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Nation of Nations
A Narrative History of the American Republic
Fifth Edition
James West Davidson William E. Gienapp
Harvard University

Christine Leigh Heyrman
University of Delaware

Mark H. Lytle
Bard College

Michael B. Stoff
University of Texas, Austin

Here is not merely a nation but a teeming nation of nations
Walt Whitman

Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogotá Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

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NATION OF NATIONS: A NARRATIVE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2005, 2001, 1998, 1994, 1990 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 ISBN 0–07–287098–2 Vice president and editor-in-chief: Emily Barrosse Publisher: Lyn Uhl Sponsoring editor: Steven Drummond Development editor: Kristen Mellitt Marketing manager: Katherine Bates Senior Media Producer: Sean Crowley Production editor: Holly Paulsen Manuscript editor: Joan Pendleton Art director: Jeanne M. Schreiber Design manager: Gino Cieslik Cover designer: Gino Cieslik Interior designer: Maureen McCutcheon Art manager: Robin Mouat Art editors: Cristin Yancy and Emma Ghiselli Photo research coordinator: Nora Agbayani Photo researcher: Deborah Bull and Deborah Anderson, PhotoSearch, Inc. Illustrators: Patty Isaacs Production supervisor: Rich Devitto

The text was set in 10/12 Berkeley Medium by The GTS Companies, York, PA Campus, and printed on acid-free 45# Publisher’s Matte Thin Bulk by R.R. Donnelley, Willard. Cover images: (left to right) Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division [reproduction number LC-USZ62-15887]; © Austrian Archives/Corbis; Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Edward S. Curtis Collection [reproduction number LC-USZC4-8819] The credits for this book begin on page C-1, a continuation of the copyright page. Text Permissions: Page 268 From Charles A. Johnson, Frontier Camp Meeting, copyright 1955, 1985 SMU Press. Reprinted with permission. 813 From Charles P . Kindleberg, The World in Depression, 1929–1939 (revised ed., 1986), p. 170. Copyright © 1986 The Regents of the University of California. Reprinted by permission from University of California Press. 947, 1063 From Frank Levy, Dollars and Dreams: The Changing American Income Distribution. © 1987 Russell Sage Foundation. Used with permission of the Russell Sage Foundation. Reprinted with permission. 1063 (verse) From “I Am Changing My Name to Chrysler,” by Tom Paxton. Copyright © 1980 Pax Music. All rights reserved. Used by permission. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Nation of nations : a narrative history of the American republic / James West Davidson ... [et al.]. — 5th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index. ISBN 0–07–287098–2 — ISBN 0–07–287099–0 (v. 1 : pbk. : acid-free paper) — ISBN 0–07–287100–8 (v. 2 : pbk. : acid-free paper) 1. United States—History—Textbooks. I. Davidson, James West. E178.1.N346 973—dc22 2004 2004052436

www.mhhe.com

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William E. Gienapp
1944–2003
Inevitably, contingency brings grief as well as joy. We are saddened to report the passing of our dear friend and co-author, William E. Gienapp. It would be hard to imagine a colleague with greater dedication to his work, nor one who cared more about conveying both the excitement and the rigor of history to those who were not professional historians—as has been attested by so many of his students at the University of Wyoming and at Harvard. Bill had a quiet manner, which sometimes hid (though not for long) his puckish sense of humor and an unstinting generosity. When news of his death was reported, the Harvard Crimson, a student newspaper known more for its skepticism than its sentimentality, led with the front-page headline: “Beloved History Professor Gienapp Dies.” Bill went the extra mile, whether in searching out primary sources enabling us to assemble a map on the environmental effects of the Lowell Mills, combing innumerable manuscript troves in the preparation of his masterful Origins of the Republican Party, or collecting vintage baseball caps from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to wear (in proper chronological sequence, no less) to his popular course on the social history of baseball. When an illness no one could have predicted struck him down, the profession lost one of its shining examples. His fellow authors miss him dearly.

Chinese. and Aztecs on the Eve of Contact 34 Beyond the Mesoamerican Sphere 7 Cultures of the Great Plains 7 Cultures of the Great Basin 8 Cultures of the Subarctic and Arctic 8 Cultures of the Pacific Northwest 9 Spain’s Empire in the New World 35 Spanish Conquest 36 Role of the Conquistadors 36 Spanish Colonization 37 The Effects of Colonial Growth 39 North America and the Caribbean on the Eve of European Invasion 9 Enduring Cultures 10 The Rise of the Aztec Empire 12 Prologue Summary 14 Additional Reading 14 Significant Events 15 The Reformation in Europe 39 Backdrop to Reform 39 The Teachings of Martin Luther 40 The Contribution of John Calvin 41 The English Reformation 42 England’s Entry into America 43 The English Colonization of Ireland 43 Renewed Interest in the Americas 44 The Failures of Frobisher and Gilbert 45 Raleigh’s Roanoke Venture 45 A Second Attempt 48 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: Tracking the First Americans 16 iv . and America 29 The Portuguese Wave 29 The Spanish and Columbus 31 Preview 2 Peopling the Continents 2 Cultures of Ancient Mexico 4 Cultures of the Southwest 5 Cultures of the Eastern Woodlands 6 The European Background of American Colonization 33 Life and Death in Early Modern Europe 33 The Conditions of Colonization 34 Europeans.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page iv EQA contents List of Maps and Charts xix Preface to the Fifth Edition xxi Introduction xxx Primary Source Investigator CD-ROM xxxii Part One The Creation of a New America 21 Chapter 1 Old World. Africa. New Worlds (1400–1600) 26 Prologue Settling and Civilizing the Americas 2 Preview 26 The Meeting of Europe.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

and Black: The Search for Order 74 The Founding of Georgia 75 68 Daily Lives: A World of Wonders and Witchcraft 94 Chapter 4 The Mosaic of Eighteenth-Century America (1689–1771) 110 The Spanish Borderlands Chapter Summary 80 Interactive Learning Additional Reading Significant Events 80 80 81 76 Preview 110 Forces of Division 112 Daily Lives: A Taste for Sugar 72 Immigration and Natural Increase 112 The Settlement of the Backcountry 113 Social Conflict on the Frontier 116 Boundary Disputes and Tenant Wars 117 Eighteenth-Century Seaports 119 Social Conflict in Seaports 121 Chapter 3 The First Century of Settlement in the Colonial North (1600–1700) 82 Slave Societies in the Eighteenth-Century South 122 Preview 82 The Slave Family and Community 123 Slavery and Colonial Society in French Louisiana 124 Slave Resistance in Eighteenth-Century British North America 125 .qxd 6/29/04 8:38 PM Page v EQA Contents Chapter Summary 50 Interactive Learning Additional Reading Significant Events 50 50 51 v 84 The Founding of New England The Puritan Movement 85 The Pilgrim Settlement at Plymouth Colony 86 The Puritan Settlement at Massachusetts Bay 87 Daily Lives: “Barbaric” Dress–Indian and European 46 New England Communities 89 Chapter 2 The First Century of Settlement in the Colonial South (1600–1750) 52 Stability and Order in Early New England 89 Congregational Church Order 91 Colonial Governments 92 Communities in Conflict 92 Heretics 93 Goodwives and Witches 95 Whites and Indians in Early New England 97 Effect of Old World diseases 98 Preview 52 English Society on the Chesapeake The Mid-Atlantic Colonies 54 98 The Mercantilist Impulse 55 The Virginia Company 55 Reform and a Boom in Tobacco 56 Settling Down in the Chesapeake 58 The Founding of Maryland and the Renewal of Indian Wars 59 Changes in English Policy in the Chesapeake 59 The Founding of New Netherlands 98 English Rule in New York 99 The League of the Iroquois 100 The Founding of New Jersey 101 Quaker Odysseys 101 Patterns of Settlement 102 Quakers and Politics 103 Chesapeake Society in Crisis 61 61 Adjustment to Empire 103 The Dominion of New England 104 The Aftershocks of the Glorious Revolution Leisler’s Rebellion 105 Royal Authority in America in 1700 106 Chapter Summary 107 Interactive Learning 107 107 108 Additional Reading Significant Events 105 The Conditions of Unrest 61 Bacon’s Rebellion and Coode’s Rebellion From Servitude to Slavery 62 Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade 63 A Changing Chesapeake Society 66 The Chesapeake Gentry 67 From the Caribbean to the Carolinas Paradise Lost 69 The Founding of the Carolinas 70 Early Instability 73 White.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. Red.

dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page vi EQA vi Contents Enlightenment and Awakening in America 126 The Enlightenment in America 126 The First Great Awakening 127 The Aftermath of the Great Awakening 128 Chapter Summary 168 Interactive Learning 168 Additional Reading 168 Significant Events 169 Daily Lives: Street Theater 158 Anglo-American Worlds of the Eighteenth Century 129 English Economic and Social Development 130 The Consumer Revolution 130 Inequality in England and America 131 Politics in England and America 132 The Imperial System before 1760 134 Chapter 6 The American People and the American Revolution (1775–1783) 170 Toward the Seven Years’ War 135 Chapter Summary 136 Interactive Learning 137 Additional Reading 137 Significant Events 138 Daily Lives: Transatlantic Trials 114 Preview 170 The Decision for Independence 172 The Second Continental Congress 172 The Declaration 172 American Loyalists 175 The Fighting in the North 175 The Two Armies at Bay 176 Laying Strategies 177 The Campaigns in New York and New Jersey 178 Capturing Philadelphia 180 Disaster at Saratoga 182 Part Two The Creation of a New Republic 139 The Turning Point 182 The American Revolution Becomes a Global War 182 Winding Down the War in the North 183 War in the West 184 The Home Front in the North 185 Chapter 5 Toward the War for American Independence (1754–1776) 144 The Struggle in the South 185 The Siege of Charleston 186 The Partisan Struggle in the South 186 Greene Takes Command 187 African Americans in the Age of Revolution 189 Preview 144 The Seven Years’ War 145 The Years of Defeat 145 The Years of Victory 147 Postwar Expectations 147 The World Turned Upside Down 190 Surrender at Yorktown 191 The Significance of a Revolution 191 Chapter Summary 193 Interactive Learning 194 Additional Reading 194 Significant Events 195 Daily Lives: Radical Chic and the Revolutionary Generation 178 The Imperial Crisis 149 New Troubles on the Frontier 151 George Grenville’s New Measures 151 The Beginning of Colonial Resistance 152 Riots and Resolves 154 Repeal of the Stamp Act 155 The Townshend Acts 156 The Resistance Organizes 157 The International Sons of Liberty 160 The Boston Massacre 160 Resistance Revived 161 The Empire Strikes Back 162 Chapter 7 Crisis and Constitution (1776–1789) 196 Toward the Revolution 163 The First Continental Congress 164 The Last Days of the British Empire in America 165 The Fighting Begins 166 Common Sense 167 Preview 196 Republican Experiments 197 The State Constitutions 198 From Congress to Confederation 199 .

