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MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

PSS 13.1: Let's Go for a Spin
Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 13.1 for problems involving rotational dynamics. A uniform board of mass and length is pivoted on one end and is supported in the horizontal .

position by a rope attached to the other end. Another rope, attached to the board a distance from the pivot point, is being pulled straight down with a constant force of magnitude

Suddenly, the rope attached to the end of the board breaks. What is the instantaneous angular acceleration of the board?
MODEL: Model the object as a simple shape. VISUALIZE: Draw a pictorial representation to clarify the situation, define cordinates and symbols,

and list known information.
s s

s

Identify the axis about which the object rotates. Identify forces and determine their distance from the axis. For most problems it will be useful to draw a free-body diagram. Identify any torques caused by the forces and the signs of the torques.

SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on Newton's 2nd law for rotational motion:

. Find the moment of inertia in Table 13.13 or, if needed, calculate it as an integral or by using the Parallel-Axis Theorem. Use rotational kinematics to find angles and angular velocities.

s

s

ASSESS: Check that your result has the correct units, is reasonable, and answers the question.

Identify the object for which you will write the equation of Newton's 2nd law. Make reasonable simplifying assumptions. Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The board should be modeled as ANSWER: a thin rod in rotational equilibrium. a thin rod in total equilibrium. a thin rod rotating about its center. a thin rod rotating about one end.

Draw the pictorial representation and list all known information. Mark all forces. Identify the axis of rotation and show the distances from that axis to each force applied. Use your sketch to answer the following questions. Part B How far is the axis of rotation from the center of mass of the board? Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. ANSWER:

Part C How far is the axis of rotation from the point of application of force ?

Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction. ANSWER:

Part D How many forces are acting on the board after the rope attached to the end of the board breaks? ANSWER: Part E one two three four

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View When you write Newton's 2nd law for the rotational motion of the board.1 Find the net torque acting on the board Part not displayed Part F. The figure shows what a good pictorial diagram for this problem might look like. how many nonzero torques will it contain? ANSWER: one two three four Although the reaction force acting on the board at the pivot point is not zero. Now use the information and the insights that you have accumulated to construct the necessary mathematical expressions and to derive the solution.2 Find the moment of inertia of the board . and the moment arm is zero. Part F. Part F Find the angular acceleration of the board immediately after the rope breaks. its torque about that point is zero because that force is applied at the axis of rotation.

and D have the correct units. Type alphabetically the letters corresponding to the correct answers. ANSWER: BD Part H . only you can assess whether your answer seems right.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Find the moment of inertia of the board with respect to the axis of rotation. C. enter ACD. The following questions will help you practice the skills necessary for such an assessment. E. Do not use commas. Express your answer in terms of the given quantities and appropriate constants. without the computer-provided feedback. if if options A. You may or may not use all given quantities. Part G Which of these mathematical expressions have units of angular acceleration? A. You may or may not use all given quantities. ANSWER: = When you work on a problem on your own. ANSWER: = Express your answer in terms of the given quantities and appropriate constants. B. C. D. For instance.

would increase because the torque due to the weight of the board is larger. you can see that it agrees with The increase of the magnitude of the magnitude of intuition. Center of Mass and External Forces . would stay the same. it also increases the moment of inertia of the board by the square of that same factor. Checking the mathematical expression for If the length of the board were increased and all other conditions remained the same. thus increasing . how would this affect the angular acceleration of the board? Choose the answer that not only indicates the correct change in the angular acceleration but also gives the correct explanation. would decrease. The increase of the length of the board by a certain factor increases the net torque acting on the board by that same factor. would decrease because the moment of inertia of the board increases with length. ANSWER: would increase because the torque acting on the board increases. The net result is that the magnitude of decreases. would decrease because the moment of inertia increases more than the torque on the board. however. would stay the same because both the moment of inertia and the torque on the board increase.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Intuitively. Part I . what can you say about the initial angular acceleration if the magnitude of the force acting on the board were increased and all other conditions remained the same? ANSWER: would increase. increases the net torque acting on the board.

