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The
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The MCAT
Physics Book
Garrett Biehle

Nova Press
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ISBN: 1889057339
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The MCAT
Physics Book
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Preface
The physics portion of the Medical College Aptitude Test (MCAT) contains questions to test your knowledge of basic physics and your ability to apply that knowledge to unfamiliac situations. The goal of this book is to review basic physics with an emphasis on the principles and ideas, and to help you learn to approach new situations and think about them with a physics mindset. This book is not primarily concerned with testtaking techniques. It is designed to help you develop an intuitive understanding of physics, so that you will understand the MCAT questions and how to answer them. Each chapter contains a discussion of a major physics topic, followed by problems to help you apply the concepts. Finally, there are MCATstyle passages and questions to help you get used to the MCAT format. All the problems have complete solutions in the back of the book, some with tips to help you approach problems and to solve them faster. If you work through this book, taking notes with pencil and paper by your side, and solving the problems, you will improve your understanding of physics. And you will improve your score on the MCAT.
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The author wishes to thank James Aldridge for his comments on the manuscript. The author wishes to thank Michelle Haller for the many hours she spent editing the book's prose. The author especially appreciates Andrew and Judy Cordell for their critical reading of the book, alerting the author to subtleties in the science, helping the author approach difficult topics, and pointing out unnecessary detail.
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. . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 Laws of Motion .contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Interlude Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 1 3 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter Introduction . . .. . . . Indexi . . . . . . 279 16 Atomic and Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Language of Motion . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Solving Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 61 Friction and A i r Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluids . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Energy . . . . .. . 77 Torques and Properties of Solids . . . . .. . Grav~tat~on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 . . . 249 Electric Circuits . . . . . . 3 1 .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Periodic M o t i o n and Waves . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . 207 Light . . . . . . . . 3 0 5 Solutions Index .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 45 Planes and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Electrodynamics .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 121 149 159 185 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. . . .Unib .4 5 A . . . . . . . . 2 3 Chapter 1 Problems . . . .. . . 3 5 . 6 4 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . 47 C. . . . . . Position. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . E. . c i i M o t i i . 54 Chapter 5 Planes and Circles . . Inclined Pbnes and For Components . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Law of Motion .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal and Vettical Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 I. . . . . . . . . . . . . and All That . . . . . . . ... . Force Diagrams . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Uniform Acceleration . . . . . . . . Displacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 D. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 8 . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Law of Motion . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . 70 Friction and Air'Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 2 Problems . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 77 77 80 83 83 Chapter 6 A. . . . .CluQter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Chapter 3 Laws of M o t i o n . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . B. . .. . . . .. .. Chapter 3 Problems . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 4 9 Chapter 4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . Surface of the Earth . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .FneFall . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 7 Chapter 2 The Language of M o t i o n . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .SticWslip . Again . 36 39 Chapter 4 Gravitation . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 Problems . . . . 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Reading this Book . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction . . . . . . . . . and Time . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .Forcc . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . C i ~ u b Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Ouantitative Description . . . . . . . .. ..Statichction C. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . J. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 14 E. . . . . . . . . 1 A . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .wcfrictian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Equations . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 D. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . 13 13 13 A. . . . . . . . Acceleration . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction B. . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .Vcctors . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .Graphs . 45 8. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . D.. . 17 H. . . . . Horizontal and Vertical Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 C . . 1 6 G . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . r Oualitative Description . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rilosophy of the Book . 6 3 C. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ThirdLawofMotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . 2 1 Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 8 . . . .. . . . .. 1 6 F. .. . Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. 66 Chapter 5 Problems . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .The Law of Gravitation .. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 5 C. . . . .StandingWava . . . .ViscositymdTurbulence . . . . 9 7 E. . . . . . . . . . . . 127 F. . . . . . . 1 6 2 E. . . . . . . . 149 149 153 B. . .. Facta about presswe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface tension . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 93 93 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Chapter 9 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 191 G. . . . . .. . . 160 D. . Conservation of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lnguage of Rotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9 E. . . 1 0 3 Chapter 8 Momentum . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 D. .. . . . B.. . . .. . . . . . . . . .Pulleys . . Some definitions . . 190 F. . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 Chapter 9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Strategy . . . . . . . .lntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 0 H. . . C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .Buoyantforce . . Bernoulli's hnciple . . . 170 Chapter 1 1 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10 Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P e r i i i c Motion: O n e Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 7 F. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10 Problems . .lntroduction Periodic Motion and Waves . . . . .Wo& . .EnergyofMotion . . . . . . . . .. . . . . C. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Chapter 7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . 166 G. . . 1 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . 149 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . interlude A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 Problems . . . . . . . .. . . . . Potential Energy and Conservative Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lnterfmme . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1 8 7 D. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 A . .lntroduction Solving Problems . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 5 . . . . External Forcer and Impulse . . . . . .Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Efficiency of Energy Conversion . . . . . . 159 159 159 A . 1 11 111 112 114 A . .. . .9 4 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 6 H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .Chapter 7 Torques and Properties of Solids .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sprinss . . . Conservation of Energy . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction .. . . . . . . 1 2 6 E. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Chapter 11 Problems . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodic Motion: Two Connected Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . .Torque . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. .. . . Introduction and Dtfinition . . an Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C .ElectricCharse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Levels a D. . . . . 999 Chapter 1 5 Chapter 16 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 C . . . . . . 2 3 0 E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916 Chapter 1 3 Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 5 C . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . Dispersion . . . . . Introduction B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ideal Lenses and Nonideal Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . General Properties of Light . . . . .lntroduction Atomic and Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Structure of an Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 6 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 8 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indexi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Solutions Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 0 Chapter 15 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 12 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 0 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ohm's Law and the Combination of Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 14 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 6 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7 9 A . . . . . . . Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 Alntroduction . . . . Radioactivity d Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intensity and Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . .Coulomb'sbw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combination of Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real DC cells and Real Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charges and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resonating Cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8eats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternating current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Chapter 16 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromagnetic Radiation . . . . . . . 281 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Chapter I 2 Problems . . . . . . . 253 958 263 964 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 238 238 239 240 Chapter 1 4 Electrodynamics . . . . . . Magnetic Fields . . . . Doppler Shift . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Electric Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 B . . . . . . . . . . . H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 2 5 0 D. . . . . . . 305 305 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflection and Refraction . . . . . . . . Optics Usins Mirrors F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optics Using Lenses . . . . . . . . . . .
00 16 F 19.18 18 N a 22.99] [222.31 20 21 22 23 25 ' Al 26 ' S i 28.47 55 S r 87.61 50 As 74. 138.96 52 Br 79.03] [261.42 78 Ag Cd 112.90 53 Kr 83.85 44 Co 58.91 .22 72 Nb 92.09 32 P 30.90 85 Xe 131.91] 75 Ru 101.10 37 Ca 40.81 13 C 12.93 45 Ni 58.95 105 W 183.98 31 K 39.94 11 Be 9.60 84 I 126.01 15 0 16.91 89 Hf 178.76 83 Te 127.84 106 Re 186.12] [265.011 14 N 14.97 33 S 32.13] Sg Bh H s M t [268] .55 47 107.69 46 Cu 63.08 110 [269] Au 196.62 56 Y 88.91 77 Pd 106.97 111 [272] Hg Ti 204.11] [262.91 73 Mo 95.01 12 B 10.82 81 Sn 118.49 104 fa 180. 57 Z r 91.02] [226.59 112 [277] In 114.45 35 A r 39.981 [208.03] [227.91 87 Ba 137.94 41 Cr 52.21 107 0 s 190.71 82 Sb 121.96 39 Ti 47.08 38 Sc 44.Perodic Table of the Elements 2 He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4.00 42 Mn 54.39 48 Ga 69.95 36 27 28 29 30 26.00 17 Ne 20.2 114 [2891 Bi 208.07 76 Rh 102.29 86 Cs 132.94 43 Fe 55.07 34 CI 35.94 74 Tc [98.92 51 Se 78.87 79 Zn 65.38 Pb 207.22 109 Pt 195.11] [263.99 19 Mg 24.003 10 Li 6.02] 116 118 [2891 [2931 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db [223.23 108 Ir 192.98 Po At Rn 1208.41 80 200.80 54 Rb 85.12] [264.72 49 Ge 72.90 40 V 50.34 88 La.
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You may even try working the examples before reading the solutions and work the solutions out along side the text. The text portion of this book covers all the topics listed in the MCAT study guide. The way to learn is to solve problems. The goal is for you to learn how to approach new problems. you will have difficulty on the exam unless you learn to do these first. the problems in a chapter become more difficult. Although you will not need a battery of specialized ' equations. One is to give you a working knowledge of the basic concepts of physics. How do you prepare for such a thing? The short answer is: by thinking and doing physics. When premed students find out about the exam. and so on. it concentrates on the underlying ideas. and extrapolations to new situations. The solutions at the back of the book tell you how to think about the problems. as well as problems for you to solve at the end. you must be at a desk and have paper and a pen or pencil. and what methods to apply. working to understand. First of all. These problems may be easy questions or single problems involving some calculations. In each chapter the initial problems are simple. which clues to look for. in order to help you to practice your understanding of the concepts in that chapter. In all. Reading h i s Book I Reading a book about physics is completely different from reading a novel. . Gradually. each with several questions or problems. by thinking in the same way as when you solved problems before. Instead. relationships among various quantities. You should write down every equation. the reader. The physics and chemistry portions of the MCAT consist mainly of a series of passages. You should reproduce every diagram. rather than numbers. Then you can solve future problems. Physics and chemistry problems are sometimes mixed. you should remember enough equations to understand the ideas. Philosophy of the Book This book is about the concepts of physics. 1 ( B. For this reason each chapter contains problems in the text with full explanations. Another goal is to teach you how to solve problems in science. for example. to pass the physics part of the MCAT. they are often fearful. But you cannot learn to solve problems by simply reading about physics.Chapter 1 Introduction A. and there is no ordering from easy to difficult. Often the passages involve unfamiliar situations and. Although they are not a close approximation of MCAT questions. explanations. on the MCAT. why certain forces are there and no others. for example. with the goal to prepare you. This book actually has several goals. but it omits details included in many freshman physics texts. making sure you understand all the symbols. and at the end of every chapter there are MCATstyle passages. there are 5 1 passages in this book.
but the units . and seconds). Understanding the operation of enzymes requires a little bit more imagination.) = 0. In physics. and A [mZ] ? The only way to correctly obtain the units is to write something like f=Av. and seconds) as you read the passage. Units A widely held belief is that unit analysis is the least interesting activity of the physical sciences. Units may bring back to mind an equation you would have forgotten. then your efforts will be better rewarded. as the next example shows. where we may have left out a proportionality constant. But how do you relate f [m3/s].4 kg 0.  )( ImoleO. I In order to apply the ideal gas equation we need to convert to moles.4 kg. to the question. Another reason to pay attention to units is that they can alert you if you have written an equation the wrong way. In this case the formula is correct as written. C. If you view physics as a mere collection of facts and equations to memorize. Another way is to keep track of the units any time the units in the problem are nonstandard. We start with 0. we can answer either in kilograms or in liters. v [mls].The M C A T Physics Book It is especially important that you keep an open mind and visualize what you read. or at least flag the units which are nonstandard (i. that is. Indeed. The problem gives kilograms and asks for liters. substitute into a formula. kilograms. you will find it frustrating.) Solution: Well. kilograms. "How much oxygen?'. One way to guard against this type of error is to automatically convert any number to MKS (meters. you must rely on imagination even more.e. counting fcr valuable points.4 kg of oxygen gas take up at T = 27" C and P = 12 atm? (Use the gas constant R = 0.drop units.0821 L atm/K mol. 32go2 ) . and forget to convert cm to m or the like. carefully carrying units through a difficult formula is sometimes about as interesting as painting a barn.Both are equivalent to 1. Alternatively. so this is a complicated units conversion problem. you may remember that flow rate f is the volume (m3) flowing past a point per unit time (s) and that it is related to the velocity v and crosssectional area A of the pipe. In biology one can actually see organelles with an electron microscope. For example. We will essentially construct the ideal gas equation using the units of the elements in the problem. You can lose valuable points if you. themes and a new worldview. if you approach physics looking for new concepts. But there are several good reasons to pay attention to units. not meters. but it is not too different from imagining the working of enzymes. We can do this by including the factors (l*go2 103g0. A third reason for keeping track of units is that they sometimes guide you to an answer without your having to use a formula or do much work. (amount of 0. Example: How much volume does 0.
the equations should feel natural to you.12 For MCAT problems we generally work to one digit of accuracy. In order to cancel them. leaving us with moles. 4 (:"A 1 ~ LF@L 32fi )("oF2m) This leaves us with units of atm and K which we want to get rid of. would take longer working through this type of problem. This example involved more arithmetic than most MCAT problems. If it happens that two choices are close.0. . We obtain (amount of 0.082132. Students generally have one of three attitudes toward equations: 1 sheer hatred (enough said). however. 2. warm fondness. You should not have to memorize most equations in the text. using up valuable seconds on the MCAT.) = 0 .4~1000~0.08. Try adopting the last attitude. Most readers. . because by the time you learn each chapter.0821 with 0. (Recall 27" C = 300 K.0.12 It is generally safe to round to one significant digit. This may seem strange.1000 . but it works. but its purpose was to point out that attention to units can speed up the solution to a problem. If this is the way you normally do such a problem.) = 0 . cold pragmatism (plug in numbers and get an answer). then you can always go back and gain more accuracy.cancel. so we replace 0. Many students do not realize that equations are merely a way to contain useful information in a short form.4. and 3. They are sentences in the concise language of mathematics. good. They should feel like natural relationships among familiar quantities.) = 0. (amount of 0. we can just put them in. so that we have (amount of 0.) Thus we obtain 300 L. Remember that seconds can add up to points. 4 (:"k 2 X1rz) ~ ~ Now we include a factor of R because it has liters in the numerator and moles in the denominator.08 300 32.
we could figure it out. which we will encounter in Section 3. and acceleration are connected somehow.The M C A T Physics Book For example. Another example is the second law of motion. (1) It makes sense that. Thus we can guess that the acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass. that is. so we can guess that they are proportional. we know that force.B. so we write a . This will make it possible to recover the formula if you forget it. When you take the MCAT. Ax=vdt. Thus Ax is proportional to dt. Thus A x is proportional to v. Note also that the units work out correctly only in equation (1). you really should have the equation F = ma in your head. mass. Instead of words. On the other hand. . The greater force causes the greater acceleration. we can go twice as far if we navel twice as long a time. distance equals rate times time. First. but if you train yourself to think this way. If we apply the same force to two objects of different masses. then we expect the smaller object to accelerate more (Figure 12). consider one of the first equations you ever encountered. We write Figure 11 a . and we apply three times as much force to the second object as to the first. If we have two objects of the same mass. we can go twice as far if we go twice as fast. We would never be tempted to write v=AxAf. we simply write Now let's think about the equation.F. because these equations give relationships among the quantities that we know to be wrong. it will be easier to keep the formulas in your head. then we have a picture like that in Figure 11. in a given time. What would we do if we forgot it? If we stop to think about it. And you will understand physics better. m Figure 12 1 Combining these two proportions we get F a=m' as in equation (2). Most importantly. for a given speed. you will be better able to apply the concept behind the equation. If an object has a single force on it. then its acceleration is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to its mass.
... so write The only part that needs to be memorized is the "square" in the denominator..... .. Introduction I I I Some equations are a little more complicated. Because the r is squared. It is difficult to get an intuitive grasp why the 4ashould be there.Chapter 1 ... . The MCAT will not ask you to substitute into an equation like equation (3). Surprised? What about the factor of 4? Try it with r. Also. If this last point seems opaque to you.. = 4 m and r2 = 12 m.. which gives the force of gravity between two objects: where G is a constant. Why? (Think about units. or with some other numbers. . if objects are far apart. ..) Try it with r. and r is the distance between them.. An example is Newton's law of gravity. such as that for the area of a circle: A = zr2. so write There is a constant.. the force of gravity between them is less.. m.) I Another example concerni the volume of a sphere: I What happens to the volume when the radius is doubled? . so write Fgnv .. (4) What happens to the area when the radius increases by a factor of 3? (Answer: It increases by a factor of 9. try some numbers on a more familiar equation.) The surface area of a sphere is an equation that you just have to memorize.. so that we have That's why we call gravity an inversesquare force... "What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is increased by a factor of four?" We can tell from equation (3) that an increase in distance results in a decrease in force. On the other hand. Another equation is that for the surface area of a sphere: What happens to the surface area of a sphere when the radius increases by a factor of 3? (Answer: It increases by a factor of 9.. but it may ask a question like. the 2 is natural in this equation.. start with the idea that objects with more mass have a greater force of gravity between them.mim2. = 4 m and r2= 12 m. How would you ever remember this equation? Well. because r is in the denominator. a factor of 4 in r will result in a factor of 42 = 16 in F. The answer is that the gravitational force decreases by a factor of 16.. and m2 are masses of objects..
. then the equations will seem less foreign than if you look at them as abstract collections of symbols. The example in the text demonstrates all the techniques involved. If a problem involves only simple proportionalities and there are no unitless proportionality constants. We also looked at equations as the language of physics. If you read equations as sentences containing information for you to understand.The MCAT Physics Book In this chapter we discussed the importance of units in solving problems. you should spend some time thinking about what the equation means. then we can obtain a quick solution simply by keeping track of units. Each time you encounter a boxed equation in this book.
1800 B. 0..... 1. 16. 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 6 K D. If the sample is 16 g. .2 x lo3seconds. If the radius of a circle increases by a factor of 4. B.02 x lo2'.1 x lo" g? A. An electrical resistor is installed in a container of water to heat it.. 5. In a certain assay.fi = 4ar 2 .4 pglmL.. what happens to its area? A. C. the surface area is A. C. = 6. a number of microbes is measured by determining the mass of the sample.. It increases by a factor of 16. and the area A = lcr2. what happens to the circumference? 4. B.0 x 10l6g. .. 6.Chapter 1 . It increases by a factor of 2..020 mg. D .000 K B.. 2. D... In any of the following problems you may want to use one of the constants N. It is known that the average mass of a microbe (of this species) is 6.05 x 10' seconds. It increases by a factor of 64. R = 0. . It increases by a factor of 8.. 6. what is the temperature? A.55 mg.. .. It increases by a factor of 16. B.0 W. How many microbes are in a sample of mass 1. Introduction Chapter 1 Problems A. 4. If the diameter of a circle is increased by a factor of 4. For a sphere.4 x 10z seconds. and 1 W is 1 Jls. It increases by a factor of 4. 6.) A.. and the volume is the mass of 422. 7. How long would it take to raise the temperature of the water 5" C? (Note: The specific heat of water is 4.. and the container holds 10 kg of water. 1.2 x 10' seconds.... 4 K Use the following information for questions 610: For a circle we have the formula for the circumference C = 2xr. 2.. 5500 C. B. The resistor dissipates heat at a rate of 2. 4. . C.4 mL? A. It increases by a factor of 2. 3. 610K C.2 x lo3J/kg "C.6 x loZs A certain substance has a density 8. where r is the radius. What is Two liters of argon gas are at 10 atm of pressure.0821 L atm/K mol. D.6 x lo4 D. It increases by a factor of 4. .
It increases by a factor of 16. It decreases by a factor of 16. where the acceleration due to gravity is six times less than that here on Earth. D.5. 60Hz D. It would decrease by a factor of 36. By how much was the rod length decreased? A. It would increase by a factor of 6. 120 Hz I GO ONTOTHE NDCTPAGE . If a mass of 60 g is connected to a certain spring. The length of the rod of a certain pendulum is decreased. It increases by 60%. B. 9. the frequency is 30 Hz. If the radius of a circle is increased by 30%. It increases by a factor of 2. It increases by a factor of 64. If you connect a mass m on one end. C.4. It increases by a factor of 2. It decreases by a factor of 9. B. 15Hz C. 40% D. D. 20% B. D.The MCAT Physics Book If the radius of a sphere increases by a factor of 4. 36% C. It decreases by a factor of 1. It increases by 75%. 10.5. C. how would the period of the pendulum change? A. how does the period change? A. and g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s2). B. It increases by a factor of 16. Use the following information for questions 111 3: A pendulum is a mass connected to a light string or rod which is connected to the ceiling. what happens to its diameter? A. It would increase by a factor of 36. 14.) ' 1 1 . what happens to its volume? A. D. 44% 8. C. It increases by 69%. It increases by a factor of 4. If the length of the suing of a pendulum is increased by a factor of 4. D. 1is the length of the string or rod (in m). C.(See figure. It increases by a factor of 4. B. and connect the other end to a fixed wall or ceiling. It increases by 30%. how does the area change? A. If a mass of 240 g is connected to the same spring. and the period then decreases by 20%. what is the frequency? A. It decreases by a factor of 3. Use the following information for questions 1416: A spring is characterized by a spring constant k (in N/m) which gives the stiffness of the spring. 12. or how hard you have to pull to stretch it. If a pendulum is transported to the Moon. It is given by I 13. B. It decreases by a factor of 4. 7. The period is the amount of time it takes the bob (as the mass is called) to swing from one side to the other and back. It would increase by a factor of 2. This vibration has period T given by The frequency of the vibration is defined as where T is in s.5Hz B. C . then the resulting system will vibrate. If the volume of a sphere decreases by a factor of 27.
If the voltage in a given experiment is held constant. two masses are attached to a spring and . It increases by a factor of 4. . . It decreases by a factor of 3. & eleclric field I voltage source 18. Use the following information for questions 1719: The volume of a pyramid with a square base is given by i 19. It increases by a factor of 36. It decreases by a factor of 9. It decreases by 33%. B. C. If a new battery is installed. D . 16. I passage 1 [You d o not need to have any prior knowledge of e l e c t n c i ~ to deal with this passage. C. It decreases by 40%. E in J l n and d in m. It would increase by a factor of 27. how is the electric field affected? A.. . D. It increases by a factor of 3. 9 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . If every linear dimension of a square pyramid were increased by a factor of 3. but the distance between the plates is increased by a factor of 3. two parallel metal plates are connected to a voltage source which maintains a potential V across the plates. . . where s is the length of a side.!?between the plates. D. It increases by a factor of 27.. The magnitude of the electric field is related to the potential and the separation between the plates according to V = Ed. It increases by a factor of 3.. .Chapter 1 .. It increases by a factor of 9.. Mass P is 1296 times smaller than mass Q. capacitor 17. D. It would increase by a factor of 9. Mass P resulted in a period 36 times larger than the period of mass Q. It increases by a factor of 8 1.] In a parallelplate capacitor. It increases by 33%. . how is the electric field affected? A. A charged particle placed between the plates will experience a force given in magnitude by F=qE. Positive charges collect on one side of the capacitor and negative charges on the other side. . C. 1 . . It decreases by a factor of 9. Mass P is 6 times larger than mass Q. C. B.. B. . D. B. and h is the perpendicular height. It increases by a factor of 3.. D.. How does the volume of a square pyramid change if the base side length is increased by a factor of 9 and the height is unchanged? A. where V is measured in volts. . how would the volume change? A. . . What can be concluded? A. Mass P is 6 times smaller than mass Q. thus creating an electric field . C . and F is the force in N. It increases by a factor of 72. It would increase by a factor of 3. D. how does the frequency change? A. It increases by a factor of 12. C. C. . B. B. It increases by a factor of 9. . . It would increase by a factor of 8 1. In two trials. How does the volume of square pyramid change if the height is increased by a factor of 12 and the base side length is unchanged? A. so that the voltage between the plates is increased by a factor of 9. It decreases by 50%. It increases by a factor of 81. Mass P is 1296 times larger than mass Q. . If the period increases by 50%. Introduction 15. B. 2. . It stays the same. where q is the charge of the particle in Coulombs. the periods recorded.
There is no force on the helium. which is a possibility? A. 2. C. The charge on ball A is 2 C. It decreases by 50%. ?he force would decrease by a factor of 2. It is the same. 16N In a given experiment. If the charge on ball A is increased to 8 C. but the charge q2 is multiplied by 4. It is four times as great. D. while the charges on the balls are undisturbed. The . D. The separation is increased by a factor of 2. B . It decreases by a factor of 4. C. It decreases by 36%. magnitude of the force is given by Which graph best shows the relationship between the force between two balls F and their separation r? q . 4. and q2 where F is in N. It is twice as great. and all else is unchanged. D. B. what happens to the force on a proton between the plates if the separation of the plates is increased by a factor of 2? A. and all else is unchanged. 3. Which graph best show the relationship between the potential V and the electric field E? 4. the distance separating the balls is increased by 25%. It decreases by 25%. 5. How would this affect the force between them? A. B. How does the force on the helium nucleus compare to the force on the proton? A. How does this affect the force between the balls? A. B. C. In a hypothetical situation. all other things being held constant. 8 N B. and all else unchanged. 1 . the separation between the balls is halved. D.The MCAT Physics Book 3. In an experiment. k is a constant 9 x 10' N m2/c2. GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . C. It stays the same. 1 C. and all else is unchanged. C. It decreases by a factor of 2. is also multiplied by 4. In a given experiment. The separation is decreased by a factor of 2. 18N 48 N I Two charged balls which are near each other will exert a force on each other: attractive if they are oppositely charged. B. two balls of positive charge exert a force 12 N on each other. It increases by a factor of 2. It increases by 25%. are the charges on the balls measured in C. what would the force be? A. The force would increase by a factor of 2. If the force between the balls stays the same. The separation is increased by a factor of 4. The force would decrease by a factor of 4. The charge q. D. and repulsive if they are similarly charged. D. both a proton and a bare helium nucleus are between the plates. and all else is unchanged. 5. The force would increase by a factor of 4. In a certain experiment. and r is the distance between the balls in m.
.. .5 7. we do not know the values of the exponents m. 80% more energy.160 1 .0 14. 44% more energy. A. we are investigating the retarding force that a fluid exerts on an object moving through it.A is the crosssectional area of the car viewed from the front (in m2). p. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . B. 4 and 6 4 . and there is no wind. 1 and 6 D. Let us say m and n are known. Experiment object A (cm2) v ( d s ) F (N) 1 cork ball 1. Julie wants to drive from Tucson to Phoenix and get good gas mileage. and 5 3 only In a certain experiment. and 3 C.. For the following questions.. C. A. So we guess Passage 4 The amount of energy a car expends against air resistance is approximately given by E = 0. .4. It increases by a factor of 8.5 0. . How much more energy will she use if she drives 2046 faster? D.. in an equation.. 2. It increases by a factor of 4.010 4 steel ball 4. and p. 20% more energy. .005 3 steel ball 3. D.. is the density of air .005 steel ball 1.0 0.020 2 cork ball 1. . 2 and 3 C.2pi.5 0.D is the distance traveled (in m). 1 and 2 B. n.5 3. assume that the energy loss is due solely to air resistance..5 0. C . so we include A. 1.2 kg/m3). B. What combination of experiments would be considered a minimum set for determining p and k? A.Chdpter 1 . Which graph best represents the relationship between F and q? 3. C .2. where k is a proportionality constant with some appropriate units.0 3. . .5 0.~~v2. B... and the force between them is recorded... 2. The chart gives the data for a certain fluid. 40% more energy.. as well as the density of the fluid p. In a certain experiment two balls are both given a charge q. We guess that the size of the object is a factor. It increases by a factor of 16. It increases by a factor of 2. Which pair of experiments could be used to determine n? where E is measure in Joules. Before we run the experiment. the crosssectional area. and v is the speed of the car (in d s ) .015 5 6 steel ball 3. Whichpair of experiments indicates that retarding force does not depend on the density of the object? A. Julie usually drives at a certain speed.5 3. D . they are set a distance r away from each other. If Julie increases her speed from 30 mph to 60 mph. The relative velocity between the object and the fluid is a factor v. . C. . . What is the approximate value of p? A. 1 D.0 0.. Introduction 6. .... 2 and 3 3 and 4 4 and 6 5 and6 1 B. (1.5 3. 0 1 2 D. 1 and 2 B. Passage 3 3. 1 . how does the energy required to travel from Tucson to Phoenix change? A.
C. Sixteen times as much energy. Eight times as much energy. B. D. D. 4. It increases by 20%.The 3. 25% further.a small 90s style car. 44% further. 20% further. It increases by 21%. B. How does Julie's energy usage change if she changes from driving 50 mph to 55 mph? A. How much further can she drive and still use the same amount of energy? A. C. It increases by 40%. so that the effective crosssectional area is reduced by 20%. B. On the basis of energy loss due to air resistance alone. 5. Four times as much energy. Julie modifies her car. how much more energy would you expect Scott's car to expend gening from Tucson to Phoenix than Laura's car? A. Twice as much energy. STOP . and Laura drives . MCAT Physics Book Scott drives a very large 50s style car. 10% further. C. D. so that every linear dimension of Scott's car is double that of Laura's car. It increases by 10%.
We can think about mass in several ways. and the force on your head due to pressure when you are at the bottom of a pool. initially at rest. Mechanics is concerned mainly with changes in velocity. not the astronomical body the car is on. Before we can talk about motion in depth. that is. Comparatively this chapter has a lot of equations (six that you should memorize) and the least interesting physics. velocity.. We are assuming the car's motion has no friction.) A Newton is approximately the amount of force that you would exert on an apple near the Earth's surface to keep it from falling. First. In this chapter we look at the fundamental elements of mechanics: force.) . to moving at 1 mls. For example. but it must be done. the nuzss of an object is a measure of the total amount of material (or stuff) in the object. distance. It doesn't change if you move the a r s . and we talk of how fast they go. if John wants to set a car. mass. object to a new place. the force of gravity pdling you down. Examples of forces include the force ofa horse pulling a cart. > . . velocity. A force is a push or pull. It is an unpleasant way to begin. he has to push hard for a little while. the force of a spring pushing the chassis of a car. (See ~ i ~ 21. so we talk of acceleration. The mass of an object is a measure of how difficult it is to get it moving at a certain velocity if it starts from rest. If John and the car were on the Moon. Their velocity changes. Objects move. (Some countries continue to use an archaic unit called the "pound". and the units for force are [Newtons = Nl. like a mountain top or to M There is another way to think of mass. we need to be able to describe motion and the things which affect it. The fundamental concept here is the u & mass of the car.1 Chapter 2 Mechanics is about the motion of things. but it turns out (happily) that we rarely need to. and acceleration. his task would be equally difficult. The amount of stuff in an object is a fundamental property of the object. We can think of changes in acceleration.
t~ . But that definition depends on where you are. and move the second vector so its tail is at the first vector's tip. It takes just as much force and time to get a car moving at a given velocity on the Earth as on the Moon. Force is a vector. the mass of an object is a measure of how much it hurts if your stub you toe on it. then each vector gets added to the previous tip. If there are other vectors. two forces F. We leave the first vector fixed. which is a force. may both be 100 N and be very but different the crocodile's dependexperience acting on a will crocodile. The sum is the vector pointing from the first tail to the last tip. The difficulty in picking up an object is a matter of weight. Stubbing your toe on a bowling ball is a painful proposition. but nearly impossible on the surface of Jupiter. we 1 0N need to use vectors. Vectors In physics we often need to describe direction as well as size. In the former case he gets stretched. Many people think the mass of an object is a measure of how difficult it is to pick it up. There is a wrong way to think about mass. depending on the the size of the vector and the direction of relative directwm of the forces. I O O ~ W N N ' ing on whether the forces are both pointing north or one north and one south (Figure 22). and in the latter case he goes flying. Figure 21 Saying this another way. the length of the arrow showing dijferentways. And weight does depend on the astronomical body near by.The MCAT Physics Book A car has the same mass on the Moon as it has on Earth. That is. D. even on the Moon. and F. It is easy to pick up a bowling ball on the Moon. Figure 22 We can add vectors by the tiptotail method. For example. We denote vectors in diagrams by Twoforces on an object may add in arrows. the arrow showing its direction. To describe forces we need to specify size and direction.
. then the sum is a force of 200 N pointing north (Figure 23. total force)? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 24). . If one vector points north and the other south. f the magnitude of the sum is equal to. What is the direction of the net force (that is. a. Forces are vectors and they add according to the tiptotail method.. A vector is denoted by a halfarrow on top of a letter. the sum of the individual magniFS". so we can write FA= ( 3 ~ ) + ' ( F.. P f 1 2 A Example 3: A force of 4 N is acting to the north on a rock and a force of 3 N is acting to the east. It is useful to keep in mind the Pythagorean theorem and elementary trigonometry. if @ is the deviation from north of the direction of the total force? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 25).. and tangent.. For MCAT problems. when you add vectors. What is cos @. about 40 N.. at most. Figure 25 If your trigonometry is rusty. a 100N force east. for example. if the vectors (both 100 N) both point north. Also we write 4 ~ =)25 ~N ~ . What is the magnitude of the total force? b. The sum is a vector pointing northeast.. now is a good time to relearn the definitions of sine.. cosine. where the sum is shown dashed).. For instance. There is a right triangle. then the first tail coincides with the last tip and the sum is zero (Figure 23). . = 5 N . and a 100N force southwest. if three Figure 2 4 vectors of 100 N are acting on a crocodile. Note that. vector addition need not get more sophisticated than this.. the sum can be anything from 0 N to 300 N. but no greater.Chapter 2 . p. tudes (and that only if they are pointing in the same direction). Figure 23 Example 2: A crocodile has three forces acting on him: a 100N force north. The Language of Motion Example 1: For the crocodiles mentioned before.
the time between a beginning time t.? But in some problems the velocity does change. and All That We can think of the velocity vector in terms of a speedometer reading with units [meterskecond = m/s] and a direction. If an object is traveling such that its velocity vector is constant. for instance.x2 or x2 + x. y. Velocity. instead of speeding by it. only A see why it is this and not x. and we must pay attention to several velocities.. this tells you. generally measured in [meters = m]. = 2 2 . Ask yourself. and Time To specify position. we must give three coordinates x. The word "velocity" is sometimes used to refer to the vector and sometimes to the magnitude. and The average velocity is defined as . If an object moves from one position to another. you should assume it refers to the vector. measured in [seconds = s]. x is replaced by its definition x2. The symbol ? stands for the coordinates (x. initial velocity. denoted t. that is.The MCAT Physics Book E. "What is this equation telling me?'Quation (la) is just another form of "distance equals rate times time" for an object in uniform motion. just the speedometer reading) is called speed. .. Time is a fundamental quantity in classical physics. The magnitude of the velocity vector (that is. This makes sense. y. An example is a car going a constant 30 m/s (freeway speed) west. v. slow down and look at it.. An instant is a single moment of time.t. Often we will speak of a time interval At = t2 . we say it is in uniform motion.. and z. z). Since v is constant.x. average velocity. We can write the following equations for uniform motion in one dimension: When you see a formula in this text. F. v.$1. that a car will travel twice as far if it travels for twice the time. Displacement. Position. and and ending time t. v2 final velocity. the vector giving the change in position is the displacement vector. When in doubt. that is. Speed. The magnitude of the displacement vector is called the displacement. Do you Equation (lb) is like the first.
. the object is accelerating. we define acceleration by  The numerator for equation (3a) gives the change in the velocity vector. . acceleration is negative. the acceleration vector must point south.. . and then it goes west again at 4 m/s for 15 s. and v.. In three dimensions. The Pythagorean theorem gives us As = 130 m.. whereas equation (I) defines a constant velocity and only holds for time intervals when the motion is uniform. then it goes north at 10 m/s for 5 s. In one dimension the definition of acceleration is The units for acceleration are [(m/s)/s = m/s 11s = m/s2].? Solution: Well. .Chapter 2 . With this sign convention. we have v.. s 26 s 60 m . = 10 m/s and v2 = 4 m/s.. Equation (2) is the definition of an average velocity over a time interval when velocity is changing. so there is an acceleration if either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity vector change.. Examples include a car speeding up ("accelerating" in common parlance).. Acceleration When an object's velocity vector is changing. 60 m 50 m b 120 m Figure 26 G. but physicists prefer to say "negatively accelerating").5. Example: A car goes west at 10 m/s for 6 s. The Language of Motion This is different from equation (1)... and turning. What is the sign of the acceleration? Solution: Since the velocity vector points south and the car is speeding up. For the average velocity we need to DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 26). Example la: Take north to be positive... v. A car is traveling south and speeding up. We will talk more about this in Chapter 6. .. slowing down or braking ("decelerating".. What are v . Thus 130m m Vavg = . .
4. and acceleration. 3. Example 2a: Take north to be positive. then a is larger by a factor of 3. if At is smaller by a factor of 3. position. A car traveling south speeds up from 10 m/s to 15 m/s in 10 s. A Porsche takes less time by a factor of 3 to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph. the acceleration vector must point south. Since this vector is shrinking. Given a graph of v versus t. What is the sign of the acceleration? Solution: The velocity vector points north. A car is traveling north and slowing for a red light. The following principles apply 1.The MCAT Physics Book Example lb: Take. Thus the acceleration is negative. the area under the curve during interval At gives the change in velocity v during that interval. Given a graph of v versus t. the instantaneous slope at time t is the velocity v at time t. Given a graph of x versus t. Example 2b: What is the acceleration for the car in Example 2a slowing from 1 0 d s to 8 m/s in 1 s? Solution: We write Example 3: An Oldsmobile takes a certain amount of time to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph. Now we have three quantities. . 2. Often it is helpful to visualize these quantities graphically. the instantaneous slope at time t is the acceleration a at time t. Given a graph of a versus t. north to be positive. the area under the curve during interval At gives the change in position x during that interval. What is its acceleration? Solution: We write This confirms our thinking in Example la. velocity. How does the Porsche acceleration compare with that of the Oldsmobile? Solution: We look at equation (4) Since Av is constant. all related to each other algebraically.
what is the direction of its velocity? What is the direction of its acceleration? Example 2: An apple is tossed straight up in the air. We can at least read that the 1 slope is positive and very large.. so the car is speeding up (if it is going forward). the'quantity A v is constant. that is. This is the same thing. Sketch the graph of v versus t . Av = aAt. Assume v=Om/satt=Os. the change in velocity during dt. Figure 28 has the information that the velocity is increasing at a constant rate. the area is a At again.The reason for principle 3 above becomes clear if we recall the formula for the area of the rectangle representing the hatched region: area = height x length. The graph of y versus t is shown in Figure 29. hence the first point in Figure 210.. Thus the change in velocity is the same. vK 11 Before you read the next example. Figure 27 has the information that Figure 28 the acceleration is positive and constant. . as shown in Figure 28. . so we could calculate its slope if we had some numbers. This area is Av. When it reaches the top of its path. This portion looks almost straight.. The Language of M o t i o n Example 1: The graph of a versus t for a car which undergoes constant acceleration is shown in Figure 27. a Figure 29 Fire 210 . Figure 27 I I I This is how we defined acceleration in 0 t equation (4). .. Solution: To obtain an instantaneous slope. Solution: The area under the curve between 0 and dt is shown in a "forwardslash" hatch. Note that Figures 27 and 28 give 0 t (almost) the same information in different forms...During the second interval At.Chapter 2 .. consider an object thrown straight up. For the next intervals of time. we can use an imaginary electron micioscope to look at a small portion of the graph. Sketch the graphs of v versus t and a versus t. A small section of Figure 29 has been enlarged using such a microscope.
but it is easy to see that the slope is constant and negative.) Solution: Let's graph x versus t first. and so on. the slope of v versus t for any point between t = 0 and 1 s is zero. (See Figure 2. From t = 1 to 2 s. did you know that the direction of the acceleration would be down? Example 3: Figure 2. the area under the curve is 0. (Say x = 0 at t = 0. Does this match your expectation? Particularly at the top of flight.11.) Think about all three graphs for a while and note how they give the same information in different forms. Sketch the graphs for x versus t and for a versus t.) From t = 2 to 3 s the area under the curve is 1. The slope jumps to 1 mls2 for the interval from 1 to 3 s and drops back down to zero for times after 3 s. It will not come as a surprise if we draw a straight line through these points. Figure 214 shows the result.5 rn. We graph the acceleration in Figure 212.  0 1 2 3 4 5 t(s) Figure 213 6 1 (in progress) t x(m) 31&+0 1 2 x (m) 'c/ 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 t Figure 214 Figure 215 . Between t = 3 and 4 s. so x stays constant. The third point has a zero slope (see uppermost point in Figure 29). as in Figure 2.15.13 shows v versus t for a car. the area is 2 m and x jumps to 4 m. From t = 0 to 1 s. there is no area under the curve. We take the slope at three points. but smaller. so that the x value jumps to 2 m (see the first graph of Figure 214). (Recall the area of a triangle is A = 112 base x height.5 m. and the fifth point has a slope more negative still. For the graph of a versus t. The fourth point has negative slope.The MCAT Physics Book Figure 211 Figure 212 The second point on Figure 210 still has a positive slope.
the average velocity over a period of time is the average of the beginning and ending velocities. if we substitute v. is exactly between them. Uniform Acceleration If an object has a constant acceleration vector. we say it undergoes uniform acceleration. The Language of Motion I. With v. and v. Working through the algebra will help you memorize it... Furthermore. . If we start with the definition of average velocity.+ adt (from equation [4]). but the definition of v. See Figures 27 and 28 for an example. Example: A car is accelerating uniformly from rest..Ax. . we have the following: that is. and Ar..we obtain If At increases by a factor of 4. This may seem like a natural definition of average velocity. is large..+ a d t ) ) d r . 2 This is the first equation which may seem a bit arcane. and it increases by a factor of 4' = 16. The velocity v. If it goes a distance din the first second.. is given by equation (2). how far will it go in the first four seconds? Solution: We want an equation involving the quantities mentioned in the problem. = v. is small. = 0. the Ax increases. v . v. + (v. . then we obtain 1 Ax = (v. You should memorize it anyway. a. and equation (5) holds only for uniform acceleration. Most MCAT problems involving acceleration will involve uniform acceleration. = 0.."..so equation (6) is it. we can write Ax = vavgdfr This is a useful equation if you do not have and do not need the acceleration (see equation [7] below).. For uniform acceleration.Chapter 2 .
S A m a = 10s2 ' Ay = 2m a = 10 m s2 A=? We look for an equation which involves these quantities and no others. Equation (9) fits. so that + Figure 216 . how much time does it take him to drop? Solution: Let's choose "up" to be positive and DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 216). The last equation is the only one which is new. obtained by eliminating dt from equations (7) and (8). It should be easy to remember. It is useful for problems in which the time interval is neither specified nor desired. The third equation was in the last section. Kinematic Equations for Constant Acceleration For uniform acceleration there are four equations you should know: The first equation we have seen before. We write the quantities we know: V0 m =o. The second equation is just the definition of acceleration.The M C A T Physics Book II J. If he accelerates 10 m/s2 downward due to gravity. Example 1:A cat drops from a ledge 2 m above the ground. the modified "distance equals rate times time" when velocity is changing.
and force are all vectors. In this chapter we looked at the quantities which describe motion. force and mass. acceleration. while acceleration is a measure of the change in velocity per unit time. . In addition. .. Displacement is a change in location.. that is. so that Figure 217 His impact velocity is 20 m/s.. that is. The Ldnguage of M o t i o n Example 2: A man drops to his death from the sixth floor of a building (20 m).. they have diuection as well as magnitude. displacement. . As he is falling. Thus our information summary m is v. you should know the equations for the definition of velocity for uniform motion and of average velocity. Most of the mechanics problems on the MCAT involve one dimension and uniform acceleration. We will be dealing with the vector nature of these quantities in future chapters. shown in Section J. What is his impact velocity? (He was a bad man.. that is.) Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 217). and the quantities which affect motion. and acceleration. =O .Chdpter 2 .. The formula which contains this infotmation and nothing else is (10). and if he had not died many other nice people would have. Displacement. . his acceleration is a constant 10 m/s2 downward. In this case we can derive four equations. .. velocity. velocity. Velocity is a measure of the change in location per unit time. The impact velocity is the man's velocity just before he hits the ground v.
its smaller mass makes for a smaller gravitational field.000 kg Use the following informationfor questions 2 and 3: A car is driving north at 2 m/s. 10. + B. and a fly in the car is flying west at 0.000kg mobile unit is transported to the Moon. + C. 2.000 kg D. 3. 60. What is the speed of the fly? A. i t B. What is its mass on the Moon? A.7 m/s B. A 10. The net effect is that the gravitational field of the Moon at its surface is one sixth that of the Earth. 1/36 (10. C. 2. When the Moon is compared to Earth. Dt 1 5.000) kg C.09 m/s The following diagram represents three vectors in a plane: 4. The following diagram represents three vectors in a plane: What arrow best represents the direction of the sum? 1 A. while its smaller radius favors a larger one. 2. D.3 m/s D. The diagram is invalid. The gravitational field of a planet or spherical asuo nomical body depends on its mass and on its radius. 4.3 m/s (relative to the car).02 m/s C. Which of the following best shows the appropriate diagram for the fly's velocity relative to the ground (thick arrow)? What arrow best represents the direction of the sum? A.000) kg B. ?he sum is zero. 116 (10. 24 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 1.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter I Problems 1 .
What is its change in velocity? A. C . If the car were to travel three times as fast. Ods B. Om/s 1 6 . given. which i s 27 km away (straightline distance). How far does the car travel during this time? D . at 12:15 (exactly). 3500N D. 1. 22.1 m/s C.5 m/s begins to accelerate at a constant 0. what is the magnitude of the net force? A. She comes to a stop at her friend's house..95 m/s D. Consider the interval from 11:OO to 12:15. covering the same distance. Ods B. What is her velocity 9 s after 11:00? A. A sparrow cruising at 1. If. which of the following is NOT a possibility for the magnitude of the net (total) force? A. then the time of travel would be A.5 m/s2 C. decreased by a factor of 9. 1OOON C. 8. The Language of Motion 6. 3...75 m/s2 B. 22. 1000N B.5 m/s2 D. At 11:OO (exactly) she starts from rest and accelerates at a constant 2. D . 10.25ds D. 8000N Use the following infonnation for questions 81 I : A woman is going to a friend's house to discuss opening a business. 3.Chapter 2 ..5mls 15. in question 6. 1.1 m/s C. increased by a factor of 3. 15 m/s2 13. 7000N 11.. If there are no other (unbalanced) faces. I I 14.. 5000N C.s B. A car travels a certain distance at a constant velocity v for a time t.. 1. 22. What is the car's acceleration? A. 7000N D.28 m/s B.5 m/s2for 9 s to get to her cruising speed.6 m/s D. 2. 500 N B. 0. 9. Two men pull on ropes connected to a large refrigerator with forces 3000 N and 4000 N. the two men are pulling at right angles to each other. What is her final velocity? A.. What is her average velocity? A. decreased by a factor of 3. What is the car's average velocity for this time interval? A.5 d s C. What is her initial velocity? A. 2. 2.6 m/s D.5m/s This cannot be determined from the information D . 6m/s C.4 m/s GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . She then drives for 15 minutes at constant speed before she hits city traffic. 5.5 m/s C. increased by a factor of 9.9 m/s B. 2. 5.. 0.5 m/s Use the following infonnation for questions 1214: A car accelerates uniformly in one dimension from 5 m/s to 30 m/s in 10 s. 11..3 m/s2 for 3 s.5 m/s 12. This cannot be determined from the information given. B . 17. 2.5d. 7 .
D. A bicycle traveling at speed v covers a distance Ax during a time interval At. 2. At what time does the ball come to a stop? 25. If a car travels at speed 3v. If it has an initial velocity 0. At. 0. What kilometer marker will the car pass at that time? A. At13 D. At+ 3 B. 23. A car is going 20 mls in traffic. B. What is the acceleration? A. What is the net distance traveled? A. 17. 8. 0.2 m/s.02 d s 2 for the next 500 s.0 s Use the following information for questions 21 and 22: A ball is initially rolling up a slight incline at 0.2 m/s2 for 5 s. 3030 km C. 18000 km A squirrel is running along a wire with constant acceleration. It decelerates uniformly at 0.02 s B. 0. accelerating at a constant 1. 41. 0.8m A.5 m D. What is its velocity just before hitting the ground? A. 0. 5. How long does it take to fall? A.4 d s and final velocity 1. Use the following information for questions 23 and 24: A car is going backwards at 5 m/s. how much time does it take the car to go the same distance? A.5 m/s D. D. 1. Its acceleration is a constant 9. 50m A. What is the ball's net displacement after 6 s? A. This cannot be determined from the information given. the driver steps on the accelerator pedal. 4.04 s This cannot be determined from the information given. the car is going forward at 10 m/s. It comes to a stop after going for 5 s.8 m/s2 downward. 45 m 18. How far does he travel during these 5 s? D. 30m 115m 130m 160m 20. After 10 s of uniform acceleration.7m C.1 m/s2.3 m B. 21. 1. The car accelerates at 0. 25 m B. 1. B. 1.05 m/s2. 0. 14ds C. C.4 m C.98 m/s B.6m D.43 s 22. 5 m/s2 24.02 m/s B. What was its initial velocity? A. 3015 km B.6 m B. I2000km D.25 m/s C. When the traffic breaks. D. 0.7 m C.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following infonnation for questions 17 and 18: A dropped ball falls from a height of 10 m to the ground.5 m/s2 B.75 m/s2 C. 19.4 m C. how far does it run in that time? A. 0.8 d s after 4 s. 1. 0. 98 m/s D. 2s 4s 8s 16s 26 GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE .3 26. 1.5 m/s2 D. A car is going up a slight slope decelerating at 0. C. 3dr C. A car is traveling 25 m/s when it passes kilometermarker 3000.
. it attains a certain velocity v after a time t . 31. It is zero. It is positive except for one point. C D. C D. . For questions 31 and 32. It is negative.consider the following figure representing the velocity of a car along a street. then zero. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? Consider also the following graphs: 32. A B. D Consider also the following graphs: 97 GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE .. B C.. v + 9 B . B C. A B.. Which best represents the graph of displacement versus time? A. If a bicycle starts accelerating uniformly from rest (at t = O). 6v D..Chapter 2 . D. C. t 29. 3v C. B. D 30. What can be concluded about the net displacement? A. where it is zero... It is always positive? For questions 3335.. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? A. consider the following figure representing the velocity of an object in one dimension. a time 3t after the start t = O)? A. The Language of Motion 28. 9v For questions 29 and 30. consider the following figure representing the displacement of an object in one dimension.. then positive. How fast would it be going after a time 3t (that is.
Which best represents the graph of displacement versus time? 1 37. It is positive. C. however. it accelerates and then goes forward at constant velocity. except for one point. The driver. Which best represents the graph of velocity versus time? I 2. What is the value of his average velocity? GO ON TO THE. What is the value of his initial velocity? A.) 1 . A Passage 1 35. B. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? 34. shifts into first gear while the car is rolling backward and pushes on the accelerator until he is going forward. shift from reverse into first gear. 1. What can be said about the net velocity change Av? A. then slows to a stop. then accelerate forward.The MCAT Physics Book 33.0 d s C.8 d s B. 0. Car experts agree that the best way to do this is to press on the brake until the car comes to a complete stop.NEXTPAGE . Consider also the following graphs: A man is driving out of his driveway by backing up. (Negative velocity = backwards. so he pulls back into the driveway.2 d s 36. Use the following information for questions 36 and 37: A car backs up at constant velocity. D. This causes some wear on the transmission. He realizes he has forgotten his lunch. After it is stopped for a while. It is negative. It is positive. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? A. The following chart shows some data about his progress. It is zero. 1.
0 s? A. It is less.6 m/s2 C.4m C..0 m/s2 B. down How far does the object fall in the time interval from t=Oto4s? A.. It depends on the object. The displacement x is always nonnegative. D.. It depends on the objec't. 1 . C. consider a ball dropped from the fortieth story of a building. Which best represents the graph of acceleration versus time? I 3. How does the change in height from t = 1 to 2 s compare with the change in height from r = 3 to 4 s? A. It is the same.2 m/s2 What is the direction of the acceleration vector? A. the heights of the two balls match all the way down.6m Which expression gives the change in velocity between t. 5. backward C.8 kg and made of iron.. It is greater. forward B. 4. Consider air resistance negligible unless noted otherwise.0 s to 2. Not only do the two balls hit the ground at the same time. and the other is 1. Passage P A physics student leans out of the fortieth story of the physics building and drops two balls of the same size at the same time.. 0. The velocity is always increasing. Equal intervals of time correspond to equal intervals of velocity. 1.. D. 1. 4. C. It is less. D. B. In the following questions. It is the same. Which of the following is evidence that the acceleration is uniform? A.Chapter 2 .. Which graph best represenh velocity versus time? A. 5. C. 6. GO ON T OT H E NEXT PAGE . 39. The Language of M o t i o n 3. This somewhat counterintuitive result is an example of a general principle: If air resistance is negligible. = 3 s and t2 = 4 s? 2. One is 0. up D. How does the change in velocity from t = 1 to 2 s compare with the change in velocity from t = 3 to 4 s? A.8 m/s2. 0.0 m/s2 D. B. The velocity becomes zero at t = 1.2 m B.Free fall means that only the force of gravity is acting on an object. 78.. What is the magnitude of the acceleration from t = 1. 156. B..8m D.5 s. 313. It is greater.2 kg and made of lead. then an object in free fall at the surface of the Earth has a downward acceleration of g = 9. and consider "down" to be in the positive direction..
B . Which is a good explanation for this? A. C. C. A styrofoam ball of the same size as the lead ball takes a longer time to reach the ground. D. STOP . Ax+3 6.The MCAT Physics Book If an object falls a distance A x during the first t seconds. how far does it fall during the first 3t seconds? A. The force of gravity on the styrofoam ball is less than that on the lead ball. There is a gravitational force between the ball and the building. 7. . 3Ax Ax+9 9Ax D. The force of gravity does not act on the styrofoam ball. Air resistance is a significant force in this problem. B .
there must be a force on it. Galileo discovered this law. although it's generally called Newton's first law of motion. Because it is common sense (right?) that if nothing pushes on an object. There are no forces. But sometimes closer scrutiny conflicts with common sense. constant speed to the right indefinitely. then the forces on it are balanced. In this case think of a rock in deep space moving along. including Aristotle (ancient Greek. meaning the rock continues traveling at. What does it mean for the forces to be balanced? Before we answer that question. to retune our intuition. Case a. and when that happens we have to change our thinking. so that what once seemed wrong now seems right. no intellectual lightweight) and more recently Descartes (famous philosopher). Some very intelligent thinkers thought it was a law of nature. Conversely. so that right.Chapter 3 Laws of Motion A. The velocity vector is constant. but that's physics. '((0 mea!s the object is moving to the " ' 0 Figure 3la . it eventually slows to a stop. First Law of Motion If the forces on an object are balanced. if an object has constant velocity. Some people use the term inertia to describe this property of matter. First Law of Motion The following is not a law of physics: If an object is moving. That can be difficult. let's look at a few cases.  Most people think the above statement is a law of nature. In the following figures (Figures 3laf) we denote !he motion of an object by "motion marks". then the ob~ect moves with constant velocity (constant speed in a straight line).
The object will speed up. in which the right force is larger than the left force (hence unbalanced). The symbol fi stands for "normal".. The velocity vector is constant... The object will slow down. is the force of gravity. .. The woman kicks the ball.. The case is between cases c and d. equal in magnitude. and stopping. In this case think of a marble rolling along a smooth level floor (no friction). Example: A woman kicks a soccer ball. Two opposed forces. The vector gg. Think about this one for a while. The vector Fn. Figure 3lf where F. This stumps many people. Case c. The object has constant velocity. The object's velocity vector is constant.The MCAT Physics Book Case b. Gravity pulls down. We define Fnel=F. Case d. It is force the ground exerts on the ball. rolling. Case f. and it rolls for a while at constant speed. but the floor pushes up. it will keep its speed indefinitely. are equal in magnitude. Draw a diagram showing all the forces on the ball at the three times: kicking. Figure 32 Solution: Part a: The ball is kicked (see Figure 32). The forces in all three directions are balanced. _L  Figure 3lb Figure 3lc Figure 3ld Figure 3le Fnel by a _ + F2 +. and F. There are two opposed forces. F2. The forces are balanced if the vector sum of all the forces on the object is zero. left and right.are all the forces acting on an object.. Case e. A The ball rolls withoutfriction. . is the total force on the object.is the force of the foot on the ball.. This scenario is also a nonexample with the left force larger than the right force. a physics word meaning perpendicular to the ground. perpendicular to the motion. This scenario is a nonexarnple. that is. then another woman stops it. Figure 33 .
. According to the first law.Chdpter 3 . the balanced forces guarantee it will speed. The ball does not remember (or care) what started it rolling. (See Figure 35. There must be acceleration. Figure 3 5 We can write (in one dimension) A force on a small object causes more acceleration than the same force On a large object.... B. Figure 34 Over the next several chapters there will be many problems to test your intuition on the first law.. Laws of Motion Part b: The ball rolls along..... Figure 36 We have not proven this equation. Now there is a force of a foot on the ball as well (Figure 34). A A large force causes more acceleration than a small force.... 4 Fstop Fgrav a Part c: The ball is stopped.. the small car will have the larger acceleration. if we apply the same push to both a small car and a large car (Figure 36).) On the other hand. the larger the acceleration.. but the discussion in the previous paragraph should make it seem reasonable to you. then the velocity vector changes.. In fact the larger the force. Second Law of Motion So what happens if the forces on an object are not balanced? If the net force on an object is nonzero.... It has only two forces acting on it (Figure 33).... . keep rolling indefinitely at constant . The woman stops the ball.
acting on it. introduced in Chapter 1. we will break up equation (2) into components: Equation (3a). . and we want At. We can find acceleration from equation (I). F = 100 N. S Example 1 : Bruce pushes a car (500 kg) on level ground starting from rest with a force 100 N. Finally. and v. we write what is often called Newton's second law: Second Law of Motion If an object has forces .How long does it take to get the car rolling 1 d s ? (Assume no friction. G. Fnef = 4 + 4 +".) Solution: We have the information m = 500 kg. v.D. = 0 d s . however.Thz MCAT Physics Book In three dimensions.. for example. We will discuss breaking vectors into vertical and horizontal components in Section 4. 2 (2) i Most often. then the total force on the object is the vector sum 4. states that the sum of all the horizontal forces is mass times the horizontal acceleration. so we obtain a= lOON 500 kg Then we can find At from . 2  2 and the acceleration 2 of the object is given by Eel= m . The Newton is defined by [ N = 7 1 . = 1 m/s. we are able to make the connection between the units for force and [w kg m for mass [kg].
. It starts from rest and after time t attains velocity v.. on object 2.. The Third Law of Motio? If object 1 exerts a force I.. . so At is five times larger. . friction. but rn is five times larger for wagon B.. but if we write down the relevant equations...Chapter 3 . ): 42 =F21 A A ' . which has five times the mass of A (Figure 37). . so we write .. we can solve for At to obtain Now. We need to connect force and velocity. Laws o f Motion Example 2: A rocket provides a constant force to wagon A which rolls without friction.. on object 1 which is equal in magnitude.V2 Vt  V2 At At' We set v. . . then object 2 exerts a force g. it is not so hard. The answer is 5t.. . A similar rocket providing the same force is attached to wagon B.) Solution: This one looks difficult. to zero because the wagons start from rest. It is usually stated thus: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. F and v2 stay the same. Substitution gives Figure 37 I Since the problem asks about the change in time.. How much time does it take wagon B to go from rest to velocity v? (Assume no friction. The third law of motion is not so much a law about motion as it is a rule of thumb about pairs of forces. ... opposite in direction. .. and of the same type (gravity. . etc.
Example 3: A basketball player jumps up.The MCAT Physics Book Example 1: The Sun and the Earth exert a force of gravity on each other. . Draw all the forces while he is pushing the ball. PEP= gravitational force of Earth on player. F. Solution: See Figure 310. FsE= Example 2: Two spacecraft push off from each other. a diagram in which all the objects appear and the forces come in thirdlaw pairs. Notice that the magnitude of the force of the player on the ball is the same as the that of the ball on the player. Fp. but not all the objects in the situation). I I I . Solution: See Figure 38. 2 pbp= contact force of ball on player. Draw a force diagram. In this section we discuss some rules for drawing force diagrams..= contact force of player on ball. Solution: See Figure 39. L 1 2 + Figure 39 p 2 1 p2.) D. a diagram featuring one object and all its forces (or maybe several objects. PbE= gravitational force of ball on Earth. Figure 310 2 FEb=gravitational force of Earth on ball. FpE=gravitational force of player on Earth. Ignore the tiny gravitational force between the player and the ball. = contact force of craft 1 on craft 2. Force Diagrams Already in this chapter we have seen a number of force diagrams. There are two types of force diagrams: 1. and 2. * Earth FsE pEs= gravitational force of the Earth on the Sun. But the player moves hardly at all. While he is in the air. Draw a force diagram. he pushes the basketball horizontally. . Why is the basketball affected more than the player? (Hint: Look at equation 1. while the ball springs toward another player. Figure 38 gravitational force of the Sun on the Earth.= contact force of craft 2 on craft 1.
. It is difficult to tell what is going on with the Earth.. The net force on the girl indicates she would accelerate forward and down.. Does the problem mention any specific forces? 4. Do the net forces in the diagram conform to expectation? For each force we draw an arrow whose tail lies on the object on which the force acts. What things are touching? (These give contact forces. which sits on the Earth.Chapter 3 . Do this example on your own before you look at the solution..= gravitational force of Earth on the table. Example 2: A vase sits on a table. .13.. which seems right. Figure 313 . we ask four questions: 1. Then we add the forces due to the boat and girl and Fgb)and the contact touching ( pbg force between the Earth and the boat ( and RE). What gravitational forces are important? 2. Solution: First we add the gravitational forces in pairs (Figure 3. but it is important to know how to draw both. To draw the first type of diagram..12. Figure 311 The net forces on the boat indicate that it accelerates backwards. Solution: See Figure 3. .) 3. the girl... For some examples. and the Earth. FvE= gravitational force of vase on the Earth... but it makes things easier in the end. look at the diagrams we drew in Section C. Laws of Motion In most problems we will want the second type...11). and ignore the drag force of the water on the boat. and knowing diagrams of the first type will help with the second type.. Draw a 1 1 the forces on the boat.. Example 1 : A girl jumps horizontally from a boat in the water. which seems right... Ignore the tiny gravitational force between the girl and the boat. 2 FE. EE. ... Figure 312 FEv= gravitational force of Earth on the vase. List all pairs of forces. FE= gravitational force of table on the Earth. This may seem unnatural at first.See Figure 3.
= contact force of Earth pn table. = contact force of table on vase. Do you see why we use equations? The third law states that forces come in pairs: If object 1 pushes object 2. then the forces on the object add to zero. and forces due to things touching the object at that moment. If an object is moving at a constant velocity. pushing up (question 2).= contact force of vase on table. That is a'= $&.14. Just because the skate is going to the left does not mean there is a force to the left. The second law of motion concerns objects whose force vectors' sum is not zero: The acceleration of such an object is in the same direction as the total force. fiE.. and if the vector sum of the force vectors for an object is zero. Draw all the forces on the roller skate. Did your diagram look like Figure 315 A or B? If so. the first law of motion is the most subtle. nor any other forces. Only if the skate were speeding up to the left would we be forced to conclude that there was a force to the left. In solving problems. In a sense. fiE= contact force of table on Earth. do not include a force in a direction just because the object in moving in that direction. Example 3: A roller skate is rolling frictionlessly on level ground to the left. There is no friction.The MCAT Physics Book A N. usually. These include gravity. And the ground is touching the skate. Solution: Gravity is pulling down (question 1). proportional to its magnitude and inversely proportional to the object's mass. Drawing a diagram of the second type is easier. Pay especial attention to Section D on force diagrams. so the force diagram is Figure 3. No other forces need to be included. Figure 314 A Figure 315 B In this chapter we studied Newton's laws of motion. No force is required to keep an object moving. but you have to be careful not to leave out any forces nor to add any ghost forces. then the object moves at constant velocity. STOP! Try doing this problem before looking at the solution. then object 2 pushes object 1 in the opposite direction. you have not yet tuned your intuition about the first law of motion. fiv. Constant velocity means constant speed in a straight path. . we are always interested in the forces on an object at a given instant in time. In particular.
case 2. since gravity is not balanced by anything.67 m/s2 B. . Laws01 Motion Chapter 3 Problems C. Use the following information for questions 6 and 7: A man is pulling his son in a toy wagon. None of the above may be be definitely concluded. D. B. What can we definitely conclude from this? 7 . the net force is 350 N.84 m/sZ C. .700 N. 0. C. C. In case 1.50 N. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . . not necessarily in a straight line. . 0. An object is moving with uniform motion. D. the net force is 100 N. The net force is in the same direction that the object is moving. No. None of the above may be be definitely concluded. at constant speed in a straight line. Section Section A B 5. D..450 N. There are no forces acting on the car. 20 m/s2 4. he begins to fall at a constant speed in a straight vertical plunge (at terminal velocity). In case 1. are the forces on the paratrooper balanced? In the following diagram. No. .. After an initial accelerating plunge. case 2. In case 1. case 2. the magnitude of force FA is is 300 N. 1 . . 40N 50N 120N 1200 N B. For 3 s the man exerts a force which has the effect of uniformly accelerating the wagon from 1. . that is. The two forces have equal magnitudes but point in opposite directions.550 N. What is the acceleration of the wagon with the son? A. D. since gravity is greater than the drag force. D. B. No. There are forces acting on the car. but the net force is zero. B. . A. . During the latter portion of his fall. and case 3. C. and that of of the net force in the three cases? FB A. C. Case 1 A. 100 N. There are two forces acting on the object. 2. Both forces are in a direction perpendicular to the object's motion. What can we definitely conclude from this? A. A car's engine has died. . What is the net force on the wagon and son? A. The son and the wagon are 60 kg. Consider a paratrooper who has jumped from an airplane. C. 1. 6.5 m/s to 3. What may we conclude about the forces acting on the car? A. None of the above may be definitely concluded. . the net force is 700 N. since a force balance exists only if an object is not moving.. and case 3. . and case 3. case 2. B. What is the magnitude 400 N. Yes.5 d s .. The object is speeding up or slowing down.66 m/s2 D.500 N. . In case 1. The object is going at a constant speed in a straight line. Case 2 Case 3 There is one force acting on an object. the net force is 350 N. .50 N. The net force acting on the car is not zero. and case 3.. since he is moving at a constant velocity. 3. B . ..Chdpter 3 .500 N. D. The object is going at a constant speed. and the car is slowing down as it coasts.
The two jets are at right angles. 1.33N C. C. down. the same as that of A. One pushes east with a force 0. GO ON T OT H E NEXT PAGE . It slides to a rest in 5 s. and the normal force. At time t = 0 s. The string passes over a pulley and is connected in such a way as to maintain a tension force of 6 N (see figure). D. what is the acceleration of the ball? Use the following informationfor questions 81 I : A tiger (100 kg) sees a wildebeest and accelerates uniformly from rest to 20 m/s in 12 s. Three men push on a station wagon with a net force F.0015 N. B . one third that of A. (Assume there is no friction. D . what is the magnitude of the force? A. the acceleration of the compact car is A. and a horizontal force of the ground pushing the tiger.83 m/s2 C. None of the above is correct. 0. I I 1 I 16. B. Assuming a constant force slowing the cart. 17. 240 m C.8 kg hangs from a suing over the edge of a table. one quarter the acceleration of the station wagon. What is the acceleration of the tiger? A. A girl shoves a 4kg toy cart across the level floor with a speed of 15 m/s (so it is going 15 m/s when it leaves her hand). 13. Gravity.60 m/s2 B. At t = 0 s. half the acceleration of the station wagon. Object A is acted upon by a net force FA to produce an acceleration.0010 N. 480 m D. What is the magnitude of the net force on the tiger? A. 3 times that of A.75 N 12.5 g). 18. four times the acceleration of the station wagon.) If they push with the same net force on a ccmpact car (with half the mass). C. two dung beetles are pushing a small ball (0. twice the acceleration of the station wagon. the normal force. with one firing to yield a force of 5000 N and the other to yield a force of 12000 N. D. C. Gravity. How much distance does the tiger cover in those 12 s? A. 83N C. 9 times that of A. 34 m/s2 11. the acceleration of B is A. up. A rocket ship (500 kg) is firing two jets at once. 0. 0. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the rocket ship? A.75 N B. 24000 N 15. up.67 m/s2 D. down. What are all the forces acting on the tiger? A. 8. 167N D. If object B has three times the mass of A and is acted on by three times the force as A. 12N D. 120m B.The MCAT Physics Book 14. the other pushes west with a force 0. 960 m 10. B . 240 rnls2 9. 24 m/s2 B. Gravity. producing an acceleration. 1. 26m/s2 C. 60 N B. down. A piece of steel of mass 0.
the force of friction on the trailer is 30 N. and both are traveling forward at velocity 3 mls at time t = 5 s. B C. is greater than the force of gravity on her. . . starts from rest and accelerates uniformly as well. and the road exerts an upward force of 8000 N. which has four times the mass of car A. C. D A car trailer is connected to a car. A. B.. Car B. Use the following informationfor questions 2326: An antique stove is sitting on the ground. The horizontal force of the wheels on the road. how long does is take B to travel the same distance d? A. D. .. Section C 18. D GO ON TO WE N E X T PAGE . according to the third law of motion? A. A car is accelerating from rest at an intersection after the light has turned green. . C. The change in velocity of the spacecraft and rocket case was found to be 0. . Laws of Motion The force due to gravity on the steel is given by F. C B. 4t 2t tl4 D .100kg 15. B C.5 m/s2 C. What is the final acceleration of the piece of steel? A. 12. D. The force the car exerts on the trailer is 105 N. D. Which arrow represents the. 120 kg 3300 kg 10. and the force of air resistance on the trailer is 70 N. D. astronauts conducted an experiment using the second law of motion. (See figure) Assume for this problem that the Earth is not rotating. 16t 23.5 m/s2 C. . We allow the piece of steel to fall from rest for 5 s. .force paired with the gravitational force of the Earth on the stove.400 kg 20. B. . 19. What conclusion may be drawn about the trailer? A. C . A woman is riding in an elevator which is going up at constant speed.. . where g = 10 m/s2is the acceleration due to gravity. It is staying the same speed.Chapter 3 . C. On September 12. Car A starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for a period of time t to travel a distance d. . 10 m/s2 D. . B. is less than the force of gravity on her. D. The horizontal force of the road on the wheels. 2. The thrusters were fired to provide a force of 890 N for 7.  It is slowing down. The vertical force of the wheels on the road. C D. It is speeding up or staying the same speed. . It is speeding up. 2 m/s2 B.= rng. . . Which arrow represents the gravitational force of the Earth on the stove? A. is the same as the force of gravity on her. If the magnitudes of the forces accelerating A and B are the same. A Gemini spacecraft (measured to be 3400 kg) connected with an orbiting rocket case. A B.1966. has no relationship with the force of gravity on her that can be determined by the given information. 24.0 s. B. What was the mass of the rocket case? 22..93 m/s. . What is the force which accelerates the car? A. The force of the floor against her feet A.. The force of gravity on the trailer is 8000 N. . A B.. The normal force of the road on the car.
9s? likely entry x for t = 0 A. There are no forces. the position x and velocity v of mass m are measured and the results are recorded in the table which follows: 1 . up. D. There is the force of gravity. C. 26. 2 0m C. The entries for v are always greater than x.18m B. Any interval Av is proportional to the interval dt. backwards. D . and an outward force. There is the force of gravity and a forward force. the road's force. The first law of motion states that an object in motion will remain in motion only if acted upon by an unbalanced force. The planet Mars is traveling around the Sun. what is a . B. 0 . Gravity. and the road's force. An arrow is shot into the air. There is the force of gravity. the road's force. The entries for v are nonnegative and increasing. such that it moves along the table without friction. and a forward force. up. down. It is generally true that the tension anywhere along the string is the same as the tension anywhere else in the string. B . 29. 2 4m GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . The string passes over a pulley at the edge of the table and mass M sits on the table. B. down. D. C. What forces are acting on Mars? A. There is the force of gravity and an upward normal force. B. C. what forces are acting on the arrow? A. A car's engine has died. and the car is slowing down as it coasts. There are no forces. C. (See figure. up. are motionless have balanced forces. and friction. 0 . 28. The second law of motion states that force and acceleration are proportional. friction. 0. D. There is the force of gravity and a forward force. ' 27. 2. At various times. The entries for x are nonnegative and increasing. Mass m hangs over the edge of a table. B. down.) The tension in the string is the force that the string exerts where it is connected to another object or to more string. In this experiment the mass m is initially at rest and allowed to drop. There is the force of gravity. Why is the force vector A equal in magnitude to the force vector C? The first law of motion states that objects which A. Gravity. B. The third law of motion states that forces come in equal and opposite pairs. The first law of motion states that an object which is motionless has balanced forces. When the arrow is in the air. Which of the following is evidence that the acceleration is uniform? A.The MCAT Physics Book Why is the force vector A equal in magnitude to the force vector B? A. a forward force. C. Gravity. 0. Assuming that acceleration remains uniform. The first law of motion states that an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. backwards. D. down. Passage 1 We perform an experiment which involves two masses m and M connected by a string which we will consider to be massless. Its position x is measured downward from its initial position. What forces are acting on the car? A. D. Gravity. The third law of motion states that forces come in equal and opposite pairs.22m D . C. The second law of motion states that a force on an object and acceleration of the object are proportional.
. 3. the upward force of the table. The force of gravity.. . C. D. The second law of motion states that acceleration is proportional to force. The force due to gravity is F. D. and the force due to rn. while the whole assembly is 2. and so the mass of the shuttle decreases.0X106kg After the experiment has run a while. which is achieved by burning 3400 kg of fuel each second.0 m/s 0. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . C. Use 10 m/s2for the acceleration due to gravity. Which gives the best reason for the increase in acceleration? A. the rate of fuel burning is approximately constant. We are assuming the shuttle moves in one dimension upward... and the the opward force of the table. and two booster rockets. The force of gravity. C. ' 4. the mass m hits the floor and the string goes slack. D. What are the forces on the mass M? A. The force of gravity. 1.. B. The force of gravity and the force due to mass M. The force of gravity and the upward force of the table.86 X 10' N. What is the approximate mass of the shuttle after 300 s? A. The force of gravity and the tension of the string. The force of gravity.. .32 X lo4 kg. What is the initial acceleration of the shuttle just as it begins leaving the launchpad? 5.3 m/s 2. 6. B. The ratio of A x to Av increases with time. and the tension in the string. But mass M continues going forward until it hits the pulley. the external tank. Ldws of Motion 3. The first law of motion states that an unbalanced force implies a change in velocity..1 m/s 0. C. B. B. 0. The force provided by the engines is given by the product of the velocity of the exhaust gases relative to the ship and the rate (massper time) at which fuel is burned.. The orbiter is 7. D. equal in magnitude but of opposite direction to the force accelerating the shuttle. B.. When it stands on the launching pad. C. .. it consists of the orbiter itself. 1 . D. After the string goes slack but before M hits the pulley.Chdpter 3 .. what are the forces on mass M? A. What is the average velocity v . The velocity v is linear with time. The second law of motion states that acceleration is inversely proportional to mass. the upward force of the table. the tension of the string. for the interval of time shown in the table? A. I I C. 4. The thrust at liftoff is 2. As the space shuttle ascends. What are the forces on the mass rn? A. and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The following chart shows hypothetical data for the liftoff of a shuttle. There are no forces on M. The force of gravity. . what evidence is there that the acceleration is increasing? A.15ds 0. Referring to the chart. and a forward force. the force due to m..where M is the mass of the object. The third law of motion states that there must be a second force. The force of gravity. . and the force due to M.. D. the upward force of the table. = Mg.. The velocity v increases with time. The force of gravity. B. The force of gravity.. The space shuttle is a spaceship which was designed for transporting a payload to nearearth orbits and to be used many times. . The ratio of Av to At increases with time.. the the upward force of the table. and the tension in the string.0 X lo6kg.
D. Consider a situation when the shuttle is in space and. STOP . If there is no air. Which of the following BEST describes the force accelerating the shuttle? A. C. B.The MCAT Physics Book 5. creating a force accelerating the shuttle. The force of the shuttle on the air. fires its engines. The force of the shuttle on the exhaust gases. then the shuttle cannot accelerate. The force of the exhaust gases on the shuttle.
4 x lo6m. science is the activity of a community. and G is a universal constant 6. the essentials of Newton's first law of motion were discovered by Galileo. at least in popular accounts. with many people contributing to the revolution in thinking. R= 6. Do not memorize G.0 x lo2' kg. For example..Chapter 4 Gravitation When a person does a great deal of work in a scientific field. but do remember the equation. for almost every interesting thing that happened in science during the Renaissance. and Robert Hooke surmised the essential parts of the law of gravitation. and m2 are the masses of the objects. In this chapter we will study the physics of the gravitational force. Example 1 :What is the force on a cow (200 kg) standing on the surface of the Earth? (Assume M. m.. it often happens that that person eventually receives credit for almost everything done by anybody (see Matthew 13:12 in the Christian Bible). d is the distance between the centers of the objects. An example of this is his realization that both the motion of the Moon and the motion of a falling apple could be explained by the same force.67 x lo" m 3 k g s2. is the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects. Newton's law of gravity states that any two objects exert an attractive force on each other given by Here F. We discussed it in Chapter 1. Newton's genius lay in his ability to see a simple underlying law for very different phenomena and to synthesize diverse branches of science.) Figure 41 . the force of gravity. then as now. Newton is given credit. = 6. For instance. In fact.
We calculate Example 2: What is the motion of an apple (0.8 rn/s2. so we write Since the total force is simply the gravitational force. we write *rppka = Fnet r L Figure 42 So the apple accelerates downward at 9. and 2. obtaining the force between a planet and a small object on its surface (d is essentially the radius of the planet).Thc M C A T Physics ~ o o k Solution: Let's assume we have a spherical cow (Figure 41).1 kg) which has let go of its tree? Solution: First. The previous examples illustrated this second use. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 42) showing all the forces on the apple while it is falling. There is only the force of gravity (nothing else is touching it). . obtaining the force between two planets (d is much larger than the radii of the planets). Equation (1) is easy to use in two types of problems: 1.
Surface of the Earth Most of us will spend most of our lives on or near the surface of the Earth. . so at first we will consider two objects for which air resistance is only a small consideration.8 mls2 comes up so often in introductory physics that we have given it a name: The acceleration due to gravity is In working problems.8 mlsl). Free Fall An object is said to be infree fall when nothing is touching it. we always approximate this as g = 10 m/s2 (even if the problem says to use 9. Such an object is called a projectile. What is the force of gravity of the Earth on an object of mass m? The force is where we use a calculation from the previous section. a heavy object or a light one? Things become complicated if the object is too light. we will use Fpv = mg. 4 (3) C. like a leaf fluttering to the ground. There is only one force since nothing touches the rock and we are neglecting air resistance. however. so that the only force on it is gravity. which is in most problems. Second.02 kg) to fall from rest 2 meters to the ground? Solution: First. The simplest problem in free fall involves dropping objects near the surface of the Earth. Please note: Whenever there is gravity and we are at the surface of the Earth. (We discuss air resistance in Chapter 6. This number 9. Example 1: How long does it take a small rock (0. We want to know which falls faster.B. we find the net force Figure 43 where the negative sign reminds us that gravity points down.) Let us start by doing a pair of examples. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 43).
F. It rose. Figure 45 'Q . see Figure 44).The MCAT Physics Book Third. The net effect is that the acceleration is the same 9. Try this at home with a pen and a stapler or some such thing.) We also have v1 = 0.2 kg m s I The rest of the problem is the same. we obtain acceleration by writing F . and so is the force of gravity (and the force arrow. Ay = 2 m. but think about it until you also understand why the two rocks have the same acceleration.(See Figwe 45.2 kg) to fall 2 meters from rest? Solution: The rock is larger. so that At = 0.H. Let us revisit Example 2 in Section 2. we now is accelerating down at 9.63 s.down. came to a stop.. the downward force of gravity. there is only one force on the apple. It is difficult to gain an intuitive grasp of this situation. WHAT HAPPENED? The force of gravity was larger in Example 2. There we saw an apple tossed straight up.63 s. 2 k g ) 10The acceleration is ( 3 =2N. (This result should look familiar. even at the top point. We are now at a better position to understand why. = . M 0.~ ~ = .) n e acceleration A tossed apple at the top of itsflight m must be down as well.. We write F. know the the acceleration is a constant s2 9.8 m/s2 for both rocks. Once the apple leaves the hand. In fact.. and fell.8 m/s2. = F. so At = 0. 2N a===107. down).( 0 .8 . We claimed that the acceleration was always negative (that is... Figure 44 I I Example 2: How long does it take a mediumsized rock (0. BUT the acceleration is inversely proportional to mass in the second law of motion. = ma.
try the experiment yourself. thinking that somehow the boat moves out from under the grapefruit.. release an apple. If air resistance does not affect it. If you do not believe the figure.. A pencil and paper may prove handy. If that was your answer.. A boat moves with uniform motion.. (See Figure 46.. Imagine you are sitting at the shore of a bay. and both grapefruits hit the deck at the same time. and you see a boat traveling o along at constant speed in a straight line.. Few people choose A. Both grapefruits drop to the foot of the corresponding mast. Agrapefruit falls from the mast. Gravitation D.. .. The vertical motion..above your head (and a little forward)....2 s.. A sailor at the top of a vertical mast drops a grapefruit. The grapefruit on the moving ship retains its horizontal motion regardless of vertical motion. one ship at rest and the other in uniform motion.) ... wheredoesit land? Choose your answer before you Figure 46 read any further. C.. Figure 47  What is going on in the previous example? Just after the grapefruit is released from the hand on the second ship. As time goes on.. At the foot of the mast..Chapter 4 . Not many people choose B. At t = 0.. Figure 47 shows two ships at four successive times. on the other hand. While walking at a constant speed... Sailors at the tops of the masts drop grapefruits at the same time. then you need to do some rethinking. so prepare your imagination. (See Figure 48. the second grapefruit keeps up with the ship. Behind the mast. you chose C. both grapefruits have moved vertically 0. It will fall in front of your face and land at your Figure 48 feet.) We will pretend air resistance plays no role (mostly true).. Here is what really happens.05 m (the second has moved horizontally as well). and it drops vertically regardless of its horizontal motion. then it maintains its same horizontal motion from start to finish. Where will the grapefruit land? A. B. In frontof the mast. proceeds on schedule regardless of the horizontal motion... it still has its horizontal motion... If you are like most people.. Horizontal and Vertical Motion This section has no new equations but it does present one new idea.
* . . 2 2 v. + a.) For the second ball. they will hit at the same time. . and a to denote velocities and acceleration in one dimension. = v:. ) 4 V Z y = v. v. we can determine the horizontal motion using similar equations with y replaced by x.we have been using v . A. + 2ayAy. most people will say the dropped ball hits first. We have two cannonballs. (See Figure 49..and a... the vertical motion of falling is not affected at all by its horizontal motion. . and at the same time.and ydirections can be considered independently. + v 2 .The MCAT Physics B m k Horizontal and vertical motion are independent. As long as air resistance plays at most a small role.. v. For these problems we will need to keep track of the vertical and horizontal pieces separately.. so we need the symbols v. Now let's leave the bay and travel • to the edge of a cliff with a large plain at the bottom.. It is the same physical prinFigure 49 ciple.. Up until now. Notice that Figure 49 same rate as one shot horizontally.then we can determine the vertical motion using ( F . v2. That is. we shoot one • • horizontally off the cliff and drop the other.. Similarly. v. motion in the x. looks just like Figure 47 with the boats removed. a.. The following box shows how this principle gets translated into equations: If the net vertical force is (FA. 1 dY = ( 2 v. ) y =m y . 1 Ay = vlyAt+ayAt2. Which will hit the plain first? Again.... .. It may help your intuition to realize that the shot cannon1 ball does have a larger total velocity all A dropped cannonball falls.at the the way down...
. 51 .. so we can say more: For an object in free fall at the surface of the Earth.. .. Note that the cannon exerts a force on the cannonball while it is Figure 410 in the cannon... GRAM for the second ball while it is in I" flight (Figure 410). but after the ball leaves the cannon.g7. .. down... . = 9.. S (4b) Example 1:A cliff stands 80 m above a flat plane. How far from the first ball will the second ball land? Solution: The first ball falls stnight down.. we have m a . . the only force is gravity... ... and another is fired horizontally at 120 rnls at the same time. The acceleration vector is 10 d s 2 .. The time dt = 4 s was the connection between the horizontal and vertical parts. T VlY vertical =0 horizontal m v. We record the information we have. We do not know the mass of the ball. Gravitation Objects in free fall experience only the force of gravity. = 1205 Ax = 480 m We solved the vertical problem first because we had more vertical information than horizontal information. Let's DRAW A DIAF. but from Section B we know we do not need it... . = O T 2 m where "up" is positive and we use the estimate 10s2 . You should work through this example yourself without looking at the book. One cannonball is dropped. (4a) S m a. . of course..Chapter 4 . .. .
. = 150&m S Soiution: The force diagram is the same as in Figure 410.. so that the ball's initial velocity is 300 rnls and directed 30' up from the horizontal.. and v'. We need to find a horizontal vector v'. The cannonball rises and then falls to the same height from which it started. How far from the cannon will the ball fall? (See figure 411.) A r : 30" A VlY Vlr Figure 412 v. vertical Ay=Om v. so we have A y = 0 m.... we have divided by a factor of At. so that their sum is the original vector v'. (You may need to review trigonometry at this point.. . &io:  . using simple trigonometry.a. = vI sin 30' v. Figure 411 Interruption: We need to know the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity v'.We can find the magnitudes of v'..The MCAT Physics Book I The following example involves a projectile. Example 2: A cannon is fired on level ground. = 150 horizontal Ax=? m s I In the last line. (see Figure 412)..) .. .. and a vertical vector v'.
most problems near the surface of the Earth we can use simply F..... = ~ m . that is. We will see more of this principle in the following chapter.. We also explored the principle that horizontal and vertical motion are independent. The gravitational force acts as if it were exerted only at the center of mass. . Figure 4. In this chapter we looked at the law of gravitation.13 shows a baseball bat fired /\/ * + / Figure 413 2 from in a parabola. where g = GMR. whose grand form is F. m . This curious result comes s2 from the fact that the force of gravity is proportional to the mass.. l dFor ~ . while the second law of motion states that the acceleration in inversely proportional to the mass. even though the bat is rotating.. Gravitation We have been talking about grapefruits and cannonballs so far... In fact this is a definition of the center of mass. the center of mass is the point which refuses to rotate..Chapter 4 .. = mg. This allows us to solve problems involving projectiles.... it m has a downward acceleration vector of magnitude 10.... m = 10 T ... objects with only gravity acting on them. If an object is set to fnely rotating.... S When any object near the Earth's surface has only gravity acting on it (freefall). just The like center the cannonball of mass moves in the previous example.. a cannon.. as long as we use the center of mass to talk about the position of the object.... Objects with a more complicated shape obey the same rules.....
There is not enough information to answer this question. Use the following information for questions 13: In a binary star system. 7 .8 m/s2. What is the weight of the block on the Moon? A. The force decreases by a factor of 2.10 times weaker. Sections AC 24 kg 72 kg 5. In some binary systems. The block is dropped from a height of 2 m to the surface of the Moon. The force increases by a factor of 5. how would this affect the force between them? A.3 m/s2 B.67 x lo" N m2/kg2. Also.. 12kg C. B. It would increase by a factor of 4. It would decrease by a factor of 2.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 4 Problems 4. It would stay the same. If the distance between the stars were doubled.6 m/s2.. the force of gravity between the stars (masses M.5 times further from the Sun than Earth. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 19N D. D. It is 1. It is a smaller planet than Earth and further from the Sun. The Moon has a smaller mass and a smaller radius. It would decrease by a factor of 4. It would increase by a factor of 2. the gravitational field depends on its mass and radius. 2. D.07 times weaker. 118N Use the following information for questions 7 and 8: The colonization of Mars is a favorite topic among science fiction writers. How long does it take to drop to the surface? A. The force remains the same. They are held together by the force of gravity. 0. how would this affect the force between them? A. D.5 times that of Earth. It would decrease by a factor of 2. C. 12kg C.5. A metal block (12 kg on Earth) is taken is g. It would increase by a factor of 2. At the surface freely falling objects a of the Earth. B. C. 6. Its radius is 0. the acceleration due to gravity is 10 rn/s2. and its mass is 0. C D.) is F.4 s C. what is the approximate acceleration of the rock's fall? A. and M. 6. one star transfers material onto the other. HOW does the force of attraction between the Sun and Mars compare with that between the Sun and Earth? A. C. 0. It would decrease by a factor of 4. D. 1. D. 2. (Note: On Earth. The force increases by a factor of 2. we have G = 6. 0. The strength of the gravitational field determines the acceleration due to gravity of t the planet's surface. The net result is that the acceleration due to gravity 1. how is the force affected if the distance between the stars' centers remains the same? A. 2 m/s2 4m/s2 Use the following informationfor questions 46: For a spherical planetary body.5. For a certain system. two stars revolve about their combined center of mass. If star 1 dumps half of its material onto star 2. for example. 0.1 times that of Earth.6 s B. the acceleration due to gravity is g= 9. 2 kg B. B. What is the mass of the block on the Moon? A. which thus increases its mass by a factor of 5. 1 I 8. 1. C.3s D. If a person were standing on the surface of Mars and dropped a Martian rock. 1 m/s2 B . 2 kg B.) 3.= to the Moon. There is not enough information to answer this question.04 times weaker. If the mass of one of the skxs could somehow be decreased by a factor of 2 at a given moment.
