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M. JAMESON \ .THE WILEY TECHNICAL FOR SERIES VOCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS EDITED BY J.

Cloth. $1. $2. Costume Design and Illustration. New York. J. Bushwick Evening High School. v+i66 pages. $1. In paper Architectural Drafting. Plot and Map Drawing. Newark. Albert Business College. Instructor and Lecturer at Cooper Union. The Orders of Architecture. JAMESON GIRARD COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS IN DRAFTING AND DESIGN Decorative Design. 26 plates. A Manual to Supplement the text in AgriCHARLES B.E. Brooklyn. and Instructor of Fashion Drawing at the Young Women's Christian Association Newark. By A. $1. N. By CHARLES B HOWE. 12 plates. Brooklyn. 30 full-page reproductions of original drawings. $1. Agricultural Drafting Problems. each Part in a separate 8i by 6. Cloth. Upwards of 200 illustrations. accompanied by fulltrations. BENTON GREENBERG 50 cents net. 8 by lof.THE WILEY TECHNICAL SERIES EDITED BY JOSEPH M. Cloth. Cloth. Howe. Formerly Art Director of the Albert Studio of Fashion Drawing. GREENBERG. and a Color Spectrum Chart. page plates. Part I. By JOSEPH CUMMINGS CHASE. Mechanical Drafting Manual.00 net. 8 by loj.50 net. Formerly Director of Vocational Courses. Plan Drawing. In preparation). 15 Exercises. By EIHEL H. Agricultural Drafting. HOWE. By A.E. SXiof 165 figures. Cloth. viii+no pagis. 8 by loj.) envelope. $2. Cloth. 8 by io|. cultural Drafting. J. 38 plates. . 340 figures. 15 Lessons. Newark.E. Student's Manual of Fashion Drawing. (a) (Part III. N. Ready Fall. J.. x+147 pages. with IllusPart II. ix+i4S pages. 8 by lof. 53 figures. 26 plates. Part IV. Iowa State College. Thirty Lessons with Conventional Charts. N. vi+73 pages. Bushwick Evening High School. (6) Advanced. Machine Drafting: Elementary Principles.50 net. Instructor in Decorative Design at the College of the City of New York and at the Woman's Art School. and CHARLES B.50 net.. M. HOWE. B. By CHARLES B. vii+io? pages. Cloth. 50 cents net. Cooper Union. Mechanical Drafting. Drafting. M.E. Geometry of Drawing. By cover. A Series of Lessons and Exercises Based upon the Fundamental Principles of Drafting. A Manual to Supplement the text in Architectural 20 plates. Printed in loose-leaf form.50 net. Director of the Edith Young Art School. viii+63 pages. M. (In Press. etc. By R. 50 plates. BURDETTE DALE. $1. For full announcement see list following index. By Edith Young. Drawing for Builders. A Textbook of Practical Methods. 8 by lof. 8 by loj. In paper cover. Stuyvesant Technical High School. M. HOWE. By Charles B.75 net. General Principles of Drafting and Working Drawings. 69 figures. Part V. TRAPHAGEN. 45 figures. 8 by loj. 1919. including several in color.25 net.

J. J. Albert Business College. FIRST EDITION JOHN NEW YORK WILEY & SONS. at the Newark.. J. N. N. N.. and Instructor of Fashion Drawing Young Women's Christian Ass'n.STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING Thirty Lessons with Conventional Charts BY EDITH YOUNG Director of the Edith Young Art ScJwol. Formerly Art Director of the Albert Studio of Fashion Drawing. Newark. LIMITED . Newark. INC CHAPMAN & 1919 LONDON: HALL.

N.Copyright. V . 1919 BT EDITH YOUNG PRESS or BRAUNWORTH ft CO* BOOK MANUFACTURERS BROOKLYN.

Furs and Fans XXIII. Layouts logues Newspapers and Cata97 of IX. PAGE v vii The Head and Hair 45 Drawing Materials LESSON I. Lacing. Original Dress Designing XII.. The Front Figure The Side-plaited Skirt Skirt 9 View) The Box-plaited The IV.. . The Tucked Waist The Tight Jacket Collars 21 21 XXIV.. The Plaited Waist XX. Over-skirt 9 9 13 13 13 17 17 Proportions of Children 62 64 64 69 XVIII. The Side Figure Sitting Figure XXV: The 21 Girdle XXVI. Features. The Arm and Hand. 24 27 XXVII. Stripes and Figures XXVIII. XXI. etc. 105 iii . Feathers and Hats Parasols The Ruffled Waist 76 78 80 82 84 The Bent Collars Sleeve 18 18 XXII. Decorative Work. XVI.CONTENTS PAGE Introduction LESSON XIII.. To make a Sketch from a Costume XXIX. The Ben Day Machine 70 73 V. Texture and List of Detail Work 87 The Pointed VII. Ribbons and Flowers XI.. XV. 1 Proportions of II. To Put the Dress on the Form 4 5 the Arm and Hand 53 57 (Three-quarter 61 The Back Form III. The Construction Head The Dress Form. To Draw the Form. 22 Costume Materials 88 91 The Large Coat . To Place the Hat on the Head of the 46 49 XIV. The Back Figure VI. Shirring.. Plaids. Pen and Ink Lines The Ruffled Skirt French Wash. To Place a Dress on the Figure The Tucked The Skirt Illustrating a Costume Circular Over-skirt XIX. The Leg and Shoe XVII.." . Scalloping. Perspective for VIII.. XXX. The Method Enlargement 98 101 . Bows. 30 32 35 39 X.

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Begin right now to save. N. with numerous illustrations and ample opportunity for drill on fundatically little each illustration is important. tice. principles until mentals. in another. The author of this manual has had much experience in teaching pupils of the limited preparation suggested. figures under- standingly. using these and pictures as guides. They thus bring to the study prac- rather to teach the pupil how to study. newspaper clippings. Newark. mastered as it is encountered. I can not find any back figure in underclothes. The cry has been so often. In this. In the fashion field. newspaper clippings in another. then when you get to the lessons on the back and on sitting figures. in a conventional manner. The first steps must be very simple. in connection with her classes in fashion drawing at the Young studying each lesson carefully fully understood and making for the same. who have a desire to draw.INTRODUCTION people. and the succeeding steps must follow in a carefully selected order and in easy stages. should perhaps be stated that the plates given in connection with the lessons are not supposed to In this connection it pretty. few lines. you will have something to work " from." They are conventional charts illustrating the subject. study the fashion drawings and find the subjects that you have papers learned. In drawing. any costume. advertisements. but putting feeling and grace into his work. fashion papers. J. cards. Every chart is fully explained. Place these in boxes. photos and wash drawings are too vague for the beginner. fashion drawing as to provide the means for practice in applying these methods. he make original drawings. etc. The text sets forth in detail the course of instruction are clear cut. as they are line drawings and Women's Christian Association and the Albert Business College. principles are carefully explained. are much interested in fashion drawing and wish to take up the subject Many young with artist. select only pen and ink After it is illustrations. decorative work. but the author's aim has been not so much to offer a discussion of methods in Fundamental Make a collection of pictures. figures in underclothes and the nude in The pupil will learn best by carefully following directions and by constant pracThe manual is to be used as a guide. the pupil is urged to heed . keeping them sorted. Merely copying these illustrations charts will not make are They the pupil a fashion intended without any preparatory instruction in art." Do not let this happen to you. etc. such as dealt with in Lesson XXX. As such they are very " set." because in this be artistic or " way the meaning can be made clear one box. skipped the student has drawn should will all it must be part After Any cause trouble later on. and as no knowledge of fashions and very knowledge of drawing. the artist may use a these classes to which has been followed with and which has been found picture as a original figure model and from it construct an which may be dressed in Save all give the quickest and best results. that is. Successful instruction for such classes must necessarily follow a very definite and carefully worked-out plan.

A novice will often see a defect that you have passed over. 1919. Below this mark make another mark the size of one-half the head of your figure. use a very fine point.. J. be it a picture. at least one-third inch. and you. Be on the lookout for anything that will help you in your study. For fine work. such as faces. use a blunt pencil point with A diminishing glass helps in detecting errors. and on these indistinct lines make your drawing better. even if they are not artists. EDITH YOUNG. View your picture at a distance. Erase the old lines often.VI INTRODUCTION the following suggestions: When beginning to draw. your own work. build as you pencil often Learn to trust to your eye. . See how many times the first measurement goes into certain parts on the model. hands. etc. N. on an emery pad. So many drawings are poor for the simple reason that a dull point is not the proper tool for To save time. When you use an eraser. Learn to criticise or gowns themselves. NEWARK. For the main part of costumes. Use the second measurement on all corresponding parts on your drawing. After drawing for a time. mark off at the top On a by four a meas- rub. a book. use the following measuring system to true up your work: piece of cardboard. I can details. sharpen your fine lines. in a looking-glass.. let others criticise it for not be too emphatic about this. Use a soft rag or feather duster to clean off the specks. have plenty of lead exposed and do not try to draw with the wood. plenty of lead exposed. turn it upside down. allowing them to show. a fine point is not good. say one-half head. but if you are not satisfied with results. as the eye becomes stale with close watching. rest the eye. one inch or five inches. reverse it urement of the model.

Useful Articles. The colors marked many more good colors. water colors in one-half pans as follows : Yellow ochre. ruler with cotton rag. compass. Devoe's show There are many kinds of papers in white and color. (to two No. Payne's gray. 1. tin box to hold more than these colors. vu . eraser pencil or charcoal sheet of tracing paper paper. portfolio. . two pen holders. 3. (x) light red. the present. fixatif (to spray charcoal and pencil drawings). hard pencil eraser. one sheet of blotting Illustration plumb line. crayon pencils and oil or water color paint. baking board). B. (x) Hooker's green (No. raw potato (to clean pens). although certain papers are prepared for certain mediums. crimson lake. lamp black (in a tube). ink compass. . Drawing board soft eraser. charcoal. wrong side place the ruler board. (x) sepia. Bristol board (plate finish) or pen and ink paper. penknife. ink eraser (be careful of its use). ultramarine blue. metal edge. medium thumbsoft There are emery sharpener. (or card white (in a jar) jar). two No. small camel's hair brush (for ink). crayon pencils. 170 Gillott pens. gamboge. ruling pen. glass. For Water-color Work. burnt umber. small piece of blue glass bottle Higgin's drawing ink (waterproof). If a wide line is required. cobalt. up along the pencil line.DRAWING MATERIALS For Pencil Work. orange vermilion. Greens can be mixed. vermilion. For Ink Work. Semple's white (in a drawing tablet. 290 one stub-pen.). (x) indian yellow. raw umber. one study drawings through). The student should try experiments with these papers. burnt sienna. (x) rose madder. Gillott pens. raw sienna. sable hair brushes (No. pencil holder. 6) . madder brown. Vandyke brown. hold very steady and rule with the ruling pen. draw two lines and fill in between them with a brush or Shaded drawings in ruling pen. art gum (to clean drawings). When ruling a line in ink. crayons. 2 and No. note book. 1 and No. black and white are rendered in pencil. (for kneaded work). atomizer. soft pencil (H. (x) may be omitted for Magnifying T-square. No. tacks. diminishing glass. 2). (x) Hunter's green. B. Prussian blue. 2.

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or a dull point of some kind. it In this lesson we first learn how to a layout for the form. then how to place the form on this layout. flaring at the bottom. neither is one with too large a bust and a tiny waist. Leave a little do not flare as much as for a full one. which consists ovals. 5. This form is used for dressmaker's sketches. Next select a sheet of drawing paper. 3. the length of the skirt may be shortened. In the next lesson we dress the same form in a very simple dress. or making style. is to read all points way matter how if succeeding lessons. a bow. and with a soft pencil (medium). without looking at the lesson plate. thrown out for the bust. and also to dress the The best figure in a variety of costumes. Fig. is not stylish. re-read the instructions. figure. the sleeve is thrown out. it is " " relating to a certain figure (of course beginning with Fig. A as directed below. according to the directions. and form a mental image of the figure by imagining that you are drawing it. Follow the way explained. at first curving out for the hips. the copy. When the dress action is comes in on the human figure. 4. 6 and 7 as marked on the lesson plate. the student will find progress much easier as directed than and quicker by proceeding by trying some other way. This may be done by getting the proportions and measuring to see just where to begin the drawing. Lines 4 and 5 cross lines 2 and 3 at the waist. then curving in to the bottom . The waist goes into the skirt two and one-half times. play and a complete zontal curve up. and line 3 is thrown in at the waist. then take a hard pencil. which throws the shoulders back. Draw which a very slight hori- a lay figure. at the bottom. going over the lines of the figure with the point. 4). and the skirt hangs straight down from the For a scant waist. the shoulders form TO DRAW THE FORM Make the drawing somewhat larger than are thrown back. pretty a. as one might express it. nor one with high.STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON I THE DRESS FORM In taking up this lesson the student must remember that a good form is the foundation for to begin the study of this and all succeeding lessons. and for any dress to be placed on skirt more margin line 1. draw of two Make careful note of the direction of the form must have good proportion and A form leaning forward. then lines 2. In this lesson we learn A lines. draw Fig. how to draw a for a long dress. Line 2 is understanding of these lessons will enable the student to draw the human figure in a variety of positions. placing the figure in the center of the paper. dumpy placed on a will have no style whatever. dress or design all No is. square shoulders. A. than at is the top. and as the styles change.

and show the thickness of the show a design on the outside or on the side of a dress. This piece. going over the lines and studying out the principles described below. When you derstand Practice this figure. keep the center line until the dress As already pointed into the skirt two and out. opposite the waist line. / -ST-UEtENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING reproduction. take up Fig. the drawing a three-quarter view. as where the armhole goes under the arm. side. doing it many times. This makes the length of the upper part of the sleeve equal to that of the lower part. the waist goes one-half (2J) times. the edges of your paper.. but the bottom of the sleeve curves up. like the sides of the collar. you will have a good form on which any costume may be placed. may be used for a far sleeve. curve down. Be sure to throw the sleeve out. and two sides. The planes on the collar do the same. and lines are the lines of Fig. In the back view this order is is explained in Lesson II. The collar and waist lines curve up. also If This line must be vertical. A must be Always is Remember the and collar are all that the waist. Put the skirt on with a flare. which shows the front. if a sleeve is to be drawn. getting straighter Line 7 (center as it reaches the waist line. This is true of the collar also. 'LESSON I (center line of line not follows 2. Proceed with Fig. and be sure to make a graceful curve on the bottom of the form. not pointed at the ends. reversed. but just high enough to Allow get good curves on the shoulders. A that has preceded and can with snap. Make Make the ellipses graceful. slightly in. drop the dotted lines from the center of the near shoulder to the end of the waist line. . but do not hollow the armhole too much. not too high and not too low. this distance at the bottom of the skirt oval. When drawing you have followed all directions carefully.' skirt '-oval. it times and The lines of the collar about the same height. the bend coming Put on the collar above line 1. as does as the sleeve touches the waist after leaves the armhole. curves slightly towards the front. You observe but little of the far side in a three-quarter view. kept until the form is completed. three-quarter view. To test the accuracy of your form. Drop the dotted from the end of the far shoulder to the other end of the waist line. A. The light These three planes on the waist run into each other. a sketch being used to show is how for the dress made. finished. Get good curves on the shoulders. B which is the dress form placed on Fig. coming out at the hips (not in). con- of skirt) runs straight down from necting the collar with the ends of line 1. In this position one may of a sleeve goods by not connecting the lines. The center line of the collar is vertical. feel confident that you unall draw Fig. ficient.Lin'e'fi' the general direction. and the bottom of the sleeve curves down. There are three planes at the waist: the front. sleeve out (curving very to take away the stiffness). This line must be vertical or parallel with line Note how (line line 2 is cut into for the chest which comes out to the bust. B in the same way. skirt. . Note the cross line the waist line. For a sketch of a dress one sleeve is suf8). cut off of line 2.'. waist) literally. The armhole has a slight plane it on the Be sure to make the collar three- shoulder and from there quarter view. but taking of . The (3) collar goes into the shoulders three is as one The armhole is not as large would suppose by the drawing. The upper half of the sleeve is somewhat larger Throw than the lower half. as is the waist and skirt.thfe. line it is well to have two sleeves on a dress. and do not show too much of the inside of the collar line 6. forming a graceful curve. and the bottom of the sleeves. and one sleeve of the dress.

LESSON I B THE FORM READY FOR ANY COSTUME .

