the common term for the — Thus we occupation of carrying petty hardware aljout for sale. all used in different ])arts and some of them in the same part of the Province for a pedlar and the result The extraordinary number is that the figures have probably been mixed up. means nothing more tlian a cnmel-man. 419 DcliVi division and Pindi. HissSr division and I directed that both sets of figures should Ite in16 . PANJAB CASTES. 174). but do not beg for alms. and his claim belongs to a true caste. The Maniar (Caste No. for he wears the sacred thread. Untwal (Caste No. and has pi-obably been returned by one of the names for pedlars just reHe is said to be called Madho fern^d to more often than by his caste name.. or rather almost anything. have Khojah. — he .. AmbSla division cluded under the head Bhatra. on the Indus. This is a purely occupational term and 550. These people are really vegetable-growers. has heen classed as — Biloch. 144). and Maniar. the eastern districts is a man who works in glass and sells glass l)angles. The Bhjitra is also a pedlar but 552. But throughout the rest of generallv hawking them about the villages. . It will be noticed that the Untwals are returned only from those pai-ts of the Province where the real meaning of Biloch is properly Imt Jat means very In those parts they are said to be all Jats understood. claims Brahman origin. of Maniars returned for the Jahlam and Rawalpindi disti-icts in Table VIII A is due to an unfortunate error. since the term Biloch tliroughout the central districts is used of any Musalman camelman. m. Their proper home nppears to be Bikiiner and the "RajpntAna desert.258 for hire. But l''he Bh^itra is essentially a pedlar in any case th(! figures are incomplete. by which Maliar was read Maniar. The Maniar of pational term. 19 . in Rawalpindi. Baden-Powell descril^es the instruments used children to receive rings. The Bhatra (Caste No. and play on the native guitar.. Ramaiya being used in Dehli and Hissiir. Paracha. little. not detected till after the table was printed. Bhatra in Lahore . tell fortunes. H(. Under this head have heen included But ^Malik ShutarLiin and Sarl)an. as the title is chiefly confined to the Bilocli camelman. and with resulting confusion in the figures. the Panjab appears to correspond exactly with the Bhatra and to b(> the same person under a different name. The Ramaiya of the east of at page 268 of his Panjdb Manufactures. l^oth words having the same meaning. Banjara. .. Indeed many of the persons returned as Biloches in the Central Pan jab would proba])lT have been more properly described as TJntwal. the Paiijab Maniar is any pedlar. and like them is probably a low class of Gujarati or Dakaut Brahman. The number of Ramaiyas I'eturned is shown in the margin. Unfortunately the 454 order was not carried out. The Bhatras of Gujr^t are practises as an astrologer in a small way. The Bhatras hawk said to trace their origin to the south beyond Multan. applies the tilak He or forehead mark. and have been classed in their proper place in the Abstracts of this chapter. and ])oth in the Ambala division . 47). small hardware for sale. and receives offerings at eclipses in that capacity. It is their function to pierce the noses and ears of Mr. Here again we meet with an occu551..

The Tamholi (Caste No. of the castes of market gardeners wliich have been described under minor I do not know M'hy Kunjra should liave lieen returned agricultural tribes. Kashmiri J^® is Kashmir. as Snbzi far ash is the Persian for greengrocer. as the figures for Native States show the same peculiarity. which includes Kashmiris. which includes Kayatlis. PROFESSIONAL 553. Chahzangs. It may be that in other parts of the Province it is more usual to call the seller of vegetables an Arain or Biigban This proas the case may be.RELIGIOUS. 9. as the word seems to be in use throughout the ProSherring. The first. Rawalpindi. and that the word Kunjra is little used. 302] ^^1'. or the race who or the Our figures inhabit the Gujrat. The cultivating class who form the great mass of the Kashmiris proper are probably of Aryan descent. the small costermongers the But in no case is it a caste. though indeed some of the Kashmiri colonies are now permanent and contain large numbers of people. It is probable thit the term is only occupational. to — hawker. 165). Kashmiri and Dogra (Castes Nos. however. and Kanchans are inhabitants of the Panjab. though no one of them except the Ksiyath of the plains can be said to be a true caste. In any case the term is a geographical one. and probably includes many of what we should in the Panjab call separate castes. Dogras. Chibhalis. and especially to tliose earthen images in which native children These he makes himself and hawks about for sale. while our Kashmiris arc Mtisalmans. and again confusion as the consequence. AND OTHER CASTES ^. But Baden-Powell gives at in the tables from the Amritsar division only. 114). Kunjra is nothing more or term.59 Tlio Kan^ar is also a travelling small articles of earthenware such as pipe-]>owls. The big men generally use the latter term. and possess marked characters.— The castes which I have included in Abstract on the next page* are of a miscellaneous nature. under that name only in the east. 180). and Hazara. 556. and would not conveniently fall under any of the main divisions under which I have grouped my castes. gives it as a separate caste in the neighbourhood vince. however probably include some Kashmir hills and the borders of Bnt they do not include either Dogras . MISCELLANEOUS CASTES. Tamhiili is the Sanskrit name of the betel plant. are Indian castes who live on the borders of the Panjab but are only present in the Province as immigrants . 26 and 182). I have divided them into two classes. less than the Hindustani. bnbly is the true explanation. contiuch. The second. Gurkhas. pao-e 267 of Panjdl) Manufactvres a long account of an operation for a new nose sai<l to be succossfnlly performed by the Kangars of Kangra The Kangar (Caste No. 260- Miscellaneous Castes. though perhaps with an intermixture of Khas blood. The Kunjra belongs as a rule to one former. . Paharis of Kishtwar and Bad:irwc4h. If Tamboli were a. He is returned deh'o-ht. -The word perhaps applicable to the menil)ers of any of the races of but it is commonly used in Kashmir itself to denote the people of the valley of Srinagar.5 No. of Benares. but he liis tialiic Here again is a purely occupational 554.— A Tamboli is a man who sells p^n but whether the sale of those commodities is confined to and betel-nut a real caste of that name I cannot say. — 555. real caste we should have it returned from every district. and Parsis. as these last are Hindus. Bishnois. The Kunjra (Caste No.

< Q o c3 a bD o OS 2 o . 302] •TVIOX -*^ Oi •ijT.Sai!g a a •eq^tjiif) i.Ctj^j I t^^r-i i^r->M to'^o ?<i:o t-oooj [P.TTan[S'CT]. TTioxffKvao •lYJOL 'nuqonBAi •3nt!zq^qQ •Tonqsig •q^c.260 PANJAB CASTES.


" But their history is. Thus our separate figures mean little. **and cowardly. Dogar being another word for the Jammu territory. and Turanian blood. Secondly. one of the most grievous suffering and oppression . however. of whom 1. A good aecount of them will be found in Drew's Jummoo and humorous. These men are proin our territories in the ordinary course of affairs. of which the few largest are shown in the margin.152 are in Lahore and 5. the largest numl^'r in one district being 091 in Rawalpindi.081 in Giijranwala. . and liave returiicil themselves as such to the number of 1. llajpiits.! regiments. and are only found in They are of mixed Aryan the Panjab as members of our (iiirkli. ble to say how many of these men are Chibhalis and how many KashThirdly. Their distribution does not appear to follow any rule . though at the same time keen-witted. as famine fugitives. Dogras are jn'obably present in the Panjab as settlers from across I the Ijorder. the recent immigrants driven from Kashmir by true Kashmiris. believe their Rajpi\t origin is undoubted . the great Kashmiri colonies of Ludhiana and Amritsar. where there First are nearly o5.515 persons returned as Kashmiri Jats. liars. or attracted by the sjjecial demand for labour in the Salt-range Tract and upper frontier which was It is impossicreated by works in connection with the Kabul campaign. but that it is equally certain that they are not pure 559. is commonly used for any inhabitant of Jammu whatever bo his caste.U0i> Kashmiris permanently settled and engaged for the most The Kashmiris These men are chiefiy part in weaving shawls and similar fine fabrics. bably confined to who are returned as Kashmiris. The Dogras are Ktijputs who inhabit 558. the late famine into our sub-montane districts. Kashmir. 148. The Kashmiri weavers of Amritsar are described as "litigious. are as a rule miserably jjoor. The Chibhalis are for the most part Musalman Bajpats. — The Guikha. [P. Parsi. The word Dogra.303] Those are proljably Kashimris who have settled and taken to cultivation. and cheerful and withal quarrelsome. and it is hardly worth while giving detailed figures in this The Kashmiris of our cities place. Drew them as " large made '^ antl " of feature/^ and ranks them as the finest race of the Panjab may i)e broadly divided into three classes. and might well have been included with Kajputs. Jaminu. the Chibhalis who have crossed the border and settled rairis. 181). deceitful. at any rate in recent times. and perhaps in clan. while their habits are so unclean that the quarter of tlie " city which they inhabit is a constant source of danger from its liability to "epidemic disease. The Dogra (Caste No.'^ The Kashmiris have returned numerous sub-divisions. and differ from the Dogras only in religion. Besides those Gujrat and the trans-Salt range Tract. and they are cowards.— The Gurkhas are the ruling aud military race of Nepal. and an admiral )lc and interesting account of them will be found in that one of Hodgson's E$saj/s which deals ^vith the military tribes . I find no fewer than 7.26'2 PANJAB CASTES. and 168). and Bangali (Caste Nos. describes robust and of a really fine cast on the whole Continent " of India.army.415 seattered about the Province.ind in the Dogra regiments of oui. 184.

and Pie is only lo be found and is being rapidly displaced. so concerned. class of Hiudiist. not always so . They are I believe for the most part eilher Brahmans or Kiiyaths.ui. and Zanskar are " known as Chahzang. Barnes says the Kayath of the plains.— This Kanchan simply meaning a Musalman pimp again is hardly a caste. It appears to be used in a very wide sense to mean '' all that speak Bhoti. or as they call themselves Bhoti. The Kayath of the plains is a Sudra. They are only found in Hariana.' " *' that is.— The BIshnois are really a religious Their tenets and practice have been briefly sketchsect and not a true caste. and is entitled to wear the janeo or sacred thread. The Kanchan (Caste No. 106). and is not entitled to assume the janeo} " (See also Pahari Panjab hills of a caste. 263 of Nepal. The word Chahzang means nothing more or less than " land-owner. The figures for Kanjar. have been included under this heading (see section 590). is : ' 563. This is. is The Kayaths (Caste No. His origin is as found in decreasing numbers we go westwards. Mr. Hissar. for it 562. " from chdh " owner " and zang " land. " and includes all the land-owning classes of Spiti. I do not know whether the Jat and Tarkhan Bishnois intermarry or not. except in the Dehli. He 90). Anderson says Chiihzang means the "land-holding class. page 291'.— The Kjiyath is the well-known writer does not appear to be indigenous in the Panjab. and being the Hindustani equivalent for the Panjabi Kaujar. 138). and the people towards Tibet. " The Hindu is prostitute is commonly known as Ramjani and {Lxx&kMovf. and should perhaps '' have Ijeen returned as such. Their caste would be Mahajan (Pahari) and their occupation " The Kayath of the hills is not identical with Kayath. 96). among whom caste is said to be unknown.— This again Is not a true caste. The word kanchan is said to mean '^pure and " illustrious. The Chazang (Caste No. however. and come from the Bagar or Bikaner prairies j but on becoming Bishnois they very commonly give up their caste name and call themselves alter their new creed. by Paujabi clerks. conlined to the Buddhists of Spiti. PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER CASTES. and Ambala divisions. and many of the Bishnois will doubtless have returned themselves under their caste names. where everybody owns land except Hesis and Lobars. The Bishnoi (Caste No. 560. ed at page 123 in the Chapter on Religion. in the administrative or commercial centres far as Government service is discussed in Colebrook^s Essoi/sBut in the Kayath is the term of an occupation rather than members of a mixed caste formed l>y the intermarriage of Brahmans and Kayaths proper. Ladakli.RELIGIOUS. and are all Hindus. The Paisis are the Zoroastrian class of that name who have come from the Bombay Presidency into the Panjab as merchants and shop-keepers. The Bangalls are the Bengali Baboos of our offices. But a Bishnoi will only marry a Bishnoi. and even of Banyas who follow clerkly pursuits. 1877). and is applied to : Mahajan. or prostitute. Bengali Ijeing of course a purely g-eographical term. ^This laat assei-tiou contested iu a pamphlet called Ka^astha Ethnologi/ . He belongs to the Vaisya or commercial class. These people are by nationality Tibetan.*) 561. just as Monpa means the people that do not know. the Hindus. Almost all the followers of this sect are either Jats or Tarkhans by caste. They are only found in ofiices and countioghouses. Mr.

