AD 2000-Merkblatt

ICS 23.020.30 Materials for pressure vessels March 2009 edition

Cast steel

AD 2000-Merkblatt

W5

The AD 2000-Merkblätter are prepared by the seven associations listed below who together form the “Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehälter” (AD). The structure and the application of the AD 2000 Code and the procedural guidelines are covered by AD 2000-Merkblatt G 1. The AD 2000-Merkblätter contain safety requirements to be met under normal operating conditions. If above-normal loadings are to be expected during the operation of the pressure vessel, this shall be taken into account by meeting special requirements. If there are any divergences from the requirements of this AD 2000-Merkblatt, it shall be possible to prove that the standard of safety of this Code has been maintained by other means, e.g. by materials testing, tests, stress analysis, operating experience. Fachverband Dampfkessel-, Behälter- und Rohrleitungsbau e.V. (FDBR), Düsseldorf Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV), Berlin Verband der Chemischen Industrie e.V. (VCI), Frankfurt/Main Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e.V. (VDMA), Fachgemeinschaft Verfahrenstechnische Maschinen und Apparate, Frankfurt/Main Stahlinstitut VDEh, Düsseldorf VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen Verband der TÜV e.V. (VdTÜV), Berlin The above associations continuously update the AD 2000-Merkblätter in line with technical progress. Please address any proposals for this to the publisher:

Verband der TÜV e.V., Friedrichstraße 136, 10117 Berlin. ____________ Contents 0 1 2 3 4 5 Foreword Scope Suitable cast steel Material requirements Heat treatment and welding Testing 6 Marking 7 Type of test certificate 8 Design values Appendix 1: Highest admissible indicating characteristics in the radiographic examination RT

Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P. l-KdNr.7485608-LfNr.4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06

0 Foreword
The AD 2000 Code can be applied to satisfy the basic safety requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment in accordance with modules “G” and “B + F”. The AD 2000 Code is structured along the lines of a self-contained concept. If other technical rules are used in accordance with the state of the art to solve related problems, it is assumed that the overall concept has been taken into account. The AD 2000 Code can be used as appropriate for other modules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibility for testing is as specified in the provisions of the relevant sector of the law.

temperatures below –10 °C, AD 2000-Merkblatt W 10 also applies. 1.2 AD 2000-Merkblatt A 4 applies to accessory housings. 1.3 Basic requirements for materials and material manufacturer are regulated in AD 2000-Merkblatt W 0.

2 Suitable cast steel
The following cast steel types may be used: 2.1 Ferritic cast steel GE200 (1.0420), GE240 (1.0446) and G20Mn5 (1.6220) to DIN EN 10293 within the application limits given in Table 3. 2.2 Cast steel for use at room temperature and elevated temperatures in accordance with DIN EN 10213, but only grades GP240GH (1.0619), G20Mo5 (1.5419), G17CrMo5-5 (1.7357), G17CrMo9-10 (1.7379), G17CrMoV5-10 (1.7706), GX8CrNi12 (1.4107) and GX23CrMoV12-1 (1.4931) up to the wall thicknesses1) specified in this standard.
1)

1 Scope
1.1 This AD 2000-Merkblatt is applicable to cast steel used for the construction of pressure vessels and pressure vessel components which are operated at working temperatures and ambient temperatures down to –10 °C and up to the upper temperature limits specified in clauses 2 and 3. For working

Specified wall thicknesses may be increased upon agreement with the relevant third party. In its normalized state, however, steel grade GP240GH shall only be used up to a maximum wall thickness of 100 mm.