is the Internal force: Any force that results from an interaction between the objects inside your system. Before you use the center of mass approach. Of course. the internal forces do not affect the motion of the system's center of mass. and can be found in a similar way. Such an approach can greatly simplify problem solving. each corresponding -coordinate of that object. located at the system's center of mass. Making a wise choice for the system is often the first step in solving the problem efficiently. you should first understand the following terms: System: Any collection of objects that are of interest to you in a particular situation. can often be treated as a point particle. External force: Any force acting on an object inside your system that results from an interaction with an object outside your system. To find the coordinate of the center of mass of a system in a given frame of reference. you have a certain freedom in choosing your system. Consider a system of two blocks that have masses and : . both point-like and extended ones. a system can be treated as a point-like particle with its mass concentrated at the center of mass. for many purposes. In many problems. A complex system of objects. Center of mass: The point that represents the "average" position of the entire mass of a system. As we will show.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Learning Goal: Understand that. the following definition can be used: is the mass of one of the objects within the system and In this definition.

and . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part B If ANSWER: . the blocks' motion is restricted along the x-axis. then the center of mass is located: to the left of to the left of to the right of to the right of to the right of to the left of Part C If . In this ANSWER: Part D .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Assume that the blocks are point-like particles and have coordinates problem. then the center of mass is located: at at and half-way between and the answer depends on at a distance much greater than at a distance much less than at a distance much less than at a distance much greater than at a distance much less than at a distance much less than . Part A Find the x-coordinate of the center of mass of the system. . and as shown.

Part E and . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Of course. The velocity of the center of mass is then: ANSWER: directed to the left directed to the right zero the answer depends on the ratio is directed to the right and is directed Part F Let us assume that the blocks are in motion. to the left. Suppose that and have equal magnitudes. Find the -component of the velocity of the center of mass at that moment. and the -components of their velocities at a certain moment are and . in general. . and . Remember that. Also. and the x-components of their momenta at a certain moment are and . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part G . respectively. Find the x-component of the velocity of the center of mass at that moment. respectively. and .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Let us assume that the blocks are in motion. can be positive or negative or equal to zero. . .

and . the following must be true: none of the above Part H Let us assume that the blocks are accelerating. Therefore. and the -xcomponents of their accelerations at a certain moment are and .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Suppose that ANSWER: . An external force forces are applied to block . Remember that. Part I Consider the same system of two blocks. . can be positive or negative or equal to zero. is now acting on block . Find the x-component of the acceleration of the center of mass at that moment. and We will now consider the effect of external and internal forces on the acceleration of the center of mass. No . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . respectively. Of course. in general.

ANSWER: = Note that.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Find the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. Express your answer in terms of the xand components (not magnitudes!) and . and is the total mass of the system. there are two forces involved.1 Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of the x-component ANSWER: = Part J Consider the same system of two blocks. . Even though each force is only applied to one object. Now. An external force is acting on block and another external force is acting on block . in both cases. Find the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. and . of the force. it affects the acceleration of the center of mass of the entire system. the acceleration of mass can be found as where is the net external force applied to the system. of the forces. Hint I.

ANSWER: = Newton's 3rd law tells you that . ANSWER: cannot possibly be zero if two external forces are involved Part L Consider the same system of two blocks. there are two internal forces involved.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View This result is especially useful since it can be applied to a general case. The internal forces do not change the velocity of the center of mass of the system. you can conclude that . Part K Consider the previous situation. and . An internal force is applied to block . involving any number of objects moving in all directions and being acted upon by any number of external forces. From your answers above. of the corresponding Keep in mind that forces. Express your answer in terms of the xcomponents (not magnitudes!) and of the forces. not the magnitudes. Under what condition would the acceleration of the center of mass be zero? and represent the components. Now. . by block and another internal force is applied to block by block Find the acceleration of the center of mass of the system.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View In the absence of any external forces. and unit as a function of is itself a in the counterclockwise direction from the positive x axis. We can specify its position solely by . . changes at . For later remember that vectors and corresponding to the coordinate system in the figure. where a constant rate . the angle that the vector from the origin to the block makes with our chosen reference axis at time .1 Part not displayed Part A. You just demonstrated this to be the case for the two-body situation. . however. Following the standard conventions we measure Part A What is the position vector angle function of time. Part A.2 Part not displayed Give your answer in terms of . ANSWER: = Uniform Circular Motion A frequently encountered kind of circular motion is uniform circular motion. and is constant. In other words. Consider a particle--the small red block in the figure--that is constrained to move in a circle of radius . it is true in more general cases as well. Circular Motion Tutorial Learning Goal: Understand how to find the equation of motion of a particle undergoing uniform circular motion.

