ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

ICELT DISTANCE UNIT 6 Lesson Planning

1

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Contents
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………. Aims ……………………………………………………………………………….. Reading …………………………………………………………………………… 3 3 4

Section One - Lesson Planning……………………………….. ………………. Reflecting on lessons and lesson planning Variety and balance Planning interaction Peer Observation Task…………………………………………………

5

15

Section Two - Writing Lesson Plans for ICELT ………………………………. Component Two - Teaching Completing the lesson plan form Post lesson self-evaluation

18

Section Three - Methodology Assignment Two …………………………….. Analysing the task Planning the structure Assessment criteria Brainstorming ideas Drafting and editing The final draft

46

References ……………………………………………………………………… Feedback on study skills unit ………………………………………………….

56 57

2

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Introduction This unit should guide you towards more effective planning. We shall be considering lesson planning, in general, in section one and focussing on lesson planning for ICELT, in particular, in section two. In section three, we shall be focussing on methodology assignment two - planning beyond the lesson. As this assignment is not due until block two of the course (see course guide for exact dates) you may decide to leave this part until a later date. It is important that you complete the reading for this unit as much of the input on lesson planning is contained in these texts. Ideally, you should do the reading before you begin working on the unit itself and certainly before looking at section two. If you work through the tasks here carefully and conscientiously, it will help you enormously with component two of assessment – Teaching. It would be very useful if you could do the tasks with one or two colleagues – through discussion with colleagues, you will find that ideas and concepts become clearer. If that is impossible, please post your results and comments on the ICELT website forum.

Aims By the end of this unit you should: • Have an overview of the planning process • Be more aware of the benefits of planning • Be more aware of the considerations when planning lessons • Be able to plan more effectively to meet the needs of your learners • Be better able to write clearer, specific aims for your lessons • Be better able to anticipate problems your students may have and plan solutions for these • Be better able to complete the lesson plan form used on ICELT • Be better able to evaluate your own teaching • Be better able to write effective action points following assessed teaching • Have a clear understanding of what is expected of you for methodology assignment two - planning beyond the lesson

3

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Recommended Reading Scrivener, J. 1994. Learning Teaching. Heinemann. Chapter 5 – Pages 44 to 58 There are tasks within the text and it is highly recommended that you pay due attention to these to make the reading as worthwhile as possible. Harmer, J. 1998. How to Teach English. Longman. Chapter 12. Pages 121 – 126 There are a number of tasks relating to this chapter on pages 170 to 172 which are worth working though. Gower, R, Phillips D & Walters S. 1995. Teaching Practice Handbook. Macmillan Heinemann. Chapter 8. Pages 175 – 187. ELT Forum – Lesson Planning Additionally for Primary level teachers: Brewster, J., Ellis, G. (with Denis Girard). 2002. The Primary English Teacher’s Guide (New Edition). Penguin. PP 231 - 242 Further Reading Woodward, T. 2001. Planning Lessons and Courses. Cambridge University Press Nunan, D. 1988. The Learner-Centered Curriculum. Cambridge University Press. Ur, P. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. Module 15. Pages 213 – 222.

http://www.oup.com/elt/global/teachersclub/teaching/articles/lesson_planning/ This website has many useful and interesting articles. This is one on effective lesson planning.

4

British Council 2004

ICELT distance unit 6

LESSON PLANNING

Section One
Reflecting on Lessons and Lesson Planning Task 1 – Metaphors for a lesson Look at the different metaphors below for describing a lesson, taken from Ur (1991). In your opinion, which one best describes a lesson? There is of course no right answer but it is a useful starting point to this unit to consider how you conceive a lesson. If you cannot find a metaphor which feels right for you, think up your own. A variety show Climbing a mountain A wedding A menu Cooking a meal A conversation Doing the shopping A football game A symphony Consulting a doctor

Why not share your thoughts and find out what others think on the ICELT website forum? Commentary on Task 1 – metaphors for a lesson One answer to the task – remember there are no right answers! I see the lesson as a symphony. For me it should be a harmonious event with everyone concerned working together to create a satisfying, and shared result. A symphony is enjoyable and has many variations in tempo, volume, tone etc – all these variations lead to a whole and balanced outcome.

Task 2 – A Good Lesson Think about a good language lesson that you have experienced, either as a learner or as a teacher. Why do you think it was good? Try to identify aspects of the lesson and/or the planning that made it good. Can you list these? Share your ideas with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum.

