P. 1
Msc. Lecture 1_rf&Me

# Msc. Lecture 1_rf&Me

|Views: 0|Likes:
Msc. Lecture 1_rf&Me
Msc. Lecture 1_rf&Me

See more
See less

03/16/2013

pdf

text

original

# TE 7005

RF & Microwave Engineering
Semester Spring 2013
Engr. Ghulam Shabbir
M.Sc Telecommunication Engineering
Text Books
1. “Microwave Engineering” by David Pozar

2. “Microwave Devices & Circuits “ by Samuel
Y. LIAO
Sessional:
• 4 Quizzes (40),
• 4 Home Assignments (40),
• Project/Presentation/Attendance (10),

Total:
20% of Sessional + 20% Mid Semester +
40% Final Exam + 20% Viva
Microwave Engineering means engineering and design of
frequency range.
Microwave Engineering
Applications: Microwave oven, Radar, Satellite communi-
cation, direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television, personal
communication systems (PCSs) etc.
Microwave Engineering
• The field of radio frequency (RF) and microwave
engineering generally covers the behavior of alternating
current signals with frequencies in the range of 100 MHz
(1 MHz = 10
6
Hz) to 1000 GHz (1 GHz = 10
9
Hz).
• RF frequencies range from very high frequency (VHF)
(30–300 MHz) to ultra high frequency (UHF) (300–3000
MHz).
• The term microwave is typically used for frequencies
between 3 and 300 GHz, with a corresponding electrical
wavelength between λ = c/ f = 10 cm and λ = 1 mm,
respectively.
• Signals with wavelengths on the order of millimeters are
often referred to as millimeter waves.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Introduction to Microwave Engineering
• Figure-1 shows the location of the RF and microwave
frequency bands in the electromagnetic spectrum.
• Because of the high frequencies (and short wavelengths),
standard circuit theory often cannot be used directly to
solve microwave network problems.
• In a sense, standard circuit theory is an approximation,
or special case, of the broader theory of electromagnetics
as described by Maxwell’s equations.
• This is due to the fact that, in general, the lumped circuit
element approximations of circuit theory may not be
valid at high RF and microwave frequencies.
Introduction to Microwave Engineering
• Microwave components often act as distributed
elements, where the phase of the voltage or current
changes significantly over the physical extent of the
device because the device dimensions are on the order
of the electrical wavelength.
• At much lower frequencies the wavelength is large
enough that there is insignificant phase variation across
the dimensions of a component.
Introduction to Microwave Engineering
• The other extreme of frequency can be identified
as optical engineering, in which the wavelength is
much shorter than the dimensions of the
component.
• In this case Maxwell’s equations can be simplified
to the geometrical optics regime, and optical
systems can be designed with the theory of
geometrical optics
History of Microwave Engineering
 J.C. Maxwell (1831-1879) formulated EM theory in 1873.
 O. Heaviside (1850-1925) introduced vector notation and
provided an analysis foundation for guided waves and
transmission lines from 1885 to 1887.
 H. Hertz (1857-1894) verified the EM propagation along wire
experimentally from 1887 to 1891
 G. Marconi (1874-1937) invented the idea of wireless
communication and developed the first practical commercial
 E.H. Armstrong (1890-1954) invented superheterodyne
architecure and frequency modulation (FM) in 1917.
 N. Marcuvitz, I.I. Rabi, J.S. Schwinger, H.A. Bethe, E.M. Purcell,
C.G. Montgomery, and R.H. Dicke built up radar theory and
practice at MIT in 1940s (World War II).
ps. The names underlined were Nobel Prize winners.
Brief Microwave History
• Maxwell (1864-73)
– integrated electricity and magnetism
– set of 4 coherent and self-consistent equations
– predicted electromagnetic wave propagation
• Hertz (1886-88)
– experimentally confirmed Maxwell’s equations
– oscillating electric spark to induce similar
oscillations in a distant wire loop (ì=10 cm)
Brief Microwave History
• Marconi (early 20th century)
– parabolic antenna to demonstrate wireless
telegraphic communications
– tried to commercialize radio at low frequency
• Lord Rayleigh (1897)
– showed mathematically that EM wave
propagation possible in waveguides
• George Southworth (1930)
– showed waveguides capable of small
bandwidth transmission for high powers
Brief Microwave History
• R.H. and S.F. Varian (1937)
– development of the klystron
– radiation lab series - classic writings
• Development of transistor (1950’s)
• Development of Microwave Integrated
Circuits
– microwave circuit on a chip
– microstrip lines
• Satellites, wireless communications, ...
Introduction to Microwave Engineering
Microwave Networks
• Microwaves?
• S-parameters
• Power Dividers
• Couplers
• Filters
• Amplifiers
Antenna and Wave Propagation
Surface Wave
Direct Wave
Sky Wave
Satellite
communication
Microwave &
Millimeter Wave
Earth
Ionsphere
Transmitting
Antenna
Receiving
Antenna
Repeaters(Terrestrial communication)
50Km@25fts antenna
T
r
o
p
o
s
p
h
e
r
e

