© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.

Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)

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Aluminum Alloy Castings
Properties, Processes, and Applications

J. Gilbert Kaufman Elwin L. Rooy

American Foundry Society 1695 N. Penny Lane Schaumburg, IL 60173-4555 www.afsinc.org

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© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)

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Copyright © 2004 by ASM International௡ All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, December 2004

Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this book, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITYOR FITNESS FORAPARTICULAR PURPOSE,ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION.Although this information is believed to be accurate byASM,ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASM’s control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVEAND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER,AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited and should be forwarded to ASM International. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Books Committee (2003-2004), Yip-Wah Chung, FASM, Chair. ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of Product and Service Development; Charles Moosbrugger, Technical Editor; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; Carol Polakowski, Production Supervisor; and Pattie Pace, Production Coordinator. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kaufman, J. G. (John Gilbert), 1931Aluminum alloy castings properties, processes and applications/J. Gilbert Kaufman, Elwin L. Rooy. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-87170-803-5 1. Aluminum alloys—Mechanical properties. 2. Aluminum castings. I. Rooy, Elwin L. II. title. TA480.A6K33 2004 620.1'86—dc22 2004052923

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© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)

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Preface
This book is intended to provide a comprehensive summary of the physical and mechanical properties of most types of aluminum alloy castings. It includes discussion of the factors that affect those properties, including composition, casting process, microstructure, soundness, heat treatment, and densification. Extensive previously unpublished technical data including aging response, growth, fatigue, and high- and lowtemperature performance have been consolidated with existing and updated materials property characterizations to provide a single authoritative source for most performance evaluation and design needs. The consideration of casting process technologies is intentionally limited to typical capabilities and to their influence on property performance. Many excellent references are available for more detailed information and guidance on production methods and on important aspects of melting, melt processing, solidification, and structure control. Interested readers are referred to the publications of the American Foundry Society (AFS), the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA), and the Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society (NFFS). Many of these publications are included in the reference lists at the end of each chapter. It is also beyond the scope of this book to provide more than generalized economics of aluminum casting production. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of several organizations and individuals in developing this volume. Alcoa, Inc. generously provided extensive previously unpublished production and property data from their archives, adding significantly to the industry’s shared knowledge base. We wish, especially, to thank R.R. Sawtell and R.J. Bucci of Alcoa for their cooperation in arranging the release of this material. We are pleased that the American Foundry Society has been credited as co-publisher of this book. The AFS Aluminum Division Review Committee provided substantive and constructive suggestions; the members of the committee are listed in these pages. In addition, Laura Moreno and Joseph S. Santner of AFS provided content from AFS publications and arranged for the necessary permissions to reproduce information as needed. We would also like to thank Joseph C. Benedyk of the Illinois Institute of Technology for his helpful comments, and John C. Hebeisen of Bodycote for his assistance in providing the results of recent studies in hot isostatic processing. The North American Die Casting Association and the NonFerrous Founders’ Society also gave us permission to cite, with appropriate references, information from their publications. We also acknowledge the support and assistance of the Aluminum Association, Inc., notably, permission to include information from their publications covering aluminum casting alloys. J. Gilbert Kaufman Elwin L. Rooy

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© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)

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About the Authors
J.G. (Gil) Kaufman has a background of almost fifty years in the aluminum and materials information industries and remains an active consultant in both areas. In 1997, he retired as vice president, technology, for the Aluminum Association, Inc., headquartered in Washington, D.C., and is currently president of his consulting company, Kaufman Associates. Earlier in his career, he spent twenty-six years with the Aluminum Company of America and five with ARCO Metals, where he was vice president, R&D. He also served as president and CEO of the National Materials Property Data Network, establishing a worldwide online network of more than twenty-five materials databases. Mr. Kaufman is a Fellow and Honorary Member of ASTM, and a Fellow and Life Member of ASM International. He has published more than 125 articles, including four books, on aluminum alloys and materials data systems. Elwin Rooy retired after thirty-five years with the Aluminum Company of America, where he was corporate manager of metallurgy and quality assurance, to form a consulting firm specializing in aluminum process and product technologies, quality systems, and industry relations. He has been active in committees of the Aluminum Association, American Foundry Society, American Die Casting Institute, The Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Society of Die Casting Engineers, ASM International, and TMS. He has served as chairman of the TMS Aluminum Committee, chairman of the AFS Light and Reactive Metals Division, director and chairman of the Northeast Ohio chapter of AFS, regional director of the Foundry Education Foundation, and charter member of the Drexel/WPI Advanced Casting Research Laboratory. Mr. Rooy’s honors include the AFS award for Scientific Merit, The TMS/AIME Distinguished Service Award, the M.C. Flemings Award for contributions in the field of solidification, and the Arthur Vining Davis Award for technical achievement. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Metals and Advanced Materials & Processes, published more than thirty articles and papers, edited Light Metals 1991, and authored or coauthored articles in the ASM Handbook series.

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© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)

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American Foundry Society Aluminum Division Review Committee
James Boileau Ford Motor Company Paul Crepeau General Motors Corporation Yemi Fasoyinu Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology Jerry Gegel Material & Process Consultancy David Jakstis Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group John Miller JMA Services Paul Niskanen Alion Science and Technology Randy Oehrlein Carley Foundry Inc. Tom Prucha INTERMET Corporation Steve Robison American Foundry Society Joe Santner American Foundry Society Al Torok Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation Jim Van Wert Amcast Industrial Corporation Dave Weiss Eck Industries Inc. Jacob Zindel Ford Motor Company

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© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)

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Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................... 1 1.1 Background and Scope ............................................................. 1 1.2 History ....................................................................................... 1 1.3 Advantages and Limitations of Aluminum Castings ............... 2 1.4 Major Trends Influencing Increased Use of Aluminum Castings ................................................................................. 3 1.4.1 Technology.......................................................................... 3 1.4.2 Recycling ............................................................................ 5 1.5 Selecting the Right Aluminum Alloy and Casting Process ..... 5 Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys ................................................ 7 2.1 General....................................................................................... 7 2.2 Specifications............................................................................. 7 2.3 Alloy Designations.................................................................... 8 2.3.1 The Aluminum Association (AA) Casting Alloy Designation System ........................................................ 8 2.3.2 Aluminum Association Casting Temper Designation System............................................................................. 9 2.3.3 Evolution of Designation System; Cross-Reference to Older Designations ......................................................... 9 2.3.4 The UNS Alloy Designation System ................................. 9 2.3.5 International Casting Alloy Designations .......................... 9 2.3.6 Nomenclature System for Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composites...................................................................... 9 2.4 Composition Groupings .......................................................... 13 2.4.1 Aluminum-Copper ............................................................ 13 2.4.2 Aluminum-Silicon-Copper ............................................... 13 2.4.3 Aluminum-Silicon............................................................. 13 2.4.4 Aluminum-Silicon-Magnesium ........................................ 14 2.4.5 Aluminum-Magnesium ..................................................... 14 2.4.6 Aluminum-Zinc-Magnesium ............................................ 14 2.4.7 Aluminum-Tin .................................................................. 14 2.5 Effects of Alloying Elements.................................................. 14 2.5.1 Antimony .......................................................................... 14 2.5.2 Beryllium .......................................................................... 15 2.5.3 Bismuth ............................................................................. 15 2.5.4 Boron................................................................................. 15 2.5.5 Cadmium........................................................................... 15 2.5.6 Calcium ............................................................................. 15 2.5.7 Chromium ......................................................................... 15 2.5.8 Copper............................................................................... 15 2.5.9 Iron.................................................................................... 15 2.5.10 Lead................................................................................... 15 2.5.11 Magnesium........................................................................ 15 2.5.12 Manganese ........................................................................ 15 2.5.13 Mercury............................................................................. 16 2.5.14 Nickel................................................................................ 16 2.5.15 Phosphorus........................................................................ 16 2.5.16 Silicon ............................................................................... 16 2.5.17 Silver ................................................................................. 16 2.5.18 Sodium .............................................................................. 16 2.5.19 Strontium........................................................................... 16 2.5.20 Tin ..................................................................................... 16 2.5.21 Titanium ............................................................................ 16 2.5.22 Zinc ................................................................................... 17 2.6 Alloy Groupings by Application or Major Characteristic ..... 17 2.6.1 General-Purpose Alloys.................................................... 17 2.6.2 Elevated-Temperature Alloys ........................................... 19 2.6.3 Wear-Resistant Alloys ...................................................... 19 2.6.4 Moderate-Strength Alloys with Low Residual Stresses.. 19 2.6.5 Bearings ............................................................................ 20 2.6.6 High-Strength Alloys........................................................ 20 Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes......................................... 21 3.1 History ..................................................................................... 21 3.2 Casting Process Selection ....................................................... 21 3.2.1 Casting Design.................................................................. 21 3.2.2 Specification Requirements .............................................. 21 3.2.3 Volume of Production....................................................... 22 3.2.4 Costs.................................................................................. 22 3.2.5 Quality............................................................................... 22 3.3 Casting Process Technology ................................................... 22 3.3.1 Expendable and Nonexpendable Mold Processes ........... 22 3.3.2 Pressure versus Gravity.................................................... 22 3.3.3 Gating and Risering.......................................................... 22 3.4 Expendable Mold Gravity-Feed Casting Process and Its Variations........................................................................ 23 3.4.1 Sand Casting ..................................................................... 23 3.4.2 Evaporative (Lost-Foam) Pattern Casting (EPC) ............ 24 3.4.3 Shell Mold Casting........................................................... 25 3.4.4 Plastic Casting .................................................................. 25 3.4.5 Investment Casting ........................................................... 25 3.4.6 Vacuum Mold (V-Mold) Casting ..................................... 26 3.5 Nonexpendable (Permanent) Mold Gravity Feed Casting Process and Its Variations ................................................... 26 3.5.1 Permanent Mold Casting.................................................. 26 3.5.2 Low-Pressure Die Casting (LP), Pressure Riserless Casting (PRC)............................................................... 27 3.5.3 Vacuum Riserless Casting (VRC).................................... 28 3.5.4 Centrifugal Casting........................................................... 28 3.5.5 Squeeze Casting................................................................ 29 3.5.6 Semisolid Forming ........................................................... 29 3.6 Pressure Die Casting and Its Variations ................................. 29 3.6.1 Acurad Die Casting Process............................................. 31 3.6.2 High-Integrity Pressure Die Casting................................ 31 3.6.3 Pore-Free Pressure Die Casting ....................................... 31 3.6.4 Vacuum Die Casting......................................................... 31 3.6.5 Rotor Casting.................................................................... 31 3.7 Premium Engineered Castings................................................ 31 3.7.1 Melt Processing ................................................................ 32 3.7.2 Melt Quality Assessment.................................................. 32 3.7.3 Solidification ..................................................................... 32 3.7.4 Solidification Rate ............................................................ 32 3.7.5 Mold Materials ................................................................. 32

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......................... 51 5............................7 Corrosion Resistance.........x) ....5 Refinement of Hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys ........© 2004 ASM International..........................................1 Solution Heat Treatment ................................................................................ 115 8.............. 55 6.......1 Fatigue Crack Growth ............................... 55 6.........................................................2 Diagnosis..................................4..................... 49 5................................................. 40 4.............7 8.... 71 3..................................................6 Subcritical Crack Growth............5.................................... Processes.................................... 116 8.............. 39 4..........2 Shrinkage Porosity .................... 45 Chapter 5: The Influence and Control of Porosity and Inclusions in Aluminum Castings .... 122 8...........8 Properties of Cast Aluminum Matrix Composites ........................................4.........7 Troubleshooting Heat Treatment Problems ...... 211 Data Set 5: Creep-Rupture Properties ..........4.........................3 Grain Refinement ...........2 Creep Crack Growth.. 243 Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves...................................................................... 116 8.......6..... 114 8............................... 175 Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves.......7............8........................ 116 8................4 Annealing..3 The Effect of HIP on Fatigue Performance ..... 40 4............2 Influence of Stress Raisers on Fatigue Strength of Aluminum Castings ............................ 103 8......................................5 Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys.............6 3.......................... Shrinkage..6 Residual Stresses ................................................... 305 Subject Index. 35 3..............................2 Al-Si-Cu and/or Mg Casting Alloys (3xx.....................4 Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Casting Alloys ................................................2 Quenching.....................5 Aluminum-Zinc Casting Alloys (7xx......3................................................... 62 7.............................................5..................................................3......................1 Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity....................................... 84 8......................................................... 293 Appendix 2: Abbreviations and Symbols........1 Metallurgical Bonding ....................3...................................................1 Acceptance Criteria ................................................. 133 Data Set 2: Growth Curves ............................. 47 5................ 50 5.3 Typical and Minimum Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy Castings ..... 65 7........ 47 5................... 92 8.........7............................................ 66 7....7...................6 Aluminum-Tin Casting Alloys (8xx.. 120 8................................................. 37 Chapter 4: The Effects of Microstructure on Properties..6........7............................8............... 97 8....3 Aluminum-Silicon-Magnesium ..................8 Mold Filling..4 Design Fatigue Strengths for Aluminum Castings. 36 3............................ 193 Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures and at Room Temperature after High-Temperature Exposure ........3......... 65 7............7.....10 Relevance of Premium Casting Engineering......9 Quality Assurance.............................2 Physical Properties of Aluminum Casting Alloys.............7................7........................................3 Fatigue Strengths of Welded Aluminum Castings ......8 Other Process Technologies .............................1 Aluminum-Copper Casting Alloys (2xx......5....7........................x) .asminternational.....1 Compositions and Influence of Composition on Characteristics ..........................................3.................................................. and Applications (#05114G) Alloys........... 299 Appendix 3: Test Specimen Drawings ......................... and Inclusions........ 112 8.......................................................................................................................3 Stress-Corrosion Crack Growth ........... 69 8.................................... 62 7...............x).. 35 3...... 64 7...3 Inclusions.................................5...........5 Stability............................ 66 7....3...................2 The Effect of HIP on Tensile Properties ............... Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties..................................4 Interrelation of Measures of Fracture Resistance.....................4..... 114 8....... 101 8.........................4 Aluminum-Silicon Eutectic Modification...4 Radiographic Inspection of HIPped Castings .....2 Cast Aluminum-Matrix Composites............4 Aluminum-Zinc-Magnesium .......................1 Hydrogen Porosity.......................2 Dendrite Arm Spacing...................3 Fracture Toughness .2 www............ 120 8...3............. 69 8...... 56 Chapter 7: Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings........... 102 8.................................x) ..1 Influence of Casting Quality on Fatigue Strength....2 Aluminum-Copper Magnesium.................................... 69 8.....................4 Combined Effects of Hydrogen............ 65 7..............................8....... 120 8.................... 110 8.......... 253 Appendix 1: Glossary of Terms.. 65 7.org Published Minimum and Design Mechanical Properties .........................3 Aluminum-Silicon Casting Alloys (4xx.......1 The HIP Process.. 71 8............... 53 Chapter 6: Hot Isostatic Pressing ........ 67 Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings ............. 66 7.......3 Effects of Subzero and Elevated Temperatures on Mechanical Properties ....................................6............. 103 8.............................7........................................ 103 8......3..................... 66 7... 71 8......5 Radiographic Inspection............................................ 34 3..........1 Published Typical Mechanical Properties ......... 116 8....4 Influence of Premium Practices and Emerging Casting Technologies on Mechanical Properties .x).......................... 71 8..................................................... 35 3..4 Aluminum-Magnesium Casting Alloys (5xx.......... 122 Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves .............3 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP).... 35 3.2 Tear Resistance ................................................................ 39 4...............................7. 325 viii ...............1 Intermetallic Phases........................3 Precipitation Heat Treating/Aging ..................................................................................................................... 56 6........... 66 7.... 61 7... 39 4.........................7.. All Rights Reserved... 34 3. 120 8........................................1 Aluminum-Copper .......... 301 Alloy Index.......... 56 6...............................................................................................7...............................x) ........ 32 Aluminum-Silicon Eutectic Modification and Grain Refinement ............7...

following the commercialization of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction process. and kettles.org CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1. p 1-6 DOI:10. The physical and mechanical properties of aluminum castings may be altered through: • Alloying composition: The composition of alloys determines the potential for achieving specific physical and mechanical properties. The characterization of physical and mechanical properties and the results of performance testing were the basis for continuous new alloy developments and refinements in composition control. The cost of aluminum steadily declined. Cast aluminum cookware was a welcome alternative to cast iron and brass pots. Alloy content is designed to produce characteristics that include castability as well as desired performance capabilities. and solidification mechanics combine to present unique and difficult challenges to the objective of dense. tie clasps.asminternational. Pore volume fraction and the geometry and distribution of internal voids reduce tensile properties. and Applications J. properties. Unlike most sources. while surface defects strongly influence mechanical and fatigue performance. including annealing. as well as from visually detectable defects such as misruns. but also pressure die castings and many of the variations of all three that have developed over the years. and ductility. Aluminum in cast as well as wrought forms was a metal for its time. 1. The interaction of alloying elements is recognized in promoting desired microstructural phases and solid-solution effects for the development of these properties. The large number of applications for which aluminum competed in these and other markets required the development of specialized compositions and material conditions to satisfy specific engineering requirements. Rooy.G. and novelty of the new metal. • Postsolidification densification: Hot isostatic processing (HIP) of castings can result in improved levels of internal soundness.2 History Castings were the first important market for aluminum. hand mirrors. and tears. the content addresses not only conventional sand and permanent mold castings. discontinuity-free parts. and a comprehensive summary of the mechanical and physical properties of aluminum alloy castings is provided in Chapter 8. quality assurance. These factors and their effects are considered in Chapters 2 through 7. and fatigue performance. • Casting process: There are a large number of casting processes. Internal porosity can result from shrinkage and hydrogen porosity. Nonmetallic inclusions affect mechanical properties and nucleate hydrogen pore formation. folds. and applications of aluminum alloy castings. E. • Solidification: Engineered castings are susceptible to internal and superficial defects. At first.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. www. solidification rates. fluid dynamics. hat pins. but also transmission towers and cast installation hardware. cuff links. • When the Wright Brothers succeeded in powered flight. The complex geometries of shaped castings. and precipitation aging. fatigue strength. The development of permanent mold and pressure die casting as alternatives to sand casting encouraged the development of new alloys suited not just to application requirements but also to the . Three emerging markets coincided with the appearance of aluminum as a material alternative: • Electrification demanded not only low-density.1361/aacp2004p001 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. brushes. • Automotive pioneers sought innovative materials and product forms to differentiate the performance and appearance of their products. cracks. silvery finish. • Heat treatment: Mechanical properties can be altered by postsolidification thermal treatment. higher tensile properties. high-conductivity wire and cable for which aluminum was well-suited. engine and other parts in cast aluminum represented the beginning of a close collaboration with what would become the aviation and aerospace industries. corrosionresistant. • Cooling rate during and after solidification: The conditions under which solidification takes place determine the structural features that affect the physical and mechanical properties of an alloy. combs. and by the end of the 19th century important engineering applications became economically viable. and each imposes different rates of heat extraction. moisture reactions. Kaufman. applications were limited to curiosities such as house numbers. Processes. and decorative lamp housings that emphasized the light weight. ductility. pans. and means of compensating for solidification-related microstructural and macrostructural tendencies. solution heat treatment. toughness.1 Background and Scope It is the objective of this book to comprehensively summarize material properties and engineering data for aluminum alloy castings and to address the need for a single reference that covers production.L.

• Metallurgically or mechanically bonded bimetal parts can be routinely cast.1 Casting applications include innovative and complex designs serving the needs of diverse industries. • Machining requirements are reduced. productivity./h · ft2 · °F at 77 °F (W/m · K at 25 °C) Fatigue limit. mechanization.2): • In many cases.5–11. • Contrasts between as-cast and machined finishes can be highlighted to create pleasing cosmetic effects. offering a broad range of volume. and properties consistent with specified engineering requirements represents significant manufacturing advantages (Fig. (c) Crankcase for small engine. casting.1. Properties displayed by these alloys. More than 100 compositions are registered with the Aluminum Association. Continuing technological improvements in alloy. • Aluminum castings display controlled variations in as-cast finish. • Most aluminum casting alloys display solidification characteristics compatible with foundry requirements for the production of quality parts.8–13. and recycling technology have improved the competitiveness and enhanced the growth of aluminum castings markets. (d) Cross member for a minivan. 1.2 (65–80) 2. 1. ksi (MPa) Modulus of elasticity. Btu · in. and specialized capabilities.2 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 1. ksi (MPa) Elongation. (b) Golf irons. Source: Ref 1 .7 ϫ 10–6/°F (17.3 Advantages and Limitations of Aluminum Castings Aluminum castings are produced in a range of alloys demonstrating wide versatility in the characteristics than can be achieved.95 Fig. • Aluminum parts are routinely cast by every known process. • Capital requirements are typically less than for wrought products. without considering the expanded capabilities of metal-matrix and other composite structures. %IACS Thermal conductivity. % Hardness. controlled surface finish. An ability to produce near-net-shape parts with dimensional accuracy. complex geometries including internal passages. quality. 106 psi (GPa) Specific gravity 10–72 (70–505) 3–65 (20–455) <1–30 30–150 18–60 660–1155 (85–175) 8–21 (55–145) 9. and more than 300 alloys are in international use. ksi (MPa) Coefficient of linear thermal expansion at 68–212 °F (20–100 °C) Shear strength. ksi (MPa) Yield strength. HB Electrical conductivity.6–24. and Applications casting process. include: Tensile strength. multicomponent welded or joined assemblies can be replaced with a single cast part. (a) Aircraft stabilizer.57–2. • Tooling can range from simple patterns to complex tool steel dies depending on product requirements and production volume. (e) Cellular phone casing. 1.7) ϫ 10–6/°C) 6–46 (42–325) 9. Processes.

rotors. Because wrought products are normally characterized by finely recrystallized grain structures with specific anisotropy and highly textured microstructural features. The U. There are practical limitations in size for specific casting processes. Very thin sections may not be castable.Chapter 1: Introduction / 3 • Many aluminum casting alloys display excellent fluidity for casting thin sections and fine detail. which focused on materials development and process capabilities. global competitiveness.3 through 1. These applications include traditionally cast iron. cylinder heads. Conversely. The most cost-effective means of addressing these challenges has been the substitution of lightweight materials in existing and projected automotive designs. malleable iron. Overcoming this barrier required the demonstration of integrity and reliability derived from the evolu- .1 Major Trends Influencing Increased Use of Aluminum Castings Technology 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2202 2003 2004 2005 2880 2990 3260 3380 3490 3550 3640 3800 4100 4500 4900 5160 1306 1356 1479 1533 1583 1610 1651 1724 1860 2041 2223 2341 The importance of improved energy efficiency in recent decades reflects the effects of increased gasoline and oil costs to the consumer and graduated government-mandated fuel-efficiency standards for automobile and truck manufacturers. 1. extrusions. and rolled plate. • Aluminum casting processes can be highly automated. materials. which focused on materials characterization. The commercialization of aluminum-intense automobile designs can result in 20 lb less engine emissions over the life of an automobile for each pound of iron or steel replaced by lower-density aluminum with correspondingly significant reductions in fuel consumption (Ref 3). and USCAR. Environmental concerns. The casting process is simpler and less capital intense than processes for producing forgings. as with other fabrication options. brake valves. Figures 1. the typically uniaxial grain structure and absence of anisotropy in cast structures do not present design engineers with the challenges associated with transverse property limitations. The recent pattern of growth in aluminum casting shipments in the United States. Aluminum alloy castings can display the tensile properties of most forgings. However. solidification in complex geometrical shapes. including projections through the year 2005 is (Ref 2): Casting shipments in the United States Year 106 lb 106 kg 1. For maximum impact on fuel efficiency. the incentives to reduce fuel consumption while preserving product performance and cost objectives. Their objective has been to facilitate the transition to lighter-weight materials and more fuelefficient performance without sacrifice in safety and with minimal impact on cost The emphasis placed on improved efficiency in energyconsuming applications has resulted in a steady increase in the production and use of aluminum castings. The most significant barrier to the acceptance of cast aluminum in these and many other structural applications has been its reputation for variability. nodular iron and steel cross members. A cost-effective and reliable alternative to what had been a multicomponent assembly Cast aluminum has been used or demonstrated successfully for many decades in power-train applications including engine blocks. and calipers.6 summarize the results of a study performed for the Aluminum Association showing the growth in cast aluminum as well as total aluminum products in North American light vehicle production. extrusions.4 1. Department of Energy formed coalitions. and production methods. The solidification behavior of some alloys precludes casting in difficult engineered configurations or in specific casting processes. transmission cases. • Aluminum casting alloys melt at relatively low temperatures.S.2 One-piece cast missile tail cone.4. brackets. can result in surface discontinuities and internal microstructure features with varying degrees of quality that affect properties and performance.S. pistons. suspension and control arms. In the first wave of light-weighting. and raw-material concerns reinforce Fig. New aluminumintensive automotive construction concepts include cast fittings or nodes for extruded stringers in monocoque assemblies and the development of energy-absorbing thin-wall cast space frames. automotive industry in collaboration with suppliers and the U. ductility in longitudinal directions is typically greater than in castings that contain coarser grain structures. and rolled products. this expansion in the role of cast aluminum necessitated substitutions in more critical structural parts requiring the qualification of new component designs. Many limitations do apply. and oil pans. including USAMP. aluminum was extensively adopted for these parts.

4 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. and industrial materials of the future to meet or overcome them. and construction methods for maximum efficiency.24 lb ϩ46.66 lb ϩ8.94 250.8% 100% 101.9% or 1. squeeze. New casting processes. colleges. design.34 11.” Benefits have been the development of a technology roadmap (Ref 4) that includes many of the challenges and technical barriers facing the aluminum castings industry and the funding of research and development programs in casting.9% or 2. 1. process designs and controls must reliably demonstrate capability and consistent product quality in the high volumes that are required. Processes.10 17.3 North American light vehicle change in aluminum content. hybrid.24 16.S.76 92. Each step in these developments has been the product of close collaboration between aluminum casting suppliers and the automotive industry. Technological progress achieved in automotive programs affects all phases of aluminum foundry operations and all casting applications.9% or 5.15 lb ϩ9. 1.8% 10.2% 6. composite compositions.52 273.7% 2.4 North American light vehicle change in aluminum content.54 38.5% 4. Not only are specific engineering criteria to be met for each new component.58 lb ϩ9.83 6. sensors.7% 6. 1991 to 2002.96 lb Fig. and semisolid castings Total 95.8% or –0.8% or 8. casting results must be consistent and predictable without reliance on extensive inspection and nondestructive evaluation. lost foam.2% 36. many of which were sponsored by USCAR and USAMP in cooperation with national laboratories.9% 6. To be economic.2% or 22.9% 10. thermal treatments.1% 36.42 100.4% 100% ϩ5. 1. 1991 to 2002 Fig. Technology is also being broadly advanced by the activities of the U.49 6. and universities and with supplier industries. and Applications tion of manufacturing processes and effective process controls.7% or 5.8% 2. 1999 to 2002 . Department of Energy that has identified metal casting as one of nine important “Industries of the Future. aluminum.43 27. Understanding the material and process changes that are 2002 lb/vehicle Percent of total Percent change 1999 vs 2002 Fig. (a) Passenger cars.66 lb –3.5 North American light vehicle change in aluminum content by product form and metal source. automation. process control methodologies. or fuel-cell technologies are developed to combine materials. (b) Trucks Aluminum product form 1999 lb/vehicle Percent of total Die castings Permanent mold castings Flat rolled products Extruded and drawn products Forgings and impacts Sand. Aluminum castings will play an important future role when inevitable electric.39 18. alloys.50 37. and the sensors and controls they require have contributed to an accelerated evolution of technologies that has been facilitated by research and development programs. The product of these efforts has been greater versatility and improved capability in consistently and economically meeting even the most severe engineering challenges in automotive and other industries.15 lb ϩ7.58 29.

and users with the intent of aiding them in the selection of the right alloy. heat treaters. and lowering material cost through recycling. As a consequence. The cost of ingot produced from scrap is typically less than that of primary metal. the advantage of aluminum in life-cycle analysis can be significant. The authors hope it will also be clear that there are great advantages for designers and casting suppliers working closely with their customers on the selection of alloys. 1. The use of aluminum in energy-consuming applications provides efficiencies with calculable benefits for prolonging product life. When factored into cost comparisons The succeeding chapters review the substantial portfolio of aluminum casting alloys available. and toughness are critical. reducing levels of environmental pollution and the costs of environmental control. gates and risers. Many casting compositions are compatible with the alloy content of even mixed scrap. aluminum casting alloys provide a broad range of capabilities including—when appropriate. most aluminum alloy castings are produced from recycled metal. Chapter 8 provides a broad range of physical and mechanical property data. The manner in which energy efficiency can be directly and indirectly affected is important.2 Recycling 1. This wide range of information contained herein is provided as a reference for aluminum alloy casting producers. Chapters 3 through 7 focus on the process and thermal treatment variables that influence the metallurgical structure of aluminum alloys and. reducing energy consumption in manufacturing and service. how the combination of process variables and metallurgical structure influence their properties and performance.5 Selecting the Right Aluminum Alloy and Casting Process Recycling and its impact in life-cycle studies are increasingly important considerations in materials selection (Ref 5).Chapter 1: Introduction / 5 taking place to further increase the comfort of design engineers in the use of aluminum castings is essential for defining material advantages for any new application. 1. as suggested above. tempers. Virtually all aluminum forms classified as old scrap (end of cycle) and new scrap (turnings. While the production of aluminum is energy-intensive. designers. recoveries typically exceed 90%. a substantial amount of which has never been published before.4. Chapter 2 illustrates the characteristics that have made certain alloys the first choice for specific applications. borings. The authors believe it is clear that. it can be efficiently recovered from scrap at 5% of the energy required for reduction. rejections) are recyclable.6 North American light vehicle change in aluminum content. with competing materials. 1973 to 2002 . and casting processes capable of meeting manu- Fig. conserving raw materials. Finally. and processing needed to achieve the performance required of cast components. With appropriate recycling processes. but so are environmental and competitive considerations. certainly not all in a single resource. processoptimization and quality-control procedures are applied—components suitable for challenging applications where soundness. strength. in turn. Corrosion resistance preserves metal value. and new technologies are being developed for the segregation of scrap streams by alloy and product form for essentially closed-loop recycling. temper.

American Society for Metals. L. 12. Frary. JOM. REFERENCES 1. An American Enterprise. American Foundrymen’s Society. American Foundry Society. p 41–44 “Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap.D. Anderson and H. 1988 • Solidification Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys.C. Vol 52 (No.J. Ed. 2003 “Product Design for Die Casting in Recyclable Aluminum. SELECTED REFERENCES • Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. 1999 • Aluminum. and Steel Founders’ Society of America. 1993 • Design and Procurement of High-Strength Structural Aluminum Castings. American Foundrymen’s Society. Aluminum. Foundry Alloys. 2000 • Melting and Recycling of Aluminum Alloys. and ZA Alloys. The Life Cycle Impacts of Aluminum Body-in-White Automotive Material. Kaufman. 1990. and Applications facturing objectives.. for example. 1925 • L.S.. Rooy. Edwards. 1967 5. National Geographic.B. 6. D. 9. The Aluminum Industry. Hatch. Das. 2. Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy. Graham and B. Bäckerud. Jan. Rinehart and Company. American Foundrymen’s Society. Carr. McGraw Hill. ASM Specialty Handbook: Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. 8). Aug 1978 • Aluminum Permanent Mold Handbook. Vol 2.D. 1970 • M. 11. Dec 1992 D.6 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. the Magic Metal. Principles of Purchasing Castings.G. and A. Zinc.R. ASM International. 1941 • Casting. Jeffries. Scrap Recycling and Its Impact on the Metal Castings Industry. 1990 • J. 1990 • E. American Foundrymen’s Society. Smith. 111 pages • C. and economic targets. ASM Handbook. 1997. Jan 2003 D. Arnberg.H. Ed. Processes. 7. Aug 2000. 66 pages • The Physical Metallurgy of Aluminum Alloys. CD-ROM. Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers. 2nd ed. Altenpohl. 216 pages • R. 1930 • Forgings and Castings. AFS Trans. American Society for Metals.C.L. ASM International. ASM Handbook. Alcoa. American Foundrymen’s Society. Vol 2. Magnesium.G. Vol 15.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production. Ed.” 5th ed. Van Horn. 8. the reader is referred to the excellent aluminum casting industry publications of the American Foundry Society and similar organizations (Ref 1. Dendrite Coherency. American Foundrymen’s Society. Vol 3.” The Aluminum Association.. 8th ed. From Monopoly to Competition. R&D for Industry: A Century of Technical Innovation at Alcoa. American Society for Metals. ASM International.” Cast Metal Coalition. it does not cover the details of how to design and build molds.E. 1984 • J. This reference volume is not intended as a guide to producing aluminum alloy castings. 6–9) plus those of the Aluminum Association (Ref 10–12).” The Aluminum Association. Vol 5. l985 • G. 1999. The Metallurgy of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys. and Z. component performance criteria. 10. The Aluminum Association. The Life Cycle Impacts of Aluminum Body-in-White Automotive Material. Cambridge University Press. 1995. Carey. For those interested in a broader overview of the entire aluminum industry. JOM. North American Die Casting Association (NADCA). 1988 • S.. Department of Commerce S.G. Aluminum Casting Technology. of Energy. American Foundry Society. Applications and Environment. ASM International. Davis. American Society for Metals. Baird and Company. 1897 .” Non-Ferrous Founders Society.” The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Registrations Records. 2002 U. Aluminum: Technology. AFS Research Report. 258 pages • K... 1996 “Aluminum Standards & Data (Standard and Metric Editions)..R. 4. 1949 • Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and SpecialPurpose Materials. inject the molten alloys.” The U. Pruitt. 266 pages • Solidification Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys. 48 pages • J. For more information on such matters. Cambridge University Press. and sequence the finishing process. 13. Dahle. Dept. American Foundrymen’s Society.. Jan 1998 “U. Vol 1–3. The Pittsburgh Reduction Company. Das.” Die Casting Development Council. 1996. Metals Handbook. Altenpohl’s volume (Ref 13) is recommended. 3. Castability of Aluminum Foundry Alloys. 1996 “The NFFS Guide to Aluminum Casting Design: Sand and Permanent Mold.S. Ed.W. published periodically “Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Casting. Zalenas. 2001. Aug 2000 • J. F. The Aluminum Association and TMS. 1994 “Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Aluminum Alloys in the Form of Castings and Ingot. North American Die Casting Association. 1993 “NADCA Product Specification Standards for Die Casting.

fluidity. Since work hardening plays no significant role in the development of casting properties. element-specific impurity limits. Specifications for aluminum alloy chemistries include the effects of major. mechanical. ASTM and Military and Federal agencies. and impurity elements: .1 General Aluminum casting alloy compositions parallel wrought alloy compositions in many respects. and a number of casting alloys have been developed specifically for production from remelted scrap. the criteria of castability are resistance to hot cracking.1361/aacp2004p007 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. respectively.L. The most commonly used castability ratings were developed by consensus estimates based on practical experience. and feeding characteristics that sufficient amounts of silicon impart. solidification in engineered castings with complex shapes and variable rates of solidification present different demands on alloy solidification behavior. By contrast. and Applications J. Processes characterized by higher heat flux use alloys with higher silicon contents since fluidity is improved. Kaufman. For pressure die castings.2 Specifications Aluminum castings are the subject of numerous specifications and standards. the compensation for internal shrinkage.asminternational. Procurement specifications and standards are developed and maintained by. E. In general. Castability and other fabricating and finishing ratings are summarized in Table 8. It is used to estimate the suitability of a composition for solidification in a specific process to produce defect-free. The recyclability of aluminum is a principal material advantage. Cracking during and after solidification and internal shrinkage dictate alloys for shape casting that minimize these tendencies. Rooy. Feeding. castability. resistance to hot cracking during and after solidification. The casting alloys used in the greatest volumes contain silicon in excess of that of most wrought alloys. These pertain to radiographic and penetrant inspection. More fluid compositions at conventional pouring temperatures are those of eutectic or near-eutectic composition. Improved feeding characteristics are usually associated with narrow solidus-liquidus ranges and in greater percent liquid at the eutectic temperature. specifications are written for specific parts or classes of parts by the purchaser. For gravity casting. These “secondary” compositions specify broader impurity ranges and include additional elements as impurities to reflect variations in raw materials. and feeding characteristics that promote the flow of metal during solidification to avoid or minimize the formation of shrinkage voids. Fluidity is a complex function that can be quantified and mathematically defined. the components of castability are generally considered to be fluidity as the measure of mold-filling capability. The most important consideration in differentiating wrought and casting alloy compositions is castability. Die soldering is most strongly influenced by metal chemistry.3. The tendency for solidification and postsolidification cracking is dominated by element effects on elevated-temperature strength and on solidification rate. elevated-temperature resistance to cracking.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. While wrought products are typically produced in simple round and rectangular cross sections by casting processes that minimize the depth and maximize the uniformity of the solidification front. The optimal concentration of silicon depends in part on the casting process. There are nevertheless many common foundry alloys that do not rely on silicon for casting performance. Procedural methods and standards are often referenced. also varies as a result of gradients in the solidification zone that are process controlled. is associated with alloys of reduced solidification range.G. test procedures for determination of chemical. p 7-20 DOI:10. and master alloys display more restrictive and more limited.1 of this chapter). Solidification results in shaped casting are improved by fluidity. In many cases. All specifications are subject to negotiation and exceptions to be agreed upon by the casting producer and the customer as part of the purchasing process.org CHAPTER 2 Aluminum Casting Alloys 2. among others. and physical properties. primary alloys that are produced from smelted aluminum. alloy chemistry and thermal practices are registered with the Aluminum Association (see Section 2. sound castings. Fluidity is most strongly affected by temperature above the liquidus or degree of superheat. www. 2. Within the United States. The term castability is not precisely defined. and other required procedures.1 in Chapter 8. but die condition and other process parameters are also important. Processes. die soldering and surface finish. metallurgical metals. minor. Castability ratings from A to F or from 1 to 10 imply excellent to poor casting characteristics. the use and purposes of some alloying elements differ in casting and wrought alloys. Hardening and desired properties are achieved through the addition of alloying elements and through heat treatment.

has variations A356. 2. Many nations have developed and published their own standards. the second a B.1 and xxx. The addition of structure-controlling elements or combinations of elements can be contained within chemistry limits when not otherwise specified under “Other Elements Each. 2.x.0. one may see simply 356 (see Section 2. Technically. the fourth digit. unused series In designations of the 1xx. minor. which are described below. 356. aluminum-zinc 8xx. the second and third digits indicate minimum aluminum content (99. refine primary phases. promote or suppress phase formation. 2) designation . subsequent sections discuss the earlier variations as well as other rather widely used designations. and impurity element concentrations and relationships may not be defined by alloy specifications. with a period between the third and fourth. for example.00% or greater). The first digit defines the major alloying constituent or constituents. indicates product form: • 0 denotes castings • 1 denotes standard ingot • 2 denotes ingot having composition ranges narrower than but within those of standard ingot Designations in the form xxx.3 Alloy Designations Designation systems and alloy nomenclature for aluminum casting alloys are not internationally standardized.3. ingot chemistry for some alloys may be somewhat different from those specified for castings. Further variations in specified compositions are denoted by prefix letters used primarily to define differences in impurity limits.x through 8xx. C. for 356. e. aluminum-magnesium 7xx.” Stoichiometric ratios for favored phase formation can be specified. In North America. Improved ductility results from finer structures.1 The Aluminum Association (AA) Casting Alloy Designation System The most widely used casting alloy designation system in the United States is the Aluminum Association (AA) alloy and temper systems (Ref 1).g.x type. aluminum ϩ other elements 6xx. General procurement specifications issued through government agencies and technical associations and societies typically reference this nomenclature. aluminum-tin 9xx.8 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Concentration limits allow biasing of composition for castability and property development. contains no letter prefix. and Applications • Major alloying elements define the ranges of elements that control castability and property development.x. but also may not be controlled or defined.0 contains a minimum of 99. In all casting alloy designations. The meanings of the four digits are: • First digit: Principal alloying constituent(s) • Second and third digits: Specific alloy designation (number has no significance but is unique) • Fourth digit: Casting (0) or ingot (1. that to the right of the decimal point. B356. one of the most common gravity cast alloys. etc). and C356. especially iron content. and reduce oxidation. modify eutectic structure.00% or greater) 2xx. each of these alloys has identical major alloy contents. restricting insoluble-element concentrations. the AA system is not universally used. but has decreasing specification limits applicable to impurities.x. iron and silicon contents tend to increase and magnesium content decreases. pure aluminum (99. Preferred major. • Minor alloying elements control solidification behavior. the first variation has an A. with the following categories being defined: • • • • • • • • • lxx. Therefore. A356. Alloying-element and impurity limits for ingot are usually the same as those for castings of the same alloy. In 2xx. aluminum-silicon 5xx.x. aluminum-silicon ϩ copper and/or magnesium 4xx.0 in all cases define composition limits applicable to castings.0. aluminum-copper alloys 3xx. B356.x. Variations in the composition limits that are too small to require a change in numeric designation are indicated by a preceding letter (A.0. The first version of an alloy. Composition biasing can be specified in ingot procurement or can result from alloying adjustments in the foundry.01%. alloy 170. and by controlling the concentrations of impurities in ratios that favor the formation of the least detrimental intermetallic constituents. Regrettably. When the ingot is remelted.. the most commonly used system is that developed and maintained by the Aluminum Association.x. Despite the broad acceptance of the AA casting alloy designation system. Accordingly. For these reasons. but only arbitrarily identify individual alloys in the group. these digits are the same as the two to the right of the decimal point in the minimum aluminum percentage expressed to the nearest 0.0” should always be utilized. • Impurity elements influence castability and the form of insoluble phases that at times limit or promote desired properties. the concentration of elements that form hardening phases can be maximized.x. For maximum strength. it remains relatively common to see the alloys listed with only the first three digits of the alloy designation.2 include the composition of specific alloys in remelt ingot form suitable for foundry use. Designations in the form xxx.x. Optimal results are not implied by nominal chemistries. for example. say 356. For example. and so forth. and some of its earlier modifications are still widely quoted. refine grain size and form.3 in this chapter).x designations for aluminum alloys. In the AA alloy designation.3.70% Al. there are four numeric digits. Processes. this is obsolete usage of the designation system. Individual firms have also promoted alloys by proprietary designations. including recognition by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). B.0. the second and third digits have no numerical significance. and for cast components the “.x.

precipitation hardened T6. for a 356. 2. formal basis.0-T61. annealed T4. An example would be copper alloys. . UNS numbers are obtained by taking the three digits to the left of the decimal point in the Aluminum Association system and adding A9 (meaning aluminum alloys) and a digit reflecting the letter prefix to the alloy designation. it is 2. for B.Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys / 9 The nominal compositions and composition limits of aluminum alloys in commercial use today are presented in Table 2.3. as-cast O. for which the UNS designations have been selected as the U.0-T571. While inconsistent with current Aluminum Association standards. always a . A356. For alloys with no letter prefix. this variation is not usually a problem resulting in confusion. The other fairly often seen variation is the result of the significant revision of the Aluminum Association system in around 1990.5 International Casting Alloy Designations As noted previously.4 The UNS Alloy Designation System Temper designation is presented immediately following the alloy designation.0 becomes A91356. for example.2. The Aluminum Association. “Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings. nor is there any simple guide to generate them. quenched. The UNS system has the advantage of covering all metallic alloy systems. The result was that some alloys shifted classification. designations of that type have been included in Table 2. Although this standard nomenclature has been established. Thus. and precipitation hardened T7.6 Nomenclature System for Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composites Aluminum casting alloys are now regularly used as the matrix material in metal-matrix composites (MMC). One reason is that matrix alloys may not coincide exactly with Aluminum Association ranges.S.1.5 (Ref 4) have published a standard nomenclature system for such composites that builds on the standard casting alloy designation system as outlined below. While the most common variation is the omission of the decimal point and the fourth digit in the designation. One of the mostly widely used international systems is the Euronorm designation. and in some cases even in current publications. for those with A.0 and alloy 214.2.” Another rather widely known alloy classification system is the Unified Numbering System (UNS) (Ref 2). Frontier 40E. the next numeric digit after A9 is a 0. C356. To assist in dealing with such variations. Examples of registered temper variations are A357.3. with the result that it is not uncommon to find variations of the current designations appearing on drawings and in publications from not too many years ago. in the UNS system. this system is essentially an adaptation of the Aluminum Association alloy designation system to fit the UNS format. solution heat treated. solution treated and aged T5.0.2.3.g. Precedent 71.2 illustrates a number of the variations in casting alloy designations over the past 50 years. as illustrated in Table 2.0 became 514. and other systems are rather universally used overseas (Ref 3).. There is further discussion of temper designations in Chapter 7. where applicable.0-T6. alloy 195. for example. standards.0 becomes A93356. and artificially aged. They cause confusion because there is no obvious link to the current system if one does not have a conversion guide such as Table 2. the full alloy and temper designation would be shown as 356.2 that are also seen frequently and can be more confusing. but regrettably there are many variations of these. 2. some MMC suppliers have preferred their own designations. These designations originated before the alloy compositions were registered with the Aluminum Association and had no Unlike the case for wrought aluminum alloys.0 for a foundry product.2 Aluminum Association Casting Temper Designation System The Aluminum Association Casting Temper Designation System (Ref 1) uses letters and numbers to indicate the major types of thermal treatments applicable to engineered castings: • • • • • • F. and ANSI H35. there are two other types of variations reflected in Table 2. there is no international accord on casting alloy designations. Other variations of temper designations are permitted by the Aluminum Association Temper Designation System (Ref 1). and so forth. Most systems employ some system based on identifying the major alloying elements. and so. as for example it is relatively clear that an alloy designated 354 may safely be assumed to be 354. For aluminum alloys. One variation is simply a proprietary designation that has become rather widely known in the past. The UNS system is not as widely used for aluminum alloys as for certain other classes of alloys. and overaged 2. Table 2. The overall most common variation is clearly the omission of the decimal point and the fourth digit. Inc. 242. and Almag 35. over the years there have been several evolutionary steps in the development of the Aluminum Association casting alloy designation system. 356. 2.3. There are no comparable Euronorm designations for about half of the alloys registered in the United States.0 becomes A90356. and 355.0 alloy casting that has been solution heat treated. T6P) indicating a producer variation of the standard processing treatment.3 Evolution of Designation System. Cross-Reference to Older Designations 2. solution heat treated.0 became 295. the most common being the use of “P” added to a standard temper designation (e.3. when the guidelines for registering the alloys including copper and magnesium were changed.0 by today’s standard system. and so forth. the next digit is 1. quenched. Thus. Hiduminium.0-T71. quenched.

0.2 5. (e) ..5 1.0 1.. 0.25 0.25% nominal).0 ....35 0..15 .07% (0.50 2.7–2.10 0. bal . ... 0. ..6 ..05 ..03 .... .20 0.05 ..05 ..28 0. 0.25 ..10–0. when expressed to the second decimal..0 355. .0–13.. 0.. (k) Also contains 0. 1.. 0..50–1..... ... 0.0 204.. . (c) . .. (i) Also contains 0..05 ...15 .05 ... .7 .05 .8–2. 0. 0. .... 0. 0. 0. 0.55 0.15–0.15–0...20 ...0 4...0 1..7 .... 2....5 8. ..0(h) 222. 0. 0. 1.35 .6 . .5 4....... . 0. 0.0 208... 0. .3 .0 0.0 min Fe/Si ratio.5 5...... 0.5–8..38 0..15 .4 5. . 1.0–10.0 4.. . 0.. 0.5 .5–4.0–4... bal .... .....25 ..50 .....0–3....10–0..10 . 0.... . (e) Ingot.5 10.15–0.25 ..0 7.15 V and 0..15 ..20–0. . 0.. bal .20 .50 1.. (c) .1 0.7–1.... 0. 0.05 .1 3.......0 Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits(g) Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits(i) Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits ..5 9. .. . 0.03 ..50 ........ 0. 0..2 .. 1. .0 .35 .8 . . 0. 0..... 0..10 ....25 0.0 6.05 . 0.5 0... .35 ..10 0. 1..35 ... .5–7.0 .07–0.25 .. 1.. .. ..005% nominal) Be and 0...5–10..0% (0.25–0.. 1. 0..06 . .. ..50 ... .. 0..0 A356..5 ..6–2. 0..5 9.......15–0. (d) .40–0.2–5. 0.15 .2–5..... 1. .025% max Mn ϩ Cr ϩ Ti ϩ V.15 .0 4.03 . and Applications Table 2. ..04–0.5 0.35 ... . 0. 0.. .15 0........ 0... bal . 0..0 4. ..8 1.. ...05 . .25 0.....35 .0 A360.6 0..15–0..0 6. ...... 0. 0.0 2..3 0.....03–0.30% Sb (0.6 .0 4.... ..... 0..6–0.0 3..15 .5–7.. ..0 3.....20 0.. . bal . Ti ϩ Zr contents ϭ 0. ...35 0. ...0 A357. 0. bal ..05 ..35 .. .0(h) 240. 0...6 0. .25 1..25 .. . 0. .05 ..5 1.. ....5 1...25 0. 0.0 1. 0.. 0. .. ...0 4.. ..20–0.20 ..7 0. 0.... . bal .5 7...5 0...20 .10 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.2 3. 1...5 0. 0.. ....5 9. 6..20 . 0. ....0 333.5–4.... ....010% nominal) Sr and a maximum 0.20 . . . 0.0 A206.50% max... . ... 0.. ..50 0.. 1....15 .0(j) D357. 0.. . 0...05 .015 (0..10 0..0 308.10 ..0 3.0 0. .40–0... .. bal . and 0... 0. 0. .0(j) 359.15 . .... bal ... wt% Others Alloy Type(a) Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ti Sn Each(b) Total(b) Al 100..05 .0–1..10 ..0 C355.2 ..25 0..0 12.... 4.. 2.. .25 .10 .. bal . .. 0.0–6.. 0.. 0. 0.20–0. .30 ... .10–0.. .....05 . 0..45%. 0............0(h) 224..05–0..20 ..03 .. 0.05 ...35 .7 0....6 0. Limits are maximum unless a range is shown.. 0. 0.... ....05 . . notably Aluminum Association Standards for Sand and Permanent Mold Castings. ..0 5..8–4.25 .0 354.......0 .35 .45 0. 0... 0.. 0. 1...5–3.... 0...10 . ..5 0. 0.. 0.... ..50 .5–5.. 0.3 .6 .20–0.0 4. .50 ..0 .. ..0 11. 0. 0..0 .10 .005% maximum B. . .... bal ...20 0.. 0..7 0.50–0.0 2.. bal .35 0. 0.... 0...0 A242.5 4.10 . 0. bal .. 0. 0.45–0..5 9.6–9.. ..5 ..32 0.0(h) 295..25 . .... 0.40–0.. 0...15–0.... 0..20 ... bal bal . .6 4....10 .50 ..7 5. .0 6...10 .. 0.05 ....2–1.15–0..6 1. 0. bal .10 ... . bal . ... .. 0.. 1.03 . 0..25 .. (h) Alloy has been designated “Inactive” by the Aluminum Association....40 0.0 9.7–4...15 .. 0.55 . .. . but still occurs in some publications.10 .0 0.2–1. . 0. ... 0.. .20 . 0. bal . . 0.6 .0 8. 0..50 ..05 .5–5...50 0. 0..50 . .15 .5 8. . 0. .. 1....0–5...10 ..05 . 1.. .. 0.. .055% nominal) Be.0 336. .25–0. 0. 0.0–10.....6 4..10 0..25 1.15–0.. ... 1.0 3.0 ..20 ..0 .25 0..20 .0 9...35 .25 . Processes.20–0. . ..05 ... (c) ..5–7. (f) Also contains 0..0 6..10 ..18 0..20 0.10 ...6 0... (d) . 4. . 0..010% or more each.... 0... 0...20–0..1 170. 0.. (l) If iron exceeds 0.....20 .....10 . 0..30–0.5–7. .20 0.....50 .. 0... . .50 .25 .. ..... ..7 2... .. 1. .. .5–6. 0. 0.. ..35 .0 ....35 . (c) Ingot.6 .. 0...35 .....5–9.7–1.5 7...30% Co (0. (d) Ingot. 0..... manganese content shall not be less than one-half iron content. .35 .... 0.0 .22 0..... . 0.10 ..35 0.50 .5 7.0 .0 249...0 . 0. ..52 0.. . . 0. ..38 0. bal .. ... 0.05 1. ....15 ..20 .30–0...50 ... .. bal .. bal .. and the Aluminum Association Registration Sheets for Alloys in the Form of Castings and Ingot Composition.. .. ..2 .40–0.0003–0.0 6..15 . 0.. bal . . . .10 ..5 0.5 5..05 3....40–1. .0 3... 0....5 9. .10 . bal ..5–5. .35 .. .15 .. bal ...10 .10 ... ..5 7... Nominal values are midrange of limits for elements for which a composition range is specified. .20 .05 .. . 0.15 0. 0. . 0.5 1...25–0. (m) Also contains 0..0–10.... 0.. bal (continued) (a) Both nominal compositions and composition limits are shown. bal ..04–0....25 ... 0..0 356....... . 0.30% Zr....50 ..0 7.50 0....20 .. 2..0 5. 0..0 1. 0. 0.. bal .0 328...0–5.. (c) .35 .0 . 0. 0.10 3...6 0.. 0..0 357. bal .......50 ..7 0...6 .. 0.. 0.15 ....10 .05 .007% (0........ 0..... 0.0 242.8 ......5–7.0–9...10 0. . .. 0. 0. 0. ....7% nominal) Ag... 0..0 .. 0. 0..20–0..15 .2–10...25 ...0 1.. ... 0.05 ..5 1.5 4.05 .......5 4.. .5 0. 0..05 .12 0. .0–2.0 360.50 . 0.4 1... bal . .... 0. 0.. 0.0 9..50–1....... . 0.5–6. 0.5 min Fe/Si ratio. bal .. . ..35 .6 0.. 1...05–0...10 . .20 . .. .8 .001% P. ..0–4.... .1 150. . 0.. ..5 5. 0. bal .40 0. ........ 0..50 . 0.10 ....50 .50 . .. 0....10 . 0. 0...25 Zr...10 .50 0. .35 ..3–1.... 0..5–5. .0 6.. (e) .55–0.. 0. . 0.30 0. 0.... .1 201. .... 0. 0...5 7. 0... .......50 .35 ....1 Nominal composition and composition limits of aluminum alloy castings Based on industry handbooks....0–4. 0. 0... 0.. (c) .0 8....5–3......15 . bal ....5 0. ....5 .5 . 0..15 . (c) .0 0. .....05 ..... (j) Also contains 0........05 . .0–1. 0..8 1.... 0.35 . 1.30 .0(h) 332. (c) .... 0.25 0. (g) Also contains 0. (b) Maximum for “each” and “total” of elements not shown and present at 0.0 8. 0. .40–0. . 0...20 .. .....0 4..5 3. (c) .... .5 9..02–0.14 0. 0...6 0..22 0.30 ..20–0.. . .10 .05 .50 . ...5 8.0 2.0 319.. 0. ....... 0. 0. .20–0.5 3...... ... .15 .. . .. 0..25 .....50 .03 . 0.. .50 ..45 0.. 0. 0. 1..7 .03 .0(f) 203.0–5. 0.5 .. .... ....25% nominal).5 2.25 ... . 0.5 1..3 2..25 ..15 . (c) ...25 .. 0....40–0..50 .. ......58 0. ...

.. 0.03 .5 10.. .. ...15 . ... 0.50 . 0..50 1. bal ...10 .5 8..0 0.8 .5 3....0 707..5–11....15 .0 .0 5.010% nominal) Sr and a maximum 0. 0.25 . 1. ......0 771.Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys / 11 Table 2. 0.05–0. .0–4.... . 0..... 0... 0..2 4. 1.30 .0 B391..2 .1 (continued) Composition.15 .10 ... bal .. 0. (g) Also contains 0.. 0.10 ..2 4.. .. 0.8 .0 ..3 ..20–0. . ...0 18.5 2. .58 0...05 ... 0.. 1......25 .. ... 0.35–0.25 .10 . 0.. .. .6 .. 0.. 0.45%..25–0. 0...5-7. 0. 3........ 0.5–4. 0..10 ..4–2..... .30 .0 17. bal . bal . .. 0.. ...0 12..... 0. 2....0 712.0 A391.. 0...20 ..... bal ... 0..6–0.5 4...25 .. 0.. . 0..40–1. .6 .20 0.....0–3. 0...20 .15 .35 . 0. 0. .. ........15 .0003–0.. 0.50 .15 ...6–0......6 ...35 ....7 0. 0.. 0.15 0.25 ..6 .. 0.10 ..0 711. 0. ......0 3. 0.. 0.... 0. 0.35 .30 .7–3... 0..20 .... 0.. 0. 0.35–0. .15 .. (m) Also contains 0..0–7....010% or more each.10 .15 .5–10..30 ......10 .0 6.15 0.... 0.50 ..0–4. bal .45 0. ...10 . .. 0. .... 0.15 ... Nominal values are midrange of limits for elements for which a composition range is specified. 0.18 0...10 ..30 0....0 0.0 5..7 0. 0.05 ...05 .0 19. 0... 0.1 .. .45–0...0 0.0 380.. 0.30 ...20 .... 0.....3 0. .. ..65 0.35 .. 0.5–7.8 6....0 .18 0.10–0.. 0. 0.5 7. ...... . .5–7... 0.35 .. .. 0.15 . ..35 .15 ..2 10. 0. .50 . . 0.35 0..05 4..0 3.. 0.15 . .5–6.. 0..... 0. . ..50 0.. ....20 ...9–1.30 ...0 710.20 ..10 .03 3. . bal .... 2. ..20 .10 . 0. bal . bal . 0.25 .2 5. 0. (d) Ingot.. . 2.15 .. . 0. bal . 0.....25 .0 391... 0.0 2. 1..03 ... . 0.25 . .. .. 0... 0. . .0 3.20 .....40–1.... 0.25 0... 0.15 .15 . . 1.. ..15 . bal . 0.......15 ..15 ......... 0.. 0. 1. wt% Others Alloy Type(a) Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ti Sn Each(b) Total(b) Al 365..30 0.. .. ....04–0.0 514..001% P.7% nominal) Ag. .05 .... .. 0. bal .. bal .. 0. ..40–0.2 0... 0.2 ...50% max.50 0. . 1...0 513.40 0. 1.. 1. .. 0. 6.5 7. .0 518.. . 0..55 0... 0...0 3.20 ..20 .6 . 0. .3 1..45–0..0 ....50 .3 2...3 ..0 6..0(m) 705..50 .. .5–7.25 Zr.05 .0 11. .. 0... ..0–4.0 ..40 0. .015 (0.. .0 520.. 0..7 0. 0.0 852.50–0.2–7... ..6 .. 0...... 0.3 ...5 7. bal . .30 . 0...15 . ...... ..4–1..10 0. bal . 0.. 0.8–1..... bal . .0 0.. 0..........20 0....35 . (f) Also contains 0. 0.20 .65 0..0–13.... 0.. 0..25 ..5 4.0–5.50 0.. 0..3 .10 ...15 ... .... ...25% nominal)....25 .8–2.. 0. (h) Alloy has been designated “Inactive” by the Aluminum Association.10 0.. 0.. bal . .10–0.50 .. 0... .5 0.. .. bal .. 0...0 B390. 9.... ... 0.10 .10 .15 .40–0.58 0...10 ......0 11. .20 0.8 ..0 . 0.20 ..0 6. 3....30 ... bal ..1 1.... 0..0 A444..15 . . .. . 0.. 0.... ... .35 0.0 1....10 .. bal ..50 .15 . .05 .20 .7 . 1.10–0. 0..40–0. .. .0 6.... .. .. ....15–0.. .0 5. ..0 12. 0.10 ..0 535.15 .3 4....20–0..... 0.7–2.35 . 0. . ..0 C443. 0. .35 ..03–0..... 0. bal ...6 .50 ....04–0.10 1....20 ....40 ...0–8.6 1... ...8 1.25 . bal ..5 6...7 0.... 0.50 0.. 0. .. .05 .10 ...07% (0.... (j) Also contains 0. (l) If iron exceeds 0. .... . 0. 0. .8 . 0.30% Co (0... but still occurs in some publications..9 ...20 .. 0.. ..25 . 0. . bal (a) Both nominal compositions and composition limits are shown..25 .. .. 0... 0.5 10... (e) Ingot. .0 2..50 . and 0. 0. 0.25 ...8 .0 .10–0.0 6.5 1.. 0.35 .... 0..50 . 0. 0...58 0...5–11.. bal .20–0.. 0. 0.......... .. 0...0 5. 0....... .5–4.....05 . 0.0 Nominal Limits(k) Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits(l) Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits Nominal Limits ..5 min Fe/Si ratio.0 851...10 .. .5 11. 0.8 .0 512. 0.. manganese content shall not be less than one-half iron content....5–8..15 . 0...06–0.0–7... 0.30 ....... .... 0.. . .... ..50 . 0... .50 . 0..0% (0.0 443.... bal ... .. 0... ... 0... .7–1.7–1.. .0 384. 0..05 ..5 7. ..50 ..50 .10–0.. 0. . 0.. bal .. .....20 .. 0.... 0.. 0....15 . 1. .....40 .4–2.0 7...0 .. 0.5 .05 ...05 .. .. 0..5–6. 3... 0.10 ....0–3.0–20.10–0... .7–1.25 .0 A413. .. ..0 383.. 0.15 .....25 ..50 0. 0...15 . 0. 0.2 4.10 .. bal . .0 9..50 .... 0. 0...20–0.45–0. 0.5 8. 0. 0.. . 0...50 .2 4.10 ... .. ...75 0..0 ...5–9... (i) Also contains 0.. 0.... bal .5–9.. 0. Ti ϩ Zr contents ϭ 0..8 . 0. .30 . 0.50–0.. bal .. 0.. 0...0 .40 ..0 min Fe/Si ratio.7 2. . .. 0.20 ...7 . 0..25 0... .0 .... 0.15 . 0.. .05 .0 19.. ....10 . 0..0 3..07 ..0–4....35 1.4 0..50 0. .8 0.0 713.0–6... 0.50 . 0.50 ...... 0.... .0 413.05 ..8 3.58 0.005% maximum B......5 .8 1..20 . 0......3 .35 .5 2. Limits are maximum unless a range is shown. . 0. ...6 0..20–0.. .2 5. 3...25 0.0 6. 0.5 4....5–7.0 B443..7–1.... ...055% nominal) Be. 0.0 19.50 . 0. 0. (c) Ingot..45–0. 0.. .. .5 6.30% Zr.50 ...3 . (k) Also contains 0. 0..10 .0 7...25 ..0 7. .20 ..0–20.... 0..8 2.9 0.. 0.5–12.7 1. 0.30% Sb (0. ...025% max Mn ϩ Cr ϩ Ti ϩ V.15 V and 0. 0. 0.30–0.0–18......25 .4 .5 9... 0..65 0.5 6. 0. bal .5 4. .30 .. 0.. ... 0..0 18.. . 0. 0... 0..50 ... .007% (0. ......05 ..2 .20 ... . 0..... (b) Maximum for “each” and “total” of elements not shown and present at 0.0 . 1.25 0. ..15 ..25 .0 850..05 . 0.. 3.0 A380.....20 .. 0. ...10 .20 . 0....50 ....5–4.. .0 .... 0..05 . 0...5 1.005% nominal) Be and 0.35 ....5–6. . .35 0.. . .15 .. 0....... 1....5 3... ..30 .5 8. 0.6 6...15 .0 18.... . .35 . . . ...35 ....0–20. bal .2 5. .0 ....... . 0. . 2.. 0..05 .7 .20 .0 16.7 .5 .0–13.25% nominal). . when expressed to the second decimal.25 ..05 ..65 .

311 312 313 314 310 . .. ... ..... . SN122A .. . .0 A391...... ... Tenzaloy Precedent 71A Precedent 71B 750 A750 B750 ... ... ...0 203........ . .... 71000 . . ... .0 B391........ ...... ....0 242. .. . . ..... .0 355......0 393. . . . .. .... .....0 512.. ... 45000 45200 .... ........ . ............ . . ..... ......... ..0 A357....0 851........ .. ..... .. ...0 511.0 713.... .. Al–Si8Cu3Fe . . .. .0 357..0 707... 46500 .0 328. . ... Al–Zn5Mg . ... B771 750 A850 B850 .... 322 355 323 336 ... 324 .. .. ....0 A712.. .0 710.0 C712....... Al–Si10Cu2Fe . . Al–Si12Cu ..... .. A240 142 149 195 B295 A108 319 328 F332 333 A332 354 355 C355 356 A356 357 A357 B358 359 360 A360 . . Al–Si12Cu .0 711.. 33 34 .. .. 326 327 332 . F214 B214 A214 214 . K01 Hiduminium 350 A–U5GT . .. A01500 A02010 A02030 A02040 A02080 A02130 A02130 A02240 A02400 A02220 A02490 A02950 A02960 A03080 A03190 A03280 A03320 A03330 A03360 A03540 A03550 A33550 A03560 A33560 A03570 A33570 A03580 A03590 A03600 A13600 A03650 A03800 A13800 A03830 A03840 A143840 A03080 A13900 A23900 A03910 A13910 A23910 A03930 A04130 A14130 A24430 A34430 A14440 A05110 A25120 A05130 A05140 A05180 A05200 A05350 A15350 A07050 A07070 A07100 A07110 A07120 A17120 .0 356. . .0 365.... Al–Si9Cu3Mg ... .. .. ...................... ..... 321 . A07130 A07710 A07720 A08500 A08510 A08520 . .... . . Mercosil Mercosil Mercosil Vanasil .. 43100 . Almag 35 ..... 48000 . . 108 113 122 224 140 142 149 195 B195 A108 319 . 355 C355 356 A356 357 ....... . ............ ...0 295. ....12 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties... ......0 319.... ..0 208. .... .... . 45300 ............ ........ SC84B SC84A SC102 SC114A . CS43A CS74A CG100A . .. .. . .... .. .... .. .... 4240 4238 ... 320 ..... SG100B SG100A .. SC64D SC82A SC103A .... . .. .... 382 . Processes. .. .. .. .0 390. G10A GM70B . 44100 .... . . Frontier 40E ...0 772.0 358. . . . .0 296.. ..... .. .. . ..0 384.. .0 A384. .. . . . .... .0 332. . .5 .. .0 391....... .......... . .0 354.... S5A S5C ...0 413....0 A356.. ... ...... 42000 . . .... ......0 712. ...0 A535... ...... . ....... Allcast Red X–8 .... Silafont–36 . Al–Mg5Si1 ... ........ 46100 ... ... ...0 204..... ..... . .. . .. 43 43 ... ..... ... C4A . ... .. .. 304 . . . .. .. Al–Cu10Si2Mg .0 850. . .. .. ... and Applications Table 2.... ...... .. .. . ... . ... . . Ternalloy 5 Ternalloy 7 .... . .. Tens–50 ........ 315 .. . ..... Al–Si6Cu4 Al–Si5Cu3 .....0 308..0 B390.. . 38 380 . .. C354 4210 C355 356 A356 4241 A357 .0 B443....0 A360...... . . . 220 Almag 35 A218 Ternalloy 5 Ternalloy 7 A612 . . . . ZC81A ... ....0 380... ..... . . ... 51300 ... . ... 308 306 383 303 ..... ..... ..0 249..... ZG32A ZG42A ZG61B ZC60A ZG61A .. 380 A380 383 384 A384 390 .. Tenzaloy Precedent 71A Precedent 71B .....0 224. .0 852. ...... . .0 A380 383.. . .. . GS42A GZ42A G4A .. ... ... .. SC174B .. F132 333 A132 ...0 222... Al–Si7Mg .. ... .. . ... . CN42A .0 240...0 A413. ... Al–Si10Mg .0 360. .2 Cross reference for older casting alloy designations and frequently used specifications Current Aluminum Association designation Former Aluminum Association designation Former proprietary company names Unified Numbering System (UNS) designation Former Federal specification designation Former ASTM specification designation Former SAE specification designation Former military specification designation Current ISO specification designation Current Euronorm specification designation 150.. ... .0 201.0 771. SC174B ...... .0 213.......0 520... 309 . ..0 513.. . A1–99. . ....0 A444.. 4222 .0 333.. ..0 336. ... . Al–Si17Cu4Mg . ..... . 393 13 A13 43 (high purity) 43 A344 F514 B514 A514 214 218 220 535 A218 603 607 A712 C712 D712 A712 C612 613 ....0 150 201 203 204 108 C113 122 224 A140... ..... 305 .. Al–Si5Cu1Mg . 4231 ... . . .. . . ... . . .....0 535.... .. .. ...... .. .. ... .... .. .. .....0 A390.. ..... . ....0 705.. ..... . ..0 C443. .. ..0 518...... SC51A SC51B SG70A SG70B .. . . ..... ... CQ51A . ... . .. . ... ..... ........ ..... ...0 514.. ..... 40E .... 39 .. . 359 ........... .....0 C355. ..0 359.... . .... .

These heat treatable compositions represent the highest-strength capabilities of any commercial casting alloys. using the appropriate chemical designation. 20 for 20%.4 Composition Groupings Although a large number of aluminum casting alloys have been developed. • Immediately following the percentage is a single lower-case letter for the type of reinforcement: c for cut or chopped fibers. 2.2 Aluminum-Silicon-Copper 2. Some common illustrations of cast aluminum metal-matrix composite designations are: • A356. and Al2O3 for aluminum oxide (alumina).0/SiC/10p: Alloy 380.0/C/20c: Alloy 360. leading to a very attractive range of properties including premiumstrength capabilities. which can be exceptional. These alloys exhibit high strength and hardness at room and elevated temperatures. with the exception that no subscripts or superscripts are used. and w for whiskers. usually with varying amounts of magnesium. or monofilaments. 2.0 reinforcement 10% silicon carbide particulate Many alloys containing 4 to 5% Cu have been developed.0 reinforced with 5% aluminum filaments • 360. Silver accelerates aging response and reduces the risk of stress corrosion. Binary aluminum-silicon alloys exhibit excellent fluidity.1 in this chapter.0/Al2O3/05f: Alloy A356. This reinforcement designation is also followed without space by a slash. refinement of the proeutectic silicon phase by phosphorus additions is essential for casting and product performance. Higher solidification rates also promote a finer unmodified eutectic microstructure.1 Aluminum-Copper Aluminum-copper alloys have been used extensively in cast and wrought form where strength and toughness are required.3 Aluminum-Silicon 2. Alloys containing higher hypoeutectic concentrations of silicon are normally better suited for more complex castings and for permanent mold and die casting processes.Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys / 13 The designation system for aluminum metal-matrix composites consists of four parts: • The matrix alloy designation employs the Aluminum Association alloy designation as described in Section 2. and so forth. excellent grain refinement and selective chilling are essential. ductility. Modification is particularly advantageous in sand castings and can be effectively achieved through the controlled addition of sodium and/or strontium. Heat treatment response is enhanced. and copper contributes to matrix hardening and elevatedtemperature strength. In permanent mold or other rigid mold casting methods. These alloys display low strength and poor machinability. 05 for 5%. and silicon improves castability and reduces hot shortness. • The volume percent of the reinforcement is shown immediately after the second slash. It is always presented as two digits. castability. filaments. and certain compositions and material conditions may be susceptible to stress corrosion. or monofilaments. Exacting foundry techniques are required to avoid these conditions. p for particles (particulate). excellent ductilities are also achieved. The strength. but the more important alloys of this family are those also containing magnesium. for example. Copper contributes to strengthening and machinability. With controlled impurities. Many hypereutectic silicon alloys (12 to 30% Si) also contain copper.4. Calcium is a weak eutectic modifier and a more lamellar eutectic can be achieved with antimony. and castability of hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys can be further improved by modification of the aluminum-silicon eutectic. Alloys of this type are susceptible to solidification cracking and to interdendritic shrinkage. f for continuous fibers. Copper is typically the alloy basis for improved mechanical properties at elevated temperature. there are seven basic families: • • • • • • • Aluminum-copper (2xx) Aluminum-silicon-copper (3xx) Aluminum-silicon (4xx) Aluminum-silicon-magnesium (3xx) Aluminum-magnesium (5xx) Aluminum-zinc-magnesium (7xx) Aluminum-tin (8xx) Among the most widely used aluminum casting alloys are those that contain silicon and copper. Aluminum-silicon-copper alloys with less than 5.4. • The composition of the reinforcement is shown immediately after the slash. Ductility. The combination of tensile properties and ductility provide exceptional toughness.4. SiC for silicon carbide. is a function of low impurity concentrations and microstructural features. The amounts of both additions vary widely. 10 for 10%. Copper-containing aluminum alloys are less resistant to corrosion. . and corrosion resistance. filaments. often with nickel additions.0 reinforced with 20% chopped fibers • 380. these alloys displayed significantly improved strengths and hardnesses in the as-cast state. Some common examples cited in the standard are: C for graphite.6% Cu are heat treatable. The first significant aluminum casting alloys contained copper at concentrations up to 10%. The primary silicon phase imparts excellent wear resistance. It is immediately followed by a slash that separates it from the rest of the composite designation. Aluminum-silicon alloys exhibit low specific gravity and coefficients of thermal expansion. In hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. so that copper predominates in some alloys and silicon in others. With no understanding of heat treatment.

Antimony is classified as a heavy metal with potential toxicity and hygiene implications. Aluminum-tin alloys containing copper are conventionally precipitation hardened and may be fully heat treated. and low-volume bearings are nevertheless cast successfully in sand molds. Antimony also reacts with either sodium or strontium to form coarse intermetallics with adverse effects on castability and metallurgical structure.10%. antimony refines the aluminum-silicon eutectic. machined. and silicon is added to improve castability. Beryllium additions improve strength and ductility by affecting the morphology and chemistry of the iron-containing intermetallic. Additions of copper. lead. larger risers. parts may be plastically cold worked to improve compressive yield strength. the direct chill (DC) casting process has also been used for production. 2. compressive strength. polished. Mechanical agitation is required initially to achieve suspension of tin. and increase compressive yield strength. and annealing treatments accomplish the same purpose with improved dimensional and structural stability. an advantage in castings that are to be brazed. substantially increasing elongation.4. The 850-series alloys can often be substituted for 660 or similar bronzes. and good foundry practices are required to minimize hot tearing and shrinkage defects. and Applications 2.5. Aluminum-magnesium alloys offer excellent weldability and are often used in architectural and other decorative applications.0% Mg are heat treatable. While not as strong as high-strength Al-Cu and Al-Si-Cu alloys. over long periods of time.0 to 7. Artificial aging treatments can be used to accelerate the hardening process. The effect is essentially that of modification.0% Sn are broadly used in bearings and bushings in which low friction. and heat dissipation improves bearing life. The chemistry of most alloys is controlled to minimize stresscorrosion susceptibility. Tin is the major alloying element in compositions developed for bearing applications. but a distinctly lamellar eutectic rather than a fine fibrous form results.4. Magnesium in aluminum alloys increases oxidation rates. weldability. reduce hot shortness. in some compositions. more uniform dispersion of tin. fatigue strength. and greater control of temperature gradients. 2. all aluminummagnesium alloys require more care in gating. and magnesium contribute to hardness and strength. the mechanical properties of several Al-Si-Mg alloys provide mechanical properties in the premium-strength range. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have good machinability. Solidification and thermal stresses are also relieved by axial compression resulting in 4% permanent deformation. This characteristic is also the basis for extensive use in food and beverage processing. and.4. Spinels of aluminum and magnesium oxides form with unprotected exposure at high molten metal temperatures. The melting temperatures of alloys of this group are high. high residual stress levels and distortion are avoided. Processes. It has also been employed with bismuth. Alloys containing >7. Larger. tin is present in dispersed form. These alloys typically display moderate to good tensile properties in the as-cast condition. Before and after solidification.4. Because most bearings are cast in simple solid or hollow cylindrical shapes. Most bearings are produced by the permanent mold process. Aluminum and tin are essentially immiscible. In the molten state. Eutectic modification remains important as a means of improving strength. Solution heat treatment is not typically necessary for property development. Their most important characteristic is corrosion resistance. Since high-temperature solution heat treatment and quench are not normally required. Conventional solution heat treatments can be used when adequate property development does not occur through natural aging. gravity segregation may occur over time in the molten state.4 Aluminum-Silicon-Magnesium The addition of magnesium to aluminum-silicon alloys forms the basis for an extremely important and useful family of compositions that combines outstanding casting characteristics with excellent properties after heat treatment. the cost of heat treatment. and resistance to corrosion are important criteria.14 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. The castability of Al-Zn-Mg alloys is poor. although thermal treatments are more typically used to stabilize properties that could otherwise change. Rapid solidification in these alloys can result in microsegregation of magnesium-zinc phases that reduces hardening potential. nickel. The effectiveness of antimony in altering the eutectic structure depends on an absence of phosphorus and on an adequately rapid rate of solidification. achieving full strength within 20 to 30 days at room temperature after casting. Machinability and resistance to general corrosion is usually good. especially associated with stibine gas (SbH3) formation and the effects of human exposure to other antimony compounds. including exposure to seawater and marine atmospheres. and improving casting results.1 Effects of Alloying Elements Antimony At concentration levels equal to or greater than ϳ0. Because most bearings are simple hollow or solid cylinders. and cadmium at lower concentrations to provide free-machining properties.6 Aluminum-Zinc-Magnesium Many alloys of this type naturally age. magnesium losses can be significant and oxides of aluminum and magnesium can affect casting quality. Aluminum-tin alloys are unique among significant compositions. Their light weight minimizes loads in reciprocating applications. and an attractive appearance whether as-cast.5 Aluminum-Magnesium These are essentially single-phase binary alloys with moderate to high strength and toughness. Corrosion resistance is also excellent. and a low level of thermal expansion is retained. The potential for inclusions is especially important because many applications involve polishing and/or fine surface finishing. because of density differences. or anodized. Higher-solidification rates promote the finer. special-design.7 Aluminum-Tin 2. Alloys containing 5.5 2. . In comparison with aluminum-silicon alloys. 2.

but it is rarely encountered in gravity casting alloys.5. such as AlB2 and TiB2. beryllium affects the form and composition of iron-containing intermetallics. rejecting magnesium from the Al-Fe-Si complex and thus permitting its full use for hardening purposes. manganese is controlled to low levels in most gravity cast compositions. beryllium changes its composition. 2.70% Mg. Common compositions range from 4 to 10% Mg.5. Borides also contribute to sludging. dross handling. It increases hydrogen solubility and is often responsible for casting porosity at trace concentration levels. Iron improves hot-tear resistance and decreases the tendency for die sticking or soldering in die casting.9 Iron Bismuth additions improve the machinability of cast aluminum alloys at concentrations greater than 0. Titanium boride forms stable nucleation sites that interact with active grain-refining phases such as TiAl3 for grain refinement. These essentially insoluble phases are responsible for improvements in strength.7 Chromium Additions of chromium are commonly made in low concentrations to room-temperature aging and thermally unstable compositions in which germination and grain growth are known to occur.40 to 0.Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys / 15 2.1%.070%.1% to improve machinability.2 Beryllium Additions of a few parts per million beryllium can be effective in reducing oxidation losses and associated inclusions in magnesium-containing compositions. The hardening-phase Mg2Si displays a useful solubility limit corresponding to approximately 0. Iron participates in the formation of sludging phases with manganese. and welding. the precipitation of intermetallics from liquid solution in furnaces and troughing. Copper generally reduces resistance to general corrosion and in specific compositions and material conditions increases stress-corrosion susceptibility.5. manganese. 2. Iron reacts to form a number of intermetallic phases. Instability and long-term room-temperature aging at higher magnesium concentrations can be avoided by heat treatment. FeMnAl6.10 Lead Lead is used at concentrations greater than 0.5.4 Boron Boron combines with other metals to form borides. excellent response to chemical finishing. 2. but also the embrittlement of the microstructure. Metallic borides reduce tool life in machining operations and form coarse or agglomerated inclusions with detrimental effects on mechanical properties and ductility. Boron treatment of aluminum-containing peritectic elements such as titanium.12 Manganese Normally considered an impurity in casting compositions. however. Alloys containing 4 to 5. and compositions containing more than 7% Mg are heat treatable. low concentrations of copper in aluminum-zinc alloys inhibit stress corrosion.5.11 Magnesium 2.1%. especially at elevated temperature.8 Copper Copper substantially improves strength and hardness in the ascast and heat treated conditions.5% Cu respond most strongly to thermal treatment and display relatively improved casting properties. zirconium. markedly improving strength and ductility. Chromium improves corrosion resistance in certain alloys and increases quench sensitivity at higher concentrations.6 Calcium Calcium is a weak aluminum-silicon eutectic modifier. Chromium typically forms the compound CrAl7. and other elements. compositions. Precautions that acknowledge volatilization of cadmium at 1413 ºF (767 ºC) are essential. and other elements for the same purpose. casting considerations such as feeding characteristics are adversely affected.5. At higher concentrations (>0. 2. Sludge that contains iron. Binary aluminum-magnesium alloys are widely used in applications requiring a bright surface finish. Manganese is an important element in work-hardened . chromium.5. dross disposition. and ␣AlFeSi. 2. Calcium greater than approximately 0. and vanadium is practiced to improve purity and conductivity in electrical applications.5. In addition to changing the morphology of the insoluble phase from script or plate to nodular form. cadmium improves machinability.5. which displays extremely limited solid-state solubility and is therefore useful in suppressing grain-growth tendencies. and attractive combinations of strength and ductility. Rotor alloys may specify boron to exceed titanium and vanadium contents to ensure either the complexing or precipitation of these elements for improved electrical performance. 2.3 Bismuth 2.5. molten metal handling. Beryllium-containing compounds are.5 Cadmium In concentrations exceeding 0. beyond which either no further strengthening occurs or matrix softening takes place. As the fraction of insoluble phases increases with increased iron content. the most common of which are FeAl3. Common high-strength aluminum-silicon compositions specify magnesium in the range of 0. Conversely. nickel. 2.5. 2. Copper reduces hot tear resistance and increases the potential for interdendritic shrinkage. corrosion resistance.005% also adversely affects ductility in aluminummagnesium alloys.04%). known carcinogens that require specific precautions in melting. Increases in iron content are accompanied by substantially decreased ductility. and chromium is sometimes encountered in die casting Magnesium is the basis for strength and hardness development in heat treated aluminum-silicon alloys and is commonly used in more complex aluminum-silicon alloys containing copper.

that a high-volume fraction of MnAl6 in alloys containing more than 0.5. Percent liquid in the solidification range is dictated by the initial composition and by the degree of nonequilibrium cooling.5. Increasing silicon content improves fluidity for filling thin walls and for reproducing more intricate designs and details.0 alloys when >200 ppm Sr is present. Aluminumsilicon alloys are typically more resistant to solidification cracking and display excellent castability and feeding characteristics. hot tear resistance. 2. which do not passivate in seawater. phosphorus coarsens the eutectic structure in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys and diminishes the effectiveness of common eutectic modifiers. Sodium increases surface tension and through addition methods can increase hydrogen content.5.15 Phosphorus As AlP3. Degassing efficiency may also be adversely affected at higher strontium levels. Additions of silicon dramatically improve fluidity. Casting alloys may contain up to 25% Sn. The most prominently used compositions in all aluminum casting processes are those in which silicon plays a major role. Higher addition levels are associated with casting porosity. and for die casting 8 to 12%. In the absence of phosphorus. The outstanding effect of silicon in aluminum alloys is the improvement of casting characteristics. the preferred range is 5 to 7%. It combines with iron and other elements to form complex insoluble phases.005% is embrittling in aluminummagnesium alloys. Silicon combines with magnesium to form Mg2Si in heat treatable alloys. At parts per million concentrations. and feeding characteristics. shrinkage porosity is strongly affected by the temperature at which mass feeding from liquid to partially solidified structures no longer occurs.13 Mercury Compositions containing mercury were developed as sacrificial anodes for cathodic protection systems.14 Nickel Nickel is commonly used with copper to enhance elevatedtemperature properties. Sodium interacts with phosphorus to reduce its effectiveness in modifying the eutectic and that of phosphorus in the refinement of the primary silicon phase. 2.0%. Lower concentrations are effective with higher solidification rates. sodium and strontium. 2. Strontium has been regarded as ineffective as a modifier at slow solidification rates. Feeding to minimize shrinkage porosity improves as the volume fraction solidified is increased at the temperature at which mass feeding ceases. Sodium is rapidly lost in molten aluminum through its high vapor pressure so that modifying effects are transient. but a range of recovered strontium of 0. 2.5. For higher-solidification-rate processes such as pressure die and permanent mold casting and for thinner sections in which more rapid solidification takes place. investment. In the absence of work hardening. Overmodification increases misrun tendencies in gravity casting. Unlike some other modifiers. The bases for these recommendations are the 2. but some investigators report beneficial effects in AFS Level 4 and 5 structures in 319.5.0 and 356.04% is commonly used. and Applications wrought alloys through which secondary foundry compositions may contain higher manganese levels. the most desirable silicon content of aluminum-silicon alloys corresponds to the characteristic process solidification rate. Additions of tin also improve machinability. for permanent mold 7 to 9%. The use of these optimally electronegative alloys. often in combination with smaller amounts of boron.16 Silicon Sodium modifies the aluminum-silicon eutectic.21 Titanium Titanium is extensively used to refine the grain structure of aluminum casting alloys. For this reason. manganese offers no significant benefits in cast aluminum alloys. Iron and manganese may be considered isomorphous. especially in marine environments. recovered concentrations of 0. Sodium at less than 0. Some evidence exists.5% Mn may beneficially influence internal soundness (Ref 5). It also reduces coefficient of thermal expansion. relationship between cooling rate and fluidity and the effect of percentage of eutectic on feeding as solidification progresses. Periodic additions are required to maintain modification levels. and alloy chemistry may reflect stoichiometries favoring the least detrimental insoluble Al-Fe-Mn phases. Silver contributes to precipitation hardening and stress-corrosion resistance. Processes. 2.5 to 1.5.17 Silver 2. Silicon also reduces specific gravity and coefficient of thermal expansion.5. Effective modification can be achieved at very low addition levels. was severely restricted for environmental reasons.5. Used in only a limited range of aluminum-copper premiumstrength alloys at concentrations of 0.18 Sodium 2.008 to 0. For slow cooling rate processes such as plaster.5. Titanium in excess of the . sodium provides effective aluminum-silicon eutectic modification under all solidification conditions. The operable phase is TiAl3 with lattice spacing closely matched to that of aluminum.20 Tin Tin is effective in improving antifriction characteristics and is therefore useful in bearing applications.19 Strontium Strontium modifies the aluminum-silicon eutectic. Manganese can also be employed to alter response in chemical finishing and anodizing. however. 2. Commercial alloys span the hypoeutectic and hypereutectic ranges up to about 30% Si.16 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.01% are effective. and sand. phosphorus nucleates and refines primary silicon-phase formation in hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys.

and lower resistance to corrosion.Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys / 17 stoichiometry of TiB2 is necessary for effective grain refinement. Zinc is also commonly found in secondary gravity and die casting compositions.0. and improved machinability with reduced ductility . Representative applications for these alloys are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Architectural panels and spandrels Outdoor lamp housings Lawn mower decks Outdoor grills Marine components Cooking utensils Parts used in food. and machinability. Alloy 443. stability. 319.0 and A444.6.1). The alloy is A444. primarily because of their superior casting characteristics.0 and A413.5.0) are low-density. 2. zinc results in attractive heat treatable or naturally aging compositions. Although castings of these alloys are somewhat difficult to machine.1 Alloy Groupings by Application or Major Characteristic General-Purpose Alloys Alloys with silicon as the major alloying constituent are the most important commercial casting alloys. 413. In these alloys. resistance to corrosion. 2. alloy A444.0.0 being the standard for this application Fig. 2. 360. 2. Typical applications include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Machinery Transmission cases (Fig. Aluminum-silicon-copper alloys such as 308. and A413. weldable. 380.0.6 2.0. Accompanied by the addition of copper and/or magnesium. Artificial aging can improve hardness. and pressure tightness.2) Engine blocks Gas meters and regulators Gear blocks Gear cases Fuel pumps Impellers Instrument cases Lawnmower decks Intake manifolds Cylinder heads Clutch housings Oil pans Outboard motor propellers. and beverage processing Medical and dental equipment Electronic cabinet frames and components Tire molds Escalator and moving sidewalk tread plates and parts Highway railing posts (Fig. They are useful in die casting and where large-area. higher strength and hardness.0. and 384. and chip breakers. 444. Alloys 413.0. Titanium is often employed at concentrations greater than those required for grain refinement to reduce cracking tendencies in hot-short compositions.0 display high ductility and are used where impact resistance is a primary consideration. These and similar generalpurpose alloys are often produced in the as-cast condition. Binary aluminum-silicon alloys (443. sintered carbide tools. dairy.0. motor parts and housings 2.1 Example of one of the many highway railing post designs utilizing aluminum castings that have been developed. good results are obtained with cutting fluids.22 Zinc Zinc offers no significant benefits in aluminum casting. Permanent mold alloys 444. A number of such compositions are in common use. have very high fluidity. and resistant to corrosion. tolerance for up to 3% Zn allows the use of lower-grade and wrought alloy scrap. The large number of alloys of this type that have been developed displays a broad range of properties. thin-walled parts with cast-in lettering or other high-definition details are required.0 are close to the eutectic composition and. however.0T4 with minimum elongation in permanent mold castings of 20% in front flanges for maximum energy absorption during impact. as a result.0 is used with all casting processes for parts in which strength is less important than ductility.0 offer good casting characteristics.