Usually. For uniform circular motion. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part D Find . Part E . . find Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = and . and unit vectors and . .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View .1 Finding Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = and unit vectors and/or . a position vector at time . Part B . Part C What does become now? . Hint D. at an arbitrary time .

the kinetic energy is given by the formula rotating at a constant angular speed directly: . By now. . angle . . Hint E.e. . One thing that you may have noticed was the similarity between translational and rotational formulas.1 Hint not displayed Part E.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Determine an expression for the position vector of a particle that starts on the positive y axis at (i. ) and subsequently moves with constant . and that changing the initial coordinates introduces a phase angle in the equation. However. the kinetic energy can be written as .. be written: for rotational motion of a system of small particles or for a rigid object with continuous mass distribution. indeed. For a particle of mass moving at a constant speed . If we consider instead a rigid object of mass the kinetic energy of such an object cannot be found by using the formula different parts of the object have different linear speeds.2 Part not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = From this excersice you have learned that even though the motion takes place in the plane there is only one degree of freedom. Such a formula can. It would be desirable to obtain a formula for kinetic energy of rotational motion that is similar to the one for translational motion. and unit vectors and . you may be familiar with a set of equations describing rotational kinematics. such a formula would include the term instead of . at . . they all have the same angular speed. to be able to calculate the moments of inertia for a group of particles and for a continuous mass distribution with a high degree of symmetry. . Such similarity also exists in dynamics and in the work-energy domain. Introduction to Moments of Inertia Learning Goal: To understand the definition and the meaning of moment of inertia.

the moment of inertia (also known as . may have different kinetic energy . Do not use commas. The moment of inertia is also dependent on the axis of rotation. For instance. linear speed linear acceleration angular speed angular acceleration total mass shape and density of the object location of the axis of rotation Type the letters corresponding to the correct answers. type CD. of rotation. E. It is recommended that you read the corresponding sections in your textbook before attempting these questions. ANSWER: EFG Unlike mass. B. if you think that only assumptions C and D are correct. the analogue of such summation is integration over the entire object: . G. Part A On which of the following does the moment of inertia of an object depend? A. you will answer several questions that will help you better understand the moment of inertia.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Here. rotating with the same angular speed. It is the quantity representing the inertia with respect to rotational motion. and its applicability. its properties. It can be shown that for a discrete system. consisting of infinitely many particles. is called the moment of inertia of the object (or of the system of particles). the moment of inertia depends not only on the amount of matter in an object but also on the distribution of mass in space. In this formula. The same object. In this problem. is the mass of the ith particle and is the distance of that particle from the axis For a rigid object. C. D. say of rotational inertia) is given by particles. F.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View depending on the axis of rotation. = Part D Find the total moment of inertia respect to the y axis. the moment of inertia inertia of particle a with respect to the z axis (the axis that passes through the origin perpendicular to both the x and y axes). if the x axis is the axis of particle a with respect to the y axis. shown in the figure . and undefined: an axis of rotation has not been specified. and the moment of of rotation). Part C Find the moment of inertia of particle a with respect to the x axis (that is. Express your answers in terms of ANSWER: . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = of the system of two particles shown in the diagram with and . Part B What is the moment of inertia particle a? ANSWER: of . Consider the system of two particles. suppose that both particles rotate with the same angular speed while maintaining their distances from the y axis. For parts G to J. a and b. Particle a has mass particle b has mass . Part E about the y axis . . and separated by commas.