Functional Block Diagram of a
Communication System
Input signal
(Audio, Video, Data)
Input
Transducer
Transmitter
Output
Transducer
Output signal
(Audio, Video, Data)
Channel
Electrical System
Wire
or
Wireless
Typical Block Diagram of a Microwave
System
Microwave Applications
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• The microwave spectrum is usually defined as
electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz
to 100 GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower
frequencies.
• Radio frequency (RF) engineering is a subset of electrical
engineering that deals with devices that are designed to
operate in the Radio Frequency spectrum.
• These devices operate within the range of about 3 kHz up
to 300 GHz.
• RF engineering is incorporated into almost everything that
not limited to, Mobile Phones, Radios, WiFi, and walkie
talkies.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Microwave transmission refers to the technology
of transmitting information or energy by the use of radio
waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in
small numbers of centimeter; these are called microwaves.
• This part of the radio spectrum ranges across frequencies of
roughly 1.0 GHz to 30 GHz. These correspond to
wavelengths from 30 centimeters down to 1.0 cm.
• Microwaves are widely used for point-to-point
communications because their small wavelength allows
conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow
beams, which can be pointed directly at the receiving
antenna.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• This allows nearby microwave equipment to use the same
frequencies without interfering with each other, as lower
• Another advantage is that the high frequency of
microwaves gives the microwave band a very large
information-carrying capacity; the microwave band has
a bandwidth 30 times that of all the rest of the radio
spectrum below it.
• A disadvantage is that microwaves are limited to line of
sight propagation; they cannot pass around hills or
mountains as lower frequency radio waves can.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Microwave radio transmission is commonly used in point-
to-point communication systems on the surface of the
Earth, in satellite communications, and in deep space radio
communications.
• Other parts of the microwave radio band are used for
astronomy.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
• The next higher part of the radio electromagnetic
spectrum, where the frequencies are above 30 GHz and
below 100 GHz, are called “millimeter waves" because their
wavelengths are conveniently measured in millimeters, and
their wavelengths range from 10 mm down to 3.0 mm.
• Radio waves in this band are usually strongly attenuated by
the Earthly atmosphere and particles contained in it,
especially during wet weather.
• Also, in wide band of frequencies around 60 GHz, the radio
waves are strongly attenuated by molecular oxygen in the
atmosphere.
• The electronic technologies needed in the millimeter wave
band are also much more difficult to utilize than those of
the microwave band.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
M
i
c
r
o
w
a
v
e

M
i
l
l
i
m
e
t
e
r

W
a
v
e

RF
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wireline and Fiber Optic Channels
Wireline
Coaxial Cable
Waveguide
Fiber
1

k
H
z

1
0

k
H
z

1
0
0

k
H
z

1

M
H
z

1
0

M
H
z

1
0
0

M
H
z

1

G
H
z

1
0

G
H
z

1
0
0

G
H
z

1
0
1
4

H
z

1
0
1
5

H
z

Microwave
Millimeter
wave
RF
Wireline
Coaxial Cable
Waveguide
Fiber
1

k
H
z

1
0

k
H
z

1
0
0

k
H
z

1

M
H
z

1
0

M
H
z

1
0
0

M
H
z

1

G
H
z

1
0

G
H
z

1
0
0

G
H
z

1
0
1
4

H
z

1
0
1
5

H
z

l << ì
Conventional
Circuit Theory
l ~ ì
l >> ì
Microwave
Engineering
Optics
Transmission Line
Wireline and Fiber Optic Channels
 The term microwave refers to alternating current signals with
frequencies between 300 MHz (3×10
8
Hz) and 30 GHz (3×10
10

