After more than 18 years in a fascinating but motley profession, I have come
to the realization that not all professionals in the industry are equally
professional. This, of course, is not always due to lacking intellect or ability, but
is just as much a question of poor instruction and training, together with a
limited and rather ambiguous market for written material. In risk and threat
assessment, I have noticed that instructors and authors primarily explain WHAT
future bodyguards should ask when they land a client. I have yet to come
across a single explanation of HOW to use the data collected from the client.
In my own country, Denmark, I have decided to try and change this situation
by publishing different material, all of which has been tested on clients and/or
colleagues. This model is my first English publication (hope the translation is
alright). I did so because I, myself, have lacked a model for the initial steps in a
real risk assessment. The target group for this model is bodyguards. That
includes part-time executive protection specialists for anonymous businessmen
and women, full-time bodyguards for famous artists, or personal protection
specialists employed on a governmental level, protecting diplomats. It is up to
the reader to adapt the questions so they apply to the “customer” in question.
This MODEL is just that. It is a model for making an initial risk assessment
for a client. If you acquired the model in the hope that it would offer an allround solution, you have wasted your money. It is not intended as a
replacement for one’s own thought process, but rather as a solution model, a
method so to speak and source of inspiration.
Note that the categorization applied in this booklet is a suggestion and not a
requirement. The same applies to the number and formulation of questions. If
you look through the material in the books mentioned at the back of this
booklet, you will find an array of other possible categorizations, as a uniform
model does not yet exist. I am aware that some companies claim to use models
that are all-inclusive. To contribute to the discussion surrounding fixed models
for risk and threat assessment:
I have had many different clients from a variety of branches. Furthermore,
the vast majority have been short-term contracts, which is quite natural, as I
am an independent contractor. I have yet to come across two matching
assessments, i.e., two cases with the same profile. As no two people (this
includes individuals who hire personal protection) have had the same
childhood, the same education, the same social life, the same job, etc., there
will never be a single model capable of completely covering two different
cases. For that reason, this model is also subject to reservations. There are
simply too many external factors that will change the conclusion. So my
experience is that you can use the same method for different cases, but not

All of them have been sources of inspiration. I would be very interested in hearing from you. personally. Likewise.” Should you wish to publish any part of this material or use it for instruction purposes. The same copyright conditions apply to “General Considerations for Escorting Women Threatened by Violence. Andy Hollinson. I. My thanks go to: Tony Scotti. HENRIK BRAMSBORG 2 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Peter Consterdine. have derived much inspiration from other professionals in the industry. I have a world of people to thank. Artie Belovin. (If any readers among you disagree and can prove the contrary. and James King. I will spare the reader for all this. Peter Van Dartel. provided you inform me and properly cite the source. finally. to those who evaluated my material. Robert Oatman. Gavin De Becker. Mark Lonsdale. provided you inform me and properly cite the source. In addition to them. Richard Kobetz. and simply thank my colleagues and competitors in the industry for keeping me on my toes. Accompanying this booklet is “General Considerations for Escorting Women Threatened by Violence. I have received advice and criticism from bodyguards and instructors from around the world. Should you wish to publish any portion of this material or use it for instruction purposes. This short piece is very useful for bodyguards in need of evaluating a defined threat against women testifying against a former mate. you may do so. Thanks to my family for their support and understanding of my hectic working hours and.” which was written for crisis centers by Bramsborg Security & Safety.the same model. you may do so.) It is important that I point out that the copyright existing for this booklet only applies to the complete work. however.

it is possible to protect an individual from a series of threats without a risk assessment. That is how we survive in traffic and everywhere else in our environment. This will minimize the risk of accidents and facilitate the establishment of a 360 degree base with which to develop a sustainable security system. are best closed by systematic process.RISK AND THREAT ASSESSMENT AS A TOOL DEFINITION Risk assessment is an overall assessment of factors that are or could be direct or indirect threats against our client. Naturally. as it is a condition for our species’ survival. his/her well-being or environment. risk assessment is most often done unconsciously. Threat assessment is a specific assessment of threats—natural or manmade—against our client. to bring parts of the process up to the conscious level. On the following pages. arising from coincidental overlooked problems. and light and shadow. right. To do this. in connection with personal protection. Unfortunately. risk assessment is our only tool for guarding against the principle of coincidence. HOW QUESTIONNAIRE/POINT SYSTEM: 3 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . WHY We all make risk assessments in our daily lives. But it cannot be done without a certain amount of security holes. our brain must process complex mathematical formulas that take into account distance. In personal protection. Such holes. Man has always been capable of doing so. Who would even think that the process of looking left. Most do so without really knowing it. speed (the vehicle’s and our own). his or her well-being. we assess how many vehicles are coming toward us and then whether we can cross the road before the vehicles reach our position. and then left again is actually a collection of data for a risk assessment? When crossing a street. or environment. we will attempt.

