# Orthogonal and Oblique cutting

(a) Orthogonal (b) Oblique

Orthogonal Cutting ØThe cutting edge of the tool is perpendicular to the direction of cutting velocity. ØThe cutting edge is wider than the workpiece width and extends beyond the work piece on either side. Also the width of the workpiece is much greater than the depth of cut. ØThe chip generated flows on the rake face of the tool with chip velocity Dr. Ratnakar Das, KIIT University perpendicular to the cutting edge.

The ship generated flows on the rake face of the tool at an angle approximately equal to inclination angle with the normal to the cutting edge in the plane of the rake face The cutting edge extends beyond the width of the work piece on either side. KIIT University . The cutting forces act along all three directions. Angle l is also known as inclination angle.Oblique Cutting The cutting edge of the tool is inclined at an angle l with the normal to the cutting velocity vector. Ratnakar Das. Dr.

Ratnakar Das.Pure orthogonal cutting Dr. KIIT University .

KIIT University . Ratnakar Das. the basic differences arise from Whether the cutting is orthogonal or oblique Whether the cutting is free or restricted Whether the chip is produced under plane strain conditions or not Dr.The factors that affect the chip formation: The depth of cut to feed ratio Number of active and passive cutting edges The length of cutting edge to width of cut ratio The cutting speed The inclination angle The rake angle The depth of cut to diameter ratio The action of cutting fluid Based on these factors.

KIIT University . Ratnakar Das.Causes of chip flow deviation Ideal direction of chip flow in turning Dr.

Ratnakar Das.The chip flow may deviate form the orthogonal plane due to the following factors: Restricted cutting effect Tool nose radius Presence of inclination angle What are free and restricted cutting then? Free cutting is characterized by the fact that the chip removal is caused by one straight cutting edge Restricted cutting is affected by either by one curvilinear cutting edge or simultaneous action of several active or passive cutting edges Dr. KIIT University .

Restricted cutting effect (RCE) It indicates that the chip flow may deviate even if in absence of the inclination angle. depends upon cutting angle and depth of cut to feed ratio. Ratnakar Das. The angle of deviation(ψ) though small. Dr. KIIT University .

Due to this variation. Ratnakar Das. This variation deviates the chip flow. KIIT University .Effect of tool nose radius The value of principal cutting edge angle varies from zero over the curved portion of the principal cutting edge. cutting edge angle is considered as average value. This variation in actual and average cutting edge angle is governed by the ratio of depth of cut to nose radius Dr.

KIIT University . the chip flow deviation is governed by the inclination angle Dr.Effect of inclination angle. λ When it occurs? In absence of RCE and tool nose radius. Ratnakar Das.

effective rake should be used for more reasonably Dr.Definition of effective rake The angle of inclination of the rake surface from πR and is measured on that plane which is perpendicular to the reference plane and is taken in the direction of actual chip flow In case of oblique cutting. Ratnakar Das. which is practically more common. friction and tool wear. i. KIIT University accurate analysis and assessment of cutting forces.. the actual direction of chip flow and the corresponding rake angle.e. .

which may result ⎯ lesser further damage to the finished surface ⎯ but more inconvenience to the operator § reduction of mechanical strength of the tool tip § increase in temperature at the tool tip § more vibration in turning slender rods due to increase in transverse force Dr. Positive λ causes Chip flow deviation away from the finished surface.In contrary to simpler orthogonal cutting. KIIT University . Ratnakar Das. oblique cutting causes the following effects on chip formation and mechanics of machining: • Chip does not flow along the orthogonal plane.