-

‘ ( ) ‘ ’

,

“ --” CuSO4:5H2O

“ ”

-

(၁၉၉၆

၂ ၁၁

) ၂

(

)

( ,

)

” ,

***

( )

:

၁ ၂၈ ၉၉.၉၉%

(sulphite ores) (oxide ores) (

)

(Pophyry Copper Deposits)

(plates)

:

(

/

)

၊ ။ ။

S ၊

K၊

L

၆၆ ၁ Deposit

၂ Sabeldaung South

-၁။

၁ ၁၈ ၂၂ : ၈

(

)
( ) %

၆၆ ၁ ၁ ၂၂ ၁

.

၂၂ ၆ ၆
-၂၇ ?

၂၂၂ ၂ ၆၉၂၂ ၂၂၆ ၁၁ ၈

. ၇၉ . ၈ . . ၂၁

၁၈ ၈

၆၉၉၂ ၇၂

၈၉

.၇၇%

၁၉၇

၁. ၁%

***

၁၉၉၉

(Open-Pit)

၁ ၇

၁၆

၁၉၉၈ ၁ ‘ ’) ‘ ’ ‘ ’ ‘ ’ (

၇ ၁၉၉၉ ၉

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1998

Production (X 1000 tons)

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

၈ ၂ ၁၁

၆၇ ) ၁

(

၂၇ ၁ ၂ = ၈ ၂ ၆ ၂ ၇ + ၂၇ = ၂

***

(pit)

: ၁ ‘ ’

-

၁၂

:

။ ။

( ) ၁၉ ၁၉

High Technology

(Mining Engineering)

(

) ‘ ’

၀.၅%

.

-

(Chalco ite) Cu2S (Cu) (S)

. % : (Cu)

Froth Floatation . % % pH ( ) Cu
KAX 51

၉၉.၆%

CuS (Tailings)

Middling Thickener

%)

(

၉၉

CuFeS2

Fe ၁၁ Cu2S

၉၈% 2 CuFeS2 + 3 O2  2 CuS + 2 FeO + 2 SO2 ( CuS + O2  Cu2S ( )  Cu +SO2 ၉၈% )

(SiO2) FeSiO3

(CaCO3)

CaSiO3

(Scrubber) CO2 SO2

SX-EW

(Heap Leaching) :

၈ ၂

၈ %

Cu2S CuFeS2 ၁ leashing pad

Heap Leaching Pads

‘ ( SX/EW

’ CuSO4 )

CuSO4 Solvent eXtraction (SX) (Kitoxime)

CuSO4 (Pragnant Copper Solvent) ElectroWinning (EW) ၂၇ SX/EW (

CuSO4 CuSO4 ၉၉.၉% EW

)

Leaching Pad ၉ ၁

:

၁ ၂ tailings ‘ ’ tailings ၈

Leaching Pad pH ၇

pH :

-

:

(pH) p (Power) H ၁ pH pH pH ( (Hydrogen) ၁ ၇ )

( ) pH pH ၂ pH .

%

:

Leach Pad tailing lake (Heap Leaching)

pH ၂. (conductivity) pH conductivity

(

)

၊ :

။ ။

Leaching Pads

,

၁ ၆၆ ၈ ၁

‘ (Cut-Off)

’ Cut-Off Grade Cut-off

၈ .၆% Grade .၈% ၁. ၇%

. . %

%

၂ ၁ Cut-off

(Cash Flow)

၂ ၁

References: 1. Numerous Japan Government Interbnal Reports up to 2012, publicly available in Japanese. 2. Metal and Mining Agency of Japan, Asia, Southeast Asia Report No. 22495 in Japanese, 1990. 3. US Geological Survey, Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits, 2008. 4. Ariel View Photos taken from Google Earth Photo Service, 2012-2013. 5. K. Takahashi, E. Kimura, and I. Iwasaki, “A Hydrometallurgical Alternative to Conventional Copper Smelting – Recent Trends in SX-EW Process-.”, Publication in Japanese: Shigenshori Gijutu, Vol.41, No.2, 1994. 6. G.A. Kordosky, “Copper recovery using leach/solvent extraction/electrowetting technology: Forty years of innovation, 2.2 million tonnes of copper anually”, The Journal

of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Dec, 2002.
7. M. Radetzki, “Seven thoisand years in the service of humanity-the history of copper, the red metal”, Resources Policy, 34, 2009. 8. R. Schodde, “The Key drivers behind resource growth: an analysis of copper industry over the last 100 years,” 2010 MEMS Conference Meneral and Metal Markets over the long term. 9. W.G. Davenport, M. King, M. Schlesinger, A.K. Biswas, “Extractive Metallurgy of Copper”, Fourth Edition, Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK, 2002

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