ly used only for those who make silken cord and waistbands. A class of wandering beggars who come the Imnting-knife or qarol. These people came to Hazaia from Amb and the Buncr and Chagharza hills.\\(i Gdndi. nni\\. A name commonly given to any educated Brahman who Prol)ably of the same origin as Pandit. 214). 200).3). llajputana. They follow all sorts of handicrafts. and similar article made of talc. Makers of Jcucli.well as wellPatwd {Caste No. And many more would properly fall under some one of the various groups into which I have divided my castes for the purposes of this i-hapter. A dispensing druggist. names right. They are apparently connected. from ll. Miscellaneous Castes of Table VIII B. Tiicy belong to the weddings. Probably followers of the Arya Suniaj. 207). Ddrtlgar { Caste No. This is the title of the revenue minister at a Native Coiirt. where they officiate as They also act as Bhat-.-.. He is almost always a Nai. tinsel. .[p. as distinct from the Pansdri f r an whom the drugs are bought. Fachhdda {Caste No. Under outcast and vagrant classes. just as Bagri is used for similar Hindu immigrants from the South.ib]y for tlie most part Pathan . PANJAB CASTES. They are said to come from priests and receive offerings. They generally belong to the Jhi'uwar and Machhi caste. and are often fishermen a. They are called Patoi in the west. Liinia Residents of Lahore . and so forth. 1S7). and engage in The Xativc Surgeon who applies plasters. v. 197). Pali {Caste No. 206).^ from that tract. These people form a be observed that two-fifths of the Kanchans are males. 204). 203) should have been included with No. 211). but I cannot define the meaning of the word. and so on. Inhabitants of Mtirwar. but they have now formed a separate caste. I have given the figures 563a. but is generalsinkers. 212). Many of them are not castes literally means a i'oja {Caste No. But the numbers are so small and time so pressing tliat I shall take them a? they come in Table VIII B. or weaver's bruslies. Alchundzadah {Caste No. ora {Caste No. 205). 199). It will Province. 203 q. and liavc taken to agrifmlture. are known as Kanchans. {Caste No. Ulama. There is also a Sikh order called Diwana. They all are Palleddr {Caste No. with the Jain temples. 194) A porter. Probably the same as Sapela No. 304j mation I possess regarding such of thom as I know anything about. Bdgri {Caste No.te teeth. 201).i country to Tard the west {pachhain). Kamdchi {Caste No.— In Table VIII B for a number of mi^celhiuious c. A class of vagrant minstrels who hcg and play at Kiichband {Caste No. artificiid ilowers. Hesi {Caste No. They are called after their weapon. Giodlpa {Caste No.— Ku Sec inhabitant of Maharasthra or the Mahratta (Jouutry. but is used for the men who dig and clean wells. marry oidy among theniMjlves. Pali is the this head is included Atishbdz. 21. These are the descendants of the hunters and menagerie keepers of the old Mughal Court at Uehli. 196). but is usually confined to Jats from those parts. but generally applied in the Panjab to Hrahman money-lenders or Bohra. Sapdndi {Caste No. who claim Brahman origin. p. and especially that of oil-pressing. 209). a man who makes fireworks. Ldhori {Casta No.—'A. 202). Kdpri {Caste No. 274. — ' But see Shcrring. thread beads and silk. 190).i-tes wliich I did not think it worth while to Show in detail in Many of the. 192) used in Bhattiana and Mariana for Musahnau Jat and Rajput immigrants from the Satlu. Qarol {Caste No. They trace their descent from a Kalir convert to Islam called Dumau. 203). 167 described under Gip-y tribes in the next part of this chapter. Mdrivdri {Caste No. ISS) means any one from the Bagar or prairies of Bikaner. in Dehli at least. The men who work the water mills so common in the hills. The Attar however makes arracks and sherbets. 210). 186) at all. and give briefly the infor. They are said often to be Daolis. ca-. at weddings. 189). They are said often to be Khatris. Sapela {Caste No. generally found in the bazaars agricultrual by occupation. Bralimans. Jarrah {Caste No. and whose occupation is that of making the ornaments worn by the bridegroom at weddings. Pdnda {Caste No. sets fractures. Attar {Caste No. diver. Vol. They arc of several caite-.. but perhaps Khatris. In the hills teaches or ofliciates at religious functions. of whom there is a great Lahori aectiou. A man who makes gunpowder. in which process diving is necessary. appears that tliey have generally returned themselves under their proper Such few as have not shown themselves as Ramjani have lieeu llaudi is also used for a prostitute in the east of the included with Kauuhan. Pali caste who have lately been converted from Hinduism and still retain many of their Hindu customs. Dt'wdn. though not only their ofEsjiring. but it means a " widow '' throughout the Paujiib proper. but prob. 193). and the like.ljputana and Sindh. but also girls bought in Infancy or joining the community in later life and devoting themselves to it castes. Khardsia {Caste No. and cannot even be sure that I have got the Table VIII A.^ prostinfcion. Mardtha {Caste No. section 517. and markets. Afarejha {Casta No. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — I. These men are apparently Tibetans. Ari/a {Caste No. From pat silk. draws trade in a small way.e I cannot identify. a distiller of essences and perfumes. generally belonging to one of the vagrant tribes. and means any worker in silk.264. But in Multiin there is a separate ordinary village word for cowherd in the east of the Panjab. distinct class.—-A snake-catcher and it Ls said to be used for Dakaut charmer. 198). but either occupational or geographical terms.

A man who kccpi a cook-shop and hawks cooked food about the strccla. Guru (Caste No 297). Rijra {Caste No. PROFESSIONAL (Ca. Any Hindu trader in the west or iu the hills. Sitfhdr (Caste No. —The samo as Oai'zmdr. Dhai Sirkiband (Caste No. A generic term on the U'pi>er Indus for all j\Iusalmins of Iudiande< cent who speak Panjabi dialects. distinct from the Hinjra wliich is a large Jat tribe and Siihiisar (Caite No. nioulh. Owdla (Caate No. UmbreUa makers. who almost always belong to the vagrant tribes. not receiving a share of the produce.5 No. 215) I'ro'ialjly salt-makers. 221). A eunuch. Sxngfaydsh {Caste No. Stoiu.^to AND OTHER CASTES. Bisdti (Ca-itff N>. Uzbak (Caste No. Qhanimi {Caste No.\ed pay. and arc now a scp. 263). Tarkhau No.s. A Hindu spiritual preceptor. an iuhn!)itaut of Bliot or Thibet. and should have beou included with Tiirk No. liim and displays his wares upon it. No. . 21'J). 229). 217). :!(. 11. A Turk tribe. generally Jhmwar. 2-6). a class of faqin who thurst iruu spikes into As it stand-. Hindki {Caste Nu. HOO). 176. Sugar refiners.RELIGIOUS. to protect carts and tlie like.r on ii. Bird catchers. Oargajje {Casfe No 216). The term for a Hindu cowherd and shepherd. generally an Alu'r. but have been driven by p'>verty to growing vegetable-. Ja'ioJ'ia {Casle No. 211. A dealer in petty hard wai'e who spreads (Jasa/) his mat (bisdt) lu front of Pahdri {Caste No. or yep. The Jaiu a-cctic who hand's a cloth over his mouth {mdn/t). aud should have l)ccu hicliulcil with Ndugar No.— \ goiwrlc term for a hill man. Kharol (Caste No 317). the word would mean a Buddhi~t. proper place. Bodhi {Cnsie No. Mdiihbiind (Caste No. A Piirbi easte who keep miloli kinc. Knmera (Caste No. 227). Thatdiers. Chhatarsdz {Caste No. Nnithai a misreading i'^r Blioti. 801). A baker. 233).irato caste ranking with the Araina. Probably the same as Qarol. 300). 234). An agricultural labourer hired by the day. wlio also wouM be . The men wlio make sirki or roof-ridges of grasi Almost always of the vagrant classes. Tahdkhia (Caste No SOS). 2S0). 222).-cutters. and working in grass. The Bombay word for carpenters. Kardr (Caste No. {Caste No. 231).271). 218). Chuiigar (Caste No 239). A small caste in Uusliyarseparately described in it. Ctiirimdr {Caste No. 220). of. 259). More properly Klrar. lUii. describod — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — above.i liuddhlst. pur who were only a few generations ago Puawar Rajputs. But it is perliaps Oieir llosh.




Division of the subject. Having disciissed the land-owniug and the pile>tly, mercantile, and professional castes, I


[P. 305



turn to the lowest strata of Paujiib society, the vagrant and criminal tribes, the gipsies, the menials,, and the artisans. These classes form in many respects Politically they are one of the most interesting sections of the community. unimportant ; but they include the great mass of such aboriginal element as is still to be found in the Panjab, their customs are not only exceedingly peculiar but also exceedingly interesting as affording us a clue to the separation of the non- Aryan clement in the customs of other tribes, and while the industries of the Province are almost entirely in their hands an immense deal of the hardest part of the field-work is performed by them. At the same time they are precisely the classes regarding whom it is most difficult to obtain reliable informaThey are not pleasant people to deal with and we are thrown but little tion. into contact with them, while the better class of native groups most of them under one or two generic terms, such as Chuhra, Dum, or Nat, and thinks it would degrade him to show any closer acquaintance with I have roughly divided these castes into eleven groups. First their habits. I have taken the vagrant, hunting, and criminal tribes, then the gipsy the tribes, then the scavenger classes, the leather-workers and weavers, water-carriers, fishermen and boatmen, the carpenters, blacksmiths, stonemasons and ])otters, the goldsmiths and saltinakers, the washermen, dyers, and tailors, the oilmen, butchers, cotton scutchers, wine distillers, and other miscellaneous artisans, the menials peculiar to the hills, and finally the Purbi menials of our cantonments.

be grouped in two different ways, according as based upon their ethnic and occupational affinities, or upon their position in the industrial oeconomy of the country. I shall first consider them from the former point of view.

These classes





565. Origin and evolution of the lower menials.— It appears to me that starting with an aboriginal and vagrant stock, there are two continuous series of gradations leading from that stock to the weavers at least on

the one hand and probably to the water-carriers on the other, and t,hat no line can be drawn anywhere in either series which shall distinctly mark off those above from those below it. For specific instances of the manner in which these occupations shade off one into another I must refer But I will endeavour to exemplify the reader to the following pages. wliat I mean by an imaginary series. Suppose an aboriginal tribe of vagrant habits, wandering about from jungle to jungle and from village to village, catching for (he sake of food the vermin which abound such as jackals, foxes, and lizards, and eating such dead bodies as may fall in their way, plaiting for themselves rude shelter and utensils from the grasses which fringe the ponds, living with their women very much in


common and
the the


ready to




money when



and always on the watch


and you


gipsy and vagrant tribes as we now find them in Now imagine sujh a tribe abandoning- its vagrant habits Panjab. and settling- as menials in a village. Being no longer nomads they would cease to hunt and eat vermin; but Ihey would still eat carrion, they would still plait grass, and being what they were, the filthiest work to be performed, namely that of scavengering-, would fall to their share. They would then be the Chiihra or scavenger caste as they exist in every Suppose again that a section of them, desirous of rising in life, village. abandoned plaiting giass and scavengering and took to tanning and working in leather, the next less filthy work available, as their occupation, and modified their primitive creed so as to render it somewhat more like that of their Hindu neighbours, but being still specially concerned with dead animals, continued to eat carrion we sliould tlien have the Chamar or tanner and leather-worker. And finally if, desiring to live cleanly, they gave up eating carrion and working in leather and took to weaving, which is (I know not why, unless it be that weavers' implements are made from grass by the outcast classes of grass-workers) considered only less degrading, they would become the Julaha of our towns and villages and be admitted under semi-protest within the pale of Hinduism. Or they might skip the leather-working stage and pass tlircct from Now if all this were merely speculation upon scavengering to weaving. what is possible, it would mean little or nothing. But when we see that changes of this sort are actually in progress^ it seems to me that the suggestion may mean a good deal. classes such see the vagrant as the Bawaria and Aheri tending to settle down in the villages and perform low menial offices; we see the Dhanak converted from the hunter of the jungles into a scavenger and weaver ; we see the Chiihra refuse to touch night-soil and become a Musalli, or substitute leather-working and tanning for scavengering and become a Raugreta we see the Khatik who is a scavenger in the east turn into a tanner in the west; we see the Koli Chamar abandon leather-working and take to weaving, and turn into a Chamar- Julaha or Bunia; we sec that in some districts most of the Mocliis are weavers rather than leather-workers and we find that it vagrancy is impassible to draw a hard and fast line anywhere between and scavengering- at the bottom and weaving at the top or to say that such a caste is above and such a caste is below the line, but that each caste throws out ofC-shoots into the grade above that which is occupied




by the greater number




Origin of tlie water-carrying classes. In the second series of changes we have not so mauy examples of the intermediate steps. But it is natural that the upward movement in the social scale which every tribe is fain to make if possible should not be confined to one definite direction only. Some of the vagrant castes have like the Bawaria abandoned the eating of carrion and become hunters of higher game, though not perhaps quite relinquishing their taste for vermin ; some while retaining their nomad habits have taken to specified forms of labour like the Od or Changar




down to cultivation like the Mahtam or to crime while others again have taken to the carrying trade like sections of the Baujaras, or to the pedlar's business. But there is
have settled




[P. 306]

a group of these tribes who are distinctly water- hunters ; who catch, not deer and jackals, but water fowl, fish, and crocodiles or tortoises, who live in the fens or on the river-banks, weave huts for themselves from the pliant withies of the water-loving- shrubs, and make twine and rope Such are the Kehal, the Mor, for their nets from the riverside gra^^ses. And on giving up eating crocodiles and tortoises and conthe Jhabel. fining themselves to fish, these men are as it were received into society, The Jhaljels again have advanced a as is the case with the Kelials. Now step further, and are a respectable class of boatmen and fishermen. the Jhinwar, Kahilr, and 3Iachhi caste are the basket-makers, boatmen, fishermen, and water-carriers, and among the Musalmaus the cooks of country. Is it not possible that they may be but a step, a long one I find that in the hills, where Hindu jx'rhaj^s, in advance of the Jhabel? customs hsLxe probably preserved their primitive integrity most completely, Brahmans will drink from the hands of very many people from whose hands they will not eat ; and the Sanskrit Scriptures make the fisherman the descendant of a Sudra woman ])y a Brahman father. It is Chamars have taken largely to the stated that the Ramdasia or Sikh occupation of " Kahars or bearers,^' though this may not and probably does not include water-canying. The series of steps is not so close as in the former case ; but I think that the suggestion is worthy of further examination.
567. Effect of religion upon occupation.— I have pointed out that with the rise in the sojial scale, the original religion would be gradually modified so as to bring It more Into accord with the religion of the respectable classes. As a fact it is curious how generally the observances, if not the actual religion of these lower menials, follow those of the villagers to whom they are attached. Chiihras and the like will bury their dead in a Musalman and burn them in a Hindu village, though not recognised by their masters as either Hindu or Musalman. But it Is not uncommonly the case that the open adoi:ition of a definite faith, the substitution of Islam or SIkhism for that half-Hindu half-aboriginal religion which distinguishes most of these outcast classes, Is the first step made in their upward struggle ; and It Is very commonly accompanied by the abandonment of the old occupation for that which stands next higher In the scale. The scavenger on becoming a Musalman will refuse to remove night soil, and on becoming a Sikh will take to tanning and leatherAvorking. The tanner and leather-worker on becoming a Musalman will give up tanning, and on taking the Sikh pd/i/d will turn his hand to the loom, and so forth. I quote a very Interesting note on this subject by Sardar Gurdial Singh, one of our Native Civilians " Of the Hhagats enumeratccl iu Bhagatmal several were of low castes. Tlioy were all

" reformer-! of the dark ages of Hiuiliistaii, Tlicy addressed tlie people iu their veriuiculari "and did away with the secrecy observed by the Brahmanleal teaehiiigs and removed the " ])arricr in the way of reform presented by the diflicuUy of the language (Sanskrit) through ''which the Brahmins taught their system of religion. Amonrj other-; wa>; Kabir a Julaha, " Sadhna a Kasai, Nam Deo a Clihimba, and llavi Das a Cliauuvr. Their writings have

"been quoted

in tlie Adi Granth, the Sikh scriptures. Que of the reforms coutcmplatcd and "]iartially carried out by Slkhi.'nn was the abt)litiou of caste system and opening the si uly " of Theology and the scripturoi (Uimhi) tu every class, even the Chuhras and Chamars who were " mentioned in Dharm Shastras as having no adhikar.i Taking advantage of this, some of the

'The word wore not fit to


listen to

means "fitncs.s"j and those the Hindu Scriptures.


were said

to tiavo

no adhikar who



" lowpst clftsPes received Sikh bnptsim (paJiul) aud became Siklis. They gjive up llieir mean " occupation and took to otlicr means of livelihood. They also changed their name and gave " np as much social intercourse with the unconverted menil)CV3 of their tribe a-; Uiey pos" s'.My could. Thus the Chamiirs on their conversion to Sikhism took the naujc of Kavi 'Tiis, (he first Thagat of their tribe, to show that they followed his example. Kavdasia is "the correct form of the word. But it was «;oon confounded with the name of ll'ivn Das, ''the 4th Sikh Guiu, and pronminced Ramdasia.' The word is still prouoi;nced a liavdasia Similarly Chhimba Sikhs call themselves Namabansis from Nam "by most of the Sikh?.



