Dangling at the end of Israel ROPE and the end of our rope last straw
Home Growns 13 claiming they the superior race fight back for a piece of their minds to plant seeds of truth spreading like weeds smothering the alien breed that gasp at just the thought of IT resulting in peace of mind throughout humans Home Land It was the worst of times nick of times for the best rest of time www.HomeGrowns13.com Reality is the Truth impervious to perception yet precisely due to perception
Truth is that which would be observed by God whether or not He exists or whether or not one believes He exists IDEAL Simply Reality Sanely Dealt With ORBIT ROP
Outside Routine Box Intellectual Trigger Reverse Osmosis Psychosis
Israel ROPE – Root of Pandora Evil www.aliens13.com UNAZIP
United Nations Alien Zionist Insidious Puppets The Star of David in the Leningrad Codex, 1008 CE Upon independence in 1948, the new Jewish state was formally named Medinat Yisrael, or the State of Israel, after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel ("the Land of Israel"), Zion, and Judea, were considered and rejected. In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The name Israel has historically been used, in common and religious usage, to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel or the entire Jewish nation. According to the Hebrew Bible the name "Israel" was given to the patriarch Jacob (Standard Yisraʾel, Isrāʾīl; Septuagint Greek: ʾσραήλIsraēl;
"struggle with God"
after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord.
Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus". The earliest archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE). 1
The area is also known as the
being holy for all Abrahamic
Judaism, Christianity, Islam
and the Bahá'í Faith.
Religion the unequivocal most horrific addiction in mind absentia seemingly incurable until the promised lands at the end of time when we meet our maker side by side with self … self induced
PS Pragmatics Semantics Pandora’s Box Ajar
Pagan spirit yahoos consecrated heist opulent tradition incinerate coherence http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humpty_dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the king's horses and all the king's men Couldn't put Humpty together again. Humpty appears in Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass (1872), where he discusses semantics and pragmatics with Alice. “I don’t know what you mean by ‘glory,’ ” Alice said. Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. “Of course you don’t—till I tell you. I meant ‘there’s a nice knock-down argument for you!’ ” “But ‘glory’ doesn’t mean ‘a nice knock-down argument’,” Alice objected. “When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.” “The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.” “The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be master that’s all.” Alice was too much puzzled to say anything, so after a minute Humpty Dumpty began again. “They’ve a temper, some of them—particularly verbs, they’re the proudest—adjectives you can do anything with, but not verbs—however, I can manage the whole lot! Impenetrability! That’s what I say!” This passage was used in Britain by Lord Atkin and in his dissenting judgement in the seminal case Liversidge v. Anderson (1942), where he protested about the distortion of a statute by the majority of the House of Lords. It also became a popular citation in United States legal opinions, appearing in 250 judicial decisions in the Westlaw database as of April 19, 2008, including two Supreme Court cases (TVA v. Hill and Zschernig v. Miller).
Asses to Asses
Birth, Taxes, Chariot to freedom Pandora’s Box a Jar
Put a cork in it http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandora%27s_box Pandora's box is an artifact in Greek mythology, taken from the myth of Pandora's creation in Hesiod's Works and Days. The "box" was actually a large jar (πίθος pithos) given to Pandora (Πανδώρα) ("all-gifted", "all-giving"), which contained all the evils of the world. Today, the phrase "to open Pandora's box" means to perform an action that may seem small or innocuous, but that turns out to have severe and far-reaching consequences. Contents [hide] 1 In mythology 2 Etymology of "The Box" 3 Notes 4 References In mythology In classical Greek mythology, Pandora was the first woman on Earth. Zeus ordered Hephaestus, the god of craftsmanship, to create her, so he did—using water and earth. The gods endowed her with many gifts: Athena clothed her, Aphrodite gave her beauty, and Hermes gave her speech. 3
When Prometheus stole fire from heaven, Zeus took vengeance by presenting Pandora to Epimetheus, Prometheus' brother. With her, Pandora was given a beautiful container – with instructions not to open it under any circumstance. Impelled by her curiosity (given to her by the gods), Pandora opened it, and all evil contained therein escaped and spread over the earth. She hastened to close the container, but the whole contents had escaped, except for one thing that lay at the bottom – the Spirit of Hope named Elpis. Pandora, deeply saddened by what she had done, feared that she would have to face Zeus' wrath, since she had failed her duty; however, Zeus did not punish Pandora, because he had known that this would happen. Etymology of "The Box"
A pithos from Crete, ca. 675 BC. Louvre
An Attic pyxis, 440–430 BC. British Museum The original Greek word was '[[pi sometimes as large as a small person (Diogenes of Sinopewas said to have once slept in one). It was used for storage of wine, oil, grain or other provisions, or, ritually, as a container for a human body for burying. In the case of Pandora, this jar may have been made of clay for use as storage as in the usual sense, or of bronze metal as an unbreakable prison. The mistranslation of pithos is usually attributed to the 16th century humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam who translated Hesiod's tale of Pandora into Latin. Erasmus rendered pithos as the Greek pyxis, meaning "box". The phrase has endured ever since. This misconception was further reinforced by Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Pandora. 4
Old Money Evolves Nefariously OMEN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristocracy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictatorship http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy AMEN Pagan God PG Parental Guidance
http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=X5L_x6RHE4s Empire of the City Vatican, London, DC AMEN Satanic God ZEUS Zionist Evolved Universal Sanctimonious PRICK I FIBIB Political Religious Intellectual Charlatan Kleptocracy inciting Fickle Inherent Bias Ignorant Bliss DEMOCRACY Deity Elite Money Ordinance Criteria Responsible Accounting Currency Yield VOTE Venomous Optimism Tranquil Enslavement Human peasants inept to provide Pagan life they deserve thank God priceless as collateral http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeus In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύς, Zeús; Modern Greek: Δίας, Días) is the "Father of Gods and men" (πατʾρ ʾνδρʾν τε θεʾν τε, patḕr andrōn te theōn te) who rules the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father rules the family. He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter, Hindu counterpart is Indra and Etruscan counterpart is Tinia. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, and the youngest of his siblings. In most traditions he is married to Hera, although, at the oracle of Dodona, his consort is Dione: according to the Iliad, he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione. He is known for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo and Artemis, Hermes, Persephone (by Demeter),Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, H elen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses (by Mnemosyne); by Hera, he is usually said to have fatheredAres, Hebe and Hephaestus. As Walter Burkert points out in his book, Greek Religion, "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence." For the Greeks, he was the King of the Gods, who oversaw the universe. As Pausanias observed, "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". In Hesiod's Theogony Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. In theHomeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near 5
East, such as the scepter. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty. Contents [hide] 1 Name 2 Zeus in myth 2.1 Birth 2.2 Infancy 2.3 King of the gods 2.4 Zeus and Hera 2.5 Consorts and children 2.5.1 Divine offspring 2.5.2 Semi-divine/mortal offspring 3 Roles and epithets 4 Cults of Zeus 4.1 Panhellenic cults 4.1.1 Zeus Velchanos 4.1.2 Zeus Lykaios 4.1.3 Additional cults of Zeus 4.2 Non-panhellenic cults 4.3 Oracles of Zeus 4.3.1 The Oracle at Dodona 4.3.2 The Oracle at Siwa 5 Zeus and foreign gods 6 Zeus in philosophy 7 In modern culture 8 Miscellany on Zeus 9 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology 10 Argive genealogy in Greek mythology 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Name
The Chariot of Zeus, from an 1879 Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church. The god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús /zdeús/. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεʾ / Zeû; accusative: Δία / Día; genitive:Διός / Diós; dative: Διί / Dií. The name Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Diēus ̯ , the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky, also called *Dyeus ph2tēr("Sky Father"). The god is known under this name in the Rigveda (Vedic Sanskrit Dyaus/Dyaus Pita), Latin (compare Jupiter, fromIuppiter, deriving from the Proto-Indo6
European vocative *dyeu-ph2tēr), deriving from the root *dyeu- ("to shine", and in its many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god"). Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology. The earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek di-we and di-wo, written in Linear b syllabic script. Zeus in myth
Zeus, at the Getty Villa, A.D. 1 - 100 by unknown. Birth Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father—an oracle that Rhea was to hear and avert. When Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed. Infancy Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. According to varying versions of the story: He was then raised by Gaia. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry (see cornucopia). He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves. King of the gods
Colossal seated Marnas from Gaza portrayed in the style of Zeus. Roman period Marnas was the chief divinity of Gaza (Istanbul Archaeology Museum). After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Gigantes, the Hecatonchiresand the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe. As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, along with the Gigantes, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans that fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky. After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died (see also Penthus). Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under Mount Etna, but left Echidna and her children alive. Zeus and Hera Main article: Hera Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto, Demeter, Dione and Maia. Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda (for more details, see below) and with the young Ganymede (although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality). Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others. Consorts and children 8
Divine offspring Mother Aega
Children Aegipan Moirai/Fates1 Atropos Clotho Lachesis Persephone Zagreus Aphrodite Ersa Carae Limos Charites/Graces2 Aglaea Euphrosyne Thalia Orion Manes Ares3 Eileithyia Eris Hebe3 Hephaestus3 Angelos Apollo Artemis Hermes Athena4 Muses (Original three) Aoide Melete Mneme Muses (Later nine) Calliope Clio Erato Euterpe Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania Helen of Troy (possibly)
Semi-divine/mortal offspring Mother
Ananke or Themis
Demeter Dione or Thalassa Eos Eris Eurynome/Eurydome/ Eurymedusa/Euanthe Gaia
Leto Maia Metis
Children Aeacus Aegina Damocrateia Alcmene Heracles Amphion Antiope Zethus Anaxithea Olenus Asterope, Oceanid Acragas Callisto Arcas Calyce Aethlius (possibly) Callirhoe (daughter of Achelous) no known offspring Carme Britomartis Cassiopeia Atymnius Solymus Chaldene Milye Danaë Perseus Dia Pirithous Elara Tityos Dardanus Electra Iasion Harmonia Minos Rhadamanthus Sarpedon Europa Alagonia Carnus Dodon Eurymedousa Myrmidon Euryodeia Arcesius Kronios Himalia Spartaios Kytos Idaea, nymph Cres Iodame Thebe Epaphus Io Keroessa Isonoe Orchomenus Akheilos Lamia Herophile Laodamia Sarpedon Leda Pollux 9