TASK 3 – Personal Experience

5

British Council 2004

How much time do you usually spend planning lessons and what does this depend on? Do you write out your lesson plan and what do you include in it? How closely do you follow your lesson plan in the classroom? Do you keep old lesson plans and do you refer to them? What are the advantages and disadvantages of writing formal lesson plans for assessed lessons? Commentary task 3 – Reflecting on Lesson Planning Advantages of writing formal lesson plans Leads to a more coherent . 2.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Think about the following questions – 1. In general we spend longer on planning when. the materials. probably much more that usual! Variety and Balance 6 British Council 2004 . 3. 5. discipline problems What is certain is that on ICELT you will be expected to spend a great deal of time planning for teaching. the teaching point We are less experienced We have a demanding class e. We are unfamiliar with the class. 4. well shaped lesson Forces you to streamline lessons – be better focussed Helps you to anticipate learners’ problems and plan solutions Gives a professional impression to learners (and supervisors) Helps the observer to see where you are coming from Provides a starting point for post lesson evaluation Disadvantages of writing formal lesson plans Can limit flexibility – you may be tempted to teach the plan rather than the lesson May mean that you do not respond to learners’ needs May mean that you do not respond to mood of class May mean that you do not respond to an issue that is more important to learners than the language aim of the lesson May mean that you follow your own agenda rather than the learners’.g.

Task 4 – Adding Variety and Balance Brainstorm as many ways as you can of adding variety and balance to lessons. for example: Individual work versus group work Fast moving versus leisurely activities Reading versus writing Presentation versus practice Accuracy versus fluency Desk top work versus moving around the room Adapted from an idea in Ur (1991). Most of us enjoy lessons which offer a variety of activities and which are balanced so that we don’t have to concentrate hard all the time. Share you ideas with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum. you probably mentioned variety and balance. You might find it helpful to think in terms of contrasts. A varied lesson is not only more interesting for both the teacher and the learners but is also likely to appeal to a range of learning preferences and will be less tiring and therefore more effective. If there is only one activity in a lesson.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING In task 2 above. learners are likely to become bored and this may lead to discipline problems. They will not be able to concentrate properly either and this will not lead to successful learning. Commentary on Task 4 – Adding variety 7 British Council 2004 .

1987) 8. Stir-settle Some activities enliven and excite learners (such as controversial discussions. 7. write or receive (listen. or as a full class in interaction with the teacher 3. or activities that involve physical movement). Others. have the effect of calming them down. requiring concentration and effort. Tempo Activities may be brisk an fast-moving (such as guessing games) or slow and reflective (such as reading literature and responding in writing) 2. like dictations. Topic Both the language teaching point and the (non-linguistic) topic may change from one activity to another. Mood Activities vary also in mood: light and fun-based versus serious and profound. or difficult. or they may only be required to do as they are told. Active-passive Learners may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Penny Ur (1996) has the following suggestions: WAYS OF VARYING A LESSON 1. (see Maclennan. happy versus sad. tense versus relaxed. 6. 5. they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak. Difficulty Activities may be seen as easy and non-demanding. Organization The learners may work on their own at individualized tasks. 4. and within these. read). © Cambridge University Press 1996 You probably came up with a range of different ideas but is it enough just to provide varied activities at random? They also need to be balanced to make sure there is a 8 British Council 2004 . or in pairs or groups. Mode and skill Activities may be based on the written or the spoken language.

d. Are they appropriate in your teaching context or would you need to change some of them? a.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING smooth coherent lesson. Think through transitions carefully It can be disconcerting for learners if the teacher moves rapidly from one activity to another (e. What you do depends on the class. Put harder tasks first. especially if they are adults. learners are more energetic and better able to concentrate in the earlier stages of a lesson. You might simply summarize the lesson or give a positive evaluation of a task that the class was involved in. Pull the class together at the beginning and the end. we are going to do something different.g. Have quieter activities before lively ones It is often quite difficult to calm learners down if they have been engaged in a lively. Do you agree with the suggestions? 2. c. You should think how to move smoothly between different components. Have some sort of routine to begin classes (maybe just greeting students and briefly explaining the lesson aims. Sometimes a simple phrase is enough “Now. it is better therefore to have it in the early stages of the lesson. if you have a class in the late afternoon or evening. You could set an easy-to-achieve task. However. e. especially long lessons. reading to speaking. Here are some suggestions for ordering components in a lesson from Ur (1991). End on a positive note. You could tell a joke! 9 British Council 2004 .” Other times you may feel a short transition activity is needed. b. a fast moving game to a listening activity etc). In general. As you read them consider these two questions: 1. If a task demands effort and concentration from the learners. Similarly have a short rounding up at the end. you may think that an energizing activity early in the lesson is necessary to refresh students and prepare them mentally for learning. Make sure the learners leave the class feeling good. exciting activity.

students are mainly or only active while the teacher is mainly or only receptive. STT is the opposite. What do you think? Task 6 – Interaction Patterns Look at the following interaction patterns and mark each one as follows: TT = teacher very active. teacher only receptive 10 British Council 2004 . students only receptive T = teacher active. students mainly receptive TS = teacher and students fairly equally active S = students active teacher mainly receptive SS = students very active. Most teachers agree that it is important to have a balance of TTT and STT in a lesson. we mean that the teacher is mainly or only active and the students are mainly or only receptive. Task 5 – Pair work and Group work What are the advantages and disadvantage or using pairwork or group work? Commentary on Task 5 – Pair work and group work Here are some general suggestions – share any other ideas you had with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum Advantages Students learn from each other All the students in the class have the opportunity to practise Students can become more independent It is more comfortable for shy / weak students Disadvantages Too noisy Seating in classroom is inappropriate for this organisation Students use Spanish Students want to listen to the teacher not other students I feel that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and that careful teacher monitoring can reduce the likelihood of Spanish being used. Pair work and group work are often incorporated into lessons in order to achieve this balance.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Planning Interaction Have you heard of the terms teacher talking time (TTT) and student talking time (STT) ? By TTT.

