MOHAMED GHOUSE IMAM Reg No: 41502621035 Of SRM Engineering College A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATION June 2005



Certified that this project report titled “ONLINE AIR TICKET BOOKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of Mr A.Mohamed Ghouse Imam who carried out the project under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

Internal Guide

Head of the Department

ABSTRACT This gives you the raw skeletal picture of an Online Airticketing System. Further value additions should be done during development stage. Nowadays, it becomes more and more popular to buy airline tickets through online travel agent. People enjoy buying airline tickets online because of the convenience brought by the Internet. Many travel site provide services which help travelers find airline tickets for their travel plans. In addition to providing the same services that a traditional airline ticket booking system would provide, these websites provide enhanced services such as searching through a list of possible flights according to a user's constraints Generally Online Booking consists of procedures like Reservation, Cancellation, Availability of Seats, Timetable, etc. Finally the Reports are prepared.



This project on Computerized Online Airticketing is designed with the object of simplifying the tedious tasks of Airticketing the usage of this package would simplify the work of the user, as it is user friendly, simple, easy to follow. It is enough if the user has the fundamental idea of browsing to handle this package effectively suggestions regarding further modifications or adjustments to suit the need of the user regarding this package is welcomed. This system is specially designed for reservation of Airticket, which depends on computerization. This system covers Passenger information, Flight details. It also covers the Charge for the to and fro journey and also Vacation package during the Vacation time.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I sincerely thank the Almighty who had given me the strength and poured out his showers of blessings upon me, which has enabled me to complete the project successfully. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Prof. R.VENKATARAMANI, B.E, M.Tech, Principal, SRM Institute of Science and Technology for his continued guidance and support. It is beyond the comprehension of mere elegance of word to acknowledge some one who has been the guiding spirit behind the dissertation I extend my profound gratitude to Mr. S.SAGAYARAJ, H.O.D, Department of Computer Applications, who has always been a source of inspiration, for his guidance and support. With profound reference and high regards I record my indebtedness and gratitude to my guide Mr.P.Karthikeyan, for his keen interest and guidance throughout my project work.


My heartfelt gratitude to Mr. P.Thulsi Ahilan, General Manager, Projects, Cynergy Technology Solutions Pvt Ltd, Chennai, for his valuable guidance and his patience, without which this project would not have been completed. I am thankful to all the members of Cynergy Technology Solutions Pvt Ltd., Chennai, for providing me valuable information and suggestions throughout the project. My thanks are also due to the entire faculty of MCA department of SRM Institute of Science And Technology but for whom I wouldn’t be what I am today. I also thank my family and friends for their care, love, support and encouragement. A. Mohamed Ghouse Imam

Citigroup also started its own company called COSL (Citibank Overseas Software Ltd) which strategised and operationalised Citigroup's vision of leveraging India. Today.v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. In parallel. Cynergy has established its solutions and services footprint globally contributing to the realization of the business vision of some of the world's leading giants in the money vertical. over the last 3 decades . The 2 Decade long journey was clearly an experience that helped Cynergy participate. Cynergy was fortunate to be one of the first vendors that Citigroup chose to partner with. Cynergy is the amalgamation of these two organization that traveled the path of successfully architecting & realizing Citigroup's India led vision. every hurdle & fallacy in this path to leverage the Indian intellectual capital. through this Indian quest. 20 years ago. Headquartered in Chennai (India). The challenge of creating a successful global sourcing model. the . Citigroup began its quest to pioneer the utilization of the vast human intellect capital in India & the seeds of Cynergy were sown. The challenges were many. the challenge of creating an alternative distributed banking platform. witness and experience every pitfall.1 ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW: Cynergy Technologies Private Ltd is one of India’s leading institutions contributing to the knowledge economy of the global financial services marketplace. In this knowledge quest.

vi challenge of creating global competitiveness from a third world economy. Cynergy gained two very critical experiences: • The experience of creating mission critical solutions with leading edge functionality. as it is user friendly. It also covers the Charge for the to and fro journey and also Vacation package during the Vacation time. simple. 1. The concepts that I will use to build the banking application are: . As Citigroup gained the competitive edge. This system covers Passenger information.1 ONLINE AIR TICKET BOOKING SYSTEM This project on Computerized Online Airticketing is designed with the object of simplifying the tedious tasks of Airticketing the usage of this package would simplify the work of the user.2. Flight details. easy to follow.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW 1. the challenge of replicating success from one country to another…. It is enough if the user has the fundamental idea of browsing to handle this package effectively suggestions regarding further modifications or adjustments to suit the need of the user regarding this package is welcomed. This experience has been converted into a predictable and repeatable model of success and is known as the Entity model. • The experience of creating successful outsourcing models which enable global organizations to sustain their competitiveness. This system is specially designed for reservation of Airticket. The biggest challenge was in being the first one in the world doing all this. This capability is today brought to the customer in the form of a suite of modular solution components under the brand name of intellect Suite. which depends on computerization. built on reliable and robust technical architecture which could be successfully implemented and replicated across the globe.