Persephone Selene Thalia
Unknown mother Unknown mother Unknown mother Unknown mother Unknown mother
Zagreus Melinoe Ersa Nemean Lion Pandia Palici Astraea Nymphs of Eridanos Nemesis Horae First Generation Auxo Carpo Thallo Second Generation Dike Eirene Eunomia Third generation Pherusa Euporie Orthosie Aletheia Ate Caerus Litae Tyche
Maera Niobe Othreis Pandora Phthia (daughter of Phoroneus) Plouto Podarge Protogeneia Pyrrha Semele Taygete Thyia Torrhebia Nymph African Nymph Samothracian Nymph Sithnid Unknown mother
Unknown mother Unknown mother 1The Greeks variously claimed that the Moires/Fates were the daughters of Zeus and the Titaness Themis or of primordial beings like Chaos, Nyx, or Ananke. 2The Charites/Graces were usually considered the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome but they were also said to be daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite or of Helios and the naiad Aegle. 3Some accounts say that Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus were born parthenogenetically. 4According to one version, Athena is said to be born parthenogenetically. 5Helen was either the daughter of Leda or Nemesis. Roles and epithets
Helen of Troy5 Locrus Argus Pelasgus Meliteus Graecus Latinus Achaeus (possibly) Tantalus Balius Xanthus Aethlius (possibly) Opus Hellen Dionysus Lacedaemon Magnes Makednos Carius Iarbas Saon (possibly) Megarus Calabrus Geraestus Taenarus Corinthus Crinacus
Roman marble colossal head of Zeus, 2nd century AD (British Museum) Zeus played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and thearchetypal Greek deity. Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity to doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority: Zeus Olympios emphasized Zeus's kingship over both the gods in addition to his specific presence at the Panhellenic festival atOlympia. Zeus Panhellenios ("Zeus of all the Hellenes"), to whom Aeacus' famous temple on Aegina was dedicated. Zeus Xenios, Philoxenon or Hospites: Zeus was the patron of hospitality and guests, ready to avenge any wrong done to a stranger. Zeus Horkios: Zeus he was the keeper of oaths. Exposed liars were made to dedicate a statue to Zeus, often at the sanctuary of Olympia. Zeus Agoraeus: Zeus watched over business at the agora and punished dishonest traders. Zeus Aegiduchos or Aegiochos: Zeus was the bearer of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the impious and his enemies. Others derive this epithet from αʾξ ("goat") and οχή and take it as an allusion to the legend of Zeus' suckling at the breast of Amalthea. Additional names and epithets for Zeus are also: Zeus Meilichios ("easy-to-be-entreated"): Zeus subsumed an archaic chthonic daimon propitiated in Athens, Meilichios. Zeus Tallaios ("solar Zeus"): the Zeus that was worshiped in Crete. Zeus Labrandos: he was worshiped at Caria. His sacred site was Labranda and he was depicted holding a double-edged axe (labrys-labyrinth). He is connected with the Hurrian god of sky and storm Teshub. Zeus Naos and Bouleus: forms of Zeus worshipped at Dodona, the earliest oracle. His priests, the Selloi, are sometimes thought to have given their name to the Hellenes. Zeus Geōrgos (Ζεύς Γεωργός - "earth worker", "farmer"), the god of crops and harvest, in Athens. Kasios: the Zeus of Mount Kasios in Syria Ithomatas: the Zeus of Mount Ithomi in Messenia Astrapios ("lightninger") Brontios ("thunderer") Cults of Zeus Panhellenic cults 11
The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there. Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance. Zeus Velchanos With one exception, Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed, and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features. The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort", whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos ("boy-Zeus") often simply the Kouros. In Crete, Zeus was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossos, Ida and Palaikastro. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at theAghia Triada site of a longruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees. On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage. Inscriptions at Gortyn and Lyttos record a Velchania festival, showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete. The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of Plato's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge. On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult, and hymned asho megas kouros "the great youth". Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth at Knossos by Sir Arthur Evans. With the Kouretes, a band of ecstatic armed dancers, he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan paideia. The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus, together with the assertion ofAntoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit. The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Crete and that posthumously his glory had slowly turned him into a deity. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion. Zeus Lykaios For more details on this topic, see Lykaia.
Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus on a goldstater, Lampsacus, c 360-340 BC (Cabinet des Médailles). The epithet Zeus Lykaios ("wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes ofMount Lykaion ("Wolf Mountain"), the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia; Zeus had only a formal connection with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants. Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place was a forbidden precinct in which, allegedly, no shadows were ever cast. According to Plato, a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios. Apollo, too had an archaic wolf-form, Apollo Lycaeus, worshipped in Athens at the Lykeion, or Lyceum, which was made memorable as the site where Aristotle walked and taught. Additional cults of Zeus Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios ("kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus Chthonios ("earthy"), Zeus Katachthonios ("under-the-earth") and Zeus Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius ("the nurturing"), depending on whether you believe Pausanias, or Strabo. The hero Amphiaraus was honored as Zeus Amphiarausat Oropus outside of Thebes, and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus Agamemnon. Non-panhellenic cults In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. With the epithet ZeusAetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna, where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.  Other examples are listed below. As Zeus Aeneius or Zeus Aenesius, he was worshiped in the island of Cephalonia, where he had a temple on Mount Aenos. Oracles of Zeus
Roman cast terracotta of ram-hornedJupiter Ammon, 1st century AD (Museo Barracco, Rome). Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo, the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis, a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus. The Oracle at Dodona The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus, where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak. When the Odyssey was composed (circa 750 BC), divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi, who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches. By the time Herodotus wrote about Dodona, female priestesses calledpeleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests. Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera, but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titanesssuggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle. The Oracle at Siwa The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world beforeAlexander's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War. Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta, where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War. After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl. Zeus and foreign gods Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination (see interpretatio graeca) with various other deities, such as the EgyptianAmmon and the Etruscan Tinia. He, along with Dionysus, absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius. The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes erected a statue of Zeus Olympios in the Judean Temple in Jerusalem. Hellenizing Jews referred to this statue as Baal Shamen (in English, Lord of Heaven). Some modern comparative mythologists align him with the Hindu Indra. Zeus in philosophy In Neoplatonism, Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind. Specifically within Plotinus' work the Enneads and the Platonic Theology of Proclus. In modern culture
Depictions of Zeus as a bull, the form he took when raping Europa, are found on the Greek 2-euro coin and on the United Kingdom identity card for visa holders. Mary Beard, Professor of Classics at Cambridge University, has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape. Zeus has been portrayed by various actors: Axel Ringvall in Jupiter på jorden, the first known film adaption to feature Zeus Niall MacGinnis in Jason and the Argonauts and Angus MacFadyen in the 2000 remake Laurence Olivier in the original Clash of the Titans, and Liam Neeson in the 2010 remake, along with the 2012 sequel Wrath of the Titans. Anthony Quinn in the 1990s TV series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys Rip Torn in the Disney animated feature Hercules Corey Burton in Hercules, God of War II, and God of War III Sean Bean in the film adaption of the Percy Jackson & the Olympians book The Lightning Thief Miscellany on Zeus This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, ifappropriate. Editing help is available. (October 2009) Zeus is sometimes depicted as a middle-aged man with strong muscular arms. His facial hair can be a full beard and mustache to just stubble. Zeus turned Pandareus to stone for stealing the golden dog which had guarded him as an infant in the holy Dictaeon Cave of Crete. Zeus killed Salmoneus with a thunderbolt for attempting to impersonate him, riding around in a bronze chariot and loudly imitating thunder. Zeus turned Periphas into an eagle after his death, as a reward for being righteous and just. At the marriage of Zeus and Hera, a nymph named Chelone refused to attend. Zeus transformed her into a tortoise (chelone in Greek). Zeus, with Hera, turned King Haemus and Queen Rhodope into mountains (the Balkan mountains, or Stara Planina, and Rhodope mountains, respectively) for their vanity. Zeus condemned Tantalus to eternal torture in Tartarus for trying to trick the gods into eating the flesh of his butchered son Pelops. Zeus condemned Ixion to be tied to a fiery wheel for eternity as punishment for attempting to violate Hera. Zeus sank the Telchines beneath the sea. Zeus blinded the seer Phineus and sent the Harpies to plague him as punishment for revealing the secrets of the gods. Zeus rewarded Tiresias with a life three times the norm as reward for ruling in his favour when he and Hera contested which of the sexes gained the most pleasure from the act of love. Zeus punished Hera by having her hung upside down from the sky when she attempted to drown Heracles in a storm. Of all the children Zeus spawned, Heracles was often described as his favorite. Indeed, Heracles was often called by various gods and people as "the favorite son of Zeus", Zeus and Heracles were very close and in one story, where a tribe of earth-born Giants threatened Olympus and the Oracle at Delphi decreed that only the combined efforts of a lone god and mortal could stop the creature, Zeus chose Heracles to fight by his side. They proceeded to defeat the monsters. Athena has at times been called his favorite daughter and adviser. His sacred bird was the Golden Eagle, which he kept by his side at all times. Like him, the eagle was a symbol of strength, courage, and justice. His favourite tree was the oak, symbol of strength. Olive trees were also sacred to him. Zelus, Nike, Cratos and Bia were Zeus' retinue. Zeus condemned Prometheus to having his liver eaten by a giant eagle for giving the Flames of Olympus to the mortals. 15
