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Published by: Amandeep Singh Gujral on Mar 15, 2013
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08/10/2015

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TYPES OF WATER FEATURES

Founded in 1967, Crystal Fountains is now a globally recognized leader in the commercial water feature industry. With a history of product innovation, design, commercial and custom manufacturing, the company has expanded from one office to offices in Canada, U.A.E, Singapore and Poland.

www.crystalfountains.com

Introduction
Basic Design Principles
In nature, water moves through the environment in an endless variety of ways. There are a multitude of water movement techniques available to the designer.

NAE .Nozzle and Effects Aerator Jet .

NCA .Nozzle and Effects Cascade Jet .

Nozzle and Effects Dandelion Hemisphere .NDH .

NEA .Nozzle and Effects Plume Jet .

NES .Nozzle and Effects Clear Stream .

NEW .Nozzle and Effects Underwater Plume .

NFO .Nozzle and Effects Foam Jet .

NGA .Nozzle and Effects Fan Jet .

NHC .Nozzle and Effects Hollow Column Jet .

Nozzle and Effects Crown Jet .NLF .

NLG .Nozzle and Effects Ground Jet .

Nozzle and Effects Mushroom/ Bell Jet .NMB .

Nozzle and Effects Column Pod .NPA .

Nozzle and Effects Spray Jewel Jet .NSJ .

NSR .Nozzle and Effects Spray Ring Manifold .

NWA .Nozzle and Effects Water Castle Jet .

Nozzle and Effects Water Castle Jet .NWA .

Nozzle and Effects Rain Curtain NRC .

NFC .Nozzle and Effects Cold Stream Fog .

Nozzle and Effects Electricl Leaper -SWV .

Nozzle and Effects Choreoswitch .SWS .

Nozzle and Effects Slab Hung Choreoswitch – LED 110 .

Nozzle and Effects Burst Jet NBJ .

water effect height to offset distance ration 1:1 .Basic Design Principles Traditional pools .

5 .Basic Design Principles Elevated water tables .water effect height to offset distance ration 1:1.

a single jet or geyser can be incorporated to offset and balance another garden/architectural feature nearby. Alternatively. Whether using single or multiple patterned fountain sprays. The size and shapes of these can vary tremendously. always consider combining it with light. it can also be utilized to divide a space or interrupt a vista thereby encouraging the visitor to pause before moving on.Traditional Fountains and Geysers A traditional water feature is one composed of a pool with a freeboard and one or several water effects within. A fountain is often considered a focal point. . Few features can compare with a pool in which a fountain is illuminated at night. Also consider the possibility of incorporating programmed music.

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Wave Suppression Methods Monolithic structure divides water body from main pool reducing waves .

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. The vanishing or infinity edge pool is used to redirect the emphasis from the water container to the water itself. Assuming there are no other water effects present within the pool. the vanishing edge pool results in a highly reflective surface that can create a sense of mystery and complement the surrounding natural or built environment.Vanishing Edge / Reflecting Pools Vanishing edges have long been part of the fountain designer’s repertoire. This method usually takes the form of an overflow weir with clear laminar water flowing down and into a collection trough. A clean and simple character makes this method ideal for contemporary designs.

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Excellent water feature type for existing developments and renovations. . without penetrating the slab. This gives the water more presences and increases the overall site lines. This also provides a structure where mechanical and electrical trenches can be built which will conceal the components.Elevated water table New trends in the architectural world have led to the development of a water feature type called an ‘elevated water’. This water feature consists of a water body that has been elevated to or above the pool wall.

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with minimum penetration of the slab. .Elevated water table with zero edge pool Much like an elevated water table in a traditional pool. Zero edge water tables allow the viewers to interact with a water skin that descends the a vertical wall of the structure. Excellent water feature type for existing developments and renovations. Special attention to detail is required for the collection trough and surface treatment throughout the area as water can be tracked away from the pool. This too provides a structure where mechanical and electrical trenches can be built which will conceal the components.

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The three vertical water forms are the waterwall.Vertical Water Features Vertical water features can often become the most dramatic and powerful effects available to the fountain designer. . the waterfall and the step cascade.

. It is especially important that the leading edge or lip of the overflow coping allows for even and clean water movement. with a level and consistent overflow edge. Each material and material configuration can create varied effects from clear stream flow to highly aerated flows.The WaterWall • The basic principal behind this feature is an elevated water source. A projected coping or weir cape will likely require a drip channel be cut into its underside in order to prevent the water from running back under the weir coping. Waterwall materials can vary from stone to glass to stainless steel and can take many forms such as shingled or shiplapped. Recessed reglets or channels are typically located at each end of the waterwall to prevent water tracking over the adjacent surfaces. A weir strip is often incorporated to allow for leveling adjustments as required. usually a trough. Also consider uplighting as this can help to create a far more dynamic and ever-changing visual appearance.

