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Math 4340-Lecture 23

Math 4340-Lecture 23

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Published by Sean Li
Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.
Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

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Published by: Sean Li on Mar 15, 2013
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Sean Li Math 4340 Notes − Spring 2013 Abstract Algebra Lecture 23 − 3/13/13 Semi-direct Products (cont’d).

Let H, K be subgroups of G such K and H ∩ K = {e}. Under the ﬁrst condition, HK is a subgroup of condition tells us that h1 k1 = h2 k2 if and only if h1 = h2 and k1 = k2 . 1 −1 (⇒) is shown by taking h− 2 h1 = k2 k1 . This shows that each element represented in the form hk . that H normalizes G, and the second (⇐) is trivial, and of HK is uniquely

The multiplication need not be the same as in the direct product H × K , as k1 and h2 may not commute. So the multiplication is given by
1 (h1 k1 )(h2 k2 ) = h1 h2 h− 2 k1 h2 k2 = h1 h2 k1 k2 1 where k1 = h− 2 k1 h2 ∈ K as H normalizes K .

Need a homomorphism ϕ : H → Aut(K ) to describe the maps k1 → k1 , where ϕh is the conjugation of K given by k → hkh−1 . Then
1 −1 ϕ(h1 h2 )(k ) = h1 h2 k (h1 h2 )−1 = h1 h2 hh− 2 h1 = ϕ(h1 )(ϕ(h2 )(k )).

Problem. Show that up to isomorphism there exists exactly one non-commutative group of order 21. Assume G exists, then it has a unique normal subgroup K of order 7 and non-normalsubgroups of order 3, denote one of these H . Then H ∩ K = {e}. Clearly H normalizes K as K G. If ϕ : H → Aut K , then G ≈ H × ϕK . An automorphism is found by setting x → x2 → x4 → x .

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