the teacher walks around monitoring and assisting where necessary. Teacher talk This may involve some kind of silent student response. in a guessing game: the students think of questions and the teacher responds. Individual work The teacher gives a task or set of tasks. but 'work together. Closed-ended teacher questioning (IRF) Only one 'right ' response gets approved. Sometimes cynically called the 'Guess what the teacher wants you to say' game. intervenes little if at all. A Course in Language Teaching. and students work on them independently. 1991. Self-access Students choose their own learning tasks. the teacher may intervene occasionally. Open-ended teacher questioning There are a number of possible 'right' answers. Students initiates. Choral responses The teacher gives a model which is repeated by all the class in chorus: or gives a cue which is responded to in chorus. Page 228. or group decision-making. teacher answers For example. to stimulate participation or to monitor. Penny. but the teacher decides who asks. The teacher walks around listening. but there is no initiative on the part of the student. and work autonomously. Full-class interaction The students debate a topic or do a language task as a class.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING From: Ur. Collaboration Students do the same sort of tasks as in 'individual work'. such as writing from dictation. © Cambridge University Press 1996 Task 7 – Interaction and Activities 11 British Council 2004 . usually in pairs. Group work Students work in small groups on tasks that entail interaction: conveying information. CUP. so that more students answer each cue. to try to achieve the best results they can. for example.

reading comprehension I 4. doing coursebook grammar exercise P 2.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Look at the following list of activities that students might do in the classroom on their own. preparing arguments for a discussion 6. doing a revision test 9. talking about topics of personal interest 10. role playing a situation Adapted from Parrott (1993) Commentary on Task 7 – interaction and activities These are only suggestions and you might have good reasons for saying otherwise – why not share your ideas with your colleagues on the ICELT website forum? 1. answering comprehension questions 5. writing dialogues 7. answering comprehension questions P G 5. repetition to improve pronunciation W I 12. doing coursebook grammar exercise 2. talking about topics of personal interest P G W I (?) 10. doing a revision test G 9. drilling to improve pronunciation 12. brainstorming a lexical field 8. reading comprehension 4. doing coursebook vocabulary exercise P 3. brainstorming a lexical field W G 8. using a dictionary to research vocabulary 11. role playing a situation P Classroom Research 12 British Council 2004 . Decide what interaction pattern would be most effective for each one and mark them as follows: P G I W = pair work = group work = individual work = whole class – teacher led 1. doing coursebook vocabulary exercise 3. using a dictionary to research vocabulary P G 11. preparing arguments for a discussion G 6. writing dialogues P 7.

with the whole class (e. Peer Observation Task 13 British Council 2004 .with other students in a small group When you work on a grammar exercise from the book do you like: .working with other students in a small group etc Adapted from Parrott (1993) When you have collected the data.with one other student . silent reading) .g. listening to the teacher) . post your result on the ICELT website forum. You might ask questions to see how the nature of the activity affects students’ preference (see example).g. Devise a very brief questionnaire (maximum five items) to help you discover the attitude of your students towards aspects of different interaction patterns. Example: Indicate your preference by marking as follows: 1 = I don’t like this 2 = I quite like this 3 = I like this a lot In class you sometimes work: .working with one other student .ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Investigating students’ attitudes to different interaction patterns.on your own (e. You might compare the responses of different levels or age groups by giving the questionnaire to different groups. This task is designed to help you learn more about your learners’ attitude to different patterns of interaction in the classroom.working on your own .

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING During the course you are required to observe your peers or other ELT professional on a minimum of eight times. Observations must be recorded chronologically on ICELT/5. There are three stages: Pre observation  Arrange a mutually convenient time with a colleague  If possible discuss the lesson with the teacher  Read the appropriate ICELT observation task and do the task suggested on it The observation  Gather the data as indicated on the observation task Post observation  If possible discuss the data you have gathered with the teacher  Write a short observation report form  Place the originals of the completed observation task and the observation report in your candidate portfolio. "Being in the classroom as an observer opens up a range of experiences and processes which can become part of the raw material of a teacher's professional growth. This is an essential part of the course and an essential part of your portfolio of assessed work that you submit to Cambridge ESOL at the end of the course. a certificate will not be issued by Cambridge ESOL.) You should always approach these observations with a clear purpose in mind and in order to help with this we have provided specific observation focus tasks.  Enter the details on your ICELT/5 form. If you do not have at least eight completed observation tasks and observation reports in your portfolio when you submit it. This task requires you to gather data while observing and then you will need to reflect on the data you have and evaluate it in terms of you own professional development. 14 British Council 2004 . 1992." (Wajnryb. Observing your peers or other teachers is an opportunity to reflect on and learn about both your own teaching and that of others.