The following seven principal sections are used in the questionnaire: 1. geographic address. Professional lifestyle 3. the questionnaire/point system is used. and branch of industry can influence your assessment. collection of basic data should always be the first step. Because data such as age. Prejudices 6.First. Prior actions and relationships 4 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Once the basic data is collected. Politics and religion 5. You should not overlook this data when creating the client-specific questionnaire. basic data is collected. Personal lifestyle 2. as it can provide answers to a number of questions regarding security. People and places 7. Public profile 4. Basic data should include the following: Client’s: Full name Date of birth Place of birth Nationality Height Weight Physical description and Photo Business: Industry Sector Company name Ownership Position in company Company address Telephone numbers Fax E-mail Secretary data Health: Physician data Blood type Medical history Family: Names Dates of birth Places of birth Nationalities Heights Weights Physical descriptions and Photos Past: Military experience Unit Period Service locations Special service Social life: Sports Memberships Positions of trust Routines Humanitarian work Politically active Militant Public Positions Some of the above basic data will save the bodyguard time.

These numbers very deliberately do not figure next to each question. women/men on the labor market. the answer is worth 20 points. Don’t know __ (10 points) 3. There are no intermediate categories. defined and confirmed risk. We differentiate between: 1. and acute danger..g.e. handicaps.. for instance. The quality factor lies in the source of your information. homosexuality. religion. the victim who has been threatened or the aggressor making the threat 2.g.” for example. less likely risk. Second-hand information – e. however. Clearly. and the total tells us which of the five categories our client falls into. a questionnaire system can never be comprehensive. as one must take into consideration the motives behind any account. a witness or allegedly signed document 3. Here. The points can be decimalized in relation to time and qualitative relevance. which is why we commonly use what we call footnote reports. One example could be: 5 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Third-party information – e. 10 and 20 figure. By posing a series of meaningful questions and then “grading” them. For instance. we are able to paint a risk picture that is categorized as follows: no immediate risk.. the figures are added. No __ (0 points) If the client checks “Yes. Yes __ (20 points) 2. a document without confirmed signer or rumors. The direct source .We have established a simple system in which the numbers 0. or in any other way? 1. When all the questions have been answered. for instance. An account from the direct source is likely to be more accurate than an account from. likely risk.g. as the client may be tempted to “adapt” his/her answers. Grading is done as follows: Are you prejudice with regard to. an attesting witness. When all the questions are answered. time can be an important factor. the point total will indicate how big or small the risk is. A footnote report is a brief report that furnishes a fairly comprehensive explanation for an answer. an offhand verbal threat made three years ago might not be as relevant as a very specific threat made by phone three weeks ago. race. This is not always the case.

No __ 6 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Example: Do you take or have you taken any kind of medicine or narcotic? 1. or a romantic affair all constitute directions that should be investigated. If the threat is not defined. Practically-speaking. an unfortunate media statement. The described example relates to a businessman occupying a top position in an international firm. If the threat is defined. Likewise. In these confrontations. The answer in the footnote report is furnished verbally during an interview that follows completion of the form. The form here is industry-specific and should be adapted so that the questions are relevant for each client. it is impossible to draw up an exhaustive list of questions. Maybe X 3.Have you had any romantic affair or other amorous relationship that could trigger threats from jilted parties? 1. if it is found that a threat exists. as the answer to each existing question in the model can give rise to a whole series of new questions. but will give you an idea of how the model can be used.” as two relationships over the last two years ended in confrontation. The series of questions is not comprehensive. Upon completion of the risk assessment. No 2. the interviewer should try to aim their questions in multiple directions so as to investigate as many threats as possible. For example. additional interviews are conducted with the client. a political background. Yes Answer: Checked “Maybe. Yes X 2. these interviews should focus as much as possible on the defined threat. Since then there have been no confrontations or threats from the rejected parties. not all questions on the form are necessary for all clients. the client was the passive party and the rejected partners were the aggressive parties. Occasionally __ 3.