3 SOFTWARE OVERVIEW 1. In this book. documents (Web pages) on the World Wide Web. JavaScript is meant to tell an application what to do.3. It is an user interface 1.vii • • • HTML JavaScript Java Server Pages(JSP) 1. To appreciate this. it helps to know a little history. JavaScript is lightweight in that there isn't a great deal to learn and you can be productive with it very quickly.2 CLIENT-SIDE SCRIPTING(JAVA SCRIPT): JavaScript is a lightweight object-based scripting language created by Netscape Communications Corporation for developing Internet applications. which Are written in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). As a scripting language. The term "client" refers to the browser application that loads and displays your Web pages.3. Unlike languages used to create applications. JavaScript is an extension to HTML that lets you create more sophisticated Web pages than you ever could with HTML alone. You can embed JavaScript statements in Web pages. it cannot do anything without the application. This book focuses on teaching you to create client applications with JavaScript-specifically.1 FRONT-END(HTML): HTML is used to create a static content web page displayed into the browser. the term "server" refers to the computer where your Web pages reside. . in contrast to much more complex languages such as Java. You can develop server applications or client applications With JavaScript.

run them on any Web server or Web enabled application server. and access them from any Web browser. both in its dynamic Web pages. This saves considerable development time while giving the cross-platform power and flexibility of the Java programming language and other scripting languages. Run Anywhere properties of JSP allows the user to choose best-of-breed tools. You can also build the server components on any platform and run them on any server. and its underlying server components. Run Anywhere : The JavaServer Pages technology is platform independent.viii 1. You can author JSP pages on any platform.3 SERVER – SIDE SCRIPTING(JSP): JavaServer Pages technology is the Java platform technology for building applications containing dynamic Web content such as HTML. . • High quality tool support: The Write Once. DHTML. • Reuse of components and tag libraries: The JavaServer Pages technology emphasizes the use of reusable components such as: JavaBeans components. its Web servers. The JavaServer Pages technology offers a number of advantages: • Write Once. an explicit goal of the JavaServer Pages design is to enable the creation of high quality portable tools. The JavaServer Pages technology enables the authoring of Web pages that create dynamic content easily but with maximum power and flexibility.3. XHTML and XML. These components can be used in interactive tools for component development and page composition. Additionally. Enterprise JavaBeans components and tag libraries.

2 SQL Server Core Component Notes . and. using a Web site that uses JavaServer Pages technology as a front end to Enterprise JavaBeans components in a J2EE compliant 1.1 Introduction This file contains important information you should read before installing Microsoft SQL Server 2000. • Support for scripting and actions: The JavaServer Pages technology supports scripting elements as well as actions. Actions permit the encapsulation of useful functionality in a convenient form that can also be manipulated by tools. It also includes a number of new features that further establish SQL Server as the best database platform for OLTP. This separation is supported by beans specifically designed for the interaction with server-side objects. by the tag extension mechanism.4. and ease of use of SQL Server version 7. data warehousing. You can now develop powerful middle-tier server applications. 1.0.4 MS SQL SERVER 2000 1.4.ix • Separation of dynamic and static content: The JavaServer Pages technology enables the separation of static content from dynamic content that is inserted into the static template. • Web access layer for N-tier enterprise application architecture(s): The JavaServer Pages technology is an integral part of the Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition (J2EE). which brings Java technology to enterprise computing.3. reliability. quality.3. This greatly simplifies the creation of content. SQL Server 2000 builds on and extends the performance.3. scripts provide a mechanism to glue together this functionality in a per-page manner. specially. and e-commerce applications.

