# Dr.

Sasmita Mishra KSOM, KIIT University

An experiment is generally used to infer a causality. In an experiment, a researcher actively manipulates one or more causal variables and measures their effects on the dependent variable of interest.

a 5% increase in price of the product will have no appreciable impact on the quantity demanded by customers. causality. For example.  CR determines the cause and effect relationships. Therefore.  DR is not suitable for establishing. Causal design. causal research requires a planned and structured design. to establish causal relationship the experiments are used. The main method of causal research is experimentation. one must understand the scientific notion of causality. in which the causal or independent variables are manipulated in a relatively controlled environment.    To understand CRD. . Causal research is appropriate for understanding which variables are the cause/s (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent variables) Like DR.

3) Finally. . and elimination of other possible causal factors. that a relationship exists. 1) The common notion: there is a single cause of an event such that the statement X is the cause of Y implies that X is indeed the cause.  The SNC of causality is different from the common day notion. The SNC suggests that X can be a cause of Y if the occurrence of X makes the occurrence of Y more likely or more probable. The SNC holds that X would only be one of the causes/conditions. 2) CN implies a completely deterministic relationship. the SNC implies that we never prove that X is a cause of Y. SN: causality is inferred. concomitant variation. The SNC implies a probababilistic relationship. it is never demonstrated conclusively.     Three kinds of evidences. time of occurrence of variables. Rather we infer.

   Concomitant variation Time order of occurrence of variables Elimination ofother possible causal factors .

in this connection is "The success of a company’s marketing efforts is highly dealer dependent. it has market penetration and where the co. 1. Concommitment Variation:  If a statement is "X is a cause of Y" then the concomitant variation as to the validity of this statement refers to the extent of which X and Y occur together or vary together in the way predicted by the hypothesis. the co. Where the company has good dealers. Suppose there is a positive relationship between the quality of dealers and market share. The hypothesis. has unsatisfactory market penetration. has poor dealers. one should expect to find the following    . If X is to be considered a cause of Y.

The "pure" case will rarely be found in practice. Dealer Quality X MARKET SHARE .   Research investigated market penetration in each sales territory Perfect evidence of CV would be provided if all good dealers have satisfactory market share and all poor dealers unsatisfactory market shares.Y Satisfactory Unsatisfa ctory 20(33%) 30(75%) Total 60(100%) 40(100%) Good Poor 40(67%) 10(25%) . as the other causal factors will effect some deviation from a one-to-one correspondence between X and Y.

However. which is carried out through controlled experiments. The Elimination of other possible causes The researcher has to eliminate any other variable or variables. which may affect the dependent variable under study. Time order of Occurrence of Variables This is conceptually simple One event cannot be cause of another if it occurs after the other event. If it is not done then the causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable may not be proved. By definition. it is possible for each term in the relationship to be both a “cause” and an “event” of the other term 3.2. . an effect cannot be produced by an event that occurs only after the effect has taken place. These evidences can be provided through causal research.

The levels of these variables are manipulated (changed) by researchers to measure their effect on the dependent variable. Dependent variables: These variables measures the effect of treatments (independent variable) on the test units. Independent variables: Independent variables are also known as explanatory variables or treatments.   Test units: Test units are those entities on which treatments are applied. .

temperature. Experiment: An experiment is executed when the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on the dependent variables while controlling the effect of the extraneous variables. food intake. etc. . government policies. geographical location. Examples: Store size.  Extraneous variables: These are the variables other than the independent variables which influence the response of test units to treatments.

  Internal validity: Internal validity tries to examine whether the observed effect on a dependent variable is actually caused by the treatments (independent variables) in question. External validity: External validity refers to the generalization of the results of an experiment. . The concern is whether the result of an experiment can be generalized beyond the experimental situations.

       History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical regression Selection bias Test unit mortality .

    The environment at the time of test may be different from the environment of the real world where these results are to be generalized. . Treatment at the time of the test may be different from the treatment of the real world. Results obtained in a 5–6 week test may not hold in an application of 12 months. Population used for experimentation of the test may not be similar to the population where the results of the experiments are to be applied.

 Randomization Matching Use of experimental designs Statistical control    .

In a laboratory experiment. Field Environment . the researcher conducts the experiment in an artificial environment constructed exclusively for the experiment.The field experiment is conducted in actual market conditions. There is no attempt to change the real-life nature of the environment.  . Laboratory Environment .

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X O1 Group 2 -   O2 . the internal validity of such designs is questionable.Pre-experimental designs do not make use of any randomization procedures to control the extraneous variables.  One-shot case study: X O One-group pre-test–post-test design: O1 X O2 Static group comparison: Group 1 . Therefore.

However..  Time series design: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Contd…. this design lacks complete control of scheduling of treatment and also lacks the ability to randomize test units’ exposure to treatments.In quasi-experimental design. . the researcher can control when measurements are taken and on whom they are taken.

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 Multiple time series design: Experimental Group: O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8 Control Group: O′7 O′8 O′1 O′2 O′3 O′4 O′5 O′6 .

Here. researchers can randomly assign test units and treatments to an experimental group.In true experimental designs.  Pre-test–post-test control group: Experimental Group: R O1 X O2 Control Group: R O3 O4 . the researcher is able to eliminate the effect of extraneous variables from both the experimental and control group.

 Post-test – only control group design: Experimental Group: R Control Group: R X O2 O1  Solomon four-group design: Experimental Group 1 : R Control Group 1: R Experimental Group 2: R Control Group 2: R O1 O3 X X O2 O4 O5 O6 .

Statistical designs allow for statistical control and analysis of external variables.     Completely randomized design Randomized block design Latin square design Factorial design .

Thank You .