Hz), with a corresponding electrical wavelength between 1 m
and 1 cm. (Pozar defines the range from 300 MHz to 300 GHz)
 The term millimeter wave refers to alternating current signals
with frequencies between 30 GHz (3×10
10
Hz) to 300 GHz
(3×10
11
Hz), with a corresponding electrical wavelength
between 1 cm to 1 mm.
 The term RF is an abbreviation for the “Radio Frequency”. It
refers to alternating current signals that are generally applied
to radio applications, with a wide electromagnetic spectrum
covering from several hundreds of kHz to millimeter waves.
What are Microwaves?
What are Microwaves?
ì = 30 cm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 30 x 10
-2
= 1 GHz
ì = 1 cm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 1x 10
-2
= 30 GHz
Microwaves: 30 cm – 1 cm
Millimeter waves: 10 mm – 1 mm
(centimeter waves)
ì = 10 mm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 10 x 10
-3
= 30 GHz
ì = 1 mm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 1x 10
-3
= 300 GHz
( )
( )
( ) m
s m
Hz

/ 10 3
wavelength
c light of velocity
f frequency
8
ì ì
×
= =
Note: 1 Giga = 10
9
What are Microwaves?
f =10 kHz, ì = c/f = 3 x 10
8
/ 10 x 10
3
= 3000 m
Phase delay = (2t or 360°) x Physical length/Wavelength
f =10 GHz, ì = 3 x 10
8
/ 10 x 10
9
= 3 cm
Electrical length =1 cm/3000 m = 3.3 x 10
-6
ì, Phase delay = 0.0012°
RF
Microwave
Electrical length = 0.33 ì, Phase delay = 118.8° !!!
Electrically long - The phase of a voltage or current changes significantly
over the physical extent of the device
Electrical length = Physical length/Wavelength (expressed in ì)
US Military Microwave Bands
US New Military Microwave Bands
IEEE Microwave Frequency Bands
Guided Structures at RF Frequencies
Planar Transmission Lines and
Waveguides
Good for Microwave Integrated
Circuit (MIC) Applications
Good for Long Distance
Communication
Conventional Transmission Lines
and Waveguides
How to account for the phase delay?
A
B
A B
A B
Low Frequency
Microwave
A B A B
Propagation delay
negligible
Transmission line
section!
l
Printed Circuit Trace
Z
o
: characteristic impedance
¸ (=o+j|): Propagation constant
Z
o
, ¸
Propagation delay
considered
Electromagnetic Theory
Maxwell’s Equations
• Electric and magnetic phenomena at the macroscopic
level are described by Maxwell’s equations, as
• This work summarized the state of electromagnetic
science at that time and hypothesized from theoretical
considerations the existence of the electrical
displacement current, which led to the experimental
discovery by Hertz of electromagnetic wave
propagation.
• Maxwell’s work was based on a large body of empirical
and theoretical knowledge developed by Gauss,
Maxwell’s Equations
• With an awareness of the historical perspective, it is
usually advantageous from a pedagogical point of view
to present electromagnetic theory from the “inductive,”
or axiomatic, approach by beginning with Maxwell’s
equations.
• The general form of time-varying Maxwell equations,
then, can be written in “point,” or differential, form as
0
,
,
,
= · V
= · V
+
c
c
= × V
÷
c
c ÷
= × V
B
D
J
t
D
H
M
t
B
E
µ
• E is the electric field, in volts
per meter (V/m)
• H is the magnetic field, in
amperes per meter (
• A/m).
Maxwell’s Equations
 Equations in point (differential) form of time-varying
0
,
,
,
= · V
= · V
+
c
c
= × V
÷
c
c ÷
= × V
B
D
J
t
D
H
M
t
B
E
µ
Equation Continuity , 0 =
c
c
+ · V
t
J
µ
( 0, 0) E M V· V· V× = V· =
· V
Generally, EM fields and sources vary with space (x, y, z) and time (t) coordinates.
 Equations in integral form
, Ampere's Law
, Gauss's Law
0, No free magnetic charge
C S
C S
S
S
B
E dl ds
t
D
H dl ds I
t
Dds Q
Bds
c
· = ÷
c
c
· = +
c
=
=
} }
} }
}
}
,
Divergence theorem
,
Stokes' theorem
v s
s c
A A ds
A A dl
V· = ·
V× = ·
} }
} }
Where MKS system of units is used, and
E : electric field intensity, in V/m.
H : magnetic field intensity, in A/m.
D : electric flux density, in Coul/m
2
.
B : magnetic flux density, in Wb/m
2
.
M : (fictitious) magnetic current density, in V/m
2
.
J : electric current density, in A/m
2
.
ρ: electric charge density, in Coul/m
3
.
 ultimate source of the electromagnetic field.
Q : total charge contained in closed surface S.
I : total electric current flow through surface S.
 Time-Harmonic Fields
0
,
,
,
= · V
= · V
+ = × V
÷ ÷ = × V
B
D
J D j H
M B j E
µ
e
e
When steady-state condition is considered, phasor representations of
Maxwell’s equations can be written as : (time dependence by multiply e
-jet
)
2
: Displacement current density, in A/m EM wave propagatiom
D
t
c
¬
c
 Constitutive Relations
Question : 2(6) equations are not enough to solve 4(12) unknown
field components
 In free space
H B
E D
0
0
,
µ
c
=
=
where c
0
= 8.854×10
-12
farad/m is the permittivity of free space.
μ
0
= 4t×10
-7
Henry/m is the permeability of free space.
 In istropic materials
(e.g. Crystal structure and ionized gases)
| | | |
3 3 3 3
,
x x x x
y y y y
z z z z
D E B H
D E B H
D E B H
c µ
× ×
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
= =
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
) 1 ( , ) (
); 1 ( ,
0
" '
0
0
" '
0
m m
e e
j H P H B
j E P E D
_ µ µ µ µ µ µ
_ c c c c c c
+ = ÷ = = + =
+ = ÷ = = + =
where P
e
is electric polarization, P
m
is magnetic polarization,
_
e
is electric susceptibility, and _
m
is magnetic susceptibility.
Complex
c and µ
The negative imaginary part of c and µ account for loss in medium (heat).
, Ohm's law from an EM field point of view
=
= ' ( " )
= ( ' " )
"
tan , Loss tangent
'