D. What is the radius of this new planet? A .= 29. How does the Earth's gravitational pull on the Moon differ from the Moon's pull on the Earth? A. Use the following informutionfor questions 11 and 12: A new planet is discovered whose mass is the same as that of Earth.Use the following informutionfor questions 9 and 10: I Use the following informationfor questions 1315: The Earth and the Moon attract each other with the force of gravity. It would decrease by a factor of 3. The Earth's radius is 3. It is the same.5 kg 1 1 . It is 6 times larger.7 times smaller than the radius of Earch. 1. 0. 9. D.5 m/s on the spaceship. (That is. The time would be less by a factor of 3. It is 3. An astronaut is in a spaceship traveling at constant velocity toward the star Rigel and is far away from any other objects (planets and stars. C.4 m/s2  15.67 times that of the Moon. how much time would it take to reach the ground compared to the time it would take on Earth to drop the same distance h? (Assume no atmospheric resistance. we have g. B. etc. 0.08 N in the direction opposite the ball's velocity.125 m/s2 C.8 m/s2 and g . The time would be less by a factor of 9. B . 9 times smaller than the radius of Earth.) A . GO ON TOTHENEXTPAGE . The ball slows to a stop in 4 s. 2. 0. If an object were dropped from a height h on this planet. D. D. It would take the same amount of time. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the racquet ball? A.64 kg C. An astronaut blows air on the racquet ball. 3 times smaller than the radius of Earth. and the Earth's mass is 8 1 times that of the Moon. It would decrease by a factor of 9. B. 0 m/s2 B.016N C. It would increase by a factor of 9. What is the weight of the racquet ball? A* ON B. It is 8 1 times larger.2 rn/s2 D. 13.67 times larger. 0 kg B.4 m/s2.4 N How would the force of gravity between the Earth and the Moon be affected if the distance between the Earth and the Moon were decreased by a factor of 3? A. 0.).6 kg D.) 14. What is the mass of the racquet ball? A.4 N  10. There is racqhet ball moving at 0. producing a small force of 0. 0. The time would be less by a factor of 1. 0. 6. C. B .7. C. 12. 1. D. It would stay the same. The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Moon is one sixth the acceleration due to gravity on the Earth's surface.. 3 times larger than the radius of Earth. C.. although the acceleration of freely falling objects at the surface of this planet is three times larger than that corresponding to Earth. = 9.
2m D .5 m/s when it leaves her hand.= 2 s.5m/s 5. 23m 18. The table is 1. 20m C. What is the ball's initial vertical velocity? A. what is the opener's horizontal velocity? A. (See figure. it is still in the air (point B in the diagram). D . (Use g = 10 m/s2. When Barbara heaves her opener at t = 0 s. 3m 22. 20.The MCAT Physics Book Section D 19. C. Om/s B. What is the ball's initiaI horizontal velocity? A. 20 m/s D. Consider the time from the moment just after the ball leaves the table till the moment just before the ball touches the floor.0m/s 5 . 0 d s B. 0 m/s D . and judges at the bottom determine where the openers land.8 m/s2. the opener has horizontal velocity 1.) 16. 21. See figure. At t. (Use g = 9.5m/s C. 1. At t = 2 s.and ignore any air resistance. 5 .25 m off the floor. 20m GOONTO THE NEXT PAGE . 2 m/s 17. What horizontal distance has the can opener traversed in the two seconds? A. called the appliance toss. standing over a plain. Which of the following best shows a force diagram for the can opener at point B? 21. what is the opener's vertical velocity? A. 3 m B. 0 m/s B . What vertical distance has the can opener fallen in the two seconds? A.5 m/s C.) The cliff is very high.2 kg) rolls along a level table at 1. Om/s Use the following informationfor questions 1 6 2 0 : In a certain sports event.5 rn/s and then rolls off the edge.) 20. 1. After 2 s. men and women test their strength by hurling an electric can opener horizontally over a cliff.5m/s Use the following information for questions 2127: A ball (0. 2d s B . 5 . 1.
. D.. A. Use the following informationfor questions 3236: A woman (50 kg) is pulling a wagon behind her. 2. B.83 s 1.. It is four times as large.25 m D. Just before Barbara's coin reaches the ground.. It is the same.. is less than s.. What is the vertical displacement of the ball during the fall? A.96 N 3. 0 m/s2 B. B. It is one fourth as large. It is four times as large.. . and the wagon moves at a constant 2 m/s. how does the gravitational force on one of Alice's coins compare with the force on one of Barbara's? A.Chapter 4 . . each of which is 10 g. The speed s. .25 m 25. The speed s. There is a horizontal force of friction.. It depends on the height of the building. and her coins are 40 g each.. What is the horizontal displacement of the ball during the fall? A. C.8 N 19..25 m 31. C. D.. C.8 d s 2 27.) The woman pulls the handle with a tension 200 N. (Use g = 10 ds2. 0. 0. B. how does the acceleration of one of Alice's coins compare with the acceleration of one of Barbara's? A. the daughter and the wagon are 60 kg.3 m/s.92 N 9... What is the horizontal acceleration of the ball at point B? A. It depends on the height at whch the force is recorded. (See figure. C. and the handle makes a 30" angle with the horizontal.76 m B. . The speed s. How much time does the drop take? It is one fourth as large. 30. B. D. it has speed s. 29. D.. D. Barbarqis tossing her coins horizontally at 0. 24. It depends on the height at which the acceleration is recorded. How does s. The time for Alice's coins is greater. B. 1. 0. When the ball is in midair (point B). When the coins are in midair. B.01s D. 0.. 9. C.76 m 1.  1.) Use the following informutionfor questions 2831: Two girls are sitting on the edge of a building tossing coins over the edge. Just before Alice's coin reaches the ground.? A. It is the same. what is the net force on the ball? A..47 m 1.. The times are the same..96 m/s2 D.. it has speed s ..6 N 28.) (Ignore air resistance. The time for Alice's coins is less. It depends on the height of the building. C. 1. (See figure. Gravitation 23. B. is greater than s... compare with s.26 s 0. 1.. C. Alice is actually dropping her coins.2 d s 2 C. In the wagon is her daughter by her first marriage.) 'coin B GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE .25 m 2.51 s 0.... D. is the same as s.. When the coins are in midair.47 m C. . A. How does the time to reach the ground for one of Alice's coins compare with the time of fall for Barbara's? 26.
(600 N) (cos 30") D. 173N C. D. Assume there is no friction. The hammer and the feather land at the same time. 600N 800 N Use the following infonnationfor questions 3739: A bale of hay (500 kg) is dropped from the second story of a barn (9 m) with no initial velocity. Use the following infonnation for questions 41 and 42: A large ball (2 kg) is rolling (at the surface of the Earth) on a large. D. (200 N) (cos 30") D. C. The hammer lands first. (600 N) (sin 30") C. so large that we will idealize it as an infinite plain. The feather lands first. I 58 42. What are the forces acting on the bale of hay? A. The tension in the rope only. Which of the following represents the best force diagram at times after t = 0 s? D. What happens? A. C. (200 N) (cos 30") D. O N B. What is the vertical component of the force of the wagon handle on the wagon body? A. The tension in the rope and gravity. and an additional downward force once the bale is moving. 10 mls2 D.rn/s2. B. Gravity only. What is the horizontal component of the force of the wagon handle on the wagon body? A. What is the magnitude of the net force on the bale of hay? 32. The rope extends up from the bale and maintains a tension of 4000 N. On the Moon there is very little atmosphere (several centimeters of thin gas). What is the acceleration of the bale of hay? A. There is no answer. It is rolling 0. ON B. B. How long would it take the ball to come to a stop? A. Neither lands but instead fly off the Moon's surface. 35. What is the vertical component of the gravitational force on the wagon and daughter? A. 200N M. C. 600N 36. The tension in the rope. 18 m/s2 40. B. B. (600 N) (cos 30") D.3 m/s to the right at time t = 0 s. (200 N) (sin 30") C. D. 2 m/s2 C. ON B. D. (600 N) (sin 30") C. flat plain. An astronaut drops a hammer and a feather at the same time from about shoulder height. 600N 39. (200 N) (sin 30") C. 0. A rope is tied to the hay to control its fall. gravity. (Use g = 10 mls2. What is the horizontal component of the gravitational force on the wagon and daughter? A. 41.33 s. Take the acceleration of gravity to be 10. 3. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . 0 m/s2 B.3 s. 200N A. ON B. C. ON 1OOON 5000N 9000 N 33. ON B. What is the magnitude of the net force? A. 30s.The MCAT Physics B o o k 38.) 37.
4. What is his horizontal velocity just before he lands? A. He would be killed when he was about 2000 km away. and the pool is 4. 5. and as he got closer he would be drawn as thin as a wire.5 rn from the edge of the building. and the core collapses.5 meters from the edge of the building. The structure inside a neutron star is different from anything known on Earth. The only thing which creates a stronger gravitational field is a black hole. which leaves behind a very dense core. 2. 1. B. It has approximately the mass of the Sun. 0 mls B. that is. but the radius is about 14 krn. 2. and falling into the pool below.20 s C. on the pavement. Finally he would GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . 1. and inebriation. How much time does it take the student to accelerate as he is running dong the roof? A. A man falling toward a neutron starwould be stretched out as he fell. a distance of 5 rn. 6 . 6. 1. called a neutron star. The result is an explosion. A neutron star is composed mainly of neutrons. 5ds 1.0 meters from the edge of the building. D. that is.0 meters from the edge of the building. that is. Just after his feet leave the building. that is. called a supernova.00 s B. jumping off the edge.5 meters from the edge of the building. C. 50.44 s D. 1. in the pool.2 m hgh. there is no longer enough heat to hold up its core against gravitational forces.00 s 3. he is traveling horizontally at a speed 5 d s . Where does he land? A.that is.and the gravity on the surface is strong enough to crush any ordinary material. braggadocio. 5. The building is 7.00 s B. How much time does it take him to fall? A. in the pool. Use g = 10 m/s2. 13m/s Passage 2 2.20 s I D.4. This dangerous sport involves a combination of strength of spirit. Let's say a student (50 kg) accelerates uniformly from rest at one side of the building to the jumping edge. 1. Which diagram best represents the force diagram for the student while he is on the roof? When a massive star uses up its nuclear fuel. Away from the surface. the tidal forces near a neutron star are nevertheless prodigious. Which diagram best represents the force diagram for the student while he is in the air? A sport at a nearby educational institute involves running along the roof of an apartment building. on the edge of the pool.000 times smaller than the Sun's.
000)~times stronger. Je times stronger.5 x 10"/14 times stronger. The strong surface gravity is due to the fact that surface gravity varies inversely as the square of the radius..5 x 10" meters away from a neutron star. B. D. The parts of an object which are nearer the neutron star are pulled more strongly than the parts which farther away from the star. 2. If there. (50. were a planet of the same mass which was 1. B. It would be (50. The strong surface gravity is due to the fact that surface gravity varies inversely as the radius. C . The density of the neutron star is huge. 3. B. how would the neutron star's gravitational pull on that planet compare with the Sun's pull on the Earth? A.000 times stronger. 8 x lo2' kg/m3 C. 1 x 10" kg/m3 How does the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of a neutron star compare with that near the surface of the Sun? A. It would be 50. D. 1 x loz4kg/m3 D. 4. C. STOP . D. It would be the same.The MCAT Physics Book For these problems you may want to use the follow ing: G = 6. (50.5 x 10" meters away from the Sun.67 x lo" N m2/kg2 M. It would be 1.000)' times stronger..000)' times stronger. The Earth is 1.= 2. 50.000 times stronger. What is the best explanation for the stretching of an object in free fall as it approaches a neutron star? A. = 4n ~ 2~ ~ ~ (surface area of a sphere) Acutie = n 4 1 . C.0 x kg (volume of a sphere) A . (area of a circle) What is the approximate density of a neutron star? A. 2 x 10" kg/m3 B.
but it turns out the principle works when other forces are acting as well: Independence of Vertical and Horizontal Motion An object has forces F.. acting on it. If F. we find a toy wagon rolling on the ground.. m + FZx +. gravity is a fine force indeed. .. . . What is the normal force acting on the wagon? . Example: A boy pulls a red wagon (10 kg) with a constant force 20 N.. when an object is on the ground or some other surface.Chapter 5 Planes and Circles A. a. Again In the last chapter we solved problems with gravity as the only force. are the vertical components of the forces.B. An example will help illustrate how the principle in the above box is used to solve problems. . then we have Fmx = &. then we have A A LLY = &y + Fty +. how fast is it going after 3 seconds? b.. In general... Well. That is the goal of this chapter. (3) (4) This is a more useful form of Fm..= md. x a . (1) ' m (2) Similarly...... = F .. if F. In the following example. that surface exerts one or two forces on it: always a nonnal force 6 pointing perpendicular to the surface and sometimes a frictional force pfkpointing parallel to the surface. Horizontal and Vertical Motion. F Y a =.. Assume there is no friction.. In the last chapter we discussed the independence of venical and horizontal motion for objects in freefall. F.. F2. The handle makes an angle 30" with the horizontal..the equation that we discussed in Section 3. but we need to understand problems in which other forces are present. F. If the wagon starts from rest.. We will postpone discussing friction until Chapter 6. are the horizontal components of the forces.
If we consider the vertical components of force. then we can find (F. N = Fm. Why is the normal force not the same as gravity? .The MCAT Physics Book c Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 5. 30" from the horizontal.). so we have O=N+T.1) showing all the 13 forces on the wagon body. so that <FAy = myBut the cart is not moving vertically. = (20 N) cos 30" The normal force and gravity do not have horizontal components. Using this and v... The tension f points along Figure 51 the handle. that is.Fgnv' where we use the positive sign for forces which point up. In Figure 52 we resolve the tension into components (recall trigonometry).. = mg Figure 52 + axAt which is the answer to part a. C Fg.Ty =mgTy = 90 N. negative for down. we derive a horizontal velocity vlx = v .). . ( ~ "= 3max ~ Tx= ma.. is zero... This means (F. = 0 rnls and At = 3 s. Notice that the normal force is not the same as the gravitational force..F.. just by looking at the diagram. so the only Thus we write horizontal force is TX. so we have I k) 1 A 2 = sin 30" T T T = cos 30" I Ty = (20 N) sin 30" T. is zero. The handle and the ground are the only two things which touch it. there are the tension due to the handle and the Fcav normal force. so we write (Foec)y = N + TY . So in addition to gravity. a mistake often made by students. so we know that vyis constant (and zero) and thus a. NOW the second law of motion connects this with vertical acceleration.
= 0.. This strategy of reasoning in both directions will be useful in many problems. .. = 0.= 0 to obtain information about the normal force.. For the last step.. = ma. If we add Fx and Fy together like vectors (tiptotail). in physics it is generally true that two small angles which look congruent are congruent(!). I 0... In part b we reasoned the other way..)..D).. Note that and Fyare not new forces but pieces a of F ... the track touches the car and Figure 53 exerts a normal force.. Decide the orientation of the axes ("horizontal" and "vertical")... We will call "horizontal" the direction along the track and "vertical" the direction perpendicular to the track (Figure 53). 2. . note that we often have a. Divide the forces into components if necessary. I Example: A toy car of mass 40 grams is released at the top of an vefltcal incline of plastic track. The principle of the independence of the components of the ?=rna'equation is valid even when the axes are tilted. A Fgnv complementary to the angle between Fx A Figure 54 and F ... the normal force points not up but perpendicular to the surface... we divide the gravitational force into components (Figure 54). In addition to gravity.a force balance. Next. Draw all the forces on the object(s) in question (see Section 3.. 5. Inclined Planes and Force Components The following method generally works for force problems in two dimensions: 1. and then the answer. Note that both angles labeled 19 are 2 Wizo 2 Fx . = 0. 3..= ma.. as the next example will show. using information about the vertical acceleration a. Solve (F. 4. Pldnes and Circles Note that in solving part a. inclined 30" from the horizontal.). how much time does it take the car to reach the floor? Solution: First we DRAW A F ~ v DIAGRAM (Figure 53). On the other hand. There is no frictional force. leading to (F.).= 0 and a. Also.. we used information about forces to obtain the horizontal acceleration a. DRAW A DIAGRAM. It may not be obvious that the two angles Fy:e shown in Figure 54 should both be 0 = 30". then we get F . The car starts from rest and travels 4 m to the floor. Assuming there is no friction... since that implies a. . Since the track is inclined. be on the lookout for the words "constant velocity" or the equivalent..and (F..Chdpter 5 .
= FBmv sin 8 ~y = <rav cos e We care about the horizontal motion. with the car moving to the right (see the motion marks behind the car). FB.by blowing the car with a portable hair dryer. = 0 m/s and Ax = 4 m. If we were to apply a rightward force SA. Qualitative Description Let's think a minute about a toy car moving along the floor and pretend the movement is frictionless. so we can find At by writing C. for instance. = m a x . We have v. this would clearly speed up the car. so we write (F. mgsine= ma. Circular Motion.er)x= max The only horizontal force is ex.. but it would cause the car to veer from its straight path. If we were to apply a leftward this would slow it down. so we write F.. Figure 55 shows a top view. Figure 55 . gsin8=aX.The MCAT Physics Book Now if we look at the triangle in Figure 54. A force force pcapplied (for just a moment) perpendicular to the motion would neither speed it up nor slow it down. we can write Y cos 8 4rsY F  F.
(Think what would happen if there were no friction. and thefrictionalforce provides the centripetal acceleration Figure 58 Example 2: A car goes around a curve to the left. . . What force provides the centripetal force? Solution: This example is a bit mote complicated. is turning lefr. "centrifugal" means "away from the center". . . which is Latin for "toward the center". the road exerts a force to the left on the wheels. turning the car left In this case friction provides the centripetal force (Figure 58).. seen from the rear. we do not say that the car is accelerating when it is turning. an object that is moving at constant speed in a circle is "accelerating toward the center of the circle".) . if there were oil on the road. for instance. .. The car will end up traveling in a circle (Figure 56). . so the wheels exert a force on the road to the right. . and the acceleration vector points towards the center as well. Example 1: The Earth moves around the Sun.. Figure 56 If an object is moving at constant speed in a circle. (Parenthetically. the following box should seem reasonable. We call this centripetal acceleration. But in physics language. What force provides the centripetal force? Solution: The gravitational force provides the centripetal force (Figure 57). . In normal English. . . Earth btf) Sun Figure 57 The car. By Newton's Third Law of Motion. The driver turns her wheels to the left. .Chapter 5 . because the velocity vector is changing. ... Given this discussion. then the net force on the object points toward the center of the circle. Planes and Circles If we are using a hair dryer to exert then we can keep adjusting the direction of the force to keep it perpendicular to the motion of the car..) The force whichprovides the centripetal acceleration is the centripital force.. An object moving in a circle with constant speed has an acceleration vector pointed towards the center of the circle..
The car door is pulled into the path of the groceries. if the beetle is going left and slowing down. in general. it is likely that you can explain it better with the ideas of first law of motion and a turning frame of reference (like the car). The acceleration is given by Tangential acceleration Centripetal acceleration Aspeed aUng =. story. The former is directed toward the center and is responsible for changing the direction of the object. At v2 a . The blade is at the top of its cycle. . The latter is responsible for changing the speed. as we would expect accordFigure 59 ing to the first law of motion. The centripetal acceleration vector is down. two components: the centripetal acceleration and the tangential acceleration. then the tangential acceleration must be to the right. The father says that was due to centrifugal force. The father invents the word "centrifugal force" in order to hide his ignorance. What is the correct explanation for the groceries' ~h~ groceries in the passangerls seat crashing into the door? crash into the car door because the door turns into their path (not Solution: Figure 59 gives the real because of "centrifugalforce"). Quantitative Description An object moving in a circle has an acceleration which has. The little brother Samson in the back seat asks the father why the groceries crashed into the door. Whenever you are tempted to explain something by centrifugal force. =. There is a sack of groceries in the front passenger seat which crashes into the passenger door.r (5) (6) Example 1 :A bombardier beetle sits on a blade of a windmill which is going counterclockwise and slowing down. The older sister Cadenza rolls her eyes at this. The groceries are going along a straight path. Circular Motion. Solution: In Figure 510. fl I D. and the total acceleration a'is shown. Sketch the acceleration vector. . thinking about how much physics her brother will have to unlearn as he grows up.The M C A T Physics Book Example 3: A father is driving a car and turns to the left. Figure 510 .
.. .________.... Thus we write  where T is 1 year...Chapter 5 . e+ 4 Sun ~ & h .. ..cancels.' ... Do not simply memorize this. (Recall that the force the Earth exerts on the Sun is the same as that which the Sun exerts on the E a r t h . .. where the distance is the circumference of the circle. so it will come immediately to mind in any similar situations." = Fen... . This last sentence provides the clue for solving the problem.....~.. so that we have F. . . and this provides the centripetal force in this problem..5 x 10" m (distance from the Sun to the Earth) Solution: First. Some students are tempted to draw two forces on the Earth: a gravitational and a centripetal force. because it is the Earth's acceleration we are concerned about.~ Figure 511 We use Mon the righthand side of the equation.. Pldnes d n d Circles Example 2: Use the following information to find the mass of the sun: R = 1. we DRAW A DIAGRAM showing all the forces (Figure 51 1). hOurr)(e) 1hour 3 10' s = Y The importance of this example does not lie in the arithmetic.. then velocity is simply distance per time. The Sun's acceleration is much smaller because its mass is larger. I .. What expression shall we use for v? What is the velocity of the Earth? If the Earth travels a full circuit in a year..__.._. 9 . Substituting this into equation (7) and doing some algebra gives into which we can substitute the values given in the problem. but take a minute to think about why this equation is true. .... ... The important parts are the method of setting two expressions for the same force equal to each other and the use of equation (8). But the only force is gravity._.. along with T = 365days(24lday to yield M. We know expressions for gravitation and for centripetal acceleration.. . )Note that M.. = 2 x loMkg.
In which direction (Figure 512) would we see the plume? Stop! Think about his question and answer it before you look at the solution on the next page. It is important for the wamor to stay close to the surface and maintain constant speed.4 meters long. A Figure 512 . If the fan spins at 50 cycles per second. and its plastic blades are 0. so the plume appears in the opposite direction of the desired thrust. so T = 1/50 s = 0. A conventional rocket provides the thrust to maintain course. Bad Star is large but not large enough to have an atmosphere or gravity worth considering.The M C A T Physics Book Example 3: A fan spins at a frequency of 50 cycles per second. What is the centripetal acceleration of a piece of plastic at the tip of one of the blades? Solution: You should try to work this out before you read the solution. The velocity is given by so the acceleration is given by Example 4: A space warrior must fly his spacecraft at constant speed around a spherical space station "Bad Star". it must undergo one cycle in one fiftieth of a second.02 s.
.. in Figure 513. because the craft is moving at constant speed in a circle. If you chose E. Path 3 is just Figure 513 right. Okay.. it ought to fall down.I the centripetal force is large enough to keep the object (spacecraft or Moon) from 2 moving away but not so large as to pull them into the ground. centripetal acceleration. Few people choose A. its velocity vector is not constant.Chapter 5 .. . No force is required to maintain constant speed. then the direction of the acceleration vector is toward the center.... if he fires them too much. toward the center of Bad Star. Path 2 is the path if he does not fire the rockets enough. both by friction and by air resistance. path 1 is the path the spacecraft takes if the warrior does not fire his rockets at all (no force). The most important concept in this chapter is the independence of horizontal and vertical motion. . called .. and path 4. That is. . If an object is moving in a circle. If the object is moving at constant speed. whereas the space warrior encounters neither. and its magnitude is a . that is. In this chapter we have used the concept to solve problems involving inclined planes and oblique forces. there is no gravity. What holds up the Moon? The answer in both cases is that . Planes dnd Circles Solution: No one chooses B. In fact. . it means you need to study the first law of motion again. . Some students object that a rocket firing in the direction of A would push the craft into the Bad Star. . and the object must be accelerating. We also looked at circular motion. We saw this concept for the first time in Chapter 4. . forces which are neither horizontal nor vertical. = v2/r. . what is the correct way to think of this problem? The net force of the spacecraft is down. because they are thinking about a car driving on the surface of the Earth. But a car on the Earth's surface encounters the force of drag. so the only force on the craft is due to the rockets. no friction.. no air drag.. This is the same as objecting that if the Earth pulls on the Moon. almost everyone chooses E.. Therefore the rocket plume points in the direction of A.
5 s What is the horizontal component of the acceleration of the orange while it is in the air? A.25 m/s Section A 4.The MCAT Phystcs Bcok 3. C. B. Use 10 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity. The magnitude of the frictional force is F. What can be definitely be concluded? A. 2 m/s2 C. 1.) 2. T+F=G+N Use the following infonnation for questions 711: A winch pulls a crate of oranges (300 kg) up an incline (30" with the horizontal) by maintaining a tension on a rope over a pulley. What is the vertical component of the net force on the orange while it is in the air? A. 1. 1om/s2 D. the magnitude of the gravitational force is G. 18 m/s2 What is the horizontal velocity of the orange at the top of its path? A. 1 mls C. 5mls D. 2. 0. ON 2N 30N 32 N 70 GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . Chapter 5 Problems How much time does it take the orange to reach the top of its path? A. A shoe is being dragged to the right at constant velocity along a level floor by its string.2 m/s. D. 0 mls2 B. There is no friction.25 s B. T>F D. Use the following information for questions 15: A cannon shoots an orange (3 kg) straight up in the air with initial velocity 5 m/s (see figure). 0.4 s C. (Using g = 10 m/s2. Which is the best force diagram while the orange is in the air? 6. 0. The string is horizontal and bears a tension Tin magnitude. The crate is moving at a constant speed 0. Om/s B. T=F C. 5. A horizontal wind exerts a force of 6 N on the orange while it is in the air. and the magnitude of the normal force is N.5 s D. T<F B.
What is the component of the gravitational force parallel to the surface on which the crate sits? A. (3000 N)sin30° C. There is negligible friction between the sled and the ground. ON B.. What is the normal force on the crate? A. so that the stick makes a 30" angle with the vertical. (3000 N) cos 30" D. C. ON 10N 50N 67 N 17. . 5 0 N 11. 3000N 12. ON B. (3000 N) sin 30" C. What is the component of the gravitational force . 67 N 16. 10N B.. What is the vertical component of the force due to the stick? A. 17N B. B. ON B. At time t = 0 s. perpendicular fo the surface on which the crate sits? A. 20 N D. 33 N C.ChaDter 5 ..0 m/s2 9.. (3000 N) cos 30" D. 0... 0 m/s2 B. . C. (3000 N) sin30° C. 0N B. . D. there is no shear or friction force). 10N B. What is the net force on the sled? A. Planes and Circles 7 . 3000N 9. (3000 N)cos 30' D. 5 0 N D. D. He applies a force of 20 N.... (3000 N) cos 30" D. . 20 N D... What is the net force on the crate? A. (3000 N)cos30° D. What is the acceleration of the sled? A. What is the horizontal component of the force due to the stick? A.5 m/s2 2. Which of the following is the best force diagram for the sled after t = 0 s? 8.e. What is the tension on the rope? A. (3000 N) sin 30" C. so that the force acts along the stick (i. 3000 N 14. . . 17N C. the sled is at rest. (3000 N) sin30° C.. 3000N 13.. ON B.8 m/s2 GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . 17N C. 5 0 N 10. . What is the normal force of the ground on the sled? A. 3000N Use the following informationfor questions 121 7: A boy (60 kg) is pushing a sled (5 kg) with a stick. 15.
and the books which were in the passenger seat go crashing against the passenger door. 23. Use the following informationfor questions 1923: A stopper is swung 0n. I and III are true. Which is the best force diagram? B. 24. D. B. B C D c 20. A woman is driving a car along a road when she realizes. C. The books were pushed against the door by a centrifugal force.The MCAT Physics Book Section B 21. D. Which is (are) true? A. Which arrow best shows the direction of the net force? A. Tension. Ignore the gravitational and normal forces (which are vertical and add to zero anyway). She quickly turns the wheel. III. Consider the car as viewed from the top. A B C D I 22. Gravity. D. Consider the following statements: I. I1 and III are true. C. The diagram shows the stopper and string from the top. C. almost too late. B. The forces acting on the books while they are crashing against the door are gravity. 18. What is the acceleration of the Buick? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . C. 1 1 1only is true. the normal force. Normal. None is true. one end of which is fixed at a point P. D. D . Which arrow best shows the direction of the acceleration vector? A. B.a string. C. The books were pushed against the door by a centripetal force. that she needs to make a left hand turn. Friction. and the stopper is swinging counterclockwise at constant speed. B. A I I 25. and a force toward the right. Which arrow best shows the direction the stopper would go if the string were to break at the moment shown in the diagram? A. What provides the centripetal force? A. 11. A B C D Use the following informationfor questions 2427: A '79 Buick Regal (1200 kg) is being driven at a constant speed 3 m/s and turning to the right on a curve of road which has effective radius 4 m.
It is situated horizontally. D. 2 m/s2 C.' Assume there is no friction. 10 rn/s2 D. What is the acceleration of the beetle? A. the wheel is viewed almost from the side. . C. What is the net force on the Buick? I 27... .Chapter 5 . Which is the best force diagram? 29. Which arrow best describes the path of the ball after it leaves the hoop? 32.. Planes and Circles 26. What force provides the centripetal force on the Buick? A. NIMgcosa TIM gsina . radius 0. The beetle is traveling at a speed 2 mls. . Friction..5 m) is spinning at a constant angular speed. 8 m/s2 31...0. Use the following informationfor questions 2829: A bicycle wheel (mass 3 kg. D.. What is the normal force of the incline on the crate? A.) The tension exerted by the winch is T..... B. 0 m/s2 B. Mg B.. (See figure. The figure shows a ball (from the top view) rolling on a table with a partial hoop.. Tension. . At the bottom of the incline the crate begins at rest at t . MgsinaT 30. In the following diagrams. . All Sections Use the following information for questions 31 and 32: A winch pulls a crate of apples (mass M) up an incline (making an angle a with the horizontal). 0 B* 8 C. Normal. 28.. 73 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . Mg cos a C . What is the acceleration of the crate? A.. .. so that "down" is toward the bottom of the page. Mg sin a D. and a beetle (5 g) is sitting on the rim. Gravity. Use g = 10 m/s2. .
l00N C. 33. 38. outward. up. C. 5000 N Use the following infonnation for questions 3537: A Ferris wheel (radius R) is turning in a counterclockwise direction at a given frequency 0. inward. The runner is running a constant speed 8 m/s. It would increase by a factor of 2 C . up. what are the forces acting on her? A. inward. A. Gravity. The curved portions of the track are arcs of a circle. C.The MCAT Physics Book 36. B. the normal force. D. ON B. up. forward. a force. It would increase by a factor of 4. Gravity. B. and a force. 34. the normal force. It would increase by a factor of 4. . Which expression gives the velocity of a sample at the bottom of a spinning tube? 35. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . D. down. It would increase by a factor of 8. and the dimensions of the track are shown. B. Gravity. and a force. In a centrifuge. A person is sitting on a seat at the bottom of a Ferris wheel which is going counterclockwise and speeding up. a force. up. 200N D. lOlcmls 20lcmls 100lcm/s 200lcmls D. What is the net force on the runner on the curved portion of the track? A. forward. How would the centripetal acceleration of a chair on the Ferris wheel change if the frequency were doubled? A. C. the normal force. down. Which arrow best shows the acceleration vector? Use the following infonnation for questions 33 and 34: A runner (50 kg) is running around a track (see figure). How would the velocity of a chair on the Fems wheel change if the frequency were doubled? A. the bottoms of the centrifuge tubes are 10 cm away from the axis of rotation. When the runner is on the curved portions of the track. the normal force. outward. Gravity. B. The centrifuge spins with a frequency of 50 rps (revolutions per second). D. It would stay the same. 37. It would stay the same. It would increase by a factor of 8. and a force. It would increase by a factor of 2. Use 10 m/s2for the acceleration due to gravity. and a force. down. down.
and the reading of the scale.~ gTday 2xgTda. 2: the radius of the Earth and the velocity of the man. 3: the radius of the Earth. gm. we need to be more careful. what is the minimum number of other data that we need? A.. Consider a man standing on a scale at the equator... B. how would the scale read compared to the scale reading for an identical man standing at the equator of a nonrotating Earth? A. which expression gives the best expression of his be the time of one rotation. Which is the best force diagram for a man standing at the equator of a rotating Earth? Consider an object sitting on a scale at the surface of the Earth. and we want to calculate the centripetal force on him. If the gravity of the Sun were somehow cut off when Jupiter was at point P. however. . 9. Because it is rotating. The result is that the scale will not give a reading equal to the force of gravity (equation [l]). what path would Jupiter take? A third effect we have ignored is that the Earth has local irregularities which make it necessary to measure g in the local laboratory. C.Chdpter 5 . D. It would depend on where the man is. if we need an exact value of the effective acceleration due to gravity. there is a centripetal acceleration. we have ignored the rotation of the E d . points into the mass of the where G is Newton's constant. In the following diagram Jupiter is revolving about the Sun.. 1: the radius of the Earth. D.8 m/s2. . and if we want to calculate the scale reading. It would read greater than on a nonrotating Earth. For a man standing at the equator of a rotating Earth. and R. 1 day. REarlhlTday 21tRlT. Mis Earth. We have where g has the value G M ~ R =~ made several idealizations. D. is proportional to the mass: the page.. 2.. there is force balance... 4... The scale reading is the magnitude of the normal force which the scale exerts on the object. If we know the period of the man's motion. is the radius of the Earth. the velocity of the man.1%... 75 GO ON TO M E N E X T PAGE ... For example.) velocity? (Let Tday 0 Sun A' B. 1 . and the magnitude of the scale's force is the magnitude of the gravitational force: 3. It would read the same as on a nonrotating Earth. If the man at the equator stood on a scale. the distance from the center of the Earth to the equator is greater than the distance from center to pole by about 0. 2: the radius of the Earth and the mass of the man. and the mass of the man. C. C. B. Because he is moving in a circle. It would read less than on a nonrotating Earth. To a first approximation. Tfie simple result is that the force of gravity. Pldnes and Circles 39.. We have also assumed that the Earth is a perfect sphere....
STOP . There is not enough information to answer this question. C. It would be the same. It would be less. D. how would the reading of the polar scale compare to the equatorial one? A. It would be greater. B. If two identical men stood on scales at the south pole and at the equator of an Earth identical to this one but nonrotating.The MCAT Physics Book 5.
The force of friction has shown up and exactly balances her pushing force (Figure 62). Static friction Let us consider an example. there cannot be too many practical applications of such a theory without friction. what force makes the car go faster? None other than the friction between the tires and the road. When you step on the accelerator of a car. She begins to push. but that is not the best way to consider it. What happens when you try to accelerate on ice? There aretwo types of friction: staticfriction. so it acts parallel to the boundary between the surfaces. and it is difficult to go anywhere without air resistance (especially if you go by car). and that is shown in Figure 64 as a dashed vector. which is relevant when the surfaces are not slipping. B. we have ignored friction in order to make problems easier and to uriderstand the basic principles behind motion. We generally think of friction as the force that slows things down. frustrating her effort (Figure 63). Figure 61 There is a maximum for friction.. which is relevant when the surfaces are slipping. Friction is a force which opposes the slipping of two surfaces. Before she starts. but the basket does not budge. the frictional force becomes larger. then the basket will move. v Figure 62 . When she pushes harder. At that time we no longer have a problem in static friction.A. Introduction So far in this book.1. On the other hand. the forces on the basket are those shown in Figure 6. If she can manage to push harder than the theoretical maximum. labeled Fm. Muffin the cat is trying to budge a wastepaper basket in order to see what is under it. and kinetic friction. since few of the surfaces in this world are frictionless.
has whatever magnitude it needs in order to maintain nonslipping surfaces. then the static friction. the coefficient of static friction. depends only on the materials involved... we can surmise that thefriction is the same magnitude as the push force. which acts parallel to the surface.. and the problem needs to be reconsidered with kinetic friction. these act along the bank.. The maximum is given by F. If so. There is also friction and possibly the rope. Figure 63 maximum Ifthe basket is not moving. At any rate. 1 . that is.2.The MCAT Physics Book 16. If she does not pull on the rope. will he slide down into the river. = 0. we need to DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 65). This generally involves solving the whole force equation with a . Vincent (20 kg) is on the slippery slope of a river bank making an angle 30' with the horizontal. = 0 and a. The bank is touching him. First. a. . = PsN* where &. so we label them pd. It has no units and is generally less than 1. what is the smallest force she must exert parallel to the bank in order to keep him from slipping? Solution: First. m 1 Also If the calculated force of friction is greater than the theoretical maximum. there is the force of gravity. The coefficient of static friction between him and the bank is 0. so there is a normal force. & Example: Beth (45 kg) has tied a rope around her brother's waist. then static friction is not relevant. Figure 64 There are two principles here: If there are no slipping surfaces. which is infested with crocodiles? b. the force needed to keep him from sliding.
. then we must have a..)" = O because if Vincent does not move. Figure 66 The "vertical" equation becomes ~ .m g c o s 3 0 "=(F. The "horizontal" equation becomes F. Fr~ctlonand Air Resistance Figure 65 In Figure 66 we divide gravity into components. mgsin300 =(F. If Vincent is being held still by friction.Cha~ter 6 . or by friction and his sister's rope..= 0. . = 0.. .. = mg sin 30" = = 100 N. Then we have F.)= = O .. then a.... .. Thus we have N = mgcos30° = = 170 N.
In generalp. This is not true. Kinetic friction Once the static friction maximum is exceeded. the surface involved in a problem begins to dip. the force of friction is less than the maximum friction when the object is still. where is the coefficient of kinetic friction. then she must pull hard enough to exceed the static friction maximum in the other direction.2(170N) = 34 N. and the direction of the force is parallel to the surface in opposition to the slipping. then static friction provides 34 N. then the kinetic frictional force is given by F. That is. N is the normal force. the faster an object slides.The MCAT Physics Book Equation (1) becomes F. I i You might have thought that. and we have a problem involving kinetic friction. enough to keep Vincent from slipping down. If Beth pulls with a force 66 N.A The kineticfriction depends only on the nonnalfotce and the slipping surfaces. = (100 .N.34)N = 66 N . so once an object is moving. and she would have to pull up the slope with a force (100 + 34)N = 134 N. . but not friction. C. Beth must pull with a force F..= P. Figure 67 . this is not true. you might have thought that there would be more friction for an object Fk Pprrh 2kg with more surface touching (see the second picture in Figure 67)... The friction depends only Fprw on the coefficient of friction and the normal force. friction would pull down the slope. is less than &. which is clearly insufficient. = psN = 0. If she wants to pull Vincent up the slope. r If there is slipping between surfaces. the more friction it experiences. (It is true for air resistance.. but again.) Also.
the stove budges. . As Brad begins to push on the stove. If Brad exceeded the force of friction. the friction vector gets larger. There is no acceleration. .. Now there is a net force on the stove... The words "constant speed and "straight path" should send bells off in our head. it gets away (a little) from his hands. as in Figure 68c.. At this point the stove has attained some constant speed. so the vertical equation becomes N=mg=(lOOkg) Figure 68a Equation (2) gives the friction The horizontal equation becomes Think about this. . Friction and Air Resistance Example 1 : Brad pushes a stove (100 kg) in a straight path across the level floor at constant speed 0. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 68a). If the stove is moving at constant speed. and Brad's force decreases to become F. "Doesn't Brad have to overcome the force of friction for the stove to be moving? Brad's force must be greater than the frictional force!" But that is exactly not the case. Figure 68b Figure 68c F i r e 68d .. then the forces must balance.. and it accelerates from rest (Figure 68d). to F. What is the force that Brad must apply? Solution: First. Perhaps it would help if we looked at the whole Bradfstove story.3 for the stove and the Boor. "But wait a minute!" some readers will cry. the force diagram on the stove looks like Figure 68b.. See Figure 68a.. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0... the stove would be accelerating.Chapter 6 .. Once the stove is moving. The moment Brad exceeds F. which it keeps.2 mls.. where the two horizontal vectors are equal in magnitude.. Brad's pushing force is equal in magnitude to the frictional force. and the force of friction shrinks from F. When Brad approaches the stove..
) . The coefficient of kinetic friction between the tires and the road is 0.3 N) sin 30" + (0. What is the coefficient of friction between the eraser and the desk? Solution: First.The M C A T Physics Book Example 2 A student is pushing a chalk eraser (0. .15 N. The horizontal equation becomes Figure 69 T. How much time does it take the car to skid to a halt? (Hint: If 8 is the angle between the horizontal and the road.9s2 . l kg) 10 .3 Newtons at an angle directed downward. the initial velocity. which means that for every 100 meters of road..F k = ( F . = 4900 N. m a. but 30" from the horizontal. Thus we can calculate & Example 3: A car (1000 kg) is traveling downhill at 20 m/s in the rain.1 m/s across the desk (in a straight line).5. The grade of the road is 20%.98 and sin 8 = 0.)~ = 2 W N .) Solution: Here we will merely sketch a solution. and the final velocity v2.1 kg) across a level desk by applying a force 0. ) ~= o .) Y = 0 gives N = 9800 N. You should try to work out the details. we obtain At=7s. Constant velocity tells us that ( F . we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 69). The vertical equation becomes N = (0. Also g = 10 rn/s2. Figure 610 shows the force diagram. (Bambi was unscathed. the vertical drop is 20 meters. but only because he jumped off the road in time.. ( 3 N = 1.= 0. Figure 610 Using the acceleration. The driver sees Bambi in the road and slams on the brakes. The eraser is moving at constant speed 0.2.. Kinetic friction is then F. . Working out the vertical equation with (F.)~ are zero. Working out the horizontal equation (there is a net force) gives (F. = 2. then cos 8 = 0. ) and ~ (F.
By this time you are pulling again. It is reasonable that a larger object would experience more drag than a smaller one.11). We have .. depends on the velocity that an object is going. and static friction prevails.. This equation is reasonably accurate if the fluid is "roughed up" a bit by the object's passing through.2.3 meters each) down from a roof with his stomach pointing down. It is also responsible for the eheheheheh sound when you rub your hair after a shower or your dishes after washing. and v is its velocity.. We might also expect that the drag would be larger for a faster moving object. and not always in a simple way.29 kg/m3. A is the crosssectional area of the moving object. But then the rubber band has contracted again. except it points necessarily opposite the direction of motion.. so static friction initially prevails. After the rubber band stretches enough. This is called sticWslip. this is a reasonable assumption.4 meters from nose to tail.Chapter 6 . a. then. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 6. . Thus it is difficult to work problems without a computer. First. E. . Friction and Air Resistance The fact that &is generally less than &means that. For cars driving and people walking through air and for fish swimming through water. that the formula for drag is Fdrilg = CPAV* . and that is that air resistance makes problems more difficult. Example 1 : A dog Nikki (7 kg) falls five stories (3. or drag. but do know how to use it. What is the air resistance by the time the dog gets to the bottom? c. in many situations. If we ignore air resistance. what is the terminal velocity of the dog? b.. The force is placed in the force diagram like all the other forces. The sticWslip phenomenon is responsible for the squeal of bus brakes. Picture pulling a potato with arubber band. .15 meters wide and 0. Consider an object moving through a substance. Finally it is reasonable to expect that a dense fluid would exert more drag than a "thin" fluid. p is the density of the fluid. The density of air is 1.. the friction will switch back and forth from kinetic to static. He is 0. These are some very practical applications of physics. We are hoping that the force of air resistance is small. where C is a constant equal to about 0. It will not be a surprise. You do not have to memorize this equation. Air resistance. for obvious reasons.2 meters tall. and 0. A i r resistance We have neglected air resistance thus far mainly for one reason.. such as air or water. There are a few things we can say about drag. the potato moves and kinetic friction takes over. so the potato stops. Is air resistance a small or large effect in this problem? Solution: a.
. Ignoring air resistance yields v. Nikki is a stunt dog. The force equation becomes Figure 6 1 2 . we obtain . It does not matter how tall Nikki is.is not whereas the weight of the ball is F small at all in comparison.The M C A T Physics Book We use the kinematic equation that does not involve At. = 32 m/s. In fact. Any assumption that air resistance is neglible is not valid. b. The crosssectional area presented by the dog is (0. we run into trouble.06 m2.05 N.4 m)(O. Our answer is good with no more than about 10% error. 15 m) = 0. Air resistance is about 10% of the dog's weight (70 this implies that the dog's weight is the dominant force all the way down. it is much larger than the force of gravity. We need a new idea in order to solve this. If we calculate the force due to air resistance at the bottom of flight. Example 2: A rubber ball (radius 2 cm. (You should work this out. so we have v. What is its velocity when it reaches the ground? Solution: If we work out the problem as in Example l a above. = v: + 2ady. The new idea follows. = mg = 0. If the ball has fallen so far that it has stopped accelerating then the gravity force down and the air resistance force up are balanced. He was unharmed.12. Then the force diagram would look like the one in Figure 6. mass 5 grams) is dropped from a height of 50 meters. Thus c.) The crosssectional area is the area of a circle d. The calculated force F. not the total surface area of a sphere. and we are justified in ignoring air resistance.
= pJV. density of the medium. The crosssectional area for his fall is 0. CPAV'. Generally you just need to know that air resistance is a retarding force which depends on the surface area. Example 3 : A man (60 kg) falls from a very tall building (200 m).  1 In this chapter we looked at friction and air resistance. . Force balance occurs when v = 12 mls. If the surfaces are not slipping. The force equation becomes F~cmg=ma. = 600 N . First. Our calculations show that air resistance is too large to be ignored. given by F.mg = ma.. Its magnitude is given by F. and velocity of the object.Chdpter 6 . as in Example 1. .. about half of the man's weight.13). If the surfaces are slipping.. . Fprav b. The static friction cannot be larger than the maximum. Friction is a force which opposes the slipping of surfaces.. An analysis similar to the one in Example 1 shows that ignoring air Figure 613 resistance yields v2= 63 rnls.. The air resistance increases until it balances the force of gravity. and it always acts parallel to the surface.. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 6. we obtain 3 10 N. . then kinetic friction opposes the slipping. The MCAT does not have many problems involving air resistance.. This shows that ignoring air resistance is wrong since 3 10 N is not small compared to F.. This velocity is called terminal velocity. but not so large as to assure force balance. If we calculate F. Friction dnd Air Resistdnce As the ball falls. = pJ. We solve for the frictional force using force balance. This problem is just too hard. is not large compared to F. But Fa. its velocity increases until it begins to get close to 12 rnls. then static friction is the force which maintains the status. Situations involving friction fall into two categories: static and kinetic.. What equation governs the fall? b..3 m2. . either.. What is his velocity when he reaches the bottom? Solution: a. a.
C. B.58 B. Consider the situation in which the block is not moving.Tcosa mg + Tcosa mg .0 N D.8 N C. 0. B. 19. What frictional force prevents the block from sliding? A. ON B. 17. What is the magnitude of the force of friction F. a student places a block of copper (2 kg) on a surface of a flat piece of steel and tilts the steel. Rolling friction. 9. B. 0 Tcosa Tsina T 6.) 4.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 6 Problems Use the following information for questions 13: Sam is pulling a block of ice (mass m) along a smooth level floor with a rope on which he maintains a tension of magnitude T. D. B. D. C. Air resistance. 19. Use the following information for questions 48: In a laboratory experiment. 9. Static friction. The student determines that for any angle up to 30" (with respect to the horizontal). &mg Tcosa Tsina GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . D. Kinetic friction. mg mg .0N D. D. What is the magnitude of the normal force? A. 19.8 N C. 5. B.6 N What is the value of u the coefficient of friction? A. and the angle of the tilt is its maximum 3 0 ' . The coefficient of friction between the ice and the floor is &. What is the horizontal component of the tension? A. The rope makes an angle a with the horizontal.97 3. 0 8. (Use 9. The block is moving at velocity v for a time At. friction will prevent the block from sliding. 17.8 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity. B.? A. 9. C. 0. but larger angles necessarily allow the block to slide.Tsina What is the magnitude of the force of friction on the block? 0N A.6 N 7.8 N C. 17. 2.0N D. C.6 N 1. What is the magnitude of the normal force on the copper block? A. What is the net force on the block? 0N A.
04N C . ON B. friction is &. The car goes into a skid as it comes to a stop. 600N B. mgsin8 D. but the washer is not moving. 2 . 0. ON 0. (We will investigate this assumption in question 12. Use the following information for questions 1315: A man is trying to push a washer (100 kg) along a level floor. 1000 N mgsin9 18. 0 8N 0. 4N. D.(Use g = 1 0 rn/s2. C . . 0. What is the magnitude of the force of static friction on the card? A. mg B. 800N D . mgcos9 C.. Which of the following best represent the force diagram for the car during the skid? 12. Which expression gives the normal force on the car? A.4N Use the following information for questions 1620: A car (mass m) is going up a shallow slope (angle 8 with the horizontal) when the driver sees a red light and suddenly applies the brakes. D . The static coefficient of friction between and the kinetic coefficient of the tires and the road is 4.Chdptei 6 . No.08 N D . 0. mgtan8 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .. 1 1 . What is the magnitude of the normal force on the card? moving? A. Is the force of friction sufficient to maintain the card from sliding? A. 13. 0 . O N B. What is the normal force on the washer? A. What is the magnitude of the component of the force of gravity parallel to the surface of the road? A.) (Use g = 10 m/s2. C. 8and 17. the frictional force is greater than 4 N. the frictional force is insufficient to hold up the card. 0. B. mg B.) 4utic= 0 .) 1 14. B . D . Yes. He is pushing with a horizontal force 700 N.. 80N 1000 N A. 6 . mgcos8 C. . How hard would the man have to push to get the washer 9. Yes. . of static friction between the wall and the card is 0 Assume the card is still. What is the gravitational force on the card? A. What is the force of friction on the washer? 15.The coefficients of friction are 0 . The pencil is perpendicular to . 0 4N C . 4N 16. 0 . the frictional force is less than & N.04N 0 . the frictional force is greater than mg. 700 N C .08N D . . 700N C ..4N 10. Friction dnd A i r Resistdnce Use the following information for questions 912: A playing card ( 4grams) is held against a vertical wall by a pencil (20 grams). 600N B. Yes.The coefficient the wall and exerts a horizontal force 0 .
. gravity is 10 m/s2. the net force F. C.is greater than &N. Use the following informationfor questions 2126: A car (1000 kg) is driving on level road at a constant speed 8 rn/s when it attempts to execute a turn about a curve 0 m. 10. What force provides the centripetal force? A. B. the net force F. Which expression gives the force of friction on the car? B. D. w @ @+mgsinO @mgsin6 B . 9000N D . Is the turn successful? A. B..is less than &N.7. we of effective radius 1 will assume the turn is successful. B.. is less than &N. The drum begins to turn. the net force F. so there is nothing touching the bottoms of the rider's shoes. 7000N C . 20. Book 19. 88 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . Gravity. What is the net force on the car during the skid? A . the kinetic friction between the tires and the road is 0 and the acceleration due to coefficient of friction is 0. A force in the direction the car is traveling and a force away from the turn axis. 9000N D . What forces are acting on the car besides the gravitational force (down) and the normal force (up)? A. For the following questions. A force in the direction the car is traveling and a force toward the turn axis..000 N 26.is greater than &N. the car performs in the turn as the driver intends.000N  C . 6400N 7000 N 10. What is the net force on the car if the turn is successful? A. What is the acceleration of the car? Assume the coefficientof friction between the rider's clothes and the surface of the drum is p. The static coefficient of . until it achieves uniform rotation with period T and the rider feels as if some force is pushing him against the wall (see figure). D. The D N of ~Discomfort is an amusement park ride which consists of a large vertical hollow cylinder which turns on its axis. the net force F. D. No. No. D. 6400 N c. that is. A person of mass M enters the drum (insideradius R) while the drum is still and stands against the wall. C. C. Then the floordrops down.The MCAT Physics A.. Static friction. The normal force. Yes. Kinetic friction. B. Passage 1 21.. 24. Yes. What is the normal force on the car? A. D. A force away from the turn axis. A force toward the turn axis... 0 B. 9 . C. 22. mg mgsin 13 PkN 25.. 23.
Toward the center of rotation. 6. RIT C.. Which gives an expression for the speed v the rider is going? A.36 x lo4 7 (kglm s) 1. What values of p assure that the rider will not slide down when the floor drops? A. B. which direction does the acceleration vector point? A. w g &Iv2/r phlv2/r 1.) 5. . (If the fluid is essentially undisturbed. what are the forces acting on a rider. 2zRlT D. If Re is greater than about 100.6 x low3 4. 2. . 21irlR What is the magnitude of the upward force on the rider? 3.29 1. Any velocity greater than about m/s. (2) where I is the linear size of the object and 7 is the viscosity of the fluid. D. In the direction of the rider is moving. i. For a car 1. D.then the fluid develops whirls and eddies that break off from the flow in an essentially unpredictable manner. defined by Re = pvllq. B. . There is a force pointing outward and a force pointing in the same direction the rider is moving. 1. Mg B. Friction and Air. is fairly accurate. A table of densities and viscosities is shown below. 9m2 GO ON TO M E NEXT PAGE . There is a force pointing inward and a force pointing in the same direction the rider is moving. The normal force. B.5 m high. 3 m 2 C. C. p must be greater than ~glv'. (Note: g = 9. what velocities would make equation (1) valid? A. .Chapter 6 . Any velocity greater than about 1 m/s. 2 m wide.. 2. then equation (1) for F. .2) is a constant. C. Passage 2 When an object moves through a fluid. Rl21rT B.8 m/s2. 6 m 2 D.0 x lo5 1. If Re is greater than about 2 x loS. .5 m2 B. After the floor drops. There is a force pointing outward. what force provides the cenuipeta1 force? A. Its magnitude is given by F~~~ = CPAV~. 'substance air water mercury p (kg/m3) After the floor drops. Equation (1) is valid only if the fluid flow develops whirls and eddies. There is a force pointing inward. During uniform rotation. The acceleration is zero. that is. and 3 m long. . after the floor drops.. (1) where C (= 0. D. p is the density of the fluid.0 lo3 1. C. p must be greater than v 2 / ~ g . B. C. Any velocity less than about 1 d s . The Reynolds number also determines when turbulence begins.Reststdnce 1. C. turbulence. For a cube 2 m by 2 m by 2 m moving through the air. Gravitation. C. Any velocity less than about ds. Away from the center of rotation. approaching the onset of turbulence. there is a drag force which retards its motion.. a measure of its stickiness. pmust be less than R ~ ~ v ~ . D.8 x lo' 1. 3. then the drag force is actually greater than the value given in equation [I]. B. besides gravity acting down and a force acting up? A. Friction. A is the crosssectional area of the object normal to the flow direction. what is the crosssectional area A appropriate for equation (I)? A.. D. p must be less than v 2 / ~ g .) The extent to which a fluid is disturbed is determined by a dimensionless constant called the Reynolds number.e. and'v is its velocity relative to the fluid. D. Tension.
Iand III.03 m and mass 0. If we ignore air resistance. D.The MCAT Physics Book 3. 2. the frictional force. Consider a car (1000 kg) of dimensions in the above question. and a drop of equal size and mass of sulfuric acid on Venus. be small compared to the other forces in the problem. so that allows us to approximate the force of gravitation on the ball as F. I. C. connected by chemical forces.of the falling ball and then calculate the force of air drag... 9800N C.. each atom is pulled by all the pieces of the Earth.1 m by 0. and v is its velocity relative to the air. B. The third effect we generally ignore is air resistance. the drag force must be small compared to A. Any velocity greater than about m/s. rain presumably consists of sulfuric acid droplets in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. we can use the solution to evaluate the appropriateness of the idealizing assumptions. If air resistance is important. The acceleration due to gravity on Earth's surface is approximately the same as the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Venus. we can calculate the idealized maximum velocity. If the air resistance is small. B.000 N How fast would a car have to be going for turbulence to develop behind it? Any velocity less than about 10" d s . 0. the centripetal force. This is given by F~~~ = C~AV'. it is possible that we can still do the problem. C. Most physical situations are quite complicated.= 0. The first idealization we make is that we can treat the ball as a point mass located at its center and the Earth as a point mass located at its center. Much of the praxis of physics is breaking a problem into parts. 700N B. 6. A simple example of t h s is the analysis of a tennis ball falling from a height at the surface of the Earth.3 kg/m3) is the density of air. If the ball falls far enough for there to be a force balance F. (1) where C (= 0.= mg. D. 11.46 m 0.. 11. 20. ~ x ~ o . 80 N D.1 m by 0.01 N B. the gravitational force. If there were no air. 40. C.7 N 50N D.8 m/s2 is a constant. The pressure of the atmosphere. In. 8 N C. If we are going to ignore air resistance. p (= 1. B.000 N D. involving a number of forces or interactions even in the simplest of cases. IIandIII. 3. I only. then we can use equation (1) to solve the problem. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .where g = 9. The chemical composition of the drop. then we were justified in ignoring it. D. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ A. Second.92 m 1. we ignore the gradient of the gravitational field. C. consider a'ball of radius 0. 2 x 1 0 ~ ~ On Venus. What is the drag force on such a car if it is going 30 d s ? A. The temperature of the atmosphere.05 kg which is tossed upward at initial velocity 3 m/s. B. The ball consists of many atoms. Any velocity greater than about 1 mls. 1 . D. Any velocity less than about 1 mls.) For the following problems.2) is a constant. Consider a water raindrop on Earth. Consider the following possibilities: I. and 111. A is the crosssectional area of the ball. For a fish (0.~ N 0.84 m 176. (Actually we can only require that F. the normal force. treating some parts exactly and ignoring other parts. Which of the above affect(s) the terminal velocity with which rain falls? 4.4 m What is the initial drag force on the ball? A.. In addition to the chemical forces. 0. what thrust would it exert? A. B. Once we have solved the idealized problem. C. A.1 m) swimming at constant velocity in the ocean at 2 d s . to what idealized height would the ball travel? 5. A.
. STOP . B. The air is more dense near the ground. D. the height is less. We have idealized the gravitational field as being . The force of gravity decreases. In fact. Cats falling from large heights often survive the fall. B. the height is less. uniform. In the idealized problem. D. The force of gravity on the cat is greater near the ground. and the terminal velocity is less. 6. Cats falling for a while tend to stretch out their legs. the height is greater. the ball attains a certain maximum height and afterward attains a final velocity just before it reaches the ground. . and the terminal velocity is greater. . . the height is greater. B. ten stories) has a better chance of surviving than a cat falling from a lesser height (five stories). The force of gravity decreases. . . it has been found that a cat falling from a building at very great height (eg. but the terminal velocity is less. . Friction and Air Resistdnce 4. if m e .Chapter 6 . The force of gravity increases. what happens to the force of gravity as the ball travels toward the top of its flight? A. . The force of gravity decreases.. If air resistance is included.. C. C. If we remove that idealization. Which. 5. . C. then increases. but the terminal velocity is greater. then disappears at the top. Greater velocity leads to a greater force of drag. D. could best explain this? A. A.
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Chapter 7 Torques and Properties of Solids
A.
Introduction
In the first six chapters, we have talked as if all things were points or boxes which move by sliding or gliding. In this chapter we will discuss the ability of real objects to rotate, stretch, and bend. These topics are slightly more complicated than previous topics, and their study quickly moves beyond the scope of the MCAT. For this reason, we will cover only the main points and the simpler problems. Even so, you may find this chapter difficult. So work carefully, and if you do not understand everything the first time, work through the rest of the book before coming back to it.
B.
Language of Rotation
In Chapter 3 we discussed force, mass, and motion. A large force on a small mass will produce a large change in velocity in a given time. Now let's consider a 10kg bicycle wheel of diameter 1 meter and a 10kg pipe of diameter 5 cm, both at rest (Figure 71). Now we want to set them spinning by giving them a twist. Which is more difficult to set spinning? Even though they .have the same mass, the bicycle wheel has a greater Figure 71 moment o f inertia than the pipe, and applying a twist to it will not have as great an effect as applying the same twist to the pipe. For the simple shape of a ring (or pipe) tuning about a central axis, the moment of inertia is where M is the mass of the object and R is the radius. Do not memorize the equation, but do remember the general rule: If two objects have the same mass, then the object with greater radius will have a greater moment of inertia and thus will be more difficult to set spinning from rest. If an object, like a bicycle wheel, is spinning, then the period T is the time it takes for one revolution. Thefrequency f is the number of revolutions per unit time, so
which is measured in [lls = Hertz = HzJ.
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A torque is a twist, which can change the frequency at which an object is spinning. A large torque on an object with a small moment of inertia will produce a large change in its frequency of rotation. Note the similarity with the second law of motion. Notice that the moment of inertia larger moment depends also on the axis about which an of inertia object is turning. We can twist a barbell about its central axis, or about a perpenFigure 72 dicular axis (see Figure 72). The moment of inertia with respect to the perpendicular axis is greater than that with respect to the central axis, because of the greater radius.
smaller moment of inertia
:
C. Torque
In order to calculate a torque, we always have a pivot Po(where the axis is) and a force acting at another point P,. For example, in Figure 73, the pivot is at the crocodile's belly, and the force F acts at his snout at P,. The torque is defined by
Theforce produces a torque about point Po.
Figure 73
I
I (
where 7is the torque, r is the distance from Poto PI, F is the size of the force, and $ is the angle between the direction of the force and the line Poand PI.But is 4 the big angle or the little angle? Well, it turns out it doesn't matter, since we are taking the sine, and the sines of supplementary angles are the same. Recall that sin 0" = 0, (4) sin 90" = 1, sin 180" = 0. Also the convention is that counterclockwise = positive torque, clockwise
=
I
(
negative torque.
Up until this chapter, we have drawn force vector arrows anywhere as long as the tail of the arrow sat on the object the force acted on. In doing torque problems, we must be more careful to put the arrows in the right place.
Chapter
7
. .. Torques a n d Properties
01 Solids
Example 1: A large tarot card (the Fool) measuring 0.3 m by 0.4 m lies at the lower left in the first quadrant of the xyplane, so that one comer is at (0.4 m, 0.3 m). See Figure 74. There is a force of 1.5 N in the ydirection located at point (0.4 m, 0.3 m). The pivot is at the origin. What is the torque? Solution: We can see that the force tends to turn the card counterclockwise, so the torque is positive. We can find the radius by the Pythagorean theorem:
Figure 74
The angle $is shown in the two places in the diagram (corresponding angles with the parallel lines). The sine of @canbe obtained by looking at the portion of the diagram shown in Figure 75: sin i$ = opposite  0.4 m = 0.8. hypoteneus 0.5 m

Putting all this together gives us
r= rFsin$
=(0.5 m)(1.5 N)(0.8) = 0.6 Nm.
Figure 75
I
(
Example 2: A massless meter stick is supported by a fulcrum at the mark 0.3 m (point B). A mass A of 10 kg is sitting at the the 0.1m mark (point A). A mass C of 4 kg is sitting a the the 0.8m mark (point C). Consider the forces on the ruler (Figure 76). A a. What is the torque due to the B C weight of A about point B? n I I I I I b. What is the torque due to the I I I I i weight of C about point B? 4 w c. What is the torque due to the force of the fulcrum about Figure 76 point B? Solution: a. In this case, we have r = 0.2 m, F = mg = 100 N, sin@ = 1, and the torque is counterclockwise, so
n +
II .
r = (0.2 m)(100 N)(I) = 20 Nm.
b. In this case, the torque is clockwise, so we have r = (0.5 m)(40 N)(I) = 20 Nm. c. In thiscase, r = O m , so r=ONm.
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Example 3: A massless meter stick is hanging from the ceiling at the mark% //////////////// 0.3 m, point B. Mass A (10 kg) is hanging I by string A (0.2 m long) connected to C point A at the 0.1m mark on the meter I A 1 stick. Mass C(4 kg) is hanging by string ; ' B '.. C (0.3 m long) connected to point C at the rc '0.8m mark on the meter stick. (See ..., 4c Figure 77.) a. What is the torque due to the 100 N 40 N weight of A about point B? 4 b. What is the torque due to the weight of C about point B? Figure 77 c. What is the torque due to the force of the fulcrum about point B? Solution: This example looks exactly like the previous example; the strings are only a slight modification. If we apply the strict definition for torque (equation [3]), however, we will end up making an enormous effort, calculating r,and sin$A, and so on. Thankfully, there is an easier way.
I 1,
Trick: The torque due to a force is not changed by moving the force vector to a new point, as long as that point lies on the line of the vector. That is, the new point must be on a line containing the old point and running in the same direction as the vector. We can think of this as sliding the vector along the direction it is already pointing until we have 4 = 90".
.
/
In this example, this trick is the equivalent of sliding the force up the string to the meter stick. In fact, the example is exactly equivalent to Example 2. a. T = 20 Nm. b. T = 20 Nm. c. .r=ONm. Example 1, revisited solution: We can slide the 15N force down the edge of the card to the xaxis. In this case we have r = 0.4 m and sine = 1, so we have
7 = (0.4
?.
0.4 m
t
4 h
i , Fold
,
m)(1.5 N)(l) = 0.6 Nm . 0.3 m
Once we move the force to a new point, so that @ = 90"(and sin 4 = l), the torque is especially easy to calculate. The line segment from the pivot to the new position of the force is called the lever arm. In Figure 78, the lever arm is the line segment
r
w
A
Fnw
Po
Figure 78 p1
m.
Chdpter
7 . . . Torques d n d Properties of Solids
In drawing torque diagrams, it is helpful to keep the following principles in mind: 1. Gravity acts at the center of mass. 2. A string or rope exerts only a pulling force at the point of connection. 3. When a stick or pole meets a wall or floor, the force acts at the point of contact. a. If the surface is frictionless, then there is only a normal force. b. If the stick is connected by a hinge, then the force is along the stick (either pushing or pulling). c. If the stick is connected to the wall or floor, then there are two forces, one normil and one parallel to the surface. We will use these in Section D.
Torques are useful in problems involving rolling and spinning, although most such problems lie outside the scope of the MCAT. Torques are also useful in solving for forces in structural problems, even if there is no motion. For these problems we use the
If a system is in static equilibrium, then
(F,,,)~ = 0,
(FKJY = 0'
Pa) (5b) (5~)
and
7 , = 0,
no matter which point you choose as the pivot.
Equations (5a) and (5b) assure translational equilibrium, and equation (5c) assures mtafional equilibrium. The following examples illustrate methods for calculating forces in static equilibrium.
A
B
C
Example 1 : Consider the pulley
system shown in Figure 79. Mass m, is 2 kg, the radius of pulley A is 0.15 m, the radii of pulley B are 0.3 rn and 0.1 m, and the radius of pulley C is 0.05 m. What mass m,is required for equilibrium? Solution: A string has one tension throughout its length, no matter what pulleys it goes around. Thus the tension TI= m,g, and T,= w.The radii of pulleys A and C are irrelevant.
Figure 79
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For equilibrium, we can take torques about the pivot of pulley B, keeping in mind that counterclockwise is positive and clockwise is negative, so that
met= 0,
z, r2= 0,
m,=6 kg.
For problems involving torque balance, the following methods often work: 1. DRAW A DIAGRAM. 2. Label all forces acting on the system.
3. Choose a pivot. 4. Calculate torques and set T,,=,,,= 0. 5. Use (F,,,), = 0 and (F,,J,= 0, or choose another pivot.
In the following example, it will be helpful for you to work out the example as you read along.
Example 2: A pole of mass m, and length L sticks out perpendicularly from a wall at point A. A wire connects the end of the pole to a point B above point A, making an angle 8 with the pole. A lamp of mass rn, hangs from a wire at the end of the pole. (See Figure 710.)
Figure 710 What is the tension in the wire a. from B to C in terns of m , , m,,g, L, and 8? What is the vertical force exerted b. by the wall on the pole? Solution: First, we DRAW A DIAGRAM with all the forces on the pole (Figure 71 1). We know m,g and m g but not T, F,, and F,.Let us make a chart showing the toques about A and C.
B
Figure 7 11
force m1g
torque about A
torque about C
L 2 mlg
I.
Make sure you understand why these two entries are correct. Then fill in the rest of the chart on your own. The completed chart is shown on the next page.
Chapter
7 .. . Torques and
Properties of Solids
force
toraue about A
toraue about C
In the second column the entries for the torque due to Fxand Fyabout A are zero, since r = 0 for these entries. In the third column, the entry for the torque due to Fxabout C is zero because sin$ = 0.The torque due to T about C is zero because r = 0. a. In order to find T, we can take torques about point A, since that eliminates F, and Fy.The net torque must be zero because the system is in equilibrium, so we have (taking the sum of the first column)
We solve for T and divide through by L to obtain
b. In order to find Fy,we can use one of two methods. Using torques and choosing point C as a pivot yields
On the other hand, we could add up all the vertical forces and use (F,,), = 0,so that Fy+TsinOm,gm2g=0,
Fy= m , g + ~ g  T s i n O
=*~g+Qg 1
m1g + 2m2g
sin 8
 m,g. 2
This was a longer solution, so using torques is clearly the way to go.
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Book
Example 3: A pole of length L is connected to a hinge at point A on a vertical wall, making an angle a with the wall. A horizontal string connects to the wall at point B and the end of the pble at point C. A box of candy of mass m hangs from a string at the end of the pole. (See Figure 7 12) a What is the tension in the horizontal string? b. What is the magnitude of the force of the wall on the pole at point A? Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM with all the forces on the pole (Figure 7 13). We have the tension Tin the horizontal string and tension mg in the vertical string. We are left with a choice for the force of the wall on the pole F,: pushing or pulling? No matter, we can draw it either way, and physics will tell us later on if we have it right. Let's make the force tensile, that is, pulling. a. We choose A for the pivot, since that choice kills the force F, but keeps T and mg. Setting the sum of the torq"es equal to zero gives
LTsin(90° a)  Lmg sin a = 0, LTcosa Lmgsina = 0 , T=mgsin a cos a
Figure 712
Figure 713
b. In order to find F,, we set the sum of vertical forces to zero, so that
(Fnedy =0,
The negative sign tells us that we drew the F, vector the wrong way. (Perhaps you knew this already.) The force is compressional.
E. Solid Properties
We have also been pretending that sticks and strings and such things are absolutely rigid, but we know that solid objects do stretch and bend and sometimes break. Solids bend when you exert different forces on two sides of them. To keep things simple, we will look at how a solid cylinder reacts to forces placed on it.
Chapter
7
. .. Torsues and Properties of Solids
Figure 714 shows two rods, made of the same material and having the same crosssectional area, but the first rod L, is longer than the second L,. If we apply the same magnitude tensile force (that is, pulling) to the four ends, then we expect the rods to stretch. But the longer rod has more material to stretch than the shorter one, so the change in length AL will be greater. On the other hand, we can even things out by taking the ratio , which L is called the strain. Now let's consider two rods of the same length with different crosssectional areas (Figure 715). Again we apply the same magnitude tensile force to the ends. The thicker rod stretches less than the thinner one. This time, to even things out. we introduce the quantity stress, which is F .This should remind you of pressure,
A force of tension will stretch a long wire more than a short wire.
Figure 714
AL
,
Aforce of tension will stretch a thin wire more than a thick wire.
since pressure is a kind of stress. Figure 715 As long as the forces involved are not too large, the resulting strain is proportional to the stress placed on the rod, so that we can write
F =A y. L
A
L
where Y is the Young's modulus, having You ] . might think that it is units of [ ~ l m ~ easier to stretch a rod than to compress it, to be shortening so (as long AL asdue you do not but it turns go too out far). not The
to a compressive force (pushing) is the same as the lengthening AL due to an , equalsized tensile force. The Young's modulus depends only on the material. t A shear force is a force applied perpendicular to the surface. Figure 7 16 Figure 716 shows an example of four shear forces applied to a block. Note that the net force is zero and the net torque is zero. The block bends, a distance AX, and the relationship between stress (FIA) and strain ( M L ) is
I I
1i
lr$A
(6)
,
F A X =s.
A L
(7)
L
where S is the shear modulus with units [N/m2].
101
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Shear is a bit more complicated than compression and tension. In Figure 717, the compression force in the trunk is nearly uniform. The shear force in the large branch to the right is composed of tension at the top of the branch and compression at the bottom of the branch, as well as pure shear, If you want to weaken the branch, the most effective place to cut is on top and the least effective place is in the middle, which is called the neutral layer. The proportionality in equations (6) and (7) holds for a large range of forces, but things will break if you pull them too hard. Before they break, they may go soft. The regime in which equations (6) and (7) holds is called elastic. The point at which the constituent particles of the material begin to flow and cause the material to go soft is the elastic limit. (See Figure 718.)
A shearforce involves a layer of tension and a layer of compression. Figure 717
F A
plastic region
klastic limit In this chapter we looked at using torques in order to solve for forces in elastic region certain static structures. In problems of this type we begin by drawing a force AL. diagram, as we have always done, but L now we need to be careful to locate the force at the right place. Generally, in a Figure 718 given problem, there will be forces we do not know and do not need, and it will be possible to choose a pivot solhat the torques of all such forces are zero. Then if we z , = 0,we will be able to obtain the magnitude write down the torque balance equation , of the desired forces. We also looked at the static properties of solids. It is helpful to think in terms of a stress (force per area) being applied to a solid, and this stress causes a strain (displacement per length). For many materials stress and strain are proportional. Just realizing this proportionality is the key to solving some problems.
Chapter
7
.. . Torsues and Properties oi Solids
Chapter 7 Problems
at the lower left corner. Force ( l o N) acts down at the lower right corner. Force ? (30 N) acts to the right at the upper right comer. (Take counterclockwise to be positive.)
Section AC
Use the following information for questions 13: A student nails a meter stick to a board at the meter stick's 0.0m mark. A force of 10 N acts at the 0.5m mark perpendicular to the meter stick as shown in the figure. Force of 5 N acts at the end of the meter stick, making a 30' angle, as shown. Force ? of 20 N acts at the same point providing tension but no shear. (Use counterclockwise to be positive.)
4.
What is the torque of force about the pivot? A. 8 Nm B.  4 N m C. ONm D. 4 N m
1. What is the torque of force A about the fixed point? A. 5 Nm B. ONm C. 5Nm D. 10Nm
5 . What is the torque of force B' about the pivot? A. 5 Nm B.  4 N m C. 3 Nm D. ONm
6. What is the torque of force ? about the pivot? A. 9 Nm B. ONm
I
2. What is the torque of force A. 4 . 3 3 Nm B. 2.5 Nm C. 4.33 Nm about the fixed point?
Section
D
3.
What is the torque of force A. 20 Nm B. ONm C. 1ONm D. 20 Nm
C about the fixed point?
7.
Use the following information for questions 46: A rectangular piece of metal (0.3 m by 0.4 m)is hinged (@) as shown in the upper left comer, hanging so that the long edge is vertical. Force A (20 N) acts to the left
A massless meter stick sits on a fulcrum at its 0.4m mark. A 6kg mass sits on the meter stick at the 0.2m mark. What mass is required to sit at the 0.9m mark in order to have torque balance? A. 2.4 kg B. 4.5 kg C. 10 kg D. 1 s kg
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The
MCAT Physics 8ook
balance. Assume the seesaw itself is uniform and balanced. How far from the end should Scott sit in order to achieve balance?
Use the following information for questions 81 1: A book (4 kg) is hanging by a string connected to a rope at point B. One end of the rope is connected to the wall at point A, and the other end is pulled by a person at point C . with a tension T. The rope from A to B is 1.5 m long and horizontal, while the rope from B to C makes an angle 30" with the horizontal. (See figure, in which we take counterclockwise to be positive.) (Use g = 10 m/s2)
8. What is the torque due to the weight of the book about point B? A. 4 N m B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60 Nm 9. What is the torque due to the weight of the book about point A? A. 6ONm B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60 Nm
13. A meter stick of mass 0.6 kg sits on a fulcrum located at the 0.3m mark at equilibrium. At the 0.0m mark hangs a mass m. What is m?
10. What is the torque due to tension T about point B? A. 4 N m B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60Nm
Use the following informationfor questions 14 and 15: Pulley B hangs from the ceiling and has a diameter d. A string twined about the pulley leads around pulley A, hanging from the ceiling, and to a mass M. A beam of length L is attached to the pulley B itself and stretches out horizontally. A mass m is connected to the end. The system is in static equilibrium. (See figure.)
11. What is the torque due to tension T about point A? A. 60Nm B. 30 Nm C. ONm D. 60Nm
12. Scott and Tina are playing on a seesaw which is 4 meters long with a fulcrum in the middle. lZna is 30 kg and sits at one end, while Scott, 40 kg, sits so that they
104
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14. What is the magnitude of the torque due to the weight of mass m about the axis of pulley B? A. mgdl2 B. mgd C . mgW2 D. mgL
Chdpter
7 . . . Torques and Properties of Solids
18. What is the force exerted by the muscle? A. 300 N B. 350N C. 500 N D. 700N
Use the following information for questions 1921: One end of a massless rod connects to a vertical wall at point B, and the other end (point C) is connected to the wall at point A by a second massless rod, this one horizontal (see figure). Point A is a distance d above B, and the horizontal rod has a length I. In addition, a brick of mass rn hangs from a wire connected to the rod at point C.
15. Which gives an expression for M? A. mW2d B. m u d C . 2mUd D. md/2L
Use the folbwing information for questions 1618:
The bones of the forearm (radius and ulna) are hinged to the humerus at the elbow. The biceps muscle connects to the bones of the forearm about 2 cm beyond the joint, forming a secondclass lever. Assume the forearm is 2 kg in mass and 0.4 m long. The humerus and biceps are (nearly) vertical and the forearm is horizontal. The hand holds a r m and mass are in static equilibmass A of 1.5 kg. The a rium. (Use g = 10 m/s2.)
b l
bone elbow
muscle
19. What is the horizontal force of the wall exerted on the oblique rod at point B?
A.
bone hand
1 mg , to the left
d
1
B.
16. W h a t is the magnitude of the torque of the weight of
mass A about the elbow?
d mg ,to the left
C
1 mg, to the right
A. B. C. D.
3Nm 4Nm 6Nm 8Nm
d
D .
d mg, to the right 1
17. What is the magnitude of the torque of the weight of the
forearm about the elbow?
20. What is the horizontal force of the wall exerted on the horizontal rod at point A?
A.
A. B. C. D.
3Nm 4Nm 6Nm 8Nm
1 mg,to the left d
B .
d mg, to the left 1
1 nag, to the right d
C .
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If the torque due to the tension Tin the wire BC about point A is 2. A wire connects the opposite end of the rod B to a point C. 22.5 2 .=2 kg) hangs from a string connected to the middle of the md. A third mass of 8 kg is hung to provide tension along the leg.3333 0. The body itself provides tension but no shear. What is the ratio of %to m.The MCAT Physics Book 21.the follo. I 24..) (Useg = 10 mls2. Two masses are hung via pulleys to provide an upward . at the pelvis and the mass n foot. A mass (m. The center of gravity for the leg is one third of the way from the pelvis to the bottom of the foot.? A. C.? 27.at the support: the mass rn. What is the sum oE the vertical forces of the wall exerted on the rods? . What is the vertical force exerted by the wall on the rod? . length 2 m) of uniform cross section sticks out perpendicularly from a vertical wall at point A. 23. = 1 kg. 0. What is the mass rn. which is 1 m directly above A. What is the tension in the wire? GO ONTO THE N E X T PAGE . B. what is the ratio 2: T ? I 26. length 0.) ( r . (See figure..9 m) is in traction (see figure).ing for qucrrionr 2M8r The femur of a human leg (mass 10 kg. 25. What is the horizontal force exerted by the wall on the rod? Use the following information for questions 2225 A rod (mass m.
61 D. How does the stress on bone C (see previous question) compare with the stress on bone B? A. by how much does the h e shorten? A. Bone D is similar to bone B. C. 33N B. except that the circumference is 4 times that of bone B. 261 Use the following infonnationfor questions 34 and 35: A rod (0.. 33. The other end of the. B. 0. It is 9 times as large. D. . D. A force is applied to the free end of the rod which is perpendicular to both the rod and the axle.062541 B.Chapter 7 . Torques and Properties o f Solids 28. All9 B. 6113 dl 341 30. D. B.= 4 Nm about the axis of the axle where the rod connects to the axle. circular cross section of radius 0. It is four times as large. see figure). by what length would the bone shorten? A. causing the bone to shorten by some tiny length dl. If the same force is applied to it.01 m) so that it makes a right angle (see figure). It is one quarter as large. 6114 B. Nothing is moving. A force Facts to compress the bone. What is the tension provided by the body? A. How does the stress on bone D (see previous question) compare with the stress on bone B? A. 0. 80N D. It is one third as large.2541 C. It is the same magnitude. It is one sixteenth as large.541 D.041 3 2 . If the same force F is applied to it. crosssectional area A. Section E Use the following information for questions 2933: Consider a bone B of given size and shape (length 1. Bone E is the same shape as bone B but larger. 100N 3 1 . GO ON T O THE N E X T PAGE . axle is connected to a plate. It is half as large. It is three times as large. so the rod exerts a torque r. AU2 C. 67 N C. 2 9 . so that it has four times the length. by how much would the bone shorten? A. If the same force were applied to another bone C of 3 times the length and the same crosssectional area. C. C. 0. 4.05 m) is attached to an axle (length 2 m.
Therefore.same material as the intended final structure with each dimension scaled by a single factor will accurately reproduce the behavior of the final structure. which when flexed. when the linear dimensions of a structure are all increased by a factor. as well as the mass and weight of the block. To illustrate the point. The torque z. there is a torque .exerted by the axle on the plate. 2. That this is not so was known in antiquity by tragic observation.. Referring to the previous question. whereas the strength.r. 1 d ) ~ a B. To summarize Galileo's conclusion on this point. If all the linear dimensions are increased by a factor (part B in figure). so engineers have developed extensive theory in order to determine how to build proper scale models and extrapolate reliable results from them. let's consider a block of metal connected to a cylinder. then the volume of the block increases by the cube of the factor. the load across any surface increases by the cube of that factor. is 40 times less than 7. 400 N 1 35. z2is the same as 7. has a crosssectional area at its center of 5x m2 and crosssectional area at the forearm of 5 x lo' m2. so the stress increases as the factor itself. C. We will not present his detailed argument but will sketch some of the conclusions. 1 0 ' Pa GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .? A. The figure below depicts a human biceps.? A. is 40 times greater than z. as a structure gets larger. and it was first explained by Galileo around AD 1600. Each material has a threshold stress. is less than 7. 200N D. This is the simplest example of the subtlety involved in model building. it tends to become unstable. or the maximum force the structure can hold across any surface increases by the square of that factor. 1 . 7. Sometimes. such that stress larger than the threshold causes the material to fail. but how much less depends on the material which makes up the axle... 7. The stress in the cylinder is the force per area across a cross section. more susceptible to failure. B. The crosssectional area of the cylinder increases by the square of the factor. 10' Pa C. which has much greater length than its diameter and is connected to the ceiling (part A in figure). How does the torque z2compare with z. If the force exerted at the forearm is F.. what is the stress at the forearm? A. if the stress at the center of the biceps is 10' Pa. What force should be applied to the rod in order to create the torque r. structures fail even when the models function.. At first we might assume that a model made of the . however.. At the end of the axle which is connected to a plate. what is the force exerted at the shoulder? Passage Engineers often make scale models of structures they plan to build in order to test function and stability.The MCAT Physics Book 34. D. 2N B. 107pa D. 8 0 N C.
S T O P .. B . w m . In the previous question. D. Statue B has twice the linear dimension of statue A. same cross section) which 0 times longer? was 1 5.. It would be twice as large. What would be the breaking weight for a exceeds W similar cable (same material. Torques and Properties of Solids 4. It would be the same. A. C. The cable breaks when the weight of the lantern . The figure below shows two elephant statues which are the same shape. It would be eight times as large. both made of plaster of paris. how does the pressure (stress) exerted by the right front foot of statue B compare with the pressure exerted by the corresponding foot of statue A? A. . A lantern is hanging from a cable of negligible mass.Chapter 7 3. B. If statue A weighs 40 N. / 1 0 c. W ' J 1 0 0 W m . It would be four times as large. how much does statue B weigh? .
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before: The idea that emerged from experiments like this one was that moving click click objects contained a certain amount of during: "motion quality" (or "movage"). a toy in which five steel balls hang in a line from threads (Figure 81. n o II or movage = mv2 ' or what? It turns out there are two kinds of movage. Introduction and Definition The 1970s saw the popularity of a certain physics toy. There are five balls undergoing collisions. The very simple outcome (one ball swinging to the right) hints that Figure 81 there is some very simple underlying physics as well. and each collision involves a rapidly changing force between two balls (Figure 82). and ends up in the right ball.  iii . so mass must be involved. Figure 82 Can we write a formula for this "movage"? Well. called Newton's Cradle). In Figure 82 the movage begins in the left ball. after: CXXX) transfers through the three balls. You might think we would need a supercomputer to deal with Desk toy or physics machine? the problem. which is dick c lck a constant in any situation. Then the right ball swings up and rises to almost the height of the initial release. And a sprinter has more of it than a walker. it is clear that a moving Mack truck has more movage than a Tonka truck. it swings down and hits the other four balls. Now if you think about it. and we will study them in this chapter and in Chapter 9. so velocity must be involved. But is it movage = mv  0 ' . If you swing the left ball to the left and let go.Momentum A. this is totally amazing.
The force of the truck on the car and that of the car on the truck are internal forces. then the total momentum of the system stays constant over time. .. In particular. before: r [ G 10m 20m S dU"ng: FMP after: Momentum is conserved in collisions... 'T I B. These. are balanced. however. Conservation of Momentum Conservation is one of those words in physics which has a special meaning.The MCAT Physics Book I One kind of movage is momentum. Let's discuss the collision itself. while an internal force is a force between two objects in the system. are the momenta of the objects. +. (2) z.. When a physicist says that momentum is conserved. where p". the total momentum is constant. Example 1 : A Mack truck (9000 kg) going north at 10 rn/s encounters a Porsche (1000 kg) going south at 20 m/s. that it cannot be created from nothing nor destroyed. A A Ptefore = Prtcer.. she means that momentum ("movage") has a kind of permanence. (1) The total momentum of several objects taken as a system is the vector sum $tot=$. The formal statement is in the box: If a system of objects is isolated (external forces are balanced). (3) An external force is a force on one of the objects in the system by an outside agent. * The momentum of a single object of mass m and velocity c i s the vector p'= mc. There are two normal forces and two gravitational forces which are all external. shown in the middle part of Figure 83. F i r e 83 . What is the velocity (speed and direction) of the resulting fused mass of metal? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 83).. +p'. that is.
the external forces are the tensions in the threads and gravity. So momentum is conserved.o k g l ( 10S ") + (1000 kg) 20 (  3 = (10. . .... Figure 85 Example 4: Is momentum conserved for a crocodile dropped from a ladder? If not. if all five balls headed to the right at one fifth the impact velocity of the left ball. .. .000 kg)v. .. . . The external forces on the ball are unbalanced. and we write (in one dimension) ( . .= 20 .. 1 Example 3: Is momentum conserved while the left ball is swinging from its initial height on its way to collision? (See Figure 84.. . . what is the external force? Try doing this one yourself. We do not yet know enough to show why exactly one ball jumps off the right end. We have to pay attention to signs because momentum is a vector quantity. for example. .) Figure 86 . . . .ds. and these are balanced. Figure 85 shows why momentum is not conserved..) Figure 84 Solution: It certainly does not seem so. . . Momentum I Momentum is conserved. The internal forces are all the complicated forces among the balls.. Momentum would be conserved. with the negative sign since it was going south and we chose north to be positive.. . (See Figure 86.Chapter 8 . Example 2: During the collision in Section A. .. since the ball starts with zero momentum and achieves a maximum momentum just before impact. Notice we used v.
magnitude of the velocity is v = (3. The direction we obtain from tan+ = (1 x 10' kg mIs)/(3x lo4kg mls). External Forces and Impulse So what happens if there is an unbalanced external force? There must be a change a of momentumdp = &p'. Assume there is negligible friction at the time of the collision. then we can write A FM =mi.. . = 3.2 x 10' kg mIs)/(2500 kg) = 13 d s . you will probably want to use conservation of momentum. (second law) (definition of acceleration) =& At' . Thus 4 = 18" north of east... m Example 5: A car (1000 kg) going north (10 m/s) collides with a truck (1500 kg) going east (20 mls). C. The total momentum before the collision can be read from Figure 88. especially one with crunching. If the external forces on an object add up to F.. or sticking. What is the final speed and direction of the combined cadtruck? Solution: We DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 87). crashing. before: after: Figure 87 1x10'" S C * .PIO? 3 x 10' k e S Figure 88 From the Pythagorean theorem we find the magnitude of the total momentum p.The MCAT Physics Book Here is a major hint: Whenever a problem involves a collision.2 x 10' kg ~ I S The ...