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The WaterFall • Contemporary waterfall features are generally composed of freefalling water flows. As with any vertical feature. . Consider the volume of water that is intended to flow over the top edge of such a feature. Also consider different types of freefall such as laminar flow and divided/compartmentalized flow. different water flows can have dramatically different characteristics. Varied heights can also have a significant impact on the water effect and on the potential splash issues that may result at the bottom of a vertical feature.

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The Comb Weirs and Ejector Jets • When splash constraints and a more consistent flow control is desired. These effects require less water and are ideal when a reduced reservoir or water source is required. . The overall water effect will fall in a more controlled means and provides a continuous broken sheet. These two devices create individual spouts through a weir or series of NEA nozzles placed on a supply manifold. a comb weir or ejector jet system may provide the solution.

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The Water Curtain
• As a type of waterfall, the water curtain consists of individual strands or beads of water that allow wind to pass through. Water is made to run down a series of laces of mylar or stainless steel. These water droplets can fall from great heights in slow motion, quietly and without splash. Laces may be installed up to 20 degrees from vertical without compromising the effectiveness of the rain curtain. Other forms of water curtains are also utilized.

Atrium lighting .

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Large hedge row effects can be used to suppress much of the splash of large elevation drops. .Spouting Traditional spouts have been used to create large vertical drops with low volumes of water. Usually complemented with an architectural facade or plaque these effects create a sense of source for large bodies of water.

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. The stepped dimensions. finishes.The Stepped Cascades • The power of water as it tumbles over a cascade or the patterns it creates as it sheets over granite-faced steps can be very compelling. types of materials and designed water flows used for a cascade all greatly influence the final effect. Consider using non-traditional materials such as glass to create a truly unique cascade effect. glass cascades can offer something very different and spectacular. Combined with both internal and front uplighting.

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the velocity of any given volume will increase in direct proportion. – As the slope increase. turbulence increases A heavy texture on the bottom and or side.Turbulent Stream / Channel Design As the stream cross section decrease. the velocity of the stream increases and the water depth decreases As the stream changes direction the flow of the outside speeds up. particularly in conjunction with high velocity will cause substantial turbulence As the stream encounters obstructions. Increased slope. directional changes and increased velocity cause surface turbulence .

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12 inches across) Runnels are larger scaled rills . The two types of formal channels are known as rills and canals.Runnels • • • • Runnels form a physical link between separate areas of water. Rills are narrow (max.

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Intersection of lines and shapes also allows for alternate paths and interference patterns too. By adding a variable frequency drive device to selected pumps multiple heights can increase the overall display 10 fold. With standing water massing these LED lights can be also be used to create chase sequencing and colour washing throughout the display. leaping laminar and fog effect can all be enhanced with the use of LED lighting. There are some basic considerations when incorporating sequenced elements within a water feature: When designing these features consider different lines and shapes that can help to create unique patterns and chase sequences. . Water character can take the form of a highly choreographed and elegant fountain that is intended to complement the surrounding architectural forms and hardscape. It can also be designed to form the heart of a children’s interactive feature with both random and rhythmic bursts. The integration of multiple sequencing devices such as choreoswitches.Sequenced Solutions Adding sequencing devices to a fountain can result in a very versatile and visually dynamic design feature.

Sequenced water effects can be further advanced with the integration of music. The element of music usually adds considerable complexity and costs to a choreographed water feature. a circular configuration with a minimum quantity of jets allows for such dynamic sequences as the “tilting plate”. water effects can be choreographed to various speeds and rhythms. Music . • • • • . Music added to a large exterior space has the additional challenge of having to consider time delays to ensure the water and sound effects are synchronized. Lighting – Adding lighting effects. Quantity and Types of Water Jets – Many jet effects can be utilized. Sequencing Speeds – As with a piece of music. the Choreoswitch and the leaper / laminar. Types of sequencing devices include: the burst jet. For example. adds yet another dimension that can be crucial especially for commercially driven pieces. especially color changing. The right water effect positioned at the correct spacing and overall configuration can enhance or limit the types of sequencing that can be used.Sequenced Solutions • Operating Heights – Consider if the feature is to be used strictly as a showpiece. Always be mindful of safe operating heights when designing interactive water features. The desired mood and character of a particular show will dictate which speeds are appropriate. as an interactive piece or as a dual-use element. Excessive water flows can lead to serious user injuries.