To calculate the moment of inertia. when we analyze an extended object with mass continuously distributed in space. however. of the system found in Part F. It is useful to see how the formula for rotational kinetic energy agrees with the formula for the kinetic energy of an object that is not rotating. of the . and . you are asked to perform such a calculation. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Not surprisingly. find the total kinetic energy system of particles.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Using the total moment of inertia of the system. an infinite number) of terms. things get trickier. They should. . . of particle b. Such an object can be viewed as a system of a very large number of particles. and separated by a comma. let us find the kinetic energy of each particle. each of a very small mass. find the kinetic energy and give the same result. In the next part. . the formulas . A system of two (or more) discrete particles is relatively easy to deal with. To see the connection. of course. . one must add a very large number (in the limit.1 Part not displayed Express your answers in terms of ANSWER: . find the total kinetic energy . and . Part F Using the formula for kinetic energy of a moving particle of particle a and the kinetic energy Part F. Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . since the rotational kinetic energy of a system of particles is simply the sum of the kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the system. = Part G Using the results for the kinetic energy of each particle.

Find .1 Part not displayed Express ANSWER: = Part B Now consider a cube of mass with edges of length . Part A Suppose a uniform slender rod has length and mass . . The moment of inertia of the rod about about an axis that is perpendicular to the rod and that passes through its center of mass is given by . the moment of inertia of the rod with respect to a parallel axis through . Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer. the moment of inertia about an axis p through one of the edges of the cube in terms of and . Part A. The mathematical statement of the theorem is is the perpendicular distance from the center of mass to the axis that passes through point p. The moment of inertia of the cube about an axis through its center of mass and perpendicular to one of its faces is given by . the moment of inertia of an object about an axis passing . where .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Parallel Axis Theorem The parallel axis theorem relates through its center of mass. Find one end of the rod. to . the moment of inertia of the same object about a parallel axis passing through point p. and is the mass of the object.

s . .1 Part not displayed Express in terms of and . in string 1 walks from one end of the bar to the other. ANSWER: = PSS 13. . s s s Pick any point you wish as a pivot point. MODEL: Model the object as a simple shape. String 1 is attached to the end of the bar and string 2 is attached a distance A monkey of mass at the moment that the monkey is halfway between the ends of the bar. Determine the moment arms of all forces about this pivot point. Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer. and . Find the tension information. The net torque about this point is zero. Determine the sign of each torque about this pivot point.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Part B.2: Walking the Plank Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 13.2 for problems involving equilbrium of rigid bodies. SOLVE: The mathematical representation is based on the fact that an object in total equilibrium experiences neither a net force nor a net torque. Write equations for . Thus. VISUALIZE: Draw a pictorial representation that shows all forces and distances. A horizontal uniform bar of mass and length is hung horizontally on two vertical strings. List known from the other end.

Part A The bar should be modeled as ANSWER: a particle moving with constant acceleration. a flexible rod moving with constant acceleration. a flexible rod in total equilibrium. a rigid rod moving with constant acceleration. Use your sketch to answer the following questions. Part B Which of the following diagrams correctly represents the forces acting at the moment described in the problem introduction? (Note that the forces are not necessarily drawn to scale. labeling all forces and distances. We start by making simplifying assumptions appropriate for the situation.) ANSWER: A B C D .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View s Solve the three simultaneous equations. a particle in total equilibrium. ASSESS: Check that your answer is reasonable and answers the question. a rigid rod in total equilibrium. Now draw a sketch.