Supersedes July 2003 edition; completely revised
AD 2000-Merkblätter are protected by copyright. The rights of use, particularly of any translation, reproduction, extract of figures, transmission by photomechanical means and storage in data retrieval systems, even of extracts, are reserved to the author. Beuth Verlag has taken all reasonable measures to ensure the accuracy of this translation but regrets that no responsibility can be accepted for any error, omission or inaccuracy. In cases of doubt or dispute, the latest edition of the German text only is valid.

in addition. the quality with the more exacting requirements shall take precedence.5638) up to the wall thicknesses1) specified in the standard.LP2.2 For welding. l-KdNr.8 For other cast steel specified in 2.AD 2000-Merkblatt Page 2 AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5.CP4.6902) in accordance with Stahl-Eisen-Werkstoffblatt (SEW) 685 up to a temperature of 50 °C 2). obtained in the qualification procedure may justify other minimum values. see Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P.1131).1 of DIN EN 10213.2009 edition 2. the specifications in 6. which shall also include the application limits.5 and 2. Table 1.AP2 SP3. 3.3 Cast steel for use at low temperatures to DIN EN 10213.7485608-LfNr. The results of additional brittle fracture tests. Liquid penetrant inspection PT in accordance with DIN EN 1371-1 or DIN EN 1371-2 Magnetic particle inspection MT in accordance with DIN EN 1369 Radiographic examination RT in accordance with DIN EN 12681/acceptance criteria in accordance with Appendix 1 to this AD 2000-Merkblatt Ultrasonic examination UT in accordance with DIN EN 12680-2 .7 Other austenitic cast steel upon proof of qualification by the relevant third party. long-term elevated temperature properties shall be provided by the manufacturer.LM3. A requirement of the above tests is that the fracture behaviour is ductile.6220).6 Austenitic cast steel types to DIN EN 10213. cast steel shall be delivered in qualities classified in accordance with Table 1.5 Other ferritic or martensitic cast steel upon proof of qualification by the relevant third party.2 Quality levels Depending on the differing requirements for the internal and external surface condition of castings.LP4.1 For heat treatment purposes. Where a resistance to intercrystalline corrosion is required for cast steel type 1. if applicable. are not permitted. For centrifugal castings VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 286 applies. test and inspection instructions. heat treatment. marking and instructions on further processing (forming.CP2. the specifications given in DIN EN 10213 or in the relevant Werkstoffblätter (material material specifications) apply. G26CrMo4 (1.7221)and GX6CrNi18-10 (1. requirements.AM2 SM3. test and inspection instructions.5636) and G9Ni14 (1. welding). but only grades GX5CrNi19-10 (1.LP3. GX5CrNiMo19-11-2 (1. which shall also include the application limits.4 Low-temperature cast steel grades G10Ni6 (1. and also GX3CrNi13-4 (1. The cast steel shall exhibit the property values characteristic of the standard material and shall meet the following minimum requirements: – – Elongation at fracture A at room temperature ≥ 15 %. ≥ 27 J on V-notch test specimens as specified in DIN EN 10045-1. Impact energy at lowest working temperature. ≤ 35 J on V-notch test specimens as specified in DIN EN 10045-1. 2.7. GX5CrNiNb19-11 (1. G9Ni10 (1. Assignment of quality levels Maximum allowable temperature °C 11) 2 3 4 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 4 Heat treatment and welding 4. 4. evidence of the elevated temperature proof stress and. The cast steel shall exhibit the property values characteristic of the standard material and shall meet the following minimum requirements: – – Elongation at fracture A at room temperature ≥ 20 %.CP1 SP2. 3 Material requirements 3.4408. Where pressure and temperature do not fall under the same quality. Impact energy at lowest working temperature. heat treatment. DIN EN 1559-1 and -2 apply in addition to the material standards.4308). apply. G20Mn5 (1.AM3 SM4. 1) see page 1 2) For definition of wall temperature and working temperature.AP3 SP4. but not exceeding 20 °C. but not exceeding 20 °C. The standards to be applied for non destructive testing are given in Table 1.4581) to the temperatures stated for the minimum proof stress values indicated in Table 2 of this standard. 2.LM4. 2. 2. marking and information on further processing (forming.LM2. Quality level Maximum allowable pressure bar PT 2) Quality levels permissible indicating characteristics MT 3) SM1 SM2. requirements.5621).6983) in conjunction with VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 452. but only grades G17Mn5 (1.4408) and GX5CrNiMoNb19-11-2 (1. note being taken of the specifications concerning corrosion resistance given in Table A.AM4 RT 4) 1 2 3 4 UT 5) 1 2 3 4 Welding ends > 450 > 400 to ≤ 450 ≤ 400 > 80 > 32 to ≤ 80 ≤ 32 SP1.AP4 Linear or aligned indications. the application temperature shall not exceed 300 °C.4552). specifying the standard analysis and heat treatment. welding). when detected by surface testing. 03. Table 1 contains the assignment of qualities to the maximum allowable temperature and the maximum allowable pressure unless a higher quality is required due to special operating conditions.CP3.2 of DIN EN 10213.1 Regarding the general requirements for cast steel parts.4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 Section 5 of AD 2000-Merkblatt B 0. 2.