Lines are drawn between the names of the people who are talking to each other.?” Class: Time: XXX Teacher Place a slash on the line when a student volunteers a response unprompted. e. Diana and Sonia _____ Questions asked by students.?” “Who can tell me …….. e. who responds etc. Decide on symbols to represent different kinds of interaction: for example. For example. 1992 and based on Woodward. “Does anyone know …. their interactions can still be plotted on the diagram.. Before the lesson: Familiarise yourself with Figure 6. e.1 – next page (Taken form Wajryb.g. Start by making one type of interaction.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING PEER OBSERVATION TASK 2: Patterns of Interaction (from Wajnryb. For example: Place and X nest to the teacher when the question asked is open or undirected. This means that if students move from their seat during the lesson. 3.g. As you develop skill. Sonia to teacher ? 15 British Council 2004 . Jaime and Jorge _______________________________ Students interacting without being directed. work out symbols for other kinds of interaction patterns and plot them. e. 1992) Name of Observer: Date: Teacher’s signature: Introduction: In this task you are asked to note down the interaction patterns you observe in a class.g. who questions. e.g. 2. Paul to teacher ________________________________ Students interacting in pairs as directed. who talks to whom. a small arrowhead can be used to indicate a direct question to a particular person. Draw up a seating plan and either include the students’ names or number each position. 1991) During the lesson: 1.g.

109 16 British Council 2004 .1 Learning Journal: Look at the post observation reflection tasks in Wajnryb.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING TEACHER XXX ? Paulo Jaime Jorge Diana Sonia Figure 6. 1992 – pages 108 .

Use the following notes to help you evaluate the observation in terms of you own professional development.. ……………………… Date of observation …………………… …………………………… Level Candidate of number class You should write between 100 and 200 words. what comments can you make about patterns of communication that happen in your classes? If there is anything you would want to change? How could you do so? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ This report should be kept in your candidate portfolio 17 British Council 2004 .ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Peer Observation REPORT: Patterns of Interaction Observer ………………………………. This piece of writing is not assessed but it is an essential part of your portfolio. Continue on the other side of this page if necessary Do any overall patterns emerge? Using this observed lesson as a mirror of your own teaching.

formulate action points for on-going development and provide a brief written summary of the discussion and the action points 18 British Council 2004 . At least three of these lessons must be with classes of a size that is considered normal in local conditions. Component Two – Teaching You will teach a minimum of four lessons supervised and assessed by a tutor.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Section 2 Writing Lesson Plans for ICELT Below you will find notes about the second component of assessment on ICELT – teaching and also the assessment criteria for this component. Read these carefully now so that you are aware of what is expected of you. you should evaluate your lesson in discussion with your tutor. For each lesson you must provide: A lesson plan which: • Specifies the aims and learning objectives and states any important assumptions of prior knowledge needed for the achievement of aims • Describes the procedures planned • Includes a description of the language item/skill which the lesson focuses on • Is accompanied by sourced copies of the materials to be used A rationale which • Includes a brief profile of the learners and outlines their linguistic and affective needs • Explains how the needs of the learners relates to the aims and objectives of the lesson • Provides a clear analysis of any anticipated problems and possible anticipated solutions A post lesson evaluation After the lesson.

colleagues and learners c) set targets for on-going development and where appropriate the next assessed lesson 19 British Council 2004 . investigations outside the classroom c) assign realistic timing to the stages in the lesson d) include an appropriate variety of activity. art.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Component Two – Teaching: Assessment Criteria At PASS level. generally accurate and appropriate language for all aspects of classroom teaching. music. stories. the candidate can: 1 Lesson Planning a) identify learning objectives appropriate to the needs. age and ability level of the group b) select and/or adapt materials and/or activities suitable for the learning the learners and the lesson objectives including. showing sensitivity to individual needs f) maintain learners’ interest and involvement g) teach in a way that encourages the development of learner autonomy h) teach language items effectively i) convey the meaning of new language with clear and appropriate context and check learners' understanding of it j) help learners develop language accuracy k) monitor learners’ language performance and give appropriate feedback l) identify errors and sensitively correct learners’ oral and written language when and where appropriate m) make appropriate use of learners’ first or other languages n) teach language skills appropriately and effectively including literacy where relevant o) help learners develop language fluency p) use appropriate aids . b) establish rapport c) foster a constructive and safe learning environment taking into account appropriate learner and teacher roles d) set up and manage a range of classroom events e) maintain discipline. where appropriate. interaction and pace e) anticipate potential difficulties with language and activities f) present plans in language which is clear . materials and resources (including the board) effectively q) adopt plans and activities appropriately in response to the learners and to classroom contingencies r) achieve learning objectives 3 Lesson evaluation a) reflect critically on their plan and their teaching b) review and adapt their practice in the light of this reflection and of the views of tutors. accurate (including the appropriate use of terminology) and easy-to-read g) present materials for classroom use with a professional appearance and regard for copyright requirements 2 Classroom teaching skills a) use clear.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING At MERIT level. independence of judgement. insight into learners and learning A few rules to begin with! √ √ √ √ √ Always use black ink when writing your lesson plan – pencil is not acceptable Make sure you complete each section Make sure the administrative information is accurate Give the lesson plan and all attachments to your observer before the lesson The original lesson plan must be kept in your portfolio The ICELT Lesson Plan Form You’ll find a blank ICELT lesson plan form on pages 21 . At DISTINCTION level. organizational ability. the candidate can meet all the above criteria. there will be consistent evidence of exceptional ability in terms of the following: a. In addition classroom performance will give strong and consistent evidence of all-round effectiveness as a classroom practitioner. breadth of knowledge b. confidence. in terms of qualities such as flexibility. rapport with students and support for learning. the candidate can meet all of the above criteria.24 • Look at the lesson plan form carefully Following that you’ll find guidance on completing the ICELT lesson plan form 20 British Council 2004 . depth of knowledge c. In addition.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING ICELT LESSON PLAN FORM Name of teacher: Institution: Date of Observation: YEAR DAY MONTH Time of observation class __________________ Room: Average age of Students: Level of students Elementary Advanced Lesson Number 1 Aims: 2 (please circle) 3 4 Observer: (please circle) Intermediate Length of ______________ Candidate Number: ________ ________ ________ Class/grade: Number of students: Number of years of English study (students): Personal aims: 21 British Council 2004 .