"The Chuhras on becoming Sikhs took the names of Mazhabi ((just as that of Dindar conversion to Islam) and Rangreta. No one of the Rangretas follows the occupation of a

classed with Chuhras. Similarly if the 1!: nidasias do " not follow the oociipation of Chamars, it is no reason to separate them from that caste, "So if a Ramdasia is .Tnlaha, that is a weaver, and if he is a ' Razzaz ' that i.; a draper, ~ his casfe remains unchanged. If a Chamar, a leather-worker becomes a Sikh and receives The Ramda-^ias do rci civc the "the pahnl' to-day, he at once joins the Ramdasia=. ''daughters .'n marriage of ordinary Cliamars, Init give them ';prt7i?(/ ' before associating witli "Ihem. A Ramdasia would not drink water from the hands of an ordinary Cliamar :un"less be becomes a Sikh. The Mazbi Sikhs also keep themselvc=! aloof from the Chiibras, " in exactly the same manner as Ramdasia- do from Chamars."

"Chnhra, but they have been rightly

It is quite true, as the Sardar points out, that the Ramdusi is still The change has J^een rea Chamar and the Rangreta still a Chuhra. cent and is still in progress. But how long will they remain so ? Their orighi is already hotly disputed and often indignantly denied, though the fact of new admissions still taking place puts it beyond the possihilitv But there can be little doubt that they will in time grow of doubt. into separate castes of a standing superior to those from which they sprang ; or more probably perhaps, that they will grow to be included under the generic name of the caste whose hereditary occupation they have adopted, but will form distinct sections of those castes and be known by separate sectional names, even after the tradition of thoir origin has faded from the memory of the caste. And there can, I think, be as little doubt that some of the sections which now form integral parts of tliese lower occupational castes would, if we could trace back their history, be found to have been formed in a precisely similar manner. The tradition of inferior origin and status has survived, and the other sections, perhaps themselves derived from the same stock but at a more remote reason for date, will hold no communion with them ; but the precise the distinction has been forgotten. The absence of the hereditary theory of occupation among the people of the frontier and its effect by example upon those of the Western Plains, have already been discussed in sections 343 and 348.

568. Growth of sections among the menial castes. But if these occupational castes are recruited by new sections coming up from below, they also receive additions from above. The weavers especially may be said to form a sort of debateable land between the higher and the lower artisan castes, for a man of decent caste who from poverty or other
sinks in the scale often takes to weaving, though he perhaps rarely falls lower than this. The Ijarber, carpenter, and blacksmith classes have in Sirsa been recruited from the agricultural castes within


il do not think and the Rnmdasi are

The Piabd;!si or Raida^i Chama;s are Hindus be that the Ravdasi are analogous with the Nanakpanthi Sikhs who are commonly reckoned as Hindus, while the RamdaSi correspond with As the Sardar points out presently, the Ramd.Isis rethe Singhi or Govindi Sikhs proper. while the Rabdasis du not. (See further ceive i\ic pdhul, an institution of Guru Govind









606 infra.)



the momoi'Y of the present generation, and it is hardly pos'^iljle that what has When so lately happened there should not haye earlier happened elsewhere. a hitherto uninhabited tract is settled by immigrants of all classes pouring- in from all directions, as lias been the case with Sirsa during the last fifty years, the conditions are probably especially favourable to social change. People who have hitherto been separated by distance but who haye the same caste name or the same occupation, meet together liringing with them the varying customs and distinctions of the several neighbourhoods whence they came. They do not as a rule fuse together, but remain distinct sections included under a common caste-name, though often reluctant to admit that there is any community of origin or even of caste, and refusing to associate or to intermarry with each other. There is a great demand for agricultural laliour and the artisan tends to become a cultivator old distinctions are sometimes forgotten, and new sections are continually formed. To use technical language, society is more colloid than in older settled tracts where the process of crystallisation, for

[P. 307]

and quiet are necesssary, is more advanced and diffusion and osmose more easy and more active. But what is now taking place in Sirsa must have taken place elsewhere at some time or other. Almost all the menial and artisan castes are divided into sections which are separate from each other in custom and status and though in many cases these distinctions are probably based upon geographical distribution and consequent variation of customs, yet in other cases they probably result from the fact that one section has risen and another fallen to its present position.

are correspondingly



The higher and


menials.— The

higher meninl



so far as I see, no such continuity of gradation as





or potter with his donkey is perhaps the lowest of them, and not improl>ably belong by origin and affinity to the classes just discussed. The blacksmith, carpenter, and stonemason class form a very distinct group, as also do the washermen and dyers. The oibnan and l)utcher is perhnps lower than any of them, and it appears that he should rank witli the weavers, though I do not know that there is at present any connection between the two classes. I'he goldsmiths seem to stand alone, and to have descended from above into the artisan classes, probably being by origin akin to the mercantile castes. Among the menials of the hills, on the contrary', the continuity of the whole class now under consideration is almost unbroken. The outcast classes are indeed separate from the higher arti^.;ans in the lower hills ; l)ut as we penetrate further into the Himalayas we find the scavenger class working as carpenters and l^lacksmiths, and the whole forming one body which it is almost impossible to se^jarate into sections on any other l)asl-! than the present calling of the individual.

The Kumhrir


570. The oeconomical divisions of the menial classes. The second or ceconomical basis upon which these menial and artisan castes may be classified will be dismissed with a very fcAV words. The whole group may be broadly divided into three sections, the vagrant classes, the village menials, and the indc])endent artisans. The vagrant classes serve no man and follow no settled

The independent

artisans work, like









community which is which they hold and cultivate, include all industrial classes and orders. But in the villages there is a very wide distinction between the village menial and the independent artisan. The carpenter, the blacksmith, the

the artisans of Europe, by the urban communities, as distinct from the often found living in a towji the lands attached


leath or- worker,


potter, the scavenger, tho



where the


are secluded






classes in

not by the job, but by customary dues usually consisting of a fixed share of the produce of the fields and the service they are bound to perform is often measured by kind and not by quantity. Thus the potter has to supply all the earthen vessels, and the leather-worker all the lenthcrn articles thnt are required bv Those artisans, however, whose services are only occasionally his clients. required, such as the wenver, the oilman, and the dyer, are paid by the job ; not usually indeed in cnsh, but either in o-rain, or l)y being allowed to retain a fixed proportion of the raw material which their employers provided for them to work upon. The goldsmith occupies in the village a semi-mercantile position, and is a pawnbroker as much as an artisan; while the other crafts are scarcely represented among the rural communities.

services arc required in hus1>andrv or daily domestic

— are paid



571. The internal organization of the menial classes.— The elaborate organisation of the menial nnd artisan classes, whether based upon the tribal orf>-anisation of the agricultural communities whom they serve, or following the type of the trades-guilds proper of the towns, has already been alluded to in sections .S52 and :^56. The subject is one of which we know little, vet a more accurate knowledge of the details of these two types of organisation could hardly fail to throw much light upon the evolution of caste. Especially would it be interesting to trace the points of similarity and of difPerence between the respective systems where the occupation is hereditary and partakes of the nature of other castes, and where it is individual and the guild is little more than a voluntary association. The question of how caste and guild rules are reconciled in cases where the guild includes men of many castes, and what happens when they conflict, is also one of considerable Interest. That the organisation is singularly complete and the authority wielded by it exceedingly great, is beyond the possibility of doubt ; and it is a common observa-

between members of these classes rarely come before our courts for adjudication, being almost invariably settled by the administrative body of the caste or guild. This may be a survival from old times, when such coui-ts or officers of justice as existed would probablv have declined to be troubled with the disputes of low caste men.
tion that disputes



The Wandering and crimmal tribes.— The


the wander-

ing and criminal tribes are given in Abstract No. 9G on page 309.'^ This group and that of the gipsy tribes which I shall discuss next are so much akin that it is impossible to draw any definite line of demarcation. I have attempted to include in the former the vagrant, criminal, and huntino- tribes, and

the latter those who earn their living by singing, dancing, tuniblino-, and various kinds of performances. The two togel^her form an exceedingly interesting section of the population, but one regarding which I have been able to obtain singularly little information. They are specially interestino*,

not only because almost every tribe included in these two groups is probably aboriginal in its ultimate origin, for so much could be said, I believe, of some even of our Jat tribes but also because they have in a special decree retained


customs and beliefs and in fact are at the present moment the Panjab represeiitatives of the indigenous inhabitants of the Province A


Abstract No. 96, showing Wandering and
[P- 309 ]

MENIAL. .VAGRANT. Peopoetion peb 120 l. AND ARTISAN CASTES. Criminal Tribes for Districts and States. 273 CKIMINAL TRIBES.COO of total Population.

iuid work as carriers with theii. and the Gagra. including the Ods. as it would enable us to discriminate aboriginal from Aryan customs.. though no fixed dwelling-place. They are. which comprises the Minas and the Harnis. and it denotes all whose calling it is to work with that instrument. the Thori. The wandering tribes included in the group now under discussion have been divided into three classes. which is enforced against a given tribe in some districts but not in others. it is derived from bel a mattock. though the men travel about in search of opportunities for theft. tortoise. A copious glossary of the Ritmasi or lingua franca of the thieving classes is said to have been published in 1855 as Volume I of tlie " Selections from the Records of the Agra Govern" ment. iu others to l)e a mere argot consisting of the language current in the locality. and such like unclean animals. 573. hereditary workers in grass. The last. jackal. Leitner has collected some information. caste. the Jhabel. and thus assist us in determining the stock lo which each of those many castes whose origin is so doubtful should be referred. to the members of any other caste. assures me that there are large communities of professional Beldars are not Ocl«. The first.animals when earth-work is not forthcoming. reeds. would probably throw mucli light upon the ethnology of the Punjab. the Pakhiwara. It may he that tlie Musahnans returned in our tables belong to this class. addicted to crime. or have been treated of elsewhere. 85 and 129). and the word Beldar is seldom applied. have fixed habilations. straw. consisting of the Bawaria. The distribution of each tribe is noted under its separate head . and the like. at least as a tribal name. are not hunters. The Od and Beldar (Caste Nos. and are rather criminal than wandering. the Beldars and the Changars are those who have a fixed occupation. At the end of this section I notice various castes of criminal habits who either have not been distinguished in our tables. though it seems in more common use in the west than in the east. are hunters and fishermen living a more or less vagrant life in the jungles and on the river banks .— These two sets of figures should pro))al)ly be taken together. and especially from Colonel Sleeman^'s report published in 1849. regarding which Dr. lizard. Christie. liowever. has probably modified their distribution by inducing them to move from the former to the latter class of the districts. Many of them appear to use a speech peculiar to themselves. But though the common coolie of the Province will often turn his hand to digging. chiefly because they feed on the fox. and often. thinly disguised. the same have been occupation who Mr. complete record of their manners and c-nstoni.274 PANJAB CASTES. The middle group. but sufficiently so to render it unintelligible to the ordinary listener. In some cases this speech appears to be a true language or dial(K-t peculiar to the tribe . the Punjab proper and Hindu in the eastern They arc generally Mnsahmin districts ." Much information regarding the criminal tribes may be gleaned from the published reports of the Thuggee and Dacoity Department. as they appear to refer to Indeed in several of tlie divisional offices the two terms as synonymous. they are not outcasts. the Kehal. The tribes under discussion are for the most part outcasts. the families at least usually having fixed abodes. like the scavengers. Beldar is jiroperly the name of an merely . the Od is the professional navvy of the Panjab . the Aheri. the Od of the west being generally known as Beldar treated '. though by no means always. the Sansi. while a sort of glossary has been published l^y the darogha of the Lahore Central Jail. but the action of the Criminal Tribes Act. as Od and Beldar have been confused. ^ m .

not red. Firozepur. and least numerous in the hills and submontane districts. and in imitation of him they bury their dead even when Hindu. and indeed regarding the tribe generally. wandering. . who are most numerous in the Amritsar division. Pushkarna Brahmans. They Rajput or Kshatriya origin and to come from Marwar. for a vagrant tribe. MENIAL. It has been suggested that Changar is another form of Zingari . . P. Leitner has published some very interesting information. though they marry by the Hindu ceremony. but in the neighbourhood of large cities they are to be found in settled colonies. but these are blue. and the like. and Faridkot. but wliich is very probably nothing more than the ordinary dialect of their place of origin. — but theiri are made of munj rope. and not at all given to crime. 114. the women carry th(> earth to the donkeys which they always have with them. Wilson's Indian Cade. or will ])uild a house of adobe. . but Dr. and so dug a fi'esh one every day till one day he dug down and down and never came up again. They are distributed pretty generally throughout the Province. They Avill not as a rule take petty jobs. but prefer small contracts on roads. singularly free from all imputation of crime. particularly as reapers while their women are very generally employed in sifting and cleaning grain for the graindealers. Vol. especially in the west.' ^ Tlie Mahtams hunt with similar nooses Bawaria nooses are made of leather. families in search of employment on earthwork. or even a well.VAGRANT.about with theiV hail from those parts. AND ARTISAN CASTES. tribe who wander about in search of work . Till the re-appearance of are said to claim 574. . They are exceedingly industrious. They settle down in temporary reed huts on the edge of the work the men dig. but especially in Sialkot and they say that Ti ey are originally a vagrant their ancestors came from the Jammu hills. 71). The Changar (Caste No. They worship R. They wear woollen clothes. They have a dialect of their own regarding which. They will do almost any sort of work. canals.West Pr(jvinces they are said to be wandering pedlars. They have a speech of their own called Odki of which I are always outcast. 310] 575. 139. They are. 169). In the Salt-range Tract they also quarry and carry stone and in parts of the North. They eat anything and everything. and suggests that Changar is derived from chJidnna to sift. or at least one wollen garment. Bhagfrat they will. 64) . while the T2 . and the children drive the donkeys to the spoilbank. Leitner does not support the sug. They claim descent from one Bliagirat who vowed never to drink twice out of the same well. but are most numerous in Lahore and along the lower Indus and Chanab. and dig' a tank. Their women still wear petticoats and not drawers . They are all Musalmans and marry by nikdhy and they say that they were converted by Shams Tabriz of Multan. Lahore. It is in mourning for him that they wear wool. The Bawarias are a hunting tribe who take their name from the hdwar or noose with which they snare wild animals. Dr. The Bawaria (Caste No. II. but are largely employed in agriculture. He says that they call themselves not Changar but Chubna. know nothing. 275 The Od or Odh is a wandering' tribe whose pro2)er home appears to he Western Hindustan and Rttjpiitana at least the Ods of the Pan jab usually They are vagrants. remain outcasts. gestion. .—The Changars are outcasts of pro- bably aboriginal descent. they say.una and Siva {cf. and though not unfrequently Musalmans. pp. railways.