When Hera gave birth to Hephaestus, Zeus threw him off the top of Mount Olympus because of his repulsive appearance. Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Uranus Gaia
Argive genealogy in Greek mythology Argive genealogy in Greek mythology
See also Greek mythology portal Hellenismos portal Achaean Federation Agetor Deception of Zeus Hetairideia - Thessalian Festival to Zeus Jupiter (mythology) Temple of Zeus USS Zeus (ARB-4) References ^ The sculpture was presented to Louis XIV as Aesculapius but restored as Zeus, ca. 1686, by Pierre Granier, who added the upraised right arm brandishing the thunderbolt. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Formerly in the 'Allée Royale', (Tapis Vert) in theGardens of Versailles, now conserved in the Louvre Museum (official on-line catalog) ^ a b There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite's origins: Hesiod (Theogony) claims that she was "born" from the foam of the sea after Cronos castrated Uranus, thus making her Uranus' daughter; but Homer (Iliad, book V) has Aphrodite as daughter of Zeus and Dione. According to Plato (Symposium 180e), the two were entirely separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 542 and other sources. ^ Hamilton, Edith (1942). Mythology (1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467.ISBN 978-0-31634114-1. ^ Iliad, book 1.503; 533 ^ Pausanias, 2. 24.2. ^ a b "American Heritage Dictionary: Zeus". Retrieved 2006-07-03. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: Jupiter". Retrieved 2006-07-03. ^ Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. p. 321. ISBN 0-674-36280-2. ^ Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages ^ "Gaza". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.;Johannes Hahn: Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt; The Holy Land and the Bible ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155 ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 9, 107 ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Dōdōne, with a reference to Acestodorus ^ The bust below the base of the neck is eighteenth century. The head, which is roughly worked at back and must have occupied a niche, was found at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoliand donated to the British Museum by John Thomas Barber Beaumont in 1836. BM 1516. (British Museum, A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1904). ^ Homer, Iliad i. 202, ii. 157, 375, &c. ^ Pindar, Isthmian Odes iv. 99 ^ Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy ii. 13 ^ Spanh. ad Callim. hymn. in Jov, 49 ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegiduchos". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. p. 26 18
^ Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon & Schuster) 1939:23. ^ Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, "The Minoan belief-system" (Routledge) 1990:125 ^ Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. ^ A.B. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. ^ Dietrich 1973, noting Martin P. Nilsson, Minoan-Mycenaean Religion, and Its Survival in Greek Religion 1950:551 and notes. ^ "Professor Stylianos Alexiou reminds us that there were other divine boys who survived from the religion of the pre-Hellenic period — Linos, Ploutos and Dionysos — so not all the young male deities we see depicted in Minoan works of art are necessarily Velchanos" (Castleden 1990:125 ^ Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). ^ "This annually reborn god of vegetation also experienced the other parts of the vegetation cycle: holy marriage and annual death when he was thought to disappear from the earth" (Dietrich 1973:15). ^ In the founding myth of Lycaon's banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice, perhaps one of his sons, Nyctimus or ArcasZeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula. ^ A morphological connection to lyke "brightness" may be merely fortuitous. ^ Modern archaeologists have found no trace of human remains among the sacrificial detritus, Walter Burkert, "Lykaia and Lykaion", Homo Necans, tr. by Peter Bing (University of California) 1983, p. 90. ^ Pausanias 8.38. ^ Republic 565d-e ^ Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vi. 162 ^ Hesiod, according to a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautika, ii. 297 ^ Odyssey 14.326-7 ^ Pausanias 3.18. ^ 2 Maccabees 6:2 ^ David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. ^ In Fourth Tractate 'Problems of the Soul' The Demiurge is identified as Zeus.10."When under the name of Zeus we are considering the Demiurge we must leave out all notions of stage and progress, and recognize one unchanging and timeless life." ^ A Point of View: The euro's strange stories, BBC, retrieved 20/11/2011 ^ Hamilton, Edith (1969). "The Gods". Mythology. p. 29. ISBN 0-451-62702-4. ^ Brandenberg, Aliki (1994). The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. 30. Further reading Burkert, Walter, (1977) 1985. Greek Religion, especially section III.ii.1 (Harvard University Press) Cook, Arthur Bernard, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, (3 volume set), (1914–1925). New York, Bibilo & Tannen: 1964. Volume 1: Zeus, God of the Bright Sky, Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0148-9 (reprint) Volume 2: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (Thunder and Lightning), Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 08196-0156-X Volume 3: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes, clouds, wind, dew, rain, meteorites) Druon, Maurice, The Memoirs of Zeus, 1964, Charles Scribner's and Sons. (tr. Humphrey Hare) Farnell, Lewis Richard, Cults of the Greek States 5 vols. Oxford; Clarendon 1896–1909. Still the standard reference. Farnell, Lewis Richard, Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, 1921. Graves, Robert; The Greek Myths, Penguin Books Ltd. (1960 edition) Mitford,William, The History of Greece, 1784. Cf. v.1, Chapter II, Religion of the Early Greeks Moore, Clifford H., The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916. Nilsson, Martin P., Greek Popular Religion, 1940. 19
Nilsson, Martin P., History of Greek Religion, 1949. Rohde, Erwin, Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks, 1925. Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, Ancientlibrary.com, William Smith, Dictionary: "Zeus" Ancientlibrary.com External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Zeus Greek Mythology Link, Zeus stories of Zeus in myth Theoi Project, Zeus summary, stories, classical art Theoi Project, Cult Of Zeus cult and statues Photo: Pagans Honor Zeus at Ancient Athens Temple from National Geographic
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeus_Ammon#Greece Amun (also Amon, , Greek ʾμμων Ammon, ʾμμων Hammon) was a local deity of Thebes. He was attested since the Old Kingdom together with his spouse Amaunet. With the 11th dynasty (ca. 21st century BC), he rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Monthu. After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I, Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra. Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity"par excellence", he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods. As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside of Egypt, in Ancient Libya and Nubia, and as Zeus Ammon came to be identified with Zeus in Ancient Greece. Contents [hide] 1 Early history 2 Temple at Karnak 3 New Kingdom 3.1 Identification with Min and Ra 3.2 Atenist heresy 3.3 Theology 4 Third Intermediate Period 4.1 Theban High Priests of Amun 4.2 Decline 5 Iron Age and Classical Antiquity 5.1 Nubia and Libya 5.2 Levant 5.3 Greece 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links Early history 20
Amun and Amaunet are mentioned in the Old Egyptian pyramid texts. Amun and Amaunet formed one quarter of the ancient Ogdoadof Hermopolis, representing the primordial concept or element of air or invisibility (corresponding to Shu in the Ennead), hence Amun's later function as a wind deity, and the name Amun (written imn, pronounced Amana in ancient Egyptian ), meaning "hidden". Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period, under the 11th dynasty. As the patron of Thebes, his spouse was Mut. In Thebes, Amun as father, Mut as mother and the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or "Theban Triad". Temple at Karnak Main articles: Precinct of Amun-Re, Karnak, and History of the Karnak Temple complex The history of Amun as the patron god of Thebes begins in the 20th century BC, with the construction of the Precinct of Amun-Re atKarnak under Senusret I. The city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the 11th dynasty. Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the 18th dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt. Construction of the Hypostyle Hall may have also began during the 18th dynasty, though most building was undertaken under Seti I and Ramesses II. Merenptah commemorated his victories over the Sea Peoples on the walls of the Cachette Court, the start of the processional route to the Luxor Temple. This Great Inscription (which has now lost about a third of its content) shows the king's campaigns and eventual return with booty and prisoners. Next to this inscription is the Victory Stela, which is largely a copy of the more famous Israel Stela found in the West Bank funerary complex of Merenptah. Merenptah's son Seti II added 2 small obelisks in front of the Second Pylon, and a triple bark-shrine to the north of the processional avenue in the same area. This was constructed of sandstone, with a chapel to Amun flanked by those of Mut and Khonsu. The last major change to the Precinct of Amun-Re's layout was the addition of the first pylon and the massive enclosure walls that surrounded the whole Precinct, both constructed by Nectanebo I. New Kingdom
Bas-relief depicting Amun as pharaoh Further information: High Priests of Amun Identification with Min and Ra When the army of the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty expelled the Hyksos rulers from Egypt, the victor's city of origin, Thebes, became the most important city in Egypt, the capital of a new dynasty. The local patron deity of Thebes, Amun, therefore became nationally important. The pharaohs of that new 21
dynasty attributed all their successful enterprises to Amun, and they lavished much of their wealth and captured spoil on the construction of temples dedicated to Amun. The victory accomplished by pharaohs who worshipped Amun against the "foreign rulers", brought him to be seen as a champion of the less fortunate, upholding the rights of justice for the poor. By aiding those who traveled in his name, he became the Protector of the road. Since he upheld Ma'at (truth, justice, and goodness), those who prayed to Amun were required first to demonstrate that they were worthy by confessing their sins. Votive stelae from the artisans' village at Deir el-Medina record: "[Amun] who comes at the voice of the poor in distress, who gives breath to him who is wretched. You are Amun, the Lord of the silent, who comes at the voice of the poor; when I call to you in my distress You come and rescue me...Though the servant was disposed to do evil, the Lord is disposed to forgive. The Lord of Thebes spends not a whole day in anger; His wrath passes in a moment; none remains. His breath comes back to us in mercy. May your ka be kind; may you forgive; It shall not happen again."
Amun-Min as Amun-Ra ka-Mut-ef from the temple at Deir el Medina. Subsequently, when Egypt conquered Kush, they identified the chief deity of the Kushites as Amun. This Kush deity was depicted asram-headed, more specifically a woolly ram with curved horns. Amun thus became associated with the ram arising from the aged appearance of the Kush ram deity. A solar deity in the form of a ram can be traced to the pre-literate Kerma culture in Nubia, contemporary to the Old Kingdom of Egypt. The later (Meroitic period) name of Nubian Amun was Amani, attested in numerous personal names such as Tanwetamani, Arkamani, Amanitore, Amanishakheto, Natakamani. Since rams were considered a symbol of virility, Amun also became thought of as a fertility deity, and so started to absorb the identity of Min, becoming Amun-Min. This association with virility led to Amun-Min gaining the epithet Kamutef, meaning Bull of his mother, in which form he was found depicted on the walls ofKarnak, ithyphallic, and with a scourge, as Min was.