Tecumseh. and the Pan-Indian Movement 271 The New Government 235 Washington’s Character 235 Organizing the Government 236 The Bill of Rights 237 Hamilton’s Financial Program 237 Opposition to Hamilton’s Program 239 The Specter of Aristocracy 241 The Second War for American Independence 273 The Barbary Pirates and Cultural Identities 274 Neutral Rights 276 .qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page vii EQA Contents The Temptations of Peace 200 The Temptations of the West 200 Foreign Intrigues 200 Disputes among the States 202 The More Democratic West 203 The Northwest Territory 204 Slavery and Sectionalism 206 Wartime Economic Disruption 207 vii Expansion and Turmoil in the West 241 The Resistance of the Miami 241 The Whiskey Rebellion 241 Pinckney’s Treaty 242 The Emergence of Political Parties 242 Americans and the French Revolution 243 Washington’s Neutral Course 244 The Federalists and Republicans Organize 245 The 1796 Election 246 Federalist and Republican Ideologies 247 Republican Society 209 The New Men of the Revolution 209 The New Women of the Revolution 210 Mary Wollstonecraft’s Vindication 211 Republican Motherhood and Education 212 The Attack on Aristocracy 212 From Confederation to Constitutions 213 The Jay-Gardoqui Treaty 214 Shays’s Rebellion 215 Framing a Federal Constitution 216 The Virginia and New Jersey Plans 217 The Deadlock Broken 217 Ratification 219 Changing Revolutionary Ideals 220 Chapter Summary 221 Interactive Learning 222 Additional Reading 222 Significant Events 223 Daily Lives: The Spirits of Independence 214 The Presidency of John Adams 248 The Naval War with France 248 Suppression at Home 249 The Election of 1800 251 Political Violence in the Early Republic 252 Chapter Summary 254 Interactive Learning 254 Additional Reading 255 Significant Events 255 Daily Lives: Exploring the Wondrous World 250 Chapter 9 The Jeffersonian Republic (1801–1824) 256 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: White and Black Southerners Worshiping Together 224 Preview 256 Jefferson in Power 258 The New Capital City 258 Jefferson’s Character and Philosophy 259 Republican Principles 260 Jefferson’s Economic Policies 260 John Marshall and Judicial Review 261 The Jeffersonian Attack on the Judiciary 262 Chapter 8 The Republic Launched (1789–1801) 228 Preview 228 1789: A Social Portrait 230 The Semisubsistence Economy of Crèvecoeur’s America 231 The Commercial Economy of Franklin’s America 232 The Constitution and Commerce 235 Jefferson and Western Expansion 262 The Louisiana Purchase 263 Lewis and Clark 264 Whites and Indians on the Frontier 265 The Course of White Settlement 265 A Changing Environment 266 The Second Great Awakening 266 Pressure on Indian Lands and Culture 270 The Prophet.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

qxd 06/26/04 04:35 Page viii EQA viii Contents The Embargo 276 Madison and the Young Republicans 277 The Decision for War 277 National Unpreparedness 278 “A Chance Such as Will Never Occur Again” 278 The British Invasion 279 The Hartford Convention 281 The Rise of Factories 312 Technological Advances 313 The Postal System 314 Textile Factories 314 Lowell and the Environment 316 Industrial Work 317 The Shoe Industry 318 The Labor Movement 319 America Turns Inward 281 The Missouri Crisis 282 Monroe’s Presidency 283 Monroe Doctrine 284 Improved relations with Britain 284 The End of an Era 285 Chapter Summary 285 Interactive Learning 286 Additional Reading 286 Significant Events 287 Daily Lives: The Frontier Camp Meeting 268 Social Structures of the Market Society 319 Economic Specialization 319 Materialism 320 The Emerging Middle Class 320 The Distribution of Wealth 322 Social Mobility 322 A New Sensitivity to Time 323 The Market at Work: Three Examples 323 Prosperity and Anxiety 325 The Panic of 1819 326 Chapter Summary 326 Interactive Learning 327 Additional Reading 327 Significant Events 328 Daily Lives: Floating Palaces of the West 306 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson 288 Part Three The Republic Transformed and Tested 293 Chapter 11 The Rise of Democracy (1824–1840) 330 Chapter 10 The Opening of America (1815–1850) 298 Preview 330 Equality and Opportunity 332 The Tension between Equality and Opportunity 334 The New Political Culture of Democracy 334 The Election of 1824 335 Anti-Masonry and the Defense of Equality 335 Social Sources of the New Politics 336 Male suffrage in Europe and Latin America The Acceptance of Parties 338 The Politics of the Common Man 338 Preview 298 The Market Revolution 299 The New Nationalism 300 The Cotton Trade 300 The Transportation Revolution 301 The Canal Age 301 Steamboats and Railroads 302 Agriculture in the Market Economy 303 John Marshall and the Promotion of Enterprise 304 General Incorporation Laws 308 337 Jackson’s Rise to Power 339 John Quincy Adams’s Presidency 339 President of the People 340 The Political Agenda in the Market Economy 341 A Restless Temper 308 A People in Motion 308 Population Growth 309 The Federal Land Rush 310 Geographic Mobility 311 Urbanization 311 Democracy and Race 341 Accommodate or Resist? 342 Trail of Tears 343 Free Blacks in the North 345 The African American Community 346 The Minstrel Show 347 .dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

Whigs.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page ix EQA Contents The Nullification Crisis 348 The Growing Crisis in South Carolina 348 Calhoun’s Theory of Nullification 349 The Nullifiers Nullified 350 Educational Reform 379 The Asylum Movement 379 ix Abolitionism 380 The Beginnings of the Abolitionist Movement 381 The Spread of Abolitionism 382 Opponents and Divisions 384 The Women’s Rights Movement 385 The Schism of 1840 385 The Bank War 350 The National Bank and the Panic of 1819 351 Biddle’s Bank 351 The Clash between Jackson and Biddle 352 The Bank Destroyed 352 Jackson’s Impact on the Presidency 353 Reform Shakes the Party System 386 Women and the Right to Vote 386 The Maine Law 387 Abolitionism and the Party System 387 Chapter Summary 388 Interactive Learning 389 Additional Reading 389 Significant Events 390 Daily Lives: Privacy Begins at Home 370 Van Buren and Depression 354 “Van Ruin’s” Depression 355 The Whigs’ Triumph 355 The Jacksonian Party System 356 Democrats.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. and the Market 356 The Social Bases of the Two Parties 358 The Triumph of the Market 358 Chapter Summary 359 Interactive Learning 360 Additional Reading 360 Significant Events 361 Daily Lives: The Plain Dark Democracy of Broadcloth 332 Chapter 13 The Old South (1820–1860) 392 Preview 392 The Social Structure of the Cotton Kingdom 394 The Boom Country Economy 394 The Upper South’s New Orientation 396 The Rural South 397 Distribution of Slavery 398 Slavery as a Labor System 399 Chapter 12 The Fires of Perfection (1820–1850) 362 Preview 362 Revivalism and the Social Order 363 Finney’s New Measures 364 The Philosophy of the New Revivals 365 Religion and the Market Economy 365 The Rise of African American Churches 366 The Significance of the Second Great Awakening 367 Class Structure of the White South 400 The Slaveowners 401 Tidewater and Frontier 401 The Master at Home 403 The Plantation Mistress 404 Yeoman Farmers 405 Poor Whites 406 The Peculiar Institution 407 Work and Discipline 407 Slave Maintenance 408 Resistance 409 Slave revolts in Latin America 409 Women’s Sphere 367 Women and Revivalism 367 The Ideal of Domesticity 367 Domesticity in Europe 369 The Middle-Class Family in Transition 369 Slave Culture 410 The Slave Family 411 Slave Songs and Stories 412 Steal Away to Jesus 413 The Slave Community 416 Free Black Southerners 416 American Romanticism 370 Emerson and Transcendentalism 372 The Clash between Nature and Civilization 373 Songs of the Self-Reliant and Darker Loomings 374 The Age of Reform 375 Utopian Communities 375 The Mormon Experience 376 Socialist Communities 377 The Temperance Movement 378 Southern Society and the Defense of Slavery 417 The Virginia Debate of 1832 417 The Proslavery Argument 418 Closing Ranks 419 Sections and the Nation 420 .

qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page x EQA x Chapter Summary 421 Interactive Learning 422 Additional Reading 422 Significant Events 423 Contents Chapter 15 The Union Broken (1850–1861) 456 Daily Lives: A Slave’s Daily Bread 414 Preview 456 Sectional Changes in American Society 458 The Growth of a Railroad Economy 459 Railroads and the Prairie Environment 461 Railroads and the Urban Environment 462 Rising Industrialization 462 Immigration 463 The revolutions of 1848 464 Southern Complaints 465 Chapter 14 Western Expansion and the Rise of the Slavery Issue (1820–1850) 424 The Political Realignment of the 1850s 466 The Kansas-Nebraska Act 466 The Collapse of the Second American Party System 467 The Know-Nothings 468 The Republicans and Bleeding Kansas 469 The Caning of Charles Sumner 470 The Election of 1856 470 Preview 424 Manifest (and Not So Manifest) Destiny 427 The Roots of the Doctrine 427 The Mexican Borderlands 428 The Texas Revolution 429 The Texas Republic 430 The Worsening Crisis 472 The Dred Scott Decision 472 The Panic of 1857 473 The Lecompton Constitution 473 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 474 The Beleaguered South 476 The Trek West 431 The Overland Trail 431 Women on the Overland Trail 432 Indians and the Trail Experience 433 The Political Origins of Expansion 435 Tyler’s Texas Ploy 436 Van Overboard 436 To the Pacific 437 The Mexican War 437 Opposition to the War 439 The Price of Victory 439 The Rise of the Slavery Issue 440 The Road to War 477 A Sectional Election 477 Secession 479 The Outbreak of War 480 The Roots of a Divided Society 481 Chapter Summary 483 Interactive Learning 484 Additional Reading 484 Significant Events 485 Daily Lives: Uncle Tom by Footlights 478 New Societies in the West 441 Farming in the West 441 The Gold Rush 441 Instant City: San Francisco 443 The Migration from China 444 The Mormons in Utah 445 Temple City: Salt Lake City 446 Shadows on the Moving Frontier 447 Chapter 16 Total War and the Republic (1861–1865) 486 Escape from Crisis 448 A Two-Faced Campaign 449 The Compromise of 1850 450 Away from the Brink 452 Chapter Summary 453 Interactive Learning 454 Additional Reading 454 Significant Events 455 Daily Lives: Seeing the Elephant on the Overland Trail 434 Preview 486 The Demands of Total War 488 Political Leadership 489 The Border States 490 Opening Moves 491 Blockade and Isolate 491 Grant in the West 491 Eastern Stalemate 493 Emancipation 495 The Logic of Events 496 .dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

Egypt. Salt Horse. and Coffee 508 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: What Caused the New York Draft Riots? 525 Part Four The United States in an Industrial Age 561 Chapter 17 Reconstructing the Union (1865–1877) 530 Chapter 18 The New South and the TransMississippi West (1870–1896) 566 Preview 530 Presidential Reconstruction 531 Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan 532 The Mood of the South 533 Johnson’s Program of Reconstruction 533 The Failure of Johnson’s Program 534 Johnson’s Break with Congress 535 Preview 566 The Southern Burden 568 Agriculture in the New South 568 Tenancy and Sharecropping 569 Debt peonage in India.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xi EQA Contents The Emancipation Proclamation 496 African Americans’ Civil War 497 Black Soldiers 498 The Fourteenth Amendment 536 The Elections of 1866 537 xi Congressional Reconstruction 537 Post-Emancipation Societies in the Americas 538 The Land Issue 538 Impeachment 539 The Confederate Home Front 498 The New Economy 499 New Opportunities for Southern Women 499 Confederate Finance and Government 500 Hardship and Suffering 501 Reconstruction in the South 540 Black Office Holding 540 White Republicans in the South 541 The New State Governments 542 Economic Issues and Corruption 542 The Union Home Front 502 Government Finances and the Economy 502 A Rich Man’s War 504 Women and the Workforce 504 Civil Liberties and Dissent 506 Black Aspirations 543 Experiencing Freedom 543 The Black Family 545 The Schoolhouse and the Church 546 New Working Conditions 547 The Freedmen’s Bureau 548 Planters and a New Way of Life 549 Gone to Be a Soldier 507 Discipline 508 Camp Life 510 The Changing Face of Battle 511 Hardening Attitudes 513 The Union’s Triumph 513 Confederate High Tide 514 Lincoln Finds His General 514 War in the Balance 516 Abolition as a global movement 517 The Twilight of the Confederacy 517 The Abandonment of Reconstruction 550 The Election of Grant 550 The Grant Administration 551 Growing Northern Disillusionment 553 The Triumph of White Supremacy 553 The Disputed Election of 1876 555 Racism and the Failure of Reconstruction 556 Chapter Summary 557 Interactive Learning 558 Additional Reading 558 Significant Events 559 Daily Lives: The Black Sharecropper’s Cabin 544 The Impact of War 520 The war’s effect on the cotton trade worldwide 521 Chapter Summary 522 Interactive Learning 523 Additional Reading 523 Significant Events 524 Daily Lives: Hardtack. and Brazil 570 Southern Industry 570 Timber and Steel 572 The Sources of Southern Poverty 573 .dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

