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OFFICE MANAGEMENT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 COURSE DESCRIPTION: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 COURSE OBJECTIVES: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 LESSON 1: THE OFFICE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 OBJECTIVES: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 THE MODERN OFFICE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 WHAT IS AN OFFICE? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 WHAT IS A BUSINESS ENTERPRISE? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHAT IS A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHAT ARE THE FIVE ELEMENTS OF A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION? (5 M’S) --------------------------------------- 3 WHAT IS AN OFFICE STAFF?---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHAT IS BUSINESS INFORMATION?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 WHO ARE THE OFFICE WORKERS? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION?------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE SIZES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION? ---------------------------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF BUSINESS ENTERPRISE? ----------------------------------------------------- 4 WHAT ARE THE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN CHOOSING THE KIND OF COMPANY YOU WANT TO BE CONNECTED WITH?-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF BUSINESS ENTITY?------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT EXAMS THAT A SECRETARIAL GRADUATE SHOULD TAKE AND PASS?------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5 WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF OFFICE WORK? -------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 WHAT ARE THE SPECIFIC SKILL REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICE JOBS? ----------------------------------------------- 6 WHAT ARE THE 8 CATEGORIES OF OFFICE CAREER AND JOB CLASSIFICATIONS UNDER EACH CATEGORY? -- 6 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICE WORKERS-------------------------------------------------- 7 STUDENT ACTIVITIES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 LESSON 2: THE SECRETARY’S ROLE IN BUSINESS------------------------------------------------------ 9 OBJECTIVES: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 DEFINITION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 WHAT ARE THE STARTING POSITIONS YOU CAN APPLY FOR AFTER FINISHING YOUR SECRETARIAL COURSE? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 SUMMARY OF SECRETARIAL DUTIES ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 SPECIALIZED SECRETARIAL JOBS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 PERSONALITY TRAITS REQUIRED FOR A SECRETARY ------------------------------------------------ 14 GROOMING REQUIREMENTS FOR A SECRETARY-------------------------------------------------------- 17 JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SECRETARIAL FIELD------------------------------------------------------ 18 SECRETARY’S IMPORTANCE IN BUSINESS----------------------------------------------------------------- 18 HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL SECRETARY ---------------------------------------------------------- 18 STUDENT ACTIVITIES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 LESSON 3: HUMAN RELATIONS IN BUSINESS ------------------------------------------------------------19 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 HUMAN RELATIONS DEFINED ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 PUBLIC OR BUSINESS RELATIONS DEFINED ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 TWO KINDS OF HUMAN NEEDS--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 THE SECRETARY’S ROLE IN PUBLIC RELATION --------------------------------------------------------- 20 FACTORS AFFECTING PUBLIC RELATIONS ---------------------------------------------------------------- 20 TEN COMMANDMENTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS --------------------------------------------------------- 24 EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP -------------------------------------------------------------------- 25


STUDENT ACTIVITIES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 LESSON 4: COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN THE OFFICE ----------------------------------------------27 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 SEGMENTS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS --------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 THE FLOW OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 BARRIERS IN THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 VERBAL COMMUNICATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 LISTENING ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32 POOR LISTENING HABITS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32 ACTIVE LISTENING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33 BODY LANGUAGE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 33 READING------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33 WRITING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34 LESSON 5: WORKING EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY ------------------------------------------36 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 DEFINITION:-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 ORGANIZING YOUR DESK. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 TIME MANAGEMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 38 INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 WORK SIMPLIFICATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 42 SCHEDULES -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42 TICKLER FILES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 APPOINTMENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 SWISS CHEESE METHOD ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 MESSAGES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 MAIL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 TO DO LISTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 CHRONOLOGICAL FILES. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46 OFFICE SAFETY AND HEALTH. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46 LESSON 6: TELEPHONE SYSTEMS AND TECHNIQUES -----------------------------------------------49 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 TELEPHONE TECHNOLOGY--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 KEYPHONE PHONE SYSTEM ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 RECEIVING A CALL.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51 PLACING A CALL.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52 PLACING DOMESTIC CALLS. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53 CONFERENCE CALL ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53 PLACING LONG DISTANCE CALLS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 53 LEARNING TO LISTEN --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 HOW TO MANAGE A DIFFICULT CALLER ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 ANSWERING CALLS FOR OTHERS WHO ARE AWAY FROM THEIR TELEPHONES. -------------------------------- 55 WHAT YOUR VOICE SAYS ABOUT YOU. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 56 USE OF TELEPHONE DIRECTORIES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 STUDENT ACTIVITIES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 LESSON 7: HANDLING VISITORS EFFECTIVELY--------------------------------------------------------58 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58 POINTERS IN HANDLING RECEPTIONIST DUTIES ------------------------------------------------------------------- 58 HOW TO HANDLE EXPECTED VISITORS (THOSE WITH APPOINTMENT) ----------------------------------------- 58 HOW TO HANDLE UNEXPECTED VISITOR (THOSE WITHOUT APPOINTMENT)---------------------------------- 59 HOW TO MAKE APPOINTMENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60 HOW TO AVOID CONFLICTS WHEN PREPARING APPOINTMENTS ------------------------------------------------- 60


HOW TO CANCEL APPOINTMENTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 61 HOW TO MAKE RECORDS OF VISITORS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 61 HOW TO MAKE THE VISITOR FEEL COMFORTABLE ---------------------------------------------------------------- 62 WHAT TO DO AND WHAT TO SAY WHEN HANDLING DIFFERENT KINDS OF VISITORS ------------------------ 62 LESSON 8: BUSINESS MEETING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------67 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 PLANNING FOR THE MEETING. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 DATE AND TIME --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 LIST OF ATTENDEES.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67 LOCATION OF MEETING ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 67 GUEST SPEAKER OR SPEAKERS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68 THE AGENDA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 69 FINALIZING MEETING ARRANGEMENTS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69 USE REMINDER SYSTEMS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 70 TAKING, PREPARING AND DISTRIBUTING MINUTES OF THE MEETING ------------------------------------------ 70 THE CORPORATION MINUTES ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71 CONVENTIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72 DOCUMENTATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72 PROFESSIONALIZATION OF MANPOWER FOR MEETING AND CONVENTIONS ----------------------------------- 73 LESSON 9: MAKING TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS --------------------------------------------------------74 OBJECTIVES: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74 AIRLINE RESERVATIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74 STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED WHEN MAKING AIRLINES RESERVATION ----------------------------------------------- 75 MAKING HOTEL RESERVATIONS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 PREPARING AN ITINERARY --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75 INTERIOR OFFICE OPERATIONS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76 MATERIALS TO BE PREPARED FOR THE BOSS:----------------------------------------------------------------------- 77 INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77 FOLLOW-UP ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78 TRAVEL PROCEDURE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 79 TRANSPORTATION------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 80 LESSON 10: RECORDS MANAGEMENT--------------------------------------------------------------------81

OBJECTIVE:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81


Course Description: This course covers a range of topics in office procedures and administration, with a focus on knowledge and skills for administrative assistants and office managers. Administrative assistants use their organizational, administrative, and decision-making skills to contribute positively to the work environment. Emphasis is placed on the practical application of office management and administrative skills required to endure that an office runs effectively and efficiently. Course Objectives: Cognitive Aspect Develop clear and meaningful understanding of general procedures, systems, and processes, and administration. Understand the roles and value of administrative staff in the effectiveness and success of modern organizations. Develop a knowledge and skill base that assists in understanding the office environment and in enhancing performance as an effective administrative employee in an organization. Understand the impact of office technology. Develop a clear and meaningful understanding of the different office procedures. Understand the roles and value of administrative assistants in the effectiveness and success of modern organizations. Develop a knowledge and skill base that assists in understanding the office environment and in enhancing performance as an effective administrative employee in an organization. Understand the broad scope of responsibilities of the administrative office manager, as a key person, in efficient company operations. Affective Aspect Exhibit business standards of behavior with respect to attendance, punctuality, positive attitude, time management, and respect for others. Provide exemplary customer service by increasing listening and communication skills. Psychomotor Aspect Use interpersonal skills to develop effective working relationships and function as a member of an office team Manage work and time effectively. Set up and maintain records. Schedule appointments, set up meetings, and receive visitors. Make travel arrangements. 1

Use the telephone effectively. Use effective personal and interpersonal skills in different business situations.

Lesson 1: The Office
Objectives: 1. Identify some new inventions found in homes and offices today. 2. Identify characteristics of the traditional office, office in transition, and state-of-the-art office. 3. Identify the persons known as the “office staff”. 4. Name members of the organization – top management, middle management and support staff. 5. Enumerate key office functions, the skills needed, and the job opportunities for each.

The Modern Office

What is an Office? the term “office” refers to any physical structure where business transactions are being held. It is the nerve center of a modern business enterprise where the day to day happenings of the business are being planned, processed, and recorded. It is the show window of the business enterprise which serves as the reflection of the company’s image.


What is a business enterprise? is an organization by means of which the capital, talents, ideas, skills, and physical exertion of efforts of a host of individuals are coordinated to produce salable goods and/or services in order to attain their further objectives.
of Contribution Production Further Objectives

Host Individual

Owner Office worker

Capital/ideas Goods/services Talents/skills/physical Goods/services exertion

Profit Salary/wages

What is a business organization? it is an association formed towards the attainment of a predetermined objective which contains the five elements.

What are the five elements of a business organization? (5 M’s) 1. Manpower -human factor, physical exertion of human efforts. 2. Money -cash, capital, funds 3. Machineries -modern technology, equipment 4. Methods -techniques, strategies, approaches, technical factor 5. Market -the transferring of goods and services from the producer to the consumer What is an office staff? is the backbone of a business organization It is composed of the office workers who create, process, use, store and provide business information

What is business information? consists of any information (data) needed by the company to determine its objective and the means of accomplishing them. It provides basis for organizing the work force in a profitable manner and for motivating office workers to achieve the planned objectives


Who are the office workers? they are the members of the office staff who expedite the day-to-day operations of the company. They help company executives, department managers, supervisors, and fellow workers meet their responsibilities

What are the most common forms of business organization?

1. Single or Sole Proprietorship
-ownership is vested in one person. -Owner is sometimes called proprietor -this form of ownership is small and is readily established under the control of one man.

2. Partnership
is a medium-sized business organization where two or more persons bind themselves to contribute money, property, or labor to a common fund with the intention of dividing the profits and/or losses among themselves. Owners are called partners.


3. Corporation
is an artificial being, created by operation of law, having the right of succession and the powers, attributes, and properties expressly authorized by law or incident to its existence. Owners are called stockholders


What are the sizes of business organization? 1. small organization 2. medium-size organization 3. big or large organization What are the different kinds of business enterprise? 1. Production 2. Marketing 3. Advertising 7. Banking 8. Medical 9. Real State 4. Insurance 5. Education 6. Publishing 10. Financing 11. Legal 12. Construction

You may now decide in what kind of business enterprise you want to work with in the future.


What are the factors to be considered when choosing the kind of company you want to be connected with? Factor to be considered when you are hunting for a job is the kind of business in which you want to work. Above are some kinds of business that most companies are engaged in. Your choice will depend mainly on your: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Field of interest training educational attainment health values in life location chances for advancement salary and other benefits

What are the two kinds of business entity? 1. Privately owned business entity. 2. Government owned business entity (employees in a government owned business entity should pass the Civil Service Examination given by the Government) What are the different government exams that a secretarial graduate should take and pass? 1. 2. 3. 4. Sub-professional Examination Professional or Career Examination Junior Stenographer Examination Senior Stenographer Examination

What are the advantages of office work? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Attractive salaries and wide range of benefits. Many industries are expanding, thereby requiring more office workers. There are more and better opportunities for advancement. Jobs are everywhere. Is in demand here and abroad. Office work is pleasant and prestigious. Positions are open to all, both male and female. Civil service and military opportunities are available. Around-the-clock schedules are available. Part-time and temporary jobs are always available. Jobs are tailored to temperament.


What are the specific skill requirements for office jobs? 1. Skill in typing 2. Skill in shorthand 3. Skill in the operation of the different automated office machines like computer, word processor, adding machines, calculator, copier, mimeographing machine, etc. 4. Skill in performance of the various office procedures like filing, telephone techniques, mail handling, etc. 5. Skill in communication (oral and written) 6. Skill in computing and basic mathematical procedures. 7. Skill in human relations. What are the 8 categories of office career and job classifications under each category?

1. Business Data Processing-Computer Technology
a. b. c. d. Word Processor Data Encoder Programmer System Analyst

2. Secretarial, Stenographic and related Occupations
a. Secretary (legal, medical, technical, general) b. Stenographer (company stenographer or court stenographer)

3. Typing and related occupations
a. Clerk-typist

4. Filing and related occupations
a. Filing clerk

5. Computing and Bookkeeping
a. b. c. d. Cashier Accounting clerk Bookkeeper Payroll clerk


6. Maintenance and related occupations
a. b. c. d. Machine Technician Sanitation Engineer/Janitor Electrician Building Maintenance

7. Information and Message Distribution
a. Messenger b. Telephone Operator c. Receptionist

8. Miscellaneous Clerical Occupation
a. Bank clerk b. Stock clerk c. Checker DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF OFFICE WORKERS 1. ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES –include the ability… a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. To manage your work and time To get along with others in the office To locate business information quickly To receive and entertain callers To make appointments To handle meetings and conferences To order supplies To make travel arrangements

2. COMMUNICATIONS –include the ability… a. b. c. d. To handle mail To use shipping services To handle telephone callers To handle other methods of telecommunications like telex, telegraph, cablegram, etc.

e. f.


3. RECORDS MANAGEMENT –includes the ability.. a. to do basic filing and finding systems b. to have some knowledge of records control 4. PROCESSING WORDS –includes the ability… a. To dictate or type business letters, reports and other business papers. b. To proofread (proofreading –is the act of reading a typed or printed documents to find and correct errors) c. To take and transcribe dictation d. To use the word processing machine 5. REFROGRAPHICS –include the ability… a. to operate the various copying and duplicating process and should know which process is best suited for each reproduction job. 6. COMPUTING, ACCOUNTING, AND DATA PROCESSING –include.. a. basic ability to calculate b. ability to keep financial records c. basic knowledge of data processing which involves taking unorganized facts and arranging them in such a way as to obtain the desired information with the use of high speed electronics equipment like computer machines Student Activities 1. Talk with a family or a friend who is an office employee. Ask the following questions: a. What are the major tasks performed in the office? b. What are some types of equipment that are found in the office? c. What does the employees think is the type of his organization and its major goals? Prepare a brief report summarizing the answers to these questions. 2. Talk with an office employee of your school. Ask the same questions as in no.1 and also prepare a brief report. Are their functions different? If so, in what ways?


Lesson 2: The Secretary’s Role in Business
Objectives: 1. Define the secretary’s role in business. 2. Identify the different secretarial duties involved in an office. 3. Identify the personality traits required for a secretary. 4. Identify and explain some pointers on how to become a successful secretary.

DEFINITION -The National Secretaries Association (International) defines the SECRETARY this way: “As an assistant to an executive possessing a mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who displays initiative, exercises judgment, and makes decisions within the scope of authority.” The term “SECRETARY” really means keeper of secrets. The secretary is the first one to learn about the many confidential developments involving the office staff and company policies thru meetings, letters, and memos she types, in her filing, and dictation given by her boss, etc. The secretary in the office is usually seated closest to the executive. She relieves her boss of such office details plan, to coordinate future activities, and to follow through the various projects.



What are the starting positions you can apply for after finishing your secretarial course? 1. Clerk-typist 2. Filing clerk 3. Receptionist 4. Telephone operator 5. Secretary in a small or medium-size office 6. Word processor 7. Data Encoder

SUMMARY OF SECRETARIAL DUTIES Use of typing skill: 1. Type from rough drafts. Organized data from rough drafts into finished reports. 2. Type letters with proper style and punctuations. 3. Take a dictation at the typewriter. Use of shorthand skill: 4. Take dictation by shorthand or machine 5. Transcribe shorthand notes Handling mail: 6. Open, read, and sort incoming mail 7. Keep a record of all incoming and outgoing mail 8. Prepare outgoing mail Handling telephone calls: 9. Answers all incoming calls 10. Make outgoing calls for the boss Helping with meetings: 11. Take notes at meeting and reports of minutes 12. Assist in the preparation of written reports and speeches and prepare copy for publication. Handling of office visitors: 13. Arrange appointments and keep a record of them 14. Meet visitors in the office


Letter writing: 15. Handle certain types of correspondence and communications. 16. Compose routine letters and interoffice memo.

Handling travel arrangements: 17. Make travel reservations and prepare itineraries 18. Take care of the routine office duties while the boss is on trip Handling financial records and banking activities: 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Use adding and calculating machines Keep company financial records of employer Keep personal and financial records of employer Help employer in filing tax returns and other financial reports Handle simple banking transactions

Filing and management 24. Understand and use basic filing system 25. Keep records of company for future references Administrative duties: 26. 27. 28. 29. organize office procedures Supervise other workers Implement company policies Initiate systems and procedures useful and effective in the office

Other related duties: 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Help in organizing office social functions Serve as buffer to relieve your employer of many details Operate various automated office machines Requisition and keep record of office supplies Understand the use and preparation of numerous office forms Use reference books of various kinds Do some personal shopping for the boss Keeping the office presentable at all times Serve coffee for the boss and his visitor.