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Assumed knowledge: Description of language item / skill Materials : (please include source and attach all materials) 22 British Council 2004 .

Explain how the aims of the lesson are related to learners’ needs outlined in 2 above. Describe ages and language level of the learners in the group you are going to teach 2.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Rationale part 1: Profile of the learners 1. Rationale part 2: Anticipated problems Anticipated problems Planned solutions 23 British Council 2004 . Outline the learners’ linguistic and affective needs 3.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Stage Aim Procedure Teacher and student activity Time and interacti on Tutor’s comments 24 British Council 2004 .

If you are teaching fourth semester and students begin studying English in first semester.g. you should write one year here Age of students Years of English study Level You must indicate level using the descriptions on the form. for example learning objectives. If the class is described as pre-intermediate by your institution you circle ELEMENTARY Lesson number Circle the lesson number here. Please write the institution name and address here in BLOCK CAPITALS Write this in the order indicated e. you should circle 2 Write the name of the observer. 02 06 04 = 2nd June 2004 Time Write the time that the observation starts and finishes e. If you have been referred on lesson two and this is a repeat of lesson two.g.40 to 10. you should write one year here.g.30 Length Class / Grade The observation should last between 40 and 60 minutes – please indicate the length here Write here the class name or grade e. We shall use the 25 British Council 2004 . if you are teaching fourth grade and students begin studying English in third grade.g. 09. grade 10 A Room Please indicate the room which the observer should go to Number of Students Write how many students you expect there to be in the class – remember each observation should be with class sizes which are normal in your context What is the average age of the students in the class? You should indicate approximately how many years students have been studying English. E. Observer Aims Aims You may usually refer to aims as something different. learning goals etc.please make sure this is completed accurately Name Please write your first name and surname in BLOCK CAPITALS here Candidate number Institution Date You will be given a candidate number.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Guidance on completing the ICELT Lesson Plan Form Administrative Information The first part of the lesson plan form contains essential administrative information . which you should quote on all assignments and write here.

Activities and Personal Teaching Aims. spend (on). invest (in). earn. For assessed lessons. Lesson aims (or learning objectives – what you hope the learners will achieve (or learn) during the lesson) 26 British Council 2004 . to do a role play of a job interview 2. Generally. 4. waste. To keep instructions clear and well staged. You may want to break your aims down into main aims and secondary or subsidiary aims. By the end of the lesson the students will be better able to give a short talk about their hobby and what it involves Commentary to task 3 – Aims and Activities A. For example. Divide the following into: A. Personal teaching aims (a feature of your teaching that you want to improve) C. Personal aims this does not refer to what you want the learners to achieve or learn during the lesson but what you want to achieve personally in your teaching. the observer will pay a great deal of attention to your stated aims and whether or not these are achieved.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING term ‘aims’ on this course. Task 8 – Aims. By the end of the lesson the learners will have understood the meaning of eight verb collocations with money (save. Particularly to avoid repeating and rephrasing each instruction and giving them all at once 7. It is therefore vital to express these aims or learning objectives as clearly as possible. To do the reading on page 132 of the coursebook and then go onto to a discussion based on it 6. when we teach we go into the classroom with some idea of what we want to achieve. Lesson aims (or learning objectives – what you hope the learners to achieve (or learn) during the lesson) B. To try to keep more closely to estimated timings by quickening the pace. To start you should be clear about the difference between aims and activities and personal aims. make) and they will have had the opportunity to use these in a restricted and more authentic way. particularly during the language clarification stage. give away. if you have been working on checking instructions effectively – this might be your personal aim for the lesson. (see assessment criteria 2 r). 3. owe. To teach ‘going to’ for future plans 8. Activities – a means of achieving learning objectives 1. To do an information gap activity where learners ask about each other’s daily routines and then give feedback on these 5. This might be related to your action points from your last observed lesson.