0 transmission case Fig.0.0 trailer suspension saddle . and other fittings Impellers Wave guides Electronic cases Fuel pumps Missile bodies. 333. and C355. A357.0. Alloys of this type are routinely cast in sand and permanent mold.3) Pump bodies Meter bodies Compressor bodies Intake manifolds Cylinder heads Dies for plastic injection molding Machine parts Truck and bus frames and chassis components Suspension saddles (Fig. When premium-strength casting processes are used. and other structural parts • Industrial beam heads • Brake cylinders • Automobile cross members and suspension components Aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys such as 328. 2. The high properties of these alloys.4 Alloy A356. speed-brakes hatch covers. flaps.0. but these alloys are typically heat treated for optimal properties. and 359. but inferior to those displayed by copper-free aluminum-silicon alloys. 2.0 have excellent casting characteristics and resistance to corrosion. Properties in the as-cast condition can be acceptable for some applications. are of special interest in structural applications.0 with low iron is a higher-strength version of 355.0.18 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Heat treatment provides combinations of tensile and physical properties that make them attractive for many applications including machinery.0. 354.0 offer excellent strength and hardness with some sacrifice in ductility and corrosion resistance. Alloy C355. military.0 and AlMg3Mn. Developments in high-integrity die casting have resulted in low-iron. fins. even higher tensile properties can be obtained with heat treated Alloy 354.3 Die cast alloy 380.0. 2.0 and A356. 355. 2.0.0.0 alloys. 2. Casting characteristics are good. 358.0. and aerospace parts.0 rear axle housing Fig. and Applications Aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys including 356.4) Aircraft pylons. Higher tensile properties are obtained with 357. Processes.2 Die cast alloy 380. manganese-containing Al-Si-Mg alloys such as 365. Fig. Some typical uses include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Automotive space frames Automotive wheels Truck wheels Axle and differential housings (Fig. automotive. canopies. attained by heat treatment to the fully hardened condition.

Hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys are relatively more difficult to cast and machine.3 Wear Resistant Alloys Alloys containing greater-than-eutectic silicon concentrations display low specific gravity and elevated-temperature strength and are often used in applications requiring a high degree of wear resistance. Some of these alloys retain yield strengths over 10 ksi (70 MPa) at temperatures exceeding 500 °F (260 °C).0. 332. fuel-efficient engines that operate at higher temperatures. and high thermal conductivity are the international standard for internal combustion engines.5) Compressor cases Rocker arms Timing gears Machine parts More complex aluminum-silicon alloys have been developed to meet the demands of high specific output. Aluminum pistons are usually permanent mold castings.0-T551. They include aircraft motor and gear housings. Alloys include 390. Precipitation hardening from air or water quenching from the mold improves hardness for improved machinability and eliminates or reduces changes in dimensions from residual growth at operating temperatures.0 and 243.4 Moderate-Strength Alloys with Low Residual Stresses Fig.0 alloys with superior elevated-temperature properties. demonstrates a desirable combination of foundry.0 fuel pump housing A number of casting compositions have been developed to provide strength and hardness without heat treatment through natural aging. Alloys 295. 392. The retention of these properties as temperature increases is an advantage in many applications.0/206. simpler crankshaft designs. mechanical.0. Growth in the popularity of these alloys has accelerated in recent years.0 and 355. Other applications of aluminum alloys for elevated-temperature use include air-cooled cylinder heads for aircraft and motorcycles.0 family are considered wear resistant.0 and 204. 2. Wrist pin bore struts and compression ring-groove inserts can be cast-in.0-T61 was once used extensively for this purpose.0. and physical characteristics. Alloys of the 2xx.5 Alloy C355.0-T571 offers higher thermal conductivity and superior properties at elevated temperatures. 2.6.0-T5. Lower inertial forces permit higher engine speeds. Cast aluminum alloy pistons featuring low specific gravity. elevated-temperature strength. wear resistance.0-T5 and 336. These alloys offer dimensional stability that reduces distortion during machining and simplifies straightening to close tol- . sports-utility vehicles. 355.0.0. While wear resistance is usually associated with surface hardness resulting from matrix properties or anodized coatings. and hardness at elevated temperatures.0 type alloys have also been used in this temperature range when the combination of high strength at room temperatures and elevated temperatures is required. wear resistance in these alloys results from the presence of a large volume fraction of hard primary silicon particles in the microstructure. Matrix-hardening alloys also provide improved wear resistance. and lighter. wear resistance. Applications include: • • • • • Brake rotors Cylinder blocks Cylinder liners Marine engines Pistons 2.2 Elevated-Temperature Alloys Many aluminum alloys have been developed to provide strength. but has been largely replaced by more castable 242. in large diesel engine pistons. Alloy 242. and 393. 2.6. The alloy most commonly used for pistons in passenger cars. Piston alloys for heavy-duty and diesel engines include lowexpansion alloys 332. including low thermal expansion.0 have been extensively used in applications requiring strength and hardness at temperatures up to 350 °F (175 °C). and light trucks. Applications include: • • • • • Cylinder heads Motorcycle engine parts Gear housings Pistons Structural parts exposed to elevated temperatures 2.Chapter 2: Aluminum Casting Alloys / 19 Applications include: • • • • • • • • • • • Engine cooling fans Clutch housings Crankcases High-speed rotating parts such as fans and impellers Structural aerospace components Air compressor pistons Fuel pumps (Fig. Alloy A201. low thermal expansion. integral cooling passages can be incorporated through copper coils or coring methods. Alloy 220.6. and C355. reduced bearing requirements. but are used in all casting processes.

and Applications erances. and full properties may not be realized for days.0. Society of Die Casting Engineers. Summary of Technical Information on Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys.5 Bearings Aluminum-tin alloys 850. 1974 Aluminum Alloys. Metals and Ceramics Information Center. Holt and K. properties in the as-cast condition approach those of higher-strength heat treated alloys.0. Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories. Ed. Solid Aluminum Bearings.0. Washington.52000. A through D356. AFS Trans. Alloys of this type include selected Al-Mg. Applications include: • • • • • • • • Missile bodies Missile fins Aircraft pylons Aircraft canopies Wing flaps Speed brakes Hatch covers Hydraulic pumps . Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. and other properties are influenced by alloy variations involving silicon and copper additions. Automotive Materials in the 21st Century.0.. 851. 1968 E. The Aluminum Association E. Wood. 1980 M. and American National Standards Institute ANSI H35. Prod. 2000 5. Adv. Prod.A. 2001 2. Ed. 2. 771. Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System. W. and AlZn-Mg-Cu alloys such as 535. Al-Zn-Mg.0 are specialized compositions displaying excellent bearing characteristics under moderate loads and with effective lubrication.0. Vol III. 1949 W.1 2. 852. 1986. Sleeve Bearing Materials. Alloys considered premium strength by definition and specification (AMS-A-21180) are A201. 224. 206. Aug 1965 H.. Tirpak. 249. 1990 J.. Aluminum Scrap Recycling and Its Impact on the Metal Castings Industry. Rooy. A through D357. SAE and ASTM.0. Aluminum Alloys for Elevated Temperature Application. p 249 Aluminum Brazing Handbook. 4th ed. The “Hot” Aluminum Alloys. Truckner. Aluminium Verlag. Düsseldorf.6.0. Castability. 2001 3. 1960 Worldwide Guide to Equivalent Nonferrous Metals and Alloys.0. 712. May 2000 Registration Record of Aluminum Association Alloy Designations and Composition Limits for Aluminum Alloys in the Form of Castings and Ingot.. 1967 D.0. p 179 SELECTED REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alcoa Alloys for Use in Induction Motor Rotors. Rooy. 1985. 2002 4. Mater. weeks. 6th ed. Frick.. The Aluminum Association. The Aluminum Association. AFS Trans. J. 9th ed. Design and Service Characteristics. 1986 J. hardness.” AFWAL-TR-85-4114. Datta. The Aluminum Company of America.0.0. E.G. Eng.” ANSI H35. and 853.Y. Granger. The principal applications for these alloys are bushings and bearings. 9th ed. and metal-matrix composite compositions.0.0..L. Castability is distinctly inferior..L. Stability can be an issue addressed by artificial aging or heat treatment without quenching. The Metallurgy of Rotors.0. Ed. Hunsicker. AFS Trans.B.0. Bogardus. Proc.0. “American National Standard Nomenclature System for Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite Materials. 358. DC (updated periodically).0. 1986 Handbook of International Alloy Compositions and Designations. and 772. or longer periods of room-temperature hardening. Typical applications include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tooling plate Complex thin-walled shapes such as impellers and cooling fans Explosion-proof enclosures Electrical fittings Brazed parts Machinery Instrument cases Marine components Pistol frames Food and beverage processing Decorative parts Reflectors Optical systems • • • • • Automotive suspension systems and cross-members Fuel pumps Brake valves Armored cupolas Aerospace structural parts REFERENCES 1. Germany.. Aluminum.6 High-Strength Alloys High-strength alloys include compositions designed to provide high strength and ductility and in the case of premium engineered castings also imply high levels of internal soundness and microstructural refinement. and E. ASM International. The Aluminum Association... Woldman’s Engineering Alloys. A206. Aluminum Alloy Bearings—Metallurgy. C355.0. 2000 D. Rooy. In many cases. Processes. American Society for Metals. The cost of heat treatment is avoided or reduced and postweld heat treatment is typically not required. Rooy. Van Horn. Aluminium Schlüssel: Key to Aluminium Alloys. American Society for Metals. Powers. 1985 K. Other alloys displaying high strength are 204.R. Fabrication and Finishing.6. Aluminum Standards & Data.. 354. and 359. Eng.F.0. ASM International. May 25. “Elevated Temperature Properties of Cast Aluminum Alloys A201-T7 and A357-T6.20 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties..L.. compressive yield strength. Vol 3.

and heat treatment Many aluminum alloy castings can be produced by any of the available methods. and tools were cast as extractive metallurgy developed. plaster mold. design features. welding. hardness. complexity. Metallurgical .L. specific gravity.2. 3. tin and zinc artifacts. shape. elevated-temperature strength.1 History 3. It is generally believed that the art of metal casting was first practiced more than 5500 years ago. Compromises in specified criteria are made to facilitate the use of the most cost-effective process. corrosion resistance. wall thicknesses.2 Specification Requirements Conformance to specification requirements including mechanical and physical properties may limit process choice. and chemical finishing • Service requirements: pressure tightness. minimization of shrinkage tendencies • Casting design considerations: draft. impact strength. Progress in die casting aluminum was limited until the development of the cold chamber process in the 1920s. Iron molds were also used in colonial times to cast pewter. internal passages • Mechanical property requirements: strength and ductility. dimensions. process yield. permanent mold. Many factors influence the selection of a casting process for producing a specific part. Parts with undercuts and complex internal passageways can usually be made by sand. silver. plaster. or investment casting. cost of machining. impregnation. weldability. material costs. Iron or steel dies had been used in casting print type in lead-base alloys in the 17th century. clay/water bonded sand. The injection of metal under pressure into metallic dies was at first purely mechanical. 3. using hand cranks. Later. resistance to hot tearing. toughness. In most cases. Kaufman. jobbing die casters were producing lead and other low-temperature metals with a surprising degree of automation. brazeability. wall thickness. Important variations include molding and pattern distinctions such as lost-foam (evaporative pattern). dimensional and thermal stability • Economics: volume. but may be impractical or impossible to produce in permanent mold or pressure die casting. fatigue strength. vacuum riserless casting. Aluminum can be cast by essentially all existing processes including pressure die casting. and Applications J. The most important process selection criteria are: • Casting process considerations: requirements for fluidity. phonograph. wear resistance. Brass. bronze.G.2 Casting Process Selection Aluminum alloy castings were first produced using processes that had been in historical use for other metals. By 1870. tooling costs. and gold were melted and solidified in these cavities.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. chemically bonded sand. Intensive efforts to employ iron and steel molds in the casting of aluminum resulted in commercial “permanent mold” operations by the first decade of the 20th century. and semisolid forming based on rheocasting/thixocasting principles. Process selection is strongly influenced by part requirements that are often the basis for defining alloy candidates that in turn influence the range of process choices. The relatively attractive engineering properties of aluminum— low melting point and castability—quickly led to the adoption of existing casting processes and to developments that broadened the means by which engineered shapes could be produced from molten metal. Pressure die casting came into existence in the early 1820s in response to the expanding need for large volumes of cast print type. and process derivatives such as squeeze casting.1 Casting Design Design considerations include size.1361/aacp2004p021 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. and consumer durable parts. expansion characteristics • Process requirements: machinability. www. productivity. and investment casting. when shaped cavities were carved or impressed into molds of soft minerals and clay. low-pressure permanent mold. E. and more complex molds of sand and clay mixtures evolved. specification limits • Physical property requirements: electrical and thermal conductivity.asminternational. pneumatic and hydraulic systems were used as applications grew to include bicycle.2. Processes. Naturally occurring copper. These methods were duplicated later for other metals including iron and steel. weapons. and material property requirements limit the range of candidate processes. p 21-37 DOI:10.org CHAPTER 3 Aluminum Casting Processes 3. and required dimensional accuracy. Rooy. shell and V-mold.

3 Volume of Production 3. tooling cost dominates.3.3. and finish of the final product. Similarly. Risers—volumes of heat and pressure-differentiated 3. Casting by injection under pressure requires nonexpendable dies and is commonly referred to as pressure die casting. As volume requirements increase. to a large extent. and die casting. Molten metal is normally introduced to the mold cavity in an arrangement referred to as the gating system (Fig. 3. In sand casting. Recent developments for reducing tooling costs include near-net-shape forming of dies.2 Pressure versus Gravity The number of castings that are estimated to be required is a major factor in the choice of casting method. and pouring practices that are justified by the extreme detail. plaster and investment castings are made in molds that cannot be reused.5 describe casting technologies under expendable and nonexpendable mold processes.4 and 3. molten-metal quality. It consists of a pouring basin leading to a downsprue through which molten metal is delivered to the parting plane of the mold.5 Quality Quality factors are also important in the selection of the casting process. selection is dictated by unit cost.22 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.1. Countergravity processes that employ lowpressure differentials such as low pressure. There is a commonality in practices and terminologies for gravity casting in both expendable and nonexpendable molds. Fig. solidification conditions. When production is limited. permanent molds. Sections 3. The selected casting process must be competent to deliver the required level of quality. Source: Ref 1 3. hand mold assembly. For extended production in die and permanent mold operations. Quality refers to the degree of internal soundness and to the mechanical properties and performance characteristics that are a reflection of alloy chemistry. Processes.1 Typical sand mold gating.1 Casting Process Technology Expendable and Nonexpendable Mold Processes Casting processes for aluminum may be categorized as involving expendable or nonexpendable molds. The casting process dictates solidification conditions and.2. Permanent molds and dies are reused. for example. 3. Tooling costs associated with die and permanent mold casting are justified by higher levels of production and product reproducibility. Source: Ref 2 .2. difficult-to-machine tool steels provide improved life. An alloy selection imposed by specified requirements and metallurgical considerations often dictates the casting process. wear-resistant die surfaces. and soundness. 3. or other conditions that affect their acceptability for continued production.2). and Applications characteristics also vary as a function of cooling rates and solidification conditions imposed by differing casting processes. microstructural features. Premium engineered castings are typically low volume and high cost. For larger production volumes. Loose or simple patterns may be used for sand cast prototypes or when only one or a few parts are required. A second important factor in categorization of aluminum casting processes is whether molten metal flows by gravity into the die or mold cavity or is forced under pressure. the deposition of hard. tooling costs. When two or more casting processes are capable of satisfying part requirements. displacement. From the base of the downsprue. and in situ bonding of dissimilar materials by laser and highintensity infrared technologies. metal is conveyed along the casting periphery in runners that supply metal to in-gates from which metal enters the casting cavity. before wear. composite die materials.4 Costs Costs are strongly influenced by process choice. or pumped systems for mold filling are considered variations of either expendable or gravity permanent mold processes. though significant. more expensive. 3. Low-volume investment castings require precise patterns. variations in microstructural features and soundness. the mold is destroyed when the casting is produced. heat checking caused by thermal fatigue. the trend is toward automated molding processes.3.2. accuracy. 3. 3.3 3. become less important.2 Typical permanent mold gating.3 Gating and Risering 3. although each has finite life based on the number of castings that can be produced Fig. The use of high-speed molding machines in volume sand casting improves production rates with increased capital and maintenance costs.

while the parting plane in most permanent mold casting is vertically oriented. Sand casting involves the forming of a geometrically dimensioned impression in sand. The gating system is comprehensively designed to minimize turbulence and prevent aspiration. Green sand refers to the use of uncured bonding systems. the drag. 3. usually a blended mixture of sand. oil. Another dry sand method reacts carbon dioxide (CO2) gas with sodium silicate in the sand blend to form a silica gel bond. Source: Ref 3 . Instead. Pressure die castings are filled through runners and in-gates.3). internal soundness is promoted by die design features. Tests for each are routinely performed Fig. The process includes green sand and dry sand casting. Pressure die castings are produced with both horizontal and vertical parting-plane orientation. 3. and water. clay.4. 3.Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 23 molten metal—are strategically located external to the mold cavity to compensate for volumetric shrinkage as solidification of the casting progresses. In horizontally parted molds. the upper mold half is referred to as the cope.4 3. or other chemical binding agents are used to precoat the molding sand. elaborate mold cooling. In the dry sand process.1 Expendable Mold Gravity-Feed Casting Process and Its Variations Sand Casting Green and Dry Sand. resins. The important parameters of molding sand are compressive strength and permeability. The dry sand mold is then thermally or chemically cured. and pressure intensification during the shot cycle. Most sand castings are produced in molds with a horizontal parting plane. but risers are not normally used because solidification rate limits their effectiveness (Fig. and the lower.3 Typical die casting gating.

Casting quality is determined to a large extent by foundry technique. (Ϯ30 mm/m) with a minimum tolerance of 0.4). Chemically bonded sands offer improved surface finish and dimensional accuracy. The polystyrene model is coated with a thin layer of ceramic or refractory wash that seals the pattern surface. (4 mm). but thicknesses as little as 0. This process is somewhat similar to investment casting in that an expendable pattern is used to create the mold cavity.15 in. The pattern is sequentially decomposed by the heat of the molten metal. In both green and dry sand processes. The major difference between sand castings and castings made by the EPC process is the extent of subsequent machining and cleaning operations required./in. Among disadvantages are relatively low dimensional accuracy and poor surface finish. the sand is compacted using manual or pneumatic rams. the pattern vaporizes during the pouring of molten metal rather than before pouring. A small amount of vibration through transducers attached to the match plate also facilitates pattern removal. 3. After compaction of the molding sand. for pattern plates (match plates)./in. moisture and binder contents. If the casting contains internal passages or undercuts. and many casting facilities are now dedicated to the production of castings by this method (Fig. A dusting of calcium carbonate or other parting compound on the pattern surface is helpful in facilitating the separation of the pattern from the mold. and after it has solidified. Lower mold strength is also advantageous for parts with widely varying section thicknesses and intricate designs.03 in. Minimum wall thickness is normally 0. leaving a cavity in the shape of the casting to be made. metal-handling and gating design and practices including the selective use of chills are necessary for obtaining sound castings. Sand Molding. In these cases. and sizes. The EPC process employs a foamed polystyrene pattern packed in unbonded sand.4 Typical castings produced by the evaporative pattern casting (EPC) process . Removal is by physical means including vibration.2 Evaporative (Lost-Foam) Pattern Casting (EPC) Lost foam is a sand casting process that uses an unbonded sand mold with an expendable polystyrene pattern. and relatively unlimited shelf life. Strength is typically lower as a result of slow solidification rates. (6 to 13 μm) root mean square (rms). thus replacing the foam pattern and duplicating the features of the pattern in the solidified casting. 3. In floor or hand molding.4. or metal plates containing the casting impression or may consist of loose pieces assembled in the form to be cast. but may also be manually cut into the sand by the molder. The runners and in-gates are usually integral to the pattern. Complex castings with varying section thicknesses will be sound only if proper techniques are used. (20 mm/ m). dry sand cores may be used. Patterns may consist of wood. Alloys considered hot short because of cracking tendencies during solidification are more easily cast in green sand since molds offer reduced resistance to dimensional contraction during solidification. Achievable dimensional tolerances can be substantially improved using precision methods in the forming and assembly of dry sand mold components. Surface quality can be improved by using a finer grade of facing sand in the molding process. These advantages are diminished in chemically bonded molds. and surface finishes of 250 to 500 μin. composite.020 in. basic linear tolerances of Ϯ0. a large number of process variations are in use that typically involve expendable pattern materials and molding methods. While the principles of sand casting are relatively simple. Mechanical properties are improved by using sands such as zircon and olivine with higher heat capacity than silica and by the use of copper. the pattern is carefully removed. the mold includes locating points and additional impressions or prints for precisely positioning the cores after pattern removal and before final mold assembly. and the degree of compaction applied in forming the mold. Unlike investment casting. depending on the type of binder used. 3. iron. the mold is formed by compacting the preconditioned sand over the pattern. Sand casting involves minimum tooling and equipment cost when smaller numbers of castings are to be produced. which display greater rigidity than green sand molds. and Applications for quality assurance. to evacuate the mold cavity as the metal enters. shapes. the mold is physically removed from the casting. aluminum chaplets may be used to support the core position.090 in. Proper molten metal processing. The mold must have sufficient strength to maintain its shape through the casting process and sufficient permeability to permit the air. Evaporative pattern castings are con- Fig. machines use jolt/squeeze mechanisms to ensure mold integrity. Automatic molding machines provide a high degree of uniformity and very high mold production rates. The advantages of typical sand casting are versatility in a wide variety of alloys. (2 mm) can be achieved. Molten metal is poured into the mold. and gases formed during pouring. Use of the process has increased rapidly. In rare cases.24 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. There are only practical limitations in the size of the parts that can be cast. A pattern of the sprue is separately placed on the pattern before sand is introduced. Compressive strength and permeability in green sand are functions of sand particle size and shape. especially in large-volume automotive foundries. or steel chills at strategic locations in the mold. Processes.

3. equipment and production costs are higher. Cured mold sections are removed and assembled for pouring. Mechanical properties and casting quality depend on alloy composition and foundry technique.4.3 to 3.6 shows plaster cast alloy 224. Minimum wall thickness of aluminum plaster casting is typically 0. and the size and complexity of castings that can be produced are limited.2 μm) rms. aluminum castings attain finishes of 50 to 125 μin.4. The configuration of impellers and other rotating parts subject to strict dimensional requirements as well as strengths compatible with high rotational stresses permits the use of extensive chilling of the shaft and base for purposes of improving internal soundness and mechanical property performance. and dimensional accuracy and cool at slightly higher rates. These techniques are further enhanced when combined with nonturbulent mold filling by low-pressure or other countergravity methods.0 impellers that were produced through a low-pressure method. Figure 3. Molds are typically preheated and poured under partial vacuum. Shell mold castings surpass ordinary sand castings in surface finish In this method. molten metal is poured into a shell of resin-bonded sand only 0.5 Investment Casting Fig. 3. and reclamation. the assembled pattern is immersed in a container of sufficient size for ceramic slurry to encase and set around the pattern. or other low-temperature melting materials. Christmas-tree gating systems are employed to produce small multiple parts in one mold.5 Shell molds assembled before pouring. The plaster in slurry form is poured around a pattern. machining. there are only limited capabilities for improving internal soundness and properties through traditional gating and risering approaches. In the solid mold investment method. the pattern is removed and the plaster mold is baked to remove free water and reduce waters of hydration. such as some precision impellers and electronic parts./in.5). The mold is formed by introducing the chemically coated sand to a heated pattern that thermally cures the bond. The surface finish of plaster castings is excellent.4 Plaster Casting 3. The use of untreated. and finishing. Dimensional variability associated with core setting and the mating of cope and drag are eliminated. assembled patterns are invested in a ceramic slurry by repetitive immersion and air drying until the desired shell thickness has been formed. (1. Casting cleaning is also greatly reduced and can often be eliminated because of the absence of flash. either a permeable (aerated) or impermeable plaster is used for the mold. permitting castings to be made with fine details and close tolerances. . Intricate plaster castings may also be produced using polystyrene or other expendable pattern materials such as those used in investment casting. Source: Ref 1 Investment casting of aluminum most commonly employs ceramic molds and expendable patterns of wax. handling. the mold is placed in an autoclave to remove the pattern and then fired at high temperature to remove all free water and organic materials and to cure the binding system being used. In the ceramic shell method. The high insulating value of the plaster allows castings with thin walls to be poured.Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 25 sistently poured at closer tolerances with less stock for grinding. basic linear tolerances of Ϯ0.060 in. Assembled patterns can be used to make castings that cannot be produced by any other high-production process. By controlling the core mold temperature and cycle. however. 3. 3. Plaster molds have high reproducibility. (1.8 in. and resin stains.3 Shell Mold Casting In shell mold casting. For complex shapes. (10 to 20 mm) thick.4. Further benefits of the EPC process result from the freedom in part design offered by the process.005 in. When the plaster has set. Slow cooling due to the highly insulating nature of plaster molds magnifies solidification-related problems such as hydrogen pore formation and shrinkage voids and reduces strength and ductility. mold patterns made of rubber are used because their flexibility makes them easier to withdraw from the molds than rigid patterns. In either case.5 mm). For many plaster cast parts. unbonded sand simplifies sand processing. (Ϯ5 mm/m) are typical.4 to 0. the depth of cure can be controlled to the desired thickness. usually backed by unbonded or green sand (Fig. sand adherence. plastic.

26 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications Aluminum investment castings can have walls as thin as 0.015 to 0.030 in. (0.40 to 0.75 mm), basic linear tolerances of Ϯ5 mils/in. (Ϯ5 mm/m) and surface finishes of 60 to 90 μin. (1.5 to 2.3 μm). Because of porosity and slow solidification, the mechanical properties of many aluminum investment castings are typically lower than those demonstrated by other casting processes. The interest of the aerospace and other industries in the combination of accurate dimensional control with controlled mechanical properties has resulted in the use of improved technologies to produce premiumquality castings by investment methods. Castings in the premiumstrength range can be achieved with molten metal treatments, gating, and solidification conditions that are not typical for conventional investment castings. Investment casting applications include: instrument parts, impellers, compressor vanes, gears, ratchets, pawls, scrolls, speed brakes, wing tips, and aircraft pylons.

3.4.6

Vacuum Mold (V-Mold) Casting

A heated plastic film is drawn over the pattern by vacuum. Unbonded sand is filled against the plastic-covered pattern within a vented flask and compacted by vibration. A vacuum is drawn through the flask after an unheated plastic film is placed over the back of the mold, creating a mold vacuum package. Pouring takes place with the vacuum retained or reapplied (Fig. 3.7). Advantages are surface finish, minimum wall thickness, and reduced draft requirements. Disadvantages are tooling costs and size limitations imposed by maximum flask dimensions.

3.5
3.5.1

Nonexpendable (Permanent) Mold Gravity Feed Casting Process and Its Variations
Permanent Mold Casting

Fig. 3.6 Alloy 224.0 impellers produced by low-pressure plaster casting

Fig. 3.7 Vacuum molding unit. Source: Ref 1

In principle, permanent mold casting is analogous to expendable mold casting processes. In this case the molds are machined cast, wrought or nodular iron, cast steel, or wrought steel and can be reused repetitively until damage, wear, or the effects of thermal fatigue necessitate repair or replacement (Fig. 3.8). The ability to form internal passages involves metallic or sand cores. Intricate details and undercuts can often be cast using segmented steel cores. Sand cores become necessary when the design prohibits drawing the core after the casting has solidified. When sand cores are used, the process is referred to as “semipermanent mold” casting. Permanent mold tooling is typically more expensive than that required for sand casting and other expendable mold processes and is justified by the volume of production. The volume of production also dictates the extent of process automation. Molds can be manually operated or extensively automated. Production rates of automated multimold operations are high, and parts display consistent dimensional characteristics and properties. While the principles and mechanics of gravity casting are similar, the metallurgical structure of permanent mold castings reflects the refinement of higher solidification rates. Typical and specified minimum mechanical properties including ductility are higher than those of expendable mold castings. The improved mechanical properties of permanent mold castings provide part of the justification for selecting this process over competing gravity casting options. The same terminologies used in expendable mold gating apply. There is a downsprue into which molten metal is introduced from a pouring basin, from which the metal flows into runners, risers, in-feeds, and casting cavity. Directional solidification is promoted by selective chilling of mold sectors by air, mist, or water. An insulating coating is used to protect the mold from the molten aluminum and to facilitate removal of the casting from the mold after solidification is complete. Typical mold dressings or washes are suspensions of talc, various metal oxides such as zirconia,

Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 27 chromia, iron oxide and titania, colloidal graphite and calcium carbonate in water, and sodium silicate. The thickness and thermal characteristics of these coatings are used to locally increase or decrease heat absorption during solidification. As a result of wear, these coatings must be periodically repaired or replaced to ensure consistent process performance and casting results. Mold surfaces are periodically blasted with dry ice or mild abrasives to remove coatings and scale after which new mold coatings are applied. The permanent mold process is less alloy tolerant than most expendable mold processes. The most popular permanent mold alloys display superior castability such as those of the Al-Si, AlSi-Mg, and Al-Si-Cu (Mg) families. Mold rigidity is a challenge in the casting of hot-short alloys in which liquidus-solidus range and elevated-temperature strength combine to increase the tendency for cracking during and after solidification. Determined efforts to cast even the most difficult foundry alloys such as low-iron aluminum-copper alloys have nevertheless been successful, and alloys with limited castability are routinely cast in permanent molds. Permanent mold castings can be produced in sizes ranging from less than a pound to more than several hundred pounds. Surface finish typically varies 150 to 400 μin. (3.8 to 10 μm). Basic linear tolerances of about Ϯ0.01 in./in. (Ϯ10 mm/m), and minimum wall thicknesses are about 0.100 in. (2.5 mm).

3.5.2

Low-Pressure Die Casting (LP), Pressure Riserless Casting (PRC)

In this process, permanent molds are mounted over a sealed furnace. A tube extends from the mold cavity into the molten metal below. By pressurizing the furnace, metal is forced through the tube into the mold cavity (Fig. 3.9). When the metal has solidified, the pressure is relieved, the mold is opened, and the casting is removed in preparation for repeating the cycle. Most low-pressure casting has been confined to radially symmetrical designs, but a wide range of nonsymmetrical parts have also been produced. Nearly all automotive wheels are cast by this process (Fig. 3.10, 3.11). Process parameters include (a) the rate at which pressure is applied, which regulates mold filling, (b) pressure, which is relatively unimportant once solidification begins, and (c) thermal gradients, which are essential for establishing directional solidification. As in conventional permanent mold, these gradients are established by the selection and controlled thicknesses of mold coatings and by selective chilling of mold sections. Since most low-pressure castings are produced using only one metal entry point and since risers normally necessary to avoid internal shrinkage voids are not typically used, the gross-to-net weight ratio is low and trimming and finishing operations associated with gating are minimized. The low-pressure casting cycle is dictated by the solidification of metal at the junction of the fill-tube and mold cavity. While countergravity metal flow into the mold cavity is quiescent, the process does present the risk of inclusion contamination. When the mold is opened and the casting is removed, the vacuum seal that existed at the liquid-solid interface is broken and molten metal remaining in the tube falls to the furnace metal level. The cycling of metal flow vertically in the fill tube can result in the buildup of oxides on the inner surfaces of the fill tube whether the

Fig. 3.8 Permanent mold machined from steel. Source: Ref 1

Fig. 3.9 Low-pressure permanent mold. Source: Ref 1

28 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications tube is ceramic or coated metal. To minimize this condition, back pressure can be maintained in the system so that molten metal is retained at an elevated level in the fill tube at all times. It is also possible to replenish metal in the furnace with each cycle by valving rather than periodically refilling when the metal in the furnace is nearly depleted. Filtration of metal at the point of entry into the mold is routinely used to prevent included matter from contaminating the casting. Filtration may consist of steel screens, ceramic strainers, or fused or foamed porous ceramics.

3.5.3

Vacuum Riserless Casting (VRC)

The use of vacuum rather than pressure to introduce molten metal into steel dies has significant advantages over low-pressure casting. The molten metal bath is open and accessible. Molten metal level can be maintained within a narrow range in close proximity to the mold entry point so that the vertical dimension between the metal surface and the mold cavity can be minimized. Limitations are in the size and cost of molds that can be engineered to apply and retain vacuum pressures. A high degree of mold chilling has been used to enhance metallurgical structures, improve mechanical properties, and shorten cycle times. The VRC process is ideally suited for automation and high production rates to produce castings with exceptional surface quality and metallurgical properties. Examples of VRC products are shown in Fig. 3.12.

3.5.4

Centrifugal Casting

Fig. 3.10 Alloy A356.0 alloy automotive wheels produced by low-pressure
casting

Centrifugal force in aluminum casting involves rotating a mold or a number of molds filled with molten metal about an axis. Cylindrical or tubular shapes may be centrifugally formed in vertically or horizontally rotated drums, while conventional castings are produced by the rotation of one or more molds about a vertical axis. Metal may be introduced before or during rotation. Baked sand, plaster, or graphite molds have been used, but iron and steel dies are most common. Centrifugal castings are generally, but not always, denser than conventionally poured castings and offer the advantage of greater detail. Wheels, wheel hubs, motor rotors, and papermaking and printing rolls are examples of aluminum parts produced by centrifugal casting. Aluminum alloys suitable for permanent mold, sand, or plaster casting can be cast centrifugally.

Fig. 3.11 Variety of parts, including automotive pistons, metallurgically
bonded diesel engine pistons, compressor pistons, cylindrical and journal bearings, anodes, and cookware, produced by the low-pressure casting process

Fig. 3.12 Examples of castings produced by the vacuum riserless casting
(VRC) process include rocker arms, compressor pistons, connecting rods, trowel handles, valve components, and other parts

Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 29

3.5.5

Squeeze Casting

Although a number of process developments have been referred to as squeeze casting, the process by which molten metal solidifies under pressure within closed dies positioned between the plates of a hydraulic press is the only version of current commercial interest. The applied pressure and retained contact of the metal with the die surface improves heat transfer and inhibits hydrogen precipitation and shrinkage void formation. The result is a denser, fine-grained casting with excellent mechanical properties. Squeeze casting has been successfully used for a variety of ferrous and nonferrous alloys in traditionally cast and wrought compositions. Applications of squeeze-cast aluminum alloys include reciprocating engine pistons, brake rotors, automotive and truck wheels, and structural automotive frame components (Fig. 3.13). Squeeze casting is simple and economical, is efficient in its use of raw material, and has excellent potential for automated operation at high rates of production.

3.5.6

Semisolid Forming

Semisolid forming incorporates elements of casting, forging, and extrusion. It involves the near-net-shape forming of metal parts from a semisolid raw material that incorporates a uniquely nondendritic microstructure. Mechanical or electromagnetic force is employed during billet solidification to fragment the solidifying structure. The result is a spherulitic structure that behaves thixotropically in the liquidussolidus range. The billet retains its shape at closely controlled temperatures above the melting point at which the shear strength is low, even at relatively high percent fraction solid. When the billet has been reheated, it is forced into dies under pressure to form a casting that retains the characteristics of the starting billet microstructure. Just as important, the mold cavity is filled without the turbulence associated with gravity pouring or the injection of molten metal, and internal porosity formation is minimized by reducing the volume of liquid metal that solidifies from the semisolid condition (Fig. 3.14).

A number of alternative approaches to the production of the semisolid raw material have been or are being developed. A process in which particle ingots are continuously fed and mechanically stirred to provide the required semisolid state and microstructure has been developed and used in magnesium alloy casting production. The incompatibility of materials of containment with sufficient strength for this process in molten aluminum remains to be overcome. Attempts to eliminate expensive thin-cast billet through slurry approaches in mold filling have also been undertaken. Semisolid forming is more costly than conventional casting, but offers unique properties and consistently excellent quality. In addition, the viscous nature of semisolid alloys provides a natural environment for the incorporation of third-phase particles in the preparation of reinforced metal-matrix composites. Specialized billets are commercially available, and semisolidformed applications are broadening in the aerospace, automotive, military, and industrial sectors. The process represents an alternative to conventional forgings, permanent mold, investment and die castings, impact extrusions, machined extrusion profiles, and screw machine products. Applications include automotive wheels, master brake cylinders, antilock brake valves, disk brake calipers, power steering pump housings, power steering pinion valve housings, compressor housings, steering column parts, airbag containment housings, power brake proportioning valves, electrical connectors, and various covers and housings that require pressure tightness.

3.6

Pressure Die Casting and Its Variations

The production of aluminum alloy castings by the die casting process exceeds that of all other processes. It is ideally suited for high production rate and volume production of dimensionally accurate parts with excellent surface finish. One of the important

Fig. 3.13 Automotive parts produced by the squeeze casting process. Courtesy of UBE Industries

Fig. 3.14 Semisolid formed alloy A357.0 landing gear component

30 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications reasons for the success of die castings has been the development of high-speed precision equipment. Another is the extension of die casting technologies to larger castings with heavier wall thicknesses. In pressure die casting, molten metal is injected under pressure into water-cooled dies. Pressure is maintained until the part has solidified. Molten metal usually enters the mold by the action of a hydraulic ram in a containment chamber (shot chamber), resulting in rapid filling of the mold cavity. While lubrication is required to facilitate the separation of the casting from the die surface, the dies are otherwise uninsulated. Dies are usually machined from high-quality tool steels. The die casting process has undergone significant changes through the evolution of machine design and instrumentation as well as process development and controls. The demand for larger, more complex castings with improved quality and lower cost has led to the development and promotion of specialized die casting machines capable of higher rates of production and improved performance. Die casting machines vary in type, size, and capacity. There are two basic concepts, hot and cold chamber operation. In the hot chamber process, the shot chamber and piston are immersed in molten metal. Metals such as magnesium and zinc that do not aggressively attack the materials of construction can be efficiently cast by this method with production rate advantages. Despite intensive efforts to develop hot chamber process designs and materials that could be used in aluminum casting, none have been commercially successful. Except in rare cases, all aluminum die casting is performed in cold chamber equipment in which the shot chamber is filled with each cycle, and the chamber and piston assembly are not continuously in contact with molten aluminum. Die casting machine designs are also differentiated by parting plane orientation. In practice, the dies are mounted on platens that can operate in either vertical or horizontal directions. Early die casting was typically performed with vertical die movement. Today, with exceptions, vertical die casting is restricted to rotor production. Locking pressure defines the capacity of the machine to contain the pressure generated during the injection cycle. The larger the plan area of the casting and the greater the hydraulic pressure applied, the greater the required locking pressure. Die casting machines are designed with locking pressures from as little as 25 tonnes to more than 4500 tonnes corresponding to injection pressures of up to 40 ksi (280 MPa). The principles of directional solidification and gravity-based gating and risering are essentially inapplicable to die casting. Gates and runners are used to convey metal from the shot chamber to the die cavity. Geometrical considerations are observed to minimize turbulence, air entrapment, and fragmentation of the metal stream, but no effort other than the use of sustained pressure is used to promote internal soundness. Techniques are used to intensify pressure during the solidification phase to decrease the volume fraction of internal porosity. With metal velocities exceeding 100 ft/s (30 m/s) and solidification rates exceeding 1800 ºF/s (1000 ºC/s), the greatest quality concern is entrapped gases including combustion or volatilization components of the lubricant and turbulencerelated inclusions. Rapid filling of the mold (20 to 100 μs) and rapid solidification under pressure combine to produce a consistently dense, finegrained and highly refined surface structure with excellent properties including fatigue strength. Internal unsoundness affects bulk properties, the acceptability of machined surfaces, and pressure tightness. Impregnation is routine for die castings that must contain gases or liquids under substantial pressure. Internal unsoundness generally prevents full heat treatment and welding because of the risk of blister formation when die castings are exposed to elevated temperatures. Lower-temperature thermal treatments for stabilization or hardening are routinely used. In special cases and in restricted casting areas, limited welding can also be performed. The die casting process is least alloy tolerant of important commercial casting processes. Solidification conditions require alloys of superior castability and that display good resistance to cracking at elevated temperatures. The highly castable alloys of the aluminum-silicon family are the most common. Of these, alloy 380.0 and its variations comprise about 85% of total die casting production. These compositions provide attractive combinations of cost, strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance in the as-cast state, with excellent fluidity and resistance to hot cracking. Aluminumsilicon alloys lower in copper, such as 360.0, 364.0, 413.0, and 443.0, offer improved corrosion resistance and excellent castability. Hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys including 390.0 have become more important in wear-resistant applications. Magnesium content is usually controlled at low levels to minimize oxidation and the generation of oxides in the casting process. Most commonly used die casting alloys specify restrictive magnesium limits. Nevertheless, aluminum-magnesium alloys can be die cast. Alloy 518.0, for example, is specified when the highest corrosion resistance and the brightest, most reflective finish are required. Iron contents of 0.7% or greater are preferred to maximize elevated-temperature strength, to facilitate ejection, and to minimize soldering to the die face. Iron content is usually 1 Ϯ 0.3%, but greater concentrations are also used. Improved ductility through reduced iron content has been an incentive resulting in widespread efforts to develop a tolerance for iron as low as approximately 0.25%. These efforts focus on process refinements, design modifications, and improved die lubrication. At higher iron concentrations, there is a risk of exceeding solubility limits of coarse AlFe-Cr-Mn segregate at molten metal temperatures. Sludging or precipitation of segregate is prevented by chemistry controls related to metal temperature. A common rule is:
Fe ϩ 2(Mn) ϩ 3(Cr) Յ 1.7

where element values are expressed in weight percent. Die casting is especially suited to production of large quantities of relatively small parts. Typical aluminum die castings weigh from a few ounces to more than 100 lb (50 kg). Close tolerances and excellent surface finishes are characteristic. Aluminum alloys can be die cast to tolerances of Ϯ4 mils/in. (Ϯ0.004 in./in.) and commonly have finishes as fine as 50 μin. (1.3 μm). Parts are cast with walls as thin as 0.040 in. (1.0 mm). Cores,

Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 31 which are made of metal, are restricted to simple shapes that permit drawing or removal after solidification is complete. duce the tendency for microshrinkage and cracking during solidification. Because unalloyed aluminum can be purchased at lower cost than rotor alloys, there has been a trend for their substitution in rotor production. For example, P1020 unalloyed smelter ingot has the same purity as 170.2 but without impurity ratio controls and with uncontrolled titanium and vanadium content. Ignoring these differences results in variable electrical performance and poor castings. Minimum and typical conductivities for each grade are:
Conductivity, %IACS Alloy Minimum Typical

3.6.1

Acurad Die Casting Process

An acronym for accurate, rapid, and dense, the Acurad process claimed a degree of directional solidification from thermal analysis, die cooling and gating design, modulated lower metal injection velocities, and intensified injection pressures during solidification through the use of a secondary plunger. In effect, Acurad represents a compromise between die casting and permanent mold principles.

3.6.2

High-Integrity Pressure Die Casting
100.1 150.1 170.1 54 57 59

The combination of optimal die casting practices marries metallurgical and mechanical capabilities to provide quality levels exceeding those of conventional die casting. Solid-state lubricants are used in place of volatile die lubricants. Dies, lubricants, and ejector systems are designed to facilitate casting removal at reduced iron levels. The die cavity is evacuated before injection. Molten metal processing to reduce dissolved hydrogen and entrained nonmetallics approximates that used for gravity casting. Molten metal handling and the transfer of molten metal to the shot chamber are nonturbulent, and the injection sequence is adjusted to promote nonturbulent die filling. Large, thin-wall automotive structures and other high-quality die castings are being produced that display strength, ductility, and toughness that cannot be achieved in other die casting processes. With improved internal quality, high-integrity die castings can be welded and heat treated, although some limitations still apply.

56 59 60

3.6.3

Pore-Free Pressure Die Casting

In the “pore-free” process, the die cavity is purged with oxygen before metal injection. The oxygen reacts with molten aluminum to form oxides that influence fluid flow and by being chemically consumed reduces the tendency for entrapment as gas pores. The oxides are concentrated in the casting surface after solidification so that inclusion effects on properties are minimized.

Rotor alloy 100.0 with larger concentrations of iron and other impurities displays superior die casting characteristics. With higher iron content, crack resistance is improved and there is a lower tendency for internal shrinkage. This alloy is recommended when the maximum dimension of the part is greater than 5 in. (125 mm). For the same reasons, alloy 150.0 offers castability advantages over alloy 170.0. For rotors requiring high resistivity for higher starting torque, conventional die casting or other highly alloyed compositions are used. The most common are 443.2 and A380.2. By choosing alloys such as these, conductivities from 25 to 35% IACS can be obtained. Experimental rotor alloys have been developed with conductivities as low as 18% IACS. Although gross casting defects may adversely affect electrical performance, the conductivity of alloys employed in rotor manufacture is almost exclusively controlled by composition. Simple calculation using these values accurately predicts total resistivity and its reciprocal, conductivity, for any composition. An easy-touse formula for conductivity that offers sufficient accuracy for most purposes is:
Conductivity, %IACS ϭ 63.50 – 6.9(Fe ϩ Si) – 83(Ti ϩ V ϩ Mn ϩ Cr)

3.6.4

Vacuum Die Casting

The application of a partial vacuum to the die cavity evacuates air and volatilized lubricant from the mold before and during metal injection. Vacuum die casting reduces the tendency for air entrapment resulting from rapid and turbulent die filling. The improvement in soundness results in degrees of acceptability for welding and heat treatment.

where element values are expressed in weight percent. More accurate calculations may be made from the elemental resistivities given in Table 8.4, in Chapter 8.

3.6.5

Rotor Casting

3.7

Premium Engineered Castings

Most cast aluminum motor rotors are produced in specialized compositions by smaller vertical die casting machines. The objective is consistent electrical performance. Alloys 100.0, 150.0, and 170.0 (99.0, 99.5, and 99.7% Al, respectively) specify impurity limits and ratios for the formation of intermetallics least harmful to castability and limit the concentrations of peritectic elements most detrimental to electrical conductivity. Titanium and vanadium are precipitated or complexed by boron additions. Iron and silicon contents are controlled with the objective of promoting ␣Al-Fe-Si formation that is less detrimental to castability. These impurity controls improve and minimize variations in conductivity and re-

A premium engineered casting is one that provides higher levels of quality and reliability than found in conventionally produced castings. Premium engineering includes intimately detailed design and control of each step in the manufacturing sequence. The results are minimally variable premium strength, ductility, soundness, dimensional control, and finish. Castings of this classification are notable primarily for mechanical property performance that reflects extreme soundness, fine dendrite-arm spacing, and well-refined grain structure. Premium engineered casting objectives require the use of chemical compositions competent to display superior properties. Alloys

0. 3. ductile alloys. 358. and the development of high-strength. Validation of hydrogen assessments was provided by solid-state extraction techniques. A semiquantitative approach using sample densities was developed and used extensively as a process control tool (Ref 4).7. particulate filtration and countercurrent fluxing using nitrogen. microstructural modification and refinement. Investment casting produced small parts in which dimensional accuracy and surface finish were important criteria.0. 3. C355. There were corollary pattern. Exploiting this relationship with appropriate alloys moved engineered aluminum castings away from the image of brittleness and damage intolerance that historically characterized design engineers’ perceptions.10 psi (2 to 5 mm Hg) was employed. The relationships of dendrite arm spacing and grain size and type on physical and mechanical properties were established.5 Mold Materials 3. contoured sections. shrinkage. The absence of entrained oxides was assessed by their influence on hydrogen precipitation under reduced pressure. and inclusions on strength and ductility were broadly used in the development of new general All alloys employed in premium casting engineering work are characterized by optimal concentrations of hardening elements and restrictively controlled impurities. variations in mold wash chemistry and application were used with air. chlorine. By 1950.0. A356. The use of active gases such as chlorine and the physicochemical separation of entrained oxides and other nonmetallics by fluxing became known in the 1930s. Each of these developments was necessary to advance casting capabilities to meet an increasingly challenging range of application requirements. They fall into two categories: high-strength . gating development. The marriage of superior technologies in all phases of casting design and production was essential for meeting the most difficult of these challenges.7. Processes. and especially elongation in a premium range belong in this grouping. Computer simulations of mold filling dynamics and solidification that incorporate differences in heat extraction through finite-element analysis are gradually supplanting art and instinct in process designs.0. Premium engineered aluminum castings represent the culmination of decades of research and development involving molten metal treatment. 354. and combinations of these gases became common for wrought alloy production. The result is a composite mold design of significant complexity using dry sand and at least several other mold materials for each configuration.4 Solidification Rate 3. only those alloys demonstrating yield strength.6 Alloys Academicians were largely responsible for improved mathematics-based understanding of solidification behavior. The parameters of metallurgical structure that were controlled in the solidification process were extensively studied. tensile strength. methods for the removal of included matter. and at the same time supplier developments in dry sand binders were studied and evaluated. The use of all available mold components from most insulating (foamed plaster) to most rapid heat extraction (water-cooled copper) could be incorporated in mold designs to reproducibly alter solidification in order to promote the highest possible degree of internal soundness. and Applications considered to be premium-strength compositions are listed in specification AMS-A-21180. A206. and variations of these processes were being used in gravity casting foundries.0. D357.7. and mold plates was normal in sand casting. The use of diffusers for more efficient gas fluxing was developed later.2 Melt Quality Assessment To a large extent. mist. and mold processing developments. and water cooling to control solidification. copper and ceramic inserts were designed into the mold to promote solidification directionality. argon. 224. and 359. which is extensively used in the United States for premium casting procurement.0. Differences in the molding and heat extraction characteristics of differing sands were measured. casting processes.3 Solidification 3. melt quality has been assessed by variations of the Straube-Pfeiffer test in which the relationship of hydrogen solubility and pressure was qualitatively measured.0.0. 249. but their translation to practice for complex cast parts remains problematic. procurement and nondestructive evaluation specifications and standards. There are nevertheless excellent simulation models and programs for predicting static and dynamic solidification patterns for specific part designs. For greater sensitivity. mold materials. Real-time measurement of dissolved hydrogen by partial pressure diffusion in molten metal supplemented vacuum test results. and the influence of variations in soundness caused by hydrogen porosity. but also dramatically improves ductility.0.0. Plaster molds were used in the production of dimensionally accurate cast parts such as impellers and tire molds. The principles of sparging for the removal of dissolved hydrogen had been developed in the late 1920s and 1930s. They include A201.0.04 to 0. The later development of rotary degasing systems was quickly adapted to foundry use. In permanent mold. Trial and error in alloy development gradually gave way to more systematic construction based on experience and the predictable interrelationship of elements in soluble and insoluble phase formation under differing solidification conditions.1 Melt Processing The relationship of properties and dendrite arm spacing has significantly influenced the premium engineered casting effort.32 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. mold material. Solidification rate not only improves tensile properties. The use of steel chills. The principles of directional solidification are easily grasped. measurement or assessment of dissolved hydrogen. The incentive was the cost-effective replacement of more expensive wrought product assemblies by competent monolithic cast structures.7. 3.7. controlled vibration during sample solidification at absolute pressures of 0. Although any alloy can be produced in cast form with properties and soundness conforming to a general description of premium values relative to corresponding commercial limits. A357. On occasion.7.

0 alloy.0 are shown in Fig.0 dates from 1955. In aluminum-silicon alloys.0 in 1956 were derivatives of 356. The casting replaced a sheet metal assembly. impurities are strictly limited for the purposes of improving ductility.0 (1962) had its origins in Tens-50 alloy that was also first registered in 1961. Similarly.010% with measurable advantages in the range of 0. which by restricting impurity element concentrations provide outstanding ductility. 3. and B356.16 Premium engineered casting helicopter rotor hub Fig. 224. 3. and 249.0. Most were introduced or appeared in refined versions during the period from 1968 to 1974. Alloy A356. 3.18 Premium engineered casting aircraft wing flap .0% elongation.0 alloy which was originally developed in 1930.0 were developed in 1961.0 was first used in 1930. Beryllium is present in A357.0.5% Cu alloys including 201. Alloy A357. which dates from 1921 and in earlier European compositions. alloy C355. Fig. Source: Ref 5 Fig. and alloys of the 2xx.0. but to alter the form of the insoluble phase to a more nodular form less detrimental to ductility. 3. the conversion eliminated 27 separate parts and reduced assembly time by 65%. In all premium casting alloys.0 alloys. and tensile properties with notably poorer castability.0 series. The minimum properties of premium-strength alloys might be considered 40 ksi (275 MPa) tensile strength.0. Most of the compositions designated as premium engineered alloys had their origins in the 1950s and early 1960s. not to inhibit oxidation although that is a corollary benefit. 3. 204. toughness.0 have their roots in 295.15 to 3. iron is controlled at or below 0. Much higher minima are routinely specified.19. while the parent 355.0.15 One-piece alloy D357.0 and 358.17 Premium engineered casting aircraft pylons Fig.05%. Examples of premium engineering castings in alloys A357.0 main landing gear door uplock support for the 767 airplane. 30 ksi (205 MPa) yield strength. 206. registered in 1955. The extremely high strength and toughness capabilities of various typically 4.0 and 354. Alloys 359.Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 33 aluminum-silicon alloys containing magnesium or magnesium and copper.03 to 0.0 or D357. and 3.

productivity and mechanical properties were exceptional. This feature prevented the inclusion spawning characteristic of normal low-pressure cycles. and the process could be highly automated. Third. vacuum riserless casting (VRC) was developed in the early 1960s. Beneficial effects on solidification. 3. Casting results for rapidly solidified unmodified castings proved superior to those of chemically modified. pouring cup designs. the low-pressure casting process achieved commercial importance in the United States in the 1950s. and properties are well established. which is normally a criterion for low-pressure production was not considered a prerequisite. sprue/gate/runner ratios. At one time. Fifth. but . These included siphon Fig. Aluminum-tin alloy bearings. lesssound castings produced under the same conditions. Geometric symmetry. and Applications 3. Several developments have altered mold-filling options. the level pour process for premium engineered castings was developed. bearings. For this reason. dies were extensively chilled. various techniques have been developed and are in use for filling molds quiescently by displacement of molten metal. High-speed rotors and impellers were excellent examples. countergravity mold-filling methods were developed involving the use of mechanical or induction pumps. These developments were adapted to premium engineered plaster and dry sand parts. Second.7.8 Mold Filling The inevitable degradation of melt quality that occurs in drawing and pouring through conventional methods was recognized as a significant barrier to achieving premium engineered quality levels and properties.7. Later studies would provide new insights that continuously redefined the advanced standards and procedures for grain structure control in premium engineered casting production. feeding. and missile fins. It was natural that the shared concerns for metal distribution and solidification principles would result in the synthesis of process concepts. Rather than pressurize a contained molten reservoir. essentially uncontrolled titanium additions were routinely made for grain refinement. A number of challenges that were unaddressed by commercial low-pressure systems were successfully met. and nonvortexing crosssectional geometry of downsprues and runners. Research has included the effects of a large number of elements and element combinations on eutectic and phase structures. sodium. the application of a vacuum on the mold cavity drew metal from the bath through a short fill tube.34 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. For premium engineered castings. could be produced by the direct chill process. airconditioner compressor bodies. This process had its origins in the direct chill process that was developed for fabricating ingot. solidification time was not a significant factor in expendable mold production when extensive chilling was used. Very significant efforts had been made to evaluate different pouring and gating approaches. Extensive studies of the ratios of titanium and boron and their intermetallic forms most effective for grain refining resulted in rapid advances in foundry practice. the artifacts of modifier additions—notably increased hydrogen solubility and the introduction of large amounts of hydrogen by alloying methods—made eutectic modification counterproductive for most premium engineered castings. but it was always a factor in permanent mold. Instead. In-gate filtration and screening methods were also devised. which were typically hollow or solid cylinders. The most potent modifier. but many other premium engineered casting configurations were made by low-pressure mold filling. the distance from subsurface metal entry to the casting cavity was minimal. 3. the low-pressure method was considered a means of nonturbulent mold filling with a number of additional advantages that included reduced gross/net weight and lower pouring temperature.7 Aluminum-Silicon Eutectic Modification and Grain Refinement The use of chemical modifiers in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys has been the subject of ongoing research. strainers and screens. and to overcome other low-pressure process limitations. Fourth.19 Premium engineered casting aircraft canopy ladles. runner overruns. The metal source was exposed for periodic treatment. The range of part designs and alloys that were cast would be considered unusual today when the low-pressure process has become principally known for automotive wheel production. More than 20 million air-conditioner pistons and millions of rocker arms were produced by this process. Some examples were diesel engine and compressor pistons. While only relatively small and simple shapes were produced by the VRC method. A cam-controlled back-pressure method based on gross casting weight was used to retain residual metal levels at the top of the feed tube. and many of the castings that were produced used conventional risering rather than exclusively relying on the in-feed for shrinkage compensation. furniture parts. Processes. dross traps. The advantageous interaction of sodium and strontium was also recognized and became the basis for the use of both elements in modification additions. First. has been extensively used in all gravity casting operations. these developments are described in the following paragraphs. The use of optimal gating designs and rigorously controlled practices are integral components of premium casting technology.

which could be modulated for cross-sectional variations as a function of mold travel.7. premium engineered casting developments have important implications for all aluminum foundries. The Al-Fin Process results in a continuous metallurgical structure from the insert through an intermetallic boundary to the base alloy of the casting. aircraft and aerospace parts in the limited quantities normally associated with sand casting offered exciting opportunities for level pour technology. and the solidified structure was more chemically homogeneous than in conventionally cast parts. and dimensional verification. strength. and specification restrictions and requalification procedures are imposed on changes or modifications. pouring temperature was reduced. the union is dependent only on the intimacy of contact and the force exerted by differences in thermal contraction characteristics. and other mechanical attributes are only equal in importance to reliability. and stainless steel elements have been successfully and routinely bonded to aluminum casting structures. The goal of reducing product variability and the consistent achievement of specified product characteristics through the selected use of processes and controls developed for premium engineered castings is within the range of capability for all aluminum foundries and for the fullest range of casting types and specifications. and other alloy components such as cast-in cooling coils and piston wrist pin struts become integral to the cast structure.9 Quality Assurance The production of premium engineered castings involves extensive nondestructive evaluation and certification. The processes and controls for narrowing material variations in premium engineered castings form part of the basis for aggressive cooperative materials development programs in automotive and aerospace applications that emphasize process capabilities rather than reliance on nondestructive evaluation. ductility. Compression ring groove inserts in diesel engine pistons and the bearing surfaces of rotating parts are often metallurgically bonded to ensure structural integrity. the same approach was successfully used for more complex configurations with more challenging metallurgical requirements. the level pour process features quiescent molten metal flow. mechanical property test results. Another possibility is that these records may become part of the certification process in which inspection records. Various iron grades.Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 35 segregation and safety concerns led to a variation in which metal was introduced to the bottom of a permanent mold through a moving pouring cup that traversed the length of the mold. The cost of doing so in permanent mold was not typically justified. Acceptance usually requires radiographic examination. The objective of premium engineered casting is the ultimate development of material properties.8 Other Process Technologies 3. Variability in soundness and performance remains the greatest concern in engineered structural applications for which castings compete. Quiescent flow and the continuous layering of molten metal provided improved internal quality. However. . Metal flow was controlled by the dimensions of the entries and the lowering rate. With determined engineering. While inserts can be simply placed in the mold before pouring to form a mechanical union between the two materials. Practices developed for first article qualification must be meticulously defined. fluorescent penetrant inspection. The pioneering developments of these efforts have been continuously refined. Confirmation that practices have been observed may take the form of furnace and heat treatment records. Excellent soundness was obtained without the use of the extensive risering normally required for these long solidification range alloys. and a large number of prototype and production parts were produced by this method. No commercial foundry can expect to remain competitive if the casting process cannot deliver consistent quality with minimum internal and external losses without reliance on expensive and time-consuming nondestructive testing. the insert rapidly placed in the mold can be metallurgically rather than mechanically bonded to the cast aluminum structure. and today a number of foundries demonstrate the unique capabilities for meeting the exacting standards that are required. and radiographic film are submitted with the castings. steel. In its final form. strength. and heat transfer. Mechanical properties are often determined in destructive tests. Copper. minimized feeding distances. by government and/or customer on-site inspectors. 3. the assembled mold was lowered on a hydraulic platform through a trough arrangement that provided nonturbulent flow of metal through entry points that paralleled the vertical traverse of the mold. for example. No premium engineered castings foundry could survive the inspection losses if the process was not capable of consistently meeting specified requirements.1 Metallurgical Bonding 3. The principles and processes of premium casting can be cost effectively applied to conventional aluminum casting production. ferrous. By preimmersing inserts in molten aluminum so that an intermetallic layer is developed by chemical attack. the practices must be disclosed and in others may remain proprietary. It is possible to mechanically or metallurgically bond dissimilar metals in aluminum casting. consistency. From the applications standpoint. High nickel iron and steel offer advantages in the similarity of expansion coefficients so that stresses through operating temperature ranges are reduced. and performance. In some cases. Characteristic of the direct chill process on which it was based. Other process technologies of importance for aluminum alloy castings that affect properties and performance are: • Metallurgical bonding • Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) • Hot isostatic pressure 3. usually involving machined subsize specimens taken from designated areas of randomly selected castings.7.8.10 Relevance of Premium Casting Engineering Just as technologies developed in the space program have found applications in industry. and reduced pouring temperatures.

Most cast MMC parts are produced from prealloyed/mixed alloy in conventional casting processes. The fluidity and flow characteristics of composite alloys are not significantly different from those of conventional unreinforced alloys so that mold designs and gating systems of routine production Fig. silicon carbide. and the option of selectively reinforcing or altering local material properties. The most important castable aluminum-base MMC compositions originate in conventional alloys to which from 10 to 20 vol% particulate silicon carbide (SiC). If the dispersion can be maintained through melting. Particle wetting and distribution are functions of ingot production or of procedures used during melting and blending. more rapid solidification characterized by permanent mold and die casting promotes the more uniform distribution of particles in the solidified structure. property-enhanced parts with reduced material costs. . MMC scrap cannot be recovered except by separation of the composite component. Production parts have been cast in sand. Composite ingots are remelted. which will result in a reduced tendency for density segregation before and during solidification. bonding is typically performed in permanent molds. Cast composites offer costadvantaged near-net-shape capabilities in sizes and configurations not achievable in powder metallurgy or by other forming methods with the same advantages in exceptional specific stiffness (elastic modulus-to-weight ratio). permanent mold. 3. and highintensity infrared and plasma heating of ceramic overlays.20) Cylinder liners (Fig. and nitrides wet by molten aluminum form a reinforced structure typically displaying substantially increased modulus of elasticity. The MMC offers an alternative to cast iron or hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy for this application. or other ceramic material has been added.2 Cast Aluminum-Matrix Composites Incorporating particles or fibers of dissimilar materials in cast aluminum structures substantially alters material properties. and investment processes. 3. Recent developments concern increasingly fine particle sizes to nanodimensions and shapes such as fibrules and microspheres. 3.8. and Applications Preimmersion baths of aluminum-silicon alloys provide uniform thin intermetallic layers with minimal residual retention of bath when inserts are transferred to the mold. strength. Since iron is continuously dissolved. Powder metallurgy composites are commercially important. The segregation of density-differentiated particles in aluminum is strongly influenced by particle size and time. the mold closed and poured before the aluminum residual to the insert surface solidifies. Existing or emerging applications for cast aluminum composites are: • • • • Brake rotors (Fig. While tensile strengths in excess of 100 ksi (700 MPa) can be achieved. Typically. wear resistance. Recent alternative developments involving matrix reinforcement concepts include the investigation of postsolidification surface treatments including flame and plasma spray deposition. and there is a growing technical capability and market for cast aluminum metal-matrix composite parts. and mold filling. pressure die. the bath must be periodically discarded or diluted to prevent the deposition of iron containing insoluble phases on the insert surface. Mechanical or other forms of agitation are employed to maintain the homogeneous suspension of particulate after melting.21 Metal-matrix composite (MMC) cylinder liners.20 Alloy 359/SiC/20p metal-matrix composite brake rotor. the characteristic ductility of composite structures is limited. Finer particulate distribution has also shown improvements in ductile behavior while preserving advantages in stiffness and strength. and casting is accomplished using conventional foundry practices and equipment. Impregnated cast composites begin with a permeable ceramic cake formed to comprise a section of the casting to be reinforced.21) Power-steering pulleys Connecting rods 3. Processes. Because the insert must be positioned. uniform dispersion of particulate is mechanically or inductively ensured. and improved wear resistance. Another notable development involves the use of low-cost particulate such as represented by industrial waste materials such as fly ash to produce low-density. Metal-matrix composites are also cast by impregnation of fiber cake in gravity and squeeze casting processes. Ceramics. alumina. can be successfully used. holding. Source: Ref 6 Fig. alumina.36 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. graphite. other carbides. The cake is intruded to obtain the composite structure. higher strength. 3.

Dahle.M. 1993 5. American Foundry Society. Proc. Pokorny and P. American Foundrymen’s Society. AFS Trans. Rooy. Principles of Purchasing Castings. Hebeisen. Hydrogen in Aluminum.L. MPI Symposium on Premium Engineered Castings. Fatigue Properties and Processing Costs.J. “Hot Isostatic Pressing of A356 and 380/383 Aluminum Alloys: An Evaluation of Porosity. Herman. Pergamon Press. The Die Casting Book.. Vol 106. 1977 ˘ lu et al.8. Engineered Casting Solutions.L. American Foundry Society SELECTED REFERENCES Basic Principles of Gating. 2000 • Plaster Mold Handbook. 1997 • S. Chapter 6. 6. following the discussion of the nature and cause of such imperfections.A. American Foundrymen’s Society. Review of Reliable Processes for Alu• M. Street. AFS Trans. Hunt and D. American Foundrymen’s Society. and D. Metallurgical and Mechanical Property Characterization of Premium Quality Vacuum Investment Cast 200 and 300 Series Aluminum Alloys. Die Casting Handbook. Automotive Alloys.K. Aluminum Casting Technology. Mashl et al.” SAE.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) The application of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to aluminum alloys following casting is a key technology for improving properties by reducing or eliminating the effects of porosity and inclusions. 1967 • Basic Principles of Risering. Rooy... American Foundrymen’s Society. Comprehensive Composite Materials. HIP Casting Densification. Improved Casting Properties and Integrity with Hot Isostatic Processing. Applications of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites: Past. Gating and Feeding for Light Metal Castings. PA). ASM International • H. Metal Matrix Composites. 1984 • H.H. This technology is sufficiently important that it is covered in a separate chapter (Chapter 6). 1998 • Fundamental Molding Sand Technology. American Foundrymen’s Society. Nabulski. American Foundrymen’s Society. 1977 • A..C. Jr. 1982 • W. July 2000 • W. Behrendt. Cast. and Future. Society of Die Casting Engineers. ASME. Hunt. Ductile Pressure Die Castings for Automotive Applications. Adv. 1968 • . Rooy. 2002 2. Origins and Evolution of Premium Engineered Aluminum Castings.05. 1993 4. American Foundrymen’s Society. Present and Future. 1999 • E. John. Vol 104. Nov 1986 • Computer Gating Program. REFERENCES 1.. Koch and A. 1973 • J. Herling. Thermomechanical Basis for Understanding Hot Tearing During Solidification... Dec 1983 • E. Franke.C. E. S. Technol. Tiryakiog minum Aerospace Castings.. AFS Trans. 1946 3. SDCE • Core and Mold Process Control. Society of Die Casting Engineers. TMS. 1984 • E. St. Thukkaram. International Symposium of Aluminum Applications: Thrusts and Challenges. Mod. The Aluminum Association Inc. Present.H.J. May 2002 • A. Oct 2003 (Pittsburgh.Chapter 3: Aluminum Casting Processes / 37 • • • • • • • • • Bicycle frames Scraper blades and shoes Sporting equipment Golf club heads Aerospace optical systems Electronic/avionic thermal management components Pressure vessels Brackets Wave guides • G. Portcullis Press Ltd. Cast. Bouse and M. Gating Die Casting Dies.R.. Aluminum Now. 1996 3.

.

Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Kaufman. There are at least three measurements used to describe dendrite refinement: • Dendrite arm spacing: The distance between developed secondary dendrite arms • Dendrite cell interval: The distance between centerlines of adjacent dendrite cells • Dendrite cell size: The width of individual dendrite cells Fig. The cells contained within the dendrite structure correspond to the dimensions separating the arms of primary and secondary dendrites and are exclusively controlled for a given composition by solidification rate (Fig. www. Phase formation is diffusion controlled so that more rapid solidification and more rapid cooling to room temperature from solidification temperature In all commercial processes. with the exception of semisolid forming. E. form.2 Dendrite Arm Spacing 4.L. Rooy. Processes. that most strongly affect mechanical properties are: • • • • Size.G. excluding defects. 4.org CHAPTER 4 The Effects of Microstructure on Properties Microstructural features are products of metal chemistry and solidification conditions. Source: Ref 1 . 4.1). and distribution of intermetallic phases Dendrite arm spacing Grain size and shape Eutectic modification and primary phase refinement results in greater degrees of retained solid solution and finer dispersions of smaller constituent particles. and Applications J.1 Intermetallic Phases Controlling element concentrations and observing stoichiometric ratios required for intermetallic phase formation results in preferred microstructures for property development. The microstructural features. Slower rates of solidification result in coarse intermetallics and second-phase concentrations at grain boundaries. 4.1 Dendrite arm spacing and dendrite cell size as a function of local solidification rate.1361/aacp2004p039 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. p 39-46 DOI:10. solidification takes place through the formation of dendrites from liquid solution.asminternational. Solidification rate and the rate of postsolidification cooling promote uniform size and distribution of intermetallics and influence their morphology.

Although grain refiners of these types can be considered conventional hardeners or master alloys. Processes. shell Permanent mold Die 1. No commercial use of this technology has been demonstrated.97–19. Calcium is a weak modifier with little commercial value.3 Grain Refinement Fine. 4. and operative quantities of aluminides and borides or carbides in the correct form.0 180. In addition to grain-refining master alloys in waffle or rolled rod form. strontium.6). and antimony are known to influence the degree of eutectic modification that can be achieved during solidification. and the concentration of effective grain nucleation sites. solidification rate. are also available. although the result is a finer lamellar rather than fibrous eutectic. Calcium.80 18. equiaxed grains are desired for the best combination of strength and ductility by maximizing grain-boundary surface area and more finely distributing grain-boundary constituents (Ref 3). Transduced ultrasonic energy has been shown to provide degrees of grain refinement under laboratory conditions (Ref 8. they differ from true master alloys added to the melt exclusively for alloying purposes.2. usually in compacted form that react with molten aluminum to form combinations of TiAl3 and TiB2. The application of this method to engineered castings is problematic. grain refiners must introduce controlled. developed for the continuous treatment of aluminum in primary operations and displaying clean. and Na ϩ Sr on modification are shown in Fig.7 1. The combination of sodium and strontium offers advantages in initial effectiveness. 4. Strontium is less transient but may be less effective for modification under slow solidification rates (Fig. and distribution for grain nucleation. 4.20–0. Refiners in rod form. The most widely used are master alloys of titanium or of titanium and boron.94–39. but solidification rates in complex cast structures typically vary and the degree of grain refinement practically achievable in commercial gravity casting processes is lower than that obtained by effective heterogeneous nucleation through grain-refiner additions before casting (Fig. 9). A finer. sodium. Finer dendrite arm spacing is desirable for improved mechanical property performance (Fig. The type and size of grains formed are functions of alloy composition. fine.3) (Ref 2). 4. unagglomerated microstructures.4).4 1.40 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. predictable.6 and 4.5 illustrates variations in degree of modification achieved by modifier additions.7. The same range of titanium concentrations is used in Al-Ti-B refiners with boron contents from 0. Increased solidification rate reduces grain size (Ref 4). Aluminum-titanium refiners generally contain from 3 to 10% Ti.0 1800 1 10 100 1000 3.4 Aluminum-Silicon Eutectic Modification Fig. fine-grain structure through the use of suitable grain-refining additions (Ref 5. 4. more fibrous eutectic structure can be obtained by increased solidification rate and by the addition of chemical modifiers. which influences property development and substantially improves ductility: Cooling rate Casting processes °F/s °C/s Dendrite arm spacing mils μm Plaster. but its effects are transient because of oxidation and vapor pressure losses. the coarser the microconstituents and the more pronounced their effects on properties.2 to 1% and titanium-to-boron ratios ranging from 5 to 50. Selected carbides also serve grain-refining purposes in aluminum alloys (Ref 7). Antimony provides a sustained effect. are available in sheared lengths for foundry use. . Source: Ref 1 The properties of hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys can be affected by modifying the form of the eutectic. Sodium is arguably the most potent modifier.2 Dendrite cell size effects on the strength and elongation of several aluminum casting alloys.76 0. The effects of sodium. To be effective. All aluminum alloys can be made to solidify with a fully equiaxed. strontium. and Applications The larger the dendrite arm spacing.59 100–1000 50–500 30–70 5–15 4. Coarse grain structure and columnar and feather or twin-columnar grains that form with high thermal gradients in low-alloy-content compositions are by comparison detrimental to mechanical properties. 6). 4. investment Green sand. Cooling rates directly control dendrite arm spacing. size.18–2. 4. Figure 4. salts.