while the Bidawati live generally in 576. wear the clioti. and are notoriously a criminal tribe. Rohtalc. In the hills the ' Also called Kaldhaballia. They eat all wild animals. of Dchli. MacCraeken. 97 on page 312. all on the Rajputana border. Firozpur. worship Devi.— It appears almost certain that.276 PANJAB CASTES.280each criminal caste registered under the Criminal Tribes Act in each district of the Panjab. will not steal cows or oxen. do not eat carrion. 91 and 100). and Sirsa. the other sections looking down upon that calling. like most thieving classes. Their skill in tracking also is only in Firozpur and Liidhiana. hunting they niahe articles of grass and straw and reeils and sell them to the villagers. . seldom employing violence. they are much addicted to crime. or indeed generally criminal. . and Jodhpur in the Paujiib they are chiefly fonnd along the middle Satlnj valley in Sirsa. But though they parts. and the frightened deer and other animals. they have settled down in some the Firozpur District are largely employed as field even cultivate land as tenants. for the figures of Abstract No. But it is said that the ordinary Briihman officiates at their weddings. and send the ashes to the Ganges. Even where they are criminal they usually confine themselves to petty theft. The Kaparia are for the most part vagrant fixed abodes. They line from this set long lines of these nooses in the grass across the jimgles they arrange two roA^'s of scarecrows consisting of bits of rag and the like tied on 1o the trees and grass they then drive the jungle. and that in the former district only a small portion of the caste is so registered. disdain petty theft but delight in crimes of violence. They are black in colour and of poor physique. Firozpur.. and most of them will eat carrion. Personal Assistant to the Inspector.General of Police. The Kalkamalia is the only section which are still hunt(3rs l)y profession. and whose women wear black blankets. From these figures it appears that the Bawarias are registered as professional criminals are primarily vagrants. The Bawarias are a vagrant tribe whose proper home appears to be Mewar. They have a language of their own which is spoken by the women and children as well as by the men. llic blanket forming a petticoat. But in many parts of the Panjab. . About one-tenth of them are returned as Sikhs. so that they can hardly be called outcast.* whicli shows the number of *P. and affect a superiority over tlie rest the -Tangali or Kiilkamalia' generally found in the Jan^aldes of the Sikh States. Faiidkot. Ait hardly any as Musahnans. in notorious. The three sections neither eat toget her nor intermarry. and the Kaparia who are most numerous in the neighbourhood I : . from dhalla a skirf. cross In addition to the line of nooses in wliich their feet become entangled. . It is said that the criminal section of the tribe will admit men of other castes to their fraternity on payment. and Gnrgaon. and they reverence the cow. and generally I believe in Rajputana. The Aheri and Thori (Caste Nos. I am indebted to the kindness of ]Mr. keeping ])etwoen the lines of scarecrows. Lahore. and especially in labourers and Tiiey are by no means always. They are said to be divided into three sections the Bidawati of Bikaner who trace their origin to Bidawar in Jaijnir. these two sets of figures refer to the same caste and should be taken together. l)urn their dead. . and Paliala. though thoy occur in smaller nnra})ers in Hissar. and in Lahore and Sirsa seem to be sufficiently inoffensive. this Province at least . Ajmer. and sacrifice to her goats and buffaloes with the blood oP which they mark their foreheads. so far as the plains of the Panjab are concerned. including the pig and the lizard. They.

—The Sinsis are the vagrants of the centre They are most numerous in the Lahore and Amritsar divisions. They are essentially a wandering tribe. They are great hunters. . both clean and unclean. plains the two words seem to be used indifferently. as the Aheris are of its south-eastern portions. Their They are signify " cowherd. cultivate. They are said by the Thoris do seem to have a connection with the Banjaras. Jind. putana. A few in the Sikh States are returned as Sikhs but the remainder are Hindus. They do not keep donkeys nor eat beef or carrion. and on roads and other earthworks. Tod to be carriers in the Rajputana deserts . Sir and fowlers. . '^^^ Sansi (Caste No. ''' addicted to thieving [P 311] ^'^'^' . and are also found in considerThey trace their origin from able numbers in Ludhiana. 72). and I shall consider them Mr. The Aheris or Heris or Thoris are by heredity huntt^rs Henry Elliott says that they have proceeded from the they do not eat dead carcasses as the Dhanaks do. The question needs further examination. They are said in some parts to be all of which interinarry one with another. catching and eating all sorts of wild animals. They have clans with Rajput names. men who 277 carry mercliancHse on pack animals arc known as Thorls . as a term of honour. goats. AND ARTISAN CASTES. while in Karnal they often make saltpetre. for it is iniprobuljle that the Aheri of Rajputana should be found in the Simla hills^ and the word seems to be applied Still. but not unfrcquently settle down in villages where they find employThey catch and eat all sorts of wild animals.'^ from her. work in grass and straw and reeds. and eating carrion. pearance and physique they resemble the Bawaria just described. and they are found In apin the Panjab only in Dehli and Hissar divisions. and it is probable that the Thoris returned for the Hill States are nothing more than l^ersons who follow this occupation. pigs and donkeys. In addition to these occupations they work in the fields. and especially Jodhpur and the prairies of Bikaner. It is not at all impossible that the Thoris may be allied to or identical with the Rut in the Panjab lower class of Eanjaras. and the headmen of both Thoris and Banjiiras are called Niiik. They are considered outcasts. Ijut this is not their general character. and they cut wood and grass and work as general In Sirsa they occasionally labourers. but they have no special dialect of their own. . a herd of cattle. MENIAL. Mr. Musalman. and Dhanaks. "Wilson says that an Aheri is called Naik as synonymous for the present. to most of whom they arc the hereditary genealogists or bards and even in Rajputana they commonly call of the Panjiib. and ment. but especially Babaji of Kohmand in Jodhpur and Khetrpal of Jodpur. Marwur and Ajmer where they are still very numerous. while the Aheris are true hunters. and in Rajputana they Their home is Rajare employed as out-door servants. to anybody who carries on beasts of burden without regard to caste.VAGRANT. Karnal and Gujrat. and beg and their women very commonly dance and sing and prostitute themselves. The Chamarwa Brahmans olficiate at their They burn their dead and send the ashes to marriages and on like occasions. and Patiala. and especially move about in gangs at harvest time in search of employment as reapers . horse-desh is to the Aheri. and they worship the ordinary village deities. They have some curious connection with the Jat tribes of the Central Panjab.''^ They are said also to act as genealogists to the . Christie says " What beef is to the Hindu and pork to the the Ganges. work in reeds and grass. though name is said to vagrant in their habits. pure and impure. They keep sheep. seldom or never settling for long in any one place. themselves bliart or " bards. and made to live beyond the village ditch. and even as musicians. and Thori as a term of contempt.

where they kept up the genealogies of the Jat land-holders "and worked as agricultural labourers. but especially in Siiilkot. is said to take his The Jhabel. found chiefly in the Amritsar division. as the dog. but they are of course outcasts. 97) registered as such and have been settled by Government in small Excepting the persons so settled the villages and given land to cultivate.^. bel. though their gangs are seldom large. while tlie Maliki pronounce everything pure. In Gurdaspur on the other hand The Sansis are the g^ "they are notorious as the worst of criminals.Ihabels and Mallahs to the Shafai school. because they Jo not. or as he is often called ChaChavih. still revere as their Guru.s a "tribe of iishermen who " came originally from Sindh. and still speak pure Sindhi among themselves " and who are addressed Ijy the title of Jdm. they are by no means always professional thieves. and all . . They are ^divided into two great tribes. most criminal class in the Panjab .' " They are Musalmans and are considered orthodox. They have a dialect peculiar to themselves . . but eat vermin and are therefore outcasts. the Panjabi for a jhil or marsh. the pig. ChriBtie says that." They are a very criminal tribe. to admit any caste to their fraternity on payment except Dhedhs and Mhangs and the man so admitted becomes to all intents and purposes a Sansi. and in some parts the word Pakhiwara is almost synonymous with lnhnjra or "greengrocer. the Rajputs of Husbyarpnr and Jalandhar. the Hanifi rules follow very closely the Mosaic customs. restricted as to what is ^Another derivation is from jham. A sbght as Sikhs. whether on earth or in the water. which means a " bird/' and also a " straw hut. O'Brien describes the Jhaljel in his Glossary a.'' either meaning being appropriate. Gujrat. and commit burglary and highway The thieving Sansis are said robbery. the bride being covered by a basket on which the bride- groom sits while the nuptial rites are being performed. The Pakhiwara (Caste No. 107).-" Where they are professional criminals they are determined and fearless. — name from most Hambali are oi' the four great Suuni schools (see section 283). and in Sialkot they are (see Abstract No. The rest are Hindus. like " the Kehals and other fishing tribes.^ Mr. Still though the whole caste is probaljly open to suspicion of petty pilfering. and exclude only such animals as have been He epecially declared unclean. and are said one Sans Ua\ of Bhartpur whom they Their niariiage Shah.descent from sketch of their religion is given in section 296. whom they resemble in many respects but this is more than doubtful. They are all Musalman. the Shafai teach that all animals which inhabit the water are cleaii. but they seem to have taken very generally to hawking vegetables about for sale. A generation ago they were not considered a criminal " class at Lahore. 97 on the next page* that they are registered under the Act in nine districts. They take their name from the word pa/>-ki. which is Sindhi for ' Prince. 278 PANJAB CASTES. the lawful to eat. ' Mr. tells me that all Pakhfwiras belong to the Maliki. Sodhis Dogars of Firozpur. They are by hereditary occupation fowlers and hunters. They trace then. are returned as :\Iusalmans and a very few of Anandpm-. and it will be seen from Abstract No. and the About 11 per cent. Pakhiwaras are essentially vagrant in their habits. eat turtles and crocodiles ^" This refers 579. They are as the Pakhiwaras live in straw huts and are hunters and fowlers.— The Pakhiwaras are often said to be a branch of the Sansis. The Jhabel (Caste No. 117). and theii- women are especially depraved. 578. to worship his patron saint under the name of Malang ceremony is pecubar. and Multan. and birds that use their talons when feeding. Kalka and IMalka which do not intermarry. . the dredger used in sinking wells. The Panjab Government wrote in 1881: "Their habits vary greatly in " different localities.

" They also make matting and grass and straw. Indeed the Jaipur State is said to be " really made up of petty Mina States. who wander about But their hereditary occupation is that of catching and eating vermin. have taken to agriculttire. and Indus. a " leech. and will not iutirmairy with the Jhabels of the Satluj. a grain that is sown in the mud left by the retreating river. TheMina (Caste No. AND ARTISAN CASTES. in the Panjab at least. fo the nciglilxuirhooil of Miiltan. this does not appear to be the case.' the rive. and '' are fond of cultivating samiika. returned themselves as Mallali.) 580. and will officers who have come into contact with the smell a clined to believe the statement. living on the hanks of tlie river. ' ' " They And " '' in his Settlement Report he writes The Kehals and Mors are said to be one tribe. for the two appear to be identical and I have joined the figures together. however. called Miaui. but perhaps " the Sanskrit kewada or llsberman is a more probable derivation. turtles and tortoises. now under the chieftaincy of the Kachwaha Rajputs.— Gagra is a small caste. are a vagrant fishing tribe found on the banks of the lower Satluj. men of any caste who make their living from the fens but I doul)t the accuracy of this statement. eat crocodiles and tortoises. part tables. Wilson says that all the Sirsa ]\rallAhs or boatmen are hunters. often called Jukera. a '' These tribes live separately in villages near ''There is an old report in the Deputy Commissioner's office. from me. [P. would do the same. Mr.Jhabels. They look upon the calling of boatman as degrading. but some of them. which they justify "by a text of hiidm Sliali." ' . Chenab. and where they are a purely (isliiiig- easte of vagrant habits. O'Brien writes of them in his Gi-ossari/ swamps — : Maliomediinism.Ihabels have in that district. " In Gurgaon indeed he cultivates laud.— The Kehals or IMors. 313] The Kehals also catch and eat lizards." profcs-. for the most Musalmans and chiefly found in the central districts. The Gagra (Caste No.: — 279 VAGRANT. Jhabelsj and it is very prol)able that many . but eat alligators. .' They derive their name from kehara. which arc his is said that they worshi]) Bala Shah. They seem to functions at weddings. and Kapurthala. but this does ^ Vide note * on previous page. 582. MENIAL. and sometimes own a little hind. and on JBut they perhaps elsewhere. well as of the . and are said to receive fees . for that they It fiee is said his tell at tribe a crocodile can approach and some me that they are in. spread up the Satluj as high as Firozpur and Lahore. which says that these three tribes ' were cannibals bat modern observation does not cx)nfirm this. a-. that Kehals entered in the Kehal. Mor from a long distance. There are small colonies of Jhabels in llushyarpur. In Alwar and Jaipur. generally work in for bags for pack entirely fulfil by them. In the north of the district they are '' called Mors. Gurdaspur. catching. fislierinan. 161). some sort of on those occasions. and applying leeches and they are from jonk. and in some parts the coarse sacking used animals and similar purposes is said to be made almost The Musalman Gagras marry by nikdh. (See also next paragraph under Kehal. almost invariably criminal. and no Maliomedan will associate with them. 166). who are hunters and fishermen. Sindhi for lion. Of the 1. 133). the home. and hunting have the upper parts of the river work ehiefly as Ijoatnien though they still fish and are great Li fact Mr. The Kehals and '' Mors live by fishing. It Chuhra Guru. and are considered good Mahomcdaus. The Kehal or Mor (Caste No. In the sonth they do not eat these animals. In Gurdaspur the word or is said to include .251 390 returned themselves as Mor and 861 as 581. divers and well-sinkers. keeping.—The Mina is.

280 PAN JAB CASTES. Abstract Nc. 97 showing Classes registered [p 312J 1 .

. AND ARTISAN CASTES. under the Criminal Tribes Act f 281 jr Districts.VAGRANT. MENIAL.