1 second creating unique patterns .Choreoswitch devices can be activated at 0.

1 second creating unique patterns. The only product that when the water is cut of the projectile still follows the parabolic curve on the normal operation. .Leaper devices can be activated at 0. Play with the layouts and cross over patterns to create unique visual experience.

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.Sequencing fog effects can add dramatic quality to a water feature display. Each system requires a pneumatic system to drive the device and a fresh water source. Fog effects create excellent mystery and a blanket covering effect for other sequencing device to emerge from. Sensitive to wind and humidity these effects are best utilitized in childrens interactive features and large water bodies.

. Creates an sense of scale and drives attention to the space and the key focal point of the development.Burst jet effect. Creates a larger vertical effect that can be captured in a pool approximately 30 feet wide (interior conditions only). Excellent effects for multiple site lines and levels with open atriums.

A reservoir structure can be built below the suspended deck system which can also collect much of the water generated by the sequencing nozzle effects. The entire mechanical and electrical systems are concealed below a deck structure. Best practice should design for a maximum of 20 feet per second or approximately 7 feet of water height. Also allow 10 feet for an additional run out area with secondary area drains that will collect any water that can be tracked out of the pool area. Intersection of lines and shapes also allows for alternate paths and interference patterns too. Special attention to pavers loads and support structure is required to create a safe and easily accessible equipment pit. Dry deck structures well require a reservoir with a minimum of 3000 gallons with a ½ turn over rate for the entire water volume.Dry Deck Interactive Water Features Dry Deck or Dry plaza water features are relative new type of water features that have evolved out of the development of sequencing devices. . When designing these features consider different lines and shapes that can help to create unique patterns and chase sequences. Finished material should be a pours non slip material10 feet.

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A large drain line is required. The effect can be dramatically increased by including a variable frequency drive where the overall water volume can be controlled from a small water skin to a large turning vortex that can overcome the structural elements of the water surface and effect the entire pool.The Vortex The vortex is a natural occurring effect that can be mimicked within a pool. Additional effects that may increase the aesthetic impact may included a large vertical column within the ‘black hole’ and LED lights that can be programmed to turn in an alternative direction that the swirling water. . Created by large volumes of water being pushed around a funnel structure created by the interior pool surface.

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hidden cavity for the water to drop into. This water is collected at the top at a mock weir. The mock weir consists of a cap overhanging the spray and a shallow. The aerating jets shoot water up a slanting base. The top structure captures the aerated water so spectators don’t actually see the jets finish their trajectory. .Uphill Waterfalls An uphill water display is simply a row of very closely positioned aerating jets that are individually valved and properly pressurized to reach their upward destination with the right amount of water. The most interesting aspect of this feature results from deflected water that runs back down the incline to create a near herringbone effect in combination with the uphill flow.

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Ideally for elevated site lines and provide unique viewing experience from multiple angles. Numerous shapes and configurations can be used to emphases trends or iconic symbloys in the surrounding architecture. Interior surface to match the pool structure and should be uplite to provide optimal effect during night. An aesthetic a nominally that can appear within a reflecting pool or water body.Water Voids. A distinctive shape appears within the water surface as a structural void is slowly drained. Multiple voids and LED lighting can create a sublte sequence effects. .

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the variables to be evaluated. two or three variation of each critical item should be tested. since hydraulic factors such as surface tension are constant or vary in a non linear fashion. Tests may be conducted by the designers to determine a system design or verify a material effect. and jet heights can be evaluated as fully as possible. splash patterns.Application Test Hydraulic testing is used to determine the feasibility and design criteria for prototypical effects and or to fine tune such items as weir configuration. and the performance criteria should be carefully specified prior to testing in order that each item such as a weir profiles. Where appropriate. water wall joints. textured water walls or effect development. drip notches. surface textures. . The construction of the test assembly. Test must generally be conducted at full scale. splash containment. pool depths. For most testing a single spout a short length of weir (5 feet) or a small area of water wall surface is adequate.

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It is the designers role to define and fight for these details.More Details ‘God is in the Details’ The intention of designer is to create a unique experience for the viewers that conceals the operation of the water feature. . Finding creative ways to hide the component while detailing access for proper maintenance is key. creating the ‘wow’ factor or surprise. Many fountains fail asethetically due to the associated costs of suspended pavers systems or removable pans details. Integration of equipment and infrastructure is key.

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