Activities – a means of achieving learning objectives 1. 4 and 5 are activities It is very important that you are aware of the differences here in order to write effective aims. earn. It doesn’t tell us which use and which forms of ‘going to’ are going to be practised (affirmative statements. However we don’t know whether the practice is going to be written or spoken and it would also be useful to know more about the context in which they will be practising. spend (on). WH question forms etc). Will they be relating it to their personal experiences or writing a story using the collocations for example? Aim 7 To teach ‘going to’ for future plans This is not satisfactory at all. give away. 7 and 8) and decide: • Which ones are clearly expressed and why? • Which ones could be more clearly expressed and why? Commentary to Task 4 – Improving Aims Aim 2 By the end of the lesson the learners will have understood the meaning of eight verb collocations with money (save. 27 British Council 2004 . Personal teaching aims (a feature of your teaching that you want to improve) 3 and 6 C. invest (in). learners will be able to ask and answer about their plans for the weekend using ‘be going to + verb’(WH and yes/no questions forms. There is no indication of the learner outcomes: Will they be able to use the target form or just understand it? Will they be expected to write it or use the spoken form? What context will they be using it in? It would be almost impossible for an observer to assess whether the aim has been achieved here – the observer would have to conclude that it had not! We might rewrite the aim in the following way for a group of elementary level teenagers: By the end of the lesson. 7 and 8 B. This is clear in some respects: we know that it is a lesson about vocabulary and we know exactly what the vocabulary is and that the learners will be practising it. make) and they will have had the opportunity to use these in a restricted and more authentic way. Task 9 – Improving Aims Look at the three lesson aims form task 3 again (2.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING 2. It is also expressed in terms of outcomes for the learners (By the end of the lesson. the learners will…). short answers. owe. waste.

g. which listening subskill?.. Raising awareness of and practising the division of the presentation into ‘chunks’ and using rising then falling intonation to show whether an utterance is unfinished or finished.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING positive and negative statements. Task 10 – Writing Aims 28 British Council 2004 . the learners will be better able to give a short talk about their hobby and what it involves: This will be done by: 1.. but you may have several secondary aims. but how does the teacher intend to help them to ‘better able to’ do the task? We might rewrite this aim to include more important information as follows: By the end of the lesson. For . Focussing on and practising fixed expressions (I really enjoy . REMEMBER Lesson aims need to: • Be written from the learners’ point of view • Focus on learner achievement (preferably in the real world) • Be precise (e. It is clear that the learners will be speaking. you might find it helpful to ask yourself these questions: • What is it that learners will be able to do better by the end of the lesson that they couldn’t do at the beginning? • What language will they be using? • What skills will they be practising? • What is the context? You will probably have only one main aim.see Handout 1 for full list) 2. first and second person singular) Aim 8 By the end of the lesson the students will be better able to give a short talk about their hobby and what it involves This again is rather wide in scope and needs to be more focussed. which meaning?. Which forms of the verb?. I have been …. which text type / genre?) • Be prioritized (and differentiated between main and secondary aims) • Be aims NOT activities • Be achievable and realistic. but also challenging If you are having problems expressing your aims. It is clear from the examples in Task 4 that it is usually more effective to try to write aims from the learners’ point of view.

conversation (much of which they will not understand) by identifying the prominent or stressed words and by being given practice in this Secondary: learners will have revised lexical phrases to ask for clarification (e. it doesn’t work. For each pair of aims list the factors that makes b) better written than a) 1. it’s scratched. Could you say that again. Have you ever been to Rome?) • contrasting this briefly with the past simple used when a definite time is given (e.g. it’s got a mark/stain on it. learners will have become more confident about their listening skills by being shown that they can infer and pick out key information from an informal. could you exchange it?) • They will become more aware of the typical discourse patterns of a transactional exchange on this type (greeting – narrative – request – request for further information – conclusion) through listening to an example 4. could I speak to the manager. learners will be more independent by being shown how to use dictionaries to discover the connotation of words and by being given practice in identifying connotations 29 British Council 2004 . I was there last year) • giving controlled and freer spoken practice of this 2. I’m sorry I didn’t catch that. it’s torn) • They will become more accurate and confident in using phrases they have previously learnt for making requests (I’d like a refund. a) to develop students’ ability to understand conversations b) Main: By the end of the lesson. learners will be better able to participate in a semi-formal conversation in shops to complain about goods • They will have been introduced to and practised 7 lexical items/phrases to describe problems with goods (it’s shrunk. learners will have improved their writing of objective scientific reports by: • identifying the overall organization of a typical report (see coursebook p 127 – appendix 1) • identifying the prevalent use of passives in such reports • doing restricted practice in writing a parallel text 3.g.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Look at the examples of aims below. a) to present and practise the present perfect b) By the end of the lesson. a) to introduce and practise the language for shopping and complaints b) By the end of the lesson. it’s got a hole in it. learners will have asked / answered about their experiences. please) 5. a) to improve learner autonomy b) Main: By the end of the lesson. Yes. a) to practise writing passives of all tenses b) By the end of the lesson. This will be done by: • Introducing and practising the present perfect simple (second person singular ‘yes/no’ question form – e. the colours ran.g. In each pair of aims a) is badly written and b) is better written.