It is sewed on at the bottom and flares slightly at the the waist opens and goes under the blouse. When you that your form is good in all with respects. Put the pockets on at the right height for the hands and keep them the same size and about an even distance from the center line. As this dress lines. follow the waist line. cuffs. oval. and the lines must follow the form. and center of pocket. Draw just as few lines as possible. Do not flare too much. The buttonholes may be first drawn with one or two opens past the center line. in dressing up a form that it is. left. show a little less of it than the near top. Remember. darkest at the bottom. the pockets. The chem- Place the belt one-half above and one-half below the waist are vertical. A flat round button has a small shadow underneath. skirt opens directly under the waist opening. and not be drawn straight. Then draw the form as directed in Lesson I. curving the far side of the V around the neck to the center line. as directed in Lesson until it thoroughly understood.LESSON II TO PUT THE DRESS ON THE FORM Study Fig. showing its full width. then draw another round the same size through the center of the one. side. in the right direction. After a while the student's eye . but must be opposite the center of the buttons. waist blouses over the belt in front. the lines would follow the form and go into the belt. until then might be well to measure from the center of one button to the center of the next button. marking each center with a will dot. Place all buttons on the center line. If the waist were not bloused. Around these dots draw the buttons. Draw Decide how far down the V in the neck opens. and run straight out to the left of the drawing (as you face the figure). place the dress on the form as directed below. light lines. the top of the button in this way the student can obtain better curves. The The cuff. which follows the center line of the waist. Make the collar open in the center which hangs straight down. and curve isette it around the neck. feel confident be able to judge distances. curving the lines to The sides of the belt is flat This belt and does not Note all drawn the turnover through guide collar. line. Note the large buttons at the bottom of the page. of the button. having the buttons the same size and evenly spaced. which follows the bottom line Note the slight change of direction where of the sleeve. Women's clothing opens from right to and then the bottom. show the opening. C by going over I. blackening the part underneath the button. continue the far side of the V past the center line to the opening of the waist. it with a it is point. A high. and extends past the belt at the sides. also at the ends of the buttonholes and between opens past the center lines line. The turnover collar is sewed on at the The skirt. The near side takes a slight reverse curve around the neck to the center line. and mark off on the center line. curves up. As the far side is lost somewhat. round button casts a shadow like a To obtain this draw the round sphere. and follows the center line of the top of the high collar and flares at the bottom.

form. being Draw It is so. in a while will make a more graceful draw- the skirt X O will Draw layout for full back. etc. Draw like Fig. and dress the head. measure up to the top of the hem. as the not of the form. A and the fullness at the top much ever. Do not make the waist Remember that the waist goes is too into Note where the three principal wrinkles come on the sleeve. On layout D draw Fig. 2. X O is full. 7. belt. Mark with dots and between them. On the left of the skirt the stitch- is the way drawn on the hem. If you find this difficult. and runs straight down. Take each pletely. Be sure to make the pockets the right size for the dress. 5. is back. is X. The student can see for himself just what these lines D do. and run together. feet Cut off Next comes the with no fullness fullness of the skirt. 1. If to the top of the at these points center line in this view The plate. take a sheet of tracing paper. and how both pocket and flap extend past the skirt on the far side. As an application of this lesson. ing. cuffs. pockets. 3. which is view is illustrated of in the upper rightlesson is X hand corner the the same width as from hem. as the dress is a three-quarter view form facing the same way as the clipping. where the fold touches this on a line with X. 6. Draw lesson plate this is must be a flare skirt. but a small three-quarter back from the student can judge distances. Study the full back (Fig. cut out of a fashion paper a pen and ink drawing the skirt two and one-half times and that the center line middle of the drawing. gradually bringing the bottom line of the dress out to the next X. student all expected to remember and apply previous lessons on each new lesson. quarter view. 4. but the skirt appears farther back. In Lesson III we shall learn how gathers at the top of a skirt are drawn. down to The opening of the skirt the nearest point. a dress with collar. not the point to be The idea to be grasped by the student is how to draw fullness which goes trated. not merely copying the lines. A and B of Lesson I. all you need. trace off Figs. as illustrated on the To do this once right side of the skirt. The is hollowed in and the far armhole is lost. at the bottom like and hands. using the principles learned. E) at first and later draw the three- draw the stitching. turn this tracing wrong side up and you will have the form facing in the other opposite direction. stitching. in and out of the bottom of the skirt. not necessary to repeat in every how to study. line. on the right side Until to draw is explained. placing the in the . lesson slowly. buttons. Howillus- it in this dress. The THE BACK FORM lesson details as to hem runs follows the bottom line of the dress. then proceed to the next one. When you are convinced that the hem follows the bottom line of the dress. E. an even distance from the seam. skirt cut (about six inches in height) of a simple dress illustrating what you have learned in this lesson. is not as full in places. and draw light lines through these points. is the edge of the fold XX and hangs straight down is to the bottom of the dress Learn how to draw the form facing the way and dress it in a simple dress. vertical and at near armhole one side of the middle of the drawing. B. In this lesson we take up the full back in detail. and not too All stitching near ing it. Do not bend the arms. small.LESSON II TO PUT THE DRESS ON THE FORM flaps of the pockets Note how the extend past the pockets. drawing the lines in order. learning it com- must be evenly spaced. and full- ness at the bottom. The back form is drawn sometimes full and sometimes three-quarter view.

to take away the stiffness). The waist is full in the front as shown of the sleeve curves the cuff down. The armholes must be the same . The collar and waist lines curve up. but the bottom and opposite each other. which curves slightly in. This is the reverse of the front view. The top of follows the bottom line of the size by is sleeve. and connect the ends of the collar with the shoulders. Throw the sleeve out (curving very slightly out. Do not hollow the armholes too much. exposing the inside of the cuff. the blouse at the sides. a little higher than in the front view. but the back perfectly plain and tight.6 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON II collar above line 1.

LESSON II FITTING A SIMPLE DRESS ON THE FORM .

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for example. the sides of For both box-plaited and side-plaited be careful to make the plaits even at the bottom and at the top. but after studying and drawing the three figures G. It will be well for the student After drawing a complete form for this and placing the belt as directed This over-skirt in the front. On each side of this before. but make each plait a sharper point than in the gathered skirt. This star line the top. skirts plaits the same width. being sure to have all the plait. and a very curve between them. at the waist the size of the center box- which are an even distance from the center line. The student is line of the skirts and not combine side-plaited skirt. to make two drawings and not combine them as on the lesson plate. and the student will be able to use this knowledge to great advantage when sketching from a costume. flaring slightly as in the You will observe that and a box-plaited expected to draw two them as done on skirt. which must be the same width as the first one. The and under-skirt front plait. sewed on at the waist Note the guide lines of the is . The deeper the plait the farther back O is from X. Draw down until they touch the bottom form. being sure to make a graceful ellipse at each box-plait has two 's.plaited skirt (Fig. Begin with the side. and if your lines are straight the width between the top and the bottom will also be even. In Fig. which must be in good proportion to the boxplait. H. F which is a full front view). as any part slurred over will cause trouble later on. marking the size at the waist. the lesson plate. plaited and the other side is THE BOX-PLAITED SKIRT skirt gathered. X. and I. G. and on each side of the box plait mark them off. thus deriving more practice upon the subject. the literal meaning of the lines will be understood. until all the it and the next plait. Decide upon the width of the side plaits. From these points THE OVER-SKIRT (LONGER To lines IN THE BACK) draw lines down. the same as O. The plaits are wider at the bottom than at an over-skirt. The star gentle up (*) is XX and is the distance between the box-plaits. one side of the over-skirt is Not being stitched down. and after placing the belt as directed in Lesson II. plaits are all lines marked at the waist. Fig. back. longer in the back than consequently it shows the is front box-plait. panier. open the top. the in the as so. mark off curves up. F is a combination of a side-plaited then the size of the following box-plait. they somewhat after leaving the belt. mark off the distance between flares. flaring slightly until they touch the bottom line of the skirt form. draw the under part of each plait.LESSON III THE SIDE-PLAITED SKIRT Lessons III and IV are devoted to skirts and it will be well for the student to thoroughly master these. and the deeper the plait the higher the star line is from X. Draw the form. the student with untrained eye the of Each plait will touch this is line at back. and puff seem very confusing. draw skirt with fullness at the bottom (Lesson nearest point II).

down. This skirt is drawn three-quarter view. skirt that is puffed at the hips will extend past the normal skirt line. as the lines curl around and fit into The over-skirt flares is waist but fold " also sewed on at the more than the under- skirt as it descends. the general direction of the yoke will fit the form. Note these lines as seen through the puff. Use pen-and-ink . after the drawn) then draw and curve it around. H) are the same as in the over-skirt (Fig. the goods is drawn in The puff means again. it being gathered. G. Note the guide lines of one of the plaits as runs up to the waist line. that the goods is gathered and is very full. as the lines indicate in The lines under the puff are Fig. THE PUFFED SKIRT The ferent Fig. To test lesson the knowledge acquired from this draw numerous forms three-quarter view. which also hangs straight down from the belt. Note the guide drawn through the ends of the tucks (where they stop) and where the fullness The lines of the panier (Fig. where it comes out from under the skirt. etc. the lower part only being exposed to view. heavier. over-skirt fits around the under-skirt. each other. panier projects at the hips in effect while the over-skirt hangs straight but the a ruffle they down. the panier will be easy to draw. hence it follows that the yoke line (if a perfectly plain yoke) will follow the waist line. It descends as it goes until it almost touches the under fold (square). as they are in Fig. curves around. caused by the shadow cast by the Note the crispness and the sharpness of the lines as they curl around and fit into each other. Note how different the lines look on the far side. Note how the THE PANIER If the student has been successful with happens to be a fancy design on the yoke. begins. The under fold hangs XX form is well down from the waist seen on the panier. XX is the edge of the and " hangs is square The straight down. J. lines for the puff are somewhat difand yet somewhat the same as in G. but if stitched down. puff. as you see but little of the under surface of the goods. A but instead of the ruffle effect. lines will not flare. Place the tucks an even distance from the center line the same as the plaits. hence the puff. G}. up from the bottom. which shows the full panier on the near side and but little of it on the far side. but will be broken into If there the lines of Fig. descends until it almost touches the next XX. and dress them in skirts like the ones illustrated in this lesson. or full front. the inside crease of the fold. as Begin with the curved of the skirt (that . clippings of skirts. line in the front is. by the design. I. is also very therefore the goods beneath the puff full. descending toward the back.10 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON III under -skirt as they run up to the waist line. the lines of the fullness at the top fall down between the lines of the fullness which run The other side of this skirt SKIRT WITH YOKE AND TUCKS As we learned before " the lines follow " the form so the yoke must fit around the form.

LESSON III 11 FITTING THE UP AND DOWN LINES OF A SKIRT ON THE SKIRT FORM .

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Begin at the front. or any around the bottom of a braiding. around. L represents two over-skirts. like the ones on the lesson plate. draw it around as you would a hem. place the tucks on the skirt according to directions. and full or scant as tuck must be the same width in all places and appear to go in and out of the fullness skirt A which is very full will stick out bottom and expose the under part. and if the tucks follow this poor line. On a very full ruffle you will occasionally the tucks are of equal width.LESSON IV THE TUCKED SKIRT In Lesson IV only the bottom of the tucked skirt (Fig. not showing too much of the back of the ellipse. ripples circular over-skirt Fig. but tend a at little past the side of the skirt at the bottom. the point being on the center line. They must be required. As the skirt is shorter on the sides than in front. the under top one being even one being pointed on the front. and O on this skirt. not therefore tucks. but If all if observe a set form. there will be no difficulty in drawing the remaining ones. view). must also follow this line. different widths are required. K) is illustrated. graceful. cling to the dress.) up in the back. where it runs up to the waist. but if repeated too often the effect will be a row of autumn leaves or sea shells. THE RUFFLED SKIRT Ruffles are hard for a beginner to draw. because Place all when the bottom line is poor. O's on the The top of each tuck may be by a broken line for stitching. Note the and ex13 The tucks On form marked by the arrow. XX. THE CIRCULAR OVER-SKIRT We learned in Lesson II that the hem A and followed the bottom line of the dress. at the ruffle A at and go around the edges of the the same height. then place as many XX's as you think In the figure we have two will look well. first Occasionally this will happen Note the X's and tuck. there being no special rule to go by. the bottom of the over-skirt and of the under-skirt. being sure to If you do this follow the bottom line. Observe all X the X's and O's carefully before attempting to put the tucks on. bands. draw so. but not often. not down or (See the ruffle at the top of the Lesson Plate. on the near skirt side and one on the a three-quarter far side They (the being After getting a good bottom line. Bias bands are stitched on both edges. and much practice is required for practice on each lesson draw a complete skirt form with a graceful ellipse at the top. the trimming which goes skirt. and after deciding how high the first tuck is to be. the whole skirt will have a peculiar appearance. O is very much Note the guide lines for higher than X. of the form. each side of this form two XX lines set . are sewed at the top gauge accordingly. is plain at the top the at bottom. carefully with the first tuck. well to indicated it being draw the continuous line at first.

one turned up and the other down. which (See example. lines are more curved than the but the the top. calico. the goods being gathered in at the top. Study the lines of fullness on other drawand notice that some long.) where gathered. The fall lines of the fullness gathered at the from the the bottom of the ruffle waves in and out. and when you are convinced that you Draw you did the previous can do this satisfactorily. It is darkest straighter and sharper. and on the side they curve out to the left. Materials like taffeta. will have lines like the ruffle at the snappy. full- an over-skirt. line of M) is In between these set forms the top. curve out to the right. Practice such with bold rounding but thin. Notice the under part of this set form. . M. etc. will Tulle. A are the lines being the same. if thin material but is used some lines will fall short of the band and be hooked at lines of fullness will appearance of the bottom of a full skirt. This skirt (Fig. they were pulled together at the top of the ruffle. (See Example. strokes. All lines for fullness XX must be sharp and lines skirt lines.14 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON IV curve out. All lines for the fullness down between the lines of the which run up from the bottom. which are stiff and heavy. must look as if ings lines are short.) Apply this lesson as ones. is in the middle. draw Fig. The ruffle must go in and out of the ness. the ruffle at the top of the page. A scant ruffle will have somewhat the go under the band.. and some meet line. some in a is V near the all The lines XX at the right side left waist If the material heavy. waist the set form being nearer to you than the fullness wavy part. The form is narrower where sewed on than at the bottom. draw guide lines the width of the ruffle on which place the ruffle. the lines being somewhat the same as the lines of After placing X's and O's for the bottom line. have lines which is which on a separate piece of paper. top stiff of the lesson plate. ruching has the appearance of two ruffles.

LESSON IV 15 PLACING THE RUFFLE AND TUCKS IN AND OUT OF THE FULLNESS OF A SKIRT .

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the lines being the same as the lines of the over-skirt. The follows fullness at the top of the sleeve its form and at the bottom is only at the back. The N running over the shoulders. They It also has a vest. as in the over-skirt. that is. V the student and VI being devoted to is expected to pay each is The sleeve of Fig. you as the form is the same. THE PLAITED WAIST drawing the form for Fig. which side of the belt is on top. It is on the center and draw them within these principles guide lines. back of the sleeve. and note all plaits follow the center line. you observe the wrong ruffle is falls in The side of the material. Or. there should be no difficulty in rendering Lessons V and VI satisfactorily. Flare the gauntlet at the bottom. If a very important Note the form seen through the sleeve. right side of the belt laps over the Make it definite left. In placing the ruffle and jabot. draw the small V for the neck. flares in a ruffle effect below it. Study it carefully. something new is to be learned on each new figure. Make all widths even and place the hole and fastening over the center line. N is tight on the inside outside. H) see but little of the under surface of the goods on the far side. the buckle being merely suggested here. Fig. but instead of very will afterwards. The fullness. past the center line. as the waist feature. have learned them by this time. The band on the sleeve fits tightly around the arm and 17 is a continuation of the . width of the of line. Fig. is V curve around the form. (Lesson III. previous It will rules. applying Lesson III. shows a tight waist with deep Fig. the normal sleeve form being first drawn and the sleeve placed upon guide lines of the sleeve it and bloused on the you succeeded with Lessons I and II. All new information will be given for each figure. G. instructions as the student not be necessary to repeat all is supposed to being gathered at the belt. Follow Lesson II carefully in all details when putting on the waists. the belt must run through the buckle. oblong in shape and fits over the belt. Note how the lines of the large guide lines on the new lesson plates. Fig.LESSON V Lessons waists. the the The belt is flat and the buckle placed After ruffle ascertaining jabot.) Here. Like the panier (Lesson you III. placed around the neck and a jabot down the front of the waist. See how the buckle curves to fit the waist. strict attention to all points relating to drawing. N. and when combined with previous lessons. P we have a waist with fullness but not bloused as in Lesson II. the waist on the form. the V of which is on the center line and the opening under the first plait. and place all buttons at even distances at the simple waists being placed upon it. have no difficulty with this lesson. then the large V for the width of the jabot. The buckle in detail is given below. following all place After THE RUFFLED WAIST In Fig.

these lines.18 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON V guide lines of the sleeve form. F (plaited skirt) . of fine plaiting. you will drawing any design. COLLAR Collar 3 is 3 made of fluting. the wrinkles which away the stiff appearance of the set plaits and make the goods look soft and thin. the COLLAR Collar 1 is 1 regular. being placed lines lines. merely copy the lines of Do a picture. cause confusion. and guide lines for the width of each all lines from the band out to Always draw understandingly. to will take Study the bent sleeve and note lie mainly on the inside. You would readily see the underside of the fluting. being held to the neck by a tight band. but if connected sometimes it THE BENT SLEEVE The bending wrinkle. connecting them at the bottom and top as described in Lesson III. Fig. of a sleeve causes it sharp and sometimes wavy. Apply this lesson and Lesson VI as you COLLAR Collar 2 is 2 did the previous ones. the sleeve flaring above and below it. At the elbow the wrinkles curve around the form toward the outside. around a low neck. but do not draw a stiff collar the fluting turns up. but these lines may be omitted as too many lines the lines too near it. Note the XX being very and where turning over and from the neck. Draw part. Be sure standing away to fit it around the neck. but the main principles are given in these lessons. standing up close and have not by applying them no difficulty in carefully. and down around the neck. . You will find many kinds of waists to draw.