(5) Whenever you see a problem involving force and time.. then the sidewalk's acceleration will be small. . So the impulse and the net force on a system are related by A A Ap = F". ..Momentum has a kind of permanence. and the internal forces are very complicated. Example: Why is bouncing on a trampoline less painful than bouncing off a cement sidewalk? A... The force is less because the time of impact is less. This is called conservation of momentum.. and we can change the momentum of a system only by applying an unbalanced external force. C. The force is less because the time of impact is greater. . If the mass of the sidewalk is large. so we write 4 = F. v'. Solution: Choice A reminds us of the equation F. . so it is helpful to learn how to think about them.. because of the elasticity of the trampoline. is the same in either case. especially if there is crunching or sticking. for a given force.. + mm.. ... which is a way of quantifying motion. The force is less because the mass of the sidewalk is greater.. . Or else the force the sidewalk must experience fbr a acceleration is large.At. . It's hard to see how this makes a difference. In these problems the external forces are negligible if the collision is brief. and 4 = d v .. .& is called the impulse..<+ .. & or in one dimension T Ap = F. since the body goes from moving downward to moving upward.Chapter 8 . This question is reminiscent of many problems on the MCAT.. Choices C and D remind us of equation ( 5 ) above. if the impulse is constant.At . momentum is likely to be a key concept. The force is less because the area of the sidewalk is greater. The force would be less for greater At. Also.. however. B. .. = m . a body is in contact with it for a longer time. In any problem involving a collision.= ma. . so let's see if that makes any sense. In this chapter we looked at momentum. There is no way to reconcile choice B with this equation. The momentum of a system is defined by p^. . you should think about momentum and write this equation. So choice D makes sense. or change in momentum. .. The equation for conservation of momentum can quickly lead to answers. .. so let's write the equation P = F1'4. Momentum 1 The change in momentum. since greater area implies a greater force.. for a given pressure. so an isolated system has a constant momentum in time. Can we make sense of this choice? The impulse.At. . D... Choice B reminds us of the definition of pressure.
carts run along a level. frictionless. What is the final velocity of the three carts? A. 1 Use the following information for questions 7 and 8: Use the following informationfor questions 36: In a certain physics experiment. After the carts separate. 0. Initially cart A is moving to the right at 0. Take the system to mean carts A and B. 2.2 m / s . 1. .lkgm/s B. What is the magnitude of the final velocity of the two carts? A. and cart B is moving to the left at 0. Cart A is 3 kg. 1. C.1 kg m/s What is the magnitude of the total momentum of the system after the string is cut? A. onedimensional track. Gravity would then be an unbalanced external force. 0.9 kg m/s D . What is the magnitude of the total momentum of the system before the collision? A.2 kg m/s B.) 5. carts run along a frictionless. 2.1 . (See figure. 2.The MCAT Physics Book 4. Consider the three carts as a system. 3. Cart A is 1 kg and cart B is 2 kg. 0. and cart B is 2 kg. l. How would the analysis be complicated if the track were not level? Physics applies only to situations which are A.) They all collide and stick together. Chapter 8 Problems . the string is cut and the carts fly apart. and let "right" to be positive. What is the total momentum of the system before the collision? A. Take "right" to be positive.5 m/s C.7 kg m/s 2.0 kg m/s B . l. 0.6 kg mls D. they stick together.9 m/s D .2 m/s to the left.4 m/s to the left.6 kg m/s D. (See figure. Furthest right is cart C (3 kg) moving at 0.6ds 6. the system. onedimensional track.35 m/s In a certain physics experiment. 7. 0. 0. There is not enough information to answer this question.1 m/s D.Skgm/s C. frictionless track and are connected by a compressed spring and a string.5 kg m/s G O ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . cart A has velocity 0. Two carts sit on a level. Conservation of momentum does not apply to D. level.5 mls to the right. 0. 0. At a certain time.2 m/s to t h e left. Furthest to the left is cart A (1 kg) moving at 0. what is the total momentum of the system just after A and B collide? A. 1.1 kg m / ~ B. l k g d s C. 0. 1. Gravity would no longer be an internal force in B. 0. In the middle is cart B (2 kg) moving at 0.6 kg mls C.4 m/s B.183ds C. After they collide. 0.0 kg m/s D.1 kg m/s C. 0. 1. frictionless. 1. Use the following information for questions 1 and 2: Assuming A and B collide first and C is still independent. situations in which objects are speeding up or slowing down.7 m/s.35 m/s B .
5 kg m/s B.4 m/s C.5 mls C.222 m/s B. Just after the collision and well before they land on the ground. 9. by exploding a charge behind the bullet. A car is traveling along the freeway at 30 m/s. C butt 1 1 . they stick together.5 mls D. The driver brakes suddenly. 1. 7.5mls C... that is. 1. 10.0 m/s just before the collision. What is the velocity of cart B after the string is cut? I 12. The force of the car braking.0 kg m/s C. D. What is the magnitude of the total momentum just after the collision? 10 kg m/s B. What is the recoil velocity of the rifle. and the bullet is 10 grams. What is the momentum of the system just after the bullet leaves the barrel? A. 3.. Momentum.5 kg m/s .1 mls B. . . 6 kg m/s D. .2m/s 15.0 k g d s D. and the books on the front seat slide to the floorboard. Gravity..The velocity of the bullet upon leaving the barrel is 300 m/s. . What is the final velocity of the two carts? A. Carol is 40 kg and was going horizontally west at 1. . 1. 13. . No force pulls the books forward..5 m/s just before the collision.1 mls Use the following information for questions 11 and 12 A ripe is a longbarreled firearm which imparts a high velocity to a small ballistic. . 120 mls Use the following information for questions 9 and 10: l b o ballet dancers collide in midair. . . . Assume they have no vertical velocity. . . Take the system to mean the combination of rifle and bullet. 51kgm/s D. 0. Subsequently it hits Cart B and sticks. B. . but what force pulls them horizontally forward? A. C. . 0.0 kg d s GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE .75 m/s B. A force of 3 N to the right acts on Cart A for 2 s. Momentum 8.) A rifle is typically 4 kg. 0.. .ChaDter 8 . It is obvious that gravity pulls the books vertically to the floorboard. and they are initially at rest. 70 kg m/s Use the following information for questions 13 and 14: Carts A and B ride on a level. 50 kg m/s C. Normally the rifle is fired with the butt of the gun pressed against the shooter's shoulder. What is the magnitude of their velocity just after the collision? A. (See figure. 0.  14. as well. Ignore the force of the shoulder on the rifle. 0. . 3. 0. 0. the velocity of the rifle just after firing? A.. Cart A is 5 kg and cart B is 10 kg. . 12. . .. .. called'a bullet. What is the momentum of cart A just before the collision? A.0 kg m/s B. frictionless surface in one dimension. Michael is 60 kg and was going horizontally north at 0.7 mls D. 1. 6. 0.333 kg mls C.
Ball 1. 16. the information is already sufficient. The mass of the object only.33 mls. In the collision with the floor. so it swings back to its equilibrium position. Ball 2. to move his or her head backward during contact with the opponent's fist. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . and a normal force. Ball 1 is a good tennis ball. 0. Ball 2. C. Initially the ball is going 7 mls. What is the final velocity of the two asteroids? A. C . The pendulum is pulled to the left and released. A ball (0. Cart A rebounds with a speed 3 m/s. Ball 1. 3. tension. tension.6 kg m/s One: gravity.33 mls. 12ds D. What is the impulse imparted to the ball by the wall? A. Three: gravity. and a force to the right. but after the rebound it is going 5 mls. B. Consider two tennis balls. because the impulse received by ball 2 is about zero. What is the magnitude of the change in momentum from the time before the collision to the time after the collision? A. 1. Ball 2 has gone flat. When it is dropped from shoulder height. D. because the time of interaction at the floor is very small. The impulse received by the head will be greater . 21. The other (4 kg) is traveling at a speed 31 x 1 1 s just before the collision in a perpendicular direction. B. 25 kg d s D. The impulse received by the head will be less during the collision. 2. onedimensional track. because the impulse received by ball 1 is about zero. When it is dropped from shoulder height. he or she is often advised to "ride the punch". 0. B. 13ds 18. When a boxer is hit. 2. An object is initially at rest. to the left B. Increasing the time of collision will decrease the force of contact. What is the velocity of Cart B after the collision? A. One (1. because the impulse is about double that received by ball 2. The direction of the force and the mass of the object. B. D. 35 kg d s 17.33 d s . 7. C. The direction of the force only. 0 kg m/s B.25 kg) is traveling toward Sirius at a speed 4 mls just before the collision. At the moment the rod is vertical and the bob is moving. and Cart B (3 kg) is initially going left at 3 mls. during the collision. Cart A (1 kg) is initially going right at 7 mls. 1 k g d s D. C. how many forces are acting on the bob? A. 5. Riding the punch may throw off the opponent's timing. 20.3 kg) hits a wall and rebounds. to the right D. to the right 2 2 . A pendulum consists of a bob hanging by a rod from the ceiling (see figure). to the right C . None. that is.5 d s B. it hits the floor and rebounds to 80% of its original drop height.67 d s . which ball receives the greater impulse? A. D. 23.8 kg mls C. Three: gravity. Which would be a reasonable explanation for this advice? A. What additional information would be sufficient to determine the final momentum of the object? A. Two: gravity and tension. A constant force of magnitude 5 N acts on the object for 10 s. 2 .The MCAT Physics Book Use the following information for questions 16 and 17: Two asteroids collide in space and stick together.6 kg mls B. 5m/s C. Carts A and B are on a level. it hits the floor and stops. 1 9 . 12kgds C. D. frictionless.
the second law of motion. Yes. . 20 d s D.Chapter 8 24. C.0 mls C.. Since momentum is conserved in this operation. There is a small explosive between them. A. At a certain time the explosive goes off and the two carts go flying apart. 3000m/s D. 0. The molecular mass of the exhaust is too low. Yes. and these react by chemical combustion to yield water vapor.. Momentum C. what is a reasonable estimate for the force which is exerted on the ship during the explosion? A. STOP . .. Which statement is true dilring the fall? The momentum of the apple is conserved.. and the ship is thrust forward.. No... 1. we can derive the result that the effective force on the ship is where M is the mass expulsion rate.. about twice the exhaust velocity as that for conventional rockets. No.. I 3.. C.. In an experimental engine design. what is the exhaust velocity u relative to the ship? A.. In conventional rocket engine design.. 10N C. according to the passage. The explosion is over in about 0. frictionless onedimensional track. since neon is an inert gas..0 x lo4mls. due to its high temperature. The water vapor. The hydrogen is then expelled through a nozzle at 1.2 d s B. In the previous question. Thus it is important for both M and u to be high. the law of universal gravitation.. is a disadvantage of nuclear engines compared to conventional engines? A. shoots out of the nozzle. the third law of motion. 0. large fuel tanks carry liquid hydrogen and oxygen. B. 1 . A rocket ship is going forward at 2000 d s and fires its engines in order to speed up but not turn.. One major engineering problem involves the heat exchange between the hydrogen gas and the site where the nuclear reaction takes place. it would work approximately as well.. D. and the small cart (exhaust gas). the first law of motion. and u is the exhaust velocity relative to the ship. We can model a rocket and its exhaust with two carts sitting on a level. 2. 6..4 N B. nuclear fission of uranium is used to heat a supply of hydrogen to high temperatures (around 2200 K).2 s. 2 0 0 0 d s C. D. 4. 2000m/s B.. 0. ... The less massive cart recoils with velocity 20 d s . When a rocket ship expels gas in order to produce a thrust. The exhaust velocity varies as the square root of the ratio of the temperature of the combustion chamber and the molecular mass of the exhaust. An apple drops from a tree. 4 0 N D. If the absolute velocity of the exhaust gases is 3000 d s going backwards. B. but the engine would not be as efficient because of exhaust velocity. D. The large cart (rocket) has a mass 10 kg.. 5. C. The mass expulsion rate is too low. What is the final velocity of the larger mass? A. 5 0 0 0 d s A rocket engine operates on the principle that hot gas is expelled backwards through a nozzle in order to produce a thrust on the ship in the opposite direction. Momentum is not conserved whenever gravity is not balanced by another force. IOOON Could neon gas work instead of hydrogen in the design of the nuclear engine? A. B . Engineers are improving the design so that the hydrogen is heated at a faster rate than it is in current designs.. since neon is not a product of uranium fission... The molecular mass of the exhaust is too high. Some of the energy is lost as heat. What. this is an example of A. The momentum of the apple and the Earth is conserved. 1000ds B.1 kg. D. The impulse received by the apple is zero.
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the work done by the force on the object is c where is the angle between the direction of the force and the direction of the displacement &. Actually energy is harder to explain than you may think. only transformed from one form to another. . a rope. and we will want to pay attention to the differences between the two. If we understand where energy is coming from. ?he total work done on an object is c and where F. it is said. the physics understanding is distinct from the popular understanding. like Athena emerging from Zeus's head. In standard English. energy is the capacity for doing useful things. and once it is gone. energy is defined as the capacity for performing something useful. To understand physics. When a force (which can be due to a pair of hands. In the history of physics. "What is energy?'you may ask.A. or anything) acts on an object which moves a distance &. In physics also. it. Rather. how it flows. Following energy through its forms is what much of physics is all about. is the magnitude of the net force and # is the angle between pw z.The units for work are [ kg m2/s2= Nm = Joule = Jl. In this chapter we can do no better. so we will introduce the concept slowly. We can obtain energy from various places and then we can use it usefully or squander it. you need to follow the energy. the concept of energy did not suddenly arrive as a mature concept out of Newtonian theory. it began as a hazy idea which grew in richness and clarity during the 1800s. energy is a thing which cannot be created from nothing or destroyed. On the other hand. it is said. As you can see. and where it ends up in any physical situation. Introduction To understand politics. gravity. then we understand a lot about the physics of the situation. you need to follow the money. it is gone.
Thus the work done by the woman on the cart is Figure 92 W. We need to find F.and AK. The words "constant speed" and "straight path" imply that the cart's acceleration is zero. Hint: Whenever a problem on the MCAT mentions a force and a distance. Example 1: A woman is pushing a cart of mass m slowly at constant speed up an incline which makes an angle 8 with the horizontal. then cos 4 = 0. Combining these equations gives us F.mg sin 8. &=.). h. We can find AK by trigonometry. Even if work and energy are not mentioned. What is the total work done on the cart? Solution: a. First. h sin 0 ' . From Figure 92 we obtain (F. then cos4 = 1. g. If the force exactly opposes the motion. If we look at the large triangle in Figure 92. The cart goes from the floor level to a height h.mgsin8= 0. it is probably a key idea for understanding at least one of the problems. If the force acts You should know these angles without perpendicular to the motion. so we write (F. How much work does the woman do on the cart in terms of m.. then cos4 = 1. pausing to think about them. so cos @ = 1. and 8 ! b. = F.The MCAT Physics Book Keep in mind that if the force is in the same direction as the motion. We choose a "horizontal" and "verticai" and resolve the gravity vector into components (Figure 92).. First we look at the "horizontai" components. & TN' &sin 8 = h.). a. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 91).h sin 0 ' The vectors Fw and 2 point in the same direction. you should think "WORK!" and write down the equation for work. and the net force on it is zero. = mg sin 8.. = mgh. then we have h sin8 = . = 0 . Figure 91 F. = (mg sin 8)W.
. even if the path is complicated.This is the answer to question a.67 x lo'' m3/kg s2.so we have cos t j = 0 and w. we would find that it comes to mgh. Work done by' woman is zero for this or ti on Work done by woman is negative for this portion Total work done by woman is the same as in Figure 91 Figure 93 b. I 1 . perhaps. but this will not be the final word on gravity (see Section D). = 0. What is the total work done? Well. ..=0. the acceleration is zero. and F. so the work done by gravity cancels the work done by the woman.____ . The energy a woman requires to push a cart from one point to a point which is height h higher is mgh. It takes the same energy to go a long way up a shallow incline as it does to go a short way up a steep incline. What? The poor woman works from dawn till dusk. See Figure 93.. the answer is clear. if we were to figure out the work done by gravity. = 0.. Once we draw the diagram..~=~~l~24kg. My=2~1~wkg. In fact: The work done depends only on the height climb h from the begnning to end and not at all on the path between the two. .. Solution: F i t .is perpendicular to the displacement 2. distance from E a r t h to Sun = 1. since the speed and direction are constant. . we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 94). : Figure 94 Example 2: How much work is done by the gravity of the Sun on the Earth in one day? (G = 6.so that w.. The vector FIn.5 x 10" m). I a& r' . But what is this? The quantity 8 dropped out of the equation (!). and the total work done is zero? Where did the energy go? Well. It seems like a sad story.
in terms of the mass m and final velocity v2 of the orange? Solution: We have an expression for the force given by the second law of motion: F=ma (definition of acceleration) (since the orange starts from rest. 2 Since cos 4 = 1. This indicates that we can define the 2 kinetic energy. What is the work done by the force.The MCAT Physics Book C. as Wow! This is just the kind of expression we saw near the beginning of the Chapter 8. v. We have completed the circle.. But now we have to find out how to use this expression. then the 1 amount of work we have done on it is . we have 1 W=FAx Notice that the factor At drops out.m v t . We push it in one direction with a force F over a distance Ax. which we have smeared with a special grease so there is no friction. = 0) Also we have (Erom Chapter 2) =v. . If we push on an orange initially at rest until it is going at velocity v. Example: Consider an orange. so v. Energy of Motion So how much energy do we put into an object if we push it for a while? Let's try another simple example. It is initially at rest.At. this time in one dimension.= 0. the energy of an object due solely to its motion.
.mv. then its change in kinetic energy is given by W .o.= 0. simple version If the total work done on an object is W. . What is the average force exerted by the stump on the bullet? (Ignore gravity. we just do not get anywhere. because of the collision and crunching of wood.i(. Immediately we think of energy. This is also W. so that its speed is 700 mis in air. 1 2.9 x lo3J. W..) Solution: First. =A& 1 mvz2 .=0. and indeed the Earth's speed is constant from one day to the next. The cart is going the same speed at the end of the problem as at the beginning. which tells us that the change in kinetic energy is zero. kinetic energy is converted to heat. Example 1: What is the change in kinetic energy for the woman's cart in the previous section? Solution: We calculated W. Thus we have dE. So this result is consistent with the above equation. 9 x lo3J = F(2 m)(. We know the change in kinetic energy of the bullet AEK= Em . Example 2: What is the change in kinetic energy of the Earth in one day? Solution: According to the previous section. The key is to notice that force and distance are both mentioned in the problem. The kinetic energy change is zero. where cos# is 1. which is almost correct. Figure 95 4 . to Fdxcos#.Work and change in kinetic energy are related by the following expression.. If we try to apply conservation of momentum. Example 3: A bullet of mass 20 grams is fired from a gun.. (4) 2 1 2 A Some examples should clarify this. The bullet enters a tree stump and embeds 2 meters inside.l). Thus When a bullet embeds in a stump.020 2 kg)(700 * ): 2 = 4. At first this problem looks like a momentum conservation problem. = 0. Here we are assuming a circular orbit. however. and we can set W ..EKL = 0J . we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 95). Worksnergy theorem.
How does this work? Remember the woman in Section B? She pushed a cart to a new height h. (5) where m is the mass of the object in question. The height is measured relative to some standard. Potential Energy and Conservative Forces Potential energy is the energy of an object due to position alone.  . as an object moves along a path. Gravitational potential energy is the energy associated with the position of an object in a gravitational field. . The force the woman exerts on the cart and magnetic forces are not conservative forces. This formula works for all situations near the surface of the Earth. doing work W = mgh. Any force with an associated potential energy is called a potential force or a conservativeforce. where it was stored as chemical energy. Thus the flow of energy is chemical to gravitational potential energy. The change in kinetic energy is given by Y o . we can calculate the total work done on the object by dividing the path into tiny pieces and . We can still consider calculating the total work on the object. g is the acceleration due to gravity. D. Workenergy theorem. How does the energy start? Kinetic? No. It is clear that the energy ends up as potential energy. and h is the height. The total work W the sum of the work for these pieces. . i We will see examples of this in future chapters.The MCAT Physics Book Sometimes. because the cart is hardly moving both before and after its trip. because we are always interested in changes in height or changes in potential energy. or else the displacement changes direction. the net force on it changes. complicated version If an object moves along a path. (the same formula as before). . It does not matter what the standard is. The energy starts in her muscles. such as sea level or street level. Examples include the forces due to springs and the electrostatic force (see Chapter 14). = mgh . It would make sense to define gravitational potential energy as E. = *E. is calculating the work done for each piece. Example: We are now in a position to FOLLOW THE ENERGY for the woman and the cart.
but it can flow from one form to another or from one place to another. etc. radioactivity. but they mean it a little differently. Energy is conserved. In physics. Sometimes they use normal words to mean something completely different from the standard meaning. Energy Conservation The energy in a closed system is conserved. and this leads to much confusion. type of energy kinetic potential gravitational potential mechanical chemical electrical nuclear sound light heat description bulk motion object's position object's position in gravity MCAT word for kinetic + potential batteries. For doing problems it is better if the number of kinds of energy considered are few. for example. "conservation of energy" means that energy. then EKl+ EPl = EKZ+ EP2. the total energy some time later will be the same. In common parlance. "conservation of energy" means frugal use of energy. constant in time. cannot be created from nothlng nor destroyed. muscles. moving electrons energy in the nucleus. fission reactor pressure waves electric. by decree of Nature.E. (6) Use this principle in problems in which gravity does all the work. force and energy. like two: kinetic and potential. that is. Simple Statement If there is no friction. or nonpotential forces (except forces perpendicular to the motion). If we calculate the total energy in a closed system at one time.) Sometimes they use normal words to mean normal things. for example. or crunching. Energy Conservation. In the table are listed some of the energy forms which may appear on the MCAT. almost too grand to be useful in most problems. Conservation of Energy Sometimes physicists use strange words to mean normal things (They say "scalar" when they mean "number". 127 . magnetic field waves random motion of particles The principle of energy conservation in the previolis box is the Grand Statement. a responsibility of good citizens.
128 . First. Solution: a. +0. We check the forces. First. Although the normal force is nonpotential. What is its kinetic energy at the bottom of the swing? b.lm)=0. we obtain the final velocity from 1 2 . This is true even though the bob is moving in an arc and the tension is changing direction during the swing. b. are dropped at the same time. c.2J. Note that the mass has dropped out. We conclude that the simple version of energy conservation applies. a. What is its velocity at the bottom of the swing? c. The tension is perpendicular to the direction the bob is moving at every moment. so equation (6) applies and we can write EKI+ EpI = EK2 + Epz* 0 + mgh. The gravitational force is a potential force. ~ 2 Solving for v. E. a. it is perpendicular to the motion. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 97). Describe the energy flow from start to finish. The energy flow is chemical (woman's muscies) to potential to kinetic. which a massive object and a light object gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy..m ~ . we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 96).7 meters is pulled so that its bob (0. We need to check all the forces. They fall at the same rate with the same acceieration Figure 96 and same velocity as each other. .2kg) loT (O. Thus tension does no work. The cart roils to the bottom. From that position it is let go. = EK2+ 0 .The MCAT Physics Book Example 1: The woman of Section B lets go of the cart at the top of the inciine.1 meters higher than its resting position. What is the final velocity? b. Gravity is a potential force. =(0. b. = mgh. 4 ~ . yields Vz =&K. so it does no work.2 kg) is 0. Thus we write EK1 + E~~= EK2 + E ~ 2 ' 1 O + r n g h = . What is the work done by the string tension during the swing from start to the bottom? Solution: a. Example 2: A pendulum of length 0. ( Sm) i L 0. This should remind you of the siktion in When the cart rolls down. all the way down.1 m Figure 97 mvz2= mgh. We have already decided that the tension does no work. v2 =a m =1 . Now.
Use 1 kcal = 4184 J. if kinetic energy before the collision is the same as after. for example. If this is not the case. Otherwise it is called inelastic. Solution: First we calculate the energy in desired form. It may be the case that energy cannot be destroyed. that is. but it can end up in an inconvenient. I f everything is stuck together in the end. energy and heat.2. then the collision is called elastic.F. The following overall reaction occurs in the car: AHRac~o" = 1 3 10. Efficiency of Energy Conversion Often we have energy in one form and we want to convert it into another form. = mgh kcal mol  Next we calculate the energy used: The efficiency is 2'4 lo' x 100% = 20%. In a collision. In this case we define the efficiency of energy conversion as follows: Efficiency = energy in desired fonn x 100% energy in original form (7) i Example 1 : A car (800 kg) goes slowly up a hill from the base to a height of 300 meters. Gasoline chemical energy is converted to gravitational potential . the collision is called completely inelastic.4trimethylpentane. (See Figure 98. 2 ~ 1 0 ~ ~ We can speak of efficiency in a collision as well. What is the efficiency of the engine? Assume no energy loss due to air resistance. It uses 245 grams of fuel in the form of 2. Figure 98 .form such as heat. which is the potential energy: Ed.) 1 . kinetic energy is often converted to heat and chemical energy. from chemical energy in gasoline to kinetic energy of a car.
initially One car is 1 going west at 15 m/s. the density of air. What is the power dissipated by air resistance? (Use 1 mph = 0. before: 1 EK2= (2500 kg) 2 = 3. Now we need to know the kinetic energy both before and after the collision.29 kg/m3and C = 0.. a. initially going east at 1 0 d s .1 x lo4J. What is the efficiency of the collision? Solution: a. is 1. that is. Thus the efficiency is after: During the collisi~n. p. The other car is 1500 kg.= C ~ A Vwhere ~ .) .45 mls.The PICAT Physics Book Example 2: Two cars collide in one dimension in a completely inelastic collision. some kinetic s converted to heat. energy i Figure 99 G. What is the velocity of the twisted metal afterward? b. consumed.2. Recall that the formula for air resistance is F. or transformed. Power Power is the rate at which energy is produced. Example 1: A car (1000 kg) traveling 55 mph has a forward crosssectional area of about 4 m2. 0 0 0kg. Did you remember that crunching or smashing generally means we must use the conservation of momentum? Let us take east to be positive (see Figure 99) and we write P I =P 2 9 b.
what is the tension in the rope? .Solution: First. 2. so let's try to connect it with the force given in the problem.( c P ~ v 2 ) v = 1. so we have Figure 910 P = F. The tension in a single rope is the same all along the rope. but we have neither an energy nor a time. If a rope is pulled at a constant rate by a hand..reminds us of At velocity. The minus sign indicates that the energy is dissipated by the force. Example 2: The same car is traveling 65 mph.6 x lo4W.Ax p = At At At ' Fengin= t I since cos $ = 1. Example 1: A person is hanging in air by grabbing the two ends of a rope which is draped atound a pulley. Ax And the expression ..Axcos$ <. even if it goes over and under pulleys. There are two underlying principles: 1.. If the person is 60 kg. But we have several formulas for energy.6 x lo4W. problems including pulleys become simpler. we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 910). but with some practice. What is the power dissipated by air resistance? Solution: P = 2. We can substitute for F.v = . We have only one formula to work with (P = AElAt). Why is there such a large difference? Pulleys are somewhat tricky. the work done by the hand on the rope is the same as the work done by the rope on some load. We have AE = F.
one end of which is connected to the ceiling.Thus Figure 912 Figure 913 w.mg = 150 N.5 meters.5 m). so that an upward tension is maintained.The MCAT Physics Book Solution: First.) tension in the rope? (See Figure 9Solution: There are two ways to do this problem. The person is not accelerating. 5meters of rope rise 0.) 2 The other way is to imagine pulling up on the rope 1 meter.(See Figure 913. The = FAxcos q5 = work done by the rope is W. T ( 1 m). The work done on the mass is the change in potential energy W. The work done by T must be the same as the work done on the mass. I T(1 m) = mg(0.= mgdh = mg(0. giving T+Tmg=0. What is the 12. passes through a pulley and then goes up. Figure 911 I Example 2: A rope. A bit of study of the diagram will show that the mass will . we DRAW A DIAGRAM (F~gure 91 1) showing the forces on the man. so the forces add to zero. One is to realize that this is essentially the same as Example 1.5 m). A mass 30 kg is hung on the pulley. . so we can call it T.= w2. The tension on the two sides of the rope is the same. since 0 will be pulled from each side of the pulley. so that 1 T = .
. Another form of energy is gravitational potential energy given by E. The tension T which pulls up on mass m is numerically the same as the tension T pulling up on both sides of the first pulley.. you should think immediately of work W = Fdrcos 4. goes up to the ceiling where it loops over a second pulley and connects to a mass m. It is important to keep track of the energy flow because energy is conserved.14. So we have l a Figure 914 T = mg.) Solution: This looks different from the previous problem. the kinetic energy E. = 4.. It loops through a pulley with a downward weight of 500 N. Figure 915 In this chapter we explored the concept of energy. but in fact it is essentially the same. Whenever you read about a force and a distance through which the force acts. energy cannot be created from nothing or destroyed. = mv2 of the object is 2 changed according to W.Example 3: A rope has one end connected to the ceiling. = mgh. I I f a net force acts on an object. but it can be transferred from one form to another. even if no numbers are involved. 1 . Another way to obtain the above equation is to DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the forces on both masses (Figure 915). what is m? (See Figure 9. If everything is in equilibrium. The total work gives the size of the energy flow into an object. That is. The rate at which energy is transformed is called power P = MAt. So m = 25 kg. This will be the key to answering some of the questions.
0 Joules B. D. 4. 3. 3000 Joules D. down. They are going a constant 2. 0 Joules B. 18 Joules D. B. 64 Joules What is the cart's kinetic energy at this time? A. The force of gravity. 0 Joules Section C 2. 4500 Joules 7. C. man's force. 8kgm/s C.09. Section B Use the following infonnationfor questions 15: A woman pulls her daughter on a sled by a rope on level. A man is carrying a heavy box (mass 30 kg) at constant velocity 1. What is the magnitude of the cart's momentum at this time? A. 32 Joules D. forward. 3000 Joules What is the work done by the normal force on the sled? A. The force of gravity. At a given time it is traveling 3 m/s and accelerating at 4 m/s2.) What are the forces acting on the box? A. normal force. 150 Joules 260 Joules 3000 Joules I What is the work done by friction on the sled? A. 8kgm/s C. earnest looking. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . up. 1500 Joules D. 32 Joules 9. 3000 Joules 260 Joules 0 Joules 3000 Joules D. and man's force. down. 2250 Joules C. The daughter is 20 kg with brown hair and wild curls. It takes 10 seconds. down.) 6. and man's force. 1500 Joules D. 3000 Joules B. 260 Joules D. 12kgds B.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 9 Problems Use the following informationfor questions 6 and 7. What is the work done by the rope on the sled? A. C. The sled is a Firestone200 of mass 10 kg which slides along the snow with a coefficient of friction 0. (Use g = 10 m/s2. up. The force of gravity. Use the following information to answer questions 8 and 9: A toy cart (4 kg) is rolling along level ground. The tension in the rope is 30 N.5 m/s across a room. 0 Joules B.5 m/s for 4 s. What is the work done by the man on the box during this time? A. forward. making an angle of 30" with the ground. packed snow. 5. The woman is 70 kg with red hair. down. C. 3000 Joules What is the total work done on the sled? A. 1 . and the man's force. 150 Joules C. 3000 Joules What is the work done by the force of gravity on the sled? A. B. D. B. 0 Joules C. 12kgm/s B. (Use g = 10 m/s2. UP. 8. The force of gravity. 150 Joules C.
Gravity. 18. 5. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . How much work is done by the horse on the wagon in time At? A.) 10. 500 Newtons B. C. normal force. There is not enough information to answer this question. The horse and wagon are traveling at a constant speed v on level ground. Use the following information to answer questions 1718: A cat (4kg) drops from the roof to the ground. (Use g = 10 m/s2.5 m/s 13. I D . the engine force forwards. Gravity. 3. What is its kinetic energy just before it reaches the ground? A. 2 x 10' Joules B. 0 Joules C. 0 Joules C. B. C. a distance of 3 meters. 5000Newtons D. 3000 Newtons C. 14. Section D and E B. 0 Joules C. down. Gravity. up. A constant force of 10 N is applied horizontally for 20 seconds. 18 Joules C.Use the following information for questions 10 and 11: A horse pulls with a horizontal force F on a wagon full of belongings (mass M). 100 Joules 200 Joules 2 x lo4Joules There is not enough information to answer this question. What is the change in kinetic energy during the braking? A. If the force of the road on the car during the stop is constant. 17. up. D. 2 x lo5 Joules D. down. 0 Joules C.7 m/s There is not enough information to answer this question. 4 x 10' Joules 15. and a force forwards. 8000 Newtons 11. C. (Use g = 10 m/s2. so the cart begins to move along the level frictionless floor. and a brake force. MgvAt B. 120 Joules D. FvAt D. what is that force? A. normal force. Gravity.9 m/s B. What forces are acting on the car while it is coming to a stop? A. 12 A toy cart is initially at rest. What is its velocity just before it reaches the ground? A. 0 Joules B. up. There is not enough information to answer this question. D. FvAt B. What is the kinetic energy of the cart just after the 20 seconds? A. The skid marks are 25 meters long. 4 x 10' Joules 16. normal force.) Use the following information to answer questions 1316: A car (1000 kg) is going 20 rnls on a level road and slams on the brakes. How much work is done by gravity on the wagon in time At? A. and a force backwards. down. There is not enough information to answer this question. 2 x 10' Joules B. What is the work done by the road on the car? A. backwards. down. MgvAt D. 2 x 10' Joules D. and normal force. up. 7.
The efficiency must stay the same. Momentum is conserved. B. potential energy C. so that it falls a distance h to the ground. The kinetic energy would be the same. There is not enough information to answer this question. what is a necessary consequence? A. It consumes n moles of propane during that time.5 rnls toward the right when it encounters Cart B. Cart A is at rest. heat and sound D. C. B. we can define efficiency as the ratio of energy expended to overcome air resistance to the energy available in the propane. Which expression gives the efficiency of the cart? Section F Use the following information to answer questions 2123: Cart A (1 kg) and Cart B (2 kg) run along a frictionless level onedimensional track. For the cart. how would the terminal kinetic energy of the hammer be changed? (The terminal kinetic energy is the kinetic energy just before it hits the ground. C. B. The kinetic energy would increase by 41%. which is proportional to the square of the velocity. chemical energy 23. C. and Cart A is traveling 0. B. The terminal velocity would increase by 41%. Use the following information to answer questions2426: A cart runs along a swaight level road by burning propane. The terminal velocity would increase by 59%. The kinetic energy would double.2 B. C. 19. In a given experiment. kinetic energy B.0 mls 25. Which of the following is true concerning the collision? A. The energy expended to overcome air resistance is increased. If the height h were doubled.5 m/s D. 1. 24.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following informution to answer questions 1920: A hammer of mass m is dropped from the roof. Kinetic energy is conserved.22~ lo6 J mole 20. the cart (of mass m) wavels a distance D at constant velocity v on a level road.25 136 GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE .35 mls C. D. how would the terminal velocity of the hammer be changed? (The terminal velocity is the velocity just before it hits the ground. 0. What is the efficiency of the collision (for kinetic energy)? A.After the collision. 0. The efficiency must decrease. There is not enough information to answer this question. 22. The collision is an elastic collision. D. The enthalpy for the combustion of propane is given by AH. The terminal velocity would double. 0.. The collision is a completely inelastic collision. What is the final velocity of Cart B? A. If the cart travels the same distance D at a larger velocity. 26.25 m/s B.) A. =2. Cart B is initially at rest. If the height h were doubled. 0. D. 21. The force due to the air resistance is F. 0. D.) A. The efficiency must increase. Where does the energy go which is not used to overcome air resistance? A.
35 meters D. 10 meters B . and AV is the potential difference in volts. Use the following informution to answer questions 2930: A motor is connected to a power supply which supplies 6 amperes of current with a 20volt potential difference. Which is the best description of the energy flow? A. 15 seconds B. In the pulley system shown.) A. If the motor is run for 60 seconds. B. the angle a is the angle the rope makes with the horizontal. what is that tension? A. Electric to potential. I is current in amperes. where P is power in Watts. how high does the mass rise? A. 60 seconds D. mgcos a B. 18 meters 180 meters Use the following informution to answer questions 2728: A winch pulls a box on wheels (1000 kg) at a very slow speed up an incline which makes an angle 8 = 30" with the horizontal. The power provided by a power supply is given by P = IAV. C. Assuming no friction and 100% efficiency. mg 29.Section G C. If the rope is slowly pulled at a constant rate with tension T. 30 seconds C.) 31. The motor is used to lift a mass which is 40 kg. 20 meters C. 40 meters 30. Kinetic to potential.) 27. and the winch exerts a power 2000 Watts. The motor has a 10% efficiency rating. Electric to kinetic. mgsina C. How long would it take to bring the mass to the same height if the current and the potential difference were both doubled? (Assume constant efficiency.8 meters B. (Useg = 10 m/s2. D. The mass starts at ground level. D.4 meters GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . to what height above the ground does the winch pull the box? A. 120 seconds Section H 28. (Use g = 10 m/s2. 1. The hanging mass has mass m. Electric to potential to kinetic. 5. working for 200 seconds.
his kinetic energy is 1600 Joules. D. 16.0 mls B. force meter 35. What is the average force accelerating him during the 1 (Take 10 m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity.) ( A. There is a tension TIin the rope. 32 Newtons C. 34. T. Which expression gives the tension? A second painter of the same mass connects one end of the rope to his harness. 32. 130 Newtons D. 8. so that the rope wraps over a pulley.. a tension T is exerted in order to lift the mass m.The MCAT Physics Book 32. 4. runner's build) takes about 3 strides.0 m/s 36. mg 3 A. In the figure shown. B. 2. What is his final running velocity? A.0 m/s D. GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . B. amg 1 1 B. . A painter hangs by connecting two ends of a rope to a harness. = 2T. At that speed.  33. = T. C. what is the force reading on the force meter? Use the following information to answer questions 35 and 36: Bob the runner (50 kg. which is 12 meters all together. The tension in his rope is T. In the figure shown.0 m/s C. and the other end wraps over a pulley and connects to a flagpole.. to sccelerate from rest at the starting block to the speed at which he plans to run. All sections D. T. 0 Newtons 30 Newtons 150 Newtons 300 Newtons I first 3 strides? A. There is not enough information to answer this question. Which is true? A. There is not enough information to determine a relationship between TI and T.7 Newtons B.
From points A to D. C. . and point D show it at the top of its flight. As the ball travels from A to D. D . 6. Gravity. there are no internal forces. and assume there is no air resistance. the ball is isolated from other objects. and a forward force.4 x lo4Joules C. and III are true. gravity and the force due to the hand are balanced. 6. No. No. Only I is true. Gravity. As the ball travels from A to D. and the normal force. gravity is an unbalanced external force.4 x lo4Joules C. 3. Which is true? r o m A to D is A. 40. 10ds B. B. 11. 38. 3. There is not enough information to answer this question.Use the following information to answer questions 3741: Use the following infonnation to answer questions 4143: A cannon fires a cannonball (20 kg) at an angle.6 x lo4Joules B. 37. The cannonball reaches a height of 180 meters. 39.6 x lo4Joules B. Yes. B. From A to D. the normal force. 80 m/s D. What is the velocity at the top of flight? A. C.0 x lo5Joules D . D. What is the gravitational potential energy at the top of flight? A. B. and a forward force. GO ON TO THE N M PAGE . D. C. 11. Consider a ball tossed into the air. III. is the momentum of the ball conserved? A. The total work done on the ball f zero. I I 41. so that its initial speed upon leaving the cannon is 100 d s . Use 10 m/s2for the acceleration due to gravity. the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. What is the initial kinetic energy? A. B. D. the potential energy is conserved. 42. From points A to D.kineticenergy is conserved. the . I. 1. the kinetic energy is converted to potential energy. Yes. Only I1 is true. The work done on the ball from A to D is due to the force by the hand. 2 0 d s C.0 x lo5Joules D . Which is true? A. Gravity. Consider the following statements: I. There is not enough information to answer this question. Point A shows the ball just after the release. the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy is conserved. From points A to D. 43. Only I I I is true. Gravity. C. 1. There is not enough information to answer this question. What forces are acting on the cannonball after it leaves the cannon? A.
which is suspended by the strings. Only III is true. 2. Only I is true. the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the cart is conserved. From points A to B.5 mls. B. 6cm 11 cm 22. 4. D. Which best describes the energy flow during part l ? A.5 meters. kinetic to heat and kinetic D. D. Which is true? A. 1 1 .The MCAT Physics Book 46. the potential energy of the cart is conserved. kinetic to potential B. 9 Joules 18 Joules 45.5 Joules C. How high does the block (and bullet) swing on the strings before it comes to rest? Use the following information to answer questions 4448: A bullet (5 grams) is fired horizontally into a block of wood (2 kg) suspended from the ceiling by strings of length 1. potential to kinetic C. the kinetic energy of the cart is conserved. 2) The wood block with the bullet. 44. and 111 are true. Which best describes the energy flow during part 2? A. From points A to B. From points A to B. as shown in the figure. Consider the following statements: I.25 Joules B. C. ( The bullet embeds itself in the block of wood. potential and kinetic to heat 1 1 48.5 cm 225 cm 47. Only I1 is true. swings upward by height h. GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE . Immediately after the bullet embeds itself in the wood. which is the best approximation of the kinetic energy of the block and bullet? A. Gravity can be ignored in this part. C. A. D. kinetic to potential B. potential and kinetic to heat Use the following information to answer questions 4951: Consider a winch which is operating to pull a cart slowly at constant speed up an incline. Immediately after the bullet embeds in the wood. Point A is at the bottom of the incline and point B is at the top. kinetic to heat D. potentialto kinetic C. What is the velocity of the bullet just before it enters the block? 49. I. 11. ID. the wood and bullet are moving 1. B. The event can be divided into two parts: 1) In a very little time the bullet embeds itself into the wood.
A.The power dissipated by a car moving at constant velocity is P = Fv. It takes time t. There is not enough information to answer this problem..2 and p is the density of air. is less than t. the normal force.? Use the following information to m w e r questions 5255: A rock of mass M slides without friction from a height h above some ground level along a slope making angle a with the horizontal.. Which is true? A. Yes. B.. No. D. is greater than t. C. and the force due to the winch are balanced.. B.is the same as v. The energy required would increase by a factor of 8. The time t.. If it is moving at constant speed v. The time t. 1. The time t. The velocity v. There is not enough information to answer this problem. The time t. The velocity v. where C = 0. 51. D . less than M. to reach the bottom. It takes time t. ' Use the following information to answer questions 5657: A car (mass M) has a crosssectional area A in the direction of motion.. The velocity v. 53. there are internal forces.. 55. gravity. is less than v. A rock of mass m slides without friction fromthe same height h along a slope making angle B (greater than a) with the horizontal.50. C. Yes. C. is the same as v. Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. D . The time t. It takes time t. and v.. then the force due to air resistance is F"r = C~AV'. Kinetic energy is converted to potential energy. What is the relationship between t. What is the relationship between v. The total work done on the cart from A to B is due to the force of the winch alone. What is the relationship between t. A rock of mass m. slides without friction from the same height h along a slope of the same angle a. is less than t3. B.. The velocity v. There is not enough information to answer this problem. the cart is isolated from other objects. What is the relationship between v.3 kg/m3. to reach the bottom. and consider a car driving at speed v from city A to clty B. The energy required would stay the same. For these problems consider C to be constant. is greater than v. B . gravity is an unbalanced external force. Is the momentum of the cart conserved? 52. is greater than t. The time t.where F is the force required to overcome drag. 'The energy required would increase by a factor of 2. There is not enough information to answer this problem. is the same as t.. at which time it is traveling a velocity v. 141 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . C. at which time it is traveling a velocity v. and v.. to reach the bottom. B. The velocity v. A. B. 56. C. No. D. 54. The energy requind would increase by a factor of 4. is less than v. is the same as t. B. D .? A.. is greater than v. The velocity v. Consider only the drag due to air resistance. C.? A. at which time it is traveling a velocity v. The total work done on the cart from A to B is zero. D. How does the energy required to get fiom A to B change if the velocity were doubled? A.. and t. C. D..and t3? A.
= 4. 3. A. 4. Next the piston slowly moves back a distance I. There is not enough information to solve this problem. D. The heat of reaction is negative. C. C. hydrogen and oxygen are introduced in a 2: 1 ratio (in order to ensure complete combustion) at ambient temperature Tmbandatmospheric pressure P. There are more gas particles on the left side of the reaction. B. which is much larger than 1.The MCAT Physics Book 57.. B.8 x lo5J mol ' 5. . B. 58. and the piston is restored to its original position. The pressure rises to P. GO ON TO M E ND(T PAGE . 1. B. 2. C.. volume C. D. neDressure would the same. The apparatus consists of a pipe closed at one end with a piston at the other end. The pressure would increase. Which expression expresses the efficiency of the engine? Passage 1 In a certain experiment. The distance I is short enough that the pressure and temperature inside the chamber remain roughly constant The waste gases are then expelled. A valve in the cylinder allows fuel gases to be introduced or waste gases to be expelled. C.what would happen to the pressure? valve In the operation of this engine. why does the pressure go up? A. The power would increase by a factor of 4.8 x 10~~/mol. The combustion would not ignite. The following reaction is ignited 2H2(B) + %(g) ) 2HzO(g) 9 with a heat of reaction AHH. The energy required would increase by 10%. mass B. The energy required would increase by 33%. D. How does the energy required to get from A to B change if the velocity were increased from 50 rnph to 55 rnph? A. The energy required would increase by 2 1%. neutron D. The length of the cylinder before the piston moves back is L. and the crosssectional area is A. How would power dissipated change if the velocity increased from 35 to 70 mph? The power would stay the same. The power would increase by a factor of 8. The reaction is spontaneous. D. The pressure would decrease. What would happen if the ratio in the second paragraph were not 2:l? The heat of reaction would be less than A. After the combustion occurs. Some of the waste gas would be intermediate products of incomplete combustion. The radius of the cylinder is r. The number of moles of oxygen introduced is n. a piston chamber is used as part of a primitive engine. D. If the reaction shown were performed in a closed chamber isothermally at 500°C . The energy required would stay the same. temperature 4. The power would double. B. from which the engine derives useful work. I A. The temperature rises considerably. Some of the waste gas would be oxygen or hydrogen. C. The second paragraph refers to what kind of ratio? A.
Kinetic energy is conserved. loses kinetic energy to the material. a factor of 4 A hydrogen nucleus (I H) and a tritium nucleus (3 H) have the same initial kinetic energy. with near light speed. and temperature would increase. H. pressure in the chamber would increase. then what can be definitely concluded? A. For instance. c is the speed of light. by a factor of 2 D. 111.a factor of 9 143 G O ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . there is a drag force on the incident particle and hence a loss of energy. 11. D. by a factor of 4 B . such as a bare nucleus. 3 ~ by . He. A. and temperature would decrease. 4 ~ e by . 1. Which is an expression giving the number of moles of oxygen introduced in the chamber? m. mass B. 4.6. 1nB = 10 (approximately constant). pressure in the chamber would decrease. C. D. H. They lose approximately the same amount of energy per distance. 7. They are traveling through water. z is the charge (number of elementary charges) of the incident particle. Which tends to lose more energy in a given distance? I A. pressure in the chamber would increase. where N is the number of atoms per unit volume of material. If you have . In the process. The following equation gives energy loss per distance traveled: 3. 3 ~by . moving through a material composed of neutral atoms and molecules. The energy loss depends not on the mass of the incident particle. is the electron mass. force D. called an incident particle. Total energy is conserved. a massive positive particle. such as gas or biological tissue. with near light speed. by a factor of 3 B. if the collision is elastic. 111 only I and III only I. and temperature would increase. as well as on the average number of electrons Z per atom or molecule in the material. In an isolated collision between a fast charged particle and an electron. acceleration C. energy A hydrogen nucleus ('H) and a helium nucleus ( 4 ~ e ) have the same initial kinetic energy. D. e is the electron charge (in Coulombs). 2. They lose approximately the same amount of energy per distance. What would be the consequence of making 1 larger? During the piston movement. I1 and I n Passage 2 What sort of quantity is on the left hand side of equation (I)? A. and temperature would decrease. C. C. pressure in the chamber would decrease. Use this equation to answer the questions. B. but it does depend on its charge z. Which tends to lose more energy in a given distance? A. moving at a speed near that of light will ionize the atoms or molecules of the medium it is moving through. Momentum is conserved. Consider the following statements: I. look forward to Chapter 16 forgotten notation like 4 ~ ethen and review it.a factor of 3 A swiftly moving charged particle. Z is the average number of electrons per atom or molecule in the material. I only B. They travel through the air. C. interestingly enough.
For the following questions. For this reason. use the notation: M . If we consider the system as closed with respect to energy. like a bicycle wheel. by a factor of 5. then we would say the energy of the system is conserved. B. given by I= MR~. . some engineers have experimented with the idea of storing energy in a flywheel when a car comes to a stop. C. The beam in neon. Passage 3 If the mass of the brake pads is m . A second relativistic proton beam is incident upon neon gas at STP. The beam in helium. 27C The moment of inertia is The efficiency of conversion of forward kinetic energy to rotational energy is a. the free energy change is greater than zero. 2. Consider a small portion of the flywheel Am. The kinetic energy of a flywheel is given by where I is the moment of inertia and w is the angular frequency in radians per unit time. there is an unbalanced external force. Since the car is slowing. When the driver wants to go again. Unfortunately. ( 144 0. D. Which expression gives the centripetal force experienced by that piece? 1 . Consider the whole car as a physical system in the situation in which it is braking on level ground using conventional brakes. C. D. A flywheel is a massive ring which is free to spin about its center. by a factor of 25. is mass of the car M is mass of the flywheel R is radius of the flywheel w = 2zf = angular frequency of the flywheel 0 3. They lose approximately the same in a given distance. Ideally the kinetic energy of the car would be transferred to the flywheel as the car comes to a stop. entropy is increasing. and the heat capacity is Cv (in J k g K). The kinetic energy is converted into heat energy. where M is the mass of the flywheel and R is the radius. the efficiency of the two transfers will be less than 10096. Then what is an expression giving the angular velocity w after the car comes to a stop? 4. some heat is transferred to the air. The beam in neon. by a factor of 5. d R GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . Since the brake pads are growing hotter. Which beam loses more energy in a given distance? A. which is useless in getting the car going again. . Since the brake pads are growing hotter. Thus the frequency f (in cycles per unit time) is f =. of course.The MCAT Physics Book A. be made up by conventionaI means. such as burning gasoline. B. Which of the following statements tends to contradict the idea of the car as a closed system? . the energy would be transferred back to forward kinetic motion. A relativistic proton beam is incident upon helium gas at STP. This energy can. which expression gives an approximate temperature change in the brake pads if a car going velocity v slows to a stop? A large amount of energy is lost each time a car is brought to a stop by applying the brakes. 5 . Since the situation is not spontaneous. . so energy will be lost to heat.Assume the flywheel is initially nonrotating and the car is maving at velocity v.
What is the velocity of the car at point F. MgH. if the rider (mass m) experiences a force 2mg. safer. This is expressed as a number of g's. abv 6 . D. For the most part. and then it gains velocity again until the flywheel is still. a very simple roller coaster. 0 145 GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . This. These early roller coasters were made of wood. The car slows to a stop by convening energy to the flywheel. 2. A motor brings the car from point A to B. . The feeling a rider experiences in the car is related to the force exerted by the car's seat on his body perpendicular (normal) to the car's motion. If the car starts from rest at a point 600 meters above sea level and coasts to a point 550 meters above sea level. constructers of roller coasters began to use computers to design them. and more fun. MgH. The velocity of the car at point F is v.cos8 B. such that the efficiency of conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy is 40%. and the practice of making them of steel. Consider the figure below. 3 1 . where g is the acceleration due to gravity.above the ground. 2MgH. and the efficiency for converting rotational energy to kinetic energy is b. above the ground. MgHlsin 8 C. What is the work done by the normal force from point C to point D? A. a fair amount of knowledge about a roller coaster can be learned by applying simple physics without the aid of a comp'uter. for we will ignore the force of friction during the ride. 12. then he is said to experience 2g's. v. in answering the following questions. In this way they were able to create a great many designs and simulate them.) A. 6 d s D. 4 0 d s 1 .5. what is the resulting speed of the car? (Use g = 10 m/s2. A conventional car (500 kg) rolls down a hill. Beginning in the 1980s. What is the kinetic energy of the car at point E? A. Finally there is a frictional force due to rubber bumpers pressing against the car which serve to stop it at the end of the ride so that other riders can get on. thus finding a roller coaster's weakest points and determining the cost of making them failsafe. where it is has very little veiocity at a height H. The loop is a circle of whose highest point is H. What is the velocity of the car at point E? People began to make roller coasters around the early 1900s. 2 0 d s C.6ds B. The slope of the first hill is an angle 8 from the horizontal. A force due to a motor carries the car to the top of the first hill. Nevertheless. made the new roller coasters larger. The car is initially going velocity v and the flywheel is still. The mass of the car is M. and people learned how to construct them using the principles of physics and by a certain amount of experimentation..? 4. B. The efficiency for converting forward lunetic energy to rotational energy is a. For I 3. the two forces acting on the car are gravity and the normal force. What is the resulting speed of the car? instance.
consider a cannon which is 2. A. Faster burning charge creates a large pressure very quickly. B. The rain reduces the coefficient of static friction between the bumpers and the car. the force of gravity down. A cylinder (or barrer) is closed at one end (the breech) and open at the other (the muzzle). Which of the following is a good explanation of why this is? A. Passage 5 6. None of the above. and a force forward. The rain reduces the coefficient of kinetic friction between the bumpers and the car. the park operators run the ride with fewer people in the cars. The force the cannonball experiences in the barrel. and a ball is placed in the cylinder on top of the charge.3 meters long with a bore (hole) of radius 5 centimeters. The explosive is ignited and the reaction produces hot gases which increase the pressure. explosive / 8. D . The force of gravity.to kinetic to potential Beginning in the 1500s. For the following questions. Three. electrical to heat to potential GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . B. the manufacture of cannons has taken many forms. thus creating stress on the cannon and creating a risk of failure. electrical. muzzle . D. but the basic construction has remained the same. C. 5 .The MCAT Physics Book How many forces are acting on the car at point F? One. generally for the purpose of warfare. B. electrical to kinetic to electrical. The slower burning charge ensures that the pressure behind the ball stays more nearly constant as the ball travels the length of the barrel. B. the normal force down. What expression best gives the normal force on the car at point F? A cannon is a device for imparting a large velocity to a mass of iron. The normal force. D. Three. and a centripetal force toward the center of the circle. the force of gravity down. C . D. C. electrical to potential and kinetic to heat B . gunners began using largegrained explosive in order to decrease the rate of burning.  1 . The rain decreases the efficiency of the motor. D . in a circuit C. Assume the pressure inside the cannon after the explosive has been set off is constant. None of the above. 9. Thus the gases push the ball along the cylinder and out the muzzle at great velocity. What force pulls the blood to the rider's feet when the car is at point F? A. The final velocity of the cannonball. When it rains. While the ball is in the cannon. the force of gravity down. the forces due to the gases are so much greater than the force of gravity that the force of gravity can be ignored. Over the centuries. The centripetal force. The rain reduces the friction on the tracks and makes the cars go faster. C. Which of the following best describes the energy flow in this ride? A. What additional piece of information would be sufficient to allow the calculation of the kinetic energy of the ball upon leaving the cannon? A. 7.An explosive (or charge) is placed in the cylinder at the breech. the normal force down. The mass of the cannonball. None of the above.
of reactants. C. 6. when it leaves the muzzle of the cannon. Which of the following best describes the energy flow in the passage? A. The force the cannonball experiences in the barrel. chemical to potential to kinetic For this question. chemical to heat to kinetic C. The rate of reaction depends on the concentration of reactants. No more information is needed. S T O P . The temperature of the gas in the barrel. The free energy change during burning is positive.What additional piece of information would be sufficient to allow the calculation of the pressure in the barrel while the cannonball is still inside? A. The activation energy is reduced for smallergrained charge. The rate of reaction depends on the temperature C. C. The final velocity of the cannonball. C. 5. and assume we know the velocity of the cannonball 4. B . The force the cannonball experiences in the barrel. D. The rate of reaction depends on the surface area. The entropy change during burning is zero. The free energy change during burning is zero. 3. chemical to kinetic to heat B. The free energy change during burning is negative. B. D. B . B . The mass of the cannonball. The kinetic energy of the ball upon just leaving the barrel. None of the above. Which of the following would best explain why a largegrained charge would bum more slowly than a smallgrained charge? A. D. assume the cannon points straight up. Which of the following is necessarily true? A. chemical to potential to heat D. What additional piece of information would be sufficient to allow the calculation of the height to which the cannonball would travel? A. D.
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Introduction "Yes. No book can diagnose these problems better than yoursel'f. the more likely it is that you will recognize and understand the information in an MCAT passage. the best way to study is to begin studying. however. how should I have approached this problem? What clues indicate that I should have used a given method? What other types of problems can be solved with this method? How should I approach similar problems? Some questions on the MCAT are simply a matter of comprehending the material in the passage. Do you miss important details? Learn to slow down. You should do the same thing. scan it quickly to note the main ideas. As you work through practice problems. Do you have trouble finding the main ideas? Practice this skill. B. for reading passages. but I want to know how to pass the MCAT. The more physics problems you solve beforehand. You must find your own trouble spots regarding comprehension. Underline any numbers that are embedded in the passage.I Interlude A. Again. In this chapter we will discuss the general strategy for studying for the MCAT. yes. General Strategy When you approach an MCAT passage. Do you spend too much time reading unnecessary information in the passage? Practice scanning the passages more quickly. When you read a question which seems puzzling. If you concentrate on accuracy and understanding first. In general. the better you will do on the MCAT. Ask yourself. and for approaching unfamiliar questions." I hear the gentle reader saying." That is what this chapter is about. does this remind me of a problem I have done . Underline any sentences or phrases that seem to state a main idea or further an argument. Do you misread questions? Learn to read them more slowly. ask yourself. When I began to write this minichapter. I worked through a number of published MCAT practice problems. The more passages you have seen. "this physics is all very nice. Don't panic. the more physics you understand. the more questions you will answer correctly on the exam. you will gain speed later on. making notes of the skills and methods which proved useful. When you read the question section you can always go back and read a portion of the passage more carefully.
Here cos 4 = 1. how fast would the combined vehicles be going just after the collision? A.." You will be surprised how often you reach the solution to a problem which initially seemed daunting. 85m/s C. The total work is the same as the change in kinetic energy. "This reminds me of the problem I saw with the crocodile and the toaster. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ C. We can draw a force diagram for the car once it encounters the cliff (Figure 11). 57 m/s D. Example 1: Police in Arizona found a piece of wreckage embedded in a mountain rock near a freeway. In that problem energy was conserved. 2 x 1 0 6 N D. except that it became airborne for the last 2000 m and hit the cliff face 40 m above the ground. Apparently a man had connected a Jet Assisted Take Off unit (JATO) to his car. so that we have cliff : I w .drcos4.C we saw a bullet embedding in a tree stump. since the car's displacement is in the opposite direction from the net force on it.1/2 mv2 =3 x 1 0 7 ~ . quickly reaching terminal speed of 170 m/s. Study of the site indicated that the wreckage was not that of an airplane but of a car.) A. What is the approximate force the cliff exerted on the car during the final crash? (Assume that force of collision is approximately constant.The MCAT Physics Boob You may find yourself saying. . The displacement of the car during the crash is 1 m. A JATO unit is a solid fuel rocket normally used for assisting in the take off of heavy planes on short runways. In that problem the mention of force and distance was the clue to write W. I wonder if energy is conserved in this problem as well.ol=F. 170 m/s B.us of problems involving collisions and hence consemation of momentum. In those problems. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ 2. If the car traveling 170 m/s had crashed into a stationary 6000kg truck and stuck. so the approximate force is 3 1o7N. 3 x 1 0 7 ~ / 1 m =x Figure 11 Question 2 reminds. 1 = = 0 . we drew "before and after" pictures (Figure 12). 1 . 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ B. Solution: Does question 1 remind us of a probIem we have done before? In Example 3 of Section 9. The car traveled in a straight path more or less. The man and his Chevy (2000 kg) started accelerating approximately from rest 5000 m from the crash site. creating a crater 1 m deep in the rock. 42 m/s .
... . P + . . . some energy is lost to the air in the form of turbulence and heat.. . The implication is that the air flowing over the top has a smaller pressure than the air at the bottom of the wing. . that is.3 kg/m3) is the density of air. . . That is. we used a second important principle..pv2 = const. A is the crosssectional area of the airplane as viewed from the front. Draw a diagram.. This energy comes from the motion of the airplane. The drag is given (very approximately) by Fdng= CPAV'... Keep in mind that this is the starting point of many problems. . For air flow along a streamline..: Interlude Conservation of momentum gives us Pbeforc= Pa~tcr* before: after: Figure 12 In these two examples. The force on a piece of surface area of the wing is given by F = PA. Bernoulli's principle applies (approximately).Chdpter I. . or lift.. Include forces. . As the wings of the airplane slice through the air. so that the net effect is a drag due to air resistance. lift is created by the differential air flow over the wings. .. . and v is its velocity relative to the air. Example 2: In the mechanical flight of an airplane.. . . p (= 1.. 2 1 The wing is constructed so that the air flowing over the top flows faster than the air flowing under the bottom of the wing. . so the cumulative effect is an upward force on the wing.2) is a constant. where C (= 0. . ...
. Example 3: One of the new safety features included in cars is the inflatable airbag. 1 . .a~ the driver or passenger presses against it.. the airbag inflates in milliseconds. B. where W would be the work of stopping the driver.so the horizontal forces balance. as in this passage. The magnitude of the vector sum of the drag and the weight. so A is wrong.. The weight of the airplane. The MCAT passages often include extraneous information. If the airbag were compressed like a spring. Solution: Does this remind us of a problem we have done before? Yes. I Solution: Considering choice A. we have noted that whenever you read about a force and a time interval. the energy turns into the heat of the escaping gases. The kinetic energy of the driver is converted to potential energy of the airbag. then choice B would be a possibility. we write the equation Ap = F A . Thus the magnitude of the thrust is equal to the drag. we can draw a force diagram (Figure 13). When an airplane is in steady horizontal flight. But the equation implies that a decrease in force corresponds to an increase in time interval. Which of the following gives an explanation for the safety provided by an airbag? A. the thrust of the engines is equal to which of the following? A. Steady horizontal flight implies that F. you should be thinking of the connections among the quantities mentioned.The MCAT Physics Book 1 . C. . In the event of a headon collision.= 0. F the required force. you should immediately think "momentum" and write the momentum equation Ap = F A . For instance. = 0 Figure 13 Even in questions which do not involve numbers. B. C. Indeed the airbag does increase the distance of collision.. . The increased distance of the collision of the driver decreases the force he experiences.. Choices C and D remind us (because of force and distance) of the equation W = Fdrcos 4. D. Concerning choice B. The sum of the magnitudes of the drag force and the weight. where F is the force on the driver. The airbag de8ates. I : & Fdng . The airbag decreases the time of collision. Since there are forces mentioned. The drag force. D. and Ax the distance over wbich the force is applied. The decreased distance of the collision of the driver decreases the force he experiences. As you read a passage. thus decreasing the force.A I A F. the answer often becomes clear only when you Write an equation. Decreased force implies increased distance. so D is incorrect.
.. B . Assuming the piston moves slowly. The net force on the piston is the difference between the force of the gas pushing the Figure 14 piston out and the force of the outside atmosphere pushing the piston in. The pressure inside the chamber is 20 atm. We make a variable map connecting these quantities k Ax F P p A Figure 15 (Figure 15).. . W k F p f . . using the ideal gas equation PV = nRT (Figure 16). C. We can extend the variable map to include the volume and length of the cylinder. force. . . . . .Chapter I .l JAX JP nx T v F i r e 16 . . sometimes specified in the passage and sometimes not. . The area of the piston. We can place a check by Ax and P to indicate that we know these quantities. . . . . . connect related quantities by lines that meet at a vertex. . . The volume of the cylinder. . For such passages it is often valuable to Draw a variable map. area. what additional information is necessary to determine the work done on the piston by the pressure in the cylinder? A. W Solution: Pressure. . . . . the distance the piston moves is Ax = 0. . D. This strategy is especially good for questions which ask. Specific Strategies In this section we look at a few other hints that work on certain classes of problems.. Interlude C. The length of the cylinder. . ''What additional information is necessary to determine . As long as the piston moves a short distance Ax compared with the length of the cylinder. while the ambient pressure is 1 atm. work. To draw a variable map.01 m. . so that the gas inside the cylinder exerts a pressure on the piston and pushes it out (Figure 14).. According to the variable map. The mass of the piston. . The force is given by the product of pressure and surface area. Some problems involve a large number of quantities related to each other in various ways. We can derive energy from this process. and displacement are related by the equations W = FAx and F = PA. we also need to know force in order to determine work. we can consider the pressure inside the cylinder to be constant. . . Example 1:A piston is fit into a long cylinder. ?" An example will help make this clear. In the following. . . 1 .
then we can place a check by area. Experiment 1 2 m (kg) 0 0 . Now. the thread stretches (Figure 17). 5 fi (mm) 0 0 . But if we know the area of the piston. and you can waste time figuring out something which can be derived fairly quickly. 0 2 5 I 1 . The free end has a hook on it. What is the. F is the force applied to both ends. L is the length of the wire. Often problems involving charts can be solved by one of the three methods below. The following data were obtained for a wire 1 m long of crosssectional area lo4 m2. and make a substitution. we see that the force exerted by the weight on the wire is equal to its weight mg. you should Pick one point.value of Y for steel? Solution: If we draw a force diagram (Figure 18) for the weight hanging from the wire. and we have the information to find work. according to the variable map. a constant for a given material. for small values of the stress. such that when various weights are hung from the hook. Some charts have data which fit an equation. the amount of strain is proportional to the amount of stress. According to elasticity theory. and D. In this case. We can add a Figure 18 . these quantities do not lead to a knowledge of force.The MCAT Physics Book Concerning choices A. is the amount of stretching. area and pressure will give us force. I 1 Example 2: A steel thread is hung from the ceiling. Problems which involve charts can be confusing until you get used to them. and one of the questions requires an element of the equation. B. A is its crosssectional area. and Y is Young's modulus. so that Figure 17 where dl. add a column perhaps.
a property of the material making up the bar and g is the acceleration due to gravity..2~ ~ lo' 1 x 1 0 . . A mass m is hung from the center of the bar (Figure 19). . .. The table looks like the following. .  Example 3: Consider a horizontal bar of circular cross section (radius r) and length 1 hung between two walls. . . it is often helpful to Pick a convenient point. .5 F(N) 2 0. Actually we only need to choose one experiment.1 0. .. .. r (m) dr (m) 1x I X lo' 1 x ~ o . so let's choose Experiment 4. . . Experiment 1 m (kg) 0 dL (mm) 0 0. . The following data were obtained for a nickel bar: Experiment 1 Figure 19 m (kg) 1 2 3 4 1 (m) 2 2 2 3 4 .. . . . Interlude column to the table F = mg. .~ 3x10' 1x10~ 4x10~ 2 2 2 5 1 2x lo' 6. .3 x lo' . The distance that the bar will sag A x is given by where Y is Young's modulus. . and exmpolate using the given formula. .. . . .. .Chapter I .025 0. .5 2 10 3 4 100 Now we can substitute into the formula using F = 100 N to obtain &= FL AY' For questions which ask for an extrapolation from a chart..
2. Solution: The mistake some students make is calculating Y as an intermediate step. then the sag increases by a factor of 3.1 x 102m. D. but everything else remains the same. That is not wrong. the key is to Add columns to the chart. and think about the physics. 1. According to the equation. (rnls) 3 4 2 4 6 4 ti II 1.5 m verticalIy (Figure 110). 8. C.7 x rn C. The only difference is that the mass is three times as great. 1. Example 4: In a certain experiment a small cannon shoots a balI (mass m) vertically into the air. B. Its initial velocity (v.1x10~m 2. For question 1. What would the sag be for a 2rn horizontal circular rod (radius loA2 m) if a 12kg . 8 x 1 0 " m C. compare it to Experiment 3. For question 2. 8 . 1. as well as its velocity after it has traveled 0.The MCAT Physics Book 1 .) is recorded. factor of 33= 27. Thus the sag is 1.2 x m D. For which experiment does the ball have the greatest potential energy at the top of its path? A. This is done for several masses and initial velocities (see chart). According to the equation. the sag increases by a m) = 8. 9x104m B. but it wastes time. if the mass increases by a factor of 3. Thus the new sag is 27 (3 x I For some questions involving charts. mass were hung in the middle of it? A.2 x lo' m. 1. 4 . Experiment rn (kg) v. Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 cannon . compare the set up with Experiment 4. * 0I 1 .3x10~m 8.8x10~m D. The length increases by a factor of 3.6x10~rn What would the sag be for a 6m horizontal circular rod (radius lo' m) if a 3kg mass were hung in the middle of it? A.
(J) 5 5 10 20 EK2(J) 3 27 26 12 The answer to question 2 is B. Interlude 2. does this remind us of a problem we have done before? In a number of problems we have seen objects in free fall. .5 m and the left over kinetic energy (recall that the total energy is converved). . . For question 1. . . . . and the guiding principle is the conservation of energy. Experiment 1 2 3 4 m (kg) 1 1 2 4 v.. . . . For which experiment does the ball have the greatest kinetic energy at the height of 0. . . .5) J = 3 J. . So let's add a column to the chart containing initial kinetic energy. . . But nothing can substitute for gaining a solid understanding of physics. . = (8 .5 m. Experiment 3 D.. This potential energy is Em= mghowhere ho= 0.. a ball will have a large potential energy at the top of its path if it has a large initial kinetic energy.5 m? A. . for Experiment 1. . .5 m.Chapter I . . some of the initial energy has been converted to potential energy. Experiment 1 B. so you should feel free to add to them as you work through problems yourself. (J) 8 32 36 32 The answer to question 1 is C. . (mls) 4 8 6 4 E. . We can add two columns to the chart: the potential energy at ho= 0.(J) 8 32 36 32 E. . . . Experiment 1 2 3 4 m (kg) I 1 2 4 vo(m/s) 4 8 6 4 EK. . When the ball is at height 0. .5m) = 5 J and E. These methods are not exhaustive. . . For instance. . Experiment 4 Solution: We ask. we have Em= (1 kg)(lO mlsZ)(0. Experiment 2 C.
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B. pressure is the important concept. A fluid is a large number of interacting particles. The key concept here is pressure. Hence you should pay close attention to the problems and solutions at the end of the chapter. If you are barefoot and step on the sidewalk. except we also consider the area over which the push is extended. does he pull the'refreshing liquid into his mouth? As you will soon discover. it pushes up on you with the same 1000 N. "Do I know the pressure everywhere? Can I figure out the pressure where the crocodile is?'and that sort of thing. so it is somewhat more complicated. force). In any given problem you should be thinking. Some definitions Density is a measure of how packed a substance is. For instance. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of something to the density of water: P specific gravity = PH~O ' (This is a misnomer. we have generally looked at one object and the forces on it. The tricky part is learning how to apply them in diverse situations. ) In this chapter we study fluids. If you step on an upright tack. Pressure is defined as . Its symbol is the Greek letter rho. For the MCAT. since "specific gravity" has nothing to do with gravity.Chapter 1 O Fluids A. often it is the concept which leads you to the answer. Even if pressure is not mentioned in the problem. Introduction In studying mechanics. Why then does your face look so different when it's a tack that you stepped on? In this case.) The density of almost all biological tissue is approximately the same as the density of water (remember this): Pressure is like a push (that is. the difficult part of mechanics is unlearning the misconception that a moving object needs a force to maintain its motion. the answer is no. For most people. D . One way to do this is to look at so many examples that any new situation reminds you of something you have seen or worked before. by the way. and it is defined by where m is the mass of a piece of fluid and V is its volume. p. when a teenager sips a soft drink through a straw. you need to know only a few basic principles of elementary fluid mechanics. (Recall Example 4 in Section 5 . the sidewalk pushes up on you with about 1000 N.
1 Next we replace FBwith p. after its discoverer:  If an object is floating on or immersed in a fluid. p is the density of the fluid.1. This situation might seem too complicated to analyze mathematically. g. Get rid of m and F. We can summarize the effect of the fluid in one force. The pressure of the atmosphere at sea level varies. The point of a tack has a much smaller area than the bottom of your foot. so that you do not confuse force and pressure..including the buoyant force. The following principle is called Archimedes' principle.) 4. (See Figure 10.7 psi. (Use m = pV.) Second. then the fluid exerts an upward buoyant force given by F B = pVgr (7) where FB is the buoyant force.V. so the pressure on that point is quite large. The method for solving problems involving Archimedes' principle follows: 1. 3. and of course F. and V is volume of the displaced fluid. we DRAW A DIAGRAM. Write a force equation.The MCAT Physics Book where F is a force. Solve. and A is the area over which it acts. 2. which is a force balance equation. Figure 101 . since the duck is not accelerating: O=F. Buoyant force When an object is floating on or immersed in a fluid. but its average is given by 1 atm= 1. The units for pressure are N/m2. (6) I C. DRAW A DIAGRAM. What is its specific gravity? Solution: First. F = PA. such as an iceberg in water or a whale in the ocean.01 x 1 o 5 P a = 14. Consider this definition carefully. we write a force equation. = pVg. Example 1:A bathtub duck floats in water with one third of its volume above the water line. the fluid pushes on the object from many directions. and these have a name: Pressure can also be measured in pounds per square inch.mg. or psi. but it turns out that it is not. the buoyant force.
. Let's first solve for F... (which we want).m g . . . is weighed in air. . The answer is 213 . . Next. Example 2: A crown. and the weight is 50 N. .~ PVg .) Solution: First. Fluids and we replace m with pV.) What reading will the force meter give if the crown is true gold? (Use for the density of gold 19. what is touching the crown? The fluid and the string are.. =P A ~ VP ~H . It is the force of tension that the meter reads. . (See Figure 103. apparently made of gold. and V is its volume: 0 = P H ~ o V .. we DRAW A DIAGRAM with all the forces on the crown. In this equation m is the mass of the crown. We obtain F.. . 1.0 &m3.V .Chdpter 1 O .+ F ... and m. (See Figure 102. Also. then replace F. ...) We have force balance because there is no acceleration: O = F..) We draw the force of gravity first.. the displaced volume is . . The crown is weighed again by hanging it from a string and submerging it in water. Since one third of the duck is shown above the water. ... .=mg F. . . (That is what a force meter does: it provides a force and then tells you what Figure 102 that force is.3 glcm3. and for water. O V ~ Figure 103 . .. . . use g = 10 m/s2. so we know to draw the buoyant force and the force of tension. where p is the density of the duck.. . and mg is 50 N. and 3 we write L Here we canceled the factors V and g. .
the key intuition on many problems is understanding what the pressure is everywhere. Consider a vertical pipe filled with fluid and consider the body of fluid between points 1 and 2 as an object. This equation applies not only to this situation but to any situation involving two vertically separated points in a fluid. Point 1 is directly above point 2 in a fluid. 1.F. How much less is the pressure on the fiftyfirst story than the pressure at . 3. Example 1 : We are standing on the fiftyfirst story of a hotel. what is the pressure at any other point? In fact. There are three vertical forces: the force of gravity. P." The language is a bit obscure. The pipe's height is h and its crosssectional Figure 104 area is A.mg We can cancel the factor A: O=P2PIphg.The MCAT Physics Book I D. the force of the pressure pushing up from below. where each story is 4 meters high. + pgh. We can obtain pressures at other points in the fluid using a principle. 2. and the pressure at a given point is the same in all directions. the pressures at two points separated only horizontally are the same. Let us start with the simple situation shown in Figure 104. and the force of the pressure pushing down from above. the pressures at two points separated vertically by height h are related by (8) P2 = P . so the net force is zero. and we have O= F2. Facts about pressure We want to answer the question: Given the pressure at one point in a fluid. The pressure at point 1 is P I .What is the pressure at. The fluid is not accelerating. but it translates into principles 2 and 3 below. The pressure is greater at point 2 because more fluid is pressing down on top of point 2 than on top of point 1. Law of Hydrostatic Equilibrium In a body of fluid.point 2? . discovered by Blaise Pascal: "Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel in all directions.= P I + phg .
. What is the pressure at point B? c. .2 x Solution: This is a straightforward application of the formula: P.Chdptcr 1 0 .+pgh. What is the pressure at point C? .  = 2400 Pa. The point Q is 20 m directly below point S . d. .5 x 10' pa. . + (10' 3 ) ( 1 0 ~ ) ( 5 m) Figure 105 = 1. P . What is the pressure at point T against the floor? c. the density of mercury is 1. . The people on the ground floor have to deal with not only the air column on top of us at the fiftyfirst floor. and T is at the same height as Q. What is the pressure at point A? b.= 3. and the acceleration due to gravity is 9.01 x lo5Pa+2. Example 2: An underground cave is almost filled with water as shown in Figure 105. . . g lkg IOOcm 1. Point C is 76 cm above the surface of the mercury in'the pan. . The pressure of the air on the mercury in the pan is 1. but also they have the air column between us and the ground floor sitting on their head.r. What is the pressure at point Q? b. Point B is 75 cm above the surface of the mercury in the pan. . The pressure inside the air chamber varies slightly with height but it is approximately equal to the pressure at R.2x10. . P. .. . .01325 x 10' Pa. as shown in Figure 106. = P.01 x I@ pa.=P. . R is 5 m vertically below S. What is the pressure in the air chamber above R? Solution: a. a. This pressure is fairly small compared to Pa.7 . . Fluids g/cm3for the density of air. with an inverted tube. .0x loSPa = 3. . Example 3: A pan contains a pool of mercury. The pressure at Q is given by the formula: P = 1 atm = 1. . . a... . . .) the ground floor? (Use 1. . but it is enough to make your ears pop. What is the pressure at point T against the walls? d. . . b and c. Notice what is going on here.. .01 x lo5Pa.8 m/s2. Point A is 38 cm above the surface of the mercury in the pan. .. The air pressure above point S is 1 atm.36 x lo4kg/m3.
75) Pa = lo3 pa.8)(0. we obtain P.The MCAT Physics Book Solution: a. called cohesion. b. This is what holds the fluid together. . where y is the surface tension (a function of the fluid) and L is the length of the edge of the object in contact with the fluid.01325 x lo5Pa(1.pgh = 1.1 x lo4pa.8)(0. .pgh I I I = 1.pgh. The larger the distortion.36 x 104)(9. or. The molecules at the surface of the fluid.. For instance. At point C.38) Pa = 5. . . Surface tension The molecules in the middle of a fluid exert an attractive force on each other. This will become c l e a r with some examples. we obtain Pm=PA+pgh.76) Pa =OPa. Thus: E. Above the mercury column is a vacuum. For this reason.8)(0. up to a maximum: (1 1) f ' . experience a cohesive force directed into the fluid. there is a restoring force making the surface smooth or flat. Figure 106 c.01325 x lo5Pa (1. mercury vapor.36 x 104)(9. the larger the force. = Pa. the height of a hypothetical mercury column is often given as units of pressure: 1 ton = 1 mm of mercury = pressure sufficient to lift Hg 1 mm . Thus the pressure vanishes at the top of the column. This is a simple barometer. the systolic pressure of a woman with blood pressure 110160 is actually (760 +110) torr = 870 tom (assuming 760 torr atmospheric pressure). (9) 760 tom = 1 atm. however. = 1. = YL. When we apply the equation to point A. PA = Pam. The last calculation shows that the height of the mercury column is proportional to the outside pressure. we obtain PC = Pa. These are the units used in a sphygmomanometer. called the gauge pressure.01325 x lo5Pa (1. But the numbers reported in blood pressure measurements are the pressures in excess of atmospheric pressure.36 x 104)(9. more accurately. At point B. If the surface becomes bent for some reason.
L is the circumference of a foot. . . (See Figure 107...... and its width exerted is very small. . .2 x lo*Nlm at 25" C. Its length is 1 = 3 cm. .. tension of the water? Solution: In this case.. the Figure 108 length of distorted surface around the needle or the length of the dashed Iirie in Figure 108. .. A water film fills the interior of the Ushape.. . on theWhat needle is by thethe maximum surface force Example 3: A straight piece of wire has loops at both ends. The radius of each foot is 2 x 104m. . What is the maximum force on the bug due to the water? That is.. Notice the similarity between Figures 107 and 108....... y . .. what is the maximum weight the water surface tension can support? Solution: In this case. that is.) Applying the formula yields Figure 107 where 6 is the number of legs on the bug. .. In Figure 109 we measure the length of the wire along the front of the page and then along the back of the page: . . A sixlegged water bug stands on the surface of the water.. G.) In this case the surface tension exerts its maximum force. . Thus we have 7 .. . If the length of the wire is 1 and the width of the film is w. what is the force of . and the two hoops fit on the arms of a Ushaped frame. . . Fluids Example 1: Water has a surface tension of 7.. We use the formula for the perimeter of a rectangle: since the width w is very small.Chdpter 10 .. Example 2 A needle floats on the surface of h e water as shown in Figure 108. (See Figure 109... .1 1 surface tension? Solution: The circumference is the Figure 109 distance around the wire. as in the previous example....:. . L is the circumference of the dimple..: . .
the flow rate is the same at each point along Figure 1010 the flow: Now we can relate the flow rate to the actual speed of the fluid. i (13) The discussion in this section refers to any incompressible fluid. A precise definition of viscosity looks like this: Say we have a floor covered with a fluid to a depth d. (Think about it. Viscosity is a measure of the stickiness of a fluid. kilograms per meter per second. then the inflow must equal the outflow. compressed. and water is stickier than air. If the water level between 1 and 2 is constant.The MCAT Physics Book I F. than water. We can also obtain a greater flow rate by increasing the crosssectional area. like air. Just remember that viscosity is stickiness. If we turn up the faucet. Think of water going through a garden hose. in which point 1 is in a slow. is called theflow rate$ In a steady state. The rate at which a fluid passes by a point. news. The drag force on the hockey puck due to the stickiness of the fluid is given by where q is the viscosity in kglm s (that is. if the fluids are not. measured in volume per time. lazy flow. for instance. A hockey puck of area A is traveling along at velocity v. Continuity The dynamics of flowing fluids is more difficult than statics. Figure 1010 shows a river. Molasses is stickier. then the flow rate and the flow velocity both increase. but this is good some of the basic principles. liquids. . It also applies to compressible fluids. not kilograms per millisecond). Why does the water flow faster at ? During one second the number point 2 of gallons flowing past point 1 is the same as the number flowing past point 2. It means the MCAT will test ~ n l y The first principle is continuity. We would guess (correctly) that we could write f = Av. that is. while point 2 is in the rapids. in fact. You should understand this equation but need not memorize it.) The difference is that point 2 has a smaller crosssectional area.
andit is usually turbulent if Re is greater than 20.0 x typical spoon has size 0. Example: What is the Reynolds number for a spoon moving through tea with kg/m s and estimate other values. If we pull a spoon through a bowl of molasses. the less turbulence. Consider two points. Consider a stream of water flowing past a rock or the flow of air past a weather vane. above a standard height. v is the velocity of the flow (in mls). which can also be written P + pgh + . the tea and cream undergo turbulent motion. + ~ P Y ~ ~ = ~ + P P ~ + (16) ~ P Y ~ 1 Let's see if we can make sense of this equation.Viscosity often calms down a flow. we have 1 1 2 ~ + P ~ ~ . Thus H. and q is viscosity (in kg/m s). Bernoulli's Principle For laminar flow there is an equation which relates conditions at one point in the flow with points downstream.000.pv2 = const. along a streamline. p is the density of the fluid (in kg/m3). inviscid (no viscosity) flow. but do realize that the presence of r7 in the denominator means that higher viscosity reduces turbulence. The flow can break off into wild swirls and chaotic patterns. What's the difference? The more viscosity. Smooth flow is called streamline or laminar. and the viscosity is 1. so the density is kg/m s. (SeeFigure 1011. and a lo3 kg/m3. An important parameter for determining the type of flow is the Reynolds number: where 1 is the size (in m) of the obstacle in the flow (spoon or whatever).0 x Solution: We can use information corresponding to water. 2 1 (17) . whereas if we pull the spoon through a cup of tea with cream at the bottom.) Figure 1011 For incompressible.) cream in it? (Use q = 1. Do not memorize this equation. and point 2 is at height h..03 m. called turbulence. laminar.1 m/s. 1 and 2. The flow starts getting rough when Re is around 40. Point 1 is at some height h. A good rate to stir tea is 0. the molasses is mostly undisturbed (laminar flow around the spoon). It should also make sense to you that v is in the numerator. if points 1 and 2 are on the same streamline.
+ pgh = P . is very. as well. What is the flow velocity v just outsidz the hole? b. and the hole is a circle of radius 1 centimeter in the side of the barrel at a height 0. 2 1 Figure 1012 vj2 =80. (See Figure 1012). to zero in the above equation: (10?)(4. What is the flow rate f out of the hole? Solution: a. Thus we can set v. At point 1. First. very small. Also. Thus. volume. Example: A large barrel of water has a hole near the bottom. m S Another way to get the same result is to realize that the pressure at point 2 must be (from Section D) 1 P . = Pa. a. we have P. where A. that is. This is because continuity guarantees that Alvl = A. and that is why there are so many caveats in the statement of the principle: we are trying to make sure energy does not leak out into heat and ruin the equation.The MCAT Physics Book The expression pgh reminds us of mgh. If we multiply the above expression by AV. is the area of the hole. the second and third terms being potential and kinetic energy.. 2 Wait! This looks like an energy conservation equation. The barrel is filled to a height of 4. Bernoulli's principle is an expression of energy conservation. The tricky part is realizing that v.5 m. m2 s2 vj =9. but we can make this look like an expression for work. For a moving fluid. Bernoulli's principle applies..5 meters above'the bottom of the barrel.mv2 = const.~rn) = (10~)(0. is the crosssectional area of the barrel and A. so we have We are looking for v.. h.'. = P.5 meters above the bottom.v. But what is the first term? This is a bit more difficult. then we obtain 1 PAV + mgh + . we DRAW A DIAGRAM with a streamline.5m)+v. PAV is the work that one portion of the fluid does on another portion of the fluid as it moves along. + (10' 3 1 1 0: ) ( 4 m) . the pressure is atmospheric pressure Pa. = 4. = 0. and at point 3. AV can be replaced with AAx so that PAV = PAAx = FAx.5 m and h. the difference being only a factor of AV.
to zero to obtain b. . The answer to part b we get through the definition of flow rate.. . Bernoulli's principle expresses the conservation of energy along the fluid flow. Chapter 10 .. Fluids Then we can use Bernoulli's principle between points 2 and 3 and use h2 = h3 to obtain Again. 1 . . .. .. Pressure is related to force by the equation P = FIA (where the units of pressure are often Pa = ~ / m ~ Pressure ). .. . If we know the pressure everywhere in a situation. so we have f3 = A3v3 In this chapter we studied fluids in static equilibrium and fluids in motion. Pressure is a unifying concept for fluids in equilibrium.. .. we can often understand the physics and answer questions about it.. = P. . + pgh (for vertical separation) and Pascal's law (for horizontal separation). .. as long as energy is not lost to heat or other energy sinks.. so we have the sum P + pv2 + pgh being 2 a constant along a streamline.. we set the very small velocity v.. at one point in a body of fluid can be related to pressure at another point using P. ...... The important concepts for fluids in motion are continuity and Bernoulli's principle. . These two principles allow you to solve most simple problems involving flowing fluids. . . . so we have the product Av being a constant along a streamline. Continuity expresses the conservation of mass as the fluid flows.
0 3. 0. 1.01 x 10' ~ / mlet ~ Fa. 1.8 N 8N Use the following information in questions 6 and 7: Sarah is in a basket hanging from a balloon filled with helium. 1.. A typical human head has the approximate shape of a cylinder of diameter of 0. D. A cork floats with three quarters of its volume in and one quarter of its volume out of the water.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 10 Problems Section B 5.8 rn/s2)= 686 N if there were no air. 2.6 g/cm3.) A.75 2. What is its specific gravity? A.25 0. 12 B.12N 0.5 0. . If the pressure of the atmosphere is 1.11 I M = mass of basket. = 13.0 D. How many kilograms taken together would weigh Fa. = 7. and empty balloon p. = density of helium gas at 27' C and 1 a m p. Sarah. Iron has a density of p.A piece of iron is placed in a pool of mercury.. An object floats with one tenth of its volume out of the water.9 C. 0. = density of air at 27O C and 1 atm 6. D. C. C. and mercury has a density of p. How much weight does the buoyancy due to air take off the man's weight? (The density of the man is about 1 g/cm3.1 B. B.? A. 0. be the force acting down on a human head due to the atmosphere. Which expression gives the ratio of volume of iron above the surface to volume below the surface of the liquid? I ** (0. 0.0821)(27)(1WO) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 170 . 320 D.08 N 0.9 glcm3.3 meters. What is the specific gravity of the cork? A.2 x 1CJ3 g/cm3. 1300 Section C A 70kg man would weigh mg = (70 kg)(9.2 meters and height 0. and the density of air is about 1. B.. Which expression is an approximation for the density of helium in &m3? 4. 94 C.