Again. Some clients are academically educated and are used to the type of language spoken in an academic environment. New questions. Underlining the complexity of this type of form. might expect a more relaxed language. Some artists’ education was so fundamental that it is reminiscent of “My Fair Lady. The same can be said of a number of other questions. this depends on a number of factors: The client’s immediate entourage. the questioning technique should/will also vary from client to client. Naturally. Others. such as those regarding sports. your own assessment/intuition. culture. for instance. since we do not know whether the substance the client takes is hazardous or whether it has a life-prolonging or healing effect. but do not require any particular physical skill. you can start with a 5-page list of questions and end up with a 50-page list. A man or woman with circulatory problems owing to obesity would absolutely NOT benefit from diving for corals at a depth of 30-50 feet— regardless of whether or not it is a sport.” How far should you then go in your assessment? The short answer is: as far as practically possible. environment. the following pages are only question proposals! 7 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Not all sports are equally healthy. therefore. Both scuba diving and skydiving are categorized as sports. Again. could include: What medicine/narcotic? Why do you take the medicine/narcotic? When do you take the medicine/narcotic? How often do you take it/them? Etc.A “Yes” is not comprehensive. the client’s expectations. those with newly acquired wealth who started independently and later became successful businessmen. etc.

but extreme sports are not always without risks. Family man/woman __ Do you have any allergies? 1. you should consider the type of sport practiced by the client and his physiological level. 8 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Maybe __ 3. No __ 2. Yes __ 2. Relaxed social life __ 3. Yes __ Are you physically active?1 1. Yes __ What kind of person are you? 1. No __ 1 Active sports are generally considered healthy. No __ 2. Don’t know __ 3. Therefore. Occasionally __ 3.PERSONAL LIFESTYLE Are you in good physical shape? 1. Bachelor/Fast lane __ 2.

Extreme __ 2. Normal __ 2 Note: In some cultures. based on societal standards?3 1. Dominant or provocative __ 2. What is more. 9 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . there is a great deal of shame attached to having suffered from depression or the like. No __ Do you have or have you had any physical afflictions? 1. Assertive. Don’t know __ 3. 3 More than a few people have died during sexual acts that got out of hand.Do you take or have you taken any kind of medicine or narcotic? 1. Yes __ 2. so the answer may be somewhat colored. Occasionally __ 3. Yes __ 2. No __ What kind of person are you? 1. Don’t know __ 3. there can be risks associated with certain sexual subcultures. Introverted and quiet __ 3. No __ Do you have or have you had any mental afflictions?2 1. empathetic __ What is your sexual preference. Experimental __ 3. Yes __ 2.

Yes __ This is primarily with respect to problems with rejected lovers or former partners. Are you monogamous?4 1. Yes __ Are you law-abiding? 4 1. Occasionally __ 3. No __ 2. Almost always __ 3. 10 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG .Cont. No __ 2.

Occasionally __ 3. Employee __ Do you work5 1. Yes __ 2. No __ The response here could give us an indication of potential future problems such as stress and burn-out. Over 50 hours a week __ 2. Freelancer or similar __ 3. this could give us an indication of the relative length of the client’s work life and possible health problems associated with stress. Employer/manager __ 2. Yes __ 2.P R O F E SS I O N A L L I F E S T Y L E Are you: 1. No __ Is your work physically demanding?6 5 1. 40 hours a week __ 3. 6 In addition to the more obvious risks. Occasionally __ 3. Less than 40 hours a week __ Is your work stressful? 1. 11 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG .

religion. No __ __ Have you made public statements about controversial issues. No __ Do you serve on any board that makes public statements or which is often in the spotlight? 1. animal welfare or the like? 1. Recently __ 2. No __ 12 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Yes __ 2. Long ago __ 3. Don’t know __ 3.PUBLIC PROFILE Are you a public personality? 1. Yes __ 2. Partly 3. sexuality. the environment. politics. Don’t know __ 3. Never __ Are you a member of any association that makes public statements or which is often in the spotlight? 1. Yes __ 2.