COLLARS AND THE BUCKLE ON THE WAIST FORM .LESSON V 19 \ FITTING WAISTS.

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R. The sash is all important. 21 much when looser. slightly diagonally. Be draw the tucks directly opposite each other on both sides of the vest. left-hand side of the sash. the lines for the yoke being directly opposite each other. Q a sash as shown not only a waist but well. continue this reverse curve to the point. extend They past the form at the sides. The cuff. The V at the bottom must also be on the changing until which takes the opposite direction for the point. is at the back. therefore the lines for the plaiting will take sharp turns in another direction. the jacket having a large armhole and extending past the under-waist on the shoulder and under the arm. after going under the right side. The tucks follow the waist line and wave (the waist being a full one). the lines are like the lines of the over-skirt. This guide line continued still farther will give the V you observe a of the wrong side of the opening at the bottom of the jacket. is that After ascertaining the width. the near side of the V neck takes a slight reverse curve.LESSON VI THE TUCKED WAIST In Fig. the arm is This causes a deep wrinkle down. R is shown a tight jacket effect over a kimona sleeve. opposite point. then make the armhole from there it fits around the hips and is tied at the side of the front. being pointed at the back. which extends just a little past the normal hip line. The cuff being open. As learned in Lesson II. then place the fullness. draw the lines for the fullness. The ends being cut (Lesson III. causes a slight reverse curve at the top. hangs over it form. therefore in Fig. The inside of the cuff follows the bottom line of the sleeve. being crossed in the back. The fullness falls from the yoke. gradually it well over the bust. the main lines following the form. Be the yoke fit into the top of the sleeve and not hang over like a collar. The yoke curves slightly to follow the other parts. there being no fullness at the top. Place the full sleeve on the form. It fits around the waist. First draw the waist. while the botparticular to tom hangs well over the deep gauntlet. Note the . and The collar turns over. Draw the guide line to the other point. In placing this full girdle. Note on the ends. although a few of the smaller ones may take the opposite direction. all lines fitting between other lines. as does also the part that fits the hips. In drawing a kimona sleeve place the normal armhole. COLLAR In Collar 4 is 4 collar with shown a deep a point hanging over the sleeve. This may careful to The make XX and both ends hang straight down. Fig. draw as if it were a flat belt. which is a continuation of the far side of the V neck. but students have made this mistake. which extends just a little past the normal waist line. This makes the waist fit The vest lines follow the center line.) seem unnecessary advice. little center line. THE TIGHT JACKET In Fig. realizing it is narrower where tied than at the then the sash. (?.

must have the appearance of same on going around the neck at the same height. hangs effect COLLAR than a collar. form. extending past See application of Lesson V. rippling slightly at the bottom. Collar 7 happens to be It more of a cape hangs well down COLLAR 6 over the shoulders. and the top. the points directly opposite each In this collar the student will as explained in Fig.22 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING collar LESSON VI 7 change of direction where the over the sleeve. curves down. Q. Note the lines. the lines are drawn the front of a sailor collar. If surface of the goods. The bottom line follows the waist line. extending well past the sides. the under XX Collar 5 has a ruffle placed evenly around the top. Make other. while the far side takes the opposite curve around the observe how the collar is sewed on the edge it. he can easily place the this collar. . THE POINTED GIRDLE COLLAR Collar 6 is 6 In the deep pointed girdle. on the near side. of the neck. and where the cape Note all the student understands the lines of the ruffle as the collar (Lesson IV). the guide lines around the neck. fits around the sleeve.

LESSON VI 23 FITTING WAISTS AND THE SASH ON THE WAIST FORM .

Place the point directly in the middle. but being very deep takes a downward curve at the bottom. and if he keeps this lesson away from the form. show the thickness of the goods by not connecting the front lines with the back of the collar. but hangs straight up and down. Elsewhere it hangs well away from the form. The large on the shoulder. It curves it curve in Lesson collar breaks Fig. but do not bring the break below the shoulder line. The student is expected. than the reverse C. The turn-over point of the belt must have the appearance of going over the top of the belt. In drawing the shawl collar. the curve is somewhat less than a belt which fits the form tightly. The button is in the middle of the point and the diagonal sides are even. the above and below the belt does not cling to it and does not follow the form as in Lesson V. Note the breaks which show that the collar is going around the neck toward the front. T is a very simple coat illustrating the principles of how a large coat should fit. as designated by the guide lines seen through the coat. do not touch the line of the opening.LESSON VII THE LARGE COAT A form in a large coat has the appearance of being the same as the bottom of a dress. Study the separate it bottom Draw dress. Fig. the near side view line V is a straighter II. When drawing the near side of the collar In drawing the collar with the reveres make the points of the collar opposite each other. careful to Be somewhat stouter than a form it is in make the opening at belt at the X promiof just a dress. so do not draw this piece even with the top of the belt. standing well up of the neck. Study the back collar. the fullness above and below the belt being on a line. but in reality that gives this effect. and bust only. as shown by the guide lines. thus giving the collar the appearance of being turned over. the form the same size as for a Place the coat upon according to previous instructions. however. and the and reveres are Refer to Lessons V and VI for also the reveres. touch the form on the shoulders. P. but let the coat the lesson plate. collar For a double-breasted coat. collars. 24 . to the opening. Note the vertical guide line where the point ends. Make one side of the belt lap well over the other. The belt being very wide and standing well away from the form. having the diagonal lines even. to draw all kinds of coats. The bottom of a coat should be drawn the coat sets fullness As and all previous ones in mind. places where the joined. all buttons must be an even distance from the center line and evenly spaced. is As of the the collar at the back high. Fig. up at the top. chest. the coat nent. there should be no difficulty in rendering all coats satisfactorily.

LESSON VII FITTING THE LARGE COAT ON THE FORM .

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" On the sleeve they follow the On this foundation any may be constructed. at the waist. stripes and figures will seem this very easy. changing until. On the waist the stripes running around follow the waist line. little tion and follow the under-arm line. Some of the stripes will vanish at the sides. gradually By case. 1 draw a simple plaid in pencil and the short diagonal lines only in . Around Fig. you will also observe this instructions given for the plaited Lesson to the III. it well to obtain a foundation for the direc- around. colbelts. changing a shoulder. do not on the top. thus allow them to touch When XX re-draw the outline before attempting to plaid it. Suppose it is desired to stripe up and down. as even as possible. All stripes running around a skirt should large plaid in pencil will serve this purpose. It is good even plaids. U. go around the skirt in assumed that the student has drawn the outline of Fig. but the student should pay no attention to them until the principle of all plaids is understood. Begin on the placing all this dress skirt leaving a high light on top of the fold. is then all stripes going In placing a texture all over a dress. Study all kind of a plaid form up and down. placing the stripes around.LESSON PLAIDS. cuffs. etc. Fig. cuffs. but do not flare as you did the plaits. but underneath draw them close to XX. using the skirt. and draw directly down high light. 27 See Example No. STRIPES VIII AND FIGURES The stripes near the bottom follow the bottom line of the dress (as did the hem and tuck). the waist is full. Re- as they approach the member the instructions given in Lesson II. the examples of plaids. In Plaid No. going in and out of the fullness. placing one-half of a square on each side of the center line. waving slightly. by On lars. and if this is the plaids. They continue to do this until they reach the arm. they follow the waist line. If not. which means that the lines of the stripes are not drawn to the edge of the pockets. Keep all broken lines for the texture in the direction of this plaid. where they take the opposite direcfitting nicely at the bust until they follow the shoulder line. They continue to do this. and that a very good bottom line has been secured. and lines. ficient in time the student should be prodrawing dresses. 4. and under stripes being well in the shadow. stripes at the belt. etc. To place a plaid on a dress draw all up and down stripes. and where the fullness stops.. F. A be marked on the center line from the bottom up to the waist. being careful to make the squares i tion of lines. note the guide guide lines being placed in pencil only. They change gradually over the bust. all On this foundation any kind of a stripe may be created. "The form is oval and the lines follow the form. the edges of plaid pockets. U will be seen many examples of plaids. if bottom line. On the sleeve they follow its bottom line. Be particular to make the stripes go in and out of the fullness. On the waist the stripes follow the center line.

2 line bottom or at the side. If this is done. draw the Place plaid. Plaid No. . 7 is more com- on the sleeve. then place the remaining fine lines on each side of the center fine line. connect the with longer diagonal lines. In Plaid No. which Cut this plaid in the center both directions. stripes Another way to plaid a skirt is to begin and work downward. This may be more truly the way the cloth is cut but it is not as atat the top tractive. and must take the same direction. particularly black and white checks. Plaids are very attractive. See the illustration of the check Plaids the goods it is drawn diagonally. in pencil. to three fine the skirt to the best advantage. some being lost under XX. Also try to create new plaids. When the rings cover we have one heavy ones. 5 and 6 are two more examples of simple plaids. or just scattered over the skirt. mistake will throw all of the checks out. but instead of being straight on by a fine line in Study all plaids and stripes and use the same by placing them on simple dresses. When After plicated. Place all roses. you will surely come to grief. lines LESSON VIII must be the same spaced evenly. always connect the drawing black squares from corner to corner like a checker board. No. thus obtaining a wide stripe in both directions. all form a heavy lines first. If you attempt to skip the the short diagonal ink about. 3 is very simple. Plaid No.28 ink. draw lines drawing the guide lines check. and some being cut off at the for an outline drawing will not show up against the texture. When this is finished. STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING These diagonal length. These may be placed by means of squares. roses carefully. as the lines drawn When dress. the lines of the and down stripes taking a different up direction from the lines of the cross stripes. different tones No. a indicating them by rings. as one on these guide lines. 8 is an illustration of how to figure a skirt with roses. placing a plaid or texture all over it is necessary to strengthen the outline of the drawing. which forms a plaid of three of squares. the plaids will be cut off at the bottom.

LESSON VIII 29 <\ FOUNDATION LINES FOR ALL PLAIDS AND STRIPES .

ETC. If material is Draw the guide lines for the cord. See how the lines for it are designated by guide lines. and the unevenness of the cord where the goods is shirred over it. the lines from above falling The to easiest all way to obtain this effect is between the lines going up from below. Study the reverse curves which fit over these guide lines shirred without a cord. draw The lines take somewhat the direction of the puff. the lacing in one direction on ones (the top). cuffs. the opening is separated. draw Study different shapes of scallops. comes out of that hole. throwing one end over the other. SCALLOPS. the goods being shirred over it. In drawing this figure the student must apply the principles of Lesson III (overskirts) and Lesson VI (waist with yoke. but most of them reach only part way. and vice versa. Draw all holes opposite each other. then the lacing in the opposite direction. as on the dress. LACING. and go in and out of the fullness. Some lines may connect the cords. etc. This effect ing a scallop at may XX. showing that has inside strands as well as the ones drawn. short sleeve. All lines for the shirring are drawn with can be more readily explained than if the opening were pulled closely together. Study and draw the part of the full girdle with a frill at the opening. Start at the top and run the ribbon through as you would do if you were lacing your own dress. whole scallop on top of XX. be helped by breakIf you place the but half As an application of this lesson. 30 . the goods falling free from the lowest cord. You skirts will notice that the bottom of the and form the cord. and vest). Here. the lacing as shown in the large example. the smocking and the tassel. The cords cling to the form. quick snappy strokes. Notice how the ribbon comes out of one hole and goes under the edge of the opening and under the next hole on the opposite side. a scallop underneath it. All scallops must be the same size. but do not curve them too much. there will be but one line. they are joined by a cord. hang straight down. and skirt of a simple dress. then the lacing.LESSON IX SHIRRING. The ends hang straight down. draw shirred dresses. Note the guide lines for the cording. the width of the scallop. as in this position the idea Draw You will find that the over-skirt is shirred over a cord in three places. extending past the normal form line. only. while the goods between them puffs slightly. which is underneath. but instead of the yoke and waist proper being sewed directly together. and also place a scallop on the collar. the tassel curve.

LACING. ETC. SCALLOPS. .LESSON IX 31 SHIRRING.

32 . 1. 1. the knot must wrap around the loops and ends. while the ends hang straight down. 1. If the ribbon is wide. other. then ink in with a small brush. here we have not an outline alone to deal with. then ink in with a brush. 2 is an example of a pointed bow for the waist. The loops stand out. the heavy parts fitting in drawing is between other heavy parts. bulge at the top and bottom. You see inside of one of the loops. Outline all places to be made solid. In Bow No. the knot and wrinkles curve around a ribbon is turned over. 5 is a stiff hat bow and follows the principles of loops. A ribbon the width of the holes will not Bow wrinkle as this wide one does. Watch the this effect. notice how the knot curves around. Note the inside of the loop as in Bow No. the loops and ends fitting well into the is with ends. Flowers are expressed with a few lines. caused by the way the ribbon is tied. of the ribbon vanishes where it is turned. 4 we have the ends only. Notice how the petals fit into each No. 7 a rosette BOWS. When drawing the patent leather outline the place for the black after the belt is outlined. Remember the instruction on the buckle given in Lesson V. In Bow No. Note the guide lines at the top and bottom of the All holes must be the same size. the ends take the direction of the loops. but the knot is a different shape. A belt like this is hard and shiny. direction of the lines to obtain knot . RIBBONS AND FLOWERS A bow must be smart looking and as if made of new ribbon. so gauge accordingly. Practicedrawingbowsand flowers.LESSON X Bow No. evenly spaced. Bow No. Draw the full front flower. that is. but an explanation of ink on for black ribbon. the knot and wrinkles curving around the ends. as also do the wrinkles on the knot. pulling them in tightly. Bow No. also the side view. around the edge except on the dark side. Bow No. remember that the outline of the buckle where it touches the belt will be a part of the back will also a line of light ground when it is inked in. Note the XX lines on the ends. it therefore how Most to put the of this of ink with the paper left for the high lights. 1. 3 is Bow No. Fig G). If No. hence the over-skirt (Lesson III. belt. causing the lines to take a rounding shape init will stiff- stead of being straight like the openings. but being a neck bow with short ends. the width the ends. but hi outlining a buckle on a solid back ground. 6 follows the principles of Bow have a few irregular high lights. Make a careful study of black ribbon and bows. See Lesson XIX. and not drawn too near the edge of banding. holes. and as in line At the bottom of the page is illustrated a broad ribbon run through holes. an example of a four-inhand.

BOWS AND FLOWERS .LESSON X 33 PRINCIPAL LINES OF RIBBONS.

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ing? What kind of buttons has it? Answer. It has an over. Is the neck high or low? Question. Fig.) Question. What is the shape of the Question. What shape is the front openIt is V-shaped. taking in everything regarding it. Question. front. sist? In sketching a dress directly from the model. Answer. Answer. any costume in a short VI. Ask yourself these ques- depth while the top one is longer. kind of a girdle has it? crushed girdle as wide as two-thirds of the width of the gauntlet. Fig. It is a deep sailor collar which is sewed on the V neck more than halfway down. How low does the V open? the Answer. How wide is the lace inseron the skirt? Answer. No. Answer. C. But if the student has thoroughly mastered all Fig. Less than halfway down Three small buttons on each side of the over-waist which extend from the collar to the bottom of the V. Answer. using light lines. Fig. one-seventh the depth tion of the gauntlet. Q. Question. Fig. the lower two being sewed on the underskirt. Fig. proceed as follows: Let us imagine that we are viewing the dress itself which is Three deep flounces. them with clean-cut.LESSON XI TO MAKE A SKETCH FROM A COSTUME To make a sketch directly from the dress difficult problem to the init seems a very if (Lesson VI. What so applying principles of Lesson II. and would be blouses over the girdle. Question. Collar 4. Q. Answer. A long kimona sleeve (Lesson previous lessons and applies them as this lesson is studied. The collar goes toward the back and falls over the normal arm hole. Question.waist which fits up to the middle of the shoulders 35 on your form strengthen strokes.) When you feel that tions are placed all these proporcorrectly. The latter hangs down as low as the sleeve. collar? Draw Answer. Question.) Of what does the skirt conQuestion. Note how much easier the bottom lines of the flounces are. C. (Lesson VI. Twice the width of the insertion on the sleeves. A (Lesson VI. High in the back and low in tions. on the sleeve? Answer. About Question. how some folds turn one way. the front. look at the dress carefully. an attempt were made to draw it as one would draw a flower or a vase.) Is the waist all in one piece? Question. she will have no difficulty in sketching space of time. (Lesson II. tion How wide is the lace inserof and as you answer them. Note carefully all XX lines and the lines for the fullness. R) and is gathered in with the under-waist at the belt where it experienced art student. You can make a sketch even . R) fulled into a deep gauntlet. snappy Compare this plate with Lesson II. (Lesson VI. What kind of a sleeve has it? Answer. and some the other. The two lower flounces are the same on a dressmaker's form: After drawing the form. place the proportions on your form.