I believe.' are said to inhabit a tract of . country al)Out 65 miles long and 40 broad. and even resisted them witli armed Their enterprises are on a large scale. But the word mihna or mahna seems to be commonly Tliis is as I iind the fact stated. They travel great distances in gangs of from 12 to 20 men. Hnd. " they benefit greatly the poor of their neighbourhoood. Thev travel in bands. to use violence if necessary. The gangs usually start oif immediately after the Diwali feast.s. 'I'he former are excellent cultivators. "They still hold good social position. there is any hard and fast line between the two classes. In Marwar they are armed with small bows. and Shahjahanpur. and they are in league After a successful foray they offer with the carrying castes of MarwJir. In " their own villages they are often charitable and as successful plunder has made some rich. " They consider themselves soldiers by profession. are distinct from it. where they commit daring robberies. girls in marriage. and they "are the most trusted guarda in tlie . Panjab concerned. Minas are divided into Chaukidari and " Zamindari. The Susawat was. and often remain absent the whole year. They have a intercourse.v ' " or a<^ricultural. was afraid lest they should corrupt " their agricultural brethren. and are ' "numerous in Jaipur. and they are always prepared force. I believe. tion of the caste from Major Powlett^s Gazetteer of Alwar " Minas were formerly the rulers of imicli of tlio country now held by the Jaipur Chief. the Kagot 9. and it i» very probable that the expression quottsd b us nothing to do with the name of the Mfna caste. and under Major Cadell's direction lists of them Have been "made out.Taipiir State. Banni Singh. of Shahjahanpur.— ^82 ' MNJAB CASTES. but do not give. formerly the most powerful clan. from whom they take. "In April 1863. are the village Their hend -quarters. There is. I found tliat the Jeb clan furnished 17. They have agents in all the large cities of Rajpdtana and the Deccan who give them information. They f(irm a large portion of the population in Karaiili. the Zemindari : . though of the same tribe as the other chis. These Chaukidari " Minas are the famous marauders. an " intermediate class. " I am not sure that. periodical roll-call enforced in the villages and absence without leave certificate " punishefl. So notorious are they " as robbers that the late Chief of Alwar. the Sira 8 and the Jarwal and Bagri 5 each. The Minas are of two classes. and that which held Ajmere. and "arc good. the most noted villages being Koti Putli^ Bhairor. Some villages pay them highly as Chauki"dars to refrain from plundering and to protect the village from others. ' . though they are said to spring from an illegitimate son of a Rajput and in woman^s slang one woman is said to ''give Mina " [mina dena) to another when she accuses her of illicit They i:)ractise karewa or widow-marriage. practising robbery and dacoity even as far as the Deccan. and the 'Chaukidari. attached Gurgaon district Init surrounded on all sides by Rajputana territory. and are consequently popular But " those who have not the enterprise for distant expeditions. headed by a chosen leader. or watchmen. Out of 59 Minas apprehended for dacoity by the Dacoity Suppression Department. although speaking generally. stretching from Shjihpurah 40 miles north of Jaipur to Gurtiora in Gurgilon on the Rohtak border. issued orders placing the " Chaukidari Minas under surveillance. " successful. and so somewhat superior to their agricultural "hrcthen. Their claim to Rajput descent is probably well-founded. thereby lose caste to some extent. Major Impey. each of which contains some 500 robbers. " There are said to be 32 clans of Minas. Many of the Chaukidari " Minas take to agriculture. ' Minas. The criminal Minas one-tenth of the proceeds at the shrine of Kali Devi. then Political Agent of Alwar. as far "south as Haidarabad in the Deccan. I believe. for Rajputs will cat ami drink from their hands. are numerous and are felt to he a great pest. I extract the following tleserirnot prevent his being a professional thief. but steal and rob near tlieir own 'homes. for Maharaja Banui Singh's attempts to keep the two apart were not very "The 'Chaukidari ' . which do considerable execution. There they till lately defied our police. and desirous of keeping them apart forbade their marrying or even " smoking or associating with members of the well-conducted class. u bid in the same sense throughout the Panjnb . and they are the " principal class which the Thaggi and Bacoiti Suppression Department has to act against." The Minas so far as the to the are the boldest of is our criminal classes. well-hehaved people.

and infesting the Chachra ur dense dkci^ jwigle of that neighbourhood. and still give theii. who are strictly secluded. The Harni (Caste No. Mr. 168 evidently refer to these men and are not proj)erly — . 18). *P. But there is a small criminal tribe called Bilochi who described at images 193^may be noticed here. 585. They seem to be found chiefly.— This again is one of the most criminal 583. Further information will be found in a very interesting report by Mr. MENIAL. to effect which they travel in gangs. and with nothing to distinguish them fi'om the scavenger caste except a profusion of stolen ornaments and similar jDroperty. who were employed by the Rai of Raikot in Ludhiana for purposes They are also said to be Bhils or Gonds of theft and to harass his enemies. the Kagot clan (sec Further under Meo. 16 of March 1877. A " more suitable stronghold for a criminal tribe can hardly be imagined. No : — — fP. and as will be seen from the figures of Abstract No. Stone In Punjab Government Home Proceedings. The word Bangali is applied to any native of Bengal. Lashari.tribal names as Rind. to have come from the Rajputana desert. 97 on page 812 f shows the numbers registered as pro375. and also in Firozpur and Faridkot. The figures given in our tables under Caste No. The only road open to the traveller is the raised one '' between Thanesar and Pehoa . and dense masses of jungle shut in the view on every side. or rather perhaps. districts lying under tlie hills from Ludhiana to Sialkot. living in a separate quarter. extending their excursions to great distances and apparently to almost all parts of India. often under the Their women also wander aljout as disguise of carriers with pack-oxen. 280- ^^ 159). and and highway robbery. Stone " During the rainy season the whole country is inundated for months. numbering some 1. In the Pan jab the Mina is almost confined to Gurgauu and the neighbouring portions of the Patiala and Nabha Tlicy are almost all Hindus and Ijelong to the Chaukidari section and States. AND ARTISAN CASTES. 283 dialect of their own . 314] The Biloch of the frontier has already been 584. 28081 " stranger could possibly penetrate to the Biloch village through such a clueless " maze without a guide.* a greater number of them ai'c registered under the Criminal They are found in the Tribes Act than of any other caste except Sansi. They are said to have been Rajpiits driven froni Bhatner liy famine. 97 on page 312. in Ambala and Karnal. pedlars to pilfer and collect information. Their chief crimes are burglary. and wander about disguised as/aqirs or as butchers in search of sheep for sale.000 souls in the former and 150 in the latter district. at home. But they are by their habits quite distinct from both the land-owning Biloch and the camel-driver who is so commonly called Biloch simply because he ts a camel driver (see section Abstract No. The Bilochi (Caste No. They say that their ancestors once lived beyond Kasur in the Lahore district but were driven out on account of their marauding habits. The Banga'i. and especially to the Bengali Baboo of our offices. The men still keep camels and cultivate a little land as their ostensible occupation . Jatoi. writes " Village roads are washed away or concealed under the luxurious growth of " grass. if not entirely. section 478).) They are described as coarse-looking men of a dark colour fesslonal criminals. the moment he leaves that he is lost. inhabiting the banks of the Saruswati from Pehoa downwards. a set of slang words and phrases which are common lothe criminal classes. ^' They are almost certainly of true Biloch origin.VAGRANT. and Korai. [P. No. but during a great part of the year they leave the women. They are all returned as Musalman. castes in the Provinci'.

caste statistics^ the Bengalis of the Panjal) being of various castes. 41 and 44) of the are hills described in and the there plains immediately below them are professional thieves. though generally I believe either Brahmaus or Kayaths. The Gurmangs are an inslgnilicant class of criminals found in the Eawalpindi district. but are in the habit : " of kidnapping boys to " applied generally to sell to Musalman jugglers. They must be distinguished from the Tagas. They are not registered under the Criminal Tribes Act. and are often professional criminals. aud they too are hereditary workers in grass. more especially in the neighbourhood of Dehli. for which the figures will be found in Aljstract No. as well as of the vagrant classes next to be discussed. also a Brahminical tribe of the same parts. They " k(?ep dogs and donkeys and exhibit snakes. but Tagu is the form in common use. There are a vagrant tribe of immigrants from Bengal. Other criminal tribes. or . They steal only by day and seclude their women. those of the Dehli territory and those of the western sub-montane districts. tliat rather Dhiuvvar8. it is probable that the Kiingra Bangalis are not a separate caste. who are said to have emigrated from Hushyarpm* to Kangra in which district they are chiefly to be found. each of which uses a separate ar^oi of the Many Dumnas Jammu peculiar to itself. They have lately been declared under the Criminal Tribes Act.— The gipsy tribes. Mr. and Mr. straw. They appear to be often criminal in their habits. where some of them are registered as criminals. (Caste Nos. Hindu mahants " (sic) . It is said that the name is properly Taku. ' 1 he term Tagu is often used to include Jlifnwars. and as th' y . sing. and have probably returned themselves as such. Lowcvcr. The Tagus of Karual and the upper dodb of the Gauges and Jamna are admittedly Brahmans. In fact the same may be said of almost every one of the lowest castes.'^ arc hardly to be distinguished from those whom I called the wandering and criminal tribes. They do not appear in our returns. Their women dance.— 284 PANJAB CASTES. Christie " The Bangalis have very probably been included with Jogis in writes " the returns.are somelimes said to be a Sansi clan and as the word Bangali seems to be applied in some districts to all Kanjars and in others to all Sipadas or snake-charmers.^ Tagu is merely used to denote a section of that caste which has taken to picking pockets and petty theft. Of criminal Chuhras appear to be two distinct classes. I see that in the Dehli division Bangalis have been inchided with Sansis. The Rawals (Caste No. The Kanjars (Caste No. They are not criminals in the ordinary sense. 135) will jn-escntly be described in section 590. nor can I say under what caste they have returned themselves. None of these peojole have been returned in our Census tables as Bangali by caste . They wear the ja^ieo or sacred thread. 80) have been described in section 528. and have "a dialect of their own. The Dumnas and Chuhras sections 597 to (JOU.28C^'^ The Gipsy tribes. The name is also 586. Christie stales. 98 on the opposite page. who are peaceful agriclturists. *P. TRIBES. eat all sorts of vermin. But in the Panjab there is a distinct criminal tribe known as Bangali. They too are vagrants and outcasts. and prostitute them" selves. aa well as Brahmans. THE GIPSY 587.

At a given signal he ducks his head If the accused trae. The gipsy. P. They are said especially to reverence the goddess Devi. or ropc-tlanciny. and Haniiman or the monkey god. those whose males only perform as acrobats. others an acrobat. The Nats then. but the two \Aords are synonymous in general parlance. In the Lahore division indeed. AND ARTISAN CASTES. On the whole perhaps more probable that the Nat is the caste to which both classes In the Dehli and Hissar divisions belong.-. are said to be divided into two main classes. those in any way. and most of the rest as Musalradns. and are not free from the suspicion of sorcery. 285 But tribes who perform tribes. MENIAL. or King and Queen. . and I shall discuss the figures together. settling for a few days or weeks at a time in the vicinity of large villages or towns. a term which is apparently quite unknown in any other part of the Panjab except Ambala . the Guru of the Sikh scavengers. in the former as Nats and in the latter as Bazigars. They often practise surgery and physic They in a small way. and I have classed Badi and Bazigar together. but it is applied only to jugglers and acrobats. 98 and 89). he has to submit to such penalty as the counril may abovit bears vagrant . is very striking. They very generally trace their origin from Marwar . and Inirn the dead but they are really outcasts. is the be propcily some distinction between the Nat and the Bazigar . lead and monlceys. straw. 588. perform and prostitute themselves. Guru Teg Bahadur. called Kabutri. and they are found all over the Province except on the frontier. 315] typical gipsy of the Panjub. and it is possible that those who reach the fession may call themselves by the Persian name . The Musalmiin Nats are said to prostitute their unmarried^ but not their married women .VAGRANT. others again say that among the Nats the males only. can keep under water while the 140 paces there and back are accomplished. reeds for sale though this is perhaps doubtful. but among the Bjizigars both sexes perform . for want of a better distinction. impose. and and in the centre of the Panjab are said to act as Mirasis. Their different tribes are governed by a Raja and Rani. . he is accpitted. and . If not. In addition to practising acrobatic and conjuring of a low class. honest and hand. The Nat and Bazigar (Caste It is Nos. and in some other districts. About three-quarters of their number returned themThey mostly many selves as Hindus. who practise tiTm])ling. the last because of the acrobatic powers of monkeys. arc I Iiave clasf^ed as Gipsies. with whom I include the Bazigars. the two have not been " Biizigar is a Persian word meaning *' he who does bdzi returned separately. are a gipsy tribe of vagrant habits who wander about with their families. The large numbers returned in Bahawalpur and Montgomery. by p/iera. and apparently all the governed by tribal councils and often appeal to ordeals. the word used for Bazigar is Badi. and so forth. and conis structing feats rp 3|gi temporary shelters of grass. where they are apparently almost unknown. sort of game or play. A common form of ordeal is that the accused stands in a pond with a pole in his while another man. starts running at a fair pace for a spot 70 paees distant.— The Nat possible that there may and it this latter distinction is reported from several districts. keeping many dogs with which they hunt and eat the vermin of the jungles. they make articles of grass. the like. and Bfizigar an occupational term. and those whose women. while the Nat is only the tliat the Bazigar is a juggler as well as higher ranks of the prolatter. like the gipsy tribes of Europe. or any Some say that the Bazigar is a tumbler and the Nat a rope-dancer .

Abstract No.052 Malerkotla Kalsia Total East.301 85 123 101 90 1.190 130 1 2.919 Total Hill States British Territory Native States 83 8.28C PANJAB CASTES.548 152 124 76 53 2.361 Anintsar Gurdaspur Sialkot 83 685 147 5 Lahore Gujr^nwala Pirozepur 930 1. ] 98 89 164 185 167 177 . 315. 98.694 13. showing the Gipsy PlGUBES.504 1.349 130 85 277 72 16 122 69 11. Plains 57 39 183 90 1 296 2 54 85 1.liyarpur Kaiigra 489 935 112 75 360 163 8 28 254 18 424 442 160 36 1.110 685 8.550 11.841 178 2.990 1 591 147 1. [ p.5'.740 36 47 668 Province ^i'o2^ 2.188 18 17 8 19 1 Rawalpindi Jablam G u jrat Sbabpur Multau JLang Moutgomery Muzaffargarh British Territory 580 281 139 320 667 238 68 594 369 276 398 97 8.)8 933 1.841 54 885 .157 1.841 Patiala Nabba Kapurtbala Jind i''aridkot 1.041 54 BabSwalpui' 1. 121 158 150 M Debli W O O" O QQ Gurgaou Karnal Hiss.806 719 248 102 r-92 30 1 14 30 67 Bobtak Sirsa 294 318 13 28 265 114 6 Ambala Ijudliiana Jalaiidliar 161 Hu-.190 3.694 45 15 38 5 442 685 3.ir 266 629 815 576 106 287 1.872 1 442 668 1.337 I S33 224 1.

