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Page 1 of 9

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

CLIENT

: ANRAK ALUMINIUM LIMITED

CONSULTANT : SNC LAVALIN ENGG. INDIA PVT. LTD.

PROJECT : ANARK ALUMINIUM REFINERY, VISAKHAPATNAM. JOB NO : 109013

TITLE

DOCUMENT NO.

DATE

REV

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM

3-G085-X-003941

23/07/10

1

8 IS 3043/2001 code of practice for earthing and protection against electric shocks.5 2.4 2.3 2. TITLE DOCUMENT NO. Circuit breakers with integral over current protection. IS 8437-1/2002 Guide on effects of current passing through the human body general aspects.6 2.1 2.2 The earthing is broadly divided as a) System earthing (Connection between part of plant in an operating system like LV neutral of a Power Transformer winding and earth).0 Importance of Earthing : Prime Objective of Earthing is to provide a Zero potential surface in and around and under the area where the electrical equipment is installed or erected. 2. To achieve this objective the non-current carrying parts of the electrical equipment is connected to the general mass of the earth which prevents the appearance of dangerous voltage on the enclosures and helps to provide safety to working staff and public.2 2. Switch gear box. IS 732/2000 Electrical installation of building-code of practice. IS 3842-1 to 12/2001 Electrical relays – Measuring and protection equipment. IS 3151/2001 Specification for grounding transformers.7 2. c) Improve reliability of Power supply 1. Transformer tank. etc) to earth. The system earthing and safety earthing are interconnected and therefore fault current flowing through system ground raises the potential of the safety ground around the load center. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 .0 Relevant Standards : 2. IS 7689/2000 Code of practice for undesirable static electricity. IS 12729/2000 A. Operating rods of Air break switches. 1.C metal enclosed switchgear and control gear for rated up to 52kV. IS 12640-2/2001 General requirement for residual current operated protective devices. b) Equipment earthing (Safety grounding) Connecting frames of equipment (like motor body.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 Page 2 of 9 DESIGN CALCULATION OF ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 1.1 The earthing is provided for a) Safety of Personnel b) Prevent or at least minimize damage to equipment as a result of flow of heavy fault currents.

0. Length(L) & Size(S) of the earth grid conductor : a) Calculation of Minimum cross section area required to prepare Earth Grid : Area required to prepared Earth Grid ‘A’ = If * √t K Where A = Area of earth grid If = Fault current T = Fault duration K = current density of Earth grid material for steel or GI K = 80.mm TITLE DOCUMENT NO. Earth conductor : MS Round Rod for earth grid & GI Strip(Flat) for Plant. Type of joints : Lap welded.8 As per the short circuit analysis reports (refer doc no : 3-G085-X-003940) Maximum fault level ‘If’ is 20kA at 6.0 DESIGN DATA : 3. Soil Resistivity ρ : 65Ωm Voltage variation : ±10% Ambient temperature ‘T’ : 50OC.mm = 80 A/Sq.5 3.35 Sec.mm b) Calculation of minimum sizing for earthing rod/strip : Fault current at 415V level = 43KA Current density of steel = 80 A/Sq. Fault duration ‘t’ : 1 sec.6 3. for determine the size of earth mat conductor.3 3.0 Estimation of total Area(A).7 3. Earth Electrode : MS Rod earthing. Cast iron (CS) pipe electrode earthing.2 3.mm 80 Average Area required for earth grid A = 538 sq. Aluminium K=126 At 415V level A = 43kA * √1 ≈ 538 sq.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 Page 3 of 9 3. 43kA at 415V. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 .4 3.6KV. copper K=205.1 3. 4.mm Current density of steel for a duration of 1 sec = 80/√1 A/Sq. for fault clearing time.

7% per annum = (0.mm For a period of 25 years total corrosion occurs = 0.1416) = 27 mm = 0.0 a) 3 3 Estimation of total length of the buried conductor(rod) ‘L1’ L1 = na * a + nb * b + ng * h in metres Where na = no.8 mm Rate of corrosion of steel = 0.57*10 /√(ρ∗t) = 7.7*27)/100 = 0. = 36mm Standard size of the rod available in market If we select strip as earth grid Area of the ground strip (A) = W*T Assuming selected strip thickness = 10mm Then width of the strip = 538/10 = 53.725 mm = (27+4. of conductors lengthwise.4 mm = (53. If we select rod as earth grid diameter of the grounding rod Rate of corrosion of steel Page 4 of 9 For a period of 25 years total corrosion occurs = 0. = 9. TITLE DOCUMENT NO.189 mm.376 mm.8+9.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 Area of the grounding conductor (rod/strip) = 43000/80 = 538 sq mm.7% per annum = (0.725.4) mm = 63. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 . = 4.57*10 /√(65*1) = 938 A/sq.725) mm = 31.2 mm = 65x10 sq.376*25 Size of the grounding strip required Standard size of the conductor available in market C) Current density at the surface of an earth electrode : I = 7.8)/100 = 0.189*25 Diameter of the grounding rod required = √(4*A)/Pi) = √(4*538)/3.7*53.m 5.

h = depth of grounding rods in metres.065+0. a = length of the grid in metres.142*0. Ng = no.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 b = width of the grid in metres. As per earth grid layout at load centre 2.1 Length L1 = 298 mtrs. c) Minimum area covered by the earthing electrode (Ae): TITLE DOCUMENT NO.036*298 = 33.1 Total length of the buried strip ‘L’ = 48+8+14 Minimum area covered by buried strip As = 2*L*(W+T) = 2*70*(0. Nb = no. of conductors widthwise.01) = 10.5 sq. Minimum area covered by the earth rod Ar = ∏*d*l = 3. of grounding rods.m b) Page 5 of 9 Estimation of Minimum area covered by the buried strip ‘As’ As per the earth grid layout at load centre 2.70 sq. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 .m = 70 mtrs.