30 British Council 2004 . Yes. This will be done by: • Introducing and practising the present perfect simple (second person singular ‘yes/no’ question form – e.g. learners will have activated some of the vocabulary (personality adjectives) by talking about their own personalities.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Secondary: By the end of the lesson.g. in the example here I might assume that Learners are able to ask for and respond to and give personal information using past simple. Look at aim 1 b from task 5 above: By the end of the lesson. present simple and ‘going to’ Description of Language item / skill Here you need to briefly describe the language item or skill. Assumed knowledge In this section you should state: Language: what language (you assume) the learners already know which is necessary in order to achieve your aims. Have you ever been to Rome?) • contrasting this briefly with the past simple used when a definite time is given (e. learners will have asked / answered about their experiences. I was there last year) • giving controlled and freer spoken practice of this If this were my aim I might assume that learners: • Are aware of the use of past simple for actions at a specified time in the past • Can use the past simple reasonably well • Are familiar with the past participle form of verbs (regular and irregular) Skills: the level of ability learners have with skills and / or subskills which will help with the skills work in the lesson For example.

Have you ever been to Rome?) • contrasting this briefly with the past simple used when a definite time is given (e. This will be done by: • Introducing and practising the present perfect simple (second person singular ‘yes/no’ question form – e. learners will have improved their writing of objective scientific reports by: • identifying the overall organization of a typical report (see coursebook p 127 – appendix 1) • identifying the prevalent use of passives in such reports • doing restricted practice in writing a parallel text For this lesson this section might look like this: 31 British Council 2004 .g.. (the distance unit on language awareness will help you to do this better) Look at aim 1 b from task 5 above: By the end of the lesson. to Rome? / ηϖϕ←ω ε ϖ∴ β  ν τ ∴ ∋ ρ ∴←µ / Use To ask about experiences. I was there last year) • giving controlled and freer spoken practice of this For this lesson this section might look like this: Meaning To express an action in the past that is not specified by time It is a good idea to include here (or in your lesson plan procedure) how you are going to check that students understand the meaning. learners will have asked / answered about their experiences. Yes.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Look at aim 1 b from task 5 above: By the end of the lesson.g. Form HAVE SUBJECT (ever) (second person singular) Have you ever Pronunciation Have you ever been to Rome? PAST PARTICIPLE been ………….

40 days rather than just over a month). New Headway Pre-intermediate Student Book. In general. 2000. This tone is often achieved by the use of the passive rather than active verb forms. since these describe processes the organization of the text starts at the beginning of the process and follows the process. Oxford University Press. If you have a number of worksheets you should number them and refer to these numbers in your lesson plan procedure. (you needn’t attach copies of these!) The next two sections form your rationale for the lesson: Profile of Learners 32 British Council 2004 . Materials In this section you should list the following • List any published materials that you are going to use in the lesson. • List any tapes. and page reference. Liz and John. Soars. visual aids or realia you intend to use. Make sure you attach a clearly labelled and sourced copy to your plan.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Objective scientific reports tend to be formal and impersonal in tone. the title. videos. Remember that you should respect copyright law. You should always acknowledge (source) the author (s). These reports are also charactised by precision of detail (e. P 122.g. the date of publication. This will help you to check for accuracy and help the observer to see what you expect. It is also strongly recommended that you supply a completed version of any worksheets. They also conform to other aspects of formal writing such as the avoidance of contractions and colloquial language. For example. • Include a reference to and copy of any other worksheets or overhead transparencies you are gong to use. There is often a very brief introduction and conclusion. the publisher.