Eliminating terms. Now use the information and the insights that you have accumulated to construct the necessary mathematical expressions and to derive the solution. from the torque equation generally makes it easier to solve. on your own sketch. particularly those involving unknown quantities. they should be.2 Force exerted by the monkey on the bar Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of appropriate constants and any of the given variables. choosing the end of the rod as a pivot leads to the most complicated torque equation involving all the forces in the problem. the magnitude of the force of tension in string 1. Other choices of pivot would also work. the torque equation will not depend on the (unknown) tension in string 2. but they might lead to more complicated mathematics. Part E Find .1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint E. Part C What is the distance between the monkey and string 2? Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: . In particular. Hint E. Part D Which of the following choices of pivot point would lead to a torque equation in which the only unknown quantity is ? ANSWER: the center of mass of the bar the point of attachment of string 1 the point of attachment of string 2 the end of the bar closest to string 2 If you choose the point of attachment of string 2 as the pivot point.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Notice that the forces are not labeled on these drawings. ANSWER: = .

. Consider the pivot point to be at the center of mass of the bar. B. C. it follows that . The rod lies on a line connecting the centers of mass of the two spheres. The following questions will help you practice the skills necessary for such an assessment. as shown in the figure. The axes A. while axes E and F (represented by black dots) are perpendicular to the page. ANSWER: = Note that this answer confirms the previous result that . only you can assess whether your answer seems right. Part G For the bar to experience no net force. Axis of Rotation and Moment of Inertia Ranking Task Two identical uniform solid spheres are attached by a solid uniform thin rod. what must the tension in string 2 be? Express your answer in terms of appropriate constants and any of the given variables. Because the moment arm for is greater than that for . Part F Look at the pictorial diagram that you drew for this problem. without the computer-provided feedback.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View When you work on a problem on your own. Intuitively. and D are in the plane of the page (which also contains the centers of mass of the spheres and the rod). what can you say about the forces of tension? ANSWER: The torques due to the forces of tension must balance out each other.

c. e. Hint A.1 Hint not displayed Hint A. radians per second degrees per second meters per second arc seconds revolutions per second around an axis.2 Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest.) a.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Part A Rank the moments of inertia of this object about the axes indicated. Part A Which of the following are legitimate units for expressing rotational velocity. ANSWER: C=F > B > A=E > D View Kinetic Energy and Moment of Inertia Consider a particle of mass that is revolving with angular speed perpendicular distance from the particle to the axis is . d. commonly denoted by ? (The rotational velocity appears in many rotational motion equations such as and . For example. if . The Enter "t" for each unit that can be used to express rotational velocity. b. and "f" for each that cannot be used.

f. we will be using radians per second to express angular speed. Hint C.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View only the last unit can be used. f The rate of rotation can be expressed in radians per second. not . The total kinetic Consider a system of several point masses energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic energies of all of the masses. inertia.f.f. However.1 Part not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part C The kinetic energy of a rotating body is generally written as . In this problem.t". with measured in radians.f. degrees per second.1 Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = all rotating about the same axis. and . and . or revolutions per second. . Part B Find the kinetic energy Part B. Find the moment of inertia of the particle described in the problem introduction with respect to the axis about which it is rotating. you would enter "f. ANSWER: t. For point masses. where is the moment of .f. of the rotating particle. . the angular speed is most often defined as .f.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View . the total moment of inertia is the sum of the moments of inertia of each mass. Part D. we see that the moment of inertia is .1 Part not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = and . Part D of a hoop of radius and mass Find the moment of inertia perpendicular to the hoop and passing through its center. with respect to an axis The End of the Song . In other words. Comparing this to the expression for the kinetic energy given in Part C.

the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the CD. what is .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View As you finish listening to your favorite compact disc (CD).1 Part B How many complete revolutions does the CD make as it spins to a stop? Part B. ANSWER: = 20. Part A If the CD rotates at 500 while the last song is playing.1 Angular acceleration Hint not displayed Express your answer in radians per second squared. as it spins to a stop? Hint A. the CD in the player slows down to a stop.1 Part not displayed Your answer should be an integer. ANSWER: 10.0 revolutions . Assume that the CD spins down with a constant angular acceleration. and then spins down to zero angular speed in 2.60 with constant angular acceleration.