Don’t know __ 3. Very __ 2. 7 The primary concern here is that the client may be an unfortunate victim of a criminal act aimed against the political figure whom the client happens to be with. Don’t know __ 3. No __ Are you religious? 1. Yes __ 2. No __ Cont. Yes __ 2. Somewhat __ 3. Somewhat __ 3. No __ Are you a member of a political party? 1. No __ Do you meet with politicians?7 1.POLITIC S AND RELIGION Are you politically active? 1. 13 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Yes __ 2.

could be designated as a target of certain governments or extremists. therefore.Do you go to mass or confession? 1. Rarely __ 3. Yes __ 2. No __ 8 Here. Yes __ 2. Don’t know __ 3. 14 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . No __ Do you know any individuals who are political or religious radicals?8 1. the concern is that the client may fall victim to hearsay or gross accusations and. Regularly __ 2. Never __ Do you meet with religious figures? 1. Don’t know __ 3.

No __ Have you had confrontations with any of the above categories of individuals? 9 1. homosexuality.PREJUDICE Are you prejudice with regard to. or in any other way? 1. prejudice comments can be taken amiss. No __ Even when intended as humoristic anecdotes. Possibly __ 3. do you speak openly about the topic?9 1. race. for instance. Yes __ 2. women/men on the labor market. Yes __ 2. Rarely 3. Yes __ 2. Don’t know __ 3. handicaps. Don’t know __ 3. No __ __ Have you ever been accused of being prejudice? 1. 15 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . No __ If so. Yes __ 2. religion.

) 16 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Yes __ 2.PEOPLE AND PLACES Do you know or have you known anyone who might want to harm you? 1. No __ Do you live in a geotechnically stable area? (By this. Yes __ 2. hurricanes. Don’t know __ 3. we mean an area where earthquakes. your company or your industry ever been threatened? 1. Possibly __ 3. Yes __ 2. Possibly __ 3. landslides/mudslides and cloudbursts do not normally occur. your family. we mean an area where earthquakes. or your company be associated with people who have been threatened? 1. No __ Have you. Yes __ 2. No __ Do you work in a geotechnically stable area? (By this. tidal waves. your family. hurricanes. tidal waves. Possibly __ 3.) 1. landslides/mudslides and cloudbursts do not normally occur. No __ Can you.

tidal waves. or vacation in areas where there are nuclear. Don’t know __ 3. cloudbursts. he/she is not out of harms way.1. 17 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . hurricanes. do not normally occur. Possibly __ 3. No __ Are you ever stationed in foreign countries? 1. landslides/mudslides. etc. No __ Does your company have units in countries in which your company’s presence is unwanted by the population or parts of the population? 10 1. Yes __ 2. we mean an area where earthquakes. Possibly __ 3. Possibly __ 3. Don’t know __ 3. No __ Do you work. A radical group could aim an attack against the company’s domestic parent company. biological or chemical companies? 1.) 1.. No __ 10 Even though the client may not personally work in that country. Yes __ 2. Yes __ 2. Yes __ 2. Yes __ 2. No __ Do you vacation in a geotechnically stable area? (By this. travel.

Possibly __ 3. No __ Can you be associated with people from your past who have been politically or religiously active? 18 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . Yes __ 2. No __ Were you once politically or religiously active? 1. Possibly __ 3. No __ Have you ever committed an act that might be considered morally offensive by others? 1. No __ Have you ever been involved in an armed conflict? (either civil or military) 1. Yes __ 2. Possibly __ 3. Possibly __ 3. other countries or cultures? 1.P R E V I O U S A C T S A N D R E L AT I O N S H I P S Have you ever committed a crime in this country. Yes __ 2. Yes __ 2.

finally. Defined and confirmed risk and.1. In this system. Yes __ 2. in particular. Likely risk. No __ G R A D I N G A N D C O N C LU S I O N Depending on the questionnaire you used and. Less likely risk. Possibly __ 3. Acute danger. as in this example. you can use a graph with a given number of points ranging from 0 to 500. the point system you used. we have chosen to use the following five categories: No immediate risk. 19 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG .

