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Design of Pressure Pipes
The design methods for buried pressure pipe installations are somewhat similar to the design methods for gravity pipe installations which were discussed in Chap. 3. There are two major differences: 1. Design for internal pressure must be included. 2. Pressure pipes are normally buried with less soil cover so the soil loads are usually less. Included in this chapter are specific design techniques for various pressure piping products. Methods for determining internal loads, external loads, and combined loads are given along with design bases. Pipe Wall Stresses and Strains The stresses and resulting strains arise from various loadings. For buried pipes under pressure, these loadings are usually placed in two broad categories: internal pressure and external loads. The internal pressure is made up of the hydrostatic pressure and the surge pressure. The external loads are usually considered to be those caused by external soil pressure and/or surface (live) loads. Loads due to differential settlement, longitudinal bending, and shear loadings are also considered to be external loadings. Temperature-induced stresses may be considered to be caused by either internal or external effects.
Lamé’s solution for stresses in a thick-walled circular cylinder is well known. For a circular cylinder loaded with internal pressure only, those stresses are as follows:
1) or Pi (b2 ϩ a2) max ϭ ᎏᎏ b2 Ϫ a2 For cylinders (pipe) where a ≈ b and b Ϫ a ϭ t.1a) Pi b st a – sr –Pi Pi + a2 b2 b2 a2 Pi 2b 2 b2 a2 smax = (st )r = a Figure 4. max ϭ (t) rϭa Pia2 (b2/a2 ϩ 1) ϭ ᎏᎏ b2 Ϫ a2 (4. and it occurs at r ϭ a (Fig. Thus.184 Chapter Four Tangential stress: Pia2 (b2/r2 ϩ 1) t ϭ ᎏᎏ b2 Ϫ a2 2 2 2 P ia (b /r Ϫ 1) r ϭ ᎏᎏ 2 b Ϫ a2 Radial stress: where Pi ϭ internal pressure a ϭ inside radius b ϭ outside radius r ϭ radius to point in question The maximum stress is the tangential stress t.1).1 Thick-walled cylinder with internal pressure. b2 Ϫ a2 ϭ (b ϩ a) (b Ϫ a) ϭ D ෆt (4. . 4.
. Also. If the outside diameter Do is the reference dimension.Design of Pressure Pipes 185 where D ෆ ϭ average diameter ϭ b ϩ a and t ϭ thickness ϭ b Ϫ a. This equation is sometimes called the Barlow formula. but is just a reduction from Lamé’s solution.1) can be rewritten using Eqs.2).2) can be put into another form by introducing D ෆ ϭ Do Ϫ t That is. (4.1a) and (4.2) (4. This equation is the form most often recognized for calculating stresses due to internal pressure Pi. (4.1b) as follows: ෆ P P D2/2) i D i (ෆ max ϭ ᎏ ϭ ᎏ 2t ෆt D (4. Eq.2) becomes P i (Do Ϫ t) max ϭ ᎏᎏ 2t (4.2) is recognized as the equation for stress in a thinwalled cylinder (Fig. the average diameter is equal to the outside diameter minus thickness.1b) Equation (4. (b ϩ a) 2 ϭ ෆ D 2 ϭ b 2 ϩ a 2 ϩ 2ab D ෆ2 b 2 ϩ a2 ϭ D ෆ 2 Ϫ 2ab ≈ D ෆ2 Ϫ 2 r 2 ϭ D ෆ2 Ϫ ᎏ 2 Thus Eq. Equation (4. (4. 4.2 Free-body diagram of half section of pipe with internal pressure.3) t Pi PiD D smax PiD 2t PiD PiD Figure 4.