(b) Grain refined. The greatest benefits of eutectic aluminum-silicon modification are achieved in alloys containing from 5% Si to the eutectic concentration. Postaddition fluxing to restore melt quality increases the rate of sodium losses.4 As-cast Al-7Si ingots showing the effects of grain refinement. (a) No grain refiner.0-T62. providing finer lamellae. Fig.Chapter 4: The Effects of Microstructure on Properties / 41 The addition of metallic sodium to molten aluminum creates turbulence that can result in increased hydrogen and entrained oxide levels. 4. Both etched using Poulton’s etch. The different data points indicate specimens from different heats.3 Correlation between dendrite cell size and tensile properties of specimens machined from production castings in alloy A356. strontium is associated with an increased tendency for hydrogen porosity. The modifying additions either suppress the growth of silicon crystals within the eutectic or equilibrate silicon-matrix growth rates. Source: Ref 1 Fig. Courtesy of W.01 wt%) increases misrun tendencies through increases in surface tension and diminished fluidity. The addition of modifying elements to these alloys results in a finer lamellar or fibrous eutectic structure. The use of hygroscopic salts including NaCl and NaF for modification also risks oxide formation and increased dissolved hydrogen content. Strontium additions are usually made through master alloys containing up to 10% of the modifier. While these additions are made with minimum melt degradation. . The excessive use of sodium (>0. either through increasing hydrogen solubility or decreased surface tension. Lidman. KB Alloys Inc. both 2ϫ.G. 4.

Source: Ref 10 . (c) Class 2. (d) Same as (c) but at 800ϫ. fully unmodified structure. (j) Same as (i) but at 800ϫ. (f) Same as (e) but at 800ϫ. 200ϫ. (e) Class 3. 200ϫ. absence of lamellar structure. 200ϫ. (i) Class 5. (g) Class 4.42 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.5 Variations in degrees and types of aluminum-silicon eutectic modification. fibrous silicon eutectic. (b) Same as (a) but at 800ϫ. 200ϫ. (h) Same as (g) but at 800ϫ. (k) Class 6. 200ϫ. partial modification. (a) Class 1. 4. very fine structure. 200ϫ. (l) Same as (k) but at 800ϫ. Processes. lamellar structure. and Applications Fig.

5 (continued) (g) Class 4. absence of lamellar structure. 200ϫ. (i) Class 5. very fine structure. fibrous silicon eutectic. 4. (k) Class 6. (h) Same as (g) but at 800ϫ. 200ϫ. (j) Same as (i) but at 800ϫ. Source: Ref 10 .Chapter 4: The Effects of Microstructure on Properties / 43 Fig. (l) Same as (k) but at 800ϫ. 200ϫ.

07% Sr None 0.0 24.6 for the effectiveness of various modifiers Table 4. .0-T6 Permanent mold test bars Sand cast test bars Bars cut from chilled sand casting A356. . .0 24.07% Sr None 0. ..0 13.0 12..2 40. . 16.. 208 238 213 218 179 207 .0 28...0 124 193 193 221 180 210 289 293 284 291 226 297 151 149 137 159 168 191 193 193 2.8 8... .08% Sr 0..2 Sand cast test bars Permanent mold test bars Sand cast test bars Permanent mold test bars Test bar cut from auto wheel None Na-modified None Na-modified None 0.0 21.. It reacts to form phosphides that nullify the effectiveness of modifier additions.. Thermal analysis is useful in assessing the degree of modification that can be displayed by the melt (Ref 11)..6 26.0 10. .0 1.0 3.005–0.44 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Typically.05% Sr 0.3 15. modified structures display higher tensile properties and appreciably improved ductility when compared to unmodified structures (Table 4.0 43.. See Fig.0 3. Processes..9 42.07% Sr None 0.1 30. A sample of metal Fig. Property improvement is dependent on the degree to which porosity associated with the addition of modifiers is suppressed..1).1 Typical mechanical properties of modified and unmodified cast aluminum alloys Alloy and temper Product Modification treatment Tensile yield strength ksi MPa Ultimate tensile strength ksi MPa Elongation.2 4.1 17. 30. See Fig.6 12.9 21.2 42.7 for degrees of modification from unmodified (A) to well modified (F).8 8... 4.1 34.4 27. 4.5 12.8 23.6 19.6 18. and Applications Phosphorus interferes with the modification mechanism.06% Sr ..4 6.0 4. 4. Improved casting results include improved feeding and superior resistance to elevated-temperature cracking.6 8... 4.. It is therefore desirable to use low-phosphorus metal when modification is a process objective and to make larger modifier additions to compensate for phosphorus-related losses..5 41.7 Varying degrees of aluminum-silicon eutectic modification ranging Fig.0 26. .8 Source: Ref 4 ..0 2. .5 41..07% Sr None 0. . .1 18.5 18.0-T6 A444....0 32.0 28.2 .0-T4 A413.01% Sr None 0. % 13% Si Sand cast test bars Permanent mold test bars 359.0 30.5 30.....0 28.0 356.9 31.005–0.0 5.0 30.6 Effectiveness of sodium and strontium modifiers as a function of time...0 .4 7. .05% Sr None 0. 112 108 125 125 121 126 18.7 28.

• Brief nitrogen or argon fluxing after the addition of phosphorus is recommended to remove the hydrogen introduced during the addition and to distribute the aluminum phosphide nuclei uniformly in the melt. tfinish. Gas fluxing accelerates phosphorus loss when chlorine or other reactive gases are used. Test results must be correlated with the degree of modification established metallographically for the castings since cooling rate for the sample will differ. permitting time and temperature to be plotted (Fig. (c) Refined and fluxed. All 100ϫ . • Calcium and sodium contents should be controlled to low concentration levels. has a marked effect on the distribution and form of the primary silicon phase (Fig. 4. Brief inert gas fluxing is frequently employed to reactivate aluminum phosphide nuclei. Tmin. (a) Unrefined. time corresponding to the beginning of the eutectic plateau. 4. time at the minimum of the curve. temperature at the minimum before the eutectic plateau. 4.8). Primary silicon particle size increases gradually with time as phosphorus concentration decreases.Chapter 4: The Effects of Microstructure on Properties / 45 is cooled slowly. Phosphorus-treated melts can be solidified and remelted without loss of refinement. Fig.9 Effect of phosphorus refinement on the microstructure of a hypereutectic Al-22Si-1Ni-1Cu alloy. Practices recommended for melt refinement are: • Melting and holding temperature should be minimum. Retained concentrations of phosphorus as low as 0. eutectic growth temperature. coarse primary silicon crystals that are harmful in the casting and machining of hypereutectic silicon alloy compositions is a function of primary silicon refinement (Ref 13). The effectiveness of modification treatment is defined by the degree and duration of undercooling at the solidus. tE. Tg. tmin. 4. presumably by resuspension.5 Refinement of Hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys The elimination of large. time corresponding to the end of the eutectic plateau.8 Cooling curve of the eutectic region of an unmodified and modified aluminum-silicon casting alloy. Refinement resulting from phosphorus additions can be expected to be less transient than the effects of eutectic modification in hypoeutectic alloys. (b) Phosphorus refined.9). 4.0015% are effective in achieving refinement of the primary phase. made in the form of metallic phosphorus or phosphorus-containing compounds such as phosphorcopper and phosphorus pentachloride. Source: Ref 12 Fig. Phosphorus added to molten alloys containing more than the eutectic concentration of silicon.

AFS Trans. AFS Trans. Vol 54. 4). Sept 1991. 2nd ed. M. SAE.Chai.L. 1987 M. S. Atasoy. 12). Tenekedjiev and J. Thermal Analysis of Strontium Treated Hypoeutectic and Eutectic Aluminum-Silicon Casting Alloys. Solidification Technology in the Foundry and Cast House. Trans Tech Publications. The Role of Boron in the Grain Refinement of Aluminum with Titanium. J. 1985 M. American Society for Metals. Granger. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy. Aluminum Alloys: Structures of Metals and Alloys. Tenekedjiev. Reif. Mag. AFS Trans. Yilmazaned.. Tamminen. Philos. 1998 M. Vol 106. Rooy. Nov 1975. 1972 SELECTED REFERENCES A. Gorum. A Thermomechanical Basis for Understanding and Predicting Hot Tearing During Solidification.F. Vol 17A (No. J.. Behavior of Metal in the Semisolid State. Vol 10A (No. 1989 O.E.I.. L.. D. 1963 3. Grain Refining Mechanisms in Aluminium as a Result of Additions of Titanium and Boron. Elliot. Argo. and A. AFS Trans. March 1994. Vol 38. Giessereiforschung. Grain Refining Mechanisms in Aluminum as a Result of Additions of Titanium and Boron. F. Butterworths. John. Burke. Aluminium. and B. Vol 18. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Vorrent.C. Yao. Heat Flow in the Die Casting Process. Flemings. Evensen. S. M. Nabulski. 1986 N. and J. Hydrogen Measurement by Telegas in Strontium Treated A356 Melts... J. Metallurgiya. Johnsson. Cryst. Gruzleski et al. Misra. The Effect of Solidification Time on the Mechanical Properties in a Cast A356T6 Alloy. p 29–36 12. p S59–S63 10. Guzowski and G. Vol 67 (No. 1986 G. and Applications REFERENCES 1. Dendrite Arm Spacing. Arruda and M.. Vol 67 (No. AFS Casting Congress. Cheney. Backerud and Y. Gruzleski. L. 1991 13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si (Mg) Casting Alloys. Vol 1 (No. 1980 K.M. Backerud. Hogan.F. Vol 67. Dec 1982 . “Modification Rating System for Structure of Hypoeutectic Aluminum Silicon Casting Alloys. Dahle.. Crosley and L. and J. and T.. Spear and G. 1983 • O. Dendrite Cell Size. Vol 22B. Grain Refining of Hypoeutectic Al-Si Alloys.M.. Seshadri. 1971 Solidification Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys. 1997 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • J. AFS Trans.E. Solidification Technology. G. Shamsuzzoha and L. Cast. Solidification Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys. Gruzleski. Kurz and E. Strontium and Antimony Interactions During the Modification of ASG03 (A356) Alloys.. 1984 C. A. Allison. 9). Metall. Oswalt and M. Zheng. Backerud. Brook Hill Publishing. and D. July-Aug 1991. AFS Trans. p 2127–2137 8. 1985 W. Ultrasonic Treatment of Molten Aluminum. American Foundrymen’s Society. 1979 G. Growth Structures in Aluminum Silicon Alloys. Mondolfo. G. The Modification of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys. and M. Metall. Effects of Cooling Rate and Modifier Concentrations on Modification of Al-Si Eutectic Alloys. Aluminum Casting Technology. AFS Trans. J. Prates.. Fundamentals of Solidification. N.C.. Gustafson. Effect of Solidification Conditions on Tensile Properties and Microstructure of Hypoeutectic Al-Si Casting Alloys. Jan–Feb 1984 • L. Dendrite Arm Spacing and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy Castings. Sodium. Summary of Technical Information on Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys. Radhakrishna. 7–8). and D.J. Strontium and Phosphorus Effects in Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys. G.” KBI Aluminum Master Alloys product literature. A. Fisher. Structure and Properties of Aluminum Silicon Alloys. April 1987. Huber.. Sigworth. The Metals Society. J.H. S. 1976 K. Aluminium. Eskin. Spear and G. Growth. Scott. Gruzleski.46 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.. p 910–915 7. Dec 1986. Gardner. Sigworth. R. AFS Trans.E. p 603–619 N. Herman.K. R. 1964 4. Mod. 1988 9. Part I. Mod. Aluminum. Skan Aluminum.B. Trans. Pedersen.. Sodium.. McGraw-Hill. L. p 780–785 6. Sentner. and J. Seshan. A. AFS Trans. May 1963 2. 1986 L. 1974 J. Part II.I. Boileau. E. St. and D. 1986 M. Guzowski. Trans. Trans. The Crystal Morphology of Fibrous Silicon in Strontium Modified Al-Si Eutectic. and Q. Hommes Fonderie. Handiak. 1982 Solidification. Zindel. Avner. Giesserei. Mondolfo. Bercovici.C. 1990 • S. 1991 J. Observations on the Refinement of Hypereutectic Silicon Alloys. Shao. Influence of Cavitation Treatment of Melts on the Processes of Nucleation and Growth of Crystals during Solidification of Ingots and Castings from Light Alloys. Metall. D. March 1966 A. Fracture Toughness and Tensile Properties of Directionally Solidified Aluminum Foundry Alloys. Vol 38. Charbonnier et al. 1980 • J. Application of Thermal Analysis in the Foundry for Aluminum Alloys. and R.W. AFS Trans. Argo. Claudet and H. 1986 P. Acta Metall. Development of Al-Ti-C Grain Refiners Containing TiC. Eskin. 1). B. 1993 5.E.. Banerji and W. G. Flemings. AFS Trans. 1987 E. Solidification. Society of Die Casting Engineers. Gardner. Zhang. Cabot Corporation 11. Sigworth. and P. American Foundrymen’s Society. Cast. American Foundrymen’s Society. Processes.

1). Hydrogen solubility is considerably greater in the liquid than in the solid state (Fig. Kaufman.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. www. and Applications J. dissolved hydrogen in excess of the extremely low solid solubility may precipitate in molecular form.1361/aacp2004p047 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. No more hydrogen than indicated can be dissolved at any temperature. These values vary only slightly for most casting alloys. Shrinkage 5.69 and 0. Secondary (micron-size) porosity occurs when dissolved hydrogen contents are low. During cooling and solidification.1 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum at 1 atm hydrogen pressure . The solubility curve for hydrogen in aluminum typically describes equilibrium conditions. high-temperature oxidation. solubility increases rapidly with increasing temperature above the liquidus. Random emergence of stable precipitates that exceed the critical size required for sustained growth 4. Formation of subcritical nuclei as a function of time and cooling 3. p 47-54 DOI:10. The solubility of hydrogen in aluminum varies directly with temperature and the square root of pressure. and entrapped gas result in defects that adversely affect mechanical properties as well as physical acceptability. Control of melting conditions and melt treatment can result in substantially reduced dissolved hydrogen levels. resulting in the formation of primary and/or secondary voids. Rooy.G.asminternational. Primary or interdendritic porosity forms when hydrogen contents are sufficiently high that hydrogen is rejected at the solidification front. Hydrogen bubble formation is strongly resisted by surface tension forces.org CHAPTER 5 The Influence and Control of Porosity and Inclusions in Aluminum Castings Solidification in complex geometrical shapes with varying section thicknesses creates conditions under which internal porosity may form.L. Mold reactions. The impact of internal porosity on properties is caused by the reduction in effective area by pore volume fraction and by stress concentrations at voids leading to premature failure. Diffusion of hydrogen atoms within the molten pool 2. and more usually by a combination of these effects. Processes. Hydrogen precipitation may alter the form and distribution of shrinkage porosity in poorly fed parts or part sections. affect diffusion. by increased liquid cooling and solidification rates that Fig. Finely distributed hydrogen porosity may not always be undesirable. There are other sources of internal voids. E.1 Hydrogen Porosity Hydrogen is the only gas that is appreciably soluble in aluminum and its alloys. resulting in supercritical saturation and bubble formation. 5.04 ppm. Continued growth as long as dissolved hydrogen atoms remain free to diffuse to the precipitated bubble The result is a general distribution of voids occurring throughout the solidified structure. Actual liquid and solid solubilities in pure aluminum just above and below the solidus are 0. and by an absence of nucleation sites for hydrogen precipitation such as entrained oxides. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence porosity formation and mechanical properties. and void formation occurs at characteristically subcritical hydrogen concentrations. 5. Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification. blowholes. The precipitation of hydrogen obeys the laws of nucleation and growth and is similar in these respects to the formation of other metallurgical phases during solidification. The process of hydrogen precipitation consists of: 1.

• Hydrogen pore volume fraction and pore size decrease with increased cooling rate. and cooling rate relationships in Al-4Mg alloy contents in Al-4. porosity fraction Fig. 4. 2.31 (grain refined). 0. melt handling. The most powerful nucleants for hydrogen precipitation are oxides. Since hydrogen solubility is related directly to the square root of pressure.4 Relationship of pore volume to cooling rate for different hydrogen Fig. The results of the reduced pressure test can then predict in relative terms the tendency for formation of hydrogen voids in the cast part at ambient pressure. hydrogen may be intentionally introduced and controlled in specific concentrations compatible with the application requirements of the casting in order to promote superficial soundness. The following rules describe the tendency for hydrogen pore formation (Fig. and treatment entrain air or gaseous phases. In isolated cases. 5. 5. 0. • Pore volume fraction and pore size decrease with decreased hydrogen content above the threshold value.7Mg alloy (similar to alloy 514. decreased pressure reduces hydrogen solubility. In the pres- Fig.31 (no grain refiner).2 to 5.0). • Residual pore volume fraction for each alloy corresponds to hydrogen content above the threshold value. 3. 0. especially oxides that through turbulence in gating.10 (grain refined) . hydrogen precipitation may occur as a result of heterogeneous or homogeneous nucleation. The critical or threshold value of hydrogen concentration is also dependent on pressure and on the number (n) and tortuosity (t) of liquid paths that exist in a solidifying dendritic network. 5.22 (grain refined). The foundry industry has long used various forms of vacuum testing of molten metal samples to determine acceptability of the processed melt for any casting application.48 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 0.3 Relationship of hydrogen content to cooling rate in A356. pore size. fp. Hydrogen content (cm3/100 g): 1. 5. The basis for this test is the relationship between hydrogen solubility and pressure. and Applications is generally more harmful to casting properties. increasing the tendency for bubble formation in the sample. Processes.0 for different porosity fractions. the higher the hydrogen threshold.5.5) (Ref 1): • There is a critical or threshold hydrogen value for any composition that must be exceeded for hydrogen porosity to occur. Just as in the case of crystal formation. The pressure/solubility relationship recurs in this discussion because of its relevance when negative relative pressures associated with shrinkage develop in the solidifying structure. pouring.18 (grain refined).2 Hydrogen content. The higher the product of these factors (nt). 0.

25 (no grain refiner). 5. Sources of hydrogen contamination include: • Atmosphere • Incompletely dried refractories • Remelt ingot. efficient gas-metal reactions. Incompletely dried or cured furnace refractories and refractories used to line troughing results in hydrogen absorption. Shrinkage occurs during solidification as a result of volumetric differences between liquid and solid states.31 (grain refined). • Gas evolution appearing in the solidifying sample only during the last stages of solidification indicates that oxides are not present and that hydrogen is present at a relatively high concentration.5 Relationship of pore size to cooling rate for different hydrogen contents in alloy A356. In aluminum alloys. It follows that periods of high humidity increase the problems faced in dealing with hydrogen contamination and its removal and that magnesiumcontaining alloys are more susceptible to hydrogen absorption than others.5%. the vacuum solidification test discriminates between bubble formation by heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation. flux tubes. affects the efficiency of hydrogen removal. an increase in hydrogen content can be expected.5 to 8. and other charge components • Fluxes • Tools. 0. A sphere of molten metal solidifying without risering is an easily understood example of the diverse ways in which shrinkage forms. the continued process of cooling and solidification results in substantial tensile stresses in the liquid pool since the shell is contracting at the low rate dictated by the solidstate coefficient of thermal contraction. 0. metallurgical metals.11 (grain refined). When properly performed.Chapter 5: The Influence and Control of Porosity and Inclusions in Aluminum Castings / 49 ence of such nuclei.2 Shrinkage Porosity Fig. Moisture in any form: contamination on tools. 0. tensile forces ultimately . and the volume occupied by the liquid that is cooling and experiencing volume change as additional solid is formed is contracting at a far greater rate. whether in melt treatment or in pouring can rapidly accelerate the rate at which hydrogen from atmospheric moisture is absorbed and coincidentally is responsible for degradation of the liquid melt after effective treatment for hydrogen removal. permitting acceptable quality castings to be produced from metal with higher hydrogen contents. an amorphous magnesium oxide forms that is more permeable or less protective to the diffusion of hydrogen from the atmosphere to the melt.0. The tendency for the formation of shrinkage porosity is related to both the liquid/solid volume fraction at the time of final solidification and the solidification temperature range of the alloy. 5. and master alloys that may be added to the heat additively affect dissolved hydrogen content up to the applicable solubility limit. Once the shell of the sphere has solidified and assumes sufficient strength to resist collapse. The use of active fluxing gases and filtration removes oxides. grain refiners. ingot. Spinning-rotor techniques have been developed that provide more intimate mixing. hydrogen precipitates readily at even relatively low dissolved hydrogen levels. In the absence of nucleating phases such as oxides and gaseous species. and shorter reaction times to achieve low hydrogen levels. it may be assumed that the melt is free of oxides and that hydrogen contained in liquid solution is below the threshold value for precipitation. 0. scrap. 0. and ladles • Products of combustion (POCs) in gas-fired furnaces Hydrogen can be introduced through the disassociation of moisture in the atmosphere and products of combustion in furnace atmospheres allowing atomic hydrogen diffusion into the melt. The determination is made by observing the sample as it cools and solidifies: • Immediate bubble formation when vacuum is applied indicates that the melt is contaminated by oxides and contains an indeterminate amount of hydrogen. flux tubes. 4. 2. in the latter case.25 (grain refined). Degassing by the use of inert or active gases reduces hydrogen concentrations by diffusion into bubbles of the fluxing gas corresponding to the partial pressure of hydrogen in the fluxing gas. the transformation from the liquid to the solid state is accompanied by a decrease in volume. surface tension forces are generally strong enough that precipitation is suppressed at even relatively high dissolved hydrogen levels. At any time the protective oxide surface of the melt is disturbed. 3. Moisture contamination of fluxes and hydrogen in gas fluxes increase hydrogen levels and. While the liquid struggles to maintain coherency. It is important to make a distinction between the differences in liquid and solid volume that are of greatest concern to foundry personnel and the contraction that takes place after solidification as a result of solid-state contraction that most concerns die design and patternmaking. In magnesium-containing alloys. the volumetric shrinkage that occurs during solidification ranges from 3. 5.31 (grain refined and modified) For most metals. • If no evolution of gas occurs. metallurgical metals. Turbulence. Hydrogen content (cm3/100 g): 1. Dissolved hydrogen is present in some amount in alloyed remelt ingot and master alloys. master alloys.

and reduced oxide contents all improve feedability and therefore reduce shrinkage severity. Solid feeding occurs when the incipient shrinkage void is filled by the collapse of surrounding solidified metal. rapid cooling leads to the distribution of voids in the grain boundaries. Also.0. Processes. These void concentrations are often associated with cracks that form during and after solidification. for example. Distributed voids or microshrinkage are found between dendrite arms as a result of failure during the last stages of interdendritic feeding. most oxides are wet by molten aluminum. leading to contained shrinkage voids. any agitation or turbulence in the treatment and handling of molten aluminum increases the risk of oxide entrainment and the immediate reformation of additional oxides. when reactive elements . when. there is an improved opportunity for establishing directional solidification. solidification rate. ladles. Interdendritic feeding takes place in the interval between mass feeding and the point at which sufficient resistance develops that liquid flow through the solidifying dendrite network no longer occurs. large fully contained liquid pools are isolated within the casting during solidification. Shrinkage is much more likely to be localized in a eutectic composition such as 443. The progressive development of a dendritic network and localized solidification results in increased resistance to fluid flow until the pressure at the solidification front is reduced to zero.0 or A444. Aluminum is also chemically aggressive and can react with compounds in refractory formulations or with the coatings used to protect crucibles. to the formation of widely distributed shrinkage voids. localized collapse of the shell occurs to compensate for the volumetric change (Fig. Alloying elements that contribute to elevated-temperature strength such as iron. under reasonable efforts to establish directional solidification.1 categorizes inclusion types typically encountered. (b) Collapse of shell increases void size. Shrinkage displacement takes place in three modes: • Mass feeding • Interdendritic feeding • Solid feeding Mass feeding is liquid displacement occurring in the absence of substantial resistance. Oxidation rate is greater at molten metal temperatures and increases with temperature and time of exposure. 5. alloy feeding characteristics. If localized failure of the shell occurs.6b). (c) “Wormhole” formation with additional shrinkage Nonmetallic inclusions are a particular concern in cast aluminum. Because of its reactivity. Oxide concentration can increase when alloying additions are stirred into the melt. While the oxide that initially forms on the surface of molten aluminum is highly protective and self-limiting. Table 5. and by limitations in effective gating and risering practice that fail to provide the gradients required for directional solidification. Alloys with wide solidification ranges are prone to this form of shrinkage.6c).0 and 413. solidification distance loses its importance to a more general tendency for interdendritic shrinkage. interdendritic liquid will drain gravimetrically into the liquid pool that remains (Fig. In short solidification range compositions such as 356. Magnesium in aluminum alloys oxidizes and with time and temperature reacts with oxygen and aluminum oxide to form spinel. In the case of a risered casting. at which time a shrinkage void will form. The result is a “wormhole” or “sponge” shrinkage defect visible from the casting surface. varying section thickness.0. The severity of shrinkage is increased by geometrical complexity. and Applications exceed surface tension forces associated with the liquid-solid interface and a void will form (Fig. 5. voids first begin to form at liquidus-solidus temperatures corresponding to 65 to 75% solid. and nickel increase resistance to surface collapse. These alloys are susceptible to extensive microporosity that results from the higher proportion of feeding that takes place interdendritically. and tools resulting in the entrainment of exogenous nonmetallics. Pressure drop develops as obstructions to the feeding path form. Shrinkage may assume many forms. improved grain refinement. Improved modification and refinement of aluminum-silicon alloys. but weak. reducing the effectiveness of mechanical separation methods. Shrinkage void fraction varies in proportion to the fourth root of the pressure. When good foundry practices are used in long solidification range compositions such as some aluminum-copper and aluminummagnesium alloys.3 Inclusions Fig. 5. pressure at the solidification interface and pressure in the riser system are essentially equivalent. In these cases. aluminum oxidizes readily in liquid and solid states. leading to the conclusion that increasing pressure has little effect on shrinkage unless extremely high pressures can be employed. Many oxide forms display densities similar to that of molten aluminum and sizes that reduce the effectiveness of gravimetric separation. These alloys may be characterized by a higher proportion of mass feeding relative to interdendritic feeding and are therefore less susceptible. Defects may take the form of extensive piping as opposed to distributed shrinkage porosity. If the shell is coherent. copper. In any case. while slow cooling results in interdendritically distributed shrinkage.6a). 5. There are variations in which the solidified shell lacks the integrity to resist the negative pressures developed within the sphere. Alloys with short solidification ranges often display this form of shrinkage.50 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. the intention is to prevent shrinkage formation by maintaining a path for fluid flow from the higher heat mass and pressure of the riser to the encased liquid pool.6 How shrinkage voids form in aluminum castings. 5. In Al-Si-Cu alloys. (a) Initial void formation. Centerline or piping voids result from gross directional effects.

53 0.30 0. Refractory degradation.74 2.27 0. refractory/metal reactions Melting.74 2.53 2.47 2. Magnesium oxide is typically present as fine particulate.31 0.50 2. Aluminum carbide and aluminum nitride can be found in smelted aluminum. avoid entrainment. The prevention of inclusions is the product of equipment and practices that minimize oxidation.25 2. Shrinkage. filter and metal-handling system releases Table 5. alloying: metal transfer turbulence Poor separation of fluxing reaction products Salt generated during chlorine fluxing of magnesium-containing alloys. but the use of active fluxing gases such as chlorine or other halogens is necessary to dewet included oxides.76 2.69 0.07 1.72 2.32 2.28 0. and fused ceramics can be used in the gating system as long as the combination of pore size. Aluminum oxides are of different crystallographic or amorphous forms as films.1 Classification Inclusion sources and types in aluminum alloy castings Types observed Potential source(s) Nonmetallic exogenous Nonmetallic in situ Homogeneous halide salts Particle/salt Various refractory particles.30 2. Inclusions.06 1.26 0. The removal of oxides can be seen to suppress hydrogen pore formation as shown in Table 5.68 2.48 1. facilitating their separation by the sweeping action of the fluxing gas. MgO.99 2. In this respect.58 2.69 2.71 2.36 0.24 2. remelt ingot. etc. level of inclusion contamination.70 2. g/cm3 Before filtering After filtering 5 mm Hg vacuum gas test density.27 0. Refractory and other exogenous inclusions may be identified by their appearance and composition.27 2.76 0.Chapter 5: The Influence and Control of Porosity and Inclusions in Aluminum Castings / 51 and compounds are immersed.19 2.76 0. Degassing with inert (argon) or quasi-inert (nitrogen) gases are only partially effective in the removal of included matter. Inclusions occur as varying types with differing sizes and shapes.70 0.28 0.73 2. smooth surface defects.76 2. Cake-mode ceramic and deep-bed filters are used in furnaces and crucibles.4 Combined Effects of Hydrogen.16 2. Small amounts of dissolved hydrogen significantly increase pore size when shrinkage voids form.73 2. the effects of gas and shrinkage on pore volume fraction can be considered additive. and effectively remove particulate by fluxing reactions or filtration.59 2. The use of appropriate solid fluxes has the same effect. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2.78 2.26 2.19 0.27 0. reduce properties by detracting from the effective cross-sectional area when stress is applied and by the concentration of stresses at the inclusion interface (Fig.28 0.73 2.77 2. MgCl2-NaCl-CaCl2/MgO. and volume fraction of pores—are affected by hydrogen.99 2.66 2. etc. and when metal is poured and conducted by the gating system into the mold cavity. clusters. Al4C3.28 0.72 2.43 0.61 2. and surface area does not excessively restrict metal flow.38 0.56 2. 5. pore size.76 2. and disperoids.60 2. hydrogen solubility is reduced in the surrounding liquid facilitating the precipitation of hydrogen into the forming void.73 2.78 2.39 0. and Inclusions Hydrogen precipitation and shrinkage porosity formation are usually considered separate and independent phenomena.25 2.73 2.48 2.41 0. and agglomerated particles. mL/100 g Before filtering After filtering Test No.7).45 2.30 0.74 2.76 2. pore density.69 2.94 2.37 2.78 2.62 2. Molten aluminum can be filtered by various means with varying effectiveness.76 2.77 2.31 0.29 2.67 2.34 2.34 2. MgAl2O4 films and clusters MgCl2-NaCl-CaCl2.35 2. screens.16 2. Rotary degassing improves inclusion-removal efficiency.76 2.33 0.38 0.05 2. such as shrinkage and hydrogen porosity. steel wool.31 0. The conventional wisdom is that hydrogen voids are always rounded.76 2.97 1.29 2. The important measures of these pores—morphology.31 0. while shrinkage voids invariably Table 5.23 0.14 2. etc.32 0. Al2O3 films.19 .74 2.36 0. Strainers.61 0.2 Effect of filtration on vacuum density test results and hydrogen content 50 mm Hg vacuum gas test density. Spinels can be small hard nodules or large complex shapes.13 2.35 0. Induction melting is highly energy efficient and effective for melting fines and poor-quality scrap. There are interactive mechanisms that affect both. 5.64 2. porous foam.28 0. but electromagnetically induced eddy currents result in high levels of entrained oxides. g/cm3 Before filtering After filtering Dissolved hydrogen content. when metal is drawn for pouring.28 2.29 0.74 2.76 2.27 0. but are usually of size and concentration of no significance in aluminum castings.2. Since shrinkage voids must by definition result in areas of reduced pressure relative to atmospheric. flakes.51 0.

and the required position. The presence of internal voids diminishes property capability (Fig. The precipitation of hydrogen into a forming shrinkage void likewise influences the surface morphology. It is important that void appearance and distribution be considered in defining the nature of porosity defects. and configuration of risers has achieved valuable progress. Typically. The effect of void content on the tensile strengths of selected alloys is shown in Fig. 5.8). and the design of the gating system must preserve minimum required molten metal quality. pouring. whether hydrogen voids. solidification patterns.52 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. The equalization of internal and external pressures brought about by hydrogen precipitation into internal shrinkage voids minimizes the tendency for surface collapse and wormhole shrinkage in the examples used earlier and alters the size and distribution of voids in a manner generally benefiting external appearance at the expense of internal quality and integrity. . Inclusions decrease the tensile strength about twice as much as would be predicted on the basis of the decrease in cross section. for parts requiring structural integrity. The first metal that establishes stable contact with the mold wall begins solidifying and is fed not by the risering system but by immediately adjacent molten metal layers. Processes. Finite-element modeling aimed at predicting mold and metal temperature distributions during and after mold filling. However. 5. and Applications have the characteristic crystalline. Layered feeding in castings can be exploited to improve casting results. it is important to consider the interaction rather than to attempt to correlate absolute hydrogen content with defect formation. can be understood and prevented by: • Melt treatment must be performed for effective removal of oxides and other entrained nonmetallics and the reduction in dissolved hydrogen concentration. The distinctions are facilitated through radiographic analysis. 5. Nevertheless. • The gating and risering system with variable heat extraction techniques and application of the principles of directional solidification must be capable of minimizing or preventing shrinkage porosity. and shrinkage should be considered in the development of appropriate corrective actions when unacceptable levels of porosity are experienced. However. Porosity in castings. The void fraction reduces the effective cross-sectional area under stress and void topography concentrates applied stresses to substantially lower tensile and yield strengths and elongation. or other specific mechanical or physical characteristic. the intentional addition of hydrogen is unacceptable. liquid-solid mushy zones may exist throughout the casting in various stages of solidification. shrinkage. In sand castings (low gradient). which give bubble formation the characteristic appearance of a shrinkage void. The formation of hydrogen voids and the effects of hydrogen on internal shrinkage are influenced by entrained inclusions that nucleate precipitation.7 Effect of inclusions on tensile strength of Al-12Si sand cast test bars. These principles are reflected in gating designs that approximate layering effects without resorting to more costly methods of promoting internal quality. size. jagged appearance that characterizes the dendrite structure. Shrinkage occurring under extremely low gradients may assume a smooth-walled configuration. When the gradient is low and the freezing range large. and changes in fraction solid from surface to center may be small. Because inclusions strongly facilitate bubble formation even at very low levels of dissolved hydrogen. the last liquid to freeze may not be localized along the centerline. In these processes.9. machining. This principal is routinely applied in the casting of wrought alloy ingot by continuous and discontinuous direct chill casting processes. Tensile strength at 0% inclusions ϭ 27 ksi (186 MPa). It is impossible to completely separate the effects of shrinkage and dissolved gas in the formation of microporosity. The precipitation of hydrogen during solidification offsets the negative relative pressures that develop when shrinkage voids form. For parts requiring only cosmetic as-cast appearance. Fig. hydrogen porosity can conform to dendrite-arm regions. inclusions. there would appear to be no compelling reason not to add hydrogen by any number of means to improve superficial quality. localized gradients and the availability of thermally differentiated liquid at or near the solidification interface during and after mold filling result in unexpected soundness in areas in which shrinkage voids might otherwise be expected to occur. leak resistance. • Metal handling. The interactive effects of hydrogen. Hydrogen may be intentionally added to counteract the more harmful effects of shrinkage on casting acceptability. hydrogen porosity appears as evenly distributed voids while shrinkage is more localized or concentrated. the solidifying interface is constantly fed by newly introduced thermally differentiated molten alloy. and a degree of heat-flow equilibrium is established to provide solidification conditions that ensure minimum solidification zone growth accompanied by unlimited liquid feed and an adequate thermal gradient for the promotion of structural soundness. or the more usual defects that can be associated with both conditions.

9 Effect of void content on the tensile strengths of selected aluminum Fig. Other means of assessing internal quality such as sectioning castings. and practices in pilot stages through rapid comprehensive correlations with casting quality • Inspect castings during production. as specified by the customer or foundry quality-control standards Fig. (c) Alloy 520. (b) Alloy 443. 5. Ultrasonic and other acoustic techniques have not been proven for engineered aluminum castings.Chapter 5: The Influence and Control of Porosity and Inclusions in Aluminum Castings / 53 5.0-F.” is the recommended refer- Radiography and fluoroscopy are extensively used by the aluminum foundry industry to reveal internal discontinuities.0-T61. Radiographic methods permit nondestructive whole casting evaluation and the discrimination of shrinkage.5 Radiographic Inspection • Confirm that specified internal quality standards have been met • Inspect weldments and weld repairs ASTM E 155. hydrogen porosity.0-T4 .0-T6 sand castings casting alloys. and more and less dense inclusions within limits of resolution. “Reference Radiographs for the Examination of Aluminum and Magnesium Castings. metallography. (a) Alloy 355. 5. Large decreases in tensile strength are associated with relatively small increases in the amount of voids. processes. and microradiography are destructive and offer only plane surfaces for examination.8 Effect of hydrogen porosity on the tensile and yield strengths of alloy 356. Radiography is used to: • Facilitate the optimization of gating design. X-ray testing is performed as a process-control tool and as a compliance test of casting acceptability.

Allison. Trans. J. p 1979–1987 E. 11). REFERENCE 1. Granger.. Brit. Gruzleski. 1997 Q. Processes... Nov 1987. Sigworth and C.A. Mod.R. and Applications ence for the interpretation of discontinuities as revealed by radiographic inspection. J. Vol 92. Vol 62. Fang and D.54 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Light Met. D. Secondary Hydrogen Porosity in Aluminum.T. Drexel University. Vol 18A (No.S.L.. Inst. 1962 P. Vol 236. The Oxidation of Melts of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. Rooy. B. Q. Vol 71. March 1978 K. Young. Pignault.. Vol 20. AFS Trans. Yeum. 1966 D. AFS Trans. 2001 M. AFS Trans..E. Thomas and J. Evolution of Porosity During Solidification. Rooy.M. D. Tyneleius. Met. Anyalebechi. An Experimental Study of the Distribution of Microporosity in Cast Aluminum Base Alloys. 1968 G.N. Magnesium and Copper and Their Alloys.A.T.G. Int. Porosity Formation in Modified and Unmodified A356 Alloy Castings. Met. Granger. Trans.A. The Use of Molten Metal Filters to Eliminate Air Pollution and Improve Melt Quality.L.. 1963 W. Fatigue Behavior of A356-T6 Aluminum Cast Alloys. The Effect of Porosity Size on the Fatigue Properties in a Cast 319 Aluminum Alloy. Lados. Brit.. Foundryman. AFS Trans.A.C. Fang. 1989 SELECTED REFERENCES • • • • • • • J. Wang. Granger. K. Flemings. Effect of Casting Defects. Maples. 1981 • • • • • • • • • • • .J. 1992 D.E.. Microporosity Formation in Al-Si-Cu-Mg Casting Alloys. AFS Trans. Edwards et al. Boleau and J. 1969 G. Met. Hydrogen in Aluminum. Apelian. On the Origin of Porosity in Long Freezing-Range Alloys.L. SAE International. Metall.T.. 1993 E. A Thermodynamic Prediction for Microporosity Formation in Aluminum-Rich AlCu Alloys. Rooy. This ASTM standard and the Aluminum Association standards for aluminum sand and permanent mold casting are the recommended references for those needing more detailed information on radiographic inspection. Sept 1991 • • T. Vol 105. Mechanisms of Porosity Formation in Aluminum. Effects of Hydrogen in Aluminum. Pore Formation in Solidification. 1992 Q. Hess. Vol 38. Poirier. Campbell. and D. 1964 J. Foundryman. Trans. Thiele. 1978 C. Threshold Hydrogen for Pore Formation During the Solidification of Aluminum Alloys. AIME. and P. The Use of Rotating Impeller Gas Injection in Aluminum Processing. “A Parametric Study of the Evolution of Microporosity in Al-Si Foundry Alloys..” Thesis. 1989 J. 1975 D. Talbot. Leroy and G. Filtering and Fluxing Processes for Aluminum Alloys. Metall. Correlation of Tensile Properties to the Amounts of Porosity in Permanent Mold Test Bars. Wang. and A. AFS Trans. Cast.. Sept and Oct l992 E. Gruzleski et al. Effects of Solidification Conditions on Hydrogen Porosity in Aluminum Alloy Castings.. J. Talbot and D. Metall. 2001 K... Aluminum. Piwonka and M. Brondyke and P. AFS Trans. Rev.

1 The HIP Process Hot isostatic processing of castings is recognized as a means of providing improved internal soundness or integrity. resolution of hydrogen and the collapse and metallurgical bonding of internal void surfaces occur by a combination of these effects. Various production castings and powder metallurgical products are routinely HIPped in large commercial facilities. Initial efforts to reduce porosity and increase density involved the application of pressure in metal dies. increased density. Fig.1361/aacp2004p055 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved.1). Furthermore. The principles of HIP are: • At elevated temperatures and under increased pressure. Kaufman. E. Development of lower-cost HIP process alternatives since the 1990s is expanding its potential use into a broad range of applications.G. Hot isostatic pressure application was developed as a means of achieving both technical and economic objectives. Hot isostatic pressing takes place in an autoclave in which parts are exposed under pressure at elevated temperatures in a controlled atmosphere. • At elevated temperatures and under increased pressure. Rooy. These included the cost of dies. The method makes possible the salvage of castings that have been rejected for reasons of internal porosity. brake calipers (pictured). 6. The process was developed to significantly improve the mechanical properties and fatigue strength of aluminum alloy sand and permanent mold castings. permitting the collapse and healing of void surfaces formed by hydrogen precipitation during solidification. Source: Ref 1 . limited but significant dissolution of hydrogen in the aluminum alloy matrix occurs. p 55-60 DOI:10. resulting in increased structural density and integrity. commonly referred to as HIP or HIPping. may be cast in such a manner that application of the densification process would result in parts of acceptable quality and superior performance.asminternational. alloys not of a castability consistent with normal foundry requirements. processing costs equal to a forge finishing operation added to casting and processing costs.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. precipitated hydrogen in excess of the solubility limit is compressed and repartitioned. It has proved capable of substantially eliminating microporosity resulting from the precipitation of hydrogen and the formation of internal shrinkage during solidification. This advantage is of more significant importance in the manufacture of castings subject to radiographic inspection when required levels of soundness are not achieved in the casting process.L. and Applications J. and control arms.org CHAPTER 6 Hot Isostatic Processing One very significant process refinement available to deal with internal porosity is hot isostatic pressing. www. The process has no effect on cracks. Mechanical densification as a concept for processing castings was abandoned as a result of a number of limitations. including aluminum automotive castings such as steering knuckles. and other defects that communicate to the casting surface. shrinkage. or redistributed. shrinkage voids uncontaminated by hydrogen are compressed and healed by the collapse of the surrounding structures when yield strength is reduced sufficiently for plastic deformation to occur during the densification cycle. 6. but offering the potential for improved properties. The HIP process is applicable to a wide range of products in which these benefits justify its cost (Fig. • At elevated temperatures and under increased pressure. • In the case of shrinkage voids contaminated by hydrogen. Processes.1 Hot isostatically pressed cast aluminum brake caliper. and improved properties. 6. This process deserves special attention for applications requiring very high quality and performance. and the nonfeasibility of designing compression dies for complex casting configurations.

6. Surface treatments may also be used to enhance the densification of surface related porosity. Based on the data available. the Alcoa A359 HIP treatment resulted in an average increase of about 200%. Table 6.56 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.2). but lacking communication. most markedly in compositions more susceptible to internal porosity under normal casting conditions. and the endurance limit for the HIPped casting is almost 20% above that of the untreated casting. 6.7).0-T6 casting (Fig. strength was not consistently affected significantly.0 permanent mold castings had been intentionally degraded by a high level of hydrogen in the melt before the A359 process was applied. At reasonable hydrogen levels. and elongation was improved in most cases. it is reasonable to anticipate that HIP will likely improve fatigue properties. and that is shown in Fig. and Allison (Ref 6) show a rather consistent order of magnitude increase in fatigue life for the HIPped sample.0.3 The Effect of HIP on Fatigue Performance It was the significant positive effect of mechanical densification on fatigue properties that encouraged the commercial development of the HIP processes. Boileau. 6.2. and others. such consistent increases were not found for VRC/PRC and sand castings. the internal quality of 332. The HIP cycle could be used in solution heat treatment.0. Comparison radiographs of whole production castings also reflected the dramatic improvement in radiographic quality through HIP. and the endurance limit for the HIPped material was almost 20% above that of the untreated casting. 6. leading to the wider applicability of HIP to cast parts.6 and 6. with an apparent improvement in endurance limit of almost 50%. collapsed. Processing costs and the incompatibility of cycles in which solution heat treatment requires up to six times that required for densification makes that impractical. Some voids in close proximity to the surface.4 Radiographic Inspection of HIPped Castings 6.0-F. The advantage for HIPped casting is apparent at all stress levels. A356. the advantage for HIPped material was apparent at all stress levels.4.5) seem to support the significant advantage of their Densal process at all stress levels for 359. and that the magnitude of the improvement may be greatest in cases where significant porosity is present. with the range being 35 to 360%. Since the solubility of hydrogen in aluminum at 930 °F (500 °C) is approximately 0. Complete fatigue curves were developed for only one alloy. 6. and that the effect was significantly greater for the casting with the greater porosity as indicated by the x-rays. void compression and the redistribution or repartition of precipitated hydrogen through HIP results in essentially closed porosity.003 mL per 100 g. The A359 process treatment of these plates resulted in much more uniform properties. but parts could be partially solution heat treated and then transferred at temperature to the autoclave for completion of HIP and solution treatments. For the castings given the Alcoa A359 treatment. Table 6. The Alcoa A359 HIP treatment resulted in an average increase of about 200%. Zindel. the data in Table 6. As illustrated in Fig. improvements in radiographic quality were consistent with the most challenging specification requirements. The Densal II treatment was applied to a commercially produced A356. Radiographs of laboratory-prepared permanent mold cast plates indicated that most but not all porosity was eliminated or reduced beyond x-ray resolution (Fig. For 332. and that beneficial effect is well illustrated by data for both the A359 and Densal II processes.5 illustrate the effect of the Densal II HIP process on fatigue life. 6.0-T62 vacuum riserless casting/pressure riserless casting (VRC/PRC). Bodycote. but elongation was greatly enhanced.10 mL per 100 g. The data show that tensile and yield strength were improved by densification in every case of the degraded castings.3 through 6.2. 6. Process success is a consequence of the combined effect of external pressure and temperature that causes the collapse of internal voids through plastic deformation. Processes. From Table 6. resulting in indentations.0-T6 castings with both acceptable and unacceptable levels of porosity based on radiographic examination. all tests were run at 20 ksi (138 MPa). In a Weibull analysis for an A356. 332. where the entire fatigue curve was determined (Fig. and involving experimental and production castings have now been performed to confirm that HIP generally increases tensile and yield strengths and elongation.1 are presented in sequence of position in the castings and reflect this gradation.2 The Effect of HIP on Tensile Properties Densification (HIP) to various extents generally enhances tensile and yield strengths and improves ductility.3 and Fig. especially near the surfaces. and Applications 6. Casting methods can be used to minimize the presence of undensifiable porosity on casting surfaces. perhaps this reflects the higher quality of the VRC/PRC casting in the first place. and A357.2 summarizes the results of fatigue tests of six castings representing four different alloys given the Alcoa A359 process. In many instances. For the Densal-treated castings.0-T6. Hydrogen solubility is directly related to the square root of the pressure and calculations indicate that at 930 °F (500 °C).3 illustrate that fatigue life was improved for D357. Voids that communicated to the surface including shrinkage porosity extending into the casting from the riser were not affected. Experience also confirms that the treatment provides greater uniformity of tensile properties within most parts.3). both the Alcoa A359 process (Ref 2) and the Densal II Process (Bodycote International) (Ref 3) are represented. 6. Large numbers of additional tests by Alcoa. A comparison of tensile test results for cast plates with and without densification treatment is shown in Table 6.1.0-F. The data in Table 6. the amount of hydrogen that can be dissolved through HIP treatment approximates 0. it is clear that in cases where tests were run of untreated and treated samples at the same stress level of 20 ksi (140 MPa). Extensive reheat treatment at ambient . Data from Bodycote (Fig. and in fact only small increases favoring the HIPped samples are apparent. Some of the Alcoa test plates given the hydrogen-degrading treatment beforehand exhibited progressively decreasing tensile properties from the bottom to the top of the casting. hydrogen solubility increases 32 times at an external pressure of 15 ksi (105 MPa).

7 Densal II 346 346 357 350 39.3 27.5 3. .1 38.4 36. Alloy Temper Casting process Ultimate strength ksi MPa Untreated Yield strength(a) ksi MPa Elongation (2D or 4D).1 17 10% 10 5% 148 70% Average improvement by HIPing Chapter 6: Hot Isostatic Processing / 57 (a) For tensile yield strengths.1 35...1 212 212 209 208 202 218 225 216 218 226 214 4. .5 39.6 35.2 329 326 322 326 40.9 36..5 27.5 52.0 T61 Permanent mold Average 41 44.7 25.2 . . permanent mold A356.4 6.0 T6 Investment (Acceptable x-rays) 50...2 297 310 286 .5 2.1 49.6 41.0 29. .4 36.0 3. permanent mold D357.1 ..2 5.6 41.3 29.1 –0 1 2 4 Average 51.5 36..8 36. ..7 47.5 50.6 41.0 3 T62 Typical.5 3.8 259 263 261 34.2 39.2 51.2 228 244 236 2.1 33.4 –2 –5 16 3 T62 A359 A359 A359 Typical..5 4..8 28 187 188 189 188 177 203 209 201 197 192 193 4.6 35.9 A356... .0 258 286 274 272 289 281 174 276 4.5 0.1 246 240 234 229 208 275 261 252 245 232 242 27.5 2.9 3.8 237 243 240 2.5 6..8 302 283 30 207 10.0 270 262 274 269 4.4 41.5 .8 37..9 41..5 3.8 42. permanent mold A356.7 30..4 30... % HIPped Ultimate strength Yield strength(a) ksi MPa ksi MPa Improvement HIPped/unHIPped.1 Effect of HIP on tensile properties of representative aluminum alloy castings Values are averages for an unspecified number of tests of specimens from castings. 31.7 42. .6 50.0 D357.9 38....2 30..5 6.4 27.8 5. offset ϭ 0..3 25.8 30..0 Densal II 43.0 5.3 50..4 34.0 3..1 35.7 4.4 41.3 281 290 283 285 3.2 50.1 41.0 32.. 214.8 50. .5 2.1 37.0 34.9 40.5 0.5 252 251 252 33.8 34. .5 31..5 0.6 268 258 253 254 251 295 292 287 287 284 273 30.7 38.2 2.6 38..1 27.9 50.Table 6.1 36.5 0.2 35.5 0..7 7. % ElonUTS TYS(a) gation Ref 332.2 28.0 0.0 5.7 47.5 . 298 37. 251 1.5 40. .7 39..6 32.0 T6 Investment (unacceptable x-rays) 4 Average 43.5 10.8 35.5 2.5 38..1 29.0 4 38.2 50..3 3. .2 39.4 3. 266 1.4 35.0 6.5 T6 Typical.0 39.9 38.7 29.0 T62 Permanent mold Average 62 428 38 262 17.3 30....0 3.8 50.2 40.0 T62 VRC/PRC 226 10.0 33.9 357 350 351 346 351 39.1 41. ..5 0.3 31.7 50.9 4.6 268 264 ..7 39..5 0. 36.2 34..5 4. 1..3 31.2 6.9 234 235 232 234 0.5 238 9..0 4.0 0.6 32.5 3.1 1.0 33..5 33.5 4.7 49.1 6..2 39.0 2. .4 228 194 186 202.0 Densal II 43.6 33.5 307 34.2 46.. 38.0 6.0 T6 Sand 4 –2 5 2 Average A359 A359 A359 A359 A359 A359 A359 A359 A359 A359 37.1 44.3 .5 348 351 347 348 359 343 339 348 37.7 36.4 42.6 268 246 245 253 34. .8 35. .9 6.5 35...6 270 250 274 268 266 7..5 36.9 36. Source: Ref 2–4 .0 6.6 34.1 27.8 37.2%.7 36.2 50. . % HIP process Elongation (2D or 4D). . 43.7 47.0 2.4 41.0 5 13 11 46 T61 Typical.5 3..0 28.9 50.4 261 250 243 .1 214 ..5 0.6 31.. permanent mold 2 18 7 275 A357.0 25 9 T6 Permanent mold A359 A359 A359 2 0 Average 36 Densal II –3 248 28 193 17.1 301 283 245 276 38.7 31..

Rampulla. (b) Percent improvement by HIP in fatigue strength or endurance limit as compared to unHIPped material from same lot. Met.0 ϫ 106 1. ksi Smooth ksi MPa Fatigue life HIPped(b) cycles Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) by Alcoa 359 process Untreated cycles Improvement HIPped/UnHIPped(b) Alloy Temper Type of casting(a) Lot ID 242.6 ϫ 7.M.75 ϫ 106 1.92 0.02 ϫ ϫ ϫ ϫ ϫ 105 105 105 105 105 105 1.82 ϫ 105 7.L. Proc.” Technical Paper Series 970019. Zindel. Mod.0 138 360% Average A356. Rooy. and B.45 ϫ 105 130% 202% Average increase in fatigue life at 20 ksi (138 MPa) (a) Casting process and part shape if known. Source: Ref 5 pressure can.1 ϫ 105 2.95 ϫ 1.6 ϫ 105 2. and Applications Table 6. and J.58 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. The Aluminum Association 2. Oct 2003 .33 ϫ 105 105 35% 203% 354.428 20. Present and Future.35 0.C. Improving the Quality of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Castings for Airframe and Automotive Applications using the Densal II Process. Rampulla. The extent of outgassing occurring through diffusion in the HIP treatment cycle is insignificant.1 ϫ 105 6. REFERENCES 1.430 20.8 ϫ 105 6.82 ϫ 106 2.0 T61 Sand cast part 317433. 13– 15 Oct 2003..15 ϫ 105 1.C.0 T61 Sand cast part 317435.9 ϫ 105 2.R. In the case of castings with high hydrogen contents. J. 1.0 F PM pistons 317843.4 ϫ 105 1.6 ϫ 105 1.3 ϫ 105 3.05 ϫ 2..0 138 312% Average A356.79 ϫ 105 4.97 0. Diem and S.41 ϫ 106 106 4. and substantial improvement in radiographic inspection capability. this effect is seen following the heat treatment of HIPped parts. E. from previously unpublished R.05 ϫ 105 1. International Symposium of Aluminum Applications: Thrusts and Challenges. International Symposium of Aluminum Applications: Thrusts and Challenges. The process can result in the salvage of unsatisfactory quality castings.2 ϫ 105 4.0 138 138 Average 138 0.434 20.45 ϫ 106 2.6 ϫ 106 1. Hebeisen.35 ϫ 106 6 ϫ 104 . J.94 ϫ 105 . PA).0 138 Average 332.1 ϫ 106 1.2 ϫ 6. result in the reformation of internal porosity.3 ϫ 105 2.1 ϫ 1.J. Moore rotating beam fatigue curves 6. ASM Materials Solutions Conference (Pittsburgh.5 ϫ 105 2.2 Average 354..0 138 174% Average 1. “The Effects of Solidification Time on the Mechanical Properties in a Cast A356-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Mashi. Cox.0 T61 PM cast part 317431.M. Processes. Present and Future.0 20. PM.39 ϫ 105 105 3.W. Dec 1963 3. Oct 2003 4. permanent mold. Improving Casting Properties and Integrity with Hot Isostatic Processing.437 20. 1997 SELECTED REFERENCE • M. Cox.6 ϫ 105 0..E.5 ϫ 106 2.2 Effect of HIP by Alcoa Process on fatigue life of representative aluminum alloy castings Fatigue stress. B.M. Hebeisen.24 ϫ 105 105 1. ASM Materials Solutions Conference (Pittsburgh.0 F PM casting 317439.3 ϫ 105 4.3 ϫ 105 1. Aluminum Now.M.. B. J.55 ϫ 105 105 7. Boileau. Allison. SAE International. Applications of Aluminum in Vehicle Design.85 1. ASM International 5. in the worst cases. PA).05 ϫ 105 1. 6 ϫ 104 2. Proc.1 ϫ 105 3.4 ϫ 3. Hot isostatic pressing is capable of upgrading mechanical properties and internal soundness and dramatically improving fatigue performance in a wide range of sand and permanent mold cast parts.0 20.8 ϫ 106 2.9 ϫ 106 2. an upgrading of mechanical properties for purposes of specification compliance. J.4 20. Simultaneous Densification and Solution Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings. Improving the Quality of Commercial Aluminum Alloy Castings for Airframe and Automotive Applications Using the Densal II Process.3 ϫ 106 1.35 ϫ 106 1. Alcoa Laboratories.1 ϫ 105 5.55 ϫ 106 1. and B.0 T61 PM cast part 317429.

.337 63.533 130..147 10.509 19..444 60..121 19.4 182 Average D357..824 94..221 15.499 120.372 63.763 2.950 144.126 34.190 130..795 5.357 146.. 6.524 39. .569 163.0-F casting (specimen per Fig. A3.004 164.271 31.515 69.405 125.519 154..718 16..0 T6 Investment (unacceptable x-rays) 26.210 10.122 142.501 13.555 161.253 152.986 80.200 . .748 119.535 121.361 133.067 63.447 13.. . .364 149.570 69.Chapter 6: Hot Isostatic Processing / 59 Fig.401 49.183 187% Average 606% (a) Percent improvement by HIP in fatigue strength or endurance limit as compared to unHIPped material from same lot.033 177.453 160. Source: Ref 4 .240 29.645 84.703 136.991 172.3 Effect of HIP by Densal II on fatigue life of representative aluminum alloy castings Fatigue life Fatigue stress.2 in Appendix 3) Table 6.191 60. smooth ksi MPa Untreated cycles HIPped cycles Alloy Temper Type of casting Improvement(a) D357..000 199.4 182 19.191 178. 52.. .169 174.604 125..473 22.707 .2 Effect of Alcoa A359 HIP process on the rotating beam fatigue life of a 332.. .114 143.0 T6 Investment (acceptable x-rays) 26.. 17.

Processes. 6.0-T64 aluminum alloy casting with and without Densal II HIP Fig.60 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 6.4 Fatigue S-N curves for VCR/PCR and sand cast A356.0-T6 aluminum alloy castings with and without Densal II HIP Fig.3 Weibull analysis of fatigue data for A357.0-T6 aluminum alloy castings with and without Densal II HIP.0) for gravity die cast 359. 6. 6.5 Rotating bending fatigue S-N curves (R ϭ –1. E–H as cast . and Applications Fig. 6.6 Radiographs showing an untreated A356 alloy cast section with heavy porosity (right) and after hot isostatic pressing (left) Fig. Source: Ref 6 Fig.7 Thin-section radiographs taken from A356 plate casting sections at one-inch intervals: A–D after HIP treatment.

and Applications J. Rooy. 7. Through temper selection. quenched.5% Cu and (b) 6.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.asminternational. it is possible to achieve properties that are largely responsible for the current use of aluminum alloy castings in virtually every field of application. E. .org CHAPTER 7 Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings The metallurgy of aluminum and its alloys offers a range of opportunities for employing thermal treatment practices to obtain desirable combinations of mechanical and physical properties. bearings for example.1). One or more of the following objectives form the basis for temper selection: • • • • Increase hardness Improve machinability Improve wear resistance Increase strength and/or produce the mechanical properties specified for a particular material condition • • • • • Stabilize mechanical and physical properties Ensure dimensional stability Alter electrical characteristics Alter corrosion resistance Relieve residual stresses The versatility of aluminum is reflected by the number of alloys that have been developed and commercially used. p 61-68 DOI:10. Kaufman. precipitation hardened.G. A wide range in desirable combinations of mechanical and physical properties can be achieved through the heat treatment of many of these alloys. or treated in combinations of these practices (Fig. The vertical dashed lines represent alloys containing (a) 4.1361/aacp2004p061 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. In some simple shapes. the Aluminum Association has standardized the definitions and nomenclature applicable to thermal prac- Fig. thermal treatment may also include postquench plastic deformation through compression. solution heat treated. To achieve any of these objectives.L.1 Typical temperature ranges for various thermal operations for aluminum alloy castings superimposed on a binary aluminum-copper phase diagram. The term heat treatment is used to describe all thermal practices intended to modify the metallurgical structure of products in such a way that physical and mechanical characteristics are controllably altered to meet specific engineering criteria. www. overaged. 7. parts may be annealed. Processes. As noted in Chapter 2.3% Cu.

annealed T2. However. stepped heat treatment may be required to avoid melting of lower-melting-temperature phases. limited changes do occur. T5xx.2). supersaturated solution heat treated condition. recognizing the resistance of cast structures to melting based on diffusion considerations. Specific criteria for heat treatment and the practices that will be used are often separately negotiated between buyer and seller. 7. 7. the effect of temperature on diffusion rates. T4. Quenching is a distinct step in thermal practice leading to the metastable. additional digits such as T5x. Residual stresses caused by solidification or by prior quenching are reduced. other (sometimes desirable) effects accompany elevated-temperature treatment.2 Quenching Exposure to temperatures corresponding to maximum safe limits relative to the lowest melting temperature for a specific heat treatable composition results in dissolution of soluble phases that formed during and after solidification. The slope of the temperature-time relationship during quenching from solution temperature should be sufficiently steep that limits of precipitate solubility are not intersected (Fig. but thin-walled sand castings produced with extensive use of chills can also often display finer microstructures. While temperatures just below the eutectic melting point are desirable for optimal property development. Coarser microstructures associated with slow-solidification-rate processes require longer exposure at solution heat treatment temperature for solution to be achieved. and separate parameters apply to the steps required to achieve the highest postquench degree of retained solution. When more than one soluble phase is present such as in Al-Si-Cu-Mg and Al-Zn-Cu-Mg systems. and susceptibility to corrosion may be affected.62 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. the formation and distribution of precipitated phases can be manipulated to influence material properties. The T101 temper has been assigned to a compressively cold-worked condition applicable only to alloy x850. solution heat treatment practices may be optimized for any specific part to achieve solution with the shortest reasonable cycle once a production practice is finalized. There is. Rapid cooling from solution temperature to room temperature is critical. solution heat treated. T6x. Different casting processes and foundry practices result in microstructural differences with relevance to heat treatment practice. In practice. and overaged practice with a large margin of safety to avoid the delays and costs of reheat treatment when property limits are not met. solution heat treatment temperature is critical in determining the degree of solution that can be attained. annealed (obsolete designation. Specific parameters may be associated with the heating of parts to achieve solution. Specialized equipment such as bottom-drop and continuous furnaces offer these advantages. and often the least-controlled step in thermal processing. Because of the changing slope of the characteristic solvus as temperature approaches the eutectic melting point. The heat treatment of aluminum alloys is based on the varying solubilities of metallurgical phases in a crystallographically monotropic system. Limited solubility also results in similar physical boundary changes in other insoluble intermetallics. is justified solely by this phenomenon and its effect on ductility. The most complete degree of solution that can be practically and economically achieved is desirable for optimal properties. The knowledgeable heat treatment facility or foundry seeking to obtain superior properties will bias solution heat treatment temperature within specification limits to obtain the highest practical degree of solution. Since solubility of the eutectic phase increases with increasing temperature to the solidus. which directly influences degree of solution as a function of time at temperature. and permanent mold castings. The rate of heating to solution temperature is technically unimportant. sand. quenched. and Applications tice types and maintains a registry of standard heat treatment practices and designations for industry use: • • • • • • • F. use O instead) T4. Processes. difficult. In addition to phase and morphology changes associated with soluble elements and compounds. solution heat treated. which contains no soluble phase. etc. furthermore. it is critically important that eutectic melting resulting in brittle intergranular eutectic networks be avoided. artificially aged from the as-cast condition T6. For tempers T4 through T7. as-cast O. Specifications often define or recommend quench delay limits. Microsegregation in all solidified structures is minimized or eliminated. The surfaces of primary and eutectic silicon particles are characteristically rounded during solution heat treatment. Insoluble phases including those containing impurity elements are normally thought to be unaffected by solution heat treatment. solution heat treated and quenched T5. Within temperature ranges defined for solution heat treatment by applicable specification lies a significant corresponding range of solution potentials. Even though castings are characteristically more tolerant of quench delay than wrought products because of coarser structures and . and furnace controls that are capable of operating within close temperature ranges near the eutectic melting region. Superior properties can be achieved with furnaces.1 Solution Heat Treatment 7. The solution heat treatment of alloy A444. thermocouples. quenched. For these reasons. insoluble phases may be physically altered. The time required at temperature is typically progressively shorter for investment.0. Excessive delays result in temperature drop and the rapid formation of coarse precipitates in a temperature range at which the effects of precipitation are ineffective for hardening purposes.0. may be used to define practice variations. the shortest possible delay is desirable. and artificially aged T7. Most foundries and heat treaters will select a solution heat treatment The objective of quenching is retention of the highest possible degree of solution with the lowest level of induced residual stresses and the least warpage or distortion consistent with commercial or specified requirements.

vapor film. and convective boiling occur with dramatically different heatextraction rates at different temperature intervals.Chapter 7: Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings / 63 longer diffusion times. 150 °F (65 °C). and casting geometry influence the results. freshly machined. Water is the quench medium of choice for aluminum alloys. The key to the compromise between goals involving property development and the physical consequences of quenching is heatextraction uniformity. Since higher potential strength is associated with the most rapid quenching and. Load density. corrosion and stress-corrosion performance are enhanced by rapid quenching.2 Time-temperature-precipitation chart for aluminum alloys containing 7% Al and varying amounts of magnesium . quenchant additions are often made to: • Promote stable vapor film boiling by the deposition of compounds on the surface of parts as they are submerged in the quench solution • Suppress variations in heat flux by increasing vapor film boiling stability through chemically decreased surface tension • Moderate quench rate for a given water temperature Quenching rates are also affected by surface condition of the parts. and its temperature has a major effect on results. Effects of thickness and quenchant temperature on average cooling rates at midplane are shown in Fig. stained. and rough surfaces while bright. Most commercial quenching is accomplished in water entered near the boiling point. and 180 °F (80 °C) are common standardized alternatives. and in organic solutions. salt baths. More rapid quenching occurs with oxidized. Nevertheless. Nucleant.3. 7. it would appear that room-temperature water should routinely be employed. in general. but room temperature. Quenchant temperature is the dominant factor in these considerations. which is in turn a complex function of the operable heat-extraction mechanism. and surface conditions. The common use of water as a quenching medium is largely based on its superiority in heat extraction relative to other materials. 7. but the cooling rate advantage of 150 °F (65 °C) versus 212 °F (100 °C) water quench temperature is retained independent of section thickness. Figure 7. In addition to developing racking and loading methods that space and orient parts for most uniform quenching.4 shows differences in mechanical properties that result from quenching in water at different temperatures. and etched surfaces quench more slowly. More severe quenching offers diminishing benefits in property potentials and significant increases in residual stresses and distortion. section thickness. As section thicknesses increase. For many compositions. fan or mist Fig. the metallurgical advantage of quench rates obtained by water temperatures less than 150 °F (65 °C) diminish. positioning. excessive quench delays nevertheless result in less-than-optimal strengthening potential. quenching has been accomplished in oil.

Instead. age hardens over a period of years.64 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. depending on the alloy and the properties desired. 7.0. For example. The extent of change is highly alloy dependent. Fig. however. critical nucleation size. or fail to reach. F.3 Precipitation Heat Treating/Aging Natural or artificial precipitation hardening following solution heat treatment and quench most powerfully differentiates the properties of cast aluminum products.0 and C355. With continued exposure at aging temperature. Hardening is defined as changes in metallurgical structure resulting in increased resistance to deformation. hardness. and a number of Al-Zn-Mg alloys that are employed without heat treatment exhibit rapid changes in properties over three or four weeks and harden at progressively reduced rates thereafter. At room or low aging temperatures or during transition at higher temperatures. a stage leading to the 7. The T4 condition is. room-temperature aging in alloys such as A356. Among these advantages are increased strength and hardness with a corresponding sacrifice in ductility. Processes. the principal change is the diffusion of solute atoms to high-energy sites such as dislocations. The process of hardening is accelerated by artificially aging at temperatures ranging from approximately 200 to 500 °F (90 to 260 °C).3 Midplane cooling rates for varying water quench temperatures and aluminum alloy casting thicknesses . the development of more stable mechanical properties. and reduced residual stresses. dislocation tangles. these sites reach. improved machinability. condition. properties change as a function of time at room temperature solely as a result of Guinier-Preston (GP) zone formation within the lattice structure. the advantages of aging or precipitation hardening are obtained by additional thermal treatment following quenching.0 occurs within 48 h with insignificant changes thereafter. It is unique in improving strength. supersaturation. Alloy 520. Most aluminum alloys age harden to some extent naturally after quenching. Typical thermal treatments sacrifice strength and hardness for elongation or develop strength and hardness at the expense of ductility. is relieved by the precipitation of solute that proceeds in stages with specific structural effects. which characterizes the roomtemperature solution condition. that is. rarely employed. normally used in the T4 condition. In general. and Applications quench is feasible as a means of obtaining dramatic reductions in residual stress levels at considerable sacrifice in hardening potential. In natural and artificial aging. parts that have been solution heat treated and quenched display tensile properties and elongation superior to those of the as-cast. and ductility. and vacancies within the crystal lattice producing distortion of lattice planes and forming concentrations of subcritical crystal nuclei.

It should be noted that longer times at lower aging temperature generally result in higher peak strengths. these transitional phase particles grow with an increase in coherency strains until with sufficient time and temperature. The flatter curves associated with lower aging temperatures allow greater tolerance in the effects of time/ temperature variations.0. 0. and A357.0 is largely dictated by composition. interfacial bond strength is exceeded. the strengthening effects associated with precipitate formation and growth. MЈ is less effective in strength development. Finally. GP zones that form by diffusion of copper atoms in the supersaturated solid solution (SS) are replaced by ␪Љ. (19 mm) thick test slab. Continued growth of the now equilibrium phase occurs with the loss of hardness and strength corresponding to the overaged condition.75 in. The aging response. and 771. and transition to the stable forms occurs rapidly at conventional aging temperatures: M ϭ MgZn2 T ϭ Mg3Zn3Al2 SS R GP R MЈ R M ↓ TЈ → T Fig. Aging curves facilitate process selection. but both may be present. The addition of magnesium accelerates and inten- Several hardening phases may be formed in Al-Zn-Mg alloys. as discrete transition phase regions continue to grow. 7. At temperatures above 212 °F (100 °C). Most alloys of this type room-temperature age for extended periods.Chapter 7: Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings / 65 formation of discrete particles displaying the identifiable crystallographic character of the precipitated phase. sifies room-temperature aging. noncoherent equilibrium ␪: ␪ ϭ CuAl2 SS → GP → ␪Љ → ␪Ј → ␪ Magnesium silicide is the soluble phase in important alloys such as 356. Unlike solution heat treatment.0. the time required to reach aging temperature may be significant.3.3. ␪Ј transforms to stable.1 Aluminum-Copper The soluble phase in aluminum-copper alloys is copper aluminide (CuAl2). and with it. or rate of property change as a function of time at peak strength.0 alloys. but is seldom included in age-cycle control. Continued diffusion and growth lead to the formation of the transition phase ␪Ј. .4 Tensile properties of end-chilled A356-T6 at different quench temperatures. The presence of M and T in precipitation-hardened alloys such as 712. Unlike the hardening that accompanies the development of coherent lattice strains. A356. Further aging produces rodshaped particles. sometimes referred to as GP[2].4 Aluminum-Zinc-Magnesium 7. and the progression is from GP zones to the transition and stable equilibrium phases: S ϭ Al2CuMg SS → GP → SЈ → S 7.2 Aluminum-Copper-Magnesium A similar sequence occurs in the artificial age hardening of AlCu-Mg alloys. is also of interest. The heat treater may reasonably predict the results of aging by reference to these curves (see Data Set 1). this phase acts to increase the energy required for deformation of the crystal lattice. The transition from ␤Ј to equilibrium Mg2Si occurs without further diffusion: ␤ ϭ Mg2Si SS → GP → ␤Ј → ␤ 7. Coherency is lost.3 Aluminum-Silicon-Magnesium 7. The energy imparted during heating to precipitationhardening temperature may be integrated into the control sequence to more accurately control results and minimize cycle time. which has the same composition and structure as the stable ␪ phase and maintains coherency with the crystal lattice.3. With additional treatment.0. aged 310 °F (155 °C) for 5 h The practice to be employed in artificial aging is entirely dependent on the desired level of property/strength development. 713. Spherical zones convert to needle-shaped particles at points corresponding to peak hardening.3. with an ordered three-dimensional atomic arrangement.0.

is carrying the aging cycle to a point beyond peak hardness. so that stress relief becomes more exclusively a function of thermal treatment. but there are good reasons for its use in many applications. Specifications may also require or rely exclusively on the testing of specimens excised and machined from the casting. 7. Higher-temperature practices are employed for more complete relaxation of residual stresses. t. Mechanical property limits statistically define normalcy for a given composition cast by a specific process or a composition cast by a specific process that has been heat treated to a specified temper. Precipitation hardening as practiced for the T6 condition results in reductions of 10 to 35% in residual stresses imposed by quenching. these specimens accompany the castings they represent through all phases of thermal operations. 7.5 Characteristic residual stress distribution after solution heat treatment and quench. Decreasing the severity of quench from solution heat treatment results in a lower level of residual stresses but with correspondingly decreased material strength. parts become more dimensionally stable as a result of more complete degrowthing. Typical annealing practices are for relatively short (2 to 4 h) exposures at a minimum temperature of 650 °F (340 °C). softness. originally assigned the designation T2.5 Stability Stability is defined as the condition of unchanging structural and physical characteristics as a function of time under service conditions. it is also most often conducted at a higher temperature than employed for the fully hardened condition. Processes. Residual stresses are caused by differences in postsolidification cooling between surface and interior regions.66 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. overaged. Furthermore. 7. When castings are heat treated. Residual stresses are functions of differential cooling rates.4 Annealing Annealing. With exposure to elevated temperatures. has little application in the complex designs of engineered products such as castings. The metastable T4 condition is subject to hardening. routinely practiced for stress relief in wrought products. is rarely employed but serves a useful purpose in providing parts with extreme dimensional and physical stability and the lowest level of residual stresses. significant additional physical and mechanical property changes are to be expected. and annealing provides a practical minimum in residual stress levels. They include dimensional change or growth and changes in susceptibility to corrosion and stress corrosion that can be associated with transitional states in some alloys. but also directly influences residual stress levels. Separately cast tensile specimens. Mechanical properties that include ultimate tensile strength. They are induced by cooling from solidification temperature. and elongation are the usual criteria by which material acceptability is determined after heat treatment. and material strength. yield strength. and Applications The overaged T7 condition is less common than is the T6 temper.5). A substantial further decrease in residual stresses is associated with the higher-temperature aging treatment. and more rapid temperature change results in large differences in the cooling rates of surface and internal regions of the casting structure. When the part is cooled from elevated temperature. Stresses induced by quenching from solution heat treatment temperature are many times more important than casting stresses or stresses imposed in any other conventional process. Typical practice is to cool from annealing temperature in the furnace or in still air. and correspondingly poor machinability. Underaged and solution heat treated parts are least stable.1 Troubleshooting Heat Treatment Problems Acceptance Criteria 7. section thickness. 7. thickness . and increased stability in performance is ensured when service involves exposure at elevated temperatures. The annealed condition is also characterized by low strength levels. aged. at room and higher temperatures. and by changes in temperature at any intermediate step. and as-cast. While overaging. Increasing thickness and alloy strength increases the magnitude of residual stresses.7. The residual stresses retained after annealing or aging is limited by the yield strength of the material at treatment temperature. Plastic deformation.6 Residual Stresses Thermal treatment not only affects mechanical properties. are typically used for all casting processes. extensive in some alloys and limited in others. the normal distribution of residual stresses when the part has reached room temperature is compression at the surface and counterbalancing tension in core regions (Fig. now the O temper. Residual stresses may only be relaxed by exposure to elevated temperature followed by slow cooling or by plastic deformation. The cooling rate from annealing temperature must be controlled in such a way that residual stresses are not reinduced and that resolution effects are avoided.7 7. More severe Fig. 7. by definition. poured from the melt from which the casting lot is poured. Overaging results in significant reductions in residual stresses. quenching from solution heat treatment temperature. in that order. The most stable conditions obtainable are annealed. Air quenching may provide a useful compromise in applications requiring unusual dimensional stability.

sulfur. Fe-Si. or other furnace or casting surface contamination. alloy content should be carefully examined. and the modification or degree of refinement of eutectic and hypereutectic structures alter properties. There are no technical reasons for discouraging even repeated reheat treatment to obtain acceptable mechanical properties. and other casting-related defects influence mechanical properties adversely. In some cases. Quantometers simplify and standardize chemical element concentrations. All defects adversely affect strength and elongation. and aging cycle. except those associated with objectionable conditions such as high-temperature oxidation or eutectic melting. Electrical conductivity is used in rotors and anodes as an acceptance criterion. it is essential that resolution heat 7. quench delay. grease. and Zn-Cu-Mg are also important considerations in defining the causes of abnormal mechanical property response to thermal treatment. tensile specimen type. Element relationships such as Cu-Mg. it is not normally guaranteed. tin. can have measurable effects. resolution heat treatment is an acceptable corrective action. temperature of quenching medium. structure. • Replacement and retest provisions are defined by specification and standards. even within specified limits. wet chemistry or alternative techniques such as atomic absorption are employed. The quality of solution heat treatment may be assessed in several ways. resulting in characteristic rosettes of resolidified eutectic. • Failure should not be associated with surface damage such as nicks and scratches or machining errors. Annealing times and temperatures and postanneal cooling conditions are important for O temper material. Low concentrations of soluble elements in heat treatable compositions naturally result in the more frequent distribution of mechanical property values in the lower specification range. When mechanical properties have failed specifica- . such as those developed by government agencies and technical societies. The elimination of microsegregation or coring in many alloys is another indication of elevatedtemperature treatment. hydrogen porosity. The chemical composition of alloys of aluminum is determined by light emission spectroscopy. of course. the rounding effect on “insoluble phases” that can be observed metallographically and serves as evidence of elevated-temperature exposure. testing procedures. It is not appropriate to believe that unsound castings and tensile specimens will consistently meet specified mechanical property limits. • The entire fracture must be contained within the center half of the gage length. It results from excessive moisture in the furnace atmosphere. Mechanical property failure may be caused by structural unsoundness and not by inadequate heat treatment. Undissolved solute can be distinguished from the appearance of precipitate that forms at high temperatures and that result from quench delay or an inadequate or incomplete quench by particle size and distribution. Variations in chemical composition. form embrittling intergranular networks with similar effects. It is important to establish that the tensile specimens involved were representative and that test procedures conformed to the requirements of applicable test method standards: • The stress-strain diagram should be used to confirm that test procedures including strain rate were appropriate. Fe-Mn. Metallurgical considerations such as chemical segregation. sometimes aggravated by oil. Shrinkage. Furnace records and time-temperature charts should be consulted to confirm that specified practices were observed. grain and dendrite cell sizes. For heat treated and aged tempers. Low-temperaturemelting elements. 30 s) is only approximately related to yield strength. Chemical composition is a major variable in mechanical property development. and their effects should be considered before addressing the possibility of heat treatment problems.2 Diagnosis When specified mechanical property limits are not met after heat treatment. inclusions. under some conditions. Electrical conductivity only approximates the relationship of chemistry. • The fracture surface should be examined to determine that no anomalous condition contributed to failure. 500 kg load. cracks.” Sodium and calcium are embrittling in 5xx. There is also a tendency for precipitate that forms as a result of quench delay or inadequate quench to concentrate at grain boundaries as opposed to more normal distribution through the microstructure for properly solution heat treated and aged material. underaging is difficult to assess because of the submicroscopic nature of transitional precipitates. tion limits and no other practice discrepancies are determined. These documents specify testing frequency. variables include solution time and temperature. The role of trace elements in mechanical property development is important since these are often not separately defined in alloy specifications except as “others each” and “others total. and while it is used routinely as an easily measurable nondestructive indicator of material condition. These requirements may also be separately negotiated.7. High-temperature oxidation is a misnamed condition of hydrogen diffusion affecting surface layers during solution heat treatment. Si-Mg. such as lead. The effective solution of soluble phases can be determined microscopically. • Specimens may contain nonrepresentative defects. While the overaged condition is microscopically apparent. for all other heat treatment aberrations. Insoluble impurity elements are generally responsible for decreases in elongation.0 alloys. casting lot definitions. In the case of aluminum-copper alloys. and thermal treatment in cast or cast and heat treated aluminum structures. Eutectic melting occurs when the eutectic melting temperature is exceeded in solution heat treatment. phase size and distribution. and bismuth may. It may also be used to estimate susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking. There is. While underaging may be corrected by additional aging.Chapter 7: Heat Treatment of Aluminum Castings / 67 Minimum mechanical property limits are usually defined by the terms of general procurement specifications. analytical procedures and judgments are applied to establish a corrective course of action based on evidence or assumptions concerning the cause of failure. Less accurate methods including x-ray fluorescence are used to discriminate composition ranges. Brinell hardness (10 mm ball. and test limits. Evidence of acceptable aging practice is best obtained from aging furnace records that might indicate errors in the age cycle.

ACRL.68 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. American Society for Metals. Practical Aspects of Heat Treatment. Ed. The Aluminum Association. 2nd ed. 5th ed.. Processes. Dec 1992 • K. however.. it should be apparent that when the results of repeated reheat treatment prove to be equally unsatisfactory that other conditions are responsible for mechanical property failure. 1988 • S. The Aluminum Association. Zalenas.R.. Ed. Vol 1. Rooy. Heat Treatment of Al-Si-Mg Alloys.L. 1989 • Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Casting. North American Die Casting Association (NADCA). 1984 . Drexel University. Aluminum Casting Technology. 1999 • E. • NADCA Product Specification Standards for Die Casting. Inc. 1993 SELECTED REFERENCES • Alloy and Temper Registrations Records. Inc. WPI.E. American Society for Metals.. Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy. Hatch. Aluminum. Heat Treatment of Aluminum Cast Products.. TMS. Metal Processing Institute. 2003 • E. • J.L. and Applications treatment be conducted at a temperature equivalent to or higher than the original practice to ensure effective resolution. Shivkumar et al. Van Horn.. Rooy. 1967 • D. American Foundrymen’s Society.