This front view being two and one-half times larger than the back. Refer to employer. . connecting them to the material with horizontal lines. By at them and looking closely asking yourself the materials used. all dimensions on it must be All dimensions for the and will aid you greatly in ideas for original designing. make a careful sketch of it in the corner of your paper. Lesson II. write them out opposite each material. Figs. D and E. If it is necessary to record the A exact design of the lace or embroidery required. of to questions you can remember enough draw them afterwards. and the more you sketch the quicker you will become and the more valuable to your art of accurate sketching two and one-half times larger. This is excel- back view must accord with the front.36 looser than this STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING by breaking some lines in If the LESSON XI the high lights. guide line through the center of the insertion will be a help in placing a design. obtaining Practice sketching from costumes. as the lent practice is worth money. is It is well to try to remember costumes you names see in the shops and on people.

LESSON XI 37 QUICK METHOD OF SKETCHING COSTUMES .

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a good outline being a very essential point. it and gives the eye tions of position will not seem difficult. Make Begin with the front eye in the upper left-hand corner of the lesson plate. If done correctly. and is Note 39 the construction of the is full view of the eye understood. Lesson XII deals with the features which are illustrated in the full. is first ten les- In these lessons on anatomy. bones. There are many books on anatomy. the ball occupying about one-third of the width of the eye. planes of body. THE EYE (FULL full FRONT VIEW) the eye in good proportion. but we will reduce them to three. and the the As the upper lid projects over the lower. if so. the principles learned in the sons will apply. is also the pupil. and is In pen and ink drawings you will observe a few lashes suggested on the upper lid. and the outline. as used by artists who paint nude figure from life. view will seem very simple. Some artists indicate the lashes all around both lids. which effect is not very noticeable in the front view. no attempt made to teach the muscles. The as three-quarter. I designates the inner part THE EYE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW) If N slighlly^lower than the outer part. varia- Note the light. the eye-ball has a tendency to slant backwards at the bottom. poise. The deep lashes on. then the The figure as a whole will be considered. and when one understands proportion. which may be taken from the public libraries. each part be dealt with separately. In the front view the ball is round. . the upper lid cause a shadow which hides the eye still more. dressing-up process will then be considered. draw them on the corresponding sides of both eyes.LESSON XII FEATURES In studying the human figure. eye-ball moves from side to side raising the lid as it goes. and the student should become very familiar with them. this is very effective. On the upper lid there are five planes. and profile views. The ball must fit well under the upper lid and not project. he has made great A few of the principal muscles progress. but a complete understanding of these lessons will enable the student to render in in pen and ink the human the fashion field. giving it a soft expression. the whole length being twice the height. little which curves around catch light on the ball. figure as needed These plates are outline drawings. he may go into the subject as deeply as he wishes. and when one understands the outline construction as given here. By continuing the ball through the upper lid one can prove if the ball is hidden enough. as will The diagonal part of the cross line indicates the widest whole eye. the construction After you understand of the features. The lower lid is soft and delicate often omitted in fashions. and bones which come in contact with the outline are mentioned here. the three-quarter the guide line which runs slightly up. which will be extremely interesting. Note the direction of the three planes marked above the eye and the two planes below it.

hence the shadow is not as heavy. also THE LOOKING DOWN EYE (PROFILE VIEW) reverse curve is the slant of the ball backward is In the profile view it is seen by the illustration. It forms a reverse curve. See the lines of direction of these planes marked above and below the mouth. while the lower lid is hidden. THE LOOKING DOWN EYE VIEW) (FULL FRONT The full front. but slightly oval. as it It its on the near. As the upper lid is over the lower. A deep shadow is cast under the eye by the deep lashes. The upper lip has two planes. which causes it to be foreshortened. Place the eye a little lower than where the nose begins. fitting around the fore- THE EYE (PROFILE VIEW) In the profile view we see but half the eye. then reproduce the same effect on the other side. If THE LOOKING DOWN EYE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW) Follow all instructions for the full looking-down eye but foreshorten as in the three-quarter open eye. hence the ball is not a perfect round. is on the forehead bone. In fashions the upper part of the upper THE MOUTH (FULL FRONT VIEW) lid is often omitted. the eye is foreshortened. You will notice Place the eye a proper distance from the nose. V being deeper and . it slants downward not upward. still apparent. which gerated line is illustrated with an exagabove the eye. the lashes being on the far side and the lid The eyebrow head bone. the observer. In diagonal line through its widest part. lid. hiding part of the upper lid on that side. slanting it Be backward. being indicated at the corners only.40 I STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON XII is the inner part. sure to draw the upper lid well over the lower. In this view the eye is turned away from the sleeping eye the lids are closed. the height being mostly on the upper lid. reaches gradually grows thinner outer extremity. the ball and pupil must be foreshortened. the top by the eye being slightly open. Study one side carefully. more so. the deepest shadow being on the far side where the lashes show more prominently. which is fully exposed. He sees the under side of the lashes. beginning at the left. Note the three planes on the upper lid and the two on the lower. and make the ball an ellipse. also Viewing the mouth directly in front one will observe the same shape and distance on each side of the center line. also the is N In the center the shadow darkest. as In the looking-down profile view the still remains. which show mostly on the far side. In fashions it is customary to show lashes on the far side and the lid on the near side. part of the reverse curve being lost. The student will observe that this is the other eye. thicker at the inside. but as the lid closed. In the center of the upper lip two Vs are formed. that the lid takes the shape of a reverse curve. one at the top and the other at the bottom. The height is about one-half the length. slightly downward looking down eye slants at the outside. See both eyes at the bottom of the lesson plate. one plane being hidden by the lashes. while the lower lip has three. upper Notice the five planes on the reduce them to three. as in the full eye. Note the slant up to the outer side. from there it being slants upward.

all directions of the lower lip. Follow all directions for the closed mouth which are on each but part the lips. bring the ends up again. and how the line below the mouth slants back to the chin. THE MOUTH (PROFILE VIEW) In this view we see exactly how far the upper lip projects over the lower. the nose slightly thinner. and show pointy. but the lips are parted. This causes them to be The whole nose spreads The end of projection. it thus making the go around the face. it drawn sideways. The nostrils slant thinner in the front. D stands for the diamond and as B for the the open smiling mouth.LESSON XII more pronounced. Where the lips meet. jaws may be together. being note the lines of all planes which are under the the nose. the nostrils being under the wings or in the outer planes. direction for backward. line for the bridge is often THE MOUTH (THREE-QUARTER VIEW) In the closed three-quarter mouth. The whole mouth measures about two and one-half times its height. center line. having a depression at each corner. be a vacant In between the brows is a diamond shape and from its lower part the nose begins. this THE NOSE (FRONT VIEW) Draw make it not " mouth many times. On the forehead only this is done there will appearance to the whole countenance. and bridge. piece between the nostrils being on the lower plane. Do not part too far. Note the pretty curve between the nose and the upper lip. This causes the mouth to go around the face and also to smile. side of the end. lower V on the upper lip is spread. the. If the three planes of the nose (below the open profile mouth). side. leaves this is soft. mouth on in the three-quarter view of the helps to give the effect of the that side under plane of the nose. Study shows. and the far side of the lower part of the upper lip takes the opposite curve from the near Under the nose there are three planes. The outer extremities of the upper lip are much lower than at the center. try to A nose viewed directly in front does not graceful with pretty curves. but one-half of the mouth. This reverse curves are formed. and how THE NOSE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW) In this view the bridge is prominent and the far side of the wing and nostril ." all its parts to advantage. therefore it shows but one side of the V's. the reverse curve between the lips being very prominent. which is more apparent in the three-quarter view than in the full view. In this view the thickness of the upper lip which causes a shadow. Do upper V too far. In fashions the omitted. If this piece is drawn face. of the FEATURES They are both on the not separate the points two very pretty far 41 the is outer extremities are drooped. the upper lip extends past the lower. consequently the center line of the upper lip extends past the center line of the lower In the open three-quarter mouth the lip. The upper lip fits well over the lower. as are also the wings. In connection with this mouth study the figure at the bottom of the page. Study the nose in connection with the looking down eyes at the bottom of the page and THE OPEN MOUTH (FULL FRONT VIEW) In the open mouth the upper jaw remains stationary while the lower one drops. this being the bone of the nose. making the V's spread. but after drooping these extremities.

LESSON XII causing the far nostril to touch the under piece of the nose. nose. This is the full ear as seen on the profile face. In the three-quarter nose tipped sidewise. an old person's nose being inclined to point downward. See the general line of direction for a young into three equal parts. On the full face less of the ear shows.42' are STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING lost. The ear slants backwards and is divided THE NOSE (PROFILE VIEW) In this view all parts are apparent. one can see more of these under THE EAR In drawing fashion ladies. In Lesson XIV is given the construction lines for placing features. planes. . the opening being in the center divisions. the ear is hidden unless the hair is brushed back tightly.

LESSON XII IN IN /~ -IN IN (>' MB w f \S \ / \\\ I? .m / rx /( .

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of the new as well as Oval No. three-quarter. 2 is of faces. Two lines are drawn for the OVALS FOR HEADS Begin by drawing the ovals. a head is tipped. it is suggested that you try to create an original head. the student will be able to use a picture as a as " model and from head. 3 is quite different. lines as in Indicate these proportions oval No. neck. Place the^yes in the middle head and have them an eye apart." By studying and applying the principles of these lessons. many business houses preferring the first type while others prefer the second. The nose is halfway between the eyebrows and the chin and the mouth is onethird of the way down from the nose to the The eyebrows chin. 2 is drawn the same way. subject. and the profile views. After you have learned to draw a normal in the middle of the face but not in the middle of the drawing. It is well to redraw this oval carefully before placing the features. full. it construct an original fashion figures You types will find in many Oval No. head in its various middle of the drawing. The center line of oval No. The oval is full at the back. on which may be constructed the full. head with normal features. so in fashions we want cross line showing that the the faces to look fresh and the dresses. As this is the full front three heads below. See how it curves around the oval. not slant too much. but as the head is turned partly away from you This oval it gives the three-quarter view. the nose the slant is back to the forehead and down drawing for all heads. but up Lesson of XIV a doing so the understand and before view. in a woman are higher than in a man. by short On take these three ovals may be placed the From the top of the head draw the center line down through the chin. 1 is sketched in by beginning at the arrow and making a sweep around the oval. three-quarter and profile heads. back or front. Hence the chin takes the opposite direction. In young people the eyes are in the middle of the head. A head that is turned is moved from When side to side in an upright position. the top of it is bent to the right. this line will be in the 45 construction positions. which might make a hit with the public. . Do to the chin. is not tipped as No. Do not make the space between the arrow and the neck line TOO wide. XIV should be studied they bear upon the same heads. Oval No. indicating that the head goes slightly forward from the shoulders. which is egg shape. 1 is. the outline but in order to do this you must thoroughly understand the foundation principles of From of the features giving it its shape. that is. which is also back.LESSON XIII THE HEAD AND HAIR Lessons XIII and together. some pretty and some freaky. Place them high enough. Here we have three ovals. it is widest higher than the center or through the eyebrows. 2. left. Note the back of the neck begins on a line with the nose. Continue this line around the oval and down one side of the neck.

show too much of the hair on the far side of the three-quarter face. Be sure the heads are normal before When the hair attempting to draw them. he will be able to render these three heads hair is arranged consequently the lines will fall in a different direction but observe that they fit the head. follows the head in all directions. Remember the of must fit the head and be soft and on Pen and Ink Lines. then ink in with a brush. lines. study pen-and-ink heads in the fashion papers. the hair. but draw fine lines which extend past the solid mass. taking After finishing a drawing of any kind.cheek bone. The crown must fit the and far side of the brim must be the head. wavy. with ease. See how the lines fit around to form the curl. The hat should be placed on the head to give stylish effect. in the right dark hair is required. Keep all rules in mind when copying them. goes toward the back. all lines. Never draw the hat and place the face under it. Note the hole formed at the bottom. one of the eyebrows side. in obtain the general direction of the then fill in until dark enough. hair has black lines indicating the direction. also the few points regarding the hair. . Light After studying these two lessons. will be hidden. drops on the forehead. TO PLACE THE HAT ON THE HEAD ^v THE THREE-QUARTER HEAD In the three-quarter view. decide just what you have learned on that will the same direction. the hair is brushed directly back. being parted at the side. is built up. Study the curl. On the dark side the lines are heavy and on the light side fine lines are drawn which fit between the dark ones. THE PROFILE HEAD In the profile view. . drawing. When drawing a black curl. while the project past the flat part will cling closely to it. See Lesson XIX In the lower profile the hair quite differently. fits around the head at the temples. As the hair is soft at the edge. do not continue the solid ink to the extreme limit. Draw first. first with then with a pen. The lines should be broken on the edges and fit between each other in a soft. continue between these lines or make the lines heavier in the hollows of the hair and underneath the puffed out places. leaving the direction white (or the THE FULL FRONT HEAD On hair is surface of the paper). Black hair has white lines. continuous. just a few lines at direction. and you will find you can create a type of face which is strictly original. Tip it slightly to one If this is done. Get the direction of pencil. the lines following the direction the head and hair where rolled. that part will normal head line.46 If STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING the student understands the construc- LESSON4 XIII tion of the features in and the head as given Lesson XIV. Notice how the the full front view of the head the parted at the side. to fill When wrong side of the loose part is exposed to view and how the lines fit around this part more loosely. and goes away from the face over the ears. curvy effect. fitting around the head toward the back at the temples and Do not curling around the . Be systematic in this and you continue to improve. Always draw a full head and put the hat upon it.

PtACING THE FEATURES. HAIR AMD HAT ON THE HEAD .LESSON XIII 47 2 "-5.

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from (Head No. 3. or collar bone. When the head is tipjlbd down. . shape from the ear to the shoulder curves in.LESSON XIV THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEAD THE FULL FRONT HEAD Head No. Remember that there the space of an eye between the eyes. and the lines of the chin. 5. As one head the upper lip lock's thinner and the eyebrows nearer appears of the. to where the arm joins the body. See Head No. slanting inward to the bdfie. the more the lines curve and the closer together they appear. The more draw the is features. also about the forehead bone.pit of the ne'<fc. extends from the pit of the neck (PN). The perfectly straight position. In Lesson XIII. The and muscles of the body. placing of the features was given in Lesson a ears are between the eyebrows the nose. The backward. All features must follow these guide lines. In the three-quarter view. This triangle takes in the front of the face. all construction lines curve dowh. but never Try to keep them the same size. The moreT the head is tipped down are. The jaw . The nose appears the and the chin are under longer. you learned the outline of the features. It slants slightly clavicle (C). ->*" The line of the outline<6f fhelace. In the front view the cheek bone is not as apparwell Note the triangle formed on all faces. but remember that TZ curves out. fitting on the clavicle in front head on which place Head No. The lines of the neck extend -vfr6m the ears to the middle of these bones. and one cafi^set more of the top of the head. The more the head is thrown back. appears opposite The Irapezius muscle (TZ) is on the 49 shoulders. The sterno mastoid muscle (k/[) runs from the ears to4iie. ent as in the three-quarter view. larger. down on his the eyes. on the neck atthe ears. 3 one sees where the neck really joins the head. A head in this position causes the construction lines to curve up. also sideways. pl^ne lost. in 1 is a view directly in front. consequently one sees under the chin and loses the top of the head. The neqk head the more pronounced these effectsi'v becoitfes -short and the top full. tjje After drawing the center lines and the cross guide lines at the correct distances. In the front view of the nesk this musc^ gives the neck a slight outward curve. Be careful to make the eyes mates and have them set the same under the lids. 4). then in agai$swcifce ^jtojminently th*e THE PROFILE HEAD Draw the correct oval for the profile chin. Head No. descends. In Head No. but it seen in this position the jaw bone. fits The head which runs straight across. further back the head is thrown. and the space of half an eye between the eye and the edge of the face. jaw to the ear. while the remaining portion is on the side. which shows that the chest is forward from the sfioulders. 2 is tipped backward. the far eye might be a trifle smaller. The neck appears longer as one views more of it. and extending down the back in the The general direction XIII. pronounced this is. as do all the of a V.

measuring from the nose to the chin the the three planes of the cap as they around the head. applying points learned in this lesson. have the feeling of a for this muscle. not draw a woman's neck too long. also the advertisements in the cars. The forehead bone pro- The student advised to use pen-and- jects. The trapezius muscle is at the back of the neck. THE THREE-QUARTER HEAD In Head No. Head No. but not as wide as in the full front view. Select large pictures of heads and draw the construction lines through the prope^ places. down to the jaw bone. the fashion Head No. ear. while the general direction of the back of the neck slopes in. the outline going in slightly above it. therefore the ear is nearer the back than in No. ink drawings to draw from as the lines can be seen plainly. The and wash drawings should be saved. a head by drawing construct Always the oval and placing all guide lines before all Do same as from chin to PN. and. slight outward effect Note the diagonal neck front. 5 and not as near as in No. and note fit where it and the reverse curve which is more prominent in a man than a woman. A man's neck is shorter than a woman's. noticeable. The line from this bone descends. 6. information. the far side of the face is lost still more as This view comes between those shown by Heads No. using the Make a collection of heads in different is Note the outline of the far positions. which is the threethe cheek bone is very attempting to draw the features. In this view the line of the chin from the are also the features. jaw runs up to the back of the head. you must THE SEVEN-EIGHTHS HEAD In the seven-eighths view. Head No.50 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON XIV bone runs up to the ear. . Show definitely where the line leaves the cheek and runs into the chin. quarter view. which is as far from the eye as from the mouth. which is straight across. 9. showing that the mouth is higher in the back than in the Watch the front line of the neck joins the jaw. Draw quite noticeable. out to the cheek bone. 7. charts as guides. 6. See on how many pictures you can apply the knowledge gained from this lesson. 8 is the profile view tipped away from you. Study and draw this. 6. Copy them understandingly. Be on the lookout everywhere for some point of Remember to place three-quarter features on a three-quarter face and have the center line in the middle of the face. which is at the Study the people on the cars. Practice drawing heads from the fashion papers. but all photographs goes into the eye. side of the face. 5 and No. is lines from the front to the back of the neck.