Women.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. Pierpont Morgan 627 Corporate Defenders 628 Corporate Critics 629 The Costs of Doing Business 630 The War for the West 582 Contact and Conflict 582 Custer’s Last Stand—and the Indians’ 583 Killing with Kindness 585 Borderlands 587 Ethno-Racial Identity in the New West 588 The Workers’ World 631 Industrial Work 631 Children. and Accomplishments 652 Nativism. and African Americans 633 The American Dream of Success 633 Boom and Bust in the West 589 Mining Sets a Pattern 589 The Transcontinental Railroad 591 Cattle Kingdom 593 The Systems of Labor 634 Early Unions 635 The Knights of Labor 635 The American Federation of Labor 636 The Limits of Industrial Systems 636 Management Strikes 638 Chapter Summary 640 Interactive Learning 640 Additional Reading 640 Significant Events 641 Daily Lives: The Rise of Information Systems 616 The Final Frontier 595 A Rush for Land 595 Farming on the Plains 595 A Plains Existence 596 The Urban Frontier 597 The West and the World Economy 599 Packaging and Exporting the “Wild West” 600 Chapter Summary 602 Interactive Learning 603 Additional Reading 603 Significant Events 604 Daily Lives: The Frontier Kitchen of the Plains 598 Chapter 2 0 The Rise of an Urban Order (1870–1900) 642 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: Where Have All the Bison Gone? 605 Preview 642 A New Urban Age 643 The Urban Explosion 644 The Great Global Migration 644 The Shape of the City 647 Urban Transport 648 Bridges and Skyscrapers 649 Slum and Tenement 650 Chapter 19 The New Industrial Order (1870–1900) 610 Preview 610 The Development of Industrial Systems 612 Natural Resources and Industrial Technology 613 Systematic Invention 614 Transportation and Communication 615 Running and Reforming the City 651 Boss Rule 651 Rewards.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xii EQA xii Contents Life in the New South 573 Rural Life 574 The Church 574 Segregation 576 Finance Capital 618 The Corporation 618 An International Pool of Labor 619 Railroads: America’s First Big Business 620 A Managerial Revolution 621 Competition and Consolidation 621 The Challenge of Finance 622 Western Frontiers 578 Western Landscapes 579 Indian Peoples and the Western Environment 579 Whites and the Western Environment: Competing Visions 580 The Growth of Big Business 624 Strategies of Growth 624 Carnegie Integrates Steel 625 Rockefeller and the Great Standard Oil Trust 626 The Mergers of J. Costs. Revivals. and the Social Gospel 653 The Social Settlement Movement 654 .

qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xiii EQA Contents City Life 654 The Immigrant in the City 654 Urban Middle-Class Life 657 Victorianism and the Pursuit of Virtue 657 Challenges to Convention 659 From Colonial War to Colonial Rule 702 An Open Door in China 703 Chapter Summary 704 Interactive Learning 705 Additional Reading 705 Significant Events 706 Daily Lives: The New Navy 692 xiii City Culture 659 Public Education in an Urban Industrial World 659 Higher Learning and the Rise of the Professional 661 Higher Education for Women 661 A Culture of Consumption 662 Leisure 663 City Entertainment at Home and on the Road 664 Chapter Summary 668 Interactive Learning 668 Additional Reading 668 Significant Events 669 Daily Lives: The Vaudeville Show 666 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: Engendering the Spanish-American War 707 Chapter 22 The Progressive Era (1890–1920) 712 Chapter 2 1 The Political System under Strain (1877–1900) 670 Preview 712 The Roots of Progressive Reform 714 The Progressive System of Beliefs 715 The Pragmatic Approach 715 The Progressive Method 716 Preview 670 The Politics of Paralysis 672 Political Stalemate 672 The Parties 673 The Issues 674 The White House from Hayes to Harrison 676 Ferment in the States and Cities 677 The Search for the Good Society 717 Poverty in a New Light 717 Expanding the “Woman’s Sphere” 718 Social Welfare 719 Woman Suffrage 720 Militant suffragists 720 Controlling the Masses 722 Stemming the Immigrant Tide 723 The Curse of Demon Rum 724 Prostitution 725 “For Whites Only” 725 The Revolt of the Farmers 678 The Harvest of Discontent 678 The Origins of the Farmers’ Alliance 679 The Alliance Peaks 680 The Election of 1892 681 The Rise of Jim Crow Politics 682 The African American Response 682 The Politics of Municipal and State Reform 726 The Reformation of the Cities 727 Progressivism in the States 727 The New Realignment 684 The Depression of 1893 684 The Rumblings of Unrest 685 The Battle of the Standards 686 McKinley in the White House 688 Progressivism Goes to Washington 729 TR 729 A Square Deal 730 Bad Food and Pristine Wilds 732 The Troubled Taft 734 Roosevelt Returns 735 The Election of 1912 736 Visions of Empire 689 European Expansion Worldwide 689 The Shapers of American Imperialism 690 Looking to Latin America 695 Reprise in the Pacific 695 Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality 737 Early Career 737 The Reforms of the New Freedom 737 Labor and Social Reform 739 The Limits of Progressive Reform 739 Chapter Summary 740 The Imperial Moment 696 Mounting Tensions 696 The Imperial War 698 War in Cuba 698 Peace and the Debate over Empire 699 .dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

Preparedness. and the Election of 1916 756 Wilson’s Final Peace Offensive 756 Republicans Ascendant 807 The Politics of “Normalcy” 807 The Policies of Mellon and Hoover 808 Distress Signals at Home and Abroad 809 The Election of 1928 810 War and Society 758 The Slaughter of Stalemate 758 “You’re in the Army Now” 759 Mobilizing the Economy 760 War Work 761 Great Migrations 763 Propaganda and Civil Liberties 763 Over There 765 The Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919 766 The Great Bull Market 811 The Rampaging Bull 812 The Great Crash 812 The Sickening Slide in Global Perspective 813 The Causes of the Great Depression 814 Chapter Summary 815 Interactive Learning 816 Additional Reading 816 Significant Events 817 Daily Lives: The Beauty Contest 794 The Lost Peace 768 The Treaty of Versailles 769 The Battle for the Treaty 771 Red Scare 772 Chapter Summary 776 Interactive Learning 776 Additional Reading 776 Significant Events 777 Daily Lives: The Doughboys Abroad 770 Chapter 2 5 The Great Depression and the New Deal (1929–1939) 818 Preview 818 The Human Impact of the Great Depression 819 Hard Times 820 The Golden Age of Radio and Film 821 “Dirty Thirties”: An Ecological Disaster 822 Mexican Americans and Repatriation 824 African Americans in the Depression 825 Part Five The Perils of Democracy 779 The Tragedy of Herbert Hoover 825 The Failure of Relief 826 The Hoover Depression Program 827 Stirrings of Discontent 828 The Bonus Army 829 The Election of 1932 830 Chapter 24 The New Era (1920–1929) 784 Preview 784 .qxd 07/16/04 10:39 Page xiv EQA xiv Interactive Learning 741 Additional Reading 741 Significant Events 742 Contents The Roaring Economy 786 Technology and Consumer Spending 786 The Booming Construction Industry 787 The Automobile 787 The Business of America 790 Welfare Capitalism 790 The Consumer Culture 791 Daily Lives: “Amusing the Million” 722 Chapter 23 The United States and the Old World Order (1901–1920) 744 A Mass Society 792 A “New Woman” 793 Mass Media 796 Youth Culture 798 “Ain’t We Got Fun?” 798 The Art of Alienation 799 A “New Negro” 800 Preview 744 Progressive Diplomacy 746 Big Stick in the Caribbean 746 A “Diplomatist of the Highest Rank” 747 Dollar Diplomacy 748 Woodrow Wilson and Moral Diplomacy 748 Missionary Diplomacy 749 Intervention in Mexico 750 Defenders of the Faith 800 Nativism and Immigration Restriction 801 The “Noble Experiment” 802 Fundamentalism versus Darwinism 804 KKK 805 The Road to War 751 The Guns of August 752 Neutral but Not Impartial 753 The Diplomacy of Neutrality 755 Peace.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

qxd 6/29/04 8:38 PM Page xv EQA Contents The Early New Deal (1933–1935) 831 Those Who Fought 875 xv The Democratic Roosevelts 831 Saving the Banks 832 Relief for the Unemployed 833 Planning for Industrial Recovery 834 Planning for Agriculture 836 Recovery in Global Perspective 837 Minorities at War 875 Women at War 877 War Production 877 A Second New Deal (1935–1936) Voices of Protest 838 The Second Hundred Days 840 The Election of 1936 841 838 Finding an Industrial Czar 878 Science Goes to War 879 War Work and Prosperity 880 Organized Labor 881 Women Workers 881 Global Labor Migrations 882 A Question of Rights 883 The American People under the New Deal 842 The New Deal and Western Water 842 The Limited Reach of the New Deal 843 Tribal Rights 845 A New Deal for Women 846 The Rise of Organized Labor 847 Campaigns of the CIO 848 “Art for the Millions” 850 Little Italy 883 Concentration Camps 884 Minorities on the Job 886 At War with Jim Crow 887 The New Deal in Retreat 888 Winning the War and the Peace 888 The Fall of the Third Reich 889 Two Roads to Tokyo 890 Big Three Diplomacy 891 The Road to Yalta 893 The Fallen Leader 895 The Holocaust 895 A Lasting Peace 897 Atom Diplomacy 897 Chapter Summary 899 Interactive Learning Additional Reading Significant Events 852 900 900 901 The End of the New Deal (1937–1940) Packing the Courts 851 The New Deal at Bay 853 Recovery abroad 854 The Legacy of the New Deal Chapter Summary 857 Interactive Learning Additional Reading Significant Events 857 858 859 851 855 Daily Lives: Post Office Murals Daily Lives: Air Power Shrinks the Globe 892 Chapter 2 6 America’s Rise to Globalism (1927–1945) 860 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: Did the Atomic Bomb Save Lives? 902 Preview 860 The United States in a Troubled World Pacific Interests 862 Becoming a Good Neighbor 863 The Diplomacy of Isolationism 863 Neutrality Legislation 864 Inching toward War 866 Hitler’s Invasion 866 Retreat from Isolationism 867 Disaster in the Pacific 869 862 Part Six The United States in a Nuclear Age 907 Chapter 27 Cold War America (1945–1954) 912 A Global War 870 Strategies for War 870 Gloomy Prospects 872 A Grand Alliance 873 The Naval War in the Pacific 873 Turning Points in Europe 874 Preview 912 The Rise of the Cold War 913 915 Cracks in the Alliance 914 The View from West and East Toward Containment 915 The Truman Doctrine 916 .dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.

dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. Hollywood.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xvi EQA xvi Contents The Marshall Plan 917 The Fall of Eastern Europe 917 The Atomic Shield versus the Iron Curtain 918 Atomic Deterrence 920 Brinkmanship in Asia 959 The Covert Side of the New Look 961 Rising Nationalism 962 The Response to Sputnik 964 Thaws and Freezes 964 Postwar Prosperity 921 Postwar Adjustments 921 Truman under Attack 924 A Welfare Program for GIs 926 The Election of 1948 927 The Fair Deal 928 The Cold War along a New Frontier 965 The Election of 1960 965 The Hard-Nosed Idealists of Camelot 966 The (Somewhat) New Frontier at Home 967 Kennedy’s Cold War 968 Cold War Frustrations 968 Confronting Khrushchev 969 The Missiles of October 970 Chapter Summary 973 Interactive Learning 974 Additional Reading 974 Significant Events 975 Daily Lives: The New Suburbia 950 The Cold War at Home 928 The Shocks of 1949 929 The Loyalty Crusade 930 HUAC. and Unions 930 The Ambitions of Senator McCarthy 931 From Cold War to Hot War and Back 933 Police Action 933 The Chinese Intervene 935 Truman versus MacArthur 936 The Global Implications of the Cold War 936 The Election of 1952 937 The Fall of McCarthy 938 Chapter Summary 940 Interactive Learning 940 Additional Reading 940 Significant Events 941 Daily Lives: Jackie Robinson Integrates Baseball 924 Chapter 2 9 Civil Rights and the Crisis of Liberalism (1947–1969) 976 Preview 976 The Civil Rights Movement 979 The Changing South and African Americans 979 The NAACP and Civil Rights 980 The Brown Decision 981 Latino Civil Rights 982 A New Civil Rights Strategy 983 Little Rock and the White Backlash 984 Chapter 2 8 The Suburban Era (1945–1963) 942 Preview 942 The Rise of the Suburbs 944 A Boom in Babies and in Housing 944 The boom worldwide 944 Cities and Suburbs Transformed 946 A Movement Becomes a Crusade 985 Riding to Freedom 986 Civil Rights at High Tide 987 The Fire Next Time 989 Black Power 989 Violence in the Streets 990 The Culture of Suburbia 948 American Civil Religion 949 “Homemaking” Women in the Workaday World 949 A Revolution in Sexuality? 952 The Flickering Gray Screen 953 Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society 991 The Origins of the Great Society 993 The Election of 1964 994 The Great Society 994 Immigration reform 995 Evaluating the Great Society 996 The Reforms of the Warren Court 996 The Politics of Calm 954 Eisenhower’s Modern Republicanism 954 The Conglomerate World 955 The Counterculture 998 Activists on the New Left 998 Vatican II and American Catholics 1000 The Rise of the Counterculture 1000 The Rock Revolution 1001 The West Coast Scene 1004 Cracks in the Consensus 956 Critics of Mass Culture 956 The Rebellion of Young America 957 Nationalism in an Age of Superpowers 958 To the Brink? 959 .

Not a Lincoln 1054 Kissinger and Foreign Policy 1055 Global Competition and the Limits of American Influence 1055 Shuttle Diplomacy 1057 Détente 1057 The Limits of a Post-Watergate President 1058 Fighting Inflation 1059 The Election of 1976 1060 Social Consequences of the War 1015 The Soldiers’ War 1015 The War at Home 1017 The Unraveling 1018 Tet Offensive 1018 The Shocks of 1968 1021 Chicago 1022 Revolutionary clashes worldwide 1022 Whose Silent Majority? 1023 Jimmy Carter: Restoring the Faith 1061 The Search for Direction 1061 A Sick Economy 1062 Leadership.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xvii EQA Contents Chapter Summary 1005 Interactive Learning 1006 Additional Reading 1006 Significant Events 1007 Daily Lives: The Politics of Dress 1002 xvii Watergate and the Politics of Resentment 1048 Nixon’s New Federalism 1048 Stagflation 1049 Social Policies and the Court 1049 Us versus Them 1050 Triumph 1051 The President’s Enemies 1051 Break-In 1052 To the Oval Office 1052 Resignation 1054 Chapter 3 0 The Vietnam Era (1963–1975) 1008 Preview 1008 The Road to Vietnam 1011 Lyndon Johnson’s War 1012 Rolling Thunder 1013 A Ford. Not Hegemony 1063 The Wavering Spirit of Détente 1064 The Middle East: Hope and Hostages 1065 A President Held Hostage 1066 Chapter Summary 1067 Interactive Learning 1067 Additional Reading 1067 Significant Events 1068 Daily Lives: Fast-Food America 1046 Nixon’s War 1024 Vietnamization—and Cambodia 1025 Fighting a No-Win War 1025 The Move toward Détente 1026 The New Identity Politics 1030 Latino Activism 1030 The Choices of American Indians 1032 Asian Americans 1033 Gay Rights 1034 Feminism 1034 Equal Rights and Abortion 1036 The Legacy of Identity Politics 1036 AFTER THE FACT Historians Reconstruct the Past: The Contested Ground of Collective Memory 1069 The End of an Era 1037 Chapter Summary 1038 Interactive Learning 1039 Additional Reading 1039 Significant Events 1040 Daily Lives: The Race to the Moon 1028 Chapter 32 The Conservative Challenge (1980–1992) 1074 Preview 1074 The Conservative Rebellion 1076 Chapter 3 1 The Age of Limits (1965–1980) 1042 Preview 1042 The Limits of Reform 1043 Consumerism 1044 Environmentalism 1045 The conservative tide worldwide 1076 Born Again 1077 The Catholic Conscience 1078 The Media as Battleground 1078 The Election of 1980 1079 Prime Time with Ronald Reagan 1080 The Great Communicator 1080 .

dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.qxd 07/16/04 10:42 Page xviii EQA xviii Contents The Reagan Agenda 1081 The Reagan Revolution in Practice 1082 The Supply-Side Scorecard 1082 The Military Buildup 1084 The United States in a Networked World 1123 The Internet Revolution 1123 American Workers in a Two-Tiered Economy 1125 Standing Tall in a Chaotic World 1085 Terrorism in the Middle East 1085 Mounting Frustrations in Central America 1086 The Iran-Contra Connection 1086 Cover Blown 1088 From Cold War to Glasnost 1089 The Election of 1988 1090 Multiculturalism and Contested American Identity 1126 African Americans and the Persistence of the Racial Divide 1126 African Americans in a Full-Employment Economy 1128 Global Pressures in a Multicultural America 1130 Chapter Summary 1132 Interactive Learning 1133 Additional Reading 1133 Significant Events 1134 Daily Lives: Motels as an Ethnic Niche 1108 An End to the Cold War 1090 A Post–Cold War Foreign Policy 1090 The Gulf War 1091 Domestic Doldrums 1092 The Conservative Court 1093 Disillusionment and Anger 1096 The Election of 1992 1097 Chapter Summary 1098 Interactive Learning 1099 Additional Reading 1099 Significant Events 1100 Daily Lives: Life in the Underclass 1094 Epilogue Fighting Terrorism in a Global Age (2000–2003) 1136 Chapter 33 Nation of Nations in a Global Community (1980–2000) 1102 Preview 1136 The Bush Agenda 1138 Conservative Domestic Initiatives 1139 Unilateralism in Foreign Affairs 1141 Preview 1102 The New Immigration 1104 The New Look of America—Asian Americans 1105 The New Look of America—Latinos 1107 Illegal Immigration 1107 Links with the Home Country 1110 Religious Diversity 1110 Wars on Terrorism 1141 The Roots of Terror 1142 Afghanistan and a1 Qaeda 1143 The War on Terror: First Phase 1145 The Invasion of Iraq 1147 A Messy Aftermath 1149 Chapter Summary 1150 Additional Reading 1151 Significant Events 1152 The Clinton Presidency: Managing a New Global Order 1111 Clinton: Ambitions and Character 1112 The New World Disorder 1112 Yugoslavian Turmoil 1113 Middle East Peace 1114 Global Financial Disorder 1115 Appendix A-1 The Clinton Presidency on Trial 1116 Recovery without Reform 1116 The Conservative Revolution Reborn 1117 Conservatives and the Feminist Agenda 1118 Scandal 1119 The Politics of Surplus 1120 Hanging by a Chad: The Election of 2000 1121 The Declaration of Independence A-1 The Constitution of the United States of America A-4 Presidential Elections A-14 Presidential Administrations A-18 Justices of the Supreme Court A-30 A Social Profile of the American Republic A-32 Credits C-1 Index I-1 .

1861 488 The War in the West.qxd 07/16/04 10:56 Page xix EQA list of maps & charts Early Peoples of North America 3 Indians of North America. 1775 122 Overseas Trade Networks 135 The Seven Years’ War 146 European Claims in North America.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. ca. 1861–1862 495 The Changing Magnitude of Battle 512 The War in the East. 1861–1862 492 The War in the East. 7th Virginia Infantry. 1790 234 Hamilton’s Financial System 238 Election of 1800 252 Exploration and Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase 263 The Indian Response to White Encroachment 272 The United States and the Barbary States. 1820–1860 399 Southern Population. 1775–1777 181 The Fighting in the South. circa 1500 11 Principal Routes of European Exploration 28 Spanish America. with Track Gauges 460 Prices of Cotton and Slaves 465 The Kansas-Nebraska Act 467 Election of 1860 480 The Pattern of Secession 481 Resources of the Union and the Confederacy. 1801–1815 274 The War of 1812 280 The Missouri Compromise and the Union’s Boundaries in 1820 283 Travel Times. 1863–1865 515 The War in the West. 1750–1775 150 Patterns of Allegiance 174 The Fighting in the North. 1675 79 Early New England 88 Patterns of Settlement in the Eighteenth Century 118 Estimated Population of Colonial Cities. 1840 305 Western Land Sales and the Price of Corn and Wheat 310 Development of the Lowell Mills 317 Election of 1824 335 Indian Removal 344 The Spread of White Manhood Suffrage 346 Election of 1840 356 Annual Consumption of Distilled Spirits. 1600 38 European Exploration: Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries 48 Colonies of the Chesapeake 60 African Transatlantic Slave Trade. per Capita. Army of Northern Virginia 521 The Southern States during Reconstruction 539 A Georgia Plantation after the War 548 Election of 1876 555 Tenant Farmers. 1720–1770 119 Estimated Population by Region. 1863–1865 519 The Attrition of War: Company D. 1782–1802 202 The Ordinance of 1785 205 Ratification of the Constitution 220 Semisubsistence and Commercial America. 1850 and 1860. 1835–1860 459 Railroads. 1780–1781 188 Western Land Claims. 1750 and 1763 149 The Appalachian Frontier. 1900 570 xix . 1710–1920 378 The Diverse South 394 Cotton and Other Crops of the South 398 The Spread of Slavery. ca. 1720–1760 120 Distribution of the American Population. 1860 400 A Plantation Layout 402 Sioux Expansion and the Horse and Gun Frontiers 426 The Mexican Borderlands 430 The Overland Trail 432 Election of 1844 436 The Mexican War 438 Territorial Growth and the Compromise of 1850 451 Proportion of Western Exports Shipped via New Orleans. 1450–1760 64 The Carolinas and the Caribbean 71 Spanish Missions in North America. 1800 and 1830 303 The Transportation Network of a Market Economy.