contact your backup solution vendor.3 Permissions for Active Directory Integration In Microsoft SQL Server 2000. connectivity components. including the database engine. For information about how your backup solution integrates with SQL Server.1 Preliminary Investigation The initial requirements to start the project in full swing without any interruption.4. consists of the following details:1. These APIs provide maximum reliability and performance. only members of the system admin fixed server role can register databases or publications in Active Directory. SQL Server provides application programming interfaces that enable independent software vendors to integrate SQL Server into their products. install the "Backup/Restore API" subcomponent of the "Development Tools" component of SQL Server. 1. For information about the Backup/Restore APIs. 1.x These notes relate to the SQL Server core components. and command prompt utilities. members of the dbowner fixed database role cannot. . and support the full range of SQL Server backup and restore functionality. client components.3.4.4 Backup/Restore APIs: Microsoft SQL Server 2000 is supported by a large number of third-party backup solutions.3. Software Requirement. CHAPTER 2 SYSTEM STUDY 2. graphical tools. including hot and snapshot capabilities.

This number is generated in a serial order.2. EXISTING SYSTEM Currently. Manpower Requirement. when passengers cancel tickets. It treats a change of this kind as a cancellation. 5. Hardware Requirement. and reissues tickets. passengers making inquiries are given inaccurate information. 3. the manual system handles all requests for changes in reservation. the reservation chart is not updated in time. The reservation clerk records the amount of fare paid for the ticket in Cash Collection Register. Owing to the inefficiencies in the manual system. A passenger can cancel tickets by submitting a cancellation from wih the ticket.3 LIMITATIONS OF EXISTING SYSTEM . They maintains a waiting list. 2. class. Each ticket. 2. such as change in train. Depending on the difference in hours between the departure and cancellation the passenger loses certain percentage of the fare. they cannot put up the reservation chart on time. Based on the availability of seats the tickets are issued. or journey date. Currently. whether confirmed or wait-listed. the daily reservation chart for all flights is generated and sent. Reservation opens 60 days before the scheduled departure date. There is a delay in handling passenger enquiries. has a unique PNR number. 4. which is used to update the reservation chart when passengers cancel tickets.xi 2. Financial Requirement. In the current manual system at Jagson. Infrastructure. Very often.

This new system provides for the introduction of flights on new routes. . 3) Requires a large amount of manual laborers. The system is designed in such a way that the reservation chart is available on time before the scheduled departure time. 5) Existing system involves too much of paper works. 2. 2) It takes enormous amount of time for recording transactions.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM In order to overcome the drawbacks in the existing system. and for discontinuing an existing route. The help can be invoked at any point of time by pressing the F1 key. 4) The existing system often encounters errors due to duplication of data values for various report requirements. it was decided to create a database. A built in Help is provided for the end user. The system is Menu driven and user friendly. Responds to various queries made at the different levels of management. which is o o o o o Integrated Reliable Consistent Flexible Secure This database helps in speedy information retrieval. The reservation chart reflects the latest status with respect to the cancellation of tickets that helps the wait-listed passengerd in knowing their present status.xii The limitation of this system are 1) Only few bookings could be made due to manual operation. It assists the user with respective messages to overcome the errors at runtime.

: 40GB. The automated system sends reports on • • • Confirmed passengers . fare. : 256 MB.those who went through check-in Cancelled passengers . status of ticket on all flights.those who have cancelled No-Show passengers .those who had not turned for check-in CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT 3. Such statuses are available within 1 minute of the inquiry. : JAVASCRIPT.1. . BACKEND CONNECTING DRIVER WEB SERVER : WINDOWS 2000.xiii Status of the availability. for all classes. is available at any point of time. JSP : HTML : TOMCAT APACHE : SQL SERVER 2000. 3. : JDBC.1 HARDWARE: PROCESSOR PROCESSOR SPEED HARD DISK RAM : INTEL PENTIUM 4 : 650 MGHZ.2 SOFTWARE: OPERATING SYSTEM SCRIPTING LANGUAGE USER INTERFACE SERVLET R.1 HARWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 3.1.

1.1. Reservation 2.3 Search Module: In this module. Also details regarding the Hotels. Timetable. the passenger details are gathered and these details are then verified and then registered with the availability of seats in the Flight database and if it gets registered the passenger is offered a PNR number. Cancellation 3.xiv CHAPTER 4 DESCRIPTION OF MODULES 4.1 Reservation Module: In this module. Flights and Vacation packages can be done efficiently and effectively. Fare details and special needs are fetched by the user.2 Cancellation Module: In this module. . 4.1 MODULES: The core modules identified within the scope of the project are 1. Report 4. the ticket booked by the passenger is cancelled by him and the amount is refunded back to him through post. 4. the flight gate information. Search Module 4.1.