4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 3. Category B. 5.6 shall be tested in accordance with the standards and material specifications contained therein. All tests given in Table 1 of DIN EN ISO 11970 shall be performed. Prototype: 2. Safety-relevant dimensions shall be checked. In doing so. l-KdNr.1 to 2. The requirements given in DIN EN ISO 15614-1.1 Cast steel components specified in 2. testing for resistance to intercrystalline corrosion in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3651-2 shall be performed for each cast and heat treatment batch. if this type of corrosion is required. The result of the hardness tests shall show a regular quenched and tempered condition (the difference in hardness between the hardest and softest component tested in the test batch shall not exceed 30 HB).3.7485608-LfNr. The 0. apply. The maximum weight of a test batch for the notched bar impact test and tensile test is 2500 kg. radiographic examination shall be carried out in accordance with DIN EN 1435.7. This test may be waived by agreement with the customer/user. 10 % of the components shall be tested at generally difficultto-cast locations. Series production: 4 7 Type of test certificate The quality shall be certified as follows: 7. Other defects are admissible within the limits given in the AD 2000 Merkblatt HP 5/3. 5.1 to DIN EN 10204. The type and extent of such tests shall be agreed when placing the order. Cracks and lacks of side fusion are inadmissible.4. All components shall be subjected to surface detection.2 % proof stress shall also be determined. 5 Testing 5. 03. leak tests for checking the tightness of walls and examining the casting for the presence of defects shall be performed.3 All castings shall be inspected for their external condition. For austenitic cast steel components.4 Where quenched and tempered castings are examined cast by cast. – – – 6 Marking The minimum requirement shall be indelibly marked with at least the following: – – – – Manufacturer’s symbol Designation of material Cast number Test stamp of relevant third party or authorized inspection representative in cases of deliveries with inspection certificates in accordance with DIN EN 10204. The non destructive testing personnel shall be certified in accordance with DIN EN 473 for the test methods given in Table 1.0 % proof stress. Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P. Test for resistance to intercrystalline corrosion in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3651-2 for cast steel grades of groups F and G. 100 % Random testing on areas identified as critical on prototype components or at generally difficult-to-cast locations.5 and 2.5 Should special operating conditions prevail.4 and 2.AD 2000-Merkblatt AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5. All components shall be subjected to surface detection.1. Excess quantities up to 1250 kg shall in each case be added to the preceding test batch. If no critical areas are identified on pilot lot components.1 For cast steel specified in 2.6 The castings shall be subjected to non-destructive testing to verify the use of the correct qualities as specified in clause 3. Bend tests on two side bend test specimens SBB in accordance with DIN EN 910.2 % proof stress shall be 25 MPa lower than the 1. Tensile test and impact V notch test on the parent metal. Cast steel components weighing in excess of 1000 kg shall be tested individually. The chemical composition shall be determined by ladle analysis. 5.7 For austenitic steel castings to DIN EN 10213. Series production: 3 5. The extent of testing is defined in Table 2 of this AD 2000Merkblatt. 1. Prototype: 2. if no test certificates in accordance with the relevant AD 2000-Merkblätter of the W-series are available for the parent metal. Pilot lot: Extent of testing in relation to the number of components 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % on at least 10 components 100 % on areas identified as critical on pilot lot components. Testing shall be performed on a cast by cast basis so that components having under-gone the same heat treatment are covered. Table 2. For weldings. by inspection certificate 3. Castings weighing in excess of 1000 kg shall be tested individually. the following applies: – – Hardness tests shall not be performed on cast steel grades of groups F and G.2 For cast steel components specified in 2. they shall be subjected to comparative hardness testing. The results of the non destructive tests shall fulfil the requirements of quality level 1. Extent of testing to verify the quality level Quality level 1 2 1. .0 % proof stress.2009 edition Page 3 The welding procedures shall be approved by the relevant third party in accordance with DIN EN ISO 11970. Determination of the ferritic content for cast steel grades of group G. in addition to the 1. 7. 5. 5. the 0. the testing requirements shall be laid down in the qualification test.