5 is a summary of the densities and average moduli of elasticity of aluminum and the more commonly used alloying elements to aid in such estimates.3. and Applications J. Growth. where they are compared with the band for wrought alloys.3 Effects of subzero and elevated temperatures 8. . Values calculated in this manner should be considered estimates. Growth is an important consideration for parts for which close dimensional tolerances are a requirement. especially in elevated-temperature applications.0 and 356..asminternational.1 (Ref 1.4 Impact of emerging technologies and premium practices on properties • 8. are presented in Fig. or more appropriately. and care should be taken to note the exceptions to the rule for modulus.3.2 (Ref 3–7).4 (Ref 8).2 Physical properties • 8.1 Compositions • 8.3. The effect of elements in and out of solid solution on the resistivity of aluminum casting alloys is illustrated by the data in Table 8. A summary of the major characteristics of the individual alloys is presented in Table 8. Table 8. the rule of averages). The densities and moduli of elasticity of all aluminum alloys.2 Design properties (including MMPDS/MILHDBK-5) 8.e. as determined in cantilever-beam vibration tests (Ref 11).Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.5 Fracture resistance • 8.4 Fatigue resistance • 8. Rooy. 319.6 Subcritical crack growth • 8. including castings. E. principally precipitation from solid solution that occurs with time in service.7 Corrosion resistance • 8. The growth characteristics of a number of aluminum casting alloys are represented by the curves in Data Set 2.1361/aacp2004p069 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved.org CHAPTER 8 Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings This chapter takes a detailed look at a wide range of the properties and performance of aluminum casting alloys. for which the effect is greater than would be expected based on its modulus alone.0 castings and others with very low yield strengths may have appreciably higher damping capacity than the typical 3xx. www. utilizing the following organization of information: • 8. Processes. 2). Table 2.8 Properties of aluminum matrix composites 8. are directly dependent on the alloying content and those properties of the alloying elements themselves. magnesium. Data for aluminum wrought alloys with cladding are included in the figure to indicate that 1xx. for example.1 Typical properties 8.3. Kaufman.G.1 Compositions and Influence of Composition on Characteristics The compositions of commercial aluminum casting alloys are given in Chapter 2.1. The damping characteristics of two aluminum casting alloys. p 69-131 DOI:10. 8.3. including cast aluminum matrix composites. Alloy con- stants permitting the calculation of the coefficients of thermal expansion over various ranges of temperature are provided in Table 8.L. occurs as a result of microstructural phase changes.0 castings. The dependence is such that these properties may be estimated for alloys for which they have been measured directly by summing the percentages of each element multiplied by their own density and/or moduli respectively (i.2 Physical Properties of Aluminum Casting Alloys The physical properties of aluminum casting alloys at room temperature are summarized in Table 8. It is clear that the damping characteristics of casting alloys in terms of the log decrement of decay from these tests are in the same broad range as those of the wrought alloys. 8.3 Typical and minimum (design) mechanical properties 8. dimensional change with time that may be contractive as well as expansive.1.0.

. very good..0 308... . . ..... 2 4 3 ..0 A444.. 2 . . 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 .. ...........0 208..0 772.. . 2. .... ...0 A242.0 851.0 240... .... ..Table 8.. ...... 5 .. ....0 B443. .... .... .0 B535.0 535. ..0 C355.0 S. P S...0 513.... P S. ..... .. ..0 A356. . . .....0 712. 2 .. ...... .. ..0 213.... .. .0 443.. 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 .. . ... . P S S. .. . 4 .0 413.... 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 ... ..0 514.. .. ..0 296.. .. 3 3 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 ... 2 2 3 . ........... ... 1 4 4 5 4 . .. 3 . . Processes. Alloy Type of casting Fluidity/ die filling capacity Pressure tightness Antisoldering to die Resistance to hot cracking Shrinkage Resistance to wear .0 336. . ...0 333.. ..... P S.. .... .. 5 . ... .. ...... 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 .. . ......... ... . .. .. P S P P P P S S. 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 ..... P S....0 B390.... 3 .. . .....0 A535.. 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 2 2 ....0 A413. ........ . 4 4 4 .... .... 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 . .... fair... P S...... .. P D D D D D D D S. .. ... .0 295. 2 . . ....0 357. poor. ..... . ...... 4 4 .. 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 Source: Ref 3–5 ............ and Applications 201.0 354.... P S S S P P S. ... ..0 A390. ...... . . 3 . 1 . ..0 705. . .... ..0 512. 1 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 ... . ..0 850.... P S S S. ... 2 2 2 2 2 2 .. 70 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 710.0 384.. . ... . ..0 A443. 1 1 1 3 1 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 4 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 4 2 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 .... P P S. ..... 3 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 ...... . P 4 4 2 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 3 4 4 5 2 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ....0 390. 4 4 4 1 2 3 . .. . 3 2 ....... . .. .. ..... . . . 1 1 1 1 . P S....0 A357... . 1 ..... ... 1 1 ..1 Casting characteristics Anodizing Machinability Weldability Appearance Protection Polishability Electroplatibility Corrosion resistance Elevatedtemperature strength Finishing characteristics Performance characteristics Relative casting and finishing characteristics of cast aluminum alloys Ratings: 1...... . ..0 A380.0 392..0 383. .. . ..0 355... ... P S.0 204. . .. 4 ... .. .0 C443. 2 2 4 4 2 2 1 .0 359.. 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 . P S.....0 319. 3. . ...0 520.. 5 . 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 2 2 .. ...0 360. ..... good.0 707..0 713. . .. 3 ... 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 5 2 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 4 .. .....0 518.0 771... . .. 2 3 3 . . . ..0 238.. . P P S D S S S S S S S S.0 711......0 A360.0 852. ... P S S D S..0 356.0 332.0 242.. . . .. . 2 2 2 2 . ........ 3 .0 380...0 328... . P S. P S S S. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ... .. excellent..0 511. . . 4 .. P S.0 222. 5.. P D D D D S.. ... .. . ..... ....... 4. ....

the metric minimum values have been created by converting directly from the English values by multiplying by the appropriate conversion factors and rounding to the nearest megapascal (MPa)..3. While data are available for only one alloy (A356.1). 8. the properties may be lower than those determined from the separately cast test bars. for which hard metric minimum values (i.3. as with the typical properties of aluminum castings.3.3. the typical properties are defined as the average of the range for all compositions of the respective alloy and temper.02. except where explicitly stated. Like most other aluminum alloys. strengths decrease at an increasing rate until they level out around 500 to 600 °F (260 to 315 °C). In most cases.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 71 8. Thus it is to be expected that in many if not all locations in specific cast parts.1 Published Typical Mechanical Properties The published aluminum industry typical mechanical properties of aluminum casting alloys are presented in Table 8. calculated from the original metric test data and rounded) have been determined. the casting alloys have not only higher strengths but also higher elongations at subzero temperatures than at room temperature.3 Effects of subzero and elevated temperatures on mechanical properties • 8.3.7 in metric units (Ref 3–7). it is important to keep in mind that. and so the published typical values may be higher than can be realistically expected from individual cast parts.2 Published Minimum and Design Mechanical Properties The published aluminum industry specification minimum mechanical properties of aluminum casting alloys in both English and metric units are presented in Table 8.4 Influence of premium practices and emerging casting technologies on mechanical properties 8. it is clear that this trend continues at lower temperatures. as temperature increases above about 212 °F (100 °C).3 Effects of Subzero and Elevated Temperatures on Mechanical Properties 8. one should bear in mind that the published typical values are normally based on the analysis of the results of separately cast test bars (Appendix 3.3 Typical and Minimum Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy Castings The typical and minimum (design) mechanical properties of aluminum casting alloys are presented and discussed in the following sections: • 8.. Aluminum casting alloys may be used under arctic conditions and for cryogenic applications without any fear of low-ductility or brittle fracture. Also included where available are data at subzero temperatures as low as –452 °F (–270 °C). the specification minimum properties are based on tests of separately cast test bars (i. the metric values are converted directly from the English values by multiplying by the appropriate conversion factors and rounding to the nearest megapascal (MPa). As with typical properties. Fig. It is important to note that there are no published industry statistically reliable minimum values for die castings of any alloy. Typically. This reflects the fact that the properties of individual cast parts may vary rather widely depending on their configuration and the specific casting process. data are also included for room temperature after the alloys have been exposed to extended heating at temperatures up to 500 °F (260 °C). It is recommended that users of aluminum die castings plan to carry out a statistical analysis of the properties of the specific cast part they intend to use as part of the design program. The effects of temperatures above room temperature also parallel expectations from other aluminum alloys. In using the values from Table 8.e. The industry practice is to consider that the properties of actual conventional castings may be as low as 75% of the cast test bar specification values. Creep properties are presented in Data Set 5 (also from Ref 14). The industry guideline is that the strengths of actual cast parts may be as low as 75% of the values for separately cast test bars.6 and 8. It may be noted that this situation is different than for wrought aluminum alloy products. Published typical stress-strain curves for a variety of aluminum alloys are presented in Data Set 3 (Ref 12).6 in English units and in Table 8. cast at the same time as the specific cast parts). essentially to absolute zero.8 (Ref 3–7). Strengths also decrease with increasing time at tempera- .000 h are presented in Data Set 4 (Ref 14). namely: ASTM designation Title B 26/B 26M B 85 B 108 B 618 B 686 Standard Specification Standard Specification Standard Specification Castings Standard Specification Standard Specification Strength for Aluminum Alloy Sand Castings for Aluminum Alloy Die Castings for Aluminum Alloy Permanent Mold for Aluminum Alloy Investment Castings for Aluminum Alloy Castings. near absolute zero. The casting practices for separately cast test bars are typically more uniform and controlled than for the broad array of cast parts.2 Published minimum (design) mechanical properties • 8. not of specimens taken from actual cast components.1 Published typical mechanical properties • 8.e. For some alloys. High- The published typical tensile properties of several aluminum casting alloys at temperatures as high as 700 °F (370 °C) for holding times as long as 10. In these tables.3. A3. Volume 02. These properties are consistent with the specified minimum tensile requirements cited in the several ASTM standards as published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Also.7.3.0-T6) at temperatures below –320 °F (–196 °C).

71 2. 96 .70 2.68 2.4 21..80 2.71 2.9 11. 665 .67 2.7 10. 1100 1040 168 121 121 ...9 11.4 21.3 19. 6. 22.71 2..097 0. 0.67 2.102 0.4 21.71 2...101 0.0 355.81 2. 10−6/°F 20–100 °C.4 21.70 2.3. 96 .68 2.101 0.9 11.098 0.68 2.8 10.0 295.68 2..4 21.4 21.097 0.3 22.3 19.81 2.2 12.9 11. and Applications Table 8.097 0..79 2.80 2.81 2. 8..7 12..7 22.101 0.3 ...9 22.67 2.81 2.95 2.. 1040 1040 .71 2.102 0...107 0.81 2.67 2.7 22...80 2.67 2.79 2.0 242. .7 10..70 2.098 0.68 2.78 2.67 2.71 2...4 12.3 22..67 2.7 22..4 12. .81 2..71 2..9 21.7 12.3 22...67 12.3 21.097 0.7 10. 158 150 204...7 10.70 2.7 22. 970–1160 970–1160 970–1160 970–1160 1020–1190 1020–1190 950–1110 990–1175 990–1175 990–1175 990–1175 990–1175 990–1175 970–1190 970–1190 970–1190 970–1190 960–1120 960–1120 960–1120 1025–1105 1025–1105 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 520–630 570–650 570–650 570–650 570–650 . 955 955 980 ..67 2. (c) Coefficient of friction.098 0.79 2..6 12..3 22.4 11.3 19. 780 ..4 21. 4.81 2. 640 840 925 1095 895 810 .67 2.68 2.6 12.0 357.70 2. 92 121 133 158 129 117 .81 2. 150 .4 21.4 21.0 222.097 0.4 21.9 22.102 0. (6 mm) or greater.9 11.81 2..81 2..67 2.9 11.80 2.107 0./h • ft2 • °F At 25 °C W/m • K Metric unit values generally derived from engineering/English unit values Average coefficient of thermal expansion 68–212 °F.4 12.67 2.4 970–1160 1060–1200 1060–1200 1060–1200 1060–1200 .101 0.097 0..101 0.4 12.71 2.9 11. 0.71 2.102 0.81 2.67 2.7 10.71 2..102 0.4 21..6 12.2 Typical physical properties of cast aluminum alloys Thermal conductivity At 77 °F Btu • in.102 0.4 12. .4 21..101 0.4 21.4 21.3 12.9 11.80 2.81 2...0 240.71 2.81 2.71 2..80 2.1 22. .81 2.3 19..102 0.81 2.9 11.7 22.0 A356..7 12.0(d) F T6 T7 T43 T4 T4 T6 F F O T61 T62 T72 F F O T571 T61 T77 T75 T4 T6 T62 T7 F T5 T6 F T6 F T51 T6 T61 T62 T7 T71 T6 F T51 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 T61 T71 F T51 T6 T7 T6 T61 0.102 0....9 22.0 A242.. .67 2.098 0. 1155 1040 1110 .6 19.80 2.81 2.67 2. 10−6/°C Approx melting range(a) °F °C Density Alloy Temper lb/in.95 2. .9 11.102 0.68 2.0 224.096 0.81 2.4 21.71 2.7 22..3 22.68 2..81 2.80 2. 1040 .102 0. 138 138 141 .9 11.102 0.67 2.3 22. 166 145 145 145 162 150 150 .098 0.80 2.81 2. .4 12.... 133 133 133 150 .68 2. ..101 0.. 166 150 160 .097 2.79 2.6 12.101 0..95 2.6 12.9 11.9 11.81 2.1 22.95 2.9 (continued) (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in. (d) Coefficient of friction. 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–630 550–645 550–645 515–605 525–635 525–635 525–635 525–635 525–635 525–635 520–645 520–645 520–645 520–645 520–605 520–605 520–605 555–595 555–595 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–610 560–610 560–610 560–610 560–610 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 555–610 555–610 1155 840 840 .80 2.097 0.9 11.1 22..81 2.097 0. 925 925 925 1040 ...71 2.097 0.79 2.80 2.101 0. Processes..80 2..80 2.... 1155 1010 1010 1010 1125 1040 1040 .097 0. (b) %IACS. 12.81 2...098 0. .101 0.0 22.95 2.3 22.9 12.0(c) 201.67 2.4. 9 22.70 2.95 2. 121 .4 21.098 0.79 2.80 2.67 2.4 21.097 0. 840 .0 328.71 2.0 C355..0 ..9 11.3 12.7 12...6 12. .0 208.81 2.3 12..72 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.67 2.81 2.9 11.098 0.0 319.67 2..68 2.097 0.101 0..4 21. 665 .4 22.9 11. Source: Ref 3.1 .098 0.4 12.0 356.098 0.097 0.. 150 .67 2.097 0. 112 .9 11.78 2..3 22.102 0.4 21.100 0.097 0.7 11..0 A206. 1040 . 150 150 ... percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard.67 2..3 g/cm3 Specific gravity Sand casting 100.3 19..71 2..9 11.

.... . 33 34 33 38 .. 0.33 0..33 0....33 0..230 0.33 0.052 0...... 74 .210 0.33 0. percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard.33 0..3. ... 131 128 . 43 38 37 38 42 39 39 ..230 0. 45 ...33 0..33 0. 82 76 80 .. 6. (d) Coefficient of friction.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 73 Table 8...041 0. 40 39 177 99 108 . 141 125 122 125 138 128 128 . 76 74 19 35 32 ...33 0..230 0. 0... 102 112 135 108 99 ... 9 0.. ..043 0. ...057 ..33 0.230 0. 63 65 63 73 .33 0...33 0.230 0.032 0. 17 ... ...33 0.220 0...040 0.051 0. 0... 0..044 . . 99 . ..33 0.057 . .230 0.049 . 95 ....057 0. 31 34 41 33 30 .. 8.052 0.230 0. 39 .. 30 30 30 ..... 25 22 21 22 24 23 23 . 37 .... .230 0.230 0....230 0.33 0.230 0.33 0. 35 35 35 ..33 0.... 23 ..040 0.2 (continued) Electrical conductivity(b) At 68 °F Volume %IACS Weight %IACS Volume MS/m At 25 °C Weight MS/m Electrical resistivity At 68 °F At 20 °C Ohm-Cir.. 27 ....230 0.230 0.230 0... .. .230 0..230 0.. 0.230 0..33 0.230 0...33 0..220 0.33 0. 27 .. .. 0.230 0. 131 128 31 17 19 . . .230 0.33 0..33 0.230 0.. 35 .044 .045 0.230 0..230 0.043 0...33 0. 0.043 0. 36 .230 0.075 . 25 23 24 .. 44 .. 59 65 78 63 57 ... 23 23 . 18 20 24 19 17 .230 0.33 0.. (b) %IACS. 115 115 115 .230 0.230 0.230 879 922 922 922 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 0.230 0...4.230 0......230 0. .. 29 . .... ..... 76 74 .230 0....33 0.. 23 .33 0.33 0. 55 ...33 0. 26 27 .33 0..... 128 .. 16 ..230 0..33 0. . 128 .33 0.33 0.. 0. ..... 28 .... 19 20 19 22 ...230 0.230 0.33 0. .230 0.230 0.230 0.. Source: Ref 3.. ........ 40 39 . 24 27 28 27 25 27 27 ..044 .052 0...045 0.33 0. 0.33 0. 32 31 32 27 . 53 ...230 0. 24 26 25 ..33 0... 92 . 0.. 30 .. 23 23 103 57 63 ...33 .230 0...061 .33 0.044 0.051 0.044 0.230 0.33 0... (6 mm) or greater..230 0.33 0.220 0.....045 .. 0..042 0. .. 17 .044 .230 0. 76 . 67 67 67 .33 0. 82 73 71 73 80 74 74 ... (c) Coefficient of friction.......33 0.230 0.. 141 131 138 . 20 20 20 ... 74 ..33 0...33 0.33 0. 0.. 0.049 0.052 .. ..059 ...33 0.230 0... 39 ..33 0. 43 40 42 . 13 .mil/ft Ohm-mm2/m Specific heat At 68 °F At 20 °C Btu/lb • °F J/kg • °C Poisson’s ratio Sand casting (continued) 54 30 33 . 57 . 23 ...230 0...33 0...056 0.230 0.33 0.049 0..041 . 4...33 0. 26 27 (continued) (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in...047 0.33 0.230 0.... .33 0.... 34 31 25 32 35 .230 0. .33 0. 0. 108 112 108 125 . 0...

.81 2.. .69 2...095 0. 1010 1125 1010 1095 1100 980 1010 954 605 695 ...097 0.1 23...9 22.6 12.. ..66 2.8 24. (6 mm) or greater.7 13. 10−6/°F 20–100 °C.100 0. 100 .77 2.76 2.101 0...0 A444.104 0.. .097 0..69 2.7 (continued) (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in.102 0. 138 ..097 0.4.7 23..81 2.83 2..67 2. .7 13.80 2. 695 720 720 .100 0.3.88 2..81 2..80 2.104 0.097 0.3 12. .. 0.1 22. Source: Ref 3.0 705.7 24. ...100 0..1 12.7 10.7 13. and Applications Table 8.090 0. 186 166 175 168 121 121 .62 2. 158 . 1070 .0 B443.77 2..80 2.7 24.80 2.0 511. 710. 10−6/°C Approx melting range(a) °F °C Sand casting (continued) 359.80 2.69 2.69 2. 154 .7 23.095 0.2 (continued) Thermal conductivity At 77 °F Btu • in.8 23.. 8.0 T6 T62 F O F F T4 F F F T4 F T5 F F F T5 T7 F T5 F T5 F T5 F T5 T52 T53 T6 T71 T5 T5 T5 F T6 T7 T43 T4 T4 T6 T7 0. (c) Coefficient of friction. 9 20.67 2.77 2.102 0.65 2.88 2.7 23.102 0.88 2..54 2.67 2.74 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. (b) %IACS.80 2.0 Permanent mold casting 204.4 13.097 0.3 1045–1115 1045–1115 1065–1170 1065–1170 1065–1170 1070–1170 1070–1170 1090–1185 1090–1170 1110–1185 840–1120 1020–1165 1020–1165 1020–1150 1105–1180 1085–1165 1085–1165 1085–1165 1105–1195 1105–1195 1135–1200 1135–1200 1100–1180 1100–1180 1120–1190 1120–1190 1120–1190 1120–1190 1120–1190 1120–1190 435–1200 440–1165 400–1175 970–1160 1060–1200 1060–1200 1060–1200 1060–1200 . 840 .9 24.66 2.9 20..2 13.7 13.68 2. 100 104 104 ..3 19.7 10.7 10..65 2.62 2.70 2.7 24.103 0. 6..7 13.7 10.8 23.102 0.. ...0 514.3 g/cm3 Specific gravity Average coefficient of thermal expansion 68–212 °F.81 2.0 100.65 2.3 12..1 22.096 0.81 2.0 850.7 24.0 851.81 2.4 22.81 2./h • ft2 • °F At 25 °C W/m • K Density Alloy Temper lb/in.81 2.81 2.0 A206..1 13.65 2.6 19..76 2.62 2.83 2.097 0.81 2. Processes...6 24.80 2.81 2. 4. 121 .101 0. 1100 . .81 2..7 13.3 19.. 1290 1155 1215 1165 840 840 ..100 0.81 2.69 2.8 21..7 13.0 520..093 0.7 13..4 13..096 0. 955 .7 24.81 2..4 13.57 2..68 2. 695 . ..8 10.81 2.81 2. . 138 .4 13.1 24.101 0. .0 12.67 2.81 2.0 ..3 19..2 13.101 0.81 2.7 24.1 12.101 0.81 2.100 0.0 512.77 2. 138 .6 22.102 0.68 2.0 A535.77 2.7 10.80 2.0 712..81 2..62 2..80 2.7 24.1 13. percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard..68 2.3 19..8 23.77 2.80 2.80 2..100 0..0 443..88 2.1 24.81 2..0 852.1 13.096 0.70 2.80 11.0 713..81 2.0 771.101 2. .3 19. 955 .102 0.102 0.097 0.69 2.1 24.81 2.6 11.1 21.0 201..6 23.57 2.80 2. ..2 22.2 13..1 13..101 0.80 2..7 13.3 12.6 12.101 0.1 24. 0.3 19. 565–600 565–600 575–630 575–630 575–630 575–630 575–630 590–640 590–630 600–640 450–600 550–630 550–630 550–620 600–640 585–630 585–630 585–630 600–650 600–650 600–640 600–640 595–630 595–630 550–645 550–645 550–645 550–645 550–645 550–645 225–650 230–630 210–635 520–630 570–650 570–650 570–650 570–650 ..4 13.6 23..7 10.101 0.7 13..100 0.9 12. 145 162 145 158 158 141 145 137 87 100 ...4 13.0 707.0 535..1 24. (d) Coefficient of friction. .. 955 .102 0.54 2.81 2.

..059 . 0.33 0.... ..082 0.....072 .33 0.. .33 0...230 0. 20 .Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 75 Table 8.33 0..048 .230 0.032 0... .33 0.230 0. . .051 . 95 .. ... percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard. 0. ........037 0.... (d) Coefficient of friction.230 0. 111 ...... 68 ....... 0...33 0..33 0...075 . 115 .230 0....230 0..071 0.. . (c) Coefficient of friction. . . (continued) (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in. 69 73 67 40 44 . 67 . 71 80 71 78 .230 0.......230 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 879 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 0..... 14 .230 0. 29 27 30 50 45 . 0.... .230 0..33 0.230 0.051 . . Source: Ref 3.. 17 .. . 0.. ..33 0... 43 ... .. 21 22 20 12 13 ... 47 43 45 54 30 33 ..230 0. 76 79 79 . 13 15 15 .230 0. ...230 0. 29 .33 0.. 79 ...230 0.230 0. ...230 0..230 0... ..33 0. .230 0.. .230 0. 30 . .045 0.....33 Permanent mold casting (continued) . .230 0. .230 0. 28 25 28 25 . 118 125 115 69 76 .042 .33 0....... ...4. 0.230 0... 36 38 35 21 23 ...33 0..230 0.33 0.33 0. ... 31 .230 0.....33 0. 0. 36 ...048 0. 90 82 86 103 57 63 ..230 0...230 0.33 0.041 0.049 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.. 24 .33 0.33 0.230 0.. 30 . 37 ... ..052 ..3. 0....230 0... 20 . 154 141 148 177 90 108 ...33 0.230 0.. 6.210 0.230 0.33 0..33 0.33 0. 20 ..33 0.33 0.. 4.33 0. 117 . .33 0.33 0.33 0. 21 .. 31 . 22 24 23 19 35 32 . 122 138 122 135 ...mil/ft Ohm-mm2/m Specific heat At 68 °F At 20 °C Btu/lb • °F J/kg • °C Poisson’s ratio Sand casting (continued) 35 . 44 46 46 .. 8. .040 0.. 35 .071 .038 0. . 0.. . ......230 0.. 35 . . 0..230 0... 45 43 43 .049 . ..047 0.075 0.047 0.057 0...... 21 24 21 24 . 23 25 25 ..33 0.33 0. 37 42 37 41 .230 0..33 0..33 0.. .. .230 0...230 0..33 0... ...... .33 0... .. ..2 (continued) Electrical conductivity(b) At 68 °F Volume %IACS Weight %IACS Volume MS/m At 25 °C Weight MS/m Electrical resistivity At 68 °F At 20 °C Ohm-Cir........230 0. ... 0.. 64 .230 0..33 0.. 55 ..230 0. (b) %IACS.. . 111 ...... 64 ... 46 .... 9 0. ....230 0. 0. (6 mm) or greater. 27 25 26 31 52 57 .....

76 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.2 12.71 2...9 (continued) (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in..098 0.81 2.7 .67 2.9 11. 0.67 2. Processes.0 356.097 0.. 925 .79 2.098 0...098 0..2 11...0 355.7 22.4 12...3 11.71 2.9 11..097 0.3 22.4 21.3 22. 8. and Applications Table 8..098 0..098 0. 1155 1040 1110 .9 11..4 12..77 2.71 2.5 20..79 12.107 0. 970–1170 970–1170 970–1170 970–1135 960–1120 960–1120 1010–1120 1010–1120 1010–1120 1025–1105 1025–1105 970–1080 960–1085 960–1085 960–1085 960–1085 1000–1050 1000–1050 1000–1105 1000–1105 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1015–1150 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 238..0 A356.80 2...098 0. 0.80 2.67 2.68 2.3 12.097 0..70 2..6 11.7 20.110 0. .79 2.70 2..95 2.72 2.3 21.4 11.0 A249.098 0.0 333.3 g/cm3 Specific gravity Average coefficient of thermal expansion 68–212 °F.95 2.4 21.2 12.4 12.81 2.4 21..0 324.. 104 104 117 117 138 117 ..100 0.0 11..9 22.71 2...4 21..76 2..101 0.77 2. 10−6/°F 20–100 °C.95 2.70 2.68 2.4 21.67 2.. 866 .098 0.95 2. 125 . 145 112 .67 2. 129 104 133 133 150 .71 2..6 12. 2.4 11.4 12.71 2.102 .0 354.5 11.68 2. 0. (b) %IACS.0 332.097 0.097 0.101 0. 133 133 .72 2..5 19.71 2.4 21.107 0.9 11.67 12...098 0.76 2. .71 2.77 2.79 2.80 2.4 21.. 121 .102 0. 9 2.77 2.0 242. 1070 ...3 22. 154 ..3 22.95 2.4 21.71 2. percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard.68 2.72 2.098 0..71 2.. 840 .79 2.3 22.8 20..0 11...9 11.9 11.107 0.101 0.3 970–1160 970–1160 970–1160 970–1160 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–630 510–600 525–635 525–635 525–635 .71 2.098 0. 6. 22.4 22.71 2.9 11.097 2.71 2.4 22.68 2.71 2.4 11.6 . 1155 1040 1010 1010 1125 1040 ..4 12.. (d) Coefficient of friction.100 0...0 .9 11. 925 925 ..0 22..098 0.097 0. 1040 .71 2.101 0.101 0.80 2.0 22. .9 11.67 2. 133 . (c) Coefficient of friction.68 2. .71 2.3 22.77 2.71 2.0 22..4 21.1 22.68 2.6 12... 4.67 2.9 11. 895 720 925 925 1040 .68 2.100 0.68 2..3 22.0 328.95 2.4 21.0 308.95 2.097 0..4 11.0 296..4.67 2.9 11.5 20.68 2.4 21..1 21..3.0 222. 720 720 810 810 955 810 .4 12.3 12.096 0.77 2.77 2.6 12.79 2. .101 0.4 12. .098 0.4 21.4 12.4 21.80 2.... .71 2....67 2.95 2.1 22. 150 . 166 150 145 145 162 150 . 520–630 520–630 520–630 520–615 520–605 520–605 545–605 545–605 545–605 520–600 520–600 525–585 520–585 520–585 520–585 520–585 540–570 540–570 540–600 540–600 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 550–620 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 865 . 12..71 2.. .67 2. 1010 780 ... 2..71 2.101 0.9 12.098 0.95 2.9 11.100 0.0 319.71 2..71 2.101 0.1 22..0 336.80 2.4 970–1160 970–1160 970–1160 970–1160 945–1110 990–1175 990–1175 990–1175 .0 21.79 2.5 20.096 0.097 0.3 22.7 22.098 0.102 0.3 22. ..098 0.4 11. ..71 2...8 19.9 11.67 2.4 20.79 2.67 2.4 12..4 21.4 12./h • ft2 • °F At 25 °C W/m • K Density Alloy Temper lb/in.9 20.9 11. .77 2. 166 150 160 .81 .67 2.9 11.4 12...096 0.95 2. 145 .3 22..101 0.4 21. 125 .3 12.79 2..71 2. Source: Ref 3.....0 C355.79 2.3 22. 10−6/°C Approx melting range(a) °F °C Permanent mold casting (continued) 208.100 0.79 2..2 (continued) Thermal conductivity At 77 °F Btu • in. 213.9 11.72 2.. .81 2.. (6 mm) or greater.110 0.70 2.0 F T6 T7 F F T551 T52 T61 F T571 T61 T77 T63 T4 T6 T7 F F T6 F T5 T62 F T6 T5 F T5 T6 T7 T551 T65 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T61 T62 T7 T71 T6 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 T61 0.81 2. 1010 .107 0.79 2.81 ...

112 ...064 ...045 0... 141 128 122 125 138 128 .. . . ... 20 ..230 0. 65 .. ..33 0..33 0.230 0..33 0. .230 0.230 0.33 0.230 0. 128 18 .33 0.069 0.. 82 .... ..230 0. 25 ....... ..33 0.. 0.. ... 32 42 31 32 27 .230 0.33 0. .. 141 135 138 .. ... ..3....33 0.. .33 0.... 23 59 . 19 ....040 . 99 ... .230 0..230 0. 63 63 . . ..33 0. ... 0.33 0... 0.33 0.. 31 ...230 0.230 0.230 0.33 0.052 0.. 27 (continued) (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in..230 0..33 0...041 .230 0..044 0.057 .33 0..33 0. 28 39 ...044 ....33 0...230 0.... .230 0. .052 ... 57 .230 0..mil/ft Ohm-mm2/m Specific heat At 68 °F At 20 °C Btu/lb • °F J/kg • °C Poisson’s ratio Permanent mold casting (continued) 31 . .33 0.040 0.230 0.. 35 ... 65 .052 0.. 0...056 .059 .040 0. 43 39 37 38 42 39 . ...... .33 0.. 0.059 0....... 0. 39 102 . 0.... .230 0..052 0. 15 15 17 17 20 17 ..230 0..33 0.230 0.. 20 . 43 .. 9 0.066 0.33 0. 24 ..230 0. 30 .33 0..230 0.230 0.33 0.230 0..230 0.33 0...... 0. 33 25 34 33 38 .230 0. .230 0..230 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 0.. ..051 . 6..230 0.230 0.. 25 23 21 22 24 23 . 112 ......051 . ... ..2 (continued) Electrical conductivity(b) At 68 °F Volume %IACS Weight %IACS Volume MS/m At 25 °C Weight MS/m Electrical resistivity At 68 °F At 20 °C Ohm-Cir..33 0. .. . 63 48 65 63 73 ..33 0. .230 0.045 .33 0....... ......33 0. 61 ..33 .....047 0.054 ...... 0....230 0..230 0. 8.. 50 50 55 55 67 55 ...33 0.230 0..33 0.. . 105 . 82 74 71 73 80 74 .. 32 ... 37 27 ..33 0.230 0..33 0.230 0. 141 .. 21 16 ..33 0. percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard...049 0... 34 .230 0. 33 33 ..230 0. 82 78 80 . (b) %IACS.. 71 52 . 32 32 .. 25 24 24 .33 0..044 0....230 0. .. 122 89 .. 19 15 20 19 22 .. Source: Ref 3.. 34 .33 0.33 0. ... 0.042 0.33 0... (d) Coefficient of friction.051 0.33 0..33 0.. ... ..059 0.33 0.. 40 40 36 36 30 36 .... 85 85 95 95 115 95 .33 0.230 0.041 0. . 0.230 0... 24 25 25 .. 74 34 .230 0.33 0.. ...... 43 41 42 ... 0.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 77 Table 8. 31 .33 0. . 17 . . (6 mm) or greater..230 0.230 0.4..230 0.33 0... ..33 0. 0.33 0.230 0....... 108 108 .. 0. ...33 0..230 0... .33 0..33 0. . (c) Coefficient of friction.. 26 26 29 29 35 29 ..230 0. 33 .. 24 27 28 27 25 27 .230 0. 4.230 0.066 0.33 0...33 0..047 0. 108 82 112 108 125 . 19 19 .....230 0.

098 .0 (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1⁄4 in.4 21..0 24. .68 2..097 0. 0.0 21.83 2.097 0..6 .88 2.097 0.. 574–582 574–582 574–632 535–621 1040 150 A357.1 22.0 12..67 2. 1125 1010 1010 1100 925 1100 1290 1155 .097 0.097 0.84 2..8 21...67 2. 11.82 .7 22..74 2.3.0 359.9 11. 510–650 .69 2.71 2.0 . 9 .67 2.67 2.69 2.6 12. 0.0 22.9 11.3 12.0 518.1 12.2 13..69 2.0 B443. (d) Coefficient of friction. 2.093 2.3 11.63 2.67 2. 175 113 113 96 96 96 96 .6 12.9 12.0 392.66 2.4 20.1 13. percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard.83 2..69 2.095 0. 134 .097 0.0 851.0 384.3 12...67 2.63 2.88 2.83 2.67 2.097 0.4 21.7 23.4 21. 4.88 2... .1 21.9 11.67 2.2 12.4 22.9 20.0 Die casting 360..0 852. (b) %IACS.097 0.6 11.0 380.6 12./h • ft2 • °F At 25 °C W/m • K Density Alloy Temper lb/in.57 2.69 2.74 2. 950–1200 .67 2..6 11.3 12.82 .2 (continued) Thermal conductivity At 77 °F Btu • in. 10.4 21.9 20..3 g/cm3 Specific gravity Average coefficient of thermal expansion 68–212 °F..104 0.68 2.4.68 2. (6 mm) or greater. 18. Source: Ref 3..67 2.78 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 513.57 11.1 21.68 2. 10−6/°C Approx melting range(a) °F °C Permanent mold casting (continued) 357...0 C443. 10−6/°F 20–100 °C. (c) Coefficient of friction.095 0..1 13.0 A360. 121 121 142 96 443.2 21.1 23.0 1100 1100 955 .9 11.6 23..66 2...0 413.83 2.103 0. 930 .0 B390.097 0.0 F T51 T6 T7 T6 T6 T6 T61 T62 O F F F T4 F F T5 T5 T6 T5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F 0.0 A380..097 0..8 21...103 0.68 2. 162 145 145 158 133 158 186 166 ..7 11.71 2...9 11.097 0. 0.0 A444.097 0.2 21.1 22.67 2. 1215 785 785 667 667 667 667 .0 . 2. 8.103 0.4 21.. and Applications Table 8.097 0.098 0.73 .099 0. 1065–1080 1065–1080 1065–1170 995–1150 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 560–615 565–605 565–605 565–605 575–630 575–630 575–630 575–630 575–630 580–640 600–645 225–650 230–630 230–630 210–635 557–596 557–596 540–595 540–595 516–582 516–582 .0 390. 2.9 11.69 2.0 711.74 2. 840 840 985 667 158 158 138 ...097 0.097 0...69 2.68 2.. 2.67 2.1 11.88 2..102 .4 21.67 2.67 2.74 2..0 A413.096 0.73 .6 12.. 0.096 0.. 20.097 0.63 2.84 2.66 2.9 11.67 2.099 0.0 .9 22.4 13.1 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1035–1135 1045–1115 1045–1115 1045–1115 1065–1170 1065–1170 1065–1170 1070–1170 1070–1170 1075–1180 1110–1190 435–1200 440–1165 440–1165 400–1175 1035–1105 1035–1105 1000–1100 1000–1100 960–1080 960–1080 .69 2.67 2...67 2. 6.4 21..6 11.8 24.104 0.66 2.0 850.67 2.0 383. Processes..6 22..63 2.

. . 0...2 (continued) Electrical conductivity(b) At 68 °F Volume %IACS Weight %IACS Volume MS/m At 25 °C Weight MS/m Electrical resistivity At 68 °F At 20 °C Ohm-Cir.33 0..057 0.075 0.........064 .4. 0.. .. ... 102 102 122 79 17 17 16 13 13 13 .. . 39 .230 0..33 0.33 0.... 74 67 .. 0.3.33 0.33 0..... 26 74 .. 27 . 45 128 .230 0..... 963 963 963 963 963 .. ... 8..230 0. 0.33 0.. ..230 0..... 138 122 122 135 135 112 127 154 141 .33 0.....33 0.. ..230 . 24 21 21 24 24 20 23 27 25 . 18 18 21 14 57 55 52 44 44 42 . (c) Coefficient of friction.047 0..230 .078 ...33 0. ..072 0.230 0...... .mil/ft Ohm-mm2/m Specific heat At 68 °F At 20 °C Btu/lb • °F J/kg • °C Poisson’s ratio Permanent mold casting (continued) 39 .. .044 .. . (b) % IACS...064 0....33 0.230 0..230 0.33 0..33 0.230 0..045 0... 27 30 . .230 0. .051 0. .230 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 963 0...... 31 31 37 24 99 95 89 76 76 72 .33 0.. 59 59 71 46 35 36 39 45 45 47 .33 0. 4..230 0. 0. 80 71 71 78 78 65 74 90 82 .075 0.. 52 . 34 34 28 43 0.33 0..33 0.33 0. 0.. (6 mm) or greater..33 0. .33 0..... ...33 0.. 128 115 ..230 0.33 0.33 0..047 0.33 0. 39 35 .056 0. .. .33 0.33 0.. 6. 25 28 28 25 25 31 27 22 24 ..059 0.230 0.230 0...041 0...33 (a) Based on nominal composition of each alloy in thicknesses of 1/4 in. 9 ...... . . ..33 0..049 . 89 . 0.230 0. Source: Ref 3..230 0.. 16 . ..230 0. ..056 0. ....038 0.230 0...037 0.047 0..33 0..33 0.044 0.33 Die casting (continued) 30 29 27 23 23 22 . 86 27 .042 0.230 0.33 0. 42 37 37 41 41 34 40 47 43 ... .....230 0.230 0..230 0.230 0.040 . 0. percentage of International Annealed Copper Standard. .. 23 0. .. . 963 963 963 . 148 23 .33 0.230 0.. (d) Coefficient of friction...230 0...230 0..Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 79 Table 8. . . 23 20 . 0.042 0.

0 28.061 0. It is the influence of the copper content providing the high-temperature resistance of the 2xx.0 333.0000248 t 3) 10 −6] 2.54 7.0 C443.56 3.0 850.0 712.324 0.905 0.860 0.920 0.0 357.2 g/cm3 Elastic modulus 106 psi GPa Aluminum Chromium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Nickel Silicon Tin Titanium Zinc Zirconium 0.950 Alloy 356. Source: Ref 11 .19t ϩ 0.8 10(b) 11. % Average increase in resistivity per wt%(a).0 and 356.0 852.0 360.945 0.0 710.65 0.0 520.005 1. these values are lower limit estimates. Fig.015 higher in the heat treated condition and should be applied to temperatures that do not exceed those used in the final aging treatments.985 ..0 355.0 30.05 1. the application of the above equations and alloy constants is limited to temperatures below 600 °F (315 °C).88 3.x casting alloys.77 5.0 alloys hold up rather well at temperatures up to about 400 °F (205 °C) compared to alloys of the other series.920 0.0 851.910 0.258 0.12 0. including clad 2024.094(d) 1.950 0.87 1.0 36.71 μ⍀-cm at 25 °C (77 °F). within the range indicated C = Alloy constant Constants established from determinations made on alloys in the annealed (O temper) condition.0 69 248 128 208 44(a) 159 207 110 44 120 69(b) 49 (a) Effect of magnesium is equivalent to approximately 11. (b) Limited to about twice the concentration given for the maximum solid solubility.68 0.0 319.058 0.023(d) 0.084 0. μ⍀/cm In solution Out of solution(b) Element Chromium Copper Iron Lithium Magnesium Manganese Nickel Silicon Titanium Vanadium Zinc Zirconium 0.0 354. Source: Ref 10 Table 8.0 380.000 1.0 6.284 0.23 2.02 2. and Applications Table 8. Processes.00125 t 2 − 0.0 A360.0 C355.044 ture.4 Effect of elements in and out of solution on resistivity Maximum solubility in aluminum.910 0.31 0.003765 t 2) 10 −6] L0 = Length at 0 °F Lt = Length at temperature.8 0.0 359.3 Alloy constants for calculation of coefficients of thermal expansion for some aluminum casting alloys over various temperature ranges Alloy 208.699 7. Alloy constant C 1..0 514.880 0.81 1.08t ϩ 0.990 0.890 0. (d) Limited to approximately 20% Table 8.65 1 0.0 513.54(c) 2. except as noted.965 0.1 Damping characteristics of 319.020 1.03 0.0628 0.0 Alloy constant C 0.13 6.020 1.260 0.845 0.0 242.0 . For 7xx.0 ϫ 106 psi or 75 GPa.900 0. Lt (−76 to 212 °F) = L0[1 ϩ C (12.28 0.0971 0.x and 8xx..30 4. (c) Limited to approximately 10%.18 0.65 μ⍀-cm at 20 °C (68 °F) or 2.5 10.58 0.264 0.9 1.28 4 0.74 0.088 0. t °F.990 0.920 Alloy 511. (a) Add increase to the base resistivity for high-purity aluminum: 2.268 0.0 16.19 8. Elongations increase with increasing time and/or temperature. 8.020 1.33 7.43 8.0 308.80 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. application is restricted to 400 °F (200 °C).344 2.74 7.0 16.885 0.74t − 0. Lt (0 to −320 °F) = L0[1 ϩ C (11.0 240.0 332.5 82.040 1.955 0.875 0.052 4 14.0 series.900 0.010 0.164 0.0 A357. Lt (0 to 1000 °F) = L0[1 ϩ C (12.0 336.0 295.5 6.0-T7 clearly has the superior strengths at elevated temperatures.895 0.322 0. (b) The modulus of zinc is not well defined. 201.015 1.0 casting alloys compared with those of wrought alloys.970 0.90 2. Of the alloys for which data are presented. Equations of linear thermal expansion: 1.895 0.96 7.0 A356. especially in the intermediate temperature range.5(a) 23. With heat treatable alloys.82 0. for such alloys. the alloy constants are approximately 0.34 0..0 711.0 Alloy constant C 0.5 Densities and elastic moduli of aluminum and aluminum alloying elements Density Alloying element lb/in.950 0.22(c) 0.0 A444.003115 t 2) 10 −6] 3.0 A380 413.0 518. In fact all of the 2xx.94 0.910 0.0 16.

...5 .. 204. ....... .3 .. . .6 Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy castings at room temperature (engineering units) Tension Ultimate strength.... .0 A357... HB Values are representative of separately cast test bars.5 10. . .. 16 24 32 16 18 26 24 14 21 45 12 23 25 35 26 29 29 18 20 24 30 21 12 18 30 20 13 17 43 34 36 42 26 26 40 8 6 17 6 7 3 2 1 <0. (b) 500 kg load... ...0 222... . offset ϭ 0.5 10.. 12 16 .... .. Source: Ref 3–5 .. .. . ...... . .. (d) Average of tension and compression moduli.5 10. compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus...7 10. ksi Elongation in 2 in....0 T6 T7 T43 T4 T4 F F O T61 T72 F F O T571 T61 T77 T75 T4 T6 T62 T7 F T5 T6 F T6 T62 F T51 T6 T61 T7 T71 T6 F T51 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 T71 F T51 T6 T7 T6 T62 F T5 T6 65 68 60 45 51 21 24 27 41 55 34 31 27 32 32 30 31 32 36 41 29 27 30 36 25 34 55 23 28 35 35 38 35 39 24 25 33 34 28 23 26 40 30 25 26 50 40 46 50 26 26 40 55 60 37 28 36 14 15 20 40 40 28 20 18 30 20 23 . 60 85 .3 10.5 8 ... 10 mm ball...5 .... 70 85 90–120 75 .. .. 100 100 140 . 21 26 .7 10..0 354....5 10.0 328. ..5 8. .... 20 26 24 20 .. ksi Modulus of elasticity(d). .. . ......0 <1.....2 10.2 10..0 359...2 . 60 70 75 60 . . 80 75 90 55–85 70 80 80 45–75 65–95 . % Hardness(b)...0 10.0 213. . ...0 240.. . . 26 30 33 ....0 C355.. 75 .5 9 .5 10. or 4D. ...5 . 22 28 31 28 26 . 65 80 90 85 75 85 .0 A206. 10 11 11 ......7 10.... .000. . 10..0 208.7 .... . . 22 24 29 ... .... .2 10. 2 2 9 5 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 5 6 2 4 2 4 6 3 6 3 5 3 2 3 3 5 <1.0 319.. . . . ..... .. . .. not of specimens taken from commercial castings.. 14 . 7 7. . 8 11 .. .5 10. .. . 10.....0 <1...0 356.. 13 ..2 10..0 A356. ksi Yield strength(a).0 355...0 224.2%.0 A242.0 10... ..5 10 10 . .... ksi Fatigue ultimate limit(c)...... ..R.. (c) Based on 500...5 9 8.5 10. 6 10 psi Alloy Temper Sand casting 201. 40 . 10.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 81 Table 8... 70 80 115 123 90 ....3 10.... .. . .... 40 17 20 21 32 35 .2 10. 10. Shear ultimate strength....... 10....0 295. 8 8... .. 24 ... 11 9 9....000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.. 8 9 9..0 A390.. .......0 10.3 10. .3 10.0 10. . .5 .0 (continued) 130 .5 10. ... . 10.....0 (a) For tensile yield strengths... .0 242...0 357.5 10 1 1 1 1 . . Moore type of machines and specimens...

.0 T6 T7 T43 T4 T4 T7 T6 T7 F T551 T52 F T571 T61 65 68 60 48 62 63 35 33 30 37 35 30 40 47 55 60 37 29 38 50 22 16 24 35 31 24 34 42 8 6 17 8 17 12 2 3 2 <0.. ..... 9....0 511.... 14 . ...0 710... .. 10 mm ball. ...... .... ...0 514.. .3 .... .... .. .0 535.0 8 3 9 12 3 2 9 16 9 9 9 2 1 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 5 2 8 5 2 115 40 25–55 44 45 50 50 50 75 60–90 60–90 65 70–100 65–95 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 70–100 70–100 . 17 17 20 34 . ..... % Hardness(b)... 10. ... ksi Elongation in 2 in....... 10.0 520.. ... . 75–105 65–95 85 115 100 100 105 110 ...3 204.000. . .... (d) Average of tension and compression moduli.3 850..000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R. . 10. .0 213. .. ... .. ksi Yield strength(a)..7 10...2%.....0 Permanent mold casting 201.... . 42 37 .3 10.. ... . 8 .. . .....0 B443....0 A535.... . 75–105 105–135 45 45 65 ..0 F F F T4 F F F T4 F T5 F T5 T7 F T5 F T5 F T5 T5 T52 T53 T6 T71 T5 T5 T5 36 19 17 21 23 21 20 25 48 35 35 36 33 37 32 32 34 34 32 32 32 36 36 42 48 20 20 27 36 8 6 9 9 12 13 12 26 18 18 18 22 30 20 20 25 25 22 22 27 30 27 35 45 11 11 22 <1... .. 14 14 18 .. Processes.0 771. .... (b) 500 kg load.. offset ϭ 0...0 713.. .... ..0 A444. . . 10.3 10.... ....... . .... .. ... 10 .. .....5 8... .. . . 6 10 psi Sand casting (continued) T7 443. . 14 ... .. .. ksi Modulus of elasticity(d)..0 707.... . HB Alloy Temper Shear ultimate strength..0 .. . Source: Ref 3–5 130 .0 A206.82 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. . .. .0 242.... ... compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus...R. (c) Based on 500.. .. ..0 712.7 .0 222... .....0 851. ksi Fatigue ultimate limit(c)....5 .. and Applications Table 8. . . .... .5 1 2 1 1 (continued) (a) For tensile yield strengths. ... . .... . Moore type of machines and specimens... 8 9 7 8 . . . . . .5 10 .0 238.3 10. . ..... 24 30 25 24 30 35 . or 4D... .0 512...0 208. .......... .. .. . . .0 852. 10...6 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength. .. .

17 15 8 . .0 B443.... ksi Elongation in 2 in.0 <1. or 4D.......... ........0 A444. .. 10 10 10 10 . 80 70 85 95 70 90 105 105 65–95 90 100 105 90 105 125 ..0 355.... 35 . . 80 ...2 10.. ksi Yield strength(a)..0 308...0 359. . .. Moore type of machines and specimens.. ......... ....... .Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 83 Table 8. 30 25 ... .0 <1..........5 10..0 336.. . ... .5 10.... .2 10..7 .. ....... . 75 90 105 85 85 90 100 100 .. 15 ..... ..R. .5 10. 8 10 .2 10.... ..5 10.. . . .... ....0 354.7 10.....0 513.... .... . 19 . 10 mm ball..... . . 13 20 30 15 21 43 30 42 37 42 29 29 45 38 9 6 11 10 16 18 6 5 2 3 3 4 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 6 3 4 2 4 2 2 3 8 6 5 5 2 5 6 3 8 5 12 6 4 5 5 5 6 5 <1..... . . .... 110 110 145 120 45 30–60 44 45 60 60–90 . 15 12 15 12 14 .. . .5 10. 16 .0 535. 24 34 36 30 27 .0 443.... .... (c) Based on 500. 35 . 13 ... ..0 A356...0 (a) For tensile yield strengths.. . . % Hardness(b).....2%. . .. 10.5 10.5 ... .0 324.0 357.... . 10....0 T7 F F T6 F T5 T62 T5 T6 F T5 T6 T7 T551 T65 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T61 T7 T71 T6 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 F T51 T6 T7 T6 T61 T62 F T5 T6 T7 F F F T4 F F 39 28 34 40 30 36 45 36 34 34 34 42 37 36 47 52 55 27 30 42 45 40 36 48 46 48 26 27 38 32 25 27 29 41 28 29 52 38 52 48 50 29 29 45 38 23 21 24 23 27 35 60 20 16 19 27 16 26 39 28 21 19 25 30 28 28 43 39 45 15 24 27 40 30 31 28 34 37 18 20 27 24 ...0 A390. . .3 . ksi Modulus of elasticity(d). .. .0 328.0 A357....... 16 22 .. .... .0 333.000...000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R. (b) 500 kg load. . offset ϭ 0.2 10. . ....0 10 6 13 21 7 8 (continued) . . ... . ....0 319.. (d) Average of tension and compression moduli.0 <1. . Source: Ref 3–5 ... .2 10.... .... 6 10 psi Permanent mold casting (continued) A249.. . ... 27 27 33 28 28 36 . .... 16 . ....0 C355.. 80 70 60–90 . HB Alloy Temper Shear ultimate strength.. ... . 30 22 24 . ..2 10..6 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength.. .5 10... ... .. 100 70 100 .. . ...... . 10. .. . 13 11 .. compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus.0 T63 69 296.. ..1 . .. 9 13 ..2 10..2 10. . 10. ksi Fatigue ultimate limit(c). 332....0 356. .2 10......

. 10 mm ball.. ...0 851...3 10.2%.. ksi Yield strength(a).3 10..0 B390.84 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.. Note the several levels of control on location and quality of casting.3.3 (a) For tensile yield strengths.6 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength. .5 46 42 43 42 33 45 T7 T1 T5 T5 T5 T6 T5 45 28 32 23 20 18 32 17 35 18 22 11 11 . 20 . For level and conventionally poured premium engineered castings. with 95% confidence.....R. 6 10 psi Permanent mold casting (continued) 705.3 10. and Applications Table 8.. 23 10 3 7 4 12 5 8 5 55–75 80–110 55–85 60–90 45 45 . .0 A360. ksi Fatigue ultimate limit(c).0 852. .. The typical and minimum properties of the more widely used casting alloys developed using this technology are summarized in Tables 8. (b) 500 kg load.0 A413.0 518. 15 14 ... ksi Modulus of elasticity(d). (c) Based on 500. Mechanical properties based on the results of excised or prolongation specimens representing the actual casting rather than separately cast specimens that represent conformance to expected chemistry and heat treatment responses. Source: Ref 3–5 8..0 390. and the consistent use of such practices has led to a classification of aluminum castings known as “premium quality” or “premium engineered” castings. In most cases.8 . 120 . or 4D.. .0 384.. Specification AMS-A-21180 defines the requirements for highstrength aluminum alloy castings. 15).3 10.4 Influence of Premium Practices and Emerging Casting Technologies on Mechanical Properties Premium Engineered Castings. this and other specifications and standards serve only as the guide to separately negotiated requirements.....000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R. 29 . ..3 10.. Both aluminum industry sources and MMPDS/MIL-HDBK-5 define the minimum and/or design properties as the values which the properties of 99% of the lots of a given alloy and temper would equal or exceed.0 A380..9 and 8.3 25 24 23 23 22 24 35 36 39 21 19 14 28 3 4 3 4 4 3 <1 <1 <1 3 4 9 5 75 75 80 80 75 85 . 11 10.10. % Hardness(b).0 713.0 413..3 10.. With the passage of time property requirements for premium engineered castings increasingly exceeded those defined by this specification. 10.. which sometimes greatly influences the published design property. .. 10..0 850. ..3 10. respectively (Ref 8. (d) Average of tension and compression moduli.3 ..3 .. Plaster cast low-pressure impellers and rotors that were heavily and directionally chilled routinely exceeded even negotiated property limits.. ..000. The minimum properties shown are the design mechanical properties published in MMPDS (previously known as MIL-HDBK-5) and from AMS-A-21180 (previously MIL-A-21180). 70 . 21 9 9 . Processes. 80 80 65 80 28 26 28 27 . HB Alloy Temper Shear ultimate strength. 19 19 17 20 .0 711.0 383. ksi Elongation in 2 in.0 392. 25 25 29 29 20 18 20 20 21 20 .. offset ϭ 0..0 C443....... . consistently meeting mechanical testing requirements was more tenuous when guarantees for tensile properties were 15 to 25% and ductility 60 to 100% higher than the limits .. it has been recognized for many years that special care in the application of metal flow and chill practices can lead to superior properties for aluminum casting alloys.. 11..0 F F F F F F F F F F F F F 44 46 46 47 45 48 40... compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus. .0 380. Moore type of machines and specimens. As noted in Chapter 3. 10.0 T5 37 707...0 Die casting 360.

..0 <1........... .. GPa Alloy Temper Sand casting 201...... 50 50 55 ... (b) Based on 500....... . ... . ....... 2 2 9 5 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 5 6 2 4 2 4 6 3 6 3 5 3 2 3 3 5 <1.. .. 85 110 . . 140 180 165 140 .... . ... 55 60 65 70 70 . MPa Fatigue endurance limit(b).0 240. .. . ... . .. offset ϭ 0. 110 165 220 110 125 180 165 95 145 310 85 160 170 240 180 200 200 125 140 165 205 145 85 125 205 140 90 115 295 235 250 290 180 180 8 6 17 6 7 3 2 1 <0. .0 (a) For tensile yield strengths. . .. . . (c) Average of tension and compression moduli.. HB 500 kg/10 mm Values are representative of separately cast test bars. % Hardness(b).0 222.... 100 100 .0 355.. 70 75 75 .7 Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy castings at room temperature (metric units) Tension Ultimate strength. ..0 C355..0 319.. .000..0 A357.. .... 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 .. MPa Elongation in 5D. ....0 A206. ... .. ...0 359.0 (continued) 130 ... Moore type of machines and specimens. 70 70 70 70 70 70 . 150 165 200 ... ..0 213. .... ... 204... .... 275 .0 242. .0 328..0 357. ....... ...... .......0 224.... .... 60 85 .... ... 70 ..0 T6 T7 T43 T4 T4 F F O T61 T72 F F O T571 T61 T77 T75 T4 T6 T62 T7 F T5 T6 F T6 T62 F T51 T6 T61 T7 T71 T6 F T51 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 T71 F T51 T6 T7 T6 T62 F T5 450 470 415 310 350 145 165 185 285 380 235 145 185 220 220 205 215 220 250 285 200 185 205 250 170 235 380 160 195 240 240 260 240 270 165 170 230 235 195 160 180 275 205 170 180 345 275 315 345 180 180 380 415 255 195 250 655 105 140 275 275 195 140 125 205 140 160 .. ..2%........ . . . . 70 80 115 123 90 . 65 80 90 85 75 85 . 74 73 . 275 115 140 145 220 240 .......0 208.. 60 70 75 60 .0 A390..0 A356. .. .0 356.. .Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 85 Table 8. .... .. .... 165 ....... .0 A242.R. 71 71 71 71 71 ... . . .. 95 ... 75 ... Shear ultimate strength. 180 205 230 ..... MPa Yield strength(a). ... 55 60 60 60 .. 145 180 .5 10 1 1 1 1 ... 55 75 ..0 354... 75 60 65 60 60 . . MPa Modulus of elasticity(c).000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.. ... not of specimens taken from commercial castings. .......0 295.. .. . 69 69 69 69 74 74 74 . Source: Ref 3–5 ... . compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus. 80 75 90 55–85 70 80 80 45–75 65–95 .... 70 85 90–120 75 ... 150 195 215 195 180 .

.. .. ...... .....0 319...0 ... GPa Alloy Temper Sand casting (continued) T6 T7 443.0 T6 T7 T43 T4 T4 T7 T6 T7 F T551 T52 F T571 T61 T63 T7 F F T6 450 470 415 330 430 435 240 230 205 255 240 205 275 325 475 270 195 235 275 380 415 255 200 260 345 150 110 165 240 215 165 235 290 415 140 110 130 185 8 6 17 8 17 12 2 3 2 <0.. 74 74 .R. .... ... .. . and Applications Table 8...0 707..7 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength. . .0 852.. .0 238..0 208. .400 50 50 50 75 60–90 60–90 65 70–100 65–95 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 60–90 70–100 70–100 .0 A206. 70 70 ... ...0 213.. .... offset ϭ 0. . 55 60 50 55 .. HB 500 kg/10 mm Shear ultimate strength.. ..000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R... . MPa Yield strength(a).0 771. .0 242. 71 71 71 850. ..0 713... 75–105 105–135 45 45 65 .. .. .0 308. ... . .....0 511. . .0 520. 115 115 140 235 ...0 712. . ... . ....0 A249.. 74 74 204. .......... MPa Fatigue endurance limit(b). 165 205 170 165 205 450 ...0 A535.... ...0 512................86 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.. 95 .... 55 . .. .0 222.0 296. Moore type of machines and specimens...... . . 205 150 165 ......0 851.. .... .. 65 60 .. .. . . .5 1 2 1 1 6 5 2 3 3 (continued) (a) For tensile yield strengths... 71 . . .. .... Source: Ref 3–5 130 . . ... .. . . MPa Elongation in 5D.....2%... ..0 535..0 <1.0 514..... MPa Modulus of elasticity(c). .0 A444... % Hardness(b)........... .... .... ... 60 . . . 80 70 85 95 . 74 74 ....... .0 F F T4 F F F T4 T T5 F T5 T7 F T5 F T5 F T5 T5 T52 T53 T6 T71 T5 T5 T5 275 250 130 115 145 23 145 140 170 330 240 240 250 230 255 220 220 235 235 220 220 220 250 250 290 330 140 140 185 275 250 55 40 60 60 85 90 85 180 125 125 125 150 205 140 140 170 170 150 150 185 205 185 240 310 75 75 150 <1...0 Permanent mold casting 201. (b) Based on 500. 290 255 .. .. .. .. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. . ... . . 95 ..0 710.. .. . 75–105 65–95 85 115 100 100 105 110 .. . . 70 ... ...... ..0 8 3 9 12 3 2 9 16 9 9 9 2 1 2 2 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 5 2 8 5 2 140 115 40 25–55 43..0 F B443. . ... . . 60 90 .... . ... Processes.... 95 95 125 90 ..000. .......... ... . . compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus.. .... ..

...0 713..... . ... .. ........0 A356.......0 <1. ......000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R.. compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus. 115 105 55 ... MPa Modulus of elasticity(c).. .. ..0 328. . ..... . .. ...... . . ... . ... . .. . 105 85 105 85 95 .0 357........R. ..0 F 205 T5 250 T62 310 332..... 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 .......0 711. .0 A390. . 110 150 ... ... 165 235 250 205 185 .0 356. . .... 240 . . . . ...0 <1.. % Hardness(b).. ..0 443. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. . . 90 75 ..Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 87 Table 8.. . .. .......0 . 100 70 100 .......0 C355........0 10 6 13 21 7 8 10 3 7 4 12 (continued) 70 90 105 105 65–95 90 100 105 90 105 125 .... . . .0 354...... 80 .. 105 60 71 (a) For tensile yield strengths.0 705... 205 170 .... ... . ..7 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength..........0 355..2%. . 110 110 145 120 45 30–60 44 45 60 60–90 55–75 80–110 55–85 60–90 45 ...... . . . . .. ... . . 336. offset ϭ 0.0 B443. .. 90 .....0 A357.. . .. . 80 70 60–90 .. Source: Ref 3–5 .0 T5 T6 F T5 T6 T7 T551 T65 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T61 T7 T71 T6 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 F T51 T6 T7 T6 T61 T62 F T5 T6 T7 F F F T4 F F T5 T7 T1 T5 T5 250 235 235 235 290 255 250 325 360 380 185 205 290 310 275 250 330 315 330 180 185 260 220 170 185 200 285 195 200 360 260 360 330 345 200 200 310 260 160 145 165 160 185 240 255 310 195 220 160 110 180 270 195 145 130 170 205 195 193 295 270 310 105 165 185 275 205 215 195 235 255 125 140 185 165 ... . .. . 110 . . .. 110 . .0 A444. ... 71 ...0 513... .. 70 70 70 70 . 90 140 205 105 145 295 205 290 255 290 200 200 310 260 60 40 75 70 110 125 115 240 125 150 75 4 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 6 3 4 2 4 2 2 3 8 6 5 5 2 5 6 3 8 5 12 6 4 5 5 5 6 5 <1.0 333. Moore type of machines and specimens.... GPa Alloy Temper Permanent mold casting (continued) 324. . (b) Based on 500.. 75 90 105 85 85 90 100 100 .0 535... .. ... .. . 185 185 230 195 193 250 .. MPa Yield strength(a).. . .. .0 359. ... ..000... HB 500 kg/10 mm Shear ultimate strength.... 55 70 ...0 <1....0 850.... 105 ................ MPa Fatigue endurance limit(b).. . ... .. .. .. ...0 707. MPa Elongation in 5D. .. ..... 240 .

71 . hardness. 200 . developed at the same time as 319.... (a) For tensile yield strengths.0 C443. 80 80 65 80 95 . compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus..10 with those in Tables 8. % Hardness(b). HB 500 kg/10 mm Shear ultimate strength. and there was unusual concentration on the metallurgical structure of critical casting areas corresponding to test specimen locations. The application of premium engineered casting practices even to conventional casting alloys provides significant rewards.. 70 75 75 80 80 75 85 . significantly higher than the published typical values..0 A360. MPa Fatigue endurance limit(b)...0 B390. The properties of representative castings produced by squeeze casting technology are presented in Table 8.. In recent years. Such differences are particularly significant when it is noted that the values for the premium quality castings are based on tests of specimens cut from the castings. MPa Yield strength(a). as published in Ref 8 and 16..0 390. 160 170 165 160 160 150 165 240 250 270 145 130 95 193 5 8 5 3 4 3 4 4 3 <1 <1 <1 3 4 9 5 45 . .5). 71 .0 518..0 T5 140 T6 125 852.0. MPa Elongation in 5D. 130 130 115 140 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 .000. Processes.0 A380.. The magnitude of the improvement achievable utilizing premium quality practices may be seen by comparing the values in Tables 8. In addition. 50 ksi (350 MPa) yield strength.9 and 8.000 cycles of completely reversed stress using R. The power of casting process and solidification conditions was evident. was selected for this application. 30 ksi (210 MPa) yield strength. Section 3.Alloy 333. Alloying impurities were reduced. and Applications Table 8. GPa Alloy Temper Permanent mold casting (continued) 851.. MPa Modulus of elasticity(c).. where differences of 5 to 15 ksi (35 to 105 MPa) or more in tensile yield strength and 3 to 4% in elongation are sometimes seen.0-T6 are 42 ksi (290 MPa) tensile strength.. and every technique permitted by practicality and specification was used to improve conformance. soluble phase components were adjusted.0 T5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F 220 305 315 315 325 310 330 280 315 290 295 290 230 310 75 . very significant considering that the values for the squeeze castings are based on tests of specimens cut from the castings themselves.5... compared with the published typical properties of aluminum castings of the same alloys.. (b) Based on 500. 81 .0 392..R. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. broader use has been made of techniques for applying pressure to the metal while it is solidifying during the manufacture of castings. with only one exception. it appears that consistently better properties may be obtained by squeeze casting than by conventional casting technologies. and 2% elongation.0 Die casting 360.7 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength..0 380. offset ϭ 0.. What was consistently demonstrated was 60 ksi (420 MPa) tensile strength... whereas the typical values used in comparison are based on separately cast test bars. .2%.. in the absence of the application of premium casting technologies.8. 120 . and cost. In general. . Squeeze Casting.0 413. Aluminum rocker arm requirements include strength at modestly elevated temperatures. Moore type of machines and specimens. heat treatment practices stretched to permissible limits. The most common and commercially most widely implemented technique is squeeze casting (see Chapter 3.. Source: Ref 3–5 defined by statistical analysis. and 5% elongation.. easily exceeding specification requirements for all conventional highstrength alloys in use at that time and matching many wrought compositions in plate and forged form with the advantage of near-netshape and anisotropic properties. randomly selected parts were destructively tested to ensure that casting quality and properties were maintained. Typical mechanical properties for 333. 145 195 180 195 185 .88 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Over several years. 75 140 124 140 140 145 140 . 170 170 200 200 60 ..0 A413. The strengths range from about the same as to about 5 ksi (35 MPa) above the typical properties for comparable sand and permanent mold castings.6 to 8. .0 383.. the elongations of the squeeze castings are..11...0 384... 140 .0 as the preferred secondary general-purpose permanent mold composition. whereas the published typical and minimum values for standard alloys are based on tests of separately cast tensile specimens..

0 34. ... .0 28. .. 215 ..0 22.. . . 105 .. . .8 Minimum mechanical properties of aluminum alloy sand....0 31..0 ...0 20.0 25...0 13...0 36...0 30....5 2... ... . .....0 22. . .0 14. ...0 23. . ..0 25. . .0 42.0 36.0 22.0 1..0 204.0 707.... . . 215 ...0 28.0 .. 250 .... ..0 . 3...Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 89 Table 8.0 25.. . . . ... .0 415 310 130 160 205 160 200 220 165 200 220 250 200 160 170 215 170 235 325 170 220 240 205 285 250 130 160 150 205 215 170 235 260 310 310 115 115 115 150 290 240 240 230 255 220 220 235 235 220 220 50....0 . .. 20......5 .0 22. ... 195 195 195 .0 13... 140 90 90 140 195 110 90 ..0 45. ..0 18........... .. .5 5.....0 208......0 20. .0 6.0 38... .. .....0 9.. .5 .. . .. 140 95 145 250 125 140 . ..0 4. .. .0 21..... .0 29.0 32.. . .0 6.0 25... . ......0 45..0 T7 T4 F O T61 O T571 T61 T77 T4 T6 T62 T7 F T5 T6 F T6 T6 T51 T6 T7 T71 T6 T6 F T51 T6 T6 T7 T71 T6 T6 T6 T6 F F F F T4 T T5 T5 T7 F T5 F T5 F T5 60.0 .....0 ......... .0 1. ...0 32....2%.0 24. .....0 19.0 ..0 33.0 13.. 3.. 15.... ... 3. ..7 3... ..0 16. 36.0 7. 20. ....... 29...0 443.0 31. .. . ..0 3.0 15....0 10.......0 23.....0 A356. . .. ... ..0 34. ..0 28.. .0 1. 13(b) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 6 13(b) 13(b) 13(b) 6 6 6 6 295.0 20. . ... . .. 105 ....0 3.... . ..... . 6..0 32.. ... . . .0 12.. . .0 23. . 195 240 240 .. .. .0 17. . ..0 3.0 32...0 2..0 20.....0 35.. Compression yield strength(a) ksi MPa ksi Shear ultimate strength MPa Ref Sand casting 201. ..... 6. .. offset ϭ 0.0 12..0 22. .... 2... . not of specimens taken from commercial castings.. permanent mold... ... . . .0 35. 150 215 170 . ... .0 32... ..0 25.0 9. 110 105 140 200 125 165 195 240 240 50 40 70 60 150 125 125 150 205 140 140 170 170 150 150 (continued) 3.0 30. ..0 2. ........ . and die castings Tension Ultimate strength Alloy Temper ksi MPa ksi Yield strength(a) MPa Elongation in 2 in......0 356..0 20. % Values are representative of separately cast test bars.0 25.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (a) For tensile compressive yield strengths.0 3.0 B443.0 35... ..0 19.0 30..0 . 28. .0 710. . .0 2. .. (b) Values for class 1 only . 350 .. 200 . .0 4. 22....... . 1. ... ....0 . 250 ...0 29... . .0 37.. ..0 713..... .. ...0 32...0 41.0 29. ...0 34..0 29... . ..0 319..0 9...0 30.0 ..0 222.. .0 .. .. ..0 28..0 345 195 85 ... .0 45.... .. .0 17...0 28...... .0 .. .0 712. .0 . 15... . ..0 51. 36. .... .... 0..0 47. ... or 4D...0 6.0 ...0 23.. . ..0 3..0 31..0 ...0 .0 520. ....0 512.0 34...0 4...0 25.. 1.... ... ..0 22. 16. . . ... .. .0 35..0 .. .0 355... ..0 3.. .0 C355.. ..0 32..0 514.. . 31..0 357......0 18. .0 35... ..5 1.0 3.0 .0 2.0 . .. ...... .0 535. .0 328.0 3.. .... . .0 36. .. . ....0 17. .. 31.0 18...0 35.. .. .0 1. 28.0 242.0 354..0 18.0 . ...0 359...... .. ....0 35.0 24.. ..

. ..0 35. .. . 3.... .0 21......... 31.. 28...... . .. ... .0 T5 T5 T5 42. .... . ..0 30. ... % Compression yield strength(a) ksi MPa ksi Shear ultimate strength MPa Ref Sand casting (continued) 771.. ....0 48.... .. 195 ..0 41.. 31..5 5.....0 .90 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 Permanent mold casting 201... 115 .0 45.5 2. .... 110 ..0 36.... 185 215..0 296..0 47. . 240 .0 25..0 8..... ...0 42.... ..0 40... .0 28.. ...... ... ...0 ... 0.0 22.... ..8 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength Alloy Temper ksi MPa ksi Yield strength(a) MPa Elongation in 2 in.... 16... ........0 . . ... . . 36....0 35.0 333.. .. .. .0 290 220 250 250 290 330 110 115 165 38. ... 125 1.. 3. ..0 .. .0 3. . ...... 17.0 15. .......0 205 . . ...0 355..0 .. .... 18....... and Applications Table 8.. .0 40........ ...0 17.0 34. .. . ... ... ..0 31.0 3.0 ... ..0 ... .5 2.0 33.... ...... . ..0 ... . .. 215 .0 .0 ...0 . . 95 .....0 28.0 851. ... ... ...4 .. .. .0 45.0 33. ...0 195 180 240 250 (continued) 5.. .0 30...0 336. . (b) Values for class 1 only ... offset ϭ 0.0 208.0 40. . 2. Processes.... . .0 260 185 205 185 240 310 . ...0 26. . .0 34. 250 255 290 . . .0 C355.. . ...0 27... .0 37. ..0 . .0 24.. ... .. ....0 356.... .0 30. .0 27.0 .. 29. 115.0 24..0 354..0 40..0 332.0 31. . 35.0 38. 13(b) 6 6...0 (a) For tensile compressive yield strengths.0 25...0 31.0 34. .. ... . ... ..0 1....0 1.0 .. ..0 25. 13(b) 6 357.0 852.0 16.. .. ......0 3.. . ....0 37.0 36.... 110 .... .......0 ...0 .0 35...0 42. . ..... or 4D. .. 36.. . ..0 29.... ..0 ... .. .0 260 255 310 310 28..0 308. .....0 .. ... ..0 37.... .. .0 2.0 3..0 .. .0 3. ....0 36... .. 27.. . 200 . .. .. .. .0 3. 0.0 52...0 31.. . 215 . 3......0 27.. . .0 A357.. .. . ....0 .0 5...... . 28. . .. ..7 3. .... ...0 T5 T51 T52 T53 T6 T71 850.... . .0 204......0 33... 16.0 2... ....0 30. . . ... .. ....... 17.... 250 ..0 4. . ... ...5 3. .. .. .. ...... ..0 27.0 . 115 . . 195 ...... ...... .. .0 .2%.... .0 ..... .... . ... 110.....0 25.. . 350 ........... 195 ... ....0 3. 36.. .0 .. . . .0 319.0 45..0 16.. 345 200 105 150 110 . .5 1......0 .. ....0 T7 T4 T4 T6 T7 T551 T65 T571 T61 T7 F F T6 T5 F T5 T6 T7 T551 T65 T6 T61 T62 T51 T6 T6 T62 T7 T71 T6 T61 T62 F T51 T6 T6 T7 T71 F T51 T6 T61 T6 T61 60. .... .. . . .. .0 2.. .. .0 415 330 230 240 230 205 275 235 275 240 165 195 235 215 195 205 240 215 215 275 325 330 360 185 185 255 290 250 235 285 275 145 170 170 230 170 170 50.0 3.0 . .. 250 ..0 35. .0 A356..0 . ... 14.. .... . . ... . .0 35.. . 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 13(b) 6 6 6 22.... . .0 36. .. ..... ... .0 28......0 ...... .0 51... ..... ..0 42.0 48........0 48.. 17. . .. .....0 242.0 5... ... . ..0 32. 16... . .

..0 A360..0 35. Figure ..0 851... though it has as yet been less widely implemented successfully..0 383.0 705.0 45. again with published typical values for sand and permanent mold castings..0 18..5 8. Also.....0 B443.. .0 17. ... whereas the typical values used in comparison are based on separately cast test bars....0 711. As for squeeze castings. Section 3.. .. 29.. 13(b) 13(b) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 443.2.0 18.0 28....0 35. .. .0 535. It appears that with careful engineering of the process.0 359.8 (continued) Tension Ultimate strength Alloy Temper ksi MPa ksi Yield strength(a) MPa Elongation in 2 in. .0 35. .. . The application of vacuum and other technologies to die casting has resulted in superior strengths and substantially higher elongations especially when combined with process features described in Chapter 3.. .0 3. . 85 125 120 240 125 150 . . .. .. offset ϭ 0.. 200 195 ...0 ..0 2..0 513... ... 3..0 27.. .. . the strengths of the semisolid castings range from about the same as to about 5 ksi (35 MPa) above the typical properties for comparable sand and permanent mold castings. The elongations of the semisolid castings are superior to the typical values for sand castings and are about the same as those for permanent mold castings..0 47. .. . % Compression yield strength(a) ksi MPa ksi Shear ultimate strength MPa Ref Permanent mold casting (continued) D357.0 7... . ..0 17.0 10.0 22.0 8.0 518..0 852. ...0 21...0 413.0 7.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 91 Table 8... ... some gains are possible with semisolid casting if the process can be successfully implemented on a broader scale. this is significant considering that the values for the semisolid castings are based on tests of specimens cut from the castings themselves.. . ..0 2..0 T6 T61 T62 F F T4 F F T5 T7 T1 T5 T5 T5 T6 T5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F 45..0 18. .0 34. . . The properties of some representative semisolid casting are presented in Table 8.0 45....0 4 4. High-Integrity Die Casting.12..0 390. ... 12.. ...5 20. . .0 3.... . 270 240 .0 Die casting 360... ....0 6..... .... ... . ..0 28.0 . . . ..0 ... .0 18..0 37.0 A444.. ....0 38.. (b) Values for class 1 only Semisolid casting also holds promise for providing higherquality aluminum alloy castings.0 B390..0 . .0 C443..0 380. . ..... .. . .. . .0 A413. . .0 39. as in the case for squeeze castings. 270 240 235 260 50 40 .. or 4D.. ... .0 3..0 32.0 8.0 35.0 A380.0 T6 46..0 22......... .0 20.0 392... .0 384.... .0 4.0 707... ...0 850..0 2..6.2%.....0 713... .0 21... . .0 315 310 310 325 145 145 140 150 240 255 310 195 220 125 115 125 185 39.. ...0 3.0 Not available for die castings (a) For tensile compressive yield strengths.

5. It is appropriate to recognize that such data are simply one of many indices of fatigue strength. USCAR. In all of the USCAR activity.5 11 19. (b) Fatigue strength for 106 cycles. should be used very carefully. Processes. including in some cases vacuum casting and squeeze casting. A close review of the data in Tables 8. such as pistons.13. A3. A3.10 for minimum values. provided consistent casting practices and quality control are exercised. have long been a standard in aluminum industry publications.1. The fatigue properties of a rather wide range of sand and permanent mold castings (specimens per Appendix 3. Tension Ultimate strength Alloy Temper ksi MPa Yield strength ksi MPa Elongation in 50 mm (2 in. and impact extrusion have been replaced. ϩ0.2 Average tensile properties of representative aluminum alloy castings produced by vacuum technology. Fig. Most of these individual test results are compatible with the typical values in Table 8. and/or ϩ0.0 A356. specific heat treatment conditions were not cited but are assumed to comprise lower solution heat treatment temperature than that of the true T6 temper. Fig.14) is presented in Table 8. in such cases.0) tests. ultimate tensile strength. TYS.16. in these cases often including both smooth and notched specimens of the types in Appendix 3.14 to 8. A summary of the rotating-beam fatigue strengths from these tests of individual castings (as contrasted to the “typical” values in Table 8. see Table 8. forging. 8.2) at room temperature are summarized in Table 8. and the differences from alloy to alloy or among tempers of a . While individual castings developed interesting properties in this study.15.0. % Fatigue endurance limit(a) ksi MPa A201.). Source: Ref 8 8.5(b) 14 13 13 97 90 86 75 135(b) 97 90 90 (a) Rotating beam reversed bending (R = −1.92 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. and Applications Table 8.2 (Ref 17) illustrates the properties obtained in European applications of this technology.0 249. the specimens were as-cast test bars. in a few cases. none of the practices employed consistently provided prop- erties above the ranges of typical and minimum values for comparable sand and permanent mold castings. engineers may wish to consult data for other stress ratios such as 0. In the period from 1999 to 2001. the tests were made with specimens machined from cast parts. In most cases.0 T7 T7 T7 T7 T6 T6 T6 T6 72 65 61 68 55 46 41 52 495 445 420 470 380 317 283 360 65 59 48 59 41 34 30 42 448 405 330 407 283 235 207 290 6 6 4 6 6 6 10 8 14 13 12. According to Altenpohl (Ref 17). a number of automotive components were produced and evaluated by USCAR (Ref 18) to determine the statistical levels of strength achievable with several carefully controlled casting processes. and extensive files of such data are available for aluminum casting alloys as presented herein. The principal value of the study appears to have been that the published values based on cast test bars are pretty representative of what may be expected in closely controlled high-quality commercial production. endurance limit at 5 ϫ 108 cycles. Actual rotating beam (R ϭ –1. The fatigue strengths of a number of these alloys from similar tests at elevated temperatures are presented in Table 8. it appears that the use of the reduced strength guideline (75%) may not be necessary. tensile yield strength. tested with the as-cast surface in place.0 A206.0 A357. the test results were based on specimens cut from specific locations in actual full-size castings.0) fatigue curves for representative lots of castings at room temperature are shown in Data Set 6.0 354. at a stress ratio of –1.9 Typical mechanical properties of premium engineered aluminum castings Typical values of premium engineered casting are the same regardless of class or the area from which the specimen is cut. the pressure in the casting chamber must be less than 50 millibars (5 kPa) to ensure the success of the vacuum casting technique.0.14.14 (Ref 15). though developed in accordance to good engineering laboratory standards. and for specific applications.0 C355.16 indicates to the authors that these data.4 Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Casting Alloys Fig. A summary of the tensile properties of the castings from that study are presented in Table 8.0 224. 8. and by its application components previously made by other casting processes.2. Source: Ref 17 Rotating beam reversed-bending fatigue data. UTS.