VAGRANT. . ri 287 es for Districts and Stales. MENIAL. AND ARTISAN CASTES.

for some Pernas are said to be Chuhra by caste. gipsies. figures .288 PANJAB CASTES. that the Pernas habitually and professedly prostitute their women. idl meaning a " beat " in music. 30. liuiul. and perhaps the same has happened elsewhere. and left only the Kanjar of the Dehli territory under the head we are now discussing. under the head Kanchan (Caste No. The men apparently do not perform. or as he seems to be called in the Ambala division the Jallad. The Pernas are also a vagrant tribe of exceedingly similar to the Nats or Bazigars. which the Nats do not. wLo is a good autbority. The Kanchans are almost all Musalmans. It is not quite clear that the word is anything more than the name of an occupation like Bazigar. the wandering tribe of Kanjars is apparently not found. after is. Another. and more prol^able account rather than with the Nats (see below). They are almost all ^Nlusalmans. the first chihl is either given to the grantlmother as compensation for the loss of tlie mothev's gains as a prostitute.^ The Perna women are said to be jugglers and tumblers. and Ambala divisions. and is kept secluded which the ]\Iusalman Nat. The Kanjar of the Dehli territory. the music with thirteen beats in a bar must be worth listening to as a curiosity. and are said to marry by niJcdh. or is redeemBut this is perhaps the custom witli the Pernas ed by payment of Es. hdratdli and terafdli. 9(i). making rope and other articles of grass for sale. CliriHtic. while tlie Kanjars are all Hindus except in Sirsa and it is probable that the Musalmjin Kanjar? shoM'n for Sirsa should also have been classed as Kanchan. . lizards and the like.— I have taken a liberty with these which is I think justified by my information. and these latter he prostitutes. though my papers do not show it. They are probably found almost all over the Province except in the frontier districts but in the Lahore division they have ])een included with Bazigar. 164). Thus I found Kanchan and Kanjar (including Jallad) separately returned for the Dehli. But there is said to be this great distinction. when a Nat woman mames?. says tliat Ibe fact is exactly the . They are said to be divided into two classes. and generally perform their acroljatic feats holding a sword or knife to their throats . but merely play the drum for the women to dance to. and curing boils and other diseases. . The Kanjars of the Dehli territory are a vagrant tribe who wander about the country catching and eating jackals. Hissai-. If so. and Kanjar only for the rest of the Province. who is usually to be found in the towns. from the sort of music to which they dance. and that the Hindus shown as Kanchan are really 590. together with the Kanjar of the remainder of the Panjab. The Perna (Caste No. Now prostitutes are found all over the Province. In the remainder of the Panjab the word Kanchan is not used. is a wandering tribe very similar to the Perna and in that part of the country a pimp or pro^^titute is called Kanchan or by some similar name. and never Kanjar. 135). 589. . It is possible that they are a true caste. They parti^YiV. or (Lo otlicr reverse of this. but like many of the vagrant tribes will admit strangers to their fraternity on payment. will marry as many women as he can procure l)y purchase from the vagrant tribes or otherwise. that the first wife married is one of the tribe. — The Kanjar (Caste No. and Kanjai* is the ordinary word for pimp or prostitute. Kanjars. Accordingly I classed the Kanchan of the three divisions just named. but their characteristic occupation is dancing and singing rather than tumbling.

The Kuchband. from the Panjabi word Kanjar. who have their head-quarters in Jammu. inferiors for he himself will not eat from the hands of a Lobar or of a Nath. X of 1866 of In that pamphlet they are called the Selected Cases of the Panjab Police. and them they do not prostiThe Jalltlds of Ambala tute . it is by no means certain that these Kanjars are not merely a Bawaria tribe . only. A good deal of information regarding the Kanjars will be found in No. —The Hesi appears to share Lobar the distinction of being the only castes recognised among returned as Buddhists.VAGRANT. The Garris are returned in Sialkot They are said to be a poor caste of strolling actors and mountebanks. and to call a transaction " a Hesi^s bargain The Hesi or Hensi." or the odd caste which is not Yet he has his required. 121). however. The Hesis are the wandering minstrels of the higher Himalayan valleys. their duty being to flog. (Caste The Hesi No. most probably to the They also reverence Giiga Pir. but some" times engages in petty trade . are said to be a section up prostitution. Table VIII B. But the ^ given tribe. whom they also call Kali Miii . and who. do not appear to have returned themselves as of that caste. AND ARTISAN CASTES. fi'eely. sometimes spelt. is found in Kangra. whereas all the people of Spiti except two are 591. " The men play the pipes and kettle-drum. were called Jallad or '' skinners. are said to be the descendants of a Kanjar family who were attached to the Dehli Court as executioners. and The Kanjars execute. with the the Buddhists of Spiti. but whether they refer to Kali Devi or to Sitala does not appear . for no one will eat from the hands of a Hesi. ciilarlT 289 make the two grass brushes used . form a separate guild. or rather the Bedas as they are there called. and not with Nat and Perna. who make these brashes. Bawarias.^ They are said to divide their one they marry themselves. and are shown under Caste No." from jild. by weavers. But the word Kanjar seems to be used in a very loose quarters of the tribe. as the word is is to imply that it is mean and paltry. but excluding these two from social intercourse. To the figures of Table VIII A should be added 201 Hesis in Suket who were left out by mistake.— The Qalandari is the Kalender He is properly a holy Mahomedan ascetic who of the Arahian Nights. words Kanjar and Bangali also seem often to be used as synonymous. Mandi. and it is just possible tliat they have received their name from their The habit of prostituting their daughters. and will not marry with of the Kanjai-s who have the other sections of the ." He is called "the 18th caste." girls into classes appear to be of a higher status than the Nat. as all our Hesis arc Hindus. The Garris (Caste No. ' The Beda no land and the dog no load ' is a proverbial "saying. 593. Dehli is said to be the Panjab headformer. He is ordinarily a beggar. the other they keep for pm-poses of prostitution. 167). and Suket. outcasts. but are not unfre592. They are (in Lahul and Spiti) the only class that " owns no land. the two names referring to the same people. — quently found in the Baijwat or plain country under the Jammu hills. manner . though they are necessarily They worship Mata. the Kiilu equivalent for Jogi. 177). mutilate. abandons the world and wanders about with shaven head and beard. 208. the other classes of that society eating together and intermarrying The Hesis of Spiti. " skin. MENIAL. mostly Hindu. while the women dance and sing " and play the tambourine. The Qalandari (Caste No. I should probably have done better had I grouped Kanjar with Bawaria.

THE SCAVENGER CASTES. catch quails. They are considered outcasts by otlier IMahomedans.s^ have three 595. clai-. clean and shar])en knives and swords. Together with the vagrants and gipsies they are the here ditary Avorkers in gi-ass and reeds. carrying to \hQ fields. to make clay pipe-l)Owls of superior quality The numbers returned are small except in Gurgaon..-iir of the sauit is held to be allownblo. but 594. It is said that in some who are said parts they lead about performing bears traditions which are reported to me but this I doubt. are followers oF Inuun Shafi. from which they malce winnowladder. Cl. chiefly in the upper valleys of the Sutlej and Be^s. make pi]ie-bowls. ])igs and fowls and they and the k'ather-workers alone eat the flesh of animals that. tortoise and frog. They. Th<n' work in straw. and they are said. Dhanak.isomuch that the abduction of a married woman from the f. Shah Chokha being said to have given the woman to the abductor.290 PANJAB CASTES. The class is numerically and (economically one of the most impoi-tant in the Province. . They say they are under a vow not to wear shoes or turbans till their possessions are restored to them. . where the figures are sus- have returned it is probable that many of these men themselves simply ?i^faqirs. l)ut their ostensilile occu]ia(ion is that of hading ahoal bears. They are said to eat tortoises and vermin. while they occupy a very prominent position among the agricultm-al labourers of the Panjab. and even engage in trade in small way.— A gipsy tribe of Musalmans returned from the centre of the Pan jab. 99* on the next page shows the distrilnition of this class. and distributing manure. i. and Khatik. The Baddun (Caste No.— Al)stract No.:! l). Dhara. 158). monkeys. Tiiey also are said to lead about bears. working up. 29i^'^^ ^ Nat.'^ though 1 fancy that in the Panjab their positions are reversed. They are Wahle. Rajput. and in cities and in village houses where the women are strictly secluded. beg. and occasionally to travel as pedlars. They also keep donkeys. and justify l)y his teaching their habit of eating the crocodile. and which they seem inclined to place beyond the Indus. piciously large^. sweeping the houses and streets. They wander about bare-headed and bare-footed. in which I have included Chuhra. work in grass and straw. even lower perhaps than the vagrant Sansi and tlie gipsy 596. The Scavenger Castes. for the Chuhras are only exceeded in number by the Jat. The detailed tables of snb-divisions will when pul dished throw light upon the subject. and as a rule can hardly be said to stand even at the foot of the social though some sections of the clan have mounted the first one or two steps. They alone of all classes keep those impure animals.y tlie Mcos . and Bralnnan. and other performing animals. removing night soil. word is generally used in the Pnnjab for a monkov-man and I have classed him liere instead of with yfl-^/zV^. and genei-ally do odd jobs. and to claim Arab origin. I helieve that some of them have a sort of pretence to a religious cliaracter . like the Kchals. like the Kanjars. But socially they are the lowest of the low. .aiiTiiiip suggests that lliose men iiiay be the faqlrs of the shrine of Shah Oioldia a uinch ycjiorate. They have curious from distant parts of the Province. ^ *P. 150). 1 _ Mr. and Balare.— The Gandhilas area low vagrant by Elliott to ])e '^ a few degrees more respectable than the Bawarias. saint . regarding a Icingdom which the tribe once possessed. and their women bleed liy cupping. have died of disease or by natural death. cut wood. tril)e. Their hereditary occupation is pcavengering. said to The Gandhila (Caste No.

showinrr the Scavenger Castes. . 291 Abstract No.VAGRANT MENIAL. 99. 31S 1 CASTES. AND ARTISAN p.

. 90. showing the Scavenger Castes concluded.— 2^ PANJAB CASTES. Abstract No.

work at the plough and in the field. 597. where he is. is found throughout the Province except in the hills. . News of a death sent to friends is invariably carried by him. and the sirki or grass thatch used to cover carts and In the centre of the Province he adds to these functions actual hard the like. and like them they eat jackals. In the hills they are replaced by menials who will be described in the separate section on the menials of those parts. MENIAL.is performed by him. lizards. collects the cowdung. AND ARTISAN CASTES. tortoises. 72 (page 22-i*) must be added.— The Chuhra or Bhangi of Hindustan" the sweeper and scavenger par excellence of the Panjjib. He claims the flesh of such dead animals as do not divide the hoof. 4). But his occupations change somewhat with his religion . and pigs. It is probable that they are essentially but there is little doubt that the aboriginal nucleus has of aboriginal origin received additions from other sources. chiefly confined to the towns . who receive a customary share of the produce and perform certain duties. I to be described. which shows the Chuhras and Kutanas who have returned themselves as Jats. believe. of those who have gradually sunk in the scale of occupations or have in any way been degraded to the lowest level. . the cloven-footed belonging to the Chamar. the figui-es of Abstract No. as in the latter ease they pass over the leather-workers. head of Chuhra : Divisioxs. The Chuhra (Caste No. where he is replaced by other castes presently He is comparatively rare on the frontier. and takes them from village to village. For the frontier^ however. pats it into cakes and stacks it. and most numerous in the Lahore and Amritsar divisions and Faridkot where much of the agricultui'al laboiu. But to secure the full benefit of this change of occupation they must relinquish the habit of eating carrion. Many of them have abandoned seavengcring and taken to leather-work and even to weaving^ and by doing so have mounted one or even two steps in the social grades. 293 ing pans aad other articles used in agriculture . and he is the general village messenger [Lehhar. He is one of the village menials proper. The distribution of the class will be noticed as each of the three castes is discussed. Their agricultural functions will be presently described. In the east of the Province he sweeps the houses and village.— VAGRANT. works up the manure. and here it will be well to show exactly what other entries of our schedules I have included under the is . helps with the cattle. Baidhar. Daura) He also makes the child} or winnowing pan. as he here fills the position with respect to field-work which is held in the east of the Province by the Chamar. Baldi.

