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Casting volume: total volume include: product weight + volume volume biscute + runner + volume over flow 2. Filling volume: is the volume after off runner and biscute part, or is the product of mass + over flow volumes. 3. Cross-sectional area of the gate: Sg = gate width x thickness of gate This area is said to be as large as possible. This area the greater the speed the higher the fill ⇒ product quality is raised. 4. Gate area ratio: ratio parameters by: eye area cut sleeve / cross-sectional area of the gate. 5. Cross-sectional area over flow: Sof = width over flow x thickness over flow. 6. Cast area (area of the image casting): an area full of casting when projected on the plane that is the product for. (Shadow area of the product) 7. Push-dry shot distances: the distance from the position 0 (comes) of piston casting to touch the broken line (spreader) to the mobile site. 8. Distance high speed (high speed length) is very important option parameters of casting techniques. high speed length is the distance the piston moves from the beginning of acceleration (from low speed to high speed), to the slow position (from high speed to 0). From this number we will calculate the starting position of velocity change (from low speed to high speed) is at any point over the gate products Change positions velocity is an important parameter affecting product quality casting lots. According to the classical theory cast this position so soon or at the gate, but with the art of modern molding machines this position is said to be good after gate. (Before or after is the only metal flow has passed through the gate yet). 9. PQ2 diagram: the graph consists of 2 streets, a line representing the characteristics of the machine, a line representing the characteristics of the mold. Based on this chart to select the most appropriate casting and molding conditions. As knowledge of hydraulics shows for casting machine, pressure P and liquid metal flow will be inversely proportional to and against the mold, the higher the traffic will generate higher pressure.
So two curves will intersect at a point, calibrated at that point will be the velocity, pressure, ... the maximum allowed 10. Regardless of diameter cylinder pressure and pressurized cylinder diameter: to distinguish need to know the structure of the casting, structure creates pressure casting Molding process analysis: the initial cylinder pressure will push and create pressure from low speed to high speed, then stop Followed by the cylinder pressure will force the transmission pressure booster (press up) for the casting process. Pressure passing is passed quickly through the average of pressure (accumulator), so the pressure molding pressure and ACC (pressure increased pressure) concerned II. Some parameters, meanings and casting conditions: A bit of experience on the causes of defects in the casting process (cold chamber): the parameters needed to calculate the following steps:
1. Pour the molten aluminum into the sleeve 2. Piston push to low speed to solution of metal flying out 3. Piston push at low speed to change positions velocity 4. Piston push at high speed to fill the molten metal (aluminum mold filling) 5. Piston does not move but the product pressed into a lot of pressure to the foundation of the product called turbocharged process. ( parameters: pressure, time pressure, etc. is under process). 6. mold opens, piston push some more to push products. Casting process ends.
Here's how the parameters related to the casting process:
WORKSHEETS LOW SPEED BASED ON WEIGHT CAST, AND GENERAL MACHINE 1. fill rates sleeve Casting mass (m) Cross - sectional area of the sleeve(S) x distance push the piston ( dry shot street ) x density of the material d(cm) 7 S(cm2) dry shot street 38.465 36.23 density of the material (g/cm3) 2.6 Conclusion: Based on this spreadsheet shows the volume of the appropriate cast to achieve proper fill rate
sleeve filled ratio=
ratio (%) 41.12244
diameter of Chip- d(mm) 70
The formula: ratio (%) 41.12244 m(g) 1490
2. low speed low speed = 0.7 x sqrt(diameter of piston)/filling coefficient sleeve diameter of Chip- d(mm) 70 d(cm) 7 low speed (m/s) 0.142419
Conclusion: Based on this spreadsheet shows: low speed calculation for INT # 1 and the actual speed difference is quite far. So, the formula is only meant to reference
1. Filled TIME Definition: fill time is the start time increase the speed until the material to fill the mold. Filling time is calculated by the following formula: t= 0.01 x ( thickness of casting )2 Or based on the technical experience of Germany as the following table:
Thickness of casting 1.5 1.8 2 2.3 2.5 3 3.8 5 6.4 30
t- a ccordi ng to experi ence t- Formula 0.01-0.03 0.023 0.02-0.04 0.032 0.02-0.06 0.040 0.03-0.07 0.053 0.04-0.09 0.063 0.05-0.1 0.090 0.05-0.12 0.144 0.06-0.2 0.250 0.08-0.3 0.410 9.000
チ ル ベ ン ト 等
change positions velocity later (more at the gate) under products position velocity change soon (more at the gate) gate of casting
Product descriptions and change positions velocity gate of the product placement.