J E
H j D J
j E E
j E E
j j j E
o
e
ec o
ec ec o
o
e c ec
e
ec o
o
ec
=
V× = +
+
+ +
÷ ÷
+
=
where o is conductivity (conductor loss),
ωc’’ is loss due to dielectric damping,
(ωc’’ + o) can be seen as the total effective conductivity,
o is loss angle.
In a lossless medium, c and µ are real numbers.
Microwave materials are usually characterized by specifying the real
permittivity, c’=c
r
c
0
,and the loss tangent at a certain frequency.
It is useful to note that, after a problem has been solved assuming a
lossless dielectric, loss can easily be introduced by replaced the real c with
a complex c.
Example1.1 : In a source-free region, the electric field intensity is given as
follow. Find the signal frequency?
V/m 4 ˆ
) 3 ( y x j
e z E
÷ ÷
· =
Solution :
) 3 (
0
) 3 (
0
0
ˆ 4 ˆ 12
4 0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1

y x j
y x j
e
y x
e
z y x
z y x
j
H H j E
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
÷ = ¬ ÷ = × V
eµ eµ

) 3 (
0 0
2
) 3 (
0
) 3 (
0
0
0
ˆ 16
0
4 12
ˆ ˆ ˆ
1

y x j
y x j y x j
e
z
e e
z y x
z y x
j
E
E j H
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
c
c
c
c
= ¬
= × V
c µ e
eµ eµ
ec
ec
Boundary Conditions
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
,
, ,
H n H n E n E n
B n B n D n D n
× = × × = ×
· = · · = ·
 Fields at a dielectric interface
 Fields at the interface with a perfect conductor (Electric Wall)
S
S
J H n E n
B n D n
= × = ×
= · = ·
, 0
, 0 , µ
 Magnetic Wall boundary condition (not really exist)
0
,
, 0
, 0
= ×
÷ = ×
= ·
= ·
H n
M E n
B n
D n
S
· ÷ o ty conductivi Assumed
It is analogous to the relations between voltage and current at the end of
a short-circuited transmission line.
It is analogous to the relations between voltage and current at the end of
a open-circuited transmission line.
Helmholtz (Vector) Wave Equation
 In a source-free, linear, isotropic, and homogeneous
medium
0
, 0
2 2
2 2
= + V
= + V
H H
E E
µc e
µc e
is defined the wavenumber, or propagation constant
, of the medium; its unit are 1/m.
 Plane wave in a lossless medium
( ) ,
1
( ) [ ],

jkz jkz
x
jkz jkz
y
E z E e E e
H z E e E e
k
q
e µc
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷
= +
= ÷
=
 Solutions of above wave equations
H
E
k
÷ = =
c
µ

q
is wave impedance, intrinsic impedance of medium.
In free space, q
0
=377O.
ˆ
Transverse Electromagnetic Wave
(TEM)
x y
E H z ± ± ± ¬