— Almost all the Chuhras west of Lahore are Musalmans. though performing all the other otfices hereditary to the Chuhra caste. one of the Chuhra Gurus. The origin of their superiority. They make capital soldiers and some of our regiments are wholly composed of Mazbis. chapter. who consider themselves socially superior to the rest. though they not unseldom follow in these respects the custom of the villagers whom they serve. &c. Guru. Mazbi and Rangreta. who was converted by a holy Rishi.w^est and Musalli in the north-west. lies in the fact that they were once notorious as highway robbers But it appears that the Rangretas have very generally aljandoned scavengering for leather work. wear their hair long. . those given above being intended merely to show how many men returned to me under each of the heads shown I have classed as Chuhras. and a rhyme is current Rangreta.. and they apj^arently refuse to touch night-soil. and they are very commonly called Musalli or Kutana. They often intermarry with the Lai Begi or Hindu Chuhra. is another name for Bal Mik. but reflected that so vile a man would not be able to say iMRA which. Guru kd beta. The second and third paragraph. that is to say the Chuhra who follows the original religion of the caste and has been classed by us as Hindu. Of course a Mazbi will often have been returned as Chuhra by caste and Sikh by religion and the figures of Table 598. Mazbi means nothing more than a member of the scavenger class converted to Sikhism. whose mutilated body was brought back from Dehli by Chuhras who were then and there admitted to the faith as a reward for their devotion. {see furi/ier.almost synonymous. is found in all the eastern but that west of Lahore he hardly exists save in half of the Paujab plains His religion is sketched the great cities of Rawalpindi^ Multiin and Peshawar. Their other fjtiru is Lill Beg . These various names deuotc nothing more than a change of religion sometimes accompanied by a change of occupation. the taint of hereditary pollution is upon them . I am informed. — VIIIA arc the ones to be followed. the two terms being apparentl}. Table VIII shows that the Hindu Chiihra. 319] entries in the table of the last The Sikh Chuhra -Mazbi and Rangreta. So he set him to say enough. or Chhimba or Lilari to denote the cotton dyer and stamper and in Sirsa the Sikhs will often call any Chuhra whom they wish to please Rangreta. In the hills Rangreta is often used as synonymous ^\\ih. Sikh Churas are almost confined to the district and states immediately east and south-east of Lahore^ which form the centre of Sikhism. The Rishi wished to prescribe penance. if you say it fast RAM. a hunter of the Karnal district. paf/e 131). denote Chiihras who have become Sikhs. : RAM MRA [p. The Mazbis take the pdhul. and they still call their priests Lalgurus. Rangrez. and Sikhs of other castes refuse to associate with them even in religious ceremonies. and eventually wrote the Ramayana. Tlieir great Gunt is Teg Bahadur. comes to much the same thing. or " the Rangreta is the son of the ! . viz. But though good Sikhs so far as religious observance is concerned. Ludhiana and the neighbourhood. The Rangreta are a class of Mazbi apparently found only in Ambala. I may add that since writing that in Pari VIII of the Chapter on lleltgion.294 PANJAB CASTES. .— The Musalman Chuhra— Musalli. but Kutana being chiefly used in the south. They generally marry by phera and bmy their dead face downwards.^^ 599. Kutana. I have received traditions from distant parts of the Province which leave little doubt that Bala Shah. and this would at once account for their rise in the social scale. and abstain from tobacco.

have given up scavengering and eating carrion. and watchmen. Elliott says that they are most numerous in Behar. and this and the Bhatti and Khokhar are the principal tribs in the Multan and Rawalpindi divisions. On the other hand the Musalli of the frontier towns does remove night-soil. or as is it Is more commonly called in tlie villages KurtanaS the name usually given to a class of Musalman sweepers who have settled on the l»ank of the lower Indus.VAGRANT. is Dhanak 43). Some of the largest are shown in the margin. and is But it appears so called Chiihra only promoted to the title of Musalli on his relinquishing" those habits. archers. a oiiimch. He says that the Aheri tribe of hunters is an offshoot from the Dhanaks. dently The greater number of them are named after the dominant evi- tribe whom they or their ancestors served. Musalman Chuhra continues to be removes night-soil. Sir H. Tlie tribes. will not remove night(Caste No. So long as they do no scavengering the Kurtanas are admitted to religious equality l)y tlie other Mahomedans. and taken to making ropes and working in grass and reeds . besides performing other menial service. The pectively showed some large tribes. a bowman. He is essentially a caste of Hindustan and not of the Panjab proper. The Panjab Dhanaks. though this latter title would seem to be more generally used for Chiihras who have settled on the upper Indus and taken to working in grass and reeds like the Kutanas presently to be described. long" as he eats carrion or Kutana. while they will do general scavengering. The detailed table of clans will doiibtless throw light on the point. Divisions of tlie Chuhras. however. 600. and is said to be sometimes called Shahl Khcl. or Khojali. The Sahotra Is far the most widely distributed. who must be distinguished from sweeper Kurtana. Some of the Kurtanas even cultivate land on their own account. in satirical as a term of circumcision. Khoja. found only in the the Phiilklan States. Kurtanas returned no large 601. one that in many parts tlie who has found salvation. the Musalli being considered distinctly a liigher class than the Chuhra. In Sirsa the coiivortecl Chiihra Is 295 called Dimlar or " faithful allusion to his respect. as '' sometimes interpreted. MENIAL.—The divisions are very but the larger sections returned in our schedules only include about half the total number. and Wilson derives the name from the Sanskrit clhanushka. and the above figures Include both. and that they are fowlers. The others seem to be most largely returned from the Lahore .and xlmrltsar Those who returned themselves as Chuhras and Musallls resdivisions. . AND ARTISAN CASTES.— The Dhanak portion of Dehli and Illssar divisions and the eastern ' There i^ said to be a respectable agricultural caste of this tlie name iu Derah Ismail Khan. Chuhra numerous. and the only difference between their avocations and those of the Chuhras would appear to be that the Dhanaks. I think It Is not impossible that the Kurtanas of the Indus banks are a distinct caste from the BhangI and Chuhra of the Eastern Panjab. are not Inmters. though the word is also applied to any Mahomedan sweeper. or. On the Peshawar frontier the Musalli Is the g-rave-digger as well as the sweeper.

I have taken them together . leather-workers and weavers. The Khatik (Caste No.'hiihras. as the only considerable tribe the Dhanaks have returned is Liil [!'• 320] said to Guru. They oflEiciate. 87). Christie tells me that the Hindu Khatik pig-keeper is section 6 U9). they are generally village menials proper^ having customary The Chiihras are said to look down upon the Dhiinaks rights and duties. while the Chamrang tans buffalo and ox hides with lime. The Khatik. a Piirbi immigrant . just as who have taken to weaving and thus risen in the social we found in the case of some of the scavengering classes. Many of these latter have adopted the Musalman religion. distinction between the typical leather-worker or Chamar and the typical weaver or Julaha. and found in any numbers only in the Jamna zone. tans only sheep and goat skins (so at least I am informed by some Lahore Khatiks and Chamrangs) using salt and the juice of the Madar {Calotropis proocra). which a Chamar would not keep. They At are great keepers of pigs and poultry. but this last seems improbable from his low position. 296 PANJAB CASTES.. It) on the opposite page"^" gives the distribution Sp. and it may be that I have put the Khatik too low.casionally to act as butcher. 298.— Next above the scavenger come the workers in leather. It caste. probable that our iigiu'es for Chamtir and Moclii really refer to the same while Chamrang and Dabgar are perhaps merely names of occupations. though each will eat the leavings of all other tribes except Sansis. unless indeed it be as a pork-butcher. Patiala. but they are apparently on an equality^ as neither will eat the leavings of the other. and is found in most of the large cantonments or in their neighbourhood. that Chamrang is more the name not dye leather. of an occupation than of a caste. — THE LEATHEli. however. and that he would have better been classed with the So far as I can make out. and Sirsa. The Khatik is said sometimes to keep sheep and goats and twist their hair into waistbands for sale and even oi. . while the Musalmtin Khatik tanner of the Panjab proper is nothing more than a Chamar who has adopted Islam and given up working in cowhide. no Sikh or not excluding Khatiks.religion would appear to be that of the Chuhras. Like soil^ and that a great deal of weaving is done by thcni in the villages. the latter occupying a higher position than the former (see further under Chamrang. hut no lime . yet they are connected by certain sections of the leather603. and indeed are sometimes classed as a tribe of that caste. is . the same time many of them tan and dye leather.WORKERS AND WEAVERS. There are practically speaking Musalmau Dhunaks. They form a connecting link between the scavengers and the leather-workers. But it has apparently followed our trooj^s into the Panjab. and indeed are not seldom confused Avith the Chamrang. This also is a caste of Hindustan. though they occupy a social position distinctly infei'ior to that of the latter. for though there is a wide 99 of both groups. the weavers. the east is a pig-keejjer and the Khatik of the west a tanner. another name for Lai Beg the sweeper Guru. the fact is that the Khatik of leather-workers. But they are marry by phera and no Brahman will burn their dead. the (. and above them again Abstract No. They appear to be closely allied to the Pasis. and does It is probable. At the same lime the information that 1 have received is very conflicting. classes in social standing The working is classes scale. Mr. however. and theii. 602.

in the eastern districts where much of the weaving is done by the leather- population in the Chamar is his place in the west. and whips and other leather work and above all they do an immense deal of hard work in the fields. and some of their tribes are almost Their religion is sketched in section 294. 297 the the this the leather-worker. The Chamars stand far above the Chuhras in social position.. will answer '' Coolie^' as often as " Chamar. They are generally dark in colour. But in the Panjab. and in the western parts of the Panjab he is called Mochi whenever he is.. though to be a separate caste in the Central Provinces with the Chamar. closely allied The Dhed appears 1 Why is a Chamar always addressed with would be ? " Oh Chamar ke instead of " Oh Chamar. 672 512 Bllai I Dhed 423 242 as Chamars. Their women are celebrated for beauty. receiving fixed customary dues in the shape of a share of the produce of the fields. is far more than a He is the general coolie and field labom-er of the villages . In the east and southeast of the Panjab the village Chamars also do a great deal of weaving. and a Chamar. as also I understand in the Central Provinces. the word is often used for any '' low fellow.. worker of North-Western India." They do all the begcir. accepted as Hindus. AND ARTISAN CASTES. thongs for the cart." as any other caste . carrying wood and bundles. like all other occupational castes. The name Chamar is derived from the Sanskrit Charmakdra or " or worker in hides. which however is paid for separately. which appears to be much more extensive and to include much more varied tribes in Hindustan than in the ' : Panjab. acting as watchmeuj and the like . each family supplying each cultivating association with the continuous labour of a certain number of hands. and are almost certainly of aboriginal origin though here again their numbers have perhaps been swollen by members of other and higher castes who have fallen or been degraded. too.-*^ But in the east of the Province he leather-worker.. the caste being one and the same. The group forms an cxccoding-ly lai'go proportion of the hills.'' and is especially applied to a Chamar. on the other hand. In respect is taken. as he generally is. where eastern districts and States and under the But in the central districts (leld-labourer of the villages. They take the hides of all dead cattle and the ilesh of all cloven-footed animals. and they plaster the houses with mud when they need it. Sherring has a long disquisition on the Chamar caste. 605. All this they do as village menials. as already remarked. They make and mend shoes. Miscellaneoui entries classed entries . that of such as do not divide the hoof going to Chuhras. VAGRANT. a Musalman. is naturally least numerous in the east. and loss of caste is often attributed to too great partiality for a Chamarni.— Under the head Chamar. Rahtia Bunia . or such work as cutting grass. included the schedule I have shown in the margin. by the Chuhra. The Chamar (Caste No 5). MENIAL.— The Chamar is the tanner and leather604. if asked his caste by an Englishman at any rate.. working castes. is much less numerous than The weaver class." one being as unusual as the other. The people say " Do " not cross the ferry with a black Brahman or a fair Chamar.



) — A is The Musalman Chamar or Mochi (Caste No. such as Chamar or Chiihra. says that so soon as a Chamar. though what connection they have with him I have Perhaps he was the first Guru to admit Chamars to been unable to discover. and take the the Raidiisi oi Rabdasi Chamars. only Nanakpanthi Sikhs and do not take the pcikul . they do not eat carrion. The latter are Hindus. and are followers of Bhagat Rav Das or Rab Das. he rises in the social Scale and assumes the more respectable t ' fcjo I am IajUI. The Dosad is a Piirbi tribe of Chamars. abandons menial oUices and confines himself to working in leather. partly due to this fact. name is usually applied only to the more skilled workmen of the towns. like the Biinia. paragraph 608. and his numbers are proportionally less than when Moreover. The former are true Sikhs. articles. his social He does not ordinarily weave. and the Mochi there is what the Chamar is in the east and belongs to the same caste. however. are wrongly called Sikhs by confusion with the Ranidasias. pdhul. Lahore. Many. C^. indeed. or social communion by the other Musalnuins. It will be seen from Table VIII that in the north and centre of the Eastern Plains a very considerable number These men are called Ramdasia of Chamiirs have embraced the Sikh religion. of the Mochis are said o be weavers. after Gui-u Ram Das. tanner and leather-worker. But there is a Chamar clan of that name who work chiefly as grooms. Chuhra as a Chaniar. In Sirsa the word seems to be applied to the members of any low caste. . though in llushyilrpur the majority position. and it may be that his improved social position is Mr. though his change of religion improves. that he has never heard the word used. Wilauu. has taken to weaving .^ 606. The Bilai is He is at least as often a apparently the village messenger of the Dehli division.. perhaps most of the Ramdasia Chamars have abandoned the religion. whether Hindu or Musalman. say. and signifies the worker in tanned The Mochi not only makes leather leather as distinguished from the tanner. and he is not admitted to religious In the west of the Panjab. (See further. The Sikh Chamar or Ramdasia. however. The Rahtia is said by several of my informants to be a Sikh Chamiir who. In the west however it is simply used to designate a Mussalman Chamar . and Ambala. leather-work for the loom . as In the east of the Panjab the distinguished from a colour dyed throughout. 19).— The word Mochi 607. but unfortunately part of my Rahtias are Musalman. himself They are apparently as true Hindus as any Chamars can be. Christie. though they are not admitted to The Ramdasia are often confused with religious equality by the other Sikhs. renders menial service . and they occupy a much higher position than the Hindu Chamars. but he alone grains leather and gives it a surface colour or stain. and has apparently come into the Pan jab with the troops^ being retm'ned only in Dehli.322] The Bunia appears only in the Ludhiiiiia district^ and is applied to a Sikh Charaar who has given up leather-work and taken to weaving. the Chamar or Mochi no longer occupies that important position as an In the west he is merely a agricultural labourer that he does in the east. and accordingly stands in a higher rank than the leather-worker. properly the name of an occupation. he no longer a large part of the field-work is done by him. and might perhaps better have been classed with the former. Mr. though only slightly. and a Chamar.300 PANJAB CASTES. or if Sikhs.

602. -The tribes of the Cliamilr caste are innamerable. leaving that to the Chamrangs and Khatiks. But it is worth while comparing the fignres for Chamars and Mochis for a few of the largest tribes. probably as having the footuncloven . Das Bhagat. Sirsa. a camel-grazier. 808. Chamrang is probably a purely The figures of Table occupational term. are found in Among the Mochis the Bhatti and Chauhan tribes are the most numerous. Only the first seven tribes are found in any numbers among the Chamars of Nos. 323] The Chamrang (Caste No.and. But it appears that the Chamars of the Eastern Panjab may be broadly divided into five great sections. Tliis last point will be shown in the detailed tables. They work in horse and camel hides. 4 and 7 the Dehli and Hissar divisions.ihular state* ment. On the other hand. the Jatia. comes between the Jatia and the Golia. The Mochi is provci'l)ia1ly unpunctnal in rcnderlncc service. and (See further Khatik. . section does not work in the leather which he tans.) 610. about Jalandhar andLudhiana. They do" not tan. The Dabgar is the man who makes the raw hide jars in which oil and ghi are carried and stored. Chamrangs being Chamars by caste. but the word implies. no one of which intermarries with the others. " He tans ox and buffalo hides only. The Golia is the lowest of all the sections . but only tans it. 8 to the Jalandhar division. 72 (page 224*) as having returned themselves as Jats. and working only in ready prepared leather. meaning nothing more than to '' tan. 18. To the figures and there is a saying. for which no Khatiks are shown. and like him a disciple of Ramar. and some of them very large. and arc perhaps named from the word Ja1 (hard t). are the principal ones of the Ambala division while these two last. together willi Nos. rangna. who have to be content with the minisThe Raidasi or Rabdasi Chamars are named after Rai trations of the outcast Chamarwa Brahman. which would put them above all other Chamars. they are said to obtain the services of Gaur Brdhmans. The Dabgar (Caste No 169). and included in the larger tribes. Eamdasia is of course a religious and not a tribal division j and doubtless many of the sub-divisions returned are merely clans. and is the prevalent tribe further west. at — — . It is obvious that many of these tribal names are merely taken from the dominant race in whose service the tribe was formed. Divisions of Chamars and Mochis. Chamrang being returned in largest numbers for the Amritsar division. 609. which are an abomination to the Chandar.VAGRANT. as to include anything like even half the total number a very long list would have to be shown. and is said in Dehli to trace its origin from It is the principal section in Hiskar and Benares. probably from some association with Kabir. the Chiindar. They are the prevalent tribe in Karnal and the neighbourhood. It does not seem worth while to give any l. The Jatia are found in greatest numbers about the neighbourhood of Dehli and Gurgaon. as applied to leather. and the Golia or Eaigar. the Raidasi. and in almost all cases carries with it an inferior standing in the caste. Thi^ is done in the margin. 301 name of AToclii. AND ARTISAN CASTES. 113). ''^Tlie Mochi's to-nioiTow never comes. himself a Cham5r. a contemporary of Kabfr. [P. The Chandar is the highest of all. and indeed the word Golia is the name of a section of many of the menial castes in the EasThe Chamar tern Panjab. MENIAL. VIII A however would seem to show that Chamrang and Khatik have been confused in our returns. There are doubtless similar tribal distinctions among the Chamars of the central districts but I have no information regardin g them. for Mochis must be added those who are shown in Abstract No. The Chamrang does not stain or dye leather. the Chamar. He is said to be a scparate]|caste in the North-West Provinces .