SPECIALIZED SECRETARIAL JOBS As a prospective secretary, you may choose a specialized field such as the legal, medical, or technical area. In order to handle the jobs in these areas, you must possess specialized knowledge and skills. Legal Secretary 1. As a legal secretary, you may work for a lawyer, a law firm with a number of attorneys or a large corporation. 2. As a legal secretary, you need to have a good typing and communication skills and a thorough general education. You need to have an extensive knowledge of legal terminology; be able to prepare legal papers such as deeds, briefs, wills, and contracts; and have a knowledge of the legal system in general such as the court system and law as it relates to the business world. 3. Your skills need to be top-notch. You should be able to type at least 60 words a minute and preferably 70 to 80. In some law offices you will take shorthand while in others you will use voice recording machines. However, if you are preparing for legal secretarial career, you should take shorthand and attempt to develop your skill to at least 100 words per minute since you may work for an attorney/s that require this ability. 4. You should be particularly adept at dealing with all types of people. People who come into law office for solutions of extremely serious problems, which you should be able to handle efficiently with understanding, and concern. Medical Secretary 1. As a medical secretary, you may work in a hospital, a clinic, a doctor’s or dentist’s office, an insurance company, a research organization, a medical publishing company, a medical supply company, etc. 2. If you work for a doctor, you will probably work for one who is highly specialized such


as pediatrician, a gynecologist, an anesthesiologist, or an ophthalmologist. 3. To become a medical secretary, you need to have an extensive knowledge of medical terminology. 4. Some of the duties that you will perform as a medical secretary include completing hospitalization forms, making appointments, ordering medical supplies, transcribing record of patients, and preparing patients for examination. 5. As a medical secretary you need to be perceptive and sensitive in the needs of clients. Many of the people that come into a doctor’s office or to a hospital may be critically ill. You will be expected to deal with not are your verbal communications important, but your non-verbal behavior is quite significant also. A look or a gesture can convey much about your feelings. Your effectiveness in dealing with all types of clients will determine to a large extent your success as a medical assistant. Technical Secretary 1. The technical secretary is one whose education and experience qualifies him or her to work in an engineer’s or a scientist’s office. 2. As a technical secretary, you will prepare correspondence containing formulas, equations, mathematical symbols, and statistical calculations. 3. As a technical secretary, you may be working for a company that is developing products or materials of a highly confidential of a research project in the hands of a competition could cost your company millions of pesos. Education Secretary 1. The education secretary may work at an elementary school, a secondary school, college or university. 2. The educational secretary deals with administrators, teachers, students, parents, the board of education and the general public.


3. This secretary must be able to relate to a wide range of age groups and diverse needs of various individuals. 4. The duties of an educational secretary include ordering books, filing grade, preparing class schedules, working on the budget, handling inventory, typing tests, etc. PERSONALITY TRAITS REQUIRED FOR A SECRETARY

1. Ability to build goodwill
a good secretary is a good public relation person of her immediate superior as well as the company. She should always make her boss looks good to his subordinates, fellow executives, and other people especially to clients and customers. She should create a good image of the boss and the company where she belongs.

2. Tactfulness - the word “tact” means doing and saying the right thing at the right time and in the right place. - She should not only know the right thing to say and do, but equally important is knowing how and where to do it. 3. Sense of Anticipation - an efficient secretary should know what the boss will need before he asks for it and what activity the boss will do next and is always prepared for it. this means knowing in advance what will be needed and being prepared for it when the need arises.

4. Ability to follow through this means secretary should see to it that every job is carried to its completion. - An efficient secretary follows up frequently and seriously every job she undertakes until it is completed. The secretary should check from time to time the work to be done to be sure that she will not fail in her commitments with her immediate superior. -



5. Loyalty
a person who is loyal sticks to someone or to the company not only in times of “plenty” but also in times of “crisis” until it can recover and in due time bounce back to prosperity. A loyal secretary understands her boss’s weaknesses and does not reveal them to others. A loyal secretary should defend her boss, if need be, to anyone who question his motives. A loyal secretary should believe in the company as a whole –in its objectives and its management. A loyal secretary should be dedicated to her work always by giving an honest work for a day’s pay.


6. Dependability a secretary is said to be dependable if she can be relied upon in any activity. A secretary who is dependable is always prompt in reporting to the office and stands by in any emergency.



A dependable secretary is willing to make personal sacrifices for the call of duty.

7. Ability to reflect company objectives and policies
the secretary being part of the management team should help interpret the management’s point of view to her co-workers, to the clients or customers, and to the public. To do this, she should be thoroughly familiar with the objectives and policies under which the company operates. As an assistant to the executive, the secretary should be a “model” because of her attitude, work habits, and the way she interprets the rules and regulations of the company will influence the attitude of the other members of the organization.



8. Ability to keep confidential information
it is an undeniable fact that the secretary knows about what is going on in the company than anyone else in the organization. Secretaries are often used by bosses as sounding boards when they want to talk about confidential matters. They can do this only if they know that their secretaries will keep to herself all confidential matters revealed to her. Secretaries who talk about what they know about the company can cause incalculable damage to the company and their bosses. A secretary who reveals confidential information even destroys herself because nobody wants to have or to work with a secretary who does not know how to keep secrets to herself. A secretary who knows how to keep confidential information is well trusted by her superiors and her co-workers.



9. Emotional Stability
This trait involves a thorough knowledge of the job and self-control no matter what happens in the office. Almost every office experience crises like peak work loads, unexpected absence of the boss, or a key employee creates situation in which the secretary should always remain calm in solving each problem. Personal emotions like anger, hatred, irritations, envy, sadness, and the like must be controlled so that everyone will the work moving and no office function will be delayed or hampered


10. Ability to communicate ideas effectively.
the secretary should be able to express her idea clearly. Since the secretary often speaks for her boss, she should communicate her ideas effectively. Having a pleasant voice is not enough, although that is very important for a secretary. She should learn to put ideas into words what she want to say or communicate.

11. Cost-consciousness a secretary is expected to perform her job in the most economical way. A cost-conscious secretary should know how to budget her time and carefully organize her work so that no time, money, and effort will be wasted. A secretary who is cost-conscious avoids waste in everything he or she does.



12. Ability to develop variety of interest
a secretary is expected to keep up-to-date in outside affairs because being interested in the world happenings is a sign of a healthy mind. A secretary should be involved in civic, community, and social affairs. This will keep her mind active and her whole being alive.

13. Independent mind
an alert secretary should have a mind of her own. A secretary should promptly and tactfully speaks up her ideas, and is not even afraid to say “NO” tactfully whenever she is not in agreement with the other person’s point of view.

14. Sense of moral value
A good secretary should have a high sense of moral values and not easily overcome by temptations. She should do everything well even without an observer because she knows it is her duty and she values highly every job assigned to her. She is tolerant and understanding about gossips, criticisms, jealousies, and shortcomings of others.

15. Sense of responsibility
a responsible secretary accepts and does her job with seriousness a responsible secretary tries all means to finish any task assigned to him or her on due time and with satisfactory results.

GROOMING REQUIREMENTS FOR A SECRETARY 1. A secretary should always have a clean, neat, and businesslike appearance from the head down to the feet. 2. She should always look her best and presentable at all times. 3. She should show that she is an organized person by her appearance. This is obviously true because how can you as a secretary organize your work properly if you can not even make yourself presentable. 4. Dress should be simple and appropriate for office wear. 5. Hair should be neatly combed with becoming hairstyle. 6. She should be sweet-smelling at all times with the right fragrance. 7. Jewelries and other accessories should be simple and well-coordinated with her basic wardrobe. 8. Fingernails are well cared and properly trimmed. 9. Make-up should be suitable and evenly applied. 10. Shoes and bags should be in matching colors. Shoes should be clean and well-shined.


JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE SECRETARIAL FIELD 1. Career in the secretarial field is exciting and challenging. Classified sections of newspapers reveal that there are always great needs for secretaries. 2. The job market today and in the predictable future is very encouraging. Every year thousands and thousands of persons are being hired in occupations requiring secretarial skills. 3. The number of employed secretaries is expected to continuously increase in the years to come due to fast expansion of business and to thousand of jobs that will be available as secretaries retire form the labor market. SECRETARY’S IMPORTANCE IN BUSINESS 1. Business people recognized the importance of the SECRETARY as an administrative assistant who is able to take the responsibility of initiating and completing varied assignments and duties. 2. The SECRETARY is an extremely important part of the business world today. Many executives, after working with an efficient secretary remarked, “if I lose my secretary, it would be like losing my right arm.” Another one said, “It would be very difficult for me to perform my duties and responsibilities without my secretary assisting me in the performance of many routine activities in my office. HOW TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL SECRETARY Your success in the secretarial field depends on you. You can be become a valuable member of an organization if you: 1. Acquire knowledge and skills required of a secretarial job. 2. Train yourself well in various office procedures. 3. Develop your personality and acquire the right kind of attitude towards yourself and other people. 4. Learn to operate as many modern office machines as you can, particularly computers. 5. Learn to deal with and adjust yourself to different kinds of people. Student Activities ENGLISH REFRESHER: PRONOUNS are words that serves as substitutes for nouns. They must agree with their antecedents (nouns for which they stand) in person, number, and gender.. Underline the correct pronoun: 1. Joyce and Jamie submitted (her, their) projects today. 2. The computer (who, that) Jerico is using is IBM PC. 3. All students need dictionaries available to (them, they). 4. The secretary, as well as the office clerks, was given the instructions on what (she, they) should do about the problem.


Lesson 3: Human Relations in Business
Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define human relations and give its relationship to productivity. Identify and explain some desirable personal qualities. Identify and explain qualities of good appearance. Define business ethics and explain its components.

Human Relations Defined is the art of getting along with different kinds of people, during which an atmosphere of trust and confidence is created.

Public or Business Relations Defined -is the objective of the company to build goodwill towards its customers and clients thereby creating a good image of the company in the business world. TWO KINDS OF HUMAN NEEDS A. Primary Needs ( Biological needs in order to live) 1. food and water 2. clothing 3. shelter 4. rest and sleep 5. air B. Secondary Needs (Psychological needs which are satisfied by dealing with other people) 1. need to be loved 4. need to be important 2. need to be needed 5. need to be respected 3. need to be recognized 6. need to be understood


THE SECRETARY’S ROLE IN PUBLIC RELATION The secretary’s role in public relations is an important one. The secretary is in a key position to develop good public relations through: 1. business letters 2. telephone conversations 3. greeting callers or visitors The success of a company is the concern of everyone that works for it. If you work for a company, the company’s customer is your customer. The success of the company is your success and the downfall of the company will also be your downfall. FACTORS AFFECTING PUBLIC RELATIONS 1. What employees are saying about the company. 2. What customers are saying about the company. 3. The company’s role in the community.

OPPORTUNITIES BY WHICH A SECRETARY CAN MAINTAIN GOOD PUBLIC RELATION 1. By helping her boss do a better job, thus improving procedures or services. 2. Be being genuinely cooperative and helpful to customers and others outside the company. 3. By constantly striving to improve her own work methods thereby producing fast and accurate work. 4. By promoting the company to everyone with whom she comes in contact through her general actions, by what she says, and by the way she answers questions about the company. 5. By her telephone manners 6. By the letters she writes or types for the company.

WAYS IN WHICH THE SECRETARY CAN HURT OR OFFEND THE PUBLIC 1. 2. 3. 4. Misspell a name of client or customer Type an address incorrectly Write a letter that contains a thoughtless remark affecting the reader’s dignity. By promoting the company to everyone with whom she comes in contact through her general actions, by what she says, and by the way she answers questions about the company. 5. By her telephone manners. 6. By the letters she writes or types for the company. 7. Transfer a customer’s call to a wrong person. 20

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Keep a caller waiting too long without sufficient reasons. Exchange a clever remarks with a friend in the presence of a caller. Schedule appointments that conflict. Hang up the telephone before the caller hangs up Fail to help the customer solve her complaints. THE ART OF HUMAN RELATIONS

1. Good public relations begins with good internal HUMAN RELATIONS –with people within the company. 2. People in an office should work together in harmony and in a friendly atmosphere of “one big happy family” 3. The secretary’s personality is basically founded in her ability to get along well with people and to make favorable impressions on them. 4. The secret of adjusting oneself to others included in the simple formula: “Treat others as you would like to be treated by them”. 5. It is not only liking people that matters but really an understanding of people that counts. Each person is of different temperament and disposition. When you realize this and can make allowances for those differences in individuals, then you will have passed the first step toward increasing your interest in other people. 6. The next step is learning to cultivate the friendship of many persons of all types. Your own personality grow in proportion to the variety of experience you have as a result of contacts with many other people. HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD HUMAN RELATIONS AT WORK 1. Greet people warmly. a. Co-workers, customers, visitors all appreciate a personal greeting before getting down to business. b. A cheerful “good morning” or “good afternoon” is a welcome gesture of your friendly disposition. 2. Deal with others tactfully. a. Tact is defined by Webster as a nice discernment of what is appropriate to do or say in dealing with others without giving offense. b. Tact is based on common sense. Just put yourself in other fellow’s place, whatever irritates you will probably irritate him. 3. Use persuasion instead of argument. a. It is better to urge than to argue. b. To persuade is to appeal not to threat. By threat, you make someone do unwillingly what you want him to do, but to make persuasion, you make him do it of his own free will.


4. Recognize authority a. It is important to be able to recognize the various shade of authority and to know just who is supposed to give your orders. b. When you are a beginner, almost anyone and everyone may give you instructions. The manner with which you accept instructions, corrections, and even criticisms may be a determining factor in your progress. c. A secretary who assumes a sullen attitude when she is told to do something gets no satisfaction from her action and she endangers her own position. d. A secretary who is afraid to consult her own boss for advice when someone else gives her an assignment will not only be imposed upon by everyone but will also be unable to give her own superior adequate attention. e. Respect all authority. 5. Be friendly but not too personal a. A genuine friendship in the office contributes a pleasant atmosphere and harmonious working condition. b. Be considerate of other people’s feelings. c. Don’t bore or embarrass others with long recitals of your personal troubles and achievements d. Avoid serious personal relationship with your boss especially if he is a married man. You will be creating a lot of trouble at the end. This kind of relationship does not usually lasts long. 6. Use names and titles appropriately. a. When dealing with persons with the same age and rank within the department, the informal manner of addressing each other by their first name is acceptable. b. Superiors in the office and people outside the company should be addressed as Ms., Mrs., Sir, or Ma’am. c. Find out your company’s preferences about names and titles and guide yourself accordingly. 7. Be deserving of respect. a. In order for other people to respect you, be the first one to show respect for yourself in your behavior, manner of dressing, manner of talking and in dealing with people. 8. Be thoughtful a. Say “please”, “thank you”, when necessary. These words are examples of little touches of courtesy and high regard for others. b. Little things means a lot. You may send unexpected anniversary cards, birthday cards or greetings, and timely message of sympathy, better still greet them personally. c. A helping hand or a thoughtful gestures shows, far more affective that words, that you are a considerate person.


9. Help new employees a. Remember you were once a new employee yourself, so take time to welcome and help new employee. 10. Be a team player a. Assist in everyway you can to attain the objectives of your company. b. Do your best in everything you do. c. Do your full share; be cooperative at all times. 11. Recognize the importance of others. Practice the Golden Rule: Do not do unto others what you would not like others do unto you. 12. Practice office etiquette. HOW TO HANDLE AN ANGRY COMPLAINANT 1. Stop Talking! - You cannot listen if you are talking. 2. Put the talker at ease. - Help him feel that he is free to talk. This is often done by offering him a seat, allowing him to rest or cool off for a moment. 3. Show him that you want to listen. - Look and act interested. Do not read your mail while he talks: Listen to understand rather than oppose. 4. Remove distractions - Don’t doodle, tap, or shuffle papers. Will it be quieter if you talk in a private place? 5. Empathize with - Try to put yourself in his place so that you can se his point of view. 6. Be patient - Allow plenty of time. Do not interrupt him. 7. Hold your temper. - An angry man gets the wrong meaning from words. 8. Go easy on arguments and criticisms. - This puts him on the defensive. He may get angry. Do not argue, even if you win, you lose. You lost an important customer.


9. Ask questions - This encourages him and shows you are listening. It helps to develop points further. 10. Stop talking! - This is first and last, because all other commandments depend on it. - You just can’t do a good listening job while you are talking. - Nature gave man two ears but only one tongue, so that he listens more than he talks. TEN COMMANDMENTS OF HUMAN RELATIONS 1. Speak to people. - There is nothing as nice as cheerful word of greeting. 2. Smile at people. - It takes 65 muscles to frown: only 15 to smile. 3. Call people by name. - The sweetest music to anyone’s ears is the sound of his own name. 4. Be friendly and helpful - If you would like to have friends, be friendly. 5. Be cordial - Speak and act as if everything you do were a genuine pleasure. 6. Be genuinely interested in people - You can like everybody if you try. 7. Be generous with praise; cautious with criticisms. 8. Be considerate with the feelings of others. It will be appreciated. 9. Be thoughtful of opinion of others. - There are three-sides to controversy: yours, the other fellow’s, and the right one. 10. Be alert to give service. - What counts most in life is what we do for others.


EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP 1. An employee should be friendly but respectful to his employer. 2. Address your employer “Mr.”, “Mrs.”, “Sir”, or “Ma’am”. Avoid calling your employer by his or her first name. 3. Avoid personal jokes or wise remarks. Your employer might resent it as an affront to his dignity or position. 4. Look for your employer’s good points and understand his weaknesses. 5. Don’t argue with your employer. You can check him nicely if there had been some mistakes, but don’t insist on your way. Always do the correcting tactfully and in private. 6. The most important thing is to be loyal to your employer. Nothing but praises for him should come from you. If you have nothing good to say, either you leave the job or don’t say anything bad. 7. Employees should treat their employers with respect and not with fear. 8. Employers are expected to treat their employees with respect, courtesy, and consideration. In order that an employer will respect his employees, the employees should first show self-respect. 9. Employees should respect the chain of command. Know your immediate superior. Do not by-pass authority. Tell your problems in the office to the right person who can really help you solve you problems related to your work. 10. Employees should always be willing to accept responsibilities. If you do not know how to do the job, ask questions. 11. Always do your best in everything you do. 12. Always strive to improve on the job. 13. Be willing to admit your mistakes. But see to it that you also learn from your mistakes. 14. When more work are assigned to you, do not complain. Always think that your employer is assigning to you the job because he believes you can do it better than others. 15. Avoid serious personal relationship with married people in your office. This kind of relationship does not usually lasts long, and you become the loser at the end. HOW TO ACHIVE HAPPINESS IN DEALING WITH PEOPLE 1. Real happiness can be yours only when we have done something worthwhile for ourselves and others. This can be done right here on earth. 2. To achieve real happiness, all we have to do is wake up, open our eyes, be pure in heart, be sincere in deeds, reach out, and give ourselves wholeheartedly to everyone. 3. If we have done something good to others, we have done it to the LORD. Thus, we have gained perfect joy and happiness.