70 = 55.0 Calculation of Earth Resistance ‘R’ of the earth pit : 6.1 Pipe Earthing : All dimensions in mm TITLE DOCUMENT NO. = 100mm = 10cm minimum area covered by the earthing electrode Ae = ∏*d*l = 3.942*12 = 11.m For 12 number of earth electrodes = 0.304 sq.942 sq.m Total current carrying capacity of the earth grid = At*I = 55.5+33. 6. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 .DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 Where l = length of the pipe in cm.304+10.142*10*300 = 0.504*938 = 52062 Amps Page 6 of 9 As the total current carrying capacity of the earth grid (52062 Amps) is greater than the maximum short circuit current(43000 Amps). = 3000mm = 300cm d = internal diameter of of pipe in cm.504 sq.m Hence total surface area of the earth grid At =Ae + As +Ar = 11. chosen earth grid can provide the adequate earthing.

44 * 5.375Ω 6. ρ = Resistivity of soil in Ωm = 65 Ωm l = length of the rod in cm.787 ≈ 16. ρ = Resistivity of soil in Ωm = 65 Ωm l = length of the pipe in cm.44 *4. = 100mm = 10cm = 100x65 2π x300 Loge 4x300 10 = 3.6cm = 3. = 3000mm = 300cm d = internal diameter of rod in cm.1) of earth rods = 19. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 .665 Ω TITLE DOCUMENT NO.2 Calculation for earth resistance of rod electrode : R = 100xρ 2π l Loge 4l d Where R = Resistance of earth rod in Ω. = 36mm = 3.5Ω Effective resistance of 12 Nos.5/12 = 1. = 3000mm = 300cm d = internal diameter of of pipe in cm.809 = 19.1) of earth pits = 16.(as per earthing layout 2.(as per the earthing layout 2.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 R = 100xρ 2π l Loge 4l Page 7 of 9 d Where R = Resistance of earth Pit in Ω.98/12 = 1.98 Ω Effective resistance of the 12 nos.

DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 . earth pit RN = 16.375*0.689 Ω.36Ω 7.45 = 0.5/2 TITLE DOCUMENT NO.665+0.5 Ω Final effective resistance of 4 nos.5 Ω Final effective resistance of 2 nos.0 Earthing resistance for various equipments.1 the earth pit resistance = 16.665*0.1) Type of earth pits = type-1. ρ = Resistivity of soil in Ωm = 65 Ωm l = length of the rod in cm = 262m = 26200 cm d = internal diameter of rod in cm.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 6.487Ω Overall earth resistance of the earthing system = 1.0395*17.1) Type of earth pits = type-1.375+0.125 Ω 7. Effective resistance of the buried rod = 1.6cm h = Depth of the buried strip/rod = 500mm = 50cm Page 8 of 9 ρ R = 100x x Loge 2l 2π l 2 h .487) = 0. = 36mm = 3.689/(1. As per 6.689) = 0.487/(1.1 Distribution transformer neutral : No of earth pits for transformer neutral = 4Nos (As per earth pit layout 2.5/4 = 4.1 the earth pit resistance = 16.2 Lightening terminal : No of earth pits for lightening terminal = 2Nos (As per earth pit layout 2. 7.2d = 0. As per 6. earth pit = 16.3 Calculation for earth resistance of buried Strip/rod : R = Resistance of earth rod in Ω.

Quantity of earth pits & Purpose : S. 80Mtrs.DTPL/109013-3-EIE-DCL-09-REV1 = 8.IS earth pit pipe with 150mm flange 50x6mm CU Flat 65x10mm GI Flat Charcoal Coke Salt Qty(Nos. 18Nos.) 4 2 12 18 Bill of material : S.25 Ω Page 9 of 9 8.(200 Kgs) 230Mtrs.D 100mm dia x 13mm THK.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 36 mm dia MS rod Purpose I. DATE REV DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ELECTRICAL EARTHING SYSTEM 3-G085-X-003941 23/07/10 1 .no 1 2 3 Purpose Distribution transformer neutral earthing Lightening terminal earthing All panels earthing Total no. x 3mtrs.0 CONCLUSION : Over all earth resistance achieved is lower than the minimum requirement which is 1Ω.) 300Mtrs.(230 Kgs) 120 Kgs 120 Kgs 250 Kgs * * * * * * TITLE DOCUMENT NO. of earth pits Earth pit type Type-1 Type-1 Type-1 Qty(Nos. Length C.

Electrical Earthing

Electrical Earthing

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