P. 1
Rt Level II Course Notes

Rt Level II Course Notes

|Views: 573|Likes:
Published by erdincbal

More info:

Published by: erdincbal on Mar 16, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/03/2015

pdf

text

original

Bvk

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING
SNT TC-1A 1996 OF ASNT-LEVEL II

3/16/2013

1

INTRODUCTION TO NDT
NDT
SURFACE
1.Visual Testing(VT) 2.Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) 3.Penetrant Testing (PT)

VOLUMINAR
1.Radiography Testing(RT) 2.Ultrasonic Testing(UT)

3/16/2013

2

INTRODUCTION TO NDT
Conventional NDT Methods
• Accoustics Emmission Testing (AET) • Leak Testing(LT) • Thermal Infrared(IR) • Eddy Current Testing(ET) • Neutron Radiography(NRT)

3/16/2013

3

Interpretation/Codes & Standard.CONTENTS • • • • • • • • Basic Radiation Physics. Geometric Considerations & Quality. Equipment (x-ray. Radiography Techniques. -ray). 4 3/16/2013 . Films Screens & Processing . Discontinuties & Process. Safety.

neutron and electron. • The proton is positively charged and electron is negatively charged. • The mass of Neutron and Proton are 1 and electron is 1/1840 of a proton. • Let us see how the atom is arranged. Nucleus consist of Protons and Neutrons N Electrons revolving around nucleus 3/16/2013 5 . Neutron has no charge.Basic Radiation Physics(BRP) Fundamental Particles: • Basic particles of an atom are Proton.

A = Z + N. • Atomic Mass or Mass No: It is the sum of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom. • Atomic No:It is the No.It is denoted by the letter z.It is denoted by the letter ‘A’. A = E + N.BRP-Definitions • Atom:It is the smallest Particle of an element. 3/16/2013 6 .of electrons present in an atom. A = P + N.of protons or No. Z = P = E.

BRP-Definitions contd.
• ISOTOPES: Atoms of the same element having the same atomic No. but different Mass No. eg: Uranium – 92U233, 92U235 ,92U238. • RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES: The isotopes that emit radiation. They are available. 1.Natural Co -59. 2.Artificial Ir-192. 3.Fission fragments. Th-170.

3/16/2013

7

BRP-Definitions contd.
• RADIOACTIVITY: The spontaneous and continuous emission of Radiation by some Radioactive elements due to atomic disintegration.The activity/ strength is usually measured in Curies(Ci).S.I unit is Bequerel(Bq). • Half Life Period: The time taken by a Radioactive Isotope to reduce its activity to half of its initial amount. Iridium Ir-192 74.5 days. Cobalt Co–60 5.3 years. Thulium Tu-170 130 days. Cesium Cs-137 33 years. Radium Rd 1900 years.

3/16/2013

8

BRP-Radiation Units .
CURIE: 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 disintegration per second (dps) 1 Bq = 1 dps

1 Ci = 3.7 x 10 10 Bq
= 37 x 10 9 Bq = 37 Mega Bq 1 Ci = 37 GBq

3/16/2013

9

3/16/2013 10 .BRP-Radiation Units contd.T. ROENTGEN : Roentgen is the unit for measurement of Radiation.s. 1 Roentgen is the amount of Radiation that can produce 1 e.P. 1 Roentgen (R) = 1000 milli Roentgen(mR).u. of charge in 1cc of air at S.

Properies of Electro Magnetic radiation : • They travel in a straight line • They are not effected by magnetic or electric fields • They start ionisation • They damage living tissues 3/16/2013 11 .BRP-Properties.

Radio waves • -------------TV Waves •-------------Rador Waves •-------------Infrared •-------------Visible Spectrum •--------------UltraViolet •--------------X-rays •--------------Gamma Rays •Note : 1Ao = 10-7 mm or 100 ηm.1Ao to 0.001Ao) As the wavelength decreases penetration will increase 3/16/2013 12 .1Ao to 0.BRP-Electromagnetic spectrum • Let us see the electro magnetic spectrum • ------------. (m+) (Cm) (mm) (7500Ao) ( 4000Ao) ( 3650Ao) (0.001Ao) (0.

BRP-Electromagnetic spectrum Electro Magnetic Spectrum 3/16/2013 13 .

Alpha rays 2.Beta rays 3.X rays 3/16/2013 14 .Gamma rays 4.BRP-Radition Types • Types of Electro Magnetic radiation 1.

U238. Emission of an alpha particle from the nucleus results in a decrease of two units of atomic number (Z) and four units of mass number (A). All alpha particles from a particular radionuclide transformation will have identical energies. 3/16/2013 15 . Pu239) decay by the emission of alpha particles. These alpha particles are tightly bound units of two neutrons and two protons each (He4 nucleus).BRP-Alpha Rays • Alpha Particles. Certain radionuclides of high atomic mass (Ra226. Alpha particles are emitted with discrete energies characteristic of the particular transformation from which they originate.

This results in a net change of one unit of atomic number (Z). The beta particles emitted by a specific radionuclide range in energy from near 0 up to a maximum value characteristic of the particular transformation.BRP-Beta Rays • Beta Particles. A nucleus with an unstable ratio of neutrons to protons may decay through the emission of a high speed electron called a beta particle. 3/16/2013 16 .

BRP-Gamma Rays • Gamma rays. The emission of gamma rays does not alter the number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus but instead has the effect of moving the nucleus from a higher to a lower energy state (unstable to stable). 3/16/2013 17 . alpha decay. A nucleus which is in an excited state may emit one or more photons (packets of electromagnetic radiation) of discrete energies. Gamma ray emission frequently follows beta decay. and other nuclear decay processes.

but minus the electron's binding energy. X-rays are also part of the electromagnetic spectrum and are distinguished from gamma rays only by their source (orbital electrons rather than the nucleus). Internal conversion occurs in a isotope when the energy is transferred to an atomic origin electron that is then ejected with kinetic energy equal to the expected gamma ray.BRP-X Rays • X rays. X-rays are emitted with discrete energies by electrons as they shift orbits following certain types of nuclear decay processes. resulting in the production of x-rays. Thulium170 is a good example of this type of disintegration. When Thulium-170 looses its energy it will exhibit a 60 % probability of interaction with an orbital electron thus producing x-radiation. The vacancy in the atomic structure is filled by an external electron. 3/16/2013 18 .