,
E j H
H j E
ec

= × V
÷ = × V

) tan 1 ( ) ( 1
' " '
o µc e c c µ e
ec
o
µc e | o ¸ j j j j j j j ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + =
is phase velocity, defined as a fixed phase point on
the wave travels.
In free space, v
p
=c=2.998×10
8
m/s.

µc
e 1
= = =
k dt
dz
v
p
f
v v
k
p p
= = =
e
t
t
ì
2
2
is wavelength, defined as the distance between two
successive maximum (or minima) on the wave.
 Plane wave in a general lossy medium
In wave equations, j k ¸ for following conditions.
-1
: Complex propagation constant (m )
: Attenuation constant(Np/m;1Np/m=8.69dB/m), : Phase constant(rad/m)
¸
o |
eµo o
o
2 1
= =
s
is skin depth or penetration depth, defined as the
amplitude of fields in the conductor decay by an amount
1/e or 36.8%, after traveling a distance of one skin depth.
Good conductor
Condition: (1) o >>ωc or (2) c’’>>c’
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
 Consider a circuit or device inserted
into a T-Line as shown in the Figure.
We can refer to this circuit or device
as a two-port network.
 The behavior of the network can be
completely characterized by its
scattering parameters (S-parameters),
or its scattering matrix, [S].
 Scattering matrices are frequently
used to characterize multiport
networks, especially at high
frequencies.
 They are used to represent microwave
devices, such as amplifiers and
circulators, and are easily related to
concepts of gain, loss and reflection.
| |
11 12
21 22
S S
S
S S
(
=
(
¸ ¸
Scattering matrix
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
The scattering parameters represent
ratios of voltage waves entering and
leaving the ports (If the same
characteristic impedance, Zo, at all ports
in the network are the same).
1 11 1 12 2
. V S V S V
÷ + +
= +
2 21 1 22 2
. V S V S V
÷ + +
= +
11 12 1 1
21 22 2 2
,
S S V V
S S V V
÷ +
÷ +
=
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
In matrix form this is written
| | | || | . V S V
÷ +
=
2
1
11
1
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
1
1
12
2
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
1
2
22
2
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
2
2
21
1
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Properties:
The two-port network is reciprocal
if the transmission characteristics
are the same in both directions
(i.e. S
21
= S
12
).
It is a property of passive circuits
(circuits with no active devices or
ferrites) that they form reciprocal
networks.
A network is reciprocal if it is equal
to its transpose. Stated
mathematically, for a reciprocal
network
| | | | ,
t
S S =
11 12 11 21
21 22 12 22
.
t
S S S S
S S S S
=
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
12 21
S S =
Condition for Reciprocity:
1) Reciprocity
Microwave Applications
– Wireless Applications
– Optical Communications
– Remote Sensing
– Domestic and Industrial Applications
– Medical Applications
– Surveillance
– Astronomy and Space Exploration
tracking accuracy poor fair good
identification poor fair good
volume search good fair poor
adverse weather perf. good fair poor
perf. in smoke, dust, ... good good fair