1925–1945 840 Federal Budget and Surplus/Deficit. 1973–1987 1059 Income Projections of Two-Income Families. Imports and Exports. 1967–1984 1063 Election of 1980 1080 Poverty in America. 1934 834 The Tennessee Valley Authority 835 Unemployment. 1918 764 Spread of Influenza Pandemic: Second Stage. Autumn 1918 768 Areas of Population Growth 801 Election of 1928 811 Declining World Trade. 1945–1995 1084 Central American Conflicts. . 1980–2050 1105 Election of 2000 1123 Terrorist Incidents by Region.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xx EQA xx List of Maps and Charts World War II in Europe and North Africa 871 The U-Boat War 872 The Impact of World War II on Government Spending 888 The Pacific Campaigns of World War II 891 Cold War Europe 919 Election of 1948 927 The Korean War 934 The United States Birthrate.S. February 1960 985 Civil Rights: Patterns of Protest and Unrest 991 Growth of Government. 1870–1890 623 Boom and Bust Business Cycle. 1860–1920 645 Growth of New Orleans to 1900 648 The Voting Public. 1880 and 1914 614 Occupational Distribution. 1968–2002 1145 The War on Terror: Afghanistan and Iraq 1146 Map of the World Map of the United States Spending on Education in the South before and after Disfranchisement 578 Natural Environment of the West 581 The Indian Frontier 584 The Mining and Cattle Frontiers 591 Steel Production. 1920–1940 854 What the New Deal Did . 1860–1912 672 Election of 1896 687 Balance of U. 1947–1960 947 Asian Trouble Spots 960 Election of 1960 966 The World of the Superpowers 970 The Spontaneous Spread of Sit-ins. 1900–1989 945 Average Annual Regional Migration. 1900 691 The Spanish-American War 700 The United States in the Pacific 701 Woman Suffrage 721 Election of 1912 736 Panama Canal—Old and New Transoceanic Routes 746 American Interventions in the Caribbean. 1929–1933 813 Election of 1932 830 Unemployment Relief. . 1948–1988 1056 OPEC Oil Prices. 1880 and 1920 619 Railroads. 856 . 1898–1930 749 The Course of War in Europe. 1974–1990 1087 War with Iraq: Operation Desert Storm 1092 Election of 1992 1097 Projected Population Shifts. 1870–1910 689 Imperialist Expansion. 1914–1917 754 Election of 1916 757 The Final German Offensive and Allied Counterattack. 1955–1990 996 The War in Vietnam 1014 Levels of U.S. Troops in Vietnam (at Year End) 1019 Election of 1968 1024 Oil and Conflict in the Middle East. 1970–1993 1083 The Federal Budget and Surplus/Deficit.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. 1865–1900 630 Immigration and Population.

Sometimes only a paragraph in length. These narratives are not separate special features. Egypt. • An “Interactive Learning” section at the end of every chapter. “Fighting Terrorism in a Global Age. Yet the narrative keeps changing. a new epilogue. and the new essay in Part Four.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. From its first edition. published in 1990. New material includes • A section on the Barbary pirates and cultural identities in Chapter 9 . a history that is broader. That conviction has driven our revision for the fifth edition of Nation of Nations. Nation of Nations has taken such an approach. In the fourth edition. have underlined the call historians have made over the past decade to view American history within a global context. hence it will not do simply to compile an encyclopedia of American history and pass it off as a survey. including a new section and map on the election of 2000 and material on recent court cases regarding affirmative action. and Brazil in Chapter 18 • A section on worldwide recovery from the Great Depression in Chapter 25 • A map on the global spread of the influenza pandemic in autumn 1918 in Chapter 23 • More on global labor migrations in Chapter 26 • A section about Vatican II and American Catholics in Chapter 29 Other important content and pedagogical changes include • Two new After the Fact essays exploring cultural history topics that have received recent scholarly attention. “Engendering the SpanishAmerican War. xxi Changes to the Fifth Edition The fifth edition expands on the global coverage that has been so important to our text by adding new narratives that place American history in an international perspective. • To conclude the book. A world that has become suddenly and dangerously smaller requires. • Information comparing debt peonage in the New South with similar circumstances in India. • Updates to Chapter 33.” looks at contemporary constructions of gender as the United States went to war with Spain in 1898. with global essays opening each of the book’s six parts to establish an international framework and a global timeline correlating events nationally and worldwide. The new essay in Part Two focuses on Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson.qxd 06/26/04 04:26 Page xxi EQA preface to the fifth edition A ll good history begins with a good story: that has been the touchstone of Nation of Nations. to provide students with more guidance as to the chronology of events. more than ever.” which includes a chart showing terrorist incidents by region and a map on the war on terror in Afghanistan and Iraq. • The addition of date ranges to chapter titles. Narrative is embedded in the way we understand the past. The events following on the heels of September 11. 2001. directing students to relevant materials on the Primary Source Investigator CD-ROM. we added global focus sections within chapter narratives and a final chapter (“Nation of Nations in a Global Community”) highlighting the ties of the United States to the rest of the world. sometimes an entire section. they are designed to be an integral part of the text.

short documentary movies. An instructor’s manual and computerized test bank are also included. Find more information about the CD-ROM where it is packaged in your book.mhhe.com/ davidsonnation5). Salmón University of Texas. Pan American Richard Straw Radford University William Woodward Seattle Pacific University • In addition to the Additional Readings feature at the end of each chapter. an instructor’s manual. McBee Texas Tech University Robert M. quizzes.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii.mhhe. and more. Acknowledgments Wayne Ackerson Salisbury State University Robert Alderson Georgia Perimeter College . Atchison Southwest Texas State Eirlys M. a bibliography. • Located on the book’s Web site (www. extensive Web links. a full bibliography for the book can be found at www. For the Instructor • A set of Overhead Transparencies (0072956976) includes maps and images from the textbook. • Located on the book’s Web site (www. the Student Online Learning Center offers interactive maps with exercises. Leone Middle Tennessee State University Daniel Littlefield University of South Carolina Susan Matt Weber State University Randy D. counterpoint essays with exercises. • An Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM (0072456992) provides materials for instructors to use in the classroom. the Instructor Online Learning Center offers PowerPoint presentations. S.com/ davidsonnation5). Barker Thomas Nelson Community College Vince Clark Johnson County Community College P. and more. For the Student • Packaged free with every copy of the book. as some restrictions may apply. including PowerPoint presentations and electronic versions of the maps in the textbook. prices.qxd 07/16/04 10:44 Page xxii EQA xxii Preface to the Fifth Edition Jay Antle Johnson County Community College Alan C. and availability. Scott Corbett Oxnard College Mary Paige Cubbison Miami Dade Community College George Gerdow Northeastern Illinois University Ronald Goldberg Thomas Nelson Community College Michael Hamilton Seattle Pacific University Reid Holland Midland Technical College Lisa Hollander Jefferson College Carol Keller San Antonio College Lawrence Kohl University of Alabama Janice M. Primary Source Investigator CD-ROM (007295700X) includes hundreds of documents to explore. interactive maps. McDonald United States Military Academy Paul C. an image bank. Please contact your local McGraw-Hill representative for details concerning policies. and more. Fifth Edition. Milazzo Ohio University Roberto M. a bibliography.com/ davidsonnation5. Information about Supplements The supplements listed here accompany Nation of Nations: A Narrative History of the American Republic.mhhe.

in xxiii which Americans finally faced the reality that even the boldest dreams of national greatness are bounded by the finite nature of power and resources both natural and human. Richard John. Stephen E. Maizlish. Philip Kuhn. William Gienapp. Weber. with the intent of fitting individual parts to the whole as well as providing a measure of continuity. the post–Civil War era. Crisp. style. the colonial era. Jim Sidbury. Gienapp Christine Leigh Heyrman Mark H. and overarching purpose. In producing this collaborative effort. friends and colleagues contributed their advice and constructive criticism in ways both small and large. James West Davidson William E. R. and John Womack. Walter Nugent. Erica Gienapp. Cardoso. because the need to specialize inevitably imposes limits on any project as broad as this one. Ruiz. the 90 years in which the young nation first flourished. served as a general editor and writer. David J. Lawrence A. Dinah Chenven. in which industrialization and urbanization brought the nation more centrally into an international system regularly disrupted by depression and war. and Indians participated in the making of both a new America and a new republic. Lytle Michael B. We owe a debt to Myra Armstead. our fifth author. in which Europeans.Virginia Joyner. Africans. Drew McCoy. Devra Weber. James Davidson. and Mark Lytle. Christopher Collier. Vicki L.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xxiii EQA Preface to the Fifth Edition In addition. James McPherson. George Forgie. the modern era. all of us have shared the conviction that the best history speaks to a larger audience. then foundered on the issues of section and slavery. Michael Stoff. David Edmunds. Stoff . James E.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. The division of labor for this book was determined by our respective fields of scholarship: Christine Heyrman. Finally.