Student Activities Attitude Give-Away Exercise Below are different ways people share their positive attitudes. Some may appeal to you; others may not. Place a mark in the square opposite three attitudes that fit your style and that you intend to incorporate into your behavior. _______ Going out my way to visit friends who may be having trouble with their attitudes. _______ Being more positive with those whom I have daily contact. _______ Transmitting my positive attitude to others whenever I use the telephone. ______ Sharing my positive attitude by sending token items such as cards or flowers to those I care about. ______ Sharing my sense of humor through more teasing, telling jokes or using the flipside technique. ______ Being more sensitive as a listener so that others can regain their positive focus. ______ Laughing more so that my attitude will be infectious and others will pick it up. ______ Communicating my attitude through upbeat conversations, paying compliments to others, etc. ______ Sharing my attitude to others by setting a better example as a positive person. As you implement your choices, remind yourself that the more you give your attitude away, the more positive it will remain.


Objectives: 1. Define communication and explain the communication process. 2. Define and explain the importance of feedback 3. Define and explain substantive and subjective meanings communication 4. Explain the importance of communication 5. Explain the flow of communication 6. Enumerate and explain the barriers to communication 7. Enumerate and explain pointers for better verbal communication 8. Enumerate and explain pointers for better listening 9. Enumerate and explain pointers for better reading skills 10. Enumerate and explain pointers for better writing skills in

Communication is the for all office tasks. The office worker deals daily with spoken and written word through such activities as handling telephone calls and taking messages, composing memos and letters, giving and receiving instructions, and receiving visitors. Figure 4.1 Communication Methods






Communication Process. The communication process may be defined simply as the exchange of messages by human beings. It is the transmission of ideas from the sender (source) to the receiver through the channels. The segments of communication are the source, message, channel, and receiver. Communication is not complete, however, if there is no feedback or response from the receiver back to the sender.
Figure 4.2 Communication Process Communication is defined as the transfer of information from one person to another that is understood. There must be understanding for there to be effective communication. Let's see how this works.

Communication process consists of the following:
• The sender formulates a message • The sender transmits the message • The receiver intercepts and filters the message • The receiver formulates a response


It is at the third and fourth stage of this process that understanding should occur. If it does not occur then there is a breakdown in communication. During the fourth stage, the response should then be a renewed attempt to gain understanding. While it may appear that the spoken word is the element of communication that needs to be understood, that is only part of the puzzle.

Segments in the Communication Process The complete communication process consists of four segments: the sender, the message, the receiver, and the response. See figure 4.3 diagrams these elements. The sender creates a message with an idea of the response he or she hopes to evoke. The quality of message is influenced by the personal characteristics of the sender: intelligence level, education level, cultural background, writing and speaking skills, attitudes, feelings, dispositions, beliefs, and values. The message has two kinds of information: the substantive as well as the subjective. It is in the subjective aspect that the feelings, attitudes, and values of the receiver influence the way message is received. The factors of communication are communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, social system, and culture. In other words, the quality of the message is influenced by the personal characteristics of the sender: his/her communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, social system, and culture, beliefs and values. The receiver of the message also possesses a unique set of personal characteristics like the sender. A response or reaction occurs whenever a message is received. The receiver may react positively or negatively. That response is called feedback. Unless there is a feedback, the sender will not know that the message has been received. The use of the five channels or senses makes the message clearer. For example, if the message is sent by means of an illustration (use of the eyes), by talking (use of the ears), by feeling (use of hands), by smelling (use of nose), and by tasting (use of the mouth) –the message will be received more clearly than if the sender used only one channel. The exchange of feelings and attitudes in the communication process is known as interpersonal communication. Valuable interpersonal communication tales place when the message creates positive attitudes and feelings for both the sender and the receiver. Feedback is valuable, for it lets the sender know whether the message has been correctly interpreted and how the receiver reacts to the message. As the communication process continues, it becomes a communication cycle. The sender’s message results in a response. That response takes the form of a message to the original sender who then becomes a receiver. The cycle repeats itself.


Figure 4.3 Communication cycle

Example: The sender says, “Your transcript is wrong”. The receiver sees this message subjectively, as an insult, so he says defensively, “You always criticize my work.” But if the message is received substantively, the receiver will say, Okay, I will improve it.” Importance of Communication Communication is the lifeblood of an organization. Management acquires information for decision making and control through communication. Managers spend as much as 95% of their time in interpersonal communication. Effective interpersonal communication helps satisfy the psychological needs, motives or feelings of individuals within the organization. Good interpersonal communication requires empathy (putting oneself in another’s shoes to understand the other’s point of view) and concern for others. Lack of positive interpersonal communication skills will hinder the efficient and effective accomplishment of the goals of the organization. Effective communication is more than simply speaking and writing well. It means choosing the words carefully and knowing when to talk and when it is better to remain silent. The Flow of Communication Process In the office, messages can flow upward, downward, or laterally within the organization. They may be exchanged between individuals, between and among groups, or between an individual and a group/s. Communication networks or channels are developed and facilitate the flow of messages. In the organizational structure, communication may flow from the Board of Directors down to the support staff. Usually, however, communication flows upward from the support staff, through middle management to top management, and not directly to the top. Besides formal communication networks, every organization develops an informal communication channel known as the grapevine. It may be positive when the real and true feelings and attitudes of a group are communicated, which for one reason or another was not communicated in the official channels. Getting such information into proper hands can


be the task of the executive assistant. Grapevine information reduced to gossip and hearsay has little value in an organization. Barriers in the Communication Process Communication breakdown can be caused by physical and environmental conditions –noisy room, hot weather, weak voice, uncomfortable chairs, large room, etc. For the most part, barriers are psychological in nature. Each person interprets messages from a frame of reference or perspective learned from his or her total life experiences. Different interpretations can be given in the message because the sender and the receiver operate from different frames of reference. Words mean different things to different people. Emotions can get in the way of effective communication. The sender’s intentions are private and exist only in his or her mind. These intentions are not always made clear, especially if they concern feelings of liking or disliking –hence miscommunication takes place. Oftentimes, you are so busy with what you are doing that when someone approaches you to talk to you, you are not able to detach yourself from the task to listen effectively. When this happens, not only do you fail to receive the messages the sender intends, but you also may communicate a feeling of not caring. This causes the sender to have negative feelings and make future communication even more difficult. Emotional involvement can also cause miscommunication. Consequently, you may miss entirely the meaning of the other person’s message in your haste to get your point across. A distortion of the communication occurs when you tend to cover up your inadequacies to ensure positive reaction from your superior rather than communicate your real concern. Lack of trust also causes a decrease in the amount of information shared and increase in suspiciousness regarding the validity of information. Although you have experienced all these barriers at one time or another, there are things you can do to overcome these barriers. Active listening on the part of the receiver is very important in overcoming these barriers. Verbal Communication Communicating with words, is one method of exchanging ideas, information, thoughts, and feelings. A good vocabulary is an asset to the office worker who must communicate verbally. He or she must use a vocabulary that the receiver will understand. The level of difficulty of the language used by the sender of a message must be geared to the language level of the receiver. The use of slang, incorrect grammar, or profanity detracts from the professional image of the office worker. Technical vocabulary should only be used with those who understand the same technical vocabulary. Words spoken, whether they be formal or informal communication, should be sincere, and the voice friendly. Voice quality is important. Speaking can be made effective in several ways:


a. Vary the pitch of your voice. Speaking in a monotone, usually the result of habit, bores the listener. b. Pace the speed of your speech. Hard-to-understand messages should be delivered slowly, but do not speak too slowly or it gets boring. Speaking too fast may cause the listener to miss the message. c. Eliminate such expression as “okay”, “you know”, “uh,uh”, or in Filipino, “bali” d. Speak loudly enough to be heard by the person you are speaking to, but not too loud to distract others who are not concerned. e. Correct serious speech defects by seeking professional speech therapy. f. Analyze your pitch, tone, pace, and speed by using a tape recorder. g. Improve grammar and other language-skills by enrolling in an English Grammar or Business English Course. Listening Listening is not the same as hearing. People usually hear the entire message, but too often its meaning is lost or distorted. Listening is an intellectual and emotional process in which one integrates physical, emotional, inputs in search of meaning. In order to be good listeners, we should be objective. Active listening requires a conscious attempt to understand the speaker without letting personal opinions influence the content of the speaker’s message. We should concentrate on what the speaker wants to communicate and not what we want to hear. The normal listener is likely to understand only 50% of a conversation. This drops to 25% after 48 hours. This means that recall from memory of a particular conversation which took place more than a couple of days before will always be incomplete and usually inaccurate. Listening to employees is one of the most valuable and effective tools for helping employees feel understood and accepted. It helps to accurately determine the employee’s problems and goals and to understand how the employees really feel about them. Poor Listening Habits Below are some poor listening habits. Study them and begin a program of improvement in the art of listening. a. b. c. Doing all the talking –do not monopolize the conversation by doing all the talking. Do not tell people what their problems are and how to solve them. Interrupting –saying “I know what you mean” before the other person finishes speaking is another listening problem. Avoiding eye contact –although people listen with their ears, they judge whether the receiver is listening by looking at his her eyes. Maintain eye contact.



e. f.

Showing boredom –do not play with a pencil, fix your hair, doodle, shuffle papers, wipe your glasses, or play with some objects while the other person is speaking. Acting rushed or looking at your watch are also signs of boredom. Allowing telephone interruptions –do not make incoming or outgoing telephone calls while someone is speaking. It makes the other person feel unimportant. Being easily distracted –looking out at the window to see if anything is more interesting or being distracted by external noise, passersby, or overhearing another conversation.

Active Listening The active listener is skilled at sensing, attending, and responding. Sensing is the ability to recognize the silent messages (vocal intonation, body language, facial expressions.) that the speaker is sending, Attending refers to the verbal, vocal, and visual messages that the active listener sends to the speaker (eye contact, body language, head nods and facial expressions). Responding refers to the active listener’s giving feedback on the accuracy of the message and feelings, keeping the speaker talking, gathering more information, making the speaker feel understood, and getting the speaker to better understand the problems being discussed. Active listening takes great concentration and attention. Body Language People communicate not only with words but also with their movements. The messages people give with their facial expressions, gestures, and posture are called body language, or nonverbal communication. Paying attention to a speaker’s body language when you listen can improve your understanding of what the speaker is telling you. When you are talking, you listener’s body language may help you to judge how they feel about what you are saying. Reading Your reading skills will be valuable to your work. There will be many occasions when you must read information quickly in order to respond to an inquiry or to determine what you should do. Reading is the process of translating printed information into useful mental impressions. What you have read becomes part of your memory and is available to you as you think and act. An adequate reading skill means that you: a. read naturally – concentrate on the meaning of what you are reading, not on the process of moving your eyes from word to word. b. Read with understanding and reasonable speed –you need to understand in order to use the information, ex. Instruction on how to operate the fax


machine. You need to read within a reasonable amount of time. A speed reading course is recommended. c. Read with few pauses because of unfamiliar words –a good command of an extensive vocabulary is helpful To improve your reading skill, you must: a. read newspapers and magazines pertaining to your business b. Maintain files and scrapbooks of newspaper and magazine clippings pertaining to your company’s business. c. Set aside a particular time each day to read job-related material. d. Interpret and condense large quantities of information going thru your desk. Writing As an office worker, you will be helping to create many kinds of documents, including letters, memos, reports. Good writing can make you more productive and increase your opportunities for advancement. Some qualities of business writing are: a. Completeness Your message must contain all the information the reader needs in order to understand it and to respond to it. b. Clearness Use plain, familiar words. Do not use long words when you can use short ones. The reader has to understand the words you use. c. Correctness Observe the rules of grammar, spelling, and punctuation. A document with misspelled words and other mistakes can give the impression that you and your company are careless d. Conciseness Go straight to the point. State what you want to communicate in as few words as possible. e. Courteousness Say “please”, “I appreciate”, and “thank you” somewhere in your message. Use the pronoun “you” to emphasize the reader’s point of view. Example, “You are invited” instead of “I am inviting you”. f. Consideration Put yourself in the other person’s shoes. Imagine yourself reading what you have written. Will it give a positive response?


g. Action Use the active voice as against the passive voice. Ex. “The computer ordered by you will be sent…” The better way: “We will ship your computer by November 15” h. Organization Present your information in an order that the reader can follow easily. Prepare an outline before writing so that all points will be covered. End of Chapter Questions 1. What is the communication process? What are its segments and factors? Give examples. 2. Explain the importance of feedback and give examples in various situation –home, school, among friends, etc. 3. What is meant by substantive and subjective meanings in communication? Give examples. 4. Explain the importance of communication at home, at school, in your dealings with your friends? 5. Explain the flow of communication. 6. Enumerate and give examples of barriers to communication. 7. Give examples of verbal communication. How will you improve you verbal communication skills? 8. How will you improve your listening habits? 9. Enumerate ways you can have better reading skills. 10. Enumerate pointers for better writing skills.


Lesson 5: Working Efficiently and Effectively
Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define effective and efficient work habits. Define ergonomics and explain its role in the office. Define workstation and how to arrange your desk. Define time management and explains its importance. Explain the purpose and use of a time-use log. Explain the concept of productivity and planning. Explain the use of “to-do” list.


means utilizing the best way of accomplishing a task.

Effective means making the best use of time in accomplishing a task. Time and motion studies were done on


offices in the 60s to find the most effective and efficient ways of doing work. These studies resulted in ergonomics or the study of all office equipment and environmental factors that contribute to worker productivity and job satisfaction

Organizing your Desk. An unorganized work area may appear humorous, but it is one of the greatest time wasters in the office and causes low productivity. The office desk gives an employer a quick impression of how the employee approaches his or her work. If it is cluttered, the employer will conclude that the employee is unorganized and unable to complete assignments. Productivity and efficiency improve tremendously in an organized workstation. It provides the physical space for you to do your job. The workstation (desk) should be 36

arranged so that the materials and supplies can be organized for ease of location. Many offices today are using modular furniture which is designed for flexibility. Below is a typical executive/assistants desk. It is usually L-shaped. The top of the desk should have the following items. 1. Calendar – day to day calendar; office assignment calendar. 2. A three tier metal tray for incoming mail, outgoing mail, and “for file” 3. Reference manuals such as dictionary, thesaurus, and office procedure manuals. 4. A telephone directory or rolodex of frequently used telephone numbers. 5. A telephone 6. Disk file or diskettes Figure 5.1 A workstation layout


Figure 5.2 Workstation Environment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Adequate Lighting Adequate contrast - no glare or distracting reflections Distracting noise decreased to a minimum Leg room and clearances to allow postural changes Window covering Appropriate software Screen: stable image, adjustable, readable, glare/reflection free Keyboard: usable, adjustable, detachable, legible Work surface: allow flexible arrangements, spacious, glare free Work chair: Adjustable Footrest

In the center drawe should be supplies like paper clips, pens and pencils, stapler, scissors, etc. Letterheads, envelopes, folders, carbon paper, onionskin, and other stationery items are kept in the top right hand or left hand drawer. Work in progress is kept in the second drawer. This work should be divided into three piles: (a) Rush – (a-priority) work to be completed as soon as possible (b) Regular – (B priority) work to be completed after the rush items are done, and (c) (C-priority) work to be complted later. In the topic on time management, you will learn how to categorize these priorities. The bottom drawer is for personal items –extra references like your typing book, umbrella, handbag, extra things for emergencies –first aid or earthquake supplies.

Time Management Books and more reading materials have been written on time management. The proper management of time can be the most efficient way to accomplish office tasks. It can be defined as the process of planning your activities to gain better control over your time. How many times have we heard the statement, “But I don’t have time!” or “Where did time fly?”. If only there were 36 hours a day; but we only have 24 hours, right?


The first step is to analyze the use of your time now. Below is an example of a TimeUse Log. For a week, list down each day on a sheet similar to the one shwon below, all the activities you perform in your office. You may do it every 15 minutes or every 30 minutes. For each activity, ask yourself if that activity contributes to the satisfactory completion of your job requirements. This log is important, not only for improving your time use but also for showing your executive what are the things you do so that when someone says, “She is not doing anything,” you have a document to prove that you are busy all day. Figure 5.3 Time log


Figure 5.3a Time Log Mon 8:00 a.m. 8:30 a.m. 9:00 a.m. 9:30 a.m. 10:00 a.m. 10:30 a.m. 11:00 a.m. 11:30 a.m. 12:00 a.m. 12:30 a.m. 1:00 p.m. 1:30 p.m. 2:00 p.m. 2:30 p.m. Tues Wed Thurs Fri

Log all activities –telephone calls made or received, meetings, discussions with coworkers, filing, editing, and so forth. Study your time wasters. You will be able to spot problem areas and trends quickly. Be alert to the following: 1. During what time of the day was I most productive? When was I least productive? Why? 2. How did I lose (or waste) my time? Was it because of unnecessary interruptions, visitors/socializing, crises, telephone? Who and what was involved in each case? Time wasters and interruptions come from many sources. a. personal telephone calls b. drop-in visitors from both inside and outside the office c. chatting in the restroom, photocopy room, etc. d. Failure to plan, to set objectives, and to prioritize e. Improper or incomplete directions and/or information.