AD 2000-Merkblatt B 0.g. the values stipulated in DIN EN 10213 are applicable. For austenitic centrifugally cast steel.2 For cast steel specified in 2. in each inspection certificate the technical delivery condition/standard (e. for ultrasonic examination and surface testing. Furthermore. between 20 °C and 100 °C and for 180 °C. 03.3 For cast steel specified in 2.3. inspection certificate 3. 8.6. inspection certificate 3. As a rule.1. the values stipulated in DIN EN 10213 apply.2009 edition 7. linear interpolation between the specified values is necessary (e. 8. 7.4.2 to DIN EN 10204.4 For cast steel specified in 2. the values stipulated in the VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 282 apply. Table 1 shall be taken into consideration. For cast steel GX3CrNi13 4. the manufacturer shall confirm3) that the requirements in the relevant standards and Table 1 are satisfied with regard to the qualities concerned.1 to DIN EN 10204. the results of the nondestructive tests on welding ends and castings of quality levels 1 and 2 shall finally be evaluated by the relevant third party.4. 8. for 80 °C.1 Design value K at design temperature Cast steel grade Wall thickness 20 °C mm GE200 GE240 G20Mn5+N G20Mn5+QT 1) 100 °C MPa 181 216 216 184 216 150 °C MPa 167 196 205 173 205 200 °C MPa 157 176 197 166 197 250 °C MPa 137 157 193 161 193 3001) °C MPa 118 137 186 154 186 3501) °C MPa – – 178 146 178 MPa 200 230 300 260 300 ≤ 100 ≤ 100 ≤ 30 > 30 to ≤ 100 ≤ 100 The design temperature shall not exceed 300 °C or 350 °C even for heated parts. the relevant third party shall perform the evaluation on 100 % of the castings. the values in Table 3 apply.5 For cast steel specified in 2. If quality is proved by inspection certificate 3. 8.1 to DIN EN 10204 will suffice provided the component weight does not exceed 500 kg. inspection certificate 3.3 For cast steel specified in 2.2 to DIN EN 10204. between 150 °C and 200 °C). 7. g. l-KdNr. Table 3.5 and 2. 7.6. 8. with the exception of grade GX3CrNi13 4.6 The design strength values laid down for 20 °C by the material specifications or qualification apply up to 50 °C and those specified for 100 °C up to 120 °C. it shall perform a re-evaluation on 10 % of the castings. the values stipulated in SEW 685 apply.2 to 2. the values stipulated in VdTÜV Werkstoffblatt 452 apply.5 By means of inspection certificate 3. Table 3.1 to DIN EN 10204 will suffice. Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P.2 For cast steel specified in 2. 7.7.4 For cast steel specified in 2.2 and 2.6 Contents of the inspection certificates to DIN EN 10204 8 Design values 8.5 and 2. . Application limits and design values for cast steel according to 2. For radiographic examination. For cast steel grade GP240GH.7 the values laid down in the qualification apply. in accordance with the approval testing requirements. For individually certified materials (special material appraisal) the interpolation rule only applies if there is a sufficiently close interval4) between the points of support. 3) 4) The inspection certificates shall contain the information required by the technical delivery conditions/standards. by inspection certificate 3.1 For cast steel specified in 2. but no rounding up is permitted.4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 This confirmation may also be included in the certification of the respective higher quality. In the remaining temperature ranges. this means a temperature interval of 50 K within the range of elevated temperature proof stress and of 10 K within the creep rupture strength range.AD 2000-Merkblatt Page 4 AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5. but they shall be reduced by 25 MPa for calculation purposes (please refer to DIN EN 10213. For unit weights less than 200 kg.7485608-LfNr.2 to DIN EN 10204 is required. DIN EN 10213) and Technical Rule (AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5) forming the basis for the delivery shall be stated. footnote b).