Microwave Engr. Distinctions
· 1 - Circuit Lengths:
· Low frequency ac or rf circuits
· time delay, t, of a signal through a device
· t = L/v « T = 1/f where T=period of ac signal
· but fì=v so 1/f= ì/v
· so L «ì, I.e. size of circuit is generally much
smaller than the wavelength (or propagation
times or phase shift ~ 0)
· Microwaves: L~ ì
· propagation times not negligible
· Optics: L» ì
Microwave Distinctions
· 2 - Skin Depth:
· degree to which electromagnetic field
penetrates a conducting material
· microwave currents tend to flow along the
surface of conductors
· so resistive effect is increased, i.e.
· R ~ R
DC
a / 2 o, where
– o = skin depth = 1/ (t f µ
o
o
cond
)
1/2
– where, R
DC
= 1/ (t a
2
o
cond
)
– a = radius of the wire
• R
µwaves in Cu
>R
low freq. in Cu
Microwave Engr. Distinctions
· 3 - Measurement Technique
· At low frequencies circuit properties
measured by voltage and current
· But at microwaves frequencies, voltages
and currents are not uniquely defined; so
impedance and power are measured rather
than voltage and current
Circuit Limitations
• Simple circuit: 10V, ac driven, copper wire,
#18 guage, 1 inch long and 1 mm in
diameter: dc resistance is 0.4 mO,
L=0.027μH
– f = 0; X
L
= 2 t f L ~ 0.18 f ×10
-6
=0
– f = 60 Hz; X
L
~ 10
-5
O = 0.01 mO
– f = 6 MHz; X
L
~ 1 O
– f = 6 GHz; X
L
~ 10
3
O = 1 k O
– So, wires and printed circuit boards cannot be
used to connect microwave devices; we need
transmission lines, waveguides, striplines, and
microstrip
High-Frequency Resistors
• Inductance and resistance of wire resistors
under high-frequency conditions (f > 500
MHz):
– eL/R
DC
~ a / (2 o)
– R /R
DC
~ a / (2 o)
– where, R
DC
= /(t a
2
o
cond
)
– a = radius of the wire
– o = skin depth = 1/ (t f µ
o
o
cond
)
-1/2

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design
High Frequency Capacitor
• Equivalent circuit consists of parasitic lead
conductance L, series resistance R
s
describing
the losses in the the lead conductors and
dielectric loss resistance R
e
= 1/G
e
(in parallel)
with the Capacitor.
• G
e
= e C tan A
s
, where
– tan A
s
= (ec/o
diel
)
-1
= loss tangent

Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design
Reference: Ludwig & Bretchko, RF Circuit Design
Transit Limitations
• Consider an FET
• Source to drain spacing roughly 2.5 microns
• Apply a 10 GHz signal:
– T = 1/f = 10
-10
= 0.10 nsec
– transit time across S to D is roughly 0.025 nsec
or 1/4 of a period so the gate voltage is low
and may not permit the S to D current to flow
Ref: text by Pozar
Wireless Communications
Options
• Sonic or ultrasonic - low data rates, poor
immunity to interference
• Infrared - moderate data rates, but easily
blocked by obstructions (use for TV remotes)
• Optical - high data rates, but easily
obstructed, requiring line-of-sight
• RF or Microwave systems - wide bandwidth,
reasonable propagation
Cellular Telephone Systems (1)
• Division of geographical area into non-
overlapping hexagonal cells, where each
has a receiving and transmitting station
• Adjacent cells assigned different sets of
channel frequencies, frequencies can be
reused if at least one cell away
• Generally use circuit-switched public
telephone networks to transfer calls
between users
Cellular Telephone Systems (2)
• Initially all used analog FM modulation and
divided their allocated frequency bands
Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
– both transmit and receive bands have 832, 25
kHz wide bands. [824-849 MHz and 869-894
MHz] using full duplex (with frequency
division)
• 2
nd
generation uses digital or Personal
Communication Systems (PCS)
Satellite systems
• Large number of users over wide areas
• Geosynchronous orbit (36,000 km above
earth)
– fixed position relative to the earth
– TV and data communications
• Low-earth orbit (500-2000 km)
– reduce time-delay of signals
– reduce the need for large signal strength
– requires more satellites
• Very expensive to maintain & often needs
line-of sight
Global Positioning Satellite
System (GPS)
• 24 satellites in a medium earth orbit (20km)
• Operates at two bands, L1 at 1575.42 and L2
at 1227.60 MHz , transmitting spread
spectrum signals with binary phase shift
keying.
• Accurate to better that 100 ft and with
differential GPS (with a correcting known base
station), better than 10 cm.
Frequency choices
• availability of spectrum
• noise (increases sharply at freq. below 100
MHz and above 10 GHz)
• antenna gain (increases with freq.)
• bandwidth (max. data rate so higher freq.
gives smaller fractional bandwidth)
• transmitter efficiency (decreases with freq.)
• propagation effects (higher freq, line-of sight)
Propagation
• Free space power density decreases by 1/R
2