LESSON XIV 51 CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEAD IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS .

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the and the ulna in the lower. It is not a position used in fashions. except below the elbow. in this position. arm the then turn it over to the 2. Hands. in fashions. a few only being mentioned here. No shows the inner view of the hand. is turned over. 1 is the view of the with the thumb on arm extended. thumb one bone. and the arm Begin with Fig. the biceps being on the inside PROPORTIONS OF THE ARM AND HAND The upper part of the arm equals the lower. 2 the whole arm as in Fig. but use the chart as a guide. the outside. Leave all breaks when drawing the figures from the chart. in the arm. but are slender. hand. Figs. The middle and next finger are inclined to fall together. especially so when the arm is bent. 1. it must have the shape of an arm and not look like a post. 1. 2. except on children. the humerus. defined. but a good one to study from. Note the cross line on the lower part of the arm. which is the widest part of the whole arm. and two bones. are not chubby. The middle finger is the longest and the little one the shortest. which on the inside and the and turned in tapers from the shoulder to the wrist. To have three directions for the graceful There upper radius radius arm and hand. Place your own arm in front of a mirror in the positions given. makes a more drawing. A higher than the outside. projection of the deltoid lower than where the inner part of the arm joins the body. or upper bone of the arm. then of the lower. and direction of the principal lines of an arm and hand. This is the end of the humerus. the fingers being long and tapering. position of Fig. then of the the position of Fig. arm being more slender and delicate than a man's. The supinator longus (SL) is very prominent. thumb. This matter how slender or delicate an arm is. In this lesson are given the proportions. Place your own hand and position of Fig. and the The back triceps on the of the hand is seen. bear this in mind. More genis erally the arm hangs down more in the The biceps (B) and triceps (T) 53 position of Fig. which indicates that the inside bulge is is The lower direction. breaks being left where the lines change their satisfactorily. and see if you can woman's follow the points illustrated. and turn the lower part only to the position of Fig. 2. In Fig. Place your hand in Ascertain the direction of the upper part of the arm. is lost to view. under. Fig. 3 and 6. 1. the biceps being on the front part and the triceps on the back. with the biceps on the . 5. The rotates over the ulna causing the to fall on the inside.LESSON XV THE ARM AND HAND Arms and hands close require a great deal of study before they can be drawn are on the shaft. On the part of the arm are many intricate muscles. the muscles are not so clearly When drawing arms in fashions. the others being of nearly equal length. The deltoid (D) is at the top on the outside. is outside.

The thumb joins the hand slightly back of the knuckles and reaches almost to the second joint. the inner part being a reverse curve. it differs from the others in that the first joint is forward of the crease below it. Fig. the center line being bends. here shown chest. and is half way between the wrist and the ends of the fingers. the elbow. Take up Fig. would run to may be turned still more. Note the break where the hand joins the wrist. which is more apparent when the hand is turned over. if continued. learn its proporis then refer to the inside. 8 and 9. 6. STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING In this position the lower part LESSON XV as in Fig. which extend slightly past the arm line. then takes a square effect between the curve and the wrist. When the fingers are doubled or bent. Note how narrow the side view of the is. thumb takes the outside of the hand. Fig. K opposite the knuckles. inside. In Fig. Double your hand and see for yourself what curve the on the inside of the palm. 3. the side of the finger give the effect of a heavy glove. When the arm is bent while the outer part curves in. 11 is In Fig. watch the wrist directions the lines take. then place the glove lines. 1. and a collection of figures (in underin dresses) with the arms in positions. The stitching on the back gives the appearance of a glove. 6 the humerus (H) and ulna (U) show at the elbow. the deltoid is raised and the trapezius shows back of the deltoid. the hand in the latter being between the middle and the next line at the side of the finger. with them/ . The bulging part of the palm shows between the thumb drawing an arm under a sleeve. or raised as in Fig. When Make clothes different fully. a position much used palm and the one at The fingers are shorter on the They join the hand on a curve. but not at the knuckles. resting on the the gloved hand. Note the direction Draw and re -draw of the lines of the plate until the arms on the lesson you become perfectly familiar thumb. The double placed on the in fashions. hip. 10 is the first finger. The fleshy part of the thumb forms the palm and is about half its of part width at the wrist. the line for the supinator longus. 1 the crease in the palm is under the knuckles and is in the middle of the hand. 7 which is tions.54 inside. Fig. Draw the hand and Each finger has two joints where it arm. Study these care- and the first finger. be sure to have the sleeve take the shape of the arm. one joint only being given except in Figs.

LESSON XV 55 CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARM AND HAND IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS .

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breaks. THE FRONT VIEW OF THE SHOE On 57 The foot also points out. and 6. so the lines are give grace to your work. 1 and 2. 2. of the upper portion part of the leg. The knee fits between these muscles and the lower drawn from the upper part This shows portion. going back and forth over the lines. see the vertical line. out. the inside ankle being higher than the outside. the lower part being set well back of the upper. Fig. the front view of the shoe note the it direction of the leg. e vastus interims (VI) is on the inside and is low. 2 on it careRemember that the muscles of the . The lower portion in the back is a decided part is in. the direction of is lines the essential point. Keep these drawings fully. 4. 1 and 2 note the vertical line to the toes. SHOES In the five different positions of the shoe body form very pretty reverse curves you must have this feeling in mind in order to obtain the effect. eral direction of the inward curve. THE BACK VIEW OF THE LEG is back In the back view of the leg the lower part of the upper. Practice reverse curves with your pencil. the leg takes the outward direction. The back part of the upper portion is in. Draw Fig. and place Fig. 1 is the main outline of the leg. All parts of the inner side are nearly on a line. When THE FRONT VIEW OF THE LEG The leg it. partly hidden and Get the direction of it is is fore- all lines of the foot as lost behind the leg. being sketched in with broken lines. 2 is the modeled leg placed on Fig. broken. out. you will see a which does not affect the genslight out. then of the foot as . Study the lower part of the leg. which does not change the general direction. See Figs. Make other drawings of these figures on which place Figs. the calf being a very prominent feature. notice how much higher the outside is than the inside. 5 Figs. while the vastus externus (VE) is on the outside and is high. how far back to place the lower The general direction of the front is At the ankle this is reversed.LESSON XVI THE LEG AND SHOE THE PROFILE VIEW OF THE LEG The profile The re- leg is posed of many intricate view of the leg forms a muscles. The knee projects. the back. then place Fig. noting the cross for reference. and yet at the knee and below ing connect the lines. 3. but drawing from the chart leave all when making a finished draw- is general direction of this view of the in. Fig. them only being mentioned verse curve. but on this also you will see a slight out. Fig. 1. and 5. while the lower but on this in. thus obtain- ing the general shape and proportion. foot is The shortened. 1. In Figs. 1. Much practice of this kind will which are given here. 6 on it. yet the general direction of this projection slopes toward Draw Draw lines.

The next lesson advises the student to study books on anatcmy. Do not confine yourself to one book. There are many books on this subject and from each one the student will leara something. dainty the heel In the three-quarter view of the shoe is almost lost. leaving high lights for the shape of the shoe. not down. The outer curve of the shoe breaks into the instep. it is foreshortened and the vamp does not appear as long as in the sole. the heel being is view lost. Study from these books just how the bones of the It will be excellent practice. Note the plane at the back of the shoe and the two planes on the heel. you. The foot being turned away from you. the ground. not like a rubber. foot Note the recedes. at the edge (except on the dark side) and on pencil THE BACK VIEW OF THE SHOE In the back view of the shoe the top line curves up. also the center This shoe is not resting evenly on line. mark with the place to be inked in. drawing a slipper. When When the shoe is pointing slightly toward the inside of the heel is seen. Get the three planes on the vamp and tip. The heel does not appear as far under the foot as in the side view. the other . more prominent than the There are three planes on the shoe which show most distinctly where the vamp and tip are sewed. . leg fit under the surface. When drawing a black shoe. the toe only touching it. THE THREE-QUARTER VIEW OF THE SHOE THE SIDE VIEW OF THE SHOE Note all breaks and curves on this shoe and make the heel fit well under the foot. views.58 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING in this LESSON XVI it is comes toward you. lost. showing that nearer to you than the instep. The top line curves down and the heel is on a line with the sole. make it look and like a slipper. line of leg direction as the The NOTE. The inside ankle is very prominent while the outside one is longer and inner.

LESSON XVI 59 CONSTRUCTION OF THE LEG AND SHOE IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS .

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The relaxed leg may be placed anywhere. From the shoulder to under the arm one-half (5) head or less. Later. suit. The figure must be slim and graceful. using broken lines. Lesson I. 61 being turned slightly. but the student will do well to make figures seven (7) to eight (8) heads high. PROPORTIONS OF THE FIGURE The (8) In the three-quarter view one sees considerably more of one side than of the other. review the previous lessons. nude the figure were balanced evenly (on both feet) the line of support would fall between the feet. The figure given in this lesson is not nude. while the hands extend below this point. This is between this point and the feet. bathing suit. figure. when you know how. paper. but many are almost heads high. both of the hips being above the middle of the figure. or one in underclothes although busy artists merely sketch in the figure without finishing parts that do not show in the finished drawing. as parts poorly drawn will make a poor whole. . of the shoulders. you <may use curved lines if you prefer. In fashions there are very few strictly full full. The hand is as long as from the chin to above the eyebrows. but is too stout it will not look right. Fashion figures vary as style changes. 1. figure measures seven (7) to eight front faces. The ter legs must join the body at the cenand on the center line of the figure. given on heads. If Study the proportions given here and apply them to Fig. 1. If the student will draw the the figure. 1 It is a is the way to commence to draw. In this position the standing hip is high while the other one is low. The arms bend opposite the reaching down to the center of the Remember the lesson on the three-quarter form. which would give it a knock-kneed appearance. The knees are less than half (J) way is complete figure carefully under every garment.LESSON XVII THE FRONT FIGURE (THREE-QUARTER VIEW) To draw a good must first fashion figure the body The neck is about one-third (f ) the width be placed under the clothes. Fig. The figure may measure the required number of heads. arms and legs. See how the dress form conforms to the shape of the human figure. The standing an imaginary line (or line of support) is line from the pit of the neck to the standing foot. place Remember all instructions Fig. See Lesson XVIII. heads down from the chin. but must extend from the hip and not from the knee. The foot is about the length of the head. a saving of time for one who knows how. dress. rough outline of the proportion. After you have drawn Fig. This line must be parallel with the edge of the paper. and the placing of the figure on the action. See line of direction for the hips. underclothes. If you are weak on these. waist measures less than the shoullegs join the The body at the center of course not clinging to the figure as closely as a dress). The waist is about one (If) and three-quarter waist. 2 on it. but is ready for a corset. he will have no trouble when drawing a bathing figure. or a coat (a coat. also sketch of the hips. of The ders.

By this these books. So many would just love to such cute little are children. their eyes are large Mark off the waist line one and three- and wide-awake. children play a great part. Professionals begin to lines. flat shoes. so learn all When drawing children. that the student would do well to devote much tune to them. measure or eight heads to the standing foot. which is turn to the upper lid. with a peculiar quarter heads down. also make drawings of ladies and children in underclothes. Children have no busts. keep them the same size. this lends grace to The head a girl. book-covers. cards. ages. give them plenty of action toy. from catalogues. three and one-half years. etc. . in mind all figure. using and chubby. Their hands and arms are chubby as are also their legs and feet. draw the shoulders. the bust. Do not draw the features until thp whole figure is swung in correctly. half to seven (65 to 7) heads. they things. from six to eight TO DRAW THE FIGURE Place the figure nicely on the paper. but the student must advertisements. etc. In fashions a tiny baby measures three (3) heads high. but be sure that you make them cute. They wear square. making a mark where the foot comes.. draw with heavy Children are used for so many purposes but light lines are advised until the student is fairly sure of his proportions. When cording to their ages. and not little old men and scholars say. also be careful to have the feet mates. commence at the top. In PROPORTIONS OF CHILDREN children are "little people. help to denote their When this is done. and one long line down to the standing foot. the standing hip. six to six and one-half (6 to 65) heads. being short. (85) heads. Their cheeks stick out. Lesson deals with this class of work. and one-half from twelve to fourteen years. but never as long as a woman's. A begin again child has a round head instead of an by redrawing the oval the proper size. longer at sixteen years. egg-shaped one. A boy has squarer features than . A tiny baby's eyes may be placed a little below the middle. Inquire at the library for books on this Make numerous drawings from subject.62 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING is LESSON XVII often turned in the opposite direction to the body. I draw time the student should know enough of the outline of the figure to be able to use books on anatomy to advantage. at sixteen years from six and onefrom five (5) to five (5 to 5|) heads. Their noses are short and small and their mouths small on the action side. Keep proportions and swing in the these spacings as guides. the eyes being in the middle of the head. drawing hands. at four years. Remember the standing line must pass down seven through the ball of the foot. At fourteen the child becomes a young miss. Their dresses. women. Much study should be given to anatomy. besides fashions. This takes but little time and can be easily erased if the figure does not fill the given space nicely. and swing in the correct oval. and takes somewhat the build of a woman without any apparent bust proThe dress is longer. "Oh. and is still jection." no extra drawings are given. If incorrect. XXX As remember that different from those their proportions are quite of adults. you can of this interesting and make them interested in some subject." That is so. Children's proportions vary ac- the figure.