Increasing productivity You will work more efficiently and productively if you plan activities ahead of time. A plan will enable you to carry out your tasks in the order that makes the most of your time and effort. Planning requires four steps: 1. Listing your tasks -After you have entered what you do daily on your time log, list down the main tasks that you do in order to reach your goals. What are your duties according to your job description and what are the tasks needed to accomplish them? 2. Establish priorities - A-priority tasks are those that you must finish today. Ask yourself the question: “What will happen to me if this is not done now?” if the answer is “I’m dead!”, then do them first. - B-priority are tasks that can wait for tomorrow or even the day after. They are needed, but not immediately. - C-priority are tasks that do not need to be done tomorrow or even next month. Gather these in one drawer for the time being and if you have not touched them or they are not needed after a month, throw them away. These priorities may change. What was B-priority yesterday can be A-priority today; what was C-priority yesterday could be B-priority today, and so on. 3. Schedule your work - Decide the order in which you should do these tasks. Using your priority choices, arrange a loose, flexible schedule. a. b. c. d. e. Establish a work pattern. Is work getting out of time? Evaluate how long it takes to complete projects Locate time wasters and establish solutions to stop them. Establish office aids and files that will help work flow more smoothly. Evaluate personal office productivity performance level.

4. Avoid procrastination - this is a bad Filipino habit. It is called the “mañana habit” –putting off for tomorrow what you can do today. Putting off a task repeatedly can be disastrous. Putting off filing can be very stressful when files pile up. You can save yourself a day of anxiety if you stop putting off doing things.


Work Simplification This is the process of improving procedures that you use to get your work done. It involves streamlining some steps and eliminating others. Here are four suggestions: 1. Group and complete similar tasks together. Example, if you are making photocopies, make them all at once rather than making several trips to the copier. If you make several phone calls, make them in sequence. Reserve a time for all outgoing calls. 2. Be alert to combining tasks. Example, if you are going to the mailroom to deliver outgoing mail and you are picking up your office supplies in an adjoining room, after delivering the mail, pick up your supplies. 3. List the procedures you do in completing a large task. Example: if you are doing bulk mailing, put stamps at one time, attach all labels, and seal them all simultaneously using a wet sponge. Be alert to the sequence of these tasks, so you use the most logical and efficient way. 4. Determine how to best organize and arrange the equipment and supplies you need to complete a task for smoother work flow. Schedules Office workers keep schedules. Long-term, such as, annual, semi-annual, or quarterly schedules including budget preparation, meetings, inventories, or tax reports. Weekly schedules will help you set aside blocks of time for tasks as they become due. When you finish work for each day, prepare a schedule for the next day. You can schedule any work you did not accomplish today as well as other tasks which may come suddenly, like a phone call asking for meeting at 2:30 p.m. A look at your calendar will tell you immediately if that is possible. Remember to be flexible. Calendar entries should be neat. Use pencil, in case you have to change. You may also make your calendar entries on your computer. Your boss’ schedule can also be on the same calendar so that you can see at one glance how you can adjust you schedule to her or her schedule. Maximize the use of your computer. Pocket calendars are useful to carry around in your bag of briefcase for easy reference. See figure 5.4


Figure 5.4 An office assistant who maintains an electronic calendar providews an executive with a printout of the day’s schedule.

Figure 5.5 This medical assistant uses a computer to maintain a listing of appointments.


Tickler Files This is a system for reminding you on a daily basis what you have to do for that day. It is a file folder, numbered 1-31, one for each of the month. In each pocket, put the necessary correspondence or memo that you may need for that particular project or meeting for each day.

Appointments Business appointments are usually made by telephone. To make sure that the appointment is made properly. 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify yourself or your manager and your company. Say why you want the appointment. Indicate how much of the other person’s time you need Have your calendar in front of you so you can propose a time or respond to the other person’s request for time. 5. Write down the details of the appointment—date, time, location, purpose, and other person’s request for time 6. Repeat all this information to the person you called, to make sure it is correct. 7. Tell the other person how to get in touch with you if the appointment must be changed.

If you are the one receiving a request for an appointment, check you boss’ calendar before committing him. Make sure you have the authority to confirm a date and time when the boss’ calendar shows that he is available. Write everything and make sure that you have entered the appointment on your boss’ calendar as well.


Swiss Cheese Method For a big project, break it into smaller parts with individual deadlines. Set target dates for each task until the whole project is completed. Ex. To prepare for a big conference on June 10, the small tasks of the projects could be (1) make meeting room reservations – deadline – May 10; send notices of meeting – deadline – May 15; confirm menus – deadline – May 30; Confirm attendance at meeting – deadline – June 5. By the date of the meeting on June 10, you will have completed all the similar tasks involved. This is called the Swiss Cheese Method. Messages If you work in an office where take messages for more than one principal or executive, have as many little trays as persons you are taking messages for. Label these trays with their names, place their messages in their trays, and when they pass you desk, they can pick up their messages from their trays. You can use hooks and tack in their messages to their corresponding hooks beside your desk or in front of your desk. If their messages are important, you can give them personally. It is not efficient to stand and deliver the messages to each one as you get them personally. Mail Sort mail. If you work for several executives, first sort them by addressee. Then sort them accordingly to importance. Telegrams and faxes first, then client letters, then internal memos, next bills, and lastly personal mail including magazines. Put the mail in individual folders, labeled with their names, with the rush or important mail on top and the others under the other in the order as mentioned above. You may have mail pickup stations in front of your desk or put the mail on the corresponding executives’ desk, if time permits. If you work for only one executive, you may pull out the files corresponding to each letter, for easy reference. You may also make notations on the margins of the incoming mail if you know the answer that the boss could give in his reply. To do Lists Almost everyone has a to-do list. Available in the market today are books called “organizers”. Inside are calendars are appointment schedules, list of names, addresses, and phone numbers, and daily to-do lists. Everyone who has used these to-do lists know they work. You can save time and energy by writing down the things you have to remember to do. You can make you own to-do list in the evening or early in the morning, or both. Be sure to indicate the priority (A, B, or C). Do the A’s first and carefully question the necessity of the C’s.


Chronological files. This file contains an up-to-date record of work that has been completed. Currently completed work is filed on the top. Copies of memos, reports, and other correspondence are filed in the chronological file, to be referred to when needed. Only copies of correspondence, and not originals, should be filed in this reading file. The purpose of this file is easy to access current work without having to go to the filing cabinet. This can be sorted and thrown away each month. Office Safety and Health. Many business firms have safety programs. Fire drills and earthquake drill are held periodically, perhaps once or twice a year. Also negative effects of modern technology, such as cancer-causing emissions of computer CRT monitors have been discovered. Eye, neck, shoulder, and back strain, and stress have been known to be by-products of today’s electronic office. Research has shown that most of these are very minor. Equipment and furniture manufacturers are modifying conventional designs to accommodate the new technologies and ergonomic needs of the worker.


The following checklist can be used to rate an office’s safety: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Are all desks and file drawers tightly closed? Are all pencils kept in a drawer or a pencil holder? Are electrical outlets out of the general pathway? Are all wall sockets properly secured? Are all computers and typewriters turned off at the end of the day? If smokers are in the office, are proper ashtrays available and kept out of the way of desk of papers and trash cans? Are workers careful with coffeepots and other electrical items? Do all employees know where the fire exits are and the safety procedures to follow in case of fire? Are fire drills held regularly in the company? Is the furniture in the office “fireproof”?

A “yes”, to these questions, will give you a high “safety quotient”.


Student Activities 1. Talk to your family members, relatives, or friends who are working. With a checklist of time management and work planning techniques that you have learned in this chapter, ask them which technique they are using. If they have found some to be effective, which ones? If they have other techniques which they use and are not on your list, ask them what they are and have them explain each one. Report your findings to the class. 2. If you were the executive assistant/secretary in the office, decide which your priorities are in the cases below and how you would go about your day’s work. You cam to work today, and you find following instructions on your desk: (1) Confirm my meeting with Mr. Reyes in Davao for next week, June 15, at 9:00 a.m. Also reserve the Davao Insular Hotel, Meeting Room 1. (2) Finish the report we started yesterday. I have to edit it today. (3) Order flowers from the Flower Shop for my wife. It is her birthday tomorrow, June 8. (4) Call the travel Agency. Reserve a flight to Davao for Friday, June 14. Also reserve a room at Davao Insular Hotel. Number each task 1 to 4 –1 representing the first task and 4 representing the last task you will do. If it involves telephone conversations, write your conversation with the other person.


Lesson 6: Telephone Systems and Techniques
Objectives: 1. Enumerate and describe some of the features of today’s telephone equipment. 2. Enumerate some pointers for receiving telephone calls. 3. Enumerate some pointers for placing telephone calls. 4. Enumerate some pointers on placing local long distance calls. 5. Enumerate some pointers on placing international long distance calls. 6. Differentiate between station-to-station and person-to-person calls. 7. Define conference call. 8. Enumerate pointers for telephone listening techniques. 9. Enumerate pointers for managing difficult callers 10. Give reasons why personal calls are not efficient.

Telephone Technology You should be acquainted with the variety of desk phone equipment available so that you may use it effectively and/or choose which best accomplishes your office needs. 1. Dial telephone – the conventional type called the “rotary” telephone is a 10-hole dial telephone which is now being replaced by the touch-tone telephone being installed for all new telephone subscribers by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company.


2. Touch-tone phone is a 12-button keyboard arrangement. It includes 10 number buttons plus some special buttons that activate automatic electronic feature, making it possible to place a call in half the time it takes to dial a rotary-type phone.

Cellular Telephone The cellular telephone is getting more popular not only businessmen but also among many families. You can place a call form one part of the country to another, depending on the cellular’s capacity and franchise. You can carry it with you or leave the unit in your car, and by dialing a code number and the 7-digit number you can reach any number at anytime.


Keyphone Phone System

Similar to the touch-dial telephone for the house but having many more features is the Keyphone System for business use. It has a speaker or hands-free feature, background music, call back, call pick-up, call transfer, call forwarding, conference call, and headset compatibility.

Receiving a Call. 1. Be prepared to answer. Make sure pencils, pens, message pads, and calendar are on hand before picking up the telephone. Be mentally prepared to handle the call and block out all distractions in your environment so that you can concentrate on your call. 2. Answer promptly. Answer on the second ring. When a customer is calling, quick service helps build a reputation of efficiency for you and your company. Answer with a smile. 3. Identify yourself. If you are the switchboard operator: “Good morning (or afternoon), ABC company, may I direct your call.” If you are answering for Mr. Santos: “Good morning, Mr. Santos’ office, may I help you?” If you have your own line: “ Good morning, Mari Cruz Speaking, may I help you?” 4. Get the person’s name at the other end of the line, write it down and use it in conversation. Example: “Mr. Reyes, Mr. Santos will be with you in a moment.” This shows courtesy and respect for your customer or caller. It communicates a businesslike manner. Us first name, only if given permission. 5. If you have “hold” button, use it properly. This is done, when you have to make the caller wait for just a moment. Do not cove the mouthpiece with your hand and shout. The earpiece picks up the sound. Use the “hold” button and lay the handset down gently on a soft surface. Before leaving the line, ask the caller’s permission by saying. “could you hold a moment please?” Be sure you wait for a reply, he or she may say “no”. Every 30 seconds give a progress report by saying, “Mr. Reyes, I am still checking for you. Would you care to hold or can we call you back?” When you return on the line, say “Mr. Reyes, thank you for holding.” 6. Manage call interruptions when you have simultaneous calls. Excuse yourself from the first call. Provide an explanation. “Will you please excuse me for a moment? I have another call coming in.” Put the customer on hold and answer the second call the same way you answered the first call. Say, “I’m on another call. Would you be willing to hold or may I call you back?” Return to your original call and say, Thank you for waiting.” 51

7. Transfer calls only when necessary, such as when you are unable to help the caller. Explain why the transfer is necessary and to whom he or she is being transferred. “Mr. Reyes, Mrs. Roxas handles our insurance claims. May I transfer you or can I ask her to call you? May I have your name and number please?” 8. Complete calls courteously. Say, “Thank you for calling, Mr. Reyes. Goodbye.” This leaves the caller with a favorable impression of your company. 9. Make the customer feel important. It is up to you to prove your interest in the caller’s concerns and needs. You must give each caller the impression that they are your most important call. Placing a call. 1. Plan your call in advance. Know whom you want to call, what you want to accomplish and what you want to say. Rather than relying on your memory, develop the habit of preparing a call agenda that summarizes your message and the questions you need answered. Keep a journal notebook, or binder close at hand to help you organize your calls before placing them and to make notes during the conversation. Jot down the pertinent information discussed on the call, questions that need answering before the call is completed and any commitments that were made. This will eliminate misunderstandings and wasted time later and will enhance your professional image. 2. Time your call carefully. Place your call when the party is most likely to be available. If you do not know when is the best time to reach someone, either ask the person when a call would be convenient or ask someone in their organization who might know when the person is available for telephone calls. Ask, “Would it be more convenient for me to call you back today between 3 and 4?” Keep in mint time differences when placing long distance calls. 3. Be sure of the telephone number. Save yourself some time and avoid wrong numbers by using a personal telephone list for those frequently called numbers (a rolodex is a must). Wrong numbers annoy the party called and cause needless delays and cost money. 4. Do not expect others to recognize you by your voice. Identify yourself and your company. “This is Aida Cruz. I am calling for Mr. Santos of ABC Company. Is Mr. Reyes available? 5. Leave complete messages. You can save yourself and the person you are calling, time and irritation, by leaving complete messages. Provide your name, the name of your company and your telephone number. When you give your telephone number, pause after each group of numbers so that the person taking the messages has time to write it down accurately. “My telephone number is 833 (pause) 4904” Give the reason you want the person to call you back. If you let people know the purpose of your call, they will be prepared to assist you when they do call you back. “Please ask Mr. Reyes to confirm his meeting with Mr. Santos in Davao on June 15. The best time to call us back is between 9 and 10 in the morning or 3 and 5 in the afternoon. Thank you.”


If you are placing a call for Mr. Santos and Mr. Reyes is available, say, “Mr. Reyes, Mr. Santos of ABC Company would like to speak with you. “Confirming of appointments are usually handled by the executive assistants/secretaries and you do not need the executives to talk you. You can leave the message with the secretary. Placing Domestic calls. Using DDD budget calls for domestic calls, the following steps are needed: (1) dial the access code: 0 (for all cities), (2) dial the area code: example (32 for Cebu) , (3) dial the telephone number you wish to call. If you need to go through an operator, for domestic calls, dial 109. When the operator answers, say you would like to call station-to-station if you wish to talk to anyone who answers or person-to-person if you talk to a particular person or extension. Rates are higher for person-to-person than station-to-station. You can call “collect” if the person or firm your are calling agrees to pay the charge. Please inform the operator at once if it is collect call. Timing starts when the conversation begins. For making call overseas, through an operator, dial 108. Tell the operator you wish to make an international call and give the number of the country you are calling and the telephone number. Rates are also lower for station-to-station calls.

Conference Call You can talk with several persons in different places at the same time. Tell the “operator” you wish to make a “Conference” call. This call saves travel cost among executives needing to talk to each other in different parts of the city, country, or world. Placing Long Distance Calls If you wish to call the United States, using the DDD budget calls, (1) dial the International access code: 00; (2) dial the country code: 1; (3) dial the area or city code (213-Los Angeles); (4) dial the telephone number you wish to call: Example: 828-3227.


Learning to Listen One of the most important telephone skills is how to listen. Most of us listen with half an ear. Our attention span is short. Our mind wanders. We are so preoccupied with our own thoughts and what we want to say that we often interrupt the other person in mid-sentence. 1. 2. When the customer starts talking, you stop. Even if the caller has interrupted you, concentrate on what he or she is saying. Never interrupt the caller. Even if what the caller is saying may seem wrong or irrelevant, her him out. Practice keeping your personal feelings, worries and problems from interfering with listening to the customer. Caller concerns and needs are important. Keep the caller’s point of view. Take notes. Jot down the idea of what the caller is saying, not the actual words. This will help you remember the things he or she has said. Listen for overtones. Read between the lines. If you are really paying attention, you can learn a great deal about the customer from the way he or she says things, and the way he or she reacts to the things you say. Limit your own talking. Remember, you cannot talk and listen at the same time. The more comfortable you are with the subject, the greater the temptation to talk. Ask questions if there are points you missed.

3. 4. 5.

How to Manage a Difficult Caller People who are not happy with the way you answered the telephone will tell others how poorly your business is run. Negative word-of-mouth advertising can destroy a business quickly. The customer’s emotions are directed at your company, not to you. Remember this at all times and remain calm. Keep your voice at the same tone and level you always use with every caller. Follow the following steps: 1. Do not let yourself be angry or defensive. When you lose control, you lose…period! 2. Listen carefully to the caller’s message. Never interrupt. 3. Let the customer exhaust his/her emotions. Most customers will not continue for more than thirty seconds. 4. Wait for pause. 5. Apologize and do not blame anyone. Give the assurance that you will help. “Mrs. Sison, I’m sorry you’re inconvenienced. My name is Maria Cuneta, I’m glad you called about this. Let me help you.” 6. Confirm your understanding. Repeat the problem. Use the caller’s name if possible. “Let me make sure I understand what happened, Mrs. Sison…” 7. Think of how you would feel in the same situation. “So that I can help you quickly, may I ask you a few question?” 8. Focus on a solution and give your customer options if possible. Obtain his/her agreement with your solution. “What I can do, Mrs. Sison, is have the bed


delivered first thing tomorrow morning. The table can be delivered the next day. Is that all right with you?” 9. If you cannot solve the problem on the phone, let the customer know what you are going to do and give a timeframe for you callback. Obtain customer agreement. “I will look into the matter and call back within the hour. Is this okay with you?” 10. Thank the customer for calling and allowing you to resolve the problem. “Thank you for calling and allowing me to help you. Again, let me offer my apologies for the convenience.” 11. Make a follow-up telephone call. “Mrs. Sison, I am calling about the delivery of the furniture. Is everything to your satisfaction?”