2. Velocity HIGH-SPEED To calculate the high speed should be based on high-speed distance lh lh = filling volume / (cross-sectional area of the sleeve x material density ) The point to note here is fill volume is the product of the volume of the left the gate and biscute. 3. High-speed distance worksheet
lh mass (g) d(cm) 10.49906 1050
density (g/cm3) 2.6
high speed is calculated by the following formula: high speed = High-speed distance /filling time 4. High speed spreadsheet
lh t-min (Germany) 10.49906
t-formula v-formula 9.000 1.166562
5. To change positions velocity is calculated by the following formula: Change positions velocity = complete filling positions (filled position) – high speed distance (Position complete fill = distance push - thickness biscute)
6. The formula for calculating the pressure in the tank of pressure-PACC PACC= sleeve cross section area x pressure casting cross sectional area of cylinder turbocharged x 0.9
Based on the parameters of the machine (according to the manual) that the diameter of the cylinder turbocharged 7. Time for turbocharged: Time for turbocharged, if based on the freezing of the product, the duration of increased pressure must be fill time. 8. Initial pressure shot - shot pressure Pressure created by the piston pushing, the pressure created by high speed momentum. The sound explosive in the casting process created by this pressure. shoot pressure = pressure casting x casting area If pressure shoot > The force for clamping the mold then flags will generation. So based on this we would be calculation the greatest pressure casting allows. pressure casting allows = maximum force for clamping mold casting area
For example: part product of the casting with area: 500cm2 , Casting on machine 350 ton will be the biggest pressure casting is: maximum pressure = 100 x 350/500 = 70MPa III- Adjust the parameters of molding and product quality
This is a table of typical casting of Toshiba Die Castle Machine:
1 60 0.1
6 258 0.25
7 268 2.8
8 310 2.8
9 340 2
filled positions 345 1.5
The above is a typical setting molding conditions, the quality of the product depends most on the casting mold, then these parameters and program robotic sprays. Here is the explanation for the above parameters for each position: First of all need to determine: which is the starting position, the position with coordinates equal to zero. Starting position is the position when the piston drawn on the end of the journey, or is the original location of the casting process. Position 1: Position after the ladle poured material into the piston pushing at slow speed - 0.1 m / s to allow the material to flow out through the mouth tube.
Position 6: This is known as the velocity changes. This point is a very important point in casting techniques. This point affects very much in the quality of products. According to the classical theory cast, this is at the gate is the best, but at this point later (located above the gate), It is better. Formula as described above. According to the table above we see: High-speed distance = 345 - 263 = 82 mm The meaning of point 6: This point as late (value as maximum), the upper part of the product is good, and the bottom product deterioration, and reverse. Low speed is also very important, if too maximum velocity will create wave solution and therefore will mix air into the solution should be to create pores (air hole, porosity) a lot of in part products. This speed as maximum is for the bottom of part product as good, and reverse. Formula as above presented. Low velocity values must be ensure that the rate of mold filling about 20-50%. Experience, should choose the velocity lower to fill sleeve is proportional to the approximately 45-50%. Position and speed of the velocity changes decision very much on the conditions of casting products. Position 7: This point is known as the high speed position. This point is to be as close as point 6, the higher the probability for good products. However, if too close then the stability of the product is not there. Workers need to perform many experiments and drawn yourself where is the best location. Speed of position 7, as well as high speed. This speed is calculated according to the formula stated above. However, theory and practice casting very far apart, so you need to choose the value by experiments. Position 8: Called starting position for deceleration. The location of this point is said to affect the accuracy of product and prevention of flags out of the the mold. Position 9: position is inserted for slow down velocity, to prevent flags arise. Based on the significance of these point, in collaboration with computerized temperature of the mold and jet cooling system, adjust vacuum determines the properties of part product very much.
On the table there are two adjustment parameters other important need adjusted: Time turbocharged: (増 圧 时间): As the execution time of the pressure changes from shoot to increase pressure (compression and shaping products), these time as short molding will create momentum higher mean anti: wrinkle and porosity, ... as better. Note that if too short will make the response of machine will be not, and the mold and machine quickly damaged. Encourage value set at 25ms or more. Distance turbocharged (増 圧 区间): is the distance increased pressure from shoot pressure to compressed pressure (increasing pressure). value of turbocharged distance greater the more pressure is created. An engineer to calculate the casting conditions, usually start from the calculation of the above parameters (low speed, high speed, changes positions velocity, maximum pressure casting, etc.) by relying product drawing of the area, volume castings, and the mold…
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