BRP-EMR Penetration Power 3/16/2013 19 .

Co-60 32 to 200 mm of steel. 20 .Gamma Ray Sources Industrial Radiography mostly uses gamma radiation sources of Ir-192 and Co –60 for the following range of thickness. Where At Activity after time period ‘t. λ decay constant = 0. Radioactive decay measurement: At = Ao e – λt. Ir-192 19 to 62 mm of steel.’ Ao Initial activity.693 / Half Life Period. t 3/16/2013 time period e exponential constant.

279. = 10 x 0. = 7.693 / 74.756.5 x 30. = 10 x e – 0.56 ci. = 10 x e – 0. Formula: At = Ao e – λt.Gamma Ray Sources Example Problem: Find the activity of an Ir-192 source of activity 10 Ci after a time period of 30 days. 3/16/2013 21 .

Gamma Ray Sources •Output of Isotope. RHM:Roentgen hour per metre. For Ir.4 to 0. 3/16/2013 22 .192 0. ENERGY: For Ir-192 range 0.33 mev. For Co-60 range 1.5 RHM. For Co-60 1.55 mev. mean value 1.17 to 1.7 mev. mean value 0.3 RHM. It is the amount of radiation from a 1 ci Isotope at a distance of 1 metre for 1 hour.25 mev.

I1 -------- D2 2. I2 = Intensity of Radiation at distance D2. D1 = 1 metre because RHM is for 1 metre distance. Where I1 = Intensity of Radiation at distance D1. I1 = Source Strength x RHM x 1000 mR/hr. = ---------. In instance where I1 is not given directly I1 can be calculated as follows.Gamma Ray Sources Inverse Square Law. I2 D12. In this case. 3/16/2013 23 .

200 20 2 I2 200 x 100. ----. Thus I2 = 50 mR/ hr. 3/16/2013 24 . Directly substituting the above datas in inverse square law.= -----= -------------.Gamma Ray Sources Example Problem: Find the Radiation intensity at 20 metre distance from a source producing 200 mR/hr at 10 metre distance. I2 10 2 400.

-----------------.33 mR/ hr. Thus I2 = 8. Substituting I1 = SS x RHM x 1000 and D1 = 1 metres .Gamma Ray Sources Example Problem: Find the Radiation intensity from a 15 ci Ir-192 source at a distance of 30 metres. I2 12 900.5x 1000 30 2 I2 7500.= -----= -------------. 3/16/2013 25 . 15 x 0.

3/16/2013 26 .Gamma Ray Sources SHIELDING. Tenth Value Thickness (TVT): It is the thickness of Shielding material that can reduce the radiation intensity to one – tenth (1/10)of its initial amount. Half Value Thickness (HVT): It is the thickness of Shielding material that can reduce the radiation intensity to half (1/2)of its initial amount.

0 66.0 5.0 1 TVT = 3.323 HVT 3/16/2013 27 .5 20.3 6.Gamma Ray Sources Half Value Thickness (HVT) in mm Material Source Depleted Uranium Lead Steel Concrete Ir-192 Co-60 3.0 12.0 12.0 44.

3/16/2013 28 . Io Intesity of Radiation without shielding. t thickness of shielding material. e exponential constant. μ Linear attenuation / absorption co efficient = 0.693 / HVT.Gamma ray Sorces Radioaction Intensity after shielding measurement: I = Io e – μt. Where I Intesity of Radiation after shielding.

0625. = 200 x 0.772. = 200 x e – 0.693 / 12. x 50.5 mR/hr. Formula: I= Io e – μt.5 = 200 x e – 2. = 12.Gamma Ray Sources Example Problem: What is the radiation intensity when 200 mR/hr Radiation from an Ir-192 source passes through 50mm of steel. 3/16/2013 29 .

= -----= -------------. = 16.3x 1000 40 2 I2 26000.25 mR/hr. 20 x 1. Soln: This problem is divided into two steps. -----------------. I2 12 1600. 3/16/2013 30 .First find the intensity without shielding using inverse square law and then use the shielding formula.Gamma Ray Sources Example Problem: What is the radiation intensity from a 20 ci co 60 source at a distance of 40 metres with a shielding of 500 mm concrete. Step1: Substituting I1 = SS x RHM x 1000 and D1 = 1 metres .

0052.25. = 16.0845mR/hr.25 x 0.693 / 66 = 16. = 0.Gamma Ray Sources Step2: Now 16.25 x e – 0.25 x e – 5. = 16. Using the formula I = Io e – μt. 3/16/2013 31 .25 mR/hr radiation after passing through 50mm of concrete. We get. x 500.

Gamma Ray Sources Equipments: Encapsualtion: The process of sealing of radioactive pellets in capsules or capsuling pellets . Packing Capsule Pellets 3/16/2013 32 .

3/16/2013 33 .Gamma Ray Sources Equipments sketch: Radiography camera with driving unit.

Best acessory for safety. •Collimator for prevention of radiation passing 360 deg.Gamma Ray Sources Accesories: •A Isotope trnsport container. 3/16/2013 34 .

From the above we can infer that a source with high specific activity will have smaller physical size. 20gm. Ir 192 .Co 60 and Cs 137 isotopes and load in a nuclear reactor for 2 to 3 months. 3/16/2013 35 .It shall be approximately. Co 60 .5 ci/gm.Suppose we want to make 10 ci each we may require as follows.2 ci / gm.Gamma Ray Sources Specific Activity: Activity per unit mass.192 5gm Co – 60 10gm Cs – 137.Its unit is ci/gm. Lets take 1gm each of Ir 192 . These are the Specific activity values.1 ci/gm and Cs 137 – 0.Note the activity obtained. Ir.

In other words X rays are produced by decelerating fast electrons. 3/16/2013 36 .X-Ray Sources X rays are produced when a high speed electrons are suddenly stopped by an obstacle.

X-Ray Sources X ray tube: Cathode(Filament) Anode(Tungsten Target) Fast Electrons 3/16/2013 37 .

•Speed of electrons increase •Penetration Power increase •Quality & Quantity of radiation increase 3/16/2013 38 .X-Ray Sources Controls in an X ray machine Tube Voltage Tube Current Time Tube voltage .Kilo voltage (Kv): When Kv is raised.