.O1 x 10' Pa) ocean? (pwa. .. Why is it difficult for the man to breathe? A.. The height of mercury in column 1 is h. l. The liquid in the barometer is mercury. . . (pressure of the atmosphere)x(area of his chest) D. . I Use the following information: P H ~ Pair 10. 2.. . When his chest is about 1 meter under water. 7. Which expression most nearly gives the force his muscles must exert to push out his chest? A. but include the weight of the helium.= 13. 11. P A. The figure shows a simple barometer which consists of a Utube with one end closed (1) and the other end open to the atmosphere (2). . 1.5x104Pa I 12. . Use the following information in questions 10 and 11: A man is swimming in the ocean and breathing through a snorkel. 5x104pa B. .6 &m3.. Fluids 7. with a density of pH. The height of mercury in column 2 is &.. (gauge pressure of the water)x(area of snorkel hole) C.Ox16~a D.02 x 10' Pa of pressure. 7. .. . and the crosssectional area is A. His lungs are expanding against a net 1.) A. = 1.01 x lo5Pa) of the ocean? @ A. . . (gauge pressure of the water)x(area of his chest) B. (pressure of the atmosphere)x(area of snorkel hole) Section D 8.. = 10' kg/m3. To what volume should the balloon be filled to achieve neutral buoyancy? (Ignore the volume of Sarah. What is the gauge pressure 5 meters below the surface . B. Pa.. . = 1. . C. . . 5 x lo4Pa B. ...5 x lo4Pa C.. . and the crosssectional area is A. His lungs are expanding against a net D. . Volume 1 is filled with an unknown gas.5 x 10' Pa 9.. .1 x lo5Pa of pressure..01 x 1 6 Pa of pressure. What is the pressure 5 meters below the surface of the . GO ON TO M E NEXT PAGE 171 . . .Chdpter 10 . His lungs are expanding against a net lo4Pa of pressure. His lungs are expanding against a net 1. he has a difficult time breathing. = lo3kg/m3.
and P2 is the pressure at the bottom of the second flask.. what is the pressure of the fluid near the load? Both flasks contain mercury to a height h. P2 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 172.) 15. If the force exerted by the piston is F. W.. is greater than W.. which is correct? A. and the load is placed on a platform fitted to area A.. and the other. C . D. then the load moves up a distance Ax. B. W. they exist in a chamber in which the atmosphere has been removed. one end having large crosssectional area A. It consists of a Utube.The M C A T Physics Book What is the best expression for the pressure in volume I? I 14. . The volume of mercury in the second flask is three times the volume of mercury in the first flask... such as cars. what load can be lifted? Use the following information to answer questions 1315: A hydraulic press is used to lift heavy objects.... The object is lifted by applying a force to a piston fitted to area A. Which equation holds? A. The area at the bottom of the second flask is twice that of the first flask. These distances are small compared to the other dimensions of the device. 16.. small crosssectional area A. We assume losses due to friction are negligible. 13. There is not enough information to determine a relationship between Wl and W. If the piston and the load are at the same height. Pressure P. and the pressure of the fluid near the piston is P.. is the pressure at the bottom of the first flask. is less than W. The two flasks shown in the figure haveno ambient atmosphere. If the piston moves down a distance Ax. is equal to W.... that is. W. and the work done by the fluid on the load is W. (See figure. If the work done by the piston on the fluid is W. The tube is filled with an incompressible fluid.
The height of water in the reservoir column is h. The height of water in the open column is h.06 m3/s. What would happen to the height difference h. The solid circle. which is essentially a Utube with one end leading to a reservoir whose pressure is desired and the other end open to the atmosphere.0 g/cm3. They have. by a factor of 4. A thread (diameter 6)in the shape of a rectangle (length 1. 0. A tiny propeller is inserted at point A in order to . It would decrease.2 g/cm3? A. h. 0. At end A the flow rate is 0.. There is not enough information to answer this question. D. If yis the surface tension of water (y= 7. The solid circle. Which one can have the larger maximum mass without sinking? The liquid in the tube is water. Use the following information to answer questions 2021: A pipe with a circular cross section has water flowing in it from A to B. by a factor of 2. and a solid circle of the same diameter is also sitting on the water. by a factor of 2. Section A. then what is the maximum weight that the thread can have without sinking? measure the velocity of the water. Section F The wire circle. What does it read? A. A wire circle is sitting on the surface of the water. width w) is lying on the surface of the water. 20. with a density of p = 1.17.the same maximum mass. 2 1 d s B.  E 18. if the water were replaced by salt water with a density 1.24 m3/s 21.03 m3/s B. 67 m/s C. What is the flow rate at end B? A. 9 6 d s .12 m3/s D. It would stay the same. while the radius at B is 3 cm. 0. B. The figure shows a simple barometer.. The radius of the pipe at A is 6 cm.06 m3/s c. 8 5 d s D. C.2 x Nlm). D. C. B. It would increase. 0. 19.
. since otherwise the puck would gradually slow down and stop. v. so that the puck sits on a cushion of air (which has a thickness d and viscosity q).. Which expression gives the force due to viscosity? A.. The force due to viscosity is F.The MCAT Physics Book 22. If v is the velocity of the puck. D. Use the following information to answer questions 2526: A hockey puck of area A and mass m rides on an air hockey table. P.. A pipe has a circular cross section. The sleeve has a radius slightly larger than the piston r + Ar.2nrzvAt P.The puck is connected to a thread whose other end is attached to a vertical small rod. Which expression gives the magnitude of the work done by the pressure outside the chamber on the piston during the time At? A. C. = qAv/d. The puck turns with frequency f (revolutions per unit time). and the pressure outside the chamber is P. such that the radius of the pipe at point A is r. Rf B. 2 M f D. &f 26.. such that Ar is very small compared to r . . The pressure in the chamber is P. z r Z v A t Pm. nrlvAt B. and d are the relevant surface area. The rod exerts a small torque to maintain the circular motion over time. relative velocity. zcRf c. Which expression gives the velocity of the fluid particles at point B? 24. The piston has a radius rand a length I...An incompressible fluid is flowing through the pipe at flow ratef. while the radius at B is r. which gives the best expression for v? A. 2zrlqvlAr GO ON T O THE NEXT PAGE 174 . Section G Use the following information to answer questions 2324: A piston fits into a sleeve. as shown in the figure).. where A. Which expression gives the torque which the rod must exert? 23. r2v& P... Recall: The force due to viscosity is given by F. The movement of the piston is lubricated by oil which has a viscosity q. so the puck travels a large circle of radius R (R is much larger than the radius of the puck. The velocity of the fluid particles at point A is v. and separation. = qAv/d. 25.. and it moves with velocity v.. so that the pressure from combustion in the reaction chamber is used to push the piston back at a constant rate and do useful work..
. Which of the following would tend to reduce the likelihood of turbulent flow? A. €+L Pool The hose is connected to a reservoir which maintains the water there at a pressure P. . . . Consider water flowing in a pipe. and 7 is the viscosity. because the water returns to the level of the nozzle. LP... Increase the flow rate.. A. Which gives the best expression for the velocity of the water just after it leaves the nozzle? GO ON TO M E NEXT PAGE . (See figure. ... Raise the temperature... v is the velocity of the fluid. .. Use the following infonnation to answer questions 3132: A tank of water has a hose coming out of the top. The water leaves the nozzle and shoots to a height h before falling back down again into a pool. the end of the hose inside the tank is at height h. so that the system acts as a syphon.e2 A I . . No. .... = pressure of the outside atomosphere p = density of water.. I I h Pressure 30. The hose is filled with water and the other end is below the tank. C. . . because the water develops turbulence. D. Assume the flow is without viscosity. The greater Reynold's number for a given flow. Increase the radius of the pipe..) D.. . Fluids Reynold's number is given by Re = lpvlq.. B. C. the more likely it is that turbulence will develop. Use the following notation: A.Chapter 10 . because the pool is not part of the flow. where 1 is the length scale of the pipe or of obstacles. 28. . Section H 29.. The bottom of the tank is at height h. .. Assume the flow has no viscosity from the reservoir until it gets out of the nozzle.. . Make the joints in the pipe smooth. p is the density of the fluid. The end of the hose outside the tank is at height h = 0 meters. Does Bernoulli's principle apply for the water which falls into the pool? No. Which gives the best expression for the height h? Use the following infonnation to answer questions 2830: Water in a certain sprinkler system Bows through a level hose connected to a nozzle which is directed upward... No. D. . and the top of the water is at height h. . = crosssectional area of the nozzle & = length of the hose P.. No... B."" A. Pg 4.. because the water develops viscosity.
the pressure in the narrow tube is less than atmospheric pressure. Use the following notation: p = density of water p. The reservoir has pressure greater than the ambient atmospheric pressure...? Use the following infonnation to answer questions 3335: In a chemistry laboratory it is often useful to create a partial vacuum. but once flow is established. = atmospheric pressure A .pg(h . = pressure of the reservoir Pa.The MCAT Physics Book 31. Which gives the best expression for P. = crosssectional area of the narrow tube A. A valve can be placed in the narrow tube to take advantage of the partial vacuum. P. P. Which gives the best expression for v. Assume that there is no viscosity and that gravity plays no role.) 1 D.? 32. = velocity of water in the wide tube I 35. .) 34.. + pg(h + h. the pressure in the narrow tube? Pressure valve GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . = crosssectional area of the wide tube v. Which is the best expression for the pressure at the bottom of the tank? A. A simple way to do this involves connecting a wide pipe to a narrow pipe which is connected to a reservoir of water (just the water line). Which is the best expression for the velocity of the flow coming out of the hose? 1 33. = velocity of water in the narrow tube v. Which gives the best expression for v.h.r = density of air P .
= 1 0 ' Pa. The other end of the string is connected to a force meter. no matter how good the pump is. Assume the pump can draw a perfect vacuum. and 1 atm = 1 . 0..0821 L atm/K mol. . what is the force that the sink exerts . and use 9 . D .. .54N There is not enough information to answer the question. B. B. There is not enough information to answer this question. A . It is tied to a string and lowered into a glass of water.. B.) The beverage will not rise past a certain point..18 N C . Either I or I1 would work. and 1 0 0 ocean which is another 980 m deep. I only. . = 1 0 ' Pa. Use the following information to answer questions 3839: The restaurant BistroanMaineStreet is located on the fourth floor of a certain building.1~10~~ Use the following information to answer:questions 4143: When the dike sprang a leak. p.16N D . = lo3kg/m3. .49N 0. A coffee cup sits fully submerged at the bottom of the 2 0 grams and sink filled with water. 8 m/s2for the acceleration on the coffee cup? (Use 9 due to gravity. We can model 0 rn high and 1 0 0 km long on top of an the dike as a dam 2 0 0 km wide. Use R = 0. If the density of is able to hold 0 water is lo3kg/mg. dike. 36. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . R = 0. 1. . 1 1 ... . p = 1d kg/m3. C. Part of the restaurant's "character" is that the beverages are served on the first floor with a straw leading up to the fourthfloor customers 1 2 meters up. Assume that viscosity is negligible..44N 0. Neither I nor I1 would work. . Assume also that surface tension of the beverage plays no role. 1liters of coffee. . and we have P. D . 1 m on a side floats in space. and g = 1 0 m/s2.. D.. The joke is that customers cannot manage to drink their beverages.01m located 1 m below the surface of the water. The box has 8 grams of oxygen gas in it at 2 ahn. There is not enough information to answer the question.. The pump is able to draw the liquid to the fourth floor and quench her thirst. 2. One night a chemist brings along a vacuum pump from her laboratory.. . 2kg/m3. Let's say the hole is a square 0 . = 3 x m.. A metal box in the shape of a cube which is 0 . 210N 420N 2100N 2. The coffee cup is 1 . . B.20N B . where there is a vacuum. . . Fluids All sections C. We have P. C . 0. A silver necklace has a mass of 50 grams and a volume 4 . .. . . Use a straw of smaller radius. Drink a beverage which has a smaller density. plir =1 .. g=1 0 rn/s2. 38. C. 1 km long. . The pump is theoretically able to draw the liquid to the fourth floor.. the little Dutch boy placed his finger in the hole to stop the flow. I1 only. 0 1x 1 0 ' Pa. 37. .0821 L atm / K mol. but it requires an infinite amount of time. What is the reading on the force meter? (Take the density of water to be 1 g/cm3. D. Which option will help a customer to draw the beverage up the straw? A.) 39.Chdptsr 10 . Consider the following possibilities: I. What is the best estimate of the force the gas exerts on one face of the cube? A . . What happens when the chemist connects her pump to the straw? A. 8m/s2 for the acceleration due to gravity. A.. 40. 0 1 m by 0. and the radius of the straw r. 8 2cm3.
he scale holding the water read? 42. = 5 kg) sits on a scale. What does . = 790 grams) is tied to a string which is hung from a force meter. 7. A container of water (m. The hammer is lowered completely into the water but it does not touch the bottom. be a point in the straw at the bottom of the column and let P. 45.) Let P. 45 m/s C. = atmospheric pressure . Assume the density of steel is 7. 140 m/s D.. For this problem use the following: p = density of water y = surface tension of water r = radius of the straw h = height of the column P.9 N B. Consider the column of water in the straw from the height of the water outside the straw to the top of the column. where y is the coefficient of surface tension (which depends only on the substance) and L is the length of the line of contact between an object and the fluid. There is not enough information to answer this question. There is not enough information to answer this question. Use the following information to answer questions 4445: A.0 g/cm3. What would be the flow through the hole if the little Dutch boy removed his finger? A. 4. 102N C. What does the force meter read? A. be a point inside the water column at the top. 4. 43. There is not enough information to answer this question. What would be the velocity of the stream if the little Dutch boy removed his finger from the hole? A. A steel hammer (m. B. What force does the little Dutch boy have to exert in order to keep his finger in the dike? A. The acceleration due to gravity is 10 mls2. Passage 1 When we place a straw (a hollow cylindrical tube) in water. 1N B. C. 4. (See figure..5 x lo4 m3/s B.5 mls B. 49 N 50N 51N There is not enough information to answer this question.9N D. There is not enough information to answer this question. the water inside the straw rises above the surface level outside and a rniniscus (curvature of the surface) forms.9 g/cm3and the density of water is 1. g = acceleration due to gravity . where the column is shown shaded.The MCAT Physics Book 41. The force due to surface tension for a maximally stretched surface is given by F. 1 0 4 ~ D.5 x lo4m3/s D. = yL. D. 44.5 x lo2m3/s C. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 4. 8.9N C. 6.
The figure shows a tube whose bottom end is in a reservoir of water. C. D.. . 'v 2my 2zr2y/h What happens if r decreases by a factor of 2? A. B. D. .. = lcr2hpg F. Pressure at P . . D. In this case the forces on the column of water have to be balanced... Pressure at P2 is greater than at P . a cell tissue which forms thin.. .... xylem is a tube or pipe. B. force due to pressure on top surface. Gravity. Model 1 pressure less than atmoshpere F = lcr2(p. 2ry BC. by the term You should understand the last passage before going on to the next one. There is not enough information to answer this question..pgh) F = 2 z r 2 ( p a .. by the term pgh I Passage 2 2. D. . and surface tension.. .. In another model (Model 2 . down. down.. force due to pressure on top surface. The top end is closed and has a cavity whose pressure is less than atmospheric pressure.. C. shown in first figure below). force due to pressure on bottom surface. so the downward force of gravity is equal to the upward force of surface tension. and surface tension. force due to pressure on top surface. Pressure at P . Which pressure is greater. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE 179 .. pgh. Fluids 1 . and at P2 are both Pa. C.. ..pgh) F = zr2p. In one model (Model 1. down. What expression gives the magnitude of the force due to pressure on the top of the column? A. It turns out not to be a good model for Nature.072 N/m for water) and the circumference of the cylinder. B. force due to pressure on bottom surface. Gravity. . The height h would increase by a factor of 4. Gravity. . down.. What are the forces acting on the column? A. shown in figure below). = 21crzhpg B... trees use this tissue to transport water against the force of gravity to great heights. D. F = 2 z r 2 Pa. 3. . 5. . and at P... Gravity. and water is "pulled" up by reducing the pressure at the top of the column of water in the xylem. 6.. Vascular plants transport water by a passive transport system using xylem. down. . Fgrav = r2hg FBrrv = 2r2hg F.. In particular. force due to pressure on bottom surface... long cylinders along branches of plants. 4. The height h would stay the same. or at P. up. C. Pressure at P .? A. C D.Chdpter 10 . The height h would increase by a factor of 2. The force of surface tension is the product of the coefficient of surface tension y(0. are the same but not Pa.. the same force that causes water to rise in a thin straw when it is sitting in water.. What expression gives the force due to gravity on the column? A. What expression approximates the force due to surface tension? A. . B. the pressure at P.. xylem is a narrow tube which exerts a force on water by surface tension. is greater than at P.
When the bombardier beetle is attacked or provoked. 144 meters 4. it sprays a jet of hot liquid toward its attacker.4benzoquinone): 1 . which is about 2 x m. . . and the entire chamber has volume V . Use lo3kg/m3 for the density of water and 10 m/s2 for the acceleration of gravity. The nozzle has radius r and crosssectional area A. B.65 . B. species hydrogen peroxide hydroquinone quinone water How could the maximum height be increased in Model 2? Decrease the radius of the cylinder.45. D. greater than the outside pressure P. adhered to the walls. Decrease the radius of the cylinder. The physical mechanism for creating the hot spray consists of two chambers in the abdomen: an inner chamber which stores hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone in water solution. We can model this outer chamber as a volume (reaction P is flask) with a nozzle.1 rnm) in the tip of the abdomen at a speed v = 12 m/s.m. 3. Increase the radius of the cylinder. 72 meters D . 200 meters 2. What is maximum height of a column of water in xylem in Model l ? A. Increase the radius of the cylinder.68 . I The heats of formation of the various compounds are shown in the table. which it can move in order to direct the stream. Passage 3 This reaction in the outer chamber creates a solution of the products of reaction (1) in water.44184 . This solution has enough heat and pressure to create a hot stream to shoot out of an opening (radius 0. and this provides the force on the fluid in the nozzle. = 10' ~ / m for ' atmospheric pressure. What is maximum height of a column of water in xylem in Model 2? A. Increase the density of xylem. None of the above will increase the maximum height.32 Note: The tallest trees are the redwoods. 10 meters C. C. Increase the density of xylem. . The jet comes out of an opening at the tip of its abdomen. 36 meters C. Use the estimate P . A. None of the above will increase the maximum height. 20 meters D.The MCAT Physics Book In both models the height of the column is h and the radius of the tube is r. < hydroquinone hydrogen peroxide 3. C. 1 meter B.68. which can be as high as 100 meters. The beetle squeezes the hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone into the outer chamber where the following reaction takes place to form quinone (also called 1. The temperature of the fluid in the chamber is Tcb. connected by a valve to an outer chamber which contains oxidative enzymes (peroxidase and catalase) I chamber GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 180 . inner chamber outer chamber How could the maximum height be increased in Model I? A.44. D. The pressure in the chamber .6 meters B.
. . This ingredient is prepared using the reaction of sodium amide and nitrous oxide: GO ON T OT H EN E X T PAGE 181 . . Chdptcr 10 . C. C . The catalyst may decrease or increase the heat of reaction depending on the temperature. Fluids What is the primary reason that the reaction rate of the reaction (1) increases when the reactants go from the inner chamber to the outer chamber? A. Heat capacity of the solution.Pam )A (PC. 2 B. where p is the density of the fluid. In the event of a collision.6 meters B.. / B.. In addition to the information given in the passage and the boiling point of the product solution. n. .) A. +KC&) (2) D . As the driver's body comes to a rapid stop. + v * . consisting of an electric coil. . Once reaction (1) takes place in the outer chamber. a scientist wants to determine whether there is enough heat to raise the temperature to the boiling point of the solution. (pchm . B... Heat capacity of the solution and the concentration of quinone. which react somewhat as follows: 4Zr(s.where n is the number of moles of molecules in the chamber. 1 + pv2.where n. The catalyst does not affect the heat of reaction. . B. In reference to the model in the last paragraph. . v . . The surface area of reaction is increased.. The catalyst decreases the heat of reaction. and the heat of reaction (1). . 4 x cm3/s 6. .. 7.. RT C.. What is the approximate height to which the spray would travel if it were directed straight up? (Ignore air resistance. . D . softer than the steering wheel in any case. 5. what information does she need to do the calculation? A. C .. 4 x lo' cm3/s B. + Pam )A 2. D .2 meters D. + 421O(~.4 meters 4.2 meters C.. What is the flow rate out of the beetle's abdomen? A.. The main active ingredient in the airbag is the sodium azide. which react to form the nitrogen gas which fills the airbag: D . . P. 7. The essential mechanism of the airbag consists of a sealed combustion chamber containing iron(II1) oxide and sodium azide. The catalyst increases the heat of reaction. and volume of the outer chamber.+ KCIO. . zirconium and potassium hyperchlorate. 1. Which of the following expressions gives the best approximation of the pressure inside the chamber? A. ...1 . the airbag provides a soft cushion. . I A recent innovation in automobile safety is the airbag. B. the concentration of quinone.. is the number of moles of quinone in the chamber.. The temperature is increased. The concentration of the reactants is increased.where n is the number of moles of nRT <tm nRT In the same chamber is an ignitor. . v. . The activation energy is decreased.(s. How does the catalyst affect the heat of reaction for reaction (I)? A... 0. Heat capacity of the solution. an airbag in front of the driver inflates in about 0.. Heat capacity of the solution.m molecules in the chamber. the concentration of quinone. 3. 14.02 seconds.. which gives the best expression for the total force on the part of the fluid in the nozzle? A.
What is the advantage of having an airbag with larger area (as one views it from the driver seat)? A. N$N GO ON TO THE N U C T PAGE 182 . This ensures that poisonous byproducts are prevented from entering the bag. chemical to heat A. which has the greatest entropy increase? energy flow for the airbag inflation? A. The concentration of reactants is kept high to speed the reaction. NaO. B. (1) (2) (3) All three have zero entropy increase. What is a possible purpose for keeping the combustion chamber sealed during the first 15 ms of reaction? A. an electric coil starts reaction (2). C. it is hoped that the driver can walk away from the collision with no injuries worse than abrasions from the inflating bag. so as the driver presses against it. C. Which of the following is the best description of the Of reactions (I). c. D. C. As the bag deflates.The MCAT Physics Book 3. and (3). The bag is porous. B. 5. the bag deflates. After that. 6 . D. A filter screen removes the solid products of reaction (I) and other trace reaction products (some possibly noxious) while passing the nitrogen gas I gas chamber chamber Lb r igniter Y '. B. the seal of the combustion chamber bursts and releases the products (see figure). the temperature of the gas decreases to safe levels. which expression gives the grams of sodium azide required? During a collision. B. B. D. After 15 ms. Increasing the area increases the gasflow rate. C. Thus. 1. Na C. B. Increasing the area decreases the pressure on any given body part. 7. chemical to heat to work against the atmosphere. (2). Increasing the distance over which the deceleration occurs decreases the required force. What is the best possible purpose for having the bag deflate as the driver presses into it? A. and the whole reaction (I) continues for about 50 ms. chemical to kinetic to heat.Db# I\ rupture filter screen 4. D. Increasing the area decreases the density of the gas inside the bag. This keeps the reactants near the catalyst. FeO D. D. If 1000 liters of gas are desired. which could contaminate the reaction. This provides the heat which ignites reaction (I). The nitrogen gas fills the bag in about 20 ms. 2. The reactants are protected from water vapor. Increasing the area decreases the gas flow rate. The bag's deflation decreases the energy of the collision. Which of the following is the least likely byproduct for reaction (1) referred to in Paragraph 3? A. it is almostly completely deflated by the time the accident is over. Assume that the final gas has temperature 27" C at 1 atmosphere of pressure. Allowing the gas to flow out of the bag ensures that the bag does not burst. chemical to gravitational potential.
and h. A fluid. C. that is. How does the pressure P. is less than P. In the first figure. This cannot be determined from the information given. a device that measures pressure. C . let p be the density of mercury. The pressure P....? A. The speed v .. then what is the upstream velocity of the flow? A modification of a barometer can be used to measure Bow speed. If the pressure measured by Barometer 1 in the second figure is P.compare with the speed v. Which .? A. For the following prob!ems.is less than v3. The speed v ..and that measured by Barometer 2 is P.. and a crosssectional area A. The pressure P. The speed v . Consider a pipe which carries an inviscid. The pressure P. we can consider the line shown in the figure.. then the tip of the barometer forms an obstruction in the flow. D. so it If Barometer 2 is placed in the flow as shown measures P. How does the speed v .A barometer. like mercury. velocity v 3. The flow far upstream has a speed v. filling the bottom portion of the U.far upstream. respectively. B . compare with the pressure P. is placed inside. B . is greater than P.. Nevertheless. then the pressure above the liquid on that end is less. is the same as v.is greater than v. pressure P. is the same as P. in the figure below. the heights of the left and right columns of mercury are h. ? expression gives the reservoir pressure P reservoir at pressure pmS h2 2.. can be constructed from a tube which is open at both ends and shaped like a U. In the consmction the flow has a . s&&=   Barometer 1 Barometer 2 The flow just in front of the tip comes to stop at what is called a stagnation point.. This cannot be determined from the information given.. to be a streamline. D. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . If the height of the mercury column at one end is greater than at the other end. 'Ihe figure below shows a flow with a constriction.and a crosssectional area A. 1.pressure P. Barometer 1 does not intempt the flow.. d  . incompressible fluid moving a speed v and pressure P.. which comes to an end at the stagnation point. 4. .
D.? A. D. . C. P. This cannot be determined from the information given.. . How would the new pressure in the constriction be changed from P.. B. suppose the fluid were replaced with a fluid that had viscosity. and A. This cannot be determined from the information given. . The speed would be less than v.and A.. Suppose the fluid were replaced with an incompressible fluid that had viscosity. .... remained the same. but v. The new pressure would be the same as P . ? tion be changed from v A. The speed would be greater than v. B. . P. The new pressure would be greater than P ... A.. The new pressure would be less than P.A.The MCAT Physics Book 5 . Again. .. remained the same. v in the constric. but v. The speed would be the same as v . STOP . 6. C. How would the velocity.
All these forces are equal in magnitude (for various reasons). In this chapter we look at what these various wave phenomena have in common. Only in this way will the few formulas and ideas become intuitive. their socalled "wavelike" nature. then it exerts a force Fvring = kl: 3 (1) where k is the spring constant in [Nlm]. The more you stretch it.) Let's be clear about the forces involved here. The force p. t Hooke's Law If a spring has resting length 4. and the force of the spring is opposite the direction of the pull (or push). giving force balance. The forces p2and F3 add to zero because of the second law of motion. The forces F3and p4are equal in magnitude because of the third law of motion as well. and is the force the wall exerts on the spring. the spring exerts a pull on you. These forces are equal in magnitude because of the third law of motion. such as sound and light. The force F3is the force the hand exerts on the spring. Waves govern many of the phenomena we experience every day. In the following two chapters we will look at sound and light separately. is the force the spring ejrerts on the wall. Introduction This chapter begins the study of waves. and it is stretched (or compressed) to a length 1. + x. and the bending and reflecting of waves. But it is especially important to have ready a mental pad of paper. If you compress a spring capable of being compiessed. F2 F4 . If you stretch a spring. and is the force the spring exerts on the hand. because the spring is not accelerating. You need to visualize the toandfro motion of the medium. (See Figure 111. but there are four forces.I Chapter 1 1 I A. Figure 113 shows all the forces involved. For these chapters it will be important to have pen and paper ready to recopy diagrams and rework problems. the more it pulls. the shape of waves. Hooke's law states that the force is proportional to the extension or compression. Figure 112 shows a spring attached to a wall stretched by a hand. then it exerts a push.
In many problems.1 m from equilibrium. how much work does the spring do in order to push the mass to the equilibrium position? Solution: Our first idea is to write the work equation: W = F&COS$J = Fswn. (See Figure 114. and if each force is a potential force or does no work. and the other end is connected to a mass m (0. but then it decreases as the spring moves the mass. as in many types of physics problems.1 m) = 2 N. The spring is compressed 0. so we have EK + Ep = constant.Ax = (20 Nlm x 0. Figure 111 Figure 113 In spring problems. (3) The expression Ep includes both gravitational and spring energies. Conservation of Energy.of a horizontal spring (k = 20 Nlm) is connected to a wall. it is important to follow the energy.1 m) = 0.The MCAT Physics Book Figure 112 Theforce exerted by a spring is proportional to the displacement of one end.2 kg). showing the system at three different times. Again If there is no friction. then the sum of kinetic and potential energies is constant.1 m) (0. we can treat this potential energy like gravitational potential energy. no crashing. After it is released. What shall we do? .The force of the spring begins at (20 Nlm) (0. although in most problems it represents just one or the other. no heat generation.2 1 .) In the work equation we assume the force is constant. Example: One end. The potential energy of a stretched or compressed spring is as follows: This energy is the second type of potential energy we have encountered. But this would be WRONG.
Periodic Motion: One Oscillator Let's think about a mass rn connected to a horizontal spring (resting length I. = AE. = 4 =4 1 4 2 The spring's force changes as the mass moves. . We stretch the spring to length 1. .. . C. . As the mass goes faster. Figure 115 . This motion is called simple harmonic motion. so the equation W = FAX does not apply.d b But the kinetic energy of the mass comes from the potential energy of the spring.. Periodic Motion and Wdves Let's think about the flow of energy after the release. The mass is sitting on a frictionless floor (so we can ignore vertical forces). Because the length is I.. the v . spring constant k ) which is connected to a wall. the displacement x and force F. Spend some time making sure you understand every entry on the table. The work done by the spring on the mass is the same as the change in kinetic energy of the mass (by energy conservation). In the first line the negative sign of the acceleration indicates the acceleration vector points left. but thinking about the energy flow is the key to success. + A and let go. Figure 115 shows the movement at five times.Chqter 11 . Figure 114 This is one of those problems in which blind plugging into the formulas is to no avail. (and thus x = O). . that is. the same as the force of the spring. decrease.. 'lhe maximum displacement occurs when v = 0 and the magnitude of the spring force is very large. L. so we have w. What happens? At first the spring pulls the mass back towards equilibrium. the restoring mass is moving velocity force and acceleration are zero. When the spring is length b.. .
the solid mows are the two forces mgcose on the bob. In this case. The period T is the time it takes for the system to go through one cycle. and it has units [s]. which is connected to a ceiling of some sort. The frequency of a pendulum is given by Note that the mass of the bob m does not appear in this equation. and the dashed arrows show mg the gravitational force divided into components. In both. Thefrequency f is the number of cycles a system goes through in a unit of time. You need not memorize this equation. = E. so the motion is similar. so a 10kg mass swings on a 3m string with the same period as a 0. Let's consider a similar set up. The square root is needed to make the units agree. but you should be familiar with the fact that m does not appear in it. In Figure . As k increases. along the supporting rod and A pendulum operates by a principle perpendicular to it. In a pendulum we have a bob connected to a string or a light rod. Also a larger mass will decrease the frequency. We have The frequency is related to the spring constant and the mass as follows: Let's see if this equation makes sense. so it makes sense that rn is in the denominator. l The maximum displacement of the mass from equilibrium is the amplitude A. and it has units [lls = Hertz = Hz]. + E. the latter : :" Figure 116 where sin0 is approximately equal to 0 (measured in radians) for small angles. Note the similarity of this equation to equation (1). The restoring force is similar to t h t o f a spring with a mass. so it makes sense that k should be in the numerator.The MCAT Physics Book K E. A mgsine 116. the restoring force is provided not by a spring but by a component of gravity.1kg mass swinging on a 3m string. . the force is proportional to the displacement. (= constant) =& +_my2. f increases. We would guess that a system with a ~tiff~spring would have a high frequency (think about it).
This is an example of a general principle. If two weakly connected oscillators have similar frequencies. (See Figure 118. I I Figure 118 shows two pendulums with a very weak spring connecting them. The second pendulum now transfers energy to the first pendulum. by the weak coupling. Periodic Motion: Two Connected Oscillators In the last section we looked at a single oscillator moving in one dimension. and transfers to the other oscillator.) . Two pendulums connected by a If one of the pendulums is set to weak coupling (spring).Chdpter 1 1 .) Now the situation is reversed from the original set up. Then the first pendulum comes almost to a stop while the second one swings with the original amplitude of the first. Figure 117 shows a slightly more complicated system with two similar pendulums connected by a weak spring. Periodic Motion dr~dW d W S I D. I Figure 118 Another example of resonance involves a soprano. and if the energy starts in one oscillator. In this case. The energy in the first pendulum is slowly transferred to the second then slowly back again. and it bursts. * still * * still * * still These are two pendula weakly connected by a spring.. Gradually. enough energy enters the wine glass to cause it to go into a nonlinear regime. while the first pendulum swings less and less. swinging. This is called resonance. the other pendulum hardly moves at first because the coupling is Figure 117 weak.E. the second pendulum swings higher and higher. then the energy tends to be slowly transfer back and forth between the oscillators. (See Section 7. a wine glass. . Let's look at some general characteristics of this system. . . The energy of swinging has transferred from the first pendulum to the second. the wine glass. If she sings that note very loudly. then the energy starts in one oscillator. her vocal cords. and the air between them. the air. The soprano can tap the glass to hear its natural frequency. This continues until the second one is at rest and the first is swinging. .
if the disturbance of the medium is in the same direction as the direction of wave travel. A water skater sitting at point P goes up and down and up with period T. his frequency is f = 1/T. Figure 1110 shows water waves frozen at several moments in time. . the disturbance travels a long distance. the circular ripples carry energy and momentum away from the original disturbance. The small arrows show the direction of the displacement. When you see a ripple across a field of grain. and the large arrow shows the direction of travel. The waves are moving to the right. Figure 111 1 shows a longitudinal wave on a spring. although the medium moves hardly at all. measured from the equilibrium point to the high point. The amplitude A is a measure of the size of the disturbance.The wavelength A is the length from peak to peak (or trough to trough or ascending zero ooint to ascending. that is not a wave. The large arrow shows the direction of wave travel. A wave is a disturbance (small movement or change) in a medium such that. The velocity of a wave is given by  I L A water wave moves to the right but keeps its shape. . These ripples are waves (Figure 1 1 9).CAT + t + t The arrows show the displacement in this longitudinal wave. then the wave is called longitudinal.The MCAT Physics Book I E. Figure 1110 t In many cases the velocity is constant. measured in [s]. Waves. Of course. The units depend on the kind of wave it is and on how we measure it. zero mint). Figure 1111 In a wave. watch for this on the .The wavelength is measured in [m]. because it is the wind pushing the grain. transporting energy. and the grain itself does not cany any energy or momentum. an Introduction rn rn Figure 119 When you throw a rock into an otherwise calm lake. and this formula simply relates frequency and wavelength.
Chapter II . 1 cm. 1such that at time 12:30 its height would be 2 cm if it were the only wave around. . . Interference When two particles come together. . together. they generally collide in some manner. then the wave is called transverse. . they can be confined to moving in one of two dimensions. Periodic M o t i o n and Waves If the disturbance of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. The resulting height of the water at 12:30 at point A is (+5 + 2) cm = +3 cm. For example. they do not collide but jumble together in a process called interference. up and down in and out of page The arrows show the displacement in these polarized transverse waves. (These heights are measured relative to A the equilibrium height of the water.. The large arrow shows the direction of wave travel. When two waves come together. Transverse waves are capable of being polarized. wavelength 4 m) aniving from the north. wave 1 When two waves come would have height +7 cm and wave 2. let's say. Figure 1113   !I II . magnetic fields F. Then the new height. Figure 1112 wave longitudinaVtransverse medium water wave both water T string wave on plucked string sound L air earthquake both earth light T electric. wavelength 6 m) arrives from the east. Figure 1112 shows two examples of transverse waves. that is. It is not as complicated as it sounds. The table below shows most of the examples of waves that you need to know for the MCAT. consider a wave on a lake (amplitude 7 cm. Unpolarized transverse waves are a random mixture of the two polarizations. like two balls or two cars. Now another wave (amplitude 10 cm. Longitudinal waves cannot be polarized.) 2 Three seconds later. with both waves. . they interfere. such that at point A at time 12:30 (exactly) its height would be +5 crn if it were the only wave around (Figure 1113). would be (+2 + 1) cm = +1 cm.
By superposition we see that the resulting motion is no displacement at all. one from the right and one from the left. The skater at point A experiences the updownupdownup from the wave on the left and the updownupdownup from the wave on the right. Water skaters are sitting on A the water at points A. Stereo speakers are at points Sound waves arriving from 1 and 2. Alice and Alice sits (and where Bob sits). P  Two wave trains are about to interfere.h he MCAT Physics Book Principle of Superposition When two waves come together. so A experiences increased amplitude UPDOWNUPDOWNUP. and point C is called a node. and the interference is neither in phase nor out of phase but somewhere in between. 1 For the water skater at B. For the water skater at C. The resulting amplitude is the sum of the individual amplitudes. both producing a pure tone (sine speakers I and 2 interfere where wave) of wavelength A. In this example a wave train from the left encounters a wave train from the right with the same wavelength. this time with sound waves. This is called destructive interference. and point A is called an antinode. The two waves are said to be out of phase. the resulting displacement of the medium is the sum of the individual displacements. the relative phase is between 0"and 180°. Their relative phase is said to be 180". I Figure 1114 shows another example of this. and the right wave is downupdownupdown. Bob are listening to the speakers. The resulting amplitude is the difference of the 2 individual amplitudes. and C.in phase. when two wave forms add in such a way as to create maximal displacement of the medium. Figure 11. in which two wave pulses come together. the left wave is updownupdownup. Figure 1116 Figure 1114 6h 192 . This is called constructive interference. u L Figure 1115 I Transverse pukes interfere. Figure 1115 shows a third example of interference on water. B.16 shows a fourth Alice Bob example of interference. The two waves are said to be in phase. Superposition tells us that the resulting motion is added. The resulting amplitude is somewhere inbetween as well. when the wave forms tend to cancel and give minimal displacement. Their relative phase is said to be 0".
. Figure 1122 shows what Bob hears.19 shows what Alice hears with Sound wave heard by Alice Sound from speaker 2 Alice hears sound from speakers 1 and 2. Sound wave heard by Bob. Figure 1117 shows the waves traveling from speakers to Alice.) Figure 1121 shows the sound waves from Sound from speaker 1 Alice Bob Bob hears soundfrom speakers 1 and 2. greater intensity than that from one speaker. Note that these figures show displacement of air particles versus time. . they arrive in phase. However. Figure 11. Figure 1118 both speakers. Figure 1119 Bob. architects of orchestra halls often must guard against the possibility of "dead spots". If only speaker 1 were making sound. The sound from speaker 1 i s delayed by halfa wavelength. cannot be heard well. If only speaker 2 Sound from speaker 1 Alice \ Bob A A A f V r Figure 1117 were making a sound. . since the amplitudes of the two speakers are rarely exactly the same. so she hears a sound of add constructively. is further away from speaker 1 than from speaker 2 by half a wavelength. . Since the waves begin in phase and travel equal distances.Chapter 11 . where certain notes made by the concert master's violin. Figure 1120 Figure 1121 the two speakers. for example. however. the wave arriving at her ear would look like that shown in Figure 1 118. . the wave arriving at her ear would look like that shown in the same figure. Figure 1122 Note: In real life it is difficult to hear this phenomenon fully. What difference does half a wavelength make? The wave arriving from speaker 1 has further to go. . For Bob the sound waves add destructively. Periodic M o t i o n and Waves Alice is an equal distance from both speakers. (See Figure 1120. She experiences construcFor Alice the sound waves tive interference. a trough is just arriving from speaker 1. so when a peak is coming from speaker 2. nothing.
4 be Waves trapped in a cavity may have only certain allowed frequencies. whereas standing waves have only a string held at both ends. or cetera.65 m waves which are unconstrained by boundaries. you should suspect that constructive and destructive interference is the' cause. The example of the guitar string will help make this clear. How could it any longer.) . Standing waves are waves constrained inside a cavity. These are standing waves. Now think about a wave on a guitar string. and it is 0. Generally there are an infinite number of allowed frequencies. Destructive interference occurs when two waves differ by half a wavelength.The MCAT Physics Book Calculations of this type get complicated fairly quickly. or one. The main difference is that traveling waves may have any frequency Lowestfrequency mode for at all. so that the longest wavelength you can imagine would look something like that shown in Figure 1123. Figure 1123 Think about a wave on an infinite string. In any wave phenomenon.65 m long. But you should recognize constructive and destructive interference when you see it (or hear it). or two. or 512. and there is a lowest frequency. a next lowesf and so on. or 312. when there are bands of strong and weak amplitude. Example 1: A guitar string has a wave velocity 285 mls. The fixed ends now constrain your imagination. So far we have been talking of 0. with the ends forced to be at equilibrium points? I . What is the lowest frequency which can be played on it? (The lowest frequency corresponds to the normal mode with no nodes except at the ends. There is nothing to constrain your imagination to think of waves of any wavelength. but there is a lowest possible frequency. certain allowed frequencies. or traveling waves. or cetera. And you should recognize this: Constructive interference occurs when two waves differ by no wavelengths. beyond the scope of the MCAT. A mode of motion in which every part of the medium moves back and forth at the same frequency is called a normal mode.
That is. For this mode the wavelength is A = 0. but that is always called thefundamenraf).Chapter 1 1 .65 m. f= a rn Figure 1124 = 440Hz. . We This frequency is called thefundamental. Periodic Motion and Waves Solution: Figure 1123 shows the normal mode for the lowest frequency. . .. This is the third hannonic. This frequency is called the second hannonic (the first harmonic being the fundarnental. the midpoint of this string .write so Figure 1123 is half a wavelength. We write Next lowest frequency mode v for a string held a t both ends.experiences destructive interference and thus no motion at all. Example 3: What is the third lowest frequency that can be excited on the guitar string? Solution: Figure 1125 shows the normal mode with two nodes between the ends. The wavelength is given by F i r e 1125 = 660Hz. . . A full wavelength looks like. Example 2: What is the second lowest frequency that can be excited on the same guitar string? Solution: Figure 1124 shows the normal mode with one node between the ends. .
wavelength A. . These normal modes are all sine waves on a string. usually none. = kr. transporting energy. come . it is likely that interference is part of the explanation as to Why the bands formed. Whenever you encounter bands of light and dark (light waves) or loud and soft (sound waves). The potential energy of a spring stretched (or 1 compressed) by a distance x is Ep= kr2. excluding the end points. Here are some general rules for drawing normal modes: 1. In this chapter we explored springs and waves. It is important to get the ends correct (for example. For the fundamental there are as few nodes as possible. they create a wave with large amplitude. To solve problems involving stationary springs. Often waves have a characteristic frequency f and a When $ I waves . and these are connected by the wave velocity v = together they exhibit interference.. 2. 3. and a next lowest.The MCAT Physics Book When you pluck a guitar string.. it is often more important to follow the energy flow. You should practice doing this sort of 2 problem. and SO on. Each following hannonic adds one node (only rarely more). To solve problems involving moving springs. . you hear all these frequencies with varying amplitudes.. They have the distinguishing characteristic that only certain frequencies are allowed: a lowest. it is important to draw accurate force diagrams and remember the spring equation F. Waves involve a small movement of a medium which propagates to great distances. Standing waves are waves trapped in a cavity. If they interfere destructively. they create a wave with small amplitude. so the guitar string is not in a normal mode but in a mixed state. If they interfere constructively. the ends of a guitar string are nodes).
The net force is zero. l00J D.0 m D. 8.35 m 2. (Use acceleration due to gravity g = 10 mls2.00 N D.75 N C. 6. 200J Section B 4.Chapter 11 .while the other end is connected to a mass m (which is 5 kg). 0.14s C.00 s B. Use the following informationfor questions I and 2: An ideal. 8. 7.25 N Thefigure shows a pendulum at the bottom of its swing. Use the following informationfor questions 35: One end of a spring (spring constant 50 N/m) is fixed at point P .15 m) is hanging from the ceiling.8 m C. and the force on the mass is 10 N. What is the length of the spring? A. so that the mass and the spring are able to rotate about P.47 m B. 3. 6.20 m D. . What is the direction of the net force on the pendulum bob? A. 3. 2 J C.. 7.) 1 . 2. 1. and the system is allowed to reach a static equilibrium. Periodic Motion dnd W ~ V ~ S Chapter 1 1 Problems 3. 1J B. 0.2 m B. 0. 3.2m What is the amount of potential energy stored in the spring? A.8 kg mass in the previous question were pulled down an additional 10 cm (that is.00 s D. massless spring (spring constant 2. C. A mass of 0. B.28 s What is the resting length of the spring? A. 2. D.05 m C. B t 1 f c. How long does it take for the mass to go around P once? A. What is the direction of the acceleration vector for the bob? A. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE .5 Nlm and resting length 0. 1. The fixed end and the mass sit on a horizontal frictionless surface..8 kg is added to the bottom end of the spring. The mass moves in a circle of radius R = 2 m.25 N B. 5. There is no acceleration at this point. Use thisfigure for questions 6 and 7. 3. If the 0. . 4. what is the magnitude of the net force on the mass just after the release? A. t 1 \ D. below its equilibrium length) and released.
The mass m is slid against the plate and pushed back a distance x. After its release. 18. El= 9E2 Use the following informationfor questions 10 and 11: A ball of mass m falls from rest from a height and encounters a spring. 0. v2=2v. After its release. A massless spring with spring constant k is connected on one end to a wall and on the other end to a massless plate. Which expression is an expression for x? Refer to the figure below for questions 8 and 9. it has moved a distance L.00s D. a larger mass 9rn is speed v. v.333 s B. . A mass rn is sitting on a frictionless floor. E. kinetic to potential C.) 12.333 H z B. such that it moves 0. What is the frequency of the oscillation? A. It undergoes 20 complete oscillations in 60. 2. 3. V2 = v 1 B. What is the period of the oscillation? A.1kg). = 4v1 D.The MCAT Physics Book 10. it reaches a maximum In a second experiment.. it reaches a maximum speed v.00 H z D.8 H z 198 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . of the first mass compare with the final kinetic energy E2of the second mass? A.= E2 C. it reaches a maximum speed v. How does the final kinetic reaches a maximum speed v energy E. compressing the spring a distance x.0 s. 8. 2. The mass is oscillating in one dimension. After its release. 3. Section C Use the following information for questions 1218: A massless ideal spring projects horizontally from a wall and connects to a mass (0. kinetic to potential to kinetic 11. After its release. v. potential to kinetic B. In a second experiment. 0. thus compressing it (see figure).. A mass rn is sitting on a frictionless floor. potential to kinetic to potential D . = 16v1 9.3 m from one end of its oscillation to the other. ( The frequency is related to the spring constant by f = 2n F 1 m . E. The mass m is slid against the plate and pushed back a distance x. E. C.= 3E. the same mass is pushed back a distance 4x. 18.09 H z C.8 s 13. it . pushed back the same distance x. Which describes the flow of energy referred to in the problem? A. compare with v. When the ball comes to a momentary stop. How does v.? A.09 s C. A massless spring with spring constant k is connected on one end to a wall and on the other end to a massless plate.. D.= E2/3 B.
I only B. 0. and III 21.Chdpter 11 .2 mls.1 kg) and B (0. What is the amplitude of the oscillation? A. I only B. I1 only C. .04 m C.15m B. . It would increase by a factor of 2.16m ' I 23. What is the spring constant k? Immediately after the hit. Which of the statements is true during the collision? A. . potential to kinetic to heat B. C. When the spring is at its resting length. It would decrease by a factor of 2.3 m C. They then oscillate. the two blocks are going 0. C. B. 0. I. 0. How far does the spring get compressed from its resting position? A. It would increase by 41%. Periodic M o t i o n and Wdves 14. It would increase by a factor of 2. II and III D. 0. 199 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . What is the velocity of Block A before the collision? A. 0. None of the above. back and forth from gravitational potential to spring potential D . 111only C. What is the energy flow in such a system? A. C. During the oscillation. When the spring is compressed. 0. B. In. 11. 22. 17. Consider the following three statements in questions 19 and 20. I 15. It would decrease by a factor of 2. 0.4 kg) ride on a frictionless level surface in one dimension and have velcro on their sides. Momentum is conserved. Which of the statements is true during the oscillation? A. 5. back and forth from spring potential to kinetic C. 19. How would the amplitude change if the spring constant were increased by a factor of 2? A. Initially Block B is at rest. How would the frequency change if the spring constant were increased by a factor of 2? A. It would increase by a factor of 4. D. 11.02 m B. D. back and forth from potential to kinetic to heat Use the following informationfor questions 1924: Blocks A (0. 3 m I.6 m D. Block B is also connected to a massless.0nh 18. 0. I1 and III D. The sum of kinetic and spring potential energy is conserved. and block A approaches from the left (see figure). Kinetic energy is conserved. It would increase by a factor of 4. 20. When the spring is extended.08 m D. D. I. and IIE 16.45 d s / D. . so that they stick when they touch. 11. B. ideal spring (k = 50 Nlm) which extends horizontally and is connected to a wall. when is the magnitude of the acceleration the greatest and the direction of the acceleration directed to the right? A. None of the above is true.
D. 111. O. 4 m D. It has many moving parts. notice that this piece vibrates a little at first.5 H z B. kinetic to chemical C. What is the velocity of the wave? . Which best describes the flow of energy during the collision? A. C. If resonance is responsible for this phenomenon. and you ' notice that it bobs from up to down to up in every two seconds. 0. 1m B. I and 111. and 111 is true. B. A research and development lab has just built a prototype for a potato peeler.. What is the amplitude of the wave? A. 1H z Section D 25. 29. You decide to take a photograph in order to use up a roll of film. 2 m D. There is a weak connection between this vibration and another vibration.The velocity of a wave on a wire or string is not dependent (to a close approximation) on frequency or amplitude and is given by v2 = T/U where T is the tension in the wire and p i s the linear mass density. 2m C. then more. I or I1 is true.28 m/s A. so that the linear mass density 1is the product of the mass density and the crosssectional area.4 mm. 4 m Use the following'infonnationfor questions 3033. 2000 N 2000 N diameter 0. D. What is the frequency of this wave? A. but you are waiting for a taxi. kinetic to potential B. I. I1 only. 11. but one particular part. When the researchers turn on the machine. The linear mass density is the mass per unit length of wire. B.4 rnm Wire A Wire B is made of the same material as wire A with half the diameter. What is the wavelength for this wave? A. the blade patroler. A certain wire A (see figure) has tension 2000 N and a circular cross section of diameter 0. The city. 28. C.The MCAT Physics Book 24. is not supposed to move. 8 m 27. The two vibrations have similar or equal frequencies. in its rush. they .lm B.14m/s 4ds 6.2 m C. tossed there by some careless passerby rushing to work. A sine wave is traveling to the right with frequency 200 Hz. ignores this assault to civility.  200 GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . There is a strong connection between this vibration and another vibration. The data for the figure is taken from the photo. IIand III. until it is flopping around uselessly. A. A styrofoam cup is floating on the surface of the water. 2ds 3. kinetic to kinetic and heat I 26. kinetic to potential and chemical D. what can you conclude? Consider the following statements. Section E Use the following informationfor questions 2429: A water wave is traveling down a narrow channel in a rundown district in Manhattan. 0.
Use v = 343 m/s for the speed of sound.4 mm made of steel (density 8. It would increase by a factor of 4. A. The same as that of wire A. 60% C. Which ofthe waves below. One half that of wire A. D. made of a synthetic material (density 2. C. 31. . D . How would the crosssectional area change if the diameter were increased by a factor of 4? It would decrease by a factor of 4. and both are producing a sound wave (in phase) with wavelength 0.4 mm arrive at point P . There are two water waves (velocity 16 d s ) which 32. traveling to the left. Another wire has the same tension. 30% B. 3. 81% 33. speaker 1 speaker 2 Section F 34.1 mm B . Use the following infonnutionfor questions 3638: Tivo speakers are located L = 2 m from each other. 0. The first wave comes from the north with amplitude 3 m and wavelength 60 m. A. The second wave comes from the west with amplitude 4 m and wavelength 60 m. What is the linear density of wire B? One quarter that of wire A. 35. The wave shown is traveling to the right. 1m B. by how much should we increase the tension? A. What is the amplitude of the duck's oscillation? A. 6.5m C. There is not enough information to answer this question. Both an antinode and a node.8 m (see figure). B. D . B. Double that of wire A. A microphone is placed between the speakers to determine the intensity of the sound at various points. Periodic M o t i o n and Waves 30. C. eoi GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . B. straight wire has a diameter of 0.. One long. Neither an antinode nor a node. A node.0 gl cm3). 0. It would increase by a factor of 16. 7 m D. 1. . An antinode.8 rnrn C. will momentarily cancel this wave? Lo detector 3 6 . 69% D.What must the diameter of the second wire be in order to have the same wave velocity? A. What kind of point exists exactly midway between the two speakers? A.Chapter 1 1 . .6 mm D.where a duck is sitting.0 g/cm3). It would increase by a factor of 2. If we want to increase thewave velocity on a wire by 3076. C.
2 . (Thus a node exists at B. 5 x 1 0 3 ~ ~ B. and the other with amlitude 0. 2 D. Neither an antinode nor a node.25 x lo4Hz D. 1. The speed of waves on this string is 3 x lo4m/s. 2.8 Pa D. What kind of point exists exatly 1. The timbre depends on the material of the string (steel or plastic or catgut). Both an antinode and a node.2 0. C. A node. 2. Both an antinode and a node. the third harmonic.8 Pa Use the following informationfor questions 4045: A taut string (2 m) is fixed at both ends and plucked. An antinode. and so on. (See figure. 0.4 m to the left of the righthand speaker? A.5 Pa C. 4/3m D. If the fundamental has a frequency off. 00. An antinode. Which of the following gives the range of possible amplitudes for sound at point P? A. so that a waveform exists on the whole string. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ ~ 40.? A. 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ ~ 39. 4 I I GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . The lowest frequency is the note we associate with the string. D. D. while the mix of other frequencies gives the sound its timbre. Neither an antinode nor a node. 38.) 45.. C. What is the lowest frequency that may be heard in this case? A. there are many frequencies of sound which are emitted. and the string is lightly plucked.SX~O~HZ C. 2m 43. one with amplitude 0. B. What is the wavelength corresponding to the fourth harmonic? A.) What is the lowest frequency that may be heard in this case? A. while the higher frequencies make up the harmonic series. I 2 4 When a guitar string is plucked.5 x l d Hz B. 0. 0.0. 1m C. 413 m D. If the fundamental has wavelength A. 42. and the first harmonic has frequency off. 2m 44. What is the wavelength corresponding to the third harmonic? A. 7.5 Pa. or sound quality..25 x lo4Hz D. B is midway between the ends). the next to lowest. Two sounds waves of the same frequency arrive at point P.5 Pa B. What kind of point exists exactly 0.5 Passage 1 B. B.5 B. what is the ratiof.3 Pa. 7 . 0. and on the sounding 41. The lowest frequency is the fundamental. and the second harmonic has wavelength 4. 1 C. A node.lf. and the string is lightly plucked./& ? A. on the way it is pIucked (middle or at the end). D.3 0. A finger is placed at point A (point A is one third way from one end to the other). so that a waveform exists on the whole string. C.The M C A T Physics Book 37. A finger is placed at point B (see figure..3 m to the right of the lefthand speaker? A. what is the ratio A. 0. 213 m B.5x104Hz C. I. 1 m C. The next lowest frequency is the second harmonic. 213 m B.
Also note that the D string has a wave velocity of 382 m/s. what is the lowest frequency that will be heard? . The situation is slightly more complicated if the boundary between the two media is gradual. and much of the wave energy is reflected (see figure). 214. 5. If we want to increase the frequency of the fundamental of a string by 3%.. increase it by 6% What is the velocity of a wave on the E string mentioned in paragraph 4? A. What is the wavelength of the sixth harmonic of the E string? A. pressed. In this case most of the energy of a wave may be transmitted to the second medium even if there is an impedance mismatch.8 m 6. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . by lightly holding a finger at a point along the string to force a node there. which involves holding the string all the way down to the neck in order to effectively change the length of the string.5% D. 588Hz If the properties of the second medium are markedly different from the first.22 m B . If not. then the wave "sees" the boundary as being sharp. 858 m/s D . If the guitarist places her left finger lightly on the D string one fourth way from the neck end to the base. 294 Hz B . 0. the wave passes from the first medium to the second.Chdpter 11 ." 1 . consider an E string (frequency 660 Hz) which is made of steel.66grams for each meter of wire and has a circular cross section of diameter 0. and p is the linear mass density. What is the frequency of the fourth harmonic of the D string? A. 882 Hz D. there is said to be an impedance mismatch.5 m/s B . while some is transmitted. . 1716 m/s What is the frequency of the fundamental of the D string? A. 0. 3. For the following questions. increase it by 4. where T is The wave velocity is given by v = the tension in the string. This is not the same as fretting the string. . .. 429 m/s C .25 m D . 588Hz C .325 m C .33 mm. which is the product of material density and crosssectional area. for example. increase it by 1 . 5 % B. 2. by how much do we want to change the tension in the string? A. It has a mass of 0. 4. Periodic Motion dnd Waves Sometimes some of the frequencies may be sup. .65 m. 1175 Hz Passage 2 Sometimes we are concerned with what happens when a wave in one medium encounters a sharp boundary with a second medium. increase it by 3% C. If the properties of the second medium are similar to those of the first medium. m. 3. This occurs if the length of the transition region is large compared with the wavelength of the wave (seefigure). or is trammitted (see figure). The string length when strung on a guitar is 0. 20.
The cold temperature makes the air unable to carry sound. Ocean waves are waves in a denser medium (salt water) than pool waves (fresh water). Waves with a short wavelength have the best chance of arriving at the shore. The sound energy is likely to be transmitted into the wood. B. The coating increases the reflectivity of the lens. This can happen. Waves are approaching the ocean shore from the left in the following figure. 1 . When sound waves encounter a closed door. B . The coating decreases the reflectivity of the lens. What happens to the energy of ocean waves as they approach and break on the shore? A.The MCAT Physics Book I In addition to being reflected and transmitted. for instance. D. The energy is converted from mechanical to heat. sometimes wave energy is absorbed. B. 3. most likely to happen? A. C . The rope fibers rub against each other and the energy dissipates as heat (see figure). The frequency of the sound is likely to be changed as it enters the door. The energy is converted from mechanical to chemical. Waves with a long wavelength have the best chance of arriving at the shore. The energy is converted from kinetic to potential. C. The sound energy is likely to be absorbed. The snow tends to reflect sound. what is 2. wave ocean wave swimming pool wave sound wave visible light typical wavelength 10100 m 0. which shows the typical wavelengths of various waves. What is the best explanation for this? A. D . The energy is converted from potential to kinetic. The snow tends to transmit sound energy to the ground. C. According to the passage. C. C. What is a likely purpose for that coating? A. Certain media convert wave energy into heat energy. for a wave traveling along a rope. For the following questions. Which is a good explanation for this? A. A photographer's lens often has a thin plastic coating on the surface of a glass lens. 204 GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE . which is true? waves water A. B.1 m 1m lo' m 4. The snow tends to absorb sound energy. Waves of a large amplitude have the best chance of arriving at the shore. B. Ocean waves are generally parallel to the shore. Water waves which strike the edge of a swimming pool are reflected. One morning you go outside and find a blanket of newly fallen snow several centimeters thick. C . The coating increases the efficiency of converting light to heat. The coating prevents absorption of light. 6. B. Ocean waves have a longer wavelength than waves in pools. The outdoors seems very quiet. D. refer to the following chart. D . D. D. There is a gradual slope to shallower water at a shore. while ocean waves approaching the shore are generally not reflected back to sea. Waves of a small amplitude have the best chance of arriving at the shore. The sound energy is likely to be reflected.
The human ear can hear sounds with frequencies from 20 Hz to 20.05 meters C.8 Nlrn C. 2. The sound is reflected by the organ.5 x lo6Hz. None of the above.56 m C. sound to potential B. which of the following would result in an increase in intensity? A.4 m 2. 7. to take the image of a fetus in the womb. 6.5 x lo6Hz. For the following. A decrease in frequency. 0. 5. 0. The wavelength of the sound is larger than the size of the organ. The sounds can cause internal organs to vibrate and eventually rupture.5 Nlrn D. sound to gravitational D. An increase in frequency.7 m D. . Any frequency greater than about 1. 17 seconds D. 1. A scientist wants to model an internal organ with connective tissue as a mass on a spring.Chapter I 1 Passage . ~ z . What period corresponds to the lowest frequency a human ear can hear? A. Any frequency greater than about 3 x lo5 Hz. The sound waves are reflected off the interface between the fetus and the surrounding fluid. the wavelength of the sound has to be smaller than the object being observed. tearing the connective tissue holding the organ in place. Otherwise the wave passes right around the object. B. 0. C. Periodic Motion and Wdves 3 4. what is its wavelength? A. there are limits in the workplace as to how intense low frequency sounds can be.2 s. B. At the other end of the sound spectrum there are very low frequency sounds. The mass of the organ is 0. 17 meters STOP . A mass m on a spring (constant k) has a frequency given Which best describes the flow of energy in paragraph 2? A. Frequencies of sound higher than this are called ultrasound. In order for this to provide information. The frequency of the natural oscillation ofthe organ is similar to that of the sound. For this reason. what frequency sound could she use? A. 0. D.29m B. for example. 0. and its natural period of oscillation is 0. use 1500 1 x 1 1 s for the speed of sound in biological tissue. For a sound wave of frequency 10' Hz in air. C . 3. These can be highly injurious to humans if they have sufficient intensity. If a doctor wanted to take the image of a fetus and wanted to resolve features of size on the order of one millimeter.5 kg.. . B.1Nlm B.05 seconds B. Any Wuency less than about 3 x l o 5 . . 3. D. . sound to chemical and heat In paragraph 2. Although they cannot be heard. sound to heat C. 490 Nlrn 1. What would be the spring constant for the spring in the scientist's model? A. C. Use 343 mls for the speed of sound in air. they are used in the technique of ultrasound imaging.000 Hz. Any frequency less than about 1. An increase in the mass of the internal organ. Which of the following would be part of an explanation of why low frequency sounds are injurious? A. . 0. D. The wavelength of the sound is smaller than the size of the organ.
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the equilibrium pressure P.. usually in air. the pressure is a maximum or minimum. .. . Where Ax = 0... + + + * . the pressure variations are much exaggerated in the figure.Chapter I P Sound A.. that is. *   .ye.. ... . ZWS..0 * * . 4. :* . . we can say that sound is a wave of pressure variation. and where P = P.The vibrating column of air in the plaintive oboe creates pressure waves in air.*. * .*... Alternatively... *. The quantity Ax gives the displacement of an air particle from its equilibrium position to its position with the sound wave. Introduction Sound is a longitudinal wave in some material medium. an underground nuclear explosion creates pressure waves in the solid E a r t h . . . as Figure 121 shows. for example.. . : * * . 2: . *.***'* F i r e 121 Notice several things about the above graphs. ? *s: .= *. air in  . .. airwitha : * * sound wave .#ye *.:.* * * .ye .**. There are many ways in which energy can be converted into the energy of sound. we have Ax a maximum or minimum. In fact.*s*<S. The variations of pressure are much smaller than the barometric pressure itself. **.. so that a positive Ax corresponds to displacement to the right. We denote the variation of the pressure from the equilibrium pressure as AP=PP. 4 :*.t*:*:..
The MCAT Physics Book In general. Note that an increase by a factor of 10 in intensity I corresponds to adding 10 to P. which is in decibels. If there is a stereo speaker producing music on one side of the room. Thus waves travel a littIe faster in solids than in liquids. On the other side of the room we hear the sound with a certain intensity. Intensity and Pitch alarm The intensiv of a wave is a measure of the amountof energy a wave transports.) material air water steel speed of sound 340 d s 1600 d s 16000 mls 8. so a sensible definition of intensity is energy per time per area: sound waves The intensiv is the power (energy per unit time) going through the hoop divided bv the area o f the hoop.) The human ear can hear sounds from the barely perceptible rush of air at intensity 10l2w/m2 to the painful roar at intensity 1 w/m2. Figure 122 I = . and a lot faster in solids and liquids than in a gas. (See Figure 122. so that a certain amount of energy per time on an earA person with bigger ears would have a proportionally greater energy per time falling on them. In order to make these numbers correspond more closely to our perception of sound. we often convert intensity into decibels: where I. (See table.. AAt (1) The units are [w/m2]. sound waves travel faster in a stiff material than in a material which is not as stiff.AE . . then sound waves transport energy across the room. is the intensity 1012wlm2.
think of an alarm clock in the center of two concentric spheres (Figure 123). If there is a woman listening at radius A. the intensity of the sound decreases. . I0 1= Thus. The alarm clock produces a certain amount of energy each second. . a man at radius r. W  m2 ' . .. . .Similarly. the intensity she experiences is because the surface area of the sphere is 41rri. .. How much energy lands on one ear in one second? (An ear is about 0.. In order to figure out how much it decreases. .. . . experiences intensity . I log I0 Description rush of air wind conversation water fall pain 1 1o . . .. That same amount of energy flows out of sphere A each second.) Solution: The intensity is given by log. . I = 7. and the same amount flows out of sphere B each second. . . . . . . . .05 m by 0. . Thus we have [power going through surface A] = [power going through surface B]. .~ lo4 lo' 1 1 o3 lo6 1 0' 10'~ 0 3 6 9 12 0 30 60 90 120 Example 1: A loud argument takes place in the next room. .Chdpter 1 2 . Sound The chart shows some sample calculations. and you hear 70 dB.03 m. . I ' B Figure 123 AE = IAdt As you go further from a source of sound. .
210 . Figure 124 Figure 125 I C. the air in the pipe vibrates longitudinally.) The double arrow shows the air particle moving back and forth.IB. Then equation (3) indicates that I increases by a factor of (31. While the resonating cavity of a soft drink bottle or of an oboe are more complicated than the pipes in this section.2 m away. For instance. so P = Po + 30. the wave in Figure 124.212 = 31. The wave in 125. Resonating Cavities In the last chapter we looked at the sound produced by a plucked guitar string or a struck piano string. If we excite the air column. Three factors of 10 is equivalent to adding 10 to P three times. with period T = 0. Now we will look at resonating pipes. the distance from one side to the other side of the displacement is 2A.r. Since its equilibrium point is in the middle.The MCAT Physics Book Putting this all together yields 4 n r . but also understand the reasoning that led to the formula. The violin sounds 30 decibels louder. (See Figure 126. like organ pipes.. the lower the frequency. Memorize the formula. corresponds to D#. Standing waves are set up in the cavities. " 1 In words. the same note one octave higher. how much louder does she sound when he is 2 m away? Solution: If Jack moves from 63. the intensity decreases as the square of the radius (inverse square law). then the radius decreases by a factor of 63. and Ax gives the tiny displacement an air particle can have. and Jill is playing a violin. = 4nr...6)' = 1000. and these produce sound of a particular pitch and timbre. the lower the note. The pitch you hear depends on the frequency of the sound wave. corresponds to D#.8 ms. A closed pipe is a pipe closed at one end and open at the other. If the intensity of the sound Jack hears is Po (in decibels) when he is 63.6. The variable x gives the location along the length of the pipe.2 m to 2 m. Example 2: Jack and Jill are in a field. with period double the first one. the principle behind all these pipes is the same.I .
of course. A full wave looks like this:. Figure 128 Figure 129 . which had nodes at both ends. but try to draw it also without looking. Thus f = vld = 2860 Hz. (At a different temperature the sound speed will be different. Thus the full wave is four times the length of the pipe.G. The frequency we calculate comes to the same. then the closed end is the antinode and the open end is the node. Any graph we draw for a closed pipe must have a node on one end and an antinode on the other. For the second harmonic we have drawn three fourths of a wave. What is shown ends up being one. and d = 413 L.fourth of a wave.A closed pipe has a displacement node on one end and an antinode on the other: Figure 126 At the closed end. and the wavelength is d = 4 (0. then the node is at the closed end and f we are thinking in terms of pressure variation (see the the antinode is at the open end.03 m long. each successive harmonic has one additional node. Figure 1210 shows the fundamental in both cases. What is A? (Did you get 415 L?) Let's go back and look at the fundamental. The Figure 127 graph shows the first fourth: from zero point to maximum. Thus the closed end is a displacement node. You should check this point.) Sdution: The fundamental mode is shown in Figure 127.) Some hints for drawing these diagrams appear at the end of Section ll. I beginning of the chapter). the air cannot move back and forth. Now try drawing the second harmonic without looking at Figure 128. The fundamental has no nodes in the middle of the pipe away from the ends (Figure 127). Example 1: A boy blows across the top of a bullet casing (a cylinder closed at one end.03 m) = 0. The next harmonic is shown in Figure 129. What is the frequency of the note he hears (the fundamental)? (The speed of sound is 343 mls. For closed pipes. while it is completely free to do so at the open end.G. Compare this with the vibrations in Section 11. Note this peculiar fact: If we are thinking in terms of displacement of air particles. so L = 314 A. and the open end is an antinode. open at the other) which is 0.12 m.
then both ends are nodes. Beats If you play the lowest two notes of a piano you may hear the notes separately.third harmonic Figure 1212 If we consider pressure variation. . and we can draw a mode with no nodes in the middle. like aaaaaaaahooooooooaaaad~ooooooooooaaaaaaaah about twice a second. and vice versa. like an organ pipe (Figure 1211). Figure 1211 AP L A sound wave has a pressure antinode when there is a displacement node. They represent the fundamental and the second and third harmonics. then both ends are antinodes.Thc MCAT Physics Book An open pipe has a displacement antinode at both ends. you will hear a single note that gets louder and quieter. Draw also the graphs for the fourth harmonic. louder and quieter. If we consider displacement of air particles. Try drawing these graphs yourself without looking. but you may also hear a beating pattern. 0. since such a mode would make no sound. Try this if a piano is available. Figure 1210 fundamental second harmonic . Thus the fundamental has one node (Figure 1212). you can hear this effect by playing an A on the fifth fret of the sixth string and an A on the fifth string open. If you have a guitar. If the two strings are slightly out of tune. This is called beats. We find that we cannot draw a mode with no nodes in the middle of the pipe. An open pipe is open at both ends.
however. What is the guitar string's current fundamental frequency? b. A little while later. By tightening the string. Figure 1214 shows a train whistle making sound waves when it is still. that is.33 Hz. so that his ear records a certain frequency of pressuremaxima arrival A person hears a notefrom a whistle. Jessica tightens the string (increases the tension) of the guitar slightly. so the beat frequency is 0. . b. She hears a loudsoft ringing whose maxima are separated by 3 seconds. Doppler Shift If you have ever been standing around where a train or car goes by. Jessica increases its frequency. The man h&s these pressure waves. At t = 0.67 Hz. a turning on and off: Figure 1213 Example: Jessica is tuning a guitar by comparing notes to a piano which she knows is in tune. She should reduce the tension in the string. The string may be producing 220. and beatfrequency is given by Two waves of nearly the same frequency interfere to give & s . you are familiar with the eeeeeeeeeee aaaaaaaaaah sound it makes as it passes. and the beat gets faster. E. the two waves are out of phase. and the amplitude of the sum is a minimum. So this is the origin of the loudsoftloud sound of the two notes.What is happening? The first two graphs of Figure 1213 show the two notes which have similar frequency. This is shown in third graph. too sharp or too flat. Why does this happen? Figure 1214Figure 1216 show this phenomenon. a. Fire 1214 . The beat period is shown in the third graph. She plays an A on the piano (220 Hz) and loudly plucks the Astring. The beat period is 3 s. they are in phase. If the resulting frequency were closer to 220 Hz. and the amplitude of the combination is large. the beat period would get longer. Should she continue to tighten the string? Solution: a.33 Hz or 119. where their sum is shown.
The frequency that the car would pick up if it could intercept the police sonar is . When the emitter of a wave and the detector are moving relative to each other. What frequency would the car detect if it could detect the sonar? b. He perceives a higher frequency note.. Thus . = 60 kHz and v know the result must be a higher frequency. v . there is one shift when the radar is intercepted by the car and another shift when the reflected signal is intercepted by the police device. For example. vsis the speed of the wave in the medium. Figure 1216 Example: A police officer uses sonar to determine the speed of an approaching car. In Figure 1216 the train is receding. then there are two Doppler shifts. and f The speed of sound is 343 m/s. a. If a wave strikes a moving object and bounces back. Figure 1215 frequency from the one emitteda Doppler ship. the train whistle is approaching. and the man perceives pressure maxima less frequent1y. so the man perceives the pressure maxima coming more frequently. is the emitted frequency. The frequency is higher if they are coming together and lower if they are going apart. The car is approaching at 38 d s . (Actually police use electromagnetic waves. = 38 d s .is the detected frequency. speed of the detector. but that is in the next chapter. What frequency would the officer detect from the reflection? Solution: a. There is one special case which deserves note. The Doppler shift is .The MCAT Physics Book times. each successive pressure maximum has a longer way to travel.) It emits a frequency of 60 kHz. when a police officer uses a radar device to detect the speed of an oncoming vehicle. is the where f.v is the speed of the emitter. We know to choose the positive sign because we where f. A person hears a lower note from a receding whistle. In Figure 1215. the detector detects a different A person hears a higher note from an approaching whistle.
. b.... ... Sound f. ..... .... In this chapter we looked at sound as an example of waves.. The most important thing to remember about the Doppler shift is that the detected frequency is greater than the emitted frequency if the emitter and the detector are approaching each other.Chapter 1 P . We especially noted resonating cavities of air which exhibit standing waves just like the waves on the guitar string in the previous chapter. = (60 kHz) ' s m 343  = 66. The frequency that the police intercepts is given by We choose the negative sign because..... The key to doing problems involving these cavities is drawing the pictures correctly. . Thus = 75 Hz.. and less if they are receding. again.... we know the result must be a higher frequency...7 Hz.. ....
216 GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . 40 decibels C. how many mosquitos would there have to be in order for you to just be able to hear it? A.The M C A T Physics Book Chapter I 2 Problems I Use the following informationfor questions 57: In a quiet room just before she drops off to sleep. 60 decibels D. If a swann of mosquitos were 10 m away.noise which comes from a cricket 30 m away. How loud would it sound if you were 3 m away? A. 10 decibels B. The speed of sound in air is 343 mls at 20" C. 100 2. If you could harness the sound energy of mosquitos. 2000 decibels 1 Section C Use the following informationfor questions 91 3: 4.5 m long with a cylindrical cross section of 4cm diameter. What is the sound level in decibels for this noise? A. 30 decibels C. Someone turns up the power to 50 W. and you hear 10 dB. is a barely perceptible noise lo'' w/m2. How much energy does a mosquito produce in 100 s? A. 120 decibels D. how many would it take to power a 10W bulb? Use the following informationfor questions 1 and 2: A copier machine is making a rattling sound whose intensity is lod w/m2 where you are sitting 2 m away horn it.) What would be the intensity of sound energy at your ear? 8. 10 B.~ ~ ~ C. and it produces a note. 3 . he accidentally lets the mailing tube drop to the floor. 1 ~ 1 0 . Before he inserts his papers. If you move to a point 6 m away. 1 . Betsy hears the barely perceptible buzz of a mosquito one meter away from her ear. Section B 6. (Assume the sound goes out equally in all directions. lo'' JB. It is sealed at one end and open at the other.~ J where I. 30 decibels B. 1 . 120 decibels 7. A speaker is producing a total of 5 W of sound.) In the following use 5. 3 x 1 0 . You hear a 20decibel. 15 dB Richard is preparing a mailing tube. A speaker is producing 40 W of sound and you are standing 6 m away. (Hint: A barely perceptible noise is 1012w/m2. 'Ihe mailing tube is 1. What level of sound do you hear? A. what would be the intensity? 3.
1.025 m B. . 0. .5m 13. 3 m D. What is the wavelength of the fourth harmonic? A..067 m D. . The air column is set to vibrating by air flowing through the lower portion of the pipe. 6 m D. .. 7.7 m B.1 m and t h e diameter is 0. . .8m C. . . It would be 4% lower. Sound 9 . What is the frequency of the note that Richard heard? A. 0. On a cold day (10" C) the speed of sound is 2% slower than on a warm day (20" C).08m C. 0. . In the diagram hlength of the pipe is 0.13 m D. 15..Chdpter 1 2 .. . If the tube were filled with helium. 0. 4000 Hz D. 6m 10. D. . The shape of the hole where the air exits affects the timbre of the pipe. . 3 m D. 160Hz B. 970 Hz Use the following informationfor questions 1417: An organ pipe is a cylindrical tube which is open at both ends. 3. 400Hz C. How would that affect the frequency? A. B . 100 Hz C. GO ON TO M E NEXT PAGE . What is the wavelength of the fifth harmonic? A.1 m C. .. which has a sound speed of 965 mls. The velocity of sound at 20° C is 343 mis. It would be 2% lower.05 m B. What is the wavelength of the fundamental? A.04 m B. 320 Hz C. What is the wavelength of the second harmonic? A. O. C It would be the same. What is the wavtlength of the fundamental? A. 0.. 2m C. 0. 0. It would be 2% higher.. 0. 0. 6 m 14.5m B. what would be the frequency of the fundamental? A... 60 Hz B..05 m C...2 m 12. 9000 Hz air t 11. 1700Hz D. 200Hz B.. .. What is the frequency of the fundamental? A. 430Hz D. 0.1 m 17.02 m... . 3400Hz  16.
If you play the notes simultaneously. the frequency of the detected wave is shifted from the frequency of the emitted wave (Doppler shift). . Section E 20.6 s Use the following informationfor questions 19 and 20: Sarah has correctly tuned the B string of a guitar.5 Hz. Sound to mechanical to heat. What is the frequency of the C.88 Hz B. is the speed of the wave in the medium. she hears a note that changes from loud to soft to loud twice a second. Choose the sign in the numerator to reflect the direction the detector is going (negative if approaching). The effect of this is to increase the detected frequency when the source and detector are approaching each other and to decrease the detected frequency when they are receding from each other. string is used to excite the vibration of the C. B. Use the following informationfor questions 2123: On a piano tuned to the American equaltempered scale. The speed of sound is 350 mls at the outdoor temperature of 31" C. 392 Hz D..6 s B. Either 658 Hz or 662 Hz. . When she plucks the true E (on the B string) and the E string together.Then strike the G string again more softly. (29.. 22. but in one dimension the formula is relatively simple: Hold the key for C. and f.is the speed of the detector. Beats between these frequencies can be heard in the following way: Use the following informationfor questions 2427: When the source of waves and a detector are moving with respect to each other. string will be excited. Sound to heat.43 Hz D.5 Hz) and A#. v. 2 Hz.5 Hz 480 Hz 490 Hz 21 8 GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . 1. What frequency does Samuel hear? 21. v. so that the string can vibrate. is the speed of the emitter. 367. Strike the G. 262 Hz C. is the detected frequency.99 Hz. key go let the G.(this quiets the G string). 785 Hz .The M C A T Physics Book Section D C. 660 Hz. 784. v . Kinetic and potential in one medium to kinetic and potential in another medium. 0. 56. 1569 Hz 23.88 Hz B. so that the volume of the two strings are matched. string is 783. Before that note dies down.1Hz C. The two lowest notes on the piano are A. D. The train is emitting a whistling sound at 420 Hz. so that the third harmonic of the C. 28. the resulting sound seems to turn off and on and off and on. How much time exists between the successive "on"s? A.1 Hz). In two or three dimensions this is complicated.'who is standing near the tracks. 1.3 s D. I I 24. 0. The E string is not yet in tune. She frets the string to play an E (660 Hz). Sound to mechanical. is the emitted frequency. What phenomenon is demonstrated when the G. A fast train (50 mls) is moving directly toward Samue1. where f. resonance dispersion 18. I h e fundamental ftequency of G. C. interference B.87 Hz. 0. 19. D. (27. fundamental? A. What best describes the energy flow in this problem? A. What is the fundamental frequency on the untuned E string? A. C. string? A. beats B. down. 0. B. and choose the sign in the denominator to reflect the direction the emitter is going (positive if approaching). the frequency of the third harmonic of C.6 s C.key loudly. What is the frequency of the beat between the notes? A. string is 784. D. D. C.
. 48 kHz C. If a passenger on the train could hear him..009 s B. and the Dopplershifted frequency for a . 0. = 350 m/s) A.2 kHz B. such as a tree. A police sonar detector operates by emitting a sound at 42 kHz... If the sound encounters a flying insect or obstacle which is larger than the wavelength of the sound. . Some emit a constant frequency. and a bat emits a pulse signal. different species of bats use different strategies in echolocation. Any frequency less than 34 kHz... . what frequency does he hear from the whistle? A. 's Chapter 12 . This sound bounces off an approaching vehicle going 50 m/s. B . 360Hz 2. emitting a constantfrequency sound of 50 kHz. The harmonic frequency might be Doppler shifted even if the fundamental is not.Ye. presumably to detennine size information or directional information. D .. what frequency sound does it detect? A.... The harmonic frequency can determine the distance to an insect. For the questions. 0. 36 kHz B. A bat is in pursuit of an insect. The harmonic frequency might be reflected even if the fundamental is not. and the insect is flying 10 m/s to the east. Any frequency greater than 34 kHz. If the bat emits a constant frequency sound of 30 kHz. What is the frequency of the signal received back at the detector? (v. If it encounters an obstacle. Some species emit a series of pulses. Any frequency greater than 34 Hz.. 32 KHz 4.09 s D.. . Some emit a sound with a high harmonic content. 55 kHz 5. then a portion of the sound wave is reflected. A bat is traveling west at 15 m/s. 30 kHz C. and the bat detects it. . 49 kHz D. C. . In the above question. . Samuel whistles at 420 Hz. use the following: The speed of sound is 343 m/s. 0. . what frequency will he detect? A. determining the distance to an object by the delay in return of the signal. with frequencies ranging from 12 kHz to 150 kHz. Sound fdet =fa. If an insect is 3 m away.. What frequency would a bat use to locate an insect 1 cm wide which is 10 m away? A. D. using the frequency of the returned sound to detennine information about the velocity of the insect.. 56 kHz I Passage 1 Bats are mammals which have acquired the ability of flight and of echolocation. Any frequency less than 34 Hz. Many use some combination of these strategies.017s C. What is a possible reason for using a sound with high hannonic content? A. 48 kHz C. Others use a sweep of frequencies. The bat is flying 10 d s to the east. 29 kHz B. . GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . 0.. . how long is the delay in the return signal? A.. * 'det 26. .. 2.25. vs +. B.detector and emitter moving relative to each other is I 3 . After the train passes Samuel. C... 31 kHz D. . The harmonic frequency can stun the insect. Beyond this basic framework. what frequency would she hear? 1 . Several adaptations provide for better processing of the returned signal. 50 kHz D. including isolation of the detection apparatus from the emitting apparatus and specializations in the middle ear. Echolocation involves using vibrating membranes to direct a high frequency sound..17s 27..
1 2. In one experiment with the device. The vehicle is receding from the detector directly. A secretion of an obnoxious tasting chemical. about onefourth way down (see figure). The note that the chime plays is a D at 262 Hz. At time t = to (in the top figure above). Passage 2 It is possible to construct a device for determining the speed of moving objects using sonar. and it is suspended by a string about 0. When the incoming signal arrives at the detector. The vehicle is receding from the detector. C. out of phase. The top figure shows the output of the detector in terms of power versus time. Which can be concluded from the passage? A. D. which was reflected from a vehicle. What is the beat frequency referred to in this passage? A. For these questions. 4. resonant. the incoming signal and outgoing signal are combined. use 343 m/s for the speed of sound. D. The vehicle is approaching the detector. what is 7? A.2 m from the top. so that the detector actually detects the beat between them. A hammer hits the chime about onehalf way down. B. the emitter created an outgoing signal of 80 kHz. 150kHz In the top figure above. An ability to emit a sound with frequency much higher than that of a bat. C. The detector is a squareamplitude detector. lower than that of a bat. but not necessarily directly. 4. 1. B. An ability to emit a sound with frequency about the same as that of a bat. Which is an adaptation which might aid an insect? An ability to emit a sound with frequency much A. The emitter creates a sound of a single frequency. The received signal was 70 kHz. 54mm GO ON TO THE ND(T PAGE . Power P 5.6 mrn C. The bottom figure shows power as a function of frequency (Fourier analyzed function of the top figure above).3 mm B. B. 8. Passage 3 A certain wind chime is a hollow pipe 0. which is thus able to pick up the beat (see figures below). 10kHz C. C. coherent.025 m in diameter. 27 mrn D. the incoming and outgoing waves are A. 1 . The device consists of a sound emitter and a detector. but not necessarily directly. The outgoing sound reflects from a moving target and is Doppler shifted. D. in phase. 5kHz B.The MCAT Physics Book 6.8 m long and 0. The two graphs above were obtained. What is the wavelength corresponding to a 80 kHz wave? A. 75 kHz D.25~10~s 3. The vehicle is approaching the detector directly.
27 m B. a sound wave. . On a piano.. Often the ear would reconstruct the difference tone which would be the missing fundamental. . The place where the hammer strikes also vibrates. however.f This seemingly unfortunate phenomenon was a boon to the listeners of early phonographs. What is the frequency of the note which is heard to beat? 4.. frequencies of the input: f. Sound The ends are free to vibrate. . D. . diffraction. one corresponding tof.79 The ear converts a series of pressure variations. so they are antinodes. corresponding to the fundamental of the notes being played. 1 .2 m B.87 Hz) and C. The turning on and off is called beats. then two neurons would be excited. B. The waves in the pipe and the sound waves in air are longitudinal.. . It would be doubled.31m 2. ... if a sound wave were to enter the ear consisting of two frequenciesf. In a highly idealized model of the ear. how many times per second does the beat turn on and off? A.. B. It would be halved. 3. A single note is heard beating. and these differences from ideal can be observed by simple experiment. For example. The waves in the pipe are longitudinal. (32.55 B. 1. if a sound wave of two very similar frequencies enters the ear. The phonographs were not really able to reproduce the lowest frequencies in the music. For the following use 343 m/s for the speed of sound in air. although they would reproduce the harmonics.. It would increase by a factor of 4. into a Fourieranalyzed signal traveling on nerves to the hearing center of the brain. and the beat frequency is the difference between the two fre.83 C. and the velocity of sound in the pipe stayed the same? A. In the question above.8m D. C... a diference tone... . 0. 0.Chdpter 12 .f ..andf.27 m C. GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . Which is true? A. whereas the waves in air are longitudinal. The waves in the pipe and the sound waves in a i r are transverse.4 m C. . =f. . D.. interference. What is the wavelength of the wave in the pipe which z tone? produces the 262 H A. that is. someone plays the notes B.. C.... It would stay the same. C.. difference tones. 0. whereas the waves in air are transverse. the brain hears not two frequencies but one average frequency which slowly turns on and off. each frequency of sound wave corresponds to one neuron leading from the ear to the brain. . 0. D. In this case the brain sometimes hears a third tone.. 0. What is the wavelength in the pipe corresponding to the second harmonic? A.. . 31. corresponding to the difference of the . 0. 2. but the place where the string connects is not free to vibrate. How would the frequency change if the length of the pipe were doubled. 0. =f..8 m Passage 4 3. which are not similar but have some harmonic relationship.. .4 m D. 0.70 Hz)simultaneously. The waves in the pipe are transverse. A physical ear is more complicated than this model. making it seem as if the phonograph reproduced sound better than it in fact did.. B. (30.. When waves of two frequencies combine to make one wave. For instance.. quencies: f Another similar example involves a sound wave of two frequencies. beats. and the other tof . 1. this phenomenon is called A. 1.