Answering Calls for others who are away from their telephones. Sometimes the telephone rings for the executive or a co-worker who is in a meeting or away from his or her desk. The following steps are recommended: 1. Explain executive’s or co-worker’s absence. It is up to you to create a good image of the person for whom you are taking the call. Be discreet. “Mr. Santos is at meeting at the moment. May I take your name and number or can someone else assist you? Screen calls tactfully – This means be aware of how you say something. “Yes, Mr. Santos is not in at the moment” or I am sorry Mr. Santos stepped away for awhile. May I have your name and number, or can someone else help you?” Say that the executive/co-worker is not in before you ask for the identity of the caller. Take accurate messages. Accurate and complete messages save time. Use telephone message forms and ask for the caller’s full name, firm name and telephone number; repeat and verify the telephone number. Ask the caller to spell jie or her name if it is unusual or you did not hear it clearly. “I want to be sure your name is correct. Would you please spell it for me?”



Ask for the specific message to save time on callback. “Is there a message you would like to leave? When is the best time Mr. Santos can call you?” Thank you fro calling, Mr. Reyes. I will give Mr. Santos your message.” And example of a message pad is found below.


MEMO OF CALL To Steve Franklin__________________ ___________ 19 ________

Ms Gail Talbot______________ Called from Coleman Perry Telephone No.: _____(212) 565-7921_______________________ I told the person You were: ____ out ____ not in today ____ not in your office ____ talking on telephone ____ in conference ____ out of town The reply was _____ No message _____ see message below _____ will call again _____ answering your call _____ please call back _____ it is urgent

Additional Remarks Contract has been received: there are couple of questions about utilities. Please call ASAP________________________________________ Message taken by __________________ Time _______________________

What your voice says about you. In face to face conversation, more than 50% of our communication is done through body language: eye contact, hand gestures, body movements and facila expressions. On the telephone, all these are lost. You have to work twice as hard to communicate. The only instrument you have is your voice. Keep the following in mind: 1. Put a smile in your voice. How you say it is what puts it across. Begin by putting a smile on your own face –literally! It makes a world of difference in coming across as lively, enthusiastic, aware and alive. Practice saying one of the phrases in the previous page without smiling. Say it again with a smile. Do you feel a difference? 2. Reduce your rate of speech. Speak slower than your natural rate of speech. It makes it easier for people to concentrate and understand what is it your saying. 3. Speak directly into the telephone. Your lips should be about half an inch from the mouthpiece. 4. Enunciate your words. Be careful with your t and d, and p, b, and f. Say S in Sam, P as in Peter, etc. Do not speak with food, gum, or pencil in your mouth.


5. Sound natural. Guard against a bored tone of voice. Memorize and practice the different phrases as given in the previous pages. Practice them with your classmates. 6. Listen to your own voice. Does it convey warmth, sincerity, confidence, interest? Record your voice. Listen to some of the newscasters on TV and radio. If you have an accent, listen to your voice on tape and improve or take speech improvement classes. Use of telephone directories There are two types of telephone directories: the white pages and the yellow pages. The white pages is an alphabetic listing of all subscribers and the yellow pages is a subject listing of businesses, agencies, and organizations that pay for the listing of their name and perhaps for an advertisement. Do not overlook the vast store of reference material in the telephone directory. Beside telephone numbers, the front pages highlight emergency numbers, dialing instructions, banks authorized to accept payments, long distance rates, how to apply for telephone service, how to understand your telephone bill, etc. Study the telephone directories when you have spare time in your office so that you’ll know where to look for the information you need when you see it. Student Activities Get a partner and act out different telephone conversations, using the phrases suggested in this chapter. Make out different situations that would use all phrases. Ex. Making appointments, the executive is in and not in, placing a call, receiving a call, answering for someone else, answering a customer who is angry, etc.


Lesson 7: Handling Visitors Effectively
Objectives: 1. Enumerate pointers for handling receptionist duties. 2. Enumerate pointers for making appointments. 3. Enumerate pointers for making records of visitors.

Pointers in Handling Receptionist Duties 1. Each visitor should be greeted promptly, no matter what the secretary is working on at the time. 2. The secretary must be courteous to everyone. It may be that the visitor can not be admitted to the employer’s office, or request he makes must be refused. Nevertheless, the secretary wants him to go away with a good impression of the company. 3. Sometimes people may come to the office by mistakes. The secretary tries to be as helpful as possible in directing them to the right place. Here again, the secretary needs to know the people in the organization and their responsibilities. 4. Although there are many callers from the outside, members of the organization will often come in. Of course, the secretary discourages co-workers from coming for just idle chatter. 5. When company personnel want to see the boss, the secretary must decide whether they should be given priority unless, of course, they have an appointment. 6. Some executives on the employer’s level and above will walk in at will, and the secretary has to try tactfully to screen them, too. 7. With regards to employees at any level, the secretary must be as pleasant as she would to outsiders. 8. In all cases, she must be especially careful, because the cold or abrupt remark may be interpreted as reflecting the boss’s attitude towards the individual. 9. The important consideration is dealing with visitors are that the executive’s time must be scheduled to the best advantage. 10. The caller must feel that he has been treated well and that his business has been taken cared of efficiently. How to Handle Expected Visitors (Those with Appointment) 1. Before a visitor arrives, the secretary tries to anticipate what the employer may need during the visit –correspondence, reports, price lists, and so forth. If these materials are gathered together and given to the boss, he or she can be prepared to talk with the visitor without losing available time. 2. If the call is one that may involve other people in the organization, they should be alerted so that they will be available at the right time. 3. IN some offices, a receptionist is the first person to greet the visitors. The secretary gives the receptionist a list of people who have appointments and the time at which they are expected. When a visitor arrives, the receptionist notifies the secretary. If the visitor is very


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

important or if he is unfamiliar with the building, the secretary goes out to meet him and escorts him to the office. If there is no receptionist, the secretary, of course, receives callers directly. Proficient secretaries should learn how to make “small” talks. They don’t have to make long conversation with the visitors, but they must be able to make people feel at ease. The office should be inviting, even if it means that the secretary personally sees to emptying ash trays and discarding outdate magazines and newspapers. The secretary, acting as host, takes a caller’s wet umbrella and offers a comfortable chair in which to wait. It would be fine if every visitor could be ushered into the executive’s office immediately on arrival. Unfortunately, delays that occur are nobody’s fault. A precious appointment may have run longer than planned, or the executive may be involved in a long-distance call. The secretary explains the situation as discreetly as possible and apologizes to the caller. While a visitor is in the office, the secretary must be careful to keep any work that is on the desk confidential. Papers can be placed in a folder if one does not want to let visitor to be able to glance at them. If a secretary must leave the desk for any reason, any material that is on the typewriter can be rolled back out of sight, or it can be covered up by inserting a plain sheet of paper under the paper bail. When the executive is ready, the secretary escorts the visitor into the boss’s office. If the caller has never met the executive, he can be introduced in this way: “MR. del Prado, this is Mr. Castro of the Equipment Company.” The visitor is usually presented to the executive. In the day’s schedule, each visitor is allotted only a certain segment of time. So it may be necessary for the secretary to help terminate a visit that is running too long. Many secretaries set up signals to use on these occasions –a buzz on the intercom, a written or oral reminder of a meeting or whatever device the employers prefer.

How To Handle Unexpected Visitor (Those without Appointment) 1. Unexpected callers make it necessary for the secretary to use extra discretion. If the executive is free and wants to se the visitor, there is no problem. After secretly conferring with her employer, the secretary can usher the person right in. 2. Sometimes problems arises with other people in the organization who feel that they should have access to the executive at any time he or she is not busy with these people. 3. Friend and family members sometime arrive unannounced. Usually, the executive will see them immediately; but there are occasions when they, too, must be asked tactfully to wait. 4. The most difficult unexpected visitor is the one who insist on seeing the executive but who will not state his name and business. The only thing the secretary can do is give him an envelope, some paper, and a pencil so he can write a message to be taken to the boss. In no case, should one unidentified and unknown visitor be admitted, for security reason. 5. If any visitor tries to offer gift or an invitation, it should be refused. However, she can accept small gifts that are obviously advertising items, such as pens or calendar.


How to Make Appointments Any executive’s day is crowded one. Mail must be taken card of, reports must be read and acted on, meetings must be scheduled and attended too, are only a few of the activities. The secretary can help the boss get through all this work by scheduling appointments judiciously. The following pointers may help: 1. As with telephone callers, the secretary must determine preferences as to who the employer wants to see. The card file of callers will help. 2. When a visitor presents his calling card, the secretary can later attach it to an index card and put it in the file, with notations about the caller. 3. An executive has time preferences, too. The secretary will soon learn that it is not wise to schedule appointments the first thing in the morning, because that time needed to organize work for the day and to take care of important mail. At the end of the day most executives like to have some free time to clear up anything they have not been able to finish during the busy day. 4. Another time that should be kept free, if possible, is the day the employer returns from an extended business trip. The executive will want to make any necessary reports, including the expense account, and do any needed follow-up on the business covered during the trip. 5. The secretary should learn to schedule appointments as best as possible learning to judge how much time to allow each person. 6. To avoid conflicts, the secretary keeps her desk calendar coordinated with the boss’s calendar. 7. Problems may occur if the executive makes appointments without telling the secretary. An executive is particularly prone to do this while out of the office attending meetings or making calls on the other business people. The secretary’s calendar can be up-dated by asking the executive of appointments he made outside the office. How to Avoid Conflicts when Preparing Appointments If the secretary is systematic in coordinating both calendars, conflicts will be kept to a minimum. Some of the steps you will want to take are: 1. Check with your employer as frequently as you think advisable to be sure you have complete records of upcoming activities because your boss may have entered items on his calendar that do not appear on you. 2. Enter all regular meetings as soon as you learn about them. 3. Indicate blocks of time you anticipate will be needed for various activities. 4. Note deadlines –tax reports, insurance payments, payment dates for membership dues, and the like. 5. Pay careful attention to incoming and outgoing correspondence that contains something that must be noted on the calendar. 6. Keep on checking dates that have not been definitely established. 7. Note personal “red-letter days” for the executive, such as birthdays and anniversaries.


How to Cancel Appointments At times, it may be necessary to cancel appointments because of emergencies that arises. 1. If there is time, the secretary can write a note to the person with whom the appointment had been made. 2. If however, there is not time, the scheduled caller should be phoned as soon as it is known that a change is necessary. 3. When canceling appointments, the secretary should suggest more than one possible time for a future appointment. A note canceling an appointment that a secretary could send might read this way:
Dear Mr. Borja:

Because Mr. Castro must make an unexpected trip next week, he will not be able to keep his appointment with you on October 31, at 2 p.m. He is eager to talk with you and regrets the inconvenience he may cause you in postponing this appointment. Would November 2 or 13 at 2 p.m. be convenient for you? If you will call me at 5558989, we can arrange a definite date and time.

Sincerely yours, JOYCE DE VERA Secretary

4. If an appointment must be cancelled with someone from out of town and he cannot be reached in time, the secretary can ask the employer for suggestions as to another person in the organization who can talk with the visitor. How to Make Records of Visitors 1. In the offices of professional people, such as doctor or lawyer, the secretary must keep a careful record of visitors and the length of each visit, because the doctor or lawyer will need this record as the basis for billing. 2. In other office, it is a matter of the executive’s preferences as to whether a register of visitors is kept.


How to Make the Visitor Feel Comfortable 1. Show the visitor where to leave his hat, coat, brief case and any other articles that he has with him. 2. Do not offer to assist a man with his wraps, because many men are embarrassed to have a secretary perform this service. 3. When the caller has to wait, ask him to have a seat, indicating a chair. If he has to wait any length of time, offer him a newspaper or magazine. 4. If the caller deserves special attention, ask him, “Os there I can do for you while you are waiting?” 5. Do not begin a conversation with a waiting visitor; but if he shows an inclination to talk, respond. 6. If the visitor asks questions about the business, reply only in generalities. Be careful not to divulge confidential information to the visitor. What to do and What to say when Handling Different Kinds of Visitors (For Role Playing) 1. The caller enters your office or your greet him in the reception room. You might say: “How do you do, Mr. Garcia. The receptionist tells me that you wish to see Mr. de Vera. I am his secretary. I wonder if you would be good wnough to tell me what you wish to see him about? Or: “Good morning, Mr. Garcia. I’m Mr. de Vera’s secretary. He is busy at the moment. Is there anything I can do for you?” Or: “Good morning. I am Mr. de Vera’s secretary. He is not in the office at present and I wonder if there is anything I can do for you?” Or: “ You are waiting to see Mr. de Vera? I am Ms. Samson, Mr. de Vera’s secretary. I wonder if I can be of any help to you?” Or: “Good morning, Mr. Garcia. I am Mr. de Vera’s secretary. What can I do for you?” 2. Caller states his business, which is of interest to your employer. You might say: “I’m sorry I cannot arrange a definite engagement right now because I do not know what additional commitments Mr. de Vera has made since I saw him, but if you will let me have your telephone number I will call you either later today or surely tomorrow morning and arrange an appointment for you. I know Mr. de Vera will be glad to see you.”


Or: You arrange a definite appointment at that time. Or: You take him to see your employer, or arrange for him to see an assistant, or handle the matter yourself, as the occasion requires. 3. Caller refuses to state business, probably saying it’s personal. You might say: “I’m sorry but I can not be able to ask Mr. de Vera to make an appointment for you unless I can tell him what you want to discuss with him. If you care to take it up first with me perhaps I can save your time by discussing it with MR. de Vera for you.” Or: “I’m sorry Mr. Garcia. But Mr. de Vera sees people only by appointment. I make all his appointments, and I have to ask you what you want. You’ll understand, I’m sure that I am not being arbitrary, merely following instructions. Or: (in a light, laughing manner): “I’m very personal secretary.’ Mr. Garcia, I’ve been with Mr. de Vera for many years now and there is little to do with his business or personal affairs that I do not know about.” Or: “I’m sorry, Mr. Garcia, but I will have to know what it is you wish to see Mr. de Vera about because the first thing he will ask me when I tell him you are here is, ‘What does the gentleman wish to take up with me?’ and if I don’t know you well, you can see that I’d have to come back and ask you once again, and it would be just a waste of your time and that of Mr. de Vera. 4. Caller still refuses to tell you why he wants to see your employer. You might say: “I’m exceedingly sorry, Mr. Garcia, that I cannot be help to you, but office rules are office rules –they are made by Mr. de Vera himself, and not by me, and Mr. de Vera expects me to honor them. So if you cannot give me even a hint as to what business you want to take up with Mr. de Vera, I’m afraid that I cannot be of help to you in seeing him. I’m very sorry indeed. Good day.” Or: “In that case, Mr. Garcia perhaps you will write Mr. de Vera a note. Just tell him briefly what you want to see him about and ask for an appointment. Then he can make his own decision. Or: “That is unfortunate, Mr. Garcia, for until I know what you wish to discuss with Mr. de Vera, I cannot very well make an appointment for you.” 5. How to announce a caller. If the caller is known to your executive and has visited the office before, you may nod to him and say something like, “Mr. de Vera is free. You can go right in” However, if it is the caller’s first visit, or he is an infrequent visitor, accompany him to the door of the executive’s office, open it if it is kept closed, step to one side and say “Mr. de Vera, Mr. Garcia.” Or “Mr. de Vera, here is Mr. Garcia.” 6. A caller with an appointment


When a caller with an appointment arrives, notify you executive immediately unless he is in a conference that cannot be interrupted. You may say to your executive over the interoffice communication system, “Mr. Garcia is here for his ten o’clock appointment. “May I bring him in?” If the caller is already in your office, near your desk, it is better to go into your executives office and tell him that the caller has arrived. When the executive is ready to receive the caller, say, “Will you come with me, Mr. Garcia.” On reaching the executive’s office, open the door, steo inside and to one side, and say, “Mr. de Vera, Mr. Garcia”. If your executive has to keep a caller with an appointment waiting, explain the delay: “MR. de Vera has someone with him at the moment, but he will be free in a few months. Will you have a seat? If the delay will last for any length of time, tell the caller the approximate time he will have to wait. He can then judge whether he wants to wait or make a later appointment. 7. When the executive is not in his office When this happens, apologize for your executive and explain the circumstances. You can say, “Good morning, Mr. Garcia. Mr. de Vera called into the palnt about ten minutes ago because of a production problem. He should be back any minute now. Do you mind waiting?” If an unexpected emergency will keep the executive out of his office for more than a few months, you might explain his absence this way: “Good morning, Mr. Garcia. I’m so sorry, but Mr. de Vera was called to the office of the Chairman of the Board a little while ago. I’m not sure when he will be back. I tried to reach you, but your secretary said you had already left. Can you wait? The visitor can then decide, whether to wait, come back later, or make another appointment, or even see someone else –the executive assistant, for instance. 8. A caller who has no appointment, but whom your executive will see. Usually, when a person your executive will see calls at your office without an appointment, you know him well enough to greet you him by name: “How are you, Mr. Garcia? It is nice to see you again.” You might inquire about his family or ask him about his vacation. Then ask him the nature of the unexpected visit, if you have the least doubt as to whether your executive wants to see him, ask your executive whether he will see the visitor.