Amun-Ra in hieroglyphs
Re-Horakhty ("Ra (who is the) Horus of the two Horizons"), the fusion of Ra andHorus, in depiction typical of the New Kingdom. Re-Horakhty was in turn identified with Amun. As the cult of Amun grew in importance, Amun became identified with the chief deity who was worshipped in other areas during that period, the sun god Ra. This identification led to another merger of identities, with Amun becoming Amun-Ra. In the Hymn to Amun-Ra he is described as "Lord of truth, father of the gods, maker of men, creator of all animals, Lord of things that are, creator of the staff of life." Atenist heresy During the latter part of the eighteenth dynasty, the pharaoh Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV) disliked the power of the temple of Amun and advanced the worship of the Aten, a deity whose power was manifested in the sun disk, both literally and symbolically. He defaced the symbols of many of the old deities, and based his religious practices upon the deity, the Aten. He moved his capital away from Thebes, but this abrupt change was very unpopular with the priests of Amun, who now found themselves without any of their former power. The religion of Egypt was inexorably tied to the leadership of the country, the pharaoh being the leader of both. The pharaoh was the highest priest in the temple of the capital, and the next lower level of religious leaders were important advisers to the pharaoh, many being administrators of the bureaucracy that ran the country. The introduction of Atenism under Akhenaton constructed a "monotheist" worship of Aten in direct competition with that of Amun. Praises of Amun on stelae are strikingly similar in language to those later used, in particular the Hymn to the Aten: 23
"When thou crossest the sky, all faces behold thee, but when thou departest, thou are hidden from their faces ... When thou settest in the western mountain, then they sleep in the manner of death ... The fashioner of that which the soil produces, ... a mother of profit to gods and men; a patient craftsmen, greatly wearying himself as their maker..valiant herdsman, driving his cattle, their refuge and the making of their living..The sole Lord, who reaches the end of the lands every day, as one who sees them that tread thereon ... Every land chatters at his rising every day, in order to praise him." When Akhenaten died, the priests of Amun-Ra reasserted themselves. His name was struck from Egyptian records, all of his religious and governmental changes were undone, and the capital was returned to Thebes. The return to the previous capital and its patron deity was accomplished so swiftly that it seemed this almost monotheistic cult and its governmental reforms had never existed. Worship of Aten ceased and worship of Amun-Ra was restored. The priests of Amun even persuaded his young son, Tutankhaten, whose name meant "the living image of Aten"—and who later would become a pharaoh—to change his name to Tutankhamun, "the living image of Amun". Theology This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: unstructured "various" section. Put in chronological context.. Please help improve this section if you can. (October 2012) In the New Kingdom, Amun became successively identified with all other Egyptian deities, to the point of virtual monotheism (which was then attacked by means of the "counter-monotheism" of Atenism). Primarily, the god of wind Amun came to be identified with the solar god Ra and the god of fertility and creation Min, so that Amun-Ra had the main characteristic of a solar god, creator god and fertility god. He also adopted the aspect of the ram from the Nubian solar god, besides numerous other titles and aspects. As Amun-Re he was petitioned for mercy by those who believed suffering had come about as a result of their own or others wrongdoing. Amon-Re "who hears the prayer, who comes at the cry of the poor and distressed...Beware of him! Repeat him to son and daughter, to great and small; relate him to generations of generations who have not yet come into being; relate him to fishes in the deep, to birds in heaven; repeat him to him who does not know him and to him who knows him...Though it may be that the servant is normal in doing wrong, yet the Lord is normal in being merciful. The Lord of Thebes does not spend an entire day angry. As for his anger – in the completion of a moment there is no remnant..As thy Ka endures! thou wilt be merciful!" In the Leiden hymns, Amun, Ptah, and Re are regarded as a trinity who are distinct gods but with unity in plurality. "The three gods are one yet the Egyptian elsewhere insists on the separate identity of each of the three." This unity in plurality is expressed in one text: "All gods are three: Amun, Re and Ptah, whom none equals. He who hides his name as Amun, he appears to the face as Re, his body is Ptah." The hidden aspect of Amun and his likely association with the wind caused Henri Frankfort to draw parallels with a passage from the Gospel of John: "The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going."[John 3:8] A Leiden hymn to Amun describes how he calms stormy seas for the troubled sailor: "The tempest moves aside for the sailor who remembers the name of Amon. The storm becomes a sweet breeze for he who invokes His name... Amon is more effective than millions for he who places Him in his heart. Thanks to Him the single man becomes stronger than a crowd." Third Intermediate Period
The sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra, ca. 1000 B.C. – Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History Theban High Priests of Amun Main article: Theban High Priests of Amun While not regarded as a dynasty, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c. 943 BC. By the time Herihor was proclaimed as the first ruling High Priest of Amun in 1080 BC—in the 19th Year of Ramesses XI—the Amun priesthood exercised an effective stranglehold on Egypt's economy. The Amun priests owned two-thirds of all the temple lands in Egypt and 90 percent of her ships plus many other resources. Consequently, the Amun priests were as powerful as Pharaoh, if not more so. One of the sons of the High Priest Pinedjem I would eventually assume the throne and rule Egypt for almost half a decade as pharaoh Psusennes I, while the Theban High Priest Psusennes III would take the throne as king Psusennes II—the final ruler of the 21st Dynasty. Decline In the 10th century, the overwhelming dominance of Amun over all of Egypt gradually began to decline. In Thebes, however, his worship continued unabated, especially under the Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, as Amun was by now seen as a national god in Nubia. The Temple of Amun, Jebel Barkal, founded during the New Kingdom, came to be the center of the religious ideology of the Kingdom of Kush. The Victory Stele of Piye at Gebel Barkal (8th c. BC) now distinguishes between an "Amun of Napata" and an "Amun of Thebes".Tantamani (died 653 BC), the last pharaoh of the Nubian dynasty, still bore a theophoric name referring to Amun in the Nubian formAmani. Iron Age and Classical Antiquity
Depiction of Amun in a relief at Karnak (15th century BC) Nubia and Libya In areas outside of Egypt where the Egyptians had previously brought the cult of Amun his worship continued into Classical Antiquity. In Nubia, where his name was pronounced Amane or Amani, he remained a national deity, with his priests, at Meroe and Nobatia,regulating the whole government of the country via an oracle, choosing the ruler, and directing military expeditions. According to Diodorus Siculus, these religious leaders even were able to compel kings to commit suicide, although this tradition stopped when Arkamane, in the 3rd century BC, slew them. In Libya there remained a solitary oracle of Amun in the Libyan Desert at the oasis of Siwa. The worship of Ammon was introduced into Greece at an early period, probably through the medium of the Greek colony in Cyrene, which must have formed a connection with the great oracle of Ammon in the Oasis soon after its establishment. Iarbas, a mythological king of Libya, was also considered a son of Hammon. Levant Amun is mentioned as a deity in the Hebrew Bible, and in the Nevi'im, texts presumably written in the 7th century BC, the name נא אמוןNo Amown occurs twice in reference to Thebes, by the KJV rendered just as No: Jeremiah 46:25:25 The Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, said: “Behold, I am bringing punishment upon Amon of Thebes, and Pharaoh and Egypt and her gods and her kings, upon Pharaoh and those who trust in him. English Standard Version: Nahum 3:8 "Art thou better than populous No, that was situate among the rivers, that had the waters round about it, whose rampart was the sea, and her wall was from the sea?" Greece Ammon had a temple and a statue, the gift of Pindar (d. 443 BC), at Thebes, and another at Sparta, the inhabitants of which, as Pausanias says, consulted the oracle of Ammon in Libya from early times more than the other Greeks. At Aphytis, Chalcidice, Ammon was worshipped, from the time of Lysander (d. 395 BC), as zealously as in Ammonium. Pindar the poet honoured the god with a hymn. At Megalopolis the god was represented with the head of a ram (Paus. viii.32 § 1), and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a chariot with a statue of Ammon. Such was its reputation among the Classical Greeks that Alexander the Great journeyed there after the battle of Issus and during his occupation of Egypt, where he was declared "the son of Amun" by the 26
oracle. Alexander thereafter considered himself divine. Even during this occupation, Amun, identified by these Greeks as a form of Zeus, continued to be the principal local deity of Thebes. Several words derive from Amun via the Greek form, Ammon, such as ammonia and ammonite. The Romans called the ammonium chloride they collected from deposits near the Temple of Jupiter Amun in ancient Libya sal ammoniacus (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple.  Ammonia, as well as being the chemical, is a genus name in the foraminifera. Both these foraminiferans (shelled Protozoa) and ammonites (extinct shelled cephalopods) bear spiral shells resembling a ram's, and Ammon's, horns. The regions of the hippocampus in the brain are called the cornu ammonis – literally "Amun's Horns", due to the horned appearance of the dark and light bands of cellular layers. In Paradise Lost, Milton identifies Ammon with the biblical Ham (Cham) and states that the gentiles called him the Libyan Jove. References ^ Warburton (2012:211). ^ Michael Brennan Dick, Born in heaven, made on earth: the making of the cult image in the ancient Near East, Eisenbrauns, 1999 ISBN 1575060248, p. 184 (fn. 80) ^ a b c d Vincent Arieh Tobin, Oxford Guide: The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, Edited by Donald B. Redford, p. 20, Berkley books, ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums (1908), no 446. ^ Egypt and the Egyptians pg. 123 ^ Stewert, Desmond and editors of the Newsweek Book Division "The Pyramids and Sphinx" 1971 pp. 60–62 ^ Blyth, 2007, p.164 ^ Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume II: The New Kingdom, Miriam Lichtheim, p105-106, University of California Press, 1976, ISBN 0-520-03615-8 ^ Hart, George (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. Routledge. pp. 21. ISBN 0-415-36116-8. ^ Budge, E.A. Wallis,""An Introduction to Egyptian Literature", p.214, Dover edition 1997, first pub. 1914, ISBN 0-486-29502-8 ^ John A. Wilson, "The Burden of Egypt", p. 211, University of Chicago Press, 1951, 4th imp 1963, Republished as "The Culture of Ancient Egypt", ISBN 978-0-226-90152-7Uchicago.edu ^ "The Burden of Egypt", John A. Wilson, p300, University of Chicago Press, 1951, 4th imp 1963, Republished as "The Culture of Ancient Egypt", ISBN 978-0-226-90152-7Uchicago.edu ^ Egyptian Religion: Siegried Morenz, Translated by Ann E. Keep, Cornell University Press, 1992, p.144145,ISBN 0-8014-8029-9 ^ "Before Philosophy", Henri Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, p. 75, Pelican, 1951 ^ "Of God and Gods", Jan Assmann. p. 64, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, ISBN 029922554 ^ "Before Philosophy", Henri Frankfort (contributor), p. 18, Penguin, 1951 ^ The Living Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, Christian Jacq, p. 143, Simon & Schuster, 1999,ISBN 0-67102219-9 ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1994. p.175 ^ Herodotus, The Histories ii.29 ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece x.13 § 3 ^ Strong's Concordance / Gesenius' Lexicon ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece ix.16 § 1 ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece iii.18 § 2 ^ Jerem. xlvi.25 ^ "Ammonia". h2g2 Eponyms. BBB.CO.UK. 2003-01-11. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 27