was begintake 50. more Arthur. After returning to Bristol. In 1450. greedy tollkeepers ples were united loosely in the lay in wait every six or seven Holy Roman Empire. 1400–1600 allowing time to work caupreview • In the century after 1492. and exploitation. the English living along centralized governments. West Country ports offered woven woolen cloth and codfish. Europeans were only beginning to expand westward. toward Iceland. bringing back animal hides as well as timber for houses and barrels. Charles II ascends throne 1660 Outbreak of English Civil War 1642 ONE GLOBAL EVENTS Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica . Cabot marched off to London to inform His Majesty. Or so whose it seemed to mariners usually carried by wheeled cartss seafaring spread coasts. Travel across the Mediterkings ruled over only about half ranean Sea and along Europe’s of what is now France. The problem looms even larger as we move toward the beginning of our story. but storms and pirates made the with some areas held by Chrisgoing dangerous and slow. Along rivers and canals. There. a few English tried their luck farther west. crossed their territories. divided into several kingdoms. Straightaway the captain would call for a lead to be thrown overboard to sound the depths. a good sailing master could tell where he was by what came up—“oosy sand” or perhaps “soft worms” or “popplestones as big as beans. did this American republic—this “teeming nation of nations. a cononly 9 days.qxd 06/26/04 01:08 Page xxiv EQA A Guided Tour of Nation of Nations: A Narrative History of the American Republic. Then the foregone conclusions vanish. an lands inthe the Sahara far Atlantic. But news of Vinland. had migrated The scent of the new land came first—not the sight lords repeatedly taxed boats over the course of 2000 years from of it. A united Europe has not 22 emerged and. At its end was a hollowed-out socket with a bit of tallow in it. French miles. population of ca. influence ll the world lay before them. Spain was northern coastlines was possible. after all. claimed that the bountiful Hy-Brasil—Gaelic for “Isle of the Blessed”—lay somewhere west of Ireland. In Columbus’s day localism still held sway. and with the proceeds dressed himself in dashing silks. These western ventures returned with little to show for their daring until the coming of an Italian named Giovanni Caboto. paths. seems even farther away after the momentous breakup of the Soviet empire. so some of the sea bottom would stick when the lead was hauled up. In northerly latitudes around June. Global Timeline Each global essay includes a timeline comparing political and social events in the United States with developments elsewhere. it would be the scent of fir trees or the sight of shore 23 birds wheeling about the masts. the captain would hope to sight land early in the day. Since the time of King in sailing and firearms. about the time Christopher Columbus was born. 1001–1015 French found New Orleans 1718 AMERICAN EVENTS AMERICAN EVENTS the late twentieth century but with the fresh eyes of an earlier era. Spain established a vast and profitable empire but at the rugged southwestern coasts fearful human cost. mostly along the Roses. North Localism was also evident in African culture had been shaped the patterns of European trade. England. Cabot discovers This time the return voyage brought news of a “new-found” island where the Newfoundland trees were tall enough to make fine masts and the codfish were plentiful. In the 1480s and 1490s.” If the ship was approaching unknown shores. The multitudes of London flocked after him. From the wharves of England’s West Country seaports like Bristol. caught wherever the best prospects beckoned. 25 million drops 90 to 95 percent by 1600 1520s Cortés conquers Aztec empire 1521 Silver boom in Mexico. The Germanic peoSeine River. Cabot. obtained the blessing of King Henry VII to hunt for unknown lands. then Cabot returned triumphantly to Bristol to undertake a more ambitious search for a northwest passage to Asia. followed the sea. under bad it might tentious little nation.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. not to mention another 100 or so spoken within the former Soviet Union.” to use Walt Whitman’s phrase—come to be? In barest outline. published 1687 War of the Austrian Succession 1740–1748 Glorious Revolution in England. fetching wines from France and olive oil or figs and raisins from the Spanish and Portuguese coasts. Mediterranean Sea. 26 xxiv . and stronger. the rise of new trading networks. Or they turned south. In return. called John Cabot by the English. Italy was divided into five major states and an equal number of smaller Chapter 1 territories. Protestant Reformation population of 50 million drops 1517 30 to 40 percent by 1400 1347–1500 Vasco da Gama reaches India 1498–1500 Dutch East India Company founded 1602 Restoration of English monarchy. Through much of the fifteenth century the search for cod drew West Country sailors north and west. Bolivia 1550s Sugar boom in Caribbean 1640s Pilgrims land at Plymouth 1620 Santa Fe founded 1610 Jamestown established 1607 Carolinas founded 1663 Rise of the Aztec empire 1300 Chesapeake labor system depends increasingly on black slavery Rice boom in South Carolina 1680s 1700s La Salle follows the Mississippi 1682 Glorious Revolution in America 1688–1691 King William’s War 1689–1697 Queen Anne’s War 1702–1713 The Great Awakening 1730s–1750s King George’s War 1740–1748 Benjamin Franklin founds the American Philosophical Society 1743 Leif Ericsson establishes Vinland in Newfoundland ca. wondering over “the Admiral”. wafted from beyond the horizon. on gravitation. How. since the seventh century by the Goods moving overland were religion of Islam. agricultural people. The site was soon abandoned and forgotten. Below from England’ westward toward or pack animals unknown over rutted desert the Bantu. but that the smells. How does the American nation manage to unite millions of square miles of territory into one governable republic? How do New York and San Francisco (a city not even in existence in Lewis and Clark’s day) come to be linked in a complex economy as well as in a single political system? Such questions take on even more significance when we recall that Europe—roughly the same size as the United States—is today still divided into more than four dozen independent nations speaking some 33 languages. however. Europeans expanded boldly and often tiously toward an untried harruthlessly into the Americas. known had limited but continuous dealeventually as the Wars of the ings with Africa. indeed. as wellpushing into Spain. thanks to a combination of technological advances bor on uncharted tides. never reached most of Europe. sea for weeks on end. as Leif called his colony. European diseases. planting a settlement in Newfoundland around 1000 C. New Worlds Preview A preview introduces each chapter’s main themes. Even out of sight of land. who hailed from Venice. PA R T GLOBAL EVENTS Luther launches Bubonic plague reaches Europe. constitutional monarchy of William III and Mary 1688 War of the John and Charles Wesley War of the Spanish begin preaching League of Succession Methodism in England Augsburg 1702–1713 1738 1689-1697 Mongols begin 60-year conquest of China 1215 Marco Polo travels to China from Venice 1271–1295 Reconquista drives Muslim Arabs from Spain 1492 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1625 1650 1675 1700 1725 1750 Columbus reaches America Formation of the Iroquois League 1492 late 1400s European diseases waste central Mexico. ning a series of bitter civil conEuropean peoples at this time flicts among the nobility. then. whose forebears came reach London from Venice in from Africa. He set sail with five ships in 1498 and was never heard from again. received 10 pounds as his reward. From the port of Bristol his lone ship set out to the west in the spring of 1497. Scandinavian seafarers led by Leif Ericsson had reached the northern reaches of the Americas. Old maps. Under tians and others by Islamic good conditions a ship might Moors. ships headed west and north to Ireland. A diverse Mesoamerican population of some 20 million was of Devon and Cornwall had reduced to only 2 million through warfare. To be sure. that is the question that drives our narrative across half a millennium. Fifth Edition Global Essay Each of the book’s six parts begins with an essay that sets American events into a global context.E. Onto the their African homeland delicious sailors whoWest had felt nothing but theto rolling Old World.

a skilled carpenter who. Even though Callender’s scandal quickly subsided. To Europe’s hopeful and desperate alike. Jefferson argued in his Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) for the likelihood that peoples of African descent were inferior intellectually and artistically to those of European descent. nearly a century passed before Madison Hemings’s claims won wider attention. an early biographer of Jefferson. John Wayles.” Columbus and many other Europeans expected that the Americas would provide land for the landless. Thomas Jefferson Randolph. In the 1850s. fathered Hemings’s children. moved from Virginia to southern Ohio. In the 1860s. a Richmond newspaper. freed Sally Hemings and that she lived with her two younger sons in Charlottesville until her own death in 1835. Beverly and Harriet. people. And despite his opposition to slavery. Martha Jefferson Randolph. She was one of six children. Virginia. upon returning to Virginia a few years later. creating a pool of capital that those investors could plow into colonial development. the Chinese seemed poised for even greater maritime exploits. Francis I of France. . .dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. economics. We know that she had six children and that the four who survived to adulthood escaped from slavery into freedom: Jefferson assisted her two eldest children. publicly related an oral tradition repeated among his family. After all. and Jefferson had fathered children with her. By the late fifteenth century Europe’s merchants and bankers had devised more efficient ways of transferring money and establishing credit in order to support commerce across longer distances. and wealth beyond the wildest dreams of the daring. that same inflation enriched those who had goods to sell. The official version of events did not go unchallenged. we know. in leaving Monticello in 1822. to this day. and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain began the trend. more centrally organized states were able to marshal the resources necessary to support colonial outposts and to sustain the professional armies and navies capable of protecting empires abroad. The direction of Europe’s political development also paved the path for American colonization. Henry Randall. In 1968. not merely to escape from scarcity and disruption at home. and politics made overseas settlement practical and attractive to seekers of profit and power. that Jefferson’s white descendants stoutly denied (and. born to Betty Hemings and her white master. Ellen Coolidge Randolph. The Conditions of Colonization Sixteenth-century Europeans sought to colonize the Americas. Until the end of the twentieth century. Henry VII. work for the unemployed. The improvements in navigation and sailing also fostered an expansion of trade. a year after his mother’s death. Madison and Eston. the founder of England’s Tudor dynasty. Callender had once lent his pen to the Republicans. Samuel’s brother Peter Carr.” landlords raised rents. doing Jefferson no lasting political damage. ranging from typescript drafts of presidential memoirs or handwritten notations in church records to military casualty estimates. 34 Part One The Creation of a New America keep pace with the “Price Revolution. married Jefferson in 1772. This view of Monticello was painted shortly after Jefferson’s death. too. . most scholars resolved the discrepancy of this dual claim by suggesting that one of the Carr nephews had fathered Sally Hemings’s children. 289 Jefferson owned 5000 acres of land in Albemarle County. We know. It portrays his white descendants surrounded by a serene landscape. Jefferson’s granddaughter. We know that Betty Hemings was the child of an African woman and an English sailor. Madison reported that his mother had been Thomas Jefferson’s “concubine” and that Jefferson had fathered all of her children. 288 After the Fact: Historians Reconstruct the Past The book includes eight essays that demonstrate the methods used by historians to analyze a variety of sources. claimed that her brother. his daughter. John Chester Miller. if events had fallen out a little differently. public monuments. showing that the United States did not develop in a geographic or cultural vacuum and that the broad forces shaping it also influenced other nations. Martha Wayles Skelton. China’s “treasure xxv . Ohio. And all of Jefferson’s most eminent twentieth-century biographers— Douglass Adair. But that conclusion raises an intriguing question: why didn’t China. were freed by Jefferson’s will in 1827. Expansion of trade and capital Political centralization Global Coverage A section of the narrative in each chapter discusses American history from a global perspective. four years later. When his story splashed onto the pages of the Recorder. in 1802. When interviewed by a Pike County. In 1975. adding to the burden of the peasantry. Seven times between 1405 and 1433. were quadroons— light-skinned men and women whose ancestry was one-quarter African. he warned of the dire consequences that would attend the mixing of the races. financiers. money to lend. Because of that conviction. the trickle of rumor turned into a torrent of scandal. A writer for hire. had contracted a liaison with one of his own slaves. forging modern nation-states by extending their political control over more territory. and resources. Revolutions in technology. There are very large tracts of cultivated land. and land to rent. Callender alleged that Thomas Jefferson. Samuel Carr. The woman was the president’s mistress even now. Sally among them. Tufton. and even climate data derived from the analysis of tree rings. he was also an eloquent apostle of equality and democracy and an outspoken critic of the tyrannical power of masters over slaves. Solid information about Sally Hemings is scarce. Dumas Malone. Wealth flowed into the coffers of sixteenthcentury traders. recalled a conversation with Thomas Jefferson Randolph in the 1850s in which he attributed paternity to another nephew. newspaper in 1873. the historian Winthrop Jordan noted that Sally Hemings’s pregnancies coincided with Jefferson’s stays at Monticello. . In the interior there are mines and metals. Sally Hemings and her children lived at the Monticello plantation. his white grandchildren were still explaining away the accusations half a century later. and Joseph J. We know that shortly after Jefferson’s death. more than two hundred years ago. . during his years in Paris as the American minister. As Columbus wrote eagerly of Hispaniola: “This island and all others are very fertile to a limitless degree. Jefferson was a Virginia gentleman and an American philosophe who believed that reason should rule over passion. Chinese. the most advanced civilization of the early modern world. Those larger. he insisted. engage in expansion and colonization? Or for that matter. why didn’t the Aztecs discover and colonize Europe? The Chinese undoubtedly possessed the capability to navigate the world’s oceans and to establish overseas settlements. she performed domestic work at Monticello. and Shadwell.qxd 07/16/04 17:44 Page xxv EQA AFTE R TH E FACT AFTE R T H E Reconstruct F A C T the Past Historians Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson The rumors began in Albemarle County. Even so. his “home farm” of Monticello and three “quarter farms”—Lego. they came to the notice of a journalist by the name of James Callender. and landlords. Fawn Brodie’s best-selling “intimate history” of Jefferson portrayed his relationship with Sally Hemings as an enduring love affair. By the opening of the fifteenth century. the African American novelist Barbara Chase-Rimboud set Brodie’s findings to fiction. some still deny) any familial connection with the descendants of Sally Hemings. a Virginia planter whose white daughter. And although rising prices and rents pinched Europe’s peasantry. Europeans. and her two younger children. They were also propelled across the Atlantic by dynamic changes in their society. but turned from friend into foe when the party failed to reward him with a political appointment. this climate of disorder and uncertainty led to dreams that the New World would provide an opportunity to renew the Old. Madison Hemings. A succession of Ming dynasty emperors and their efficient bureaucrats marshaled China’s resources to develop a thriving shipbuilding industry and trade with ports throughout southeast Asia and India. Ellis—contended that a man of Jefferson’s character and convictions could not have engaged in a liaison with a slave woman. . Both the commercial networks and the private fortunes needed to sustain overseas trade and settlement were in place by the time of Columbus’s discovery. We know that Sally accompanied one of Jefferson’s daughters to Paris as her maid in 1787 and that. Virginia. which means Betty’s children with Wayles. After 1450 strong monarchs in Europe steadily enlarged the sphere of royal power at the expense of warrior lords. had told her that one of Jefferson’s nephews. She was kept at Monticello. Her name was Sally Hemings. and Aztecs on the Eve of Contact It was the growing power of monarchs as well as commercial and technological development that allowed early modern Europeans to establish permanent settlements— even empires—in another world lying an ocean away.