LESSON XVII 63 THE WHOLE FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME .

house to work from. while some houses require the "swingy" kind. When the skirt is swung out as the wind were blowing See still it. also the X's XX . Use the lines of the suit on the figure. use a suit figure. putting them together understandingly. we have the lines. is placing a given costume. etc. put the arm up. etc. bring it slightly forward. he will have no difficulty in understanding this lesson. which has been designed by someone else. in the ments. Be careful to poise the figure correctly. A slightly. on a suitable figure which will show the costume to the best advantage. drawing a figure with the legs crossed. like the illustrations newspapers or the catchy advertiseLearn to draw the up and down figure. An original drawing is one that has been So far XXX show both sleeves. and place the given suit on these lines. is walking. one that will show the costume to the best advantage. When For a suit. you will have either the gown itself. but if you practice taking one figure and another dress from the fashion papers. find another evening dress figure in the same position (as nearly as possible). The figure in the illustration is swung if may have one designer who decides how the gowns are to be made. When illustrating a costume. then a proper figure on which to place it. matter whether you are designing a costume or illustrating one. As the weight is divided you will easily see how all equally between the feet. such as some of the pattern houses use. If there is something particularly attractive under the arm. which is an original drawing. When illustrating a costume be careful to nothing has been said about Lessons XXIX and original designing. Pick out the dress first. made by using a picture as a guide and changing it enough to make it your own. the center line and lines of fullness will also swing. The figure may have the legs crossed in walking and the weight be solely on one foot. An illustration. the knowledge required to place it No on the figure is the same. are devoted to this subject. principles apply. then try the swingy kind. In the beginning you will find it hard to render the costumes from the costumes themselves. the line of support falls between them. On this figure may be placed any costume. do not draw the far foot straight across the paper. This figure is slightly different from the last one as it a suitable figure. Many figures are drawn in a normal standing position. as they fit the figure. or a sketch of it. Try to draw possible positions. nor should the left hand be placed on the chest. If an evening-dress. which would cover the design. In the dress illustrated the right-hand should not rest on the hip. how much easier the lines of this dress are In either case pick out 64 than the ones in Lesson II. and many illustrators who put these designs on figures ready for reproduction.LESSON XVIII TO PLACE A DRESS ON THE FIGURE ILLUSTRATING A COSTUME If the student is able to dress up the dummy form and understands the figure in the last lessons.

like a fiftydollar one. sistent there are two XX lines near but do not equally to both sides of the Keep the sizes and shapes con- draw them continuous with the leg. keep the whole drawing going and do not concentrate on the shaded places. ready for pen and ink. : See Lesson XIX for pen lines and Lesson good drawing. studying them carefully. plished by making an accurate tracing on transparent paper. If costume appears expensive. Fill in gradually. Considerable dark in a picture looks attractive. Place all darks so that the eye will be every drawing. If desired to use shading or textures. is much thought should be given. with a hard pencil. which to- placed close Keep come toward you light. the parasol. outline. made clearly of thin material the simi- must be paper about five and after rubbing Take a smooth piece of inches by seven inches. a twenty-dollar suit appear. it and a soft downward it face between the pencil. 65 extended. and good technique. then fill in gradually with lines for shading which accord with the outline. costumes. top of the arm." . bear this in mind when making a drawing. costumes and see how others treat their work. Three things must always be kept in mind good style. There is usually a dark and a light side to ting. use the proper Redraw Study carefully. fastening it on the board at the top. applying he will be ready to draw figures on bristol board. places which for example. but do not make the figure so dark in one place that the general build of the whole will be lost. When illustrating a costume. Good costume fact larly if rials of the is technique in expressing the matecostume is necessary. place rate. pick out a figure which will show it to advantage. one that will tend to induce the customer to buy the costume. you must study carefully the illustrations in the fashion papers and copy the lines of artists. Note how the XX lines fall both ways and how sometimes X and O run together. Now that you understand what the lines mean. This may be accom- costume correctly. etc. attracted picture. is heavy. place Mark and the fresh over paper. Good drawing is necessary. line of the leg. it the material Many brought out. The tracing paper may be lifted to examine the work without disturbing its position." In a layout good spotting holds the drawing together. etc. for one can the student finds his work of untidy. tracing the lines carefully with a hard pencil. but when representing a costume. You if will find this easier you select to accomplish a stylish figure for your is model. on the hat. your services will be in demand. only.LESSON XVIII and the O's. Copy the lines used by other artists. the dark somewhere else. solidly with are illustrated in outline only. TO PLACE A DRESS ON THE FIGURE When a leg is it. The is lines for shading should follow the figure form and help to mold the underneath. Good style is important because if a If the student practices it this lesson on original work. it is called good spot- shoes. he may transfer the drawing to a clean not draw a stylish figure if one does not know how to render the figure and the sheet paper. these darks are attractively distributed " over a drawing. with each other. When bust. A large dark will balance several small ones. illustrations of Obtain a good lines to denote the material. If the Place this tracing over the clean sheet in the same position. whether light or dark. faithfully. be accuIf the costume is all light. Make your " people put on airs. Lines gether form a shade. background. XXVI for textures. other poor If you can make points may be forgiven.

is further advanced. one. then inking them in and erasing the pencil lines. while others do not. hat. This lesson may be referred to from time time as the student progresses. decide on Illustration until work cannot be mastered most attractive Make the hat a very cheap expensive looking. silk or velvet. Keep the technique of these. Hats should be shaded to bring out the charmthere must be a light and a dark side. placing lines closer on the dark side but do not be mechanical. It is well in studying to adopt the practice of first building the outlines. Represent the material the hat is made of whether straw. if it is make them full and attractive. done in a sketchy Well being used. circles and other shapes. behind hats lend enchantment. the student Illustrations are often Shaded back-grounds. The shading lines may then be placed in pencil and inked in. . Some houses like sketchy work. manner. even Do not stint on ribbons and bows. many lines connected lines are advised until the student understands the meaning of all lines.. A " sketchy effect " for a hat is attractive.66 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON XVIII illustrating When its a side.

LESSON XVIII FITTING A COSTUME ON THE FIGURE .

.

bristol board. BEN DAY MACHINE Use a hand. ready to ink in a fashion figure. In the shadow. and a very steady hand is required. also vertical ones. As bristol board is expensive for practice work. A line should be professional. Ink lines should be rendered on hard finished paper. When one can draw these lines well on a separate paper. ity of shelf paper. arms. The idea is projection. collars. unless shadis ing called for. etc. Lastly. hands. requires. and the artist must know beforehand.. eyelashes. grip make two dots your penholder may be joined. and on this paper. Kid finished bristol is also used. continuous line On your a distance practice paper apart. Lines should be thick or thin. as underneath parts that project. and very fine lines for work. buy a good qual- not to draw just an ink line over the pencil line but to draw the right kind of a line. Cut out a sheet of bristol board. keeping the eye in advance of beginning again. lines are often wider. Fill sheets with these lines until you feel perfectly free and have control over your pen. In this way you will become familiar with the lines. the wider the shadow. not forget this when drawing long end of the line has been reached. A long. tice all lines with Draw horizontal. FRENCH WASH. but when tightly. ink in your drawing of lines Several fine lines instead of line give the one wider sion. The greater the Many feel this way. A line should be of even width. time the student must desire to Ink work is extremely suitable pen for the work in but it requires much practice. interesting. allow the first set to dry before crossing them. The very idea that you are afraid will cause your hand to be unsteady. edge gained by drawing them in pencil. eye a soft expresthese lines in the fashion Study 69 and if the result is satisfactory. and many good drawings have been spoiled because the student did not practice the lines on a separate piece of paper. it must be the right kind of a line in the right place. using the knowl- in condition to ink in his Fine lines should be used for faces. ink in a drawing. and with pencil copy all lines carefully. This will take the ink. he is pen only. the student must practice practice PRACTICE PRAC- straight or wavy. fairly near the point. . You may be able to render a nice drawing in pencil and be afraid to touch your pen to it. Draw slowly. that is. a little of the picture In the place a pen line should be made with one clean-cut stroke and not patched up. etc. as the nature first TICE. larger than the chart. you are papers. parallel lines. plate finish being the best. keeping the wrist well In this lesson are given some of the lines used in fashions and the student must pressed on the board. Do lines. as belts. Prac- become very familiar with them.LESSON XIX PEN AND INK By this LINES. place the pen point back of the end and do not press on the pen until the the pen-point. just what he wishes to do. This board will take a wash of water-color paint. cuffs. Refer to Lesson I on how to study with a sharp point. When crossing diagonal lines. and connect the dots.

70

STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING

LESSON XIX

THE USE OF LINES
As
said
before,
If

paint being used.

The shadows may be
This
is is

strengthened
lines

by darker tones.
well,

should

not

be

difficult to

do

and much practice

crowded.

a shaded

effect is required,

required.

Follow directions carefully.

parts of the lines

may

touch, but keep the

lines well separated so that the parts

not

touching will not run together when reproduced. Study all lines in the fashion papers, cut out examples as you have done for other
lessons.

DIRECTIONS FOR FRENCH WASH

Different

artists

use

different

kinds of lines; become familiar with them
all.

Mix the tones of gray in different saucers, having more color than is needed to go over a given space. Try the color tones on a piece of paper, allowing them to dry, as when dry they will be lighter. If too
dark, add water; if too light, add paint. Hold the drawing on a slant and, begin-

Line 1 is used for trimmings, worsted, etc. Lines 2 and 4 are used for lace;
lines 3 for feathers;

lines 5 for designs

and

ning at the top, apply a coat of clear water all over the parts to be painted. Allow
this to dry.

trimmings; lines 6 for fullness. Practice with bold strokes. Lines 7 are used for chiff on keep the lines fine. Lines 8 and 9
are used for silk
fitting

the brush

full of color,

Pick up some paint, having begin at the top,

and gently carry the color across the paper,
allowing
across.
it

keep

lines well

one cluster into another. are used for hair; lines 11 for crepe; lines 12 for woolen goods this is done with the point of the pen; be careful not to make hooks at the ends of the dots. This is called stipple and may be scattered all over a garment which gives a light tone, or the dots may fall on top of one another, or be placed close together, which causes a dark shade. This is an easy way to shade
a drawing.
Spatter work is the spattering of ink all over the part to be covered. Put a little

spaced, Lines 10

to run

down

as

it

is

carried

go back or allow the color to dry; keep the edge wet until the bottom is reached, then pick up the extra paint with the dry brush wipe on a rag.

Never

;

A

blotting paper is very handy if the color tries to run below the bottom line

THE BEN DAY MACHINE
Benjamin Day of New York, invented a machine for placing lines and dots over given surfaces. This machine will print, on the drawing, textures, such as diagonals, squares, dots, etc., wherever it touches
the drawing, thus saving the artist the time required to draw them. They are more

ink in a saucer, dip a tooth-brush in it, and while holding the bristles down, run a
knife over them, of course, covering the part not to be spattered. Try this out on

mechanical

then

pen

lines

and

often
is

a separate piece of paper. A line may be very fine but must be black. See method of reproduction, Lesson XXVIII.

much

closer together.

All the artist

FRENCH WASH
French wash is an outline ink drawing, rendered on illustration board with flat washes of gray, lamp black water-color

do is to rub with a blue pencil or apply a coat of Cobalt blue watercolor paint to the part of the drawing on which he wishes this machine applied. Blue will not show in the reproduction. Cut out illustrations of Ben Day and do not confuse it with French wash,
obliged to
stipple or spatter work.

LESSON XIX

A

71

12

PEN AND INK LINES

LESSON

XX

FEATHERS AND HATS
few lines are used, the to object being explain the general direction the lines take.

In

this lesson

To draw a
should

full feather,

many more

lines

be added.

The student should

make a

careful study of all drawings of feathers, also of the feathers themselves. The mass of small feathers to make up the

At the bottom they fit more closely together and take a slight reverse curve. Feather No. 5 is a feather which turns over at the top. Note the line of feather where the turns and light the little feathers which show at the
each other.
edges.

Draw
sels.

the ostrich feather, boa and tas-

whole are confusing, but when one
that
it is

realizes

the direction that

a few

lines of the right

is important, kind will give the

desired effect.
If the feather is soft like those of

the

ostrich (Feather

No.

1), it

must be drawn

with curvy

lines,

the ends of the lines form-

prominent. When drawing a black feather, obtain the direction as in the lesson plate, ink it,
leaving the direction white. Draw the hat with the wings. Note how the feathers in the wings fit behind

ing the edge of the feather. under. The vein is often

They

curl

Feather No. 6 separates at the top, being in two parts. At the bottom one side only of the second part is seen. Draw the pompon. The short lines curve around the edge and form the circle, only a few lines being drawn within its border on the dark side. The center, being left light, gives the ball shape. Study the straw hat with high crown,

and turn-up brim.
to
fit

Note the three planes
See

the head.

how

the straw

fits

around the high crown and brim and how
the cross lines of the straw are indicated on
the dark side.

each other, some lines being drawn

full

They take

the direction

length while others fall short. The hat shows a plane on the side, and one in front. When making a finished drawing, the

of the curve of the hat.

planes are not apparent. of direction below the hat.

See the lines

This hat has a high crown.

Mark

the

center, curve the lines to be inked around the center in the direction of the hat, leav-

round crown forms an ellipse. a hat is viewed from above, one sees much of the brim and crown. This hat is bound on the edge. Where the brim turns up, the width of the binding is lost. The band follows the crown.
flat,

A

When

ing high lights
corner.

where the hat turns the
2.

Draw
is lost

Feather No.

See

how

the vein

over,

at the top where the feather turns and how the small feathers take

As said before in Lesson XIII, the hat must be so placed on the head as to give a stylish effect. Refer to this lesson when drawing hats. When drawing a hat, have some decided turns on it, not points
which will keep the hat from looking like a tin pan. When drawing a black hat, be sure to have white lines separating its parts. A hat made solid black will look larger than
exactly, but a change of direction
73

Feather No. 3 is a paradise Study the direction of the lines. Note how fine they are and how some are long, some short, the lines fitting between
sharp turns.
feather.

. This high light takes the shape of the hat. You can use any picture facing the other way by reversing it in a looking glass. use one facing the same way. hard. will show a decided high a given place. shiny sur- LESSON XX when head. etc. profile comes part light in A face.74 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING outlined. like beaver. When interesting. If you succeeded with the lesson on pen and ink. as the line of the edge beof the hat. to ink in these feathers will way other artists treat hats and placing a hat on another be very feathers. Study carefully the Use a hat for a profile head.

LESSON XX 75 CONSTRUCTION LINES FOR HATS AND FEATHERS .

Fig. show but the inner part. vanishing on the far side. if one understands Place the stick The fit stick must hand. and notice how the curve of the far side is less than the curve of the near closed parasol. is usually than the to An is open parasol resting on the ground bound show the inside. Note the center and how the ribs curve. layout. This parasol does not take inside. circle In the Japanese parasol. place the loops on how it. 4. the Make it Draw it. of the short end of the stick. it draw 1. the more the outside only. Fig. rest being viewed on a slant. 5 shows where the ribs join the center and the supports from the stick to the ribs. ellipse at The silk. Draw on on is it. 7 is you see of the inside. and place and place on the Fig. 2 Fig. and the less on the near side. on the shoulder and stick in the The may be ruled Begin through the with Fig. 1. then the ends of the ribs which form a around the stick. 1. Fig. continuous If through the you show much little of of the outside. the layout. 76 . 3 part of the hidden. slim. Fig. The average parasol has eight ribs.LESSON XXI PARASOLS Parasols are very interesting and they are not hard to their formation. and extending past the edge Fig. The less you observe of the top of the parasol. stick must be where in the it a right angle to it. They extend past the edge. In Fig. you view the The stick must go through the middle and the ribs must curve to form the hollow of the parasol. 3 far side side. a perfect round. Study the parasol carefully. middle and be goes to obtain a straight line. Draw layout. The upper less part of the stick silk part. See Draw ruffle the openings fall.

LESSON XXI 77 CONSTRUCTION OF THE PARASOL IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS .

1. so at the tails. then the lines for the fur. Remember lines. FANS All sticks for a fan point. is but the end takes the shape of an ellipse. As the muff is flat. so we have two extremes. is wraps around lines. Note the lines as they go around the muff and around the hole. These divisions may be divided and sub-divided. the main shape of Figs. Sticks are often drawn Make the fur look edge. See Lesson XXVII on perspective. There are many kinds of furs. while on the shoulder they go toward the back. The student should make a large collection of pictures of furs during the winter. use curly ones. On these foundations any kind of may be created. Try placing a For this a fur texture all over a coat. the lines are straighter and the plane at the end is narrow. the thickness of the fur extending past lines XX. but remember the principles stated. which is Fur should look full and the lines must follow the shape of the fur piece. the middle stick. with a double line. use long lines. Feather fans are very popular in fashions. A is white fur against a black back- ground very . especially A fan partly open will take the lines middle causes the fur to fall both up and down. 2. The long or curly. all fur obtain a good outline on which place the correct lines. Fur trimming which is full. Fig. In the flat muff the lines follow the form. 78 good copy needed. a catalogue on the subject will give the different kind of technique. Note the different direction of lines where joined in the of the plaits on a skirt. Make it the fur full at edges and where Fig. draw Short fur drawn with short Fig. If if Watch the lines carefully as they go around the muff and around the hole. as he may wish to use them in summer for the following season. the top of the fan. Fig. For. for summer. 1 and 2. which form the Draw Draw the end sticks making them meet. Follow the lines for the neck piece. from this set curve. as it is viewed in perspective. furs and fans. XX. the fur the is joined. The lines for the fur fall down towards must meet in one in the hand. and the one half-way between it and the end sticks. curly lines may be massed in places to form the shadows or indications of the fur. In this position the middle sticks are hidden where they join the center. The hole is nearer the far side. If the shape at the different a fan top is it so. Draw shape.LESSON XXII FURS AND FANS The student must learn to dress his figure warmly for winter and to convey the effect of coolness. 4. the front. black fur will have white effective. 3. or lines used to represent the texture of the article. is See how the follow around the muff and give it There is a plane at the end (which flat) with a round hole in the middle. first the fur has long hairs. the round muff.