Sources Adolf Erman, Handbook of Egyptian Religion (London, 1907) David Klotz, Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple (New Haven, 2006) David Warburton, Architecture, Power, and Religion: Hatshepsut, Amun and Karnak in Context, 2012, ISBN 9783643902351. E. A. W. Budge, Tutankhamen: Amenism, Atenism, and Egyptian Monotheism (1923). Ed. Meyer, article "Ammon" in W. H. Roscher's Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie Pietschmann, articles "Ammon" and "Ammoneion" in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amun Wim van den Dungen, Leiden Hymns to Amun (Spanish) Karnak 3D :: Detailed 3D-reconstruction of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak, Marc Mateos, 2007 Amun with features of Tutankhamun (statue, ca. 1332–1292 BC, Penn Museum) http://www.scribd.com/doc/113233414/How-Do-You-Inform-the-Brainwashed-They-Are-ReptilianMinded-Zombies-Without-Getting-Hurt
The melting pot is a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture. It is particularly used to describe the assimilation of immigrants to the USA; the melting-together metaphor was in use by the 1780s. After 1970 the desirability of assimilation and the melting pot model was challenged by proponents of multiculturalism, who assert that cultural differences within society are valuable and should be preserved, proposing the alternative metaphor of the mosaic, salad bowl or "American Kaleidoscope" – different cultures mix, but remain distinct. In the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the metaphor of a "crucible" or "(s)melting pot" was used to describe the fusion of different nationalities, ethnicities and cultures. It was used together with concepts of the United States as an ideal republic and a "city upon a hill" or new promised land. It was a metaphor for the idealized process ofimmigration and colonization by which different nationalities, cultures and "races" (a term that could encompass nationality, ethnicity and race) were to blend into a new, virtuous community, and it was connected to utopian visions of the emergence of an American "new man". While "melting" was in common use the exact term "melting pot" came into general usage in 1908, after the premiere of the play The Melting Pot by Israel Zangwill. The first use in American literature of the concept of immigrants "melting" into the receiving culture are found in the writings of J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur. In his Letters from an American Farmer (1782) Crevecoeur writes, in response to his own question, "What then is the American, this new man?" that the American is one who "leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world." “ "…whence came all these people? They are a mixture of English, Scotch, Irish, French, Dutch, Germans, and Swedes... What, then, is the American, this new man? He is neither a European nor the descendant of a European; hence that strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. . . . The Americans were once scattered all over Europe; here they are incorporated into one of the finest systems of population which has ever appeared." − J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer.
In 1845, Ralph Waldo Emerson, alluding to the development of European civilization out of the medieval Dark Ages, wrote in his private journal of America as the Utopian product of a culturally and racially mixed "smelting pot", but only in 1912 were his remarks first published. In his writing, Emerson explicitly welcomed the racial intermixing of whites and non-whites, a highly controversial view during his lifetime. A magazine article in 1875 used the metaphor explicitly: "The fusing process goes on as in a blast-furnace; one generation, a single year even-- transforms the English, the German, the Irish emigrant into an American. Uniform institutions, ideas, language, the influence of the majority, bring us soon to a similar complexion; the individuality of the immigrant, almost even his traits of race and religion, fuse down in the democratic alembic like chips of brass thrown into the melting pot." In 1893, historian Frederick Jackson Turner also used the metaphor of immigrants melting into one American culture. In his essay The Significance of the Frontier in American History, he referred to the "composite nationality" of the American people, arguing that the frontier had functioned as a "crucible" 29
where "the immigrants were Americanized, liberated and fused into a mixed race, English in neither nationality nor characteristics." In his 1905 travel narrative The American Scene, Henry James refers to cultural intermixing in New York City as a "fusion, as of elements in solution in a vast hot pot.". The exact term "melting pot" came into general usage in the United States after it was used as a metaphor describing a fusion of nationalities, cultures and ethnicities in the 1908play of the same name, first performed in Washington, D.C., where the immigrant protagonist declared: “ "Understand that America is God's Crucible, the great Melting-Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and re-forming! Here you stand, good folk, think I, when I see them at Ellis Island, here you stand in your fifty groups, your fifty languages, and histories, and your fifty blood hatreds and rivalries. But you won't be long like that, brothers, for these are the fires of God you've come to – these are fires of God. A fig for your feuds and vendettas! Germans and Frenchmen, Irishmen and Englishmen, Jews and Russians—into the Crucible with you all! God is making the American."
Zangwill In The Melting Pot (1905), Zangwill combined a romantic denouement with a utopian celebration of complete cultural intermixing. The play was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, set in New York City. The play's immigrant protagonist David Quixano, a Russian Jew, falls in love with Vera, a fellow Russian immigrant who is Christian. Vera is an idealistic settlement house worker and David is a musical composer struggling to create an "American symphony" to celebrate his adopted homeland. Together they manage to overcome the old world animosities that threaten to separate them. But then David discovers that Vera is the daughter of the Tsarist officer who directed the pogrom that forced him to flee Russia. Horrified, he breaks up with her, betraying his belief in the possibility of transcending religious and ethnic animosities. However, unlike Shakespeare's tragedy, there is a happy ending. At the end of the play the lovers are reconciled. Reunited with Vera and watching the setting sun gilding the Statue of Liberty, David Quixano has a prophetic vision: "It is the Fires of God round His Crucible. There she lies, the great Melting-Pot--Listen! Can't you hear the roaring and the bubbling? There gapes her mouth, the harbor where a thousand mammoth feeders come from the ends of the world to pour in their human freight." David foresees how the American melting pot will make the nation's immigrants transcend their old animosities and differences and will fuse them into one people: "Here shall they all unite to build the Republic of Man and the Kingdom of God." Zangwill thus combined the metaphor of the "crucible" or "melting pot" with a celebration of the United States as an ideal republic and a new promised land. The prophetic words of his Jewish protagonist against the backdrop of the Statue of Liberty allude to Emma Lazarus's famous poem The New Colossus (1883), which celebrated the statue as a symbol of the United States' democracy and its identity as an immigrant nation. United States In terms of immigrants to the United States, the "melting pot" process has been equated with Americanization, that is, cultural assimilation and acculturation. The "melting pot" metaphor implies both a melting of cultures and intermarriage of ethnicities, yet cultural assimilation or acculturation can also occur without intermarriage. Thus African-Americans are fully culturally integrated into American culture and institutions. Yet more than a century after the abolition of slavery, intermarriage between African-Americans and other ethnicities is much less common than between different white ethnicities, or between white and Asian ethnicities. Intermarriage between whites and non-whites, and especially African-Americans, has long been a taboo in the United States, and was illegal in many US states (see anti-miscegenation laws) until 1967. Whiteness and the US melting pot 30
The melting pot theory of ethnic relations, which sees American identity as centered upon the acculturation or assimilation and the intermarriage of white immigrant groups, has been analyzed by the emerging academic field of whiteness studies. This discipline examines the 'social construction of whiteness' and highlights the changing ways in which whiteness has been normative to American national identity from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, European immigration to the US became increasingly diverse and increased substantially in numbers. Beginning in the 1890s, large numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrant groups such as the Italians, Jews, and Poles arrived. Many returned to Europe but those who remained merged into the cultural melting pot, adopting American lifestyles.  By contrast, Chinese arrivals met intense hostility and new laws in the 1880s tried to exclude them, but many arrived illegally. Hostility forced them into "Chinatowns" or ethnic enclaves in the larger cities, where they lived a culture apart and seldom assimilated. The acquisition of Hawaii in 1898, with full citizenship for the residents of all races, greatly increased the Asian American population. In the early twentieth century, the meaning of the recently popularized concept of the melting pot was subject to ongoing debate which centered on the issue of immigration. The debate surrounding the concept of the melting pot centered on how immigration impacted American society and on how immigrants should be approached. The melting pot was equated with either the acculturation or the total assimilation of European immigrants, and the debate centered on the differences between these two ways of approaching immigration: "Was the idea to melt down the immigrants and then pour the resulting, formless liquid into the preexisting cultural and social molds modeled on Anglo-Protestants like Henry Ford and Woodrow Wilson, or was the idea instead that everyone, Mayflower descendants and Sicilians, Ashkenazi and Slovaks, would act chemically upon each other so that all would be changed, and a new compound would emerge?". Nativists wanted to severely restrict access to the melting pot. They felt that far too many "undesirables," or in their view, culturally inferior immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe had already arrived. The compromises that were reached in a series of immigration laws in the 1920s established the principle that the number of new arrivals should be small, and, apart from family reunification, the inflow of new immigrants should match the ethnic profile of the nation as it existed at that time. National quotas were established that discouraged immigration from Poland, Italy and Russia, and encouraged immigration from Britain, Ireland and Germany. Miscegenation Intermarriage between old stock Americans and white immigrant groups was acceptable as part of the melting pot narrative. Native Americans in the United States on reservations gained US citizenship with the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, and were encouraged to become integrated in the society through educational programs. The country welcomes celebrities of Native American background, such as Will Rogers and Jim Thorpe, and elected a vice president with significant Native American ancestry, Charles Curtis, in 1928. The mixing of whites and blacks, resulting in multiracial children, for which the term "miscegenation" was coined in 1863, was a taboo, and most whites opposed marriages between whites and blacks. In many states, marriage between whites and non-whites was even prohibited by state law through antimiscegenation laws. As a result two kinds of "mixture talk" developed: As the new word--miscegenation--became associated with black-white mixing, a preoccupation of the years after the Civil War, the residual European immigrant aspect of the question of [ethnoracial mixture] came to be more than ever a thing apart, discussed all the more easily without any reference to the African-American aspect of the question. This separation of mixture talk into two discourses facilitated, and was in turn reinforced by, the process Matthew Frye Jacobson has detailed whereby European immigrant groups became less ambiguously white and more definitely "not black" By the early 20th century, many white Americans accepted that American culture was heavily influenced by African-American culture, but although they increasingly accepted and even celebrated this acculturation, most whites did not accept marriages between white Americans and African31