10 Design (statistical minimum) mechanical properties of premium engineered aluminum alloy castings from MMPDS/MIL-HDBK-5 and AMS-A-21180 Tension Ultimate strength(b) Bearing Yield strength(b) Values are for specimens taken from commercial castings.0 T6 All Designated Undesignated 1 2 10 11 12 N/A N/A N/A 46 49 45 317 338 310 39 41 36 269 283 248 45 50 38 41 45 310 345 262 283 310 35 40 28 31 35 241 276 193 214 241 3 5 5 3 3 3 . tensile minimum values are from AMS-A-21180 (previously MIL-A-21180).5 51 51 51 49 352 352 352 338 36 36 36 34 250 250 250 234 95 95 95 88 655 655 655 607 122 122 122 114 841 841 841 786 74 74 74 71 510 510 510 490 87 87 87 83 600 600 600 572 354.5 ksi MPa Location within casting Strength class number Ultimate strength ksi MPa Yield strength ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in. D.2%.. divided by bearing pin diameter. e. (b) e/D equals edge distance.0 ksi MPa e/D ϭ 1.5 ksi MPa e/D ϭ 2.Table 8. Source: Ref 15.0 ksi MPa A201 T7 Unspecified Designated Undesignated 1 2 10 11 60 60 60 56 414 414 414 386 50 50 50 48 345 345 345 331 3 5 3 1.0 T6 Unspecified Designated Undesignated 1 2 3 10 11 12 N/A 32 221 22 152 0.7 1 0.0 T6 Unspecified Designated Undesignated 1 2 3 10 11 12 N/A N/A N/A 22 25 25 152 172 172 15 16 16 103 110 110 0.0 T6 All Designated Undesignated 1 2 10 11 45 47 45 40 310 324 310 276 35 38 34 30 241 262 234 207 4 3 4 3 35 38 34 30 241 262 234 207 28 29 28 25 193 200 193 172 77 81 77 69 531 559 531 476 96 101 96 86 662 697 662 593 55 60 54 47 379 414 372 324 65 71 63 56 448 490 435 386 Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 93 Metric units are as calculated directly. (a) For tensile and compressive yield strengths.0 T6 Sand IM PM All As specified As specified A356.0 T6 PM As specified C355.33 22 152 38 40 45 38 33 32 262 276 310 262 228 221 28 30 34 28 27 22 193 207 234 193 186 152 5 3 3 5 3 2 28 30 34 28 27 22 193 207 234 193 186 152 24 25 28 24 21 20 20 166 172 193 166 145 138 138 65 69 77 65 57 55 55 448 476 531 448 393 379 379 81 86 96 81 71 68 68 559 593 662 559 490 469 469 44 47 55 44 43 35 35 303 324 379 303 297 241 241 52 56 63 52 50 41 41 359 386 435 359 345 283 283 T6P All All A357. offset ϭ 0.0 T6 Unspecified Designated Undesignated N/A 27 186 17 117 0.. not rounded per industry practice for guaranteed minimum values.33 17 17 117 46 317 1 2 10 11 58 47 50 47 43 324 345 324 297 36 42 36 33 248 290 248 228 3 2 3 2 36 42 36 33 248 290 248 228 29 31 29 27 200 214 200 186 81 86 81 74 559 593 559 510 101 107 101 92 697 738 697 635 400 57 66 57 52 27 393 455 393 359 186 67 78 67 62 32 462 538 462 428 221 355. Alloy Temper Type of casting e/D ϭ 1.0 T6 Unspecified Designated (Ͻ2.) Undesignated 359. 2 35 40 28 31 35 39 41 36 241 276 193 214 241 269 283 248 28 31 24 26 28 29 31 28 193 214 166 179 193 200 214 193 77 86 65 70 77 79 84 77 531 593 448 483 531 545 579 531 96 107 81 88 96 99 105 96 662 738 559 607 662 683 724 662 55 63 44 49 55 62 65 57 379 435 303 338 379 428 448 393 65 75 52 58 65 73 77 67 448 517 359 400 448 503 531 462 D357.501 in. . % Compression yield strength(a) ksi MPa Shear ultimate strength ksi MPa e/D ϭ 2.7 15 16 16 103 110 110 14 16 16 97 110 110 38 43 43 41 44 50 41 37 35 283 303 345 283 255 241 31 33 40 31 30 28 214 228 276 214 207 193 3 3 2 3 1 1 31 33 40 31 30 28 214 228 276 214 207 193 26 28 31 26 23 22 179 193 214 179 159 152 70 75 86 70 63 60 483 517 593 483 435 414 262 297 297 88 94 107 88 79 75 47 53 53 607 648 738 607 545 517 324 366 366 49 52 63 49 47 44 24 25 25 338 359 435 338 324 303 166 172 172 58 62 75 58 55 52 28 30 30 400 428 517 400 379 359 193 207 207 356. or 4D.

0 19.5 24.2 13.0 2.0 357.9 48.0 8.6 9.94 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 11.8 30. The primary reason for this is the fact that many of the data are for cast test bars that were cast to finished specimen size. and Applications Table 8.0 17 42.25 mm) removed 0.5 41.3 36 40 317 193 345 172 138 193 164 225 205 207 117 290 296 243 243 248 276 6.11 Tensile properties of representative squeeze-cast aluminum alloy castings Ultimate strength Alloy Temper Casting process ksi MPa Yield strength(a) ksi MPa Values are averages for an unspecified number of tests of specimens taken from commercial castings. (0.0 24 33 30 30.0 5.6 25. or 4D. permanent mold Semisolid cast Typical. sand cast Semisolid cast Typical.0 11. sand cast Typical.0 3. semisolid Typical. . permanent mold 56.5 12. % Ref A206 T4 T4 T4 Squeeze (1) Squeeze (2) Typical. % Ref 206. that is: Endurance limit Surface finish of fatigue specimen As cast 0.8 46.0-F cast test bars for which tests were made with as-die cast test bars and with 0. Elongation in 2 in.0 T6 T6 T6 T6 T61 T4 T61 T61 T61 T6 T6 T6 F F A356.2 40 410 390 379 428 309 371 228 262 371 265 300 283 303 331 345 359 312 280 37.2%.7 11.0 33 55 41 43.0 17.0 6. sand cast Typical. permanent mold Squeeze cast Squeeze cast Typical.5 MPa 145 134 121 Tensile properties of representative semisolid cast aluminum alloy castings Ultimate strength ksi MPa Yield strength(a) ksi MPa Values are averages for an unspecified number of tests of specimens taken from commercial castings.5 17.025 in. sand cast Typical.0 (a) For tensile yield strengths. sand cast Typical. The endurance limits for Table 8.0 32. offset = 0. given alloy should not necessarily be considered to consistently represent their performance in finished castings.0 535.4 43. sand cast Semisolid cast Typical. shown in Data Set 6.0 43.9 3. permanent mold 59.3 35. permanent mold Squeeze cast Squeeze cast Squeeze cast Typical.0 2.0 26 52. sand cast Typical.0 50 63 34.5 46 50 317 345 435 234 172 296 228 380 280 296 179 358 345 316 300 317 345 46.1 20 258 236 248 262 265 232 166 186 232 179 247 207 223 252 297 297 152 140 23. Processes.5 55 62 44.0 10.5 34.0 10.0 28 50 25.0 50 45.5 43 43 22. offset = 0.0 A357.5 5.0 38.0 17.0 3.0 11. removed.0 (a) For tensile yield strengths.12 specimens with the surface machined were lower. and there is evidence that there are favorable residual stresses in the as-cast surface that may have misleadingly positive influence on the fatigue life and strength.0 33 38 46. (0.6 24 27 33.025 in. sand cast Semisolid cast Semisolid cast Typical. for example.0 10.4 6.0 12. the data for one lot of 380.0 6.0 25 43. with the difference increasing with the greater amount of the surface machined.0 16 8 4 4 8 16 4 4 8 8 16 4 16 16 4 4 8 4 356.6 3.9 35.9 20.0 A356. Alloy Temper Casting process Elongation in 2 in.01 in.0 20 28.0 11.0 2.0 8 4 4 8 4 8 4 16 16 8 4 8 4 16 16 4 4 356.0 34. sand cast Typical.0 B356. permanent mold Squeeze cast Squeeze cast (quenched) Typical.0 T7 T4 T7 T5 T51 T6 T6 T6 T5 T51 T6 T6 T61 T62 T6 T6 Semisolid cast Typical.5 33. Consider.0 10.2 36 38 38.2%. and 0.0 43 35.9 43.5 56. or 4D.3 36.01 in. permanent mold Squeeze cast Typical.64 mm) removed ksi 21. permanent mold Semisolid cast Typical.6 10.0 357.0 50 52 45. or with only polishing of the surface.0 3.

6 10.0 5.5 .8 15.5 32. .5 43.6 29.0 261 250 127 145 .0 27.9 314 267 273 197 297 261 33. offset = 0.3 7.5 275 30.4 21.3 3...2%.0 6. 230 206 190 177 225 202 5.. % Reduction of area.3 28..0 .9 31. ..0 28.0 18.0 . % Reduction of area.Table 8. % Yield strength(a) ksi MPa Ultimate strength ksi MPa Yield strength ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in. or 4D.1 33.0 138 19 43. . case 47. Published typical and minimum A357.7 9.8 337 40.8 41.0 295 4. Alloy Temper Type of casting Vehicle component Ultimate strength ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in.0 37.3 44..7 29..0 345 23. 8.8 43.0 45.5 25.6 252 221 205 201 234 218 12..1 29.7 39. 4..5 16.13 Average Average and three-sigma minimum tensile properties of aluminum alloy castings from USCAR program Three-sigma minimum Values are for specimens taken from commercial castings.6 28....7 5. .. % A356.6 6.5 38.1 12.8 5...3 29.0 T6 AV die cast A380.5 279 8.6 45.7 32.. or 4D..5 176 ..5 37.8 36.7 9.0 Low control arm 52.3 13.0 T6 Tilt mold pour(b) Tilt mold pour(b) Tilt mold pour(b) Lost foam VRC/PRC Squeeze cast 40.. Source: Ref 18 .0 37.6 0.0 F HP die cast Published typical Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 95 (a) For tensile yield strengths....8 27.7 0.0 .1 187 25.0 5.0 6.9 45. 38..3 11.0 Body casting Trans. Rear knuckle Front cradle Low control arm Transfer case Front knuckle Front knuckle 47.0 205 6.6 14. 48..5 4. 29. 315 310 193 38 ...0 14.3 .. 5.2 2.6 41. (b) Tilt mold pour process is a variation of permanent mold casting.6 160 20.0 T6 Semisolid Published typical and minimum 365..4 328 288 300 257 309 286 36.5 1.1 2..0 .0 .. .1 3.0 10.

.0 319.... ... .0 208... ...0 ... 69 83 124 .0 .0 357. .....0 295.0 . 193 . . ..5 19...5 ..... .. ...... ... .. 179 ... .... .0 .... . 29.0 ....0 520... 19..0 ...0 .. .... ..0 23... .0 710. ... ... 14. ..0 10. . . 14... . 83 ... ..... ....0 25..0 14. ..0 11.0 C355...0 9... . .R.... .. .. .0 31....0 356.5 10. . . 39.. ...0 16.....5 ....0 T571 T61 T6 F F T6 F T5 T6 T7 T551 T6 T62 T6 T62 T71 T61 T6 T7 T6 T61 T6 T61 34. 22... .5 .. .. ... 20... ...... ... ...0 13.. ...0 21... . .0 308. .. .5 9. .. . 59 100 .. .5 17. .. 29. ...... 159 ...... ... . . ..0 8. . ..... 107 . 8... .0 10.0 10. . ... . ...... . 10....0 9. .....5 12.. 47...... .. ... . . 72 86 131 .... 169 . .0 9.... ...5 .. .. 200 .. .. ..0 21.0 15. .0 242..... 36.. 79 . . . . ... 11..5 16..5 12. . . .0 ......5 16. .... . .0 13.0 .0 13... .. . .......5 8. ..... ... 24...0 7..0 A357.. 128 124 214 . .... . ....... .. .... ... English units measured to nearest 0. ... 9.... ... 103 .5 .5 15. .... .0 A206.. ..... . 16. .. ..0 12.. . .0 10.. ..0 A390.0 B535.....0 10.... .. . ... . 14.. ......... ..0 850.5 ksi. 324 ...0 308. . . 19...5 ........0 12.. ... . ... ...... ... ... ..5 21. . 138 .. 15.0 356. .... . 26. 169 145 .. ....... Moore rotating beam machines 104 cycles ksi MPa 105 cycles ksi MPa 107 cycles ksi MPa 108 cycles ksi MPa Alloy Temper Sand casting 204....0 40....0 .0 .. ......0 355. . . 9.... 11. .0 18..... . .. 10..0 17..... ...... .. 83 114 159 ........ ....0 8. .. . 97 . Processes..5 11. 14.5 ... .... .5 21.... . ..0 11...5 10.. ..5 14. ... ...... metric units rounded to nearest MPa. 13..0 14.. .. . .. .. ... . . .. ...0 .... 179 ......0 518. .0 103 66 69 90 83 83 97 93 103 86 93 134 117 69 107 90 97 90 76 90 90 90 103 .. ........ 24.......0 222. .0 . . and Applications Table 8. .. .. . . ... .. .......0 8... .. ... 269 . .... ... ... ..5 8. . .. 234 ..... .0 T4 T71 F T2 T7 F O T77 T571 T7 T4 T6 T62 F F T5 T6 T51 T6 T61 T7 T71 T77 T51 T6 T51 T6 T7 T71 T6 F... .. .5 . 11.0 9.0 8. . . .. 131 . ...5 ....... 15.. 14.. . . .. ... . .. . 345 . .. ..0 Permanent mold casting 242.... .0 319. ..5 .0 354. . .......0 . .. ...... 15...5 ...0 8................ ...... . ... 117 . . .0 12.0 17. ...0 11...... ...... . 93 100 145 . .....5 8. .0 ..0 ...0 . ... . .. 214 . .0 ... .96 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 . 18. 23. .0 15. ...0 8..0 355.. 107 .... . ...0 .. . .0 10...5 ..0 138 . ..5 10......0 535...... . ... 66 110 ..... .. .. . .5 19.. .0 8. Source: Aluminum Association and Alcoa publications 336. ... .. 107 193 . ... . .5 ...0 13... .. .. 18...0 13.. ....0 11...... .330 in.......0 A356. ... ......5 14.0 . 114 ... . ..0 249.... 15...... 15. . diam specimens in R. . . 11.... .. ..5 13. 11.... . ..... 14. 24.. 100 186 200 . ..0 29.. .. .5 .0 . . .. 228 . .. . .........0 14.....0 511.... ..0 514. . . 76 131 .. .... T5 F....... .. .. . .. . ... T5 T6 F F F F F F T4 F.0 .0 .... .0 713......... ..... . 200 145 . .. .. ..0 9... .....0 8.0 296...... 134 .5 18...... 248 186 ... .. ...... (continued) Metric values of strength determined by multiplying strengths originally determined in English units by conversion factor of 6........ 79 .... 11. .. .. . .. .........5 27..5 ...... ..14 Typical rotating-beam fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy castings at room temperature Fatigue strength at life of 106 cycles ksi MPa Endurance limit at 5 ϫ 108 cycles ksi MPa Fatigue strengths determined from reversed-bending tests of 0.0 27... 86 66 ...0 10.. ... ... . 97 . . .. ..... ... 124 100 .. ...... .....0 19... . . . . 17... 12.0 9.. .... 21.0 357.. ... ... ..0 333... ... 103 .0 . .5 28... ... .. 15. 12... ..0 12.0 11... 107 110 176 ....0 14.... . . .0 852.. 50........ . 166 145 276 ... ...0 7.... . .5 .0 .. .0 7. 93 ..... 100 . .0 ..0 ....0 .....0 10.0 ...... .......5 13.. . 124 . .0 224... .... 18... .. . 13..5 9.. . . 100 ... .. .0 13.... ... 33.0 ... .0 ..0 76 159 76 66 83 121 55 72 76 76 48 52 55 76 69 76 76 55 62 69 69 72 69 55 97 55 83 66 59 62 69 90 55 55 48 62 69 62 55 55 62 55 69 A355. .5 .. .5 ...0 .0 .. . ......0 . 124 100 ... ... 72 .5 ..... . ....5 . .....0 ..... ...... .....0 C355. . ...0 A240... 10. .. . ..... ......0 443. ...... .0 10..0 12.. . 66 ..0 ..5 23..... .. 23. .. 145 . ....897. 20.. 76 . ..... 76 ..0 14. . 159 117 ..... ...0 11.. .....0 . .. .. 12..... . 10.... .. . ... 18. .. .. . T5 T5 T5 .0 13..... 28.. .. .. ...... . 100 72 ... .. .. . . .. ..... ... .. . .. 155 .. ... 26...0 9. . 72 . 15....... . .. 31...

. English units measured by nearest 0......0 17.. 297 ... 152 . . .0 20. .. also may suggest that for cast parts where the surfaces are in highly stressed regions.0-T7 and -T71. ...0 . 852... .... 359. the fatigue endurance limits were significantly lower for specimens machined from the castings than for the as-cast test bars: Endurance limit Alloy and temper Fatigue specimens ksi MPa 242. .. .5 11...Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 97 Table 8.....0 11. 20. 269 . . Metric values of strength determined by multiplying strengths originally determined in English units by conversion facator of 6. ................ in which the fatigue results for permanent mold cast 242.0 513. More detail on the variations that may be observed is illustrated in the following sections. ...0 390.0-T571 C355. Source: Aluminum Association and Alcoa publications Other illustrations of such differences are found in Data Set 6... . .. . . ..... .. ..0 T62 . . . cast test bars..0 .. B443.0 18. ...... for which tests were made of both as-cast test bars and of specimens taken from actual castings....0 384.. . . there was less overall variability..0 16...... . with the resultant positive residual stresses working in favor of improved performance.. 193 ..... ...5 21....0-T6...0-T7. .... indications from this .. This.... .0 380... .. . metric units rounded to nearest MPa.0 . ... Among the die cast alloys. .... 162 ..0 C443..0 ... 23.0 9...... .. ... or extrusions).. .5 16. 711. 141 .5 5..0 19... . . ... . 851....0 . ... ... but it might be noted that all of the specimens for the die castings had as-cast surfaces.. .0 A380. Further.0-T71 and A240.. 28.0 28.. 32... . of the alloys and tempers for which data are available. . ........ as illustrated in the table that follows.. ..14 and Table 8..0 518..0 364. 30... 8.0 8.5 . .. illustrate that in general the fatigue strengths of aluminum castings are not as high as those of wrought aluminum products (i. .... 145 ..0 ..0 .0-T6.. The role of positive residual stress patterns in promoting these specific alloys is unknown.. .. .. . .. .. ...... 121 117 .0 ..0 T5 .... . .. These values may not be representative of the performance of specific cast components. 25.. . .... ...... 172 .. .0 19..... .. . .. 16... 207 . . .... 39.0-T571 and for sand cast 355. for either smooth or notched specimens.. and so the comparisons are not perfect.. . . ...5 103 66 72 38 In these cases.. .. 22. for the moment.....0 .0 B390.. . .. ....... the design of the casting may favor having the as-cast surface intact. Ignoring such influences. . . .. .0 20.. 17... A390. 513.. . .. . 221 . ....... .. 21... the differences seem to support indications that there is a positive influence on fatigue life of having cast-to-shape fatigue specimens.... . In both cases.... .... ...0 T5 Die casting 360. . .897..16 are based on tests of small specimens machined from castings... Overall. .0 114 110 117 103 55 69 76 62 62 62 76 131 124 124 138 138 148 76 138 131 131 110 124 131 138 . and A390. . Data from Juvinall (Ref 20).... 179 .. 34. perhaps accounting for their apparently overall higher fatigue strengths. 8.... .. ..... .3. .... .. .... ..4.. 23... permanent mold cast 354.... . ... .. . . .. .... .... ....... 22.. . . .... . In any such considerations... it should be noted that the as-cast test bars and the cast parts used for each alloy were totally different lots. there are not very great differences among the endurance limits of the various alloys.. . 27... . .. ...0 11...5 . 148 145 . forgings... 159 .0 A360. 850. .0 T6 ..5 10... however...0 15.. .0 10. .. it is fair to say that with a few exceptions there is not a great amount of variability in endurance limits among the alloys..... . . .. .0 18. . .0 21. . . ..0 T5 ..0 9.. . 234 255 . .. T7 .. . 21.0 413..0 19.0 . ... stress-raiser-free finished surface on the as-cast part..0 T61 43.....0 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ..0 F ..... -T71 As-cast test bars Machined from cast pistons As-cast test bars Machined from cast crankcase 15.0 ... care should be taken to provide for a smooth. ..0 ..0-F exhibited the highest strengths......0 515.... . It should be emphasized that all of the values in Tables 8. . . . . as at room temperature....0 T5 ..0-F.0 20....... .... .. . 713. of course.....1 Influence of Casting Quality on Fatigue Strength Several studies have been reported indicating the influence of casting process and microstructure on fatigue strength. .... .0 F . .....0 F .. 138 ..5 ksi......0 9. . 20....0 37..0 20.0 . . reproduced in Fig.0 18.0 19.14 (continued) Fatigue strength at life of Alloy Temper 104 cycles ksi MPa 105 cycles ksi MPa 106 cycles ksi MPa 107 cycles ksi MPa 108 cycles ksi MPa Endurance limit at 5 ϫ 108 cycles ksi MPa Permanent mold casting (continued) 359.. but 384.0 .. . components made from plate. ....5 17...... those exhibiting the highest fatigue strengths include sand cast A206.. .. .0 ...0 9. . . .. ... ... 152 ...e.0 A413.. At elevated temperatures... ... 186 193 ...0-T6. including in many (regrettably unidentified) cases. 26...

0 12.E8115 C3508 Unknown L1585 Unknown L1670 117105 C6884E C6884T C6884K C6884L C6285M 5 lots 5 lots C3509-T61 C6285K C6285L Unknown 175472 L758 L759 P255A L3032 L3032 C6385D L757 L1661 L1704 C6385K C3510 C3510 C3510. .. Processes.5 7.. ...0 ..0 ..0 ..5 .0 10. .5 8.0 5. 52 249.0 12..0 13.98 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 T61 T61 T61 PEC T62 Sand casting 213. 55 ..5 9.0 7.....0 F O(T21) T571 T75 T77 T63 T6 T62 308..5 . .....0 ..5 10. ...5 7.. 8..5 8...0 F 242..0 12. .5 .5 52 52 55 52 48 55 52 . .. (b) Specimens shown in Appendix 3.0 9.C6385L C3510.. 8.....5 9.0 9. X ..5 17. (c) Endurance limit at 500 million cycles. X X X X X X X . undefined cast part other than CTB.5 10..0 .. 7..C6385L 117104 C8455 C8533 C9004H C8454 D665 L1652 C6156 C9609D 301974 317189 C6156 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X .0 F 242. Kt Ն 12...5 .0 .0 F 224. ... X X ...B D1702 D1703 206548 206547 175138 C6611 E8419C D23.....0 8... ....0 7.0 T6 T61 A356... 62 45 .5 7. . X .. 9. notch-tip radius Յ 0..0 8. Source: Ref 19 ... 5.. A3...0 7.5 6. 7... .0 7.0 7. 8.0 10..0 17.. 34 48 62 55 69 55 41 ...5 7.0 6.2(b) for notched specimen. .0 11..0 13. X X . 9.. ksi Alloy Temper Cast part(a) Lot ID Type of specimens(b) Smooth Notched Smooth ksi MPa ksi Notched MPa Stress ratio....5 8....0 355.0 11..0 T62 C355. X X X X X X X X X X . X X X X X X X X X X X X (continued) X X X X X X X .0 ... .0 . 66 72 79 72 38 59 59 52 59 ....5 . . 52 55 62 38 52 .5 7. 7.0 295. X X .5 7.0 7. 48 41 48 48 41 41 52 48 52 62 . . R = −1.0 T571 T61 (a) CTB... ....0 Plaster mold casting 255..5 10.. 7.5 5. X 15.. 59 45 .0 10. 7.0 7..0 T62 240. 6.0 103 103 83 90 83 55 76 90 69 86 124 90 117 69 83 62 79 66 69 66 48 52 48 48 .0 8.5 ....0 8. 41 ..D403 D424 D2551 C7043F C7043A L2567 C5107 L2579 C6765B E8083D. ..0 8.. . . X X X X X X X . 48 41 .5 10.0 15.0 6..0 A712.. 62 52 48 52 48 .. Fig....5 7. X X .0 T7.. 6. and Applications Table 8.0 6. 9. X X X X X ...5 7.5 7..5 10...5 .0 T51 T59 T6 T6 T51 T6 CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB Casting Casting Casting CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB Cast crankcase CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB Pistons VRC pistons CTB D1699 D1701 D223A..T71 B443 712.5 9.. X ..0 11.5 10.. . 59 66 72 52 66 117 66 103 107 66 69 103 7.0 7. 9. specific part given if stated on data sheet.5 9. .0 10. X X X X X ..5 12... 62 . 41 ... X X X X X X X X X . ..0 . 52 83 59 .0 12. X X X .T71 A355.0 T62 356.0 7.5 7.. casting. 7.... 52 52 . . 11....0 B355..0 319.. .5 8..0 9..0 356....5 8.0 F F F T5 Permanent mold casting 213. ..5 11.0 7..0 6.. . 79 83 76 86 72 69 69 .0 6......0 9.0 15.0 ..0 9..5 15. ... X .5 9.0 12..001 in...15 Summary of reversed-bending fatigue curves for representative lots of aluminum alloy castings Endurance limit(c)...0 13.0 852.. cast test bars.5 12..0 6.0 F F T5 T6 T71 T51 T6 T61 T7 T71 T7.0 7..0 15...5 7.5 18....5 10.

.0 11.0 B443. notchtip radius Յ 0. 12. 41 .0 6.0 8. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ...0 8.0 16.5 83 55 90 97 90 83 90 103 83 83 93 62 131 103 86 69 110 66 107 90 66 86 86 83 90 72 93 55 55 .0 15.0 390.0 19..0 19. . 86 93 76est 110 103 48 76 62 69 59 59 79 72 131 124 103 128 145 134 121 ..0 9. .0 A356. ..0 7..0 13.5 7.0 9.0 5. .0 12.0 7.0 364. .0 851.0 850..0 8.01 in.0 7.0 9.5 8.5 15.. 21.0 356.0 18.. .5 10..0 380.0 10.5 21..0 7.025 in.... .0 12...0 10.001 in....5 12. X .0 8.0 18. X X ...0 13. .0 . .5 13...0 9..5 8..0 8.5 12. (c) Endurance limit at 500 million cycles.. ksi Alloy Temper Cast part(a) Lot ID Type of specimens(b) Smooth Notched Smooth ksi MPa ksi Notched MPa Permanent mold casting (continued) 296.0 13... 38 .0 19. .0 13. .0 354. .0 355.0 13... X .0 14.0 383.0 16.0 9..5 13. ...5 6...0 T6 CTB T7 CTB 308....5 17. ..5 21.0 15.5 13. (b) Specimens shown in Appendix 3.0 4.0 852..0 15.0 .0 7.. .0 9.5 12.. .5 6.5 8..0 15.5 9... Kt Ն 12.0 8..0 6..0 10...0 9. 5.5 3. 59 45 55 55 55 55 52 69 62 55 52 24 83 62 48 55 72 41 52 59 41 55 69 62 52 34 52 52 52 ..0 518.0 7. A3. F F F F A380.0 12..5 22.5 19.0 12.0 F CTB T5 CTB T6 T7 336..5 5.. 72 72 ..5 15..15 (continued) Endurance limit(c).0 F CTB 332........5 10..0 ND 12. specific part given if stated on data sheet.5 10. .5 7.. .0 7. X X .0 413..0 8.0 19.0 F F F F F F CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB-as cast 0.0 T5 CTB 333.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 99 Table 8. removed 0....5 ND 7...0 8.0est 16.5 . . removed Notches CTB CTB CTB-as cast CTB machined CTB CTB P1006 P1007 317782 317782 P998 317250 P1000 158837 P1002 (a) CTB.0 Die casting 360.5 .0 C5449 C5449 C8902 C8281 C6028 C6028 D278B C6028 C6028 C9176C 105678 317644 D3860 E6161 C8067K C5448 C8067K C5448 C8067K C8067K C5448 C8067K D2245B 206428 C6235 C6235 D2543 206587 206588 206547 302022 302023 302108 D4228 E2520A 118348 C8278 R8036 270257 270263 C1670 D3278 C8094 P1003 P1004 206520 P1005 147979 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X . X .0 C712. . .....5 8. ... cast test bars..0 T551 T4 T61 T51 T6 T62 T7 T71 C355.0 10.5 6. . undefined cast part other than CTB...0 11.0 8.. casting.5 7. 10.... .. 6.0 .... Source: Ref 19 .. .. .. .. 5.5 11.. .0 359.... . 7.0 A360...0 B443.0 19..5 11.0 A344.5 12...0 T61 T61 PEC T6 T7 T6 T61 T61 T62 T61 T62 F F F T101 T5 T6 T5 CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB PE casting CTB CTB CTB Casting PE casting PE casting CTB Casting CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB CTB A357.. 148 145 131 131 131 90 114 107 155 8. 52 48 41 76 62 28 45 ..5 . 48 .5 10.2(b) for notched specimen. Fig. 34 34 .0 13.5 .. ...

0 ..5 21.0 15.0 T571 333.5 6.5 16..0 22.5 9..0 14..0 10.0 16.0 28.0 19.R.5 10.5 8..0 T7 T71 C355...0 7. room temperature.0 17.0 4. ....5 10.0 25. ..5 10.0 12.0 36.. .0 8.5 8. ..... .0 16. .5 5...0 17.5 .5 11...0 T62 (continued) Metric values of strength determined by multiplying strengths originally determined in English units by conversion factor of 6. .0 22..0 29..0 17. .0 14.0 9.0 24. Processes.5 31. .5 6..5 11. ..0 355.0 18. .0 21..0 18. . . . 324 255 . .0 7. .0 10.. .0 6...0 7...0 9.0 6.330 in.16 Typical rotating-beam fatigue strength of aluminum casting alloys at elevated temperatures Fatigue strength at life of 106 cycles ksi MPa Fatigue strengths determined from reversed-bending tests of 0.. .. .5 8.5 7.....0 14..5 5.0 13.5 17.0 9. . 25.5 8. .. ...5 6.0 5.5 16.5 8.5 10.. 14. 345 .0 7. 32..5 16. ...0 6.5 10..0 19.5 8..897.5 7.0 14.5 14.5 6..0 11. . .. . ...0 17.0 9.0 6.0 6.0 .5 9...0 5..0 7..5 4.0 4. .5 4.5 10.5 13.0 8.0 .0 83 76 66 55 114 93 79 159 100 90 79 66 97 72 69 62 59 100 86 103 97 90 69 131 124 114 79 52 138 138 90 76 59 124 107 100 83 62 128 117 97 86 59 124 103 86 72 214 200 152 97 55 200 145 121 48 10.0 37.....0 12.0 T77 249.0 15.0 29. ..... .0 6.0 15.0 16. 172 152 124 .5 23. ..5 12..0 11.0 11.0 20.0 10.0 14..0 10.5 8..5 15.0 18......5 8.0 16..0 5.0 11.5 69 62 41 34 83 48 41 124 86 72 59 38 72 52 45 38 28 76 66 76 69 52 34 100 86 69 38 28 107 103 59 41 28 100 69 59 45 34 93 69 52 41 28 100 76 59 48 145 114 69 41 31 124 83 62 24 9.. ..5 10.0 12...5 8......0 18. diam specimens in R.5 19.0 13.5 10.5 16.5 5. . 66 55 34 28 83 48 41 121 86 72 59 34 72 52 45 34 24 76 66 72 66 48 31 97 83 62 34 24 103 93 55 38 24 93 66 52 41 31 86 66 45 38 24 93 107 55 45 134 107 59 38 28 107 . ..0 T7 A240.... . .5 13.5 5.0 12.5 9.5 15....0 12....0 8. ..0 12. . ..5 20.0 5....5 6.0 12.. .. .. .5 10...5 3. ...5 6.0 22..5 7..5 7.0 6.5 4.0 21..0 4.0 16.0 12. . .0 11.5 5.0 11.. .5 8.0 16.0 14..0 9. RT. .0 24. .5 100 90 79 69 186 152 134 200 131 121 110 97 131 103 97 86 79 179 152 145 124 117 97 193 186 166 124 79 179 169 128 110 90 155 138 124 107 83 166 152 134 117 79 145 134 110 103 276 255 214 141 76 248 0 159 72 12..5 18. . .0 34.0 12..5 7...0 9.5 5.5 15. .0 14.0 F 242...0 15.0 11.5 26.5 11.0 8.0 14.. and Applications Table 8..0 14. .5 6. ..0 8..0 4.0 20..5 6. . .0 T551 354.0 13.5 13.5 14.0 22.0 9...0 23...0 13.5 10. .5 11.. 47.5 12.5 11.0 11.0 . ...0 11..0 5.5 9. . . .0 22.0 T6 Permanent mold casting 242...0 23.5 3. 193 97 .0 3.5 7..5 7.0 31.5 29.5 12. Source: Aluminum Association and Alcoa publications .0 11.0 7.0 T6 355... . .0 T5 T7 336.0 13....0 11.. .5 5. ..0 15.. ..5 12. .0 72 66 52 41 86 59 48 131 90 76 62 48 79 55 52 48 41 79 69 83 76 66 48 110 93 83 52 38 114 110 66 52 38 107 79 72 59 45 107 86 66 59 41 110 90 69 55 176 148 103 62 41 159 110 86 34 10.5 26..0 7. .0 14..0 4. ..0 14.0 18.5 8...5 11.5 18.5 7..0 9. .0 27.5 18..5 21.0 10. .0 19. .5 9..0 8.5 18.0 8.0 12...5 13...0 9.0 3.5 12.5 20.....0 . ...0 19.5 14..0 25..0 24.0 19.5 10.0 3..5 17..5 11.5 12....5 6.0 21.5 14. 28. 50.5 5.5 9.. 221 172 117 234 .5 15.. ...0 10.5 7.5 6.5 15.0 18.5 8. .0 13.0 40.0 13..0 27..5 15....5 16..5 5... ..5 12.0 4.. Moore or cantilever-beam rotating-beam machines Test temperature °F °C 104 cycles ksi MPa 105 cycles ksi MPa 107 cycles ksi MPa 108 cycles ksi MPa Endurance limit at 5 ϫ 108 cycles ksi MPa Alloy Temper Sand casting 222.0 15.. ..5 7.0 22. .0 18...0 9. .5 10.5 12.5 11.5 5.5 10.0 37.5 15.0 9.5 7.5 5..0 17.0 19..100 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties...0 T2 RT 300 400 500 RT 400 500 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 350 RT 300 400 500 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 300 400 500 RT 300 400 500 600 RT 300 400 600 RT 150 205 260 RT 205 260 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 177 RT 150 205 260 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 150 205 260 RT 150 205 260 315 RT 150 205 315 . 224.0 9.. .5 7. .0 19. .0 13..5 13.5 15.0 15.0 12.

that is.5 15. 43. demonstrate that the degree of porosity of 295. and notches represent an even more severe stress concentration.0 34.0 10. in these cases..0 . for the eight different degrees of porosity for which data are presented...0-F and 380.5 18.5 5. Source: Aluminum Association and Alcoa publications summary are that the fatigue properties of permanent mold cast aluminum alloys may be expected to be superior to those of sand castings.0 20. .0 10.. Source: Ref 20 As with wrought aluminum alloys.0 22. Further indication that the fatigue strengths of cast aluminum components may be expected to be inferior to those of wrought aluminum products are borne out by flexural fatigue (R ϭ 0..0 7.0 9.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 101 Table 8.0 34. The S-N curves in Data Set 6.5. . 8.16 (continued) Fatigue strength at life of 106 cycles ksi MPa Alloy Temper Test temperature °F °C 104 cycles ksi MPa 105 cycles ksi MPa 107 cycles ksi MPa 108 cycles ksi MPa Endurance limit at 5 ϫ 108 cycles ksi MPa Permanent mold casting (continued) 355. One indication of that is found in the work of Williams and Fisher (Ref 23).. fatigue strength rather consistently increases as the degree of porosity is decreased.4. reproduced in Fig.0 T61 RT 300 400 RT 300 400 500 RT 150 205 RT 150 205 260 . but probably T6) has a direct bearing on fatigue strength. shown in Fig..0 18.0 15. Kt > 12) on fatigue strengths of representative casting alloys. 8. as casting quality increases..5 117 103 83 38 148 128 79 141 90 59 45 14.0 10. RT.. shown in Fig. 297 283 234 . Such generalized views of the differences in fatigue lives of cast and wrought aluminum alloys probably overlook the more basic fact that casting quality itself is the most important factor in determining fatigue life (just as it is for strength and toughness).0 15.5 11..0-T6 aluminum castings are about the same as.897.” to show that fatigue strength decreases with increasing porosity..7) have shown that the sharp notch fatigue strengths of 355.0-T6 castings.15. .0 T71 RT RT 300 150 400 205 600 315 359. 8..0-T4 and 356.. Sharp et al.4.0 41.0 21. Data reported by Promisel (Ref 22).5 13. . squeeze casting.. . the lowest band. .4. .0-T6 squeeze castings consistently performed better than conventionally chill cast A356. and 6061-T6 wrought beams (Ref 21). ...5 14. such as premium quality casting.... While there are few data to demonstrate it.0 5.0-F die cast beams. .6. despite the smooth-specimen superiority of wrought products over castings.. those of 6070-T6 and 7005-T53 wrought products.5 3..0 17.3 Alternating bending stress fatigue curves for wrought and cast aluminum alloys. .0 90 69 55 17 114 86 28 138 69 48 34 Die casting 380.0 31. The band of data for the cast beams falls consistently below the curve for 6061-T6..0 19.0 8.5 20. Data were presented in Section 8.0 28. when real design discontinuities are present the fatigue prop- . will result in improved fatigue properties.5 12. the notched specimen endurance limits are one-third to one-half those for the smooth specimens.5 4..0 11. (Ref 21) (Fig.0 26. the results of which are summarized in Table 8.0 25. .5 186 172 145 69 234 214 179 193 128 103 86 21.0 23. Further evidence of the effect of defects and discontinuities is illustrated by the work on hot isostatic pressing by Boileau and Wang discussed in Chapter 6..0 F Metric values of strength determined by multiplying strengths originally determined in English units by conversion factor of 6.. who found that the axial-stress fatigue strengths of A356.5 18.0 12. provide examples of the effects of severe machined notches (with theoretical stress concentration factors.. 8. .0 20. 8.0) tests of 220..5 11.0 6.0 5.0 8.0 27.5 21.0 (regrettably not documented as to temper.0 11. 218.0 7..5 6.3. . and semisolid casting.0-T6 sand cast beams.0 145 134 110 55 186 162 124 152 103 76 62 17.5 16.. 27. room temperature..0 8.5 100 76 59 21 121 97 41 138 76 52 38 13. perhaps even slightly superior to. it is also therefore reasonable to expect that improvements in casting practices that lead to better soundness and minimal porosity..2 Influence of Stress Raisers on Fatigue Strength of Aluminum Castings Fig.0 12.. under “Premium Engineered Castings. stress raisers such as notches or holes significantly reduce the fatigue strengths of aluminum castings. The significance of this is that.0 2.0 8.5 16. 8.

8. Processes. and Applications erties of the various products may not differ significantly. 8.4. Source: Ref 20 Fig. but Sharp et al.3 Fatigue Strengths of Welded Aluminum Castings Few data are available to document the fatigue strengths of weldments in aluminum castings. (Ref 21) present Fig.4 Flexural fatigue properties (R ϭ 0) of aluminum alloy beams produced from wrought and cast aluminum alloys.5 Fatigue properties of 295.102 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 aluminum alloy castings with various degrees of porosity. and improving fatigue performance may be more a problem of reducing component stress concentrators and in the selection of an alloy or product form. 8. Source: Ref 22 .

8. the ratio of the notch tensile strength to the tensile strength of the material. 8. The results from these tests were analyzed in terms of the theoretical stressconcentration factors.6 Fatigue properties of conventionally cast and squeeze cast aluminum alloy A356.0) fatigue tests of 355. however. This approach. has not always been very useful in design. a curve is shown only for A201. The notch tensile strength itself is of small value for this rating. each of which has a unique influence on the numerical results of the tests. 8. Therefore. the notched specimen must mirror the stress conditions in the component.0-T7.1 Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity Fig.8. since the same theoretical stress concentration factors can be obtained with a great variety of different geometrical notch and specimen configurations. nor was there any significant effect of removing the weld bead or leaving it intact.9. their ability to plastically deform locally in the presence of stress raisers and thus redistribute the stress.5 Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys 8. the relationship of the notch tensile strength to the tensile properties is much more meaningful. this ratio tells little about the relative abilities of alloys to deform Fig.0 as filler metal and also 355. more data are available for notch toughness and tear resistance. There was no significant difference in fatigue strength of the two weld combinations. Source: Ref 23 One of the earliest approaches to the evaluation of the fracture characteristics of aluminum alloys was via tensile tests of specimens containing various types of stress raisers (Ref 24). tear resistance. if design is the goal. the results of tensile tests of notched specimens have been used primarily to qualitatively merit rate aluminum alloys with respect to their notch toughness. 8.0-T6 welded to 5456-H321 with 4043 as filler metal.5. 8. However.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 103 the results of axial-stress (R ϭ 0. and plane-strain fracture toughness have been the primary measures used to assess the toughness of aluminum alloy castings (Ref 24). including its stress raisers. Source: Ref 21 . the criterion most often used from notch tensile test results was the notch-strength ratio.4 Design Fatigue Strengths for Aluminum Castings Notch toughness.4. Because of the difficulty in getting valid fracture toughness tests from castings. and those data are reproduced in Fig.0) fatigue properties of notched specimens from wrought and cast aluminum alloys. For aluminum alloy castings. For many years.0-T6.0-T6 casting welded together with 355. that is. 8.7 Rotating beam (R ϭ –1. but representative data for all three are presented and discussed in the sections that follow. No other fatigue data for aluminum castings are presented. as in Fig. MMPDS/MIL-HDBK-5H (Ref 15) includes strain-life fatigue curves for use in design of aluminum aircraft.

for example. ASTM standards for notch tensile testing (Ref 25) call for notch-tip radii equal to or less than 0. If the notch tensile strength is appreciably above the yield strength (regardless of its relation to the tensile strength). when a measure of tensile efficiency of a specific structural member is required. of course. such notches come close to representing the most severe unintentional stress raiser that is likely to exist in a structure: a crack. the material has exhibited an ability to deform locally in the presence of the stress raiser. Representative data for various aluminum casting alloys with this design of specimen are given in Table 8. Data for welds in various aluminum casting alloys are presented in Table 8. 8. The specific design of notch for which data for a wide variety of casting alloys are available is shown in Appendix 3. There are instances. Processes. and Applications plastically in the presence of stress raisers. While a number of different designs of notch have been used by different investigators. for different notch geometries. Notch Toughness at Room Temperature. the fracture must have taken place without very much plastic deformation. In all cases. If the notch tensile strength is appreciably below the yield strength.0005 in. as in fatigue tests or stress rupture tests. or when the ultimate strength is the primary data taken for the smooth specimens. this may or may not provide much specific design information.9 Best-fit fatigue curves for aluminum alloy A201-T7 at various strain rates at 75 °F (24 °C). Further indication of this fact is the experimental result that the notch-yield ratio provides rather consistent ratings of many alloys and tempers for a wide variety of notch geometries. very sharp 60° V-notches provide the greatest discrimination among different alloys. and the ratings are consistent with those from fracture parameters. A more meaningful indication of the inherent ability of a material to plastically deform locally in the presence of a severe stress raiser is provided by the notch-yield ratio—the ratio of the notch tensile strength to the tensile yield strength (Ref 24). although arbitrarily defined.17 (Ref 24). Fig. For a specific notch design.8 Axial-stress (R ϭ 0) fatigue properties of welded aluminum alloy castings.18. The yield strength. Fig. it can indicate contradictory ratings (Ref 24). but as a relative measure of how several alloys behave in that situation.5. Source: Ref 14 . when the notch-strength ratio is useful. 8. In fact. the relationship of the notch tensile strength to the yield strength tells more about the behavior of the material in the presence of a stress raiser than the ratio of the notch tensile strength to the tensile strength.013 mm). easily maintained in machining aluminum specimens (though quality assurance measurements are recommended). Therefore. the data were generated in accordance with ASTM E 602 (Ref 25).104 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. it is quite useful. A3. (0. In addition. is a measure of the lowest stress at which appreciable plastic deformation occurs in a tensile test. as described later. Source: Ref 21 Fig.

6 23.5 4. Fig..58 1.6 6.0 20.04 1.2 20.8 8.04 1. yield strength.65 1.2 1.08 1.0 38.9 2.24 1. A3.5 44.08 2.20 1.1 43.4 43.47 1.6 37.38 1.00 1.97 0.0-T7 Average 356.5 33.25 1.4 46.72 1.6 33.2 41.06 1.3 31.2 30.96 3.06 2.7 40..6 21.0-T61 Average A356.67 0.2 28.5 32. (a) For tensile yield strength.4 37.4 6 2.13 0.3 28.0-T7 Average A356.57 1.6 6.91 1.0-T7 359.23 1.46 1.21 1.8 47.0-T7 Average 520.4 34.2 42.61 1.6 31.14 2.8 49.0-T77 295.16 1.23 1.00 1.92 1.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 105 Table 8.6 8.71 1.6 9.12 1.4 47.06 1.2 43.5 2.72 1.6 36.0-T6 308.2 47.9 65.64 1.8 30.3 3.4 4.5 27.5 45.4 2.2 31. 8.2 8.7 42.02 1.12 1.0-F B535.0-T4 Average 356.1 3.0-T61 40.7 31.0 35.0 4.65 1.38 1.0-T6 356.0-F X335.0-F 242.65 1.58 1.2 5. each line is the average of two tests of a single lot of material.4 34.3 35.2 354.0 2.20 1.0-F Average A444.2 9.1 47.18 1.6 23.0 30.6 39.4 34.0-F Average A612. notch tensile strength.9 3.0-T61 A356.8 79.4 30.0-T6 356.7 20.02 1.6 46.8 45.22 1..75 1.8 28.4 1.56 1.6 37.9 46.9 31.90 2.15 1.25 1.2 15.0 38.22 1.9 2 13 3.7 30.39 1.2 37.4 41.1 29.1 41.9 49.1 2. 6 9 3 4 4 37 21 36 10 9 9 9 Permanent mold casting X335.19 1.6 64.0-T62 Average A356.05 1.7 43.60 1.05 1.59 1. TS.6 Average 38.3 36.15 1.1 34.60 1.87 1.4 43.0 19.0 41.1 6.2 30.8 17.8 42.6 33.19 1.02 1.3 1.11 1.0-T62 Average A444. offset = 0.5 6.19 1.9 43.9 43.0 21.4 22.6 37.7 21.07 1.3 54.40 1.8 28.91 1. .8 23.10 1.6 27. Alloy and temper Elongation in 2 in.0-T62 Average C355.2%.75 1.6 7 13 4 3 2 2 4 6 5 3 6 6 8 7 8 8 6 .0-T7 356. % Reduction of area.3 35.6 51.07 1.8 42.9 29.3 44.5 65.0-T7 63.4 30.1 38.7 9.5.1 37.12 1.88 1.0 36.2 52.4 37.10 1.4 22.8 45.8 28.3 34.4 27.6 40. % NTS/TS NTS/YS Sand casting 240.8 35.6 38.5 21.04 0.5 5.0 30.7 23.1 18.2 (continued) NTS.8 39.2 24.0 41.64 4..08 0.22 1.39 1.7 40.0-T71 Average A356.55 1.78 1.96 2.24 1.8 31.60 1.1 21.37 1.8 44.13 1.2 51.7 19.20 0.1 12.4 45.9 44.8 4.4 25.2 41.08 1.4 30.3 36.8 224.8 29.4 30.0 37.12 1.21 1.8 28.3 34.8 31.4 22.0 37.8 45.3 1.31 1.17 1.0 3 2 .9 1.3 31.5 3.3 7. YS.5 22.0-T6 Average 356.34 1.14 1. tensile strength.0 58.4 22.0 Premium engineered casting A201.7 36.31 1.2 30.0-T7 54.13 1.4 7.17 Representative notch toughness tests of cast aluminum alloys at room temperature Ultimate tensile strength ksi MPa Tensile yield strength(a) ksi MPa Notch tensile strength ksi MPa Specimens per Appendix 3.17 1.2 38.4 29.0 39.31 1.6 29.2 46.6 18.26 1.0 1.06 1.7 32.2 21.4 10 7 2.02 1.16 1.2 1.9 38.6 2 4 10 2 12 22.0-F 33.70 1.63 1.0 25.21 1.2 Average 54.0 155 189 327 152 263 258 261 218 216 217 258 238 221 263 211 232 355 310 263 287 265 302 310 306 314 315 279 297 374 353 364 299 288 294 30 243 237 240 330 313 322 319 302 310 254 343 296 324 197 192 194 212 549 445 455 448 0.69 1.0 22.0-T4 50.4 44.0 6.8 31..1 0.02 1.2 22.2 43.54 1.00 1.6 1.15 1.4 41.22 2.6 42.4 42.0 5.5 23.6 41.1 233 206 290 172 257 243 250 214 203 208 266 261 199 220 203 207 287 256 259 258 236 284 294 289 297 281 246 263 346 330 340 255 283 269 247 196 204 206 272 288 280 282 301 291 194 319 327 239 160 155 157 159 440 373 374 374 26.24 1.8 179 141 187 128 161 156 159 137 121 129 225 232 139 167 143 150 208 210 229 219 218 146 145 146 240 196 177 164 314 306 310 214 210 212 214 148 152 152 212 210 211 253 250 252 148 298 297 298 67 66 66 55 401 283 266 274 1.1 54.06 1.6 5.0 24.

5 190 202 203 221 198 260 238 279 1. the positive effect of its higher purity (i. Joint efficiencies based on typical values for parent alloys. ranks highest. 8.06 1.41 1.0-T62 to 6061-T6 354.. B.0-T62 to 5456-H321 C355.42 1.0-T61 rank highest among the premium-strength castings. permanent mold castings (Fig.0-T62 and C355. Alloys 354.2 43.6 7. Otherwise.0-T7 57.3 11 1 1 9 10 6 13 7 69.e.4 66 79 84 148 131 170 133 168 12.4 56.6 397 354.4 52.0 40. However.0-T6 43.5 11. Fig.0-F rank highest among sand cast alloys.13 reveals additional information.17 Alloy and temper (continued) Ultimate tensile strength ksi MPa Tensile yield strength(a) ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in.11).0-F A444.1 5.0-F have among the best combinations of strength and notch toughness.4 339 297 281 209 208 298 276 320 7.79 1. gage length. For the two higher-strength alloys. each line represents the average of duplicate tests on one lot of material.5 11. 295. No postweld thermal treatment Alloy and temper combination Filler alloy Ultimate tensile strength ksi MPa Tensile yield strength(a) ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in. 8.0-T6 52.70 1.3 3. the other sand and permanent mold cast alloys fall below the wrought alloy band. A356. over a 2 in.0-T61 to 5456-H321 4043 4043 5556 4043 4043 5556 4043 5556 23.0-T6 welds being slightly superior. (a) For joint yield strength.3 45.4 8. YS.10b).1 6. TS. offset = 0. Once again. 8. tensile strength.6 301 A356. Welds in A444. Among the higherstrength casting alloys.10 1.2 40.0 46.0-T6 354.0 359 A357. and T7 tempers.10c). % Location of fracture(b) Notch tensile strength ksi MPa NTS/TS NTS/YS A444.3 29.0-F and B535.12.5 19. Alloys A444.3 30. with C355..3 24.0-F to A444.66 NTS. and A356.0 6.7 37.0-T61 to 6061-T6 C355. (a) For tensile yield strength.0-T62 and C355.00 1.0-T61 51.28 NTS. Looking at the relationship between notch-yield ratio (NYR) and tensile yield strength also provides interesting information for castings (Fig.2 43. tensile strength.2 353 A357.0-F to 6061-T6 A444.7 28. offset = 0.8 4. most notably the relationship of their performance to that of wrought alloys.23 0.6 301 C355.0-F to 5456-H321 354.2 21.7 12.18 Representative notch toughness test results of welds in cast aluminum alloys at room temperature Specimens per Appendix 3. and premium-strength castings (Fig 8.20 0.0 331 C355.4 164 166 166 261 212 260 199 244 9. 354. Relative rankings for welds in aluminum alloy castings based on notch-yield ratio (Table 8. through weld.2 59.74 1. for the respective groups.0-F have the highest notch-yield ratios by a considerable margin.106 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T6.95 1. they fall in or near lower edge of the band for wrought alloy data.10 1.4 5.0-T62 to 354. 1⁄2 to 21⁄2 in.18) are shown in Fig. with the lowest yield strength of the entire group.2 1.0-F permanent mold castings.0-T6 consistently has higher toughness than does 356. 8.93 1. edge of weld .6 51.51 2.10. Alloy A444.4 48.0 28. and 224.9 35..8 37.15 2.10a).21 1.15 1.0-T7.85 0. Processes.1 37.00 1.0-T6 are within a fairly narrow range. (b) Location of fracture of unnotched specimens: A. yield strength.51 1. looking at the data on the basis of NYR versus tensile yield strength (TYS) as in Fig.90 2. 8.12 1. YS.5 32.0 24.1 3.7 34.0-T6 and B535. A356. the premium quality castings (that is.41 1. and Applications Table 8.0-T62 53.4 43.6 19. from weld.8 30.4 1. not surprising with their low strength.22 0. A3.06 1.2%. sand castings made with special care to provide high metal chill rates in highly stressed regions) rate well. yield strength.0-T6 41.2%.0-T6.8 30. T62. notch tensile strength.8 24.19 1. segregated by sand castings (Fig. % Notch tensile strength ksi MPa NTS/TS NTS/YS Premium engineered casting (continued) 249. % Reduction of area.9 372 49.22 1.0-T6. lower content of impurities such as iron).0-T6 48.5 40. Relative rankings of the casting alloys are presented in the bar graphs in Fig. C.0-T6 and -T71 rank highest among permanent mold castings.4 9.4 12.53 1. there is also an indication that welds made with 5356 and 5556 filler alloys have somewhat better combinations of strength and tough- Table 8. % Reduction of area. % Joint strength efficiency. of the latter groups.48 1.5.6 287 A357.4 478 313 299 363 355 334 388 410 1. and C355.6 22 23 27 10 39 5 32 5 100 100 100 76 62 75 66 81 B B B A C A C A 27. as do the premium-strength castings in the T61. 8.5 29.93 1.0 24.0-T61 43. the permanent mold castings generally exhibit the best performance. TS. notch tensile strength.

(b) Permanent mold castings. B535. Many data for 4043 welds fall well below the band for wrought alloys. even at –320 °F (–196 °C). Notch Toughness at Subzero Temperatures. the premiumstrength cast alloys have the most consistently superior strengthtoughness combination. notably the 2xx. with its relatively low yield strength.0-F.10 Relative rankings of notch toughness of aluminum casting alloys based upon notch-yield ratio. a notable exception is when the 4043 weld in 6061-T6 was heat treated and aged after welding. in fact. generally show a consistent and more rapidly decreasing toughness with decrease in temperature. at or above 2.14(d).5. Other casting alloys.14c). The notch toughness of most welds as measured by NYR is generally somewhat less than that for parent metal of the same strength. 8.15). From Fig. When the notch-yield ratios for cast alloys are viewed on the basis of yield strength level (Fig 8. even to –423 °F (–253 °C) and –452 °F (–269 °C).0 casting alloys rather consistently retain most or all of their toughness at subzero temperatures. among the higher-strength alloys. permanent mold cast alloys (Fig.0-T61 performed quite well even at –452 °F (–269 °C). showed an exceptionally high NYR.0-F exhibits exceptionally high toughness and.14a and b). it is also clear that A356.0-F (Fig. 8. 8. The results of notch tensile tests of several aluminum casting alloys at subzero temperatures are presented in Table 8. the principal exceptions being welds made with the 5xxx series filler alloys. 8. The performance of the permanent mold castings is generally nearly as good as the premium-strength castings and. it can be seen that the 3xx.14.14 as a function of test temperature for sand cast alloys at subzero temperatures (Fig.14d).0 and 5xx. (a) Sand castings. Alloy A444.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 107 ness than do welds made with 4043.0 and 4xx. similar to the case at room temperature. choice of filler alloy made little difference. high-toughness alloy A444. this is also consistent with the case for wrought alloys. 8. A444.0 series. From the notch tensile data in Fig. 8. (c) Premium engineered castings . 8.0 Fig. and premium-strength sand cast alloys (Fig. 8.19. Data from these tests are plotted in Fig.14c). In low-strength.

high-quality casting processes yield superior combinations of strength and toughness.12 Rankings of notch toughness of welds in aluminum casting alloys based upon notch-yield ratio for combinations of casting alloys and filler alloys (middle number) Fig. 8.16. 8. but in all cases. 8. NYRs were above 1.0.0 permanent mold castings essentially match the performance of the premium-strength castings. Data for welds in cast alloys at subzero temperatures are presented in Table 8. it seems especially important to pay careful attention to the casting process as well as the alloy itself. and Applications Fig. Fig. even at –452 °F (–269 °C). The conventionally cast sand castings rather consistently exhibit the poorest performance. Processes.108 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.11 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for selected aluminum alloy castings and A356.20. and the NYRs are plotted as a function of temperature in Fig. Both 4043 and 5556 welds exhibited NYRs about the same at temperatures down to –320 °F (–196 °C) as at room temperature. both filler alloys exhibited some significant reduction. At lower temperatures. When selecting cast alloys for cryogenic service.13 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for welds in aluminum alloy castings for combinations of casting alloys and filler alloys (middle number) . 8.

0-T77 295.4 20.4 32.1 34.5 21.7 2.7 54.72 1.4 29.4 45.5 45.0 50.6 48.2 43.3 1.8 1.1 45.93 0.15 0.61 1.09 1.8 43.2 37.0-F Permanent mold casting X335.11 1.60 1.4 27.0-T62 356. % NTS/TS NTS/YS Sand casting 208.2 2.36 1.2 21. TS.4 4.4 27.5 58.8 34.6 43.0 37.4 41.13 1.2 26.8 32.6 39.95 0.4 55.6 40.70 1.01 0.6(d) 34.8 38.15 1.8 2.92 0..8 32.0 43.18 1.34 1.0 7. offset = 0.2 51.6 43.2 31.90 1.0 26.2 41.21 1.3 1.5 38.6 33.4 12.2 40.0 5.08 0.58 Ͻ0.0-F 520.4 45.8 23.02 1.02 0.8 36.3 5.9 19.69 1.6 31.2 41.0 45.2 25. tensile strength.02 1.6 37.5 214 235 252 128 150 208 179 157 223 141 157 185 187 221 275 161 189 221 137 161 188 225 247 270 232 237 268 139 153 174 208 240 262 331 210 219 243 146 154 176 194 218 258 273(d) 240 283 338 196 201 214 247 314 315 336 387 1.62 1.3 5.75 0.0 174 149 150 206 134 120 200 179 191 300 400 400 263 297 315 218 259 291 258 276 303 238 268 297 221 204 237 355 381 412 496 310 283 303 302 292 245 138 265 192 188 314 350 352 315 326 368 402 374 367 389 395 297 286 310 1.12 0.4 51.2 2.4 22.0-F A612.0 26.0 41.1 31.4 4.5 37.88 1.12 1.4 27.1 19.4 3.04 0..45 1.8 38.98 0.0 29.96 1.0-T6 (continued) RT.06 0.91 0.59 1.9 23.0-T7 B535. notch tensile strength.1 28..4 6.2 22.1 32.60 1.4 8.4 40.23 240.8 20.7 66.8 39.12 0.9 10.1 40.7 2.6 42.5 53.2 36.6 48.82 0.13 1.0 8..7 34.96 1..7 56.94 0.8 42.42 1. °F Elongation in 2 in.06 1.72 1.0-T7 356.8 8.0 39.6 37.7 32.2 21.6 37. 3 2 2 1 .9 4.02 1.08 1.0 58.7 30.7 1.0-T6 356.0(b) 1.3 42.1 32.0 38.3 30.1 1.7 35.03 1.75 0.8 42.3 0.0 45.21 1.8 41.2 53.7 47.3 0.3 25.1 36.8 29.8 40.92 0.71 1.1 47.7 3.6 31. (b) Broke outside middle third.0 45.42 1.04 1.16 1.11 0.18 1.15 1.8 71.9 41.0 48.4 35.8 32.1 (c) (c) 6.5 50. (c) Broke in threads.6 2.8 45.47 0.19 1.65 1.98 1.7 29.1 36.7 26.3 30.24 1.0 45.0 1.2 32.0 22.12 1.84 1.88 Ͻ0.0 38.93 0.2 30.0 8.5 4. room temperature.8 32.2 34.81 Ͻ0.3 51. 5 4 25.2 2 0(b) 0 2 (c) (c) 4 (c) (c) 10 5 5 12 10 10 6 6 3 3 2 2 2 2 0 .04 1.17 0.4 61.08 1.05 1.0 7.19 Representative notch toughness test results of cast aluminum alloys at subzero temperatures Ultimate tensile strength psi MPa Tensile yield strength(a) psi MPa Notch tensile strength psi MPa Tests of single specimen per Appendix 3. YS.97 Ͻ0.38 1.7 43.0 27.3 54.59 1. yield strength.22 0.7 37.0-T71 A356.0-T61 A356.02 1.4 3.2 59.1 1.4 2.00 0.08 1.5 53.5 20. % Reduction of area. (a) For yield strength.0 44.4 29.0-T4 356.0 3.69 1.0-T61 354.8 42.6 41.2% .45 1.6 4.0 44.1 4.4 (c) (c) 2.0 34.36 1.8 2.9 27.25 2.63 1.6 34.2 45.7 2.4 39. Fig.57 1.0-T6 356.96 1.29 1.0 4..2 43.0 45.95 1.92 1.5 at each temperature Alloy and temper Test temperature.4 17.8 27.7 172 181 211 233 226 254 206 226 226 290 314 370 257 292 356 214 252 281 266 297 328 261 286 311 199 222 258 287 332 357 455 256 276 315 284 287 257 212 236 287 273 297 314 367 281 277 315 372 346 375 421 415 254 290 315 18.17 1.39 0.6 21.6 8. NTS.97 0.17 1.31 1.8 41.61 1..0 28.23 1.2%.1 31.2 56.0 1.57 1.0 3. 5 2 10 10 4 9 7 5 4 13 11 5 1 2 1 0 7 2 3 13 7 5 .55 1.5 31.15 1.7 0.0 60.1 54. (d) Broke before reaching 0.54 1.47 1.0 35.63 1.0-F RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 −452 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 −423 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 −423 RT −112 −320 −423 RT −112 −320 25.04 1.98 0.2 53.50 1.2 37.0 49.6 35.0 30.7 3.02 0.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 109 Table 8.9 44.71 0.8 51.6 5.1 45. A3.0-F 242.2 33.07 1.79 0.4 38.2 22.4 57.0-T6 X335.5 28.4 58.

0-T6 welded with either 4043 or 5456 exhibits a fair level of toughness for its high strength level.8 38.0-T7 359. room temperature.7 3.8 56.25 1.0-T61 welded with 5456 exhibits the highest toughness for its strength level. the test can be used for all aluminum alloys.5 5.4 4.85 1.3 25.7 4. The usefulness of the data from this test is not dependent on the development of rapid crack propagation or fracture at elastic stresses.3(b) 6.4 55.0 43.10 1.9 43.4 41.7 6.9 63.0 2.8 28. Processes.3 3.8 49.26 1.3 5.3 37.0 4.3 49.96 1.6 62.5 51.59 1.23 1.4 47.2 49.5 7 5 4 .95 3.7 49.0-F Premium engineered casting C355.5.3 148 168 177 212 225 247 253 273 286 312 148 178 197 298 326 341 67 69 83(d) 209 229 272 208 240 262 276 299 324 306 322 340 4.8 57.5 9.2 34. is also calculated. At the lowest temperature for which data were obtained (–452 °F.6 43.4 1. of the higher strength alloys.8 8. 8.0-T62 A444.10 1.6 41.13 1. 8.0 12.40 1.74 1.18.15 1.2 Tear Resistance A tear test of the type described in ASTM B 871 (Ref 26) was developed at Alcoa Laboratories to more discriminantly evaluate the fracture characteristics of the aluminum alloys in various tempers (Ref 24).17.86 1. more than data from notch tensile tests.7 243 257 275 330 329 363 319 343 399 437 254 303 325 343 343 343 197 210 221 363 390 432 355 381 412 388 401 410 382 381 412 1.2 59.3 21.9 47. (c) Broke in threads.8 47. .15 1.9 49.2 59.4 54.01 2.14 1. C355.47 1.3 39.8 32.05 1. 8. 6 6 6 5 5 3 9 8 7 3 4 4 37 24 12(b) 8 8 6 10 10 4 13 5 4 4 3 4 35.6 35.23 1.5 28.95 0. yield strength.26 1.2 26. The unit propagation energy is equal to the energy required to propagate the crack divided by the initial net area of the specimen.1 62.08 0.7 39.15 1.2 39.6 37. A444.21 A356.27 1.4 24.40 1.6 56.1 3. Therefore.4 25.4 40. notch tensile strength.4 45.57 1.2 51. even very ductile. (a) For yield strength. Fig.7 51.0-F welded with 4043 stands out and.4 46. YS.6) are determined from measurements of the appropriate areas under the autographic load-deformation curves developed during the tests.0 44.4 7.35 1. C355.0-T61 A356.21 1.64 1.9 47.16 0.55 1.5 5.6 48.10 1.0 3.7 13.21 1.7 51.4 8.2 52.4 32.2 196 225 257 272 289 341 282 312 335 38 194 244 295 319 361 398 160 181 259 301 334 375 287 332 357 353 375 424 353 366 429 21.7 23.70 1. % Reduction of area.07 1.” the maximum nominal direct-and-bending stress developed by the tear specimen. provides a measure of that combination of strength and ductility that permits a material to resist crack growth under either elastic or plastic stresses. TS.2 39. A3. tensile strength.04 2.9 45.4 61.0-T7 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 −423 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 RT −112 −320 28. tough alloys.7 1.2 54.3 33.7 1.6 30.31 1.6 46.0-T61 A357.0 1.0-T62 RT. (d) Broke before reaching 0. % Notch tensile strength psi MPa NTS/TS NTS/YS Permanent mold casting (continued) 356.2 47. it is referred to as the tear-yield ratio.17 1.0-T62 A356. The unit propagation energy.7 46. All of the welds fall within the range of data for unwelded castings of the same alloys.6 5.53 1.7 49.4 30.7 52. and Applications Table 8.65 1.08 0. offset = 0.0-T61 A357.3 3. and the ratio of this tear strength to the yield strength provides a measure of notch toughness.110 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.19 1.2 48.7 10.4 32.. as in Fig.41 1.1 49.72 1.8 28.96 1.0 40.2 59.08 1.46 1.4 42.07 1. or –270 °C).0-T61 A356. NTS.04 0.24 1.4 55.24 1..5 43.2% Viewing the data for welds at –320 °F (–196 °C) on the basis of NYR versus joint yield strength (JYS). °F Ultimate tensile strength psi MPa Tensile yield strength(a) psi MPa Elongation in 2 in.6 22.14 1.2 19. values of the energies required to initiate and propagate cracks in small sharply edgenotched specimens (Appendix 3.0 11.15 1.1(b) 30. and it is the primary criterion of tear resistance obtained from the tear test.4 57.6 30..9 4. As shown in Fig.5 2.2%.15 1.3 36.0 4.2 37.56 1.2 35.8 36.65 1.0 52.18 1.2 53. The “tear strength.59 1.19 Alloy and temper (continued) Test temperature. (b) Broke outside middle third.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 48.0 3.4 55. reinforcing the point that even at temperatures as low as –320 °F (–196 °C) there is no deterioration in the strength-toughness combination associated with the welds.4 41.2 58.

(b) Sand castings.19. The relationship between UPE to TYS for wrought aluminum alloys is shown as a band for comparison.0 have exceptionally high tear resistance compared to the other cast alloys as defined by UPE. (2. Fig A3.0 alloys. Fig.2 mm). all test results reported herein were obtained on specimens 0.20.0 and B535. and 6xx. 8. and the relationship between unit propagation energy (UPE) to TYS is shown in Fig.0.13 mm) in thickness.5 Ϯ 0. 2xx. 8.125 in. Ratings of the cast alloys and tempers based on the values of unit propagation energy are shown in Fig. (3. (1. While it is obvious that low-strength alloys A444.100 Ϯ 0. (d) Premium engineered castings . It is also appropriate to note that tear test results may be dependent on testing machine characteristics. 3xx.005 in.063 in.6 mm) to about 0. (c) Permanent mold castings.0-F has tear resistance in the same range as wrought alloy plate of the same strength level and a much better combination of UPE and TYS than most other casting alloys.14 Notch-yield ratio as a function of temperature for aluminum alloy castings. Other dimensions were maintained within the tolerances in Appendix 3.100 in.0. All of the results reported herein were obtained on 50. (2. (12 to 25 mm) thick cast slabs.000 lbf (2. 5xx.21 for a variety of cast aluminum alloys with 0.20 also reveals that: • Sand cast alloy B535.6. 8. Representative data are shown in Table 8.0 alloys. Fig. 8. (a) Sand castings.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 111 While the results of tear tests are not greatly dependent on specimen thickness in the range from about 0.2 ϫ 105 N) Tinius Olsen hydraulic testing machines.5 mm) thick specimens machined from 1⁄2 to 1 in.

0/6061 joints made with 5556).22 illustrates that 4043 welds in castings and 5556 welds in highsilicon castings generally provide lower toughness than other combinations of filler and parent alloys. G. The specimens used were of the design shown in Appendix 3.0T62 essentially match the performance of the premium-strength cast alloys (and. As in the case with notch toughness data. Griffith. Background on the development and application of fracture mechanics to design is presented in Ref 24 and the other references cited therein. a scan of the data in Table 8. there are a few exceptions. in these cases. Representative tear test data for welds in cast aluminum alloys are shown in Table 8. and Applications • Among the higher-strength castings. A3.112 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. • With the exception of B535. In general.5.3 Fracture Toughness The results of plane-strain fracture toughness tests of several aluminum castings are given in Table 8.0-F. However. Fig. the premium engineered castings consistently have among the best combinations of UPE and TYS.0-T6 or -T7 sand castings. it was through the work of A. the high silicon in the 3xx.A. the tear resistance of welds made with 5xxx filler alloys are generally appreciably higher than those of welds made with high-silicon 4043 filler alloy. and ASTM Committee E-24 on Fracture Fig. Very briefly summarized. Irwin.0 castings may be overwhelming the inherent high toughness of the 5xxx type filler alloys (although this was not reflected in the A356.22. Processes. could be considered premium engineered castings based on AMS-A-21180). one can conclude that for applications where high toughness is critical for joining aluminum castings. 8.15 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for aluminum casting alloys at –320 °F (–196 °C) and –423 °F (–253 °C) . sand castings generally have among the poorest combination of strength and toughness. especially at relatively high strength levels. Ratings of the welded cast alloys and tempers based on the values of unit propagation energy are shown in Fig. 24).7. with the notable exceptions that 354. 5xxx filler alloys would be recommended.23 (Ref 19. in fact. An analysis of welds in castings based on UPE versus TYS is not available because joint yield strengths were not reported and a plot cannot be made. and 4043 filler alloy should be avoided except perhaps in the case of high-silicon casting alloys. notably in joints between 6061-T6 plate and 356. 8. • Permanent mold cast alloys generally fall in the intermediate range.21. 8.R. For welds in cast alloys.0-T62 and 359.

05 1.99 0.6 19. other than very-high-strength heat treated alloys. or design discontinuities that may be present in the stress field.08 2. These parameters.13 1. alloy °F Ultimate tensile strength ksi MPa Tensile yield strength(a) ksi MPa Jointmb. this discussion focuses on the values of critical stress-intensity factor developed under plane-strain conditions.31 2.4 37.5 48.54 1.7 39.21 1.7 45.6 27. efficiency.83 1.4 37.1 5. of area. are more useful to the designer than those measures of toughness that provide only a relative merit rating of materials.30 1.1 25.8 28.03 0. K.76 0. Location % % % of fracture(b) Notch tensile strength ksi MPa NTS/TS NTS/YS Alloy and temper combination A444.6 4. The type of brittle fracture behavior assumed in the development of linear-elastic fracture-mechanics concepts is seldom experienced with the majority of aluminum alloys.88 0.3 34.3 164 180 231 335 166 239 314 166 186 230 257 261 279 337 379 212 247 297 317 260 290 328 329 199 306 361 244 315 333 9.82 0.10 1.7 28. such as notch tensile and tear tests.90 3.8 40.43 1.85 0.7 7.0 21.15 1.3 40. therefore.22 1. provide representative data for those alloys for which the analysis is useful.4 29. tensile strength.8 43.0 4.05 1.6 2. Nevertheless. gage length.5 31.5 190 219 263 279 202 235 254 203 214 237 251 221 228 254 292 198 217 239 258 260 246 272 285 238 268 279 279 310 314 1.48 1. from weld.7 4. conservative situation.0 35.4 37.0 33.6 24. The limited applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics to most aluminum alloys.81 0.4 5.1 40. (c) No parent metal tests for comparison Testing of High-Strength Metallic Materials (now ASTM Committee E-9) that about nineteen ASTM Standard Test Methods. 1⁄2 to 21⁄2 in. each line represents the average of duplicate tests on one lot of material.4 10.7 38.42 2.7 37.94 2.78 1.1 7. that is.29 2. edge of weld.79 1.0-F to 5456-H321 5556 354.30 1.0-T62 to 6061-T6 4043 354.1 7.9 7. primarily the stress-intensity factor. TS.8 35. offset = 0.53 1.7 35.51 2. yield strength.24 2.0 11.6 3.9 24. even with materials that are relatively low in toughness.. including those sometimes described as brittle.3 2. notch tensile strength.8 66 69 79 124 79 102 197 84 103 111 175 148 158 166 264 131 150 159 246 170 187 210 259 133 161 266 168 202 281 12.3 9.7 31.5 31.0 11.0-T61 to 6061-T6 4043 C355.93 0.4 21.66 1.1 45. it is useful to overview the approach.5 22.8 23.4 48.5 34.00 0.5 45.9 40. that is.14 0. G. including E 399 (Ref 27) were generated for the determination of fracture toughness parameters that relate the load-carrying capacity of structural members stressed in tension to the size of cracks. cast or wrought.17 3.0 5.4 14.0-T6 4043 354.0 5. through weld.9 42. room temperature.0 36.1 27.0 16.0-T61 to 5456-H321 5556 RT.3 35.72 0.15 0.8 26.4 3.4 29.9 37. A3.51 1. No postweld thermal treatment Test Filler temperature. but also because it represents the most severe and.1 34.1 47.44 1.0 30.20 Notch toughness tests of representative welds in aluminum alloy sand castings at subzero temperatures Specimens per Appendix 3. A.42 1. shown in Fig.3 34.6 3.0-T62 to 5456-H321 5556 C355.83 0.23 for several aluminum casting alloys is that they may be used for the following purposes: .1 5. K and G characterize the potential fracture conditions in terms that permit structural designers to design resistance to unstable crack growth and catastrophic fracture into a structure.0-F to 6061-T6 4043 A444.53 1.3 38. This is appropriate not only because of the complex geometry of most castings.3 36.0 2.3 28.3 23.0 Elongation Reduction strength in 2 in.5 18.1 14.85 0.98 0.9 44.2 15.5 38.15 1. B. (a) For joint yield strength.22. and illustrate ways of estimating the fracture toughness of the tougher alloys.2 37. flaws.9 29.1 36. over a 2 in.1 30. C.0 45.5 10.4 32.22 0.3 6.51 1.9 3.0 34. Since most castings are relatively thick and irregular in shape. and the strain energy release rate. Fig.0 33.4 45. NTS.0-F to A444.67 1.9 6. YS.1 38.82 1.5 41.5.6 47.5 12.1 12.81 1.44 1.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 113 Table 8. must be emphasized.7 24. Since the analysis is based on the assumption that unstable crack growth develops in elastically stressed material.6 48.4 52.98 0.6 24.3 19. and stress buildup becomes threedimensional in nature.3 7. and the remainder of the fracture toughness discussion for casting focuses on that value for individual casting alloys.0-F 4043 RT −112 −320 −452 RT −320 −452 RT −112 −320 −452 RT −112 −320 −452 RT −112 −320 −452 RT −112 −320 −452 RT −320 −452 RT −320 −452 23.7 5. (b) Location of fracture of unnotched specimens. 8. Joint efficiencies based on typical values for parent alloys. The critical value of plane-strain stress-intensity factors is referred to as KIc.19 0.05 1.9 22 26 9 13 23 9 8 27 14 8 7 10 11 8 7 39 7 7 4 5 6 5 3 32 19 8 5 7 5 100 100 89 (c) 100 92 (c) 100 100 89 (c) 76 74 84 (c) 62 66 71 (c) 75 77 78 (c) 66 82 (c) 81 84 (c) B B B A B B B B B C C A A A A C A A A A A A A C A A A C C 27. What can be noted in summary is that fracture toughness data such as those in Table 8.1 33. the fracture toughness approach is applicable primarily to relatively high-strength materials with relatively low ductility.87 1.9 55. in which plane sections remain plane.5 24.3 6.12 A444.7 42.88 0.4 40.0-T62 to 354.2%.