Chamrangs and Chuhvas. Ambala. Kolis for the Dchli and Hlssar divisions. Mochi-Julahas. the distinction between them having arisen from divergence of occupation.302 least PANJAB CASTES. the headThese quarters of which is in Oudh. 1 Itelieve. iiotliing' cliii'lly l»y in Siiilkotj is'followcd more than an occupation which. scantily represented in the Dehli and Hissar taken by Koli or Chumiir. who has had wliile making the settlement of Sirsa district unequalled opportunities of comparing different sections of the people. and doing no leather-work. page 224"'<"). 611. 106^^'^ . Thus we find Koli. TJie Sikhs are few in inimber. made 612. 72. beis to say all those returned as long in all prolmbility to the great Kori or Koli tribe of Chamars. where probably the Jat does most of the weaving. (See also figures of Abstract No. 657. while the lattt-r.Julaha and Dhanak and is hardly known in the Derajat. known as Chamar-Juliihas. Mv. In a word. which is a pure Persian word. is the name of the highest occupation ordinarily open to the outcast section of the community. Avholly to a true village menial. but they would be very '' glad to be entered among the village Chamars. In the rest of the Province he constitutes some ^ to 4 per cent. 9). Ramdasi-Julahas. and it is probable that after a few generations these men drop the prefix which denotes their low origin. who have anticipated them and driven them to weaving as an occupation. of the total population. and Kori. of which the Julaha as he is called in the east and the Paoli as he is called in the villages of the west is the type. he touches no carcases. but the fio-ures include a certain numljer of peoi:»le who prol>aljly belong' to a wholly different <aste from The former are prolialily of tnie Kolian origin . Wilson. The Jul^dia confines himself. Be this as it may. of the Julahas are Musalmrin. voluntarily. He is not being paid by the piece and not by customary dues. are an exceedingly numerous and important artisan class. The weavers proper. he eats no carrion. The Kar(See further Koli. the Julaha an artisan. . section 603). there is no doubt that the present position of the two is widely dissimilar. and become Julahas pure and simple. Indeed Mr. 66). Benton says '' The Chamar-JuU'ihas have no '^ share in the village skins. men are eoninionly classed with Cliamars in the district in which they are found. the equivalent Hindi term being Tanti. and Hoshyarpur but on the whole some 92 per cent. where his place is . and do no menial service . Chanijir-Jnlahas.Julahas. Khojahs. section nal Kolis do not obtain the services of Brahmans. in manr parts of the ^tvovlnce. weaving. this is is generally true. the Chamar is a menial. more especially in the western districts where no weaving is done by the leather-working or scavenger castes. The Julaha and Paoli (Caste No. The real fact seems to be that the word Julaha. and often Hindu in Karniil. It is very possible that the Julaha is of aboriginal extraction. is of opinion that the Julahas and Chanijirs are probably the same by origin. 'P. He is generally Hindu in Kfingra and Dchli.— The Koli of the hills will be discussed when the liill menials are treated of . The Koli of the plains (Caste No. and so forth . ])ut are distinguished from the indigenous Chamars by the fact of Indeed they are commonly their weaving only. The Julaha does not work in impure leather. that them. and he is recognised by both Hindu and Musalman as a fellow believer and admitted to religious equality. is — The Julaha proper divisions. and whose usual occupation is weaving." I very miich doubt whether : As a rule the substitution of weaving for leather-work and denotes a distinct rise in the social scale.


007 8.156 9.131 187 120 6.717 22. Mallah.058 19.004 36.059 3..413 5.257 Rohtak Sirsa 4.1*58 132 .839 127 365 6 Ambala Lndhiana Simla Jalandhar ..477 5. Bhatyara.260 3. Muchhi.487 10.304 PANJAB CASTES.436 Bahttwalpar 128 1.121 413 28 2.744 7.929 1.712 12 1.007 403 48 27 Niibha Kapurthala Jind Faridliot MalerKotla Kahia Total East.741 1 60.956 1.120 405 1.610 9.144 9.091 13.431 16 8.495 411 2.121 28.942 11.806 1.880 483. Bharbhdnja.884 144.878 384 9 2.. 10.976 . FlGUBEP 108 Jhlnwar.115 N6han Bilfispur Total Hill RtatcB 30 British TerritoryNative States Province 868.129 14.360 34.747 17..200 519 1.223 31.632 3.633 144..517 22.935 103 Rawalpindi Jalilam Gajrat Shahpar 82.314 20. Banna 362 43S 839 3. Abstract No.004 65..223 1.047 1.945 QuTdAspuT Sialkot LahoTe Gnjranwala Firozpur 24.658 2. showing Castes of Watermen WATER-CARUIERS.997 129 4.886 168.080 157 PesMwar Hazara 104 Koh4t 49 British Territory Patiala 868.764 5. Dehli GuTgaon Karndl Hissar 14.007 8.964 Multan Jhang Montgomery Muzaflfaigarh 303 37 126 19 100 "2.941 4. Plains 849 1.300 35.104 15.691 G33 3.834 337 24..969 11.• 47.364 Dera Ismail Khan Dera Ghazi Khan .328 1.500 45. 101.769 4. HushyarpuT Kangra AtnTitsar 996 224 .958 9.


In the Eastern Plains and hills these people are returned as Jhinwars west of Lahore as Machhis. hj the rrrcat ranjal) rivers. and thus throw light upon the question of or diversity.. except exceedingly small. and we must wait for the detailed tables of clans before we can compare the sub-divisions of those castes. for all will drink hands. They are one of the pleasantest and most willing Bhatyara. to the houses where the women are His occupations in the secluded. The Jhinwar. though the highest of the class. Machhi. acjricultural labour. It is just possible that some of these men may be of other castes than Jhinwar^ Init the number of such will be The numbers so included are given in the margin. where a Hindu. Machhi. receiving customary dues and performing customary service. insomuch that the cultivation of water-nuts and the netting of water fowl are for the most part He is a tnie village in his hands. at his But he is still a servant. waterman. Divisions of Jhinwar. for the Ami'itsar division which made no separate returns.t of occupations which are followed almost if not quite exclusively by the Jhinwar caste. and Mahra'. they are few in number. br. These tribes do not appear to be found in any numbers among the Bhatyara and Bharbhunja. adding the figures for Mallahs. I show one or two of the largest in the margin. their identity . 306 whicli are traversed PANJAB CASTES. He caiTies palanquins and all such burdens as are borne by a yoke on the shoulders . 15). as returned such men 618. and the Bhishti is proverbially a good servant. is the caiTier. the terms for Musalman water-carriers. also called Kahar in 617. capacity he supplies all the l)askets needed by the cultivator. besides finding where too they assist largely in more extensive occupation as cooks among a Musalmsin population with no prejudices against eating food prepared by others. MHshkis. — I have included under Jhinwar themselves as Bhfshtis. The Jhinwar (Caste No. and basket-maker of the east of the Panjab.— The sub-divisions of both Jhinwar and Machhi are very numerous. and Mallah. and he is the well-sinker of the Province. Bharl>hunja. and brings water to the men in the fields at harvest time. and he specially is concerned with water. in the centre of the Province. His social standing is in one respect high . and at weddings and other similar occasions. and Mallah are names of occupations merely. In this menial. On the frontier proper. of the menial classes. fisherman. centre and west of the Province are described below under the head Divisiox. or Saqqahs. the east. like most of the occupational castes.

The figures of Abstract No. AND ARTISAN CASTES. EyiBT. and in the western districts both. where returned separately. midwife. and the name Men is often given him under the same circumstances in the rest of the Central and Western Panjab. is almost always in the hands of a Machhi for Musalmans and a Jhinwar for Hindus. Machhiyania. or fisherman. though of course all classes work for pay at harvest time. Hindu meets the western Musalman. 73 (page 224*) show that many of the Machhis of the Derajat have returned themselves as Jats. which forms so important a feature in the village life of the Panjab proper. and So too the common oven wetnurse class. In some parts he is also the wood-cutter of the village. .3. save that he performs in the foimer parts of the Province a considerable part of the agricultural labour.35 are in Lahore and . more particularly when following* the occupation of a fisherman . Machhahra. VAGRANT. or at least not as a part of his customary duties . and so forth. The Machhi occupies in the centre and west the same position which the Jhm^A'ar fdls in the east. have been classed as Machhi. Avhcre used at all. are applied indifferently But in parts of the Central Panjab. MENIAL. and the Mahigir.0. as have also the Sammi or fisherman and quail-catcher. as I have In the Amritsar only the "westerji name for the Mnsalmun Jhinwar. the two terms are generally used distinctively. The details are given below. 28).^ the Machhi is the cook and midwife of the Punjal) proper. wliih? in the east he seldom actually works in the fields. In the Derajat he is sometimes called Manjhi or Manjhera. Both these <astes. when But besides the occupations the rice is being planted out.095 in Gujranwala. already described for the Jhinwar. On the lower Indus. said. ENTRIES CLASSED AS MACHHI..— M^chhi is. Thus the Mens seem almost confined to the middle Satluj. Of the Mens in the Lahore division. are of the Jhinwar or Machhi caste. in Gujarat and lower Sindh Machhi seems to mean nothing more than fisherman. 619. 307 The Machhi and Men (Caste No. 7. along the banks of our great rivers. division those returning themselves as Maehhi have been included under In the Lahore and Rawalpindi divisions both names are used Jhinwar. the accoucheur. while of those of the Multan division all but 180 are in Montgomery. where the eastern to the same person. All the Dayas and Dayis. and at which the peasantry have their bread baked in the hot Aveather.

they are said to be the donkeykeepers of the district and to do petty carriage.trade. almost without exception. Slicrshiihi and Salimshahi. but he is not a village menial. . derived fi-om hliatti. but like so many occupational guilds. the Bhatyiiras are said to have taken to letting out yekkas and ponies for hire and in the Derajat. In Lahore and Peshawar no separate returns were figures for made said for Mohana. . who is as his name implies a grain-parchcr. Dren. rate into two classes. very generally a Musalman by religion . of The Mallah and Mohana (Caste No. and 107. 42). in tbe east of tbe noticeable that all lliose returned ii3 Bhatyara are Panjab at least. He too is almost always a Jhinwar. where probably the grain parching is done at the public oven of the Jhinwar The Bharbhunja is also occasionally called Bhojwa. Taru. The Mohana is is to be the fisherman of Sindh at least but in the Pan jab he as much a boatman as a fisherman. tlie Bhatyaras appear in some parts to many only among those following the same avocation.. it may p(a-haps be said that the Jhinwar ' It is Hindus. where they carry travellers across the rapid mountain torrents on The former are said to be Musalman and tlie latter Hindu. [P. almost invariably a Jhinwar by caste. and in many districts ttose wlio have returned themselves as Bhatyiiras have 1)een classed either as Jhinwar or as Maehhi. and is naturally found in largest numbers in those It appears districts which include the greatest length of navigable river. a Jinn war by caste . Broadly speaking. an oven or kiln . He does not appear to occur as a separate class in the west of the Province. diminished then. I believe. from Abstract No. inflated hides. — man the rally combines of boat witli his special work management some other of the ordinary occupations of his caste. The word dren appears originally to mean the buffalo hide upon which the transit is made. probably because most made and cooked by a . 326] Indus Chatari. (he women of the former wearing petticoats and of the latter drawers. though Mr. and on the or Maehhi. Wilson believes that in He geneSirsa most of the Mallahs on the Satluj are by caste Jhabel q. This would connect them with the kiln rather than with the oven. In tlie Hill States 55 men returned as Daryai have also been included. Under the head Mallah have been included those returning themselves as Mohana. 308 PANJAB CASTES. The word in Sanskrit means an estuary or confluence of waters. The Dren and Tiiru are found in the hills only. 621. 72 (page 224*) that on the Indus he has often returned *p joeHe is. will not cat bread Mnsalman . The Mallah is the boatPanjab.Ilifnwar. such as fishing or growing waternuts . In any case the name appears to be purely an occupational one. the or which entries are given on the margin.^ The same may be said of the' Bharbhunja. but a small section of the Bharbhunjas are Kuyaths. They date the division from the time Now that the railway has of Sultan Sher Sluih and his son Salim Shah. v. so that our figures do not completely represent the entries in the They are said to be divided in the North-West Provinces at any schedules. himself as Jat.

but there seems reason to believe that they really belong to one and the same caste. in wood. The potters and brickmakers are a sufficiently distinct class. for purposes of irrigation. He is most numerous in proportion to total population in the hills and the districts that lie immediately below them. He is Bahtiwalpur but why so I am unable to explain. in return for which he makes and mends all the iron implements of agriculture. 11- and clay. and in clay. AND CLAY. 7:Z (page 32-it) be included.— Along the left bank of Jamna below Dehli are settled a certain small number of people who call themselves DhinThey work as fishermen and boatmen and some of them as Bharwars. with the scavenger. or perhaps the carpenter and the blacksmith are the same. the two occupations being followed by the same individuals. and have returned themselves in the present Census. and to keep themselves distinct from the indigenous Jhinwars. and other districts of the North-West Provinces. bhunjaS. but mostly as Mallahs. who are numerous in the Panjab owing to the almost universal use of the Persian wheel with its nu