Americans. Reflecting on American culture in an afterword to his play, Israel Zangwill recognized this, writing: "However scrupulously and justifiably America avoids intermarriage with the negro, the comic spirit cannot fail to note spiritual miscegenation which, while clothing, commercializing, and Christianizing the ex-African, has given 'rag-time' and the sex-dances that go with it, first to white America and then to the whole white world." Many African-American intellectuals[who?] have commented on and analyzed the paradox that white Americans long regarded many elements of African-American culture quintessentially "American," while at the same time treating African Americans as second-class citizens. White appropriation, stereotyping and mimicking of black culture played an important role in the construction of an urban popular culture in which European immigrants could express themselves as Americans, through such traditions as blackface,minstrel shows and later in jazz and in early Hollywood cinema, notably in The Jazz Singer (1927). Analyzing the "racial masquerade" that was involved in creation of a white "melting pot" culture through the stereotyping and imitation of black and other non-white cultures in the early 20th century, historian Michael Rogin has commented: "Repudiating 1920s nativism, these films [Rogin discusses The Jazz Singer, Old San Francisco (1927), Whoopee!(1930), King of Jazz (1930)] celebrate the melting pot. Unlike other racially stigmatized groups, white immigrants can put on and take off their mask of difference. But the freedom promised immigrants to make themselves over points to the vacancy, the violence, the deception, and the melancholy at the core of American self-fashioning." Since the Second World War, the idea of the melting pot has become more racially inclusive in the United States, gradually extending also to acceptance of marriage between whites and non-whites. This trend towards greater acceptance of ethnic and racial minorities was evident in popular culture in the combat films of the Second World War, starting with Bataan (1943). This film celebrated solidarity and cooperation between Americans of all races and ethnicities through the depiction of a multiracial American unit at a time when the armed forces were still racially segregated. Historian Richard Slotkin sees Bataan and the combat genre that sprang from it as the source of the "melting pot platoon," a cinematic and cultural convention symbolizing in the 1940s "an American community that did not yet exist," and thus presenting an implicit protest against racial segregation. However, Slotkin points out that ethnic and racial harmony within this platoon is predicated upon racist hatred for the Japanese enemy: "the emotion which enables the platoon to transcend racial prejudice is itself a virulent expression of racial hatred. ... The final heat which blends the ingredients of the melting pot is rage against an enemy which is fully dehumanized as a race of 'dirty monkeys.'" He sees this racist rage as an expression of "the unresolved tension between racialism and civic egalitarianism in American life.". Since the successes of the American Civil Rights Movement and the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which allowed for a massive increase in immigration from Latin America and Asia, intermarriage between white and non-white Americans has been increasing. The taboo on marriage between whites and African Americans also appears to be fading. In 2000, the rate of black-white marriage was greater than the rate of Jewish-Gentile marriage (between Jewish Americans and other whites) in 1940. Hawaii In Hawaii, as Rohrer (2008) argues, there are two dominant discourses of racial politics, both focused on "haole" (white people or whiteness in Hawaii) in the islands. The first is the discourse of racial harmony representing Hawaii as an idyllic racial paradise with no conflict or inequality. There is also a competing discourse of discrimination against nonlocals, which contends that 'haoles' and nonlocal people of color are disrespected and treated unfairly in Hawaii. As negative referents for each other, these discourses work to reinforce one another and are historically linked. Rohrer proposes that the question of racial politics be reframed toward consideration of the processes of racialization themselves - toward a new way of thinking about racial politics in Hawaii that breaks free of the not racist/racist dyad. Olympics 32
Throughout the history of the modern Olympic Games, the theme of the United States as a melting pot has been employed to explain American athletic success, becoming an important aspect of national selfimage. The diversity of American athletes in the Olympic Games in the early 20th centuries was an important avenue for the country to redefine a national culture amid a massive influx of immigrants, as well as American Indians (represented by Jim Thorpe in 1912) and blacks (represented by Jesse Owens in 1932). In the1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, two black American athletes with gold and bronze medals saluted the U.S. national anthem with a "Black Power" salute that symbolized rejection of assimilation. The international aspect of the games allowed the United States to define its pluralistic self-image against the monolithic traditions of other nations. American athletes served as cultural ambassadors of American exceptionalism, promoting the melting pot ideology and the image of America as a progressive nation based on middle-class culture. Journalists and other American analysts of the Olympics framed their comments with patriotic nationalism, stressing that the success of U.S. athletes, especially in the highprofile track-and-field events, stemmed not from simple athletic prowess but from the superiority of the civilization that spawned them. Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City strongly revived the melting pot image, returning to a bedrock form of American nationalism and patriotism. The reemergence of Olympic melting pot discourse was driven especially by the unprecedented success of African Americans, Mexican Americans,Asian Americans, and Native Americans in events traditionally associated with Europeans and white North Americans such as speed skating and the bobsled. The 2002 Winter Olympics was also a showcase of American religious freedom and cultural tolerance of the history of Utah's large majority population of Mormons, as well representation of Muslim Americans and other religious groups in the US Olympic team. Melting pot, cultural pluralism, Anglo-conformity, multiculturalism The concept of multiculturalism was preceded by the concept of cultural pluralism, which was first developed in the 1910s and 1920s, and became widely popular during the 1940s. The concept of cultural pluralism first emerged in the 1910s and 1920s among intellectual circles out of the debates in the United States over how to approach issues of immigration and national identity. The First World War heightened tensions between Anglo-American and German-Americans. The war and the Russian Revolution, which caused a "Red Scare" in the US, also fanned feelings of xenophobia. During and immediately after the First World War, the concept of the melting pot was equated by Nativists with complete cultural assimilation towards an Anglo-American norm ("Anglo-conformity") on the part of immigrants, and immigrants who opposed such assimilation were accused of disloyalty to the United States. The newly popularized concept of the melting pot was frequently equated with "Americanization", meaning cultural assimilation, by many "old stock" Americans. In Henry Ford's Ford English School (established in 1914), the graduation ceremony for immigrant employees involved symbolically stepping off an immigrant ship and passing through the melting pot, entering at one end in costumes designating their nationality and emerging at the other end in identical suits and waving American flags.  However, not all "old stock" Americans believed that immigrants could be assimilated. Supporters of Anglo-Saxonism and 100 percent Americanism, such as Milton Gordon and Henry Pratt Fairchild believed in the cultural superiority of white Anglo-Americans to non-whites and the new immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, and perceived acculturation and intermarriage with Southern and Eastern European immigrants as a threat to Anglo-Americans. Opposition to the absorption of million of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was especially strong among eugenicists such as scientists Madison Grant and Lothrop Stoddard, who believed in the "racial" superiority of Americans of Northern European descent as member of the "Nordic race", and therefore demanded immigration restrictions to stop a "degeneration" of America's white racial "stock". They believed that complete cultural assimilation of the immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was not a solution to the problem of immigration because intermarriage with these immigrants would endanger the racial purity of 33
Anglo-America. According to eugenist criminologist Edward A. Ross, such intermarriage (often termed "amalgamation") would lead to "race suicide". The controversy over immigration faded away after immigration restrictions were put in place with the enactment of the Johnson-Reed Act in 1924. In response to the pressure exerted on immigrants to culturally assimilate and also as a reaction against the denigration of the culture and "race" of non-Anglo white immigrants by Nativists, intellectuals on the left such as Horace Kallen, in Democracy Versus the Melting-Pot (1915), and Randolph Bourne, in Trans-National America (1916), laid the foundations for the concept of cultural pluralism. This term was coined by Kallen. Randolph Bourne, who objected to Kallen's emphasis on the inherent value of ethnic and cultural difference, envisioned a "trans-national" and cosmopolitan America. The concept of cultural pluralism was popularized in the 1940s by John Dewey. In the United States, where the term melting pot is still commonly used, despite being largely disregarded by modern sociologists as an outdated and diffuse term, the ideas ofcultural pluralism and multiculturalism have largely replaced the idea of assimilation. Alternate models where immigrants retain their native cultures such as the 'salad bowl' or the 'symphony' are more often used by prominent sociologists to describe how cultures and ethnicities mix in the United States. Nonetheless, the term assimilation is still used to describe the ways in which immigrants and their descendants adapt, such as by increasingly using the national language of the host society as their first language. Since the 1960s, most of the research in Sociology and History has disregarded the melting pot theory for describing inter-ethnic relations in the United States and other counties. The theory of multiculturalism offers alternative analogies for ethnic interaction including salad bowl theory, or, as it is known in Canada, the cultural mosaic. In the 1990s, political correctness in the U.S. emphasized that each ethnic and national group has the right to maintain and preserve its cultural distinction and integrity, and that one does not need to assimilate or abandon one's heritage in order to blend in or merge into the majority Anglo-American society. However, some scholars have expressed the view that the most accurate explanation for modern-day United States culture and inter-ethnic relations can be found somewhere in a fusion of some of the concepts and