.The MCAT Physics Book 4. 220 and 440 Hz ' D. Power B. but he slowly moves to the right. Which best represents a power spectrum of the sound entering the ear in paragraph 3 of the passage? In Experiment 1. 55 Hz and 165 Hz C. This is the set up. Alice changes the frequency of the second speaker slightly. If a phonograph fails to reproduce the fundamental tone 110 Hz. 27. The distance from Bob to the left speaker is d. and his distance to the right speaker is 4. 220 and 330 Hz D. so that both speakers are still producing a sound in phase at the same frequency (a different frequency from the set up). For him the sound gets quieter as he moves right. A. She enlists her friend Bob to do an experiment. Power 5. If the equilibrium pressure in the room is 10' Pa. 1 : Alice Bob 6. Bob starts at the same place. Alice sits directly in front of the speakers on the line which bisects the line segment connecting the speakers (see figure). and Alice changes the frequency of the signal sent to both speakers.5 Hz and 137. In Experiment 2. Power fi f1 f I 222 GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . Alice and Bob keep their positions. The sound wave in air has a wavelength A. Then it begins to get louder again. but the first speaker remains at the original frequency.but relatively far away from the speakers. which best represents pressure as a function of time for a sound wave of one frequency? Alice places two stereo speakers a distance d apart. so that the speakers are producing the same pure tone in phase. and it is small compared to the distance Alice and Bob sit from the speakers.5 Hz B. The distanced is large compared to the wavelength. The figure shows Bob's position: where he first can barely hear the sound. speakers d. until he can barely hear it. She sends a signal which is a sine wave of frequencyf. which of the following sets of harmonics might cause the ear to reproduce it? A.
D. Which of the following is the best expression for d . 3. and Bob is at an antinode. D. Alice will continue to hear sound.. B.. Waves from the two speakers are out of phase and add to zero. Which is true concerning the set up? A. D.. Alice is at an antinode. Alice and Bob are both at antinodes. .. The sound is blocked by the speakers.. D. .? D. 2. S T O P . C. Waves from the two speakers are in phase and add to zero. In Experiment 2.. and Bob is at a node. ... . and Bob's hearing of sound depends on the chosen frequency. In Experiment 1... Alice will continue to hear sound. . C... what is the best prediction for what Alice and Bob will observe? Alice will continue to hear sound.... Alice wiIl hear very little sound..d2? I 5. C.. and Bob will A. Nothing can be predicted. Sound 1 .. Alice is at a node. I 6.. Alice and Bob will hear a sound which grows and fades and grows.. Neither Alice nor Bob will hear very much sound.. Alice and Bob are both at nodes. and Bob wiIl hear sound clearly. B. Which of the following is the best expression for d. what is the best prediction for what Alice and Bob will observe? A.. 4.. Alice wiI1 continue to hear sound. Which is the best explanation that Bob hears little sound where he sits in the set up? A. B.. B. C. and Bob will continue to hear Iittle. continue to hear little..Chdpter 1 2 . and Bob's hearing of sound depends on the chosen fiequency. in that Alice and Bob's hearing of sound depends on the chosen fiequency.. There is not enough information in the passage to answer this question.. Alice's body is absorbing the sound. + d.
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From the point of view of your car. In the superfast space freeway. In other materials the speed is a little slower. Its speed is the same c = 3. When all the material is removed from a piece of space. wavelength on the order of lo' m to If light of a wavelength between 400 nm and 700 nm enters the pupil of your eye.00 x 10' d s but) 3. A light beam passes both of you in the same direction going 3. and light disturbs these fields. but electric and magnetic fields are still there. like sound and water ripples.00 x 10' d s . . Here is another strange property of light.00 x lo8 d s . In this chapter we will explore the wavelike properties of light and leave the particlelike behavior to Chapter 16. but what motion happens in a light wave? Well.A. and a car on the other side of the yellow stripe may be going 60 mph in the other direction. it has a wavelength. such as when it interacts with an electron. Introduction Light is pretty mysterious: sometimes it acts just like a wave. a car may pass you going 75 mph. From the point of view of your spacecrafi. This makes sense. so the information about television images is encoded on the light waves and broadcast to your television set. or perhaps it is a property of the space and time in which light travels. it is likely to interact with the electrons of certain cells in the retina. But sound involves the motion of air. it turns out to be a hard question. These are called radio waves or microwaves. with m. and from the point of view of the other spacecraft it is going 3.00 x 10' d s to every observer.00 x 10' d s and another spacecraft passes you going in the same direction going 2. General Properties of Light Since light acts like a wave. producing a chemical change in the photoreceptor cells. it is going (not 2. and sometimes it acts like a particle. (See Figure 131. interfering with itself and undergoing Doppler shifts and so on. If you are driving 60 mph down the freeway.00 x 10' mls. B. So light is a wave. Go figure.00 x 10' m/s only in a vacuum. That is why light can travel in a vacuum. Think of how strange this is.00 x 10' mls. The answer is not "this molecule" or "that substance" but rather a combination of electric and magnetic fields. your spacecraft may be going 1. we call that piece of space a vacuum. if you have one. Light of different wavelengths goes by different names. and water ripples involve the motion of water. the first car is going 15 mph and the second is going 120 mph. The speed of light is this mysterious c = 3. Much of the heat from an electric heater is transported by infrared radiation.) Light waves of a very long wavelength (greater than one centimeter) are used for broadcast. leading to an action potential in one (or .
but not so easily the calcium in bones. the waves would not be transmitted to Sam.The waves easily pass through the picket fence as it stands. +  waves Transverse waves can be polarized. In fact it is given by where n is the index of refraction. Reflection and Refraction We mentioned in Section A that light traveling in a medium other than the vacuum has a speed slower than c. Figure 132 C. as well as light which is reflected from the hot layer of air on a desert road.Polaroid glasses allow the vertically polarized portion of light to go through but absorb the horizontally polarized portion. Light waves can be polarized. and this is the most penetrating electromagnetic radiation. look at Figure 132. so that the displacements lie along one direction (defined here by the picket fence). which have even shorter wavelengths. For this reason. FM radio 106 AM radio 1010 lo4 radiowaves 102 Figure 131 fact. substance vacuum air water glass n 1 = 1. light in this range is called visible light. You can detect the polarization using polaroid glasses. Light with shorter wavelength is ultraviolet light. responsible for sun tans and melanoma. To see what is happening. Look through the glasses at the shimmering surface of a hot road and rotate the glasses. Xrays have shorter wavelength still (less than m) and can pass through much biological tissue. You can see the light become dimmer and brighter. but if the slats were horizontal. n. but note that n is always greater than 1). They are used in imaging. the light from the sky is polarized in most places. Gamma rays are able to pass through the Earth like visible light passes through glass.The MCAT Physics Book wavelength (m) frequency several) neurons.3 = 1.5  1 . Nuclear decay produces gamma rays (see Chapter 16). Beth is waving her hands up and down sending waves to Sam. The chart at right gives some values of indices of refraction (do not memorize this chart. In microwaves lo8 TV.
The refracted angle 6. 2. Figure 134 is equivalent to Figure 133. the slower medium has the ray closer to the normal. is the solid line.When light traveling in one medium encounters a boundary to another medium. The angles are measured from the normal. glass Notice the following: 1. The dotted line shows the path the beam would take if there were no glass. If the incident light comes in at an angle. When working with diagrams of Figure 133 light waves. so take a moment to study it. toward the normal. or bent. Solution: In Figure 136 the normal is shown as a dashed line. The ray bends. however. the beam bends away from the normal. air j glass 1 air Figure 135 . Rays point perpendicular to the front. using rays instead. This is the most important figure of the chapter. Sketch the refracted path of the beam. the normal to the surface (remember that "normal" means perpendicular) is shown as a dashed line. and in the direction the light is going.is the Incident light beam is both same as the incident angle OP reflected and refracted. Light waves in air encounter glass. & I +q < 4 Example 1: A light beam encounters a piece of glass as shown (Figure 135). then.(in glass) is smaller than the incident Figure 134 angle (in air). then the transmitted light is refracted. The answer. some of the light is rejected and some is transmitted into the second medium. it is customary (and convenient) to use light rays rather than wave fronts. Figure 133 shows the wave fronts of light waves incident on glass from air. from its original direction. That is. Now when it hits the other side of the glass. Also. 3. The reflected angle 6.
I I I 1. = 1. and if the beam is transmitted. sin 8. Example 2: A beam of light in air strikes the surface of pure hydrogen peroxide (n = 1. according to ni sin 8. Example 3: A beam of light in a piece of diamond encounters an interface with air. the transmitted beam is refracted. but it is more important that you know how to use it.354 = 20.42 sin 30°. with glass replaced by hydrogen peroxide. But wait a minute! There is no such .. sin Bi .414 sin 8. sin Oi. The refracted angle is given by npcr sine. = 0.21.21. 1. ' 8 Now we need to find an angle whose sine is 1. a. where that last equation must be solved on a calculator. = n.The MCAT Physics Book Snell's law gives the refracted angle exactly: Snell's Law If a beam of light encounters a boundary. measured from the normal. are the angles of the beams. 1 I You will want to memorize it since it is in the MCAT study guide. = n. Figure 137 sine.) Solution: Figure 137 shows the diagram for this problem. The beam makes a 30' angle with the normal.0 sin 30°. 30".354. What is the angle of refraction? (The index of refraction for diamond is 2. are the indices of refraction of the media housing the incident and refracted beams. = n. = 2. and Bi and 6.414) making an angle 30" with the normal to the surface. or bent.7". What angle does the transmitted beam make with the normal? Solution: a. The diagram for this problem is similar to Figure 134. Snell's law becomes nPir sin 8. (2) where ni and n. sin Or. What angle does the reflected beam make with the normal? b. The reflected angle is the same as the incident angle. = 1. b.42. = sin' 0.. 8.0 sin 8.
What is going on? Figure 138 shows a beam of light in diamond with an angle of incidence of 20". Once the beam gets into the air. This equation has no solution.The refracted ray bends away from the nonnal. Figure 1310 shows our situation with 30°. there is no refracted ray in this case. You may have seen these cables in toys which were popular in the 1970s where the tips of clear thin fibers light up with different colors. because all of the light stays in the diamond and none goes into the air. This phenomenon is called total internal refiction. Figure 139 shows a beam of light in diamond making a 24. Figure 1310 light beam without losing energy. there is only refiction (total internal reflection). Figure 1311 . With a large angle of incidence. Figure 139 With a larger angle of incidence. Example 4: In a fiber optic cable. the refracted ray bends all the way to 90" Figure 138 thing as a sine which is greater than one. is called the critical angle for a diamondair interface. The refracted ray bends away from the normal. This angle. 24. but the refracted beam cannot bend any further away from the normal than it did for 24". it has bent so far from the normal that it is parallel with the surface. It is the incident angle for which the refracted angle is 90". When it anives at the tip. so that light gets totally intoemally reflected off the surface and thus does not leak out the sides. the light is transmitted into the air (Figure 1311). The cables have a high index of refraction. In fact.4" angle with the normal. light travels down a light pipe with very little energy loss.4'.
so that the Ocean waves are refracted wave fronts would arrive roughly parallel toward the nonnal as they to the shore. The difference here is that the airglass boundary is sharp. A light ray incident on the lens bends twice. 0. the focal length is negative. they encounter more and more shallow water. as seen from above. For diverging lenses. it must be that the ocean waves arriving at shallow water go updownupdown once every five seconds as well. Imagine ocean waves in the deep portion of the ocean going updownupdown once every five seconds. . whereas Figure 1312 the boundary from deep to shallow water is gradual.The MCAT Physics Book Although we have discussed deep reflection and refraction only in the context of light waves. once when entering the lens (usually glass) and once when leaving it. Notice how the waves come in to the shore the next time you are at the beach.Optics Using Lenses Figure 1313 shows a converging lens. Figure 1312 shows ocean waves cdming toward the shore. Figure 133. Compare Figure 1312 to approach the shore. as iffrom a point. If this goes on for a long time. as if they were coming from a point source a distance +from the lens. This is easier to see with ocean waves than with waves of light. Figure 1313 &:  A diverging lens has the property that parallel light rays incident from the left spread apart after going through the lens. Thus we would guess that they land would bend toward thenormal. The distance from the lens to the point of convergence is the focal lengthf Light rays from the right will also focus to a point after a distancef . Figure 1314 shows such a lens. with smaller wave w a t e r speed. The lens is designed so that parallel light rays on the left converge to a point on the right. A converging lens focuses parallel beams to a point. all waves in fact get reflected and refracted at boundaries. the frequency stays the same. Think about it. Figure 1314 . Also note (Figure 133 and Figure 1312) that when a wave travels from one medium to another. both times bending toward the axis. A diverging lens causes parallel b e a m to diverge. You should work this out by tracing the rays in an exaggerated diagram. whereas the wavelength changes if the wave speed changes. As they approach.
This ray becomes parallel to the principal axis when it passes through the lens. and both focuses. Bend the ray to go through the opposite focus. The intersecting point is the location of the image. It is probably worth your while to learn both. object. If d i s greater than zero. as if it came from the focus.. but ray tracing is better at answering qualitative questions. After it passes through the lens it bends up. the object being observed. f di d o (3) and dm = 2 do (4) is the magnification of the image. Draw the lens. If the distance from the lens to the object is do. Extend the ray backwards. 2. this indicates that the image is on the other side of the lens from the object.the distance from the lens to the image is d. . and the focal length of the lens is f.For lens problems. Draw a ray going through the vertex (center) of h e lens and passing straight through. Draw a ray passing through the object and the focus on the same side of the lens. 4. 2. 3. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis and passing through the lens. extend them backwards until they do. Raytracing method for a diverging lens 1. The intersection of the extended ray in step 2 and the ray in step 3 gives the location of the image. If the rays do not intersect on the side opposite the object. i Raytracing method for a converging lens 1. then we have 1 1 1 =+. The formulas are better for calculating numbers. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis. Draw the lens. 4. there are two formulas and a raytracing method. and focus on the same side as the object. The method of ray tracing will sound confusing at first. 3. but it will become more clear as you work through the examples.
a. If the light rays pass through the point from which they seem to come. What is the magnification of the image? Solution: Figure 13. Draw a ray diagram. We can get the magnification by first calculating the exact position of the image: Then / The negative sign for dimems the image is on the same side as the object.meaning light rays are not actually coming from the position from which they seem to come. then the image is said to be real. For this reason the image is virtual.02 m from the lens. we had to extend the rays backwards in step 4 in order to find the image. .The MCAT Physics Book Example 1:A boy uses a magnifying glass (converging lens with focal length 0. The positive sign for rn means the image is upright (not inverted).03 m) to observe a bug which is 0. b.15 shows the ray diagram. Figure 1315 In this example.
Assume the length of the eye from front to back is 2. In an actual eye.5 cm. Is the image upright or inverted? Solution: We calculate the focus as follows: 1 1 1 =+r f d i do Figure 1316 shows the appropriate diagram. What is the focal length of the lens? b. See Figure 1317 for a more realistic diagram. a. object Figure 1317 image . the image is real.inverted and very small. and the image is focused on the retina. you will notice. takes the near focus into account. there are many rays which converge to a point. The other line. Because the image is located where light rays actually converge. A candle (2 cm long) sits 0. object Figure 1316 We draw the horizontal line on the left of the lens in step 2. .Example 2: The eye contains a lens whose focal length can be adjusted. The image is where the lines meet. Figure 1316 is a physics diagram. and none of them need to be the two which we have drawn here.1 m from the lens of the eye.
then the image is either both real and inverted or both virtual and upright. It will never be real and upright. The size is then (0. .0 cm. a.333) (9. The magnification is given by where the positive result indicates the image is upright. Is the image real or virtual? Solution: (You should try this solution yourself before you read about it. which we knew from the diagram. That gives the magnification. Where is the image of the candle when viewed through the lens? b. The location of the image can be gotten from the equation: where the negative result indicates the image is behind the lens. That means the image is virtual.) Figure 1318 shows the ray diagram. for exarnpIe.0 m.0 cm) = 3. Is the image inverted or upright? d. Then work it out with the book. What is the size of the image? c. Also the image is upright.0 cm tall and 6. A candle is 9. It 'is a general rule that if only one lens or mirror is involved in a problem. Figure 1318 We had to extend a ray backwards in step 2.0 m away.The M C A T Physics Book Example 3: The diverging lens on a pair of glasses has a focal length of 3.
and focus (behind mirror). and focus. you use that same focus in steps 2 and 3. because the meaning of the signfor di is different from that for lens. 2. plane. and concave (Figure 1319). The intersecting point is the location of the image. Draw a ray from the object passing through the focus and reflecting off the mirror to become parallel to the axis. Extend the horizontal ray behind the mirror. but since there is only one focus. 3. Raytracing method for a diverging mirror 1. If the rays do not intersect. . A positive sign for d. object. r . Draw the mirror. so the focal length is negative. except that a mirror has only one focus. you use the same equations. and concave. 3. as if it came from the focus. For a plane mirror. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis which reflects from the mirror and passes through the focus.E. Draw a ray going toward the focus of the mirror and reflecting as a horizontal ray. And for a concave mirror. incoming parallel rays diverge after reflection. Extend the ray behind the mirror. so the focal length is positive. F i r e 1319 Raytracing method for a converging mirror 1. in front. There are three kinds of mirrors: convex. For a convex mirror. 2. Optics Using Mirrors The methods and formulas for mirrors are almost identical to those for lenses. The intersection of rays behind the mirror is the location of the image. means that the image is on the same side of the mirror as the object. but you have to be careful. For mirrors. Draw a ray parallel to the principal axis which reflects and goes up. 4. incoming parallel rays converge after reflection. 4. There are three types of mirrors: convex. plane. Draw the mirror. You use the same kinds of ray diagrams. extend the rays behind the mirror. object. the focal length is infinity. that is.
The magnification is given by where the positive sign indicates the image is upright. What is the magnification of the image? c. * object CFigure 1320 image Note. The image of the car is behind the mirror and is virtual and tiny. Is the image real or virtual? d.that the second ray uses the same focus as the first ray. The first is that the image is much closer to Larry than the object itself. Larry's brain does not care about where the image is and does not notice from which point the light rays appear to be diverging. distance to the c .0 meters away from the mirror. A car is 10. and the second is that the image is smaller than the image Larry would see if he turned around and looked. So why is there a warning "Objects in mirror are closer than they appear"? There are two things going on. Is the image upright or inverted? Solution: Figure 1320 shows the ray diagram. The exact location is given by 1 1 = f di 1 +* do where the negative sign indicates the image is behind the mirror. Larry's brain compares the size of the image to what it knows is the size of a car in order to obtain a a r . Where is the image of the car? b.The MCAT Physics Book Example 1: The passenger mirror in Larry's car is a diverging mirror with focal length 0. a. You do not need to pay attention to the sign conventions if you get the diagram right.8 meters.The distance thus calculated is about a factor of two too far away.
The hard part of this problem (if you have to do the calculation) is remembering the sign di = 1 0 m. Is the image upright or inverted? Solution: Figure 1321shows a ray diagram. with which we can be a bit creative. the magnification is 1.ExampIe 2: Alice looks at herself in a plane minor. Treat the image as the object and thus the origin of light rays. Where is the object? SoIution: Figure 1322 shows the ray diagram. Is the image real or virtual? d. a.4 m . since the focuses are an infinite distance away. and the image is virtual and upright. we calculate 1 1 =1 +9 f d i w d o I l l =+. Also Figure 1321 0 . 0 m). The image is 4 meters on the other side of the mirror. 0 meters behind a converging mirror Example 3: The image of a candle lies 1 (focal length 5 . standing 4 meters away. d. To see this in the equations. Where is her image? b. What is the magnification? c. 4m di = . Then Figure 1322 . 1 1 di 4m o=+.
when the eye is at rest.001 m in front of the retina. then the combination has a focal length&.4614 blue 1. f.5 X 1014Hz indigo 1. focuses light to a point 0. So blue light bends a little more when going from air to glass than red light.. but not exactly. 8 X 1 0 ' ~ H z green 1. This word power has nothing to do with the other definition of power.1 X lot4Hz 1.6 X 1 0 ' ~Hz light. There are not many simple calculations we can do at this point.) The chart shows the yellow 5..4702 that n is approximately 1. causing a separation of colors in a prism. which is 0. energy per time. . Combination of Lenses When several lenses with focal lengthsf. then it is possible to treat the combination of lenses as one lens. Now.024 m behind the lens. but that orange 4. and the index of refraction governs the bending of light as it crosses a boundary. This is the principle behind the prism (Figure 1323).4649 HZ 6. What is the power of the corrective lens he must wear? . measure in [m' = diopters = Dl. it is not the whole truth. You can see 5 . Combination of Lenses When we view an object through several lenses which are near each other. given by I The quantity l/Jfor a lens is called the power of the lens. The phenomenon is called dispersion.. are near each other.4578 is another story.5..4566 4. Ad blue Different colors (different frequencies) refract slightly differently.9 X 1014Hz 1.4584 index of refraction for glass.The MCAT Physics Book I F. although this is true. but you should study the diagram of the prism until it makes sense to you.5 X loL4 7. that is. A more complete version of the truth is that the index of refraction f color n depends slightly on the frequency of the red 1. Figure 1323 + I G.. Dispersion In Section C we discussed the idea that the speed of light in each substance is related to its index of refraction n.. The point here is that the power of a combination of lenses is the sum of the power of the lenses. (Sometimes not so slightly. Example: Dieter has an eye which.
67 D. and lens effects.. This is called a spherical aberration.Solution: The power of Dieter's eye is P. refraction. H. bending toward the normal of the interface when they pass from a fast medium to a slow one. and "1. Ideal Lenses and Nonideal Lenses In our discussion of lenses. looking specifically at reflection. you will notice that the image looks bent out of shape. This is called a chromatic aberration. interference (by superposition). and 6. so the way we have divided them up among chapters titled "Waves". reflection and refraction. which can cause different colors to have different focal lengths. The deviation from ideality is called an aberration. so the power of the combination of the two lenses needs to be Pa.025 m = 40 D. For one thing.025 m. In Section F we noted that different frequencies of light have slightly different indices of refraction. then you should do well on problems that this chapter covers.024 m + 0. 3. so it is generally studied in the context of light. Refraction is most often observed in light waves.024m = 41. Such an assumption is called an ideallens or thinlens approximation. = 110. . like a bead or a paperweight. beats are usually observed in sound waves and only extremely rarely in light You should be aware that sound waves reflect and refract just like light. If you visualize this principle in diagrams such as Figures 134 and 1312 and practice the raytracing diagram. beats.. In this chapter we looked at light as an example of waves. If you look through a glass sphere. Real lenses are not so good. 2. 5. we have P m I = 1. Likewise. Doppler shift.ight" is somewhat artificial. dispersion. Since PC.67 D. 4.. so the image ends up distorted. The properties of waves we have studied in the past three chapters include 1. we assumed that the lens was able to focus all parallel rays to a single focus.001 m = 0. The combination of lenses should have a focal length 0. All waves exhibit these properties. "Sound".= 110.= Peye + Pconscl. lenses that are very thick cannot focus light to a single point. frequencies in standing waves.
there is a triangle of glass in air. Which best represents the refracted ray? \ water 1 . Which best shows the refracted ray of light? glass GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . and a ray of light (incident ray I) approaches the bubble as shown in the figure. substance air water hydrogen peroxide glass ammonium bromide 1. In the following figures. 2. glass air glass glass air glass A spherical air bubble is embedded in glass. In the figure.The MCAT Physics Book 3. a ray of light approaches normal to the surface on the left. followed by an interface with water. Which of the following best shows the refracted ray at a glassairglass interface? lass air glass lass air glass A.414 n A ray of light in air is incident on an interface with glass. 5. Which best represents the refracted ray which passes through the bubble? C.7 water 1. Which best represents the refracted ray which leaves the right surface? Chapter 13 Problems Section B nu= glass Use the following indices of refraction for problems 112: 4. such that the airglass interface is parallel to the glasswater interface.
1. . Which expression best expresses the angle the reflected ray makes with the normal? A. None of the above. 1.8 x 1014Hz Use the following information in questions I 1 and 12: A light beam of wavelength 5 10 nm in air encounters a flat surface of ammonium bromide (index of refraction = & . 9. 3 sin' 4 7. 12. 300 nm B.) 30" 60" 2 sin' 3 D. What is the wavelength of the refracted ray? A. 2 sin' 3 1 1 . ammonium bromide sin' 1  3 B. Which expression best expresses the critical angle for the interface of water with air? A. hydrogen peroxide 1 6 .9 x 1013HZ B.4 x 1014HZ C.Use the following injbnnation in questions 68: A beam of light in water encounters a boundary with air. Which expression best expresses the angle the refracted ray makes with the normal? A. so that the angle between the beam and the normal to the surface is 30". If the angle of encounter is less than the critical angle. D. 9. C. 1020 nm sin' 3  241 GO ON TO THE N M PAGE . What is the smallest angle the refracted ray makes with the surface? A.7). 2.4 x 1014H z in air encounters a surface with hydrogen peroxide (index of (See figure. (See figure. 30" B. 17" C. which of the following is the frequency of the light beam in the hydrogen peroxide? A. D. 2. 510nm C . What is the critical angle for this encounter? sin' sin' 1 3 2 3 D. 3 sin' 4 8. 4 None of the above. C. B. 867 nm D.) refraction = JZ).0 x 1014HZ D. such that the smallest angle the beam makes with the surface is 30". (See figure.) Use thefollowing infonnation in questions 9 and 10: A light beam of frequency 1. 10.
5 2 D.1 x 10" Hz. What is the focal length of the lens? 16. A. Where is the resulting image? A. C. C. inverted and real D. 1. upright and virtual C. upright and real B. refraction. C. Where is the resulting image? A. B. 4m 4/3 m 413 m 4m 21. C. B. D. upright and real B. The candle is 4 m from the lens. B. 12 m from the lens on the same side as the object. 1217 m from the lens on the same side as the object. Use the following information in questions 20 and 21: A candle is viewed through a lens. Use the following information in questions 18 and 19: A candIe 21 cm tall sits 4 m away from a diverging lens with focal length 3 m. (See figure. Which of the following characterizes the image? A. .) 13. D.The MCAT Physics Book Section C Use the following information in questions 1315: We observe a candIe through a converging lens with focaI length 4 m.6667 1. inverted and real D. while the image is 2 m from the Iens on the other side. Which of the following characterizes the image? A. 18. D.) 17. C. B . 0. the focal length of the lens is different from 2 m. The candle is 0. 12 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. B. C. 4 m from the lens on the same side as the object. For a different frequency of the light. interference. D. B. What is the magnification of the image? A. 7 cm 9 cm 49 cm 63 cm Use the following infomtion in questions 16 and 17: A sodium emission tube produces light of frequency 5. What is the size of the image? A. What is the magnification of the image? D. inverted and virtual 15. (See figure. 14. 20. inverted and virtual A.1 m tall and 2 m away from the lens. Half as large and inverted.333 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. 19. B. dispersion.333 m from the lens on the same side as the object. incidence. D.5 0. It sits 6 m from a converging lens of focal length 2 m. GO ON TO THE N O C T PAGE . C. upright and virtual C. 1U7 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object. This phenomenon is caIled A. Half as large and erect. 1. Twice as large and erect Twice as large and inverted. 4 m from the lens on the opposite side from the object.
C . and the image is inverted. C. 6 6 m . 2 D. upright and virtual. 12 m behind the mirror. B. D. Where is the resulting image? A. 31. D. C . and the image is upright. C. 12 m in front of the mirror. 12 m in front of the mirror. inverted and virtual 26. What happens if a light bulb is placed 6 m in front of the mirror? A. 4 m in front of the mirror.Section D Use the following information in questions 2227: We view an object at various distances using a mirror with focal length 12 m. 6 m in front of the mirror. B. (See figure. An image is formed 6 m in front of the mirror. 28. Light rays reconverge at the focus. It is twice as large. D. 4 m behind the mirror. where is the image? 12 m in front of the mirror. C. {I. D. inverted and real D.5 C. 3 30. No image is formed and the rays end up traveling parallel to infinity. If the object is 24 m away from the mirror. C. B. and the image is inverted. What happens when a candle is placed at the focus? A. inverted and virtual. B. If the object is an infinite distance away. If the object is 24 m away from the mirror. D. 6 m behind the mirror.) . 24 m in front of the mirror. 23. The image is A. If the object is 6 m in front of the mirror. 24. B. D. It is half as large. GO ON T O THE N E X T PAGE . An image is formed 6 m behind the mirror. B. If the object is 6 m in front of the mirror. 12 m behind the mirror. An image is formed 6 m behind the mirror. 6 m behind the mirror. It is twice as large. what is its magnification? A.333 B. upright and real. B. It is half as large. . 12 m behind the mirror. 0. B.) 27. and the image is upright. An image is formed 6 m in front of the mirror. 12m *24 m 4 1 22. 1. 12 m in front of the mirror. D. An image is formed 3 m behind the mirror. Use the following information in questions 2831: A light bulb is placed 12 m in front of a diverging mirror with focus 6 m. where is the image? A. C. Light rays end up parallel going to infinity. What is the absolute magnification of the image? A. 29. 24 m behind the mirror. where is the image? 6 m in front of the mirror. upright and virtual C. A. 12 m behind the mirror. inverted and real. 25. upright and real B. D. (See figure. what best characterizes the image? A. A. C.
what would the rays do on the other side of the lens? A. B. C . is unpolarized. Radiation is emitted from the antenna perpendicular to the wire with a polarization which is parallel to the wire.116 diopters. What is the focal length of the combination? A.5. vertical polarizer observer 36. It is a diverging mirror with focal length 1.5. They would converge with a focal length of 113 m.33 m. and the image is 4 m behind the mirror. Section G 34.The MCAT Physics Book Use the following information in questions 32 and 33: A light bulb is 2 m in front of a mirror. A lens of power 116 diopters. 413 m D. What is the magnification of the image? A. B. Such a film is called apolarizer. C. It is a converging mirror with focal length 1. the radiation that passes . so that the lens on the left has focal length 2 m and the one on the right has focal length 4 m. 1/10 D 5112D 1215 D IOD Passage 1 33. It is a converging mirror with focal length 4 m. such as a light bulb. B. The magnification is 2. If parallel light rays were incident on a lens of power 3 D. 32. A certain lens has focal length 2 m. and the image is upright. It is a diverging mirror with focal length 4 m. One way to produce polarized radiation involves applying an alternating voltage to a straight piece of wire to form an antenna (See figure below). In this diagram the small arrows show the direction of the electric field.33 m. B. The magnification is 2. A lens of power 6 diopters. I Electromagnetic radiation from an incandescent source. The magnification is 0. C. What lens could you combine with it to give a combination with focal length 3 m? A. and the image is inverted. and the large arrows show the direction of the wave. If unpolarized light of intensity I. Two thin converging lenses are near each other. is incident on a vertical polarizer. A lens of power . D. Another way to obtain polarized radiation involves allowing unpolarized radiation to be incident on a film or material which transmits radiation of one polarization but absorbs radiation of the perpendicular polarization. 37. D. C . 116 m B. which means that the electric field. C. What is the power of the combination? A. D . The magnification is 0. A lens of power 6 diopters. The through is vertically polarized with intensity 112 I figure below shows this schematically. 6 m 35. and the image is upright. D. D .of the wave points in random directions perpendicular to wave travel. . B. Two thin lenses (6 D and 4 D) are positioned near each other. They would converge with a focal length of 3 m. What can be said about the mirror? A. and the image is inverted. They would diverge as if from a point 113 m behind the lens. They would diverge as if from a point 3 m behind the lens. 314 m C. unpolarized light vertically polarized light GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE .
4.. an unpolarized radiation source is incident on a series of polarizers. What is the intensity of the resultant beam? optically active substance C. then all the radiation is transmitted. Assume the polarizers are ideal. chemical energy B. What is the intensity of the resultant beam? C. but greater than zero intensity 2 0 A. Polarizers A and B are both oriented vertically. D. What is the intensity of the resultant beam? 3. (See the figure. The figure shows a modification of the figure in Problem 2. 1 . Polarizer A is oriented vertically. while polarizer B is oriented horizontally. D. D.) What polarization does he detect from the antenna? In the figure below. It could have any intensity less than (or equal to) I. 1 Where does the energy of the original beam go which is not in the resultant beam? A. He observes horizontal polarization. If they are aligned. 2 0 1 D. C. In questions 14. 1 less than I.If polarized radiation is incident on a polarizer. This antenna has an alternating voltage applied to it. then the intensity of the transmitted radiation is cos2 8 of the original intensity. unpolarized light is incident on polarizers A and B in series. He observes vertical polarization. C. 945 GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . Without the polarizers the intensity of the source is I. In the figure below. the amount of energy that is transmitted depends on the relative angle of the radiation polarization and the polarizer axis. An observer is due north of the antenna. unpolarized light is incident on polarizers A and B in series. nuclear energy A horizontal antenna is aligned along a northsouth axis. so it is emitting electromagnetic radiation. less than Io but greater than zero intensity 2 0 5. He observes no radiation. All manufactured polarizers have less than ideal efficiency which comes from reflection off the two surfaces and absorption of the parallel component. If the angles differ by 8. He observes an unpolarized beam. potential energy C. 2. with an optically active substance between the polarizers. heat D. An optically active substance is a substance which rotates the plane of polarization of a beam. All of the foregoing refers to ideal polarizers.. B.
but the focusing power of the resting eye is 35 diopters.5 x eye is 1. The resolution of your 1. if your eye can just resolve two headlights which are 1. then the angular separation of the lights is approximately radians. The actual resolution of a detector may be much poorer than equation (1) would indicate if it is poorly designed. The front to back length of the eye is 0. changing the focal length so the image lands exactly on the retina. the smaller the resolution angle.3 x l o a m C.25 m away. The front to back length of the eye is 0.The MCAT Physics Book 2 For the following problems use c = 3. i wave involved. 64 x Hz B. The tuning is necessary since the eye must be able to bring into focus light from objects as close as 0. (1 nm = 1o . 5 diopters 4. 30" A certain eye does not focus correctly. If the car is far enough away. lis the wavelength of the where Omis measured in radians. is essentially diffraction limited. each having the ability to detect light falling on its surface: Most of the refraction (and thus focusing) of incoming light rays takes place at the interface between air and the cornea. when functioning properly. however.023 m 3. To a good approximation. In question 2.025 m. 2.0 x 10' mls.6" C. 10~m B. 2. 3 diopters C. diffraction is the physical limit of the resolution.~ m) Passage The mammalian eye is designed to collect light and focus it onto the retina. What is the size of the image on the retina? A. In front of the retina. you can see two distinct headlights. your eye lacks the resolution to distinguish the headlights. being either near. Resolution is measured in degrees or radians. B. the angular separation of two light sources (or features on any sort) is x to distance from the point the ratio of spatial separation A of reference L. The human eye.5 m apart on a car which is 1 km away. On the retina. 1 . (See figure. Spatial resolution is the ability of the eye to distinguish waves coming from different directions. and you see only one light source.025 m. and d is the diameter of the hole through which the waves must pass. since the light from the two headlights approaches your eye from two directions (see figure). What should be the approximate power of the appropriate corrective lens? A. The lens does the finetuning.09 degrees (since 1 rad = 57") or 5 seconds of an arc. If e a m of red light onto the retina. 15" D.1 m as well as light from an infinitely distant source. they spread on the other side subtending an angle given by 5.3" B. A human eye is focused on a moth of size 0. Behind the retina. Ultimately the spatial resolution of any detector. 1 . 0. Of course. 5 diopters B. The cornea is made of a material which has a larger index of refraction for blue light than for red light. When waves pass through an aperture.or farsighted. C. 4. if a distant car is facing you at night with its headlights on.5 x rad or 0.8 x 1 0 ' ~ Hz D. is limited by difraction.5 rn/1000 m = 1. 5. 3 diopters D. 2 x 1 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 2.) Thus the better the resolution. what angle is subtended by the moth in the view of the eye? A. including the eye. which is the spreading of waves.01 m located 0. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . low3 m D. For instance. The retina consists of an array of cells. For example. D. 160 Hz C. Both in front of and behind the retina. Green light has a wavelength of 520 nm in a vacuum. the eye is focusing a b e a m of blue light fall? where would the focus for a b A. What is the frequency of green light? A.
we would expect that the resolution in the ultraviolet would be not as good as that for visible light. He has designed a camera with a lens which focuses incoming light on a detector. which of the following gives an estimate for the best resolution we could hope for? incoming light A. and you must stand 10 m away. 10. The resolution for a cat's eye. and you must stand 10 m away. A. If you wanted to know how far away need you be for the dots to blur together. If you view it from a great enough distance. The Hubble Space Telescope in question 8 above also has detectors for ultraviolet light. 2 x lo' radians 0. Assuming diffraction limitation. B. Change the material of the lens to be more transparent.6. If the HST is used for viewing galaxies in visible light. Increase the size of the whole camera.18 radians S T O P . Paragraph 4. which is almost diffraction limited. about the same as that for visible light. The perimeter of the mirror is a circle whose diameter is 2.045 radians 0. and you must stand 2 m away. and you must stand 2 m away. A cat's eye. sometimes better than that for visible light. D. eye. A. B. is not better than that of a human eye.4 m. The figure shows a cross section of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (length 13. but the resolution is not good enough. C. 8. The large lens introduces chromatic aberration. Which of the following is a possible explanation for the lack of resolution in a cat's eye? The larger pupil allows more light to enter the A. B. better than that for visible light. has a larger pupil than a human eye and a much larger lens. B. Improve the lens shape. C. Paragraph 4. The large lens introduces spherical aberration. sometimes not as good as. The resolution of your diffractionlimited eye is 2 x lo4 radians. An engineer is working on a camera to photograph the distant landscape in foreign countries. the dots of color appear to blend together.002 m in diameter. The focus is directed by a secondary mirror into detection apparatus (not shown).1 m and diameter 4. D. 9. A. C . Which of the following could improve the resolution? Increase the distance from the lens to the detector.3 m). D. Paragraph 3. however. and you see a coherent picture. The larger pupil restricts the amount of directional information entering the eye. Light comes in from the right and is focused by the primary mirror (focal length 13 m). D. A Seurat painting consists of many dots of paint about 0. D.09 radians 0. B. which paragraph in the passage gives the information to calculate this? Paragraph 3. C. The camera is essentially diffraction limited. adapted for seeing at night. C.
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No one knew why. Sometimes the electrons hold the atoms together. but the implications are profound. electrodynamics will become far less arcane. someone noticed that when amber is rubbed with a cloth it attracts small seeds or pieces of straw.) Many years and many experiments later. called protons. yes. I A long time ago. and this mobility results in most of the changes we observe. This is our story: Electrons have a negative charge. forming atoms. and so it is less familiar. called nuclei. it's unlikely you'll get a satisfactory answer. The electrons are sometimes quite mobile.1 Chapter 14 Many students find electrodynamics difficult because it is the physics of things you cannot see. and electrons. things no one talks about outside of physics circles. In electrodynamics we use phrases like "electric field". giving it a net negative charge. electric and magnetic fields. Fire 141 A . but we can become familiar with their properties. l b o charges of like sign exert a repulsive force on each other. The key to building an intuition about electrodynamics is visualizing these unfamiliar concepts: concepts such as charge. while two charges of unlike sign exert an attractive force on each other (Figure 141). When our unknown predecessor Like charges repel and rubbed the neutral amber it acquired a few unlike charges attract. We can not see them directly. extra electrons. but everyday life does not bring us in direct experience with the electric field. Most objects are neutral. neutrons. they have nearly the same number of protons as electrons. In mechanics we used words like "car" and "force" and "wave". is the electric field real? Well. forming molecules and so on. the following story has emerged as the best explanation: Most material on Earth is composed of three particles. and protons have a positive charge. then. But that's chemistry. The much less massive electrons exist in a cloud around the nuclei. and electric potential. (Amber is a soft ochre "stone" of hardened tree sap. What is an electric field? It's a reasonable question. it is as real as anything. The protons and neutrons hold together in tight lumps. In this chapter there are only a few equations and concepts. That is not our story. that is. but if you ask your physics teacher. Well. There is no doubt that this is a difficult chapter. but if you spend some effort actively creating mental pictures.
(Although the positive charge is caused by a deficit of electrons. until they cannot go any further. but they do not spontaneously disappear or appear. So all the charge ends up evenly distributed on the surface. In other words. (This has to be. depending on the mood of the speaker. since the charged object induces a charge on the neutral conductor (Figure 144). most of them metals. but it turns out to be true even in unusual circumstances. Negative charges migrate to the surface of a conducting sphere. Positive charges migmte to the surface of a conducting sphere. Thus we have the following: r Conservation of Charge If a system is closed (no matter goes in or out). . you will never go wrong by thinking in terms of positive charges repelling each other. which are just rearrangements of electrons and nuclei.toward the charged object. If we place a bunch of electrons (a negative charge) on an isolated conducting sphere (like a metal ball). . Charges and Materials There are some materials. any interior piece has a total charge of zero (Figure 143). then the total charge of that system is conserved (stays constant as time passes). such as the radioactive decay of nuclei or reactions of exotic particles.The MCAT Physics Book Under normal circumstances. (See Figure 142. then the excess Figure 143 positive charge will spread out on the surface. i Clearly this is true in chemical reactions. the total charge on that piece will be zero. Figure 142 The same holds for positive charge. electrons. If there were any excess electrons. in which electrons are able to move freely from atom to atom. This is called induced charge.) .) C. depending on the object's charge. or an insulator. as in physical and chemical reactions. or a dielectric. protons. Such materials are called conductors. and neutrons are permanent objects. they would repel each other and move out of the piece. electrons will move away or. with no positive excess charge in the interior. (See Chapter 16. If a charged object is brought near a neutral conductor.) All the excess charge is on the surface. .) This is a general rule: The total charge of a piece of the interior of a conductor is zero. the electrons repel and move away from one another. 0 + + If we examine the interior of a piece of the sphere. If a positive charge is placed on a conducting sphere.Any excess charge lies on the surface of the conductor. They may move around. A material which does not conduct electrons is called either a nonconductor.
3. too. each molecule in a nonconductor can have its electron density move to one side (Figure 145a). Figure 145a A ground is any huge reservoir and depository of electrons.  ground I A ground is able to supply a charge to or drain a chargefrom any object it touches. In the illustrations. We can induce a charge on a nonconductor. Remove your finger. 4. a slight excess in the number of electrons over the number of protons is indicated by a .sign. Sketch what happens to charges. We rub amber with a cloth. Instead of drawing all the polarized molecules.A (left)can induce a charge in a conductor (right). the following procedure is given for charging by induction a metal sphere connected to an insulating rod: 1. 5.) Solution: 1. we generally summarize these with a picture like Figure 145b. (Hint: Amber tends to pick up electrons. If you touch a charged object to a wire connected to ground. 2. Figure 146 Example: In a physics lab text. The induced charge in a nonconductor is not as large as in a conductor: charge F i r e 145b The following example illustrates these concepts. Even though charges do not move freely in it. Remove the amber. Touch the other side of the sphere with your finger (which acts as a ground). A charged object (left)can induce a charge in a nonconductor (right)as well. Bring the amber near but not touching the metal sphere. and a deficit of electrons is indicated by a + sign. Rub a piece of amber with cotton cloth. the charge will be neutralized where you touch it (Figure 146). Figure 144 Generally the induced charge on nonconductors is smaller than that on conductors. amber sphere Figure 147a .
=kq. and q. Figure 147b 3. Figure 147c 4.The MCAT Physics Book 2.. Coulomb's Law Knowing that like charges repel (and unlike attract) is only a part of the story. Coulomb's Law If two simple charges q. We can calculate numbers as well. We remove the finger Figure 147d 5. of magnitude F. just like the law of gravitation. are a distance d apart. ~m~ where k = 9 X 10' 7 is Coulomb's constant. A Coulomb is a large amount of charge. and most laboratory situations involve the accumulation of at most lo4 C. We remove the amber. . We touch the other side with a finger. then they exert a force on each other. We bring the amber near the sphere.q. Figure 147e D. For this we must introduce the unit for charge [Coulombs = C]. so it is called an inversesquare law. dZ ' (1) Note that the distance appears in the denominator as a square. This force is C attractive if the charges have unlike sign and repulsive if they have like sign.
taking into account the induced charge in the seed. does not see Q over there. and the electric field tells charge q what F i r e 149 force to feel. we consider two charges. only one eventually prevails. there are good reasons to talk about an independent existence of an electric field. how much of a delay? 1 I . it experiences a force away from Q.of . using Coulomb's law.Example: A piece of amber rubbed with a cloth acquires a negative charge on a cold day. Explain why the seeds are attracted charge and the inversesquare to the amber. If Q is moved to a different place. At first it looks as if the attractive and repulsive forces balance. So why do we introduce a new viewpoint? Isn't Coulomb's law adequate for our needs? Actually. giving no net force. but it is not the only way we can explain the forces which charges experience. But does it feel it immediately. which tells it what force to feel (Figure 149). But the distance from the amber to the left side of the seed is less than the distance to the right side. and sometimes it prevails because it provides a deeper insight into the working of the universe. now call them Q and q. Charge Q creates an electric field. Uedric Field Coulomb's law is simple. Lx Stop for a minute and think about Z this. The inversesquare relationship in Coulomb's law makes the arrow on the left slightly longer than the arrow on the right. and q feels thisfield field). we have explained why a rubbed piece of amber attracts seeds and small objects. Both viewpoints explain the observations. and the net force is to the left. but Q creates an new animal: a field of arrows (or vector electric field. and assume they are positive. q does not feel the forcefrom Q directly. We have explained our predecessor's observation (Section B). If we place charge q nearby. Usually. If the amber is brought near neutral seeds. and if so. or is there a delay. The second viewpoint introduces a In another viewpoint. Now. relationship . being nearsighted. Fix Q at some point. A charged object may attract a neutral object because of induced b. Solution: Figure 148 shows the Figure 148 charge distribution. that is. One is that Coulomb's law is not really designed to deal with moving charges. charge q.electric force. then q must experience a different force. But it does see the arrow. When we place q at a point. but they are very different perspecf tives. Sometimes it prevails because it is easier to use. The electric field is an example of a deeper insight Again. directed outward and getting shorter with distance from the charge Q. seed amber Show the charge distribution for a. Often in physics. there are two viewpoints which explain the same phenomena. What happens if we abruptly move charge Q. we can explain this phenomenonas a repulsive force that Q exerts on q. the seeds are attracted to it. 0  E. the amber and the seeds. Or we can explain this as follows: The charge Q creates a "field of arrows" around itself.
which is an accelerating charge. The electricfield is the same as it was before the move and charge q feels a force as if Q were in its old place. There are three rules for the electric field which you need to know for the MCAT. It turns out. but also down. Figure 1410b Now q experiencesforce to the right. This is worth remembering.) Figure 1410c The important concept is this: The universe is filled with arrows. The direction of this field is away from Q if Q is positive and toward Q if it is negative. but not immediately (Figure 14lOa.c). Charges (some stationary and some moving) create the electric field. that's what light is: a disturbance in the electric field which propagates away from the source.b. Ifthe charge Q moves quickly.The MCAT Physics Book If d (in Coulomb's Law) is the actual distance between the charges. an electric field. that is. The electric field tells charges what force to feel. (See text. Charge q still feels a force as if Q were in its old place. then Coulomb's Law indicates q feels the change immediately. In fact.) In this figure charge Q h a s been moved up suddenly. The information about the change in position spreads out quickly. The easiest way to explain this is to say that a disturbance in the electricfield propagates outward at a finite speedthe speed of light. This demonstration indicates that the electricfield has an existence independent of the charges and that the second viewpoint is better than Coulomb 's law. that there is a delay. d2 where d is the distance from the charge to the point in question. then the electric field does not respond immediately. (Fiat lux. Figure 1410a The information has moved outward to the dotted line. however. Rule 1 A stationary charge Q creates at every point an electric field of magnitude E = kQ . . The electric field outside the dotted line is the same as before the charge Q moved up.
) a. Figure 149 shows the electric field due to a single positive charge. and so on.1 X lo'' C are placed at corners B and D. The electric field at P is . at point P. 2 2 A Rule 3 A charge q placed at point P will experience a force given by F = qE. at point P. + E ... First. creates electric field E. the vector sum E = E. Solution: Figure 141l a shows such a sketch. (The charge of a proton is 1. Each electric field vector shown is actually the sum of two vectors.L Rule 2 Assume there are several stationary charges Q. . + .. Q. what would be the ratio of the magnitude of the force it would experience to that which the electron in b experiences? Solution: a. we DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the electric fields caused by the two charges (Figure 1412). Figure 141l b shows this explicitly for point P.  Figure 14lla The electricfield at any point is the vector sum of the individual electric fie&.. A sketch of the electric field due to a single negative charge would look the same except the arrows would point toward the charge. If a proton were placed at point A. D C The magnitude of the electric field at A F i r e 1412 I I . Charge Q. What is the electric field at point A? b. Charges of Q = 1. and so on. while a negative charge would experience a force to the left. A positive charge q placed at point P would experience a force to the right. charge Q. Example 1: A dipole is a positive charge and an equalmagnitude negative charge separated by a distance. I Figure 14llb Example 2: Square ABCD has sides of length meters.6 x C. creates electric field I ? . What force would an electron placed at point A experience? fE" c. Sketch the electric field around a dipole.
with three nuclei and ten electrons interacting quantum mechanically. The ratio of the magnitudes of the forces on the proton and the electron is 1. The following example shows how important it is to have a mental picture of the charges. Figure 1413 shows this sum. since the sign of the proton is positive. we can model the water molecule as a simple dipole: a molecule with a positive end and a negative end. except the direction of the force is away from C. since the charge of the electron is negative. (See Figure 1414. in which we may use the Pythagorean theorem.The MCAT Physics Book due to the charge at B is Figure 1413 This is the magnitude of the electric field due to the charge at D as well. Figure 1414 . Even simpler model o f a water molecule. But for many purposes (as in the following example). b. The force on the proton at point A is obtained in the same way. The two electric fields add like vectors. much more important than memorizing several equations. so we write This is the answer to part a. We simply calculate F =qE The force the electron at point A experiences is directed toward C.) Note also: In problems of this sort. 0 Simp1e 'fa water molecule. and forces. electric field. you should ignore gravity unIess the problem tells you to include it. c. Note: A water molecule is a complicated object.
What is the direction of the net force on the water molecule? Solution: a. for the elementary charge.. If a chloride ion (Cl) is placed x in the xyplane. If a water molecule is placed in the xyplane with its oxygen end pointing in the +xdirection and hydrogen end pointing in the xdirection. Figure 141% shows the forces on the two ends. (Use q. A hydrogen fluoride molecule (HF) is on the positive xaxis with its hydrogen end further from the ion than its fluoride end.) a. Figure 1415a shows the electric field.The magnitude of the force on the ion is F =q. In Example 3 the electric field is uniform. b . Adding the two forces in Figure 141% yields zero net force. what is the force on the ion? Figure 1415a b. so the torque is clockwise. Notice that the force on the fluoride part of the I molecule is larger than the force on the 4 Fire 1416 hydrogen part.c (Figure 1415b). think of a water molecule as having a positive end and a negative end.. For the torque on a water molecule. c.Example 3: An electric field exists in the xyplane directed in the positive ydirection with constant magnitude E. which direction is the torque? c.. Figure 1417 Notice the difference between Example 4 and Example 3.E.. F The force is directed in the ydirection Figures 1415b. so the net force on the dipole is zero. Example 4: A positive charge due to a sodium ion (Na') is at the origin. or the charge of the proton. Figure 1417 shows the force diagram for the molecule. because the hydrogen part is located where the electric field is smaller. In Example 4 the electric . so its charge is q.. Chloride has one more electron than it has protons. (This is like the seeds beings attracted to the amber in Section D . What direction is the net force due to the sodium ion on the hydrogen fluoride molecule? Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the electric field C C (Figure 1416). The net force is in the xdirection. ) field is not uniform.
" have done before. where H is the height of the mountain. all obtain gH. simply connect the arrows of the electric field. Each point on the mountain would have its own worWmass ratio." or whatever it happened to be. and it has a potential energy associated with it. and his son performs work mgH. If they calculate the work to mass ratio. Who did the most work? b. But by the conservation of energy. charge q. there is a flow of energy from his muscles Figure 1420 into another form. Path 1 Q For bees carrying charges from A to B the wonk@charge ratio is independent of path and sign of charge. By the same argument. At the top of the mountain they could drive a stake in the ground with the title "WorWmass is 1200 Jlkg.) A honey bee carries a positive a. His son moved a smaller rock (mass m) to the top of the same mountain. How would we create and analogy with electric forces? Let's say a positive charge Q is fixed in space. along Path 1 from A to B. Analogy: Sisyphus.) a. . that must be the same as the work that Sisyphus performs. of Greek legend.The MCAT Physics Book Figure 1418 Figure 1419 One last note here: To draw electric field lines. Who had the greatest work per mass ratio? The ratio of work required to roll a rock Solution: This is a problem we from the bottom to the top to the mass o f the rock is independent of the path. His sister moved a similar stone up a different path to the top of the mountain. the gravitational potential energy of the stone. II F. and Figure 1419 exemplifies two positive charges. each arrow directing your pen to the next arrow. (They calculated W = FAxcos # for each piece of the journey and then added the pieces. For sisyphus7task. This is just another way of graphically representing the same information. was condemned to move a large stone of mass M to the top of a mountain (with no friction). (See Figure 1421. Sisyphus' sister performs the same work MgH. Figure 1421 The electric force is also a conservative force. (Figure 1420 shows them in action. The woddmass ratio is independent of path because gravity is a conservative force.) Each carefully calculated the work required. Electric Potential We begin this section with an analogy. Figure 14!8 shows an example for a dipole. The latter is given by MgH.
. while charge may be positive or negative. we would view climbing a mountain (as in Figure 14226). In that case. But since it takes a lot of energy to get to the flower. the honey bees can fly in three dimensions. and the third dimension. and his son performs a smaller amount of work. If we want to know how much energy is required to move a rock from A to B. and the electric potential is in a fourth dimension that we can only imagine. c. Another bee carries the same amount of charge along Path 2 fiom A to B. Another difference is that the Earth's surface is two dimensional. the bee perceives the task as Figure 1422a shows how it looks to us. but honey bee c performs a negative amount of work.. and the acceleration due to gravity. is equivalent to the worwmass ratio to get to that point. Each point on the Earth's surface may be labeled by a height or the worWmass ratio. The work per charge is the same in all cases. mass is always positive. we do not care about the absolute potential. Figure 1422 is A honeybee with charge I @ C an attempt to illustrate this. The units are [JIC = volts = V]. in most electrostatic problems. m A Fire 1422b . the situation appears like Figure 1422a Figure 1422b to the bee. point A is often set at infinity as a standard. This work per charge is called electric potential. to every point in space we assign a number. it is different only because of the different charge. entails. The bee approaches aflower at 600 volts. This is analogous to gravitational potential energy per mass or roughly analogous to height. Honey bee a performs a large amount of work. In physics.b. Although honey bee c performs a different amount of work. Similarly. Thus. So Sisyphus performs a large amount of work with his large rock. Now the analogy to gravitational potential energy works only so far. height. carries a charge of lo4 C. we don't need the exact heights of A and B above sea level. A third bee carries a negative charge q. Honey bees a and b perform the same amount of work. The work required to bring a charge from infinity'to P is independent of the path taken and is given by w=qv. We need only the difference in height. the electric potential. along Path 2. we need only the potential dgerence. the mass of the rock. For one thing. so she is able to derive work from the system. On the other hand. and the flower Because of the amount of energy this has a electric potential of 600 volts. we refer to the Each point P in space has an absolute electric potential V. We could drive a stake into space at point B with the title "7 JIC to get to this point from A" or something to that effect.
v*). Consider a lone charge Q. I. such a positive potential (if Q is positive) looks like a high steep mountain. if we know the electric potentials at the various points.6 x lo'' C. d where d is the distance from P to the center of the charge. (Figure 1423). where V. = . are the electric potentials at A and B. and placing it on a negative terminal requires work as well. We apply the formula W = qAV We need to check the sign. Does such an action require work? Or can we derive work from it? Removing an electron from a positive terminal requires work. For a negative charge. and V. so AV is negative. dv. But how do we calculate the potentials? In many situations. this is easier than it sounds.) Solution: Note that going from a positive terminal to a negative terminal is "downhill". The potential at point P due to that charge is given by V = k Q . respectively. only d. it looks like a deep pit (since the energy change is negative for getting close to Q). . Note that there is no d in the denominator. Example 1: A DC battery is rated at 6 volts. It is a good thing to know the amount of work to move a charge from one place to another.The MCAT Physics Book The work required to move a charge q from point A to B is given by W = qAV. How much energy would be required to remove an electron from the positive terminal and move it to the negative terminal? (The charge of an electron is 1. so the positive sign in our answer is correct. and we know how to do that now. For a positive charge q.
= 1.. How much work is required to move a charge q = Cf r o m A to B? . and A is a mountain pass. d Z A Now let's check the sign.If there are several charges Q. Since the test charge is positive. and point B is lo' meters from both of them. So now we have an electric potential energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. Therefore the negative answer is justified. Q.~ Q Ike. we increase its electric potential energy by the same amount as the work we have performed. . Point A is exactly between them.. A  + dl. Let's apply the formula: V ..1 x i o 4 c are 2 X 102meters apart.. then the potential at P is given by the simple sum (no vectors): Ql Q 2 V = k +k+. we imagine the two charges Q are mountains next to each other. 4 dl a . No energy is required. Example 3: Two charges Q Q . .. When we move charge q from A to B.= B A Qt.. . Qz Figure 1424 Solution: First we DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figwe 1424). Point B is further down. so the energy change is negative. but instead energy can be derived.. The electric potential energy of a group of charges is the work required to assemble the charges by moving them from an infinite distance away.
where d = 0. the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. How much kinetic energy is in moving Q. Or we could move them both from infinity. as fixed and move Q. d a. Figure 1426 shows such a diagram for two equal positive charges. @& 300 v 200 V Figure 1426 . to this point is The other way to do this problem is to regard Q.The MCAT Physics Book Example 4: Two charges Q. the system finally? Figure 1425 Solution: a. (both 1. This would be harder to calculate. the initial electric potential (at infinity) is zero and the final electric potential is kQ. They are released.1 x Major hint: Whenever there is a question about energy in a problem involving charges or electricity. How much potential energy is For part a. Let's regard Q . but since the energy is independent of path. chances are near certain you will use potential differences to solve the problem (rather than W = FAxcos 4). b. We can do the analogous thing with charges by connecting points of equal potential. The potential energy is the work needed to assemble the system. points at the same height are connected by lines and labeled according to height. and Q. we assemble the system in the system initially? by regarding Q.as fixed and move Q. toward it. One last note: In topographic maps of the Earth's surface. Since there are no external forces and no heat generation. toward it from infinity (Figure 1425). and the final kinetic energy is 1.ld.With this viewpoint.1 x lo' C and both lo4 grams) are initially 0. the answer must be the same. energy is conserved. forming equipotential lines.01 m. but of course we would get the same answer. The work done to bring Q.01 m apart. as fired and b. and they go flying apart. J. After the particles are released.from infinity.
4 b can remember its direction by applying I. This magnetic field points not toward. but only moving charges generate a magnetic field. the quantity of charge moving past a point per unit of time. direction of the magnetic field. generate magnetic fields as well. netic field is coming out of the page and a proton is moving to the right. f page. In that case the particle experiences a force 0 0 0 which is perpendicular to the magnetic The magnetic f i e l dis coming out of the field and to the charge's path. For most problems it does not matter whether we think of (negative) electrons moving left or of some positive charge moving right. Bend your fingers of lhe direction of the around so the tips are as close to your magnetic field due to current.G. if electrons are moving to the left along a wire. Figure 1428 shows a current coming out of the \ . A circle with a cross in it denotes a vector going into the Figure 1428 page. this generates a magnetic field outside the wire. like an incoming . It turns out that we need to consider a second field as well. such as iron. If a current is flowing in a wire. Magnetic fields appear outside the wires in which there is current flowing./ \. Figure 14page. since electrons have negative charge. A circle with a dot in it often page. magnetic field wire. like the feathers of a receding arrow. This is almost certainly beyond the scope of the MCAT. Again. In physics we generally think in terms of a positive charge moving. then we say the current is toward the right. zt 29 shows a situation in which the magexperiences a magnetic force down the page. Figure 1427 shows a current flowing to / 1 Of 1 the right. 0 0 0 A charge sitting still in a magnetic 0 0 0 0 0 field experiences no force. even though we know that it is the electrons which are moving. F i r e 1429 0  \ . called the magneticfield. Magnetic Fields Electric fields are not enough to explain everything in electrodynamics. not along the i. The small arrows show the 1 direction of the magnetic field. The arrows point in the denotes a vector coming out of the page. Certain materials. The reason for magnetic fields in these cases is subtle and involves the current of electrons about the nucleus. but tends to point around the wire. and at first glance there do not seem to be any currents here. For this reason. and the pmton is tmveling right. Both stationary and moving charges generate an electric field. wrist as possible. A currenl is a flow of charge. The units of current are [CIS = amperes = amps =A]. that is. It is strongest near the wire.arrow. The fingers tend to point Figure 1427 J in the direction of the magnetic field. current I 7' the first hand rule: Use your right hand and point the thumb in the direction of Thefirst hand rule reminds us the (positive) current. We . of course. the arrows show the magThe current is coming out of the netic field. not away from. Futhermore a moving charge experiences a magnetic force only if its motion has a component perpendicular to the magnetic field.
I . For a negative particle. Whenever you read a question involving force and charge. then we say the light is vertically polarized. like a hitch hiker. you will probably need to think of the electric field. The electric field is perpendicular Figure 1430 to the wave direction.ws the magnetic force .5 gauss. The answer is zero. A magnetic field also goes along with the electric field. use your left hand. and an electric potential as well. every point in the universe has two vectors sitting on it. That is to say. and the orientation of the electric field gives the polarization. use your right hand. you must also learn to visualize electric and magnetic fields. imagine going to a field in the Northern Hemisphere on a clear day and picking a point in the air. or atom. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the electric field and to the direction of propagation. Your palm (which you use for pushing) points in the direction in which the particle experiences a force. So the polarization is in the same direction thatthecharge shakes. so the wave is transverse. Just to help you visualize it. We will discuss this more fully in Chapter 16. Electromagnetic Radiation In Section D we discussed the fact that an accelerating charge will shake up the electric field around it. if you must know. which you can remember because the four fingers look like the field lines of a magnet. The phenomenon is called electromagnetic radiation or light. the electric field points down with a magnitude 100 NIC and the magnetic field points south (0.charges and toward negative ones. generally associated with energy transitions within a crystal. The shaking portion of the electric field breaks off and moves away through space. this is not the full story.. Since the electric field is a vector field. These waves of electric and magnetic fields come out as packets. H. molecule. You should picture arrows (vectors) filling all of space pointing away from positive.. one being the electric field and the other being the magnetic field. Your thumb points in the direction that the particle is going. the electric field at a point due to several charges is the vector sum of the individual electric fields at that point. Figure 1431 shows both fields.read no further. In addition to visualizing the movement of electrons in various materials. In Figure 1430 a charge Q on a vertical spring moves up and down and generates the wave shown. Although Figure 1430 does not show the magnetic field. For this reason magnetic forces do no work (always we have cosg = 0 ) . To a close approximation. Now the force on a particle due to a magnetic field is always perpendicular to the displacement of the particle.The MCAT Physics Book The second hand rule helps you to recall the direction of the force: For a positive particle. This chapter is the most difficult of the book. if the electric field points up and down. Of course. In brief. Your fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field. called photons. ?'you need. If you ever encounter a question such as "How much work d. The electric field relates force to charge. but we have not discussed units for the magnetic field).
When a question mentions energy and charge. although we have calculated only the former. An electric field is generated by both stationary and moving charges. We can find the potential at point A by simply adding the potentials (V = kQlr) from the charges in the problem.V. you should immediately think of using electric potentials.). The MCAT will not ask for any more detailed information. A magnetic field is generated only by moving charges and affects only moving charges. .The electric potential is related to energy and charge. The work to move a charge from point A to point B is W = q(V. . Qualitative information can be obtained by the hand rules.
I Use the following information in questions 6 and 7: A small metal ball having a positive charge is brought near a large solid metal disk on the right side.. 11. 4. due to charges on the balls. There is a force to the . In a certain experiment. use the following constants: k=9x109q. B.' ~ ~ . N.1 . F. I or I1 or 111. were i n a d by a factor of 4? 266 GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . How would F. The ball then touches it and is removed. = 8 x lo" C are near each other. due to charges on the balls. Which of the following best shows the distribution of the charges before the ball touches the disk? 2 . and the other. It would increase by a factor of 4. 6 ~ 1 0 . ILI. What is F.. Chapter 1 4 Problems B. 1 . would increase by a factor of 2. It would decrease by a factor of 2. Both balls have a positive charge.. =.. hung from insulating strings. 1 1 1or n ! I 7. and Q . would decrease by a factor of 4. F. Consider the following possibilities in answering questions 1 and 2: I. There is a force to the effect of pushing the balls apart. the force that charge Q. a negative charge. C. One ball has a positive charge. two balls made of cork are I How would F. 111 or IV. B. B. change if the charges were both doubled. One ball is charged and the other is neutral. on Q. In all problems ignore gravity unless it is explicitly mentioned. 6. effect of pulling the balls together. C.. Both balls have a negative charge.. 111. C. Sections AD In all of the following problems.. and charge Q. = 2 x lo" C and Q. What can be concluded? A. It would decrease by a factor of 4. What can be concluded? A. In a certain experiment. exerts on charge PI? I 5. D.. two balls made of cork are hung from insulating strings. F. D. exerts a force F. I or I I .The MCAT Physics Book A. 111. D. but the distance between them remained the same? A. IorII. C. 3.. D. F. change if the distance between Q. It would decrease by a factor of 16. would decrease by a factor of 2. would increase by a factor of 4. ~rn' cZ. Which of the following best shows the distribution of the charges after the ball is removed? Use the following information in questions 35: Two charges Q.. I or II or rn.
The net force is attractive. A third charge q = 10l7C is located exactly between them. Section E  10. Point P is exactly between them. A positive charge Q = 1. 15. C. m). the sodium chloride dissociates into ions surrounded by water molecules. 13. 1. are located 2 x 10" m apart.1 x m.xaxis m. 10'~ B. B.25 x lo7 NIC. 2 x lo7 NIC.5 x 10l2N C. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . What is the magnitude of the force on the charge at the origin? A. The hydrogen atoms areJearer the ion because of their positive charge. D.1 x lo'' C is located meters away from a negative charge of equal magnitude. D.) 9. to the right.5 x 1o6N D. The hydrogen atoms are nearer the ion because of their negative charge. a positive charge Q = 1. ~ X ~ O . 2 x 1 0 .' ~ Na' H\ 0 ' H A. to the right. Two charges. and a negative charge of the same xaxis at x = magnitude is located at the origin.4 x lo' C) at is located on the yaxis at (0 m. D. One charge (Q. to the left. Which of the following best shows the distribution of the charges after the ball is removed? B.' ~ D. D. are located 10" m apart.3 x lo' C) is located on the.' ~ C.1 x lo'' C. C.8. A charge q = 10l6C is located at the origin. The oxygen atom is nearer the ion because of the oxygen's negative charge. = 4. Two positive charges. There is no net force. 5 x 1 0 . Consider a water molecule near a sodium ion. 0 m). Q = 1. What net electrostatic force exists between a sodium ion and a water molecule oriented as shown in the figure? (Assume the overlap of electron clouds is negligible.' N C is located on the 14. 2 x l d N I C Use the following information in questions 12 and 13: In a water solution of sodium chloride. The net force is repulsive. ON B. C. 4 x lo3NIC 8x103N1C  12 What tends to be the orientation of the water molecule? A. What is the magnitude of the force on charge q? A.1 X lo'' C and a negative charge of the same magnitude. C. 2. ON B. lo3NIC B. 2 x 1 0 . A small metal ball having a positive charge is brought near a large solid plastic disk. to the right. A positive charge Q = 1. The oxygen atom is nearer the ion because of the oxygen's positive charge. 10"N c. What is the magnitude of the electric field at point P? A. lo' N D.) A. B.~ N 1 1 . = 3. lo7 NIC. 7. What is the magnitude of the force on charge q? A. A third charge q = 10l7C is located exactly between them. 8 x l 0 . The net force is into the page. and another charge (Q. 2. The ball then touches it on the right side and is removed. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the point on the m? (Right means the positive xaxis at x = xdirection.5 x lo6NIC.
The MCAT Physics Book 16. and C are the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length lo4 meters. Note: An alpha particle is a bare helium4 nucleus and has a mass about four times that of a proton. while point E is in the same plane as A.1 x located at points A. B. 0NlC B. What is the direction of the electric field at point A? Use the following information in questions 20 and 21: A positive charge of 3.5 m. 2 x 10' NIC D. C are Positive charges of magnitude Q = 1.5 m. B. Which arrow best shows the direction of the electric field at the point (0. What is the direction of the electric field at point D? A. lo6NIC C. 20. What is the magnitude of the electric field at point P? A. It points down (1).1 x lo" C are located at points B and C.1 x 10I0C are located meters away from each other. 18. A negative charge 5. and C. It points into the page. B. GO ON TO M E N M PAGE .The charge on a proton is 1. Point D is exactly between B and C. 8 x lo6NIC 19. 9 x 10' NIC 1 17. B. A small plastic ball (m = 0. The acceleration due to gravity g = 10 m/s2. and C and equidistant from them. B. 1 m)? 21. The only forces on it are the forces due to gravity and to the electric field. points A. It points up (t).5 x C is at the point (0. and C are the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length meters. 0 NIC B. 3 x 10' NIC D. B. 1 m)? A. Positive charges of magnitude Q = 1. C. 0 m). D.009 kg) has a small charge Q on it and is located between the plates.3 x lo3 C is at the point (0 rn. Two positive charges Q = 1. and point P is exactly between them. Use the following information in questions 2226: Two parallel metal plates separated by a distance 0. points A. f \ c. The mass of a proton is 2000 times the mass of an electron. Which arrow best shows the direction an electron would experience a force if it were placed at (0.5 m. D. It has zero magnitude. 1 m). lo5NIC C. What is the magnitude of the electric field at point E? A.6 x 10l9 C. which points down (see figure). I d 7 Use the following information in questions 18 and 19: In the figure. The ball is not moving. In the figure.01 meters are charged in order to create a uniform electric field (4 x lo4 NIC) between them.
29. Two thousand times as large. and in the opposite direction. 100C 2. What is the magnitude of the force which would be exerted on a proton between the two plates? A 6. which orientation would it take to minimize its energy? A. Four times as large. The molecule would be rotated clockwise. A water molecule can be modeled as a simple dipole. How would the force exerted on an alpha particle A.4 x lo'' N B. D . and in the same direction. 1. The same magnitude. and in the same direction. lbice as large. If a water molecule is placed between the two plates. Which is a distribution of charge which would create the desired electric field between the plates? The top plate is charged positively and the bottom A. B. plate is charged negatively. The same magnitude. B. How would the acceleration of an electron between the plates compare with the acceleration of a proton between the plates? A. and in the opposite direction. Twice as large. what would be the direction of the net force on it? 24. C.25 x 104C l00C c 28. D. D. 6. Both plates have the same negative charge.25 x lo4 2. what effect would the electric field have on the molecule (other than net force)? A. D.22. 23. GO ON T O THE N D C TP A G E . t 1 + between the plates compare with the force exerted on a proton between the plates? A. C. If the water molecule were oriented as in the previous problem. D. B. Use the following information in questions 2729: %o parallel metal plates are charged in order to create a uniform electric field between them which points up (see figure). 26. One thousand times as large. Four times as large. The molecule would be compressed. and in the opposite direction. Both plates have the same positive charge. D . B. and in the same direction. The molecule would be stretched. The top plate is charged negatively and the bottom plate is charged positively.4x10'N 25. No force.28 x 10l4N C. B. What is the charge on the ball? ttttt 27. C. having a negative end (the oxygen atom) and a positive end (the hydrogen atoms). and in the opposite direction. C. but in the opposi& direction. that is. 2. If the water molecule were oriented as shown below. C. C.56 x 10l4N D. B . The molecule would be rotated counterclockwise.
k second charge q = lo4 C is moved along a straight path from the point (0 m. ball A has acquired a potential of 10.' 6 ~ C. Now. 2 m) to the point (2 m. 0. insulated from each other (see figure). l o d J D. Two charges (q.000 volts and ball B a potential of 10. Another charge q = lo4 C is_5 meters away. How much work is performed in moving q along this path? 31. lo" J 2x10"J B.how much work is required to transfer lo'' C from ball A to B? GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE .6 x C. What is the work done by this force pushing the charge? A. 34. A charge Q = 1. 3. 0. A charge Q = 1.016J 0. 0. D. D. = 1. D. Plates C and F are maintained at 1000 V.1 x 108C and q. Plates A and D are opposite each othex and maintained at 1000 V. Electrons are transferred by a mechanical technique from ball A to ball B. The elementary charge is 1. C. Plates B and E are opposite each other and maintained at 0 V. . It is slowly moved 4 meters in a straight line directly toward the charge Q.1 meters apart.2 x 10l6J 3 2 .1 x lo' C is fixed at the origin.1 x lo' C) are a distance 0. How much energy is required to bring them to a distance 0. electrons transfer device B .1 m) are neutral and considered to be at zero electrical potential. is made up of six metal plates.08 J 30.6x10'~~ +3. 0 m). 10"J B. +1. They are located far apart (5 m).000 volts.01 meters apart? A.1 m on a side. 6 ~ 1 0 . two identical metal balls (radius 0. lo4 J C. How much work is required to move charge q? A. What is the change of potential energy of the system if an electron is transferred from plate A to plate C? A. = 1. OJ C.1 . A charge of 1014cis pushed very slowly from the center of plate A straight across to the center of plate D. At the beginning of an experiment.016 J 0.1 x lo' C is fixed in space. J B.08 J 35. such that the system of balls and apparatus is isolated fiom the environment After the transfer.2 x 10l6J B.  Section Use the following information in questions 30 and 31: A cube. lod5J 33.The MCAT Physics B o o k F A .
and the rating of the battery is voltage V. What is the potential difference between A and B? A. but as the proton approaches the nucleus. and a proton (mass m. 40. D. Its acceleration decreases and then increases.) Energy is conserved during this process. lo6volts C. Point A is the point (1 m. and q. (Assume no friction. C. Assume a nucleus of charge Q is fixed at the origin. Use the following information in questions 37 and 38: Charges Q. The main force between the nucleus and proton is electrostatic. What is the energy required to bring one electron from the positive terminal to the negative terminal? (Charge on electron = q. Its velocity increases and then decreases to zero. Its terminals have a small radius r. to a good approximation.and Q.5 x l d volts GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . Its acceleration decreases. I 37. A positive charge q is on the positive xaxis and is let. Use the following information in questions 4 1 4 3 : When a proton encounters a large atomic nucleus. C. go.1 x C) are located at (3 m.q. B. charge q ) approaches it moving along the xaxis. 2 x lo6 volts D. but it never reaches zero. 0 m). Its acceleration decreases forever.36. a distance d apart is E = kq. 7. Its velocity increases forever but never becomes greater than a certain bound. it slows and comes to a stop at a socalled turning radius r. D. 0 volts B. 0 m). A dry cell (or battery) is in the shape of a cylinder of length 1 and diameter d. 38. 0 m) on the xyplane.) I Use the following information in questions 39 and 40: A positive charge Q is held fixed at the origin. Far away from the nucleus the proton has a velocity v. point B is the point (1 m. Its velocity increases forever without bound. Its acceleration increases forever. What is the potential of C relative to a point an infinite distance away? Note: The electric potential energy (or electrostatic energy) between two charged particles q. B. 2xldvolts 4x ~ O ~ V O ~ ~ S 5 x 10' volts 7. but it never reaches zero. we can assume the large nucleus is fixed in space.(both 1. 0 m) and at (3 m. Which of the following describes the theoretical velocity of q afrer it is let go? A.ld. A. Which of the following describes the theoretical acceleration of q afrer it is let go? A. eventually reaching zero. and point C is the point (0 m. D. C. B.5 x lo6 volts turning radius k4 Q % proton . (See figure. Its velocity increases and then decreases.) 39. 4 m).
44. B. Section G Use the following information in questions 44 and 45: A wire canies a current I which is traveling up the page. C . D. It would be the same. Which direction are electrons traveling in the wire? A. D. How would the turning radius be affected if the initial velocity v were increased by a factor of 4? A. In a circle. which of the following best indicates the direction of the force of magnetic field on the electrons in the wire? A. C . potential to kinetic B. Up the page. C. Down the page. A horizontal wire is shown. 48. I Use the following information in questions 46 and 4 7 In the figure the magnetic field is pointing down. The proton is observed to speed up. D. Into the page.The MCAT Physics Book 41. B. kinetic to potential to heat D. What is the d i i t i o n of the magnetic field at point P? A. D. 47. It would decrease by a factor of 16. C. If the horizontal wire is pulled out of the page toward you. C. B. Into the page. 1 lPll magnetic 43. There is no magnetic force. B. It would decrease by a factor of 4. . which of the following best indicates the direction of the force of the magnetic field on the electrons i n the wire? A. kinetic to potential and heat 42. kinetic to potential C. 272 GO ON T O THE NEXT PAGE . There is a magnetic field pointing down the page. Left. Up. Out of the page. Two protons are fired at the nucleus. Which of the following best describes the flow of energy? A. Right. It would be greater by a factor of 16. To the right. It would be greater by a factor of 4. D. 46. There is a magnetic field pointing up the page. It would be greater by a factor of 2. Point P lies off to the right. B. B. There is an electric field pointing to the right. the second with four times the velocity of the first. How would the electrostatic energy of the second proton at its turning radius compare with the electrostatic energy of the first proton at its turning radius? A. There is no magnetic force. Which is the best conclusion about the region R? A. Out of the page. B. C. 45. D. Into the page. C. D. It would decrease by a factor of 2. If an external force pulls the horizontal wire down the page. Up the page. It would stay the same. There is an electric field pointing to the left. A proton is traveling to the right and encounters a region R which contains an electric field or a magnetic field. In a spiral.
Downthe page. C. C. To the left. A proton is traveling to the right and encounters a region S which contains an electric field or a magnetic field. 111. Use the following information in questions 50 and 51: A beam of electrons is traveling to the right. To the left. Out of the page. D . Up the page. B. D. Down the page. speeding up the proton. as shown. slowing down the proton. 54. Point A is above the beam. ?his region also has an electric field. Into the page. D. To the right. B. Use the following information in questions 53 and 54: A current I is flowing through a wire loop as shown. Into the page. B. D. If a proton is at point P and moving upward ( t ) . B. and encounters a region R with a magnetic field pointing down. We observe that the effects of the magnetic force and of the GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . I V . To the right. An electron beam is traveling to the right. so that the electron beam is straight. D. 50. 11. D. B. electric force cancel. I1 or I V . Out of the page. C. There is an electric field pointing up the page. Into the page. Out of the page. Which is the best conclusion about the region S? A. To the right. 52.49. What is the direction of the electric field at point A? A. C. II only. There is a magnetic field pointing out of the page. Up the page. C. as shown. To the left. The proton is observed to bend up the page. I. Refer to the following possibilities: There is a magnetic field pointing into the page. Up. that is. 51. There is an electric field pointing down the page. C. What is the direction of the magnetic field at point P? A. Into the page. What is the direction of the magnetic field at point A? A. Point P is in the middle of the loop. r electron beam B. I only. proton u In which direction must the electric field point? A. Out of the page. I or III. that is. what is the direction of the acceleration of the proton? A. Down. 53.
5 . Upldown. pointing toward the transmitting antenna. that is. Electrical to electromagnetic to electrical. C. B. EasVwest. If the alternating current in the transmitting antenna has 0 ' Hz. An alternating current is generated in the antenna. In the third paragraph. 1 . B. Mechanical to electromagnetic to mechanical. Eastlwest. ' The radio waves which carry information in a standard broadcast are an example of electromagnetic radiation. 3. consider a situation in whlch a transmitting antenna points vertically. Upldown. D. Northlsouth. For a point between the two antennas. Electromagnetic to electrical to electromagnetic. according to the passage? A. Which of the following best describes the energy flow? A. whose frequency is the same as that of the radiation to be produced. 7. D. but of electric and magnetic fields. B. The electric field of the electromagnetic radiation encounters electrons on the receiving antenna. B. in space and time. Vertical. D. D. C.5 m What would be the best orientation of the receiving antenna? A. C. The electric field changes the resistance of the antenna. the electric field points in a direction perpendicular to the propagation of the wave. The electric field creates a current along the receiving antenna. The speed of light is 3 x 10' mls. Kinetic to electromagnetic to kinetic. 6. The electric field exerts a force on the electrons. North/south. D. Northlsouth or eastlwest. B. what is the direction of the electric field vector for the radiation? A. C. When the wave is linearly polarized. 30m 60 m 120111 2. what is the direction of the magnetic field vector for the radiation? A. The electric field boosts the electrons to higher energy orbitals in the atoms. These waves are a disturbance. 4. North/south. GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . EasVwest. and the receiving antenna is directly to the north. C. which is a wire or metal rod which points perpendicular to the direction of the intended wave propagation. The electric field of the resulting electromagnetic radiation points along the same axis as the current. B. although its magnitude varies. Northlsouth or eastlwest. how does the electric field create a current on the receiving antenna? A. For the following questions. For a point between the two antennas. The magnetic field points in a direction perpendicular to the wave propagation and to the electric field. The electromagnetic radiation is generated by an antenna. and the two fields propagate in phase. The electric field polarizes the electrons. which is another wire or metal rod. of course. C. One way to have good transmission and reception is to have the length of the antenna be one quarter of the wavelength of the electromagentic wave. what would be a reasonable a frequency of 1 length for an efficient antenna.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 1 D. Any orientation would suffice. not of a material medium.
The methyl group will be near the wire.8 x 1013N away from the wire. GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . negatively. The resulting electric field outside the wire is directed away from the wire and has a magnitude given by B. Polar molecules have one end charged positively and the other end. D. B. This is true of elementary particles. B. C.CHzCHICHIOH) is near the wire. 10 times stronger. Which of the following best depicts the electric field lines? where and d is the perpendicular distance from the wire to the point in question. Negative. C. The same magnitude. 4. wire wire wire I wire Charges near the wire experience forces due to the electric field. D. If a butanol molecule (CH. D. as well as ions and molecules. The two sides of the molecule thus experience two forces. C. If the electric field is great enough. 4. A fluoride ion (F) has a mass 19 times greater than a H ' ) . The oxygen atom will be away from the wire. For the following questions. 1. 19 times weaker. 1 . 19 times stronger. what is its most likely orientation? A.Passage 2 In a certain apparatus. D. B.6 x 1019c. like electrons.9 x loz3 N away from the wire.8 x 10l3N toward the wire. 4. What is the force on an electron located 0. a long wire along the zaxis carries a uniform charge on it. 2. that is. 1. Positive and negative in equgl amounts to make neutral.9xld3Ntowardthewire. 3. The methyl group will be away from the wire. the gas around the wire may undergo breakdown. 5. C. The oxygen atom will be near the wire. = 1. What is the sign of the charge on the wire? A. the molecules are ionized by the electric field. use for the charge on an electron q .01 meters from the wire? A. Positive. Positive or negative. If a hydrogen ion and a fluoride ion hydrogen ion ( are at the same location relative to the wire. how does the magnitude of the force on the fluoride ion compare to that of the force on the hydrogen ion? A.
the discharge leaves many molecules in an excited state. B.The MCAT Physics Book 1 . B . The threshold would increase because the density would be greater. The threshold would decrease because the mean free path would increase..) A. 4. If two parallel metal plates separated by a small gap are charged.l ~ ~ 2. The oxygen ion by a factor of 2. It experiences a force and an acceleration. How would the threshold electric field change if the pressure of the gas were increased? A. 4 . ON B. = the mean free path = 8 x 10"m e t e r s . one positively and one negatively. C. that is. depositing energy into the gas particle and debris. imagine a lone electron between the plates.) If an oxygen ion (0')and an electron are both between the plates. The lone electrons would be absorbed. Each collision releases several electrons. The threshold would increase because the mean free path would decrease.) You may also use the following: r. D. The result is a transfer of charge from one plate to the other. I. 8 ~ 10I3N C. while the lone electrons would be absorbed.6 x 101' N D. it is likely to collide with a gas particle. Before it gets there. 3 . How much force would a calcium atom experience if it were between the plates? (Assume the electric field is the threshold electric field for air. The threshold would increase because the mean free path would increase. (See figure. 6 ~ 1 0 . The electron experiences a much greater force because of its small mass. The threshold would decrease because the density would be greater. D. The mean free path depends only on the number density of the gas. What would be the effect of replacing air with sulfur hexafluoride between the plates? A. increasing the threshold even more. = the average atomic radius = 6 x 10 I1 meters. The process described is a runaway chain reaction. The oxygen ion by a factor of 8. They experience the same magnitude of force. GO ON TO THE N E X T PAGE . then there will be an electric field between the plates. then a spark may jump across the gap. the number of gas particles per unit volume. In addition. partially discharging the plates. A lone electron thus undergoes acceleration and energy gain. C . which releases photons as they decay to the ground state. followed by a collision. 9. The average distance an electron travels before encountering a gas particle is the mean free path. For air at atmospheric pressure the threshold electric field is about Sulfur hexafluoride is a dense gas which absorbs electrons. If the electron gains enough energy before colliding with the gas particle to ionize it. so the phenomenon grows exponentially. The increased density would increase the threshold. B. The original electron loses much of its kinetic energy but is still available to accelerate and ionize other gas particles. (Density is not a factor. then after the collision there are more electrons to continue the process. C. The threshold would decrease because the mean free path would decrease. If the electric field is larger than a certain threshold. so it will move in the direction of the positive plate. which experiences the greater force? A. increasing the threshold. 9 . D. To see how a spark occurs. The threshold electric field depends on the type and pressure of the gas between the plates.
5. Which graph could be a typical graph of the electron described in paragraph 2 above? STOP .
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all of it at one height. A voltage source (often a DC cell or battery) is a potential difference enforcer. It does this by chemically transporting electrons from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. A wire is simply a long. the end with higher potential. there must be a potential difference across it. By doing this as you read this chapter.. if one end of the wire were at a higher potential. would flow away from that end into the lower one..Chapter 15 Electric Circuits A. long cylinder of metal.   1 At any rate. If one end were higher than the other. where the long bar is the positive end. the electric field is zero. of course. you should remember that inside a metal. you will find that this subject becomes fairly straightforward. the water. or whatever). you should imagine seeing currents and potentials. If it were not so. all along its length. Whenever you see a circuit diagram. This flow of charge is called a current. wires. Other examples include w' . being free to move. a wire is like a plateau. When the potential I I between the terminals becomes the rated voltage (6 volts. so in this chapter we will apply this intuition to electric circuits. In this chapter the concepts to watch are current and electric potential. A simple electric circuit consists of a voltage source. flat. its one job being to ensure that the potential difference between the two terminals remains constant. For current to flow through a resistor. however. Electric current may flow through a Figure 152 resistor as well. so that charge flows in a closed path or circuit. and if the potential at one point in @ the wire is V. The symbols for a cell are shown in Figure 151 Figure 151. two reIated but distinct concepts. the potential difference between any two points in it is zero. then the electric field would push electrons to one side. Because it is a piece of metal. would rush toward the higher potential and lower it. then electrons. Perhaps a better analogy is a mountain lake which is. Introduction In the last chapter we developed some intuition about electric fields and electric potentials. The reason for this is simple: If it were not so. that is. a wire has one potential. In our analogy with Sisyphus and the mountain (Chapter 14). and the shifting electrons would cancel the electric field. For this reason also the electric field inside a piece of metal is always zero. then the potential all along resistor light bulb the wire is V. That is to say. the r I chemical reation in the cell reaches DC cells o r batteries equilibrium and the electron transport stops. A simple example of a resistor is a piece of graphite (pencil lead). but the charge does not flow freely as it does in a wire. and resistors. free to move.
The analogy is shown in Figure 155. The energy starts in the pump and becomes the energy of flowing water. into the waterfall than coming out of it. energy flow is not the same as water flow. In order to think about circuits. This is Figure 154 shown in Figure 153. The charge flows through a wire to the light bulb. Therefore. Also. m a t is Figure 155 not what happens. in circuits we are interested only in ov changes in potential from one position to another. however. In this circuit. then more water would be going in Figures 153 and 154. Resistors are like rocky A simple circuit consisting of a battery and a light bulb. relative to which other We can analyze a c i ~ u i t potentials are measured. As the water falls. it is helpful to think of an analogy. Similarly. we bv not in^ the currents and can label the low end of the battery htentials. Think about this scenario until it is intuitive. and the electric potential is like the height are like level streamof the water. the energy becomes heat. in which the water flows in a circuit. The 6 volts battery pumps the charge from one electric potential to another. Let's look at the example of a 6V battery connected to a light bulb. The other end of the battery is F i 156 then 6 volts (Figure 156). r 0 volts. The electric current is like a current of water. If 0 volts the current in the upper trough were Watercourse analogy for circuits larger. Whereas in the last chapter we were often interested in the absolute potential. Note the following very important idea: The current in the upper trough is the same as the current in the lower trough. waterfalls.Thesymbols for these are shown in Figure 152. and the circuit diagram is shown in Figure 154.The MCAT Physics Book a light bulb and a toaster. and the waterfall would overflow. we are free to choose a standard 0 volts. the chemical energy of the battery is transformed into I = current electrical energy and then into heat and light. ' . . and a voltage source is like a pump which pumps water from one height to another. W~res beds (level because they have one potential). Figure 153 Circuit diagram for circuit in Figure 153. and back to the battery. through the light bulb.