” 251 Daily Lives Every chapter contains an essay focusing on one of five themes that give insight into the lives of ordinary Americans: clothing and fashion. were so impressed with its harmony that they agreed to sign a peace treaty. Peale intended his museum to be “a school of useful knowledge” that would attract men and women of all ages and social ranks. Refusing to slow his collection efforts. opened a museum of natural history in his home on Lombard Street in Philadelphia. No state outlawed segregation. the Republicans repealed the Naturalization Act. stability. busts of famous scientists. On social relations they were much more cautious. Stuffed tigers and deer stood on a plaster mountainside. insects. for France signed a peace treaty ending its undeclared war. Peale hoped the museum would instill civic responsibility in its patrons. Assembled from several digs he had conducted with great publicity in upstate New York. and drugs. Peale was not searching for signs of the supernatural in everyday life.” it was housed in a special “Mammoth Room” that required a separate admission fee. and he often told the story of how two hostile Indian chiefs. George Washington. and popular entertainment. although white violence in the South increasingly reduced black turnout. the visitor found a wide assortment of items from around the world. black citizens paraded in support of Ulysses Grant for president. but white Republicans refused to adopt such a radical policy. Adams suddenly shocked his party by negotiating a peace treaty with France. Before he retired in 1810. and the world and thereby help sustain civilization in the United States. and a hyena. Peale believed. however. African Americans demanded the right to vote as free citizens. costumes. but it was unable to satisfy the growing popular appetite for showmanship rather than education.” on pages 94–95). It was a courageous act. to “explore the wondrous world. Adams. The museum finally closed its doors in 1850.” limits and threatened the liberties of citizens. The museum attracted thousands of curious customers and prospered in its early years. in his mind. In gathering and mounting his specimens. Peale’s museum was an expression of its founder’s republican ideals of order. Sensitive to status. He hesitated before accepting a five-legged cow with two tails. “Whoso would learn wisdom. thereby adding a synonym for huge to the American vocabulary). reptiles. By studying natural history. states had the right to interpose their authority. for Adams not only split his party in two but also ruined his own chances for reelection by driving Hamilton’s pro-British wing of the party into open opposition. Partially visible on the right behind Peale is the great mastodon skeleton. and abolished property requirements for officeholding. the Alien and Sedition Acts quietly expired. governor. The sign over the door read. it stood 11 feet high at the shoulder and was the first complete mastodon skeleton ever mounted. and problems of economic reconstruction were as difficult as those of politics. termed this act “the most disinterested. But Jefferson and Madison were not ready to rend a union that had so recently been forged. public space/private space. painter and jack-of-all-trades. Charles Willson Peale lifts a curtain to reveal the famous Long Room of his museum.* The Radical state governments also assumed some responsibility for social welfare and established the first statewide systems of public schools in the South. voters were allowed to vote for the president. operated the machine and did a thriving business. and South Carolina and Louisiana were the only states that required integration in public schools (a mandate that was almost universally ignored).qxd 06/26/04 01:09 Page xxvi EQA Daily Lives POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT Exploring the Wondrous World In 1786 Charles Willson Peale. Among the technological innovations that were showcased. only Alabama and Arkansas temporarily forbade some ex-Confederates to vote. and other state officers. Prominent acquaintances such as Benjamin Franklin. and wax figures representing the races of the world. at which a woman gazes in awe. numerous snakes. and birds. Peale sought “to bring into one view a world in miniature. Although the Fourteenth Amendment prevented high Confederate officials from holding office. Peale displayed nearly a hundred paintings he had completed of leading Americans. In New York. and harmony. He declined to display a blue sash belonging to George Washington because it had no educational value. Yet Peale’s vast collection soon overwhelmed his scientific classification scheme. But unlike seventeenth-century colonials. Peale’s backyard soon contained a zoo with a bewildering assortment of animals. their country. A student of the Enlightenment. cases of minerals. while below. meeting by accident in the museum. Americans had always been fascinated by freaks of nature and “remarkable providences” (see Daily Lives. as the ticket of admission promised. and a band. Moses Williams. Parades played a central role in campaigning: this parade exhibits the usual banners.” During the last year of the Adams administration. 250 The Election of 1800 With a naval war raging on the high seas and the Alien and Sedition Acts sparking debate at home. the museum struggled on. and only after Peale’s death was it exhibited. and the collection eventually totaled some 100. let him enter here!” Inside. The Fifteenth Amendment. They opposed any effort to resist federal authority by force. while in the rear a father instructs his son on the wonders of nature. including two grizzly bear cubs. The two men intended for the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions only to rally public opinion to the Republican cause. stuffed birds and animals. It was one of the major attractions in Philadelphia and became famous throughout the nation. arranged them according to accepted scientific classifications. but during the Republic’s formative years it offered thousands of Americans a unique opportunity. The New State Governments New state constitutions The new southern state constitutions enacted several significant reforms. Marginal Headings Succinct notes in the margins highlight key terms and concepts. presidential electors as well as the governor had been chosen by the South Carolina legislature. the most determined and the most successful of my whole life. who bristled with pride and independence. animals. 542 Part Three The Republic Transformed and Tested From the beginning of Reconstruction. for the first time. Blacks in both the North and the South voted solidly for the Republican party as the party of Lincoln and emancipation. other states openly rejected the doctrine of “interposition. monkeys. ratified in 1870. were eventually put in glass-fronted cases with painted habitats behind them. He also pioneered the grouping of animals in their natural habitat.” He carefully labeled plants. It was. Once in power.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. and birds and In this self-portrait. Under the direction of his son. selling 8880 profiles in the first year. Peale’s most famous exhibit was a skeleton of a mastodon (he misnamed it a mammoth. They put in place fairer systems of legislative representation. The nation benefited. a glass pond was filled with fish. the birds. flags. an eagle. Race and social equality Economic Issues and Corruption The war left the southern economy in ruins. Billed “the ninth wonder of the world. “A World of Wonders and Witchcraft. Furthermore. drink. an institute of eternal laws. secured that right for black males. Peale tried vainly to interest the national government in acquiring his collection and creating a national museum. fearing it would lower the institution’s dignity and compromise its serious purpose. He put curiosities away in cabinets and showed them only on request. and Thomas Jefferson sent specimens. citizens would gain an understanding of themselves. time and travel. mulattoes pushed for prohibition of social discrimination. Peale refused to indulge the popular taste for spectacles and freaks. loans. xxvi . Peale moved his museum in 1794 to Philosophical Hall. and his grandiose plans always outran his funds and soon his space as well. For the safety of visitors who could not resist handling the exhibits. whose feathers were covered with arsenic. and then in 1802 he took over the second floor of Independence Hall. a former slave. a machine called a physiognotrace produced precise silhouettes. In South Carolina. allowed voters to elect many officials who before had been appointed. The new Republican governments encouraged industrial development by providing subsidies. All the new constitutions proclaimed the principle of equality and granted black adult males the right to vote. and even *Previously. food. laid bare for the masses to see and understand.000 items.

Also included are several sources on the origins of slavery in America: a document that presents one of the earliest restrictive slave codes in the British colonies. and enslavement. and primary source materials located on the Primary Source Investigator CD-ROM. Morgan. such as an engraving that illustrates the dress and customs of Native Americans living near Jamestown. Jackson reelected. and cattle ranches. The Chesapeake has always drawn more notice from early American historians than South Carolina has. establishing military garrisons. Peter Colclanis. see the Bibliography at www. com/davidsonnation5. images of Portuguese slave trading forts on the coast of West Africa. and Timothy Silver. Jackson finishes first in presidential race 1825 1825 House elects John Quincy Adams president 1826 William Morgan kidnapped 1827 Cherokees adopt written constitution 1828 Tariff of Abominations. • Thriving monocultures were established throughout the region—tobacco in the Chesapeake. Weber. economic panic 1838 Trail of Tears Second Seminole war 1835–1842 1840 1840 Independent Treasury Act. • Native peoples everywhere in the American South resisted white settlement. while James Merrell sensitively explores the impact of white contact on a single southern tribe in The Indians’ New World (1989). Two other notable treatments of slavery and race relations in Britain’s southern colonies are Richard Dunn’s study of the Caribbean. American Slavery. Only after slavery became firmly established as a social and legal institution did England’s southern colonies begin to settle down and grow: during the late seventeenth century for the Chesapeake region and the early eighteenth for the Carolinas. see David J. • Instability and conflict characterized the southern colonies for most of the first century of their existence. see Daniel C. Additional Reading Annotated references to both classic studies and recent scholarship encourage further pursuit of the topics and events covered in the chapter. interactive learning The Primary Source Investigator CD-ROM offers the following materials related to this chapter: • Interactive maps: The Atlantic World. Summary A bulleted summary reinforces each chapter’s main points. And for the Spanish borderlands. Van Buren elected president 1837 Charles River Bridge case. Jackson elected president 1830 1831 Anti-Masonic party holds first nominating convention 1833–1834 Biddle’s panic 1835 1830 Webster-Hayne debate. the Spanish extended their empire in Florida and New Mexico. missions. Littlefield. Indian Removal Act 1832 Worcester v.qxd 06/26/04 01:09 Page xxvii EQA 80 Part One The Creation of a New America before them) turned for labor to the African slave trade. tariff duties reduced. for fine explorations of more specialized topics. disease. Jackson’s Proclamation on Nullification 1833 Force Bill. The Shadow of a Dream (1989). Georgia. chapter summary During the seventeenth century. but their populations were drastically reduced by warfare. Jackson removes deposits from the Bank of the United States 1834 Whig party organized 1830–1838 Indian removal 1836 Specie Circular. • African slavery emerged as the dominant labor system in all the southern colonies. plantation economies based on slavery gradually developed throughout the American South. and a sobering diagram of the human cargo holds of that era’s slave-trading ships. letters and documents about the peace resulting from the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. A New Face on the Countryside (1990). short documentary movies. Significant Events A chronology at the end of each chapter shows the temporal relationship among important events. A Place in Time (1984). 1610–1690 (M3) • A collection of primary sources on the English colonization of North America. rice in the Carolinas. The best overview of that colony’s development remains Robert Weir. Interactive Learning Lists at the end of every chapter direct students to relevant interactive maps. The Spanish Frontier in North America (1992).dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. and the terrible collapse of that peace captured in a contemporary engraving of the Indian massacre of Jamestown settlers. but in recent years some important studies have redressed that neglect. Karen Kupperman offers an excellent overview of relations between whites and Indians not only in the early South but throughout North America in Settling with the Indians (1980). For a fuller list of readings. A more intimate portrait of an early Virginia community can be found in Darrett and Anita Rutman’s study of Middlesex County. Jackson vetoes recharter of the national bank. and sugar in the Caribbean. South Carolina Exposition and Protest.mhhe. additional reading The best treatment of early Virginia is Edmund S. • As the English colonies took shape. That stubborn reality would haunt Americans of all colors who continued to dream of freedom and independence. significant events 1820 1819–1823 Panic and depression 1822 Denmark Vesey conspiracy 1823 Biddle becomes president of the Bank of the United States 1824 Tariff duties raised. 1400–1850 (M2) and Growth of the Colonies. and Peter Wood’s work on South Carolina. Rice and Slaves (1981). Harrison elected president 1842 First professional minstrel troupe 1839–1843 Depression 361 xxvii . South Carolina nullifies tariff. Sugar and Slaves (1972). American Freedom (1975). Black Majority (1974). Colonial South Carolina (1982).