4 Report Module: In this module. Also the Cancelled passenger list is prepared. CHAPTER 5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 5.xv 4.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM DFD FOR ONLINE AIRTICKET SYSTEM User Make Reservation Reservation Make Cancellation Transaction Pass_Master Flight Search Reports Flight .1. the checked in passenger list is prepared for the convenience of Authority in producing Reservation Charts.

1 Flight FIELD NAME Flight_No From To City Names DATA TYPE nvarchar(50) nvarchar(25) nvarchar(25) nvarchar(20) DESCRIPTION FlightNumber Departure City Destination City City Names 6. Online Airticket Booking System CHAPTER 6 DATABASE DESIGN The database design briefs the entire design of the database used in the project.xvi Fig 1.1 TABLES 6.1.2 Passenger DATA TYPE nvarchar(50) nvarchar(50) nvarchar(50) nvarchar(1) nvarchar(20) DESCRIPTION PNR Number Name of the Passenger Addrress Sex Type FIELD NAME PNR_No Name Address Sex Type . 6.1.

xvii 6.4 HotelMaster DATA TYPE nvarchar(50) Number(4) nvarchar(25) DESCRIPTION Hotel Name Number of hotels City Name FIELD NAME Hotel_Nm Hotel_No City 6.5 Reservation DATA TYPE Number(10) nvarchar(50) nvarchar(25) nvarchar(50) nvarchar(50) number(8) DESCRIPTION PassengerNumber FlightNumber FlightStatus DepartureCity DestinationCity Amount FIELD NAME Pnr_No Flight_No Status Dep_City Des_City Amount CHAPTER 7 SCOPE OF FUTURE APPLICATION This Application is well suited for people who want to buy airtickets through online and thereby save their time going to airports or travelagents inorder to purchase airtickets.This system helps both the user and airport authorities to reduce their work to a substantial level.1.1.1. .3 Transaction FIELD NAME Flight_No Pnr_No Rate DATA TYPE nvarchar(50) Number(10) Number(7) DESCRIPTION FlightNumber PassengerNumber Ticket Rate 6.

information Does the technology exist to build the system? What special development and manufacturing resources will be required? What bounds have been placed on costs and schedule? System analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system. users in getting information like FareLists. TimeTables. This step is carried out in the following basis: Defining the goals of the system? What information will be produced? What information is to be provided? What functions and performances are required? Once overall goals are identified.1. A key question is ‘what must be done to solve the problem?’ This will be the basis for validating the final delivered system. the next step is to evaluate the supplementary . Vacation Packages and Reports like CHAPTER 8 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 8.xviii This Application also tends to help many Checkedin Passengerlist and Cancelled Passengerlists. Identification of need is the starting point in the evolution of computer-based system. This involves gathering information and using structured tools for analysis. Identification The first step of the analysis process involves the identification of need. The purpose of the system analysis is to define the boundaries of the system and determine whether or not this system should .

Keeping this in mind. manual maintenance is a difficult task. this project is designed in a software which is easily available and at affordable cost.2. 8. Considering the above areas. this project is designed for the convenient usage to the concern who wish to maintain computerized accounting. so manpower can be decreased accordingly thereby decressing the concerns funds. this software needs less users. So. The timely and accurate entries of student fees. which currently exist. Also keeping the sanctioned fund in mind. analysis is done for the proposed system. For top management. so no special training is needed to make the user aware of its operations. the request must be made to the top management or to information systems department. Since the Institution maintains a large amount of transactions regarding monetory terms such as student fees. This project is specially designed for Institution. Furthermore.xix consider other related systems. Most organizations have channels for requesting new Computer systems. Some times difficult choices must be made. this is the first stage in the systems development life cycle (SDLC). Preliminary Investigation . The system is analyzed by drawing DFD and function decomposition is done to decompose the system into easily manageable parts. staff salary and management miscellaneous expenses. to make fair choices. more information about costs and benefits is needed. staff salaries and other miscellaneous expenses must be accurate and updated timely. In most cases. There are often many more request for computer systems than funds with which to develop them. the software is very easy to use and very userfriendly. Also. This project is designed to store and update huge amount of information of institutions.