Let’s imagine we get a questionnaire back from a client and we do a preliminary analysis. Form is not important when you change the questionnaire. In other words. etc. In this example. as the variables can be changed in relation to the number of questions. 20 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . the significance of the answers. gives the wrong answer and the error is discovered during the interview. and can learn from public sources. This can happen if the client. the importance of the interview. there are three answers regarding personality and lifestyle that are eye-catching in that they seem remarkably positive vis-à-vis the client. the categories do not change. Out of 30 questions. the remaining 27 answers total 190 points. deliberately or not. what we have learned from the client’s entourage. Hence. What’s more. we analyze the answers based on what we already know.Acut e dang er 301-400 Defined and confirmed risk 201-300 Likely risk 101-200 Less likely risk 0-100 No immediate risk This is just an example. The only way to change the values is to change the answers.

It is just as often a misunderstood perception of the ego. if no reason is found during the analysis to make a threat assessment. then there is no reason to do so. 1. It goes without saying. a sense of honor. As pointed out earlier. Causal needs often arising in childhood T H R E AT A SS E SS M E N T Definition: 1. in particular. Unless. During the interview. The conclusion can be drawn with or without a threat assessment. Not necessarily owing to mean-spiritedness. each answer must be reexamined. the client may have different reasons to say one thing when reality is another. The conclusion should contain the following: Date and time of the analysis Method used for the analysis Sources used for the analysis Description of highlights and significant changes following interview(s) Summary. the results of the risk assessment might jump up as many as two categories. of course. or mere vanity. with recommendations Signature of interviewer and any assistants In addition.If the interview reveals that the client has embellished the truth in the three answers concerning personality and lifestyle. and very personal questions can seem frightening to some. This occurs frequently with questions relating to personality and lifestyle. it is important not to forget reservations pertaining to external factors and false information. it is to point out that smoking is unhealthy or that too much bacon with breakfast will kill the client in the long run. Identification of one or more threats 21 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . the threat picture changes from Less likely risk to Likely risk. In addition. but merely point out that we all adapt our behavior to our environment. as there is a theoretical possibility that the client also answered other questions favorably in his own short-sighted egoistic interest. I will not get into motives and causal need1.

2. Investigation into and assessment of the threat(s)
3. Handling of each threat
Threat assessment is an important tool in the consulting process. If
anything, the client naturally wants to know what he/she has to
be afraid of.
As we said earlier, a threat assessment is only relevant when there is
a specific threat. For instance, if we know for a fact that Al Qaeda
has the client on its list of targets or that the client’s profile
matches the type of target usually pursued by a particular
criminal / terrorist organization. Another threat could be the direct
threat derived from the client’s own conduct. Many famous
personalities have lost money through compensation claims—not
to mention jobs and market shares—because they have physically
or verbally abused others in public. Some have been labeled by
prostitutes as sexual deviants. Such behavior constitutes a direct
threat to the client’s renommé and, consequently, revenue, and
should be uncovered.
But the threat assessment is especially based on data collected from
public sources. Start with what you, yourself, can find out. Then, if
deemed safe to do so, look for information from the client’s
entourage/organization and, lastly, from the authorities2.
After data has been collected, threat models can be useful in
defining the characteristics that are typical of the threats. This
could be, for instance, the dynamics of a car pile-up, a hurricane’s
potential trajectory and strength, or a terrorist group’s modus
operandi. When all possibilities have been considered, a
conclusion should be drawn again—this time only regarding the
relevant threat scenario(s). Advice is then given accordingly.