X-Ray Sources
Controls in an X ray machine
Tube current – milli Ampere (mA):
When mA is raised, •Amount of electrons increase •Quantity of Radiation increase •Intensity of radiation increase

Time :
Depending on Kv,mA & thickness different exposure time are set

3/16/2013

39

X-Ray Sources
Types of X ray Continuous X ray (Brehmstralung Rdn):
It occurs due to electrical disturbance

3/16/2013

40

X-Ray Sources
Types of X ray.
Characteristic X ray :
It occurs due to electronic disturbance.The percentage of occurance is less.

3/16/2013

41

X-Ray Sources Types of Rectification Self Rectification Greinisher circuit Types of X-ray Tube Uni Polar Tube ( x ray crawlers) Bi Polar Tube (Generally used) 3/16/2013 42 .

X-Ray Sources Applications Medical Less than 100 Kev Industrial 100 Kev – 25 Mev * Kev * Mev 3/16/2013 Kilo electron Volt Mega electron volt 43 .

Cyclotron 3. Linac 3/16/2013 44 . Vandegraff Generator 2. Betatron 4.X-Ray Sources Types of X ray Machines •Portable •Mobile •Stationary (High energy X ray Machines): 1.

Van de Graaff developed one of the first particle accelerators in the early 1930’s. This device accelerates electrons to produce high energy radiation. it was determined that charged particles could be accelerated to very high speeds by driving them in a circular path. . the generator was capable of producing x-radiation in the 1 to 2 MeV range. The electrons ride on the belt and are collected at the opposite end on a high voltage terminal.X-Ray Sources Vandegraff Generator 1 – 5 Mev. 3/16/2013 45 . Not long after the development of the Van de Graaff generator. a glass/metal tube with a vacuum provides a path for particle acceleration away from the high voltage terminal. An American physicist. Known as the Van de Graaff generator. electrostatic generator. Here a heated filament supplies electrons for acceleration. Initially. whereby the accelerated particles can interact producing high energy radiation. J. The generator operates by projecting electrons onto a moving belt. At the end of the tube is a target. This was accomplished by the application of strong electromagnets. Continued design changes produced even higher energies. R. A variety of these have been developed to produce even higher energy radiation than that of the Van de Graaff generator.

O. Two `D’ shaped electrodes placed back to back with a gap between them are connected to a high voltage source inside of the box. Each time the charged particles cross the gap of the electrodes. the particles gain energy.X-Ray Sources Cyclotron 5 – 10 Mev. E. The Cyclotron is comprised of a large cylindrical box sandwiched between the poles of an electromagnet. the charged particles move in a circular fashion. Again in the early 1930’s. By rapidly reversing the electric charge on the electrodes. . and begin moving towards the outside of the cylindrical box. resulting in high energy x-radiation. The box is evacuated until a high vacuum exists. Charged particles are fed into the cylindrical box. This device is capable of accelerating charged particles (protons) in a circular path to energies that exceed 10 MeV. Once the charged particles reach the outer edge of the box. Lawrence also an American physicist developed the Cyclotron. . they are deflected towards the target. 3/16/2013 46 . and the due to the presence of the magnetic field of the electromagnets.

The Betatron operates on the principle of the transformer. and the secondary side is the electron stream that is being accelerated. 3/16/2013 47 .X-Ray Sources Betatron 5 – 10 Mev. The first Betatron developed produced a radiation energy of a little more than 2 MeV. Kerst’s Betatron is used to accelerate electrons (beta particles) to produce high energy x-radiation. Betatron. When the electrons have achieved maximum energy. the primary side consists of a large electromagnet. Continued development allowed the Betatron to generate energies as high as 300 MeV. was developed in the early 1940’s by a man name Donald Kerst at the University of Illinois. . the resulting interaction is the production of high energy x-rays. they are directed to a target. The electrons are accelerated in a circular tube known as a doughnut that has been evacuated.

and attraction by the next tube. capable of producing extremely high energy x-rays. and accelerated by a alternating high frequency voltage that is applied to the drift tubes. resulting in repulsion of the particles as they leave a tube. 3/16/2013 48 . the drift tubes alternate charges. It is this alternating high frequency that accelerates the particles as they cross the gaps between tubes/Present day Linear accelerators may be several miles long. Linear accelerator is designed to move charged particles at high velocities along a straight path to a target. Due to high frequency. The charged particles are fed into one end of the chamber. Linear accelerators are comprised of a series of drift tubes mounted inside of an evacuated chamber.X-Ray Sources Linear accelerator(Linac) 10-25 Mev.

X-Ray Sources Measuring the effective Focal Spot 3/16/2013 49 .

3/16/2013 50 .Interaction of Radiation with Matter Photo Elecric Effect: Only electron is ejected. less than 100 Kev.

Interaction of Radiation with Matter Compton Scattering Greater than 100 Kev but less than 1000Kev Electron + Photon is ejected 3/16/2013 51 .

Interaction of Radiation with Matter Pair Production Greater than 1.02 Mev Electron + Positron ejected 3/16/2013 52 .

FILMS,SCREENS & PROCESSING
Structure of film
Super Coating (2-3 microns)
Silver bromide 1.5 microns Polyester Base 175 microns Gelatin Coating 2 microns

3/16/2013

53

FILMS,SCREENS & PROCESSING
Types of film
• Slow Film:Fine Grain size,Maximum exposure time and
best quality

• Medium Film: Medium grain size,moderate exposure
time and quality

• Fast Film: Coarse grain ,Least exposure time and Poor
quality

3/16/2013

54

FILMS,SCREENS & PROCESSING
Types of Screens.
• Metallic Screen:
Lead foil Screens. Lead + Antimony.Widely used.

• Fluoroscent Screen:
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4.They absorb X or γ Photons and release light photons that show fluoroscence.

• Fluorometallic Screen:
Metallic + Fluoroscent . Not mostly used.
3/16/2013 55

Reduces Back Scatter. 3/16/2013 56 . Secondary: Reduces Exposure Time. Primary: It emits electrons thus providing electron intensification.SCREENS & PROCESSING Function of Screen.FILMS.

FILMS.SCREENS & PROCESSING Processing  Developing  Stop bathing  Fixing  Washing  Drying 3/16/2013 57 .

Hydroquinone or phenidione – Developing Action •Sodium Sulphite – Preservative Controls oxidation •Sodium carbonate – Accelerator •Potassium Bromide – Anti fogant Normal developing time shall be 5 mts at a temperature of 20 deg c 3/16/2013 58 .5 to 11.FILMS.It contains the following chemicals •Metol.It reduces Silver bromide crystals on the exposed part to metallic silver and bromine ion.Developer is a base with Ph value 9.SCREENS & PROCESSING Developing Devoloping usually takes place in a chemical called developer.5 .