where Do DR ϭ ᎏ t or Do SDR ϭ ᎏ t Both DR and SDR are defined the same. it can be rewritten as follows: Pi max ϭ ᎏ (SDR Ϫ 1) 2 The above equation may be expressed as 2max ᎏ ϭ SDR Ϫ 1 Pi (4. . Cyclic surges may cause fatigue damage and should be designed out of the system.5) is often referred to as the ISO (International Standards Organization) equation for stress due to internal pressure. Obviously.4) Equation (4. By introducing Do/t = SDR into Eq. Transient surges are usually not cyclic in nature although they may be repetitive. (4. SDR often refers to a preferred series of numbers that represents Do/t for standard products. However. All forms are derived from Lamé’s solution and will produce comparable results. To calculate these tangential stresses in the pipe wall produced by internal pressure. or other cyclic effects. (4. ISO is a relative newcomer and should not be given credit for Lamé’s work. A transient surge is often referred to as water hammer.4) are often suggested by the manufacturer or by national standards. either Eq. (4. Surge pressure Pressure surges are often divided into two categories: transient surges and cyclic surges. this basic equation has been known to engineers for more than a century and was originally given by Lamé in “Leçons sur la theorie de l’elasticité.5) (4. Cyclic surging is a regularly occurring pressure fluctuation produced by action of such equipment as reciprocating pumps.” Paris 1852. and the system then returns to the same steady state as before the surge.2) or Eq. Transient surges are just that—transient in nature. However.186 Chapter Four Certain plastic pipe specifications refer to a dimension ratio (DR) or a standard dimension ratio (SDR). oscillating demand.3). undamped pressure control valves or interacting pressure regulating valves. occuring over a relatively short time and between one steady state and another. Any action in a piping system that results in a change in velocity of the water in the system is a potential cause of a water hammer surge. A transition surge may occur.
1.43) g The wave speed is dependent upon 1. Starting or stopping of pumps 3. Density c. Diameter c.8) ͙ෆ 1 ϩ (Kෆ /E) (Dෆ /t) C1 where a ϭ pressure wave velocity.43 lb/in2 per feet of water as follows: a ⌬P ϭ ᎏ ⌬V (0. ft/s g ϭ acceleration due to gravity (32. Unstable pump or turbine characteristics The magnitude of water hammer pressures generated by a given change in velocity depends on (1) the geometry of the system.7) (4. ft/s K ϭ bulk modulus of water. ft/s The pressure rise. (2) the magnitude of the change in velocity. slug/ft3 . in pounds per square inch. Modulus of elasticity b.6) by 0. and (3) the speed of the waterhammer wave for the particular system. may be determined by multiplying Eq. and so forth These quantities may be expressed as aϭ 12͙ෆ K/ (4. Changes in valve settings (accidental or planned) 2. These variables are expressed quantitatively as a ⌬H ϭ ᎏ ⌬V g where ⌬H ϭ surge pressure. Thickness 2.Design of Pressure Pipes 187 A partial listing of some typical causes of water hammer is given below. Amount of air.6) ᎏᎏ (4. Pipe properties a. (4.17 ft/s2) ⌬V ϭ change in velocity of fluid. feet of water a ϭ velocity of the pressure wave. Fluid properties a. Modulus of elasticity b. lb/in2 ϭ density of water.
lb/in2 C1 ϭ constant dependent upon pipe constraints (C1 ϭ 1.0 for pipe with expansion joints along its length) For water at 60ЊF. per 1 ft/s velocity change 45 50 20 16 . lb/in2.8) may be rewritten by substituting ϭ 1. Determine the magnitude of a water hammer pressure wave induced in a 12-in class 52 ductile iron pipe and in a class 235 DR 18 PVC pipe if the change in velocity is 2 ft/s.8) for ductile iron and PVC pipe.3: Wave speed. respectively. wave speeds vary from 3000 to 5000 ft/s for ductile iron and from 1200 to 1500 for PVC pipes.2 and Fig.9) Equations (4. lb/in2 105 35 Some appropriate rules of thumb for determining maximum pressure surges are listed below in pounds per square inch of surge per 1 ft/s change in velocity. in t ϭ wall thickness of pipe.l and 4. Pipe Steel pipe DI (AWWA C150) PVC (AWWA C900) PVC (pressure-rated) Surge pressure rise.000 lb/in2. (4. 4822 a ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ ͙ෆ 1 ϩ (K ෆ /E)(D ෆ /t)C1 (4. Tables 4. Eq.188 Chapter Four D ϭ internal diameter of pipe.8) can be used to determine the magnitude of surge pressure that may be generated in any pipeline. (4. In general.3 is a plot of the pressure rise in pounds per square inch as a function of velocity change for various values of wave speed.938 slug/ft3 and K ϭ 313. in E ϭ modulus of elasticity of pipe material. Figure 4.6). ft/s 4038 1311 Pipe Class 52 DI Class 235 PVC The resulting pressure surges are Pipe Class 52 DI Class 235 PVC Surge pressure.1 solution From Tables 4. and (4.7). Example Problem 4.2 give the calculated wave speed according to Eq. 4. The validity of the equations has been shown through numerous experiments.1 and 4. (4.
