2 From DNA to Protein

Genes & Proteins
• Nucleotide sequence contains information to make proteins • Proteins are polymers of amino acids (made of chains of amino acids) • Proteins are made on ribosomes

Shape of Protein determines its function
• Proteins fold into complex, 3-D structures to function inside the cell • Examples: – enzymes that break down food – Hemoglobin carries O2 in RBC

• Transcription is the process of making RNA from DNA

• Similarities: – Both are nucleic acids – Both are polymers made of nucleotides • Differences:

• http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini /flashanimat/molgenetics/transcriptio n.swf

From DNA to RNA
• RNA polymerase binds to the beginning (promoter) of a specific gene. • Free RNA nucleotides form base pairs with their complementary nucleotides on the DNA strand (the template strand) • RNA transcription ends when a terminator sequence on the DNA template is reached. • RNA strand breaks away, & the DNA strand rejoins

3 Types of RNA

• Messenger RNA (mRNA)composed of a single nucleotide strand. mRNA carries genetic information from the nuclear DNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. • Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a single chain of about 80 nucleotides, folded into a hairpin shape. Different tRNAs bind to specific amino acids . • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotides are joined by proteins into a globular form to make up ribosomes.

RNA processing
• Genes contain coding (exons, expressed) and non-coding (introns, intervening) regions


• http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flas

Translation from mRNA to Protein

The mRNA Genetic code
• There are 20 AA. • There are 64 different mRNA codons (group of 3 nitrogenous bases on mRNA) • Start codon is AUG, codes for the AA methionine • Stop codons are UAG, UGA, UAA • All organisms use the same genetic code

Lets practice making proteins
DNA template ATT mRNA transcript (codons) tRNA anticodons Protein A.A. seq. TAC GGG CGT TTA AAT CCG ATC

Warm up
• Complete the DNA extraction w/s

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