SCREENS & PROCESSING Developing. Devoloping time is very crucial.the developer activity reduces and the activity can be maintained by the addition of replenishers. 3/16/2013 59 .FILMS. Typical temperatures and development time. When the developing time increases above the manufacturers recommended time film contrast decreases . After prolonged usage.As the temperature increases development time reduces and vice versa. Developer is constantly agitated to maintain uniform supply of electrons.

3/16/2013 60 . The purpose of Stop bath is to stop developing action. It is a mixture of water + Acetic Acid.FILMS.SCREENS & PROCESSING Stop Bathing. Normal Stop bathing time shall be 1 minute.

maintain Ph value.SCREENS & PROCESSING Fixing.Fixer is an acid with a Ph value of 4. •Potash Alum .The main function of a Fixer is to remove the unexposed silver grains.5. Fixing process takes place in a solution called Fixer. 3/16/2013 61 .Hardener. •Acetic acid – Accelerator .FILMS. •Sodium sulphite – Control oxidation (Preservative). •Sodium thio sulphate ( Hypo) –Fixing action.The norml fixing time shall be 10 to 15 minutes and the minimum shall be half the clearing time.It contains the following chemicals.

Washing is done normally in running water. Washing has a great impact on the storage life of radiographs. There are special washing process where it utilises two tanks called cascading. Normal washing time shall be 2o to 25 minutes.SCREENS & PROCESSING Washing. To remove the traces of salts of chemicals from solution washing is done.FILMS. 3/16/2013 62 .

SCREENS & PROCESSING Drying. Special drying cabinets are available for quicker drying. Drying shall be done in ordinary air.FILMS. 3/16/2013 63 . Sometimes wetting agents are added to water during washing proces to enable quicker drying.But care should be taken that the radiograph shall not be kept inside the oven for a long time.

FILMS.SCREENS & PROCESSING The Process 3/16/2013 64 .

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph QUALITY Density Sensitivity 3/16/2013 65 .

Our eye is sensible to light of. whereas the maximum lighting capacity. Hence we cannot read more than density 4.000 cd/ m2. It Transmitted intensity of light. 3/16/2013 66 . is 10. Density is the degree of darkness or blackening in a Radiograph. D = Log ( Ii / It ). 30 – 100 cd/ m2. The unit of light is Lux.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Density. Where Ii Incident intensity of light.

0 For Gamma ray 2.0 3/16/2013 67 .0 For Castings 1.01 Density 0 1 2 3 4 Normal Density: 2.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph I i (units) 100 100 100 100 100 It (units) 100 10 1 0.0 to 2.0 to 4.5 Acceptable Density: For X ray 1.1 0.5 to 4.01 Transmittance % 100 10 1 0.1 0.8 to 4.

4 2.5 7.Density Strip Film Factor: The amount of radiation required by a particular film to reach density 2.0 Ir-192 Co-60 3/16/2013 68 .8 NDT 70 1.2 AGFA D4 3.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Density Measurement: 1.Densitometer 2.1 2.0 2.0 AGFA D7 1.0 Film Source NDT 65 1.

Contrast. 3/16/2013 69 .Definition or Unsharpness. Before going to sensitivity in detail lets see the factors that effect sensitivity. 2. Sensitivity is mainly affected by two factors.Definition or Unsharpness: The sharpness of the outline of an image boundary is called Definition or Unsharpness. 1.It is denoted by the letter μ. 1.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Sensitivity.

Film or Inherant Unsharpness μi Total Unsharpness μ = μg2+ μm2+ μs2+ μi2 3/16/2013 70 .Movement Unsharpness μm 3.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Definition or Unsharpness 1.Scatter or Screen Unsharpness μs 4.Geometric Unsharpness μg 2.

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Method to find Geometric Unsharpness Source(S) SOD OFD Object Film µg = S x OFD/SOD where S Effective Source size OFD Object to Film distance SOD Source to object distance 71 3/16/2013 .

Height(h) Effective dia(D) D= h 2 + d 2.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Acceptable µg or Ug: For thickness upto 50mm 0. 3/16/2013 72 .020” ). Actual dia(d). Determination of Effective source size: Source. µg = f x t / d for X ray. As a rule of thumb the d/t ratio shall be 8 or more.5 mm ( 0. µg = S x t / d for Gamma ray.

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph µg shall always be as low as possible. 3/16/2013 73 .5mm and hence the effective source size shall be 4. The nominal source dia shall be 2.0mm. Reduce the OFD. To reduce µg. Increase the SOD. Reduce the Source size.

Type of film.Density of material 3. Radiographic Contrast. 1. 2. 3/16/2013 74 . 1. 4.Scattering. Subject Contrast Film Contrast.Thickness of material 2. The difference in densities between adjacent areas in a radiograph.Energy selection.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph • RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST.Processing condition.

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Scattering.Back walls.Clay.Copper.Steel. Methods to avoid Scatter: 1.Back Scatter ---eg: Flloors. Scattering are low energy radiation of longer wave length.Using Filters – Lead. 3. 3. Types of Scatter: 1.Diaphragms.Masks. 3/16/2013 75 . 4. 2. 2.Lead Shots.Barium.Forward or internal Scatter ---eg:the object itself.film holders etc.Side Scatter ---eg: Side walls or side lying objects.

0 C 2.7 A B E Point of Solarisation. 3/16/2013 76 .0. Straight Line. Film contrast or average gradient. Over Exposure. The slope of the straight line portion in a H & D curve is a measure of. E D 4.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Characteristic Curve or Sensitometric Curve or H& D Curve or Hurther & Drifield curve.0 A-B B–C C–D Under Exposure. 5. 0.0. 6.

3. Types of IQI: 1. 3/16/2013 77 .Step Hole Type. 2.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Sensitivity: The least discontinuity that can be visible in a Radiograph.Strip Hole Type.Wire Type. To measure sensitivity Image Quality Indicators (IQI) are normally kept on the Radiograph.

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Wire Type IQI 1.DIN Wire Type DIN 62 Fe 1 ISO 7 DIN – Dutch Industrial Normale 62 .1962 Year of invention of Penetrameter Fe – (Ferrous)Steel & Steel Alloys 3/16/2013 78 .