If your executive is engaged, ask the caller to wait until he is free, telling the caller approximately how long that will be. Unless the unexpected caller is someone your executive is always eager to see, it is wise to keep him waiting a few minutes so that he will realize he should have made an appointment. You might limit the unexpected caller’s visit by saying, “Mr. de Vera has another appointment in ten minutes, but he will be glad to see you in the meantime. 9. A caller your executive does not want to see. When you know that your executive is not interested in the purpose of the visit or is too busy to see the visitor, you might say: “I wish I could be more helpful to you, Mr. Garcia, but Mr. de Vera is concerned with some emergencies and will be away for some time; and for that reason, he must limit his engagements to those matters directly connected with his business affairs. It will be some time before this situation changes and the only thing I can suggest is that you take your matter up with him in writing.” 10. A caller who is a friend of your executive When you know that your executive is not interested in the purpose of the visit or is too busy to see the caller, you might say: “I wish I could be more helpful to you, Mr. Garcia, but Mr. de Vera is concerned with some emergencies and will be away for some time; and for that reason, he must limit his engagements to those matters directly connected with his business affairs. It will be some time before this situation changes and the only thing I can suggest is that you take your matter with him in writing.” 11. A caller whom you refer to another person in the organization. When you find that the purpose of a caller’s visit involves a matter that should be taken up with another person in the organization, you might say: “I’m sorry, Mr. Garcia, but that is something that is handled for Mr. de Vera by Mr. Cruz of our Sales Department. He is more familiar with the matter than Mr. de Vera and can be more help to you. If Mr. Garcia agrees to see Mr. Cruz, as he probably will, call Mr. Cruz on the phone and explain the situation. Then say, “Mr. Cruz will be glad to see you now, Mr. Garcia. Will you go down to the fourth floor and tell the receptionist that Mr. Cruz is expecting you. He may have to keep you waiting a few minutes, but not long.” Or, if necessary, tell Mr. Garcia, “I’m very sorry, Mr. Garcia, but Mr. Cruz cannot see you this morning. He asks if you will come tomorrow at eleven o’clock.” If the caller objects because he cannot see your executive personally, tell him that the instructions are made by your executive and you have to abide by them.


12. Calls by office personnel Always treat officers and executives of the company with deference and respect, but it is not necessary to stand up every time an officer enters your office. However, you should offer him a chair if he wait, just as you would do any other caller. 13. Interrupting conferences Try to avoid interrupting a conference, but if it essential to enter a room where your executive is in conference, do so quietly and unobtrusively. Try on a slip of paper any message that must be delivered to someone in the conference room. If you want instructions, type the questions. Your executive can then handle the matter with minimum of interruption. If it is essential to announce a caller to your executive while he is occupied with another, simply take the visitors card to him or type the name on a slip of paper. When a visitor overstays for his appointment, call your executive on the telephone and notify him for another appointment. 14. Telephone calls for the visitor When there is a telephone call for a visitor, ask the person calling if it is possible for you to take the message. If so, type the message on a sheet of paper, addressing it to the visitor, and also type your name, the date, and the time at the bottom of the sheet. If the person calling insists upon speaking to the visitor, go into the conference room, and with a glance that takes in both your executive and the visitor, apologize for the interruption: “Pardon me for interrupting. Mr. Garcia (looking at the visitor), Mr. Reyes is on the phone and wishes to speak to you. Do you care to take it here?” (indicating which telephone he should use). If he says yes. The call is put through. Often however, the visitor says that he will call back, in which case you give the message to the person calling and type out the telephone number as a reminder for the visitor. If several people are in conference with your executive and you must deliver a message to one of them, type it out and take it to that visitor, just as you would to your executive. If he is wanted on the phone, also type on the card: “Do you want to take the call in my office?” The visitor can then leave the conference without disturbing the others. Student Activities 66

Group yourselves into two and role play “What to do and what to say when handling different kinds of visitors”.

Lesson 8: Business Meeting
Objectives: 1. Identify meetings, seminars, conferences, conventions, and congresses, and be able to differentiate one from the other. 2. Enumerate the steps in planning of meetings. 3. Enumerate the details included in a letter of invitation for the speaker. 4. Enumerate parts of an agenda and give example. 5. Enumerate items to be checked before a meeting. 6. Identify things to consider in the preparation and distribution of minutes of meetings. 7. Describe corporation minutes.

Planning for the Meeting. Thorough planning is the key to a successful meeting. A meeting folder should be prepared. Once a meeting is to be set up, a folder should be started for that meeting. Use this folder to collect items related to the meeting. Date and Time The chairperson of the meeting has the information on the date, time, and place of the meeting. For smaller meetings, attendees will have to approve the date and time convenient for them. It is your duty to send out notices or make telephone calls asking the participants to make choices as to the date and time. In a computerized office, you send out notices on the computer and the response can be received within 24 hours. The FAX machine can also be used for this purpose. List of Attendees. The list of persons to attend the meting can be researched by you or provided by the executive. For example, if a regional sales meeting is held, you would have to receive the names of attendees from all branches of the company. This meeting would need hotel and travel accommodations to be coordinated by all executive assistants/secretaries in all branches. Dining and social arrangements are also sometimes made. Brochures and other printed information on the venue or location of the meeting, travel, hotel, dining, and social arrangements should be provided. Location of Meeting


An informal meeting, such as a staff or committee meeting can be held in the executive’s office. Larger meetings of department heads, branch managers or an executive committee would be held in the company’s conference room. In these cases, lunch is usually served. A formal conference, like medical conference, will be held in a hotel convention center. A careful selection process should be followed: 1. Location A central location, easily accessible by all modes of transportation should be chosen. Airport hotels are popular because of their proximity in commuting and traffic time is not a factor. 2. Service Poor service, slow meals, lack of personnel, or poor attitude of employees will make for unproductive conference. The attitude and morale of attendees will be low. 3. The facilities needed are microphones, overhead projectors, multi-media equipment (in some cases), screens, comfortable tables and chairs. Sufficient and excellent room facilities should be looked into. 4. Cost Many hotels offer low corporate rates and if food is served, the use of the room is free. Guest Speaker or Speakers A letter will have to be mailed requesting the person/s to speak. The letter should contain the following information: 1. Date, time, and location of the meeting. 2. The name of the organization invited and a summary of its activities if the person is not a member. 3. The purpose of the meeting. An agenda is included if already available. 4. The company’s or organization’s policy on paying expenses and honorariums. 5. The number of participants expected to attend. 6. A request for bio data, a copy of outline of proposed speech, and a picture for publicity. 7. An offer to provide equipment needed for his speech. You will also be responsible for exhibits, special presentations, publicity and registration procedures for small meetings. For large ones, a committee is usually formed to handle all of the above.


The Agenda This is a guide or list of topics to be discussed at the meeting (example below). The topic should also include the name of the person responsible for discussing each item. You should inform this person in advance to let them know the topics they are to report on: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The agenda usually follows the format below: Approval of past minutes. Reports –departments, committees, and special reports. Old Business: Topics remaining from last meeting Topics taken from previous minutes New business –topics chairman wishes to discuss Date and time of next meeting –this is important for participants to block this date on their calendar.

Copies of the minutes of the last meeting can be attached to the agenda so that the participants can read them before the meeting. It is equally important that this agenda be distributed well in advance of the meeting date. This will contribute to a productive and efficiently run meeting.

AGENDA Homeowner’s Association 1. Call to order 2. Roll Call 3. Reading of the Minutes 4. Treasurer’s Report 5. Committee Report 6. Unfinished Business 7. New Business : : : : : : : Efren Alarcon, President Rose Katigbak, Secretary Rose Katigbak, Secretary Benilda Santos, Treasurer Safety Committee, Bessie Po Chairperson – Safety Committee Building Insurance – Bessie Po Chairperson – Safety Committee Increase in Homeowners’ Dues – Efren Alarcon, President

8. Date and Time of Next Meeting 9. Adjournment

Finalizing Meeting Arrangements You should make sure that sufficient quantities of all materials needed for the meeting are placed in the meeting room. Extra copies of the agenda and minutes of the previous meeting, copies or various reports, copy of the constitution and by-laws and pertinent 69

file information should be ready on a side table. In formal meetings, a copy of the parliamentary procedure (Robert’s Rules of Order) should be available. Election forms should be ready if it is an election meeting. The following items must be checked: 1. Ample and comfortable chairs, tables, writing supplies, ashtrays (if smoking is allowed), water pitcher, and glass. 2. Lighting, heating, and ventilation should be checked. 3. Needed equipment should be available and in working order (pre-tested). 4. Speaker’s lectern should be available. 5. Arrangements for all breaks and lunches reviewed.

Use Reminder Systems Mark your calendar and the executive’s calendar with meeting time and place, use a tickler file (discussed in a previous chapter) for all important planning dates and details. Using the Swiss cheese method break up the whole project into little pieces with dates for each task. Taking, Preparing and Distributing Minutes of the Meeting The attendance record is your responsibility. Have a seating chart on which the participants fill in their names or pass around a sheet/s of pad paper for them to write their names on. The minutes are the official record of a meeting. They provide the participants with a concise presentation of factual information about the meeting. Take notes as 70

unobtrusively as possible. Too many notes is better than too few. Use a tape recorder for a more accurate recording of the minutes of the meeting. If some details were forgotten, play the tape back and plug in your missing pieces. Take notes with understanding and follow the outline of the agenda in your presentation. Edit your notes before finalizing them for review of the executive. Every motion made and seconded, whether approved or not, must appear in the minutes. The name of the person making the motion, the complete motion, the person seconding the motion, a summary of the discussion –all must be entered in the minutes. The following rules may be followed in taking the minutes: 1. Single space or double space the minutes. For the first review, double space it, but for longer minutes, single space them. 2. Have marginal captions following the captions of your agenda for easy reading. 3. Capitalize the heading with the name of the group, Minutes of the Meeting and the date. 4. Establish that the meeting is properly called to order. 5. Give the names of the presiding officer and the secretary. 6. Transcribe your notes while still fresh in your memory. 7. Capitalize words like Board of Directors, Company, Corporation, Committee when they refer to the group. 8. Send the official minutes to the secretary of the organization or presiding officer for signatures. At the end of the minutes, type a line for recording the date of the approval. Also place “Respectfully submitted” at the end of formal minutes. 9. Do not include personal opinions, interpretations, or comments. Record only business actions. 10. Try to summarize the gist of the discussion about a motion, giving reasons presented for and against its adoption. The Corporation Minutes The minutes of corporation meetings are taken by the corporate secretary, who may also be a lawyer. Corporations are required by law to keep a book for recording the minutes of meeting of stockholders and directors. Stockholders, usually meet once a year, but directors’ meetings are held frequently. These books are legal records. The records of the corporation are kept by the secretary of the organization who is assisted by his own executive assistant/secretary. The pages of this book are carefully guarded by : (a) using pre-numbered pages, each signed and dated by the corporation secretary (b) employing pages watermarked with a code symbol or (c) using a keylock binder that can be opened only with a key. Corrections are written in and the incorrect portions ruled out in ink. These changes are initiated on the margin. The following minutes are typical of most meetings.


Conventions With the expansion of international travel and the development of communication techniques, regional and international conferences, congresses, and conventions have become standard phenomenon. In this century. Asia has 10% of the world’s international conventions and the Philippines has been a popular venue since the 80’s. Martial law has provided the proper climate for tourism, the construction and equipping of convention facilities, and the growth and development of tourism accommodations and facilities. Presidential Decree No. 867 was passed on January 2, 1976, “establishing the Philippine Convention Bureau,” among the objectives of which is “to conduct continuing program to develop Manila as a Convention City.” Until today, the PCB, now called the Philippine Convention and Visitors’ Bureau (PCVB), is actively promoting conventions and the like. Documentation There are, in any meeting, two main types of documents which have different functions. There are the information documents: programs, invitation forms, list of participants, etc., which are concerned mechanics and logistics of the meeting. Then there are the working documents. These fall into several categories: : Abstracts, summaries, reports, preprints : Verbatim (word-for-word reports), summary reports, Amendments, resolutions, recommendations After : Proceedings or Minutes –These are the only lasting record of the conference. There appear to be three stages. They are: 1. Abstracts or Summaries of Papers to be presented. Authors or contributors are asked to submit a 150-200-word summary of their proposed paper or contribution either on a specified theme or on the general subject of conference. The program committee would then select or reject the papers offered. In the medical field, papers are rarely rejected, since the participant’s hospital or university gave financial support to the conference. However, some contributions are entered by title only and the author’s name is entered on the program. These abstracts are useful fro the participants in their choice of the session they wish to attend. These abstracts are published in a book of abstracts which is given to all participants usually at the time of the conference. Translations are sometimes required. 2. Preprints and Reports The papers to be delivered by individuals, usually invited speakers only, are requested in advance, printed and circulate din the original language or translated into and printed in the official language of the conference. English is sometimes Before During


the one recognized as a world-wide means of communication, and in such cases no translation into other languages is necessary. Reports are presented by a reporter but is a group effort. These are collated and presented to the conference for discussion. These reports are circulated to all registrants several weeks/months before the conference so that they have time to read them and prepare their reactions and comments. At the time of the conference, a limited time is given to the reporter and discussion follows in the form of panel discussion. 3. Proceedings These documents have commercial value, because they are sold to persons of the profession who are unable to attend. They consist of copies of the papers presented or summaries of these papers, prepared by a reporter or a professional précis writer (summary writer). In certain cases, professional journals undertake the publication of the proceedings as part of their special issues. The cost is governed by the method of production, the number of languages used, and the scope of the content. Professionalization of Manpower for Meeting and Conventions The following is needed for successful conduct of meetings: 1. Fast, accurate, and expert text-editors, typists, computer-operators 2. Précis writers or summary writers who are very good in English 3. Stenographers competent in the language who can transcribe the notes from the floor and from tapes accurately. 4. Secretaries or executive assistants knowledgeable in reproduction techniques, who will decide which method would be the most efficient and effective for a particular situation. Convention staff is mostly “ad hoc” or only good for a particular convention, except those who are in the permanent staff or international organizations. An association of convention specialists is recommended. Student Activities Define and/or explain the following in your own words. a. b. c. d. e. Meeting Seminar Convention Congress Minutes f. agenda g. verbatim h. précis i. abstracts j. convention staff


Lesson 9: Making Travel Arrangements
Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify sources for making travel plans Prepare travel procedures for an executive assistant or secretary. Explain air travel requirements. Explain the term “itinerary” and what it includes Enumerate and explain travel documents required. Define credit cards. Define traveler’s checks

One of your interesting and yet most exacting tasks as a secretary will be to make travel arrangements for your boss’s business trip. You should, therefore, know the procedures to be followed when making travel arrangements. There are 3 ways by which travel can be arranged: 1. By the travel department of your company. 2. By the use of travel services or travel agency. 3. By the secretary herself. If you will be the one assigned to make travel arrangements for your boss, remember the following procedures: Your responsibility before the trip—when your boss tells you that he is planning a trip get the necessary information like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. dates times individuals to be visited companies to be visited travel fund (money needed to finance his trip) preferences as to hotel mode of transportation important business and documents to be needed who will take over during his absence (if there is any)

Airline Reservations Two-classes of Air Services: 1. First Class –the traveler is seated in front of the plane and received special meals and free drinks


2. Economy or Coach –passengers may also receive free meals or snacks but they are not as elaborate those served in the first class. This kind of service is scheduled not normally meal times. Steps to be followed when making airlines reservation 1. Call the reservation listed in the directory. 2. Write down the reservation date and time you call and the name of the clerk handling the reservation. 3. Supply the necessary information to the reservation clerk. 4. After supplying the necessary information, the reservation may be confirmed. Confirmation or Reservation – is a rapid process since airlines use on-line computers to check seat availability. If there is no space available, your employer’s name can be placed on a waiting list. 5. Tickets may be picked up at the airport just before flight time. Therefore, your employer should arrive at the airport at least 30 minutes before departure. 6. Tickets may be paid by: a. airline credit card which is usually issued in the company’s name. b. check mailed to the airline company c. cash upon receipt of tickets Making Hotel Reservations Hotels reservations can be made by means of the following procedures: 1. Send a telegram to the hotel or motel 2. Write a letter to the hotel or motel 3. Telephone the hotel or motel if the time is limited In making hotel reservations, you should specify the following information: 1. Kind of accommodation, whether single or double, or suite room. 2. Approximate rate 3. Number of persons registering 4. Date and approximate time of arrival 5. Length of time room is needed 6. You should also request a written confirmation

Preparing an Itinerary Itinerary defined a summary of all arrangements for a trip, whether domestic or overseas, so that the person traveling will know exactly where to go and what to do.



It is also called the detailed outline of a trip, which is used as a guide by the traveler.

Itineraries vary in form, nut the basic information consists of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. cities or states or provinces to be visited. flight time flight numbers dates hotel reservations appointments important reminders special information contained in the brief case

Checklist for the trip: Immediately before the trip, the secretary makes sure that these responsibilities have been carried out 1. If the trip will involve several days, notify associates and other company personnel who may need to see your boss before he or she leaves. 2. Determine who is to make decisions during the executive’s absence 3. Check the calendar to find out what is to be done about meetings and other activities until the boss returns 4. Ask whether there are nay personal matters, such as paycheck, that the executive wants taken care of. 5. Ask whether special mail should be forwarded. 6. Make a list of files the executive will take on the trip. (When possible only photocopies should be taken). 7. Prepare a list of credit card numbers and traveler’s check numbers to have on file in case of loss. It would be advisable to take and have an extra copy of these numbers for the executive to take along. Interior Office Operations (What to do during the absence of the boss) A comment that executives frequently make when discussion of a secretary’s value in their office is that they appreciate the secretary’s ability to keep the office running during their absence. This ability is one indication of a secretary’s potential for advancement. Some of the activities that you should handle are: 1. Answer routine letter, acknowledge others, and send copies of urgent items to the executive. In addition, to keep digest of important mail and how it had been handled. 2. Make adjustments as to when to telephone the executive if he or she does not report in regularly. If your boss does not make periodic calls, be prepared with a list of items that should be brought to his or her attention.