Each chapter of Nation of Nations incorporates an ornament created during the period being written about. Over the years printers have used ornamental designs to enliven their texts. Part 1 uses hand-engraved initials of the sort imported from England and Europe by colonial printers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. is Latin Condensed. Part 5 illustrates an initial block whose clean lines reflect the Art Deco movement of the 1920s and 1930s. a style that is relatively reserved. Part 2 displays mortised initial blocks. The initial blocks—the large decorative initials beginning the first word of every chapter— are drawn from type styles popular during the era covered by each of the book’s six parts. In other chapters the ornaments are taken from printed material of the era. The flow of history is reflected not only in the narrative of this text but in the decorative types used in its design. These ornaments had holes cut in the middle of the design so a printer could insert the initial of choice. Part 3 features initial blocks cut from wood. produced by type manufacturers so printers could buy such designs.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. These holes provided greater flexibility when the supply of ornaments was limited.qxd 06/26/04 01:09 Page xxviii EQA Printer Ornaments and Initial Blocks History records change over time in countless ways. This font. Part 6 features an informal style. T T T xxviii Part 4 makes use of a more ornamental initial block common in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This design. allowed more letters to be squeezed into a limited space. This font is Beverly Hills. Roman X Condensed. an approach common in the early and middle nineteenth century. Often these ornaments are from printers’ specimen books. Brush Script Regular. . this typeface reflects the more casual culture that blossomed during the postwar era. Some Victorian designs became quite ornate. First introduced during World War II. Printers of the New Era turned away from the oftenflowery nineteenth-century styles.

from Yale University.D. The Logic of Millennial Thought: Eighteenth-Century New England. in American Studies from Yale University and is the author of Commerce and Culture: The Maritime Communities of Colonial Massachusetts. The recipient of a Ph. He was recently reappointed Mary Ball Washington Professor of History at University College. Stoff xxix . among them After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection (with Mark H. She received a Ph. The Uncivil War: America in the Vietnam Era. 1941–1953. William E. he has received many teaching awards. In 1988 he received the Avery O. Craven Award for his book The Origins of the Republican Party. A historian who has pursued a full-time writing career. most recently the Friars’ Centennial Teaching Excellence Award. from Yale University. Dublin. and Great Heart: The History of a Labrador Adventure (with John Rugge).qxd 6/29/04 8:38 PM Page xxix EQA about the authors James West Davidson received his Ph. with Michael Stoff. He edited The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Documentary Collection. 1941–1947 and coeditor (with Jonathan Fanton and R. and American Security: The Search for a National Policy on Foreign Oil.D. and “An Environmental Approach to American Diplomatic History” in Diplomatic History.D. This Fiery Trial: The Speeches and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. 1690–1750. His most recent book. He is currently working on a brief narrative of the bombing of Nagasaki.D. from the University of California. Hal Williams) of The Manhattan Project: A Documentary Introduction to the Atomic Age. Berkeley and taught at the University of Wyoming before going to Harvard University. in Ireland. Wells for the series. War. is Associate Professor of History at the University of Texas at Austin. Lytle. he is the author of numerous books.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. He is coeditor. is Professor of History and Environmental Studies and Chair of the History Program at Bard College. where he was Professor of History until his death in 2003. is Professor of History at the University of Delaware. 1852–1856. from Yale University. Christine Leigh Heyrman Mark H. After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection (with James West Davidson). Her book Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt was awarded the Bancroft Prize in 1998. and most recently published Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America and a companion volume. of the Oxford New Narratives in American History and is at work on a study of Ida B. Lytle). who received a Ph. His publications include The Origins of the Iranian-American Alliance. Michael B. and he is completing a biography of Rachel Carson. He is the author of Oil. will be published in 2005.D. Gienapp has a Ph.

compelling. surveys such as this text are the natural antithesis of narrative history. . how we sing the songs we sing. even strange way in which we humans define ourselves. . for preferring a narrative approach. or gender. There are literary reasons.qxd 06/26/04 01:09 Page xxx EQA introduction H istory is both a discipline of rigor. others unknown but for a chance scrap of information left behind in an obscure letter. great and small. how we weather the illnesses to which time and chance subject us. too. We follow. It commands our attention for all these good reasons and for no good reason at all. a Hoosier. of a Georgian named Tom Watson seeking to forge a colorblind political alliance. They strive. Whitman turned to poetry. inseparable strands of what made him an American and what made him human: In all people I see myself. although long-term economic and social trends shape societies in significant ways. other than a fascination with the way the myriad tales play out. Strange that we should come to care about a host of men and women so many centuries gone. a planter nonchalant and hospitable. that she must wring them out before tending to the next soldier. a Buckeye. That mode of explanation permits them to interweave the strands of economic. . We are all the sum of the tales of thousands of people.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. . and of desperate immigrant mothers. Yet we do care. “devoured and swallowed up of the Sea” one black Atlantic night in 1583. none more and not one a barleycorn less. natural catastrophes. turning out identical automobiles. being deflected by unpredictable personal decisions. the . xxx We trace the career of young Thurgood Marshall. because it supplies a dramatic force usually missing from more structural analyses of the past. We care about Octave Johnson. race. class. a slave fleeing through Louisiana swamps trying to decide whether to stand and fight the approaching hounds or take his chances with the bayou alligators. a Louisianian or Georgian. the resurgence of social history—with its concern for class and race.” Whitman embraced and celebrated them all. historians affirm the multicausal nature of historical explanation—the insistence that events be portrayed in context. insisting his factory workers wear identical expressions (“Fordization of the Face”). In some ways. they are also acknowledging that. whether family. some with names eminent and familiar. And the good or bad I say of myself. sudden deaths. trying to get black teachers to sue for equal pay. History supplies our very identity—a sense of the social groups to which we belong.” typing legal briefs in the back seat. hoping to get his people somewhere they weren’t. By choosing narrative. historians have traditionally chosen narrative as their means of giving life to the past. red with fury as he takes a riding crop to his retreating soldiers. patterns of rural and urban life. To encompass so expansive an America. to be comprehensive: to furnish a broad. bound by rules and scholarly methods. We are drawn to the fate of Chinese laborers. too. The list could go on and on. ethnic group. / A Yankee bound my own way . By choosing narrative. and something more: the unique. chipping away at the Sierras’ looming granite. jostling one another. . kerosene lamps in hand. spilling out as it did in Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass: “A southerner soon as a northerner. and social history in a coherent chronological framework. We care about Sir Humphrey Gilbert. with a mix of awe and amusement. events often take on a logic (or an illogic) of their own. we care about George Washington at Kips Bay. and chance. orderly exposition of their chosen field. a Badger. we care about Clara Barton. her nurse’s skirts so heavy with blood from the wounded. Yet to cover so much ground in so limited a space necessarily deprives readers of the context of more detailed accounts. Then. political. I say of them. by definition. storming Brooklyn butcher shops that had again raised prices. crisscrossing the South in his own “little old beat-up ’29 Ford. It reveals to us the foundations of our deepest religious beliefs and traces the roots of our economic and political systems. It explores how we celebrate and grieve. whose actions have etched their lines upon us. the fortunes of the quirky Henry Ford (“Everybody wants to be somewhere he ain’t”).

perhaps. When markets flourish. the fault lines of our political and social systems become all too evident. it is impossible to separate the marketplace of boom and bust and the world of ordinary Americans from the corridors of political maneuvering or the ceremonial pomp of an inauguration. then. whether we talk of cars. As our own narrative makes clear. education. In the end. for two centuries. The primary question of this narrative—how the fledgling. there has been increased attention to the worldwide breakdown of so many nonmarket economies and. the destiny of these states cannot be understood without comprehending both the social and the political dimensions of the story. or culture. In order to survive.qxd 06/26/04 01:09 Page xxxi EQA Introduction spread of market and industrial economies—lends itself to more analytic.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. often tumultuous confederation of “these United States” managed to transform itself into an enduring republic—is not only political but necessarily social. It has made Americans powerfully provincial in protecting local interests and internationally adventurous in seeking to expand wealth and opportunity. To treat political and social history as distinct spheres is counterproductive. That market orientation has created unparalleled abundance and reinforced striking inequalities. how and where they produce it. But tragic or noble. however. When markets fail. . Too often quantity has substituted for quality. human beings themselves were bought and sold. a republic must resolve conflicts between citizens of different geographic regions and economic classes. can be solved. less chronological treatments. American society and politics have indeed come together centrally in the marketplace. of competing religions and ideologies. no matter how intractable. The challenge facing historians is to incorporate these areas of research without losing the story’s narrative drive or the chronological flow that orients readers to the more familiar events of our past. as often as noble ones. With the cold war of the past half-century at an end. not the least a society in which. What Americans produce. by inference. and the desire to buy cheap and sell dear have been defining elements in every era. to the greater success of the market societies of the United States and other capitalist nations. the nation abounds with confidence that any problem. of diverse racial and ethnic origins. The resolution of these conflicts has produced tragic consequences. It goes without saying that Americans have not always produced wisely or well. The insistent drive toward material plenty has levied a heavy tax on the xxxi global environment.

xxxii . and videos from our past. Each secondary source also provides links back to related primary sources. bookmark key sources.dav70982_fm_i-xxxii. This process of historical investigation follows three basic steps: • Ask Use our browsing panels to search and filter the sources. Clicking on a source opens it in our Source Window. but the building blocks of that narrative are primary sources. audio recordings. artifacts. transcripts. and interactive questions for deeper analysis. McGraw-Hill’s Primary Source Investigator (PSI) CD-ROM provides instant access to hundreds of the most important and interesting documents. While examining any of these sources you can use our notebook feature to take notes. investigative tools. Together these features weave a rich historical narrative or argument on topics that are difficult to fully grasp from primary sources alone. original secondary sources are also included on the PSI: 5to 8-minute documentaries and interactive maps complete with underlying statistical data. After researching a particular theme or time period. and save or print copies of all the sources for use outside the archive. source types. • Research Use the Source Window to examine sources in detail and the Notebook to record your insights. enabling you to test a secondary source’s argument against the historical record. historical questions. textbook chapters. or your own custom search terms. images. subjects. Primary Source Investigator helps you practice the art of historical detection using a real archive of historical sources. As close companions to the primary sources. You can browse the collection across time. Through its browsing and inspection tools. you can use our argumentoutlining tool to walk you through the steps of composing a historical essay or presentation.qxd 6/29/04 8:38 PM Page xxxii EQA primary source investigator CD-ROM H istory comes alive through narrative. packed with annotations. • Argue Practice outlining historical arguments based on archival sources.

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