to achieve greater speed in processing data. this project is carried out for the purpose of many reasons like: . The phase is initiated by management. Making the above survey.3 Feasibility Study . The initial requirements to start the project in full swing without any interruption. who perceive the need because of changes or expected changes in the business environment. consists of the following details: Software Requirement Hardware Requirement Manpower Requirement Financial Requirement Infrastructure The software module can work on following minimum configuration 8. • • • • • Better accuracy and improved consistency Faster Information retrieval Integration of business areas Reduced Cost Better Security The request is made to the department manager and hence the preliminary investigation begins.xx This is the first phase and consists of a brief survey of the areas involved and will result in taking the project into the next phase recommending that no further action be taken. limitations or failure of existing systems or the awareness of technological advances relating to the particular area involved in particular systems which competitors are developing.

. which is the most important. The proposed system is efficient. According to the feasibility study only a work can be undertaken by a good organization.3. Feasibility Study is nothing but analyzing the various situations before taking up the work or approve the work.Operational Feasibility 2. For this a careful study of the existing system and its drawbacks are drawbacks are needed. so that one must be able to appreciate the characteristics of the proposed system. As our system is well developed and gone under each phase of testing successfully and there will be no problem running the software. Even the user interface also is very user friendly and no need for frequent technical support. 8. A number of other studies have concluded that maintenance and support costs are the largest component of the Project.1Operational Feasibility The system once developed must be used efficiently.Technical Feasibility 3. do we have the sufficient manpower? . The user should be able distinguish the existing one an proposed one. It gives the details about whether we can take up the project.xxi The feasibility study of the system is an important criterion for software development. It mainly concentrates on three Areas 1. reliable and also quickly responding. Otherwise there is no meaning for developing the system. only if it is feasible in all ways.Economic Feasibility 8. do we have the capability to finish the work within stipulated period. Software is said to be successfully completed and utilized. These costs reflect the price of the time of people within the organization who support the project.4 Maintenance and support costs. the manual one is not highly reliable and also is considerably fast.

We have used a three-year maintenance contract to reflect the entire assumed workstation lifetime.7 Technical Feasibility Technical Feasibility centers around the existing computer system hardware. Operating system updates and software library extensions are also typically rolled into this contract cost.xxii 8. .6 Hardware and software costs.5 Opportunity costs These costs are typically the "soft costs" and "hidden costs" of running a project. In the context of technical requirement. and to some extent how it can support the proposed addition. This extent how it can support the proposed addition. vendor-provided maintenance and hardware upgrade costs. the primary costs are user selfsupport costs. etc. Technical support is also a reason for the success of the project. They include the initial hardware and software costs. 8. software. The techniques needed for the system should be available and it must be reasonable to use. The final component of "vendor costs" is a hardware upgrade. The initial costs are the standard "system costs" plus a vendor-provided maintenance contract." these costs can be directly associated to the software and hardware vendors. This involves financial considerations to accommodate technical enhancements. Also called "vendor costs. 8. We have based pricing on a typical scenario of doubling both the RAM and hard-disk capacity half way through the workstation's three-year life-cycle (current pricing of the upgrades was used for simplicity). The maintenance contract covers standard hardware repairs.

all the above criteria found to be satisfied as a basic requirement and also found to be very feasible. Peer Support – Links to peer support resources. such as public newsgroups. Also. Economical Feasibility . Additional Resources – Other resources for information or troubleshooting. These are articles written by the Developer Support Engineers who deal directly with customer issues.xxiii Manpower – Conducting study on manpower requirement who have knowledge on particular technology pertaining to the project. In this project. you can send us feedback about this site using the information on this page. 8.8. where you can find assistance from others working with similar technologies. Knowledge Base – Knowledge Base articles pertaining to this technology. Contact Us – Still having trouble? This page gives you the information you need in order to contact Developer Support.

CHAPTER 9 SYSTEM TESTING 9. improper sequence of program statement etc. It involves the capital expenses. These costs are typically the "soft costs" and "hidden costs" of owning a workstation. Program testing is nothing but testing a number of programs that form a cluster to achieve a certain goal.. syntax errors and logical errors. Using the detailed design description as a guide. important paths are tested to uncover errors with in the boundary of the modules.. Thus a series of testing are performed for the proposed system before the system is ready for user acceptance testing. Unit testing is essential for the verification of the code produced during the coding phase and hence the goal is to test the Internal logic of the modules.xxiv Then we should ensure that we have the sufficient financial back up to meet the initial and operational expenses. During program testing two kinds of errors will occur namely. Form level and as well as field level validations are performed in all the data entry screens. wages. and unexpected expenditures on execution of the work. Handling of data. All functional behavioral performance requirements and the errors which are uncovered during the testing are corrected. These tests were carried out during the programming stage itself. In the context of technical workstations.1 INTRODUCTION System testing is an important phase. . It is also found to be very feasible and recommended to take up the project financial wise. Testing represents an interesting anomaly for the software. ¾ Syntax errors have to be corrected before the program is executed. the primary costs are user self-support costs. ¾ Logical errors many occur due to in correct.