Cc1 inadmissible 3) Ca2.7485608-LfNr. Cb1. Cc4 inadmissible 3) Cracks D+E Chaplets and chills F up to 51 over 51 up to 114 over 114 up to 305 E446 E186 E280 inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible inadmissible F1 4) F1 4) F1 4) AD 2000-Merkblatt 1) Titel: 2) AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5. Cb2. but shall be welded with a crack-free surface. (114 to 305 mm)) steel castings. Cc2.g. If it is demonstrated by. Chaplets may be present. Cb1. Cc2 Ca2. Unless the innocuousness of the cracks is demonstrated by fracture mechanical examinations. Cc1 Ca1. 3 instead of 2). Cc3.. Cd4. e. Ca1. Cc4 Ca4. Ca2.2009 edition 3) 4) ASTM-E446 – Reference radiographs for steel castings up to 2 in.4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 Appendix 1 to AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5 Table A 1 Highest admissible indicating characteristics in the radiographic examination RT Highest admissible defects for quality levels Evaluation in accordance with ASTM 1) 1 2 2) 3 2) 4 2) Defcts Type Code letter in accordance with ASTM 1) With wall thicknesses in mm Gas cavities A up to 51 over 51 up to 114 over 114 up to 305 E446 E186 E280 A1 A1 A1 A3 A3 A3 A3 A3 A3 A4 A4 A4 Non-metallic inclusions up to 51 E186 E280 inadmissible E446 B up to 51 over 51 up to 114 over 114 up to 305 E446 E186 E280 B1 B1 B1 B3 B3 B3 B3 B3 B3 B4 B4 B4 Cavities C over 51 up to 114 over 114 up to 305 Ca1. unless otherwise specified in the order. Cc2 Ca3. Cd2.g. Cb4. Cd1. Cb3. Cb1.Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P. Cc3 inadmissible 3) Ca4. Cb4. Cb3. Cb2. Cc4. Cb2. (51 mm) in thickness.1). l-KdNr. Ca3. Cb3. Cc3 Ca3. ASTM-E186 – Reference radiographs for heavy walled (2 to 4 ½ in. Cc1. the information given for the numerically higher quality level ap-plies (e. 03. Ca4. ultrasonic examinations that there are defects in the core zone (see Figure A. Cd3. Cb4. (51 to 114 mm)) steel castings sowie ASTM-E280 – Reference radiographs for heavy walled (4 ½ to 12 in. Page 5 .

l-KdNr.4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 .7485608-LfNr.AD 2000-Merkblatt Page 6 AD 2000-Merkblatt W 5. 03.2009 edition Figure A 1: Division of the wall into zones (division refers to thickness d of the finished casting) Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P.

4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 AD 2000-Merkblatt – Blank page – .7485608-LfNr.Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P. l-KdNr.

l-KdNr.de www. 030/26 01-22 60 Fax 030/26 01-12 60 info@beuth.beuth.4600907001-2009-09-22 14:06 Publisher: Source of supply: Verband der TÜV e.7485608-LfNr.Normen-Download-Beuth-Amtech Investment Casting P. E-Mail: berlin@vdtuev.de .de Beuth Verlag GmbH 10772 Berlin Tel.V.vdtuev.de http://www.