Several resistors are in parallel if a charge may go through any of them before going back to the source. . let's DRAW A DIAGRAM of the circuit (Figure 157). What is the current through resistor l? Solution: First. The unit for R is [volt/arnp = Ohm = R]. . We label the wire between the two .. . . Watercourseanalogy for Figure 157. . Ohm's Law and the Combination of Resistors It turns out that the current through most resistors is approximately proportional to the electric potential across them. (1) where R is the resistance of the resistor.resistors in series. . The equivalent water course is shown in Figure 158 in which the current in the top wugh is the same as the current through both waterfalls and through the bottom trough. Several resistors in a circuit are often either in series or in parallel. . A slightly more complicated circuit involves hvo.. Several resistors are in series if a charge coming from the source must go through each of them before going back to the source.Chapter 1 5 . then AV = IR. ... then the same current flows through all of them. I DO you see why? 981 . In the next example we encounter a combination of resistors. Figure 157 We label the lower wire 0 volts.. Example 1:Two resistors (R. = 20 R) are connected in series with a potential source (9 volts). Figure 158 If several resistors are in series. . . . There is 9volt jump across the voltage source. = 10 R and R. Electric Circuits I B. so the upper wire is labeled 9 volts.. Ohm's Law If I is the current through a given resistor and AV is the potential across the resistor. The resistors with the potential V current is the same through both resistors and the source... a measure of how difficult it is for charge to flow through it.. .
R2 .. + R.IR... we do not have to go through as much trouble as we did in Example 1 because there are two rules for combining resistors: f If several resistors (R. . R.. and so on) are in parallel then we can replace them with one resistor with resistance RT.The MCAT Physics B b ~ k Applying Ohm's law to the first resistor gives 9VV. then we have AV. what is the potential drop across resistor I? Solution: If we apply Ohm's law to resistor 1. and so on) are in series.O = IR.. = I. becomes (2) R... If several resistors (R. = IR. = IR. where 1 1 =++ 1 R T R.. Generally. R. = (0.gives 9V. . Substituting the expression for V.3A)(lOQ) = 3v.... R. and applying Ohm's law to the second resistor gives V. R3 RT 1 . +. then we can replace them with one resistor whose resistance is the sum 1 RT = R. R.. (3) RT becomes .. Example 2: In the circuit above.
Chdpter 1 5 . and the potential source is 12 volts. To obtain the total current. Figure 1510 This gives us the potential drop across R. = 30 R. . . = 12V. . . we need to combine resistors to obtain an equivalent circuit (Figure 1511): Figure 1511 RT = i o n . = 60 SL. . = 20 SL. Electric Circuits Example 3: In the circuit shown (Figure 159). . a. . What is the current through the potential source? Vcell Another simple circuit involves resistors in pamllel. The potential all along the left wire is 0 volts. . . .: AV. Figure 159 Solution: a. . b. and along the right wire is 12 volts (Figure 1510). . and R. . let's label the negative terminal of the source 0 V and the positive terminal 12 V. What is the current through resistor R. Figure 1512 shows the analogous water course. . . .? b. we have R. Watercourse analogy for the circuit in Figure 1510. R. . .. Figure 1512 If several resistors are in parallel then the same potential exists across all of them. First.. Note that the current splits into three parts through the resistors. .
3. No current Aows through resistors 2 and 3. Figure 1516 shows the final equivalent circuit. The total current is (by Figure 1515 Ohm's law.) Figure 1515 shows the result of Figure 1514 combining the two parallel resistors. so the answer to part a is 2 A. where R.andV =6V. Figure 1513 because we do not know a potential difference across resistor 1 to apply Ohm's law. by combining the two resistors in Figure 1515. . change if points A and B are connected with a wire? Solution: a. and this is shown in Figure 1517. Combine resistors. finally) 2 A. the mistake here of using 6 volts and 1 Q in Ohm's law. The total current is the same as the current through resistor 1 (see Figure 1514). 4. a. 5. = 1 Q. then they have the same potential. Example 4: Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1513. F i m 1517 . The current t h u g h it (by Ohm's law) is 6 A. Label the lower end of the battery 0 V. but this does not seem to get anywhere. How does 1. What is the current going through resistor l ? b. Label the currents going through the wires. 2. and resistor 1 has the full 6 V across it. R2=R.The MCAT Physics Book When faced with a question concerning a circuit. If we connect points A and B by a wire. (Many students make. but here are some things to try: 1. Apply Ohm's law. there is no general procedure which always leads to an answer. Label other wires with voltages. F i r e 1516 b. but the potential difference across resistor 1 is not 6 volts. First we draw in the current and voltages (Figure 1514).=4!2.
We label the negative terminal of the potential source 0 volts.. the other side.... the resistance of the internal resistor is the internal resistance R. . 7 v .the circuit outside of the cell is a represented by a single resistor and dashed lines enclose the cell. you should understand the discussion which leads to it... In addition to knowing this equation. 3 volts. . Real DC cells are not so good. .. The potential across the ideal source is the electromotive force or emf. We can model a real cell as an ideal potential source in series with a resistor. Example 1 : A battery has a measured potential difference of 6 . = (0.. A real cell is like an ideal The current flowing through the'circuit is potential source (V... the current is circuit is connected to it..Chapter 15 . while the actual potential difference across the whole cell is the tenninal potential. as if there were a resistor inside the cell. Real DC cells and Real Wires An ideal voltage source would maintain a given potential across its terminals regardless of the circuit.. The potenRcircuit tial jump across the ideal source is V. resistor is IR. and Ohm's law gives resistor is 0 us the resistance .... The potential drop across 1 0R) is given by Ohm's law: the external resistor ( AVext = I&=. 3 volts. . ) in series I.. ?he potential on the other side of . ... The the external resistor is 0 potential difference across the internal ..... and we find that any current through the cell reduces the potential across the terminals.. Electric Circuits C. 5 7amps. Thus from the illustration Figure 1518 we can give an expression for the terminal potential: I ..... What is the internal resistance of the battery? Solution: First let's DRAW A DIAGRAM (Figure 151 9 ) . .. When it is connected to a l 0 ..). 0volts if no @ Q resistor. 6 volts. In the simplified circuit of Figure 1518.57~)(10R) =5 . so the potential drop across the internal with a resistor "(R~~.
A given material has a resistivity p. = IAV. In addition to idealizing DC cells. (5) A where p has the units [Ohm meters]. In fact. Because of Ohm's law. Some resistivities are given in the table below. 4X lod You can assume wires have zero resistance unless the passage tells you otherwise. but if we draw a diagram and apply the methods of Section B.7 X lo4 2 . where I is the current through the resistor and A V is the potential difference across it. Power Recall that power is a measure of how quickly energy is transformed. D. The power dissipated by a resistor is P . so the resistance of a wire is given by 1 R=p. we have been assuming that wires have noresistance at all. where I is the current through the cell and A V is the potential .) The power provided by a DC cell to a circuit is Pd. Notice that equation (4) does not automatically give the answer in this example. = IAV. substance silver copper gold resistivity(i2m) 1. they have a small resistance which is proportional to their length and inversely proportional to their crosssectional area.The MCAT Physics Book Another way to do this problem is to combine resistances. measured in [Jls = Watts = W]. we may also write (It is better to remember how to derive this equation than to memorize it.5 X lo8 1. 1 is the length of the wire (in [m]) and A is its crosssectional area (in [m2]). then we obtain the answer in two steps.
1 2 0= ~( ~ A ) R . then the current through the bulbs is the same. Figure 1520 which bulb would be brighter (Figure 1520)? Solution: a. For instance. (Usually the "120W bulb is brighter because the bulbs are connected in parallel. . a. Electric Circuits Example: Light bulbs that you use around the house are designed to have 120 V across their terminals. . we have AV=IR. . A similar calculation gives a resistance 480 Q for the "30W" bulb. a 120W bulb uses 120 Watts of power ‘* 120W" "30w' when placed in a socket with a 120V potential difference. So the 4 8 0 4 bulb (that is.. .. . what is the resistance of a " 120Watt" bulb? What is the resistance of a b.. .Chapter 1 5 . Which b u m brighter when a "30Watt" bulb? 30W bulb and a 120W bulb c. . Figure 1521 b. See Section F. . The equation for power is By Ohm's law.) Figure 1522 . . . If these two bulbs are connected in are connected in series? series. . . .) With that in mind. c. Figure 1521 shows the circuit diagram for a single 120W bulb plugged into a potential source. . 120 v R = 120 St. . If we place the bulbs in series (Figure 1522). . . (Actually it is a little more complicated. the "30W' bulb) is brighter because the bulbs are in series. Since the power is proportional to the resistance. anaplugged into a wall outlet.
and the terminal exerts a greater force on every additional electron the cell transfers. the negative terminal gains a greater charge. because the energy cost is too great. is defined by Bringing the plates near each other increases their capacity to hold charge. Figure 1524 If we bring the plates near each other but not touching (Figure 1525). even more charge is able to be transferred through the cell. if a larger potential is applied to the plates.The M C A T Physics Book I E. is called a capacitor. so it does not mind so much getting onto the negative plate. Figure 1525 . When metal plates are connected to battery terminals. slight negative charge Figure 1523 If. (That is. As it transfers more and more electrons. An electron aniving at the negative plate feels the opposing force from the electrons. In this case the potential between the plates is same as before. then the cell is able to transport more electrons at a low energy cost. because the additional electrons are able to spread out across the plate. The capacitance. but it also feels the attractive force of the nearby positive plate.) Such a device. however. Finally. but the difference is that more charge is able to be contained on the plates than on the terminals of the cell. we connect each terminal to a plate of metal (Figure 1524). a proportionally larger charge will sit on them. but by that time the terminal potential has been reached (Figure 1523). Capacitance slight positive charge A DC cell creates a potential difference between its terminals by transferring electrons from the positive to the negative terminal. the plates become charged. In Figure 1525. it can be energetically favorable. the energy cost of adding an electron is too much and the cell stops. which holds a charge when a potential difference is applied to it. the capacity to hold charge. . Eventually the cell tries to push one more electron onto the plate but cannot. Thus it takes more energy to transfer each additional electron onto it.
. . Now the mite moves at a constant velocity. so we + expect the work to be positive.Chdpter 15 . Electric Circuits (8) AV ' where Q is the charge on one plate. with F * . a diagram showing the forces on the mite (Figure 1527). Also. How much work is required for him to cross from the negative plate to the positive plate? b. The units of capacitance are [Coulombs/volt = Farads = F]. First let's DRAW A DIAGRAM showing the electric field (Figure 1526). . A dust mite has a 2 x 10l4C charge tied around his ankle. . Figure 1527 An electric field exists between the plates o f a capacitor: =1 . . and the other. We write B riq Figure 1526 Fe. The electric field between the plates is uniform (though we will not prove it). to the negative end. What is the magnitude of the electric field between the plates? Solution: a.01 meters apart. . that is. = qE) that the mite experiences must be constant. What force does he experience as he crosses? c. . + Moving from a negative to a positive + plate is an uphill battle for the mite. the capacitance of a device depends on how it is built. we know cos$ is 1. . . 2 ~ 1 0 . The two plates now have a 6V potential difference between them. so the forces are balanced and we can replace Fmi. . . . One sheet we connect by a wire to the positive end of a 6V DC cell. If the electric field is uniform. b.. then the force (F. .. The charge on it is proportional to the voltage applied to it: Q = CAV Example: We place two metal plates parallel to each other and 0. . and Fekf =W Ax .Ax cos 4. and AV is the potential difference across the plates.. a. .' ~ ~ . . . the same direction and magnitude everywhere. c=Q To reiterate. If he goes straight across. Thus we write Fmia 4 + w = FClrcAx. . then we have the old work equation W = Fm. second.
A dielectric is a nonconductplates incremes the copaeitance. It is more important to understand the pictures and the ideas than to apply the formulas in this example. work (per charge) is force (per charge) times displacement. the potential difference between the terminals stays constant. Thus. In fact. = qE. with electrons being pulled toward the positive plate (Figure 1528). the long slit is the ground.placing the dielectric between the plates increases the capacitance. I Remember what this equation is about. Each material which is a nonconductor has a dielectric constant K . In the United States.. The short slit is "hot". and Ax is the separation of the plates.The M C A T Physics Book c. . since an electron arriving at the negative plate feels also the slight positive charge of the one side of the dielectric. relative to ground. This is called direct current (hence DC). such as plastic. If a dielectric is placed between the plates. things are more complicated. The capacitance of the capacitor with the dielectric in the middle is given by The constant K is always greater than 1. Alternating current When a DC cell is connected in a circuit. This is just our old W = FAx equation in new clothing. but the electrons can slosh a little onto one side of the molecules (they are slightly polarizable). The result is that the DC cell c8n transfer still more charge from one plate to the other. We obtain the electric field from F. This ensures that this terminal stays at a constant potential which we call 0 volts. E is the magnitude of the electric field inside of the capacitor. then the molecules in the dielectric become polarized. In a wall outlet. which is a large supply of charge. so that E = 600 NJC. Its electrons are not free to move from one atom Figure 1528 to the next. connected to the Earth itself. Its potential. the assumption made in the problem is fairly accurate: The electric field between two charged parallel plates is uniform. that is. Now let's complicate the situation A dieletric between the metal even more. ing substance. The equation we derived is worth remembering in its own right: where A V is the potential across a capacitor. F.
Chdpter
15
. . . . . ....
.. . . . . . . . ... Electric Circuits
120 170
varies like a sine wave between +I70 volts and 170 volts. The voltage goes from high to low to high about 60 times a second, that is, with frequency 60 Hz. This is called alternating current, since the current in the wire is changing back and forth (Figure 1529).
Figure 1529
Example: Consider your toaster plugged intithe wall. Thebower company pulls electrons out of the Earth and pushes them onto a wire. The resulting electric field pushes electrons on down the wire, until electrons are pushed into your Figure 1530 toaster. Electrons are pushed out of the toaster into the wire, out of the wire into the Earth. Any one electron does not go very far, but the signal goes from the power company to your toaster. (See Figure 1530.) Then the power company pulls electrons out of the wire and pushes them into the Earth. The resulting electric field pulls electrons along the wire, out of of your toaster. Electrons in the other wire go into the toaster and are replaced with eIectrons puIled from the Earth. Sixty times a second. Until your bread is toasted. Note that only one wire needs to go from the power company to your house, since the Earth itself completes the circuit. Generally we do not talk of the line current as being 170 volts (the maximum). , = 120 volts for the Instead we talk of a kind of average (root mean square) which is V line current. The following equations hold for alternating current:

So there are no new equations to memorize. Things begin to get complicated when we connect alternating current to capacitors (and to other things), but that is beyond the scope of the MCAT. In this chapter we built on the concepts of the previous chapter to study simple circuits. When you solve problems involving circuits, it is helpful to visualize the flow of charge as the flow of a fluid and the potential in the wires as a height above a standard. Each piece of wire is at one potential. Each individual resistor has a current I through it and a potential AVacross it such that AV= IR (Ohm's law). It is important to be careful when using Ohm's law. Think about the circuit first. The power dissipated by = I,AV,. a resistor is Pi
A capacitor is two parallel conducting plates which store charge when a potential is appIied to them. The capacitance of a capacitor is its ability to hold charge C = QlAV. The capacitance is determined by the dimension and material of the capacitor and the stored charge depends on the applied potential. The electric field between the plates is x is the separation of the plates. given by AV = EAx, where A
The MCAT Physics Book
Chapter
15 Problems
4.
What would be analogous to the pool? A. a resistor B. an inductor C. a ground D. a wire
Section A Section
B
Use the following information in questions 14: In a certain water fountain, a pump takes water from a large pool and pumps it up to a trough. The water flows along the trough and falls through 3 hole in the bottom. As the water falls, it turns a water wheel and returns to the pool. Assume this water fountain is analogous to an electric circuit.
Use the following information in questions 5 and 6:
Q
1
In the circuit shown, use the following: R, = m a ,
R,=MR.
1 . What would be analogous to electric current? A. water B. flow velocity C. volume flow rate D. height of water 2 .
What would be analogous to electric potential? A. water B. flow velocity C. volume flow rate D. height of water
5. What is the current flowing through resistor 2? A. 0.2 A
B .
C.
D.
0.4A 0.6 A 1.2A
3. What would be analogous to the water pump? A. a motor B. a resistor C. a battery D. a light bulb
6. How does the current flowing through the wire at point P compare with the current flowing at Q? A. 'Ihe current at P is less. B. The current at P is the same. C. 'Ihe current at P is greater. D. 'Ihe answer depends on whether one considers positive current or negative current
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Chapter 1 5 ..... . ..... .... . . .. . . Electric Circuits
Use the following information in questions 7 and 8: In the circuit shown, R, = 1 Q, R, = 2 R, and the emf of the cell is 6 volts.
1
Use the following information in questions 1013: Four 6V batteries are connected in series in order to power lights A and B. The resistance of light A is 40 SL and the resistance of light B is 20 SL.
7.
How does the current flowing through resistor 1 compare with the current flowing through resistor 2? A. The current through resistor 1 is less.
B. C. D.
The current through resistor l.is the same. The current through resistor 1 is greater. None of the above can be concluded.
10. How does the current through light bulb A compare with the current through light bulb B? A. The current through light bulb A is less. B. The current through Light bulb A is the same. C. The current through light bulb A is greatei. D. None of the above is true.
11. What is the potential difference between points C and D? A. 6 volts B. 12 volts C. 18 volts D. 24 volts
8. How does the voltage drop across resistor 1 compare with the voltage drop across resistor 2? A. The voltage across resistor 1 is less. B. The voltage across resistor 1 is the same. C. The voltage across resistor 1 is greater. D. None of the above can be concluded.
9.
Two batteries are connected to a single resistor, as shown in the diagram.
12. How does the voltage drop across light A compare to the drop across light B? A. The voltage drop for A is less than that for B by a factor of 4. B. The voltage drop for A is less than that for B by a factor of 2. C. The voltage drop for A is the same as that for B. D. The voltage drop for A is greater than that for B by a factor of 2.
V,= 6 volts
v, = 9 volts
R=60R
What is the current through the resistor? A. 0.083 A B. 0.125 A
I
13. What is the current through the wire at point C?
C. D.
0.020A 0.250A
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The
MCAT Physics B ~ o k
Use the following information in questions 1416: In the circuit diagram shown, note that R, = 4 a, R2=2a, R3 = 2 0 . In addition, the current through resistor 1 is 2 amps.
17. What is the current through resistor l ? A. 2.77 amps B. 6 amps C. 8 amps D. 9 amps
14. What is the voltage drop across resistor l? A. 2 volts B. 4 volts C . 8 volts D. 12 volts
18. How does the voltage drop across resistor 2 (that is, V,) compare with that across resistor 3 (that is, V,)? A. V, = 2 V3
B.
c.
D.
V2 = V3 v3= 2 v2 V2+V3=36V

15. What is the cument through resistor 2?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1 ampere 2 amperes 4 amperes 8 amperes
16. What is the voltage difference between points A and B? A. 2 volts B. 4 volts C. 8 volts D. 12 volts Use the following information in questions 1720: In the diagram, resistors 2 and 3 are in parallel, and their combination is in series with resistor 1. Point A is in the wire between the voltage source and resistor 1. Point B is in the wire between resistor 1 and the combination 2 and 3. Point C is on the other side of resistor 2.
In the circuit shown, use the following: R,=4S2, R2=6S2, R,=3Q, AV= 36V.
19. How would the potential difference across resistor 2 change if points A and B were connected by a wire? A. It would increase. B. It would stay the same. C. It would decrease, but it would not be zero. D. It would be zero. 20. How would the current through the source change if points A and C were connected by a wire? A. It would be the same. B . It would increase by a factor of 4. C. It would increase by a factor of 2 4 . D. None of the above, the circuit would be shorted.
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Chapter
1 5 .... . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. Electric Circuits
Sections
C and D
Use rhe following information in quesrions 2124: In the circuit shown, the light bulbs are each 20 R, and the potential source is 6 volts.
Use the following information in questions 25 and 26: In the circuit shown, resistor 1 has resistance 2 R, and resistor 2 has resistance 4 R. The potential source has a potential of 12 volts.
21. How much energy is dissipated by light bulb 2 in 10 seconds? A. 18 Joules B. 120 Joules C. 200 Joules D. 1200 Joules 22. What would happen to light bulb 2 if light bulb 1 were to blow (interrupting the connection)? A. It would go out. B. It would be dimmer, but it would not go out. C. It would burn the same. D. It would be brighter.
25. How much power is dissipated by resistor l? A. 8 Watts B. 24 Watts C. 48 Watts D. 72 Watts
26. Which correctly gives a relationship between the potential drop across resistor 1, AV,, and that across resistor 2, AV,? A. AV, = AV, B. AV, = 2AV2 C. AV, = 4 AV, D. AV, + AV, = 12 V
Use rhe following information in questions 2730: In the circuit shown, each of the light bulbs has a resistance 2 R, and the potential source has an emf of 6 volts.
23. What would happen to light bulb 3 if light bulb 1 were to blow (interrupting the connection)? A. It would go out. B. It would be dimmer, but it would not go out. C. It would bum the same. D. It would be brighter.
24. What would happen if the points A and B were connected with a wire? A. Light 1 would extinguish, otherwise nothing. B . Lights 1 and 2 would extinguish, light 3 would remain the same. C. Lights 1 and 2 would extinguish, and light 3 would be brighter. D . All lights would extinguish, and the battery would be shorted.
27. Which of the following would increase the power dissipated by light bulb 3? A. Decrease the resistance of light bulb 3. B . Increase the resistance of light bulb 3. C . Decrease the emf of the battery. D. Introduce another resistor at C.
995
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The
MCAT Physics Book
3 2 . Which dissipates more power, light bulb 1 or 3?
A.
2 8 . Which graph best shows the power dissipated by light
bulb 3 as a function of time?
B. C. D.
Light bulb 1. They dissipate the same. Light bulb 3, by a factor 2. Light bulb 3, by more than a factor of 2.
33. What happens if points A and B are connected by a
wire? A. Light 1 extinguishes. B. Light 1 extinguishes, and light 3 is brighter. C. Lights 1 and 2 extinguish, and light 3 is brighter. D. All lights extinguish, and the voltage source is shorted.
34. What happens to the voltage across light 3 if A and B are connected with a wire? A. It becomes zero. B. It stays the same. C. It increases but not to 12 volts.
2 9 . What would happen if light bulb 1 goes out (thus
breaking the circuit)? A. Nothing else happens. B, Light bulb 2 goes out. C. Light bulb 3 bums brighter. D. Light bulb 2 goes out, and light bulb 3 bums brighter.
30. What happens to light bulb 2 if light bulb 1 is shorted, that is, if points A and B are connected by a wire? A. It extinguishes. It becomes dimmer, but it does not extinguish. B. C. It bums the same. D. It bums brighter.
Use the following information in questions 3135: In the circuit shown, each light bulb has a resistance of 2 Q, and the voltage source maintains a potential of . . 12 volts. . .
D.
It becomes 12 volts.
35. What happens if points C and D are connected by a
wire? A. Light 3 extinguishes. B. Light 3 extinguishes, and lights 1 and 2 bum dimmer. C. Light 3 extinguishes, and lights 1 and 2 burn brighter. D. The potential source is shorted.
Use the following information in questions 3638: In the circuit shown, R, = 100 S2, R, = 200 S2, and AV = 6 volts.
31. What is the current passing through the voltage
source?
A.
B. C. D.
lamp 2 amps 4 amps None of the above
36. What is the total resistance for the circuit? A. 67 Ohms B. 100'0hms C. 2000hms
D.
300Ohms
.
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Chdpter
1 5 .. . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . Electric Circuits
37. What is the voltage flowing through resistor l ? A. 2 volts B. 4 volts C. 6 volts D. None of the above
38. How much energy is dissipated by resistor 2 in 10 minutes? A. 108J B. 720 J C. 7.2 x lo3J D. 7.2 x lo4J
Use the following information in questions 3 9 d 1 : The heating element of a toaster is a long wire of some metal, often the alloy nichrome, which heats up when a potential difference is applied across it. In the U.S.A., plugging a toaster into the wall outlet is equivalent to applying a 120V potential source across it. For these problems, consider a 300W toaster connected to a wall outlet.
Use the following information in questions 4244: A variable resistor is a resistor whose resistance can be adjusted by turning a knob. In a certain experiment a battery is connected to a variable resistor R. The potential difference across the resistor and the current through it are recorded for a number of settings of the resistor knob. Assume the battery can be modeled as an ideal potential source in series with an internal resistor.
variable
'           ,
battery
39. What is the resistance of such a toaster? A. 0.4Ohms B. 2.5 Ohms C. 48Ohms D. 3.6 x lo4Ohms
42. The emf of the potential source is 6.2 volts and the internal resistance is 0.1 Q. If the variable resistor is set .for 0.5 Q, what is the current through it? A. 10.3A B. 15.5 A C. 30.6A D. 74.4 A
40. How could one increase the rate at which heat is produced? A. Use a longer wire. B. Use a thicker wire. C. BothAandB. D. None of the above. 41. In one experiment, we use a collection of toasters with various resistances. We record the power consumed by each. Which graph best represents the relationship between power consumption and resistance?
43. Consider the following possibilities: I. a small external resistance 11. a large external resistance III. a small total current IV. a large total current When would it be a good approximation to ignore the internal resistance of the battery? A. I1 only B. n o r m C. I only D. I or IV
.
297
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The MCAT Physics Book
44. From the resistances R and currents I mentioned in the experiment, we prepare a graph of 111versus R. Which of the following best represents that graph?
plates. The copper plates are carefully separated to a new distance 26,.
1 . An alpha particle is a bare helium4 nucleus. If an alpha particle is placed between the plates in Experiment 1, how would the electric force on it compare to the electric force on a proton? A. Both experience zero force. B. The force on the alpha particle would be the same as that on the proton. C. The force on the alpha particle would be double that on the proton. D. The force on the alpha particle would be four times that on the proton.
Passage
1
2.
In a certain experiment, we place two metal plates of area A parallel to each other and separated by a distance d to form a capacitor. The copper disks are mounted on nonconducting stands in a dry room which does not allow the conduction of charge through the air. The two plates are connected with wires to the opposite ends of a DC cell. The capacitance of such a device is given by
What charge is on the positive plate in Experiment 2? A. Q,l3
B. C. D.
3.
Q,
3Ql 9Q1
where
What is the magnitude of the electric field between the plates in Experiment 2? A. E,l3 B. El C . 3E, D. 9 E , What charge is on the positive plate at the end of Experiment 3?
4.
5.
In Experiment 1 we place two copper circular disks of radius R , a distance d l apart and connect them to a battery which produces a potential AV,,. This produces a positive charge Q, on one of the plates and an electric field El between the plates. In Experiment 2 we use two copper circular disks of the same radius ( R , ) and place them three times as far apart (3d,) as in Experiment 1. Again, the two disks are connected to the opposite ends of the same battery. In Experiment 3 we reproduce the setup in Experiment 1. Then the wires are removed from the copper
What is the magnitude of the potential difference between the plates at the end of Experiment 3? A. Avb,,/2 B. A V , C. 2AV,, D. 4AVb,
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the atmosphere is composed mainly of ions. AVl/9 B. What is the magnitude of the electric field between the plates in Experiment 2? A. About 30 km above the surface of the Earth. 4E. .. and the low density of gas at that height inhibits their recombining to form neutral species.. Ql/4 B.). you may consider the charge on the electron to be 1. 3. ! 4 B. Q119 BC. C. . there is a net charge of lo6 C on the a r t h and a corresponding positive charge on surface of the E the ionosphere.. between t the device is Cdi= KC. We connect the two plates to opposite terminals of a battery which produces a potential AV. ! 2 C. and Cdiis the new capacitance. The potential between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere is about 9 x 10' volts. . . Furthermore. . This produces a positive charge Q. a very much simplified model of the Earth and its atmosphere consists of two conductors separated by an insulator. is the capacitance of the plates with a vacuum between them. 81Q. 9Q. What charge is on the positive plate at the end of Experiment 3? A.. . Q1 D.) 1.. Then the wires are removed from the copper plates... Thus the model roughly resembles a parallelplate capacitor. 5. called a dielectric in electrical engineering h e plates. In this case. The copper disks are mounted on nonconducting stands in a dry room which does not allow the conduction of charge through the air.. on one of the plates and an electric field El between the plates. 2C. 3AV1 C. D. is the dielectric constant of the nonconductor. we place two metal plates of area A parallel to each other and separated by a distance d to form a capacitor. Electric Circuits Passage 2 4. D. The two plates are connected with wires to the opposite ends of a DC cell.Chapter 15 . In a certain experiment. and it is a fairly good insulator. B. We can increase the capacitance of such a setup by inserting a nonconductor. These ions are created by the bombardment of cosmic rays. 1he atmosphere near the surface of the Earth. called the ionosphere. E . 281 Thus. however. ..stratosphere What charge is on the positive plate in ~xperiment 2? A.. is composed mainly of neutral oxygen and nitrogen molecules. 81AV1 Passage 3 The Earth itself is a relatively good conductor. In Experiment 3 we reproduce t h e setup in Experiment 1. Q. . E . a distance d. 4C. is a good conductor. 16C 2. . In Experiment 2 we reproduce the setup in Experiment 1. thus creating a capacitor with capacitance C. For these questions. What is the capacitance of the capacitor in Experiment 2? A.6 x C. . where C.. the capacitance of parlance.12 C. This time. area A. . 999 GO ON TO ME NEXT PAGE . the two disks are connected to the opposite ends of a battery which produces four times the potential as that in Experiment 1 (4AV. ionosphere. . .. 9AV. What is the magnitude of the potential difference between the plates at the end of Experiment 3? A. apart. This portion of the atmosphere. 2E.. In Experiment 1 we place two copper circular disks of . the troposphere and stratosphere.. D. We place cellulose nitrate (a dielectric with dielectric constant K = 9) between the plates. . C. (See figure.
If a sodium ion is at point A. 7 ~ 1o9N1C D. D. Neutral particles of pollution are attracted to the center wire. They are attracted to the outer cylinder.molecule is at point A. which of the following best represents the electric potential as a function of height h above the Earth's surface? 1. left C. 1. 4. 9 x 10" Farads 1 . left C.8 x Joules 1. what is its capacitance? A.. What is a good approximation for the magnitude of the electric field in the Earth's atmosphere? A. in what direction would it experience a force? GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE . 9 x ~ O ' ~ N I C 3. .) 2.&I. down 2.4 x 10l3NIC B. in what direction would it experience a force? A. 5.O. 30 Farads C. It consists of a long thin wire surrounded by a conducting cylinder.8 x Joules 1. A typical energy requirement for such a device is about 300 Joules for each cubic meter of gas processed. 2 .1 Farads B. such that a potential about 5 x lo4volts is maintained between the negative wire and the positive cylinder. Assuming the electric potential at the Earth's surface is zero.4 x 10l3Joules @ t A. The electric field near the wire is strong enough (greater than about 3 x lo6NIC) to ionize air. What would be the change in potential energy of an electron which was transported from the Earth's surface to the ionosphere? A. 1.6 X 10l9 C. Note: The charge on an electron is 1. Point A is in the plane of the page. where they collect and are eventually removed.7 x lo9 Farads D. right B. 2. up D. 30NlC C. C. Considering the Earth and its atmosphere as a An electrostatic precipitator is a device used in industry to remove pollution from exhaust gas.The MCAT Physics Book capacitor. right B. If a C. Which of the following best represents the electric field? The resulting electric field inside the cylinder varies inversely with the distance from the center wire..4 x 10I3Joules B. 1. down clean gas polluted gas . 1. up D. (See figure. so the pollution particles are ionized negatively.
The aligning of a small magnet to Earth's magnetic field. If lightning strikes anyway. some of the negative charge of the cloud neutralizes the positive charge of the Earth. If the potential maintained across the wirdcylinder were increased.5x10=~ C.8 amps D. a strong negative charge. it is more likely to strike the lightning rod than the buildings.) The resulting potential difference between the bottom of the cloud and the ground is around 10' volts. D. The capacitance could decrease or increase depending on the gas in the cylinder. If a fluorine atom were ionized to form fluoride (mass 3x kg) near the center wire. The end in the air comes to a sharp point.3. The capacitance would stay the same. 0. it is helpful to install lightning rods. Which of the following is the closest analogy to the attraction of neutral particles of pollutants to the center wire? A. Meanwhile the cloud induces a positive charge on the surface of the Earth. When lightning strikes. 1. C. A lightning rod is a long piece of metal with one end embedded in the ground and the other end extending up higher than the surrounding buildings. The van der Waals attraction between two nitrogen molecules in air. The capacitance would increase. The attraction between a chloride ion and a sodium ion in a salt crystal. J C. Which of the following best represents the electric field lines in the cylinder? 7. The capacitance would decrease. When thunderclouds form. B. forming a current of 20 kamps. a weaker positive charge. GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . low2 amps C. The top of the cloud has a strong positive charge. 8xl0~'~ B. the base of the cloud is generally about 2 km above the surface of the Earth. B. A charged comb picking up pieces of paper. 0 amps B. and excitation of molecules in air. what would be the electrical current through the device? A. The purpose of such a piece of metal is to conduct electrons from the Earth into the air and reduce the charge imbalance. and the bottom of the cloud. This results in a huge release of energy in the form of dissociation. while the top of the cloud may extend to about 8 krn above the Earth. Approximately 4 Coulombs of negative charge pass from the ground to the cloud. 4. how would the capacitance of the device be affected? A. what is the best approximation for the maximum kinetic energy it could have by the time it reached the outer cylinder? A. 5. The charge structure is quite complicated. D. and electromagnetic radiation. (See figure. In places especially prone to lightning. thus reducing the of lightning. the heating and expanding of gas. ionization. If the flow rate of gas through an electrostatic precipitator is 100 m3/s. the middle of the cloud. 3 x lo4amps 6.
5 m n 2x104sz posterior anterior 3. 2. The organism generates the electric field in an "electric organ" which can take up most OF the body cavity. There is not enough information to answer this question. heating of air D. dissociation of molecules B. 2 x 10" Joules D. D. Whlch of the following best represents the electric field near a lightning rod? Equilibrium State C. use this capability to stun or kill a predator or prey. How much energy is released during a stroke of lightning? A. 4 x 10' Joules C. which includes many features by which these organs operate. in effect. as a battery. creating a potential difference between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell. expansion of air During the activated state. partially but not fully compensating for the potential difference due to the imbalance of Na' ions. 2 x lo' seconds 4. The Following description refers to a hypothetical electric organ. so they rush in through the posterior face due to the potential difference.The MCAT Physics Book What is the approximate magnitude of the electric field in the air during a thunderstorm? I. such as the electric eel. as shown in the figure below.1 V. The result is a potential difference across the whole organ. the posterior side of the cells becomes permeable to sodium ions. What is approximate resistance for charge flow during a lightning strike? A. (See the figure below. 8 x lo4Joules B. 2x seconds B. 5 x lo' seconds C. Potassium ions rush in the same direction through the anterior face of the cell. 0. Other species. 6. as shown in the second figure below. so the interior of the cell becomes enriched with K+ ions. either predator or prey. the cells actively exclude sodium ions (Na3.5 seconds 5 . What is the approximate duration of a stroke of lightning? A. For some species this helps them to detect other organisms.) The circuit is completed in the surrounding water. excitation of molecules C. 1 A number of aquatic species have evolved the capability to produce sizable electric fields. The cell membrane is permeable to potassium ions (K'). Electrocytes are flattened cells (like disks) which are stacked in a series. which acts. B. During the equilibrium state. The magnitude of the potential difference between the inside and outside is of the cell is about 0. Which of the following is most likely to result in the light associated with lightning? A. I 1 GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE .
a point in the interior of the cell. because ions c a w current in sea water. 1. . Sea water. C. During the equilibrium state. 75 amps 150 amps 300 amps 3. what is the approximate total current through the fish during the activated state? A. .. B. Fresh water. . Electric Circuits 4. the current across the anterior and posterior faces of a cell in this hypothetical electric organ is 30 milliamps. Sea water. . The duration of a pulse is 2 milliseconds. because sea water is slightly more dense. fresh water or sea water? A.. Fresh water.6 x 10l9C. 30 milliamps B. and x. . C. Which of the following best shows the magnetic field due to the fish during the activated state? During the activated state. B. Consider x. D. to be points in the extracellular medium and x. How much charge crosses the cell membrane during the activated state? A. . . . Which of the following best shows the electric field due to the fish during the activated state? Activated State (arrows show currentflow) arrows show currentflow  5.. D . / 2. If the electric organ of a fish consists of 5000 electrocytes stacked in a series.. . . . which graph best shows the electric potential as a function of x? 6. .Chapter 1 5 . 1. because sea water is slightly more dense. . because ions impede current in sea water.. .6~1019c 3 x 1 0 ~ ~ STOP . The charge on an electron is 1.. Which is a better conductor of electricity.
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and each electron has charge 1. forces and fields was insufficient to discuss the world of the very small.Chapter 16 Atomic and Nuclear Physics I A. Introduction In this chapter we break out of the tradition and viewpoint of classical physics and discuss results from quantum theory. An electron truly has no exact position. but it exists 90% within a radius of 1. kilograms are really too large a unit to use to talk of these masses. In the 1890s. Basic Structure of an Atom As was mentioned in Chapter 14. For instance. Each proton has a charge +1. (That does not mean that it spends 10% of its time outside of 1. Particles simply do not have a definite position nor velocity. but it's the wrong way. Orbital it is in? An orbital is a state of being for an electron. which we have been studying thus far. an electron in the lowestenergy orbital of a hydrogen atom exists throughout the area near the nucleus. we would specify its position and velocity. although it does exist more strongly in some places than in others. That is thinking classically again. Instead we talk about a particular electron in an atom by specifying the orbital it is in.) I B. physicists began to realize that the very language of particles and positions. It is not the case that electrons have position and velocity of which we are simply ignorant. The mass of the proton and the mass of the neutron are about the same (1. and quantum physics was born. As you can see. One way to think about it is to think that electrons are tiny particles which move so fast that we do not know where they are. That is one way to think about it. They needed a new language and a new way of thinking. each neutron has zero net charge. we do not even talk about position and velocity in this way. Physics would tell us how that position changed in time. or [amu] (or sometimes just u). because it turns out these terms are impossible to define.6 x 10l9C (chemists call this +I). of atoms and molecules. so that . called the atomic mass unit. and the area of space they move in is an orbital.4 x lo'' m and 10% outside of that radius. Knowing an electron's orbital means knowing its energy (generally) and knowing something about its location (often).4 x lo" m. The nucleus of the atom contains protons and neutrom. so we often use another mass unit.6 x C (chemists call this 1). In classical physics. but not its exact position. an atom consists of a tiny positive charge center m) called the nucleus and a surrounding cloud of electrons (lo" m). In quantum physics. existing all around the nucleus at once. Atoms connect together by interactions of their electrons to form molecules and ionic solidr. if we wanted to talk about a particular electron in an atom. and electrons are about 2000 times lighter.7 x lo'' kg). which comprise almost all of the matter around us.
. The mass of such a nucleus is about 4 amu (actually 4.00055 amu. or atomic number. since we can obtain that from the periodic table. The atomic number also determines which element the atom makes up. (Exceptions are vanishingly rare. . of which 2 went into the :He.. the sum of left superscripts for the reactants must equal the sum of left superscripts for the products. where the mass number is 4 and the atomic number is 2. the e and what other nucleus? include a " ~ nucleus Solution: The information given in the problem can be written where we have used the symbol i n for the neutron (do you see why?). Tbus the final nucleus has a 6 in the lower left position and a 14 in or carbon14. The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The mass number is approximately the atomic mass of an atom in amu. of which 4 are in He. The notation we use for a single atom contains all this information. This assures that the number of heavy particles stays constant. Thus we can describe a nucleus by specifying the number of protons in it. since the neutrons of the nucleus have properties of 3 S ~ hardly any effect on the surrounding electron cloud...0087 amu. We really do not need to specify the atomic number. Example 1: When a slow neutron collides with a 1 7 0 nucleus. called a photon and symbolized by 7 .00260 amu). or mass number.The MCAT Physics Book 1 amu = 1. The symbol :He may refer either to a nucleus having two protons and two neutrons or to an atom having such a nucleus. = 1. The atomic mass (sometimes erroneously called the atomic weight) is the mass of an atom in amu. since most of the mass comes from the protons and neutrons. . = 0.) One of these particles is often a particle of light. and the total number of protons and neutrons. m. for example.. chemical and l 37C1 are nearly identical. so we write the upper left. This assures that charge is conserved in the reaction. The number of protons mentioned among the reactants is 0 + 8 = 8. Several atoms which differ in the number of neutrons but have the same number of protons are called isotopes of that element.6606 x kg . We write nuclear reactions using similar notation as that for chemical reactions. corresponding in the periodic table to I4c When writing reactions. we denote common helium by one of the two symbols: (pronounced "helium four"). = 1. The number of protons and neutrons all together among the reactants is 1 + 17 = 18. It is very nearly the mass of a proton or neutron. so we have m. the sum of left subscripts for the reactants must equal the sum of left subscripts for the products. 3 5 ~and 1 37~1 The .0073 amu . Also. There are always at least two product particles in any nuclear reaction. me. except now we are concerned with changes in the protons and neutrons in the nuclei. For instance.
1 x lo'' J. from one state to another. or make a tmnsirion. The state corresponding to the lowest energy is called the growtd state. . in which the vertical axis represents energy and the horizontal axis does not represent anything. There is no such thing as an isolated hydrogen atom with energy 1.5 x 10" J or with energy. For instance. so the energies for all the other states are negative.1. Planck's constant. How do we write the reaction? Solution: We write the reaction as follows: :H+ or ':c+ ':N+ y 'H+ 12c+1 3 ~ y+ where we have used H for the proton (again. there is a connection between the frequency of the light and the energy of a photon of that light. Zero energy corresponds to the state in which the proton and electron are infinitely separated. Quantum theory maintains that these disturbances come in little packets called photons. the electrons are in various orbitals. C. In previous chapters we discussed light in terms of a wave of disturbance of electric and magnetic fields. a hydrogen atom can have only energies corresponding to the equation where n is a positive integer. At any rate. If there are a large number of photons. The atom as a whole has a certain energy. . then they act like the classical field discussed in Chapter 13.. so that 1 where h = 6. It does this either by colliding with another atom or by absorbing or releasing a photon. Bringing the proton and electron Figure 161 together releases energy. Even though the atom cannot have energies between the allowed energy states shown on the diagram. Energy Levels and Transitions For an isolated atom. the atom can jump. . Other states are excited states. Atomic and Nucledr Physics Exampie 2: When a proton collides with a nucleus of carbon12. depending on what orbitals are occupied by electrons.. . This can be shown graphically on an energy level diagram Figure 16l). . since they do not fit into the formula.Chapter 1 6 . Quantum theory predicts that only certain energies are allowed for a given atom. generally the result is one new nucleus (if there is a reaction at all). do you see why?).63 x 10"~J/Hz is a constant of nature.
Figure 163 shows the process differently. The downward arrows represent emitted photons. An atom which has absorbed a photon may emit a photon of a different energy by making a transition to a new I Figure 162 Step 1 . where absorption occurs between steps 1 and 2 and emission between steps 2 and 3. / u Eo Step 2 Step 3 El  F i r e 163 state. so the atom emits two photons for each one it absorbs. so its energy is The second excited state must have n = 3. Most of the gas in the sample is in the ground state (lowest energy state). To what frequency should the laser be tuned so that the hydrogen atoms absorb the light and end up in the second excited state? Solution: The ground state corresponds to n = 1. is shown in Figure 162. is called$uorescence.(2.18 x lo'' J) = 1. in which the up arrow represents absorption and the down arrow. This process. so its energy is The energy of the photons in the laser are (0. Thus the frequency of the photons is Transitions are shown in an energy level diagram by arrows from one line to another. The upward arrow represents the absorption of the original photon. Several things can happen after an atom has absorbed a photon. Example 1: A beam of laser light is incident on a sample of hydrogen gas. then the photon has an energy given by the difference of the energies of the atomic states. called scattering. Several examples will make this more clear. It can decay back to its previous state. subsequent emission. This phenomenon.94 x lo'' J. Figure 164 . Figure 161 shows the transition for Example 1.The MCAT Physics Book If a photon is emitted or absorbed by an atom. emitting a photon of (almost) the same energy. This is shown in Figure 164. in which a substance absorbs one frequency of light and emits light of different frequencies.24 x lo'' J) .
but sometimes zero energy corresponds to complete ionization and the ground state energy is negative. The second type of radioactive decay is beta decay. For accounting purposes. If this happens spontaneously. here shown initially at rest. it slows down by ionizing molecules that it passes by. a single nucleus. sometimes we say the ground state has zero energy. Once in the body. the nucleus undergoes a change. and sometimes E. and an antineutrino. . so we write . an electron. There are three main types of radioactive decay. Also. (Figure 165 shows this decay. t In alpha decay.) Step 1 step 2 132Th 'r. Nuclei with many neutrons. often called a beta pahcle. Nuclei which have an especially large number of protons and neutrons will sometimes throw off a packet of two protons Note that an alpha particle is the same and two neutrons. Sometimes the ground state energy is labeled E. The ground state is always the lowestenergy state. . The antineutrino is so penetrating that it generally passes through the body and the planet without depositing any energy. This is called alpha decay. . however. . The speeding electron. The protons and neutrons hold together. called an alpha particle (a). In order to complete it. Example 1: What is the reaction representing the alpha decay of the thorium232? Solution: The answer is 232 . can be highly injurious to biological tissue. 165 shows this symbol : ~ e Figure decay. e Figure 165 Generally alpha emitters are not dangerous to biological tissue (provided you do not eat them). it is called radioactive decay. undergo normal beta decay (p). Example 2: What is the reaction for the (normal) beta decay of lithium9? Solution: On the left side of the reaction we have . we need to make sure the upper and lower left numbers add up correctly. the symbol of the electron is ye. compared with protons. The alpha particle is always represented by the . a neutron decays into a proton.i+?+ qe. The proton stays in the nucleus. We know the atomic number of thorium (90) from the periodic table. which can be very dangerous if one such molecule is DNA.~a+ : ~ e . ~ i On . Sometimes. while the electrons in the electron orbitals are doing all sorts of things. Thus we have the incomplete equation ?L. one a small 4 ~nucleus. the right side we place an electron. . Atomic and Nuclear Physics Do not get thrown off by notation. so it is mostly harmless.. breaks into two pieces. That means they generally do not get inside of you. since the alpha particles lose energy very quickly and do not penetrate very far even in air (several centimeters). Also we add an antineutrino. The nucleus is often content to spend many years undergoing no major changes. since it is able to speed through the air and penetmte into the body. In this process.Th+ '. as the nucleus of the common helium nucleus. It is a matter of convention which the problem will specify. and the electron shoots away from the nucleus.Chapter 1 6 .
Just as the electrons of an atom may be in an excited state. . called a gamma particle. On the right side we place a positron. The neutron stays in the nucleus. however. It can be harmless if it passes simply through the human body. The lifetime of an atom is not the same as the lifetime of. just as a photon is released in the electronic case.) 2" Example 3: What is the reaction for the positron decay of carbon1 l? Solution: On the left side of the reaction we have 'JC. (A word about words: Radioactivity is generally divided into alpha. which is a particle just like an electron (in mass and so on) with a positive charge. Sometimes writers will be careful to say "normal beta decay" and sometimes they will not. When the nucleus decays into the lower energy state. and gamma decays (although there are some other sorts of decays as well). When the nucleus decays. the energies involved are much greater. the nucleus can also be in an excited quantum state.The MCAT Physics Book or we can write ' ~ i +' ~ e + e . beta.o before after f +coo 00. than for the electronic decays. assume the normal kind unless otherwise specified. The positron. We can measure the time it takes a nucleus to decay in terms of a halfZi$e. Example 4: The radioactive decay of an excited state of cobalt60 is given by where the asterisk indicates an excited state. a proton decays into a neutron. it releases a photon. Figure 166 and a neutrino. In this process.+ v Figure 166 shows this decay schematically. shoots away from the nucleus. and the neutrino is innocuous. If we imagine a population sample of 1000 humans all born in the same year. so the wording can be a bit tricky. The positron is dangerous to biological tissue as well. decays to the ground state. Beta decays are divided into beta decays and positron decays. say. o0o e0 0 oO.  8 = proton o = neutron Nuclei with many protons undergo = electron positron decay (P').which decays into a second excited state of 6 0 ~ which i. a positron. humans. about a million times greater. This reaction is the most penetrating. If it matters which sort of beta decay is required. Thus we have A third type of radioactive decay is gamma decay. able to penetrate many meters of lead. whose symbol is l e . . In this case @ c o g decays into one excited state of @Ni. This is the time it takes half the atoms in a sample to decay. or it can be quite harmful.
all generated at the same moment. We convert this to kg and multiply by c2 to obtain energy 166x kg)kvo 1amu 108 J . but at any moment they have some constant risk of decaying. In order to apply this equation we must be careful that the units agree. One halflife is (156 days)l4 = 39 days.0 x 10' mls is the speed of light. After another eight years. We would expect. . down by four factors of 2. = (232. This is the famous E = mc2 equation.031 1 4. Consider now a sample of 1000 gadolinium148 atoms. What is the halflife of this isotope? Solution: The activity of the sample is down by a factor of 16161101 = 16.. only half of those would be surviving.0026 amu.0381 . After 75 years we expect about half of the original Gd148 to remain. most of the energy of the reaction ends up in the kinetic energy of the alpha particle. Radioactive atoms do not age and die. . the mass of a Th232 is 232. .. and the amount of energy can be determined if we know the masses sufficiently well. Example 6: In the decay of Th232. and the energy of reaction is given by where c = 3. a. about half of those have decayed. The mass deficit in this reaction is m. Atomic and Nuclear Physics then after 75 years we would expect about half of them (or 500) to still be alive.Chdpter 1 6 . is the difference of the mass of products and the mass of reactants. This energy is mainly in the form of kinetic energy of the alpha particle. There is a deep connection between mass and energy which we will mention only briefly here. That means that four halflives must have transpired.228. Where did the missing mass go? This mass has been converted into energy. In this reaction. After another five years. After a decay.0044 amu.0381 amu. After another 75 years. that there would probably be no survivors. leaving about 250 Gd148 atoms. After 156 days the radioactivity is down to 101 millicuries. mass is converted into energy..03 11 amu. The mass deficit m. In Example 1. The mass of Ra228 is 228. it would be half again. This isotope decays by alpha emission to samarium144 with a halflife of 75 years. How fast (approximately) is the alpha particle going? Sdution: a. Example 5: The nucleus Ru103 decays to the stable isotope Rh103. 150 years after the birth date..0026) amu = 0. We obtain a pure sample and measure that its radioactivity to be 1616millicuries. how much energy (in J) does the alpha particle have? b. and that of He4 is 4. After yet another 75 years. . . Notice that the sum of the Ra228 and He4 masses is less than that of Th232. there are around 125 left. that is.
beta plus y. In summary for this section. about 5% of the speed of light. but not so fast that we have to resort to the full mechanics of special relativity. and gamma decay. electronic energy levels. The key to understanding problems involving nuclear reactions.66x lo'' kg = 6. We know E.6 x 1amu kg. including radioactive decay. e.The MCAT Physics Book b. The key to understanding many physical situations lies in understanding the energy level diagram. These decays vary in the type of particle expelled from the nucleus and the effect that this expulsion has on the nucleus. When the atom or nucleus makes a transition from one state to another. gamma e e Y (do not need to know) (do not need to know) v V antineutrino In this chapter we discussed the physics of the atom and nucleus: atomic structure. There are three types of radioactive decay. a photon is absorbed or released with energy equal to the difference of the energies of the two states. here is a chart of special particles and their symbols for nuclear reactions: Particle proton neutron helium4 electron positron photon neutrino  Other names Symbol :H 1 P n 0" a. 2 so we want m to be in kilograms: ma = 4. e+. and nuclear reactions. We want to use the equation E. = mv2 to solve for v. An atom or nucleus can exist only in certain discrete states of precise energy. beta.0026 amu 1 I 1. beta minus p+.alpha :He 0 1 0 +l p. . radioactivity. called alpha. Then we have This is quite fast. in Joules. lies in visualizing the decay and in writing the nuclear reaction correctly.
GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE .? mmon = 2000 m. what is its speed after 0.5~10~rn1s Use the following information in questions 2 6 : A charged parallelplate capacitor has an elecuic field Eo between its plates. = 4000 F. If a proton (mass 1. and the latter a force of magnitude F.Iron * mdcceon = 9 x lo" kg . Two neutrons. 6.7 x kg. Atomic and Nucledr Physics Chapter 1 6 Problems 4. F. compare with the magnitude of the force of the heavy hydrogen nucleus F.. The bare nuclei of ' H and of 4 ~are e between the plates.? Sections A and B 1 . charge 1. 9 x 1 0 f m / s D. F. A charged parallelplate capacitor has an electric field of 160 NIC between its plates. The following represents a possible reaction: 3. 1. 1.. and both are at rest. A proton and an electron are both between the plates.. and both are at rest at t = 0 seconds. A proton. A proton and a neutron. = Fd 7. . Note the approximations: 5. F. How does the magnitude of the force of the light hydrogen nucleus F.The r former ion ' experiences a force of magnitude F.and the bromide ion m ~ .. How do these compare? A.compare the acceleration of the hydrogen nucleus a with the magnitude of the acceleration of the helium nucleus a... F * = 2000 F. C .. Two ions are placed between the plates: the fluoride O F . How does the magnitude of .. Ignore the force of gravity. Some isolated = ' u atoms will spontaneously fission into two approximately equalsized fragments. 1.. . How does the magnitude of the acceleration of the proton a.7~ l~~~mls B.6 x C) is between the plates and starts from rest. 5 . qPmmn = 1.. = FF us^+ " ' ~ a +9 2 ~ r +? What is missing from the right side of the reaction? A. C. B. The bare nuclei of H and of 'H are between the plates.? ' An elecuon and a deuteron (bare nucleus of H) are placed between the plates. D. . 2.Chdpter 1 6 .7 x 10lom/s C. and both are at rest. B.1 milliseconds? A. How does the magnitude of the force on the electron Fek compare with the magnitude of the force on the deuteron Fd? A. A neutron. compare with the magnitude of the acceleration of the electron a.6 x lo" C .
2 x 1014Hz. If an atom has only the three energy levels shown in the figure below. The ground state corresponds to zero energy. 2 ~ + 2 ~ + 2 ~ If the nucleus "N is bombarded with a proton.2 x 1014Hz 10" Hz and 9.4 x 2. ' H ~ + ~ H B.5 x the transition is from the ground state. 4 ~ e + 1 ~ + ' ~ C. 7 ~ i + ' ~ D. 7. If one )He nucleus encounters another.0x 1 0 4 ~ ~ 1. which she determines is a transition from the ground state to an excited state.4 x 2.7 x loi4Hz 314 GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . B. (Use h = 4. C. which is a possible list of products? A.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3.0 x 10' d s and h = 6. B.0 x lo8mls. D.) A.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3.0 x lo8 mls. 6 10. 1 B.The MCAT Physics Book 8. A common reaction in the Sun involves the encounter of two nuclei of light helium ()He). What is the energy of the (excited) quantum state she has discovered? (Use h = 4.8 x 10'' Hz.63 x J s. How many lines are possible in the visible spectrum? A.7 x 1014Hz 10" Hz.) A. 3 C.5 x 10'' Hz. The figure below shows the known energy level diagram for a hypothetical atom. we discover a m. and we discover that line with wavelength 1. 16N+y Use the following information in questions 12 and 13: The figure below shows the energy level diagram of a hypothetical atom.) 9.2 x 2. one or more products may result.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3. What other energy level must exist in the atom? (Use c = 3. 0 B. 2 D.3 x lo'* J 13. and 9. What is the maximum number of spectral lines for this atom? A. Section C 12. A brilliant young scientist discovers a new spectral tine with frequency 4.4 x 1014HZ 10'~ Hz and 7. Which of the following represents a possible set of products? A.) 1 1 . 1 C. Light in the visible portion of the spectrum has frequency between 4. In the spectrum of a hypothetical atom. 3. 4 D. 3 14. what possible frequencies might be in the spectrum of this atom? (Use h = 4.0 x 10' mls.0 x 10" HZ and 7. B. 7.
. Zero energy correspoads to the state in which one electron is completely removed from the atom. "'~n 2 1 . What nucleus results when "Ni decays by positron emission? A. We measure the radioactivity of a certain sample of 3 2 to be 300 mCi. What is the energy of the excited state referred to in the passage? A. . It had frequency greater than 1. The first step involves two protons colliding to make heavy hydrogen. " * ~ n 24. Which of the following expresses this reaction? A. followed by two beta decays. B.) . 'H+'H+~+~H~ ' H + 'H+ 4 ~ e + y 'H+ 'H+ 3~i+y  1 C.0 x lo8mls. How long before the radioactivity ~ 14.20 ev B. What is the wavelength of light corresponding to this transition? A.5 grams ~ 1 9 .37 ev) to an excited state. D. and another GO ON TO T H EN E X T PAGE . 4. 28. .7 x 10' m reactions called the pp chain. 3 . . 1. The Curies prepared about 1 gram of Ra226 (with Section D 1 8 . 4 .9 days ~ B.83 ev . 'H+ 'H+ l H + y 2 2 . If a photon ionizes a lithium atom. The daughter nucleus from an alpha decay was identified to be " ~ a . " ~ a halflife 1600 years). It had frequency less than 1. How much will be left after 8000 years (about the length of time of recorded history)? A. 5 4 ev C. D. B. what conclusion can be drawn about the photon? A. It had frequency 1. s s ~ C.3 x lo1' Hz. '=~r "~AC 2 2 6 ~ 20. 1 10"grams ~ C. 6. 2 3 .3 x 10" Hz.20 ev 16. 2 2 8 ~ n C.01 x 10" Hz.14 x lo'' ev s and c = 3. B. In the Sun much of the energy results from a set of 15. What was the parent nucleus? A.3 days. C. Which of the following shows this reaction? (The third step in the pp chain is given in problem 8. D.5 x m C. Atomic dnd Nuclear Physics alpha decay? A. None of the above may be concluded. 230Th D.6days C. C.3 x 10" Hz.1~10~g1ams D. . 6. " ~ e B. 6.3 x lo6m D. This corresponds to a transition from the ground state (at 5. 26.Chapter 16 Use the following information for questions 151 7: Atoms of lithium are able to absorb photons of frequency 2. What is the result when a "*udecays by alpha emission. (Use h = 4. 55. 'H+ 'H+ 3 ~ e y+ 1 7 . 3. "Ni D. 2. 0. 0. Another step in the pp chain is a reaction in which heavy hydrogen combines with a proton to make a third nucleus.) A.3x10'm B.) decreases to 20 mCi? (The halflife of 3 2 is A. None.7 days B. =8Th B. D.
3 x lo9 kg D.02872 amu B. 13g 29. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. Each second the Sun produces 3. The mass is less thandouble the mass of the 4 ~ e atom.63 x 10j4J s.03204 amu C. Why not? A. The mass deficit due to the fission of one uranium235 atom is 3 x grams.) A. The mass is exactly double the mass of the He atom.01 864 amu B. A state in which the electron is infinitely far from the nucleus corresponds to 0 ev.01043 amu 30. D. What is the mass deficit for this reaction? A. A. 0. In a nuclear reaction the mass of the products is less than the mass of the reactants. 10~ g D. B.00783 amu 2. C. D. In the Sun. + where the neutrino is massless or nearly so. This is not observed in a chemical reaction.6 ev) n2 ' 1 27.00866 amu 1. An isolated ' ~ atom e will spontaneously decay into two alpha particles. 1.63 x 10j4J s. I 316 GO ON TO THE N E ) C TPAGE . A nuclear power plant provides loE2 J of electrical power each day to run a small community by using heat from the fission of uranium235 to turn turbines. The mass deficit in chemical reactions is too small to be observed by present techniques.99477 m u D.00260 amu 7.2 x lo9 kg c.0 x 10' rn/s h = 6. a transition may occur if the atom absorbs or emits a photon. II Passage 1 A hydrogen atom has energy levels given by En = (I 3. B. however. Consider the interaction of one lithium atom (7 Li) and one hydrogen atom ('H) to create two equal particles. In chemical reactions. How much mass is converted to energy per day to power the community? (Hint: c = 3. four hydrogen nuclei react to form a helium nucleus.01601 amu :£I : ~ e 7 tH .47 129 amu C. HOW much mass does it lose per second from nuclear processes alone? (Use c = 3. 2. the mass deficit is balanced by a mass surplus. 7. 5. 4. 1.602 x 10l9J) The energy level diagram is shown in the figure below. The mass is greater than double the mass of the He atom. An atom generally has an electron in a given energy level. so that the net reaction looks l i e 4 'H+ 4 ~ e 2v.01410 amu 4.) A.The MCAT Physics Book C. None of the above may be concluded.8~ 106'kg Use the following information in questions 26 and 27: Atomic masses of some isotopes on 1 1.0 x lo8 m/s. h = 6.9 x J. B. 4. 0.0249 1 amu D. What can be concluded about the e mass of the ' ~ atom? where n is a positive integer.Li 26.00260 m u 28. 10~g C. What is the mass deficit for this reaction? A. In chemical reactions. the mass is held constant by the nucleus. 0.8x101kg B. (Note: 1 ev = 1. 2. which involve only the electromagnetic force. 0. 25. or particle of light.
and fph be the frequency of the photons released in the closet. The photon had an energy of 12. The phenomenon of phosphorescence requires the interaction of light with three energy levels in an atom (or molecule). f.6ev A hydrogen atom in its ground state absorbs a photon and ends up in the excited state corresponding to n = 3.8 ev. consider a hydrogen atom in an excited state initially at rest. How does f. . Both momentum and energy are conserved. the Sun). 3 . The energy of a photon is given by E wheref is the frequency and h = 4. c. Elc. be the frequency of the absorbed photons.1 ev but less than 12.1 ev. 3. If a child exposes the toy to a bright light (for example. Energy is conserved. The hydrogen atom is now in its ground state. B.. B. It emits a photon of energy E. What is the longest wavelength corresponding to a photon which could cause a transition in a hydrogen atom? A.4 ev C. compare to the f@? A.0 x 10' mls. 1. C.? A. .1 ev. D. but not momentum. compare to the f. = f p h frbr > f* It depends on the specific atoms used in the material. What is the smallest energy a photon must have to boost a hydrogen atom in its ground state to an excited state? A.2 ev D. There is no smallest energy. Certain toys found in cereal boxes display the phenomenon of phosphorescence.2 x m C. L b s Cf. B. f*. 317 GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE . 9. When the toy is taken into the Sun. 1. Letf. The transition from state 1 to the ground state is said to be forbidden. 2.6 ev D.1~10~m B. The mass of a hydrogen atom is m.4 ev B. be the frequency of the photons emitted while the object is still in the sunlight. and it takes place by different (and thus slower) processes than the other transitions. Almost immediately. (Planck's constant is h = 4. 5.7 x lo'' kg. 13. 10.. he is able to observe the phosphorescent photons from this final transition. The photon had an energy greater than 12. the speed of light. The photon had an energy greater than or equal to 12. 2. IE=O ground state 3. .2 ev C. fn = f p h c* ffl> fph D. D. Momentum is conserved. = 1. . making a fast transition to state 1. then the toy will glow with a characteristic color when the child takes it into a dark closet. a photon causes a transition from the ground state to state 2.2 ev. 4. The .. which travels to the right.) 1 . 3.14 x lo" ev s. 10.14 x lo" ev s.f. D. There is no longest wavelength.Chdpter 1 6 . = hf. 13.~ m D. The figure below (not to scale) shows a hypothetical energy diagram in which the lowest state shown is the ground state (E = 0). where c = momentum of a photon is given by p p h o= 3. C. . What is the ionization energy for a hydrogen atom? A. It depends on the specific atoms used in the material. 6 ~ 1 0 . 1 . what can be concluded? A.5 ev B. In the scenario mentioned in the second paragraph. The atom makes a transition to the ground stateonly slowly. How doesfa.. but not energy.the atom emits a photon. Thus when the child takes the toy into a closet.. The photon had an energy greater than 10. . Neither momentum nor energy is conserved. . Atomic and Nucledr Physics For the following questions. cf* B. What is the most restrictive statement that can be concluded about the photon? A.
The particles in the beam go faster. Which is correct? A. what is the effect on the beam? A. beam GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . The Sun emits photons of many frequencies. and the toy converts the photons to the desired frequency. The beam bends down. but it is blocked by several centimeters of aluminum. We dbtain a pure sample of 6 6 ~(Sample a 2). the level of radioactivity is down to 250 mCi. The beam bends to the left. Sample 1 We observe radioactivity from a sample of 209Po (Sample I). The beam bends down. C. After the child brings the object into the closet. The beam is traveling to the east. what is the effect on the beam? A. C. The beam bends to the right. pD. __+ 9.The M C A T Physics Book 3. In one experiment the beam is subjected to an electric field which points up. C. 1 . B. Which of the following gives a correct expression for&. D.05 rnm) gold foil. The Sun emits photons of one frequency. B. State 1 is most populated. A beam is made of the radioactive efflux in the same way as mentioned for Sample 1. 5. The ground state is the most populated. p+ Y c. When the beam from Sample 1 enters the magnetic field. as viewed from the top. The particles in the beam slow down. and the toy is constructed to absorb that frequency. The Sun emits photons of one frequency. D . In another experiment the beam is subjected to a magnetic field which points down. Either the ground state or state 1 is the most populated. The radioactive efflux is made into a beam by placing the sample in a block of lead (Pb) with a hole which allows the particles to escape as shown in the figure below). but the radioactivity is effectively blocked by a piece of thin (0. C . Which number is greatest? A. The beam bends up. D. 12. At what time after the beginning of Experiment 2 was the radioactivity level at 500 mCi? A. B. The beam bends up. State 2 is most populated. B. B. 5. which atomic state is the most populated? That is. The beam veers to the south. D . The Sun emits photons of many frequencies. and a number in state 2. 3. as viewed from the top.? SampIe 2 4. C. a number of atoms have electrons in the ground state.6 hours 15 hours None of the above is correct. We observe that the radioactivity is not blocked by a piece of thin metal foil. B. C . When the beam from Sample 1 enters the electric field. I 4. a number in state 1. What is the product of the decay of '09po? A. which has a radioactivity level of 1000 mCi. 'OSpb 209~t 209~i 209~o 2. but only photons corresponding to the absorption frequency will be absorbed by the object. What type of radioactivity is produced by 6 6 ~ a ? A. a B. and it enters a strong magnetic field pointing up. but only photons corresponding to the absorption frequency make it through Earth's atmosphere. After 19 hours.5 hours D. D.
. several photons are often observed in the vicinity of the event.Z is strongly positive. Kcapture is possible because there is some overlap of the firstshell orbital and the volume taken up by the nucleus. decreases by 1 C. that is. B. C. D. A.Z is only slightly positive or even negative. an electron. so that 4. D. the firstshell orbital has a nonzero amplitude at the center of the nucleus. 5. When the difference N . Which of the following. C.Z during normal beta decay? A. What kind of nuclei would tend to undergo Kcapture? Nuclei with many more neutrons than protons. would explain why Lcapture. The second shell has a vanishing amplitude in the nucleus. Nuclei with more protons than neutrons. a proton is converted into a neutron. S 6 ~ i % +co+e'+v S6~i+S6~~+e+V S6~i+56~0+e+~ S6~i+e+m~o+v B. When N . ez. The secondshell electrons are easily removed from the atom. It will last indefinitely. Which is the best explanation for this? 3. In Kcapture. if true. it is likely that a nucleus will decay by 0. D. and a neutrino. Nuclei with protons in low energy orbitals. Atomic dnd Nuciedr Physics 6. that is. and the symbol means that N is greater than or approximately equal to Z. C. D. For instance. decreases by 4 B. where N is the number of neutrons and Z is the atomic number. the 1s orbital) combines with a nuclear proton to make a neutron and a neutrino. The neutrino ionizes the sumounding atoms. What happens to N . a positron. when will the level of radioactivity decrease to zero? A. The neutron decays into particles which ionize surrounding atoms. The second shell has greater energy than the first shell. and the strong force. .. 2. and an antineutrino (which rarely interacts with matter). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE . Which of the following represents the Kcapture decay of %Ni? A. most stable nuclei have somewhat more neutrons than protons. This often happens in nuclei in which positron decay is forbidden. although nonmassive stable nuclei have about the same number of neutrons as protons. combined with the Pauli principle for the particles in the nucleus. increases by 4 1 . decreases by 2 C. B. In P' decay (also called positron decay). D. Passage 4 The two dominant forces in the nucleus of an atom are the electromagnetic force. because it is energetically unfavorable. The positron interacts with an electron. . is extremely rare? A. an electron from an orbital of the first shell (or Kshell.Z during alpha decay? A. In Experiment 2. 28 hours. the interaction of a nucleus with a secondshell electron. 112 hours. which is the repulsive force among protons. B. increases by 1 increases by 2 6.decay. decreases by 2 B. Many of the things we observe in nuclei can be explained by a balance of these two forces. positrons.. f Nuclear physicists say that these nuclei are in a valley o stabiliv. Nuclei with a deficit of electrons. stays the same D. The secondshell electrons cannot be converted to D.Chdpter 16 . 56 hours. When an atom undergoes Kcapture. C. C. then there are two likely modes of decay: 0' decay and Kcapture. B. which is attractive among protons and neutrons. What happens to the difference N . Electrons in outer shells make transitions to lower shells. in which a neutron converts into a proton. A. for instance.
Li Paragraph 3 alludes to nuclear reactions which may be dangerous to normal tissue. according to this paragraph? .08 moles Which reaction shows an example of the spontaneous fission mentioned in the last paragraph? A. A. producing gamma rays. boron10 is introduced into tumor cells. Another idea involves attaching boron to nucleosides. ' B. C. One idea involves attaching boron to certain monoclonal antibodies which would recognize antigens on cancer cells. and the area is irradiated with slow neutrons. a neutron C. Thus 2 5 2 ~ taken to the site where it is needed. It has proven difficult to concentrate 'OB in tumor cells. with a 2.3 Mev of kinetic energy. 252 Cf +2S0+ ~ fIn + 'n Why is it dangerous to have too large a neutron flux? A. 256 Fm D. C.03 moles C. The neutrons from the fission can be moderated and directed to the area to be irradiated. effectively destroying cancerous tissue. Another problem is finding a significant source of slow neutrons. This sets an upper limit on the flux of neutrons and thus a lower limit on the necessary concentration of 'OB in tumor cells. 2 4 s ~ m A sample of 2 5 2 ~ is fshipped to a hospital. A charged particle with large kinetic energy will lose that energy as it ionizes molecules that it passes by. It is important not to use a neutron flux so high that neutrons react substantially with oxygen and hydrogen in normal tissue. In paragraph 1. a significant fraction of it can f be spontaneously fissions. f How much was later there are 0. The neutrons will ionize molecules in biological tissue. 2.8 years left.6year halfife. GO ON TO THE N D C T PAGE . 1 . The neutrons will react with boron in normal cells. 0.04 moles D. The neutrons get captured before they have a chance to ionize anything. 160+ 'n+ I3C+ 4 ~ e What is the immediate decay product for the alpha decay of 252 Cf? A. The neutrons will react with hydrogen and oxygen to produce ionizing radiation. and has f been suggested as relatively immobile. a proton B. when a slow neutron encounters a 'OB nucleus. The neutrons are not an elementary p&icle. yielding neutrons. called boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The interaction of a boron10 nucleus and a neutron results in the production of an alpha particle with 2. A. in addition to the alpha particle? A. Why do the neutrons used in irradiation not cause significant ionization and thus radiation damage of normal tissue? D. D . The neutrons do not contain any orbitals.01 moles of 2 s 2 ~ shipped to the hospital in the first place? A.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 5 One strategy in the fight against cancer involves the interaction of neutrons with a particular isotope of boron. what particle is created. 252~s B. Which of the following is a possibility.01 moles B. In BNCT. 0. The neutrons will convert hydrogen and oxygen to other elements. The isotope 2 5 2 ~ a source of neutrons. 0. expensive. 4 ~ e D. There are several problems with this method. B. and 7. 2 s 2 ~ k C. 0. not just tumor cells. Nuclear reactors are few. which tend to be taken up by dividing cells. In this case the alpha particles disrupt the DNA (among other molecules) of the tumor cells. The neutrons have overall zero charge. Although its main channel of decay is alpha.
D.of "0 is to have an activity of 10 mCi at a time 8 minutes after it is created and injected into the body. It then reacts with an electron to form two photons. A gamma particle. the positron travels several millimeters before slowing to a stop. 1. A new method is positron emission tomography (PET). This is used in the synthesis of FDG. . since "F is unstable to positron decay (halflife 110 minutes). The key to this procedure is using the isotope "F in FDG. PET allows us to obtain very precise tomographic information of a specialized nature. Atomic and Nuclear Physics Passage 6 2. Glucose with "0 would not be transported into the cells. The water (with "0) is introduced into the bloodstream. 1'0 B. Hexokinase converts FDG into FDG6phosphate. . For instance. 3. C. a method of imaging which combines Xray images from numerous axial viewpoints. B. In this method. Thus the original site of the decay can be reconstructed. gravitational potential energy In paragraph 3. a neutron D.. 5 . . C. If a sample. when a deuteron collides with the 2 0 ~ e . sound B. accelerates deuterons ( 2 ~ toward A deuteron and a neon nucleus collide to form "F. A proton. The analog is incorporated into the cells along with normal glucose by the same carriers. A neutron. 4. but its metabolism stops at that point. a gamma particle B. The first method of imaging the interior of the human body came with the discovery of Xrays in 1895. In the production of this isotope. A major advance in image resolution came with computerized axial tomography (CAT). which chemically reacts with the hydrogen gas to form hydrogen fluoride (H ''F). In the last paragraph. Where does the kinetic energy of the positron go as it comes to a stop? A. is introduced into a person's bloodstream. D. 60 mCi 6. 2fluoro2deoxyDglucose. "Ne D. an analog of glucose. The isotope "0 would not positron decay when incorporated into a carbon compound. The cells which are metabolizing a large amount of glucose will have a high concentration of FDG tagged with "F. This can be accomplished by bombarding a target of ' 4 with ~ protons from a cyclotron. STOP . nuclear energy. Detailed information can be obtained as to what capillaries are open or closed and therefore what areas of the brain are active. When a 18Fnucleus emits a positron. B. an alpha particle What does the "F nucleus become after positron decay? A. Another use of PET involves the incorporation of the isotope "0 (halflife 122 seconds) into water. Glucose with "0 would be a poison to biological functioning.Chapter 16 . a cyclotron ) a target of I0Ne and &. a proton collides with a 14N nucleus to create ''0 and what other particle? A. An alpha particle. and the fluorine may be detected. which are emitted 180" apart. I9Ne What is a possible problem of using glucose tagged with l5 O? A. "0 C. what must its activity be at the time it is synthesized? A. ionization C. The halflife of ''0 might be too short to record its incorporation into cells. we can obtain information about cells which are metabolizing a large amount of glucose. . These photons are detected by a ring of detectors circling the person's body. a proton C. or FDG. D. what particle is produced in addition to the ' 8 nucleus? ~ A.
Solutions .
. .and we want it in mg. Does this method always work? Clearly you cannot answer every conceivable question by looking at units. Thus 1. . .2.0821 Latrn 1 1 rnol 16g Ar =3000 1000 mg = 3 mg. Here we estimated 4 times 8 = 30. This is close to choice C.. B. This is close enough to yield the answer B.. so that we write Kmol 2 L lOatm 40g 1 0. giving Kmol 2 LlOatm 0. . Here we estimate (1. . B. Now we cut everything down to one digit and quickly multiply.Then we can convert to rnol and g: x ~ ) . Unit analysis takes us to the answer: 1 . 2 .082 1L atm Now we cancel L and atm. but how do we start a unit analysis? Since we know we want to end up with K in the numerator. . . 3 .. which is close enough to give us an answer. O . . Here we start with 1 molecule H . . But it is surprising how many questions can be answered this way. In the third step we calculated 2 40/8 = 10.1 1012(L6) microbes 6 = 0.2 x lo4microbes = 2000 microbes. The question again is. ~ x 160 . . O u r answer is close enough for us to realize the correct answer is B. Thus we write 5.Solutions . Next. giving We want to caacel kg. .02 wlmol 10"molec 1mol We can guess that the amount of time required is proportional to the temperature change desired. because we have seconds in the numerator. .. we can use the J from the power the resistor dissipates 2 W = 2 Jls. we want to cancel the units "C..2 x lo3J k g "C. so we canjust place a factor of I 323 In the second step above. specifically any question in which all the formulas involved are simple proportionalities without unitless proportionality constants. so let's start with that. rchdPter 1 Chapter 1 Solutions I 10 kg in the numerator. C. . so we add a factor of 4.... This gives i 1=1microbe 6x1016g 1. all you need is an answer. A. we can just place it there at the outset: K rnol 0.1)16 to be about 0. . . . We start with the information 1.2.08 16 lmolec(6.1 x 10I2g. 110l2 ~ At this point we rejoice.. we multiplied numerator and denominator by 100. Most calculations go pretty quickly if you look for these shortcuts. . We know this involves the ideal gas equation.0821Latm 1 1 We can cancel rnol if we think of a connection between rnol and the 16 g Ar. giving To cancel J. .10uK 0. You do not need to calculate a second digit.z 3 g . . Remember. "How much?We have information in mL. .
the period is multiplied by 1.3. 15. If the radius increases by a factor of 1. In this case. Again. so the electric field increases by a factor of 9. then then the length is multiplied by 0. We can rewrite 0. then T increases by a factor of & = 2. If it did. If 1increases by a factor of 4. Of course.4. B. B. A problem like this is easier if we solve for 1. you should try this method with some numbers if it does not make sense to you. and another factor of 3 comes from the h. B. then the area increases by a factor of 1 . If the volume of a sphere decreases by a factor of 27. T increases if 1does. then T increases by a factor of f i = 2.64 = (1 . Thus the answer is A. Since 1is in the numerator. The increase in s causes V to increase by a factor of 9.361100). an increase in m will increase T. This results in a decrease in frequency f.8. Thus the frequency is multiplied by (IS)' = 0.3. so the answer is B. If the period is multiplied by 0. If the radius decreases by a factor of 3. Since m changes by a factor of 4. 16. This approach is the most straightforward way to do the problem. there must be a change of 1296 inside the square root. then the diameter decreases by a factor of 3 as well. Keep in mind that you need to know how to manipulate numbers like this quickly.The MCAT Physics Book 6.69. 9. Since we have (1 + 501100) = 1.3. C . This is a simple proportionality. B.201100) = 0. If g decreases by a factor of 6. The frequency changes by a factor of 2. .) The circumference increases by a factor of 4 as well. the radius increases by a factor of 4 also. 8. D. This time there is an r in the formula. C. both s and h increase by a factor of 3. then its radius must decrease by a factor of 3. 1 0 . a decrease in g results in an increase in T. Do not let the 113 in the formula throw you off. then V increases by a factor of 81. uy it with a few numbers. A. 1 1 . Next.8' = 0. Any time spent calculating the value of k is wasted time. 1 3 .67. so the frequency decreases by 33%. B. B. Thus the length decreases by 36%. giving Passage 1 A decrease by 20%in the period is equivalent to multiplying the period by (1 . 12. 1 7 . We rewrite 0. the area increases by a factor of 42= 16.5.32= 1. If the radius increases by 30%. A glance at the answers indicates that B is correct.8. try the problem with numbers to see why the 113 does not matter.331100). since (1 + 301100) = 1. Since m is in the numerator. that is the same as increasing by a factor of 1. C. then mass P must be larger. I The separation of the plates is unchanged. Since g is in the denominator. 1. so the volume increases by a factor of 4) = 64.64.67 = (1 . The n in the formula does not make any difference. if the period is larger for mass P. D. the period changes by a factor of = 2. since 33= 27.5. An increase by such a factor is an increase by 69% so the answer is C. B 19. 18. for there to be a change of 36 in the period. you do not have to work out the square root. 14. If the diameter of a circles increases by a factor of 4. (If you do not believe this. First. Clearly the area increases. If s increases by a factor of 9. but since the radius is squared in the formula. C.
since F does not have a linear relationship with r (that would look like F = kr + c).Chapter 1 2. In the previous solution. The force decreases by 36%. Thus F is = 0. B. A factor of 4 in q. 3. = 4. since 2. In choice B. . solve for E in the first equation. then the force increases.. 3. C. In choice D. the equation .64 = multiplied by 1. We can eliminate D. .Solutions . a quadratic equation. . so choice B is incorrect. the force becomes infinite.. If both balls acquire a charge q. . so C is a good choice. If F is to stay the same. we realized that experiments 4 and 6 have the property that all the input variables stay the same except for velocity v. As for choice D. Since r is in the denominator. B. D. so that is out. F approaches 0 but never reaches it. so an increase in d results in a decrease in E.. Thus the force on it is twice as great. 6. so it is impossible to isolate the effect of object density. so that B is the answer. If this is unclear. The voltage V and electric field E are proportional. so this choice is incorrect.25. the electric field and the plate separation are inversely related. . . And the force on the proton decreases by a factor of 2.8~ (1 . If the charge on one ball increases by a factor of 4 (from 2 C to 8 C). the object changes and the area does not.. a factor of 4 in both q.. 3.e the velocity is the only thing that changes. then the force changes by a factor of 22= 4. That is. which is equivalent to F = a?. in the force. The distance r is multiplied by 1. For this question we need to remember that a helium nucleus has two protons (its atomic number on the periodic table). which you should do if this discussion was unclear. would need to be V = Ed + V B. if r decreases. According to the first equation. and q.. so that we can investigate the results of a change in area. . which increases by a factor of 4. Choice B involves two experiments in which only the density of the object changes. B. As for choice A. will result in a factor of 16 in F. which means that p must be 2. so the bare helium nucleus has twice the charge of a proton. The force increases by a factor of 16. both A and v change. then the force between them is given by If the separation of the plates increases by a factor of 2.We can eliminate A and B immediately.. 4. .. 5. is equivalent to a factor of 2 in r. If r changes by a factor of 2. . experiments 4 and 6 both use a steel ball.25" = (514)~= (415)' = 0. then an increase by a factor of 4 in v results in an increase by a factor of 4. C. experiments 1 and 2 both use a cork ball. . as r becomes large. we need two experiments where everything stays the same except for the area.. . As r approaches 0. For C to be correct.. 2. if p is 2. Also. and q. increases. Another way to see this is to solve for r.. many input variables are altered between experiments 1 and 6.0 cm2. In choice A. Thus the answer is B.. . Concerning choice A. .. B.5 to 3. 5.361100). . A.. Choice C is incorrect becaus. . then the electric field decreases by a factor of 2.. For choice C. area changes from 1. In order to determine n. so A is correct. then the distance r must increase. since F decreases as r increases. and nothing else changes. so B is correct... . so we would not be able to tell how much change in F is due to A and how much is due to v. D. then the force must increase by a factor of 4.
B. all the linear dimensions are increased by a factor of 2 (see figure). If Julie increases her speed by 20%.2. Thus the required energy increases by a factor of 4. If v increases by a factor of 2. ' 3 . then A is multiplied by 0. giving I . Julie increases her speed by a factor of 55/50 = 1. Passage 4 1 . C The easiest way to do this is to solve for D.25. Thus the required energy is = 1. According to the above equation. representing an increase by 25%. D is multiplied by (0.44.As for choice D. Once p is determined.The MCAT Physics Book 4. B.1. . then A increases by a factor of 4. so if both h and w increase by a factor of 2. k can be determined by substituting in values Erom either experiment 1 or 2. then the required energy increases by a factor of 2' = 4. If A is reduced by 20%.2)~ 44%. 5.8)' = 1. since the velocity changes and nothing else does. This is an increase of 21%. A. Thus experiments 1 and 2 are sufficient We can exclude choices B and C (not minimum sets). experiments 1 and 2 could be used to determine p.21.8. The increase in length does not matter.1' = 1. which is an increase of multiplied by (1. 4. then she multiplies her speed by 1. there is not enough infomation to obtain p or k. so the energy increases by a factor of 1. As for choice A. C. The crosssectional area A is width times height (A = hw). Comparing Scott's car to Laura's.
. The resulting total is just west of north (see diagram). . 6.. we use the Pythagorean theorem: . . . . 5. so B is correct. To do the numbers.. Chdpter 2 Chapter 2 Solutions First we move the horizontal vector. . The mass of the mobile unit does not change just because we transport it to a different place. . We could see this in the diagram anyway. so its tail is on the tip of the horizontal vector. C. . They exert the smallest net force when they are directly opposed to each other. In the choices. Therefore it is not possible for the net force to be 500 N.Solutions . giving 1000 N..... You must do that. If this is unclear. From the diagram of the previous solution. we can see that the answer must be slightly larger than 2 m/s and certainly not so large as 2.. . so its tail is on the tip of the top vector. try drawing a few vector diagrams to get a total of 500 N.. We move the fly velocity vector so that its tail coincides with the tip of the car velocity vector. giving the total 7000 N. .. only choice A shows the correct total vector. 3. The resulting sum is the arrow from the first tail to the last tip (see diagram). ... We add the fly's velocity to the car's velocity in order to obtain its total velocity relative to the ground. A. . . Then we move the bottom vector. The choice does not show the fly vector already moved. B.3 d s . . They exert the largest net force when they pull the same direction (see figure). . Again we s&quentiallyplace the tail of one vector on the tip of the previous one. . . . The resulting sum is zero (see diagram). since the arrows seem to cancel out each other. .
The net displacement is A s = 27 krn = 27. A. = 0 mls (because it is dropped).9. 1 0 . + a h ~0. B. S m So wedid not need the value of v. Other problems will not be so simple.000 m. v. Since she starts from rest. and the initial velocity v. We want At. = 5000N. = v. Since the car is accelerating uniformly.The MCAT Physics Book B. at all.) = 17.You could probably do this without writing down the formula. we can . v. 5 m/s2.. The key to many problems is making an inventory of what we know and what we want. average velocity is v We want to know change of velocity Av. A. she was accelerating uniformly. = lf2 (v. she ends at rest. so we write 8. and time. During these 9 s. Thus the . + v. 9. write a = AvlAt = (30 m/s . = hldt = 6 mls. We want a formula which relates distance. her initial velocity is zero. I 14. Again.3 m/s2. D. while we want v to increase by a Now A factor of 3. so we can write the equation: v2 vl =aAt. = 1. . C .To do this we need At to decrease by a factor of 3. while we know acceleration a = 0. Thus we have 13. The total time is At = 75 min = 4500 s. we can write v . velocity.5 mls)/lO s = 2 We know Ay = 10 m. the time interval At = 3 s. Since the car is accelerating uniformly. F.5 d s . then we need to apply the Pythagorean theorem (see figure): 7. x is the same. a = 1 0 m/s2 (approximately). C . We need the definition of acceleration: 1 1 . If they pull at right angles. Wecan write the equation (s)' = (3000N ) ' + (4000N)' .5 m/s.
If we want to know how long it takes to stop. Thus dr = v. We know v. . so we can calculate I = 15 km. Solutions .05 m/s2. a= 0. Thus x2 = 3015 km. and At = 5 s.Remember to be careful with the units. 0 5 m/s2.and At = 5 s.2 mls and a = 0. Chapter 2 22. = a h . We want x. C. translating "up" into positive and "decelerating" into negative. If we want v. .. . = 3000 km. = .. . I Here we know that v. . We want an equation which relates v.. We know a = 4 . . We still use v.02 mls2. This is v = drldt.. A. . . . We know v. B.3 m. B.. At = 10 s. x. . 21. = 0. . .)lAt = 1. If v increases by a factor of 3. = 20 m/s. . . . A.) At = 25 m. 23.5 m/s. we use the equation: vi = v: +2a&. . B. Here we have v. . . . .2 m/s2. = 0. ..18.. and v2 = 10 mls. going 0.4 m up the slope before heading back. Also note that the ball travels further than 0. We obtain the net displacement from Ax = 1/2(v. 20. and At. + v. . v2 = 0 mls (because it comes to a stop). C. .v.& + 1 a ( ~ t ) ' = 115 m. .x. 1 m/s2. and At = 500 s. Thus we have v. The net displacement is obtained from 19. = 25 mls. but now we have At = 6 s. We know that Ax = x. . . . We can obtain acceleration from its definition: a = (v..5 mls2. . v. We use the following equation: v2 vl =aAt. Ax. so the answer is C. 2 It is important to pay attention to signs in this problem. The net displacement is the difference between final position and initial position. 26. then At must decrease by a factor of 3. we add the datum v2 = 0 mls.2 mls and a = 4 . a = 1.