VK. v v^ ' >\/ j / THE GEHERAL DIRECTION OF LINES FOR FURS AND FANS .LESSON XXII 79 1 1 If.

you Always use figures facing the same way. out again over the hips and buttock. Use previous instructions when drawing the legs and feet. and the line for the neck breaks into the face. the legs join the body below the middle and the waist-line curves up. The far shoulder is longer and is more sloping than the near one. he be somewhat at home when studying As in Lesson XVII. as it is on this side figure See how the bust goes around to the front as also do the arms. and do not make the mistake of putting an almost full face on a back figure. which are brushed up to the top of the head. of it. reverse curves. 2 on it. the throat being lost some- The than front will figures. in again to where the legs join the body. figure is not nude but ready for a garment. what. measuring seven and three-quarter heads high. the break of the sleeve at the supinator longus takes the opposite direction from of the the front view. The lower ened. In this view of the head. as are also the figures in Lesson XXIV and Lesson XXV. Try turning your own head toward your back. In the back figure. have the lines of the dress conform to the action of the figure as in Lesson XVIII. the ear is nearer the front. When placing a dress on this figure. figures in corsets and in These are harder to find trapezius muscle breaks into the neck. in again for the waist. See if several back figures. Do not curve the center line too much for the fashion figure. the will this beginning at the neck it curves in. Note the hair lines. then out for the shoulders. showing that the face and throat are forward. not down. When the arm is bent and extended forward. The ends of these lines in the back form a curved up line like the back collar line. although a profile or seven-eighths front head may be placed on this body. in one can combine them drawing. Compare 80 . The head is a threequarter batk view. Draw Fig. Draw back underclothes. This is a three-quarter back view. 1 and place Fig. portion of the arm is foreshort- When illustrating the back of a costume.LESSON XXIII THE BACK FIGURE If the student has been successful with The center line of the body takes two the front figure and remembers its proportions and how to start the drawing. use a back figure going the same way as the costume sketch to be illustrated. Study the little sketch of the nude back and of the trapezius muscle as it fits on the back of the head. See Lesson II on the back form. Keep everything that help you. Do not turn the head too far around to the front. even upper and lower parts of figures. showing that the upper part arm is on this side of the lower. the lesson.

LESSON XXIII 81 THE BACK FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME .

note the long straight line in front. but be sure they belong to a head in the same position. book covers and advertisements. mind all points regarding the As the inner view of the profrom the outer. in Keep file profile leg. If the student can draw a graceful figure in all positions. but we keep the figure erect. from which to draw. the side of the body being narrower than the front. caused by the shoulder blades. 82 . See the separate sketch of this. which is distinct from the arm. The body may bend at the waist forin fashions. should be as familiar with front view. However. as it is not as frequent in it does not Be sure to show the plane on the shoulder. upward turn. Refer to Lesson XVII for proportions leg is slightly different sketches are given here of the straight and bent knee. but the student may combine parts' of different figures if he understands their construction. such as cards. This is also noticeable view is inclined to look somethan it is. which does not show where the legs join the body. use other features. It is better to find a satisfactory figure curved line in the back. which extends from the pit of the neck to where the arm begins. When the arm is extended forward. In this case the eyes must be lowered as well. he can use the knowledge side The when the arm hangs straight what taller down. and the long of the figure. See Lesson XXX.LESSON XXIV THE SIDE FIGURE The side figure is fashions as the front view. unless the figure is interested in some object and is inclined to bend the head downward. as with the This figure measures seven and threequarter heads high. with the head on an gained in decorative work. first show a costume in all its parts. and the student it See the clavicle in the drawing. If the features of a figure are not clearly As defined. graceful and artistic. note the square effect on the back. this figure is ready for a corset. ward and side-ways.

LESSON XXIV 83 THE SIDE FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME .

Study the wrinkles in the bent arm which are mostly on the inside. as the arm placed behind this figure. the leg flatit An arm will show the inside of the sleeve tening out slightly where bench. observing how your knees extend past the edge.LESSON XXV THE SITTING FIGURE As the figure in this lesson is sitting. rests on the at the wrist. bent more than a standing one. On in dresses. cuffs on not draw the near side of the bench close to the under side of the knees. the shape will be destroyed. all of Study the sketch of the outside bent knee. is lost in the height of the figure. all positions. Study the lines of the main wrinkles. the lines for the bust extending to the center of it. its the heavy line be allowed to be on the outIf brought within border. but not in the middle of the The drawing. from the edge of the bench and from the knees. . Draw the sitting figure in underclothes and legs join the body in the middle of the figure. but one seldom does. for example. From the head to below the one. so draw sitting figures in Note drawn arm. which is resting on the bench. It is possible to sit far back. It is suggested that when a wide line is placed around a careful drawing. Study the lines of the around the figure. how they fit bust is is the extended thrust out. to where the body bends two. Try sitting on a chair. fall dress. arm they pull as the arm is Remember sits the figure bends where it and again at the knees. Let us divide the drawing into three equal parts. Bear this in mind when placing sleeves. A sitting figure may be the horizontal part. Do The far armhole forms a reverse curve. a carefully A figure may sit or recline quite differ- ently from this. unless the arm is turned back. side of the pencil line. to the bottom of the foot is three. Draw indicated the far leg through the near one as by the dotted lines. As under the arm is on a different plane from the front of the body it is often shaded. the inside one being illustrated in the last lesson.

LESSON XXV 85 THE SITTING FIGURE READY FOR A COSTUME .

.

Fig. 13 14 is is dark part of a light silk skirt. 10 is embroidery. Consult the lists of materials given at the end of the lesson. If all. if very rough. the outline of all parts to be inked in. To draw the human figure correctly. dimity goods. Do not good ink lines. For white rendered in white paint. and if placed on a nicely drawn sweater. silk. 9 work out the is lace. the artist needs to be familiar with textures. is shadows. To form a ing must and the whole mass of lines must follow the form on which the texture is placed. The solid ink parts fit into each other in a sori of lighting effect. Always allow this to dry before applying the with them examine them or obtain samples. 8 is or use fine lines for thin swiss. Much This brush. 7 is moire silk. WORK Fig. Be careful of the outline and have a good foundation of stripes or plaids on which to place the texture. under the general Many artists accuracy to be devote their 2 and 3 are crochet or knitted worsted. we recognize the material. a detail representation of textures comes classification of detail It requires great artist. this order in the reversed. He must be able to make the garment. the drawing for a silk dress convey the pattern carefully. white paint. allow the rough edges to form the edge of whole time to this type of work. and also of the basket. when drawing a basket. the imagination does the rest. a flat piece would not be shaded but on the figure the shading helps the form. the lines of the drawtake the form of the weave. The student of this lesson needs to be able to render mesh is in either squares or first diamonds. worked out in white used thick from a jar. should be the aim of all students of fashion drawing. and from the goods themselves. another kind of stroke The same kind of lines which gives a very pretty silk effect. 6 is rough cloth. . 12 is a loose sketchy way of placing net all over a skirt. as you must have a good foundation on which to place the lines. Then textures study carefully from catalogues. might be used for a worsted sweater. and to be able to group figures. leafing high lights on top of XX. Fig. Review Lesson VIII. Fig. For example. placing a shadow under each design. is detail work water-color paint. the lines take the shape of the straw. 1 is pieces of materials. unless the texture has no noticeable direction of line. etc.LESSON XXVI TEXTURES AND DETAIL The work. make applied All with a fine sable hair you are not conversant in the stores wash drawings have the lace and embroidery worked out this way. 11 represents black silk. When filling an order in all its parts. Criss-cross the impression of silk. For catalogues this would not be accurate enough. Study the eight examples given of flat 87 Study carefully the pen lines of artists. Fig. very fine lines for chiffon. as the customer has only the picture to order from. Fig. 5 is outing flannel or cotton goods. texture. Fig. the mesh round. Draw Fig. but they should be competent to do detail work as well. a flat tone of gray paint being first applied as a background for the lace. 4 is corduroy. the lines of the net being more apparent lace. chinchilla.

cordeline. chinchilla. ing. cretonne. needle cloth. XIX. Bolivia cloth. serge. den chiffon. sheet of tracing paper and trace their lines with pen and ink. Brussels point d'Argentan. velveteen. point de Venise. tartan voile de soie. khaki. linen. radium tussah silk. foulard. faille. camel hair cheviot. flaxon. shadow lace. rose point. Palm Beach Russian terry cloth. imperial dress cloth. voile. ette. honey-comb cloth. lawn. mull. jersey cloth. 1 linene. organdie. punjab. craquela. Japanese habutai. velour de laine. Wool. Lace. meteor. English flannel. crepe. chiffon cloth. Devonshire cloth. madras. military striped silk. filet. Batiste. seersucker. georgette crepe. cashmere. take a lines. . ramie linen. prunella. poplin. Limerick. duchgold lame tissue. silk poplin. pussy twill. melton. Cotton. crepe meteor. Make a line clean cut as instructed in Lesson Cossack linen. point d'esprit. corduroy. pompadour striped silk. crepe duchesse Venetian linen. sateen. chambray. LIST OF COSTUME MATERIALS Silk. moire. chiffon. Valenciennes. Anglelace. galatea. Chantilly. broadcloth. moire velour. . voile. Melba Cluny. velvet. Dresden voile. gros de Londres. gold brocade. Brocade bengaline. metal lace net. silk. chiffon taffeta. Canton terre. poplin. LESSON XXVI and try to reproduce the same kind of If you do not succeed in this. alpaca. velour. beige. taffeta. marquissatin. Shantung. Rugby stockinette serge. khaki. pique percale. Japanese silk. grosgrain. nainouting flannel. Dres- duvetyn. repp. tweed. cord. Albatross. point d'Alengon. rietta cloth. ottoman. crepe chiffon. pongee. Irish point. ess. China silk. Dresden silk. crepe de Chine. charmeuse.88 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING flannel. grenadine. satin majestic. nun's veilcloth. Henmohair. cord. flannel. crash. Russian sook. mousseline.

LESSON XXVI

89

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4

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COSTDME MATERIALS

LESSON XXVII
PERSPECTIVE
It is very important for the student to understand something about perspective in order to be able to place chairs, tables, etc., in his drawings; rugs and squares on floors must be drawn according to rule. A few simple rules are here given to aid the student in the perspective needed in

station point, Fig. 3.

This
is

is

the eye of

the observer.

The

picture plane

perpendicular to

the ground plane.
Example.
to the ground.

Place a large plane of glass perpendicular Place a cube on the other side a little

fashion drawing.
fully

Study these

rules care-

and

apply

them

when copying

back. Keep the eye steady and trace on the glass the outline of the cube. If this is done accurately, you will have a picture of the cube in perspective.

way

Close one eye while doing

this.

pictures.

copying the chart, draw in large enough scale to enable you to work well; Be these illustrations are very small.
very accurate as
will tell.

When

parallel lines which run directly from the observer are called converaway lines. ging Converging lines which are

All

every fraction of an inch
ruler

Use a

on

all

straight lines

perpendicular to the picture plane vanish in the point of sight. (Fig. 1) and (Fig. 5
3ft.)

and a compass for circles. There are two kinds
parallel
(or

of

perspective,

one point) perspective, and two angular (or point) perspective. The horizon (H) is an imaginary horizontal line, where earth and sky seem to
meet;
it is

which are not perpendicular to the picture plane but run obliquely away from the observer, vanish in a point on the horizon, but not in the
Converging
lines

point of sight.
line

(Fig. 5 (2 ft.))

high or low according to the

elevation of the observer.
Example. A person on a mountain can view more of the surrounding country than if he were on the level, hence the horizon will be high as it is directly on a line
with his eyes.

The prime vertical (PV) is a drawn perpendicular to the

vertical

horizon.

through the point of sight and the station point. (Fig. 3.) through is the horizon, PS is Study Fig. 3.
It passes

H

Place your pencil across your eyes, if you can see just over the top you have the horizon line.
point of sight (PS) is an imaginary on the horizon directly in front of point the eyes. The direction of vision is an

the point of sight, S is the station point. Place the station point at a distance of

H
PV

the
is

diagonal of the picture plane. the prime vertical, abed is the picpoints, or as far

The

ture plane.

D

and D' are distance

as the observer can see on each side of the

imaginary
sight.

line

from the eye to the point of

point of sight.

From PS

from PS to
tance;
its

S.

D

2

is

to equals one-half this dis-

D

The picture plane is a vertical plane on which the picture is drawn. The ground plane is the plane on which
the observer stands.

use

will

Study

Fig. 5.

be explained later. Find H and PS.

When

wishing to represent objects by

The

place he stands (S)

is

called the

measurement, a measuring scale can be used in the foreground. This measuring

Build all furniture away Irom the wall from the floor up. The top of the bureau is below the eye and the top of the back above the eye. point of sight. 1. is PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE shows how to obtain the correct measurement. The farther back the shorter three feet will appear. horizon. The block in the center has both sides hidden. from the end of A equal to one-half the measurement of A. ^ Fig. enough to draw As the DSD'. 5 let us call the spaces in the foreground feet. prime vertical. Draw the picture plane. connect the end of the . and the converging lines. the point of sight. find six feet on the ground in the distance. they appear smaller.. The floor lines converge (up) to PS. A is the length of a horizontal line in perspective. chair. Use whole measurement and dotted line to D or half measurement and dotted line to D2. this will look small. Any horizontal line (parallel to the picture plane) between these lines will equal three feet.92 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING measurement in LESSON XXVII scale should be the actual feet ing children. then the converging lines. the more one under or upper surface. so all converging lines will run up to the point of sight. to obtain the line at the right exposes its left side. Place the rug we use one-half the distance (D') and one-half the measurements on the measuring scale. just how much smaller can and inches. Draw a dotted line from the end of the auxiliary to D'. table or any object lower than the level of the eye will show the top. relation of the object to the horizon determines the size of the object. feet. As make them high horizon. We how much to show of the seat of the chair. The higher or its ance of a or life size. then the backs of the blocks. The block at the left of the point of The block sight exposes its right side. Note the lines for the beginning of a table. are to decide on the using the same rule.) The a=A. When draw- To cut the converging line coming forward from A. 6. it exposes the under part. (Fig. it would appear six placed farther back would look smaller. In Fig. or take the six-foot measure on the scale. plane. The ceiling lines conWhen drawing verge (down) to PS. count off three feet on the scale. Study the lines of the bureau which is built in the form of a block. this will cut the converging line the cor- Objects higher than the level of the eye will extend higher than the horizon. See the posts. Draw picture plane. bureaus. PS. floor. 2 is a room in parallel perspective. Find H. Fig. and all converging lines above the eye will run rect length or so that down to the point of sight. If an entire object is above the level of the eye. 3. Draw the blocks. This makes six feet in the distance. Fig. the student is inclined to show too much of the top planes. connect To the ends with PS. can see of its A plane at a distance loses in depth. it exposes upper part. chairs. and stand it up on the threefoot line. If a six-foot post were placed close to the (glass) picture plane (on the other side). Fig. same length on the converging draw the broken line (auxiliary line) Remember a block. If above the eye. 4 An object is in parallel perspective when one of its sides is parallel with the picture the horizon. A plane on a level with the eye has the appearline. then stand it up. placed. etc. 4. make a be determined by using this scale. you see its under part. station points and distance paper is rarely large points. Take the double it three feet in the distance. if it lower a plane place a six-foot post a distance back. the fronts of First study Fig. objects recede. If below the eye.

drop lines to the floor converging line. 8.LESSON XXVII auxiliary PERSPECTIVE the opposite 93 hooples. if the near edge of the cube is on the prime vertical at same a point. This rule will ANGULAR PERSPECTIVE be An when object neither is an angular perspective is side parallel with the a box One fulness picture I of this saw rule. Both sides will vanish at equal angles and the vanishing points will fall on D and D'. curves on in auxiliary to the picture plane half measurement of A. 6 and 7. Continue these you move the cube at another angle or change its position to the right or left. If the diagonal of the picture plane. meets the cross lines. draw the height. the vanishing point on the side with . Place the circle at the junction of these lines on the converging square. the vanishing points will change. etc. or on the measur- will give one- Draw an oval mirror on the bureau Draw a basket in Fig. enclose with a square. and one vanishing line to the horizon. different objects have different vanishing points while objects in parallel perspective all vanish in the point of sight. which or an oval can be Study circle show how drawn in full much the of an angle of 45. Obtain the slant of one side of the back. Remember. The back slightly. you see as one side of the cube as you do of perspective. and the table and bureau. will explain the use- The window was In Fig. You see of the one side than you do of the other. Remember. of This the makes A=a=aa. You may place this line on any slant. When drawing from a real cube. Fig. being on hinges. the mistake Draw sight. very helpful when and doors which open windows drawing toward you. 4. Figs. 4. ing scale. both sides are on the slant. Fig. 7. the vanishing line will fall elsewhere by filling the top plane with the same kind of will lines. 2. more A horizontal circle in perspective may be obtained rule This cube is to the right PS. and again up and down and across where the circle Draw a circle in view. this will give you a vertical ellipse (or a circle in perspective). being that to cover closed. scale in the foreground but instead of using same as you did The measuring may also be used Use this rule to ascertain the length of the converging lines of the chair. Fig. converging This oval help you when drawing on the horizon. In this case they meet below the horizon. in angular perspective. children's furniture. horizon. then draw the other side to the hold your pencil along the line and get the direction this way. when neither side of object is parallel to the picture plane. with D2. The greater the slant of one side the more gentle the slant of the other. These opened toward me. cross the square from corner to corner up and down and across through the center. cross lines to PS. You will note that this station To obtain the depth of the window. If the slant were in the the cube. opposite direction. Place the rungs of the chair according to rule. Fig. we have divided into two parts. point of prime vertical and station point. D and D' use is M not the and M'. So in a room. Lines drawn from both ends mirrors. of the chair slants back Parallel oblique lines in the air converge to the same point on the prime vertical. the actual size in feet or inches. 9 picture plane. where it To draw touches the horizon we call V or vanish- ing point. they would meet above the horizon. one part was large enough whole window when the also distance points the in parallel perspective. Fig. picture plane. but the minute other. 2.

prime points 9. while the converging lines of the parallel objects vanish in the point of sight. LESSON XXVII station point. Cut out a picture of a room with furniture hi angular and parallel perspective. With as a center and V'S as a radius. vertical. point same angle and objects at different angles and objects in parallel perspective. Fig. and extend two converging lines. it is like the cube vanish to the same Draw the inside of a large box. . paste the cut-out on paper. each one has its V own tive. which will give V slip another under paper your drawing. are at different angles. the picture plane. vanishing and measuring points. a Using compass and with V as a center and VS as a radius. mark off the horizon M'. You know that parallel oblique lines vanish in the same point. The parallel sides of M may A room in angular contain objects at the points. cube vanish in the same points. distance and measuring lines points You know the angle of the object is really a right angle. the greater slant will be nearer the other vanishing point. The of the ceiling come down point is to V and V. Carry measuring lines forward to obtain the size on the scale. then the dotted line to and M'. The lines of the seat follow the other wall. of the side is seen How much we deter- mine by and M' instead of D and D'. One vanishing Continue this line struct a right angle. 10 is an angular view of a room.94 STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING PS than of sight. A room in parallel perspective may contain objects which are in parallel perspective and objects which are in angular If several objects in a room perspective. These points are used as D and D' in parallel perspec- M and therefore the vanishing points for walls. door and seat are the same. horizon. so after finding one vanishing point V. extend the horizon and continue the converging lines not on the paper. and at the station con- as in Fig. The lines of the door follow the wall. so other vanishing point. or the to the horizon. draw the line from V to S (or station point). where they meet will be the horizon. the same as the lines of the room. perspective Draw the auxiliary lines the same length as the height of the cube. mark off the horizon M. so the parallel sides of the to the vanishing point.