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph DIN Wire Type DIN Wire Type 1 ISO 7 6 ISO 12 10 ISO 16 Thickness range > 50mm >19mm < 50mm <19mm The diameter of a DIN wire type penetrameter varies by a geometric progression of 0.8.For eg radiographing aluminium we need to use Al penetrameter.Each penetrameter will have 7 wires and 2 or 3 wires will be repeated on the next series. 3/16/2013 79 . The penetrameter material shall be the same or similar material to that of the object being radiographed.

16 0.32 0.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph DIN Wire Diameters Wire No.5 2 1.625 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 THICKNESS 3.1 3/16/2013 80 .25 0.25 1 0.2 2.13 0.5 0.6 1.8 0.2 0.4 0.

03. 3/16/2013 81 .C & D will therefore account 21 wire diameters.B.04.C & D gives the four sets of wires. Totally the four sets A.05 gives the material Grouping and on the right A.B.25.02.Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph ASTM Wire Type : The left side 01. The diameter varies by a geometric progression of 1. Each penetrameter contains 6 wires out of which 1 wires shall be repeated in the next adjacent set.

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph ASTM Wire Type : Heavy Metal Group Light Metal Group Group No 03 02 01 Material Magnesium Aluminium Titanium Group No 01 02 03 Material Steel Aluminium bronzes & Nickel Aluminium bronze Nickel-chromium-Iron alloy 04 05 Nickel copper Tin bronzeincluding Gun metal & valve bronze. 3/16/2013 82 .

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph ASTM Wire Type : 3/16/2013 83 .

(Pressure Vessels & Pipelines).Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Finding Sensitivity: Sensitivity = Least wire dia visible x 100 Thickness. % Acceptable sensitivity shall be 2% or < 2 %. Hence penetrameter selection shall be 2 % of material thickness. 3/16/2013 84 .

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph STRIP HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETER: 2T 1T 4T 20 (T)Penetrameter designation/Thickness in Thou/ mils 1 Thou = 1 / 1000 inch 1 Thou = 1 mil 1 mm = 40 Thou 3/16/2013 85 .

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph STRIP HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETER 3/16/2013 86 .

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Sensitivity Levels Sensitivity Levels 1-1T Equivalent Sensitivity 0.0% 1.4% 2.8% 4.0% 2.6% Pressure Vessels & Pipelines Structural 3/16/2013 87 .7% Nuclear 1-2T 1-4T 2-1T 2-2T 2-4T 4-1T 4-2T 4-4T 1.8% 2.4% 1.0% 5.

Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Sensitivity Level 2 – 1T.Penetrameter thickness in Thou. Where X . Obtained Sensitivity. X 2. 3/16/2013 88 .material thickness in Thou. Here 2 implies penetrameter selection shall be 2 % of material thickness and the least visible hole was 1 T. H. T .Hole dia visible. = 100 TH.

875% 3/16/2013 89 .Geometric Considerations & Qualities of a Radiograph Example Problem: Job thicknes X = 20 mm = 800 Thou IQI Thickness T = 15 Thou Hole dia H = 2T = 2 x 15 Thou = 30 Thou Sensitivity = 100 15 x 30 800 2 = 1.

RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES • • • • Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) Double Wall Single Image(DWSI) Double Wall Double Image(DWDI) Single Wall Panaromic (SWP) 3/16/2013 90 .

Best Technique. Minimum SFD: Length of Coverage & Ug requirements. For Radiographing Tanks.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES SWSI. 3/16/2013 91 .Vessels and large dia open end pipes. IQI Selection: SWT + one Reinforcement.

Minimum SFD: Normally Pipe OD. Ug requirement & not less than pipe OD. 3/16/2013 92 . Minimum 3 exposures placed at 120 deg apart. IQI Selection: SWT + one Reinforcement. For pipes with OD > 89mm.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES DWSI.

Minimum 2 exposures placed at 90 deg apart. For Radiographing pipe with.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES DWDI (Elliptical Exp). Rule of thumb d/t shall be 8 or more. Minimum SFD: Ug requirement. < 89mm OD. 3/16/2013 93 . IQI Selection: DWT + one Reinforcement.

< 89mm OD particularly on. Minimum SFD: Ug requirement. For Radiographing pipe with. IQI Selection: DWT + Two Reinforcement.Flanges etc. 3/16/2013 94 . Nozzles. Rule of thumb d/t shall be 8 or more.Minimum 3 exposures placed at 120 deg apart.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES DWDI(Super imposed).

cirseam welds in Pressure vessels & Tanks where source is positioned on axis. 3/16/2013 95 .RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES SWP. Minimum 3 IQI placed at 120 deg apart. Minimum SFD: Half the Diameter of pipe. For radiographing large dia pipelines. IQI Selection: SWT + One Reinforcement. The entire circumference is completed in a single exposure.

RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Exposure Time: E = F.F * 2 X/HVT * SFD2 * 60 S.Film Factor .S * RHM * 1002 Where FF X HVT SFD SS RHM .Roentgen hour per metre 3/16/2013 96 .Source to Film Distance in cm .Half Value Thickness in mm .Material thickness in mm .Source Strength .

97 . 4 to 25 . 2000 kV. Gamma Rays. 3/16/2013 192. 400 kV. MeV. . X-rays. Ir . 1000 kV. 50 kV. 220 kV.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES STEEL EQUIVALENT FACTOR. 100 kV. 150 kV. Material.

X-rays. 100 kV.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES X-ray Exposure Chart: . 50 kV. 400 kV. MeV. 150 kV. Ir . 1000 kV. 220 kV. Gamma Rays. Material. 4 to 25 . 2000 kV. 3/16/2013 98 .

T2 D22. T1 -------- D1 2. 3/16/2013 99 . This formula is also called as Direct square Law. Where T1 = Exposure time at distance D1. T2 = Exposure time at distance D2. = ---------.RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Time Distance Formula. Exposure time is directly proportional to the distance.

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Parallax Principle a Source Positions defect D d Object a/ b = (D-d) / d ad = bD – bd ad + bd = bD d(a + b) = bD d = bD/ (a + b) = defect shift x SFD (source shift + defect shift) b Film 3/16/2013 100 .