B. But in this case x . so the acceleration jumps back down to zero. Note that the fact that v is always positive translates into the fact that x is always increasing. The figure shows how successive areas under the curve v versus t result in successive increases in the curve x versus t. Then it increases again. From point A to point B. Here a is constant and dt increases by a factor of 3. C. Between points B and C. there is area under the curve. and dx goes to zero. Between A and B.. there is no area under the graph. so the displacement is zero. are the same. and x. Let's keep this in mind. Between C and D. C. the answer. . 33. the velocity goes to zero. Just this description alone might lead us to recognize C as . + v. A B C LA& D E t 32. the instantaneous A B C D E I slope jumps to a constant value. 29. Let's look at the equation 31. giving B as an answer. the instantaneous slope is zero (see figure). and all the choices show this. The net displacement is Ax = x. eliminating A and C as choices.4 m.The MCAT Physics Book We calculate Ax = 112 (v. the acceleration is negative. The following figure is x versus t. B. so dx is positive for every interval Ar. but clearly the slope is always positive (and probably constant). But this does not mean that x returns to the xaxis (as in choice A). eliminating choices B and D which show a jump in x versus t. Between points D and E. speeds up to a cruising speed which it maintains. we can say that the velocity starts large and decreases to a stop. From B to C. and we want to pick the best graph for x versus t. The figure in the problem shows a car which starts from rest. the difference between final and initial position. so B is correct. Thus A v increases by a factor of 3 as well. After E. A. In words. The figure above shows v versus t. there is an increasing amount of area under the curve. then slows to a stop. We can obtain v versus t by looking at the instantaneous slope at various times. . 28. This means that no more increments get added to x. This means x is increasing.)At = 4. We want an equation involving velocity and time and possibly acceleration. Another way to see this is to rewrite the equation: Av =a&. we need to take the instantaneous slope at various points in the second figure. so an increase in At yields an increase in v. the instantaneous slope is zero. so the net displacement is zero. which is shown only in choice C. This gives the points shown in the second figure.x. I To obtain the acceleration. From C to D.
Chapter P . since the velocity starts and ends with the same value. the acceleration is zero. t / no increment added This question consists entirely of words. . Uniform acceleration means a is constant... . The net x = 1. A.. The only choice to show this is A. Then it is constant and positive. Since acceleration is positive. Passage 1 1 . The initial velocity is just that at the beginning of the experiment. Thus A v and At are in a constant ratio. The flat portion in the center of choice A is when the car is stopped. . 6. The later flat portion shows the constant velocity while going forward.... x = v.. B. 3 6 .. By the way.... in order t versus t.35 m .. 4. The car is backing up at the beginning of the problem. the vector points in the forward direction (according to the sign convention of the passage). so C is the correct choice.. and a = Avldt.5 s. B. is simply zero. but let us write an equation anyway. . perhaps find another equation.5s interval in the chart. choice B shows a sketch of x versus t. . . B. then that would be the solution. displacement is A p 9 ' 34.. Taking instantaneous slopes of v versus t gives an acceleration which'is constant and negative until the cusp..2 m/s2. The average velocity is v.. . A. A. (If not. we will have to think some more. . This is shown in choice B. The car accelerates exactly twice: while it slows to a stop going backward (positive acceleration) and while it speeds from a stop going forward (positive a r is cruising at constant acceleration).. For any 0.. the acceleration (Avldt) is a constant 1. C. 37. even for the intervals near t = 1. taking instantaneous o find which would produce the given v slopes.35 m = 0 m. . where the velocity is zero.) D is the correct answer..Af + 112a(dt)~ = We apply the formula A (0 mls)(4 s) + 112 (10 mls2)(4 = 80 m. If one of the choices expresses this fact.. B. When the c velocity. .Solutions . so the velocity is negative. Thus B is the best answer..v. = drldt. 5. We apply the definition of acceleration: 35. 1 ...1. We can also work this problem by taking the choices and working backward. D. The net change in velocity Av = v2 ..
The acceleration g is constant. Thus Av is the the two situations (both have A same.. Let's be clear about this by writing an equation. Choice D is irrelevant. since the lead and iron balls fall at the same rate.?he graph to which this applies is C. but it cannot be an adequate explanation for the fact. the object falls 35 m.while from 3 to 4 s. 3.t . what happens to Ax? Apparently it increases by a factor of 9. Since velocity starts at zero. Choice B is a true statement. At. C.since the passage mentions air resistance as a caveat. Choice A is nonsense.SO we write m = g(t. Notice the difference between this problem and the previous one. Thus Av = gAt. The equation involving Av is the definition of acceleration (see solution to problem 2 above). 4. Choice C is a good candidate. The velocity increases at a constant rate throughout the fall. we can eliminate D. and the acceleration (since we know its value): Av=gAt.8 m/s2.The MCAT Physics Book The equation which involves change in velocity Av and time is the definition of acceleration: : We use the equation involving Ax. C. . 7. AV We have V. If the time interval At increases by a factor of 3. The instantaneous slope for the graph of v versus t must be a constant g = 9. = 0S . This confirms our intuition that the distance fallen is greater for the later time interval. and the force of gravity is presumably different on those two balls as well. the object falls 15 m. . B. ) . We can calculate the height at the four clock readings: I Thus from 1 to 2 s. and At is the same for f = 1 s).
and it is due to the ground pushing forward. we can write this equation a = Flm. From the first law of motion. A. then the acceleration increases by a factor of 2. The one horizontal force accelerates the tiger.. the only way for them to be balanced is thal they be of equal magnitude in opposite directions.. (This was a review problem.. which is choice C. 3.. 7 . in which the downward force of gravity is balanced by the upward force of the air drag.. since that is the only thing touching him.. slowing down. We calculate a = (20 mls . . B.. . This may seem strange.1. Since there is only one force. Since the object is moving with uniform motion. 1 1 . we move the tail of cBto the tip of FA (see figure). the net force points in the opposite direction the car is going.Solutions . . . .5 m/~)l3 s = 0. We want an equation which connects force. the forces on the object must be balanced. If the mass decreases by a factor of 2..0 mls)l(12 s) = 1. .5 mls . and mass. acceleration.67 d s 2 .. there must be a net force on the object.) We calculate a = (3. . pm. This is F = ma.. even though there is no "active" agent creating the force. .67 mls2)= 8...is drawn from the first tail to the last tip. . so it is speeding up. We calculate (from Chapter 2) A x= 112 (Omls + 20mls) (12s)= 120m. The vertical . which are balanced. C. are gravity (down) and the normal force of the ground (up). From the first law of motion. think of the example of the paratrooper falling in question 1.. But it has to be the ground pushing the tiger forward.Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Solutions Case 1 1 . The sum. . A. we conclude that the object is not undergoing uniform motion. In case 1. 6. . 9. 40 N. We calculate F W = ma = (60 kg) (0. or changing direction. there is no way for forces to be balanced. The tiger pushes the ground backward. If you chose B. 2. So choice B is correct.. Certainly he does not push himself forward (what would that even mean?). There is then an equal force of the ground on the tiger pushing forward. . But none of the choices can be definitely concluded. but it is a result of the thud law of motion. . it has a net force on it. giving a magnitude of 700 N. Since the car is not undergoing uniform motion (it is slowing). we need to apply the Pythagorean theorem to obtain a magnitude 500 N. a force balance on an object implies it has constant velocity. C. From this we conclude that the force of gravity and the drag force due to the air are exactly balanced. For case 3. Case 2 Case 3 D. D. C. C. . Since we are looking for the change in acceleration. In fact. . The same method for case 2 yields a magnitude 100 N.forces. A. .  10.. The magnitude of the net force is given by Fm= ma = 167 N.67 mls2. . Since there are exactly two forces.
0. 15. then you need to study the first law of motion again. 13.15 m/s)/5 s = 3 mls2. 18. the net force is Fm= ma = 12 N. We draw a diagram (see figure). From this we obtain the magnitude of the acceleration a = Fwlm = 26 mls2. B.0005 kg = 1 m/s2. A. We obtain the acceleration a = (0 m/s . In one dimension. the net force on her is zero. We can obtain the net force by applying the Pythagorean theorem. We draw a diagram showing the forces on the woman.8 kg = 2. which pulls up. pointing backward.6 N = 2 N. we can call east positive. balance each other).0005 N. This is close to B. We draw a diagram (see figure). There is nothing touching the truck except the ground (the girl has already let go). If you chose C. Since she is traveling at constant velocity. We can calculate an estimate of acceleration a = AvlAf = (1 m/s)/(7 s) = 1/7 m/s2. then a remains the same. C . we write a = Flm. Thus we can find acceleration a = FnJm = 0.5 rn/s2. in magnitude. 1 9 . As in question 12. Now we can calculate the acceleration a = Fnc(m= 2 Nl0.) We want to know the magnitude of the drag force. but we can find a net force. 14. If F increases by a factor of 3 and m increases by a factor of 3. The sign indicates the net force is down. so Fnel= 0. We include the vertical forces of gravity and the normal force. Thus the force of the floor against the woman's feet has the same magnitude as the force of gravity on her. B.Thus. This force is the drag force. which add to zero (that is. .8 kg) (10 m/s2). We cannot calculate the acceleration using the methods of the previous chapter.Thus the total mass is given by m = FJa = 9001(1/7) kg = 6300 kg. We draw a diagram showing the forces on the mass (see figure). This is just the first law of motion.0015 N . B. B. The net force is 13000N. We draw a diagram (see figure). but there must be another force because the truck is changing velocity.0005 Nl0.The MCAT Physics Book 17. The net force (with down as positive) is Fm= (0. since this is also the net force. The mass of the rocket case is then (6300 .0010 N = 0. (There is no forward force.3300) kg = 3000 kg. and the forces are balanced. There is the force of gravity and the tension in the string.
What else touches the planet? Nothing. 25.which would be a gravity changes the course of M straight line away from the solar system. .At + 112 a(&)=.. C. We also have information about F. Force A is the upward contact force of ground on the table. The force diagram is shown in the solution for problem 3.. The gravitational force acts on the stove. so B is correct The Sun's a r s . There is certainly gravity. and d. . and there is an upward force from the road to balance i t There must be another force. Gravity acts. The acceleration is horizontal. by the first law of motion. . hence the frictional force. the stove would not undergo uniform motion (first law). B.. The net force is forward. Choice D concerns two forces which act on different objects. It continues going forward for a while because that is what cars do. so that fact narrows the choices to C and D.70 N = 5 N.. . so the car is speeding up. and force C is the downward contact force of the table on the ground. The correct choice is C. We can use F = ma and d = v. Choice C is not even a correct statement of the second law of motion.. therefore C is correct. The paired force is the gravitational force of the stove on the Earth. What else is touching the arrow? Nothing. 26. . that is. . D .. (See figure. . So if m increases by a factor of 4. . The answer is B..) path if there were no gravity 23. = 2. nie car exerts a force on the road. B. . (See figure. .. A. so the net force must be horizontal. . into the circular orbit.Solutions . so B is correct. so A is correct. We need an equation which connects time and mass (which differs from A to B). v..30 N . First we draw a diagram (see figure).. which states that the ac~eleration is proportional to net force. The Sun's gravity acts on Mars. . a force on the car. Chdptcr 3 20. we obtain Forces A and B represent the normal force and gravitational force on the stove. 28. arrow D.. pulling it toward the Earth. If these were not balanced.. 24.. Choice B is not a true statement.Combining these. The net horizontal force is Fnct= 105 N . D. of course. so that (third law) the road exert. . . A. then time increases by a factor of 21.. Forces A and C are paired.) The force which accelerates the car must be a force of some agent acting on the car. . The vertical forces balance. . because the car has an acceleration vector pointing backwards.. There is no force pushing the car forward..
0 to 0. the acceleration is increasing. 2. 3. We want to find Ax. 3.0 s) = 0. so acceleration.0 X 106kg. The remaining mass after 300 s 6 2. It is true that the tension in the string is. The ratio of A if this ratio is increasing. such as those in choice C. and that this rate is fairly constant.5 m/s2. C. The only thing touching mass m is the string. B. By definition.) 2. B.  . Choice B is a true statement. It only cares that there is a force due to a string which is directed to the right.2 m/s). The net M g = 2. M. Since we do not want acceleration over an interval (like 0 to 90 s) but at an instant (t = 0 s).15 mls.0.0. 4.09 m 0. we will use the second approach. v.0 m)1(0. The correct choice is D.3 m/s2. C. B. The passage states that 3400 kg of fuel are burned each second. so the answer is C.86 X lo7N force is given by Fnp=F(2. From the table we can see that equal jumps of time (for example.9 s. Now we can look at the interval from t = 0. Only the table and the string are touching mass Passage 1 1 . Thus we obtain acceleration a = FnJM= 4. We draw a force diagram (see figure). if possible. 0. or that acceleration is constant. so B is correct.1 m/s . Choice A is not even a true statement. Or we can obtain acceleration Trom a = FJM.20 m.0. The ratio A any obvious meaning. caused by mass m. hence having positive v to At is the acceleration. (See figure. x to Av does not have Choice C is correct.0 s) = 0.06 s .0 m/s.2 s to 0. but M does not know or care what the other end of the string is connected to. Choices A and B are irrelevant. are meaningless if the units do not match.2 s .2 s. and we have At = 0. A. D. We have encountered two ways of calculating acceleration: We can get the acceleration over an interval by calculating a = AvlAt.The MCAT Physics Book 6. From this we calculate A x=1 1 2 0. but v increasing with time indicates only that the ship is speeding up. It seems as if acceleration would be a useful quantity to calculate. = 0. This is consistent with the statement that AvlAt is a constant. so let's choose the interval from t = 0.4 s) result in equal jumps of velocity (0.but the string has no tension in it.0 X 106 kg) (10 m/s2) = 8. Gravity certainly acts on m.9 s. obtaining a = AvlAt = (0.6 X lo6N. A.0 X 106 kg (300 s) (3400 kgls) = 1. Passage 2 1 .5 m/s2. and a = = 0.1 m/s to 0.0 s to 0. we have vavg= Addt = (0. The things touching mass M are the table and the string. C. 5.0 m/s) I (0. in some sense. and comparisons.
. the mass of the ship decreases as it bums its fuel. .. . . . mass. so if M decreases.... The connection of force. Thus C is correct.. . then a increases. Since there is little air in space.. In order for the shuttle to accelerate.. (See figure.Solutions . The shuttle pushes off from the exhaust.... there is reason to assume the Force is constant. . . since the rate of fuel burning is appximately constant. . In addition... B. Chapter 3 According to the passage. The thirdlawpair force must be a force of the shuttle on that agent. . according to the third law of motion. .. there must be a force on it by some agent.. . .. This narrows the choices to A and C. .. and that is what creates the force which accelerates it forward. 5. and acceleration is a = FJM.) . A is ruled out.
5)'. See Example 2 in Section A. then Fgr.) But the mass of Mars is 0. So we .. . and D.. so that a = g. 6. The mass of Mars is 0. by a factor of 5.. I hope this one did not fool you.. = ~m. The mass of an object does not change just because you transport it somewhere. This comes from setting F. = 20 N.. then F 4.. = ma equal to F. decreases by a factor of 2.8 m/s2 here on Earth. m . If m. 3. The equation we need for this problem and the next is where d is the distance between the Earth and the Moon. Now if the radius of the planet were multiplied by 0. then the acceleration due to gravity would be divided by (0. analogy to its weight on Earth: F. If d decreases by a factor of 3. This time the relevant equation is A. D. we get the acceleration due to gravity on the surface by assuming that gravity is the only force acting on an object. yielding about 0. decreases by a factor of 2. The fact that the stars revolve about their combined center of mass is irrelevant for calculating the force of gravity between them. A. The factor of d2in the denominator indicates that if d increases by a factor of 2.. so that is a factor of 0. C.1 times that of Earth.. In this case. The weight of the block on the Moon is an exact g . then F.. then F.04. since the acceleration increases if radius decreases.. .6 m/s2 for the same reason that freefall objects have a = 9.= m equal to F. B. where r is the set F radius of the planet: A. 8.= mg.. giving us 40 rn/s2. Objects in free fall on the Moon have a constant acceleration due to gravity 1.1. one of the masses Since we have F.The MCAT Physics Book Chapter 4 Solutions We only need to work as far as At2 in order to eliminate choices B. changes by a factor of 512. so a factor of 0. C. increases by a factor of 3' = 9. (We expect an increase.5. . and m2 increases . l dif decreases by a factor of 2. . we have 9. which is 1. 2. B. On Earth (or on any planetary body). That depends only on their masses and the distance between their centers.decreases by a factor of 2' = 4.1 in the numerator brings the acceleration down to 4 m/s2. = m B..1 of Earth's mass. 5.pd?.= ~ m . where d is the distance from the Sun to that planet. so we divide by (IS)'.5 times greater. Another factor comes from the distance from the Sun to Mars.
. the weight is zero. &. so the answer is B. A.. And if a changes by a factor of 3. so v. But horizontal motion does not imply a horizontal force (see the first law of motion). .. then At decreases by a factor of 1 21. we don't really have to do a calculation. Since only positive choices are listed..At = 1. 125 rn/s2) = 0. so we have If the new planet has the same mass as Earth.. = 0 m/s. we have v. and there are no massive planetary bodies around.. B.. = 1. We have a. . Since we are looking for Ax. we have V l Y = 0 Ids. we worked out the surface acceleration due to gravity of a planet.. 22. Thus we have Ax = v. Since we want to know Ay. (Why does the Moon in its orbit move so much more than the Earth.. Once we have the acceleration.. A. (At)2= 20 m..5 mls.Solutions . we now inventory 0 mls2 and the horizontal information... . Chapter 4 The Earth's gravitational pull on the Moon is the same as the Moon's on the Earth. (We have seen enough of these problems to realize v... it is going 1.5 m/s horizontally.= mg = (0. Since the initial velocity is horizontal. since we know that the horizontal velocity is constant as long as there are no horizontal forces on the opener.5 rnls)l(4 s) = 0. = 1.... Since weight is the force of gravity on an object. 19. gravity is the only force.. + a. B. Since we are looking for radius. we use the equation A y = v.At + 1/2a. We want to relate acceleration and time.) We can use The problem asks for v2. = v. we next need to inventory the information relevant to the vertical motion.5 mls..+ ayAt= 20 mls.(This was a review question. = 0. That's the third law of motion. If g increases by a factor of 3. (We I 18.. . Thus F. so gravity is the only force. B.. Because the opener is traveling horizontally when it leaves Barbara's hand.:so we write v2.. there is constant horizontal motion.. The acceleration is a = (0 m/s . In problem 7...0. but a larger acceleration due to gravity.08 N)/(O. so we want an equation that involves these quantities. We have ax= v. 20.5 m/s.) 8to figure out which choice is  a. we can solve for it.125 m/s2.64 kg. There is nothing else touching the can opener.= 10 mls2and At = 2 s. then?) Certainly there is the force of gravity.. then the radius must be smaller. . we can calculate a mass m = Flu = (0. As the ball just leaves the table. (At)' = 3 m. then r changes by a factor of don't need to know right. We can calculate v. down. 17.. . C. .. . Of course. Since nothing is touching the ball. . . Since we have a force diagram.) We draw a diagram including all the forces (see figure).Pt + 112 a. . =*v.2 kg) (10 mls2)= 2 N. we choose the magnitude 20 mls. Since there is no horizontal force.
and for all bodies vertical motion is independent of horizontal motion. In addition.5 s)' = 0. Since gravitational force is given by F. There are four forces on the wagon. 31. If choice B is right. then ( A t ) ' = (0. and the initial vertical velocity v. let's draw a diagram showing all the forces on the wagon body. 24. Barbara's coins retain their horizontal velocity. we have enough information to calculate We calculate T. the parameters are the same. For vertical information.25 s2.5 mls. The handle and the ground are touching the wagon. as follows: 28. The vertical displacement for the fall is certainly the same.8 mls2 down. The acceleration of Alice's coins is a constant 9. and since Barbara's coins have four times the mass of Alice's coins. We can calculate First.At + 1/2ay( ~ t )all ~. We can redraw the force of the handle as the sum of two components. If choice A is right. 29.26 s)' = 0. is the same for both coins. . I We do not really need to take the square root to figure out the answer.(Do not feel the need to work every arithmetic problem to its end. A.25 m (choosing "up" to be positive). for freely falling bodies near the surface of the Earth the vertical acceleration is 9. the force on them is four times as large. namely.The MCAT Physics Book 30. This question combines the two ideas in this chapter. 27.25m. as is the acceieration of Barbara's. then (At)2= (0.. For horizontal information. so we inciude that as well. A.12 s2(wrong). we have Ay = 1. The vertical acceleration a. which is not enough to obtain At. we have Ay = 1. Since the ball simply drops the height of the table... The problem mentions friction. B. We want Ax. . Both coins have the same vertical velocity. There is no horizontal force on the ball. A. B. we have a.= 0 m/s2 and v t x= 1. so in the equation Ay = v. B. = mg. Since we now have At.) 26. is the same for both coins. C . so we inciude the tension force of the handle T and the upward force of the ground N. A. as shown in the second figure.8 rnls2 down. 25.
. the ball is going to the right at 0. = T sin 30". For At. then without any horizontal forces. it will continue to go 0. If "up" is positive. B. .. B. but without any information about a horizontal force. The only thing touching the ball is the floor. as follows: On Earth. 37. 2.= mg. 35. Chdpter 4 40. = 0 mls) and ends up running v2 = 5 m/s. For the student cunning along the roof. See the example in the text. B. . and the normal force. The problem is idealized. . choice B is correct. which can cause only a normal force and possibly a frictional force. The vertical component of the gravitational force is the magnitude of the force. There is the force of gravity. We calculate T. D. ... but they move along with the Moon in the same way that the grapefruit moves along with the ship. . C. he starts from rest (v. . The problem states the wagon is nonaccelerating (velocity is a constant 2 d s ) .= 0 N. We use & = 1/2(v1+ v2)& to obtain At = 2 s. . Ay =7. . Choice D adds in a leftward force.. . The force diagram is shown. T. . The acceleration on the roof is one problem. Passage 1 1 . there is no way to calculate a horizontal acceleration or a horizontal change in velocity. . but if there is no air. The gravitational force is vertical.. 42. . of course they do not fly off.Solutions 33.3 m/s at time t = 0 s. . We can calculate the acceleration a = FnJm = 1000 NI50 kg = 2 mls2. Concerning choice C. .. 34. This is the same way that a passenger moves along with a swiftly moving train. there is nothing pushing the ball to the right. then the net force is given by F. D. . D. .. .. and we want At.2m. . Note that the bale is not in free fall. down. . the falling is another. . If. Gravity is acting on the bale. We don't have enough information to add up the force vectors. We have A x = 5 m. The rope exerts a tension force. since it simply retains its initial motion. up. so its horizontal component is zero. . . which is F. A. . C. Concerning choice D. 41. then they have the same acceleration (about 1. 3 6 . the hammer lands first because of air resistance. . as the problem states. so a = 0 m/s2 and Fn. Since the problem states there is no friction. of course. we need the vertical information: 38. which the problem says is not there.3 m/s forever. presumably of friction. A.6 m/s2). but we don't need to..= 4000 N . We have used a negative sign for gravity since it points down. B.(500 kg) (10 mls2) = 1000 N.
All during the fall the student has the same horizontal velocity 5 rnls. there is no other force. That means a.000)~. The mass of the two planets is the same. B. but r is 50. A.4 . The force due to gravity is Fgm" =GMm Passage 2 d2 ' 1 .We can eliminate choice A. His feet push backwards on the roof. Next we estimate 1. Concerning choices C and D. Since the student's fall takes At = 1. and r is the radius. A. 5. so B is right. The acceleration due to gravity is given by D.The MCAT Physics Book We use the equation Here we have estimated a = 3.000 times smaller. Surprisingly.1. We know gravity pulls down. This difference is enough to pull a body apart. Choice B correctly states that the force of gravity between near things is greater than between far things.4 = 2 . we know the mass of the neutron star is the same as the mass of the Sun. you should always be looking for shortcuts. there must be a force accelerating the student forward (to the right). Choice A is not relevant to the things which happen 2000 km away from the neutron star.1. 3. the = horizontal displacement is Ax = v .44 s2. it is the roof which exerts the force forward. B.2 s. the surface gravity of the neutron star is also irrelevant. and choice C is too large.is greater by a factor of (50. Since nothing else touches the student.43= 1. We estimate density as follows: where G is the gravitational constant. and the roof (by the third law of motion) pushes forward on him.(~t)~ 6 m. h + 1/2a. The arithmetic is spelled out so that you can see how you can do a lot of fast estimating and still get a reasonable answer. C. 2. Even on questions which involve much less arithmetic. where M is the mass of the body.1. so we have to obtain (At12 = 1. The passage states that M for a neutron star is the gme as M for the Sun.4 . The force of gravity does not depend on the size of the bodies but on the distance from center to center. 3.4 = 3. and these forces add to zero. . 6. . We know gravity pulls down and the roof pushes up. The distance d is the same for the two situations. In addition. Considering the two situations in the problem.
.. C. Since this is vertical information. we can find v2... = F. = Gcos 30". This gives us choice C. then go back and read the section on the first law of motion. = FJm = (6 N)/(3 kg) = 2 d s 2 . = 10 d s 2 and v. We want a. = 0 d s . . B. The only vertical force is due to gravity. . so F.. . Nothing else is touching the orange. vertical 2.Solutions . The horizontal information we have is v.. so we add that. We have a. so we write v. We don't have enough information for the equations of Chapter 2. B. 4. v. There is no friction. = 0 and F.. ... . = v. . + a. In addition to gravity.. so B is correct. and At.= v. due to two things touching the crate. = mg = 30 N.. This problem has those key words "at constant velocity".. .= 6 N. We want At. . . B.. At the top of the orange's path we have v. pointing down.. . 3. which means there is a force balance on the shoe... The force diagram is shown. . . let's see what other vertical information we have.dt = 0 + (2 d s 2 )(0. but we can use a. normal and tension. 5. The horizontal forces are equal in magnitude so that their vector sum is zero. Chdpter 5 Chapter 5 Solutions The force diagram should include gravity. .. + a p t and obtain At = 0.. First we draw a force diagram... If you chose C. . 6... we have two forces. . From trigonometry we know Since we know a. ..5 s) = 1 mls.5 s. C.. C. First we draw a force diagram (see figure). We get this from the same diagrams shown in the solution for 7... G.. The gravitational force vector can be separated into two components (see figure). except the problem mentions that wind exerts a horizontal force. B. = 5 d s .
we draw the normal force pointing up and the force due to the stick pointing downlright.mg . we obtain N C . and Fy= 17 N. B.0 m/s2 18. In the last problem. Again. = F. Thus N . We can obtain the vertical component of the net force by looking at the force diagram. B. and this net force is the horizontal component F. 10. Thus the answer is B. 1 O=NmgF. If we take the sum of all the perpendicular forces (in the text we called them "vertical"). Here we have used F.The M C A T Physics Book 9. So.= (F.. We use the following diagram to obtain the vertical component of the stick's force. giving the impression that the books have a force on them. we talked about the vertical component of the net force being zero. and we obtain T .C. = 0. we obtain F. 16. I F. 1 3 . In order to obtain the normal force. D. Using trigonometry. II. in addition to gravity pointing down. Using the same diagram as in solution 13. C.lm = 2... = sin 30" F & k . 15. we need to consider all the vertical forces.. The negative sign denotes the "downward" direction of G But the crate is moving at a constant velocity. which tells us that the acceleration is zero./F. = 0.).. By turning the wheel. giving choice C. = ma. The books are following a straight path. D. There are two things touching the sled: the ground and the stick.. is zero. we know that (F.. 14.= (Fn>.= cos 30°.. B. As we noted. But we know that the sled is not moving up or down.). There is no friction (which would act to the left).).C = 0.. We can tell from the force diagram that there is a net force. And from second law of motion. The above equation becomes 1 2 . so we write This time we take the sum of parallel forces ("horizontal"). the net force is zero because of the information we have on the acceleration. (FneJy = N . A.. sin 30" . = mg and have chosen "up" to be positive.. the driver pulls her car door into the path of the books. so the vertical acceleration a. So B is the correct answer (see figure). we obtain F. and the net force is zero.. we know the horizontal component of the net force is zero because the crate is moving at constant velocity.F. = (F. B. however. A. The acceleration of the sled is given by a.
30. . including the three forces on the crate.. = 0.Mgcosa. there is no longer a centripetal acceleration. . Chdpter 5 19. . C.5 m) = 8 m/s2. = N . and the acceleration vector points toward the center of the circle. the velocity vector is pointing in the direction of the stopper's motion.= ma = (1200 kg) (2.. 21. 29.. 27. because the beetle is moving in a circle. From the diagram we obtain (F~. . and we divide gravity into components (see figure). the velocity vector would be constant.. B. The car would simply slide straight forward into the other lane. .25 m/s2. B. If you chose C. .. N .= v2/r = (3 m/~)~/(4 m) = 2. that is. We know there is a net force toward the center of the wheel. A The acceleration can be calculated a = v2/r= (2 m/~)~/(0. ..Mgcosa. A. let us consider the vertical component of Fna = G... The centripetal force is provided by the string. Since the normal force is "vertical". Because the car moves in a circle. 25.because the crate is not moving up or down. . there is no tangential acceleration and no reason to assume there is a tangential force. This implies (F.. According to the first law of motion. so this narrows our choices to A and C. . C. The tangential acceleration is zero. but since the wheel is rotating at constant speed. .. This narrows the choices to A and C.. Choice C includes a force in the forward direction... = 0.. B. B. Gravity and the normal force add to zero. However. We choose "horizontal" and "vertical" to be parallel and perpendicular to the surface. especially since the tangential acceleration is zero (because of the car's constant speed). A. A.). then there would no longer be a force to affect the velocity vector. 28.. we necessarily know the net force on the car: F. .Solutions . . . C. because the stopper is moving in a circle. and we have O= To see that the centripetal force is due to friction. 20. perhaps you were thinking that motion in the forward direction implies there must be a force in the forward direction. We draw a diagram. ~ u t w know e that a. consider what would happen if there were no friction between the tires and the road. 22.. the velocity vector is changing direction. respectively. The velocity vector would be constant (first law of motion). since the speed is constant. so B is correct.25 m/s2)= 2700 N.. The direction of the velocity vector is always changing but not its magnitude. Not so. B.. which is a force of tension. Hence A is correct.. At the moment shown in the diagram. N = Mgcosa. Once we know the acceleration of the car..).. Since the acceleration vector a" points toward the center. Once there is no longer a centripetal force. If the string were to break. we know there is a centripetal acceleration and a centripetal force. The acceleration is given by a. we can'conclude that the net force F... 23. There is no reason to assume there is a force acting forward on the car...= ma' points toward the center as well.
so we have a = a 35. and he experiences a tangential acceleration because he is speeding up. .The MCAT Physics Book 32.Mgsina. D. giving a velocity 10wm/s. When she is going at a constant speed. and so does the net force vector. 37. C. If there is no gravity. D. The frequency is the number of revolutions per unit of time.. According to Newton's law of gravitation. only at the beginning of the race when the runner is accelerating. The net force is given by F . where we have taken the positive direction to be up the incline.. Thus in one second the sample travels 50 (0. B. (F. then the gravitational force is greatex. The acceleration is In one second the centrifuge sample undergoes 50 revolutions. There is a horizontal acceleration. the correct answer is A. the magnitude of the gravitational force must be greater than the magnitude of the force of the ground. his acceleration vector points toward the center of rotation. C. We can find the centripetal acceleration a . . It seems that D is the correct answer. then v is doubled. On the other hand the centripetal acceleration is a . Each day the man travels a distance given by the circumference of the Earth C = 2w R. A. A. B. . It would point the opposite way if he were slowing down. B.. 4. 5. maintaining the same velocity vector as it had when the gravity was cut off. = v2/r.= MZi. In order to calculate the centripetal force F. The force inward is due to friction between the runner's shoes and the track. The person experiences a centripetal acceleration because he is moving in a circle. and each revolution is the circumference 2 n r = 2 K (0. C. B. . v = 2 z Rf. Adding the two vectors together gives the result B (see figure). Since the scale reading on a rotating Earth is less than the gravitational force.= ma.2nm). 39. 34. The gravitational force for the two men is the same.. if we know his velocity and the radius of the Earth.. that is. The problem with choice D is that we can calculate the velocity once we know the period and radius (as in the previous problem). Since the man is traveling in a circle at constant speed. acceleration is centripetal. . if the distance in the denominator is less. . 3 6 . and thus net force. = ma.()~= T .= v 2 / ~ .. = v2/r. 3. . SO a. she expends effort pushing down with the foot in contact with the track and moving it back fast enough. and Jupiter follows a straight line at constant speed. So the velocity is the total distance per time.1 m). . For this to be so. If we consider the "horizontal" component of Fw. since the runner is actively running. I Passage 1 .. Each revolution represents a trip of length 2w R. and the only . It may seem surprising that there is not a force forward. gsina. we need the mass of the man and the centripetal acceleration. then we can obtain from the diagram The tangential acceleration is in the same direction he is going. Iff is doubled. T = M 33. then there is no net force. is increased by a factor of 4. 2. C .
. so let's look at the force diagram again... implying 4.. We can read the horizontal component of the tension from the diagram. so that Since only the steel is touching the copper block... is ma.. and because the block is not changing its velocity up and down.Gy.. . Thus . I But ( F . Our first thought for this question is the definition. is zero. In order to find the normal force. I Since the surfaces are not slipping.... So we have N=Gy = mg cos 30" 3.. We do not really need to do the last few calculations.).) ~is zero. Since the normal force is vertical. Choices C and D mention the tension T. which contributes tension. F. The two things touching the block are the ground...... 2. since N is not mg.. We choose axes which are tilted compared to the level ground.= 0. D. ). the only forces besides gravity are the normal force and friction. Since we know cos 30" is somewhat less than 1. and the vertical acceleration is zero (F. We draw a diagram showing all the forces. we add all the vertical forces to obtain (F.. .. so we write But (eel). Thus we must have ( F .. B. the friction is static friction. ) ~ from the diagram: ('Es)x =T x . we look at the "vertical" forces... C.Solutions ..= &N. C.. Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Solutions We can also get an expression for ( F .. 5.)~ = 0.. We draw a diagram with all the forces.. and divide the gravitational force into two components. The problem states that the block's velocity is constant.'( = N . We also include gravity. but none of the answers corresponds to this. since a.. which contributes the normal force and friction.. ) ~ = 0....4r* 1 . and the rope... we know that the normal force is somewhat less than mg = 20 N.
I 1 . Force balance allows us to conclude that the frictional force is equal to the gravitational force (as in question 10). The normal force is perpendicular to the surface and the frictional force parallel to it.so the normal force is equal in magnitude to F ..)~= 0. there is no slipping. Did you calculate Ffr= &N = 800 N? Remember.. The friction in this problem is static friction. and F. this is the calculation for the maximum static friction.= 700 N. Thus we have N = F.004 kg) (10 m/s2) = 0. its acceleration is zero. and the wall exerts a normal force and a frictional force. . that is. I = 800 N . Since the washer is not moving.58.. we have p= Ff)N = (10 N)/(17 N) = 0. even if the surface is vertical.. From the diagram we can see that the normal force and the gravitational force add to zero.4 N) = 0.G. and we have force balance.The MCAT Physics Book Since the block is not moving. But from the diagram we know that 1 12. First we draw a diagram with all the forces.= mg = (0. But 1 (F.2) (0.. The wall and the pencil touch the card. We know this friction must be less than the quantity 4 N in order for the friction to be sufficient to keep the @ = surfaces from slipping. 15. The man is pushing to the right. 13. B. and F. Since we are assuming the card is not moving. (F.)~ = Ft. A.= 0.= 1000 N. Since there is force balance on the block.04 N.08 N. The gravitational force is simply FP. The problem states that the pencil exerts a horizontal force (see diagram). and the ground exerts a normal force and a frictional force. we must have (F.which is given in the problem. 9. D.. Force balance tells us that the man's force and the frictional force are equal in magnitude.)== Fw. = mg sin 30" First we draw a diagram including all the forces.)~ = 0.. 14. so F. B. The actual static friction forcecan have any magnitude from zero up to this maximum. and we have (F.N.. so their magnitudes must be equal. it is not accelerating.. C.is less than this. By definition. Since we have j (0. so that we have 0 = (Fnet). The man would have to exert a force in excess of the maximum possible friction. the acceleration axis zero.
Friction supplies the centripetal force.)~= 0. N. ?Ae force diagram is shown. 21. . .4 m/s2. Did you choose D? If so. Because the car is turning at constant speed. We calculate Gx as follows: G.. we know the net force points toward the center of the turn. . 19. 20.. go back and read about the first law of motion. . Chapter 6 16. so we have 2 3 . . Also. A. . = 0 and (F. . Since the car is going uphill with its brakes applied and tires skidding. . B. There is no force in the direction the car is going because the car is neither s p e d n g up nor slowing down. The components of gravity are shown in the diagram below. B. N=Gy = GCOS e = mgsin 8. the kinetic friction force is parallel to the surface and downhill. C. . where we have taken "downhill" to be positive. 22. We have gravity. = mgsin 8. . . C .G. . ( F ~ )= . . . SO we have O=NGy. the appropriate friction is static. C. G. . . We cannot obtain the force of friction from the force diagram because we do not have a force balance and do not have any information about the acceleration. . . (The turn would be impossible if the surface were frictionless. Meditate on it for about fifteen minutes.) Since the tires are not slipping on the road.Solutions . = Gsin 8. . pointing down.. . C . The road exerts a force normal to its surface. . there is a force of friction. We can obtain the net vertical force from the diagram. . . 18. The acceleration is centripetal acceleration given by a. in which we view the car from the rear and the turn is to the left. . . = &A'... The force diagram is shown. so =&N+mgsin8 17. so a. But we can calculate F. . . I But the car is not moving up or down. C. The net force is the same as the sum of all the horizontal components of the forces.= v2/r = (8 m/s)'/ 10 m = 6..
6 . If any more friction is required by a situation. which is up (balancing gravity). Remember that the expression @ gives the maximum force of static friction.9) (10. = @: We draw a force diagram including the force of gravity. The rider traverses the circumference of the circle (2n R) during each period of time T. It also exerts a frictional force. 5 . which is large enough.000 N. Mg < P Y But N is the centripetal force. 4. we can calculate the net force F.The MCAT Physics Book From the force diagram we can see that the normal force and gravity balance. the acceleration vector points toward the center of rotation. which exerts a normal force that ends up being toward the axis of rotation. If we know the acceleration. Thus the car will not go into a skid. A. so the magnitude of the upward force must be Mg as well.. so that N = 10.000 N) = 9000 N. A.= ma = 6400 N. so we substitute N = MV*IRto obtain ' Dividing both sides by M and multiplying by ~ l v gives Translating this into words gives choice D. Thus his speed is 2 n RIT.. Passage 1 1 . 25. The upward force must balance the gravitational force. Because the motion is uniform circular rotation. 3. this would mean the car goes into a skid. 26. A. A. From the diagram we can see that the normal force provides the centripetal force.). we know the net force must be toward the center of rotation. But @ = (0. The force of friction (which is the upward force in the previous question) must be less than the maximum possible static friction (F. then surfaces begin to slip. D. C. A. so we can see that this force diagram is complete. For uniform circular motion. . In this case. The only thing touching the rider once the floor drops is the side of the drum.
We apply equation (1) again. 1 . The two forces are equal in magnitude. The density of the atmosphere depends on temperature and pressure. We apply equation (1) to obtain Fdrag= CPAV' Let's compare this terminal velocity for the two situations.Chapter 6 Passage 2 4. on Earth and on Venus. According to the passage.. so the shaded face is the cross section we are interested in. D. equation (1) is valid as long as the Reynolds number is greater than about 100. modeled by a block shape. however. so we have F. we exclude I. tl This is just an estimate. g is the same. so choice B is correct. A is the same.the mass of the drop is the same. so choice D is about right. B. For turbulence we need the Reynolds number to be greater than about 2 x loS. The length of the car does not matter. so. 6. The density of the respective atmospheres is different.so we have Re> 2 x 10' pvl >2x10S. 2. The diagram shows the car. so we can write The arrow shows the direction the car would go.2) (lo3 kg/m3) (0. A.01 m2) (2 d s 1 2= 8 N. The area is A = (15 m) (2 m) = 3 m2. 5. using equation (2). and C is a constant. we have Re> 100. 3.  B. We draw a force diagram for the drop at terminal velocity. B.= (0. The question states that M. . Looking at the choices.. B. .
The ball loses energy to air resistance. then the only force is the force of gravity: (~"et). 4. 2.. then a. to obtain the height. 0 3 m)') (3 m/s)' = 7 x N. since Fgnv= ~m. if cats stretch their legs. but the fact would not help a cat to have a lesser terminal velocity from a greater fall. so the maximum height is less.. A. A. Even if the density of air changed appreciably (it does not). if we call "up" positive.2) (1. Regarding D. and the acceleration is given by may = m g . As the ball travels away from the center of the E d . = Fgrav . so its speed just before hitting the ground will be less than in the idealized problem.the force of gravity decreases slightly. So. Regarding choice C. C. Also. = 3 m/s. and v. B. According to the passage. But the force of gravity is mg. We calculate the drag F. = 10 m/s2. Passage 1 . the air resistance must be small compared to the other forces in the situation. then this increases their crosssectional area. so is a viable possibility for an answer. there is an. 3.3 kg/m3) ( ~ ( 0 . the statement is true. This holds for choice B as well.The MCAT Physics Book 3 A. but this is just the force of gravity. it would not help cats survive a greater fall. = (0.rnd/: .. C.initia1 force down while the ball is going up. If there is no air. which would decrease their terminal velocity. If air resistance is included. we write v. = v:~ + 2ayAy .
. the value of q5 is 150". . . For force the angle $ is 0". so the sign is positive. z. . We consider the fixed point to be the origin. A. . .5 Nm. We calculate torque z= rFsing = (0. we can slide it directly up (maintaining its direction) to the upper right corner. The sign is negative because the torque is clockwise. Chdpter 7 Chapter 7 Solutions 4.3) (10 N) = 3 Nm. .. The torque is clockwise. A. Now we have r = 0. so its sign is negative. .. C. a d the torque is zero. B.4 m)(20 N) 1 = 8 Nm. so that T = (0. . . For force the value of q5 is 90". There are two ways to calculate the torque of force g about the pivot (see diagram).5 m)(10 N) sin 90" = 5 Nm. . We can see this from the diagram.Solutions . . In the easier way we can move E. . The more difficult way leaves 2 in the lower right comer. . . . The torque is z= rFsinq5 = 2. . The torque is clockwise. e. . . so the sign is negative. 1 . and we add the angles and &. . Since B points down. 3. 2 . . . to the diagram of the meter stick (see figure). . For force g. .. . but when we calculate torques we can always use the smaller angle 30" (see figure). 5. . The radius vector is shown in the diagram. so sin $ = 0. The torque is counterclockwise.3 m and sin q5 = 1. in which force C does not tend to produce any rotation about the fixed point. Thus torque is z = rFsin q5 = (0. .
The net torque on the meter stick about the fulcrum must be zero. we have 12. (See figure. A more difficult way to do the problem is to calculate T using force balance (F. Another way to see this is to note that force C would slide right through the pivot. We draw a diagram (see figure) showing all the forces on the rope.5 m represents the distance from the fulcrum to Scott's seat. + F2r. 7. Then apply the definition of torque. so the torque due to this tension is zero (since r = 0 m). = 0. The torque is zero since sin @ is zero. 5 m)(40 N) + r2. 6. F. the torque is zero (because r = 0 m). we may write F. This makes sense.(2 m) . met = 0. 10. m2 = 2. because the torque due to the weight of the book about A should be balanced by the torque of the tension T about A. We draw a diagram (see figure) showing all the forces on the seesaw itself. and we have r n c t =0 = 4 1 . so 4 = 90". A.5 m from the end. A. We have = 60 Nm. The force is perpendicular to the line connecting B and A. Now y = 1.) 9. = 0 and obtaining T = 80 N. The easiest way to do this problem is to take torques about point A and to apply torque balance. a c. D. We draw a diagram (see figure) showing the forces on the meter stick.). 5 = 60 Nm.r. The tension due to the person pulling the rope acts at the point B.The MCAT Physics Book B.(y) = 0. Since there is a torque balance about the fulcrum. C. 11. A.F. Since the weight of the book acts at point B. Thus he sits 0. The torque due to the horizontal rope is zero.4 kg. so its torque must be zero. . Since the torque due to the force of the fulcrum is zero.
.. . Z . . .Solutions . . . We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the meter stick (see figure). .5 kg 1 l 0 ) : = 6 Nm. .4 kg. .4 rn)(l. We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the forearm (see figure). . . B.. If we take torques about the fulcrum. C. . Torque balance becomes The torque due to the weight of mass A is m = 0. We draw a diagram showing all the forces which contribute to torques about the axis of pulley B (see figure). 1 6 . . . 15..... C.Chapter 7 13. In both cases we have sin@ = 1. A. The torque due to the weight of the arm is = 4 Nm. C .. then the fulcrum force will not have a torque... . . 18. . 17. and torque b. . Torque balance about the elbow yields the following equation: The torque due to the weight of mass m is z = (L)(mg)l . . = (0.. We can take torques about the axis of pulley B. .alance yields .
that to the right.sin 90" . Fh We do not know if the forces are to the left or right. dFB. 1 FBK = . We can use the Pythagorean theorem to obtain the length of the wire. and FBy are zero. The sum of the vertical forces must be zero. but the equation will tell us later on if our choices were right. If we take torques about A. 2 + FBI = mg.. dF. so we have Fh + FBr . A We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the rod (see figure). We can calculate the torque due to the tension in the wire easily by sliding the force down the string to the point shown in the figure. then torques due to > F. The positive sign tells us that our choice was correct. . D. D. 2 1 . The negative sign tells us that the direction of ph is to the left.T mg. so we have . 22. so that the torque balance is dF.sin900 . FBx.lTsin 90" = 0. then torques due to FAY.The MCAT Physics Book We draw a diagram showing all the forces on the two rods (see figure).lmg = 0.lmg = 0. Torque balance becomes dFB. The torque is 1T.mg = 0. because the wall is providing the upward force which adds to the one downward force of gravity of the brick. FAY. A.. The torque due to the tension in the wire about point A is given by ?: = (2 m) Tsin8 Thus the ratio dT is given by dividing both sides by T. 2 0 . that is. If we take torques about B. And this makes sense. and FBy are zero.lTsin90° = 0.
If we take torques about point B. .(1 m)F2.Solutions .. F. 25.6m2= 0.. from the torque balance. sin 90" + (1 m) F. The torque due to Fxis (1 m) F. leaving just m. and torque balance becomes (1 m)F. sin 90" . . . 24..(1 m)F. we can take torques about the center of mass of the leg. so we write (1 rn)(2 kg. . and T from the torque balance by taking torques about point C. . .. . and T do not appear in the equation.. . ...sin90° .33 kg with the same method used in the previous problem.We can get the torques due to F. = 30 N. B. . Chapter 7 23. (lrn)~ 20Nm10Nm=0.. we eliminate Fwy... and m. and F2 by sliding the forces upwards. 90"+ (1 m)F.. . C.. . . . Dividing by 10 m/s2 and solving yields 0. C. We could obtain the same result by figuring out mZ= 3. If we take torques about point B. . .. . (1 m)Fz. To obtain an equation with just m. . . D. 26. so we can obtain an equation without them if we take torques about point A. .sin900 = 0 . so torque balance becomes (2 m ) ~sin . .. and the and mass of the leg. then F.. B. . since q3 = 90".. . opposite the d~rection figure). Torque balance becomes (2 m)Tsin8. . the vectors point (see that it..3m1 +0. loF "1 sin 90' = 0. . . T. Then we can write the torques at sight. . sin 90" = 0. 27. We do not know Faand F. sin 90" sin 90" = 0. We draw a diagram with all the forces on the leg (see figure).(1 m)F. . This time we eliminate F. .. so torque balance becomes . .
The crosssectional area increases by a factor of 16 (see previous problem). so the stress (forcerarea) decreases by a factor of 16. This implies that z . The circumference is C = 2nr.. we must have static equilibrium. The equation we need is the proportionality between stress (FIA) and strain (Alll). and . 28. The equation in solution 29 indicates A1 decreases by a factor of 4.) Then the crosssectional area increases by a factor of 42 = 16. . and therefore torque balance. the magnitudes of F. and the area by a factor of 16. are equal in magnitude. then A1 increases by a factor of 3. we do not need to put the proportionality constant in the right place. then the stress does not change. B.The MCAT Physics Book The tension exerted by the body must be equal in magnitude to the one other horizontal force. if area increases by a factor of 16. B. Stress is defined as stress = F A' so if F and A stay the same. B. FbOdY =T Both the length and the area are increased. For this problem. Refemng to the equation in solution 29.. = rFsin90°. Don't let the information in the problem distract you from the fact that there must be a force balance on the muscle. and Y stay the same. and since there are two they must be balanced. then the radius increases by a factor of 4. We write Fmy + T = 0. 32. Passage 1 . and we increase 1by a factor of 3. so if the circumference increases by a factor of 4. A. A. 34. The torque due to the force on the rod is given by 7.. the length by a factor of 4. Since nothing is moving. C . 31. A. are the same. Thus and Fh. but the equation is If F. then A 1 decreases by a factor of 16. the tension due to the weight of the 8kg mass. since the muscle is not accelerating. 30. (See discussion in Chapter 1 if this is unclear. The figure shows the torques acting on the axle.r.
C. and area are related by the equation The force exerted at the center of the biceps is the same as the force exerted at the forearm (force balance. Stress is forcelarea. and the area is 100 times smaller. The force (weight) increases by a factor of 8.) 3. and the area increases by a factor of 4. statue B has 8 times the weight as well. . see the last sentence of the fourth paragraph. . . Since weight w = mg. Stress is force per area. . . D. (You may have done this problem by an intermediate step by calculating that force to be 500 N. so the breaking weight would be the same.Solutions . .. ... . . Increasing the length does not change the force of the load (the lantern weight) or the crosssectional area. .. Chdpter 7 Stress. . . . Since m = pV. The passage indicates that the breaking point is related to the threshold stress for the material in the cable. . . . . . . Thus the stress at the foreann is 100 times larger. so the stress increases by a factor of 814 = 2. . . Statue B has 8 times the volume of statue A. force. . .. . . . Also. see previous question). 5 . statue B has 8 times the mass.
kg m =(6kg)v. so momentum is conserved. . before: The fact that the carts stick together is our clue that this is a conservationofmomentum problem. The sticking together provides the clue that this is a conservationofmomentum problem. Let's draw a diagram (see figure) of the system before and after the collision. so that P b e f o r t =P h 9 1. A. we calculate the total momentum as follows: I The collision of A and B does not affect the momentum of the system. In this problem we set the initial momentum equal to the final momentum after all the collisions have occurred.. The external forces. B. so the answer is the same as the answer for problem 3. before: after: I The total momentum before the collision is given by Before the collisior. We draw a diagram showing the system before and after the collision (see figure). 1 . 2. are balanced.1. which are gravity and the normal force. The question asks only for the magnitude. Thus we can set the momentum before the collision equal to the momentum after the collision.The MCAT Phyncs Book Chapter 8 Solutions 3. S = Puw ' where the negative sign indicates the velocity vector points left. so the final velocity is given by Pberare where the negative sign indicates the momentum vector points left. A.
Solutions .... .... . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. Chdpter 8
6. C.
If the track were not level, gravity and the normal force would not be balanced, and there would be a component of gravity accelerating the carts. Thus the momentum of this system would not be conserved. Of course, if the system included the Earth, then the momentum would be conserved, but then there would not be enough information to do the problem.
7.
before:
1
m
A.
We draw a diagram of the system before and after the explosion (see figure). The momentum before the string is cut is just.0 kg d s , since neither of the carts is moving. Since the external forces are balanced, the final momentum is also zero.
before: Before the collision, Michael's momentum is (60 kg) (0.5 m/s) = 30 kg m/s pointing north, and Carol's momentum is (40 kg) (1.0 m/s) = 40 kg m/s pointing west. The total momentum before the collision given by a vector diagram (see figure below).
after:
While the sting is cut, there are no unbalanced external forces, so we can set the momentum before to the momentum after the cutting, so we write By the Pythagorean theorem, the magnitude of the momentum is 50 kg m/s pointing in the northwest direction. Since momentum is conserved, this is the same as the momentum after the collision.
The final velocity must be v,= &= Since Michael and Carol stick together, we think this is a problem in conservation of momentum. During the tiny time of their collision, momentum is approximately conserved. (Gravity is an unbalanced force, but it operates in the vertical direction only, and we are ignoring that direction because the change in momentum due to gravity is so small.) Thus we draw a diagram of the system before and after the collision. See figure below.
m t o ,
(50 kg m/s)/lOO kg = 0.5 m/s.
ll.A.
.
. Before the collision, the total momentum of the system is 0 kg m/s, since the rifle and bullet are not moving. Momentum is conserved in the explosion, so the total momentum after the explosion is 0 kg m/s, as well. The momenta of the moving rifle and the moving bullet are in opposite directions, so they add to zero.
The
MCAT Physics Book
If we draw a diagram,
12. A.
15. D.
after:
Vbullet
we can write the conservationofmomentum equation:
Pbefore
= Palter
13. C.
Since the problem mentions force and time, we think immediately of momentum. The external force of 3 N imparts to cart A the momentum given by
Ap, = FAt
= 3~
Concerning choice A, gravity acts only vertically. Choice B is ambiguous, referring either to the car's force on the road or the road's force on the car. In neither case is there a force on the books pulling them forward  the brakes do not come into it, they don't touch the books  so B is not correct. Concerning choice C, momentum is not a force (it does not even have the same units). A force is a push or pull on an object due to something. So D is correct. What is going on? If you missed this problem, you need to work on your understanding of the first law of motion. The car and the books are traveling along with forces balanced at the beginning of the problem. When the driver applies the brakes, the wheels push forward on the road. The road pushes backward on the car (third law of motion), and it is the backward force that slows the car. The books, not having a backward force, continue in uniform motion until the seat they are on is pulled out from under them.
16. A.
Since momentum is conserved during the collision, the change in momentum is zero.
17. A.
(s)2
= 6Ns
Let's draw a diagram showing the system of two asteroids before and after the collision (see figure).
before:
m
pA= 6 b + o  = 6kgm a
S
kgm
S
S
Here we have explicitly worked out the units. Recall that FAt gives the change of momentum, but since cart A starts at zero momentum, the momentum of cart A after the force has acted is 6 kg d s .
14. B.
1.25 kg
For the collision, there is no unbalanced external force, and we can apply the equation for conservation of momentum:
Solutions .... . . . ...... . . ...... . . ........ Chapter
8
The total momentum before the collision must be determined by adding the individual momenta as vectors. This is shown in the momentum diagram (see figure). Thus we obtain the total momentum of the system before the collision to have the magnitude 13 kg m/s (from the Pythagorean theorem).
19. D.
. An impulse is a change in momentum. If the ball is initially going in the positive direction, after the bounce it is going in a negative direction. We calculate Ap = p, p, = (0.3 kg) (7 m/s)  (0.3 kg) (5 m/s) = 3.6 kg m/s.
A force and a time reminds us of momentum. The change in momentum is given by Ap = FAt = 50 kg d s . Since the object is initially at rest, this must be the magnitude of its final momentum. But when we look at the choices, we realize that we do not know the direction of the force and therefore the direction of the final momentum. Thus B is correct. The final velocity can be determined from momentum conservation:
21. A.
When the first ball hits the floor, it has a momentum vector pointing down. After the bounce, its momentum vector points up. The impulse imparted by the floor is shown in the first figure. (Recall that p,= Pbelorc + 4 . ) 18. B. We draw a diagram (see figure).
4
before:
after:
impulse
t
a t
before:
ball 1
.A

I AT
after:
m 3 S
We do not know which direction cart B is going after the collision, but if we draw the vector going to the right, the equation will tell us in which direction B moves. Momentum is conserved, so we write
The second ball hits the floor with the same momentum as the first. After the impact, its momentum vector is zero. The impulse imparted by the floor is shown. From these diagrams, we can see that choice A is .correct.
The MCAT Physics Book
We know there is the force of gravity and a force due to the rod, since the rod is the only thing touching it. Therefore A is incorrect (excludes rod) and C is incorrect (includes force from a surface). We need to draw a diagram (see figure) to see if the force due to the rod is tension only or also to the right. Gravity acts downward. Clearly the momentum of the apple is not conserved, since it goes from zero velocity to a finite velocity of impact, so A and D are wrong. If we consider the apple and Earth as a system, we can draw the force diagram shown. In this system the force of Earth's gravity on the apple is an internal force (rather that an external one). We have simply defined our system large enough to include all the forces. The momentum of this system is conserved, so B is the answer. This reasoning shows the flaw in choice C: If gravity is an internal force, momentum may be conserved if there are no unbalanced external forces.
The net force is a centripetal force, since the bob is traveling in a circle at constant speed at the moment the bob is at the bottom. Therefore the force of the pendulum is up. Did you say there was a force to the right? If you did, you have not learned about the first law of motion. Just because an object is moving to the right does not mean there is a force in that direction.
Impulse is change in momentum. If the head is initially at rest, and ends up going backwards at the velocity of the fist, then the impulse it receives is given by
Passage
1 . C.
Both the second and third laws of motion concern unbalanced forces. But the third law of motion states that, if the ship exerts a force on the gas, then the gas exerts an equal and oppositely directed force on the ship, so C is correct.
4 = 0 (mw)(v,,,)
The impulse is the same in either case, so choices A and B are incorrect. Choice C mentions force and time, so we think to write
2. C.
Choice A is a true statement: Neon is not a product of uranium fission, but neither is hydrogen. The passage says that hydrogen is heated and then expelled. This is different from conventional rockets in which the products of the reaction themselves are expelled. Choice B is a true statement but also irrelevant, because the hydrogen does not react chemically in this process either. Concerning choice C, let's think of exhaust velocity. It is related to temperature and molecular mass of the exhaust gas. Since neon is more massive, the exhaust velocity will be less, and the thrust will be less. Choice C is correct.
&=FA.
Riding the punch has the effect of increasing the time of contact with the fist and thus decreasing the magnitude of force of the fist on the face, so choice C is a possibility. Choice D is not relevant. This question is not really a very good one, but it is typical of some of the questions on the MCAT.
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . Chapter
8
3. D.
According to the passage, the hydrogen can not be heated fast enough. This would result in a low mass expulsion rate.
4.
D.
It helps to visualize this problem if we draw a diagram (see figure).
From the figure we can see that, reiative to the ship, the gases are going 5000 m/s.
5 . A.
Let's draw a diagram of the system.
before:
after:
We can do this by momentum conservation:
Pbcfan
=Par
9
6. B.
This problem asks about force, and since a time is given in the problem, we immediately think to write
Ap = F,, At.
A
2
We know how to caicuiate the impulse Ap of the ship during the explosion, Ap = (10 kg)(0.2 d s )  0 = 2 kg d s . Thus F = (2 kg rn/s)/0.2 s = 10 N.
The
MCAT Phvs1cs Book
The force of the man is perpendicular to the direction of the box's motion, so cos I$= 0 .What is going on here? The reason our intuition is poor is fhat the man does a fair amount of microscopic work inside his striated muscles' in order to maintain a force. Such muscles are extremely inefficient. That energy ends up as heat, which radiates from his body.
Chapter 9 Solutions
The force diagram is shown. The direction of travel is shown by a dashed vector, to distinguish it , , = (30 N) (10 m) cos 30" = from forces. We have W 260 J.
8. A.
We have p = mv = (4 kg) (3 d s ) = 12 kg m/s.
9.
C.
We have E,= 1/2 mv2= 112 (4 kg) (3 m/s12= 18 J.
A force diagram is shown, although we do not need it in this case. We deduce there must be a frictional force since the net force is zero. The horse is pulling in the same direction as the direction of travel so cos$ = 1. Also Ax is vAt. The normal force and the direction of travel are perpendicular, so cos $ = 0.
3. B.
The gravitational force and the direction.of travel are perpendicular, so cos $ = 0.
4.
A.
11. B.
The gravitational force is perpendicular to the direction of travel, so cos I$= 0.
The words "constant velocity" tell us that the net force is zero. Thus the total work is zero.
12. D.
The friction does negative work on the sled. The only other work is from the rope (question I), that is, 260 N. Since the total work is 0 J, the friction must do 260 J.
6.
We have v,, F and At, which do not combine in any way to make energy. If we had the mass of the cart we could obtain the acceleration from F, then the final velocity, and then the energy. If we had the distance FAX.But we do not have traversed, we could use W,a= those things.
B.
The box is not sitting on a surface, so there is no normal force. The man is certainly pushing up. Is he pushing forward? There is no reason to think so, since the box is moving at constant speed in a straight line.
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chdpter
9
13. B. Gravity and the normal force are balanced vertical forces. Since the car is slowing down, which is accelerating backwards, there must be a net force backwards, and this is provided by friction (or braking). If you thought there had to be a force pulling it forwards, then you forgot that the car would tend to keep going forward in the absence of any forces (first law of motion). The force diagram is shown below.
We set EKI + EPI= EK2+ Em* O+mgH=E,+O,
I
Use EK=112 mv2, but just estimate the square root.
19. C .
As in problem 17, we obtain E,= were doubled, then E , would double.
mgH. If H
20. A.
Change in energy is always final minus initial. Thus we have E, E,, = 0 J  112 (1000 kg)(20 mls), = 2 x 105~.
15. A.
Setting now E, to 112 mv, 2, we obtain 112
=
mgH. Notice that m cancels, and this yields v,= &@. This looks more complicated than the variable relationships we have seen, but it is not. If H increases by a
The only force doing work is the road, so the work done by the road is the total work. But this is the same as the change in kinetic energy. 16. D. In this case the direction of travel is in the opposite direction of the road's force, so cos $ = 1. Thus W = FAx cos 4 yields 8000 N. 17. C. This is one of the cases in which the simple statement of the conservation of energy holds. The only force acting on the cat is gravity. (See figure.)
factor of 2, then v2increases by a factor of f i which is 1.41. But an increase by a factor of 1.41 is the same as increasing by 4 1%. If this is unclear, think of increasing a number by 41%. That means taking 41% of a number and adding it to the original number. That is the same as multiplying by 1.41.
Momentum is always conserved as long as there is no unbalanced external force. The external forces here are gravity and the normal force, which are balanced. The internal forces are the forces that the wts exert on each other. Choices B and D are equivalent, so neither can be the answer. In fact, the collision is not elastic. It is not completely inelastic because the carts do not stick together.
22. A.
Using conservation of momentum gives
PI = P 2 3
The MCAT Physics Book
The initial kinetic energy is E,, = 112 rnAv,, = 0.125 1.The final kinetic energy is E , = 112 m,v,, = 0.0625 J. The ratio is 0.5.
If the current and the potential difference were both doubled, then the power would increase by a factor of 4. If the energy expended is the same in AE = PAt, then At decreases by a factor of 4.
The efficiency is defined in this problem as ratio of energy expended due to air resistance to energy consumed. The energy expended due to air resistance is W , = F,p case, where cos @ is 1 because the road is level. The total energy consumed is simply nAHH,,.
31. D.
The first method of doing pulley problems involves drawing a force diagram for the bottom pulley, as shown. This gives the force equation T + T  mg = 0, so that T = 112 mg.
The problem makes no mention of how efficiency depends on speed. On the other hand, the energy expended to overcome air resistance will increase as the square of the velocity. In many situations the efficiency is defined as the ratio of useful work to input energy, the rest of the energy wasted as heat. This problem is different in that the efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy consumed by a given drag to input energy.
The answer is not A or B, because the car has as much kinetic energy before as after. since it goes at one speed, and as much potential energy before as after, since it travels on level ground. The energy starts as chemical energy, so D is incorrect.
27.
D.
The amount of energy expended is AE = P A , by definition. This is equal to the increase of the potential energy of the box. The energy does not go anywhere else: not into heat because the transfer is 100% efficient and not into kinetic energy because the box moves slowly and at constant speed. Setting P A equal to mgH yields H = 40 m. Note the the 30' angle had nothing to do with the answer.
The second method involves imagining that the end of the rope is pulled 1 meter. That means that 1 meter of rope goes over the upper pulley, and 0.5 meters of rope are taken from either side of the lower pulley. The angle a has no part in this problem. The work done by the pulling is the work done pulling the mass, so T (1 m) = mg (0.5 m) and T = 112 mg. 32. A. The force diagrams are shown. Clearly the second tension is double the first tension.
28. A.
See the answer to problem 27.
29. A.
In this case the power is 120 Watts. This gives an energy expenditure of (120 W) (60 s) = 7200 J. The energy which becomes potential energy is 720 J because of the 10% efficiency. If this is set equal to mgH, then H = 1.8 m.
.Solutions . . . but it goes to zero by the end. . so the simple statement of the conservation of energy holds. exerts on his feet. . Using E.... . After the cannonball leaves'the cannon. Many students are tempted to choose 300 N. 42. and we write EK1 + EP1 = EK2 + EP2' The first method is the easier method for this pulley problem. The unbalanced force is gravity. The only force acting on the cannonball is gravity. I1 is false. cos @ = 1. If you chose B. C . We use En= mgh.25 Joules. . . The right string exerts 150 N on the force meter. = 112 mv2 gives us v = 8 d s . The force of the hand ceases to play a role after the ball leaves the touch of the hand. 35. 38.5 d s ) ' = 2. 43. Chapter 9 33. . the left string exerts 150 N on the force meter. and we are ignoring air resistance. . = 112 mv2. . through friction. . . Since the kinetic energy is decreasing. The force diagram below shows that the tension in either string is 150 N. . we think of energy and the equation W = FAxcos $. In this case. 44. We use E. . . dravity is the only force on the ball in flight..005 to 2. E. . C. C . Since the potential energy is increasing. 3 6 . so D is false. so that T = 113 mg. . The momentum is large and directed up at the beginning. Thus T + T + T. and it does work on the ball. B. 39. . C . . The force diagram for the lower pulley is shown. Here we have enough information to apply the definition.mg = 0.The force is the force that the track. . thinking that the two weights add. then you need to review the first law of motion. there is nothing touching it besides air.= 112 mv2 = 112 (2. Whenever we see force and distance. 41. . A.. . and the force meter records 150 N. The sum is conserved.005 kg) (1. because gravity is the only force acting on the ball. I is false. . so that F = 130 N. C . . so the simple statement of the conservation of energy holds in this case. It is safe to round 2. A. C is false.. so A is false. The energy starts as kinetic and ends as potential. . B. so B is true.
In this question we are talking of part 2 of the event. is the height from which the rocks fall. 48. so D is false. In this problem. The forces on the block (with bullet) are gravity and the tension of the strings.) : z ( 1 0 . although contrived. Remember to follow the energy flow. so the answer is A or C. . so the tension forces do no work. being ~ o n s t a n t ."after 1 (5 . that is. since the winch does work on it. energy lost as heat. but the cart as a system is not isolated.= F. 45. But during part 1. But the tension is always perpendicular to the direction of travel. so conservation of momentum is the relevant concept. The potential energy is not constant but increases. winch energy goes into potential energy of the cart. This resembles a car collision. A is true. 46. A. I Notice that the angle a or P never appears at all. there is no change in the potential energy of anything. and by the time it stops. and so its energy is not conserved.The MCAT Physics Book A. and the simple statement of the conservation of energy applies: EKI+ E P 1 = E K Z + E P 2 ' The net force on the cart is zero. in fact. balanced and the momentum stays constant throughout the problem.. so the simple statement of the conservation of energy applies. 2 h=2 = . Option III sounds attractive. countenntuitively. It is correct because the forces are. We could do these problems by drawing forces. the kinetic energy is constant and therefore conserved. ) = 0. C. 51. The proper statement for the conservation of energy in this problem is this: The potential energy increase of the cart is given by the work done by the winch. The only thing that matters. So the energy goes from kinetic to potential.11 m = 11 cm. and finally velocities. A. answer. ' ~ lno Both the winch and gravity do work.Axcos @ is zero. We write PI =p29 Since the speed is constant.. and a little stays as kinetic energy of the bullet. B and C are false a ~role. so A is incorrect. its height is greater. In this question we are talking about part 1 of the event: a collision involving hot wood and partially cornbusted organic compounds. Conservation of energy gives us the answer much more quickly. 50. We write EK1+ E P 1 = E K 2 Em. It is contrived because this information does not allow you to calculate anything of use. s because kinetic energy. B. Remember that the total work is a measure of the energy that goes into the kinetic energy of the cart. B. some goes into kinetic energy of the block. and the mass of the rock m or M cancels in the second step above. The block is moving at first. Most of the kinetic energy of the bullet goes into heat. obtaining accelerations. This is the correct. so W. taking components. + Certainly the energy starts as kinetic. The only two forces on the rocks are gravity and the normal force..
. versus a large P (steep slope). so an increase by a factor of 2 in velocity yields an increase by a factor of 23= 8 in power. In the above cases the accelerations are the same because the factor m cancels. If any of the intermediates in the reaction were stable compounds. .that is. . B is a good choice. Passage 1 1 B.. Thus the amount of energy used is nAHm. if v is doubled. which would be almost free fall. . Even if we do not think through the analysis. The analysis in the previous problem should convince you that if the angle is greater. which would make the rock take a long time to slide. D is incorrect for the same reason.. But the reaction of hydrogen with water is clean. per mole of 0 . For ideal gases... and they take o fall.. . 4. C is nonsense. The same is true in this problem.C). the same time t Once we determine that the acceleration of rock M is the same as rock m then they must take the same time to slide down. War must increse by a factor of 1. The pressure goes up because the temperature goes up. D. their velocities are the same.&.. and the time of fall is less.. The amount of work done is W = Fdrcos $= ( P A ) ( l ) ( l ) = P. C.is increased by a factor of 4. The energy required to get from A to B is given by the work done against air resistance. . . The quantity AHm. 2.. One of the reactants would be in excess. 58.v = cpAv3. An increase from 50 to 55 mph is an increase of lo%. . The work done by the air is W.=ma'for the respective diagrams is Mg sin a =Ma.is given in Joules per mole of reactants going across the reaction equation. Thus the time is shorter. The first answer we think of is number ratio. then W. But that is not a choice.Chapter 9 This problem is more difficult. since the coefficients in a reaction refer to the number of atoms/molecules/formula units or whatever. not up.. volume ratio is proportional to number ratio. 56.Al.C. then some of those compounds could end up in the waste gas. Spontaneous reactions can have either an increase or a decrease in pressure.. . so B is out.. . Our intuition comes from Section 4. Power is given by P = F.= F... a factor of 1..= C ~ A V ~ A and X .21. and since the reactants are gases. so C is incorrect. and the waste gas would contain only leftover hydrogen or oxygen. The combustion would still ignite.1. We can see that their accelerations are the same in the force diagrams below.. which is an increase by 21%. . The reason that two rocks. . Since W. so B seems a good choice. which is a constant. . so A is false. C. This situation is the same as the case with falling masses (Section 4.... .. . take the same time to fall is that at each point along the path their accelerations are the same. one more massive than the other. D is irrelevant since the reactants are at the same temperature. that is. Thus we have W.Solutions . we can consider the extremes of a very small a. where AKis the distance between the cities. The answer is C or D. . Mass ratio is wrong. The horizonel components Fm. . . mg sin a =max. but that would tend to make the pressure go down. so A is excluded. . . so A is false.1' = 1..varies as v2. The heat of reaction is unchanged. It is true that there are more particles on the left side of the reaction. then the acceleration is greater.. D. .
. On the righthand side of the equation. We have assumed that the piston movement is small and the pressure stays about the same. If heat is transferred to the air. The word "elastic" implies that kinetic energy is conserved. The temperature must decrease as well. C.The MCAT Physics Book 5.AL = n.. and helium has 2 per particle. 3. A. Thus we write 3. . just the conservation of momentum. Since both gases are at STP. If the reaction were performed isothermally. B. So neon has a Z which is 5 times larger and removes 5 times as much energy per unit distance. 'H has z = 1 and 'He has z = 2. If the collision is isolated. 1.v~. Only one third of those molecules are oxygen. Thus the answer is D. and z. so B is false.. Consider the lefthand side. The initial kinetic energy of the car is 112 M. which reminds us of force. Since z is doubled.$?T.. so I1 is true. Passage 2 The slowing of the car implies the momentum is decreasing. the ideal gas law is P. A. A. out of the system. When the gases are introduced in the chamber. D. that is. 6 ... That comparing 'H and ' ~ e so is. If the piston movement were larger. 5. is the number of total moles of both gases. mere is an energy and a distance. everything is constant except N. but it does not look as forbidding if we break it down. where n. C . so 111 is true. The gas in the chamber is doing work against the piston. so the equation is The equation looks complicated. so A is false.. the ideal gas equation guarantees that the two gases have the same number of moles per unit volume. and C is true. which plays no role in equation (I). then the number of gas particles would be less after the reaction than before the reaction. Since pressure at a given volume and temperature is proportional to the number of gas particles by the ideal gas law. D. of which 112 a&v2 actually gets transferred to the flywheel. In this question we are . 4. C . The total energy is always conserved in an isolated collision. The energy of motion is turned into heat. then energy is not conserved for that system.' 2.. 1.. hence N is the same. The only difference in the two nuclei is the mass. the only difference is z. Neon has 10 electrons per gas particle. so the internal energy of the gas must decrease. so I is true. the increase in volume would decrease the pressure. 2. The conservation of energy takes entropy into account if heat is included in the accounting of the energy of the system. the pressure would decrease. Option D makes little sense. fiom the equation W = FAxcos 4. ' ~ must e lose 4 times as much energy per unit distance. D. so A is correct. The quantity energy divided by distance has the units of force. but an unbalanced external force does not necessarily nullify the conservation of energy. then there are no external forces and momentum is conserved.
V . Gravity. A. the only forces acting on it are gravity and the normal force. . . of course. 7. . The normal force does no work.. .Solutions . When the car goes from point C to point D. we use the above equation and set kinetic energy to 112 hivZ..D. In order to obtain the velocity. The books are going in a straight path and the car's door turns into their path. So if we are counting forces. A glance at the answers shows expression which look like centripetal force and gravity. so the simple statement of energy conservation works: + EPI = EKZ + 4 7 . Thus gravity and the normal force together provide the centripetal force. . C.. C. This is analogous to the books in the car in Section 5. The only thing touching the car is the tracks. Of this. but the body is pulled by a centripetal force (from gravity and the normal force) away from the blood. The initial kinetic energy is very small. .. The car initially has kinetic energy 1/2 M. .v'. The force diagram is shown. Passage 4 1 . .. using Ah = 50 meters. which provide a normal force. . EK2= M g H L . . The change in potential energy is AEp= mgAh. 3. also know that the velocity v = 2 z RIT. No such thing happens. is acting down.... Puttkg all this together with o = 2 z f given in the passage yields F = Amd~.40 before setting it equal to 112 mv2. that is. vis into kinetic energy.. . . We have learned that the force on a mass d m moving in a circle of radius R is d m v 2 1 ~ We . where T is the period. certainly. you need to review the section about the first law of motion. The only forces ever operating are gravity and the normal force. This is because its direction is normal to not only the surface but to the motion of the object as well.. . B. so we can use the simple statement of the conservation of energy. r 5. which is 112 M . . C. .vZ is placed into the flywheel. We multiply this by 0. In this case.Thus. If you chose C. ~transferred back And of this... only energy 112 a b ~ . ~ . down. so E ~ ~ = & l + EK1* C. T = llf... the blood would be going along a straight path.. 2... The situation is the same for the car going from point C to F as it is in going from C to E.. Chapter 9 4. which get "pulled" toward the door when the car turns. there are two. only energy 112 ahi. Thus The normal force never does work.
Choice C mentions force. but grain size affects only the surface area.. It seems difficult to connect velocity with pressure. the equation W = FAxcos $. 2 . Only a catalyst could reduce the activation energy. Now we need to remember that the radius of the circle R is half the diameter. which is centripetal and leads to the acceleration of the car. The energy starts as chemical energy and turns to heat after burning.The MCAT Physics Book Gravity and the normal force add to make the net force. C. Since the reaction is irreversible. This is close. On the other we write F. that is F. A. By reducing the mass. and though we may have the volume of the "reaction flask". this could be disastrous.= N + Mg. so the friction is kinetic. so A and B are not right. and temperature. The bumpers are used to stop the car at. and there is a connection between force and energy. B. B. the end of the ride. In the ride itself. so the answer is C.. this is a connection between force and pressure. The whole point of a cannon is to convert energy to kinetic energy of the ball.. 3 . + EpI = 1 mv2 = mgh. If the coefficient of friction is reduced. however. the park operators reduce the amount of force necessary to negatively accelerate the cars to a stop.. The energy in the motor certainly starts out as electrical. Since we have the crosssectional area of the cannon. The rate of reaction does depend on surface area.. A. Thus 2. So A is the answer. C.Ax cos$.  4. Note that the conversion of heat to kinetic energy is inefficient. Because of the following calculation: 1 .. The reaction is spontaneous. so the free energy change must be negative. The quantity Ax is the length of the barrel. the entropy change is positive. If the bumpers dissipate the energy. +E p 2 The definition of kinetic energy involves mass and velocity.. energy is sloshed back and forth from kinetic to potential. Since A is not a likely answer. 9. h = v 2 2g ' 1 we see that we do not need anything besides the bail . and they rely on friction. which is H. Does this equation apply in this case? The change in kinetic energy is given by the total work done on an object. and we know neither. The cars are stopped by rubbing past the bumpers. Among the choices given. we do not have the number of moles. so let us look for a better answer than B. Pressure and force together remind us of the definition of pressure P = FIA. let's look at the others.= Ma. and we have cos $ = 1. Pressure and temperature go together in the ideal gas equation. The friction on the tracks plays no role in our cument analysis and plays only a small role in reality. 8. so A is not the answer. B is the best answer. concentration. C is the answer. Passage 5 This is like a problem we have done before. On the one hand we can write F. then the energy ends up as heat. so A is false. C . so the equation does apply. 5.
We replace m with pV.V. . Because the cork is not accelerating. g. obtain multiply by the atomic rnass. Thus m = [ ~ ( 0 . . There is a factor of 1000 ro convert liters to cm3. The force equation is again F. Chapter IO Chapter 10 Solutions The force diagram is the same as that in the previous problems.. . . g. 4 We cancel g and V to obtain p/p.mg = 0. .. . and 27" C is 300 K. ... is a force in Newtons. .. Note that temperature Tmust be measured in Kelvins. FB = mg. . R is in L atm/ K mol.but we call the displaced volume V. then this force is rng. . . The area over which the force is acting down is the top of the head d = N0. C. . If we . . A diagram of a human head is shown. .. [ .= 3  4' The force diagram is same as that for the previous problem. that is. we can write F.Solutions .2 x (686 N) = 0. C. This is a simple application of the ideal gas law PV = nRT. .. In this problem. which we approxmate as 10' ~ l m This ~ .but V.9.we obtain p/p. . 1 ) 10'110] ~ kg = 310 kg. is the volume of the man dp. . . The buoyancy force is FB= p. We multiply this by atmospheric pressure.8 N. First.. . . choices?) The quantity nlV.. (Did you recognize R in the answer We draw a force diagram as shown.. If rn is the number of kilograms we are seeking. with pmmV. is 3 V . Solving . which is PIRT. SO we have 1 .4 g r ~ s l m o l ewe density. I p) mg = 1. we want an equation which includes the volumes in and out of the fluid.1 m12. . We replace F.. ... according to the problem. . = mg. 7.. but V. 5. Thus F. The second step is to write a force equation.mg = 0. Let rn and V be the mass and volume of the cork. = (p. is 0. ... we draw a force diagram. Again we have F... is the number of moles per volume.= 0. and the total volume of iron we call Vin+ V .9V.. . D. In this problem V. as shown. if P is in a m . . number of moles per liter.
and cancel the factor g. 14. . so we have pairVg . During normal breathing conditions. you exert a small force to expand the push out the chest (and pull down the diaphragm). The guage pressure is defined as P .Mg = O 9 A. is the pressure of fluid outside your lung. . we obtain Po = Ps + pHgg(h1 .P. The best answer is A. but it is not the total outside pressure that makes breathing difficult. A force diagram for the chest is shown. we can substitute an expression for force P = FIA.pHcvg . = pgh = 5 x lo4 Pa. We apply the formula P = Pa. The questions here are a bit confusing. . you were thinking along the right track. A.IA..0 x 10' The pressure at the top of the column on the right side is simply the atmospheric pressure Pm. is the pressure of gas inside the lung. A. is greater than Underwater. = P. To breathe in.. Thus for question 10. = (A. and P If we apply hydrostatic equilibrium to the points Q and S (at the top of the column at the left). + lo3 . so the force is most nearly the product of the gauge pressure and the area of the chest. = FiIA. must balance the two pressure forces. so we write FBmHegMg=O.Pa. A. however. + pgh = (1. and m. 10. it is the net pressure. and F.The MCAT Physics Book We assume the balloon is not accelerating. 11.hz) 9 13. so let us think about what the muscles which expand the lungs do. the difference in pressure. 5 j Pa = 1. 9.. we would say that the pressure the lungs are expanding against is the difference P . Since the pressures are the same P. The best answer is . The force Flu. 8.)F. D.. This is a simple application of Pascal's law. A. If you chose C. so these forces balance. Pascal's law states that the pressure at point Q is the same (see figure). the force P Pin by an additional pgh. that is. the pressure inside your lungs is similar to the pressure outside.5 x 10' Pa.IA. Thus F. where Pi. We replace F.. A. .i 0 .
. .nr2. Since we know fA =f. . so that B is the correct answer. Thus the velocity is 27rh'fi If this question confused you. 27171. The coin's relevant length is 2 m . = Pa. In addition. . . Chapter 10 15. . 16. go over it several times. A.. . Work is force times distance times cos 9. increases.just like Example 2 in Section E.. 17. 2 . . The problem mentions the viscous force. and the area of the pipe at B is K (0. then h2 . = PAV. . . Since water is incompressible.Pam + p. The long way to do this is to realize that a change of volume on one side of the press is the same as a change of volume on the other side of the press.) 9 which becomes = ~Ruidg(~2 hl) ' The left side is constant. The quantityf gives the revolutions per second. = F.B is related to the velocity at pointA as well. .. the shaft is attached to the piston. and W2= F2Ax2= PA2&. Hydrostatic equilibrium allows us to write P . so the viscosity equation gives choice A. = W2. if p. The distance the piston moves is vAt. B.. so we must have W .m. The pressure at the top of the column is zero. Compare this problem with the needle in Example 2 of Section E. . Here we have bent the needle into a rectangle. There are four forces we are concerned with. so the length L that goes into F. the circumference. . We are interested in the work done by the atmospheric pressure. then AV = A&. = yL will be L = 2 (l+w+l+w). There are pressure forces for the two faces of the piston. . and the load moves Ax2. . . that is.gh. But the velocity at p0int.... This is a common calculation that could save you some day.&.. decreases. that is. the flow rate must be constant along the flow.. B. 1 9 . .h.Ax. .3/s. If the flow rate is 0. =PA. B. 20. .. We assume no energy is lost to friction. A. and the pressure at the bottom of both flasks is p. A..g(h2 h. we can write 2 vAmA = v. .03 m12. This is not like a rectangular bug foot (see Example 1 of Section E) in the water. . Frpm this we get choice D. On the right side.. increasing its potential energy. . We can draw a force diagram. 25. The area of contact is the area of the side of the piston. The relevant length for the wire circle is L . If the piston on the right moves Ax... but that is not any of the choices. = But W . The circumference about the needle turned out to be twice the length of the needle.06 m. . = 2(2nr). The distance between the sliding surfaces is Ar. = PAV. C. Each revolution represents a distance 2&. 21. The short way to see this is to realize that the flow of energy is from the piston doing the work on the fluid to the fluid doing work on the load. This is an application of hydrostatic equilibrium. then the flow velocity is v = f / A = 21 mls. The force is P a d = P. .Solutions . and it is by moving the shaft that the piston does useful work. Certainly one expression for the velocity at point B is flnr:. . The circumference for the thread has to go all around the outside as well as all around the inside. since we are ignoring gravity. just like Example 1.
The fact that the hose goes over the top of the tank does not change the application of Bernoulli's principle. the pgh terms drop out. A streamline goes from the reservoir (pressure P. but perhaps this would remove obstacles that would create turbulence. Bernoulli's equation becomes 2 7 . so Alv.Thus B is correct. Since gravity plays no role. and this would disqualify the flow from Bernoulli's principle. C . we see that the question writer intends for us to apply Bernoulli's equation. A. = qAvld.. so A is incorrect. so B is correct. 1 + 0 = Pa. and the relevant radius is R. Torque is force times radius times sin@ The torque of the rod must balance the retarding torque due to the viscous force. The water does develop turbulence. so B is a possibility. We can consider a streamline which goes from the reservoir to the top of fountain (pressure Pa. If nowhere.. B. Because the force is perpendicualar to the radius vector. B. 35. = pdh3  3 3 . so B is a possibility. B. B. Pbottom This is a question about hydrostatic equilibrium.2..The MCAT Physics Book 2 6 . then we can try again: . so D is incorrect. so that Bernoulli's equation gives I 30. 29. Increasing the flow rate increases the likelihood of turbulence. Relating the velocity'vl tb velocity v2 is a matter of continuity. and v = 0). The energy of the flow goes into turbulence and eventually into heat. B. = A2v2. so B is correct. a point in the reservoir and a point in the constricted pipe. and see where that leads. we have sin = 1. velocity desired). v = 0) to the nozzle (pressure Pa. This is similar to an example worked in the text.. Increasing the radius of the pipe increases the likelihood of turbulence. A. so Bernoulli's equation becomes P. Reynolds number says nothing about temperature. 3 2 . as well as D.. A streamline can be said to go from the top of the tank (pressure Pa. and the answer must be B. Again we can apply Bernoulli's principle. 31. velocity desired). Making the joints smooth does not seem to do anything at first glance. Bernoulli's equation gives 1 2 34. C . The viscous force is F. Loolung at the answers. velocity 0) to the pipe 2 with no gravity gradient. 2 8 . and this is also the torque of the rod. We can consider a streamline which goes from the reservoir (pressure P. so C is also incorrect. B. The flow f has to be the same all along the flow.. Thus the retarding torque is z= RqAvld.. so let us take for the two points. + p. The answer choices do not refer to v. so A is incorrect. The viscosity depends only on the substance and not on the situation. C is irrelevant. v = 0)through the hose to the other end (pressure Pa.
37... m2 (the area of one face). Chapter 1O 36. never a negative pressure.. so P is approximately 2 x 10' Pa. . Using a different straw clearly has no effect. . + pgh becomes h = PJpg. This problem is similar to other problems we have done. we obtain that F is approximately 2000 N. the column will not rise above 10 m. .. B.. We have to careful of units in this problem. We do not need PV = nRT. . . .. .. there are two forces on the necklace due to the two things touching it: the water (buoyant force) and the string (tension). . ... Consider the situation shown.We would have gotten the right answer by estimating g to be 10 d s Z . because we already know P = 2 atm. but decreasing p will increase h. This is impossible. . = P. In order to calculate force. so that the top of the column would have zero pressure and the evacuated space above it would also have zero pressure... D. The problem gives all the information except V. the sink must exert a force mg . to 0. .. The reading on the force meter is the magnitude of the tension. .01. . We can obtain the height of the water column by setting P. P. where A = 0. .pw. Pressure is the connection between gas data and information about force. Even the best pump can draw at best zero pressure. . Using F = PA. C. 39. . The water column would fall. . beverage tubeC We write the force equation The pressure at the top of the column is P. however. The capacity of the cup is not the same as the volume the cup displaces when it is under water. 38. In addition to gravity. First we draw a diagram. . and we write 'sun = Plop + ~bevexa~eg~ * . Thus. which turns out to be impossible. . A.Vdi. . C. 4 0 . . In order to achieve force balance. . .Solutions . we need Pascals. Even if the pump draws a perfect vacuum. .g. . .
where h is 1 m....9 N. = Pam + pgh. The force diagram for the water is shown in the same diagram.m. A..F b o y = 0 = (Prater . we can obtain the flow rate fromf = Av = (.g = (0. .. g = 1 N (by the time the units are straightened). the force equation is F. The displaced volume is simply the volume of the hammer. Since the water is not accelerating.. . Thus F. The pressure of the water can be obtained by hydrostatic equilibrium: P. We have not discussed the force that the hammer exerts on the fluid...5 m/s)..Pam)' 44.. . Since the hammer is not accelerating.. so that F. If the top of the ocean is the standard height. 42. and the reading tells the magnitude of the force provided..9 N.The MCAT Physics Book Thus. The pressures at points 1 and 2 are both Pa. that is. g = 0. 43. Bernoulli's equation becomes This is similar to problem 36. The velocity at point 1 is essentially 0. we draw a force diagram. its magnitude must be the same 1 N we calculated in the previous problem.. and we can draw a streamline as shown. There we learned that a force meter provides a force.F. since the finger is not accelerating. + FB . We know m. the force equation is F.01 m)' (4.. = p. Since the problem asks for force. Thus F. A. A force diagram is shown. mlp.mhg = 0. A.4 'boy .79 k g ) (10 m/s2)= 7.. If we know the flow velocity. This reminds us of a Bernoulli question (especially with the explicit "ignore viscosity").. Recall that a scale provides a force.. is (7. we write We draw a diagram as shown below. then the height of point 2 is 1 m. A.9 . 41.=50N+ 1N=51N.1) N = 6. and the reading tells us what the force is.. V. pw. but by Newton's thii law of motion. = 100 cm3.PamA .