9.3 White Box Testing: It is just the vice versa of the back box testing. This gives clear idea about what is going on during execution of the system.xxv The following are the various stages in the testing process. There we do not watch the internal variables during testing. 9. 9. The points at which the bug occurs were all clear and were removed. We subject a high volume of data during a very short period of time.5 Integration Testing: Each test in the source code test plan consists of the following details • • • Type of test Machine Configuration Test assumptions . This simulates an online environment where a high volume of activities occurs in spurts.4 Stress Testing: The purpose of stress testing is to improve that the candidate system does not malfunction during peak loads. Here we do not go for watching the internal variable in the system and what are the changes made on them for the required output.2 Black Box Testing: In this testing we give input to the system and test the output. 9. Any invalid input for the above leads to failure in establishing the connection between the front end and the back end.

The problem to select the model that is appropriate to the software to be engineered by a project team. and the time and formality committed to each life cycle stage.xxvi • • • • • Requirements being tested Exact test stimuli Expected outcome Connecting with database Test Cases CHAPTER 10 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING PARADIGM 10. The wide array of software engineering paradigms available is: The Linear Sequential Model The Prototyping Model The RAD Model The Incremental Model The Spiral Model The WIN-WIN Spiral Model The Component-Based Development Model . delivery milestones. The way in which activities in a systems development life cycle are sequenced. development and support – are applicable to all software.1 INTRODUCTION It is an iterative. The combination of clearly defined life cycle model. Testing and Support. The generic phases that characterize the software process – definition. project team roles. milestone-based approach to the development process. Methods encompass a broad array of tasks that includes Requirement Analysis. and solution development principles. Software Engineering Methods provide the Technical how-tos for building Software. Design. Software Engineering Methods rely on a set of basic principles that govern each area of the technology and include modeling activities and other descriptive techniques. Program Construction.

and outline areas where further definition is mandatory. report generation. Thus prototyping is an effective Software Engineering paradigm for our project 10. 10. A software development environment that supports 4GT paradigm includes some or all of following tools: Non-procedural languages for database query. and similar languages used for website creation using advanced software tools. code generation. identify whatever requirements are known. the prototyping paradigm may offer the best approach. and many other situations. data manipulation. screen interaction and definition.2 The Prototyping Model: Often a customer defines a set of general objectives for software but does not identify the detailed input. adaptability of an operating system.3 Fourth Generation Technique Model The Term fourth generation technique encompasses a broad array of software tools that have one thing in common: each enables the software engineer to specify some characteristic of software at a high level. The prototyping paradigm begins with requirements gathering. The prototype can serve as the ‘First System’. or the form that human / machine interaction should take. spread sheet capability. . Users get a feel for the actual system and developers get to build something immediately. or output requirements.xxvii The Concurrent Development Model The Formal Methods Model The Fourth Generation Techniques Model In our project we have used The Prototyping Model and The Fourth Generation Techniques Model. processing. In other cases the developer may be unsure of the efficiency of an algorithm. Developer and customer meet and define the overall objectives for the software. In these.

site design isn't deep enough. To transform a 4GT implementation into a product. we follow design patterns. But now the software programming approach has changed and new technology invented. We have been using Water fall method for long time. an ecommerce platform is in its purest form a distributed system. Implementation using a 4GL enables the software developer to represent desired results in a manner that leads to automatic generation of code to create those results. During a recent project required that developers produce a design document detailing their component's design before any coding was started. the 4GT paradigm may become the dominant approach to software development. the developer must conduct thorough testing. In the development of an ecommerce platform you need to examine how all the pieces fit together and assure that you have agreement by all parties involved. develop meaningful documentation and perform all other solution integration activities that required in other software engineering paradigm. Ideally. or third-party payment services. trading partners. Design is an ongoing process throughout the life cycle of the project! . At some point you may need to rely on data from other areas of a company. but it saved us a tremendous amount of time and money because we were able to catch problems up-front.xxviii Like other paradigm. Beneath its appearance. To summarize. 4GT begins with a requirements gathering step. the customer would describe requirements and there would be directly translated into and operational prototype. When coupled with prototyping technique. This may seem like overkill. The interactions of these systems and services can have dramatic implications for your site development. 10. 4GT techniques is an important part of Software Engineering. Understanding them up-front and designing for them is important.4 Paradigm: Often.