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Parallax Principle(Lead Marker Method) By similar triangles ratio a = d b t d = at / b Depth of defect d = defect shift(a) x thickness(t) marker shift (b) Source positions Marker d t a b 3/16/2013 101 .

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Double Exposure Parallax Principle 3/16/2013 102 .

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Stereo Radiography. 3/16/2013 103 . • Three dimensional effect is obtained using a stereoscope.

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
Fluoroscopy

3/16/2013

104

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
Flash Radiography. Freezing the motion of projecties & Trajectories. High Speed radiography. Cuurent- 2000A. Exposure time – nano seconds.

3/16/2013

105

SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
Proton Radiography • Very high sensitivity 0.05 % • Attenuation only after the proton passes through 90% of material thickness • No burning of edges

3/16/2013

106

• Well polished aluminium plate coated with selenium oxide. • Image obtained by developing charged particle. • When exposed to xrays charge on weld portion remain. 3/16/2013 107 . • Selenium coated Aluminium Plate.SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Xero Radiography or Xonics Electron Radiography.

• Image enlargement is possible.SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Micro Focus Radiography. 3/16/2013 108 . • Application:Segregation & Coring in alloys.

• Radiography of radioactive materials.SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Hot Radiography. 3/16/2013 109 .

3/16/2013 110 . stamps. Coins & clothes.SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Photo Electron Radiography. •Application: Radiography of Bank notes.

plastics. •Suitable for hydrogeneous material & Radioactive material. •Does not depend on density & thickness.explosives. 3/16/2013 111 .organic compound.SPECIAL RADIOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES Neutron radiography. •Applications: Corrosion in space and aircraft components.

Process-During Process eg.Service-During Service eg: Fatigue crack. forging.Intergranular.casting.Discontinuities & Process Classification of Discontinuties: 1. 2. 3.Mostly at the molten stage.Inherent. Corrosion Cracking.Gas inclusions.eg. 3/16/2013 112 .rolling etc. Discontinuties occuring durinng process like welding.

Shell Casting c.Temporary Casting: a.Permanent Casting: a.Sand casting b.Discontinuities -Casting Types of Casting: 1.Invest ment casting 2.Pressure die casting c.Centrifugal casting b.Continuous casting 3/16/2013 113 .

Blows can also be caused by sand that is too fine. 3/16/2013 114 . or by sand that has a low permeability so that gas can't escape. too wet. These discontinuities are usually smooth-walled rounded cavities of a spherical. elongated or flattened shape. rusty or damp chills and chaplets. Another cause of blows can be attributed to using green ladles. Too high a moisture content in the sand makes it difficult to carry the excessive volumes of water vapor away from the casting. If the be trapped as the molten metal begins to solidify.Discontinuities -Casting Gas porosity or blow holes are caused by accumulated gas or air which is trapped by the metal.

Discontinuities -Casting Shrinkage is a form of discontinuity that appears as dark spots on the radiograph. Some documents designate these types by numbers. without actual names. (3) filamentary. There are at least four types: (1) cavity. Shrinkage can be recognized in a number of characteristic by varying appearances on radiographs. 3/16/2013 115 . Shrinkage is avoided by making sure that the volume of the casting is adequately fed by risers which sacrificially retain the shrinkage. (2) dendritic. in all portions of the final casting. Shrinkage assumes various forms but in all cases it occurs because molten metal shrinks as it solidifies. to avoid possible misunderstanding. and (4) sponge types.

width and density. or occasionally as a network. 3/16/2013 116 . Filamentary shrinkage usually occurs as a continuous structure of connected lines or branches of variable length.Discontinuities -Casting Dendritic shrinkage is a distribution of very fine lines or small elongated cavities that may vary in density and are usuallyunconnected.

It may be produced when metal solidifies between two original streams of melt.Discontinuities -Casting • Cavity shrinkage appears as areas with distinct jagged boundaries. cavity shrinkage usually occurs at a time when the melt has almost reached solidification temperature and there is no source of supplementary liquid to feed possible cavities 117 3/16/2013 . coming from opposite directions to join a common front.

Discontinuities -Casting Core shift shows itself as a variation in section thickness. 3/16/2013 118 . usually on radiographic views representing diametrically opposite portions of cylindrical casting portions.

They may be less or more dense than the matrix alloy and will appear on the radiograph. 3/16/2013 119 . as darker or lighter indications. The latter type is more common in light metal castings. respectively.Discontinuities -Casting Inclusions are nonmetallic materials in a supposedly solid metallic matrix.

dark blotches.Discontinuities -Casting Sand inclusions and dross are nonmetallic oxides. appearing on the radiograph as irregular. proper holding time in the ladle and skimming of the melt during pouring will minimize or obviate this source of trouble. Careful control of the melt. 3/16/2013 120 . These come from disintegrated portions of mold or core walls and/or from oxides (formed in the melt) which have not been skimmed off prior to introduction of the metal into the mold gates.

Discontinuities -Casting Sponge shrinkage shows itself as areas of lacy texture with diffuse outlines. 3/16/2013 121 . filamentary sponge shrinkage appears more blurred because it is projected through the relatively thick coating between the discontinuities and the film surface. generally toward the midthickness of heavier casting sections. Sponge shrinkage may be dendritic or filamentary shrinkage.

Cold shuts generally appear on or near a surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. They generally appear singly and originate at casting surfaces.Discontinuities -Casting Cracks are thin (straight or jagged) linearly disposed discontinuities that occur after the melt has solidified. 3/16/2013 122 . They may appear on a radiograph as cracks or seams with smooth or rounded edges.