ideas contained in the melting pot, assimilation, and Anglo-conformity models. Under this theory, it is asserted that the U.S. has one of the most homogeneous cultures of any nation in the world. This line of thought holds that this American national culture derived most of its traits and characteristics from early colonial settlers from Britain, Ireland, and Germany. When more recent immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe brought their various cultures to America at the beginning of the 20th century, they changed the American cultural landscape just very slightly, and, for the most part, assimilated into America's pre-existing culture which had its origins in Northwestern Europe. The decision of whether to support a melting-pot or multicultural approach has developed into an issue of much debate within some countries. For example, the French and British governments and populace are currently debating whether Islamic cultural practices and dress conflict with their attempts to form culturally unified countries. Multiculturalist view Multiculturalists typically support loose immigration controls and programs such as bilingual education and affirmative action, which offer certain privileges to minority and/or immigrant groups. Multiculturalists claim that assimilation can hurt minority cultures by stripping away their distinctive features. They point to situations where institutions of the dominant culture initiate programs to assimilate or integrate minority cultures. Although some multiculturalists admit that assimilation may result in a relatively homogeneous society, with a strong sense of nationalism, they warn however, that where minorities are strongly urged to assimilate, there may arise groups which fiercely oppose integration. With assimilation, immigrants lose their original cultural (and often linguistic) identity and so do their children. Immigrants who fled persecution or a country devastated by war were historically resilient to abandoning their heritage once they had settled in a new country. 34
Multiculturalists note that assimilation, in practice, has often been forced, and has caused immigrants to have severed ties with family abroad. In the United States, the use of languages other than English in a classroom setting has traditionally been discouraged. Decades of this policy may have contributed to the fact—lamented by multiculturalists—that more than 80 percent of Americans speak only English at home. While an estimated 60 million U.S. citizens are of German descent, forming the largest ethnic group of American citizens, barely one million of them reported speaking German in their homes in the 2000 Census. Assimilationist view Whereas multiculturalists tend to view the melting-pot theory as oppressive, assimilationists view it as advantageous to both a government and its people. Some tend to favor controlled levels of immigration— enough to benefit society economically, but not enough to profoundly alter it. Assimilationists tend to be opposed to programs that, in their view, give out special privileges to minorities at the expense of the majority. Assimilationists tend to believe that their nation has reached its present state of development because it has been able to forge one national identity. They argue that separating citizens by ethnicity or race and providing immigrant groups "special privileges" can harm the very groups they are intended to help. By calling attention to differences between these groups and the majority, the government may foster resentment towards them by the majority and, in turn, cause the immigrant group to turn inward and shun mainstream culture. Assimilationists suggest that if a society makes a full effort to incorporate immigrants into the mainstream, immigrants will then naturally work to reciprocate the gesture and adopt new customs. Through this process, it is argued, national unity is retained. Assimilationists also argue that the multiculturalist policy of freer immigration is unworkable in an era in which the supply of immigrants from third world countries seems limitless. With immigrants often coming from multiple points of origin, it may be excessively expensive to meet their needs. From an employment perspective, they note that job markets are often tight to begin with and that expecting large amounts of newcomers to find work each year is unrealistic. Allowing high levels of immigration, it is argued, will inevitably lead to widespread poverty and other forms of disadvantage among immigrants. The melting-pot theory works best, in their view, when the "ingredients" are added in modest increments, so that they can be properly absorbed into the whole. A compromise between multiculturalists and assimilationists? There also exists a view that attempts to reconcile some of the differences between multiculturalists and assimilationists. Proponents of this view propose that immigrants need not completely abandon their culture and traditions in order to reach the goal that the melting pot theory seeks. This reasoning relies on the assumption that immigrants can be persuaded to ultimately consider themselves a citizen of their new nation first and of their nation of birth second. In this way, they may still retain and practice all of their cultural traditions but "when push comes to shove" they will put their host nation's interests first. If this can be accomplished, immigrants will then avoid hindering the progress, unity and growth that assimilationsts argue are the positive results of the melting pot theory—while simultaneously appeasing some of the multiculturalists. This compromise view also supports a strong stance on immigration and a primary language in school with the option to study foreign languages. (A consensus on affirmative action does not currently exist.) Proponents of this compromise claim that the difference with this view and that of the assimilationists is that while their view of the melting pot essentially strips immigrants of their culture, the compromise allows immigrants to continue practicing and propagating their cultures from generation to generation and yet sustain and instill a love for their host country first and above all. Whether this kind of delicate balance between host and native countries among immigrants can be achieved remains to be seen. Use in other regions South Asia South Asia has a long history of inter-ethnic marriage dating back to ancient history. Various groups of people have been intermarrying for millennia in South Asia, including speakers of Dravidian, Indo35
Aryan, Austroasiatic, and TibetoBurman languages. Greeks, Huns, Persians, Arab, Turkic, Mongols (Mughals), and European women were taken as wives by local Indian men and vice-versa. On account of such diverse influences, South Asia in a nut-shell appears to be a cradle of human civilization. Despite invasions in its recent history it has succeeded in organically assimilating incoming influences, blunting their wills for imperialistic hegemony and maintaining its strong roots and culture. These invasions however brought their own racial mixing between diverse populations and South Asia is considered an exemplary "melting pot" (and not a "salad bowl") by many geneticists for exactly this reason. However, South Asian society has never been completely free of ethnic strife and exploitation, and some groups have chosen to remain separate from mainstream social life. The divisiveness of the caste system in India has permeated to every facet of the society. Ethnic conflicts in Pakistan between Baloch, Pashtun,Punjabis and Sindhis, are other impediments to the melting pot thesis. Afghanistan Afghanistan seems to be in the process of becoming a melting pot, as customs specific to particular ethnic groups are becoming summarily perceived as national traits of Afghanistan. The term Afghan was originally used to refer to the Pashtuns in the Middle Ages, and the intention behind the creation of the Afghan state was originally to be aPashtun state, but later this policy changed, leading to the inclusion of non-Pashtuns in the state as Afghans. Today in Afghanistan, the development of a cultural melting pot is occurring, where different Afghanistan ethnic groups are mixing together to build a new Afghan ethnicity composed of preceding ethnicities in Afghanistan today, ultimately replacing the old Pashtun identity which stood for Afghan. With the churning growth of Persian, many ethnic groups, including detribalized Pashtuns, are adopting Dari Persian as their new native tongue. Many ethnic groups in Afghanistan tolerate each other, while the Hazara–Pashtun conflict was notable, and often claimed as a Shia-Sunni conflict instead of an ethnic conflict, as this conflict was carried out by the Taliban. The Taliban, which are mostly ethnically Pashtun, have spurred Anti-Pashtunism across non-Pashtun Afghans. Pashtun–Tajik rivalries have lingered about, but are much more mild. Reasons for this antipathy are criticism of Tajiks (for either their non-tribal culture or cultural rivalry in Afghanistan) by Pashtuns and criticism of Taliban (mostly composed of Pashtuns) by Tajiks. There have been rivalries between Pashtuns and Uzbeks as well, which is likely very similar to the Kyrgyzstan Crisis, which Pashtuns would likely take place as Kyrgyz (for having a similar nomadic culture), rivaling with Tajiks and Uzbeks (of sedentary culture), despite all being Sunni Muslims. Brazil Brazil has long been a melting pot for a wide range of cultures. From colonial times Portuguese Brazilians have favoured assimilation and tolerance for other peoples, and intermarriage was more acceptable in Brazil than in most other European colonies. However, Brazilian society has never been completely free of ethnic strife and exploitation, and some groups have chosen to remain separate from mainstream social life. Brazilians of mainly European descent (Portuguese, Italian, French, German, Austrian, Spanish, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, Lithuanian, Hungarian etc.) account for more than half the population, although people of mixed ethnic backgrounds form an increasingly larger segment; roughly two-fifths of the total are mulattoes (mulattos; people of mixed African and European ancestry) and mestizos (mestiços, or caboclos; people of mixed European and Indian ancestry). Portuguese are the main European ethnic group in Brazil, and most Brazilians can trace their ancestry to an ethnic Portuguese or a mixed-race Portuguese. Among European descendants, Brazil has the largest Italian diaspora, the second largest German diaspora, as well as other European groups. The country is also home to the largestJapanese diaspora outside Japan, the largest Arab community outside the Arab World and one of the top 10 Jewish populations. Colombia Colombia is a melting pot of races and ethnicities. The population is descended from three racial groups —Native Americans, blacks, and whites—that have mingled throughout the nearly 500 years of the country's history. No official figures were available, since the Colombian government dropped any 36