At this point the analyst is concerned with the detail of input and output. It's when you get to translate your vision into reality. which is referred to as physical design. The three stages of "design.6 Deployment: Deployment will more than likely be one of the most frustrating times for your team. But it's also when most of the nightmares start as you learn that things don't always work the way you envisioned. revisiting those areas .1 Description of Operations & Process Logic The design of an information system produces the details that state how a system will meet the requirements identified during systems analysis. in contrast to developing program software.xxix 10. Often systems specialists refer to this state as logical design. It's your chance to actually test the result of your sweat and toil and see your design in action. CHAPTER 11 SYSTEM DESIGN 11. This phase takes the requirements as agreed and the work which has led up to producing the proposal and develops the system to the level of detail necessary to prepare the way for programming. As you gain feedback from testing and QA. . and the way in which the system will operate on a day-to-day basis. This is a natural part of the journey and you should plan for it rather than be surprised. you will need to optimize or rework code. 10.5 Development: The development of the system is probably the most fun stage of your project. During development you should continue the design process. work can start on preparing the system specification. and deployment" will often blend together. It is important that you perform deployments to production throughout your project and that you continually revisit the design stage. development. As soon as the system proposal is accepted by the user. the processing required.

magnetic tape. designers are available to answer questions. and special+ symbols – some of which you may have used and others that may be totally new to you. . As programming starts. or even paper files. Designers are responsible for providing programmers with complete and clearly outlined specifications that state what the software should do. Usually designers sketch the form or display as they expect it to appear when the system is completed. Individual data items and calculation procedures are written in detail. An introduction covering the relevance of the document and how it has evolved from the previous phases. A typical system specification will contain: 1. display screen. This is usually an outline in a narrative form with accompanying flow charts. the processing required and the efficiency of the system form a computer processing point of view. such as magnetic disk. screens and other outputs. The procedures they write tell how to process the data and produce the Depending on the level of complexity of the system and the amount and quality of work done at the earlier stages. data flow diagrams or data models. clarify fuzzy areas. including its exact location on the paper. the detail of the printed reports. Then the specific data on each is pinpointed. and handle problems that confront the programmers when using the design specifications. tables. Systems analysts start by identifying reports and other outputs the system will produce. The documents containing the design specifications use many different ways to portray the design charts. A description of the system. 2. calculated or stored. The detailed design information is passed onto the programming staff so that software development can begin. or other medium. The system design also describe the data to be input. the contents of records. procedure charts. Designers select file structures and storage devices. this phase can take many months of hard work. It is concerned with the computer-oriented design of the system the detail of the input transactions. the file or database structure.

4. screen layouts. Up to this point the estimates are to a large extent informed guesses and what comes out at the end of this exercise may be quite frightening compared with the previously available estimates. outputs and files. This is a valid reason for ensuring that senior management continues to have an approval role at the conclusion of this stage. 7. production of user procedures and production of computer-related procedures.g. It is at this stage that the first reliable estimate of the amount of computer programming effort required can be produced. Arrangements for testing may also be described in this section. 5.g. database schemes. restrictions on access (e. for example: document layouts (input).. Implementation considerations – arrangements for converting existing files. Detailed description of inputs. 8. checking parallel runs. including individual programs. 6. . A backup plan.g. This should describe the procedures to be developed for taking security dumps of files. file/record layouts. A detailed development and implementation time-table. showing the interrelationship between each task and the planned start and completion date for each task.. This section should list all of the tasks to be done. for ensuring system resilience (e. passwords) and control on output ( e. A description of the controls which operate within the system. This may in fact be handled by specifying generally what each program in the system is expected to do and by backing this up with individual program specifications issued separately. This includes control over input and processing. numbering of cheques). Processing required. duplexing) and for running the system at an alternative site in the event of the computer not being available.xxxi 3. report layouts.