• Atmospheric Attenuation
• Reflections with multiple propagation paths
cause fading that reduces effective range, data
rates and reliability and quality of service
• Techniques to reduce the effects of fading are
expensive and complex
Antennas
• RF to an electromagnetic wave or the inverse
• Radiation pattern - signal strength as a function
of position around the antenna
• Directivity - measure of directionality
• Relationship between frequency, gain, and size
of antenna, ì = c/f
– size decreases with frequency
– gain proportional to its cross-sectional area \ ì
2
– phased (or adaptive) array - change direction of
beam electronically

berikutnya coordinate systems Untuk
z x
an menghasilk x / partial oleh n didefisika yg Perubahan
C sin A B A
lainnya r terhadap satu vecto projeksi
product, dot atau scalar : cos A B A
on vectors interseksi B dan A Misalkan
Review
z y
y
x
B
B
Math
  

   
   
 
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ V
c c
= ×
= ·
u
u
sungai) di mengalir yg daun (pusaran rotation
(Russian) ROT or ; ) ( ) A (
flow outward net : Divergence ; A
change of rate : gradient ; u
(Space) ruang dalam bervariasi
z) y, u(x, u scalar memiliki field sebuah jika
z
Curl
y
A
x
A
z
A
y
A
x
A
z
z
u
y
y
u
x
x
u
z
x
y
z
y
x
c
c
+
c
c
= × V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= · V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
=

  
theorem (batu) Stokes ; ) (
theorem Divergence ; ) (
0 curl of div or
0 ) ( ) ( ; ) ( ) (
0 gradient of curl or 0 ; 0
} }
} }
× V = ·
· V = ·
=
= · V × V = × V · V · × = × ·
= = V × V = ×
÷
÷

 

 
       
 
s
v
s
ds A d A
dV A ds A
C C C B A C B A
u A A
Maxwell’s Equations
• Gauss
• No Magnetic Poles
• Ampere’s Circuit Law
t D J H
t B E
B
D
c c + = × V
c ÷c = × V
= - V
= - V
/
/
0
u µ
Characteristics of Medium
Constitutive Relationships

n propagatio of direction z constant, phase
constant on attentuati , j where
z) - t exp(j to al proportion H E,
plasma ferrites, except scalars , ,
surfaces on so not itself, medium in the 0, J
s Assumption
Current Convective J J J J E, J
ty Permeabili Magnetic , H, B
y Permitivit Dielectric , E D
v v, c c
r o
, o r
= = |
= o | + o = ¸
¸ e
c µ
= µ =
= + = o =
µ µ = µ µ =
c c = c c =
v
Fields in a Dielectric Materials

0 on conservati entergy to due negative
(heat) medium in the loss for accounts
magnitude) of orders 4 or (3 dielectric good for ,
j ) 1 (
E E ) 1 ( D
ity suceptibil dielectric , E density moment dipole P
density) nt displaceme or flux electric (D 0 J and
so magnetic, non and , P E D Assume
e
o
e
o
e
o
e
o o
> c
' '
c
' '
c
'
<< c
' '
c
' '
÷ c
'
= _ + c = c
c = _ + c =
= _ c _ = =
= = µ =
µ = µ = + c =
Fields in a Conductive Materials

c
'
e
o + c
' '
e
÷ o =
o + c
' '
e
o + c
' '
e + c
'
e =
e
o
÷ c
' '
÷ c
'
e =
c
' '
÷ e + c
'
e + o = c +
e
o
e =
ec + o =
c
c
c + o =
c
c
+ = × V
o = =
e
tan tangent loss effective
ty conductivi effective the is where
E )] ( j [ E ) j j ( j
E ) ) j ( j j ( E )
j
( j
E j E
t
E
E
t
D
J H
e as vary fields E where , E J J
t j
c
Wave Equation

c µ
µc e
µc e
µc e
ec eµ

ec eµ
e
and by described medium in
waves of constant n propagatio :
; H - H
; E - E
E ) )( (
) H ( E - E) ( E) (
E j H H, -j E
j t / Consider
2
2 2
2 2
2
= ÷
= V
= V
÷ =
÷ × V = V - V V = × V × V
= × V = × V
÷ c c
k def ine
similarly
j j
j
General Procedure to Find Fields in a
Guided Structure
• 1- Use wave equations to find the z
component of E
z
and/or H
z
– note classifications
– TEM: E
z
=