Discontinuities may be metallurgical in nature (e. respectively. The estimated values are clearly identified. they are presented only to illustrate the range of KIc values that may be obtained from aluminum castings. 8. the superiority of premium engineered A201. Utilizing such correlations.25. and Applications Alloy selection By merit rating based on values of Kc and/or KIc By determination of residual load-carrying capacity with due regard for initial size of the discontinuity. where fracture parameters from the three tests are summarized. there are fairly well defined and useful correlations between both NYR and UPE and the fracture toughness parameter KIc (Ref 24).g. For A201. 8.0-T7 is even clearer in this presentation. The fracture toughness values are plotted as a function of tensile yield strength in Fig.. (3. as illustrated in the far right columns of Table 8. In addition. and critical crack length Design of new structures Evaluation of existing structures It is important to recognize that values of “flaw” or “crack” size. forging defect or poros- . 8.0-T7.23. (8 mm) in length.4 Interrelation of Measures of Fracture Resistance Based on analyses of thousands of data from tests of wrought alloys.3. consistent with indicators from notch tensile and tear tests. metal flow characteristics.5.0-T7.24.114 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0 alloy castings with respect to their combination of strength and toughness. it must include the size of any internal porosity that serves as a crack initiator. Ideally. While there is insufficient data to establish any meaningful trends. For example. it is important when designing fracture critical structures to consider the case when a crack may initiate and grow as a result of service stresses.24 and 8. may represent a wide range of fracture resistance.23). and chill procedures. the results of notch tensile and tear test results can be used to estimate plane-strain fracture toughness values. In fact. as referred to above. perhaps from an internal discontinuity of some type in the stress field.5. rate of fatigue crack propagation. in the case of castings. Caution must be exercised in the application of KIc values estimated in this manner. This caution is particularly applicable for aluminum castings where individual cast components through their unique mold designs. it clearly has the best combination of strength and fracture toughness of this group of alloys. 8. once a fracture critical region is identified for a specific casting. and 249.0-T6 exhibited the poorest performance in this respect.0 alloy castings over those of premium engineered 3xx. and that characterization should remain with them if/when they are taken out of this context for other use. 224. premium engineered castings of the 2xx. with a 1⁄8 in. a few fracture toughness tests would be made of specimens taken from those regions expected to experience the highest stresses.6 Subcritical Crack Growth Fig. Of the aluminum casting alloys for which plane-strain fracture toughness data are available (Table 8. from data for wrought aluminum alloys. For example. a 3⁄16 in. it is possible to estimate the planestrain fracture toughness of a few casting alloys for which sufficient NYR and UPE values are available.0 series consistently provided the highest values of KIc. it is also apparent that there is a general superiority of all of the premium engineered 2xx. must take into account any design discontinuities to which the real flaw or crack are adjacent or from which they grow. (33 MPa͌m). notchyield ratio and unit propagation energy correlate well with KIc from the same lots of material as illustrated in Fig. 8.16 Notch-yield ratio as a function of temperature for welds in aluminum alloy castings As noted in Section 8. These relationships are sufficiently well defined that in situations where KIc values have not been determined or where fully valid KIc values cannot be measured.2 mm) fatigue crack growing out of one side constitutes a flaw 5⁄16 in. KIc values were about or above 30 ksi͌in. Sand cast 356. the rate of fatigue crack propagation.8 mm) hole. (4. Processes. and the design life of the structure Establish the design stress for a given component consistent with maximum expected crack length Establish limiting crack length for a component on the basis of a given operating stress Establish inspection criteria (including thoroughness and frequency) consistent with the potential initial crack size and the expected rate of fatigue crack propagation Estimate residual strength and tolerance for additional loading Estimate residual life consistent with observed crack length.0-T7.

nor is there much difference in the threshold stress intensity levels for crack growth. and therefore stress intensities.27. Such a correlation has been noted between unit propagation energy from the tear test and fatigue crack growth rate for wrought aluminum alloys (Ref 24). including conventional tilt (permanent) mold.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 115 ity) or design based (e. fatigue. As the crack grows longer. squeeze cast. 8.1 and 0.5.28.7. and at some point potentially approaches the limiting critical conditions established from the fracture toughness tests (KIc or Kc) when complete fracture must be expected. while no confirming test data are available for casting alloys. as illustrated in Fig. Fig. Fig. creep.g. rivet hole or window). Each of the three types of subcritical crack growth are examined in the following sections. Tests have been devised to define the resistance of materials to each of these three types of crack growth (Ref 24). For the analyses of such situations. are decreased gradually so that the limiting or “threshold” value of the applied K when growth no longer occurs may be measured. respectively (Ref 18). it is difficult to conclude that the differences observed are significant.6. and stress corrosion. such data are available for few casting alloys. Regrettably.25 are derived.0-T6 castings produced by various methods. Considering the scatter in the individual data from which the values in Table 8.1 Fatigue Crack Growth Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) data are conventionally measured by recording the rate of growth of a crack at the root of the notch in compact tension specimens of the type in Appendix 3. it is appropriate to consider that whatever flaw or discontinuity cannot be ruled out reliably by nondestructive testing may well be present somewhere in the structure and may serve as the initiation site of fatigue crack growth that must be tracked. Subcritical crack growth may occur during service loading by three mechanisms. K. Fatigue crack growth tests may also be conducted in which the applied loads.25. and vacuum high pressure (VRC/ PRC) castings are presented in Fig. A3.17 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for welded aluminum alloy castings at –320 °F (–196 °C) for combinations of casting alloys and filler alloys (middle number) . If there is any difference that may be worth investigating further. Regrettably. 8. 8. The results of a programmed series of FCGR tests for A356. the stress intensity increases. this relationship may be utilized to judge at least the relative ratings of cast alloys with respect to FCGR.26 and 8.. and so once again it is useful to look at potentially useful correlations between more readily available test data and fatigue crack growth rates. but it is useful to see what can be gleaned from the available information. as indicated by the data in Table 8. for stress ratios of 0. 8. it is the advantage for the squeeze cast samples at 250 °F (120 °C). These figures illustrate that crack growth rates vary only slightly for the three casting processes. and presenting the data in terms of the rate of crack growth as a function of the stress-intensity factor. there are relatively few data published on the subcritical crack growth of aluminum castings.

moment arm. as a function of the applied stress-intensity factor. and corrosion resistance tends to decrease with increasing copper content. 8.6. have not been found to be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (see Section 8. including internal discontinuities. forgings. Such data are typically presented as in Fig. Corroborating tests may be worthwhile. M. Reduction of the copper ions and increased reaction of O2– and Hϩ increase the corrosion rate.1 Aluminum-Copper Casting Alloys (2xx. relatable to the critical fracture conditions defined by fracture toughness tests. 2219) may experience some time-dependent crack growth at certain temperatures. da/dt. and extrusions—the potential for intergranular stress-corrosion crack growth must be considered. KI. and Applications 8.g.2 Creep Crack Growth Evaluations of notched tensile and compact tension specimens under sustained loads have shown that some wrought aluminum alloys widely used in high-temperature applications (e.6. While this phenomenon has long been studied with tensile loading of smooth specimen subjected to exposure in potentially troublesome environments. This effect is attributed to the presence of minute galvanic cells created by the formation of copper-rich regions or films at the surface (28). Such data have not been developed to the authors’ knowledge for cast aluminum alloys.27. moment.26 (Ref 28). presentation in this format permits tracking of the crack growth in fracturemechanics terms.29. As in the case of fatigue crack growth rates.116 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. as a function of the applied stress-intensity factor.7 Corrosion Resistance Rankings of the resistance of aluminum casting alloys to general corrosion and to stress-corrosion cracking are included in Table 8. it would be good design practice to at least consider this possibility when designing aluminum castings for sustained loads at high temperatures in the presence of severe stress raisers. KI. go into solution and replate onto the alloys to form metallic copper cathodes. area. moment of inertia .18 Tear test specimen and representation of load-deformation curve from a tear test. no such data have been developed for casting alloys and this phenomenon probably does not have to be addressed as a potential cause of subcritical crack propagation in most situations. which with increasing time. 8. Processes.7). A few specific comments about the corrosion resistance of specific alloy groups are also appropriate as presented below.x) 8. C.3 Stress-Corrosion Crack Growth For certain wrought 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys—especially when subjected to stresses in the short-transverse (through-thethickness) direction of thick plate. The solution potentials of a representative group of alloys are contained in Table 8.7. 8. it too can be examined in Alloys in which copper is the major alloying element are generally less resistant to corrosion than other alloy groups. However. Fig. I.. with notable exceptions. A. 8. and in this case it is useful to note that sustained load tests of severely notched tensile specimens have been shown to be good indicators of potential problems of this type. referred to as creep crack growth (Ref 24). which presents creep crack growth rates. da/dt. fracture mechanics terms of the rate of crack growth. Since most aluminum casting alloys.

6 9. each line represents average results of tests of duplicate specimens of one individual lot of material Elongation in 2 in.8 30.2 47.70 1.8 51.8 39.04 1. % Total energy.3 3.0 35.8 17.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 117 Table 8.0-T6 356.6 1.3 35.74 1.0 22.04 0.0-F Average X335.4 30.8 11.6 41.8 49.7 9.1 32.0 43.8 27.30 1.4 46.0-T7 Average 359.50 1.4 30.5 3.69 1.1 51.0 37.4 25.0 2.6 28.6 3.0-T7 Average B535.52 1.6 40.0 30.8 41.0-T62 Average A444.4 37.0-F Average A444.5 21.0-T61 A357.2 21.0-T6 A357.9 12.5 5.0-T7 356.9 1.2 34.6 42.0 3.9 2.2%.5 6.7 32.2 12.2 33.9 1.82 1.85 2.9 31.5 3.2 30.4 22.8 21.66 1.0 21.74 1.3 8.8 46.5 45.60 1.2 9.2 1.8 43.4 161 156 158 137 121 129 225 232 167 143 139 150 210 229 219 146 145 146 196 177 164 314 306 310 214 210 212 214 222 218 148 156 152 152 212 210 211 253 250 252 148 153 150 298 297 298 67 66 66 55 209 208 276 320 8.5 44.12 1.16 8 11 10 7 6 6 4 3 7 7 6 7 5 4 4 35 30 32 9 9 9 6 6 6 6 4 5 8 4 6 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 14 14 14 7 4 6 19 28 24 30 14 18 10 11 19 19 19 19(b) 19(b) 19(b) 8 7 14 11 11 12 8 10 9 108 74 91 22 23 22 13 13 13 8 8 8 10 6 8 16 17 17 17 14 12 13 14 13 14 30 25 28 16 12 14 39 50 44 57 28 34 19 12 27 30 29 26(b) 25(b) 26(b) 12 10 21 18 17 19 13 14 13 143 104 124 31 32 31 19 19 19 14 12 13 18 10 14 26 27 27 27 23 21 22 23 22 23 44 39 42 23 16 20 58 78 68 107 40 52 29 23 190 195 192 190(b) 190(b) 190(b) 75 70 140 110 110 120 75 100 88 1075 740 908 220 235 228 130 125 128 85 75 80 105 55 80 165 170 170 168 140 120 130 145 130 138 295 250 272 155 115 135 390 495 442 580 275 345 190 125 33 34 34 33(b) 33(b) 33(b) 13 12 25 19 19 21 13 18 15 188 130 159 39 41 40 23 22 22 15 13 14 18 10 14 29 30 30 29 25 21 23 25 23 24 52 44 48 27 20 24 68 87 77 102 48 60 33 22 Permanent mold casting Premium engineered castings TYR.3 1.27 1.68 1.26 1.8 43.-lb/in.9 33.0 42.8 30.1 47.7 39.-lb Specimens per Appendix 3.3 44. (b) Estimated.6 38.71 1.-lb propagate a crack.6 21.4 2.7 29.0-T7 Average 356.8 32.2 20.2 35.04 1. (a) For yield strength.7 30.2 21.7 4.2 40.3 38.7 41.7 32.2 47.1 2.0 43.77 1.9 27.6 41.6 8.06 2.1 2.0 30.0 24.12 1. in.2 31.2 44.5 2.2 37.0-T6 Average 356.1 0.6 52. Fig.8 32.9 19.4 31.0 37.5 6.3 36.9 43.6 34.4 22.2 28.0-T62 Average A356.39 1.0-T4 Average 356.4 2.68 1.6 22.90 3.95 1.46 1.0 40.2 53.5 43.4 41.1 29.2 1.6 34.0 4.2 43.9 3.26 1.4 30. A3.3 7.1 28.0-T6 Average 356.6 29.5 22.3 7.21 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy castings at room temperature Tensile tests Ultimate Tensile tensile strength yield strength(a) ksi MPa ksi MPa Tear tests Energy required to: Tear strength ksi MPa TYR initiate a crack.2 34.6.2 mN • m/mm2 Alloy and temper Sand casting X335.4 4.6 23.0-T4 C355.4 22.70 1.23 2.2 15.6 54.6 28.2 2.8 4.2 36.7 31.7 19.3 29.0 46.2 50.2 31.3 35.7 24. in.1 3.9 47.7 40.6 18.00 0.4 31.35 1.4 41.01 1.7 20.19 1.6 33.71 1.0 5.7 36.4 46.1 43.2 38.8 31.87 1.9 257 243 244 214 203 208 266 261 220 203 199 207 256 259 258 284 294 289 281 246 263 346 330 340 255 283 269 247 286 266 196 219 204 206 272 288 280 282 301 291 194 212 203 319 327 322 160 155 157 159 301 287 353 372 23.4 38.00 2.8 8.7 29.8 4.6 12.0 1.6 22.4 43.06 1.0-T61 Average 354.0-T7 Average A356. tear energy curve not well defined .3 38.8 7.28 1.4 46.1 46.0-T62 Average C355. tear strength to yield strength ratio.43 1.02 1.8 47.2 46.7 23.0-T61 Average A356.2 27.6 37.0 39.2 30.03 1.1 3.0 38.0-T62 37.44 1.94 2.5 44.5 33.18 1. in.40 1.6 36.51 1.4 22.0 30. offset = 0.2 36.6 31.9 29.2 21.73 1.-lb Unit propagation energy in.4 8.1 37.2 5.0-T71 Average A356.8 23.4 28.8 35.0-T61 A356.6 51.28 2.4 5.4 6.64 1.60 1.2 22.86 1.9 46.8 45.3 30.8 39.9 40.2 42.4 2.6 33.3 35.2 43.3 4.0 41.6 6.55 1.4 39.8 30.8 265 271 268 226 211 219 226 270 240 222 211 363 236 232 234 326 330 328 298 297 297 321 317 319 254 229 241 280 236 258 255 264 243 254 298 306 302 319 320 319 206 270 238 308 283 295 190 194 192 187 357 356 374 371 1.6 37.2 53.

(b) Permanent mold castings. and Applications Fig.19 Ratings of aluminum alloy castings based on unit propagation energy from tear tests. 8. (c) Premium engineered castings Fig.20 Unit propagation energy versus tensile yield strength for aluminum alloy castings . (a) Sand castings. Processes. 8.118 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

2 31.6 50.6 51. Fig.-lb/in.0 38.6 39.0 34.8 32.6.0 34.2 50.2 356.6 356.0-T7 to 6061-T6 5556 25.8 26.0 49. Tensile tests Alloy and temper combination Filler alloy Reduced section tensile strength ksi MPa Free bend elongation.1 26.2 A444.9 37.8 30. each line represents average results of tests of duplicate specimens for one individual lot of material.22 Representative tear and tensile tests results of groove welds in cast-to-cast and cast-to-wrought aluminum alloys at room temperature Specimens per Appendix 3.5 356.1 356.2 34.7 A357.1 40.4 31.0-T7 4043 25.4 34.0 186 6.7 30.6) Tear strength ksi MPa Tear tests Energy required to: initiate a crack.9 356.0-T6 to 5456-H321 4043 29.8 29.2 29.-lb Total energy.5 224 12.0-T71 to 5456-H321 4043 25.0-F to 5456-H321 5556 42.8 185 4.0-T71 to 356. in.8 (continued) .4 35.0-T7 to 356. A3.0-T7 to 6061-T6 5556 26. propagate a crack.0 46.0 32.0 A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C 51.4 25.7 177 5.3 43.6 28.6 294 12.7 35.6 177 8.8 199 12.0-T7 to 6061-T6 4043 32.0-T71 to 6061-T6 4043 26.2 36.0 47.7 184 9.-lb Unit propagation energy mN • m/mm2 in.0-F 5556 37.8 32.7 39.2 Permanent mold casting C355.6 49.0-T6 4043 28.4 32.6 352 323 349 341 310 329 366 342 346 186 258 236 204 237 219 209 237 177 207 236 207 205 226 183 199 223 192 203 230 190 212 226 204 353 347 346 251 242 276 234 226 226 243 236 232 272 226 272 236 219 214 263 237 301 60 38 64 56 32 46 66 38 61 3 11 6 6 9 9 7 10 6 7 12 8 6 11 8 8 14 8 8 15 9 8 8 11 61 42 60 12 10 14 14 13 11 13 11 10 28 6 17 22 14 13 27 15 34 103 82 94 105 77 92 115 91 99 16 24 32 15 21 18 16 31 33 14 20 32 22 30 38 18 32 24 20 30 44 14 18 16 112 100 101 45 28 30 34 34 26 46 29 28 41 18 42 31 33 36 38 36 70 163 120 158 161 109 138 181 129 160 19 34 38 21 30 27 23 41 39 21 32 40 28 41 46 26 46 32 28 45 53 22 26 27 173 142 161 57 38 44 48 47 37 59 40 38 71 24 59 53 47 49 65 51 104 1030 820 935 1050 770 920 1185 910 990 160 240 325 150 210 185 175 310 330 145 205 320 220 295 380 175 320 245 205 305 435 140 185 165 1120 995 1010 445 275 305 340 340 265 455 290 275 410 175 420 310 330 365 375 355 700 180 144 164 184 135 161 208 159 173 28 42 57 26 37 32 31 54 58 25 36 56 39 52 67 31 56 43 36 53 76 25 32 29 196 174 177 78 48 53 60 60 46 80 51 48 72 31 74 54 58 64 66 62 123 4043 27. Joint yield strength not determined.2 356.9 179 8.9 50.7 53.5 203 14.8 32.3 50.4 196 2.6 34.1 194 11. No postweld thermal treatment.0-T6 to 6061-T6 5556 28.4 356.2 Sand casting A444.-lb in.3 356.5 197 4.2 33.3 34.7 32.8 261 18.0-T7 to 6061-T6 4043 27.4 33.4 356. A3.4 27.8 29.0 221 16.0-T6 to 6061-T6 4043 28.8 31.6 30. in.6 190 9.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 119 Table 8.2 30.2 34. % Tear specimen type (Fig.0 29.5 45.0-F to 6061-T6 5556 32.8 A444.0 to 6063-T4 4043 28.2 356.8 178 7.1 356.4 27. ratio of tear strength to yield strength not available.6 4043 25.4 34.0-T6 to 356.0-T71 4043 26.0-F to A444.5 183 6.

The corrosion resistance of the 3xx. A3.6) Tear strength ksi MPa Tear tests Energy required to: initiate a crack. Fig.-lb Total energy.6 34. They are better than the 2xx. is closely related to the copper content and also to impurity levels. in.8 33.x series.0-T61 to 6061-T6 4043 28.5 A356.7.120 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.7.22 (continued) Tensile tests Alloy and temper combination Filler alloy Reduced section tensile strength ksi MPa Free bend elongation.0 33. 8. 8.0-T62 to 6061-T6 4043 26.0-T7 to 5456-H321 4043 26.6 258 168 228 254 230 243 259 236 261 269 234 232 38 2 13 25 10 14 32 15 20 37 16 11 30 10 31 50 35 42 48 36 52 41 40 27 68 12 44 75 45 56 70 51 72 78 56 38 295 105 310 495 350 415 475 365 520 410 395 270 52 18 54 87 61 73 83 64 91 72 69 47 The undesirable corrosion effects of copper in aluminum can be minimized with good heat treating and quenching practices.x) Aluminum-zinc alloys. and this group as a whole has relatively good corrosion resistance.0 A356. the effects of silicon on corrosion resistance are minimal because the silicon particles are highly polarized and the resultant current density is low. A high rate of quench and sufficient artificial aging will be beneficial (Ref 28). % Tear specimen type (Fig.6 197 9.x series for general corrosion resistance.x) 8.7 184 10.x series. and silicon is cathodic to the aluminum matrix.3 33.4 Aluminum-Magnesium Casting Alloys (5xx.-lb/in.x series alloys. in.4 35.2 Al-Si-Cu and/or Mg Casting Alloys (3xx.2 mN • m/mm2 Permanent mold casting (continued) 356.0-T7 to 6061-T6 4043 25.-lb Unit propagation energy in. the effects of silicon on the corrosion resistance of aluminum casting alloys are minimal.6 183 4.21 Ratings of welds in aluminum castings based on unit propagation energy from tear tests .8 A B C A B C A B C A B C 37. are anodic to most other aluminum casting alloys and have generally good corrosion resistance.x) While elemental silicon is present in the 3xx. and Applications Table 8. in.0 36. Some aluminum-copper alloys in the T4 and underaged conditions are among the most susceptible known to stress-corrosion failure. but inferior to the 5xx. 8.3 Aluminum-Silicon Casting Alloys (4xx. as of the 2xx.0 34.-lb propagate a crack.2 174 11.8 39. Aluminum-magnesium casting alloys have excellent resistance to corrosion and are resistant to a wide range of chemical and food products.2 37. making them especially useful in these industries and in marine applications. because of their zinc contents.8 A356.7.4 24.x) As noted for the 3xx.5 Aluminum-Zinc Casting Alloys (7xx. 8. Modifications of several of the basic alloy compositions to restrict impurity levels have benefited corrosion resistance as well as certain mechanical properties including toughness.x alloys.2 37.x series.7. Processes.

0-T7 50.8) 2.2 23.3 9.5 CT L 50.7 249.33 0.50 (63.500 0.92 1.6 Yes Yes Yes No Yes 0.2 20.3) 0.2 5.46 1.24 1. kips (N) Pmax Pmax/Po Valid measure of KIc (c) Critical crack-size index(d) in.8 32.1 23.5 4.80 1.4 29.50 (63.85 6. center-cracked specimens.0 CT 396 7.98 1.18 4.6 37.0 33.0 32.02 5.2 . 5.04 1.78 0.27 (34.8) 2.0 20.2 29. mm Sand casting 356.1 5.1 22. Plane-strain fracture toughness tests Plane-strain fracture toughness.56 0.6 CC 0.40 1.1 20.6) (35.53 0.3 A357.6 5.68 3.25 (31.25 (31.35 6.5 18.00 1.68 (18.22 0.30 27.17 0. (mm) Crack length (ao).5 21.52 0.1 33.5 18. 6.33 13.8) 2.5) 1.80 1.90 1.3 402 1.3) (34.07 18.08 1.2 4.50 (38. 0.05 18.50 (63.6 19.0 19.88 1.0 36.2 305 40.21 5.0-T62 43.6 328 1.3 1. (c) Based on criteria in ASTM E 399 at time tests were made.55 0.74 0.8) (35.44 3.18 0.2 20.3) (34.60 5.6 4..50 (63.2 298 2.08 3.55 4.19 0.7 281 1.44 5.8) (33.82 5.50 (63.5) 1.37 1.21 5.38 1..8) (34.6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.93 1.6 19.25 (31.32 1.5) 1.2 CT T 58.54 5..3 (a) L.1 30.8) 2.0) (33.36 0.35 (35.1) 0.0) 1.25 (31.34 (34.8 392 47.6 33.0-T7 42.25 (31. (d) A relative measure of crack tolerance of material. in.08 1.4 19.3 20.1 5.88 1.7 20.5 36.0-T7 L 63.98 1.38 (35.2 29.50 (63.03 1.1) 0.8 406 7.2 32.54 0.1 8.5) 1.5 CT L 56.58 1.55 0.81 7.34 0.54 0.20 .2 No(e) No No No No 0.7 57. (e) Pmax/PQ ratio too high .60 6.500 0.06 1.375 1.0 283 <0.24 0.7 8.38 5.50 (63.08 1.9 34.3) 0.44 7.0 16.5 CT T 53.5) 1.62 1.02 7.7 370 0.0 8.5 CT L 53.50 3.0) 0.00 1.35 0. A3.3) 0.70 4.6) 2.50 (63.72 3.. compact tension specimens (Appendix 3.5) 1.8) (17.5 33.20 0.2 31.55 0.1/2 MPa • m1/2 Tensile tests Alloy and temper Testing direction(a) Ultimate tensile strength ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in.8) (34.33 0.11 1.5) (19. tests in accordance with ASTM Method E 399 at time tests were made to. (mm) Critical Maximum load load Ratio Po.6 328 7.0-T6 42.00 6.27 1.20 0.6 224.31 1.00 5.11 1.82 2.73 0.1 6.40 5.5 CT T 47.40 3.38 1.52 0.3 21.8 19.6) (35.64 0.8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.3 Premium engineered casting A201.8) (18.75 (19.25 (31.4 33.0 5.6) 1.50 0. (mm) Specimen width (W).2 9. CT.10 5.12 3.9 Yes 0.Table 8.4 334 43.9 379 1.35 1.0 297 1.4 13.0 17.4 32.65 3. in. % Type of specimen(b) Ratio ao/W Tensile yield strength ksi MPa Specimen thickness (B). Fig.10 1.23 Results of plane strain fracture toughness tests of representative aluminum alloy premium engineered castings Individual results of single cast slabs from which specimens were machined.6 273 6.0 31.55 0.25 (31.0 297 1.25 1.0 19.5 9.6 21.8) 2.25 (31.3 368 39.40 1.7 33. (b) CC.45 0. longitudinal.25 (31.13 1.02 1.34 8.51 3.50 3.50 (63.20 0.3 18.31 (32.39 1.5 293 6.36 10. fracture results were averaged independent of direction.38 5. in.55 0.37 1.1 354.8) 2.12 6.08 437 T 64.40 0.48 0.3 18. transverse.2 443 33.3 299 6.21 5.08 30.7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.36 1.83 1.3 8.37 1.3) (33.4 11.1) (34.18 0.61 0.9 35.0-T6 41.1 30.51 0.25 (31. all specimens were precracked by fatigue.3) (31.0-T7 33.8 261 16.4 L 37.80 4.8 8.5) 1.8) 2.50 (38.00 13.1) (35.00 6.0 CT 232 1.3 18.47 0.45 1.06 15...68 3.49 .32 0.0 CT L 48.5) (32. (KIc) ksi • in.04 1.40 1.40 7..5 CT T 43.06 19.50 0. T.2 346 43.21 0.1) 0.2 36.8) 2.81 3.8 28.56 0.8 CT T 54.54 12.4 58.8) 2.46 3.02 1. defined as (KIc/TYS)2.50 0.34 1.50 (63.9 351 7.5 15.1 29.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 0.5 CT L 44.7).55 0.5 21.52 3.4 37.0) 1.9 296 1.37 0.6 C355.1 20.7 4. Specimens generally machined from two different directions in casting.3) 0.5) 1.5) 1.02 1.2 18.5) (31.2 38.53 5.75 (19.

the authors recommend that these products be used cautiously and with the understanding that the appropriate design mechanical properties for specific products may Fig.24 Plane-strain fracture toughness. and Applications Many wrought aluminum-zinc alloys of the comparable 7xxx series are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) under short-transverse stressing and require special aging treatments for added protection. KIc. versus notch-yield ratio for selected cast aluminum alloys compared to the range of such values for wrought aluminum alloys. 8. and some caution is advised to avoid conditions that may lead to intergranular attack. 8. 8. some in-service failures have been observed in certain alloys such as 707.122 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.7. KIc. SC. For this reason.0-T5 and 771.22 Large elastically stressed panel containing a crack some cast aluminum alloys compared to the mean values of the relationship for wrought aluminum alloys Fig.x) Tin in aluminum castings is cathodic to the aluminum matrix and results in some decrease in general corrosion resistance in aqueous saline solutions. PE.23 Plane-strain fracture toughness. this is less of a concern in castings where grain deformation is not present. versus tensile yield strength for selected aluminum alloy castings. Processes.0T5.6 Aluminum-Tin Casting Alloys (8xx. SC. PM. 8. These alloys are quite successfully used in other environments. 8. Nevertheless. sand cast. 8. versus notch-yield ratio for Fig.25 Plane-strain fracture toughness. premium engineered alloy Fig. KIc. sand cast alloy. permanent mold .8 Properties of Cast Aluminum Matrix Composites Cast aluminum matrix composites (AlMMCs) are discussed separately because less information is available in the way of typical and statistical minimum mechanical and physical properties for these products.

0-T7 359. .8 5.0 40. .0.0 5.0-T7 354..34 0.31 1.8 20.. .4 2..0-T6 C355.9 1.....9 3.02 0.2 32. . . . . ..66 0... 25 Ͼ38 23 22 Ͼ55 23 31 24 22 25 33 28 24 33 21 Ͼ55 Ͼ55 .72 1.18 1. .3 8.2 16 26 Ͼ42 26 29 26 14 5..82 0. . . .0-T6 A357...31 25 Ͼ42 11 16 5. Tensile yield strength ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in.... ..06 Ͼ1..8 4.. 190 125 ...6 7.01 1..2 31..60 1. .. estimated conservatively from notch-tensile and tear test results based on correlations. 34 22 13 12 21 ..8 3.. . 33 Ͼ38 20 28 .F 295.... (b) Values from Table 8.0-T62 A444.1 18.. (f) Invalid test because of high Pmax/PQ value...36 0. Values averaged when data for multiple lots are available. 88 ..0-T62 41. .21..75 1.28 . . .8 43..44 Ͼ27 Ͼ39 0..0 20.. .2 1.. .9 30....... .1 12.. 37.. (c) Values from Table 8. .2 43. . fully valid except as noted in (f).0-T62 C335..0 18.0-T7 249. 275 345 .17... . .70 1.0-T62 A356.4 8.63 0.....4 27.60 1. .. mm Average values taken from previous tables as footnoted...Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 123 Table 8.7 19.1 4.21 0. ....0-F A612.0 30. .... .... . ...0 1.03 1..12 1.....0-T7 58.4 19. 15 .18 0. 19. .. .4 49.21(f) 1.0 24.....40 1.6 3.6 30. . .42 0..4 2.1/2 Estimated relative critical crack-size index(c) in.7 30. 20..7 18. a relative measure of critical crack size tolerance. .5 11.0-T7 356.0 6.7 31.69 1.0-T61 A357.. .62 1.02 1. ..6 8.. 18 23 Ͼ38 21 29 21 20 . . 40 22 14 14 29 23 24 48 24 77 102 .2 1..24 Summary of rounded average fracture parameters for representative aluminum casting alloys Measured plane-strain fracture toughness (KIc)(c) ksi · in.. ..1 401 224.. .. .0-T6 356. % Unit propagation energy(b) mN • m/mm2 in.5 21.99 Ͼ1.0 44.2 6....0 2.18 0. ...6 . .. .39 1.. .64 1..44 1.0-T6 A356.. 908 .2 40..67 0. . .4 7...08 2.. ...9(f) . ..5 22.8 164 354..0-T71 A356.7 21.... must be considered an estimate ..36 0. . ....1 34.55 0..6 33. 0...6 22..31 1.6 35..8 179 141 187 128 158 129 225 232 150 208 219 218 146 240 1.54 0.60 1.4 1.0-T6 356.4(f) .. . 30 Ͼ35 18 25 .03 Ͼ1.7 3.6 21... (e) For those alloys and tempers for which fracture toughness tests were not made.07 1.. .8 0.0-T4 356.. .... .. 159 ..2 Alloy and temper Notchyield ratio(a) Sand casting 240. (d) Square of ratio KIc/TYS.65 0.0-T7 356.72 1... .10 1. • lb/in. 16.0-T4 44..2 9.0-T7 520..8 3.65 1..38 0.. 33 22 ...1/2 MPa · m1/2 Conservative estimated plane-strain fracture toughness (KIc)(d) ksi · in.. 48 60 .67 1.4 1.36 1.7 286 339 297 281 209 208 298 276 308 (a) Values from Table 8.62 1.8 30. 15.0-F X335.4 5.22 2..0-T61 A356..2 43.0-F 26..0-T61 A356...6 13..6 . ....6 0.3 2.. .15 1..54 1. .0-F 242..87 1.0-T6 A357.0 310 212 218 152 211 245 150 298 66 55 Premium engineered casting A201...0-T6 C355....9 18. . 192 128 75 70 120 .34 1. 228 128 80 80 168 130 138 272 135 442 580 ..63 Ͼ5.. .0-T61 23... .. ...6 5. ......2 2..14 1.. 23 Ͼ35 21 20 Ͼ50 21 28 22 20 23 30 25 22 30 19 Ͼ50 Ͼ50 .7 9.0 6...70 1.96 3.0 6.1 6.24 1..0-T6 356. .8 16 21 Ͼ35 19 26 19 18 ...0-T7 A356..49 0.1/2 MPa · in.. . .19 1.38 1.3 30.0-T4 B535. .34 0... ..0 33.0 Permanent mold casting X335.0-T6 308..3(f) 27 Ͼ34 17 16 Ͼ142 15 30 12 17 18 35 21 16 35 11 Ͼ690 Ͼ1000 8...8 7.74 1.7 32.8 ..73 1..........60 1.8 31..2 29. 33..0-F A444... . .23.

124 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications have to be developed with additional testing at the time of their proposed application. Typical values of several AlMMCs published by NADCA and several producers are presented in Table 8.28, their typical physical properties in Table 8.29, and their performance characteristics in Table 8.30 (Ref 28–30). As noted in these tables, among the information provided are data for two cast aluminum matrix alloys, 301.0 and 303.0, each containing two different percentages of silicon carbide (SiC) particulate, 10% and 20%. Attention is called to the fact that these composites are referred to by some sources in the literature with designations consistent neither with the Aluminum Association registration records nor with the ANSI Standard for MMC nomenclature. The correct designations based on the compositions given in Ref 6, 301.0 and 303.0, are presented in Tables 8.28 through 8.30, with footnotes to the published designations. Similarly, data for matrix alloy 361.0 are presented with the appropriate Aluminum Association designation, not the designation under which the products were produced, also as footnoted in the tables. The most significant differences between the properties of the composites and those of the matrix alloys are the elastic moduli: for the composites, the moduli are 50 to 100% higher than those of the matrix alloys, depending on the percentage of SiC particulate included. The SiC particulate, with its own modulus near 100 ϫ 106 psi (700 GPa), contributes materially to the stiffness of the finished product. The higher moduli are the principal reason for the production and application of aluminum metal matrix composites. Among the other advantages of the composites that have proven important in commercial applications are the lower coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) and the higher thermal conductivity. In particular, the lower CTEs better match those of some of the materials with which they are used (in applications such as sinks in satellite electronics), resulting in lower local stresses and minimizing the risk of thermal fatigue failure. Aluminum MMCs also have superior fatigue properties in comparison to unreinforced aluminum alloys, as illustrated by Fig. 8.30. With reinforcement, the fatigue strengths at specific lives are

Fig. 8.26 Fatigue crack growth rate (R ϭ 0.1) versus stress-intensity factor
at room temperature for A356.0-T6 aluminum alloy castings produced by various processes

Fig. 8.27 Fatigue crack growth rate (R ϭ 0.5) versus stress-intensity factor
at room temperature for A356.0-T6 aluminum alloy castings produced by various processes

Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 125 Table 8.25 Threshold stress intensities for fatigue crack propagation for alloy A356.0-T6
Threshold stress intensity at room temperature R = 0.1 Casting process ksi͌ in.2 MPa͌ m2 ksi͌ in.2 R = 0.5 MPa͌ m2 ksi͌ in.2 Threshold stress intensity at 250 °F (120 °C) R = 0.1 MPa͌ m2 ksi͌ in.2 R = 0.5 MPa͌m2

Tilt mold (PM) Squeeze Vacuum

3.41 3.32 3.84

3.75 3.65 4.22

2.35 2.78 2.37

2.58 3.05 2.60

3.92 4.17 3.18

4.31 4.58 3.49

2.4 3.14 2.37

2.64 3.45 2.60

PM, permanent mold. R, fatigue stress ratio, the ratio of the minimum stress to the maximum stress in each cycle of loading. Source: Ref 18

Fig. 8.28 Relationship between unit propagation energy from the tear test
and fatigue crack growth rate for wrought aluminum alloys. K max ϭ 15 ksi͌in.; R ϭ 0.33.

20 to 50% higher, with the endurance limit (107 cycles) indicated as nearly twice the value as for unreinforced material. Finally, there appears to be an added advantage in higher damping capacity for aluminum MMCs versus unreinforced alloys, although this is difficult to demonstrate quantitatively.As illustrated in the decay curves in Fig. 8.31, externally induced vibrations decay relatively quickly in the aluminum MMC as compared with those in conventional aluminum alloy 5052 and other structural alloys. It is important to note (from Table 8.28) that the benefits of higher moduli and fatigue strength, plus lower CTE, bring some trade-off in substantially lower elongation and fracture toughness than those of the matrix alloys. This is supported by the fact that in the cases where such data are presented, the plane strain fracture toughness of the aluminum MMCs was in the range of 11 to 17 ksi͌in (12 to 19 MPa͌m), well below the level that would be expected of Al-Si-Mg alloys; however, the very high silicon content of 361.0 may also contribute to the lower toughness.

Fig. 8.29 Creep crack growth as a function of applied stress-intensity factor
for selected wrought aluminum alloys

126 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications Table 8.26
Alloy

Relative ratings of resistance to general corrosion and to stress-corrosion cracking of aluminum casting alloys
Resistance to corrosion Temper General(a) SCC(b) Alloy Temper Resistance to corrosion General(a) SCC(b)

Sand castings 208.0 224.0 240.0 242.0 A242.0 249.0 295.0 319.0 355.0 C355.0 356.0 A356.0 443.0 512.0 513.0 514.0 520.0 535.0 B535.0 705.0 707.0 710.0 712.0 713.0 771.0 850.0 851.0 852.0

F T7 F All T75 T7 All F, T5 T6 All T6 T6, T7, T71, T51 T6 F F F F T4 F F T5 T5 T5 T5 T5 T6 T5 T5 T5

B C D D D C C C C C C B B B A A A A A A B B B B B C C C C D C C C C C C

B B C C C B C B C A A A A A A A A C A A B C B C B C B B B C B B C B B A

355.0 C355.0 356.0 A356.0 F356.0 A357.0 358.0 359.0 B443.0 A444.0 513.0 705.0 707.0 711.0 713.0 850.0 851.0 852.0 Die castings 360.0 A360.0 364.0 380.0 A380.0 383.0 384.0 390.0 392.0 413.0 A413.0 C443.0 518.0 Rotor metal(c) 100.1 150.1 170.1

All T61 All T61 All T61 T6 All F T4 F T5 T5 T5 T5 T5 T5 T5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F ... ... ...

C C B B B B B B B B A B B B B C C C C C C E E E E E E C C B A A A A

A A A A A A A A A A A B C A B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

Permanent mold castings 242.0 T571, T61 308.0 F 319.0 F T6 332.0 T5 336.0 T551, T65 354.0 T61, T62

(a) Relative ratings of general corrosion resistance are in decreasing order of merit, based on exposures to NaCl solution by intermittent spray or immersion. (b) Relative ratings of resistance to SCC are based on service experience and on laboratory tests of specimens exposed to alternate immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution. A, no known instance of failure in service when properly manufactured; B, failure not anticipated in service from residual stresses or from design and assembly stresses below about 45% of the minimum guaranteed yield strength given in applicable specifications; C, failures have occurred in service with either this specific alloy/temper combination or with alloy/temper combinations of this type; designers should be aware of the potential SCC problem that exists when these alloys and tempers are used under adverse conditions. (c) For electric motor rotors. Source: Ref 28

Table 8.27
Alloy

Solution potentials of cast aluminum alloys
Temper Type of mold(a) Potential(b), V

208.0 238.0 295.0 296.0 308.0 319.0 355.0 356.0 443.0 514.0 520.0 710.0

F F T4 T6 T62 T4 F F F T4 T6 T6 F F F T4 F

S S S S

S S S

S

S P or or or or P S P or or or S P S or S

P P P P

P P P

P

−0.77 −0.74 −0.70 −0.71 −0.73 −0.71 −0.75 −0.81 −0.76 −0.78 −0.79 −0.82 −0.83 −0.82 −0.87 −0.89 −0.99

(a) S, sand; P, permanent. (b) Potential versus standard calomel electrode measured in an aqueous solution of 53 g/L NaCl plus 3 g/L H2O2 at 25 °C (77 °F). Source: Ref 28

Table 8.28
Electrical conductivity(c) At 66 ºF Volumemb;0 %IACS Weight %IACS Volume MS/m Weight MS/m At 66 ºFmb;0 Btu/lb · ºF At 25 ºC Specific heat At 20 ºC J/kg · ºC

Typical physical properties of cast aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs)

Metric values calculated from engineering values
Thermal conductivity At 72 ºF Eng. units At 25 ºC W/m · K

Density g/cm3 per ºF per ºC °F °C Specific gravity

Average coefficient of thermal expansion 68-212 ºF 20-100 ºC Approx melting range

Alloy

MMC designation

Temper

lb/in.3

Poisson’s ratio

Sand and permanent mold casting 339.0 339.0/SiC/10p F 0.099 O 0.099 T5 0.099 T6 0.999 339.0/SiC/20p F 0.102 O 0.102 T5 0.102 T6 0.102 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.71 2.77 2.77 2.77 2.78 2.80 2.87 2.87 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.82 2.82 2.82 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.71 2.71 2.71 2.77 2.80 2.80 2.77 2.80 2.80 9.0 7.8 7.8 16.2 14.1 14.1 2.71 2.71 2.71 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2.65 2.65 2.65 ... ... 2.82 2.82 2.82 9.4 9.4 9.4 16.9 16.9 16.9 1000-1100 540-595 1000-1100 540-595 1000–1100 540–595 2.76 2.76 2.76 10.7 10.7 10.7 19.3 19.3 19.3 1000-1100 540-595 1000-1100 540–595 1000–1100 540–595 71.6 ... ... 83.2 ... ... ... 124 ... ... 144 ... ... 161 2.80 2.87 2.87 7.8 6.6 6.6 14.1 11.9 11.9 ... ... ... ... ... ... 92.5 106.4 106.4 160 183 183 2.78 8.0 14.5 ... ... 92.5 160 ... ... ... ... 22.0 2.77 2.77 2.77 9.7 9.7 9.7 17.5 17.5 17.5 1045-1115 1045–1115 1045-1115 565-605 565–605 565-605 ... 106.9 116.1 ... 185 201 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 71 2.71 11.5 20.7 1045-1115 565-605 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 41 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.81 2.81 2.81 2.81 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.2 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 83.8 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 145 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... 0.197 ... ... ... 0.210 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.190 0.190 0.170 0.170 0.201

... ... ... ... 824 ... ... ... 879 837 837 837 820 820 763 763 842

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

359.0

359.0/SiC/10p

T6

0.098

359.0/SiC/20p

O T6 T71

0.100 0.100 0.100

Sand casting 361.0(a) 361.0/SiC/30p

T6

0.100

Investment casting 361.0(a) 361.0/SiC/30p 361.0/SiC/40p

T6P F T6

0.101 0.104 0.104

0.29 ... 0.28 0.3

Die casting 301.0(b) 301.0/SiC/10p

F O T5

0.100 0.100 0.100

301.0(b) 301.0/SiC/20p

F O T5

0.102 0.102 0.102

20.5

78

12

45

0.198

829

0.29

303.0(b) 303.0/SiC/10p

F O T5

0.097 0.097 0.097

32.7

125

19

72

0.208

871

...

303.0(b) 303.0/SiC/20p

F O T5

0.098 0.098 0.098

...

168

24.7

94

14

55

0.193

808

0.29

361.0(a)

361.0/SiC/18p 361.0/SiC/30p

F F T5P

0.100 0.101 0.101

76.3 92.3 92.3

132 158 158

... ... ...

... ... ...

... ... ...

... ... ...

0.180 ... ...

802 ... ...

0.31 0.29 0.29

Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 127

(a) In referenced publications, aluminum casting alloy 361.0 is referred to as Al-10Si-1Mg or Al-10Si-1Mg-1Fe. (b) In referenced NADCA specifications, aluminum casting alloys 301.0 and 303.0 are referred to as 360 and 380, respectively. Source: Ref 7, 29, 30

Table 8.29
Tension Ultimate strength Hardness HRB ksi MPa ksi · in.1/2 MPa · m1/2 ksi MPa ksi MPa Elongation in 2 in. or 4D, % 106 psi Yield strength(a) Fatigue endurance limit(b) Fracture toughness (KIc) Modulus of elasticity(c) GPa

Typical mechanical properties of cast aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs) at room temperature

Metric values calculated from engineering values. Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings.

Matrix alloy

MMC designation

Temper

Sand and permanent mold casting 339.0 339.0/SiC/10p 37 33 39 54 38 33 41 54 49 32 52 38 221 359 262 24 49 31 165 338 214 2.8 0.4 1.9 73 77 ... ... 7 ... ... 50 ... 338 44 303 1.2 55 ... ... 15.8 ... 14.4 ... 262 228 283 372 31 27 39 ... 214 186 269 ... 0.4 0.4 0.2 ... 70 53 75 86 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 17.4 ... 15.9 ... 255 228 269 372 26 20 36 52 179 138 248 359 0.7 1.0 0.3 0.3 57 43 63 79 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

F O T5 T6

12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 12.5 14.4 14.4 14.4

88 88 88 88 101 101 101 101 86 99 99 99

339.0/SiC/20p

F O T5 T6

359.0

359.0/SiC/10p

T6

359.0/SiC/20p

O T6 T71

Sand casting 54 371 ... ... 0.4 ... 19 132 13.4 14.7 18.1 125

361.0(e)

361.0/SiC/30p

T6

Investment casting 51 33 54 350 226 370 38 29 39 260 199 270 0.5 0.5 0.4 ... ... ... ... 17 22 ... 115 150 11.0 ... 12.1 ... 18.1 21.9 21.3 125 151 147

128 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications

361.0(e)

361.0/SiC/30p 361.0/SiC/40p

T6 F T6

Die casting 50 40 54 51 44 58 45 36 51 44 38 53 43 45 44 295 309 307 32 22 34 220 155 235 303 262 365 36 23 49 248 159 338 310 248 352 32 21 46 221 145 317 0.9 2.0 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.3 1.0 0.4 0.3 352 303 400 44 27 ... 303 186 ... 0.4 0.8 ... 345 276 372 35 22 48 241 152 331 1.2 1.7 0.7 77 55 84 82 62 87 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 130 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 11.7 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 12.8 ... ... 13.6 13.6 13.6 16.5 16.5 16.5 13.2 13.2 13.2 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.4 18.1 18.1 94 94 94 114 114 114 91 91 91 108 108 108 106 125 125

301(d)

301.0/SiC/10p

F O T5

301.0/SiC/20p

F O T5

303(d)

303.0/SiC/10p

F O T5

303.0/SiC/20p

F O T5

361.0(e)

361.0/SiC/18p 361.0/SiC/30p

F F T5P

(a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ϭ 0.2%. (b) Based on 10,000,000 cycles of axial stress stress (R ϭ 0.1) fatigue loading (Source: Duralcan, USA). (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally about 2% greater than the tension modulus. (d) In referenced publications, aluminum casting alloys 301.0 and 303.0 are referred to as 380 and 360, respectively, obsolete designations. (e) In referenced publications, aluminum casting alloy 361.0 is referred to as Al-10Si-1Mg or Al-10Si-1Mg-1Fe. Source: Ref 7, 29, 30

Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 129 Table 8.30 Relative casting and finishing characteristics of die cast aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs)

Ratings are from 1 (most desirable) to 5 (least desirable). In referenced NADCA specifications, aluminum casting alloys are referred to as 360 and 380, respectively.
Casting characteristics Resistance Fluidity/ to hot die filling Pressure cracking capacity tightness Finishing characteristics Antisoldering to die Machinability Polishability Electroplatibility Anodizing Appearance Protection Performance characteristics Elevated Corrosion temperature Resistance resistance strength to wear

Alloy

MMC designation

301.0 301.0/SiC/10P 301.0/SiC/20P 303.0 303.0/SiC/10P 303.0/SiC/20P

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 2 2

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

2 2 2 2

4 4 4 4

5 5 4 4

5 5 3 3

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

Source: Ref 7; Duralcan cited as original reference

Fig. 8.30 Fatigue curves (R ϭ –1.0) for cast reinforced and unreinforced alloy 361.0 at room temperature. The reinforced composite is 361.0/SiC/30p. Source:
Ref 30

Jan 1996 2.4 ϫ 1. 0. ASM Handbook. Applications and Environment. The Aluminum Association. Processes. Aluminum Standards & Data (Standard and Metric Editions). and ZA Alloys. Aluminum Casting Technology. 1990. Moore rotating beam fatigue curves from Alcoa Laboratories. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Tensile. 1999 MMPDS-01. U.L. specimen size. Frequency range. 15. 1994 6. Altenpohl. USCAR Previously unpublished R. 14. 2001 J. Product Design for Die Casting in Recyclable Aluminum. The NFFS Guide to Aluminum Casting Design: Sand and Permanent Mold. then the acceleration at an edge is measured. 9.. 1999 Design & Optimization for Cast Light Metals. ASM International. FAA. REFERENCES 1.R. Die Casting Development Council. Aluminum Foundry Products. published periodically 3. data reprinted with permission . A. 2002 Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures. Damping of Light Metals.2 ϫ 0. 1996 4. 16. U. 18. Vol 2.01 Hz to 5 kHz. ASM International. Non-Ferrous Founders Society. 8.G. American Foundrymen’s Society. Rooy. D. (240 ϫ 30 ϫ 10 mm). Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose 10. Magnesium. The Aluminum Association and ASM International. Kearney. Zinc. Department of Defense. The specimen is suspended in air and impacted in the center. Alcoa. A. The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Registrations Records.. 19. Ed. 2003 8. ASM International. The Aluminum Association. 1990. Source: Ref 30 Fig. Properties of Cast Aluminum Alloys. p 152-157 Alcoa Aluminum Handbook. The Aluminum Association. Ed. 2nd ed. and Fatigue Data at High and Low Temperatures. 11.. Des. Department of Energy. and Aerospace Military Specification AMS-A-21180 (previously MIL-A-21180) NADCA Product Specifications for Die Castings Produced by the Semi-Solid and Squeeze-Casting Processes. Creep.. 12.130 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.G.G. Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Aluminum Alloys in the Form of Castings and Ingot. 13. approximately 49 lbf (220 N). Mater. Kaufman. 5th ed. 2001. Dec 1992 7.4 in. p 123–151 9.. Kearney and E.. Eng. Zalenas. also known as Military Handbook 5J (MILHDBK-5J). 1967 J. 2nd ed. Kaufman. Vol 2. The Aluminum Association and TMS. 31 Jan 2003. North American Die Casting Association. Aluminum: Technology.S. 17. Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Casting. 1999 D.31 Comparison of vibration damping performance for selected aluminum MMCs and other structural alloys. NADCA Product Specification Standards for Die Casting. Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials.S. 1993 5. Aug 1962 Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves. MIL-HDBK-5. ASM Handbook. Materials. and Applications impacting force. USAMP LMD Project 110. Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Elements. American Foundry Society. North American Die Casting Association.

Newark. Comprehensive Composite Materials. Fatigue Design of Aluminum Components and Structures. and Fracture Toughness. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.C. Fisher. Promisel.Chapter 8: Properties and Performance of Aluminum Castings / 131 20. ASTM.M. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.J. 1999 29. “Standard Method for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing. N. 1983.. Materials Evaluation in Relation to Component Behavior. Squeeze Forming of Aluminum Alloy Components. “Standard Method for Tear Testing of Aluminum Alloys. p 207 21. Hunt. Syracuse University Research Institute. “Standard Method for Notch Tensile Testing of Aluminum Alloys. Juvinall. Ed.L. M.E. American Society for Metals.05. J. Jr. Evaluation of Non-Ferrous Materials. Chapter 3. and Metal Matrix Composites. July 2000 30. ASTM.C.E. Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys: Notch Toughness. published annually 27. DE . Fundamentals of Machine Component Design. ASM International. John Wiley & Sons.” B 871. Datasheets from Thermal Transfer Composites LLC. 1956. G.R. J.” E 399. Proc. ASTM. Williams and K. Third Sagamore Ordnance Materials Research Conference. p 65 23. Pergamon Press. published annually 28. R.. C. Annual Book of ASTM Standards.G. Kaufman. 1983. The Aluminum Association and ASM International. Sharp. Menzemer. Chapter 6. Nordmark. 2001 25. Davis. John Wiley & Sons. Production to Near Net Shape: Source Book. Van Tyne and B.” E 602. Particulate Reinforced MMCs. and C. Tear Resistance. p 367 24. G. W. Ovitz. Ed.H.26. 1996 22. published annually 26.

.

” but the implication is that any artificial aging above room temperature is included.895.G. (50 mm) gage length specimen.asminternational. A3. Rooy. • Brinell hardness (HB) testing employed a 4. and Applications J.1. the results of measurements made on several lots of the same alloy and temper are included. Test specimens were separately cast. In a number of cases. If the process is not stated. D1.111). Included where available are both: • Room-temperature. but the composition of the tested material is within the limits of the designation.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. These are captioned “high temperature. To convert strengths in ksi to SI units (MPa) multiply by 6.org DATA SET 1 Aging Response Curves This data set contains aging response curves for a wide range of aluminum casting alloys. All of the aging response curves presented were developed at the Alcoa Laboratories Cleveland Casting Research Division. Properties were measured after holding specimens at room temperature for various times after casting (F temper) or after solution heat treatment (T4 temper). The curves in each group are presented in the numeric sequence of the casting alloy designation.” that was current at the time of the testing.1 to D1. • Artificial or “high-temperature” aging response curves (Fig. “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. . • Elongation is determined from a 2 in.2% offset method. E. The aging response curves included herein are the results of measurements on individual lots considered representative of the respective alloys and tempers. in conformance with Appendix 3. or “natural. The properties considered are as follows: • Yield strength is determined by the 0.1361/aacp2004p133 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. it was not stipulated in the original record. The casting method is given in the caption if it was given in the original test document. The tensile tests were conducted in accordance with the iteration of ASTM E 8. • Ultimate strength (tensile strength) is the load at fracture divided by the original cross section of the specimen. in accordance with ASTM E 10. The testing may have predated the registry of the current alloy designation.L. p 133-173 DOI:10. www. Properties were measured after holding specimens at various elevated temperatures for various times from the as-cast condition or after solution heat treatment. Fig. The intent in making such measurements is to determine the extent of the effects of time and temperature on precipitation hardening or softening. Kaufman.9 kN (500 kgf) load with a 10 mm ball.They have not been normalized to any typical or average properties for the individual alloys and tempers.49). The curves are printed with customary static mechanical property units obtained through uniaxial tensile testing.” aging response curves (Fig.50 to D1. D1. Processes.

% Ultimate tensile strength. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. days Fig. D1. % Elongation.4 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. ksi Time. ksi 10 10 0 40 0 40 F 30 T533 Tensile strength. D1.0-F.3 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242.0-T571 and -T77. ksi 30 Ultimate 20 Yield 10 20 10 40 0 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Tensile yield strength. days Fig. ksi 30 20 10 10 Tensile yield strength.0-F and -T533. Processes.1 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 208. % 10 Elongation. D1.0-T571. days Time. ksi 50 40 40 T571 30 30 T77 20 40 20 40 T571 30 T77 20 Tensile yield strength. D1. sand cast 20 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. permanent mold Fig.134 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. % 10 T571 T77 0 50 0 Ultimate tensile strength.2 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 213. and Applications 20 20 Elongation. sand cast . ksi 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. days 30 F T533 Fig. permanent mold 20 20 Elongation.

days 10 2 10 3 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Fig. D1.6 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295. D1. days Fig. D1. ksi 100 90 80 10 5 0 50 45 Ultimate 40 35 30 25 -1 10 1 Yield 10 Time.0-T6. ksi Elongation. ksi 10 5 0 40 Ultimate 30 20 Yield 10 -1 10 10 3 1 10 Time.0-T4. % Tensile strength.0-F. sand cast Hardness. ksi T6 40 T7 30 F T4 Tensile strength. days 10 2 10 3 Fig.0-T4. HB 90 80 70 60 Hardness. -T6. permanent mold Time. permanent mold Fig. D1. % 10 T7 T6 0 50 T4 F Ultimate tensile strength.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 135 20 Elongation. % Tensile strength.7 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295.8 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295. and -T7. sand cast . days 10 2 Elongation. % Hardness. HB Elongation. ksi Yield 10 -1 1 10 Time. -T4.5 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295. HB Ultimate 20 40 T6 30 T4 20 T7 10 10 F Tensile yield strength.

HB Elongation. permanent mold 110 Hardness. % 95 85 75 15 10 5 50 45 Ultimate Hardness. sand cast 10 3 Fig.136 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T6.0-T62.9 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295.10 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295. HB Elongation.11 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295. ksi 45 40 10 Time. days 10 2 10 3 35 Yield 30 -1 10 1 10 Time. % 10 5 0 50 100 90 10 Tensile strength. HB Elongation. % 100 90 6 4 Tensile strength. D1. ksi Ultimate 90 80 70 110 Elongation. days 10 2 Fig. D1. D1. days 10 2 50 Ultimate 45 10 3 40 Yield 35 -1 10 1 10 Time. D1. ksi Ultimate 2 50 40 35 30 25 20 15 -1 10 1 Yield Tensile yield strength. sand cast .12 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 296. days 10 2 10 3 Fig. and Applications Hardness.0-T62. HB 100 120 Hardness. permanent mold Fig. Processes.0-T4. % Tensile strength. ksi 5 40 0 30 Yield 20 -1 10 1 10 Time.

13 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 296. ksi 40 30 10 40 F 20 10 10 10 2 Tensile yield strength. D1. permanent mold Fig. days Time. days Fig. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. days Fig. ksi 60 50 30 40 20 30 40 10 40 Tensile yield strength.15 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 308.0-T6. % 10 0 Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 40 30 20 Tensile yield strength. ksi 30 30 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. permanent mold . D1. sand cast Elongation. ksi 2 3 4 5 10 0 0 40 Ultimate tensile strength.16 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319.0-T6.14 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 296. ksi Tensile yield strength. days 20 Fig. D1. permanent mold 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time.0-F and -T61. ksi 10 3 10 4 10 5 30 Time. % 20 20 10 0 50 T61 40 30 20 50 T61 F T61 F Elongation. % 10 Elongation.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 137 20 20 Elongation. D1.0-F. % Ultimate tensile strength.

Processes. D1. and -T71.0-T4.T6 40 20 30 10 40 20 50 Tensile yield strength. sand cast 20 20 Elongation. % 10 T61 F 0 60 Ultimate tensile strength.20 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319.17 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319. -T6.0-T4.T6 T4 T6 T71 Ultimate tensile strength. days 10 2 10 3 Fig.T6 0 T4. and Applications Hardness.0-T4 Time. and -T71. ksi 30 T4.T6 Elongation. ksi 40 T4. % T61 20 110 100 90 80 10 5 0 50 Elongation. % T4 T6 T71 10 T4.T6 T4.T6 0 T4. days Time. ksi 30 Yield 20 -1 10 30 F 20 10 1 10 Time.T6 30 50 T4. ksi 40 F 30 50 T61 40 Ultimate 40 Tensile yield strength. permanent mold Fig. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. D1. ksi 2 3 4 5 40 30 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. days Fig. ksi 50 Tensile strength. HB Elongation.138 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-F. sand cast .18 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 319. -T6. % 10 T4.T6 20 Tensile yield strength.19 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319. D1. D1. and -T61. days Fig.

permanent mold . ksi Tensile yield strength. days Fig. permanent mold 20 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. ksi Ultimate 30 Yield 20 10 0 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. ksi 50 45 40 35 Ultimate tensile strength.0-T4. % 20 15 10 60 20 Elongation.24 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. ksi 1 10 Time.0-T551. days 10 2 55 40 30 20 Tensile yield strength. % Ultimate 10 0 40 0 50 Tensile strength. % 10 F. -O.21 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333. and -T51.0-F. D1. D1.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 139 20 20 Elongation. permanent mold 0 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time.O 0 F O T51 Ultimate tensile strength. D1. days Fig. ksi 30 25 10 40 20 15 -1 10 10 3 30 F O 10 10 10 2 Fig. ksi 30 Yield 20 40 Tensile strength. % 10 Elongation.23 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 354.22 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 336. permanent mold Elongation. days Fig.0-T5. D1.

D1.25 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. % T4 T6 T72 70 0 70 10 Ultimate tensile strength. and Applications 20 20 F O T51 F 0 Elongation. aging time 120 days and less .140 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. % Elongation.0-T4. % 10 T4 T6 T72 0 Ultimate tensile strength. sand cast Fig. D1. ksi 50 430 5 30 0 35 Tensile yield strength. D1. and -T72. -T6. D1. ksi 50 Tensile yield strength. -O.0-F. sand cast. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. permanent mold 20 80 10 Hardness.0-T4. Fig. and -T51. ksi 30 Tensile yield strength.28 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. % 10 Elongation. and -T72. ksi 2 3 4 5 40 20 30 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. ksi 20 Ultimate 30 Yield 25 40 30 20 20 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 15 -1 10 1 Time. Processes. days 10 Time. -T6.26 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355.T6 40 30 20 30 10 40 20 50 Tensile yield strength. HB Elongation.27 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. days 10 2 10 3 Fig. days Fig.0-T4. days Time. ksi 40 50 T4.

32 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. D1. HB Elongation. longer-term data approaching 2000 days 90 100 Hardness. ksi 0 Ultimate 35 40 Tensile strength. D1. ksi Ultimate 35 Yield 30 Yield 1 10 Time. Effect of time interval between quenching and aging on properties . D1. % 70 5 10 Elongation.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 141 Hardness. ksi 85 100 90 80 70 15 10 5 45 0 40 40 Ultimate 35 30 25 20 15 -1 10 2 3 Hardness.30 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 1 10 10 Time.31 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. days 10 2 10 3 Fig.0-T4.0-T6 Fig. HB Elongation. days 10 10 25 20 Fig.0-T4. days 10 2 10 3 25 -1 10 1 10 Time.0-T6. HB 80 90 70 10 80 Elongation. ksi Ultimate 35 30 Yield 25 30 Yield 20 -1 10 1 10 Time. D1. % Tensile strength. days 2 10 3 10 4 355. % Interval between quenching and testing: 5 min 4h 1 day 0 40 5 Tensile yield strength. HB Hardness.29 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. permanent mold Fig. % 75 65 10 5 Tensile yield strength.

35 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. ksi 35 30 25 20 15 10 -1 10 1 0 35 30 Ultimate 10 Time.34 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. % Tensile strength. HB 80 70 60 25 20 15 40 70 Hardness. D1.0-T6 . D1. HB Elongation. HB Elongation. days 10 2 10 3 Fig. ksi Ultimate Yield 60 50 10 5 Tensile strength. % 60 50 10 5 0 30 Ultimate Yield Tensile yield strength. % Hardness. days 15 Yield 10 -1 10 Fig. D1. ksi 70 60 50 10 5 0 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 10 10 2 Hardness. HB Elongation. Longer-term data. Shorter-term data. D1. days 10 2 10 3 25 Fig.142 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T4 20 Yield 15 -1 10 1 10 Time. days 10 2 10 3 Fig. less than 200 days Elongation. approaching 2000 days 1 10 Time. ksi 25 Ultimate 10 3 10 4 20 Time.0-T4.36 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356.33 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. and Applications 70 Hardness. Processes. % Tensile yield strength.0-T4.

39 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 380. D1.37 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. Effect of time interval between quenching and aging Hardness. D1. days 10 2 10 3 20 Yield 15 -1 10 1 10 Time.0-T5. % 10 0 30 Ultimate 25 Elongation. % 5 Elongation.0-T6.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 143 110 20 Interval between quenching and testing: 5 min 4h 1 day Hardness.40 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 413. % 0 40 35 Tensile strength. HB 95 90 85 10 5 0 50 10 Elongation. D1.0-F.38 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 364. HB 100 90 80 70 60 Elongation. days Fig. months 10 2 Fig.0-T4. die cast 10 3 Fig. die cast . ksi 35 30 25 15 Yield 10 10 Yield 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 20 15 -1 10 2 3 Time. ksi Tensile strength. days 10 10 Fig. % 10 5 0 40 Ultimate Tensile strength. D1. ksi 45 40 35 30 Ultimate Ultimate 30 25 Yield 25 -1 10 1 10 Time. ksi 20 Tensile strength. die cast 1 10 Time.

up to 5000 days Fig. ksi 2 3 4 5 10 0 0 40 Ultimate tensile strength. D1. ksi 20 Tensile strength. sand cast. Long-term data. ksi 30 20 30 10 20 0 30 10 40 Tensile yield strength. ksi Tensile yield strength. D1. Long-term data.43 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy C433. up to 125 months 20 20 Elongation. months 10 2 10 3 Fig. % 10 Elongation. months 10 2 10 3 15 -1 10 1 10 Time.0-F. D1. sand cast . days Fig. % 5 Elongation. ksi Yield 30 15 25 10 20 Yield 5 -1 10 1 10 Time. % Ultimate 5 0 30 0 40 Ultimate 25 35 Tensile strength. die cast.144 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.44 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 512.41 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 443. % Ultimate tensile strength.0-F.0-F. Processes. days Time. and Applications 10 10 Elongation.0-F. ksi 20 30 10 20 0 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. die cast Fig.42 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy C433. D1.

ksi 40 30 30 20 20 10 40 10 40 Tensile yield strength. D1. sand cast Fig. % Ultimate tensile strength. permanent mold .47 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 520.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 145 20 20 Elongation. % 20 10 0 55 20 10 Tensile strength. days Time.0-F. ksi Tensile yield strength. days Fig.0-T4 0 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. ksi 30 30 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time. ksi 2 3 4 5 10 0 0 40 Ultimate tensile strength.0-T5. D1. ksi Tensile yield strength. HB 110 100 90 80 Elongation. days Fig. % Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 50 45 40 35 30 25 -1 10 Ultimate 0 30 20 Yield 1 10 3 10 Fig.0-F.48 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 850. D1. ksi 10 Time. % 10 Elongation. D1. permanent mold 120 20 Hardness. days 10 2 10 0 30 Elongation.46 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 513.45 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 513.

permanent mold. hours 12 14 16 10 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Fig. ksi 20 35 400 °F 370 °F Ultimate 400 °F Aging temperature 370 °F 340 °F 10 40 35 30 25 20 15 Yield Tensile yield strength. Processes. ksi 30 20 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Aging time.0-T5. days Fig. % Tensile yield strength. 115 Hardness.146 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.50 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242.51 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. hours 16 18 20 22 24 26 Fig. permanent mold Time. Specimens were aged for 2 years at room temperature prior to aging at these temperatures. ksi 3 2 1 0 0 300 °F 400 °F 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. D1. hours 16 18 20 340 °F 22 24 Aging temperature 440 °F 340 °F 440 °F Fig.0-F. % Tensile strength.0-F.52 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. D1. and Applications Hardness.0-F. HB 110 300 °F 105 100 95 4 400 °F Elongation. D1. D1. % 10 0 Ultimate tensile strength. permanent mold . ksi 46 Aging temperature 42 38 34 38 34 30 26 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.49 Room-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 852. permanent mold Ultimate tensile strength. HB 20 120 110 100 90 6 Aging temperature 4 2 0 40 340 °F 370 °F 400 °F 340 °F Aging temperature 400 °F 370 °F 340 °F Elongation. ksi 40 30 Elongation.

permanent mold.0-T4. ksi 47 310 °F 440 °F 43 480 ∞F 39 500 °F 35 525 °F 31 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.53 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. Solution heat treatment: 6 h at 960 °F. Solution heat treatment: 6 h at 960 °F. quenched in 110 °F water . D1. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. ksi 43 340 °F 39 310 °F 480 °F 35 500 °F 31 525 °F 27 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 147 51 47 440 °F Tensile yield strength. D1. quenched in 110 ºF water 51 340 °F Ultimate tensile strength.54 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242.0-T4. permanent mold.

148 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. % 525 °F 310 °F 2 340 °F 480 °F 500 °F 440 °F 18 20 22 24 26 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.0-T4. Cooled in still air Fig. hours 10 12 Fig. Solution heat treatment: 6 h at 960 °F.56 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. HB 40 440 °F 36 100 440 ∞F 480 °F 80 650 °F 550 °F 600 °F Tensile yield strength. and Applications 135 125 340 °F 310 °F Hardness. hours 10 12 12 38 0 2 4 6 8 Aging time. sand cast. Cooled in still air . ksi 42 440 °F 480 °F 34 550 °F 30 600 °F 650 °F 26 0 2 4 6 8 Aging time. HB 115 440 °F 105 480 °F 500 °F 95 525 °F 85 4 Elongation. % 28 550 °F 24 2 650 °F 600 °F 480 °F 550 °F 0 20 600 °F 46 440 °F 16 650 °F Ultimate tensile strength. sand cast. D1.55 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242.0-T4. D1. permanent mold.57 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. ksi 480 °F 32 60 4 Elongation.0-T4. quenched in 110 °F water 44 120 Hardness. D1. Processes. hours 16 Fig.

59 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. HB 440 °F 100 480 °F 550 °F 80 600 °F 60 3 650 °F Elongation. D1. 550. 600 °F Ultimate tensile strength. hours Fig. Quenched in boiling water . D1. sand cast.0-T4.0-T4. D1.58 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242. ksi 40 440 °F 36 480 ∞F 32 550 °F 28 600 °F Hardness. % 650 °F 2 480 ∞F 1 600 °F 550 °F 440 °F 650 °F 24 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aging time. sand cast. Air blast quench 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aging time.60 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 242.0-T4. hours Fig.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 149 44 120 Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 45 400 °F 450 ∞F 40 35 550 °F 30 600 °F 25 0 2 4 6 Aging time. hours 8 10 Fig. Air blast quench 130 400 °F Hardness. % 10 400 °F 0 50 450. sand cast. HB 110 450 °F 90 550 °F 600 °F 70 Elongation.

% 60 10 340 °F 370 °F 440 °F 310 °F 0 55 340 °F 370 °F 45 310 °F 440 °F 35 Ultimate tensile strength. HB 340 °F 100 370 °F 310 °F 440 °F Elongation.62 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy A356. Hardness. ksi 50 370 °F 340 °F 310 °F 440 °F 40 30 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. ksi Tensile yield strength. 24 h interval at room temperature . Heat-up times to the aging temperatures varied from 1 h 5 min to 1 h 45 min.150 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig.0-T4. Solution heat treated 15 h at 980 °F. % 25 20 15 10 45 310 °F 340 °F 370 °F Tensile strength. quenched in water at 150 °F. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. D1.0-T4. ksi 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 340 °F 310 °F 310 °F 340 °F 370 °F 370 °F 10 12 14 Aging time. D1. and Applications 140 Hardness. Solution heat treated 15 h at 1000 °F. Processes. quenched in boiling water. HB 110 90 80 70 30 340 °F 370 °F 310 °F Elongation. permanent mold. sand cast.61 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy C355. 24 h interval at room temperature.

sand cast Tensile yield strength. sand cast. ksi . HB 100 400 °F 80 60 500 °F 40 15 10 5 0 45 40 35 30 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 480 °F 500 °F 10 12 14 16 Aging time. ksi Ultimate tensile strength.0-T4.0-T4. ksi 400 °F 40 440 °F 35 500 °F 30 600 °F 25 0 2 4 6 Aging time.64 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 295.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 151 110 Hardness.5 1.5 0 45 440 °F 600 °F 500 °F 400 °F Ultimate tensile strength.0 0. HB 400 °F 440 °F 500 °F 600 °F 100 90 80 70 Elongation.63 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy A242. hours 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 200 ∞F 400 °F 300 °F 400 °F 500 °F 200 °F 480 ∞F 300 °F 400 °F 500 °F 480 °F 200 °F 480 °F 200 °F 300 °F Elongation. Quenched in boiling water Hardness. D1. % 1. D1. % 300 °F Fig. hours 8 Fig.

% 3 2 340 °F 360 °F 1 0 34 360 °F 32 30 28 26 32 360 °F 320 °F 380 °F 340 °F 320 °F 380 °F Tensile yield strength. HB 90 80 70 380 °F 340 °F 320 °F 360 °F 60 Elongation. permanent mold . Processes. hours 12 14 16 Fig. ksi Ultimate tensile strength.152 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. D1. ksi 28 380 °F 24 340 °F 20 320 °F 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 Aging time.65 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319.0-F. ksi 30 380 °F 340 °F 26 26 440 °F Tensile yield strength. sand cast 34 Ultimate tensile strength. D1.0-F. and Applications 100 Hardness. hours 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Fig.66 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319. ksi 340 °F 24 380 °F 20 440 °F 16 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 18 14 16 Aging time.

% 3 440 °F 2 0 2 4 380 °F 6 8 10 12 18 14 16 Aging time. % 525 °F 500 °F 380 °F 320 °F Ultimate tensile strength. Solution heat treated 12 h at 940 °F.67 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319.68 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 319. permanent mold 130 Hardness. D1. quenched in boiling water . sand cast.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 153 100 340 °F Hardness. ksi 50 45 40 35 30 25 0 525 °F 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.0-F. hours 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 340 °F Fig. ksi 50 45 40 30 35 380 °F 320 °F 500 °F 525 °F Tensile yield strength. HB 90 380 °F 80 440 °F 70 4 Elongation. hours 16 18 20 22 24 380 °F 320 °F 500 °F Fig.0-F. Aged 10 days at room temperature. HB 120 110 100 90 80 4 2 0 55 525 °F 380 °F 320 °F 500 °F Elongation. D1.

ksi 33 31 340 °F 29 27 25 23 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.0-T4.70 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333. and Applications 115 Hardness. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. permanent mold. Processes. D1. HB 110 105 100 95 90 2 1 0 36 340 °F 440 °F Elongation. Solution heat treated 6 h at 960 °F. % 340 °F 440 °F 340 °F Ultimate tensile strength.69 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333. quenched in water at 110 °F . D1.0-F. permanent mold 52 340 °F 48 44 Tensile yield strength. ksi 34 32 30 28 440 °F Tensile yield strength.154 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. hours 16 18 20 22 24 440 °F Fig. ksi 310 °F 40 36 440 °F 32 480 ∞F 28 500 °F 24 525 °F 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.

Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 155 57 53 340 °F Ultimate tensile strength.0-T4. % 310 °F 2 340 °F 525 °F 440 °F 500 °F 480 °F 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. D1. permanent mold. HB 115 440 °F 480 ∞F 95 500 °F 75 4 525 °F Elongation. hours 16 18 20 22 24 26 Fig. Solution heat treated 6 h at 960 °F.72 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333. Solution heat treated 6 h at 960 °F. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. D1. quenched in water at 110 °F . quenched in water at 110 °F 155 340 °F 135 310 °F Hardness. ksi 49 310 °F 45 440 °F 41 480 ∞F 37 500 °F 525 °F 33 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. permanent mold.71 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333.0-T4.

HB 340 °F 110 100 440 °F Elongation. hours 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Fig. and Applications Elongation. % 90 2 1 0 38 340 °F 440 °F Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 33 31 29 27 25 23 0 2 4 6 8 440 °F 10 12 14 Aging time.73 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333.0-F. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 28 340 °F 24 440 ∞F 20 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 18 14 16 Aging time. permanent mold . % 3 2 1 0 40 380 °F 340 °F 36 440 °F 32 32 380 °F 440 °F 380 °F 340 °F Tensile yield strength. ksi 36 340 °F 34 32 30 440 °F Tensile yield strength. D1. hours 16 18 20 22 24 340 °F Fig.156 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. permanent mold 120 Hardness. D1. Processes.0-F.74 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333.

D1.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 157 40 Ultimate tensile strength. HB 110 100 420 °F 90 4 Elongation. permanent mold . hours 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Fig.76 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333. hours 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Fig.0-F.0-F. ksi 380 °F 36 340 °F 32 30 380 °F 26 400 °F 420 °F 22 340 °F 18 400 °F 420 °F Tensile yield strength.75 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 333. % 2 400 °F 380 °F 340 °F 420 °F 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aging time. ksi 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aging time. D1. permanent mold 120 340 °F 380 °F 400 °F Hardness.

hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. permanent mold 125 Hardness. D1. HB 340 °F 105 440 °F 85 2 440 °F 0 37 340 °F Ultimate tensile strength. Processes. and Applications 125 Hardness. ksi Elongation.0-F. permanent mold . ksi 340 °F 27 400 °F 23 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.78 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 336. % 340 °F 33 440 °F 29 31 Tensile yield strength.0-F. % 400 °F 35 340 °F 31 31 Tensile yield strength.158 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. HB 340 °F 105 400 °F 85 2 1 340 °F 0 39 400 °F Ultimate tensile strength.77 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 336. D1. ksi Elongation. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. ksi 340 °F 27 440 °F 23 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.

quenched in water at 110 °F 4 Elongation.0-T4. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. quenched in water at 110 °F . hours 16 18 20 22 24 26 Fig. permanent mold.79 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 336. ksi 40 440 °F 36 32 480 °F 28 500 °F 24 525 °F 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. D1. Solution heat treated 6 h at 960 °F.0-T4. Solution heat treated 6 h at 960 °F. D1. ksi 46 42 440 °F 38 480 °F 34 500 °F 525 °F 30 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. % 525 °F 310 °F 2 340 °F 0 50 340 °F 310 °F 440 °F 500 °F 480 °F Ultimate tensile strength.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 159 48 340 °F 44 310 °F Tensile yield strength. permanent mold.80 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 336.

and Applications 140 340 ∞F 130 310 °F 120 Hardness. ksi 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Aging time.160 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Held 4 h at room temperature Fig. D1.81 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 336. D1. HB 110 440 °F 100 480 ∞F 90 500 °F 80 525 °F 70 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. hours 10 12 290 °F 320 °F 290 °F 290 °F 320 °F 320 °F Tensile yield strength. ksi 340 °F 310 °F 400 °F 55 50 45 Elongation.0-T4. Processes. permanent mold. quenched in water at 110 ºF 20 110 310 °F Elongation. Solution heat treated 6 h at 960 ºF. Solution heat treated 8 h at 980 ºF.0-T4. permanent mold. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. % 10 5 0 65 400 °F 340 °F Hardness. ksi . % 60 6 4 2 0 45 40 35 30 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 6 8 Aging time.83 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. D1.0-T4.82 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 354. HB 15 100 90 80 70 60 320 °F 290 °F Ultimate tensile strength. quenched in room temperature water. hours 12 14 16 400 °F 340 °F 310 °F Fig. sand cast Tensile yield strength.

HB 100 90 80 70 60 6 5 525 °F 440 °F 480 ∞F 525 °F Elongation. HB Elongation.0-T4. hours 14 16 18 20 Fig. D1. % 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 480 °F 440 °F Aging time.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 161 100 Hardness. ksi Ultimate 32 Yield 28 24 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Aging time. hours Fig.85 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. sand cast. D1.84 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. % 90 80 3 2 1 0 40 36 Tensile strength.0-T4. Aging at 275 °F with boiling water quench 110 Hardness. permanent mold .

ksi 40 35 30 30 25 Yield 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Aging time.0 2.162 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. ksi 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.86 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. % 300 °F 500 °F 300 °F Ultimate tensile strength.87 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355. D1. HB 100 90 80 70 60 440 °F 480 °F 525 °F 310 °F Elongation. HB 120 100 80 60 15 10 5 0 55 400 °F 300 °F 400 °F 500 °F Elongation. hours 16 18 20 22 24 500 °F 300 °F 400 °F Fig.5 0. ksi 50 45 40 35 500 °F 30 400 °F Tensile yield strength.0-T4.0 5.0-T4. Processes. hours 14 16 480 °F 525 °F 440 °F 310 °F 18 20 Fig. permanent mold .0 50 45 310 °F 440 °F Ultimate 525 °F 480 °F 525 °F 480 °F 440 °F 310 °F Tensile strength. permanent mold Hardness. and Applications 110 Hardness. D1. % 7.

0-T4.0-F. % 45 100 80 60 20 15 10 5 0 50 45 Ultimate Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 40 440 °F 35 480 °F 30 525 °F 25 40 Tensile strength. Aged at 310 °F Fig. D1. D1. ksi 40 35 30 25 20 15 Yield Tensile yield strength. permanent mold Elongation. sand cast .Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 163 Hardness. hours Fig.0-T4. HB Elongation. hours 10 12 14 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 Aging time. Solution heat treated 8 h at 980 °F.89 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy C355. Held 16 h at room temperature. HB 70 65 60 55 3 2 1 28 480 °F 480 ∞F 500 °F 500 °F 480 °F 26 Ultimate 24 500 °F Yield strength.90 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. ksi 35 440 °F 30 25 480 ∞F 20 525 ∞F 10 0 2 4 6 8 Aging time. permanent mold. ksi 22 480 °F 20 Yield 500 °F 18 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 Aging time. % Hardness. D1. quenched in 200 °F water. hours 12 14 16 Fig.88 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 355.

% 6 4 2 0 36 32 28 24 28 340 °F 440 °F 440 °F 340 °F Tensile yield strength. HB 340 °F 75 440 °F 55 Elongation. D1. % Tensile strength. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Yield Ultimate Fig. HB 90 80 70 60 50 300 °F 400 °F 440 °F 480 °F 500 °F 550 °F Elongation. ksi 7.0-T4.5 5. ksi 24 20 16 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. and Applications 95 Hardness. sand cast . D1.92 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356.0 45 40 35 30 25 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. permanent mold 1000 Hardness.91 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356.164 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Processes. ksi Ultimate tensile strength.0-F.5 0.0 2. hours 16 340 °F 440 °F 18 20 22 24 Fig.

ksi Ultimate tensile Elongation. HB 80 60 40 20 10 5 0 40 500 ∞F 480 °F 500 ∞F 480 °F 300 °F 400 °F Elongation. hours 10 12 440 °F 400 ∞F 400 °F 440 °F 440 °F 400 °F 400 °F 440 °F Fig. ksi 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2 4 500 °F 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aging time. sand cast .93 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356.0-T4. HB 100 80 60 40 10 5 0 40 35 30 25 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 Aging time. strength. D1. sand cast 100 Tensile yield strength. D1. hours 18 20 300 °F 400 °F 480 °F 22 24 26 28 30 Fig.94 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356.0-T4. % 400 °F 300 °F Ultimate tensile strength. ksi % Hardness.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 165 Hardness. ksi 35 30 25 20 15 480 °F 500 °F 300 °F 400 °F Tensile yield strength.

Processes. quenched in 110 °F water. D1. ksi 28 24 440 °F 20 16 480 °F 12 500 °F 525 °F 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. permanent mold. hours 16 18 20 22 24 340 °F 480 °F 440 °F Fig. Solution heat treated 6 h at 980 °F.96 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. Solution heat treated 6 h at 980 °F. Specimens were aged 8 months at room temperature prior to artificial aging. 100 310 °F 90 340 °F 80 Hardness. hours 16 18 20 22 24 8 Fig. D1. Specimens were aged 8 months at room temperature prior to artificial aging. % 20 500 °F 15 10 5 0 0 310 °F 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. HB 70 440 °F 60 50 480 °F 500 °F 40 525 °F 25 525 °F Elongation.0-T4. quenched in 110 °F water. and Applications 40 310 °F 36 32 340 °F Tensile yield strength.95 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. .166 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. permanent mold.0-T4.

permanent mold. ksi 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. permanent mold .0-T4. ksi 40 35 30 25 20 15 500 °F 400 °F Tensile yield strength. D1. Solution heat treated 15 h at 1000 °F. ksi Tensile yield strength. HB Elongation. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. Held 24 h at room temperature Elongation. D1. HB % 100 60 20 25 15 5 50 45 300 °F 400 °F 500 °F 500 °F 400 °F 300 °F 300 °F Ultimate tensile strength. hours 16 18 20 22 24 500 °F 300 °F 400 °F Fig.97 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. Hardness. % Ultimate tensile strength.0-T4. ksi 100 80 60 25 20 15 10 5 0 45 40 35 30 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. quenched in boiling water.98 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 167 Hardness.

ksi 40 35 30 25 20 40 440 °F Tensile yield strength. Solution heat treated 6 h at 980 °F. Specimens were aged 8 months at room temperature prior to artificial aging. sand cast.0-T4. HB 100 80 60 40 370 °F 340 °F 310 °F 440 °F Elongation. D1. permanent mold. D1. quenched in 110 °F water. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. ksi 35 310 °F 440 °F 31 27 480 ∞F 23 500 °F 525 °F 19 17 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. % 10 5 0 45 340 °F 310 °F 370 °F 370 °F 340 °F 310 °F 440 °F Ultimate tensile strength. Solution heat treated 15 h at 1000 °F. hours 16 18 20 22 24 26 Fig. Held 24 h at room temperature .100 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. quenched in 150 °F water.0-T4. ksi 370 °F 340 °F 310 °F 35 30 25 20 440 °F 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time.99 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. and Applications 43 340 °F 39 Tensile yield strength. 120 Hardness. Processes.168 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

D1.0-F. ksi 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 340 °F 310 °F 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. ksi Ultimate tensile strength. % 25 20 15 10 50 340 ∞F 310 °F 370 °F Ultimate tensile strength. ksi 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 0 2 4 6 8 Aging time.101 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 356. hours 340 °F 400 °F 440 ∞F 10 12 Fig. Solution heat treated 15 h at 1000 °F. ksi 45 40 35 30 35 370 °F 370 °F 340 °F 310 °F Tensile yield strength. Held 24 h at room temperature 80 Hardness. permanent mold . permanent mold. % 20 15 10 5 38 36 34 32 26 440 °F 340 °F 400 °F 340 °F 400 °F 440 ∞F Tensile yield strength. quenched in 150 °F water.102 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy A356. HB 100 80 60 30 310 °F 370 °F 340 °F Elongation.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 169 Hardness. D1.0-T4. HB 75 70 65 60 340 °F 400 °F 440 ∞F Elongation. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig.