references to race in the census after 1918, but according to rough estimates in the late 1980s, mestizos (white and native American mix) constituted approximately 50% of the population, whites (predominantly Spanish origin, Italian, German, French, etc.) made a 25%, mulattoes (black-white mix) 14% and zambos (black and native American mix) 4%, blacks (pure or predominantly of African origin) 3% percent, and Native Americans 1%. Israel In the early years of the state of Israel the term melting pot (( )כור היתוךalso known as "Ingathering of the Exiles" - )קיבוץ גלויותwas not a description of a process, but an official governmental doctrine of assimilating the Jewish immigrants that originally came from varying cultures. (See Jewish ethnic divisions) This was performed on several levels, such as educating the younger generation (with the parents not having the final say) and (to mention an anecdotal one) encouraging and sometimes forcing the new citizens to adopt a Hebrew name. Activists such as the Iraq-born Ella Shohat that an elite which developed in the early 20th Century, out of the earlier-arrived Zionist Pioneers of the Second and Third Aliyas(immigration waves) - and who gained a dominant position in the Yishuv (pre-state community) since the 1930s - had formulated a new Hebrew culture, based on the values of Socialist Zionism, and imposed it on all later arrivals, at the cost of suppressing and erasing these later immigrants' original culture. Proponents of the Melting Pot policy asserted that it applied to all newcomers to Israel equally; specifically, that Eastern European Jews were pressured to discard their Yiddish-based culture as ruthlessly as Mizrahi Jews were pressured to give up the culture which they developed during centuries of life in Arab and Muslim countries. Critics respond, however, that a cultural change effected by a struggle within the Ashkenazi-East European community, with younger people voluntarily discarding their ancestral culture and formulating a new one, is not parallel to the subsequent exporting and imposing of this new culture on others, who had no part in formulating it. Also, it was asserted that extirpating the Yiddish culture had been in itself an act of oppression only compounding what was done to the Mizrahi immigrants. Today the reaction to this doctrine is ambivalent; some say that it was a necessary measure in the founding years, while others claim that it amounted to cultural oppression.Others argue that the melting pot policy did not achieve its declared target: for example, the persons born in Israel are more similar from an economic point of view to their parents than to the rest of the population. The policy is generally not practised today though as there is less need for that - the mass immigration waves at Israel's founding have declined. Nevertheless, one fifth of current Israel's Jewish population have immigrated from former Soviet Union in the last two decades; The Jewish population includes other minorities such as Haredi Jews; Furthermore, 20% of Israel's population is Arab. These factors as well as others contribute to the rise of pluralism as a common principle in the last years. Russia The expansion of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later of the Russian Empire throughout 15th to 20th centuries created a unique melting pot. Though the majority of Russians hadSlavic ancestry, different ethnicities were assimilated into the Russian melting pot through the period of expansion. Assimilation was a way for ethnic minorities to advance their standing within the Russian society and state - as individuals or groups. It required adoption of Russian as a day-to-day language and Orthodox Christianity as religion of choice. The Roman Catholics (as in Poland and Lithuania) generally resisted assimilation. Throughout the centuries of eastward expansion of Russia FinnoUgric and Turkic peoples were assimilated and included into the emerging Russian nation. This includes Mordvin, Udmurt, Mari, Tatar, Chuvash, Bashkir, and others. Surnames of many of Russia's nobility (including Suvorov, Kutuzov, Yusupov, etc.) suggest their Turkic origin. Groups of later, 18th and 19th century migrants to Russia, from Europe (Germans, French, Italians, Poles,Serbs, Bulgarians, Greeks, Jews, etc.) or the Caucasus (Georgians, Armenians, Ossetians, Chechens, Azeris and Turks among them) also 37
assimilated within several generations after settling among Russians in the expanding Russian Empire.  Soviet Union The Soviet people (Russian: Советский народ) was an ideological epithet for the population of the Soviet Union. The Soviet government promoted the doctrine of assimilating all peoples living in USSR into one Soviet people, accordingly to Marxist principle of Fraternity of peoples. The effort lasted for the entire history of the Soviet Union, but did not succeed, as evidenced by developments in most national cultures in the territory after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In popular culture The melting pot remains a stock phrase in American political and cultural dialogue. The general perception of its process and effects can be summed up in "The Great American Melting Pot" song from Schoolhouse Rock!. In 1969 the song "Melting Pot" was released by the UK band Blue Mink and charted at #3 in the UK Singles Chart. The lyrics espouse how the world should become one big melting pot where different races and religions are to be mixed, 'churning out coffee coloured people by the score' referring to the possible pigmentation of children after such racial mixing. On The Colbert Report, an alternative to the melting pot culture was posed on The Wørd called "Lunchables," where separate cultures "co-exist" by being entirely separate and maintaining no contact or involvement (see also NIMBY). Quotations Man is the most composite of all creatures.... Well, as in the old burning of the Temple at Corinth, by the melting and intermixture of silver and gold and other metals a new compound more precious than any, called Corinthian brass, was formed; so in this continent,--asylum of all nations,--the energy of Irish, Germans, Swedes, Poles, and Cossacks, and all the European tribes,--of the Africans, and of the Polynesians,--will construct a new race, a new religion, a new state, a new literature, which will be as vigorous as the new Europe which came out of the smelting-pot of the Dark Ages, or that which earlier emerged from the Pelasgic and Etruscan barbarism. ——Ralph Waldo Emerson, journal entry, 1845, first published 1912 in Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson with Annotations, Vol. IIV, 116 No reverberatory effect of the great war has caused American public opinion more solicitude than the failure of the 'melting-pot.' The discovery of diverse nationalistic feelings among our great alien population has come to most people as an intense shock. ——Randolph Bourne, Trans-National America, in Atlantic Monthly, 118 (July 1916), 86-97 Blacks, Chinese, Puerto Ricans, etcetera, could not melt into the pot. They could be used as wood to produce the fire for the pot, but they could not be used as material to be melted into the pot. ——Eduardo-Bonilla Silva, Race: The Power of an Illusion
See also References Acculturation Americanization Assimilation (sociology) Cosmopolitanism Cultural pluralism Ethnic origin Hyphenated American Interculturalism Lusotropicalism Miscegenation
More Irish than the Irish themselves Multiculturalism Multiculturalism in Canada Multicultural media in Canada Nation-building Nativism Racial integration The Race of the Future Transculturation
^ United States. Bureau of the Census (1995*). Celebrating our nation's diversity: a teaching supplement for grades K-12. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census. pp. 1–. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ p.50 See "..whether assimilation ought to be seen as an egalitarian or hegemonic process, ...two viewpoints are represented by the melting-pot and Anglo-conformity models, respectively" Jason J. McDonald (1 May 2007). American Ethnic History: Themes and Perspectives. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-7486-1634-3. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Larry A. Samovar; Richard E. Porter; Edwin R. McDaniel (1 January 2011). Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Cengage Learning. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-0-495-89831-3. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Joachim Von Meien (23 November 2007). The Multiculturalism Vs. Integration Debate in Great Britain. GRIN Verlag. ISBN 978-3-638-76647-0. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Eva Kolb (March 2009). The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot Or Salad Bowl: Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century Until the End of the Gilded Age. BoD – Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-8370-9303-2. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Lawrence H. Fuchs (1990). The American Kaleidoscope: Race, Ethnicity, and the Civic Culture. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 276–. ISBN 978-0-8195-6250-0. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Tamar Jacoby (2004). Reinventing The Melting Pot: The New Immigrants And What It Means To Be American. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03635-6. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Titus Munson Coan, " A New Country" The Galaxy Volume 0019 Issue 4 (April 1875) p. 463 online ^ James, Henry (1968). The American Scene. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-86155018-8., p. 116 ^ As quoted in Gary Gerstle American Crucible; Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century, Princeton University Press, 2001, p. 51. Hirschman, C. America's Melting Pot Policy Reconsidered, Annual Review of Sociology, 9, 1983, 397-423 (p.397). ^ "Take the Quiz". Destination America. PBS. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ a b c Hollinger, David A. (December 2003). "Amalgamation and Hypodescent: The Question of Ethnoracial Mixture in the History of the United States". The American Historical Review (Indiana University) 108 (5): 1363–90. doi:10.1086/529971. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ Thomas J. Archdeacon, Becoming American (1984) pp 112-25 ^ Higham (1955) ^ a b c Rogin, Michael (December 1992). "Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures". The Journal of American History(Organization of American Historians) 79 (3): 1050–77. doi:10.2307/2080798. JSTOR 2080798. Retrieved 2011-05-14. ^ Slotkin, Richard (Fall 2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". American Literary History (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 13 (9): 469– 98.doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ Judy Rohrer, "Disrupting the 'Melting Pot': Racial Discourse in Hawai'i and the Naturalization of Haole." Ethnic and Racial Studies 2008 31(6): 1110-1125 ^ Henry Louis Gates and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, African American lives (2004) p. 5 ^ Mark Dyerson, "'America's Athletic Missionaries': Political Performance, Olympic Spectacle and the Quest for an American National Culture, 1896-1912," International Journal of the History of Sport 2008 25(2): 185-203; Dyerson, "Return to the Melting Pot: An Old American Olympic Story," International Journal of the History of Sport 2008 25(2): 204-223 ^ Ethan R. Yorgason, Transformation of the Mormon culture region (2003) pp 1, 190 ^ W. Paul Reeve and Ardis E. Parshall, eds. Mormonism: A Historical Encyclopedia (2010) p. 318 ^ "Ford English School". Automobile in American Life and Society. University of Michigan - Dearborn. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 39
^ "Immigration". University of Nancy. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ Noam Pianko, "'The True Liberalism of Zionism': Horace Kallen, Jewish Nationalism, and the Limits of American Pluralism," American Jewish History, Dec 2008, Vol. 94 Issue 4, pp 299-329, ^ a b c Milton, Gordon (1964). Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-500896-0. ^ a b Adams, J. Q.; Strother-Adams, Pearlie (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago, IL: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X. ^ a b Glazer, Nathan; Moynihan, Daniel P. (1 January 1970). Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians and Irish of New York City (2nd ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0-26257022-X. ^ Millet, Joyce. "Understanding American Culture: From Melting Pot to Salad Bowl". Cultural Savvy. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ Cowell, Alan (2006-10-15). "Islamic schools at heart of British debate on integration". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ 'Melting pot' approach in the IDF was a mistake, Haaretz ^ Yitzhaki, Shlomo and Schechtman, EdnaThe "Melting Pot": A Success Story? Journal of Economic Inequality, Vol; 7, No. 2, June 2009, pp; 137-151. Earlier version by Schechtman, Edna and Yitzhaki, Shlomo, Working Paper No. 32, Central Bureau of Statistics, Jerusalem, Nov. 2007, i + 30 pp. ^ Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parr, eds. The end of empire?: the transformation of the USSR in comparative perspective (1996) p 67 ^ "The Great American Melting Pot". School House Rock. Retrieved 2008-07-15. ^ "Biography by Dave Thompson". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 10 February 2009. ^ "Episode 3 The House We Live In (transcript)", Race: The Power of an Illusion, retrieved 5 Feb 2009 External links Look up melting pot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Booth, William (1998-02-22). "One Nation, Indivisible: Is It History?". Myth of the Melting Pot: America's Racial and Ethnic Divide (Washington Post): pp. A1. Retrieved 2008-07-15. "The Melting Pot NYC". Retrieved 2008-07-15.
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