H
z
= 0
– TE: E
z
=

0,

H
z
= 0
– TM: H
z
=

0,

E
z
= 0
– HE or Hybrid: E
z
=

0,

H
z
= 0

General Procedure to Find Fields in a
Guided Structure
• 2- Use boundary conditions to solve for any
constraints in our general solution for E
z

and/or H
z

conductor of surface the to normal n
ˆ
where
conductor perfect of surface on 0 H or , 0 H n
ˆ
J H n
ˆ
/ E n
ˆ
conductor perfect of surface on 0 E or 0, E n
ˆ
n
s
t
=
= = ·
= ×
= ·
= = ×

c µ
s
Plane Waves in Lossless Medium

direction z in the moving constant kz t ω
)) kz t (cos( E )) kz t (cos( E ) t , z ( E
: domain time in the or
e E e E ) z ( E 0 E k
z
E

0 y / x / and E E
medium lossless a in
real are and since real is ω k where 0, E k E
x
j kz j kz
x x
2
2
x
2
x
2 2
+ = ÷
+ e + ÷ e =
+ = ¬ = +
c
c

= c c = c c ÷
c µ µc ÷ = + V
÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ +
Phase Velocity

c f v
f v
f
v v
c
k dt
d
dt
dz
p
p
p p
o
o
= =
= = = =
= = +
× = = =
= = = = = =
ì
ì
e
t
t
ì
ì t ì e e
c µ
µc µc e
e e e
: space free in
or
2
k
2
k 2 )) k(z - t ( - kz) - t (
maxima successive 2 between distance : Wavelength
m/sec 10 3
1
v space free in
1
)
k
constant - t
( v
a velocity at els point trav phase Fixed
8
p
p
Wave Impedance

E/H or
k
where
) e E e E (
k
H
H j e jkE e jkE
y
ˆ
z
E
x
ˆ
E z
ˆ
z
so ; 0
y x
H j
t
H
- E : eqn s Maxwell' By
j kz j kz
y
y
j kz j kz
x
x
÷ q

= q
÷

=
eµ ÷ = + ÷
c
c
÷ ×
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
eµ ÷ =
c
c
µ = × V
+ ÷ ÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ +
Plane Waves in a Lossy Medium

k and j and
0 , 0 note ) j 1 ( j j
complex now , number e wav ) j 1 (
0 E ) j 1 ( E
E ) E ( E
) E E j ( j ) H ( j E
E E j H and H j E
2 2
2 2
2
= | | ÷ ¸
÷ o ÷ o
ec
o
÷ µc e = | + o ÷ ¸
= ¸ ÷ =
ec
o
÷ µc e
=
ec
o
÷ µc e + V
V ÷ · V V = × V × V
o + ec ÷ eµ ÷ = × V eµ ÷ = × V × V
o + ec ÷ = × V eµ ÷ = × V
Wave Impedance in Lossy Medium

losses with impedance wave
j
where
) e E e E (
j
H
) z t cos( e domain time e e e
e E e E ) z ( E 0 E
z
E
0 y / x / and x
ˆ
E E before as
z z
y
z z j z z
z z
x x
2
2
x
2
x
=
¸

= q
+

¸ ÷
=
| ÷ e ÷ =
+ = ÷ = ¸ ÷
c
c

= c c = c c ÷
¸ + ÷ ¸ ÷ +
o ÷ | ÷ o ÷ ¸ ÷
¸ + ÷ ¸ ÷ +
Plane Waves in a good Conductor

surface on the flow currents s, frequencie microwave at
Au) Ag, Cu, (Al, metals most for m 1 GHz, 10 at
depth skin / 2 / 1
2 / 2 / ) j 1 (
/ j j / j j
case practical
s
s
2

µ s o
÷ eµo = o = o
eµo = o eµo + =
ec µco e ÷ = ec o ÷ µc e ~ ¸
ec >> o
Energy and Power

ed transmitt power ds z
ˆ
H E Re 2 / 1 P
) W W ( j 2 P P
sources by generated power P
dv H H 4 / dv B H Re 4 / 1 W
dv E E 4 / dv D E Re 4 / 1 W
loss as dissipated or ed transmitt be may that
power carry and energy magnetic and electric store
that fields up sets energy netic electromag of source A
*
s
o
e m o
s
v
*
v
*
m
v
*
v
*
e
= · × =
+ e + + =
=
· µ = · =
· c = · =
}
} }
} }

scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->