3. There are many things you can do while your employer is away, like filing, transferring inactive files, replacing file folders, or something that can be done when your boss your returns to increase your own personal knowledge and efficiency. 4. Keep a record of important office activities for the executive information when he or she returns. 5. Schedule appointments after the trip allowing time first for the executive to catch up on business resulting from the trip or that has accumulated during his or her absence. Materials to be prepared for the Boss: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Transportation tickets Hotel confirmation Information about alternative transportation Itinerary and daily activity cards Travel funds, credit cards, and traveler’s check A list of number of credit cards and traveler’s check Expense account forms Business calling cards Travel documents Files like copies of Correspondence, Speeches, etc. (Important: maintain a record files that your boss will take on the trip. If possible, just give him the duplicate copy and maintain the original in your office). Office supplies and stamp Background about the people or company to be seen Reading materials like magazines and newspapers. Road maps and other guides.

International Travel Passport Defined - a formal document that is issued by an authorized official to a country to one of its citizen and usually necessary for exit and re-entry into the country that in accordance with VISA requirements that request protection for him while abroad. - License to travel in a foreign country. - A legal document or official permit issued by the local authority to citizens securing a legal exit of one’s country to make him eligible, and an entrance to another country, after all his papers and all the clearances have been granted. VISA defined an official endorsement on a passport indicating that it has been examined by the government authorities so that the traveler may proceed.



It is an official signature or endorsement on the document showing that it has been examined and had been approved duly signed by consul of each country that you intend to visit.

STOP-OVER defined - is a place where the plane will stop for refueling before proceeding to its destination. Travel-Fund defined - this is the amount or the budget allocated to finance the trip. This is usually shouldered by the company sponsoring the trip. FOLLOW-UP As soon as the executive returns from the trip, there will be many things you can do to help your boss get back on schedule. Of course, you try to plan your time so that you are free to work with your boss. You should: 1. Brief the executive rapidly on important events that occurred during his or her absence. 2. Give your boss the folders or material you have been accumulating for his or her information and attention. 3. Complete the expense account as soon as possible and return any travel advances. 4. Help with the preparation of any reports resulting from the trip 5. Check and return to the files any original materials the executive took on the trip. 6. Help your boss with the preparation of his reports regarding his trip. 7. REMEMBER: You are contributing factor to the success of your boss. His success will also be your success. 8. Sample Letter of Reservation and Itinerary Below you will find a sample letter of reservation as well as an itinerary. You may study them and carefully use them as a guide should you be given the responsibility of preparing such for your boss in the future. Sample of Letter of Reservation: The style is AMS Simplified Style Note: TS (3 spaces) before and after the subject. This style has no salutation and complimentary close.


March 11, 1980 Reservation Desk Pines Hotel 71 Dominican Hill, Baguio City 19006

RESERVATION FOR DECEMBER 12 and 15 Please reserve a single room at the minimum rate for Mrs. Nimfa D. de Vera for the nights of December 12 and 15. Because Mrs. De Vera will not land at the Philippine Domestic Airport until 7:30 p.m. please hold her reservation for later arrival. I should appreciate your sending me written confirmation and letting me know the checkout time. JONI SELLERIO –SECRETARY TO MRS. NIMFA DE VERA

Sampl e of an itiner

ITINERARY FOR JERICO D. DE VERA August 16 to August 25, 1984

From Manila Chicago Cincinnati New Orleans Mexico City

Time 9:30 a 11:00 p 2:20 p 9:27 a 10:05 a

Flight AA/184* AA/426 DL/565 EA/907* MX/900**

To Chicago Cincinnati New Orleans Mexico City Manila

Arrive 3:16 p 12:20 p 3:40 p 10:30 a 12:25 p

Hotel Ascot Hilton Brent Aristos

Travel Procedure The task of travel arrangements is assigned to one person in the administrative support group or the executive assistant/secretary of an executive. In most cases, it is assigned to you. A list of procedures will be helpful: 1. Learn company policy regarding travel. Know what limit the executive is allowed fro expenses. Is he/she allowed to use the company car? Is first class travel allowed and for what level of executive? What price range is allowed for the hotel room? Which credit cars can be used? 2. Set up a file folder and type an itinerary as soon as you know (a) the executive’s destination (b) dates, times and names of persons he or she is meting with, (c) airline


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

and seat preference, (d) use of a company car and time of pickup (e) names of other executives traveling with him or her. Call the travel agency or go to the company travel agent and make the necessary reservations. Call the persons he is meeting with to confirm the dates and time. Assemble the materials to be taken and determine how they are to be sent or who is to hand-carry them. Sometimes a messenger service such as Federal Express or DHL is used to send these ahead. Request the executive to keep all receipts of expenses, including credit card receipts so that an accurate expense report can be made. This is a summary of all expenses incurred during the trip. An example of an expense report is found below. Forward mail, if necessary, and maintain a file of mail, other communications, and information that the executive needs upon arrival. Handle daily communications and mail within the scope of your authority. Enter data on your computer, such as messages received, appointments you may have made for the executive while traveling and summarize information for his action. If the company is equipped with an electronic network system, he or she can pick up your input data on a computer anywhere in the world. Keep the executive’s schedule relatively free the first day after a business trip so that time can be used for “catching up” on accumulated work. Perform follow-up activities resulting from the trip. Thank you letters may have to be written, materials forwarded, information gathered for a report to be given, etc.

Transportation Air travel is the preferred mode of transportation, whether locally, regionally, or internationally. For domestic or local travel, Philippine airlines offers many flights fro the executives to choose to suite his meeting requirements. Flights as early as 3am are scheduled so that the busy executive can have a morning meeting and return in the afternoon, Evening flights are also scheduled so he or she can rest and have meetings all day the next day. There are no first class or economy class seats. Remember, when the travel involves different countries, time differences will have to be considered in making reservations. For example, when traveling to the United States, leaving the Philippines on May 1 will get you there also on May 1. However, if you leave the United States on May 1, you will arrive on Manila on May 3. Europe is another time zone. Traveling to Hong Kong and Indonesia has no time difference, but traveling to Japan has a time difference of a few hours. When a date or a time of return is indefinite, an open ticket can be purchased. Once the return time is known, the traveler, by phoning a local airlines office or travel agency, can make the appropriate reservations for a return flight. Student Activities 1. Type an itinerary. Make up the destinations, the meetings and other appointments, the airline and car used and hotel reserved, for your boss Mr. Pedro Cruz.


2. Type an expense report for the above trip. 3. Bring a schedule of Philippine Air Lines flights to different domestic destination.

Lesson 10: Records Management
Objective: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Define records management and explain its importance. Define filling and records management filling system. Identify retrieval, retention and destruction concepts in filling. Identify storage equipment and supplies Enumerate the phases of a record file cycle and explain each Identify the four types of filling –alphabetic, numeric, geographic, and subject. Distinguish between centralized and decentralized systems. Identify a system of filling records Identify a requisition card, index card control file, and out-guide card. Enumerate and give examples of filling rules.


What are records? Records are the memory of any business organization. A record maybe any material thing which serves to perpetuate or preserve knowledge of acts, events, facts, or ideas. Records are any written or graphic material related to the business which reflects the activities of any office such as material in active use and in storage like reports, legal documents, and other administrative documents. Published matter like books, magazines, and newspapers are not considered as “records”


What is an important characteristic of records? An important characteristic of “records” is that they usually consist of material that can be classified and arranged in a methodical manner for preservation and ready reference. Why must records be managed? 1. To regulate the great volume and variety of documents and papers currently received and created in transacting business. 2. To accommodate and control natural increase in volume and variety due to growth of population, new function, and related activities. 3. To provide methods to ensure prompt attention, rapid movements, guide finding, safe storage, and proper disposal of documents and papers. 4. To control and reduce cost of paperwork. What is filing? - is the process of classifying and arranging of records in a systematic way so they will not only be safely stored but also quickly retrieved or located when needed. - Another definition is the placing of papers in acceptable containers according to some pre-determined arrangement so that any paper, when required, can be located fast and conveniently. - System of arranging and storing safely business papers in a neat, orderly, and efficient manner so that they may be located when they are wanted. Importance of Managing Files


1. In filing, the emphasis is more upon the “finding” rather than the “storing” aspect. 2. Since the written information is being retained or filed for future possible use, the so-called “finding” aspect is essential in paper-work management. 3. The safekeeping of records is important, but being able to find them promptly, when needed, is more important. 4. Remember, needed paper when lost or misplaced can delay the work of a dozen employees or even the entire office. 5. Management is not only interested in the files as such, but more in the information which can be obtained from them. 6. Establishing and managing an effective system and arranging the records that an office must maintain, and placing them at their proper locations, will help promote operational efficiency in the office.

Objectives in filing 1. efficiency 2. economy 3. simplicity Purposes of filing 1. To make records available when they are needed whether for reference or evidence. 2. To keep all related materials together so that the history of the dealings of one office with other offices or individuals will be available in one place. 3. To provide a permanent and safe place for records of business information and transactions during the time the records are not in use. How are records being filed? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. by the name of individual or organization by the subject matter they contain by the location or geographical area a record may cover by the number assigned to a record by the date

What are the different kinds of filing system? 1. Alphabetic Name File (by name of individual or organization)



records that are referred to by name of an individuals organization be arranged by name in strict alphabetic sequence or successive continuity. Correspondence from individual representing an organization should be arranged under the name of the organization

2. Alphabetic Subject Title (by subject) - records which are referred to by the subject matter they contain should be arranged alphabetically by subject title or caption. - All records on a particular subject should be kept together in as much as each fits somewhere to complete a story 3. Alphabetic Location File (by geographic location) - records which are referred to by geographic location should be alphabetically arranged by location name which may be by country, region, province, city/municipality, barrio, or barangay. 4. Numerical File (by the number assigned to record) - record which are identified by numbers assigned to them and are referred to by their respective number should be arranged in numerical sequence - a numerical file is often used for records pertaining to bank checks, invoices, insurance policies, presidential decrees, tax declaration and the like. 5. Chronological file ( by the date of records) - records to which primary reference is made by date of the record should be filed chronologically (in the order of time) by year, month, or day as reference indicates. - The chronological filing system simply arranges material according to its time sequence, that is month or week are its main division with days for its subdivisions - Some correspondence, bills, and pending accounts payable can be handled on a chronological plan - The advantage of this plan are: a. it is very simple. b. Filing is easy c. It is convenient reminder or unfinished work. Types of office records to be filed 1. Administrative files - a file material related to overall policy, mission of organization, direction of the office, including management improvement programs, formal rules and regulations, guides, maintenance of service, supplies and other administrative matter which have no direct bearing on the operation of the office. 84

2. Personnel files - any paper containing the service appointment and the other records related to the individual employees. 3. Legal files - consist of administrative case of personal land cases, civil cases, investigation records and the like. 4. Supply Files - consists of records of supplies, equipment, purchases, contracts, etc. 5. Fiscal files - materials on budget preparation, submission of allotments, and control of funds.

Tools in files Operation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Folders and fasteners Charge-out cards Requisition slip Tickler file or follow-up file Sorting table and rocks Stapler Filing cabinets and shelves Tapes

SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE FILING SYSTEM Characteristics of a good filing system a filing system can only be good if it is tailor-made to fit the condition or situations prevailing in a particular organization. Filing system is good if it can meet the three points success formula of efficiency, economy, and simplicity Filing system is good if it can meet the three points Filing system is good if it fills the needs of the operating personnel and serves them satisfactorily.

Requisites of a good filing system are: 1. It serves the needs of the office.


2. 3. 4. 5.

It has the simplest identification of file contents It use minimum safeguard against filing errors. It has maximum safeguard against filing errors. It is not dependent on the memory of the clerk.

Guides in selecting appropriate filing system A certain amount of creativeness is necessary in adapting a filing system to the situation at hand. There are many different types of filing procedures ranging from manual to mechanical to electrical. The following guidelines are suggested in choosing a filing system: 1. 2. 3. 4. Know the types of records and files created and maintained by the office. Know how the records are requested from the files. Know why, how, and where the materials to be filed originates. Know the procedure steps from post of origin to files.

STEPS IN FILING HOW TO PREPARE THE MATERIAL TO BE FILED Incoming correspondence once received should be time and date stamped and given to proper person for action. 1. Inspecting - inspect the material to make sure it has been released for filing. - Look for a special mark as release signal like the word FILE plus the initials of the person releasing it. 2. Indexing - the name by which correspondence or record is most likely to be requested from files. - Determine the most likely the heading under the paper to be filed. The possibilities are: *name of company on the letterhead *name addressed *name in the signature *name or subject included in the paper *file or reference number - there are rules for alphabetical indexing that should be followed 3. Cross-referencing - is used when it is difficult to know which of two or more name is important


is accomplished by filing the original under one name and cross reference sheet under the other - u may use cross-reference sheets or plain sheets of paper, or a paper with distinctive color. - You may consider cross-referencing under the following situations: a. When some word other than the first in a company or situation name clearly identifies the organization. For example: University of San Carlos would be filed as written but should be cross-referenced to San Carlos University. b. When it is difficult to decide which part of an individual’s name is the surname. In the case of Manolo Herbert you might index the name as normally written and use a cross-reference under a transposition of the name. c. When an organization is better known by initials than by its complete name, material should be filed under the complete name and then crossreference to the explanation, like:
NATIONAL COLLEGE (OF) BUSINESS AND ARTS Cross Reference NCBA See: National College of Business and Arts


d. When a record is likely to be called for most often by subject, should be filed under the subject caption but cross-referenced to an individual or company name. e. When difficult name is indexed, you may use the maiden name as the original file but cross-reference it under the married or legal name. 4. Coding - underline or encircle the caption to be used on storing - this is marking the file to indicate how they have been indexed - coding highlights the indexing caption and thus speeds up filing. - For alphabetic coding, the indexing caption may be check marked, encircled, or underlined on the record being coded. For numeric coding follow these three steps: 1. selecting the name under which a paper is to be filed. 2. referring to the card index to determine the number to be assigned 3. Marking the number in the upper margin of the paper.


Marking for subject coding follow these steps: 1. Write the subject in the margin of each record. 2. re-sort in each category for more exact sequence 3. assemble all the materials in proper 5. Filing or Storing - this is the final step in manual filing which is placing the papers in appropriate containers, usually file folders. - The papers are placed in the proper folders in the filing cabinets Follow these procedures: 1. Punch holes into the paper to be filed. 2. To insert material, lift the folder out of the file drawer in order to make sure you have the correct folder. 3. Insert the paper evenly. 4. See to it that the material you are inserting is in correct sequence in the folder. 5. Avoid overcrowding the folder. Overcrowding extend records beyond the top edge of the folder, causing torn edges; it also pulls the back of the folder down and hides the caption. 6. Use the creases across the bottom of the front flap of the folder to accommodate increasing bulk. By expanding the folder, you can stock papers as much as three-quarters of an inch high without bulging. When the maximum capacity is reached, it is time to use a second folder.

SOME USEFUL REMINDERS WHEN FILING Removing attachments 1. Paper clips, rubber band, and other such attachments should be removed from papers before they are filed. Arranging drawer space 1. Provide enough space in each file drawer of active records to permit easy access and pulling out of folders.


2. Guides and folders should not be pulled out of the files by their tabs. The tabs are not handles and will soon be worn out if used for pulling out folder. 3. Adjust the “follow block” when the file drawer begin to sag. Proper positioning of the drawer compressor helps to keep folder upright in a drawer. Filing Clippings 1. Indicate the names of the publication and the date of the issue from which they were taken. 2. Small clipping should be mounted on plain paper. 3. Clipping larger that the ordinary size of bond paper may be folded as needed to fit the folder. Filing Bulky Material 1. Bulky material should be filed separately in appropriate storage lockers or a suitable shelves, either numeric or alphabetic. 2. Items may need to be cross-referenced to related correspondence files. 3. They should be neatly arranged. Clearly marked, and kept clean and dusted.

RETRIEVING OR FINDING MATERIAL FROM FILES 1. If papers have been properly prepared in filings and if they have been carefully placed in the correct file folders and in the right drawers, finding them when they are needed would be a simple and easy matter. 2. However, all records removed from the files should be recorded, especially if the files are used by many different people. 3. Charge out procedure should be carefully followed. Charge Out Procedures 1. A chargeout system tells you where a record can be located after it has been taken from the files. 2. There are two types of charge out records: a. One to account for complete folders removed from a file b. Another to account for papers taken from folders The function is the same: to ensure that the records that were removed will be returned 3. Charge out record must contain the following information: a. name of borrower b. a description of the material borrowed


c. date borrowed 4. A folder charge out may be either an out-folder or an out-guide 5. The OUT-FOLDER is a folder with a tab marked OUT and ruled spaces on the front for recording charge-out information. It replaces a removed folder. Incoming items are filed in it until the regular folder is returned. 6. The OUT-GUIDE has a pocket into which a copy of the requisition slip made out by the borrower may be inserted. When out guides are used, incoming items are accumulated in a FOR FILE FOLDER until the regular folder is returned.

REQUISITION SLIP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To control requests for files, use a special form called the REQUISITION SLIP. Prepare the slip in triplicate to save time and control safe return of files. These slips become the charge-out record. The Original is put into the pocket of the OUT GUIDE. Copy 2 goes into a follow-up file box where it is filed by date. Copy 3 goes clipped to the items that were taken from the files to identify them and to remind the user of the due date.