The effect of hot tears. Mottling is a radiographic indication that appears as an indistinct area of more or less dense images. they may call for explicit improvements in technique. Even experienced interpreters often have to check the condition by re-radiography from slightly different source-film angles. The condition is a diffraction effect that occurs on relatively vague. Mottling is caused by interaction of the object's grain boundary material with low-energy X-rays (300 kV or lower). while true casting discontinuities change only slightly in appearance. . They are mostly random in occurrence and not readily eliminated by specific remedial actions in the process. is similar to that of an ordinary crack. If flaws are identified as hot tears in larger runs of a casting type. how tears are usually systematic flaws. Inexperienced interpreters may incorrectly consider mottling as indications of unacceptable casting flaws. thin-section radiographs. as a stress concentration. most often with austenitic stainless steel. Shifts in mottling are then very pronounced. Misruns appear on the radiograph as prominent dense areas of variable dimensions with a definite smooth outline. The latter may occur due to overly hard (completely unyielding) mold or core walls. • • 3/16/2013 123 .Discontinuties-Casting • Hot tears are linearly disposed indications that represent fractures formed in a metal during solidification because of hindered contraction.

from long narrow indications to short wide indications. Undercut is a groove melted in the base metal at the edge of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal. see the Nondestructive Testing Handbook. It is mainly for reasons of casting repair that these descriptions of the more common weld defects are provided here. occurring at the centerline of the weld joint or at the fusion line. Radiographically." Slag is nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld material and base metal.Discontinuties-Casting • • Radiographic Indications for Casting Repair Welds. this appears as a long. Incomplete fusion is lack of complete fusion of some portions of the metal in a weld joint with adjacent metal. as the name implies. is a lack of weld penetration through the thickness of the joint (or penetration which is less than specified). either base or previously deposited weld metal. and is generally cylindrical or elliptical in shape. For additional information. Section 9 on the "Radiographic Control of Welds. and appears as a dark indication at the toe of a weld. Incomplete penetration. sharp linear indication. Volume 3. The terms appear as indication types in ASTM E390. On a radiograph. Porosity is a series of rounded gas pockets or voids in the weld metal. It represents a stress concentration that often must be corrected. • • • • • 3/16/2013 124 . It is located at the center of a weld and is a wide. from gray to very dark. Most common alloy castings require welding either in upgrading from defective conditions or in joining to other system parts. slag may appear in various shapes. linear indication. and in various densities.

due to partial or complete lack of purge of the weld atmosphere. On a radiograph. Tungsten inclusions appear most linear. light cylindrical indications on a radiograph. very light radiographic images. accept/reject decisions for this defect are generally based on the slag criteria. Arc strikes are caused by the heat generated when electrical energy passes between surfaces of the finished weld or base metal and the current source. strip. Tungsten inclusion is usually denser than base-metal particles.Discontinuties-Casting • • • • • • • • Melt-through is a convex or concave irregularity (on the surface of backing ring. melt-through generally appears as a round or elliptical indication. 3/16/2013 125 . resulting in oxide formation on the surface. Also called sugaring. strip. Oxidation is the condition of a surface which is heated during welding. fused root or adjacent base metal. Root undercut appears as an intermittent or continuous groove in the internal surface of the base metal. Arc strike is an indication from a localized heat-affected zone or a change in surface contour of a finished weld or adjacent base metal. It appears in radiographs as a sharply defined film density transition. Root edge condition shows the penetration of weld metal into the backing ring or into the clearance between backing ring or strip and the base metal. backing ring or strip along the edge of the weld root. fused root or adjacent base metal) resulting from complete melting of a localized region but without development of a void or open hole. Burn-through is a void or open hole into a backing ring. Weld spatter occurs in arc or gas welding as metal particles which are expelled during welding and which do not form part of the actual weld: weld spatter appears as many small.

porosity 3/16/2013 126 .LP.LF 3.Cracks Welding Discontinuties: 1.Porosity.Planar --LF 2.Mechanical .Mismatch or offset 2.Inadequate .Metallurgical .Voluminar --Slag.Discontinuities -Welding Welding Discontinuties: 1.

3/16/2013 127 . Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. These interruptions may occur in the base metal. which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specification used to invoke and control an inspection.Discontinuities -Welding Discontinuities. weld material or "heat affected" zones. are referred to as defects. Discontinuities. Defects.

The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. straight line is caused by failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area. The dark. The radiographic image is a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 128 .Discontinuities -Welding Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned.

Lack of penetration allows a natural stress riser from which a crack may propagate. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined. straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 129 .Discontinuities -Welding Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities.

Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld preparation or joining area. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 130 .Discontinuities -Welding Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal.

Cracks can sometimes appearing as "tails" on inclusions or porosity. Cracks will appearas jagged and often very faint irregular lines.Discontinuities -Welding Cracking can be detected in a radiograph only the crack is propagating in a direction that produced a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 131 .

Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 132 .Discontinuities -Welding Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centerline of the weldment.

Discontinuities -Welding External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. In the radiograph. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 133 . it appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area.

Discontinuities -Welding Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. dark. In a radiograph. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 134 . jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions.

Discontinuities -Welding Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminum). Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding materials and. appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the radiograph. therefore. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 135 .

therefore. it shows as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph.Discontinuities -Welding Tungsten inclusions. If improper welding procedures are used. tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas welding. tungsten is more dense than aluminum or steel. Radiographically. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 136 .

Discontinuities -Welding Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 137 . in clusters or rows. All porosity is a void in the material it will have a radiographic density more than the surrounding area. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly. Sometimes porosity is elongated and may have the appearance of having a tail This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity.

Discontinuities -Welding Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. The moisture turns into gases when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped close together. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 138 .

Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 139 . On a radiograph it looks similar to lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the center of the weld image.Discontinuities -Welding Internal concavity or suck back is condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld.

Discontinuities -Welding Cold lap is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap). The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into base material without bonding. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 140 .

Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 141 .Discontinuities -Welding Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be more (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement.

lighter area in the weld. The appearance on a radiograph is a localized. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the individual code involved in the inspection.Discontinuities -Welding Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld. which has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 142 .

Lumps of metal sag through the weld creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. Fluoroscopy appearance 3/16/2013 143 . burn through appears as dark spots surrounded by light globular areas. On a radiograph.Discontinuities -Welding Burn through (icicles) results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone.They are most commonly found in GMAW welds.

Environment 4.Thickness 5.Interpretations.Stresses 2.Type of Stress 3.Consequences of failure 6.Rectification cost 7.Standards & Codes Acceptance Considerations: 1.Standards 3/16/2013 144 .

Evaluate the discontinuity in terms of codes and standard.Standards & Codes Qualities of a good Interpreter: 1.Enhance knowledge on Techniques.Interpret the discontinuity.Knowledge of Product. Functions of a good Interpreter: 1. 3/16/2013 145 .Nature of Product. 3.Check the quality of the rdiograph or weld image. 4.Identify the discontinuty. 3. 2.Acceptance Standards. 4. 2.Interpretations.

Specification: It is a document which states in detail the set of requirements associated with the product. Standard: It is a published specification.Interpretations.Standards & Codes Code: It is a collection of relative standards and specification often applied to a particular product line. Procedure: It is the specific way to perform an activity which says performed by whom . 3/16/2013 146 . where and in what way.test method or practice that has been prepared by an isolated body.when.