Held 24 h at room temperature Hardness. ksi 50 45 40 35 370 °F 340 °F 310 ∞F Tensile yield strength. hours 16 18 20 22 24 340 °F 310 ∞F 370 °F Fig.170 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Solution heat treated 15 h at 1000 °F. ksi 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. % 45 40 35 30 50 340 °F 310 °F 370 °F 440 °F Tensile yield strength. HB 120 100 80 60 25 370 ∞F 340 °F 310 °F Elongation. D1. Solution heat treated 15 h at 1000 °F. and Applications Hardness. % 20 15 10 5 55 310 °F 340 °F 370 ∞F Ultimate tensile strength. HB 120 100 80 60 10 5 0 50 310 °F 370 °F 340 °F 440 °F 340 °F 310 °F 370 °F 440 °F Ultimate tensile strength. hours 16 18 20 310 °F 340 °F 370 °F 440 °F 22 24 Fig.103 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 359. Processes. ksi Elongation. permanent mold.0-T4. sand cast. ksi 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. D1.104 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 359.0-T4. quenched in 150 °F water. Held 24 h at room temperature . quenched in 150 °F water.

106 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 380. hours 16 18 20 22 24 Fig.0-F. die cast Hardness. ksi % 35 30 25 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Aging time. % 47 45 43 41 31 340 °F 440 °F Tensile yield strength. die cast . HB 100 95 90 85 3 2 1 49 340 °F 440 °F 340 °F 440 °F Ultimate tensile strength. HB 120 100 80 60 10 5 0 55 50 45 40 40 340 °F 360 °F 360 °F 340 °F 360 °F 340 °F 360 °F 340 °F Tensile yield strength.105 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy A360. D1. hours 10 12 Fig. D1. ksi 29 27 25 23 0 2 340 °F 440 °F 4 6 8 Aging time.0-F. ksi Ultimate tensile Elongation strength.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 171 Hardness. ksi Elongation.

Effect of lower-temperature artificial aging.0-T4. Tested at room temperature Fig. Effect of aging at 300 °F. Tested at room temperature . Effect of preheating at 250 °F.109 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 520. Tested at room temperature Elongation. HB 100 90 80 70 25 250 °F 200 °F 175 °F 150 °F Elongation.0-T4. D1. ksi 50 45 40 35 30 25 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 Aging time. HB 250 °F 250 °F 100 90 80 70 Hardness. ksi 20 10 0 50 Tensile strength. HB Elongation. % 100 90 80 70 30 20 10 RT 0 50 RT 110 Hardness.0-T4. % Tensile strength. D1.108 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 520. sand cast. D1. Processes. ksi 45 40 Ultimate RT 40 Ultimate 35 30 25 20 0 1 2 Preheating time. and Applications Hardness. weeks 3 4 Yield RT 30 Yield 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Preheating time. weeks 64 72 80 250 °F Yield 200 °F 175 °F 150 °F 88 96 104 Fig. days 12 14 Fig. sand cast.107 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 520. % 20 15 10 5 0 55 150 °F 175 °F 250 °F Ultimate 200 °F 250 °F 200 °F 175 °F 150 °F Tensile strength.172 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

sand cast.0-T4. D1.111 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 520. % 90 85 80 75 15 10 5 0 50 45 Tensile strength.0-T4. sand cast. ksi 100 90 80 70 20 15 10 5 0 50 45 Ultimate 40 35 Yield 30 25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Aging time. HB Elongation. hours 14 16 18 20 Fig. Tested at room temperature Hardness. D1.Data Set 1: Aging Response Curves / 173 Hardness. Effect of aging at 350 °F. Effect of aging at 325 °F.110 High-temperature aging characteristics for aluminum alloy 520. ksi Ultimate 40 35 30 Yield 25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Aging time. HB Elongation. % Tensile strength. hours 14 16 18 20 Fig. Tested at room temperature .

.

so the value is identical in the SI system. They have not been normalized to any typical or average compositions for the individual alloys and tempers.9 kN (500 kgf) load with a 10 mm ball.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Rooy.G. The growth factor is unitless. and Applications J. Kaufman. the values on the axis are to be multiplied by 10–4. Hardness testing employed a 4./in. The growth factor is given in units of 10–4 in.. .L. www. All of these curves were developed at Alcoa Laboratories Cleveland Casting Research Division. The purpose in making such measurements is to determine the dimensional changes that must be anticipated during service in applications where close dimensional tolerances are required. p 175-192 DOI:10. Processes.org DATA SET 2 Growth Curves This data set contains approximately 50 growth curves for a wide range of aluminum casting alloys. in accordance with ASTM E 10.1361/aacp2004p175 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. This representation is standard industry practice. Hardness values shown were the product of corresponding aging response studies in which measurements were made on individual lots considered representative of the respective alloys and tempers. E.asminternational. providing experimental evidence of permanent dimensional change with time at various temperatures. Brinell hardness (HB) was recorded in many of these tests.

hours Fig. Treatment: 12 h at 960 °F. and Applications 14 450 °F 12 Growth. hours Fig. rod.3 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 242. hours Fig.0-F. 50 2 300~650 °F 0 -2 -1 10 0 hours 1 10 10 2 -4 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature. Test specimen: 1.125 diam ϫ 12 in. 40 2 0 -2 -1 10 0 hours 1 10 10 2 -4 650 °F 300~500 °F 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature. boiling water quench . 10 in.0-T4. permanent mold. Processes.2 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 242. D2. rod 120 300 °F 110 100 Hardness. D2. 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 10 10 2 400 °F -4 350 °F 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature.1 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 238. 10 in.0-F. HB 350 °F 90 80 70 60 400 °F 500 °F 650 °F Growth. 10 in.176 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. permanent mold. Test specimen 1./in. D2. rod 140 130 300 °F 120 110 Hardness.125 diam ϫ 12 in. permanent mold. HB 100 90 80 70 60 50 400 °F 500 °F 650 °F Growth. Specimen: 1./in./in.125 diam ϫ 12 in.

boiling water quench .5 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 295. Treatment: 12 h at 950 °F. permanent mold.6 Growth curves for aluminum alloy B295. permanent mold. boiling water quench 120 110 300 °F 100 350 °F Fig.0-F.0-T4. permanent mold./in. hours Fig. rod. D2. rod. rod. 10 in. HB 60 50 500 °F 40 30 10 650 °F 350 °F 400 °F Growth./in. 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 10 650 °F Growth. hours Specimen: 1. 450 °F 12 10 8 6 4 300 °F 400 °F 650 °F -4 350 °F 300 °F -4 350 °F 10 2 10 3 10 4 2 0 -2 1 10 10 2 Time at temperature. Treatment: 12 h at 960 °F. Specimen: 1. D2.0-T4. permanent mold.125 diam ϫ 12 in./in. 10 in. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 500 °F 400 °F 350 °F 300 °F 650 °F 10 3 -4 0 hours 10 4 Time at temperature. Hardness.0-T4. D2.125 diam ϫ 12 in. hours Specimen: 1. D2. Specimen: 1. Treatment: 12 h at 940 °F.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 177 70 300 °F Hardness. rod 18 16 14 500 °F 20 18 16 400 °F 14 500 °F Growth.125 diam ϫ 12 in.7 Hardness curves for aluminum alloy B295. boiling water quench Fig.125 diam ϫ 12 in. 10 in.4 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 295. HB 90 80 70 60 50 40 -1 10 1 650 °F 0 hours 10 10 2 400 °F 450 °F 500 °F 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature. 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature. hours Fig.

9 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 319./in. HB 100 90 80 70 60 500 °F 650 °F 50 -1 10 0 hours 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature./in. 10 in. permanent mold.8 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 319.0-T4.125 diam ϫ 12 in. rod. D2. boiling water quench . Specimen: 1. Treatment: 12 h at 960 °F. Specimen: 1. rod. Treatment: 12 h at 960 °F. rod 16 500 °F 14 12 400 °F Growth. 10 in. hours Fig. boiling water quench 130 300 °F 120 110 350 °F 400 °F Hardness.125 diam ϫ 12 in. 8 6 400 °F 4 350 °F 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 -4 0 hours 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. Processes.125 diam ϫ 12 in. D2. HB 90 80 70 60 50 12 500 °F 10 500 °F 650 °F 350 °F 400 °F 300 °F 300 °F 650 °F Growth.0-T4. Specimen: 1. permanent mold. hours Fig. and Applications 100 Hardness. D2.178 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.10 Hardness curves for aluminum alloy 319.0-F. 10 8 6 4 300 °F 2 0 1 10 10 2 -4 650 °F 350 °F 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature. permanent mold. hours Fig.

D2. rod 130 120 110 300 °F 350 °F 100 400 °F 90 80 70 500 °F 60 12 10 500 °F 8 450 °F 6 400 °F 4 350 °F 2 0 -1 10 1 10 300 °F 450 °F Growth. hours Fig./in. 10 in. 10 in.0-F.12 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 333. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 0 hours -4 350 °F 300 °F 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature.11 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 332. Specimen: 1. D2.125 diam ϫ 12 in.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 179 130 120 300 °F Hardness. permanent mold. HB 110 100 90 450 °F 80 500 °F 70 12 10 400 °F 500 °F 450 ° F 400 °F Growth. Specimen: 1. HB 0 hours 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature.0-F.125 diam ϫ 12 in./in. rod . hours Fig. permanent mold. -4 Hardness.

permanent mold. Processes.125 diam ϫ 12 in.14 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 336. Treatment: 950 °F.0-T4. Specimen: 1./in. Treatment: 950 °F. permanent mold.125 diam ϫ 12 in. D2. rod.125 diam ϫ 12 in. boiling water quench 130 120 300 °F 110 350 °F 100 90 80 70 650 °F 60 50 -1 10 1 0 hours 10 10 2 Hardness.0-F.13 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 336. and Applications 120 350 °F 110 100 300 °F Hardness. 4 3 500 °F 2 1 0 -1 10 1 650 °F -4 400 °F 350 °F 300 °F 0 hours 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. rod 6 5 Growth. D2. hours Fig. hours Fig. D2. rod.15 Hardness curves for aluminum alloy 336. HB 90 80 500 °F 70 60 50 5 650 °F 400 °F Growth. hours Fig.180 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. permanent mold. boiling water quench . 10 in. 10 in. Specimen: 1.0-T4./in. Specimen: 1. HB 400 °F 440 °F 500 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. 4 650 °F 3 2 1 0 1 10 10 2 -4 500 °F 440 °F 400 °F 350 °F 300 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.

/in. 10 in. hours Fig.17 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. hours Fig. boiling water quench 10 Growth.0-T4. D2. rod.18 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355.125 diam ϫ 12 in. boiling water quench .Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 181 12 10 450 °F 500 °F 8 650 °F 6 4 400 °F 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 Growth. Specimen: 1. 10 in./in. Specimen: 1. hours Fig.16 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. Specimen: 1.0-F. D2. permanent mold. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 -4 500 °F 450 °F 400 °F 300 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.125 diam ϫ 12 in. permanent mold./in. D2. 10 in. rod. 8 6 500 °F 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 -4 450 °F 400 °F 300 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. 300 °F -4 350 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.0-T4. Treatment: 12 h at 940 °F. rod 10 Growth. permanent mold.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Treatment: 12 h at 960 °F.

Treatment: 12 h at 940 °F. boiling water quench 12 10 Growth. Treatment: 12 h at 980 °F. Specimen: 1.19 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 355. hours Fig. HB 100 450 °F 80 500 °F 60 40 20 10 650 °F 300 °F 400 °F 350 °F Growth. and Applications 120 Hardness.125 diam ϫ 12 in.0-T4. 10 in.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Treatment: 12 h at 1000 °F.0-T4. permanent mold./in.0-T4.20 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. 10 in. permanent mold. permanent mold. rod. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 -4 500 °F 450 °F 400 °F 300 °F 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. D2. D2./in. cold water quench .21 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. hours Fig.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Specimen: 1. D2. boiling water quench 10 Growth. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 -4 650 °F 400 °F 500 °F 450 °F 350 °F 300 °F 0 hours 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. hours Fig. rod./in.182 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 10 in. rod. Processes. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 500 °F 450 °F 400 °F 300 °F -4 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. Specimen: 1.

24 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. permanent mold./in.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Treatment: 5 h at 700 °F plus 12 h at 850 °F. rod.0-T4. 1 3 Growth. 10 in. Treatment: 12 h at 1000 °F. Specimen: 1. permanent mold. hours Fig.0-T7.125 diam ϫ 12 in. rod.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Specimen: 1.23 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355.0-T51. Specimen: 1. hours 10 3 0 4 Fig. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 -4 500 °F 450 °F 400 °F 300 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. D2. Treatment: 8 h at 440 °F Fig./in. 10 in.22 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. permanent mold.25 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 355. hours Specimen: 1. D2. 8 6 500 °F -4 450 °F 4 2 0 -1 10 1 400 °F 300 °F 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 183 10 Growth. D2. 10 in.0-T4. D2. 8 h at 440 °F . rod. Time at temperature. 0 -1 -2 1 10 -4 300 °F 400 °F 2 1 0 -1 1 10 1 10 2 400 °F -4 300 °F 1 10 2 10 3 0 4 Time at temperature. rod. hours Fig. cold water quench Growth./in. Treatment: 12 h at 960 °F. permanent mold.125 diam ϫ 12 in./in. cold water quench 13 10 Growth. 10 in. boiling water quench.

Data for aging at 350 °F is then given. cold water quench. Curve 4. 10 -4 8 6 1 2 34 56 4 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 Temperature of solution heat treatment.3 h is after the commercial heat treatment. 8 6 T71 T7 T72 -4 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 Aging time at 350 °F. T7. 10 in. Processes. Permanent mold.26 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 355. boiling water quench. boiling water quench. 5 h at 540 °F. aging at 450 °F.0-T4 under various conditions of solution heat treatment and quench: Curve 1. Curve 6. rod. Curve 5. boiling water quench. boiling water quench./in. aging at 450 °F. Curve 2. aging at 500 °F. Zero hour data 12 Growth. rod . 5 h at 500 °F Fig. 980 °F.184 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. D2.27 Maximum growth of aluminum alloy 355. 980 °F. boiling water quench./in.125 diam ϫ 12 in. cold water quench.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Treatment: T51. T71. Specimen: 1. T72. cold water quench. aging at 500 ° F. 10 in. and Applications 100 T7 Hardness.0 with various commercial tempers and aging at 350 °F. D2. 980 °F boiling water quench. aging at 400 °F. Specimen: 1. 8 h at 440 °F. HB 90 80 70 60 50 10 T51 T51 T72 T71 Growth. hours is as-cast. permanent mold. 5 h at 480 °F. aging at 400 °F. °F Fig. Curve 3. Data at 0.

permanent mold. HB 350 °F 70 60 440 °F 50 40 30 10 650 °F 500 °F 400 °F Growth. Treatment: 12 h at 980 °F.30 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 360.125 diam ϫ 12 in. 10 in. D2. 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 650 °F 500 °F -4 440 °F 400 °F 350 °F 300 °F 0 hours 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature. hours Fig. boiling water quench. 8 6 4 Permanent mold cast -4 10 3 0 4 Time at temperature. Specimen: 1. 600 °F 8 6 4 2 300 °F 0 1 10 1 10 2 -4 500 °F 400 °F Sand cast Growth.29 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 356. Comparison of sand cast and permanent mold . Treatment: 12 h at 980 °F. hours 10 2 3 16 ⁄ in. 10 in. D2. rod. HB 70 60 50 40 10 Growth.125 diam ϫ 12 in. Specimen: 1./in. boiling water quench 80 12 Sand cast Permanent mold cast 10 Hardness. rod. Specimen: 2 0 -1 10 1 10 Time at 440 °F.0-T4.0-T4. permanent mold. thick plate 0 hours 10 3 Fig. die cast.0-F./in. 10 in./in. hours Fig.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 185 100 90 300 °F 80 Hardness. D2.28 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 356.

permanent mold.0-F. 10 in. Specimen: 3 16 Fig./in.0-F. HB 50 40 30 20 12 500 °F 10 650 °F 400 °F 300 °F 500 °F 650 °F Growth.34 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 443. die cast. Specimen: 1./in. 8 450 °F 6 4 2 300 °F 0 -1 10 0 hours 1 10 10 2 -4 400 °F 350 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.31 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 380. D2.33 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 413. D2. 10 in. die cast. 500 °F 8 -4 600 °F -4 500 °F 300 °F 300 °F 10 3 0 4 -2 1 10 1 10 2 10 3 0 4 Time at temperature.0-F. thick plate ⁄ in. 6 4 2 0 1 10 1 -4 600 °F 500 °F 400 °F 10 2 300 °F 10 3 0 4 Time at temperature.125 diam ϫ 12 in. hours Fig. and Applications 14 400 °F 12 10 600 °F 400 °F 6 4 2 0 1 10 1 10 2 12 Growth. die cast. 10 8 6 4 2 0 Growth. Processes.0-F./in. D2. Specimen: 3 16 ⁄ in. D2.32 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 384. rod . thick plate Hardness.186 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties./in. 10 in. hours Time at temperature. 10 in. hours Fig. Specimen: 5 16 ⁄ in. hours Fig. thick plate 8 Growth.

D2. boiling water quench Hardness. Specimen: 3 16 ⁄ in. 10 in. HB 50 300 °F 40 500 °F 30 20 14 12 650 °F 600 °F 400 °F Growth.0-F. rod. 8 6 4 2 0 1 10 500 °F 600 °F -4 300 °F 2 3 4 10 10 10 Time at temperature. hours Fig. 10 in. D2./in.125 diam ϫ 12 in.0-T4. permanent mold. rod ./in. die cast. Specimen: 1. HB 70 60 500 °F 400 °F 650 °F 300 °F 50 40 Growth. permanent mold. Treatment: 12 h at 1000 °F.37 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 514.35 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 443.0-F. D2. hours Fig. Specimen: 1. 10 in.125 diam ϫ 12 in. thick plate Hardness. 10 8 6 4 300 °F 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 500 °F -4 400 °F 0 hours 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.36 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 443. hours Fig.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 187 12 400 °F 10 Growth./in. 4 2 500 °F 400 °F 0 -2 -1 10 650 °F 1 10 10 2 -4 300 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.

thick plate .125 diam ϫ 12 in. 0 -2 -1 10 1 10 10 2 0 hours 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. rod.38 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 514. and Applications Hardness.188 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 10 in. sand cast. Specimen: 1.125 diam ϫ 12 in. boiling water quench Hardness. hours Fig. 10 in. 8 6 4 2 0 -2 1 10 10 2 -4 400 °F 500 °F 600 °F 10 3 10 4 Time at temperature./in.0-F. D2.39 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 516. Treatment: 12 h at 825 °F. rod 12 10 300 °F Growth. HB 60 50 40 2 300 °F 400 °F 500 °F 650 °F Growth. HB 80 70 60 50 7 6 450 °F 350 °F 400 °F 300 °F 650 °F 500 °F 300 °F 350 °F 5 Growth. Specimen: 1. 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -1 10 650 °F 1 10 10 2 400 °F 450 °F -4 500 °F 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. D2. Specimen: 3⁄16 in. D2./in. Processes. hours Fig.40 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 518.0-T4. -4 10 in. die cast./in. permanent mold.0-F. hours Fig.

0-T4.43 Hardness curves for aluminum alloy 520./in. permanent mold.0-F. Hardness curve. rod 24 22 20 18 16 400 °F 450 °F 350 °F 300 °F Growth. boiling water quench 110 400 °F Hardness. D2. Specimen: 1. -4 90 80 70 60 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -1 10 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time at 400 °F. Specimen: 1. HB 100 90 80 450 °F 70 60 -1 10 1 10 10 2 300 °F 350 °F 500 °F 650 °F 0 hours 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature.41 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 520. 10 in.125 diam ϫ 12 in. D2. rod. rod. 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 1 500 °F -4 650 °F 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. Treatment: 12 h at 825 °F.0-T4.125 diam ϫ 12 in. permanent mold. D2. boiling water quench . hours Fig. Specimen: 1. hours Fig. hours Fig.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 189 100 Hardness.125 diam ϫ 12 in. 10 in. permanent mold. HB Growth./in.42 Growth curves for aluminum alloy 520. Treatment: 12 h at 825 °F.

hours Fig. HB 80 70 60 50 5 4 350 °F 400 °F Growth. 10 in.125 diam ϫ 12 in. D2./in. and Applications Hardness./in. hours Fig. 3 2 1 0 -1 -1 10 1 10 -4 400 °F 350 °F 500 °F 0 hours 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. rod . 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -1 10 1 10 300 °F 350 °F 450 °F -4 500 °F 650 °F 0 hours 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Time at temperature. D2.125 diam ϫ 12 in.0-F.0-F. permanent mold. Specimen: 1. Processes. rod 90 500 °F Hardness.45 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy B850. 10 in.44 Growth and hardness curves for aluminum alloy 850. Specimen: 1. HB 70 60 50 40 4 3 400 °F 650 °F 300 °F 450 °F 400 °F 500 °F 350 °F Growth.190 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. permanent mold.

0-T4 443.0-T4 242. hours Fig.0-T4 11.0-T4 4./in.0-F 355.0-T4 10.0-T4 7. 319. 242.46 Summary of the growth of various casting alloys at 300 °F 18 16 14 12 520.0-F 9.0-F 443. 10 in. D2. 319. hours Fig. 12 10 8 6 -4 4 7 9 8 6 2 4 2 1 0 -2 -1 10 1 10 10 2 11 10 3 10 4 Time at 300 °F .0-T4 2.0-T4 6. 356.0-F or -T4 10 3 5 Growth.0-T4 8. 443. 355. 514. 443. 514.Data Set 2: Growth Curves / 191 22 20 18 16 14 1.0-F or -T4 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 Time at 400 °F . 10 in.47 Summary of the growth of various casting alloys at 400 °F .0-T4 295.0-F./in.0-F 295.0-T4 Growth. 295. 242. 520.0-T4 319.0-T4 242.0-T4 319. D2.0-F.0-F 5.0-F 3. 295. 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -1 10 1 -4 356.

boiling water quench.82 -0.0.0 Aging temperature.0 520.0 443.0-F 450 355. curve 4.70 -0.192 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. D2.0 350 295.49 Relationship between aging temperature and the time to reach maximum growth.0 443. Curves 1 through 4 are all 355. 1000 °F.0 295. and Applications -0. hours Fig. Processes.74 -0.0 443.0-F 400 4 3 2 1 Growth with respect to -4 as-cast condition. 10 in. curve 2. °F 356. Curve 1.0 Boiling water quench Condition Cold water quench 355. boiling water quench.0 Solution potential.78 -0.48 Changes in dimension and in solution potential that occur when chill cast specimens of five aluminum alloys were given solution heat treatment .0 356. Volts -0. cold water quench Fig.86 -0. 1000 °F. curve 3. cold water quench. 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 As-cast 295.0-T4 300 1 10 1 10 2 10 3 0 4 Time to reach maximum growth. D2.66 500 355. 940 °F. 940 °F.90 550 520./in.

Compressive tangent modulus curves. 2002.G. The cyclic curves are constructed by connecting the points that represent the tips of stabilized hysteresis loops. Processes. when available. The original source of and. some background on the data are indicated on each figure. The curves given indicate the occurrence of cyclic hardening. 2nd ed. www. Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves. Kaufman. Rooy.. and Applications J.org DATA SET 3 Stress-Strain Curves This collection of stress-strain curves is representative of the behavior of several cast alloys under tensile or compressive loads. are given for some alloys. published by ASM International (Ref 1).1361/aacp2004p193 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved.L. ASM International. The curves are from the Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves. E.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. The effects of cyclic loading are given on several curves. p 193-209 DOI:10.asminternational. which represent the slope of the compressive stress-strain curve. p 279–297 . The curves are arranged by alloy designation. REFERENCE 1.

UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. Average mechanical properties for sand castings: ultimate tensile strength. 1994. Average mechanical properties for permanent mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. plus 20 h at 154 °C (310 °F). p 24. tensile yield strength.0-T6 aluminum casting.5 ksi). As published in Cast Aluminum Section..194 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T6 aluminum casting.1 ksi). UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. 372 MPa (53. CINDAS/Purdue University. 394 MPa (57. Heat treatment: 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). 402 MPa (58. air cooled. various casting processes Effect of casting process. CINDAS/Purdue University. compressive stressstrain curves.8 ksi). 349 MPa (50.2 201.3 ksi). 359 MPa (52. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). insulated mold castings. tensile yield strength. water quench.9 ksi). 433 MPa (62. sand castings. 67 Fig. Vol 3. water quench.” Olin Corp. Jan 1973. D3. 382 MPa (55. Processes. and Applications Fig. 24 h at room temperature.4 ksi). tensile yield strength. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. Jan 1973.1 201. Structural Alloys Handbook. tensile stress-strain curves. Average compressive yield strength: permanent mold castings. Vol 3. D3.” Olin Corp. 67 . p 24. 24 h at room temperature. 396 MPa (57.1 ksi).2 ksi).. 450 MPa (65. plus 20 h at 154 °C (310 °F). Structural Alloys Handbook. various casting processes Effect of casting process. 1994. Heat treatment. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F).6 ksi). 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). Average mechanical properties for insulated mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. air cooled.

tensile yield strength. tensile yield strength.. 345 MPa (50. compressive tangent modulus curves.7 ksi).. Jan 1973. Heat treatment.8 ksi). water quench. plus 5 h at 188 °C (370 °F). 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). 24 h at room temperature.6 ksi). 1994. Structural Alloys Handbook. tensile yield strength. 374 MPa (54.0-T7 aluminum casting. 1994. 344 MPa (49. tensile stress-strain curves.2 ksi). 439 MPa (63. Vol 3.” Olin Corp. air cooled. water quench. 385 MPa (55. Vol 3. p 24.0-T6 aluminum casting. various casting processes Effect of casting process. CINDAS/Purdue University. 68 Fig.Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 195 Fig. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). CINDAS/Purdue University. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. Average mechanical properties for insulated mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). As published in Cast Aluminum Section. UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. D3. air cooled. plus 20 h at 154 °C (310 °F). Average mechanical properties for permanent mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. 403 MPa (58. p 24. D3. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. 24 h at room temperature.9 ksi). Jan 1973.4 201. Average mechanical properties for sand castings: ultimate tensile strength. Structural Alloys Handbook.5 ksi).” Olin Corp. Heat treatment. 67 . various casting processes Effect of casting process.3 201.

Heat treatment. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. various casting processes Effect of casting process is illustrated. plus 5 h at 188 °C (370 °F). UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). various casting processes Effect of casting process.196 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 377 MPa (54. D3. 1994. CINDAS/Purdue University. water quench. D3. Vol 3. 24 h at room temperature. 407 MPa (59. 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). 429 MPa (62. sand castings. compressive stressstrain curves. and Applications Fig.. plus 5 h at 188 °C (370 °F). Heat treatment. Jan 1973. 1994. compressive tangent modulus curves.7 ksi).0-T7 aluminum casting. Jan 1973.5 201.” Olin Corp. 68 .. Structural Alloys Handbook. Average compressive yield strength: permanent mold castings. CINDAS/Purdue University. Structural Alloys Handbook. 24 h at room temperature.” Olin Corp. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F).1 ksi). Processes. air cooled. water quench.0-T7 aluminum casting.2 ksi). UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. p 24. 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F).6 201. Vol 3. 67 Fig. p 24. air cooled. insulated mold castings.

” Olin Corp.7 201.7 ksi).8 201. 273 MPa (39. p 24. various casting processes Effect of casting process. 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. Average compressive yield strength: permanent mold castings. 67 . CINDAS/Purdue University. Average mechanical properties for insulated mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. Structural Alloys Handbook.0-T43 aluminum casting. Vol 3. tensile yield strength. water quench. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. plus 0. water quench. 24 h at room temperature. Structural Alloys Handbook.6 ksi).Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 197 Fig. 238 MPa (34. sand castings. Average mechanical properties for permanent mold castings: ultimate tensile strength.3 ksi). tensile yield strength. Average mechanical properties for sand castings: ultimate tensile strength.0-T43 aluminum casting. air cooled. 407 MPa (59. UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. 24 h at room temperature. D3. tensile yield strength.5 h at 154 °C (310 °F). 356 MPa (51.4 ksi).0 ksi). As published in Cast Aluminum Section. 225 MPa (32. 67 Fig. 266 MPa (38. 250 MPa (36. 1994. D3. various casting processes Effect of casting process. 243 MPa (35. 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). tensile stress-strain curves. Vol 3. Heat treatment.6 ksi). 2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F).5 ksi).. insulated mold castings. 272 MPa (39. CINDAS/Purdue University. 1994. compressive stressstrain curves. Jan 1973.” Olin Corp.5 h at 154 °C (310 °F). 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). Jan 1973. air cooled.. p 24. Heat treatment.6 ksi). plus 0.2 ksi).

2 h at 504–521 °C (940–970 °F). Processes. p 24. compressive yield strength.9 201. Vol 3. CINDAS/Purdue University. 345 MPa (50 ksi). 1994. plus 0. Jan 1973. Dec 1998.” Olin Corp. n(tension) ϭ 14. water quench. tensile yield strength. air cooled. and Applications Fig. D3.198 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 3-465 . UNS A12010 Source: MIL-HDBK-5H. typical tensile stressstrain curve Designated area. UNS A02010 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. As published in Cast Aluminum Section.10 A201. p 3-463. 352 MPa (51 ksi). 14 h at 529 °C (985 °F). at room temperature.5 h at 154 °C (310 °F).0-T7 aluminum casting. 24 h at room temperature. various casting processes Effect of casting process is illustrated. D3.. compressive tangent modulus curves. Structural Alloys Handbook. 68 Fig. designated area within casting: ultimate tensile strength.0-T43 aluminum casting. 414 MPa (60 ksi). Heat treatment. Ramberg-Osgood parameter. S basis design properties (originally presented in ksi) for strength class 1 and 2.

tensile stress-strain curves.11 242. IL. p D14 . Deere & Co..Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 199 Fig.0-T5 (PC) aluminum permanent mold casting. IL. Reference ASTM E 466 for cyclic force-controlled constant-amplitude fatigue test practices. UNS A13320 replaced by UNS A03360 Source: John Deere Materials Data. Reference ASTM E 466 for cyclic force-controlled constant-amplitude fatigue test practices. Moline.12 A332. p C13 Fig. Tested at room temperature. UNS A02420 Source: John Deere Materials Data.0-T5 aluminum permanent mold casting. Deere & Co. D3. Tested at room temperature. Moline. monotonic and cyclic Al-Si-Ni-Mg system. monotonic and cyclic Al-Cu-Ni-Mg system.. D3. tensile stress-strain curves.

monotonic and cyclic Tested at room temperature.0-T5 (SR) aluminum permanent mold casting.. D3. and Applications Fig. p F13 Fig. UNS A63320 replaced by UNS A03320 Source: John Deere Materials Data.14 F332. monotonic and cyclic Al-Si-Ni-Mg system. tensile stress-strain curves. Deere & Co. Tested at room temperature. IL. D3. Deere & Co. Moline.. p A14 .13 E332. Processes. IL. tensile stress-strain curves.200 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T5 aluminum permanent mold casting. Moline. Reference ASTM E 466 for cyclic force-controlled constant-amplitude fatigue test practices Source: John Deere Materials Data. Reference ASTM E 466 for cyclic force-controlled constant-amplitude fatigue test practices.

monotonic and cyclic 354. tensile uniaxial true stress-strain curve Specimen size: 6. tensile stress-strain curves. UNS A03540 Source: John Deere Materials Data. Al-Si-Cu-Mg system.0-T5 casting material. D3. Reference ASTM E 466 for cyclic force-controlled constant-amplitude fatigue test practices. Hamilton Standard. p 70 . p E12 Fig.0-T5 aluminum permanent mold casting. D3. 31.15 354. Sept 1967.0-T61 aluminum casting. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. Moline. Structural Alloys Handbook. Vol 3.16 C355.250 in.75 mm (1. courtesy of Deere & Co.Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 201 Fig.” TP67-16-T..) diam. 1994. Mattavi.25 mm (0. UNS A33550 Source: J. IL. CINDAS/Purdue University.) gage length. “Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior Under Biaxial Strain Distribution. Tested at room temperature.25 in.

p 71 .202 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. “Tensile Properties of AircraftStructural Metals at Various Rates of Loading after Rapid Heating. Strain rate is 1. Nov 1958. Wheelan.17 356. E.0-T6 aluminum casting. Dedman.” WADC TR-58-440. Material was solution heat treated at 540 °C (1000 °F). and aged at 154 °C (310 °F) for 3 h.J. D3. 1994.E. Southern Research Institute. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. water quenched. Vol 2. UNS A03560 Source: H. Part 1. Hold times at given temperatures: 1800 s (top). Processes. Kattus.0 s–1. and E. Structural Alloys Handbook. and Applications Fig.J. CINDAS/Purdue University. tensile stress-strain curves at several temperatures Effect of strain rate and temperature. 10 s (bottom).

0-T6 aluminum casting. Dedman. Structural Alloys Handbook.Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 203 Fig. tensile stress-strain curves at several temperatures Effect of strain rate and temperature. water quenched. UNS A03560 Source: H. p 71 .J.” WADC TR-58-440. Strain rate is 0. E.E. D3.J. Hold times at given temperatures: 1800 s (top).19 356. Material was solution heat treated at 540 °C (1000 °F). Southern Research Institute. Hold times at given temperatures: 1800 s (top). UNS A3560 Source: H.J. Nov 1958. and aged at 154 °C (310 °F) for 3 h. “Tensile Properties of AircraftStructural Metals at Various Rates of Loading after Rapid Heating. Kattus. 10 s (bottom).J. Vol 2. Vol 2.E. Wheelan. Dedman. CINDAS/Purdue University. 10 s (bottom).00005 s–1. D3.01 s–1. Part 1. 1994. tensile stress-strain curves at several temperatures Effect of strain rate and temperature. E. and E. Strain rate is 0. Structural Alloys Handbook. p 71 Fig. Nov 1958. Wheelan. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. CINDAS/Purdue University. Kattus.” WADC TR-58-440. “Tensile Properties of AircraftStructural Metals at Various Rates of Loading after Rapid Heating. water quenched. Southern Research Institute. 1994. and aged at 154 °C (310 °F) for 3 h. As published in Cast Aluminum Section.0-T6 aluminum casting. Material was solution heat treated at 540 °C (1000 °F). and E.18 356. Part 1.

204 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Y. strain hardening exponent (n). 266 (38. 397 (57. Curves are results from one laboratory. tensile stress-strain curves at low temperature Chill cast aluminum. 283 (41. 0. Z. National Bureau of Standards.091. 0.087. 224 (32. 229 (33. Vol 3.5). Monograph 63..4). 71 (10. Y.4). p 70 Fig. Y. X. Property values are averages from seven labs as part of a round-robin test program.3). SP-760. strain-hardening coefficient K.P. 70 (10. 1988 . Hardness. 704 °C (1300 °F) into investment molds at room temperature (X). X. and Applications Fig.6).1). UNS A13560 Source: Fatigue and Fracture Toughness of A356-T6 Cast Aluminum Alloy. CINDAS/Purdue University. 388 (56.0-T6 aluminum casting.21 A356-T6 aluminum cast cylinder. D3. X. UNS A03560 Source: K. MPa (ksi). Ed. Society of Automotive Engineers. 252 (36.083. Z. ultimate strength MPa (ksi). GPa (psi ϫ 106). Reed. Warren and R. 41 HRB. Stephens.I.6).1). Z.1). Y. and 982 °C (1800 °F) (Z). 538 °C (1000 °F) (Y). R.6). 382 (55.5).A. X. 217 (31.2% offset. MPa (ksi). 0. Young’s modulus.20 356.3). monotonic tensile stress-strain curves Near-net-shape casting formed by pouring molten alloy. Z. Y. Z. 70 (10. X. Tensile and Impact Properties of Selected Materials from 20 to 300 K. As published in Structural Alloys Handbook. yield strength 0. 1994. D3. Processes. Three different cooling rates create different microstructures. June 1963.

7 ksi).23 A356. 245 MPa (35. 219 MPa (31.” Olin Corp.” Olin Corp. As published in Cast Aluminum Section.7 ksi). Average compressive yield strength: permanent mold castings. tensile yield strength. Heat treatment. Average mechanical properties for sand castings: ultimate tensile strength.Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 205 Fig. 1994.0-T6 aluminum casting.3 ksi). tensile yield strength. Heat treatment. water quench. 253 MPa (36. tensile yield strength.0-T6 aluminum casting. tensile stress-strain curves. sand castings.. 215 MPa (31. insulated mold castings. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. 12–24 h delay at room temperature. 3 h at 154 °C (310 °F). water quench.22 A356. and air cooled. 66 .7 ksi). Structural Alloys Handbook. Jan 1973. compressive stressstrain curves. p 24. D3. Vol 3. 12 h at 538 °C (1000 °F). various casting processes Effect of molding process. 3 h at 154 °C (310 °F). p 24. 205 MPa (29. 1994. CINDAS/Purdue University.8 ksi).6 ksi). various casting processes Effect of molding process. UNS A13560 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. and air cooled. 66 Fig. Jan 1973.9 ksi). 12 h at 538 °C (1000 °F).. 223 MPa (32. CINDAS/Purdue University. UNS A13560 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. Structural Alloys Handbook. 219 MPa (31. 192 MPa (27. Average mechanical properties for insulated mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. D3. 12–24 h delay at room temperature.4 ksi). Average mechanical properties for permanent mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. Vol 3.2 ksi). 299 MPa (43.

25 A357. Vol 3. CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation. 3 h at 154 °C (310 °F).. UNS A13560 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates.1Te-Be.0-T6.206 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Structural Alloys Handbook.001 in. p 24 ./in. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook. tensile stressstrain curves Sand cast plate thickness: 6.0-T6 aluminum cast plate. The full range strain is given in percent (%) (top curve) and the expanded range strain is in 0. Heat treatment.0-T6 aluminum casting. 1995. Code 3109.” Alcoa. As published in Cast Aluminum Section.6Mg-0. Jan 1973. D3. PA. various casting processes Effect of molding process.25 in. 12–24 h delay at room temperature. 12 h at 538 °C (1000 °F). Vol 5.0Si-0. 1971. CINDAS/Purdue University. water quench.35 mm (0. UNS A13570 Source: “Development: Premium Alloy Castings of Alloy A357. Processes. (bottom curve). and Applications Fig. p 68 Fig. D3.). compressive tangent modulus curves. Composition: Al-7. Purdue University. and air cooled.24 A356.” Olin Corp. Pittsburgh. 1994.

12–24 h delay at room temperature. Structural Alloys Handbook. S basis design properties (originally presented in ksi) for strength class 2.26 A357. 268 MPa (38. designated area within casting: ultimate tensile strength. 345 MPa (50 ksi). various casting processes Effect of molding process. tensile and compressive yield strength. 3-486 Fig. 276 MPa (40 ksi). UNS A13570 Source: MIL-HDBK-5H. 229 MPa (33. n(tension) ϭ 16. and air cooled. CINDAS/Purdue University. Heat treatment. D3. Average mechanical properties for sand castings: ultimate tensile strength..2 ksi).0 ksi). D3. Ramberg-Osgood parameter. Average mechanical properties for insulated mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. tensile yield strength. 12 h at 538 °C (1000 °F).0T6 aluminum casting.8 ksi). designated area. 5 h at 177 °C (350 °F).9 ksi). tensile yield strength. p 24.0 ksi). Dec 1998. 316 MPa (45.27 A357. As published in Cast Aluminum Section.” Olin Corp. Average mechanical properties for permanent mold castings: ultimate tensile strength. Jan 1973.Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 207 Fig. 1994. UNS A13570 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. 179 MPa (26. 243 MPa (35. water quench. 66 . typical tensile stressstrain curve Class 2 alloy casting.0-T6 aluminum casting. Vol 3. 179 MPa (26. p 3-485. tensile stress-strain curves. tensile yield strength.2 ksi). at room temperature.

12–24 h delay at room temperature. 12–24 h delay at room temperature. 66 Fig. UNS A13570 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. 1994. p 24. Vol 3. water quench.2 ksi). and Applications Fig. 256 MPa (37.0-T6 aluminum casting. Vol 3. CINDAS/Purdue University.” Olin Corp. and air cooled. D3. As published in Cast Aluminum Section. Average compressive yield strength: permanent mold castings. 12 h at 538 °C (1000 °F).28 A357. 1994. 12 h at 538 °C (1000 °F). sand castings.208 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T6 aluminum casting. 232 MPa (33. insulated mold castings. 240 MPa (34. and air cooled. p 24. D3.7 ksi). 68 . various casting processes Effect of molding process. various casting processes Effect of molding process. As published in Cast Aluminum Section.” Olin Corp. Processes.8 ksi). 5 h at 177 °C (350 °F). Structural Alloys Handbook. compressive stressstrain curves..29 A357. UNS A13570 Source: “Mechanical Properties of Premium Aluminum Casting Alloys with Various Cooling Rates. Jan 1973. Heat treatment. Jan 1973. CINDAS/Purdue University.. Heat treatment. Structural Alloys Handbook. compressive tangent modulus curves. water quench. 5 h at 177 °C (350 °F).

1Te-Be. n(tension) ϭ 16. Vol 5. Dec 1998. Ramberg-Osgood parameter.25 in.0-T6 aluminum casting.30 A357.Data Set 3: Stress-Strain Curves / 209 Fig.35 mm (0. compressive stressstrain curve Sand cast plate thickness: 6.0-T6 aluminum cast plate. 3-489 . Pittsburgh. tensile and compressive yield strength.0-T6. UNS A43570 Source: MIL-HDBK-5H. 1995. D3. As published in Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook. PA. Composition: Al-7. Code 3109. at room temperature.0Si-0. 338 MPa (49 ksi). p 3-488.31 D357. UNS A13570 Source: “Development: Premium Alloy Castings of Alloy A357. D3.6Mg0.). p 29 Fig. Purdue University. 285 MPa (41 ksi). B basis design properties (originally presented in ksi) for designated area within casting: ultimate tensile strength. 1971.” Alcoa. CINDAS/USAF CRDA Handbooks Operation. typical tensile stressstrain curve Designated area.

.

1960 . ASM International. In more recent years. dry ice and alcohol Ϫ112 °F (–80 °C). with 0. Kaufman. liquefied petroleum gas Ϫ320 °F (–196 °C).L. and so these are reported as “representative” values (raw data) rather than as typical values. and B.1.5 in. L. and the averages normalized to the room-temperature typical values. over the period of years from 1950 to the present time. J.G. The early generation and analysis of the data was led by Kenneth O. and Applications J. Belton. STP 287. liquefied nitrogen Ϫ452 °F (–269 °C). Malcolm. Bogardus and Robert C. Materials for Use at Liquid Hydrogen Temperature. were available.2% offset using autographic extensometers. E. In most cases.. with principal testing support from Robert C. in the tests at high and low temperatures. Rooy. Jr.1361/aacp2004p211 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. Ed.asminternational. www. perhaps only for a single lot.L. In some cases. too few data.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. the activity has been led by Robert J. (12.org DATA SET 4 Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures and at Room Temperature after High-Temperature Exposure This data set contains the results of uniaxial tensile tests of a wide range of aluminum casting alloys conducted at: • High temperatures from 212 to 700 °F (100 to 370 °C) after various holding times at the testing temperature • Subzero temperatures from –452 to –18 °F (–269 to –28 °C) after one-half hour at the testing temperature (holding time at subzero temperatures has no effect on properties) • Room temperature after holding at high temperatures from 212 to 700 °F (100 to 370 °C) These data were developed at the Alcoa Research Laboratories in New Kensington. A3. In the case of tests made at subzero temperatures.5 mm) diam tensile specimens per Appendix 3. in these cases. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Tensile. although some additional data have been added for this publication. p 211-242 DOI:10.. ASTM. Taft. Fig. Godby. liquefied helium In most cases. Kaufman. Creep and Fatigue Data at High and Low Temperatures. the extensometers were used in conjunction with strain-transfer devices.L. the specimens were as-cast test bars. tests were made of several lots of material of each alloy and temper. J. Yield strengths were measured at 0. Processes.H. REFERENCES 1. The results for the several lots were then analyzed together graphically and statistically. PA. Most of the data included here were originally published in Ref 1. 1999 2. The tensile tests were made in accordance with ASTM E 8 and E 21. Bucci and Daniel Lege. the low temperatures were achieved by immersion of the specimens in the following liquids for one-half hour prior to and during the tests: • • • • Ϫ18 °F (–28 °C). the values are identified as “typical values” in the table. Faulk and George Schofield.G.

Processes.1 201. and Applications Table D4.2 224.212 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T7 Sand castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.0-T7 Sand and permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .

Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 213 Table D4.0-F Sand castings: typical tensile properties .3 240.

4 242.0-T571 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties . and Applications Table D4. Processes.214 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

5 242.0-T77 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 215 Table D4.

216 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Processes.7 295.6 249. and Applications Table D4.0-T6 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .0-T7 Sand and permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.

8 319.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 217 Table D4.0-F Sand castings: typical tensile properties .

Processes.218 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.10 332. and Applications Table D4.9 319.0-T5 Sand castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.0-T5 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .

Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 219 Table D4.0-T5 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .11 330.

12 330.220 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Processes. and Applications Table D4.0-T7 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .

0-T551 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.13 336.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 221 Table D4.14 A344.0-T4 Permanent mold castings (results of tests on permanent mold test bars): typical tensile properties .

222 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Processes. -T61 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .0-T6. and Applications Table D4.15 354.

0-T51 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 223 Table D4.16 355.

18 Temperature °F 355.6 439 438 422 395 359 258 226 225 2.6 63. and Applications Table D4.0 Source data are in English units.5 1.0 41.2 57.0-T6 Sand castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.0 4. metric values are converted and rounded.4 32.0 4.5 61.0-T6 Sand castings: cryogenic tensile properties (not typical) Tensile yield strength °C ksi MPa Tensile ultimate strength ksi MPa Elongation.0 2.8 32. % –423 –423 –320 –320 –104 –104 78 78 –253 –253 –196 –196 –76 –76 26 26 57.17 355.0 2.0 6.0 45. Processes.0 37.2 28.0 5.0 4.2 56.0 4.3 52.0 2. % Reduction in area.0 3.0 4.5 1.0 4.224 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.3 48. Source: Ref 2 .6 394 388 331 310 284 197 165 197 63.6 24.0 28.0 7.

0-T71 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .0-T71 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.20 355.0-T62 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.19 355.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 225 Table D4.21 355.

0-T51 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .22 A355.226 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. and Applications Table D4. Processes.

Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 227 Table D4.23 C355.0-T6 Sand and permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .

24 356. Processes.228 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T51 Sand castings: typical tensile properties . and Applications Table D4.

0-T6 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 229 Table D4.25 356.

26 356.0-T6 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .230 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. and Applications Table D4. Processes.

0-T7 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .27 356.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 231 Table D4.

0-T7 Sand castings: typical tensile properties .28 356. Processes. and Applications Table D4.232 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

0-T6.29 A356. -T61 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 233 Table D4.

.... ... . % Modulus of elasticity(a) 106 psi GPa ksi At room temperature after heating Tensile strength MPa ksi Yield strength MPa Elongation in 4D.... .... .... .. .. . .. . -T61. . .. . .... . . .. . . . ... . . . .... . .. .... . .......... . . % –320 –112 –18 75 212 –196 –80 –28 25 100 300 150 350 177 400 205 450 500 600 230 260 315 ..000 0. . . .. 0..... . . .. .......... .. Processes.. .. ... . .. . .. .. . .5 10 100 0.... .... ........ 10... ... .. . ... ......000 0.. ...... ....5 10 100 1.... . .... .. ..000 10..... .. . ... ... 310 260 185 ....... . ..5 330 310 305 290 270 270 270 275 310 240 255 275 250 145 235 260 230 140 75 240 195 145 70 50 205 125 90 150 75 50 65 6 6 6 8 10 10 10 8 6 10 9 7 7 20 7 6 7 19 35 6 7 23 40 50 9 13 45 16 23 55 35 . .. ........ 6 7 9 .......5 10 100 0.... . .... ......5 30 18 13 22 11 7......... ......0 10 425 380 370 360 315 315 315 315 330 270 285 290 260 160 255 275 240 150 90 250 205 160 85 70 215 130 95 160 85 55 70 48 45 44 42 39 39 39 40 45 35 37 40 36 21 34 38 33 20 11 35 28 21 10 7....234 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.. .. . 45 38 27 ... . ... .. . ... . . ......4 .... . . ...... .5 10 100 1......... .. ..... ... ...... .. . .......... .. . ........ . .. .. .... . ..000 0. -T62 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties At temperature indicated Temperature °F °C Time at temperature...... .. .. .. .....000 10. ..0-T6. ... .... . . .000 0. ... .. . .... . h Tensile strength ksi MPa Yield strength ksi MPa Elongation in 4D.000 10. ...... ....30 A357. .. ....5 10 100 1... (a) Average of tensile and compressive moduli. . ...... .. . ...... ... .. . .5 62 55 54 52 46 46 46 46 48 39 41 42 38 23 37 40 35 22 13 36 30 23 12 10 31 19 14 23 12 8. . .. . .. ... 52 44 35 ........ . ..... .. . . .. ... .. . .. .. ..... ... .. .. . ..... . ... .5 10 100 1...... . .. ... . . . .... ... ... ..... ...... . . .. Source data are in English units.. ... . . . . .... .... ..... . .......... ..........0 9......... . . .. . . .... 360 305 230 .. ... . . .. . and Applications Table D4...000 10.. metric values are converted and rounded. .. 72 .. .... .... ........

-T61 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties .31 A359.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 235 Table D4.0-T6.

and Applications Table D4.32 359. Processes.0-F Die castings: typical tensile properties .0-T62 Permanent mold castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.236 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.33 360.

Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 237 Table D4.34 360.0-F Die castings: typical tensile properties .

Processes. and Applications Table D4.35 380.0-F Die castings: typical tensile properties .238 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

0-F Die castings: typical tensile properties .36 380.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 239 Table D4.

and Applications Table D4.0-F Die castings: typical tensile properties . Processes.37 384.240 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.

0-F Sand castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.0-F (A218) Sand castings (results of tests made on sand cast test bars): representative tensile .39 properties 518.38 B443.Data Set 4: Tensile Properties at High and Low Temperatures / 241 Table D4.

41 710.242 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.40 520.0-T4 Sand castings: typical tensile properties Table D4.0-F Sand castings: typical tensile properties . and Applications Table D4. Processes.

and these are reported as representative rather than typical values. Jr. The tensile tests were made in accordance with ASTM E 139. Ed.1. Kaufman. p 243-252 DOI:10. Creep and Fatigue Data at High and Low Temperatures.. too few data.G. the specimens were as-cast test bars.1361/aacp2004p243 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. Most of the data included here were originally published in Ref 1. Rooy. were available.. Strain measurements were made with autographic extensometers used in conjunction with strain-transfer devices. tests were made of several lots of material of each alloy and temper. These data were developed at the Alcoa Research Laboratories in New Kensington.asminternational. with 1⁄2 in. and Applications J. 1999 .org DATA SET 5 Creep Rupture Properties This data set contains the results of uniaxial creep rupture tests of a wide range of aluminum casting alloys conducted at temperatures from 212 to 600 °F (100 to 315 °C). www.G. In some cases. Bucci and Daniel Lege. A3. J.5 mm) diam tensile specimens per Appendix 3. from 1950 through about 1985. In more recent years. Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Tensile. Fig. the activity has been led by Robert J. REFERENCE 1. PA. Malcolm. with principal testing support from Robert C. perhaps only for a single lot.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Bogardus and Robert C. In most cases. and the results analyzed and the averages normalized to the room-temperature typical values. E. ASM International. Processes. although some additional data have been added for this publication. The early generation and analysis of the data was led by Kenneth O. Faulk and George Schofield. (12. in these cases the values are identified as typical values in the table. Kaufman. In most cases.L.

2 224.0-T7 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.1 201.244 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. and Applications Table D5. Processes.0-T7: Creep rupture and creep properties .

0-T77 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.4 242.Data Set 5: Creep Rupture Properties / 245 Table D5.3 240.0-F Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.5 249.0-T7: Creep rupture and creep properties .

6 295.246 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.7 333. Processes.0-T533 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties .0-T6 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5. and Applications Table D5.

10 354.8 336.9 A344.0-T551 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.0-T4 Permanent mold castings (results of tests on permanent mold test bars): creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.Data Set 5: Creep Rupture Properties / 247 Table D5. -T61 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties .0-T6.

0-T51 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5. Processes.0-T71 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties .12 355.248 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.11 355. and Applications Table D5.13 355.0-T62 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.

Data Set 5: Creep Rupture Properties / 249 Table D5.0-T71 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.0-T51 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.15 A355.0-T6: Creep rupture and creep properties .14 355.16 C355.

0-T6. . Processes.17 356. -T61. metric values are converted and rounded.19 A357.0-T6.250 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.18 A356. -T61 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.0-T7 Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5. -T62 Permanent mold castings: creep rupture and creep properties Source data are in English units. and Applications Table D5.

20 360.Data Set 5: Creep Rupture Properties / 251 Table D5.0-F Die castings: creep rupture and creep properties .22 384.0-F Die castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.0-F Die castings: creep rupture and creep properties Table D5.21 380.

252 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Processes.23 B443.0-F Sand castings: creep rupture and creep properties . and Applications Table D5.

E.0) fatigue tests for a wide range of aluminum casting alloys. The tests were made in R.org DATA SET 6 Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves This data set contains the results of rotating-beam reversedbending (stress ratio. In some cases. . All the fatigue curves were developed at Alcoa Laboratories in New Kensington. PA.2 of Appendix 3. Kaufman. the results of tests from several lots of the same alloy and temper are included on one figure. www.R. R ϭ –1.L. Processes. Rooy. A3. Moore type rotating-beam fatigue machines.Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.G. The raw data are presented.1361/aacp2004p253 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. p 253-291 DOI:10. the tests are performed on smooth and notched specimens as shown in Fig. they have not been normalized to any typical or average properties for the individual alloys and tempers.asminternational. Unless otherwise noted. and Applications J. These fatigue curves are the results of tests on individual lots of material considered representative of the respective alloys and tempers. A horizontal arrow on a rightmost data point indicates that the specimen did not fail.

MPa Maximum stress.0-F. 50 350 40 Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.3 224. and Applications 50 Lot 1. ksi 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6.2 213. ksi . sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. smooth Lot 1. MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.254 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. ksi Smooth specimen Notched specimen 280 Maximum stress. notched 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.1 213. Processes. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress.0-F. Line through data point indicates specimen had nonuniform microstructure. MPa 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 102 103 104 105 Cycles 106 107 108 0 109 Fig. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 Maximum stress. Smooth and notched specimens from two lots. D6. D6. smooth Lot 2.0-T62. notched Lot 2.

6 242. ksi Maximum stress. earlier test 20 210 140 Notched specimen. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth specimens from three lots 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 Smooth specimen. Data points for smooth and notched specimens from one lot are compared to curves from previous tests. ksi . sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. cast in Cleveland Research Foundry Lot 3.0-O.5 240. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. D6. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. cast in Cleveland Research Foundry Lot 2.4 240.0-F. ksi Maximum stress.0-F. MPa Maximum stress.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 255 50 Lot 1. earlier test 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. cast in Cleveland Sand Foundry 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. D6.

256 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T571. ksi . MPa Maximum stress.0-T571. MPa Maximum stress. D6. D6. ksi Maximum stress. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.7 242. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.8 242. Processes.9 242. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. D6.0-T571. MPa Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.

Appendix 3. shaped to Fig.10 242. cast pistons aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. A3. cast pistons aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.2(a). permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 257 50 350 Cast head down 40 Cast head up 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Solid symbols are vacuum riserless castings (VRC). ksi . Appendix 3. shaped to Fig. open symbol is standard. D6.12 242. others cast head up 50 350 40 Lot 1. VRC Lot 3.2(a). D6. MPa Maximum stress.0-T61. Smooth specimens are from the wrist pin boss. standard casting 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Open circle symbol. 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. A3. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. VRC Lot 2.0-T571. Smooth specimens are from the wrist pin boss. ksi Maximum stress.11 242. MPa Maximum stress. cast head down. D6.0-T571.

258 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. MPa Maximum stress. Smooth specimens from one lot Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.15 242. ksi Maximum stress. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.13 242. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6.0-T75. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress.14 242. MPa Maximum stress. Processes.0-T77. ksi . D6.0-T77. D6.

Circles are smooth and notched specimens from one lot. ksi Maximum stress.18 295. MPa Maximum stress. cast test bar Smooth specimen. cast test bar Smooth specimen.17 249. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen.0-T63. D6.0-T77. MPa Maximum stress. D6. cast slab (wedge) 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Squares are smooth specimens taken from cast slab 50 350 40 Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 259 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi .16 242. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress. Smooth specimens from three lots Maximum stress. D6.0-T6. MPa Maximum stress.

20 296. Notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6.0-T62. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress.19 295.21 296.0-T6.0-T7. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. Processes.260 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. ksi Maximum stress. ksi . and Applications 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. D6. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress.

ksi .0-F. D6. ksi Maximum stress. D6. MPa Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress.23 308. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 261 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress.24 319.0-F. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.22 308. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-F. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6.

and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.262 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. ksi . Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6.25 319.27 319. D6. MPa Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress.26 319. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress. Processes.0-T5.0-T71.0-T6.

D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 333-F 333-T5 333-T6 333-T7 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.30 333.0-T5.0-F. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. D6. ksi Maximum stress.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 263 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. -T6.29 333. ksi Maximum stress. and -T7.28 332. ksi . and -T7. -T5. -T5. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Comparison of smooth specimens as-cast (F) and with three heat treatments 50 333-F 333-T5 333-T6 333-T7 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Comparison of notched specimens as-cast (F) and with three heat treatments Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress.0-F. -T6. MPa Maximum stress.

permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress. D6.32 333. Processes. D6.31 333. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.264 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.0-T7. D6.33 333. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-T5. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress.0-T6. ksi . permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress.

D6. 3 lots of T5 and T7 210 20 140 10 Band for notched specimens. 3 lots of T5 and T7 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi .36 A344. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. D6.34 333. ksi Maximum stress.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 265 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 Band for smooth specimens.0-T551. MPa Maximum stress.35 336. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T7. D6.0-T4. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress. Data for smooth and notched specimens from one lot superimposed on bands of data from three lots of T5 and T7 data 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.

ksi Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T61. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.266 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. ksi Maximum stress.0-T51. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot. MPa Maximum stress.0-T61.39 355. Processes. MPa Maximum stress.37 354. MPa Maximum stress. Specimens were machined from cantilever beam cast test bars 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.38 354. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. D6. ksi .

Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. D6.0-T6. D6. MPa Maximum stress.41 355.0-T51. D6. ksi Maximum stress.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 267 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T6. ksi Maximum stress.40 355. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.42 355. ksi . MPa Maximum stress.

0-T61.0-T6. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Processes. Smooth specimens from five lots. ksi Maximum stress. D6. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T6. D6. and Applications 50 350 40 30 Band for samples from 5 lots Band from earlier tests 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 280 .45 355. ksi Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 280 Maximum stress. Band of these samples compared to band of samples from earlier tests 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress.44 355. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress.43 355. D6. Notched specimens from five lots.268 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Band of these samples compared to band of samples from earlier tests 50 350 40 30 210 20 Band from earlier tests Band for samples from 5 lots 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.

C355. Broken lines are data for smooth and notched 355. 355. high-strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 Notched specimen.0-T62 Smooth specimen. T61 sand cast bar 10 210 20 140 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-T62. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.47 355. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Maximum stress.0-T62 Notched specimen. MPa Maximum stress.0-T61 sand cast alloy.0-T62. MPa Maximum stress.0-T62. ksi .0-T62 350 40 280 30 Smooth specimen.48 355. D6. Comparison of smooth and notched specimen data for two lots. C355.0-T62.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 269 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-T62 Smooth specimen. 355. C355. ksi Maximum stress. D6. MPa Maximum stress.46 355. D6. T61 sand cast bar Notched specimen.

MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T7.270 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. MPa Maximum stress.0-T7. D6. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 T7 T71 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. Smooth specimens comparing effects of heat treatment Maximum stress.0-T7. MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.49 355. ksi Maximum stress. ksi .50 355. Processes. ksi Maximum stress. -T71. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.51 355. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.

permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. MPa Maximum stress. D6.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 271 50 350 40 T7 T71 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. D6.54 355. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress.0-T71.52 355.0-T7.0-T71.53 355. Notched specimens comparing effects of heat treatment 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress. ksi . sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. -T71.

MPa Maximum stress. Smooth specimen from crankshaft casting. larger-than-standard specimens per Fig.0-T51. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi . A3. Appendix 3 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. Processes.56 355. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth. Appendix 3. ksi Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. D6. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.3.4. MPa Maximum stress.272 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.55 355.0-T71. from a single lot Maximum stress. Fig. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. A3. ksi Maximum stress.57 A355. D6.0-T71.

sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth specimens from one lot Maximum stress.59 A355. Smooth. MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. D6.0-T59.4. ksi . Smooth specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T6. MPa Maximum stress.60 B355.58 A355. A3. MPa Maximum stress. from a single lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Appendix 3. larger-than-standard specimens per Fig. D6. D6.0-T6.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 273 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.

D6.63 C355. MPa Maximum stress. high-strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. These data used for comparison in Fig.0-T6. ksi .0-T61. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. Data from smooth and notched specimens of one lot compared to prior curves of C355. and Applications 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.61 B355. D6. Notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 Previous data. Processes.62.0-T61. smooth specimen 210 20 140 10 Previous data.62 C355.0-T61 permanent mold specimens 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. Maximum stress.274 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. MPa Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot. D6. ksi Maximum stress. notched specimen 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress.

A3. Appendix 3.64 356. ksi Maximum stress.65 356. MPa Maximum stress. D6.4. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T51. MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.66 356. Notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. D6. ksi . MPa Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress.0-T51. Smooth larger than standard specimens per Fig.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 275 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. from a single lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-T51.

ksi . high-strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. notched 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-T6.0-T6. Processes. notched Lot 1. ksi Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress.68 356.69 356. MPa Maximum stress. and Applications 50 Lot 1. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from two lots 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.276 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. D6.67 356. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. smooth Lot 1. MPa Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. smooth Lot 1.0-T6. MPa Maximum stress. Smooth specimens from one lot Maximum stress. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.

70 356. ksi Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress.0-T6. D6. Smooth specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T6. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-T6.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 277 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.72 356. MPa Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. Notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress.71 356. D6. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi .

0-T7.0-T61.75 356. ksi . each from its own lot Maximum stress. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. -T71. ksi Maximum stress. D6. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress.0-T7. Smooth specimens with two heat treatments. MPa Maximum stress.278 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. MPa Maximum stress. D6. high-strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. Processes. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress.74 356.73 356. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 T7 T71 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.

Maximum stress. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 Notched specimen. D6. Broken lines are the results from previous tests. -T71. Confidence bands envelope this data. normal zone 350 350 Band for smooth specimens 40 Maximum stress.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 279 50 350 40 T7 T71 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6.0-T6. each from its own lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.78 A356. premium-strength zone Smooth specimen.76 356.77 A356.0-T6. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. MPa Maximum stress. ksi . MPa 30 Curve from previous test.0-T7. sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. smooth specimen Band for notched specimens 210 20 140 10 Curve from previous test. ksi Maximum stress. Notched specimens with two heat treatments. notched specimen 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. normal zone Smooth specimen. MPa Maximum stress. ksi 280 Maximum stress. premium-strength zone Notched specimen. Smooth and notched specimens from premium strength and normal zones. D6.

high strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Maximum stress. notched specimens 140 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. notched specimen Band for normal zone. normal zone 350 Band for premium-strength zone. Smooth and notched specimens from premium strength and normal strength zones within the same casting with differing chill practices.79 A356. ksi . normal zone Smooth specimen. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 Notched specimen. MPa Maximum stress. D6. premium-strength zone Notched specimen.0-T61. D6. MPa Maximum stress. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. Bands envelope this data. high strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. smooth specimens Band for premium-strength and normal zones. Broken lines are the results from previous test. ksi Maximum stress. smooth specimens 350 40 280 30 210 Curve from previous test. Fig.80 A356.280 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. premium-strength zone Smooth specimen.0-T61.79. Processes. smooth specimen 20 10 Curve from previous test.

notched specimen Lot 2. MPa Maximum stress.0-T61. previous test 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. plaster-cast Elevon-hinge casting T61. smooth specimen Lot 2. plaster-cast test bar. The T62 temper was 10 h at 340 °F.82 A357. Smooth and notched specimens from two lots. MPa Maximum stress. Maximum stress. high strength plaster cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.81 A356. previous test T6. ksi Lot 1. 50 350 40 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. notched specimen Lot 1. ksi . permanent mold cast test bar.0-T62. D6. smooth specimen 280 Maximum stress. Test data for the T62 temper plaster cast Elevon hinge casting is compared to previous T61 plaster cast and T6 permanent mold test data. D6. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Specimens were machined from cantilever-beam cast test bars.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 281 50 350 40 T62.

smooth specimens Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 Maximum stress.83 A357.0-T62. T6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot with T61 temper are compared to prior curves for PM specimens with T6 temper 50 350 40 30 210 20 Curve from previous test. T6. and Applications 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. pm. notched specimen 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.0-T62. smooth specimen Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 Maximum stress.0-T61.84 359. pm. notched specimens 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 30 210 20 Curve from previous test. ksi Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. T6.282 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. D6. permanent mold (PM) aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot with T62 temper are compared to prior curves for PM specimens with T6 temper Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. permanent mold (PM) aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. T6. MPa Curve from previous test. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. ksi . Processes.85 359. pm. D6. pm. MPa Curve from previous test.

Appendix 3. A3. MPa Maximum stress.86 360. ksi Maximum stress. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-F. MPa Maximum stress. Smooth specimens from two lots. Smooth specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. Maximum stress. Smooth specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Lot 1 Lot 2 Failed near fillet radius Band for 380. MPa Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. D6. Data points with lines indicate failures near fillet radius.0 die casting.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 283 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. Specimen per Fig. smooth specimens 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi .0-F. D6.87 A360.0-F.88 364. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.4.

0-F. 0. Specimen per Fig.313 in. D6. diam.4. Notched specimens similar to Fig. diam. Processes.0-F.4. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. as cast. MPa Maximum stress. Machined to nominal diameters as noted 50 Smooth specimen Notched specimen. A3.89 380. MPa Maximum stress. and Applications 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. <0. Appendix 3. diam. <0. ksi Maximum stress. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.284 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.01 in. Specimen per Fig. MPa Maximum stress. 0.0-F. A3.330 in. Appendix 3. notch radius Notched specimen. Appendix 3. notch radius 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. removed 0. 50 350 40 0. Smooth specimens from one lot. as cast.001 in.031 in. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot. A3. 0.025 in. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.010 in. removed 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.91 380. Smooth specimens from one lot. ksi . machined.2(b). notch radius Notched specimen. ksi Maximum stress. except notch radius is as noted Maximum stress.90 380. as cast 0. D6. machined.284 in.

D6. Smooth specimens from one lot 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress. MPa Maximum stress. A3. Smooth specimens per Fig. A3. D6. Appendix 3. MPa Maximum stress. Appendix 3. D6.93 384. except notch radius is as noted Maximum stress.) 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. ksi Maximum stress.0-F.94 390.Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 285 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig.7. 0. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.005 in. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.0-F.) Machined notch specimen (notch-tip radius.92 A380.0-F.001 in. Smooth specimens from one lot 50 Smooth specimen as-cast surface Smooth specimen machined surface Machined notch specimen (notch-tip radius.2(b). <0. MPa Maximum stress. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Notched specimens similar to Fig. ksi .

MPa Maximum stress. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. MPa Maximum stress. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve.96 413. MPa Maximum stress.95 413. D6. permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Processes.0-F. ksi Maximum stress. ksi Maximum stress. die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth specimens from one lot 50 350 40 Notched specimen Smooth specimen 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. and Applications 50 350 40 280 30 210 20 140 10 70 0 2 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 Cycles 6 10 7 10 8 0 9 10 Fig. D6. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot Maximum stress.286 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties.97 B443. ksi .0-F.0-F.

Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 287
50 350

40

Notched specimen Smooth specimen

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

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0 9 10

Fig. D6.98 B443.0-F, sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot
50 350

40

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

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0 9 10

Fig. D6.99 B443.0-F, die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth specimens per Fig. A3.4, Appendix 3, from one lot
50 Current test, smooth specimen Prior sample, smooth specimen Current test, cast, notched specimen, 0.01 in. radius Current test, machined, notched specimen, 0.001 in. radius 350

40

280

30

Band for die casting alloys, smooth specimens

Band for 518.0 alloy, smooth specimens

210

20

140

10

Band for 518.0 alloy, notched specimens

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

8

0 9 10

Fig. D6.100 518.0-F, die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot, with comparison to prior test.
Smooth specimens per Fig. A3.4, Appendix 3. Notched specimens similar to Fig. A3.2(b) , Appendix 3, except notch radius is as noted

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

288 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications
50 350

40

Smooth specimen Notched specimen, as cast Notched specimen, machined

280

30

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140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

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10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

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0 9 10

Fig. D6.101 518.0-F, die cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot. Smooth specimens per Fig. A3.4,
Appendix 3. Machined notched specimens per Fig. A3.2(b), Appendix 3. As-cast notched specimen has radius <0.01 in.
50 350

40

Notched specimen Smooth specimen

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

8

0 9 10

Fig. D6.102 712.0-F, sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot
50 350

40

Notched specimen Smooth specimen

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

8

0 9 10

Fig. D6.103 A712.0-F, sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 289
50 350

40

Notched specimen Smooth specimen

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

8

0 9 10

Fig. D6.104 A712.0-F, sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot
50 350

40

Notched specimen Smooth specimen

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

4

10

5

10 Cycles

6

10

7

10

8

0 9 10

Fig. D6.105 C712.0-F, permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot
50 350

40

280

30

210

20

140

10

70

0 2 10

10

3

10

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10

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10 Cycles

6

10

7

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0 9 10

Fig. D6.106 850.0-F, permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth specimens from one lot

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

290 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications
50 350

40

T101 T5

280

30

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Fig. D6.107 850.0-T101, -T5, permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Comparison of smooth specimens from two lots, T5 and T101
temper

50

350

40

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Fig. D6.108 851.0-T6, permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth specimens from one lot. Heat treatment: 4 h at 900 °F, boiling
water quench, 4 h at 430 °F

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Data Set 6: Rotating-Beam Reversed-Bending Fatigue Curves / 291
50 350

40

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0 9 10

Fig. D6.109 852.0-T5, permanent mold aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from two lots

50

350

40

Notched specimen Smooth specimen

280

30

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0 2 10

10

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0 9 10

Fig. D6.110 852.0-T5, sand cast aluminum casting rotating-beam fatigue curve. Smooth and notched specimens from one lot

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Maximum stress, MPa

Maximum stress, ksi

Lot 1, notched specimen Lot 1, smooth specimen Lot 2, notched specimen Lot 2, smooth specimen

280

and their properties. A process that results in increased strength and hardness as a result of precipitation of hardening phase(s) from solid solution. Kaufman. the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA). An object formed by solidification of molten metal introduced to a mold or dies. brazing. cleaning. ceramic and excess metal from an investment casting. and for relieving residual stresses. anodizing. extruded.L. or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing).Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Strains in a cast metal component resulting from internal stresses created during cooling from solidification temperature. Centrifugal force is used to hold the metal against the outer walls of the mold with the volume of metal poured determining the wall thickness of the casting. A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of developing a lustrous finish. or excess metal from a die casting. brazing rod. It can be cereal. Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing. and Applications J. Removal of sand and excess metal from a sand casting. E. buffing. mist. and water are used to selectively cool mold segments.G.org APPENDIX 1 Glossary of Terms The following list of terms is associated primarily with cast aluminum products. Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 425 °C (800 °F) but lower than those of the metals being joined. as-cast condition. See aging. A age hardening. In permanent mold. Introducing molten metal into a mold or dies. A substance having metallic properties composed of two or more elements. A rolled. air. or natural/synthetic resin. centrifugal casting. The reader is referred to those societies’ publications for more complete terminology for casting and casting processes. brazing wire. casting (verb). This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing). a permanent mold is rotated rapidly about the axis of the casting. their production. aging. usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging). alloy. casting strains. Thermal treatment to soften metal by depleting solid solution. In the centrifugal casting process. blow hole. including every term likely to be used within the aluminum casting industry. blast cleaning. Processes. Also describing castings that have not been thermally treated. and the Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society (NFFS). annealing.1361/aacp2004p293 Copyright © 2004 ASM International® All rights reserved. while a measured amount of molten metal is poured into the mold cavity.asminternational. p 293-298 DOI:10. A process to clean or finish castings by use of an air blast or airless centrifugal wheel that accelerates abrasive particles or metal shot against the surface of castings. Conventional permanent mold castings are produced by spinning molds during and after mold filling to enhance filling and to induce internal soundness by centrifugal force. expressed as a percent. A material used to bond grains of foundry sand to form a mold or core. artificial aging. Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy. but rather as a resource for readers of this book. A defect caused by entrapped gases often associated with excessive moisture or volatile reactions with mold or core components. . The list is not intended to be exhaustive. Many of these terms come from the Aluminum Association publication Aluminum Standards and Data and casting industry publications of the American Foundry Society (AFS). coalescing precipitates. casting yield. C casting (noun). Forming a controlled oxide coating on a metal surface by electrochemical treatment. chill. The weight of casting or castings divided by the total weight of metal poured into the mold. or cast round filler metal for use in joining by brazing. clay. in a furnace (furnace brazing). oil. A blister that has ruptured and may produce a void. B binder. commonly applied to cylindrical castings. Newly produced or unfinished castings. Rooy. Metal insert placed in a sand mold to increase localized heat flux. www.