HOW TO SEARCH FOR MISSING FILES The following clues help to uncover many misfiled papers. 1. On someone’s desk? - Look first through your own desk when tracking a misplaced record. Then the executive’s desk. Still not there? Look in the “FOR FILING” folder. 2. The folder before or the one behind the right folder? - look into the folder immediately ahead of or immediately behind the folder in which the paper belongs. This type of filing error usually occurs. 3. Between or under folders? - look between the folders on either side of the folder in which the missing paper should be. Not there? Then look under the folders. Single papers and even folders have been known to slip gradually under the folders when the guides are not attached by a rod. 4. Cross-references?



look under the cross-references. Original may sometimes filed with cross reference folder.

5. Similar names? - look under similarly spelled names. The JOans paper may be in Jones, Johns, Joens, or even Janes. 6. Transposition of names? - Some names such as Danilo Manuel, are easily transposed. A letter to Danilo Manuel Enterprises may turn up in the DAnilo folder. 7. Paper clips - Paper clips have a way of picking up neighboring papers. This is one of the reasons you are advised from the start not to use paper clips. 8. Ask your Boss - if all the solutions were made and still you can’t find the record, ask your boss. He might have taken it and brought home without informing you. TRANSFER AND RETENTION METHODS

Transferring files
is the process of removing old and inactive items from files. However, transferred materials are not automatically destroyed. You may do the transferring of files during free times when the boss is away.

TWO GENERAL TRANSFER METHODS 1. Perpetual Transfer - moves records to the inactive area as they become inactive 2. Periodic Transfer - files are moved at stated intervals, once or twice a year Remember: See to it that you get the approval of your boss before you transfer any record. Some “Do’s and Don’ts of Filing” Do’s 1. Do staple papers neatly together in upper left hand corners. If you must fasten you can use a fastener folder. 2. Do file papers in an orderly fashion in folders. 91

3. Do use individually tabbed folders with typed labels for ready reference. 4. Do type all labels on folders. They are so easily read. 5. Do lift the folder out to insert papers in proper place. You will be accurate and your file will be neat. Be a good housekeeper. 6. Do file them in date order, keeping the latest date in top. 7. Do split the papers up according to date, customer, or subject so that no folder contains more than the capacity it is designed for (generally ½” to 1”) 8. Do file material in one folder, placing a cross-reference sheet in folder for any other subject or customer include in the material. This will save many minutes in locating materials when the boss is in a hurry. 9. Do keep all files in proper alphabetical sequence. 10. Do file in back of guide. After all “guide” is what the name implies a guide indicating the proper place to locate a folder. 11. Do pre-arrange or sort your papers in exact order according to your file index. Then start to file. 12. Do keep your filing “rough sorted” from A to Z if you can’t take care of it immediately. You will be able to locate papers so much faster. 13. Do charge out papers removed and place the “OUT” card in the file. Think of the arguments this will save. 14. Do type labels in capital letters so they may be easily read and keep one on every drawer. Even you might forget which is which if you are busy. 15. Do close each drawer as you finish with it. Open file drawer may cause a serious accident. Don’ts 1. Don’t use pins, paper clips or rubber bands on file papers. 2. Don’t file papers loose in a drawer. 3. Don’t write captions on folders by hand. Perhaps you can read your writing but can the other person read your handwriting? You can write a caption if your hand writing is very readable. 4. Don’t jam papers down into folders. You can’t be sure they are in the correct place and anyway, think how messy they will look. 5. Don’t allow papers to be all mixed as to dates within a folder. 6. Don’t allow your folders to become cluttered and overcrowded. 7. Don’t allow your folders to become so full that they bulge, or the back sags down out of sight. 8. Don’t allow your files to become confusing when letters contain two or more subjects or customers. 9. Don’t flounder around spending precious moments looking for a folder which had been filed under another name. 10. Don’t pull a folder out of place alphabetically just because it may be large. 11. Don’t file in front of guides. 12. Don’t start to file with papers in haphazard arrangement. 13. Don’t let your new filing pile up. Update your files. 14. Don’t leave your new filing in a disorganized pile.


15. Don’t lend papers and then depend upon your memory to tell you who took them. Keep a record of borrowed file folder. 16. Don’t allow the labels on your file drawers to be handwritten dirty or torn off. 17. Don’t pull out more than one file drawer at a time. FOUR CATEGORIES OF RETENTION SCHEDULES Records kept permanently - Two broad classes of business records are generally retained permanently: those that provide evidence of corporate and individual rights and those with historical implications. Such records are generally irreplaceable and are considered essential to the existence of the business. Photocopy duplicates of them should be stored in several locations as a precaution against destruction. Old documents may require special restorative or preservative methods to protect them against deterioration. Some records that should be kept permanently are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Capital stock and bond ledgers and registers. Partnership papers Stockholder and director minutes Deeds and other title papers and mortgages General ledgers, journals, and cashbooks. Records of cost and inventory value of plant equipment and fixtures Tax backup records Audit reports Records relating to bills and accounts payable Paid drafts, checks, and cash receipts Correspondence about stop-payment orders and duplicate checks. Payrolls, paychecks, and other evidences or payments for services Employee applications

Records kept six or seven years. - records in this category facilitate routine business operations and are replaceable only at considerable cost and delay. They should be transferred when inactive to secure storage. They include the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Lists of security holders present at meetings Records of interest coupons, paid and unpaid Contracts, leases, and agreements (seven years after expiration) Accounts receivable ledgers Schedules of fire and other insurance and papers substantiating claims Deposit books and record stubs Inventories of materials with adjustment records Sales records Collection records Record of uncollectible accounts


Records kept for three or four years many business papers are temporarily useful and replaceable at slight cost. They may be safely destroyed after three or four years. The following illustrate this category:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Proxies of holder of voting securities Employee fidelity bond records Insurance records-changes and cancellation of policies Records about employee salary adjustments and assignments Purchase orders Credit ratings of customers Expired insurance policies against which unreported or pending claims might arise. General correspondence

Records kept one year or less - records in this classification are often destroyed after the have served their purpose. According to the National Records Management Council, about 35% of all records used in business offices can be destroyed in a year or less. Examples of this type of records include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Copies of bank deposits Statements of interest due on daily balances Bank statement Memorandums Announcements Form letters Congratulations Condolences can often be disposed of soon after they have been written. Rules in Alphabetic Indexing 1. Individual Names Think of names of individuals in the following order: first the surname or last name; second, the given name or the first name or initial; third, the middle name or initial. In alphabetizing, names are considered unit by unit. The first units, if different, are arranged in alphabetic order. The second unit, are not considered unless the first unit are identical. If both first and second units are identical, then consider the third unit Examples: Alfredo L. Blas Manuel P. CruzBlas, 1 Cruz, 1 Alfredo 2 Manuel 2 L. 3 P. 3


Manuel S. Cruz-

Cruz, 1

Manuel 2

S. 3

2. Surnames when used alone Like Javeliana, precedes the surname with given names or initials. An initial, when not a known abbreviation, precedes a name beginning with that initial. This rule is sometimes stated, “NOTHING COMES BEFORE SOMETHING.” Examples: 1st Javellana 1 Javellana, 1 Javellana, 1 H. 2 G. 3 G. 3

2nd 3rd


Horacio 2

3. Surname Prefixes A surname prefix is considered as part of the surname and not as a separate indexing unit, surname prefixes includes San, Santa, De, Dela, Delos, etc. The prefixes St. is indexed and filed as though fully spelled as Saint. Examples: Del Cano, 1 Del Rosario, 1 San Pedro, 1 MacCarthy, 1 St. Anthony 1 Alfredo 2 Priscilla 2 Tomas 2 Paul 2 Chapel 2 T. 3 C. 3 F. 3 C. 3 (In your mind spell out Saint) NOTE: The abbreviation St. is spelled out only in your mind. NOTE: Del Cano is considered as only one unit

4. Married Woman The legal name of married woman is one considered in indexing. Legally, the only part of a man’s name that the woman assumes when she is married is 95

his surname. Her legal name will include her first name, her maiden name, and her husband’s surname. When preparing filing cards or folders, Mrs. Is enclosed in parenthesis at the end of the husband’s first and middle names are placed in parenthesis below the woman’s name. Examples: Maiden name – Chit A. de Leon Husband’s name – Amado G. Pimental Indexing: First original card: de Leon, Chit A. (Miss) 1 2 3 see: Pimentel, Chit D. (Mrs.) (Amado G.) Chit 2 D. (Mrs.) 3

Second card as the cross reference: Pimentel, 1 (Amado G.)

NOTE: The name and initial of the husband under the name of the wife is optional; meaning it may or may not be included. 5. Firm Names The units in the name of firms and institutions are indexed in the same order as they are written if they do not include the complete name of an individual. If the firm’s name begin with a foreign word, it is combined with the word that follows it. Examples: Skillmaster 1 Resources 2 Corporation 3 Network, Inc. 4 5

Employment Apprenticeship Research 1 2 3 El Paso 1 Coffee 2 Shop 3

6. Firm’s names including complete individual names When the complete name of an individual is included in the name of the firm or institution, the surname of the individual is considered as the first unit; the given or initial; if any is considered as the 2nd and the 3rd units; then the rest of the firm is considered. 96

7. Hyphenated names In hyphenated firm’s name, the individual surnames are indexed as separate units, but the hyphenated surname of an individual is considered as a single unit. This is also applicable when a hyphenated surname of an individual is included in the firm name. Example: Marilyn T. Gut-Omeng Indexing: Gut-Omeng, Marilyn T. 1 2 3 Yupangco-Yamaha Corp. (same order) Yupangco – Yamaha Corp 1 2 3

McGraw-Hill Book Co. (same order) McGraw – Hill Book Co. 1 2 3 4 8. Abbreviations Known abbreviations are indexed as though they are spelled in full. Like the following examples –Ltd., Inc., Bros., Corp., and similar word are treated as separate indexing units. Examples: Del Rosario 1 Del Rosario Brother Mktg. Corp. Brothers Marketing Corporation 2 3 4 (same order)

9. Articles, conjunctions, and prepositions Articles, conjunctions, and prepositions, such as: the, and, on, of, for, to by, the sign for “and” (&) and the phase of the, are not considered as units, and are, therefore, disregarded in indexing. On filing cards and folders, these words are written in their normal sequence, with this exception: When the word “the” is the firt word in a name, it is found in the middle of the name, it is not moved but enclosed in parenthesis. If it is found in the middle of the name, it is not moved but enclosed in parenthesis. Example: The Carlos Tablan Lumber Company Indexing: Tablan, Carlos Lumber Company (The) 1 2 3 4 Example: Juanito the Electrician 97

Indexing: Juanito (the) Electrician 1 2 10. One or two words When the same name may be written either as one word, two words, or a hyphenated word, it is considered as one indexing unit. Examples: Northwest Sales Corporation (Northwest one word = 1 unit) 1 2 3 North West Produce 1 2 Market (North West two words = 1 unit) 3

North-West Rope (and) Supply Co. (North-West hyphenated = 1 1 2 3 4 unit) 11. Compound Geographic Names The part of compound geographic names are indexed as separate unit except when the first part of the name is not an English word, such as El Paso. Examples: Le Donne’s 1 Shoes 2

North American Lines 1 2 3 Zamboanga del Sur Rice Mill (Zamboanga del Sur 1 2 3 = 1 unit) El Paso 1 Coffee 2 Shop (same order) 3

12. Titles or Degrees Titles or degrees of individual are not considered as units and are therefore, disregarded in indexing. When writing filing cards or folders place the title or degree in parenthesis after the name. Titles that denote seniority, such as Jr., 2nd are placed at the end of the name but are considered as indexing units and should be enclosed in parenthesis. Examples: Poe, Fernando (Junior) 1 2 3


Poe, Fernando (Senior) 1 2 3 Miralles, 1 Jaime 2 (Atty.) 3

Exception: When a title is the first word of a firm name , it is considered as the first indexing unit. Example: Queen Elizabeth 1 2 Dean Torres (same order) Torres ( Dean)

Exception: When a title is the first word of a firm name, it is considered as the first indexing unit. Examples: Atty. Alfredo J. de Castro Alfredo J. 2 3 (Atty.)

De Castro, 1

Dr. West Toothpaste (same order) 1 2 3 Madame 1 X 2 (same order)

13. Possessives When a word ends in apostrophe s (‘s) the s is disregarded in indexing. When a name ends with an s apostrophe (s’) the “s” is a part of the name and is included in indexing. Think of the apostrophe as the “STOP” sign. Examples: Power’s Oil Corporation (first unit is Power without s) 1 2 3 Powers’ (and) Holman Agency (first unit is Powers with s 1 2 3 is included) 14. Numbers A number in a name is regarded as though written in words and the entire number is indexed as one unit. Numbers over 1,000n such as 1, 809 should be indexed as Eighteen Hundred Nine and not as One Thousand Eight Hundred Nine. The numbers are written in figures on index card and folder but you have to spell them out in your mind to get the correct filing order.


Examples: 96th Street Warehouse – Niney-sixth Street Warehouse 1 2 3 The 3 Arts Club - The Three Arts Club (The) 1 2 3

306 Management Co. – Three Hundred Six Management Co. 1 2 3 1755 Disco House - Seventeen Hundred Fifty Five Disco 1 2

House 3 Remember: The numbers are written in FIGURES on cards and Folders, but you spell them out in your mind. 15. Addresses When identical names appear with different addresses, they should be alphabetized according to the name of the city or town. When writing cards or folders the name of the province, city or towns are included as the basis for arranging in order. Consider first the city or town. If it is similar, consider the province. If it is again similar, consider the street. If it is still the same, consider the street number by arranging from lowest to highest. Examples: Mercury Drug Company 1315 Aurora Blvd. Cubao, Quezon City Indexing: (1) Mercury Drug Company 1 2 3 Aurora Blvd., Cubao 6 5 Quezon City 1315 4 (lower) 7 Mercury Drug Company 1575 Aurora Blvd. Cubao Quezon City (2) Mercury Drug Company 1 2 3 Aurora Blvd., Cubao 6 5 Quezon City 1575 (higher) 7

16. Bank Names Bank names are indexed first by the name of the bank in the same order. When writing cards or folders the name of the province, city, or town is included as the basis for arranging in order. Consider first the city or town. If it is similar consider the province, if it is the same, consider the street. If it is 100

still the same, consider the street number by arranging from lowest to highest. Example: Banco Filipino Punta, Mandaluyong Indexing: Banco Filipino 1 2 Punta, Mandaluyong 3 4

17. Philippine Government Names Name pertaining to our government are indexed first under PHIL. (Rep. of) and subdivided first by ministry title, and then by bureau division, commission, or board. Phases such as Ministry of, Bureau of, Division of, Commission of, Office of, when used in titles of government bodies are disregarded in indexing. On folders and filing cards, these phrases are enclosed in parentheses and placed at the end of the word they modify. However, phrases are considered as indexing units when they are a part of a non-governmental name. Examples: (1) Ministry of Health Bureau of Diseases Control Indexing: Phil. (Rep. of) Health (Ministry of) Diseases Control (Bureau of) Phil. (Rep. of) Justice (Ministry of)

(2) Ministry of Justice

18. Other Political Divisions Names pertaining to other political divisions, such as province, cities or town are indexed and filed under the name of political divisions and then in the following order: title of the ministry, bureau, division, commission or board. Example: Lucena City Bureau of Investigation Indexing: Phil. Rep. (of the) Investigation (Bureau (Lucena City) of)

19. Difficult Individual Names When the given name and the surname of an unusual individual name might be confusing, or when custom has established that a name is given more 101

important in point of order than a surname, the given name should be considered as the first indexing unit. In Chinese name, for example, where you can not be sure which is the name and which is the surname, you should use a cross-reference. Example: Tiok Pa Tay Indexing: (1) Tiok Pa Tay See: Pa Tay, Tiok (with cross-reference) (2) Pa Tay, Tiok

Note: There will be two folders for this file. One filed under letter “T” and the second one filed under letter “P”, as the cross-reference. 20. Churches, Schools, and Organization In the names of churches, schools, clubs, and similar organizations, the general rule is to index the name in the order of the word that is most important or the most clearly identified organization. Conjunctions, articles, and preposition are disregarded. Example: Makati Lions Club -Lions Club (of) Makati 1 2 3

Rotary Club of Quezon City – Rotary Club (of) Quezon (City) 1 2 3 Alphabetic Indexing & Filing Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Ramon G. Abella Ramon A. Abellana Abella Doro T. delos Reyes Employment Apprenticeship Research Network (with cross reference EARN) Robert Borromeo & Associates Zamboanga del Sur Sugar Mill The House of Ramie Dr. Raul Z. Lizondra, Jr. Atty. Raul Z. Lizondra, Sr. Employment Services of Metro Manila Rio del Mundo North West Bakery North-West Beauty Parlor Northwest Bake Shop 102

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

North Western School Supplies Northwestern Beauty Shop North-Western Bound Bus Mat Ranillo I Mat Ranillo II Mat Ranillo III Mat Ranillo IV Lizondras A. T. Lizondra Miss Nora Villamayor –husband Christopher de Leon (with cross reference) Miss Imelda Romualdez –Husband Ferdinand E. Marcos (with cross reference) Engr. Adriano V. Cruz Dr. Ramon S. Reyes Atty. Jualberto D. Cabungcal Mr. Roger T. Moore Mrs. Magnolia M. Lirio Miss Nimfa A. de Leon Sister Josefa A. Rabeje Brother Jose M. Angeles Jr. Fr. Angelito L. San Miguel Dean Wilfredo R. Wi Sgt. Reynaldo M. Velasco Power Sugar Mill Power’s Sugar Corporation 13th Avenue Pawn Shop The 5 Lions Club Sacred Heart Store 689 Magsaysay Avenue Benguet, Baguio City Sacred Heart Store 985 Magsaysay Avenue Benguet, Baguio City Ministry of Public Highways Bureau of Investigation McGraw-Hill Book Company Tan-gatue Appraisal Associates, Inc. Balatbat & C., Inc. Balatbat Corporation Bacu-lug Philippines