American Society for Mechanical Engineers •AWS .American National Standards Institute •ASNT .American Welding Society •AWI .Interpretations.Standards & Codes International Organisations that prepare a code: •ASME .American Society for Non Destructive Testing •API .American Petroleum Institute •EN – European Nations 3/16/2013 147 .American Welding Institute •ANSI .

Interpretations.Standards & Codes 3/16/2013 148 .

As Low As Reasonably Achievable TDS .Time Distance Shielding • Spend the least time near radiation • Spend maximum distance • Ensure adequate shielding • T D S 3/16/2013 149 .RADIATION SAFETY ALARA .

R per hour (or) .exposure rate .charge released in air .Coulomb per kg or esu per cc • Activity .1 transformations /per second 1Ci = 3.Bq .7 x 1010 transformations / second 1Ci = 37 GBq 3/16/2013 150 .Radiation Units • Radiation level .mR per hour • Exposure .

1 Gy = 100 rad • Biological effects depend upon • .rad .Spatial distribution of energy • .Radiation Units • Absorbed Dose : Energy absorbed .100 ergs/gm .gray ( Gy) .1 joule / kg .Different for different radiation's 3/16/2013 151 .Energy loss per unit path length • .

Rem .1 Sv = 100 Rem .for Non Uniform Exposure or Individual Organ Exposure Dose x Tissue Weighting Factor ( WT) 3/16/2013 152 .1 Joule / kg .100 ergs/gm .1mSv = 100 mRem • Effective Dose .Sievert ( Sv) .Radiation Units • Equivalent Dose : Dose x Radiation Weighting Factor (WR) .

RADIATION SAFETY Biological Effects : • • • • Inhibition of Cell division Chromosome abberation Gene Mutation Cell death 3/16/2013 153 .

5% of Rdn worker. Because of ozone depletion and other factors.5000 mR/ Year (Old). 1995 – 125 mR/ year .RADIATION SAFETY Background Radiation: Terrestial Cosmic Rays. --. Radiation Limits(MPD -Maximum Permissable Dose): Radiation Worker --. ie 100 mR/year(New).2000 mR/ Year (New).Latest – 240 mR/year. General Public --. 3/16/2013 154 .

RADIATION SAFETY Radiation Limits (MPD): Radiation Worker 20 mSv/Year 40 mR/Week 8 mR/Day 1 mR/Hour General Public 1 mSv/Year 40 mR/Week 8 mR/Day 1 mR/Hour 3/16/2013 155 .

RADIATION SAFETY DOSE: 1.Chronic Dose: Cumulative dose.g.Acute Dose: Sudden dose.g. 2.Dose received for 1 year year.Dose received during one operation or in a day. e. e. 3/16/2013 156 .

g.g.Cataract.Leukamia. e.Genetic effects. 3/16/2013 157 .Cancer. 2.Stochastic Effect: No threshold value or limits. e.Non Stochastic Effect: Threshold value or limits. skin erythma.RADIATION SAFETY EFFECT: 1.

Reduction in blood count etc.0 Gy > 5. 50%of exposed individual die within 60 days Death within Few days. Lethal Dose.0 – 5.1 Gy 0.RADIATION SAFETY Whole Body Dose and Effects: Upto 0. NVD Nausea Vomitting & Diarrhoea 3.0 Gy Blood Picture Changes.0 Gy 3/16/2013 LD 50/60.1 – 0. 158 .25 – 1.0 Gy 1.25 Gy No detectable effect Chromosome abberation 0.0 – 3.

RADIATION SAFETY Local Radiation or Organal Dose: ORGAN DOSE EFFECT Testes Ovary Ovary Testes Eye Skin 3/16/2013 1.25Gy 3.0 Gy Temporary sterlity Temporary sterlity Permanent sterlity Permanent sterlity Cataract(delayed effect) Skin Erythma 159 .0 Gy 8.5 Gy 6.5 Gy 6.0 Gy 4.

RADIATION SAFETY Radiation Monitoring Devices Area Monitor Personnel Monitor 1.TLD Badge 3.Survey Meters: a.Audible alarms 3/16/2013 160 .Ionisation Chamber-Low level Rdn.Geiger Muller Counter-Low level Rdn b.Pocket Dosimeters 2. c. Proportional counter 1. Scintillation Counter d.Film Badge 2.

RADIATION SAFETY Survey Meter 3/16/2013 161 .

RADIATION SAFETY Audible Alarm: 3/16/2013 162 .

Gamma.Neutons.Beta.Low energy Xrays. 3/16/2013 163 .RADIATION SAFETY Film Badge: Useful Range: 20 mR – 2000R. It can be used to detect the effects of all ionising radiations Alpha.High energy Xrays & Gamma Rays.

RADIATION SAFETY TLD Badge: Lithium Fluoride. some of the energy absorbed is stored. 20mR – 20. is proportional to the amount of radiation that had been incident on it. Its response is relatively independent of the energy of the radiation. Lithium fluoride has this property which is called thermoluminescence. This stored energy is released in the form of light when the material is heated. The amount of light emitted on heating the lithium flouride. When certain materials are exposed to ionising radiation.Calcium Zinc Sulphate.000 R. 3/16/2013 164 .

3/16/2013 165 . Advantage: • On the spot indication.2 mSv.RADIATION SAFETY Pocket Dosimeter: 0 – 200 mR or 0. • Measures total dose.

RADIATION SAFETY Permissable Leakage Radiation Type of Device Portable Mobile Stationary Max.at Surface 100 mR/hr 100 mR/hr 200 mR/hr At 1 metre Distance 2 mR/hr 10 mR/hr 20 mR/hr 3/16/2013 166 .

5 mR/hr 50 mR/hr 200 mR/hr Transport Index < 0. Type White I Yellow II Yellow III 3/16/2013 Maximum Contact Reading 0. Transport Index: The value of Leakage radiation measured in mR/hr at 1 metre distance from the surface of the package.0 1. UN 2972.05 Upto 1.RADIATION SAFETY SHIPPING.0 167 . Class 7. Dangerous Goods.0 – 10.

403. 3/16/2013 168 . Radiation warning Transport label: 49 CFR 172.RADIATION SAFETY SHIPPING.

THE END Thank You. Good Luck for Your Examination 3/16/2013 169 .

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->