PERSPECTIVE FOR FASHION DRAWING .

.

cases sun or under a powerful electric light. another artist inks or paints the costumes. much dif- In this case all lines and dots be reduced in size. many one drawing may pass through hands before it reaches completion.. many business houses employ a staff of artists on the work. the plate is sprinkled several times. As the bite eats sideways as well as down. usually to a reduced scale. during the The " bite " eats between biting process. retains washed. stripped from the glass. bear in The acid. only. he should keep on practicing until he can place one figure in. may be imposthe a brief account of sible. dresses. thus protecting the lines. He should have learned also how to ink a drawing using the proper techTo draw four or five figures may nique. and also the spaces between them. and while this book does not take Wash drawings in black and the ink. is by a coating Taking it for granted that the student to fill an order in all its parts. the lines of the drawing are transparent and the light shines through on the zinc plate. and brought down to a size much smaller than the one feels that slow in drawing one figure. and to place it on the figure. thus leaving a copy of the drawing on the plate. in a given layout artist is A side up. will one who draws the figures and their costumes. The part protected by the black portion of the film remains hi its natural condition. it being the size of the picture when finished. corsets. seem an undertaking and he is if produced. It should be interesting as well as help97 protected. is here given. lines and dots. and placed over another sheet of glass with the positive original. another the heads. The layout artist begins the drawing. and another the detail etc. As the photograph is a negative. The hardened work. must be advertised. hardening it under the lines only. with the powder. is The drawing first photographed. fairly quickly. waists. The back of the plate is protected up wash work. as hats. the student of this book might become one of the artists to make the layouts for these wash drawings. plate of asphalt varnish. that is getting the action and proportion without ficulty. photo-engraving process. and adheres to the ink parts only. A fine powder (dragon's blood) is sprinkled on the plate. should have learned to sketch a gar- through an engraving plant. " " in is given several bites which eats away the surface not mind the rule for enlargement. by which line pictures are reful for the student to go As this ment from the model. this time the student should have learned to draw the fashion figure in the He back. side and sitting positions. Where many different articles of turned negative is placed in a frame over a sensitized zinc plate and placed in the clothing. each artist doing the class of work In such that he is most proficient in.LESSON XXVIII LAYOUTS FOR NEWSPAPERS AND CATALOGUES By front. turned. white and in water color are done in these houses. The glass plate carrying the space. The size of the plate is very important. The photographic film is then toughened by a solution. leaving the image in relief . etc. The plate is then inked and afterward part.

4 is the way to space the figure. underclothes layout. It is called mortice. News- THE METHOD OF ENLARGEMENT Where drawings are to be made for reproduction by printing. R. Extend the foreground the same size. A figure or garment mark off the same proportion. reduced. If paper. figures. 2 a suit layout. there must be room enough for careful drawing. Do of the plate on all sides. make the figure touch the edges as in Fig. vases. Keep the figures in the and 3. Lesson XXVII on Perspective. Fig. he does not wish to waste space. This layout calls for two figures and nine garments." Many pattern houses are more conservative and like the figures more Some houses have the figures drawn on separate papers. Leave at least is Fig. In this case they give the artist the height of the figures to be drawn. although it may be the same size or even smaller. consequently. not draw back figures unless your employer wishes the backs of garments illustrated. fill may deterfigure slightly overlap the edge of the space in this space with one paying so metal plate. d will be in the same proportion as Fig. See mirrors. Fig.) are enlarged in the same way. From this relief the drawing may be printed. waists. 6 is a catalogue. to contain one figure. draw the size of the plate. b. extending it indefinitely. make a of variety positions of heads. if made too large. the rectangle a. These they cut out and paste on a large sheet of paper in an arrangement to suit themselves. than the plate. is The customer much for every square inch of Odd spaces may be filled in with backgrounds. c touches this line. Lines that are crowded will run together when reduced. . such as tables. and a variety of positions of feet. On the other hand a drawing. etc. If there is much detail. Make the figures express interest in When each other. will lose in value when reduced.. In the latter case it will be enlarged when reproduced. rules figure follow the far through the opposite cor(See Figs. c. diagonal line 1 perspective and make the smaller. 5 is the way to place the other layouts (for hats. Fig. Draw Draw d from where c to the diagonal line. R line b far enough to give a good height to draw the figure. The proper size space having been mined. normal.STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING on the plate. The artist leaves a margin on the left-hand side papers and some business houses require " " swingy figures with plenty of dash and " go. Keep the space well covered and the separate garments the size of the ones on the figures. As a rule the original drawing is larger Fig. to a. ners. 2. underclothes. enlarge it. Any horizontal and vertical line meeting on the diagonal will When The corner place is at the upper right-hand left for printing. then place as many ovals as there are to be figures. or out-of-door views. etc. for printing. arranging several figures. before Place all ovals drawing the figures. Fig.) The plate is is the size of the plate. plate in and at the bottom of his He then draws the exact size of the the lower left-hand corner and a one figure of is supposed to be at a little distance back of the others. one inch margin. the customer will give the artist the size of the plate which will be the size of the picture when reproduced. A drawing which is to be reduced by the photo-engraving process must be large enough so that the lines may be clean cut and distinct. 3 is LESSON XXVIII the beginning of a layout for three figures.

LESSON XXVIII METHOD OF ENLARGING LAYOUTS FOR NEWSPAPERS AND CATALOGUES .

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Revillion. Drecoll. Study Fig. Premet. Leon Bakst. using the main lines as a foundation. The simplest way is He must visit The shops. familiar with the names of principal designers and their work. A.. Jenny. know A running around the figure lend breadth shoulders to the slim figure. he can learn to create them. draw fashions correctly. He must become Consider the proportion of cuffs to other dimensions. suggests the piece over the shoulder in Fig. A. to cut out of the fashion papers parts of different dresses that will accord. This rule applies to cluster of tucks principles on original work. Talbot. is One great thing to be considered in costume designing proper proportions. all may be taken from one not versed many things in in this art would existed. skirt. lines 1 and 2 are continued to the bottom of the dress. A the long line effect. Renard. Poiret. Doeiullet. if you want to place very up and down on a waist. also of the size of the pockets to the distance down from the belt. Lacroix. length lines are of over-skirt to under-skirt. Beer. or any mechanical division of the same. Soulie. 2. while the design is is entirely different. (Lucile). All parts of the costume must look as if what must design be simple and have good lines. 1. Monge. In Fig. This good practice. Long lines from the down are good. The belt in Fig. Keep a down ideas and study and to the space beneck one-quarter. The next step in dress designing is to create a modern dress from a modern dress. See how lines Fig. Paquin. The of the 101 idea for Fig. 3 and 4 are preserved. 1. Have all proportions interesting. omitted as indicated by dots. Soeurs. as for example: Callot. while lines is The very first thing to are the prevailing styles. Che>uit. Douchet. small tucks Study its this lesson carefully and apply spaces between them. Georgette. 1 is taken from Fig. Armand. Lavin. Redfern. papers. Worth. dream that they of which place on a nicely drawn figure. Lady Duff Gordon. and that will make a good whole. but designs made this way are not original enough to be sold. Chanel. Do half not open a V The student should the fashion also read or one-third way down the front. 2 bird. a bobolink. these shops to sketch the latest designs for their papers. note-book handy in which jot as they present themselves. Erte. Ideas for new designs the openings and French newspapers send artists to for the student to start. Long lines running up and down tend to make a stout person look more slender. To ficult for obtain an idea for a design seems difthe beginner. etc. Note where the Bulloz. 1. Reboux. Take one waist. do not make the tucks the same size as the For example. Callot. one- tween the clusters. Do not divide up spaces into mechanical divisions.LESSON XXIX ORIGINAL DRESS DESIGNING Costume design is a very interesting If one can subject and is an art in itself. Halle'e. but these may be broken at intervals without destroying they were meant to go together. which never another sleeve. The was taken from a designs and colors out plumage of the bird are carried . another etc. another collar. etc.

Try all color schemes on separate paper. These come in tubes and are applied thick like oil paints. The part where the mottled feathers are may be embroidered in many colors on the dress. you will be able (if you keep in mind the present style) to create a design from an ancient dress. water-color paper. Manufacturers of costume this book. These should be rendered on how the shape of the figure repeated so often on the rug is used for the front of the waist and for the collar. The bird has a white (W) back with mottled (M) feathers near the head. The museums pay much are excellent that direction. rendering it in color." study every detail Designers general outline of the whole figure (when dressed). They may be outlined in pencil. vases. When placing flat The trim- is embroidered with the design taken from the outside edge of the rug. as it is the clever thing that counts. such as flowers. materials like nicely drawn fashion figures dressed in their materials to advertise their goods. all XXX may suggest designs and practice ways to put what has been learned from suggests other color schemes. If it is " Costume Design. attention to the He must study the applies to this line. The student may mix white paint with ordinary colors to obtain this effecf. which come next to the yellow (Y) on the head. " Costume places for inspirations..102 '''STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING LESSON XXIX on the dress. work of successful artists in both branches and try for stylg. try for something clever. or a different color from the gowns themselves. If you can create a design from a modern dress. Things around you. The breast and wings are a greyish black (B) as also is the tail. Designers use costumes from all periods ming washes of color over given surfaces. expressed most clearly by the silhouette. Illustration. Lesson in Study the silhouette as it appears in different centuries. etc. These are only. Fig 3 is taken from a rug design. . Obtain books from the library on ancient costumes. Tempera colors are often used. Color schemes may also be carried out. or he can use show-card colors." himthat If it is Study the costumes worn by ancients all in he should use every self in effort to perfect countries. Follow the shape used for the Designs may be submitted in pencil on the lay figure. study them carefully. especially when they are colored. which extends past the wing line. or they may be placed on the human figure. The student may best decide which " " branch of Fashion Drawing he wishes to pursue. many good books on color. Select a sample of goods and design a suitable costume for that goods. They take their ideas from both court and peasant life. ink. There are many ways of illustrating costumes. wings and the shape of the white back. There are in history for their work. \ Be particular about making the back of a dress correspond with the front. See more pleasing. use the directions for French wash but use color instead of lamp black.

LESSON XXIX .103 HOW TO OBTAIN IDEAS FOR ORIGINAL DRESS DESIGNS .

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Sketches are strokes made with a few the pencil ideas. binations of colors try XIX Use comseen. Start with some selected idea and place very roughly with pencil and XXIX. all other things being subordinate to it. This will suggest to the publisher the color scheme." and by this method you can find the best place to DECORATIVE The student is now in a position not only to draw for fashion papers. harmony and tone values. A finished pen-and-ink drawing should be drawn on bristol board. changing the figures and the backgrounds. Try out underclothes. paints. ideas from decorative pictures. It is well first to sketch in worked out on the pictures themselves. These sketches. 1 was taken from seven different pictures. shifting the opening in different positions. cut the hole round or square and view the picture through it.. being pasted on the wrong side of the top edge of the bristol board. Many way. place them on transparent paper which is laid over the picture. To ascertain just where to place this frame line. Study books on composition. The draw the frame around the picture. without having them too differAll parts must pull together for one ent. the right-hand held flowers. but to use his knowledge in designing box covers. They require a different process for reproduction than that used for line drawings. purpose. 105 new It is well to draw the figures and the . instructions for the Consult previous use of water-color your ideas and practice paper. giving the publisher They may be very rough but must have snap and the lines must be drawn as if one knew how. or they may have flat washes of color placed on the parts to be colored. and to draw catchy pictures which may be used for advertising purposes and which will be salable. The more sketches one creates of this class the more ideas will come to him. they are line drawings. If the colors are to be given. may be rendered on pencil paper with pencil only. make a small hole in a piece of paper. These treat on balance. These should be rendered on illustration board with wash sold with the colors carefully or tempera colors.LESSON XXX WORK background before placing the frame line around them. although given space must be filled in nicely. when worked out. the figure itself being drawn first (the figure was in combinations. Keep your point of interest near the center and have the back he may change it when reproducing the drawing. lines around schemes on other paper before attempting to color your drawings. Lesson Try for good color schemes. cards. objects which may be used for the main idea or for the background. but not crowded. Publishers will order pictures from sketches submitted in rough form. The sketch shown in Fig. etc. drawings are sold this Others are ground spaces interesting. This may be accomplished by making a variety of shapes and sizes. " This is called a finder. A composition is good when the main point in the picture is most apparent. book covers. but the artist's finished work must first be approved. all Take your you have also it that will fill in the given these lines will suggest shapes of space.

3 was designed in the same way. having Trace off. There still Why not place her dress in her more space will to fill at the right. good work is required to keep a position. the bushes. ovals and things to have. introduction are excellent When circles submitting sketches. but when making finished drawings be very accurate. Study Fig. the window taken from five different pic- but he must strive to sell his work. and turn the tracing over. Trace off this quarter of the whole drawing and are willing to offer suggestions. This little girl was seated in a daisy field with hills in the background. and a few clouds at the top which help the summer day. Suppose we draw her as she sits. The student must not only strive to draw well. give her long hair and another dress and have her fixing a pot of flowers in the house. She was picking a daisy. Let us summer very much blown by the wind. If the figure were leaning against an object. Go to them with samples of your work. even the snow. the hair. Construct an oval within an oblong. . Do not touch the feather with the circle or the figure with the distant hills. let us dress the figure in a summer this dress with a hat suitable for the occasion. the lady. so we have the child. Everything is driven in the same direction. the plant and always taking your best drawings. Fig. place a few more roses on the left at the bottom. the parasol. the dress. the dress. go well with the idea of a day. Use a compass for circles and a ruler for squares and oblongs. and then redraw carefully. Letters of tures. nothing in this sketch to suggest detail LESSON XXX trace to the left lower corner similarly There is any of Now except the position. she would touch the object. 4 the winter girl is a rose bush hot. for in the right-hand lower corner. and taking to each house the class of work that that house uses. Most houses are courteous draw diagonal lines from corner to corner and a vertical line and a horizontal line through the middle. Take your knocks as so much medicine and keep on learning and pushing to the front. Her hair had a Dutch cut. hands and help the old-fashioned effect by the diamond window in the background? In Fig. "Free Lancing" is when an artist has his own studio and sells his work to different business houses. then turn the tracing over and place it all lines fit. the hat. but do not extend it too far. the lawn and the clouds. 2. In case of distance the space between lends atmosphere. Show what you can do and do not get discouraged if you do not make a sale at once. The window suggests the house part. A good way to make a perfect oval is to and they might get one a But position. The little colonial lady had one hand resting on a piano and the other one extended. The composition needs a lawn for the standing figure and this is taken from still another picture.106 while the left STUDENT'S MANUAL OF FASHION DRAWING one was resting on a table). experience and may it will give lead to opportunity. A is parasol will go nicely in the right hand and fill in the space at the right. There are many positions open for artists and even a subordinate position is a wonderful thing. Thus we have parts of seven pictures. Remember publishers will not go to you until you have shown yourself worth looking up. need not be perfect. A small portion of a figure may extend past the circle. as it is the work that really counts. Draw one-quarter of the oval in the left-hand top corner. placing it in the right-hand corner.

LESSON XXX 107 DECORATIVE PICTURES FOR CARDS AND ADVERTISEMENTS .

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