. so L = 2 m The passage mentions that the surface tension and the gravitational force must add to zero. must be Pa. + F. Chapter 10 Passage 1 Since nothing is accelerating. the density of the fluid. B. . . are in the water. but these balance (both are F = P. C. The pressure at the top of the column is given by F=P A = ~ . . D.. 2. Fsu6 = mg . . Choice A may play a role. 2~ rPg From this we see that height h increases proportionally as r decreases. The length of the line of contact is the circumference of the straw. Well. 2.ar2). but a smaller one. The force due to gravity is F ..m g = 0 . 2my= d h p g .. so the pressure at P. .. the height h depends only on the atmospheric pressure. balancing the force of gravity. = 0 + pgh. Usually the pressure on one side of a boundary between two substances is the same as the pressure on the other side. . . .. . Passage 3 The'main difference between the inner and outer chambers is the presence of enzymes in the outer chamber. In this model the height is inversely proportional to the radius. C.. Thus Thus. is above P. h=. . . 2~ pnr2hg= 0(as in the previous passage). It is confusing. Passage 2 1 . In this model a maximum height is obtained by setting the pressure at the top of the column to zero.. since the pressure at P. .Solutions . The force diagram for the column of water is shown. Thus. According to this equation. points P. . The air just above P. h = 2ylrpg = 4. The surface tension pulls the column up. 4. and P.We use the air pressure since it is the air that exerts the downward force on the column. = mg = pVg = psrr2hg. . 5. . This becomes = 72 meters. but this is not m e if the boundary is curved. . 3. must have pressure Pam.. the force equation &comes the following: P A .. A.. . . . B. . .P a d ./pg = lo5 Pa / (lo3 kg/m3) (10 rn/s2) = 10 m. (2 x 10~m)(10~ 3 ) ( 1 0 ~ ) 6. and P. Enzymes are catalysts which reduce the activation energy. = Ptap + pgh becomes Pa. . . . Certainly there are pressure forces. as when a meniscus forms. s r r ~ . and the acceleration due to gravity. though. . C. C. should be greater by pgh.. Pbollom h = P. .
B. where we have done the necessary unit conversions. But if Bernoulli's principle applies. so these choices are definitely incorrect.. whether it be a cannon ball or a drop of beetle spray.. B. We need to know the concentration of quinone to know how much heat per quantity of solution is produced. Once we know the heat available per quantity of solution. There is no catalyst involved. Indeed there is no reason to assume the flow is not turbulent and not viscous. Multiplying by 619 (because of the reaction coefficients) yields the number of moles of sodium azide required. . The pressure inside the chamber is pushing in the opposite direction as the atmospheric pressure outside the chamber. not the 15 rns during the reaction. An alternate solution involves using energy conservation: E. we note that 1000 / (0. accelerates down at 10 mls2 if gravity is the only force acting on it at the surface of Earth.01 em)' (1200 cm/s) = 0. and the final velocity is 0 mls. We can obtain the distance traveled by vZZ = v12 + 2ah . so the answer is A or B. the heat of reaction is necessary but it is derivable from information in the passage. In the absence of other information about entropy. The initial velocity is 12 m/s up. The rupture film would certainly keep in the reactants. We apply the formula f = Av = ~(0. The table in the passage allows us to calculate the heat released per mole of quinone produced. even if some energy is dissipated as heat. A catalyst affects activation energy but has no effect on the heat of reaction. Thus A is incorrect: not enough information. B is correct. Choices B. A. 4. 1. Option A seems good. using the points just outside the abdomen and the top of flight for the spray. Choice A reminds us of Bernoulli's principle. A. so C is incorrect. it is reasonable to assume that the reaction which produces the most gas has the largest entropy increase. The connection between force and pressure is F = PA. 2. + E.The MCAT Physics Book 2. 5. The rupture film does keep the reactants dry. but the passage clearly stated that the spray is a liquid. except it is the purpose of thejlter screen to filter out byproducts.. so this is not a likely possibility.0821) (300) is the number of moles df gas we desire. Multiplying by the molar mass (65 gramslmol) yields the number of grams required. = E. then we can use the heat capacity to get the temperature change. B. A third solution could involve Bernoulli's equation. so D is incorrect. the volume of the chamber is unnecessary information. At a given temperature gases tend to have much more entropy than liquids and solids. increasing the concentration and speeding the reaction. then A is a good estimate. That is. 3. so A is correct. D. C and D definitely remind us of an ideal gas. Any object. but that is important during the days and years before the accident. which might give an estimate of the pressure inside the outer chamber. Using P V = nRT. + E.. but about quantities that do not depend on volume (such as temperature). the question is not about how much stuff there is..4 cm3/s. As for choice D. B is a likely possibility. As for choice C. since the question is about intensive properties of the solution and not about extensive properties. B. 7.
so A and B are incorrect. The energy of collision or. Option C seems like a possibility. and at the point in front of the barometer we have pressure P2 and v = 0. The point of energy release in an airbag is that the airbag is actually inflated. .. the work that must be done on the driver to stop him is a constant (equal to the negative of his kinetic energy before the collision). Hydrostatic equilibrium dictates that Po = Pa. A.. . so it is incorrect. since the bag seems to gain kinetic energy. . is greater than v. Bernoulli's equation becomes 6. D makes a correct statement. but the question is asking about the airbag. as well as B.3 meters. . If we take the streamline shown in the figure. 3. 4. however. the pressure increases when the velocity decreases. . . which might later be turned to heat. Thus the pressure measured by Barometer 1 is the same as the upstream pressure.. D. the reservoir pressure (Pascal's law). . . If this were a reaction that generated a lot of heat that then dissipated.. except for the tiny region where Barometer 2 disturbs the flow. . But do not rely on the equation. C . chemical to heat. since the true energy flow involves pushing back the atmosphere and not in moving the bag (which has little mass).h. . And. then A would be a possibility. the pressure at point Q is the same as the pressure at point S.. and F is the same.. then P. . This decreases the force and reduces grievous bodily harm. If A is increased. . . . D..Solutions .= FAx. C. There are a number of ways to ensure that a bag will not burst (safety valve. . which involves Na or 0 in bizarre valence states. . indeed. Option D is a better description.. A larger area of the nozzle could increase the flow rate. . and so on) that are better than having it deflate. hence the cushioning effect Thus C is correct. Chapter IO I Having the bag deflate will not affect the temperature appreciably. It is not clear how a larger area of the bag could affect the flow rate. then pressure is reduced. so C is incorrect. Since the flow must go through a smaller area. All the options are reasonable byproducts except A. remember that for flow along a streamline. . + pg(h2. but doesnot lend advantage to the driver. so B is incorrect.. The language of choice D reminds us of W. 2. the presence of an airbag increases the distance over which the decelerating force acts: not all at once at the steering wheel.. then upstream we have pressure PI and desired velocity v .). Passage 5 I In the figure shown. Bernoulli's equation (neglecting the gravity terms) is If v.o.. rather. The pressure all along the flow is the same. So A is incorrect. Option C reminds us of the formula P = FIA. so A is incorrect. the velocity must increase to maintain the same flow rate f = Av. 5. but "gradually" over 0. . Option A. misses the point. is less than P. . .
v as v .2 1 P3 + pv3 2 2 + heat energy volume Comparing this with the equation in problem 4 above. creating heat. 5. Thus. .The MCAT Physics Book B. . must be smaller (the 1 pv. + pv. The equation is a statement of energy conservation. . = regardless of viscosity. . we see that in this equation P. Thus v . If viscosity is added. thus reducing pressure from the prediction given by the Bernoulli equation. Viscosity robs the flow energy. but perhaps we can figure out the answer by figuring out where the equation breaks down. . . term is the same. see previous problem). then viscosity converts some energy into heat. If the fluid is incompressible. is the same Bernoulli's equation can no longer be used to obtain pressure. we have 1 2 = P. v. . The 2 key to this problem is remembering that Bernoulli's equation is about energy. A. then f = A.
5) (50 Nlm) (0.25 N up.2 m)' = 1 J.) The figure below shows a force diagram for the bob. Chapter II Chapter 1 1 Solutions 1. which is closest to D.. the answer to a problem would not depend on the answer to a previous problem.Solutions . then we see that the gravitational force and the spring force add to zero.5 Nlm) = 3..8 m. Another way to get the same result is to realize the new extension x is 3. Of course.10 m) = 0. Then we increased the spring force. . for a net force 0. The net force must be either up or down or zero. We simply use 1 E. which sum to zero. so the force exerted by the spring is F. there must be a centripetal component to the acceleration.Bk = (10 N)/(50 Nlm) = 0.25 N up.0 N)1(2.5 Nlm) (0. for a total 3... 12 m.25 N.2 m. Before we started pulling...15 m. 4.8 kg) (10 mls2) = 8...=kdr = (2. 5. so the acceleration cannot be zero.2 m + 0. We use the spring equation to calculate x = F. Since the spring is being stretched. The increase in spring force is given by AFsMn..5 Nlm) (3.. The extension x is given by x = F. 2 on the real MCAT..3 m) = 8. so we rnv21~.35 m. can write Fs. (See figure. ..0 N.....) The spring provides the centripetal force. Solving for v gives v = 2 d s .0 N down.+. The force of gravity is 8.= (2. Thus the time it takes is Clv = (12 m)l(2 mls) = 6 s.Bk = (8.. A.. . the forces due to spring and gravity were balanced. We can draw a force diagram for the mass (shown below). If we draw a force diagram for the mass (shown below). B.. . These two facts together imply the acceleration is up.2 m. .1 m... the resting length of the spring must be 1. Since the radius of the circle of revolution is 2 m and since the spring is pulling..= One revolut~on is the equivalent of the circumference C = 21rR=.. The magnitude of the force is FPv = (0. we add that to the resting length 0.. and in fact.. The velocity vector is changing direction. (There are two forces not shown: the force of gravity and the normal force of the table. D... so they must be equal in magnitude (second law of motion).= kr2 = (0..
1.that is. The equation is The displacement of the spring is increased by a factor of 4 in our experiment. Any amplitude may be chosen for the oscillation. C. A. since energy is conserved (there is no change from begin point to end point in kinetic energy): If k increases then f increases. 9. Increasing by a factor of 1.15 m. so the initial stored energy is increased by a factor of 16. 12. then f increases by a factor of &. So the amplitude is 0.. This is a conservation of energy problem. The energy is then converted to spring potential energy. If you try to work out the forces involved. D. The velocity must increase by a factor of 4. A. The larger mass does not affect the final kinetic energy but its velocity would be less.. Questions 6 and 7 are the same because of the second law of motion. The mass travels 0. so the stored energy is the same at the beginning of the experiment. B. The 1 change in spring potential energy is kr2.. These should 2 add to zero. The period is the time for one oscillation. The relationship between frequency and spring constant is given by 11.The M C A T Physics Book 7. Thus also the net force is up. The amplitude is the size of the displacement from the equilibrium position. then one oscillation takes 3 s...0 s. it has its maximum kinetic energy. EKI+ E P I= En +EPZv Clearly the choices intend for us to use frequency information (not F. Again. = kx). and the kinetic energy is the same at the end of the experiment. If k increases by a factor of 2.1 5 m to the left of equilibrium and 0.41. A. C. If 20 oscil1ations take 60. this is a conservation of energy problem. and v. . I 1 6 . sof = 1IT. The change in gravitational energy is mgL. 17. 15. Just before the ball hits the spring. and energy is converted from potential to kinetic. The energy begins as gravitational potential energy. = 4v. 14. B. so we write The frequency is the number of oscillations per unit time. This time the displacement is the same in both experiments.41 is the same as increasing by 41%. things get tangled pretty quickly. There is no relationship between amplitude and spring constant.15 m to the right of equilibrium in one oscillation.
. so D is the best answer. . Again this is an energy problem. This is not so. The choices involving chemical energy would also be possibilities (since the tearing and grasping of velcro is chemical). when the spring is compressed or extended. If we try to think of forces. 2 3 . the spring does not do anything. 29. The velocity is given by v = Af = (4 m) (0... If this seems counterintuitive. 25. B. because the spring force keeps changing.+ mB 012 . since some MCAT questions are like that.D. m . 27.. .. the sum of kinetic and potential is. A strong coupling will generally not allow energy to build up. The net force is to the right when the spring is extended. A.5 Hz. Some readers confuse acceleration with velocity (or speed) and think that the block must be moving when the acceleration is great. so that if the initial velocity is v. C. Momentum is conserved because there are no external forces during the collision: gravity is balanced with the normal force.. The acceleration is the greatest when the net force is the greatest. D. so D is incorrect... In an oscillating system... Momentum is not conserved. 30.. the external force being the spring which acts on mass B. . Remember that whenever there is a collision involving sticking or crunching or whathaveyou. we will get confused. Chdpter 11 18. During the brief moment of the collision. I . increases by a factor of 4.. but any answer must also involve heat... 24. The wavelength is the distance from peak to peak.. During the collision.. The question is a little vague on purpose. momentum is likely to be the only conserved quantity. and the area increases by a factor of 16. Indeed.. the energy is going back and forth between two or more forms (so A is incorrect). 22.. and the spring is not compressed and hence exerts as yet no force. A. These are the two conditions for resonance to occur. 3 The period is 2 s. It cannot dissipate as heat. the radius increases by a factor of 4. so the frequency is f = IIT = 0. . This is a question about geometry only.Solutions . most of the initial kinetic energy gets dissipated as heat. ... If the diameter of a circle increases by a factor of 4. (0)= (m. A. + m.5 Hz) = 2 m/s.. see Section 1. Gravitational potential energy plays no role in the problem. so the potential energy does not come into play. v . how does If the diameter the area change? We know A = d. . D. spring potential and kinetic are the two forms of energy. Although kinetic energy is clearly not conserved. A. so C is also incorrect. in which the kinetic energy (after the collision) gets completely converted to potential energy: ?he amplitude is from equilibrium point to peak. that is. We need to use conservation of momentum (the clue is that the collision involves sticking). 28. B. . then we write 26. A... And the kinetic energy before the collision turns into heat (mostly).
The question does not say whether the wave arrives in phase or out of phase or inbetween. We are 1. then we would have a node. the center is an antinode. 39. then the radius is decreased by a factor of 2. 7 m. that is.5. Thus if the diameter is decreased by a factor of 2. and the linear density is decreased by a factor of 4. Two crests are emitted by the speakers at the same time. If the waves are in phase. the combination has its minimum amplitude of (0. we calculate We have a node. If this were a whole number. Thus it is 0. They travel at the same velocity toward the center.3)~ 1. so the radius increases by a factor of 2. which is the difference in distance. 32. B. C. The duck's oscillation could be as little as 1 m (out of phase) or as much as 7 m (in phase). the area is decreased by a factor of 4. We calculate 41. As in the previous problem. then we would have an antinode. C.3 m. C. and 4=2m. A. etc. if superposed.the ratio f1& is 112. 38.69. C. and the speakers produce waves that are in f phase. Since vZ = TI1 we want to increase T by (1.8 mm. We could also write . we want to increase T by 69%.5 .5. The two waves. second harmonic Since the midpoint is the same distance from both speakers. If the waves are out of phase. 37. would add to zero at every point. Since we want to keep v the same and T the same. We want to increase the wave velocity by a factor = of 1. If it were a haifodd integer (0. A. visualize the following. and its distance to speaker 2 is 0 interested in the difference in phase. relative to wavelength. and they arrive at the same time. I this explanation is unclear. The fundamental is shown in the first figure below. the combination has its maximum amplitude 0.The MCAT Physics Book 31. 1. and the diameter increases by a factor of 2. The distance from the microphone to speaker 1 is . Thus we have pA = const.5. the waves must arrive at the midpoint in phase. Accordingly.3. The passage stated that p = pA.2 Pa.3) Pa = 0.0. while the first harmonic is shown in the next figure. The density p is to decrease by a factor of 4. 40.2.). We can read from the figures that ill = 4 m. we therefore (since vZ= Tlp) want to keep p the same.8 Pa. Since the frequency is inversely related to the wavelength (from v = ilf).
325 m. .. so the frequency is given by = 2. 44. B.5x104 Hz..03)' = 1.06. but there is no way to find the tension in the string. and pdoes not change. The wavelength is d = 113 (0. 2. C. we see only one choice less than 382. .65 m) = 1. so that we write 1 . We do not have to do the calculation.. The third hannonic is the first mode with a node at the "third" point.. For the D string we can use d = 1.. The fundamental does not have a node at the midpoint. .. Now T = v2p.. .. . so that f = VIA= 294 Hz. so this is the lowest frequency that can make a sound. v = AJ and we know f = 660 Hz. Increasing the frequency by 3% is the same as increasing it by a factor of 1. One the one hand.. The fundamental has a wavelength d = 2 (0. . as in problem 3 (above).. Passage 1 The third harmonic is shown in the figure above.. If this is not clear.... C. there must be a node at the midpoint and three fourths of the way down. Its frequency is given by The first node occurs one fourth of the way from the neck end. 4.3 m.3 m. We can see there are two wavelengths in the 2 m. C.03. I 3.325 m. C h d p t e r 11 42.65 m) = 0. which means increasing the wave velocity (recall v = AJ and A.. C. which means T is increased by a factor of (1. . . .Solutions . We can get the wavelength just by knowing that the note 660 Hz refers to the fundamental.03.65 m) = 0.. Since the neck is a node as well. The fourth harmonic (see the figure in problem 40) has a wavelength d = 112 (0.. we can read the wavelength from the figure. ?he sixth harmonic has five nodes (not including the ends). A. but the second harmonic does.25 x lo4Hz. does not change) by a factor of 1. I The fourth harmonic is shown. This is shown in the figure. ?his corresponds to a wavelength 0..22 m. we can also write that there are 3R wavelengths contained in the 2 m. . =1... yielding f = vld = 1175 Hz. which is an increase of 6%. so that we write Our first thought is to use the information about linear density. If we look at the choices. What other formula do we have for wave velocity? Well.
there must be chemical bonds broken. Choice B seems likely. There is nothing in the passage indicating a change of frequency. C. This would decrease the reflectivity. . Choices A and B are irrelevant. which happens over length scales very long compared to the 10m ocean waves.. 7. the energy is initially both kinetic and potential. It must be the case that the snow absorbs the sound energy. the problem is not energy reflecting off the organ but being absorbed by it. and the mechanical energy goes into another form. so D is it. so T = I&= 1420 Hz) = 0. Choice A is incorrect. Choice A is true but does not do a good job of explaining anything. since the situation more closely resembles paragraphs 1 and 2. Choice B would be a good explanation. The equation here is given by 6. so C is incorrect. Choice A is incorrect. 6. As waves. 5. There is nothing to indicate C is correct. A wavelength of m corresponds to a frequency of about 1. Choices C and D are true but irrelevant. We apply v = A$ using the speed of sound in air. . D. and there must be a weak coupling between two oscillators: the sound is one and the oscillating organ is the other. A. D. According to the first paragraph. 3 . 2. Choice B is incorrect. D. D. There are no chemical changes. The lowest frequency is 20 Hz. since the frequency of a wave stays constant as it travels from place to place. which the MCAT refers to as mechanical. the wavelength must be smaller than the observed object. 1 5 I I n. not mentioned among the choices. Passage 3 1.5 x lo6Hz in biological tissue. but amplitude is . snow is not reflecting sound. B. doncerning choice C. Visible light waves have a small wavelength. Choice D is definitely incorrect. if the coat of snow were thick compared with the wavelength of sound (paragraph 2). According to the second paragraph. resulting in your not hearing it. the coating providing a gradual transition. because the transition from air to wood is abrupt. a wave has its best chance of being transmitted if it has short wavelength. Frequency is not directly connected to intensity. B Choice A is incorrect. The two real choices are B and D. Choice B refers to the transition from deep to shallow water. 4.05 s. Since there is tearing and rupturing involved. since the point is that the . Amplitude and intensity are connected. since we certainly do not want to convert light energy to anything else. The pool waves hit the sharp boundary of the side of the pool and are reflected. The source of friction is the sandy beach. This is an example of resonance. turning it to heat.The: MCAT Physics Book Passage 2 1. Choice D is reasonable. where we use v= 1500mls. D. This is not the case. Choices A and B do not express what happens when a wave breaks. so a thin coating would suffice.
We simply apply the formula W ~ m ~ ) l ( l~~l. If 10l2W emerges from each area 1 m2. 8. Since the mosquito was 1 m away...3 x lo" W. then take a minute to memorize it. Since the problem said the sound was barely perceptible.3 x lo'' W) = 10110'I = 1oL2. that means that the intensity at Betsy's ear was I . A. . The intensity I is proportional to the power. You can work this problem by explicitly using the formula. If a mosquito were 10 m away (instead of 1 m). with area 4n(1 m)2..... An increase by a factor of 10 leads to an addition of 10 to P. we would need (10 W)/(1. B. we can imagine a ball 1 m in radius around the mosquito (see figure). Thus there would have to be 100 mosquitos in order to be barely perceptible. But it is better to think it through as we have done here. The total surface area of that ball is 4z 3.. and plugging any number you want in for area (like 1 m2).. . C . = 1012w/m2. Look for these shortcuts. then you can imagine a ball around the speaker of radius 6 m.. Moving from 30 to 3 m away decreases the distance by a factor of 10. You can also work this out by using the formula. and this increases the intensity by a factor of 100 (two factors of lo).Solutions . .. If you stand 6 m away from the sound. In the last problem we determined that the power produced by one mosquito was 1.[10~] = 10 (6) = 60 decibels. To obtain the energy produced in 100 s. B. . . . then the intensity of the sound would be lo2= 100 times less. . . . But P i s related to the logarithm of intensity. . then intensity decreases by a factor of 32= 9. A.. . the power must be 3. . We estimated n = 3 and 3 x 36 = 100.. we write AE=PAt 6. The 40 W goes out in all directions. In Section B we discussed how intensity varies as the inverse square of the distance from the point source of sound. [ 10 10~.... so an increase by a factor of 10 in power leads to an increase by a factor of 10 in intensity.. To power a 10W bulb. . so = (20 + 10 + 10) decibels. D.. 7. but that is more difficult.r '~ n ]~ =) /3 = 10 log.) Since intensity is power per area. . Chdpter 12 Chapter 1 2 Solutions 5. then for this ball. (If you have forgotten this formula. If distance increases by a factor of 3. 2. and this adds 10 to twice. we can write This is the power produced by one mosquito.
Thus the frequency of the fundamental is f = VIA=(343 m/s)/(0.= . If sound speed is 2% slower.6 s.98. 10. D. .5 m to obtain I = 213 m. so we may write (914)I = 4 4 1.98. Sound speed and frequency are related by f = VIA. This means that the E string z . and we need at least one node in the pipe. The fifth harmonic has four more nodes than the fundamental. or 2 Hz. What is shown is only three quarters of a wavelength. for a total of four nodes.wave forms present.6 H z . B. even for the fundamental. If we consider the displacement of air particles. 16.2 m) = 1700 H z .5 m to obtain I = 2 m. since the length of the tube does not change. then the closed end is a node and the open end is an antinode. The ends are still antinodes:This is shown in the figure. .Thus the period is T = Ilf= 0. C.5 m shows merely a quarter of a full wave. 1 1 . This is half a wave. 9. I 18.5 Hz = 1.. 17. A. A. Thusf decreases by 2%.1 Hz 27. A.2 m. The second harmonic has one more node than the fundamental. The wavelength A is still 6 m for the fundamental. where I is constant since it is simply twice the length of the organ pipe.The MCAT Physics Book D. The fourth harmonic has three more nodes than the fundamental. B. If we consider the displacement of air particles. 14.I= 0. then both ends are antinodes. This is shown in the figure. There are two wavelengths packed in the 0. The fundamental wave form is shown in the figure. We can write (314) A = 1. 12. The problem states that the beat frequency is twice a second.1 m. and we apply f = VIA.Thus it frequency differs from true 660 Hz by 2 H could be 658 Hz or 662 Hz. The 1. There are 1 9 2. then v decreases by a factor of 0. so the wavelength is 6 m. = 29. 19. This is shown in the figure. and f decreases by a factor of 0. A. The beat frequency in this case is f .05<n.1 m. so the wavelength is 0. and it is shown in the figure. Thus the frequency is f = VIA=(343 m/s)/(6 m) = 60 H z . D. so . B. 13. since the pipe length is 0. 15.
... we need to divide 784..87 . 350 (420 Hz) fh = 35050 . This is the equivalent of sending a signal and having it reflectfrom a moving target. = vl(2l3 L) = 3 f. Thus 21. 27. The emitter is moving.... = 350 8 7 . f.783. and we choose the minus sign in the denominator because we want the answer to z ... dispersion. B. that the energy starts in the strings and ends up as sound. D.. Again the emitter is moving.. 2 3 . B. since sound needs to come into it somehow. For choice B.= 350 .. + (420 Hz) = (420 Hz) = 480 Hz. the frequency detected by the police detector would be 24. + (42 kHz) Now if it were to reemit this frequency.Solutions . D is the answer. Chapter 1P Choices A. There are two Doppler shifts. The figure shows the fundamental and the third harmonic for the C ..Thus we have be greater than 420 H = 56 kHz.. The beat frequency between the notes is f f .. C. D... The frequency of the third harmonic is given by f. B. is the spreading of waves due to the dependence of wave speed on frequency (which we have not discussed). but we hear beats only at the end of the procedure. If the car were to hear the frequency. which is a "sloshing back and forth" of kinetic and potential energy.= vl(2L). sound is a wave. but this time we choose the positive sign: fdel 350 (420 Hz) = 350 + 50 . and C look really tempting. and we choose the positive sign in the numerator to obtain an answer greater than 420 Hz (again they are approaching).Thus to get the frequency of the fundamental. string. interference is the addition of two waves in the same medium. Choice D.. = = 367. so C is the answer. Choice C is when energy gets transferred from one oscillator to another of similar frequency by a weak coupling..= (784. but that is not the excitation of the C. After all. the frequency it would hear is given by f .... = 490 Hz..88 HZ. which is what happens when waves from both strings combine.. the first medium being the guitar string and the second medium being air.. The fundamental frequency is given by f. 26. We know.5 Hz... string.99) HZ= 0.. This time the detector is moving. Thus.. Choice A is tempting since the minipassage is about beats.87 Hz by 3. f... 25. Choice D describes sound in another way. C... however.
but it is interesting to think why. the frequency must be increased. 5. You do not need to do the calculation to obtain the answer.= 34300 Hz = 34. This would not really aid in distance measurement. Given the fact that the bat and the t r e e approach each other. Since the insect and the bat are moving in the same direction at the same speed. D. 4. then the bat would detect a frequency given by 358 343 (50 kHz) There are two Doppler shifts. Choice D is definitely not right. The time required is dr = Axlv = 0. so D is the only possible answer._. but there is no way to know from the passage whether it is doing so directly away or at an angle. The bat does not hear frequencies which are too far from those it sends out.017 s. There is a sentence in paragraph 1 which indicates that C is plausible. so T refers to the beat period. If it reemitted this frequency. If the harmonics are Doppler shifted. and the detected frequency is simply 30 kHz. Why is such an adaptation completely useless? The sound pulse must travel from the bat to the insect. . A. you can work this problem like problem 27 above. since shorter wavelengths are more likely to be reflected if the wavelength of the fundamental is too large.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 1 6 . the wavelength must be shorter than the target insect. be reflected. 3. D. C. 4. 5. D. If the tree could detect a frequency.. then so is the fundamental.. 1.. According to paragraph 1. 343 343 328 50 kHz.. and travel back again. there is no Doppler shift. If you want to make sure. which is l/j. Higher harmonic content refers to higher frequencies being present in addition to the fundamental. and we have discussed only the one dimension parallel to the motion (which is the important one). B. Thus the frequency must be greater than f = vlli. B. The Doppler effect happens in three dimensions. 3. B. the vehicle is receding.3 kHz. Because the detected frequency is lower. These higher harmonic frequencies thus have shorter wavelength. Stunning the insect? Choice B is also incorrect. so choice D is incorrect. In the upper figure we see the beat. Use A = v/f. The reason that the power never reaches zero is that the outgoing wave has a larger amplitude than the incoming wave. for a total of 6 m. so choice A is incorrect. Maxima correspond to times when the two waves are in phase. it would detect f= = ..
Choices A.  2. . .. and the hammer blow is a transverse blow. C. . f. sof . C. . Beats is a particular phenomenon which occurs when waves of similar frequency interfere. does not enter the ear. node 7 antinode. . sound of two frequen. . The waves in the pipe are analogous to waves on a string.70Hz)/2 = 3 1 .P. The ear constructs the difference tone later. but the question asks for the wavelength of the wave in the pipe. You may have been tempted to choose D. Chdpter 1 P Passage 4 1 .. . Choice B might show a portion of the power spectrum after some processing..30. . If we introduce another node between the end and the place where the string attaches. The passage says that a note of average frequency turns on and off.87Hz = 1 . Sound is tiny variations of pressure. B. so the the figure above. According to paragraph 3. 8 3 Hz. Diffraction is the spreading of waves. T . . Choice A is definitely wrong. . The second fundamental is shown in h r e e waves fit in 0 . We usef = VIA. but choice D is excluded.. cies f. 2 7 m.. . so we cannot use 3 4 3 m/s. A.. Thus the perceived frequency is (30. If the vertical axis were marked AP = P . but the frequencyf. This is the definition of interference. Difference tones have to do with the way the ear processes sound. For that the horizontal axis must be a space coordinate like x. $+ I Solutions . wavelength is 0 . This is shown in the figure. . This question asks for the beat frequency (times per second). One wavelength corresponds to the length of the pipe. 2. C. Choices A and B include frequencies lower than 110 Hz. not the wavelength of the wave in the air. 6. = 32. Sound waves in air must be longitudinal. . and f especially with a wavelength drawn onto the graph. that forces us to include three more nodes. . . We need to introduce at least one more node. Choice C is correct. 4. so A and B are incorrect. .Passage 3 1 . The passage describes the vibration as having antinodes at the midpoint and ends and a node at the onequarter point. enter the ear.70Hz . then an answer like A would be appropriate. .. The pressure in the room does not change markedly from the equilibrium pressure. . C. 3. which cannot possibly be harmonics. B. and C all share the property that the difference is the desired frequency 110 Hz. Choice D might have been correct if time were the horizontal coordinate.87 Hz + 32.. . 8 m. 7 9Hz. . . B.
D.The MCAT Physics Book Passage 5 1. which must be a node. the waves arrive out of phase. C . The sum of the two distances is not significant and cannot be derived from the information. When crest is coming from the left speaker. so for her the waves will still be in phase. 3. The key here is that. and the speakers are emitting sound waves in phase. wave crests arrive at her location in phase. Thus she is at an antinode. When a crest from the right speaker is arriving. for Bob. C. Bob has moved to a position of relative silence. D. 6. because the wave fiom the left speaker takes a bit longer to arrive. 5. a trough is arriving from the right speaker. so A and D are incorrect. 2. C. the corresponding crest from the left is still in transit. Experiment 2 is the prescription for creating beats. The waves arrive out of phase where Bob is sitting. 4. The difference is half a wavelength. . Bob's location at a node depends on the wavelength of the sound. By the time it arrives. B. which we change when we change the frequency. trough comes from the right. Since Alice is an equal distance from the speakers. Alice is positioned equidistant from the speakers.
and at the second interface.. which is again up.. you need to work out Snell's law. At the first interface. lass As the light beam passes into the glass.Solutions . the beam bends toward the normal. Thus the answer is C. shown dashed.. and at the first interface the light bends toward the normal.. .. . glass At the interface to air. the incident angle is 0°. At the interface with glass... which is down. As the light beam goes from the glass to the air. .. To see that the beam is indeed exactly horizontal. the beam bends away from the normal. the beam bends toward the normal (A and D are incorrect). .. the light bends down... away from the normal. At the second interface (normal is dashed line). Chdpter 13 Chapter 13 Solutions beam bends toward the normal.. which is a radius. it bends away from the normal (so the refracted beam makes a larger angle with the normal than the incident beam). so the transmitted ray is still horizontal. As it passes into the glass it bends toward the normal.. the beam bends away from the normal (C is incorrect).. . Passing into the air.. the light bends away from the normal.. and this eliminates A and B.. . ... back to horizontal.. The dashed line shows the normal. At the interface to glass.. which is down. from air to glass. the ..
then the ray makes an angle with the surface which is 60". n.00 sin 8. so the answer is A.. D. D. = nisin Oi. For the critical angle. The frequency of light is the same. C . = (1. B. sin 90°.00) sin 60°... = sin' . Since n increases by a factor of 1. The frequency of the beam does not change as it goes from air to a salt crystal. 3 4 In this case the incident angle is 60°. = sin 30°.= 90") ni sin O..7. Thus. If you want to use equations.. Oi = 60". 6. sin 0.The MCAT Physics Book 11. =sin' . = 2' The reflected angle has the same magnitude as the incident angle. There is a critical angle. changes. sin 90". we must have the refracted angle be 90": ni sin 8.. A. 12. although the wave speed. If the refracted angle is 30°. 10. 1. and total internal reflection. 4 9. so we have A = v. . Snell's law becomes n. but the wave speed does. there is no critical angle. Since sine cannot be greater than 1. and thus wavelength. 6sin 0. the wavelength must decrease by a factor of 1. 4 3 0cnt . From this we can see the answer is B. since the problem states that the angle with the horizontal is 30". The equation for critical angle becomes (setting 8. = ni sin 8. 3 sine. where the negative sign indicates the image is on the same side as the object. only for light beams traveling from a slow medium encountering a fast one. = ..)' Thus A = clnf. sin 8. = n. The figure shows the ray diagram. you can write = n.. 3 1 sin 6 .7. 2 8.
The magnification can be read from the diagram. 17. f d i do (object  / 21. B.14. and the focal length depends on the refraction of the beam in the lens. dispersion causes the focal length to depend on frequency. from which we see the image is inverted and real. The equation is where the negative sign indicates the image is inverted. The figure shows the ray diagram. The magnification is given by The figure shows the ray diagram. or we can write 19.1 +r 1 Since the index of refraction depends on the frequency. B. From the diagram we observe the image is upright and virtual. We can get the focal length from the following equation: 1. B. C. C . since the rays must be extended to intersect. The magnification is given by The candle image has a height 20. From it we can read the position of the image close enough to realize that B is the answer. .
or we can calculate m = . From the diagram we can see that the image is about 12 m behind the mirror. The equation becomes where the negative sign indicates the image is behind the mirror. 29. . From the diagram we see the image is in the same position as the object but inverted. 12 m in front of the mirror. We can read this from the diagram. A. light rays that start at the focus end up parallel. A. we write 22. then the focus is on the focal plane.di/&= . we would write 25. C. D. If we wanted to do the calculation.(12 m)/(6 m) = 2. 28.The MCAT Physics Book 26. \ image ' These answers can be read from the ray diagram (see figure). B. The figure shows the ray diagram. If the object is an infinite distance away. C. 3 0 . Conversely to the previous problem. From the diagram we see the image is inverted and real. Ii Z image The figure shows the ray diagram for the candle 6 m from the mirror. To see this in the equation.
. 35. since that information is not given in the problem. D. = llf= 112 D. The magnification is given by m = +do = . We want a combination with total power P.. We calculate the focal length as follows: 1 1 1 1 .. . . B. so the lens is a converging lens. 37.. Thus the final beam has half the intensity of the original..(4 m)/(2 m) = 2. This is an application of the equation f = CIA= m) = 5.8 x 1014Hz. the energy turns to heat. The focal length is 113 m. down.= 113 D.116 D. (3 x 10' m/s)/(520 x . . up. and so on.. The light emerging from the first (left) polarizer has half the intensity of the original source. then the resulting intensity is 112 1. . since the horizontal component has been taken out of it. west.. and it is vertically polarized. 1 4m 2m Again. . Thus P.. All of the resulting light passes through the second (right) polarizer.. Ifit ends up vertically polarized. The second polarizer cuts out the vertical component and passes the horizontal component. Since the light is absorbed.. 5. where the positive sign indicates the mirror is converging. After it goes through the optically active substance. . it may have any orientation. For the antenna in question 5. most of the radiation is emitted east. then the intensity is zero. B. The passage states (paragraph 1) that radiation is emitted perpendicular to the wire. Chdpter 13 32. The light emerging from the first polarizer has half the intensity of the original source... +..P. D.Solutions . still polarized but at some oblique angle.. If the beam ends up horizontallypolarized. = .. then the resultant intensity is between 0 and 112 I. If the more probable situation arises that the beam is somewhere between these two extremes.1  f .. The power of the combination is the sum of the powers... B.= I&.... = Pa. but none is emitted north and south.. since it is already vertically polarized.. We use the equation 1 . The first lens has a power P.. the light emerging from the first polarizer is vertically polarized and has intensity 112 1. . .. so the resulting intensity is zero.
The best resolution we can hope for is diffraction rnY(2. so we write Since the magnification is . then the resolution depends on the size of the lens (that is. Concerning choice A. so the diffraction angle 8. that is. so the information is in paragraph 3. which should improve resolution if there were not another factor present. The subtended angle can be calculated from information in the third paragraph. giving a better resolution.The MCAT Physics Book 6. and C address neither of these issues. the size of the image is m and inverted. we must have P C .025 m = 40 D. but this does not explain a decrease in resolution. . According to the passage.25 m = 0.3". You must stand 10 m away. if the camera is diffraction limited. The large lens introduces spherical aberration. light gathering hole) and the wavelength of the light used. tive lens plus eye lens is 110.1) (0. D. Thus the angle is 0. . so D is correct. The figure shows the ray diagram for this problem. both cats and humans contend with chromatic aberration (see question 5).4 m) = limited. We have used green light as being representative of visible light.1. . A. . D. The diagram is not too much help in this problem. Increasing the size of the entire camera would increase the size of the lens. This lens refracts the blue light more than red light and hence focuses blue rays in front of the red focus. The figure shows the red light focused on the retina. The figure exaggerates the case.~ D = 10m.01 m) = 1o .= Ud would decrease. which is about 2.04 radians. For choice C. assuming the apparatus is diffraction limited. The desired power of the combination of correcC .. For choice B. the opposite is true: a larger pupil allows more directional information to enter the eye. 3.. 4. which would increase the resolution. = 5 D. by decreasing the resolution angle.= A/d = (520 x 2 x lo' rad. Choices A. D. B. so we calculate Trying to determine if two dots are separate or blurred is analogous to trying to distinguish two headlights.0. a larger pupil does allow in more light. The resolution of the eye is the ratio of dot separation to standing distance. Since P = Peye+ Pmmt. 10. for which 8. . the ratio of the spatial separation of the top and bottom of the moth to the distance from the moth to the eye.01 m10. W light has a shorter wavelength than visible light. (0.
.. A. where we have used d = lo4 m. This is an example of Newton's thud law. Their mutual repulsion would cause them to move apart. If Q and Q are 2 x 104m apart.... Thus they will end up distributed as in choice B.. Pythagorean theorem. A. but not being free to move. so choice A is out. B.. = 3 x lo' N.... 5... 1. 12. The k~qld2 = force due to the charge Q is also to the right and has the same magnitude. the balls must have like charge. so that F. = 5 x 1o . The positive charges will repel each other and. = N. By Coulomb's law. = 4 x lo' N. 10. The force to the right due to charge Q is F. the charges in the middle would be repelled by the charged ball and move to the left. This can be obtained by process of elimination. At first it seems as if 111can be definitely concluded. F. The magnitude of the force in the xdirection is given by Coulomb's law.. Then we remember that a charged object can attract a neutral object if it induces a charge.~ 11. We obtain the total force by the N.Solutions ..... 7. Likewise F. the force decreases by a factor of 4'. For a repulsive force to exist. In choices C and D. being free to move.. First let's draw a diagram with all the forces. the positive charges are concentrated in an area. In choice A. ... First let's draw a diagram with all the forces on charge q.. Q q Q* The forces add to zero. A. Oxygen is slightly negative because it is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms to which it is attached. So choices C and D are out... as the distance increases by a factor of 4. Both charges increase by a factor of 2. The sodium ion Na' is positively charged and attracts the oxygen atom. B. so D is the correct answer.... C. D. will move as far apart as possible. The positive charges will repel each other... Chapter 14 Chapter 1 4 Solutions I Sections AD First let's draw a diagram with all the forces. then q is lo4 m from Q. they will remain where they are placed. The forces add to yield 2 X lo' N... 4. By Coulomb's law. Both contribute an increase of a factor of 2 to the force. the force exerted by one charge on the other has the same magnitude as the force the other exerts on the first. The correct answer is D.
and both vectors have a magnitude First we draw a diagram. 1 6 .The MCAT Physics Book 13.) Since there are two vectors of equal magnitude. D. First we draw a diagram. and the vertical components are both up. The water molecule can be modeled as having a positive end and a negative end. ( The vector El. Thus the answer is A. Subtracting these yields the result A. the vector to the left is longer. so that is how we will draw i t The sodium ion exerts a force on each end. so the answer is A. First we draw a diagram. If we want to calculate the numbers. C . we calculate the magnitude Note that the electric fields are of the same magnitude and point in the opposite direction. away from the charges. we draw a diagram. 15. showing the electric field from the various charges. The repulsive force is greater than the attractive force because the positive end is nearer the sodium ion. A. Likewise we calculate the magnitude The horizontal components add to zero. so the total electric field at that point is zero. is due to charge Q. and Coulomb's law states that the force varies as the inverse square of the distance. The sum will be to the left. showing the electric field from the various charges. A. 1 7 . at x = m.the result is D. Note that because point P is closer to the negative charge. First. First we draw electric field vectors into the diagram. showing the electric field from the various charges. . Both electric field vectors point toward the negative charge. as shown.
where Q is the charge on the ball. therefore. then a positive charge would experience a downward force.. that is. @isthe in opposite direction from f. .. Let's start with F = ma. The electric fields due to the various charges add to zero. and rn is the mass of the proton (or electron). B. where we have used E = 400 NIC. In order to check the sign on the charge. .. D. . but we do have an electric field.mg = 0. We obtain Q = 2.. . .. 20. . showing the electric field from the various charges.. we realize that the electric force must be up.E = (1. .Solutions . Force balance yields F.. . 24. A. . First we draw a diagram. We apply the formula F = q. 21. the acceleration of the electron is of opposite direction and 2000 times greater. if the hydrogen end pointed up and the oxygen end down.. . and a negatively charged bottom plate will create a downward field as well.and the charge q for an electron is negative. the force is twice as large. so the electric force will balance gravity.. so C is the answer. Chdpter 14 First we draw electric field vectors into the diagram. that is. up. and we have taken up to be positive. The relevant equation is F = QE. and m is 2000 times smaller. What do we use for F. . The electric fields due to charges B and C add to zero.rng = 0. . 23. Since E is constant. The force is given by F = qE. down. in both cases. .. The negative end of the molecule would experience a force in the opposite direction of the electric field. Therefore.25 x lo4 C for the ball. Thus we write QE . . . A.. The force diagram for the ball is shown.4 x lo'' N. . . The positive end of the water molecule would experience a force in the same direction as the electric field. B.. If the electric field is down. where F is the force on the proton (or electron).. The energy would be minimized. We need to relate acceleration to data in the problem. 2 2 A. E is constant. So the charge must be negative. We do not have data for Coulomb's law. .6 x 10l9C) (4 x lo4 NIC) = 6. . a= F m' Since $ = q~?. . so a=. or We read the direction from the diagram.. so the total electric field at point D is down..4E m The positively charged top plate will create a downward electric field. 19. and Q is twice as large for the alpha particle (helium has two protons and two neutrons). Choice B will create an upward field. and choices C and D will not create electric fields at all. The electron has a charge of opposite sign.
000V to 10.Y ) 29. = 1 m away from Q. (This is not like those problems in which one arrqw is longer than the other. Although the problem specifies that the path is straight across. The charge we want to transfer is Q = lo" C. 30. A.) Then. A positive charge going from 10. so the negative sign is correct. A. we see that the molecule tends to be compressed.. W=qAV 32.The MCAT Physics Book 28. we expect that the energy required be negative. because the electric field here is uniform. so we do not need that information. we have w =%(v. . Thus Note that we get the same answer if we consider q. so V kQlr2= 10' V. The forces cancel. Let's draw a diagram showing the forces. A. so moving an electron is uphill. we know to write W = QAV. D. we know to write W =Q AV. Thus we have W = (10lo C) (10. B The clue here is the combination of energy and charge. and drawing the water molecule as a dipole. (see figure). . 31. . Does the sign make sense? Since we are moving a negative charge nearer a positive one.10. The work required is Let's check the sign. the energy is path independent. Moving a positive particle from 1000V to 1000 V is downhill. w = q(V. we know to write W = Q AV. = point 8. which is r.we are dead in the water. Note that this is not the orientation derived in problem 27. From the above diagram. to be fixed and move charge q. It moves to . because. from initial distance rito final distance r. where the potential due to Q is VA= kQ /rl = 2 x lo4V. 33. as the charge moves.VA) Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. fixed and move q. an increase in energy. Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges.OOOV) = 2 x J. where we use r.v. Let's consider the charge q. If we try to apply W = FAxcos I$. that is.000 V is going downhill.) 34. D Again we use W = qAV = q(v. In this case the charge q starts at point A. F changes. . so the equation to use is W = qAV.000 V . = 5 m. C.
. is 2 m. then r decreases by a factor of 16.. If we try to apply W = FAxcos $.) This narrows the answer to C or D. This is the equivalent of moving a rock from one point 50 m above sea level to another point 50 m above sea level. and is given by E . Clearly v and r are inversely related. as is the final electrostatic energy. the energy of the system is all 1 kinetic: ... and no energy is required. Since the acceleration is always positive (that is.. Thus if v is increased by a factor of 4.This is not Coulomb's law. (There is no friction force in the problem to slow it down.. So V. = 4 x 105 volts. . since r. The potential at the ending point B is VB = kQ /r2. B. The energy starts as kinetic and ends as elecuical potential.. In this case. = r4= 5 m. except that r. This is an equation about energy.. = kQqlr. Furthermore. and AV is the voltage rating of the dry cell.. we are lost. we know to write W = Q AV. (Recall that the electrical potential energy is the energy required to bring a system together from charges starting at infinity. = 2 m . = 2 m and r2 = 4 m. we know to write W = Q AV. because you pull as much energy out of the rock as you put into it. which is about force....where r. The energy is conserved. then the initial kinetic energy is increased by a factor of 16..) 39. we obtain 41. A. away from charge Q).) 3 7 . (Use the Pythagorean theorem.But since E.. The energy of the system starts as elecmcal potential energy. We derived the expression for the electric potential energy in Example 4 of Section F.) After the charge Q has moved very far away. and the force is an inversesquare law with respect to distance.. can never be greater than 2 kQqlr. B. If we work out the electric potential at points A and B. . so the initial kinetic energy 2 energy... The force decreases as q moves away ffom Q. there is a limit on the size of v.. Thus the potential at the two points is the same... The potential at the starting point A is VA = kQ Ir. 36. To distinguish between these possibilities we need an energy argument... and the potential difference and r2= 4 m.. But the calculation for VB involves the same numbers. never reaching zero. where r is their initial distance. = V is zero volts. (See the figure for a sketch of v versus t.) If we set the expression for the initial kinetic energy equal to the final electrostatic energy. (. so if v increases by a factor of 4. Chapter 1 4 Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges... A. where r.mv2)is entirely converted to electrical potential The electric potential at point C is given by 1 1 43. (Note: The denominator is r. so there is no energy entering or exiting.. Whenever we see a problem about work or energy with charges. is 2 m. not 2. for the force decreases forever. Q is the charge of the electron.. there is no heat generation or such nonsense.mv2. but the total work required is zero. You may move the rock uphill and downhill. there must be a large number of particles in random motion... Heat is not an appropriate concept with just two particles. A. . . we obtain Its acceleration is given by force divided by mass. In order for there to be heat.Solutions . the velocity will increase forever. where r.
then the current points to the left.The MCAT Physics Book 52. there is work being done on it. so the force on the electrons in the antenna is up and down as well. The wavelength of the radiation is A = clf = (3 x lo8rn/s)l(10~ Hz) = 30 m. 'IAe electric field points up and down. It does not matter that the electrons are moving. The palm faces out of the page. it experiences no magnetic force (it is not moving). If the current is up. The acceleration of the proton is to the right.5 m. Using the right hand. so it cannot be a magnetic force speeding it up. so the electric field is vertical as well. so that the fingers curl counterclockwise when viewed from the top. The palm faces to the right. 51. No matter what point along the wire loop we choose. If it is an electric force. B. if we apply the right hand rule. 54. C. According to the passage. B. We use the left hand (because electrons are negative) to figure out the direction of the magnetic force. Passage 1 1. it does no work). 49. So the magnetic field must point eastlwest. point the fingers down the page and the thumb toward you. We are told that the electric force opposes it. lo7Hz. A. D. point the thumb up. Since the proton is speeding up. D. The electric field must be to the right as well. 45. Using the left hand. The palm faces left. Using the right hand. This indicates that the direction of the electric field is down (toward the electrons). . Since the antenna is vertical. Choices C and D are definitely out anyway. so the force is to the right. the direction of the magnetic force. A. The external force pulls the wire. But it will feel the attraction toward the electrons. Thus the antenna should be vertical. the current it carrieiis vertical. 47. 44. 4. either one). For a quarterwave antenna (see paragraph 3). If it is a magnetic force. At point P the magnetic field is into the page. the electric field "points along the same axis as the current" that produces it. There is a force on the proton up the page. so the electrons move in the same direction as the magnetic field. then its force on an electron is into the page (because the electron is negative). B. Thus there is no magnetic force on the electrons. then the electric field points up the page. 53. so that is the direction of the magnetic force. 3. A. the fingers curl in the direction into the page at point A. point the fingers out of the page and the thumb up. If the electric field points out of the page. D. because a magnetic force cannot speed up or slow down a particle (that is. then the force would be provided by a magnetic field pointing into the page. The electrons should be free to move in this direction if an alternating current is to be set up. 46. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation (northlsouth) and to the electric field (upldown). so it must be into the page. The frequency of the radiation is the same as the frequency of the alternating current. so the answer is B. . Using the right hand with the thumb pointing left (or the left hand with the thumb pointing right. we obtain a magnetic field pointing out of the page. 2. down the page. The tricky part here is realizing that if the electron beam moves to the right. then the electrons (being negative) must be flowing down. The fingers point down and the thumb to the right. the length would be 7. B. C . D. If a proton is placed at point A.
. that is. we calculate F = q. The rapid decreases in velocity are the times of collision where the electron loses energy.. A. 1 . Passage 3 I The force on a charged particle in an electric field is F = QE. B.. the oxygen atom is the most electronegative atom.01 m from the wire. A. you should immediately think of force on a charge.. . so the oxygen ion ( 0 ' 3 experiences twice the force. Choice B is correct in that the force creates the current. A greater electric field is required. I. 409 I .. Since the electric field is directed away from the wire. then the energy it gains is less. At a distance 0. The charge on the hydrogen ion is 1. The charge on the fluoride ion is due to an extra electron.. . 5. C. It is true that an electron absorber will inhibit the phenomenon like killing a baby in its crib.. Since the electric field is directed away from the wire... so choices A.) 6. (The kinetic energy it gains is about F. (Choice C is incorrect because the electrons are not bound to individual atoms.Ol m) = 3 x lo6 NIC.. the negative oxygen experiences a force toward the wire. The mass density does not have anything to do with this phenomenon. and C are out... so it is 1. Since the electric field points away from the wire. so it is negatively charged relative to the rest of the molecule. If the electron is not able to travel as far.6 x 10l9C. . the force on the electron is toward the wire. In an butanol molecule..Solutions . Passage 2 Increasing the pressure would put the gas particles closer to each other. . This graph shows the constant acceleration (due to the constant force) of the electron inthe parts of the graph which have a small positive slope.. The electric field lines point in the same direction that the field points.) Thus the electron is not likely to create a spark. so the threshold is higher. The force of a charged particle in an electric field is simply F = Q E.. ....6 x 10l9C... so the force on it would be zero. A calcium atom has no charge. The energy starts as electrical. E = 4... Thus the force on the fluoride is the same in magnitude and opposite in direction.. To obtain force.. from the standard formula for work.8 x lo" N. so an electron could not h e travel as far before colliding with a particle... the electric field is E = (3 x lo4NrnlC)/(O. Thus t mean free path would decrease. away from the wire.. Chapter 14 When you think of an electric field. this indicates that the charge on the wire is positive.
= 6 V/2 S2 = 3 A. We label the voltages and currents in the circuit diagram. is I = (18 V)/(90 Q) = 0. 2. See the above explanation. If you chose C. as is shown in the first diagram of this solution. the volume flow rate. We need to consider the entire circuit to obtain the current in any one place. Because of the jump of V. We can label the circuit diagram with currents and voltages. The electric current is the amount of charge going by a point in the circuit per unit time. = 6 V/l S2 = 6 A. A pool is a large supply of water from which you can take or to which you can add water without disturbing it. from Ohm's law. C. so a jump of 9 V means the wire on the other side is 15 V. we can combine resistors. In the circuit diagram we label voltages and currents. we simply add in order to obtain the equivalent circuit shown below. The current through resister 1 is given by Ohm's law: I. C. and the volume flow rate is constant along a flow (if there is no branching). In a flow of water. which is not m e of flow velocity. 3. 6. Clearly. 8. Ohm's law gives us I = 15 V/60& = 0. Height gives a measure of the energy per mass required to place water at that point. B. The short end of the cell 2 is 6 V. A ground is a large supply of charge. Since they are in series.25 I A.The MCAT Physics Booic Chapter 15 Solutions 1. But the potential drop is not nearly so large. the analogous parameter is the amount (volume) of water going past a point per unit of time. Thus the potential drop across the resistor is 15 V. The current splits into two unequal pieces. Note that the current is the same for resistors in series. the current which flows through resistor 2 is the current which flows through the entire circuit. To obtain this current. B. in that the current at one point is affected by conditions (such as a partial blockage) both upstream and downstream. The current through resister 2 is I. 4. This is like water in a pipe. since we would expect that the lesser resistance would have the greater current if the voltage drops are equal. this is not surprising. See above explanation. . C. we label the wire on the other side 6 volts.2 A. A battery pumps charge from one electric potential to another. beginning with 0 volts at the short end of cell 1. then you probably tried to apply Ohm's law by substituting in 18 V for the potential drop across the resistor. D. Of course.= 6 V. just as electric potential is a measure of the energy per charge required to place a charge at that point The current.
. = (2 A) (4 Q) = 8 V.. Ohm's law yields 0. We label voltages and currents in the circuit diagram. . you should pay attention to this point) First let's combine resistors 2 and 3.us to point B. B. Chapter 1 5 For this question. = I.... If we label point A to be 0 V. the current through them is the same... The light bulb with the higher resistance has a proportionally higher potential drop. In this case. as shown in the equivalent circuit below. 12.4 A. Ohm's law is A y = IR. The resulting resistance is given by To obtain the total current... the current going through them must be the same. = 4 V. we can simply apply Ohm's law to obtain AV. since I is constant... Since the bulbs are in series..... R.. 1 1 .. We can label the circuit diagram with voltages and currents. Since the current through resistor 2 is 2 amps. We can read off that the potential difference between C and D is 18 V. D... C. C. combining the voltage sources and the two resistor light bulbs (see figure).. (If you chose D. the voltage drop across it is I. we draw an equivalent circuit.. Since resistors 1 and 2 are in series. R... then a jump of 4 V will bring. 15...Solutions .. 14. but this does not give us the answer immediately because we do not know the potential drop across resistor 1...
From this we can get power. then we obtain the circuit shown. . which is also the current through resistor 1. = (6 V)/(20 Q) = 0. P. you forgot to take the final reciprocal. In 10 seconds. By Ohm's law we can calculate the current through light bulb 2.The MCAT Physics Book The resulting new circuit is shown in the diagram. Do not try this at home. The electric potential across light bulb 2 is the same 6 V that it was before. . AV. 18 Joules are dissipated.3 A.8 J/s. so it bums in the same way. (If you chose C. If the connection through light bulb 1 were interrupted.8 Watts = 1. We have shorted the circuit. On the circuit diagram. But what is this? Definitely a problem. The potential drop across resistor 2 is the full 36 V Thus the voltage increases when A and B are connected.) We combine the resistors in series to obtain the equivalent circuitshown. The total current is 6 amps. = 1. Since resistors 2 and 3 are in parallel. the voltage drop across both of them are the same.1. we label the potentials. B. = I. 18. The resulting new circuit is shown in the diagram. The current splits into three pieces.
The 6V potential across light bulb 3 does not change if current through light bulb 2 is interrupted. 29.. and the potential difference across it is I R. The potential across it remains 6 V. B.. AV. We draw potentials and currents on the circuit diagram. Does light bulb 3 bum brighter? The potential drop across light bulb 3 is not a function of what happens in the upper wire.. We could obtain another relationship.. So A is correct.. Decreasing the emf of the battery would decrease the power of resistor 3.. P3= (AV.. by combining resistors.. = 8 Watts. We can obtain this current. but we know neither the potential drop nor the current for resistor 1.)~/R. C. but this does not correspond to any of the choices. so choice D is out.Solutions .)~/R... If we hold the potential drop across light bulb 3 constant. however... Since the resistors are in series. The short is made clear in the resulting circuit diagram. then a decrease in the resistance will increase the power since. We draw in potentials and currents in the circuit diagram... so C is out.... B might have been the answer if the source were alternating current. light bulb 2 extinguishes. Thus the power dissipated is P... since the current through both resistors is the same. we obtain I = 12 V/6 R = 2 A.. Chapter 15 Question 23 is essentially the same question.. 28. Its current does not change. The power dissipated (that is... again. Introducing a resistor at point C would split the potential drop across light bulb 3.... decreasing the power P3 = (AV. then D would have been the answer.. From the circuit diagram (Problem 25) we can see that the sum of the potential drops across the resistors must be 12 V. = 4 V. Since current can no longer go through the wire with light bulb 1.. If the question had asked. and the power it dissipates does not change. = I.. "What is the energy dissipated look like as a function of time?'. Thus the current through resistor 1 is 2 A. Choices A and C are eliminated...the energy per unit time) is constant. If you tried this in real life the battery would get very hot while a large current surged through the wire connection. Thus .
. we need the total resistance of the circuit. So these lights extinguish. The new wire ensures that the potential on both sides of lights 1 and 2 is zero. D. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown above. = Z'R and returns. (Later it recombines and . the fact that light 3 has twice the current means it dissipates 4 times the power. The total current is 4 amps. so we can combine their resistances to obtain 1 52. The question makes as much sense as asking what height is flowing in a river. On the other hand. 34. so it goes out. We apply the equation for resistors in parallel: r=+ 1 1 1 RT R l R2 It is difficult to know how the potential across light 1 compares with the potential across light 3. In this new circuit. On the other hand. 3 7 . See the diagram above. 7 3 e resulting circuit diagram is shown. so it bums brighter. Lights 1 and 2 are in parallel. light bulb 2 has the full 6 volts across it. D. so it bums brighter. In order to obtain the total current. Lights 1 and 2 are brighter.The MCAT Physics Book We draw a new circuit with A and B connected. the whole current through the potential source goes through light 3 and splits in half before going through lights 1 and 2. Voltage does not flow. A.) Since the power dissipated is P resistance is the same for lights 1 and 3. light 3 gets the full 12 volts. The new wire ensures that the potential on both sides of light 3 is zero. 36. The last two resistors can be combined to obtain 3 i2 as shown below. The new circuit diagram is shown.
1 . where AV= 120 V is a constant. we want to decrease the resistance. The potential drop across resistor 2 is 6 volts. 43. . so either I1 or IEI would allow us to ignore the internal resistance. If we graph P versus R. we obtain something like C. Chapter I5 38. We can combine the resistors into one with resistance R. since R = pUA. so that eliminates A and B.. and the force on a charged particle is given by F. = 0. The formal solution to the problem involves writing down Ohm's law for this circuit and then solving for 111: = I ( R + R*. There is an electric field E. Since the power is given by P = IAV..18 Watts.... . but this equation has the familiar y = mx + b form. we see that this is just a circuit with two resistors in series.. We know that as resistance R increases. To yields P = (AV)~IR. which means 1 1 1 must increase. In choice D. C.. increase power. we can ignore it if the external resistance is large (see the above solution). then the current is small. Let's say you did not think of that.. .. 44. If the external resistance is large. we obtain the current from I = 300 Wl120 V = 2. it dissipates E = P.. C.. But you cannot obtain that from this circuit.. and the power dissipated by it is P.. which we can estimate by I = 6 Vl0.. Ohm's law yields the result... The resistance is 120 V12.. (see figure). Ignoring the unfamiliar symbol and the dashed lines around the battery.6 SZ = 10 A... . so choice D is out. The circuit diagram is simply that shown above.. there is a resistance where Ill is zero.& = 108 Joules.. A longer wire will increase resistance. the current I decreases. A.5 A. In the previous problem we mentioned P = (AV)~IR.. while a thicker wire will decrease it. = R + R. Since Rim is added to the external resistance of the circuit.) Combining the power equation with Ohm's law where A V = 120 V is a constant. . = 0.. with positive slope and positive yintercept. = ..03 A. and the current is infinite.. In 600 s. B. 1 1 1 is not proportional to R.5 A = 48 a. between the plates.Solutions . so the current through it is 1.
the charge (Q = CAV) decreases by a factor of 3. so the charge must stay the same. not on the applied potential. so an increase in d by a factor of 3 results in a decrease in the electric field by a factor of 3. Once the wires are removed from the plates. The Earth and the ionosphere are like a parallelplate capacitor which has been bent intoa sphere. so A V increases by a factor of 2. Capacitance is defined as charge per potential. The electric field is E = AVld. A. The charge Q is constant. 4. Therefore A is the correct answer. C. so to speak. since we have Q = CAV. but we have not changed the capacitor itself. Thus the potential between the plates must change.) 2. that is. (Capacitance depends only on the capacitor itself. The Earth has a negative charge. 1 . going to greater potential energy away from the Earth's negative charge. Thus its capacitance does not change. so the electric field increases by a factor of 4. but the capacitance increases by a factor of 9. A. The work required is given by W = qAV = (1. Since AV is the same in Experiment 2.change. going from the surface to the ionosphere is uphill. A. no charge can be transferred from one plate to the other. The capacitance does not change. The only equation we have relating voltage and charge is AV= QIC. Since the passage said that the potential difference between the ionosphere and the Earth's surface is 9 x lo5volts. The electric field points away from a positive charge and toward a negative one. Since a helium nucleus has twice the charge of a proton. Passage 2 D. The other two pictures are reminiscent of the Earth's magnetic field. 5. We have changed the potential across the plates. 3. so taking an electron away from it is easy: a downhill ride. Thus the change in potential energy is negative. A.But we are unsure about the sign.. D. This is a situation in which the question becomes easy if we visualize the charges and think about the experiment. A. The electric field is simply given by E = AVld. we can exclude C and D.6 x 10I9C) (9 x 105J/C) =1. Thus the potential AV = QlC decreases by a factor of 9. V = EAx works here. 2. no more charge may be transferred. the force on it is double. B. B.since there is no way for it to.4 x 10l3J. Both are given in the passage. Thus it points toward the Earth and away from the ionosphere. In Experiment 2 the increase in distance results in a decrease in capacitance by a factor of 3 (see equation). 3. The dielectric is a nonconductor. After the wires are removed. The capacitance is decreased by a factor of 2 since the distance is increased by a factor of 2. . For a proton. D. The question is difficult or intractable if we rely on rote memorization of equations. where Ax is The formula A the separation between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. 2. 1 . 4. A. 5.The MCAT Physics Book QE. so the charge must increase by a factor of 4. The charge is still Q. 3.
7. C... Choice A does not refer to charges at all. We are not given the charge of the cloud in the passage (and even if we were... 3. and the negatively charged central wire will attract it. paper. . but this is not so. . Thus dt = QII = (4 c)1(2 x loqUS) = 2 x lo4 S. The attraction of neutral particles to a charged wire is like a charged comb attracting neutral pieces of Since the electric field points away from a positive charge. It does not matter what kind of molecule this is. D. . it would be difficult to get E from it). 6. The passage states that it will be attracted to the wire.) 4. Since this question is about energy and charges.. . But we are told the potential AV between the cloud and the Earth and the distance Ax between them. A. Choice B involves two charged particles.Yes. A.. which may tempt you to think that an increase in potential would lead to a decrease in capacitance. Thus E = (10' J/C)/(2 x 10' m) = 5 x 10' NIC. since energy is being conserved. . (This represents the work done on the charge by the electric field..but that is not helpful.. . E = AVIAx.6 x 10l9C)(5 x 10' JIC) = 8 x lo" J. The main formula we have for capacitance is C = QIAV.) 2. We have several formulas involving electric field: E = kQlr for a point charge. The only thing that matters is its neutral charge. An increase in potential would result in an increase in the . .) Next we are given the potential between cloud and ground. Choice D refers to a charged and a neutral species. so its charge is the same as an electron. but there is no information about force. A. A. (If a single object moved 2 km under the influence of a constant force.. and so on. to obtain the power usage of P = (300 Ym3) (100 m31s) = 3 x lo4Watts. but the capacitance remains the charge on the wire Q same. . B. A sodium ion (Na') is positively charged. especially away from the very positively charged tip. The capacitance of a device is fixed by the construction of that device.. The main formula with resistance in it is Ohm's law.the current is given in the second paragraph I = 20 karnps. 5. The only thing we can do with the new piece of information is to combine it with the information in the third paragraph. and F = qE. Let's go through the passage scanningfor information that could go together to get an energy estimate. just like the wire and the pollutants. 2. Chdpter 15 Passage 4 1. Aha! I = PIAV = (3 x lo4Jls)I(5 x lo4JIC) = 0.8 Us. I = Qldt. ..Solutions . The first piece of information is 2 km. D. B. so this is actually the maximum energy available. recall J = Nm. and we could get an energy if we knew an amount of charge that was transferred. . our guess is that we will use W = qAV somewhere. it will point away from the positive lightning rod. nor are we given a force on a charge. A charge is induced on the pollutants.) The increase in kinetic energy is thus 8 x 10ISJ. We can write R = AVII = (10' V)1(2 x lo4A) = 5 x lo3Q. . . D.. so it gains kinetic energy as it moves away from the wire. This is easy if we remember that current is the rate at which charge moves. Now some energy may be lost to heat. . (To get the units. Passage 5 1 . A fluoride ion near the negative wire has high potential energy. we could obtain its energy W = FAxcos t$. The question asks for current. and the resulting net force is attractive (see chapter text). But we are given that in the next paragraph. and the only connection we know of between power and current is potential difference. Thus W = qAV = (4 C) (10' JIC) = 4 x 10' J. . . . . The change in potential energy is qAV = (1.. and the amount of stored charge goes up proportionally as the potential. (Recall: a fluoride ion has one extra electron. Do we have enough information?. 3. The electric field lines point away from the positive charge and toward the negative charge.. and choice C involves two neutral species.
To obtain the magnetic field. So C is the correct choice. According to the third paragraph. choose A. The righthand rule applied to this implies a magnetic field circling the body in the direction shown in choice D. Passage 6 1 . 5. D. The elecmc field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. but excitation of molecules is a better answer. You knew this. The main current during the activated state is along the fish from tail to head. 2. then the charge transferred is IAr = (30 x 1o~ Us) (2 x s) = 6 x lo' C. we need to consider the current. if it had been a choice.The MCAT Physics Book Visible light results from the electrical transition of electrons in atoms and molecules. Thus the current through all the cells is the same. producing merely thunder. C.) Heating and expansion of air is lower on the energy scale. left. The voltages add up in series. B. and a negative charge at its tail. The outside of the cell acquires a positive charge and a higher potential. Current is the rate at which charge is transferred. A. On . if you are in doubt. (Ionization andrecombination would have been another good answer. so a positive charge collects at the head of the fish. 6. Dissociation of molecules may produce some light. choose the point under the fishes belly. If the magnetic field there is to the right. and the total current is simply 30 rnilliarnps. or into the page. so if the time for the activated state is 2 ms. So where are the charges during the activated state? A glance at Figures 1 and 3 shows that the fish pushes positive charges from its tail to its head. up. The diffusion of potassium ions lessens the effect. the currents add up if the components of the current are in parallel. B. but the qualitative picture is the same. The secondary currents outside the fish in the fourth figure reinforce this magnetic field. Thus the answer is B. For instance. Remember. choose one typical point and apply the righthand rule. I Sea water has the charge carriers which make it more conductive. The cells are stacked in series. C. problems like this one. the positive sodium ions are transported to the outside of the cell. We know the current during the activated state is 30 mA. D.
so C is not the answer. The charge on the deuteron (orie proton and one neutron) is the opposite of the charge on the electron.3 x lo'' J. C.Solutions . The force on a particle is simply F = qE. Since F = qEo. then the sum becomes correct. The subscripts must add to 4. There are three possible transitions. the magnitudes of the forces are the same.0 evy(4.jm. The forces on both are the same. . so adding a proton (: H) on the right would ruin the sum. (Notice how easy it is to do the arithmetic if the variables are manipulated first and the numbers substituted afterwards. energy of the photon E.. = v. D. the overall charge is all that is needed. The magnitude of the acceleration is given by a = Flm = qE. of course.3 x lo'' J. the final velocity is given by v. C. we obtain 235 . The reactants are i ~ + e He. . and since we are given the initial velocity v. Thus the superscripts must add to 6. This gives us the acceleration from a = Flm. Is it positive or negative? Since the ground state represents the lowest energy. The problem with choice D is that :li cannot exist. C. B. The electric field is constant. Thus the forces on the two are the same in magnitude.. 5. In order to get the frequencies listed. . so its acceleration is 2000 times smaller.6 x 10' N / c ) ( ~ os)1(1.represents an ion with a nucleus of 9 protons (hence F) and 11 neutrons (hence mass number 20) and 10 electrons outside the nucleus (hence the overall charge).7 ~ x kg) = 1. 6.. 9.. as shown in the figure below. 8. . . and cetera. The charges of the proton and the electron are equal in magnitude and are opposite in sign. we calculatef. the excited state must be +1.= (1 ev . The proton is 2000 times more massive. . B. .jm from Problem 4.) The subscripts already add to 92...5 x lo6 mls. 10... The left side of the reaction is represented by 3. . .14 x lo'' ev s) = 2. This eliminates A and B (recall that y represents no protons and no neutrons). ... as expressed in answer C. For this problem. . We have a = qE. A.t EK~+? 1.U+ ' 2 ~ a .. so A and D are eliminated. Chdpter 16 Chapter 16 Solutions If we write the atomic numbers explicitly.. The energy of the transition is the same as the f = h(c/A) = 1. . Now 'H has one half the charge of He (decreasing the acceleration by a factor of 2) and one fourth the mass (increasing the acceleration by a factor of 4). .3 x lo'' J. the superscripts add to 235 on the left and to 233 on the right.. + aAf = (qElm) At = (1. The force on the proton is given by F = qE. The nuclei have the same charge (both have one proton).= h Therefore the new energy level differs from the ground state (0 J) by 1. since the mass number (total number of protons and neutrons) must be greater&an the atomic number (number of protons). 2. so the superscripts add to 16 and the subscripts add to 8.6 x lo'' C)(1. .. Thus D is the answer. = 0 mls. If we add two neutrons to the right (in + n). C. D. The result is an increase by a factor of 2. On the other hand.4 x loL4 HZ. . 11. The symbol 'OF. . .
Thus the excited state is 0... which is close to C. The only reaction which satisfies the criteria is A. B. The six possible transitions are shown in the figure below. If we g= multiply 1 gram by 112 five times.. The subscript of the parent nucleus is 90. D. and choices A and D do not satisfy the criteria that the sub.2 days.5 ev to 0 ev. ?he only transition to fall in these limits is from 2. Four halflives corresponds to 57.= h (2. C. Since this is a transition from the ground state. If a photon has any energy greater than this..0 x 1014Hz.01 x 1014Hz) = 0. it must be a transition from 5 ev (the ground state) to 3 ev (an excited state). B.7 ev. I Thus the daughter is 21.14 x which corresponds to E. The frequency given in the choices corresponds to Eiti.14 x lo" ev s) (4. four factors of 2.. .1 x grams. 20.~a + :He. 19.The MCAT Physics Book 12.. 23./h.. The lower limit for visible light is 4. we obtain (112)~ 1/32 g = 3. then 5.1 ev. The wavelength is given by A = clf. Thus the daughter is ~ C O .0 ev. and the superscript must be 55. Thus the parent is Z T h . that is.. Eight thousand years is five halflives.14 x lo'' ev s) (7. We write the nuclear reaction 238 . f = (4.37 ev of the energy will liberate the electron from the atom..and superscripts have the same sum on both sides. H e + ? . and the upper limit corresponds to E.54 ev. 17.5 x 1014Hz) = 3. C. C. :H+ :H+ :H+ :e+ :H+ :H+ :H+ The young scientist calculates a photon energy E= h f = (4. A decrease in radioactivity from 300 to 20 mCi is a decrease of about a factor of 16..+ V Choice B does not have heavy hydrogen as a product.0 x 1014Hz) = 1.. and the superscript is 226.8 x 1 0 ' ~Hz) = 2. 24.. The energy of transition is the same as the energy f = (4.14 x lo'' ev s) of the photon Ep. D.U+ i ~ e ye+ + ye+ . The formal way to do this problem is to write 200(+] = 30. C. If we add in the subscripts and add notation to the beta particles. C. We write the nuclear reaction The subscript of the daughter nucleus must be 27. +v ye. C. Recall that the symbol for the neutron is n or in. 16. We write the nuclear reaction ? +':. B. we obtain A. and the rest of the energy will go into the kinetic energy of the electron. :H+ :H+ ? ~ + y :H+ :H+ .83 ev. D. 18. = h ev s) (4.He+y B. So the energy level is at 4.37 ev. 13.83 ev above the ground state at 5. = (4.
4 . A glance a t the answers indicates we need get Passage 1 only an estimate. where we wanted to ionize the atom. The difference in energy is Ep. . .. B. . A. . ... The energy level diagram shows this to be 13. Both momentum and energy are conserved because there are no external forces in this scenario. 3. 4. Compare this with problem 17. .01601 + 1.. C. It is not the case that we must merely have enough energy to reach the next rung of the ladder. We have to hit it exactly. We calculate m .13. The mass deficit is converted into the kinetic energy of the resulting products. B.. A. Certainly B and C are incorrect.. = 4 (1. If we look at the energy level diagram for the differences between levels.in this case.6 ev. Choices C and D are nonsensical. but the energy difference can get as small as you like (at the upper end of the diagram)..6) ev. . We see from the energy level diagram that the smallest energy from ground state to excited state is from n = 1 to n = 2. 30. Choice A is possible.00783 2 (4.. The reaction we seek is The photon energy corresponds to the difference between the two energy states. C. 27. .o. C. In that case we can hit the atom with a photon of greater energy because the excess goes into kinetic energy.. = (7. about a million (lo6) times smaller than for nuclear reactions. ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom (or molecule) in its ground state. which means the smallest frequency (sincef = CIA. We want the longest wavelength.. A. . The original ' ~ must e have more mass than the final products in order for the reaction to occur. Energy is converted from one form to another: from the energy of an excited state to photon energy and (much less) kinetic energy of the recoiling atom. however. . . . .). The amount of mass that needs to be converted each second is given by 1 . 26. C. We have no way of soaking up the extra energy. 29. quite small for chemical reactions.= (3. We calculate m . . It is. By definition. but in fact the principle of massenergy conservation is completely general.00260 amu.Solutions .. . Chdpter 16 25. we see there is a transition corresponding to a largest energy. This is a simple application of E = m 2 . 28...00783 m u ) 4.00260)) amu. .which means the smallest energy (since E = hj). We want to know how much uranium we need to obtain 10" J... The energy of a reaction must be in the form of mass before the reaction occurs.
there must be a last atom todecay. And many photons make it through the atmosphere. B. The Sun emits photons of all sorts of frequencies. Clearly state 2 is not very populated. that is. . so the product must be ' 0 2 ~ b . Thus those photons have the most energy and the highest frequency. n u s the decay is positron decay. The question refers to the transition from state 1 (E. C . Each 9. the passage is silent on this issue. On the other hand. they will experience a force up. from the ground state to the highest energy level. protonrich nuclei. 2 . (However. We need only know that the alpha particles are positive. able to be blocked even by several centimeters of air. Applying the right hand rule for magnetic force indicates a force to the left as viewed from the top. Choice D fits the description in the question. 6. Because this radiation is blocked by a single sheet of gold.) to the ground state (E = 0). According to the passage. since a sheet of metal foil fails to block it. A. C. Its halflife is 9. so if the orbital has vanishing amplitude near the nucleus. nuclei with more protons than neutrons have a negative N . Choice C does not have balanced subscripts. A. D. Passage 1 . the probability of capture is small. A.0)lh. the radioactivity of the sample decreases by a factor of 4. D.5 hours.Z. Otherwise. Choice B represents normal beta decay. Since the radiation is blocked by several centimeters of aluminum. it must be alpha radiation. Beta and gamma radiation are more penetrating. Passage 4 1 . 5. the sample will never have zero radioactivity. 3. that is what makes the colors of the rainbow. According to the passage. since transitions out of state 2 to state 1 (or to the ground state) occur very quickly. which is forbidden for subtle quantum reasons. so D is the answer. Kcapture happens under the same conditions which promote positron decay. C. it is not gamma radiation. After 19 hours.) 5. The energy level diagram makes clear that the largest transition is the transition of absorption. two halflives. Choice A represents the positron decay. In an electric field which points up. Is it normal beta radiation or positron radiation? The information from the magnetic field indicates the particles are positive. nothing in the passage indicates that the energy difference between levels 1 and 2 should be less than (or greater than) the energy difference between level 1 and the ground state. 3.The MCAT Physics Book 2 3. so the answer "indefinitely" is better than "forever". The only information we need here is that the alpha particles are positive. That is to say. the possibility of electron capture is nonzero only if there is some overlap of the electron wavefunction and the nucleus. which does not happen for this nucleus. The text mentioned that alpha radiation is not very penetrating. Therefore. that is. B. which is what the question asks for.5 hours sees a decrease by a factor of 2 in radioactivity. so the frequency is f = (El . But it is not alpha radiation. 2.
5.. . During alpha decay. D. Just for your information. . and choice B is incorrect. Choice D is excluded since neutrons are an elementary particle. The energy comes from nuclear energy. . 1 . . The whole point of Kcapture is to turn one of the many protons into a neutron. I I 3* B* We write the reaction The nucleus which balances the superscripts and subscripts is 0. Glucose marked with "0would react chemically (almost exactly) the same as glucose with 160. ': 3. Choice A is spontaneous neutron drip.. 4. Most of the energy goes into the ionization of molecules. The reaction is z ~ +fi ~ + e '. The original sample must have been 0. In fact. B. so the neutron is not likely to change back. . so D is out. 2. . The 7... Passage 5 Passage 6 1. Choice B misses the point.. C..08 moles.Solutions . D. so the. original sample decreased by a factor of 2 three times. .8 years represents 3 halflives. so N .Z decreases by 2. so a neutron with no charge and little energy will do little harm. During normal beta decay. Choice A is incorrect because the neutrino hardly interacts with matter (see paragraph 2). a neutron goes away (N decreases by 1) and a proton appears in its place (Z increases by 1). .. A.. We write the reaction 10 . . except the reaction is not spontaneous. This is a paraphrase of the second sentence of paragraph 3. . 6. 5.. both N and Z decrease by 2. Choice C is a likely possibility. that orbital is empty and can be filled by another electron from outer shells. which is entirely due to nuclear physics. The only choice for the missing particle that satisfies the criteria that the superscripts and subscripts add up is : ~ i . . B. Choice A does not satisfy the description in the passage.. C. D. For a reaction to be spontaneous there can be only the one reactant.so choices A and B are incorrect. Choice A is nonsensical. Choice C is nearly correct. We write the reaction :H+ : : ~ e . There is no positron created.+ :He+?. in that there is no gamma ray in the products. . . The particle which balances the superscripts and subscripts is : ~ e which .. a halflife of 128 seconds is very short. 4. Since Kcapture pulls an electron from the innermost shell. . 6 . B. .Z stays the same. is an alpha particle. The net effect is N . D. Choice B is correct. The passage indicates (paragraph 2) that a charged particle with large energy is ideal for ionizing tissue.:~m.B+ i n . since the question asks why these neutrons do not tend to ionize the tissue. so choice D is incorrect. This is accomplished by emitting photons. Choice D is excluded for the same reason.+ ':F+?.. the other problem is that the glucose gets . Choices C and D do not have the superscripts and subscripts balanced. . The chemical environment of the nucleus hardly affects its decay. C. so choice C is a possibility. Chapter 16 4. not fission.
D. The only particle which can be placed in the products without disturbing the balance'is a gamma particle. The FDG tends to build up in the cell since it cannot be metabolized as easily. H + '. . 5. The 8 minutes is about 4 halflives. so the activity must have decreased by a factor of 2 four times. A. We write the reaction . 6. 1 This equation seems to be already balanced.N+ ' i 0 + ? . Its initial activity was 160 mCi.The MCAT Physics Book completely metabolized before there is a chance to detect its presence.
Index .
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Current alternating 290991 electric 263. See Motion: circular Closet 3 1 7 Collision elastic 1 2 9 inelastic 1 2 9 color 225. 964965. 1 8 6 949 induced 9 5 0 Circular motion. 1 5 9 D DC cell 9 7 9 Density 1 591 60 Dielectric 250. 1831 8 4 Battery 971. 94. $88990. 299 Capacitor 968. 279. See Force: centripetal Elc fidd 953958. 69 Barometer 163. kinetic 1241 26 levels 307309 potential 126. bombadier 1 801 8 1 Bernoulli's principle 1671 Beta decay 3 0 9 Buoyancy 160 69 Boron neutron capture therapy 3 2 0 E Eficiency 1 291 3 0 Elastic limit 1 0 2 Elasticity 1 0 2 Uectric charge.4mplitude 1 9 0 Antinode 1 9 2 Archimedes' priniple 160 Atom 3 0 5 Atomic mass 3 0 6 Atomic number 3 0 6 Atomic weight 3 0 6 Attitude 34 of Conservation of momentum. See Momentum: conservation of Continuity 1 6 6 Coulomb's law 2 522 53 Critical angle 2 9 9 Crocodile 14. 5 Diopters 2 3 8 Dispersion 2 3 8 Doppler shift 2 1 32 1 5 Drag 8385 Dust mite 9 8 9 Bad Star 68.1 Index Conservation of energy. See Mass: center o l Centripid accduation. 1 8 6 Equations 36 168. 78. See Acceleration: centripetal Centripid !om.: conservation Acceleration 1 71 8 centripetal 6 5 uniform 21. 49. 2 9 0 Differencetone 2 2 1 Diffraction 2 4 6 Dimensions 2. 290 11 3. 969. 9 3 8 Components 34 Conductor 2 5 0 . 979 Beats. See Force: electric Electromagnetic spectrum 2 2 522 6 Electromotive force 2 8 5 Electron 949. 3 0 5 Electrostatic precipitator 3 0 0 Energy 121133 conservation of 1271 28. 2223 Air Resistance 8385 Airbag 181182 Alpha decay 3 0 9 . See Charge: electric Electric circuits 279991 Electric dipole P 57. See Sound: beats Beetle. 998 Center o l mass. 989 Charge 249950 conservation 01 2 5 0 electric Uectric fidd lines 2 5 8 Eiectric force. 2 5 8 Electric eel 3 0 2 Capacitance 988290. See Energy.
131 4 center of 5 3 Mass deficit 3 1 1 264265 3arnma decay. See Wave: fundamental visible 2 2 6 Lightning rod 3 0 1 Magnetic fields 263264. 188. 1 9 0 riction 7785 kinetic 8089 static 7780 "ndamental. 951. 1671 69 rate 1 6 6 streamline 167.  Halflife 3 1 0 Harmonic 195. simple 1 871 8 8 notmal mode 1 9 4 second law third law 3 53 1 85 Hydrostatic preswre. 264265 conservative 126 363 8 electric 252253. 4 5 Sravity 455 3 Sround 2 5 1. 253258 speed of 2 2 5 ultraviolet 254. Law of 5. Hooke's law circular 6466. 6669 3 2 109 1 2 first law 3 13 Harmonic motion. See Gravitation. 23 8 Inertia 3 1 Infrared waves. See Motion: first law gravitation law. See Motion: normal mode 305 . Law of second law. 9 9 0 Sround state 307 Mass number 3 0 6 Massenergy conversion ' 3 1 1 Microwaves 925226 Mirrors 2 3 523 7 Molecule 2 4 9 Moment of inertia 9 3 Momentum 1 1 11 1 5 conservation of 1 1 21 1 4 impulse 1 1 4 Motion . 161 226 reefall 4748 requency 93.6 4 Index of refraction 2 2 6 1 3 0 . Impulse 1 1 4 Inclined planes 6 3 . 3 1 0 Jamma rays 2 2 6 Jauge pressure 1 6 4 Jraphs 1890 zravitation.The: MCAT Physics Book 7uilibrium rotational 9 7 translational 97 quipotential lines 263 ccited state 307 Kcapture 3 1 9 Kinetic friction. See Law o l hydrostatic equilibrium 3 33 5 6 Neutron 249. 1671 uorescence 308 . Mass 13. 990 192 Normal mode. See Friction: kinetic OW Laminar flow. See Wave: infrared insulator Newton's cradle 1 1 1 305 first law.cal length 2 3 0 xce 13 bouyant centripetal diagrams meter 69 230 diverging 2 3 0 1601 6 1 65 power 2 3 8 thin 2 3 9 Lever arm 9 6 Light 225239. 990 Intensity 2082 1 0 Interference 1 9 1 constructive destructive 199 Nonconductor Nudeus 250. See Flow: laminar Law of hydrostatic equilibrium 1 6 2 Lens 230234 aberations 2 3 9 combination 2 3 8239 convergng laminar 167. See Motion: third law Node 250. See Motion: second law third law.
1 88 Periodic motion 1 871 88 Phase 192 Phosphorescence 3 17 Photon 264. See Friction: static Strain Stress 191. See index of refraction Resistance v Vector field Vectors 253 14 15 Velocity 1 6 17 Virtual image 232 Viscosity 1 661 67 Visible spectrum Voltage 981 internal 285 Resistivity 286 Resistor 981984 ddinition 979 in parallel 989. 297 93102 929 307309 1 661 67 Total internal reflection Transitions Turbulence Ultrasound Radiation electromagnetic Radioactive decay Radioactivity 205 26496 5 .Index Simple harmonic motion. 23 5 Real image 232 Reflection 226230 Refraction 2269 30 Rehadive index. 306 Pendulum Period Pitch. See Wave: radio 309 3093 1 2 Raytracing diagram 231. 281984. 1621 64 Projectile 4748. See Light: ultraviolet Units 23 Radio waves. 989 Resolution 946 Resonance 189 Reynolds number 89 Rocket engine 1 1 9 Root mean square 291 926 Visible light. See Sound: pitch Polarization Positron decay Potential 1 87 1 88 226230 Sound 20721 5 beats 21 2. 1 591 60. 244 310 Positron emission tomography 32 1 259 electric 2 58263 terminal 285 absolute electric Potential difference 10 1 Streamline flow. 1 86 Static friction. 305 Pulleys 131133 electrical 301 291. 52 Proton 249. Ohm's Law Orbital 28 1284 305 Snell's law P 1 88 93. 226. 983 in series 981. 285286 Wave addition amplitude Scattering 308 10 1 Shear modulus 199 1 88 frequency 1 88 fundamental 195 infrared 225926 intensity 2089 1 0 longitudinal 190 radio 995996 standing 1941 96 . 974 Ultraviolet light. 22 1 intensity 2082 1 0 pipes 2 1 02 12 pitch 21 0 production 207 speed 208 Specific gravity 1 59 Speed 1617 Sphygmomanometer 1 64 Springs 1 85 1 96. 979980. See Light: visible 258963. See Flow: streamline 101 192 1 641 65 Superposition Surface tension T Thunderclouds Toaster Torque 260 Power 1 301 31 electric 2862 87 Pressure 1 59.
The M C A T Physics Book 19 1 194 velocity 190 Vavelen3th 19 0 vaves 185196 Weight 1 4 vire 279 Vork 121123 transverse traveling 'ouns's modulus I OI .