2. The more information you possess, the greater the chances are that the authorities will cooperate.



evidence is collected. risk management is traditionally divided into three categories: A. A crisis plan is developed and insurance is taken out. The world is constantly evolving and so will your conclusions and subsequent advice to the client. Efforts to protect a client from terrorism or criminality can be in vain if the client’s private chauffeur chooses to drive like a madman or while intoxicated. Risks that can be reduced C. must constantly adjust your results. Not only to change the client’s behavior. ! – The client is protected physically. but also to convince the client’s entourage that their behavior can be more appropriate. too. A client lives in a country where kidnapping is a frequent occurrence.RISK MANAGEMENT Definition: As it pertains to personal protection. Threat Assessment. ! . In this case. the case is reported. Risks that can be reduced. Common to Risk Assessment. a request from the client could be a way in which to change the driver’s behavior. ! – The client is trained in personal safety and safety in hostage situations. Risks that can be neither eliminated nor reduced Examples: Risks that can be eliminated. and Risk Management is that you. Risks that can be neither eliminated nor reduced. and the aggressor is taken into custody. Who does what in a particular situation? Here. Proof exists that a client has been threatened and attacked by a former colleague. risk management is largely a matter of controlling one’s conduct. we must rely on the client’s willingness to cooperate. Risks that can be eliminated B. The client cannot or does not wish to stop working there and cannot afford bodyguards. As we have seen. 23 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG .The statistics are laid out and acceptable alternative homes are proposed. A client lives in a geographic area known for its high criminal statistics. as consultant.

Nor do I see any reason why we in the private sector should do so. Also. Secret Service. because it is part of our job to do the assessments. this depends on the topic and external factors: Know that the client's reaction to your advice will largely depend on your argumentation and the manner in which you present the conclusion/advice. Danish PET. This is formulated in writing to the client. The client can choose not to participate. but is part of being a consultant/bodyguard. 24 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . No government agency operating in the field of personal protection works without risk assessments. Metropolitan Police. so they are not harmed while providing personal protection. Some colleagues in the industry choose not to do risk assessments. but it is most often merely a sign of ignorance. That way of thinking can kill. Depending on the relationship between you and your client. we strongly recommend that persons providing personal protection should make such assessments. As such. for example oneday assignments. A client can also choose to participate in the assessment. I always do a risk assessment. This can be quite frustrating. Naturally. The U. it can be a good idea to obtain written reports from authorities or public/semipublic institutions that can back your advice. U. There will be those customers who consciously object to having a risk assessment done. Regardless of the client’s wishes. because the risk assessments serve to help the bodyguard. That attitude is regrettable.S.S. and Scotland Yard all use risk assessments. State Department. We have heard some argue that the customer will not be using the assessment for anything anyway or that the client will not pay the extra cost involved in doing a risk assessment. There can be many reasons for objecting to an assessment. Thus.In principle. but that merely means that the assessment will be based on a weaker foundation. an analysis that is two days old is outdated. it may appear to be a burden on resources. who then has the opportunity to see what risk assessment is and to change their mind regarding their participation in the assessment. In some cases. In part. whatever the client’s attitude toward risk assessments. you can politely protest or you will have to adapt your advice and protection according to the client’s conduct. only to ignore or reject your advice.

25 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG .

Bodyguard Training Manual. Leroy Thompson Providing Executive Protection I+II. Mark Yates 26 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . M. Braunig The Art of Executive Protection. Lonsdale The Bodyguard Manual: Protection Techniques of the Professionals. James A. Nicholson.D. Edited by Dr. Oatman The Modern Bodyguard.Source material is taken from the following books: The New Executive Protection Bible.J. Glazebrook & N. sec. Mark V. Peter Consterdine Bodyguard: A Practical Guide to VIP Protection. Robert L. Ph. Men in Black. King Bodyguarding: A Complete Manual. Richard Kobetz Providing Protective Services. Burt Rapp & Tony Lesce Executive Protection Specialist Handbook. edition J.

we fall back into the ”old” routine of guessing our way forward or asking too few questions. When this happens. ICPTA offers the following courses: 7 day Basic Close Protection course Stalking countermeasures PR-24/Tonfa courses Selfdefense and combatives courses Evasive driving courses The above courses are open courses. For more information.icpta.org The content of this material may not be reproduced in either hard copy or electronic form. Partial reproduction is permitted with the author’s written consent. there are a number of other interesting books that briefly address the subject. visit us at www. as these types of models have a tendency to be forgotten. 27 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG . It is my hope that the model and explanations in this booklet have been useful and can be instrumental in your work.com concerning reproduction. Contact Henrik Bramsborg at bramsborg@hotmail.In addition the above. It is a good idea to reread the example from time to time.

28 ©2003-2013 HENRIK BRAMSBORG .

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