3. HTML is used to create a static content Webpage and displayed into the browser. User enter the data And submit the form. The choice now lies between: 1.In my project. flight search form and checkin formTo be created and make a link with the home-page. Continuing as planned. Create reservation-form.hotel search.1 HTML(HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE): HTML is used to create a static content web page displayed Into the browser. 4. All of these options are available for an in-house development. Shelving the system for a period. javascript is used for validating the data submitted by the user such as Name checking. In this project. CHAPTER 12 IMPLEMENTATION 12. although it is generally felt that by the time this stage is reached the commitment is irreversible. 12. status form.2 JAVASCRIPT: Javascript is a object-based scripting language for client and serverapplications. 2. . It is user interface. Modifying the aspirations for the system. Abandoning the system. Where an external supplier is involved the options may be restricted by the nature of the contract.xxxii Estimates produced now have a firm basis and if they are substantially at variance with the original estimates it is still not too late to review the viability of the development. pnr number checking.

jsp is used for retrieving the data submitted by the user After retrieving the data. A JSP page after compilation generates servlet and therefore incorporates all servlet functionalities. JSPis used to perform business logic and it receives a request from the user and respond the corresponding output to the user. creation of database-driven web applications. It is similar to ASP. jsp and javabean files are bundledInto an WAR files during deployment. It facilitates web browser to access servlets and jsp files. It allows clients to interact with the enterprise beans. • • • • It enforces security by authenticating users. . WEB container contains servlet. It provides naming and directory services to locate and Search services and components. In this project. The results are retrieved from the javabean and displayed to the user.6 J2EE APPLICATION: WAR files are put into the server to run the J2EE application.3 JSP(JAVA SERVER PAGES): Jsp is a server-side programming functionalities to java.xxxiii 12. 12. JSP is a platform independent.5 WEB CONTAINER: The WEB container is a runtime environment for servletsAnd jsp.4 WEB SERVER: The J2EE server contains the EJB container and TheWEBContainer. jsp invoke the javabean components to set the retrieved valueInto the bean. 12. 12.The J2EE server provides services to the EJB container and theWEB container.

This system shows advantage over 1) Manual booking of tickets which has to be bookedbythe passenger by going to the airport office.checkin time information status of ticket etc. 2) The knowledge of the status of the flight only a few hours before the departure. 3) No knowledge regarding the hotels in the destination cities. APPENDIX SCREEN SHOTS 1.hotel search.vacatin packages. HOME PAGE .xxxiv CHAPTER 13 CONCLUSION I have designed a software application which will help an user to book tickets through web to travel by a flight.This also incorporates the processes such as cancellation of tickets.

RESERVATION .xxxv A.1 Home Page 2.

destination place. HOTELS SEARCH .2 Reservation Description: This screen “Make Reservation” will help the user to reserve tickets.Date of arrival. 3.Once the user submits he will be given a pnr number.He is entitled to fill the form by filling the form such as starting place.number of passengers.xxxvi A.Date of Departure.

rent of rooms and any attractive packages rendered by the hotels.availibility of rooms.3 Hotel Search Description: This screen “Hotel Search” will help the user to get the information of a hotel regarding the address of the hotel.xxxvii A. 4 CANCELLATION FORM .

xxxviii A.4 Cancellation Form Description: This Screen”Cancellation Form” will help the user to cancel the tickets which he has reserved already. VACATION PACKAGES . All he has to enter the pnr number which he should have got wlile reserving the tickets. 5.

6.5 Vacation Packages Description: This screen “Vacation Packages” will allow the user to know the vacation packages rendered by the airlines.The user can choose the vacation package which he likes and submit it. STATUS FORM .xxxix A.

destination city. 7.He has to enter data such as flight number.xl A.6 Status Form Description: This screen “Status Form” will help the passenger to know the status conditions of the flight before the departure.departure city and depature time. FLIGHT SEARCH .

cities it reaches. 8.flight number.All he has to enter the flight name.etc. CHECKIN .7 Flight Search Form Description: This screen “Flight Search” will help the user to the detailed timetable of the flight for the whole week such as departure time.arrival time.xli A.

com/j2ee/ http://www.javagalaxy. .sunjava. CHAPTER.8 CheckIn Description: This screen will help the user to know the chekin timings for a passenger before boarding a Building J2ee Applications – Author http://www.He has to enter the pnr number so that he will be given the checkin time. Joh J2ee Applications – NIIT.14 REFERENCES http://www.

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