Metal form(s) used to produce a die casting. this capacity is expressed as a percentage of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). this is simply die casting. For most practical application purposes. E elastic limit. corrosion. The property measuring permanent deformation before failure. An inorganic pretreatment sometimes applied to a metal surface to enhance coating adhesion and retard corrosion. electrical resistivity. In the United States. permanent mold casting. coupon. The property measuring permanent deformation before fracture by stress in tension. Term used in Europe for producing a casting by pouring molten metal (gravity pouring) into a metal mold. endurance limit. cutoff. electrical conductivity. The limiting stress below which a material will withstand a specified number of cycles of stress. and other excess metal from a casting. or combination of processes. Die casting process in which the metal injection mechanism is submerged in molten metal. die (in casting). A die casting process in which the metal is injected under high pressure in either cold or hot chamber die casting machines. conversion coating. die casting. The reciprocal of electrical conductivity. Localized corrosion resulting in small pits or craters in a metal surface. Die casting process in which the metal injection mechanism is not submerged in molten metal. gravity. Removal of gates. The number assigned to a die for identification and cataloging purposes and which usually is assigned for the same purpose to the product produced from that die. Ability of a casting to remain unchanged in size and shape. Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening occurs. Chemical segregation across grains that occurs during solidification. double shear notch. which is formed by metal dies. cold working. Galvanic corrosion may also occur between dissimilar microstructural features when exposed to an electrolyte. Corrosion occurring preferentially at grain boundaries (also termed intercrystalline corrosion). elongation. pitting. The value of 1⁄58 ohm-mm2/m at 20 °C (68 °F) is the resistivity equivalent to the IACS for 100% conductivity. which are hardened by permeating the sand with carbon dioxide gas to form a silica gel. In Europe. In the United States. See corrosion. Separable part of a mold made of sand and a binder to create openings and various specially shaped cavities in sand and semipermanent mold castings. A die with two or more different cavities for different castings. A casting prolongation from which a test specimen may be prepared without damaging the casting. or patterns from dies or molds. draft. Injecting molten metal under pressure into a mold. with no application of pressure. Corrosion associated with galvanic action between dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes. cold chamber. water stain. A casting produced by the pressure die casting process. double shear. condensation stain. the elastic limit is the yield strength. Taper on the sides of a die or mold impression to facilitate removal of castings. The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. Failure. chemical.294 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. Molten metal. The electrical resistance of a body of unit length and unit crosssectional area or unit weight. this is the permanent mold casting process. Any structural discontinuity that affects acceptability or performance capabilities. other more common dry sand molding techniques use sand with binders that can be cured by chemical or catalytic reaction induced by mixing with the sand or by blowing gases through the mold after it is formed. die casting (noun). The term is often abbreviated SCC (stress-corrosion cracking). coloring. which has a resistivity of 1⁄58 ohm-mm2/m at 20 °C (68 °F) and an arbitrarily designated conductivity of one. made with sand coated with sodium silicate. expendable pattern casting. combination die (multiple-cavity die). die casting. . or core pattern. coring. corrosion. die casting (verb). The highest stress that a material can withstand without permanent deformation. die number. any casting produced in a metal mold. dimensional stability. A linear discontinuity in a cast surface caused when meeting streams of metal fail to merge prior to solidification. and Applications CO2 process. wax. that alters the appearance of an aluminum surface via coating. vaporizes the pattern and replaces it to become the casting when it so- D defect. hot chamber. a lost foam. Process by which a metal object is cooled from an elevated temperature in a manner that avoids hardening. Molds and cores. The percentage increase in length between gage marks that results from stressing a specimen in tension to failure. Dry sand molds are made by many different processes. Processes. For aluminum. core. The capacity of a material to conduct electrical current. risers. die casting. die casting. high pressure. or internal damage. High-pressure die casting and low-pressure die casting are terms commonly used in Europe to differentiate between what in the United States would be called. poured into the sprue. respectively. corrosion. Casting process that employs a foam polystyrene or other plastic pattern-and-sprue assembly in a loose sand mold. A finishing process. and/or mechanical operations. Also drawable metallic mold components in permanent mold and die casting dies. usually intergranular. resulting from the simultaneous interaction of sustained tensile stresses below the yield point and exposure to a corrosive environment. stress. dry sand molding. corrosion. pressure die casting and gravity permanent molding. intergranular. cold shut. corrosion. cracking. Aluminum will sacrificially corrode if it is anodic (electronegative) to the dissimilar metal. galvanic. ductility. controlled cooling. See notch. Sand mixed with binders that cure by baking is one form of dry sand mold.

such as ASTM E 399 for plane-strain fracture toughness. A measure of crystal size usually reported in terms of average diameter in millimeters. grain size. hardness. The term is normally applied to ferrous alloys. A concave junction between two surfaces. usually with other additives to suppress mold reactions. in-gate. The ratio of total weight contained by the casting and gating system and casting weight. or cutting. Patterns with integral gating. insert. or alter surface quality.Appendix 1: Glossary of Terms / 295 lidifies. and water. The mold is composed of a prepared mixture of sand. The term also may refer to stiffness or temper. An alloy that may be strengthened by dissolving and reprecipitating soluble phases. flash. The process also is known as the lost wax process. A process for making castings pressure tight by treatment with liquid synthetic resins or other sealers. The slurry is air dried and redipped several times using less H hardener. The component becomes an integral part of the casting. heat treating. The tendency of an alloy to crack during or immediately after solidification. KIc. A discoloration due to nonuniform oxidation of the metal surface during solution heat treatment. the energyabsorbing capability of a metallurgical structure under stress leading to failure. Heating and cooling castings to controllably alter material properties. See investment molding. A term applied to certain types of sand molding machines in which high-pressure air is used to produce extremely hard. green sand molding. See lot. A metal component that is placed in the mold allowing molten metal to be cast around it. heat treatable alloy. or grains per cubic millimeter. holding temperature. The characteristics or relative smoothness or roughness of an as-cast or machined surface. Visible pattern on the surface of a casting corresponding to the pattern of metal flow in the mold. green sand. Brinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by measuring the permanent impression in the material made by a ball indenter 10 mm in diameter after loading at 500 kgf (4. hot isostatic pressing (HIP). inspection lot. A cast form of known composition intended and suitable for remelting. modifies the structure. and risers in a mold through which metal flows to the casting cavity. Casting defects caused by entrapped gases or by hydrogen precipitated during solidification. remelt. G gas porosity. Rockwell and other hardness tests with smaller indenters provide less accurate measurements in aluminum. I impregnation. Passage(s) in the runner system through which molten metal enters the mold cavity. An alloy or salt mixture comprising components that form nuclei for the heterogeneous nucleation of aluminum grains during solidification. A generic term for measuring the resistance to low-ductility extension of a crack. A protrusion that forms when metal. The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated cyclic stressing below the ultimate tensile strength. grains per square millimeter. A crack in a casting that occurs at elevated temperature caused by thermal contraction of the part during or immediately after solidification. A line left on a casting where flash has been removed. and thereby changes the physical and mechanical properties to a degree not explained on the basis of the change in composition resulting from its use. fillet. injection. gate. fracture toughness. finish. The temperature at which the liquid casting alloy is held in the furnace before and during casting. Resistance to plastic deformation. in excess of that required to fill the mold impression. Usually set as the lowest temperature consistent with mold filling. A process that uses high pressures at elevated temperatures to close interior voids in castings or consolidate P/M products. aid in sand separation after casting. inoculant. gross to net weight ratio. The process of forcing molten metal or plastic into a die cavity. gating system. inclusion. hot shortness. hot cracking. . penetrates the parting plane. The complete assembly of sprues. gated patterns. Also referred to as master alloy. clay. Nonmetallic contamination of the metal structure. high-pressure molding. inspection. but is sometimes used to describe grain refinement and other additions in aluminum casting alloys. Clay-bonded molding sand containing water. which may be directly applicable in design. when added to molten metal. flash line. abrasion.903 kN) for 15 s and dividing the applied load by the area of the impression. alternatively. flow line. or to resistance to scratching. heat treat stain. An alloy of aluminum and one or more added elements for use in making alloying additions. grain refiner. The mold is not cured or dried and therefore is known as a green (uncured) sand mold. Fracture toughness may also be measured in relative terms by notch tensile or tear testing. feeder. F fatigue. The portion of the gating system that connects runners to the mold cavity. usually by indentation. Molds are produced by dipping wax or thermoplastic patterns in a fine slurry to produce as smooth a surface as possible. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture mechanics test. Material which. This process is also widely referred to as lost-foam casting. ingot. See riser. investment casting. high-density molds from green sand. runners. investment molding. gates. Sometimes used as a general term to indicate the entire assembly of connected columns and channels carrying molten metal to the casting cavity.

of gage length). more permeable refractory until the shell is of sufficient thickness for the strength required to contain molten metal. and thus to redistribute the stress. plane strain. if heat treated in a continuous furnace. permanent mold casting. or 0. Processes.. M master alloy. the inspection lot is usually defined by a molten metal batch or continuous furnace operation of common chemistry and fixed maximum quantity. A mold in which more than one part of the same design is produced. electrical and thermal conductivity. N natural aging. The load at the point where this line intersects the curve is used in the yield strength calculation. charged consecutively during a finite period. and thus to redistribute loads to adjacent material or components. A shaped cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a solidified casting. A casting process in which air or gas pressure is applied to a sealed holding furnace from which molten metal is forced through a feed tube into the mold cavity. See aging. NYR. L layout sample. mold.002 in. mechanical properties. A prototype or production casting used to determine conformance to dimensional requirements. physical properties. This condition is approximated at the tip of a crack. The ratio of stress to corresponding strain throughout the range of proportionality. notch toughness. flaws. The space in a mold that is filled with liquid metal to form the casting. mold cavity. Promotion of a fibrous or lamellar structure in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys by modifying additions or solidification rate. plastic.002 mm/mm. Material traceable to one heat treat furnace or. non-heat-treatable alloy. A gravity or countergravity casting process that uses a metal or graphite mold that can be used repeatedly to produce cast parts of the same design. nonfill. and without parting fins or seams.2 (0. The ratio of the tensile strength of a notched specimen (the notch-tensile strength) to the tensile yield strength of a material. Investment molding produces casting of superior surface finish. Metal external to the mold cavity such as gates and risers are not considered part of the mold cavity. oxide discoloration. wax. modulus of elasticity.296 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. or design discontinuities) without cracking. Yield strength by the offset method is computed from a load-strain curve obtained by means of an extensometer or manual plotting./in. thus making it possible to pour very thin wall sections. lot. and the strains in one principal direction are essentially uniform or zero. and Applications expensive and coarser. A general term describing the ability of a material to deform plastically locally in the presence of stressraisers (either cracks. modification. or expendable pattern casting. Testing or inspection procedure that does not destroy or damage the product being inspected. a triaxial stress condition may prevail). usually through the thickness. (1) For non-heat-treated tempers. The condition in which the stresses in all three directions may be significant (i.. Failure to completely fill the mold cavity. nondestructive testing. Investment molds also are produced as solid molds by placing the pattern assembly in a flask. A wood. The molds then are put into a furnace where the wax or plastic is removed by melting or volatilization. an identifiable quantity of castings of the same part traceable to a heat treat lot or lots and submitted for inspection at one time. yield strength. or other replica of a casting that is used to form the cavity in a mold into which molten metal is poured to form a cast part. tensile strength. evaporative pattern. lost foam casting. Molten metal is poured into the molds while the molds are still superheated. For aluminum alloys. is one in which a polystyrene pattern is vaporized by molten metal during the metal pour (see also expendable pattern casting). Failure of metal to completely fill the mold cavity. P pattern. except that it is made proportionately larger to compensate for shrinkage due to the contraction of the metal during cooling after solidification. The most common method offsets ϩ0.e. and thermal expansion characteristics. A metal pattern die is used to produce the wax or plastic expendable patterns. (2) For heat treated tempers. A straight line is drawn parallel to the elastic portion of the load-strain curve. O offset. where the strain through the thickness of a component along the crack front is zero. See hardener. also known as full-mold. lot. Intrinsic properties that pertain to the physical behavior of a material. Physical properties include specific gravity. As-cast surface coloration caused by elemental effects or differences in the composition and form of the oxide. cavity molding. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. In each case. notch-yield ratio. it is measured in accordance with ASTM E 338 and E 602. The casting process. multiple cavity mold. This provides a measure of notch toughness. the ability of a material to plastically deform locally in the presence of a stress-raiser. which is then filled with a refractory slurry and air dried. . misrun. Those properties of a material that are associated with elastic and inelastic deformation when force is applied. They include modulus of elasticity. microporosity. An alloy that cannot be significantly strengthened through postsolidification thermal treatment. A pattern has the same basic features as the part to be cast. an identifiable quantity of castings of the same part submitted for inspection at one time. heat treat. dimensional accuracy. polycast. Microscopic interdendritic porosity in castings caused by shrinkage and/or gas evolution. low-pressure casting. metal. inspection. and ductility.

Appendix 1: Glossary of Terms / 297

porosity. Voids in a casting usually caused by shrinkage or hydrogen. precipitation hardening. See aging. precipitation heat treating. See aging. prolongation. A physical extension of a casting that provides the source of test coupons without affecting the integrity of the part.

Q
quality. An indefinite measurement of structural integrity. quench crack. Failure caused by stresses induced during rapid cooling or quenching. quenching. Rapid cooling of a metal from elevated temperature.

R
radiographic inspection. Examination of soundness by radiography. radiography. The use of radiant energy in the form of x-rays or gamma rays for nondestructive examination of opaque objects, such as castings, to produce graphic records that indicate the comparative soundness of the object being tested. refinement. Phosphide nucleation of primary silicon in hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. riser. Sometimes referred to as a head or feeder. A strategically located volume of thermally and/or pressure differentiated molten metal that forms a reservoir from which volumetric losses caused by shrinkage as the casting solidifies can be compensated. runner. That portion of the gating assembly that conveys molten metal from the sprue to in-gates. runner system. Also called gating; the set of channels in a mold through which molten metal travels to the mold cavity; includes sprues, runners, gates, and risers.

shell mold process. A process in which resin-coated sand is deposited on a heated pattern, bonding it to form a hardened shell about 10 to 20 mm (0.40 to 0.80 in.) thick. Two mating shells are glued together to make a precision mold to produce a casting with excellent dimensional accuracy and a smooth surface texture. shrinkage. Contraction that occurs when metal cools from liquid to solid and in the solid state from solidification to room temperature. solution heat treating. Heating an alloy at a suitable temperature for sufficient time to allow soluble constituents to enter into solid solution where they are retained in a supersaturated state after quenching. specimen. A sample taken for evaluation of some specific characteristic or property. sprue. The vertical portion of the gating system through which molten metal first enters the mold. squeeze casting. Also known as liquid metal forging or forge casting, it is a casting process by which molten metal solidifies under hydraulic pressure. Other squeeze casting process variations include the insertion of cores under pressure during solidification, cast-forge, and a hinged/displacement technique for casting large thin-walled parts. stabilizing. Overaging to achieve dimensional stability. stress. Force per unit of area. Stress is normally calculated on the basis of the original cross-sectional dimensions. The three kinds of stresses are tensile, compressive, and shear. stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). See corrosion, stress.

T
tear resistance. A general term describing the resistance of a material to crack propagation under static loading, in either an elastic stress field (brittle fracture) or a plastic stress field (tearing). Like fracture toughness, it is generally used in connection with crack growth, not crack initiation. Tear resistance measured by unit propagation energy from a tear test made in accordance with ASTM B 871. temper. For castings, the material condition produced by thermal treatment or a statement of the as-cast condition. tensile strength. In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also termed ultimate tensile strength or ultimate strength. tolerance. Allowable deviation from a nominal or specified dimension.

S
sample. A part, portion, or piece taken for purposes of inspection or test as representative of the whole. sand castings. Castings produced in sand molds. sand mold. A mold formed from chemically or naturally bonded sand. semisolid casting. Also referred to as semisolid forging, thixocast, or forge casting, it is a process in which metal at a temperature between the liquidus and the solidus is pressed into closed dies. Billet for this process are produced by solidification with inductive or mechanical stirring. Versions include simplified techniques for final solidification from partially solidified structures. shear strength. The maximum stress that a material is capable of sustaining in shear. In practice, shear strength is considered to be the maximum average stress computed by dividing the ultimate load in the plane of shear by the original area subject to shear. shell cores. Cores produced from thermosetting sand blends with thicknesses controlled by the thermal cycle. shell molding. Shell molds are made from a mixture of sand and thermosetting resin binder. Shell molds are backed by loose sand.

U
ultimate tensile strength. See tensile strength. unit propagation energy, UPE. A measurement of energy required to propagate a crack under stress, expressed in in.-lb/in.2 It is measured in a tear test (ASTM E 871) as amount of energy required to propagate a crack across a unit area in a tear specimen, in terms of the total energy to propagate the crack divided by the nominal crack area (i.e. the original net area of the specimen). Unit propagation energy provides a relative measure of fracture toughness.

298 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications

V
vacuum casting process. A process in which metal is drawn into the casting cavity by vacuum pressure applied to the mold cavity. Alternatively, the application of vacuum to the die cavity in pressure die casting and placing the mold under vacuum before pouring in investment and other casting processes.

W
welding. Joining two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal, to produce a localized union through fusion across the interface. Cold weld-

ing is a solid-state welding process in which pressure is used at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld. welding rod. A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in joining or repairing by welding. welding wire. Wire for use as filler metal in welding. wrought product. A product formed by mechanical working by such processes as rolling, extruding, and forging.

Y
yield strength. The stress at which a material exhibits transition from elastic to plastic deformation.

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Subject Index
A
AA. See Aluminum Association. Abbreviations, 299 Acurad die casting process, 31 Aerospace industry, 29(F) alloys used, 1 applications, 18, 19, 20, 34, 35, 36-37(F) investment castings, 26 semisolid formed applications, 29 Age hardening definition, 293 Aging, 64-66, 122, 184(F) artificial, 17, 20, 64, 194-198(F), 202(F), 203(F), 205-208(F) artificial, aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 artificial, corrosion resistance, 120 artificial, heat treatment designation T, 9 definition, 293 natural, 17, 19 natural, aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 room-temperature, 15, 194-198(F), 205-208(F) silver content effect, 13 Aging. See also Precipitation aging. Aging response, 65 Aging response curves, 133, 134-173(F), 175 artificial, 146-173(F) high-temperature, 146-173(F) natural, 133, 134-146(F) room-temperature, 133, 134-146(F) Air blast quenching casting alloys, 149(F) Air cooling, 194-198(F), 205-208(F) Aircraft industry alloys used, 1, 2(F) applications, 18, 19, 20, 34, 35, 36-37(F) design fatigue strengths, 103, 104(F) premium engineered castings, 33(F), 34(F) Alcoa A359 process, 56, 57(T), 58(T), 59(F) Al-fin process, 35 Allcast. See Alloy Index, 319.0. Alloy definition, 293 Alloy designations, 8-13(T) Alloying composition altering of properties, 1 Alloying elements, 13, 14-17 Almag 35. See Alloy Index, 535.0. AlMMCs. See Aluminum metal-matrix composites. Alternating bending stress fatigue curves, 101(F) Alumina aluminum metal-matrix composites, vibration damping performance, 130(F) Aluminum as alloying element, 10(T), 11(T), 13-14 castability, 21 mechanical properties, 80(T) melting point, 21 physical properties, 80(T) recyclability, 7 unalloyed, 31 Aluminum Association (AA), 7, 9 Aluminum Association (AA) casting alloy designation system, 8-9, 10(T), 11(T) digit significance, 8 revisions, 9 variations, 9, 12(T) Aluminum Association (AA) casting temper designation system, 9 Aluminum carbides, 51 Aluminum-containing peritectic elements, 15 Aluminum-copper alloys, 13 aging, 65 composition, 13 corrosion resistance, 116, 120 mechanical properties, 13 permanent mold castings, 27 porosity, 50 Aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys aging, artificial, 65 Aluminum-iron-chromium-manganese segregate found in die castings, 30 Aluminum-iron-manganese phases, 16 Aluminum-magnesium alloys, 14, 15, 16 anodized, 14 applications, 14, 20 castability, 14 corrosion resistance, 14, 120 die castings, 30 machinability, 14 mechanical properties, 14 physical properties, 14, 15 porosity, 49, 50 weldability, 14 Aluminum metal-matrix composites (AlMMCs), 122-130(F, T) anodizing, 129(T) applications, 36-37, 36-37(F) casting characteristics, 129(T) corrosion resistance, 129(T) electroplatibility, 129(T) elevated-temperature strength, 129(T) hot cracking resistance, 129(T) machinability, 129(T) mechanical properties, 36, 124, 128(T) nomenclature system, 9-13 physical properties, 124, 127(T) polishability, 129(T) processing, 36-37(F) semisolid forming, 29 vibration damping performance, 125, 130(F) wear resistance, 129(T) Aluminum nitrides, 51 Aluminum oxides, 14, 51 Aluminum phosphide, 16 Aluminum-silicon alloys, 13, 15, 16, 19 applications, 17-19(F) castability, 13 corrosion resistance, 13, 120 die castings, 30 fluidity, 13 impurities, 13 machinability, 13 mechanical properties, 13 permanent mold castings, 27 physical properties, 13 porosity, 50 Aluminum-silicon-copper alloys, 13 applications, 17 castability, 13, 17 corrosion resistance, 17 machinability, 13 mechanical properties, 13, 17

© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)
326 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications Aluminum-silicon-copper alloys (continued) porosity, 50 Aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys, 18-19(F) applications, 18-19(F) castability, 18 corrosion resistance, 18, 120 mechanical properties, 18-19 permanent mold castings, 27 Aluminum-silicon eutectic, 16 Aluminum-silicon eutectic modification, 34, 40-45(F, T) Aluminum-silicon hypereutectic refinement, 45(F) Aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys, 14 aging, 65 castability, 14 coefficient of linear thermal expansion, 14 corrosion resistance, 14, 120 die castings, 18(F) mechanical properties, 14 permanent mold castings, 27 premium engineered castings, 32-33 Aluminum spinels, 14 Aluminum-tin alloys, 14, 20, 34-35 castability, 14 cold working, 14 corrosion resistance, 14, 122 fatigue strength, 14 free-machining properties, 14 friction, 14 heat dissipation, 14 immiscibility, 14 mechanical properties, 14 physical properties, 14 Aluminum-titanium-boron refiners, 40 Aluminum-titanium refiners, 40 Aluminum-zinc alloys, 15 corrosion resistance, 120, 122 Aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 aging, 64, 65-66 aging, artificial, 14 aging, natural, 14 annealing, 14 applications, 20 brazing, 14 castability, 14 corrosion resistance, 14 defects, 14 heat treatments, 14 machinability, 14 mechanical properties, 14 melting temperatures, 14 Aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloys applications, 20 American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 8 H35.5, 9 Anisotropy absence of, 3 Annealed (heat treatment designation O), 9 Annealing, 1, 66 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 definition, 293 temperature range, 61(F) Anodized coatings, 19 Anodizing, 16, 19, 70(T) aluminum-magnesium alloys, 14 definition, 293 ANSI. See American National Standards Institute. Antifriction, 16 Antimony as alloying element, 13, 14 chemical modifier, 40, 45 Anti-soldering to die, 70(T) Appliance industry applications, 17 Applications aluminum-magnesium alloys, 14, 20

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aluminum metal-matrix composites, 36-37, 36-37(F) aluminum-silicon-copper alloys, 17 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys, 18-19(F) aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 20 aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloys, 20 casting alloys, 1, 2-3(F) premium engineered castings, 33(F), 35 wrought alloys, 1 Applied stress-intensity factor, 116 Architectural products industry, 14 applications, 17 Artificial aging. See Aging. Artificially aged (heat treatment designation T), 9 As-cast condition, 2, 20 alloying element effects, 15 aluminum-magnesium alloys, 14 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys, 18 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 definition, 293 general-purpose alloys, 17 mechanical properties, 13 residual stresses, 94, 97 As-fabricated (heat treatment designation F), 9 Aspiration, 23 ASTM standards, 7 specification designations, 12(T) Atomic absorption, 67 A-U5GT. See Alloy Index, 204.0. Automated molding processes, 22 Automation, 21 casting alloys, 3 Automotive industry alloys used, 1, 2(F), 3 applications, 17, 18(F), 19, 20, 27, 29(F), 32, 34, 35, 36-37(F), 55(F) engine emissions, 3 fuel efficiency, 3, 5 light-weighting, 3, 4(F) light-weighting due to aluminum content, 4-5(F) semisolid formed applications, 29 Averages rule of, 69 Axial compression for stress relief, 14

B
Bars mechanical properties, 97 squeeze castings, 88 uniaxial tensile testing, 211, 212-242(T) Bearings, 14, 16, 20, 34-35 aluminum-tin alloys, 14 heat treatment, 61 mechanical properties, premium engineered castings, 93(T) Beryllium as alloying element, 14, 15 content effect on premium engineered castings, 33 Beta phase, 65 Beverage processing industry, 14 applications, 17, 20 Billet, 29 Binder definition, 293 Bismuth, 67 as alloying element, 14, 15 Blast cleaning definition, 293 Blow hole, 47 definition, 293 Boiling water quenching, 149-151(F), 153(F), 161(F), 167(F), 176-178(F), 180-185(F), 187-189(F), 192(F) permanent mold castings, 290(F) Borides, 15

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Subject Index / 327

Boron as alloying element, 15, 16 Boron treatments, 15 Brass cast using extractive metallurgy, 21 Brazeability, 21 Brazed parts, 20 Brazing, 20 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 definition, 293 Brazing rod definition, 293 Brazing wire definition, 293 Brinell hardness (HB), 67 aging response curves, 133, 134-146(F), 148-173(F) casting alloys, 175, 177-180(F), 182(F), 184-190(F) Brittle fracture, 113 Bronze cast using extractive metallurgy, 21 Bubble formation, 47, 48, 49, 52 Buffing definition, 293 Bushings, 20

C
Cadmium as alloying element, 14, 15 volatilization, 15 Calcium, 67 as alloying element, 13, 15 chemical modifier, 40, 45 Cantilever beam cast test bars for fatigue rotating beam testing, 266(F), 281(F) Cantilever-beam vibration tests, 69, 80(F) Carbides grain refiners, 40 Carcinogens beryllium-containing compounds, 15 Castability, 3, 7-8, 15, 20 alloying composition, 1 alloying element effect, 14 aluminum, 21 aluminum-magnesium alloys, 14 aluminum-silicon alloys, 13 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys, 13, 17 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys, 18 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys, 14 aluminum-tin alloys, 14 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 definition, 7 silicon alloying effects, 16 Castability ratings, 7 Cast gray iron aluminum metal-matrix composites, vibration damping performance, 130(F) Casting aging response curves, 133, 134-173(F) definition, 293 industry of the future, 4 Casting alloys advantages, 2-3(F) aging response curves, 133, 134-173(F) air blast quenching, 149(F) anodizing, 70(T) anti-soldering to die, 70(T) applications, 1, 2-3(F) automation, 3 automotive industry, 3 bimetal parts, 2 castability, 2 casting characteristics, 70(T) composition, 5-6

compositions registered, 2 cooling in still air, 148(F) corrosion resistance, 70(T) cost, 1, 2, 3 economy of, 3 electroplatibility, 70(T) elevated-temperature strength, 70(T) finishes, 2 finishing characteristics, 70(T) fluidity, 3 fluidity/die filling capacity, 70(T) growth curves, 175, 176-192(F) hot cracking resistance, 70(T) limitations, 2-3(F) machinability, 2, 70(T) mechanical properties, 2, 3 melting point, 3 multicomponent assemblies, 2 performance characteristics, 70(T) physical properties, 2, 72-79(T) polishability, 70(T) pressure tightness, 70(T) process selection, 5-6 quality, 2, 3 quenched in boiling water, 149(F) quenching, 148(F) selection of composition, 5-6 shipments (annual) in the U.S., 3 shrinkage, 70(T) solidification characteristics, 2 tooling, 2 wear resistance, 70(T) weldability, 70(T) Casting cavity, 26 Casting characteristics, 70(T) Casting design, 21 Casting (noun) definition, 293 Casting processes, 21-37(F) altering of properties, 1 selection criteria, 21-22 technology, 22-23(F) Casting quality, 97, 101 Casting strains definition, 293 Casting yield definition, 293 Cast pistons fatigue, 257(F) Cast-to-shape fatigue specimens, 97 Cathodic protection systems, 16 Centrifugal casting, 28 applications, 28 definition, 293 Ceramic shell investment casting, 25 Characteristic process solidification rate, 16 Chemical aggression, 50 Chemical finishing, 15, 16, 21 Chemically bonded sand casting, 21 Chemical processing industry applications, 120 Chill, 24, 25-26, 32, 62 aluminum-copper alloys, 13 definition, 293 die casting, 27 rates, 106 vacuum riserless casting, 28 Chill cast aluminum, 204(F) Chip breakers, 17 Chopped fibers designation, 13 Chopped filaments designation, 13 Chopped monofilaments designation, 13

© 2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications (#05114G)
328 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications Chromium as alloying element, 10(T), 11(T), 15 effect in/out of solution on resistivity, 80(T) mechanical properties, 80(T) physical properties, 80(T) Chromium aluminide (CrAl7), 15 Clay/water bonded sand casting, 21 Cleaning definition, 293 Closed-loop recycling, 5 Coating insulated, 26-27 Coefficient of thermal expansion, 16 alloy constants for calculation, 80(T) aluminum metal-matrix composites, 124, 127(T) aluminum-silicon alloys, 13 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys, 14 casting alloys, 2 die castings, 78(T) elevated-temperature alloys, 19 permanent mold castings, 74(T), 76(T), 78(T) sand castings, 72(T), 74(T) Cold chamber process, 21 Cold shut definition, 294 Cold water quenching, 182-184(F), 192(F) Cold welding. See Welding, definition. Cold working aluminum-tin alloys, 14 definition, 294 Coloring definition, 294 Combination die definition, 294 Complex insoluble phases, 16 Composite die materials, 22 Composition, 9, 10-11(T), 10(T), 11(T), 67, 206(F), 209(F) altering of properties, 1 beryllium addition effect, 15 Composition biasing, 8 Composition groupings, 13-14 Composition limits, 8, 10-11(T), 10(T), 11(T) Compression yield strength die castings, 91(T) permanent mold castings, 90-91(T) premium engineered castings, 93(T) sand castings, 89-90(T) Compressive strength aluminum-tin alloys, 14 sand molding parameter, 23-24 Compressive stress-strain curves, 205(F), 209(F) Compressive tangent modulus insulated mold castings, 195(F), 196(F), 198(F), 206(F), 208(F) permanent mold castings, 195(F), 196(F), 198(F), 206(F), 208(F) sand castings, 195(F), 196(F), 198(F), 206(F), 208(F) Compressive tangent modulus curves, 193, 195(F), 196(F), 198(F), 206(F), 208(F) Compressive yield strength, 20, 198(F), 207(F), 209(F) aluminum-tin alloys, 14 insulated mold castings, 194(F), 196(F), 197(F), 205(F), 208(F) permanent mold castings, 194(F), 196(F), 197(F), 205(F), 208(F) sand castings, 194(F), 196(F), 197(F), 205(F, 208(F) Concentration limits, 8 Condensation stain. See Corrosion, water stain. Conductivity, 15 Confidence bands rotating-beam fatigue curve, 279(F) Construction industry applications, 17, 18 Consumer products industry alloys used, 2(F) applications, 37 semisolid formed applications, 29 Continuous fibers designation, 13

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Continuous filaments designation, 13 Continuous monofilaments designation, 13 Controlled cooling definition, 294 Conversion coating definition, 294 Cooling curve modified vs. unmodified eutectic alloy, 44-45(F) Cooling in still air casting alloys, 148(F) Cooling rate, 16, 21-22, 63, 64(F) during and after solidification, 1 altering of properties, 1 annealing, 66 tensile stress-strain curves, 204(F) Cope, 23, 25 Copper as alloying element, 10(T), 11(T), 13, 14, 15, 20 cast using shaped cavities, 21 content effect for high-temperature resistance, 80 content effect on corrosion resistance, 116, 120 content effect on heat treatment, 61(F) effect in/out of solution on resistivity, 80(T) mechanical properties, 80(T) physical properties, 80(T) shrinkage porosity in alloys, 50 Copper aluminide, 65 Copper-free aluminum-silicon alloys, 18 CO2 process definition, 294 Core definition, 294 Coring, 67 definition, 294 Corrosion aluminum-copper alloys, 13 definition, 294 elevated temperatures, 66 galvanic, definition, 294 intergranular, definition, 294 pitting, definition, 294 stress, definition, 294 Corrosion. See also Corrosion resistance. Corrosion resistance, 5, 21, 70(T), 116-122, 126(T) aluminum-copper alloys, 116, 120 aluminum-magnesium alloys, 14, 120 aluminum-silicon alloys, 13, 17, 120 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys, 17 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys, 18, 120 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys, 14, 120 aluminum-tin alloys, 14, 122 aluminum-zinc alloys, 120, 122 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 chromium addition effect, 15 copper addition effects, 15 magnesium alloying effects, 15 permanent mold castings, 126(T) sand castings, 126(T) Corrosion resistance. See also Corrosion. Cost, 22 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys, 14 casting alloys, 1, 3 heat treatment, 21 machining, 21 unit, 22 welding, 21 Cost-effectiveness, 21 Countergravity mold filling, 25 Countergravity processes, 22 Coupon definition, 294 Cracking, 1, 7, 17, 27, 31, 55, 67, 113-114, 116, 117(T), 122(F), 125(F)

4(F) Dry sand definition. 34-35. 250(T) sand castings. 52 rotor castings. 1 Dislocations.org Subject Index / 329 elevated-temperature. 248-250(T). 15 sludge. 104 Crack size. 78(T) sand castings. 248-250(T). 78(T) permanent mold castings. 224(T) Cure depth. 44 stress raiser. 74(T). 101. 50 Deformation aging for resistance to. 40 gravity. 17 die castings. 14 notch-yield ratio. 113. 22. 103. 7 Dendrite-arm regions. 52 Distortion. 23. 21 definition. 114. finishing and performance characteristics. 53-54 Discontinuity-free parts solidification. 3 radiographic inspection for. 32. 16. 39-40(F). 121(T). 15 Dimensional stability. 252(T) Creep rupture tests. 52 aluminum-tin alloys. 30 cooling rate. See Notch. 29-31 aging response curves. 113-115 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 127(T) aluminum-silicon alloys. 31.© 2004 ASM International. Processes. 93(T) Die casting. 144(F). 251(T) permanent mold castings. 31 solidification. 236-240(T). and Applications (#05114G) www. 30 casting. 17 Damping. 95(T) light vehicle change in aluminum content. 56 Density. 97(T). 76(T). 16 Degree of solution. 64 Dislocation tangles. 1999-2002. 7 Die sticking. 50. 30 Die (in casting) definition. 39-40(F). 1999-2002. 39-40(F) Dendrite cell size. 22 Design considerations affecting process selection. 143(F). 67. 17. 57(T). 78-79(T) residual stresses. 294 hot chamber. 21. 294 Dies. 61 Degassing. 243-252(T) Critical crack-size index. 64 Dissolved hydrogen. 14 Directional solidification. and solidification. 30 Die soldering. 60(F) Dense discontinuity-free parts solidification. 26. 69. 25 Cut fibers designation. 15 Die casting(s) aluminum metal-matrix composites. through compression. 113. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 69. 34 Draft definition. 244-246(T). 25 Drawn products light vehicle change in aluminum content. 32. 121(T) Creep. wear-resistant die surfaces. 104(F) Design life. 52 Dendrite arm spacing. 294 cold chamber process. 16. 51(T). 30 iron alloying effects. 66 postquench plastic. 114 Design mechanical properties. 294 Drag. 74(T) Dental equipment applications. 16 cold chamber. 99(T). 55. 252(T) Creep crack growth. 294 prevention. 23 . 18(F) characteristic process solidification rate. 72(T). 193 Cyclic stress-strain curves. 294 Dimensional verification. 52 wormhole or sponge. 49. 185-188(F) HP. 40 definition. 80(F) Damping capacity. double shear. 199(F). 97 weldability. Decorative products industry.asminternational. 104 plastic. 294 dendrite arm spacing. 50 Discontinuities. 116. 56. 41(F) Densal II process. 64 Double shear notch. 125(F) Creep rupture stress die castings. 51 Degree of nonequilibrium cooling. 8-13(T) Design fatigue strength. 22. 114-115 limitations. 62 Degree of superheat. 1 Densification process. definition. 193. 251(T) permanent mold castings. 71 physical properties. 246-248(T). 19-20. definition. 193 Cyclic loading. 56. 71 premium engineered castings. 88(T). 250(T) sand castings. 115 die castings. 13 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys. 244-246(T). 294 hot chamber process. 294 high pressure. See Direct chill casting. 123(T) Critical nucleation size. definition. 14 definition. 201(F) D Dairy industry applications. 14 Defect(s). 13 Cutoff definition. 1 wormhole. 1 surface. 283-288(F) growth curves. 114. 63. 64-65 Critical stress-intensity factor. 69 aluminum alloying elements. 55. 246-248(T). 80(F) DC. 116. 121(T) Cryogenic tensile properties sand castings.definition. 47. 4(F) mechanical properties. 91(T) minimum mechanical properties. 128(T) AV. 116 design. 17 Deposition of hard. 27. 171(F) aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 294 Die number definition. 21 Designations. 294 Cutting fluids. 127(T). 70(T) cracking. 30 definition. All Rights Reserved. 26. 64 aluminum-tin alloys. 294 density. 59(F). 78(T) fatigue. 125(F) Creep crack growth rate. 31. 80(T) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 251(T) minimum mechanical properties. 95(T) castability. 19-20. 55. published. 17 Cyclic hardening. 35 Direct chill (DC) casting. 30. 200(F). 41(F) Dendrite cell interval. Downsprue. 85(T).

115. 13 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 80(T) Elevated-temperature alloys. 92(T) Fatigue life. Equilibrium phase. 294 die castings. 92-103(F. 281-282(F). 115 casting alloys. See Evaporative (lost-foam) pattern casting. 269(F). 88(T). 100-101(T) hot isostatic processing effect. 294 Ductility. 31 sand castings. 109(T). 26 solidification. 25. 294 die castings. 281(F) Elongation. 228(T). T) definition. 98(T) sand castings. 223-226(T). 115. 269-279(F). 291(F) Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). 100(T) Energy-absorbing thin-wall cast space frames. 258-262(F). 117(T). 94(T). 254(F). 21 Expendable mold gravity-feed casting processes. 213(T). 9. 44(T) permanent mold castings. 77(T). 98-99(T). 66-67. 94(T) squeeze castings. 85-86(T). 99(T). 278-279(F). 232(T). 5 Engine emissions. 94. 233(T). 113(T). 2(F) applications. 77(T). 15 Electronegative alloys. 253. 95(T) weldments. 294-295 Extensometers autographic. 58(T). 276(F). 1 alloys used. 16 Eutectic modifiers. 124(F). 79(T) rotor casting alloys. 7 Evaporative (lost-foam) pattern casting (EPC). 276(F). 214(T). 100-101(T) stability. 90-91(T). 105(T). 23-26(F) Expendable molds. 82(T). 13 aluminum-silicon alloys. 21. 12(T) Eutectic melting. 21. 3 www. 91(T). All Rights Reserved. 4(F) F Families of aluminum casting alloys. 123(T) sand castings. 121(T). 3 Energy absorption. 56. 256-257(F). 13-14 Fatigue. 134-146(F). 1 hot isostatic processing effect. Processes. 14 definition. 17(F) Energy efficiency. 22 Expendable pattern casting definition. 13 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 100-101(T) . 55 iron alloying effects. 109-110(T). 242(T) semisolid castings. 92(T). 106(T) Embrittlement aluminum-magnesium alloys. 17. 234-242(T) definition. 254-256(F). 67 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 14 casting alloys. 105(T). 294 die castings. 133. 21 Extruded products light vehicle change in aluminum content. 73(T). Electrical conductivity. 236-240(T) high-integrity die castings. and Applications Dry sand molding definition. 100-101(T) plaster mold castings. 211-233(T). 60(F) permanent mold castings. 97(T). 124(F) Fatigue endurance limit. 93(T). 8. 96-97(T) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 98(T). 71. 19 mechanical properties. 125(F) Fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests. 75(T) Electrification industry. 37 Elements effects in/out of solution on resistivity. 17(F). 80 hot isostatic processing. 15 Endurance limit. 148-173(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 212(T). 117(T). 21. 110(T). 57(T) modified vs. 17 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys. 229(T). 81(T). 66 effect on mechanical properties. 116. 1999-2002. T) Fatigue strength. 79(T) permanent mold castings. 14 die castings. 56.org E Elastic limit definition. 21 aluminum-tin alloys. 123(T). T) Fatigue limit casting alloys. 15. 117(T). 75(T). 79(T) sand castings. and Applications (#05114G) 330 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 21. 16 rotating-beam fatigue strength. 241(T). 260-261(F). 16 iron alloying effects. 2. 80 aging response curves. 24-25(F) Expansion. 44 Elevated temperatures aluminum-copper alloys. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 92(F) hot isostatic processing effect. 73(T). 2 definition. 211 with strain-transfer devices. 62 Eutectic modification. 20 boron addition effects. 64 aluminum-copper alloys. 294 die castings. 274(F). 211 Extractive metallurgy. 263-271(F). 18. 16 Electronics industry applications. 254-291(F) sand castings. 278(F). 104(F). 65 Euronorm designation system. 17. 88. 128(T) aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys. 86-88(T). 231(T). 89-90(T). 82-84(T). 96-97(T). 234-236(T) premium engineered castings. 75(T). 70(T) Elevon hinge plaster casting fatigue. 15 permanent mold castings. 58(T). 286(F). 101(T) permanent mold castings. 97(T). 96-97(T).© 2004 ASM International. 79(T) permanent mold castings. 123(T). 230(T). 294 Elastic modulus. 15 nickel alloying effects. 75(T) Electrical resistivity definition. 128(T) premium engineered castings. 59-60(F. 101(T) hot isostatic processing effect. 94(T). 128(T) definition. 16 Eutectic temperature. 274(F). 56. 19 Elevated-temperature cracking. unmodified eutectic alloys. 267(F). 2 Fatigue performance. 280-281(F) permanent mold castings. 105-106(T). Processes. 283-288(F) high-strength plaster castings. 127(T) casting alloys. 295 die castings. 94(T) USCAR program castings. 124-125. 96(T). 1 wrought alloys. 218-221(T). 268(F). 67 Eutectic melting point. 1. 94 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 287-289(F). 30 iron alloying effects. 13 casting alloys. 59-60(F. See Modulus of elasticity. 294 die castings. 18 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys.asminternational. 66 Elevated-temperature strength. 56. 121(T). 211 corrosion. 289-291(F) rotating-beam fatigue curves. 3 EPC. 215-218(T). 222(T). 84(T).

295 Gate definition. 1999-2002. 295 Grain size definition. 199(F). 7. 32. 17. 103. 115(F). 40 sludge. 35 Fluoroscopy inclusions. 84(T). Semisolid casting. 17. 86-88(T) sand castings. 20. 50-53 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 1 Hardener definition. 51 Gas porosity definition. Grain growth. 712. 176-192(F) Guinier-Preston (GP) zone. 103-114(F. 122(F). 32. 133. 26-29(F) Gravity segregation aluminum-tin alloys. 17. 53-54 porosity. 3 Gravimetric separation. 50 Gravity-based gating. 101 Flow line definition. 96(T). See Fatigue crack growth rate. 40 dendrite arm spacing. 100(T) solidification. 16-17. 200(F). 16. 295 Groove welds. 24 Gating system. 25 definition. 117(T). 17. 52 Flash definition. 32. 97. 15. 23. 49. 21 Fluorescent penetrant inspection. 25-26 permanent mold castings. 85-86(T) FCGR. T) Fracture toughness. 295 Flat rolled products light vehicle change in aluminum content. Federal specification designations. 101 Fatigue testing. 116(F). 36 Christmas-tree systems. 82(T). 22(F). 176-192(F) Growth factor. 295 Green sand. 13 casting alloys. 3 Fuel efficiency. 82-84(T). 13 Filaments designation.org Subject Index / 331 sand castings. See Guinier-Preston zone. 26 sand mold castings. 41. 88(T) permanent mold castings. All Rights Reserved. shell casting cooling rate. 104. 32 postaddition. 53-54 Fluxing. 1 weldments. 16 aluminum-tin alloys. 104(F) wrought alloys. 15 Grain refinement. 295 Filtration.© 2004 ASM International. 175. 119-120(F. 34. 14 Friction. 30 Gravity casting. 62 Fuel consumption. 45. 295 Flash line definition. 22-23(F). 4(F). 30 investment casting. 13 boron-containing compounds. 295 Fracture toughness tests. 1999-2002. Forgings light vehicle change in aluminum content. 34.asminternational. 1 Fluidity. 115. 18. 113-115 Flexural fatigue tests. 16. 34. Processes. 120 Forge casting. 19 G Gas fluxing. 1 Food processing industry. 295 Grain structure wrought alloys. 32. 41(F). 128(T) definition. 121(T). 15 Gold cast using shaped cavities. 15 Grain refiner definition. 295 Finite-element modeling. 14 Green sand definition. 65 GP. 116 Free-machining aluminum-tin alloys. 201(F) Fatigue ultimate limit die castings. 18 Fluid dynamics solidification. 175. 81(T). 3 process selection criteria. 14 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 13 Fillet definition. 13 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 40 Green sand molding definition. 69 Growth curves. 7 grain refinement. 50 aluminum-copper alloys.0. 121(T). 12(T) Feeder. 36 castability components. 14 applications. See also Runner system. 134-173(F) designation. 14 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 3. 4(F) Flaws. F temper aging response curves. 295 Flow-measuring devices. 295 Gated patterns definition. 22(F). 34 iron alloying effects. 51(T) Finish definition. 17. 7. 112-114. 8 Foundry product designation for casting alloys. 118(F). 9 Fracture resistance. 122(F) aluminum-copper alloys. General-purpose alloys. 64. 295 die castings. 102-103. 17-19(F) Germination. 7. 21 GP theta transition phase. 40. 14 Frontier 40E. 295 . See Riser. 65 H Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction process. 28. and Applications (#05114G) www. 27 gravity-based. Feeding. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 15 Fibers designation. 15 Gravity feed casting processes. 41. 295 Gating system. 4(F) Form. 31. 34 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 51 countercurrent. 16. 45 Folds. 70(T) aluminum-silicon alloys. See Alloy Index. 119-120(T) Gross to net weight ratio definition. 295 Growth definition. 5 Fuel regulation industry applications. See also Squeeze casting.

Processes. 295 high-integrity die castings. 26(F). 295 die castings. 182(F). 18 aluminum-tin alloys. 30 Impurities. 203. 60(F) sand castings. 295 Hot tearing. www. 33 Inclusions. 52 Heat flux. 51-52. 57(T) radiographic inspection. 21 definition. 17-19. 49 Hydrogen pore formation. 17. 16 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 25. 47. 20. 14 Hiduminium. 85-86(T) tensile stress-strain curves. 274(F). 52. 14 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 50. 13 aluminum-silicon alloys. 184-190(F) HB. 41. 9. 55 Hot isostatic processing (Hot isostatic pressing) (HIP). 59-60(F. and Applications (#05114G) 332 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 86-88(T) sand castings. 21 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 4(F) Impact strength. 295 die castings. 138(F). 135-136(F). 194-198(F). 81(T). 88(T) elevated-temperature alloys. 177-180(F). 14 beryllium addition effect. 19-20. 44. 276(F). 61(F) Heat treat stain definition. 58. 52(F). 15 boron additions. 194-198(F). 55. 48 Hygroscopic salts. 51. 32. 70(T) Hot isostatic pressing (Hot isostatic processing) (HIP). 14 copper alloying effects. 13 Hysteresis loops. 128(T) aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 1 Hydrogen porosity.© 2004 ASM International. 13 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys. 7. Processes. 17 High-integrity die casting. 204(F) Hardness testing. 41. 50-51(T). Induction melting. 27 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 37. 1999-2002. 8 premium engineered castings. 146-173(F) High-temperature oxidation. 14 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 29. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 55 Hot shortness.0. 13 aluminum-tin alloys. 21 Impellers. 47. 34 requirements. 150(F) Heavy metals. 51(T) sources and types. 161-173(F) alloying element effects. 15 iron alloying effect. 269(F). 16 solubility. 51(T) particle/salt. Heat checking mold. 17 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys. 36 definition.org History of aluminum castings. 193 I Immiscibility aluminum-tin alloys. 51(T) nonmetallic. 194-198(F). 58(T). 51 Inert gas fluxing. 17. 82-84(T). 101 Hot cracking definition. 203(F) altering properties. 66-67 sand castings. 84 High-strength plaster casting(s) fatigue. 8. 15 definition. All Rights Reserved. 92 insulated mold castings. 17(F) HIP. 13 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 22 High-pressure molding definition. 55 Hydrogen threshold. T) permanent mold castings. 56. 61-68(F). 7-8. 14 Impact resistance. 84(T). 31 High-intensity infrared light bonding. 13 aluminum metal-matrix composites. High-definition detailing. 67 aluminum-copper alloys. 82(T). 41 Hypereutectic alloys. 280-281(F) High-temperature aging response curves. 145-146(F). 67 Hydrogen precipitation. 15 corrosion resistance. 15. Hiduminium 350. 14 definition. 13 Hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. Head. 120 cost. 205-208(F) permanent mold castings. 47(F). 18 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys. See Alloy Index. 49 Hydraulic injection systems. 112 High-speed molding machines. 20 High-strength aluminum alloy castings requirements. 62 temperature ranges. 91-92(F) High-integrity pressure die casting. 175. 45. 51(T) Inclusions. 84-85 Impregnation. 203. 20 applications. 26 . 148-158(F). 295 High-silicon casting alloys weldments. 295 Heat-up times. 7 Heat treatable alloy definition. 67 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 21 aging response curves. 51 solubility in aluminum alloys. 295 resistance to. 205-208(F) problem diagnosis and acceptance criteria. 295 Holes. 13 Hypoeutectic alloys. 21 Hydrogen content in aluminum alloys. 15 casting alloys. 2 definition. 1-2 Holding temperature definition. 14 beryllium additions. 49 In-feeds. See also Riser. 17(F) Impacts light vehicle change in aluminum content. Hot isostatic processing. 20 Hardness. 14 copper alloying effects. 16 Hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. 1. 53(F). 15 aluminum-copper alloys. 202(F).0. 22 High-strength alloys. 278(F). T) fatigue performance affected. 15 process selection criteria. 19 permanent mold castings. 1 aluminum-copper alloys. 13 limits. and Applications Hardening room-temperature. 21 Humidity hydrogen porosity. See also Nonmetallic inclusions. 18 aluminum-tin alloys. 1. 140-143(F). 295 Heat treating. 48 Hydrogen contamination sources. 295 die castings. 67 Highway construction industry. 24. 56. 22 Heat-flow equilibrium. 55-60(F. 56.asminternational. 27 homogeneous halide salts. 14 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 205-208(F) stepped. 47-49. 16 Hypereutectic silicon alloys. See Hot isostatic pressing. See Alloy Index. 34. 47-49(F). See Brinell hardness.

0. 106(T) . 296 Lost foam (evaporative pattern) casting(s) light vehicle change in aluminum content. 50 J Jobbing die casters. 39 Intermetallics boride contribution. 13. 36 dies. 205-208(F) Intercrystalline corrosion. 10(T). 67 as alloying element. 1 Internal voids. 21 Level pour process. See Alloy Index. 295 In situ bonding of dissimilar materials. 24-25(F). 295 Injection under pressure. 1973-2002. 35 Life-cycle analysis recycling. 13-15 content in casting alloys. See also Corrosion. 15 lead alloying effects. 15 Insulated mold casting(s). 4(F) Lot. 16 cooling rate. 52 Liquidus. 295 Insert definition. 24-26 characteristic process solidification rate. Interdendritic feeding. 16 ISO specification designations. 15 Machinery parts. 4-5(F) Linear elastic fracture mechanics. formation of. 80(T) modulus of elasticity. 40 dendrite arm spacing. 15 coarse. 18-20 Machining cost. Investment casting(s) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 26 minimum mechanical properties. 27-28(F) permanent mold. 22 solution heat treatment. 62 Inspection lot. 127(T). 194-198(F). inspection. 64. 2. 295 Ingot. 22 In-gate. 295 Injection definition. intergranular.© 2004 ASM International. 21 content effect on notch toughness.asminternational. 62 iron-containing. 23. 30. 18 cast using extractive metallurgy. 21. 8 content in die castings. 12(T) Investment casting. 22 Insoluble phases. 40 hot isostatic processing. 80(T) mechanical properties. 41-42(F) Lasers bonding. All Rights Reserved. 22 molds used. 31 M Machinability. 113 Liquid metal forging. 80(T) isomorphous with manganese. 16. 62 Investment casting. 14-15. 20. 1 International Casting Alloy Designations. 11(T). 13 Intermetallic phases. 296 Lead. 2 Magnesium as alloying element. 9. 80(T) Locking pressure. 14 Lamellar structure. 19-21. Instability.org Subject Index / 333 Infrared light bonding. 128(T) applications. 17 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 70(T) aluminum-magnesium alloys. heat treat definition. 80(T) shrinkage porosity in alloys. 21 physical properties. 22 Inoculant definition. 50 Isomorphous elements. 22 Layered feeding. 15 Internal soundness. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. North America. 3. 16. 52 Layout sample definition. Lubrication. 69 Loose patterns. 95(T) definition. 13. 50 Interdendritic shrinkage aluminum-copper alloys. 80(T) molds. 15. 106 content effect on premium engineered castings. and Applications (#05114G) www. 15 cadmium addition effect. remelt definition. 19 Low-pressure (LP) casting definition. 10-11(T). See also Squeeze casting. 16 mechanical properties. See Low-pressure casting. 14 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 8 content restriction in die castings. 1999-2002. inspection definition. 14 aluminum-silicon alloys. 4 vehicle change. 21 finish. 12(T) K K01. 21 Joint strength efficiency weldments. 7 Lithium effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 30 die casting. 30 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 201. 296 Lot. 17 aluminum-tin alloys. 21 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 24 definition. 14 constituents. 21 LP. See Lot. 295-296 Iron as alloying element. 5 Light emission spectroscopy. 66 bismuth-containing compounds. 22 Lost foam (evaporative pattern) casting. 204(F) definition. 296 die casting. 8 insoluble. 67 Light-weighting. Liquid-solid mushy zones. 30 deposition in metallurgical bonding. 59(T) low-volume. 21. 30 Log decrement of decay. L Lamellar eutectic. 31 content in casting alloys. See also Investment molding. 34. Processes. 296 Low-expansion alloys. 15 Lead-base alloys. 33 content effect on rotor casting. 93(T) Investment molding. 69 oxidation. 14 annealed condition.

Natural aging response curves.0. 80(T) physical properties. 15 Metallography. 133-146(F) Near-net-shape forming. and Applications Magnesium (continued) physical properties. 231(T). 16 Marine exposure. 14 Magnesium silicides. 3 Monofilaments designation. 69 aluminum alloying elements. 53 Metallurgical bonding. 225(T). 16 Mixed scrap. T) . See Hardener. 36 dies. 86-88(T). 212-213(T). 101 Notch sensitivity. 296 tendencies. 12(T) Minor alloying elements. 232(T). 215-218(T). 55 Mechanical performance. 105-106(T). 20 nomenclature system. 78(T) sand castings. 222-223(T). 296 Notches. 31. 8 Manganese as alloying element. 1-2 Mass feeding. Processes. 14. 236(T). 19-20 Modification definition. 88 Near-net-shape parts casting alloys. 204(F) Moore type rotating-beam fatigue machine. 1 Military parts industry. 21 sand castings. 50 Nomenclature. 105(T). 241-242(T) Moisture reactions. 14 Markets for aluminum applications. 10-11(T).0. 14 Microshrinkage. 45 Mercosil. 110(T) sand castings. 13-16 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 296 levels. 225(T). 3 phases. 109-110(T) premium engineered castings. 14 aluminum-silicon alloys. 106(T) Notch tensile testing. 2. 84(T). 103. Processes. 18 semisolid formed applications. 105(T). 103-115(F. 29 definition. 80(T) physical properties. 85(T) minimum values. 240(T) permanent mold castings. 19 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 2 New scrap. 26-29(F) Nonexpendable molds.asminternational. 80(T) isomorphous with iron. 104 Notch toughness. 1 Mechanical properties. 21 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 16. 296 Nonexpendable casting processes. 80(T) Manganese aluminide. 22 Monocoque assemblies. Mercury as alloying element. 16 Modulus of elasticity. 82-84(T) process selection criteria. 53-54. B391. 85-86(T). 80(T) shrinkage porosity in alloys. 228(T). 104 permanent mold castings. T) alloying element effect. 222(T). 13 Matrix softening. See Aging. 9-13 Metal-matrix composites (MMCs). 55 definition. 71. 113(T) weldments. 29. 22 nonexpendable. 65 Major alloying elements. 1 definition.© 2004 ASM International. and Applications (#05114G) 334 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 81-82(T). 296 Microradiography.org definition. 51 Magnesium oxide spinels. 22 premium engineered castings. 127(T) die castings. 35. 2. 233-236(T) sand castings. 105(T). 223(T). 16 mechanical properties. 16 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 218(T). Moderate-strength alloys with low residual stresses. 52. 8 Nondestructive testing. 15. alloying composition. 3(F) Multiple cavity mold definition. 391. 81-82(T) Medical equipment. 3 Melting range aluminum metal-matrix composites. 103-115(F. 19. 296 die castings. 296 Non-heat-treatable alloy definition. 229(T). Microporosity.0. 15 Mechanical agitation aluminum-tin alloys. 50 Microstructure. 62. 29 Military specification designations. 15-16 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 88(T). 22 Nonfill definition. 74(T) Melt refinement practices. 105-106(T). 105(T). 227-236(T). 35-36 Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) mechanical properties. 16 Metal casting history. 21 Metallic borides. 72(T). See Alloy Index. 14 casting alloys. 106(T) Notch tensile strength. 104 permanent mold castings. 10-11(T). 109-110(T) premium engineered castings. 212-218(T). 214(T). 85-88(T) altering of. 124. See also Aluminum metal-matrix composites. 296 Mold(s) definition. Material costs. 74(T). 199-201(F). 8 Misrun(s). 1. 80(T) mechanical properties. 15 internal features. 41 www. 253 Multicomponent welded or joined assemblies. 50 Master alloy. 5 MMC. 67 magnesium-zinc phases. 296 expendable. 1 Mold cavity. 14 Mechanical densification. 17 Melting point aluminum. All Rights Reserved. 128(T) casting alloys. T) Notch-strength ratio. 204(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 81-88(T) permanent mold castings. 296 die castings. 109(T) weldments. 82-84(T). 21 Matrix-hardening alloys. 80(T) Magnesium oxides. 78(T) permanent mold castings. 76(T). 53 Microsegregation. See Metal-matrix composites. 225(T). 5 Nickel as alloying element. 115 definition. 39-46(F. 109(T). 13 Monotonic stress-strain curves. 13 embrittlement. 230(T). 80(T) aluminum metal-matrix composites. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. A391. 296 N Natural aging. 240-242(T) definition. 110(T) sand castings.

51 P Particles designation. die casting. 101 hydrogen. 125 permanent mold castings. 121(T) Plaster cast Elevon hinge casting fatigue. 22 washes or dressings. T) premium engineered castings. 128(T) aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 1. 256-257(F). 127(T). 111(F) sand castings. 22 gating system. 297 degrees of. 246-248(T). 296 permanent mold castings. 67 Overmodification. 79(T) sand castings. 72-79(T) definition. 296 permanent mold castings. 15 Oxidation rates aluminum-magnesium alloys. 103.asminternational. 1 internal. 57(T). 21 Phases beta. 75(T). 117-118(F. 39 Phosphorus as alloying element. 73(T). 184-190(F) hot isostatic processing. 40 definition. 176-192(F) hardness curves. 60(F) light vehicle change in aluminum content. 14. 108(F). 105-110(F. 70(T) growth curves. 296 dendrite arm spacing. 54 solution heat treatment. 8 insoluble. 16 Pattern(s). 123(T) Permeability sand molding parameter. T) secondary (micron-size). 74(T). 107. 122-123(F. 185-188(F) Pneumatic injection systems. 44(T) molds used. 16 molds used. 127(T) die castings. 286(F). T) Notch toughness tests. 114. 209(F) thick. 118(F). 58. and Applications (#05114G) www. 93(T) performance characteristics. 114(F). 15. 260-261(F). 111-112(F). 104. 62 Outgassing. 106(T). 289-291(F) finishing characteristics. 229(T). 82-84(T). 1 Porosity. 123(T) premium engineered castings. 79(T) permanent mold castings. 23 Passivation. 150(F). 145-148(F). rotating-beam reversed-bending. 23-24 Pewter. 13 Parting plane. 254(F). T) minimum mechanical properties. 16. 14 Oxide discoloration definition. 13 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys. 19 fatigue. 96-99(T). 24 definition.org Subject Index / 335 definition. 122(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 233-236(T). 21 Plane strain definition. 123(T). 62 unit propagation energy. 250(T). 109-110(T). 78(T) elevated-temperature alloys. 123(T). 105-107(F. 1 Performance characteristics. 263-271(F). 76(T). 58 Overaging. 55. T) sand castings. 225(T). 296 Oxide removal. 296 Old scrap. 44. 65 equilibrium. 109-110(T). 26(F) characteristic process solidification rate. 65 formation. 122-123(F. 166-170(F) characteristic process solidification rate. See Notch-yield ratio. 126(T) density. 31 Pore volume fraction. 105-106(T). 4(F) mechanical properties. 176-180(F). 110(T). mechanical properties. 66 designation. 13 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 22 Plaster mold casting. 56. 214(T). 50-51 alloying element effects. 231(T). 70(T) Performance testing. 14 Pore-free pressure die casting. 75(T) Polishability. 60(F) stress-strain curves. 14 bars. 45(F) Physical properties altering of. 27 Permanent mold casting(s). 1 Permanent mold casting. 109(T). 70(T) Polishing aluminum-magnesium alloys. 41. 119-120(T). 21 Plaster mold casting(s) mechanical properties.© 2004 ASM International. 74-78(T) radiographic inspection standards. 16 content effect on modification mechanism. 117(T). 1-2. All Rights Reserved. 107. 55. 13 Particulates designation. 32 Plate hot isostatic processing. T) weldments. 30. 121(T). Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 90-91(T). 152-164(F). 7 Percent liquid in solidification range. 274(F). 109-112(F. 13. 205-208(F) aluminum-copper alloys. 1 casting alloys. 21 Poisson’s ratio aluminum metal-matrix composites. 110-112(F. 105-107(F. 281-282(F). 26-27(F) aging response curves. 16. 111(F) subzero temperatures. 115(F) definition. 281(F) Plaster casting. 24 Optical systems. 218-222(T). 86-88(T). 22(F) modification effect on mechanical properties. 107-114(F. 25. 1999-2002. 296 Plane-strain fracture toughness. 94(T). 77(T). 109(T). 247(T) boiling water quenching. 206(F). 194-201(F). 182(F). 290(F) casting characteristics. 105-107(F. 112(F). 5 Olivine. 70(T) physical properties. 58(T). 67 intermetallic. 56. 47-54(F. 123(T) sand castings. 107. 16. 111(F) premium engineered castings. 21. 278-279(F). O Offset definition. 40 expendable or gravity. 56. rotating-beam reversed-bending. 296 process selection criteria. 106(T) NYR. Processes. 18 aluminum-tin alloys. 134-141(F). 16 Performance capabilities alloying composition. 44. 16 cooling rate. 114 definition. 66. 47 semisolid forming. 123(T) Plane-strain fracture toughness tests. 276(F). 20 O temper. 22. 70(T) corrosion resistance. 16 Oxidation. 296 Penetrant inspection. 29 . 113(T) Notch-yield ratio (NYR). 98(T) Plaster molding.

org Quenching. 23 castability. 105-108(F. 167-170(F) in 200°F water. 120-121(F. 3. 22-23(F). 5 Process yield. 22. 30. 771. 21 Process-optimization procedures. 297 hot isostatically pressed castings. 49 ingot form. 66(F) as-cast surface. 19. 84. 19 R Radiographic inspection. 163(F) inadequate. 16.0. 118(F). 211 Research and development. 133 aluminum-tin alloys. 17. designation. 35 unit propagation energy. 17 aluminum. 64-66. 58 Reinforcement composition designated in metal-matrix composites. 67 definition. 113(T). 176-178(F). 33 mechanical properties. 63 water. 15 Precipitation aging. See also Aging. See also Aging. 192(F) boiling water. 133 Premium engineered casting. 114. 27-28(F) Pressure tightness. See Alloy Index. 161(F). 1 Powder metallurgy composites. 297 Proprietary designations. 52 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 36 PRC. 14. 64 quenchant additions. 297 Risering. 88. 297 Refiners. 772. 297 premium engineered castings. 7 market growth. Processes. Processes. 63. 50. T) microstructure. 84. 92-93(T). 153-155(F). 63 residual stresses. 202-203(F). Precedent 71A. 16. 180-185(F). 198(F). 5. 88 appllications. 13 Remelt. See Premium engineered casting(s). 150(F). T) Reheat treatment. 101 assurance. 61(F) Precipitation heat treating. All Rights Reserved. 5 Recycling. 62 Quenched (heat treatment designation). 50 Pressure riserless casting (PRC). 119(T) Reduction in area casting alloys. 7 Postsolidification densification altering properties. 149(F) boiling water. 109(T). 50. 32. See Pressure riserless casting. 98-99(T) Rheocasting. 67 mechanical properties affected. 148-151(F). 58. 297 fan or mist. 32-33(F). Precedent 71. 94. 64-66 temperature range. 52-54 porosity. 53 premium engineered castings. 7 Producer variation (heat treatment designation Padded). 33(F). 22. 31 molds and alloy materials. 7. 1-2. Precipitation heat treating. 34-35 quality assurance. 40-46(F. 101 Premium engineered casting(s). 22. 2 Reduced section tensile strength permanent mold castings. 49. 63-64 in 110°F water. 35 Quality control. 110(T). 149-151(F). 205-208(F) with water. 49-50(F) Postsolidification cooling rate. 21. 62-64. 70(T) Print type. 12(T) Prototypes. 31-33(F) aircraft applications. 9 Precipitation hardening. 297 Quench delay. See Alloy Index. 14 Precipitation hardening. 166(F). 21 Riser definition. 8 Productivity. 154-155(F). 105(T). 14 Q Quality. 8 Remelted scrap. 160(F) solutions. 62-64(F).asminternational. 34 Recovery rate. 120 definition. 105-106(T). 66 air blast.0. 52-54 Radiography definition. 13 type of. Pressure die casting.0. 24 Quenchant temperature. 148(F). 8. 153(F). 15 cold water. 7 Representative values uniaxial tensile tests. 112(F). 39 Postsolidification cracking. 207(F). See Alloy Index. 9 Product form. 17 Purity. 123(T) Premium quality casting(s). 35 definition. 36(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 771. 194-198(F). Refinement. 105(T). 21 Procurement specifications. 1 Precipitation hardened (heat treatment designation). 110(T) sand castings. sand castings. 60(F) inclusions. 159-160(F) chromium content effect. 22 Pump impellers. 23-24 casting alloys. 167(F). 117-118(F. 4 definition. 95(T) weldments. 297 Ramberg-Osgood parameter. 117(T). 9. 97 die castings. See Alloy Index. Precipitation boride addition effects. 7 Pressure drop. 1 Postsolidification thermal treatment. 290(F) casting alloys.© 2004 ASM International. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 35 procedures. 16. 31 impurities. 168(F) in 150°F water. 114 Residual stresses. 67 Quench delay limit. 97. 35 definition. 328. 159-160(F). 21 Rheocasting/thixocasting. 224(T) USCAR program castings. 123(T). 2. 5 sand castings. 192(F) corrosion resistance. 97 Resolution heat treatment. 29-31 Pressure die casting(s). 9 . permanent mold castings. 182-184(F). and Applications (#05114G) 336 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 67 Quench crack definition. 21. 772. 224(T) permanent mold castings. 209(F) Rapid solidification. 67-68 Reversed-bending fatigue curves. 56. 106(T) Red X-8. 32. 1-4 Residual life. 21 Prolongation definition. Precipitation softening. 13 Reinforcement designation. and Applications Porosity (continued) shrinkage. 56. 109-110(T) premium engineered castings. 32-33. 187-189(F). 66 in room-temperature water. 15 www. 119-120(T) sand castings. Precedent 71B.0. 62-63.0.

248-250(T). 51 Rotating beam fatigue life. 365. 103(F) Rotating-beam reversed-bending fatigue. 51-52. 125 content effect on castability. 16 corrosion resistance. 45 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 16. 160(F) Room-temperature aging response curves. 250(T) sand castings. 31 Shot cycle. 29(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 55 premium engineered castings. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 70(T) growth curves. 267-279(F). 112-114(F. 17 recovery rates. 30 Semipermanent mold casting. 18 aluminum-tin alloys. 91. 126(T) definition. 31 content effect on aluminum metal-matrix composite plane-strain fracture toughness. Processes. 205-208(F) aging response curves. 148-153(F). See Alloy Index. 223-226(T). 92. Scrap. 94(T) Semisolid forming. 26 die casting. 230(T). 21 . 14 Sectioning. 101 light vehicle change in aluminum content. 297 Semisolid casting. 35 Risers. 84(T). 251(T) permanent mold castings. 101(T) permanent mold castings. 14 definition. 58(T). All Rights Reserved. 168(F). 13 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 124 Silver as alloying element. 252(T). 80(T) Silicon carbide (SiC) particulate aluminum metal-matrix composites. 22-23 Shrinkage porosity. 21 rotor castings. 40-41. 84-85 die casting application. 16 cast using shaped cavities. 297 Shot chamber. 133. 100-101(T) sand castings. 23-24 green sand. 91(T) permanent mold castings. 52 radiographic inspection standards. 21 definition. 253. 144-145(F). 70(T) characteristic process solidification rate. 60(F) light vehicle change in aluminum content. 246-248(T). 4(F) mechanical properties. 22 Sand molding. 211 water quenching. 30. 1. 25 premium engineered castings. 93(T) modification effect on mechanical properties. 101. 62 unit propagation energy. 81-82(T). 140(F). 297 Sand mold casting gating system. 254-291(F) Rotating bending fatigue S-N curves. 188(F) hardness testing. 258-262(F). 15 internal. 53 Segregate precipitation. 44. 1999-2002. 86-88(T). 2 definition. 30 Round-robin test program. 72-75(T) porosity. 89-90(T) Shell cores definition. 15 Rotor casting. 26. 185(F). 85-86(T). 34 definition. 40 dry sand. 105-109(F. 24. 36(F). 80(T) mechanical properties. 96(T) die castings. 134-138(F). 22 Sand casting(s). 297 Shell molding. 204(F) Rule of averages. 81-82(T). 248-250(T). 70(T) physical properties. 232(T). 70(T) aluminum-copper alloys. 56. 44(T) performance characteristics. 49-50(F). 176-190(F) sand casting. 101. 34 process selection criteria. 228(T). 67.org Subject Index / 337 die casting. and Applications (#05114G) www. Shaped castings solidification. 69 Runner(s). 94(T). See Society of Automotive Engineers. 88(T). 16 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 50 interdendritic. 59(F) Rotating-beam fatigue strength. 55. 23 Shrinkage. 254-256(F). 23. 297 Shear ultimate strength die castings. 7 content effect on corrosion resistance. 188(F) Room temperature aging response curves. 13. 22-23(F). 34. 297 displacement. 244-246(T). 88 Rod permanent mold casting. 23-24 molds used. 123(T). 100(T). 1999-2002. 47-48. 90-91(T) premium engineered castings. 40 dendrite arm spacing. 1-2. 14 casting characteristics. 117-118(F. 56. 13. 92 Rotating-beam reversed-bending fatigue curves. 31 volumetric. 13 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys. 188(F) hot isostatic processing. 98(T). 21. 29 Semisolid forming. 82-84(T). 297 Shell mold process. 134-146(F) casting alloys. 21. 297 Rupture stress die castings. 30. 120 content effect on modification mechanism. 160-161(F). 11(T). 244-246(T). 133-146(F) Rotary degassing. 10(T). 119(T) Sand mold definition. 172-173(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 252(T) S Sacrificial anodes. 56 Silafont-36. rotating-beam reversed-bending. 185(F). 241-242(T). 16 SAE. 128(T) aluminum-silicon alloys. 80(T) physical properties. 56. 27 Rocker arms. 17-19(F). 163-165(F). 185(F). 194-198(F). Sample definition. 297 Runner system definition. 24 SCC. 95(T). 96(T). 287-289(F). 16. 25(F) definition. See also Semisolid casting. 5 Seawater corrosion. 212-213(T).0 Silicon as alloying element. 60(F) Rotor alloys. 34. 85-86(T). 127(T). 297 fatigue. 31 Rotors. T) minimum mechanical properties. 170(F).asminternational. See Stress-corrosion cracking. 54 solution heat treatment. 16. 20 content effect in rotor casting. 4(F) mechanical properties. 291(F) finishing characteristics. 120-121(F. 93(T) sand castings. 26 Semisolid casting definition. 89-90(T). 215-218(T). 297 Sand casting cooling rate. 30 investment casting. See also Semisolid forming. 7. 14.© 2004 ASM International. Semisolid casting(s). 1 Shear strength casting alloys.

Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 115. 1 Solidification cracking. 64 Surface defects solidification. 1 Surface finish. 92 temperature range. 130(F) Steel cast using extractive metallurgy. 79(T) permanent mold castings. 202-203(F) Straube-Pfeiffer test. 125(T) light vehicle change in aluminum content. 116 definition. 88.© 2004 ASM International. 71. 3 mechanics. T) notch toughness. 116(F) permanent mold castings. 62. 7. 119(T) premium engineered castings. 41(F) tensile stress-strain curves. 211 effect on mechanical properties. 297 Squeeze casting. 95(T) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 13. 2 die castings. 134-173(F) aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. 60(F) Stress-strain diagram. 32. 14.org Stability. 14 Stoichiometric ratios. virbration damping performance. 297 semisolid castings. 3 Sludging. T) Supersaturated solid (SS) solution. 32 Stress definition. 15 Solid feeding. 7. T) content in premium engineered castings. T) content in premium engineered castings. 1 cooling rate. 14 definition. 4(F) mechanical properties. 51 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) specification designations. 66 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 21-22. 39(F). 107-114(F. 9 Solution heat treating. 78(T) sand castings. 110-112. 125(F) Stress raiser. 40-44(F. 29(F) definition. 66 silver content effect. 62 aging response curves. 41 Sodium fluoride. 21 Stibine gas formation. 16 Sodium chloride. 79(T) sand castings. 14. 116-120(F. 125(F. 202-203(F) Solution potentials. 113. 126(T) Soundness internal. 297 Tears. 17 definition. All Rights Reserved. 16 Structural industry applications. 193-209(F) hot isostatic processing effect. 65 relief of. 13 Solidification rate. 40-44(F. 101. 34 as eutectic modifier. 103(F). 133. 113 Strain hardening investment mold castings. 75(T) Specimen(s) definition. 116. 16 chemical modifier. 299 T Tear resistance. 114-116. Processes. 14 Surface tension. 124(F). 74(T) Specific heat aluminum metal-matrix composites. 297 elevated temperatures. 16 Symbols. 75(T). 21 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 49 Sprue definition. 91 typical and minimum values for mechanical properties. 133 Soldering. 124(F). 297 Stainless steel aluminum metal-matrix composites. 115. 88. 76(T). 14 Solid mold investment casting. 1999-2002. 34 as eutectic modifier. 91. 17 Size casting alloys. 29(F). 16 aluminum-copper alloys.asminternational. 21 requirements. 110. 15. 32 Specifications. 115. 67. 13. 126(T) aluminum-copper alloys. 13 Stress-corrosion resistance. 206(F) Strain energy release rate. 117(T). 122. 101-103 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). and Applications (#05114G) 338 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 15 crack growth. 94(T) www. 14. Processes. 49 Solution heat treated (heat treatment designation). 127(T) aluminum-silicon alloys. 22 Sintered carbide tools. 1 Tear strength. 36 applications. 21-22 Specific gravity. 32 altering properties. 88 Spinels. 40 aluminum-silicon alloys. 74(T). 16 chemical modifier. 77(T). 67 Strontium as alloying element. 8 Strain expanded range. 98-99(T). 16. 66 Stress rupture tests. 297 high-integrity die casting. 7. 7-8 limits. 66 Stabilizing definition. 107-114(F. 65 Supersaturation. 15 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 116 Stress relief. 97-99(T). 103. 19 permanent mold castings. 72(T). 13 aluminum-tin alloys. 211 mechanical properties. 1 limitations. 206(F) full range. 204(F) Strain rate tensile stress-strain curves. 73(T). 297 Stress concentration factors. 19 Subcritical crack growth. 45. 16 Stress-intensity factor. 7. 1. 127(T) die castings. T) Subzero temperatures casting alloys. 13 aluminum-zinc-magnesium alloys. values. 1 Solid-state coefficient of thermal contraction. 14 copper content effect. 117(T). 67 as alloying element. 45. 21 dies. 80 liquids used for tensile tests. 16. and Applications Simple patterns. 21. 30 Smelted aluminum. 119(T) . 41 Softening. 92. 104 Stress-strain curves. 101-104(F). 51 Spinning-rotor techniques. 16 recovered. 13 casting alloys. 50. 78(T) elevated-temperature alloys. 16 Sparging. T) definition. 12(T) Sodium. 124(F). 25 Solid-solution effects alloying composition. 50 Solidification. 297 Squeeze casting(s).

ranges. 109-110(T). 92(F) hot isostatic processing effect.123(F. See also Tensile strength. 94(T) USCAR program castings. 115. Processes. 209(F) aging response curves. 19 permanent mold castings. 105(T). 110 Technological improvements market growth. 301-304 Thermal analysis. 71 Test specimen drawings. 80(T) Tinius Olsen hydraulic testing machines. 198(F). 125(T) Tilt mold pour process. 40 Titanium borides. 194-195(F). 228(T). 106(T) Tenzaloy. 94(T) squeeze castings. 109(T). 133. 707. T) weldments. 201(F) T temper aging. 128(T) casting alloys. 19 high-strength alloys. 197(F). 148(F) alloying element effects. 105-106(T). 11(T). 105-106(T). 111-114. 224(T) high-integrity die casting. 2 die castings. Tensile efficiency. 204(F) modified vs. 207(F) investment mold castings. 205(F). 117(T). 127(T) casting alloys. See also Semisolid casting. 233-236(T) porosity. 23. 207(F) premium engineered castings. 93(T) sand castings. 133. 205(F). 13 aluminum-magnesium alloys. 117(T). 14 casting alloys. 134-146(F). 115. 14 heat treatments. 15 Transduced ultrasonic energy grain refinement. 92(F) hot isostatic processing effect. 224(T) high-integrity die casting. 194-195(F). Test bars specification values. and Applications (#05114G) www. 358. T) sand castings. 15. 119(T) Tear tests. 223-226(T). 121-123(F. 62. 197(F).org Subject Index / 339 sand castings. 76(T). 105(T). 21 Thermal stresses aluminum-tin alloys. unmodified eutectic alloys. 236-240(T) elevated-temperature alloys. 197(F). 44(T) permanent mold castings. 10(T). 62. 112-113(F. 20 permanent mold castings. 229(T). 14 aluminum-tin alloys. 15 content effect in premium engineered castings. 125(T) Tin. 123(T). 205(F). 110(T).0. 44(T) notch-yield ratio. 108(F). 218-222(T). See Alloy Index. Ternalloy 5. 80(T) Titanium aluminides. 194-195(F). 29. 713. 207(F). 14. 40 Transition phases. 21 mechanical properties. 15 aluminum-copper alloys. 297 designations. 80(T) physical properties. 74(T). All Rights Reserved. 48. 74(T) Thermal fatigue. 64 T4 temper aging response curves. 241-242(T) Tensile stress-strain curves. 104 die castings. 212-242(T) definition. 121(T) . 232(T). 105(T). 52(F). 128(T) casting alloys. 57(T) insulated mold castings. 194-195(F). unmodified eutectic alloys. 125(F) Tear-yield ratio. 3 higher. inclusion. 197(F). 117(T). 104 permanent mold castings. 207(F). 118(F). 21. Ternalloy 7. 1 Toxicity antimony additions. 84(T). 40 Tolerance definition. 224(T). 113-114. 133-173(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites. 197(F). 104 Tensile properties casting alloys. 17 aluminum-silicon-copper-magnesium alloys. 214(T). 88(F). 205(F). 111 Titanium as alloying element. 207(F) premium engineered castings. 9 Thermal stability. 22 Thermally treated (heat treatment designation). 124(F). 215-218(T). 14 aluminum-silicon alloys. 133 Tensile uniaxial true stress-strain curve. 31 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. 112(F). 90-91(T) premium engineered castings. 124(F). 81-82(T). 209(F) aging response curves. 88(T). 11(T). 16-17 boron treatment of. 21 aging response curves. 21 aluminum metal-matrix composites. 209(F) Tensile tests. 194-195(F). 117(T). 112(F). See Alloy Index. 18 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloys. 1-3. 95(T) Ultimate strength. 89-90(T) semisolid castings.0. 2 Technology roadmap. 64 Temper(s) definition. 53(F) sand castings.asminternational. 1 Tensile strength. 30 hydrogen porosity. 72(T). 134-173(F) Turbulence. 80(T) mechanical properties. 110(T). 95(T) Tilt permanent mold casting(s). 13. 64 selection of. 49 porosity. 297 die castings. 211 U Ultimate strength. 119-120(T). 57(T) insulated mold castings. 62. 194-195(F). 85-86(T). 13. 19. 117(T). 14 beryllium-containing compounds. See Alloy Index. Ultimate tensile strength. 124. 133-173(F) aluminum metal-matrix composites.© 2004 ASM International. 78(T) sand castings. 231(T). 106. 50 Typical values uniaxial tensile tests. 109-110(T). 207(F) modified vs. 212-213(T). See Alloy Index. 21 Thixocasting. 61 Tens-50. 66-67. 66 designations. Threshold stress intensity. 230(T).0. 34 content effect in rotor casting. 121. 197-207(F). 115(F). and shrinkage effects. 5-6. 198(F). 80(T) physical properties. 9. Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 56. 61(F) tensile stress-strain curves. 4 Temperature gradients aluminum-magnesium alloys. 17 aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 117-118(F. 67 as alloying element. 119-120(T) uniaxial. 10(T). 16 cast using extractive metallurgy. 205(F). 56. 92(T). 65 Troughing. 22 Toughness. 86-88(T). 15-17. 14 Thixocasting. 15 True strain. 117-118(F. 297 Tooling costs. 16. 21 solidification. 44 Thermal conductivity. 91(T) permanent mold castings. 9. 78(T) elevated-temperature alloys. 202-204(F) Temper designations. 1 solidification. 705. 82-84(T). 117(T).0. 201(F) Tensile yield strength.

See United States Automotive Materials Partnership. 92(F). 12(T) United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). 298 Vacuum density tests. 19 Weight aluminum-tin alloys. 125. 11(T). 90-91(T). 4 United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) program. 232(T). 1 piping. 56. 19. 104 permanent mold castings. 91(T). 1 ductility.S. 228(T). Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 95(T) Yield strength 0. 15 Volume fraction. 47-48. 70(T) aluminum-magnesium alloys. 298 www. See United States Council for Automotive Research. 34 applications. 80(T) mechanical properties. 205(F). 3. 81-82(T). 223-226(T). 4 USAMP. U. 212-242(T) definition. 13 elevated-temperature alloys. 22 . See Alloy Index. 45 Uniaxial creep rupture tests. Department of Energy. 55 shrinkage fraction. 94(T) USCAR program castings. 102-115(F. 211. 51-52 internal. 14 Welding cost. 105(T). 120(F. 28(F). See Vacuum riserless casting (VRC)/pressure riserless casting (PRC). See Vacuum riserless casting. 80(T) mechanical properties. 53(F). T) UNS. 117-120(F. 10(T). 21. 19 solidified. 297 permanent mold castings. 207(F). 130(F) Voids. See Unified Numbering System. 64 Vacuum casting process. 92. UPE. 298 Welding wire definition. 125(T) Vacuum solidification test. 70(T) aluminum-silicon-copper alloys. 7. 211-242(T) Unified Numbering System (UNS) alloy designation system. 80(T) physical properties. 115. 241-242(T) semisolid castings. 243-252(T) Uniaxial tensile tests. 393. 117(T). 55-56 centerline. 21 content in casting alloys. 30 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. VRC/PRC. 50 hydrogen. T) premium engineered castings. 117(T). 15 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. See Unit propagation energy.2% offset. 9. 3 mechanical properties. 2. 21. 118-120(F. 94(T) squeeze castings. X X-ray fluorescence. 84(T).asminternational. 215-218(T). 197(F). 22 Volume sand casting. 50. 13 Work hardening. 4. 212-213(T). 50 Volatilization cadmium additions. 92(T). 3. 298 die castings. 134-173(F) casting alloys. 17. 194-195(F). 8 die casting. 28(F) casting fatigue. 257(F) Vacuum riserless casting (VRC)/pressure riserless casting (PRC). and Applications (#05114G) 340 / Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties. 82-84(T). 80(T) physical properties. 224(T) weldments. 230(T). 123(T). 125(F). See also Tensile strength. 89-90(T). Processes. 80(T) W Wear mold. 29. 109(T). 95(T) castings. 133.0. 66-67 aging response curves. 97. 133. 3. 50 shrinkage. 22 VRC. 51(T) Vacuum die casting. 21. 124(F). 27. 31 effect in/out of solution on resistivity. and Applications sand castings. 93(T) sand castings. 19. 49 Vanadium boron treatment of. 3 grain structure. 113(T). 17 cast using extractive metallurgy. USCAR.org V Vacancies. 85-86(T). 51(T) Vacuum mold (V-mold) casting. 117-119(F. 24 Zirconium boron treatment of. 114-116(F). Wear resistance. 229(T). 204(F) Z Zinc as alloying element. 95(T) mechanical properties. 233-236(T) premium engineered castings.© 2004 ASM International. T) mechanical properties. All Rights Reserved. 95(T) definition. 3. 26(F) Vacuum riserless casting (VRC). T) definition. 57(T). 298 Welding rod definition. 218-222(T). 110. 67 X-ray testing. 123(T). Vapor pressure. 1. 21 definition. 231(T). 86-88(T). 80(T) Zircon. 14 Weldability. 236-240(T) notch-yield ratio. 110-112. 123(T) sand castings. 118(F). 16 Vibration damping performance aluminum metal-matrix composites. 121(T). 80(T) Vanasil. 16 Volume of production. 21. 298 Weldments. 7. 204(F) Young’s modulus investment mold castings. Processes. 15-16 Wrought alloys applications. 49-52(F). 106(T) Ultimate tensile strength. 53-54 Y Yield strength. 67 Undercooling at the solidus. 214(T). T) Whiskers designation. 92. 95(T) Unit propagation energy (UPE). Underaging. 88(T). 211 investment mold castings. 60(F). 101 Wrought product definition. 21. 15 content effect in rotor casting. 31 Vacuum gas test.

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