Design of Pressure Pipes 189 700 Velocity of Pressure Wave ft/s 1600 600 50 1400 00 1200 Pressure Rise ⌬P (lb/in2) ft/s 00 40 00 500 400 35 00 45 1000 00 00 30 25 300 20 00 800 600 0 200 13 40 155 400 100 1470 1200 1000 200 2 4 6 8 Fluid Velocity Change ⌬V (ft/s) 10 Figure 4.1 Water Hammer Wave Speed for Ductile Iron Pipe. TABLE 4. ft/s Class Size 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 54 50 — 4206 4085 3996 3919 3859 3783 3716 3655 3550 3387 3311 3255 3207 3201 51 4409 4265 4148 4059 3982 3921 3846 3779 3718 3614 3472 3409 3362 3323 3320 52 4452 5315 4202 4114 4038 3976 3902 3853 3776 3671 3547 3495 3456 3424 3423 53 4488 4358 4248 4162 4087 4024 3952 3887 3827 3723 3615 3571 3539 3512 3512 54 4518 4394 4289 4205 4130 4069 3998 3933 3874 3771 3676 3638 3612 3590 3591 55 4544 4426 4324 4242 4169 4108 4039 4038 3917 3815 3731 3700 3678 3659 3599 Rise in Head ⌬H (ft of water) 56 4567 4454 4356 4276 4205 4144 4076 4014 3957 3855 3782 3755 3737 3721 3724 .3 Water hammer surge calculation.
then the maximum surge pressure as calculated from Eq. This is called the critical time and is defined as the longest elapsed time before final flow stoppage that will still permit this maximum pressure to occur.6) may be avoided. cone. cuts off the majority of the flow. This effective time may be taken as about one-half of the actual valve closing time.4). To accomplish this. therefore. in turning the last portion of its travel. to base timing of valve closing on the effective closing time of the particular valve in question. . (4. and butterfly valves) do not cut off flow proportionate to the valve-stem travel (see Fig. If fluid approaching a closing valve is able to sense the valve closing and adjust its flow path accordingly. proper control of valving may eliminate or minimize water hammer.190 Chapter Four TABLE 4.5 967 967 967 967 967 41 859 859 859 859 859 25 1106 1106 1106 1106 1106 18 1311 1311 1311 1311 1311 Size 4 6 8 10 12 Since velocity changes are the cause of water hammer surge. 4. most valve designs (including gate.2 Water Hammer Wave Speed for PVC Pipe. It is extremely important. globe. This is expressed mathematically as 2L Tcr ϭ ᎏ a where Tcr ϭ critical time L ϭ distance within the pipeline that the pressure wave moves before it is reflected back by a boundary condition. ft a ϭ velocity of pressure wave for the particular pipeline. ft/s Thus.This figure illustrates how the valve stem. ft/s (AWWA C900) DR Pressure-rated PVC SDR 14 1496 1496 1496 1496 1496 21 1210 1210 1210 1210 1210 26 1084 1084 1084 1084 1084 32. the critical time for a line leading from a reservoir to a valve 3000 ft away for which the wave velocity is 1500 ft/s is 2 (3000) ft Tcr ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 4 s 1500 ft/s Unfortunately. the flow must not be shut off any faster than it would take a pressure wave to be initiated at the beginning of valve closing and returning again to the valve.
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