it will help: • You plan more effectively • You feel more confident about dealing with anything that might arise during the lesson • Your observer to see your ability to analyze language systems and skills It will help you to focus if you go through the following checklist: Linguistic Problems Meaning Specify exactly what part will cause problems Appropriacy Is there anything that needs pointing out to students (style. features of connected speech (weak forms. for example write any difficult sounds in phonemic script Effect of Spanish Are there any ‘false friends’ or other confusion relating to Spanish? 33 British Council 2004 . discipline problems. and materials in this lesson specifically (not general problems with the class– they can be discussed in the section Profile of the Learners). You can refer to what you have covered on the course so far here – but only if it is relevant! You might also mention how you will be consolidating work in this lesson in the future – again make sure this is relevant to the lesson. you should consider how you are going to deal with it in the lesson. For each problem.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING • Very briefly describe the course (length. issues with group dynamics. learning style etc). • It is very important to explain how the lesson (content / approach / activities / materials etc relates to the learners’ needs (and learning preferences). discipline etc) and outline what their needs are. If you think through this section carefully. time and length of lessons. formal/informal/ connotation / restrictions to certain social occasions etc. word order. intonation. Be specific. activities. associated grammatical patterns (after verbs. • any individuals in the class who are worthy of special comment (particularly strong or weak students. sounds. course materials being used etc) • You should give a brief description of the class (any skills discrepancies within the group. attitude. frequency of classes. punctuation etc Phonology Stress. spelling.) Form This could be grammatical form. learning difficulties. linking) etc. You may refer to your reading briefly in this section – make sure that it is relevant. Anticipated Problems and Planned Solutions These are problems related to the aims. conjunctions etc). morphology.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Other problems Level of skills In general. time of day etc Learners Group dynamics. The Procedure 34 British Council 2004 . or with certain members of the group there may be very different reading and/or writing speeds Sub-skills Are there any subskills which will be especially challenging for the class (or individuals? (for example. focussing on main ideas in a listening text and ignoring parts that you do not understand) Learning context Location. complicated tasks REMEMBER • You should be thorough when listing anticipated problems but also selective. Do not invent unrealistic problems just for the sake of it or to fill the page! • Always focus on your group of learners • Always include information about linguistic problems – there are sure to be some. discipline etc Classroom management Unfamiliar activities. list the problems you could anticipate and suggest solutions. For each one. This is often the area that is neglected! • Always write your planned solution for every problem Task 11 – Anticipating Problems Look at the following language items and classroom activities. a) b) c) d) Question tags Fluency work: a discussion on being able to choose the sex of your children Listening to the news recorded from BBC world Writing a CV for a job with an American company There are no right answers for this because it depends on the context and group you chose but it would be very useful to discuss your ideas with your colleagues. Remember to refer to your own particular context when doing this.

most importantly. Allocating times can be one of the most difficult things to do – you might find the following helps with this: 35 British Council 2004 . timing can go wrong and you need to be flexible in the lesson to make sure that you are responding to learners’ needs. the reader should be able to reconstruct your lesson from your plan. Time and interaction Time: Indicate the amount of time you intend to spend on each stage / activity in the lesson. The procedure must be clear and logical. You may also wish to give each stage a title such as lead in. but the observer needs to see that you have thought about timing and allocated realistic times to different activities / stages. you can have a simpler plan for yourself. If you prefer to work from brief notes. Aim Each stage of your lesson should have a very clear aim.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING When you are writing the procedure for others (the observer and examiners from Cambridge). Procedure This should be written in note form and should indicate clearly what the teacher and students are doing at each stage. This does not mean that you need a word for word script of what is going to happen however! Give enough information so that another competent teacher could easily reconstruct and teach your lesson with your plan. Be realistic about this – you should have some idea of how long your students will take to do particular things – so don’t rush them and ensure that they have thinking time when necessary. Once again consider this carefully and make sure you are not confusing aim with either stage or procedure. It is a good idea to include here how you intend to check students’ understanding of new language (completed timelines. concept questions etc) – this both ensures that you think this through at the planning stage and also demonstrates to the observer that you have done so. Stage Number each stage of the lesson – this is very useful for the observer when commenting on your lesson. Of course. Many teachers just have few brief notes of the main stages of their lesson and can work from that in the classroom – that is not acceptable for an observed lesson on ICELT. legible and. obviously it must be much more detailed than if you were writing it for yourself. Often your timing reflects what you perceive as important so you need to make appropriate decisions about this. It is also a good idea to draw a small board plan (either here or attached) – again this ensures that you think this through at the planning stage. presentation etc.

Plan flexi-stages: make it very clear on your plan that these are optional stages and will be ignored if you feel there is no time. Be ruthless! Sometimes we are tempted to include a particular warmer because it is so wonderful but forget that this takes 10 minutes of class time! Plan for 50 minutes: (if you are teaching a 60-minute lesson. You may use these simple abbreviations T–S teacher to individual student T – SS teacher to the class PW pairwork GW 4 groups of 4 S–S open pair work etc 36 British Council 2004 . Cut activities: Make sure everything that you do contributes to your main learning outcome. learners will be better able to participate in a semiformal conversation in shops to complain about goods You might decide that you will achieve this through a role play and that you will need 15 minutes for this stage for • Learners to plan role play • Learner to perform role play • Teacher to give feedback and/or do an error spot: You then need to decide how to get to that point but remember that the last 15 minutes of the lesson are taken. This gives you the freedom to respond to learners naturally during the lesson. Look at the lesson aim (from task 5 above) 6 b) By the end of the lesson.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Plan backwards: Start with your main learning outcome and decide how long learners will need for that. You cannot miss stages that are essential to achieving your aims! Interaction: This will help both you and the observer sees the overall balance of the lesson in terms learner-learner and teacher-learner focus.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Classroom Research Investigating timing of different activities. Write a detailed lesson plan and teach the lesson. During the lesson write down the actual time on each occasion that you change an activity of begin a new stage of the plan (you could invite a colleague to observe the lesson and ask him or her to do this for you) You should leave the last column Tutor’s comments empty! Task 12 – Evaluating Lesson Plans Read through the following lesson plan and in light of what you have studied in this unit and the assessment criteria evaluate its strengths and weaknesses. Please note: all names have been changed 37 British Council 2004 . This should help you to plan timing better and be more realistic about how long activities take.

00 Room: 45 mins 1A 28 201 9 years Number of students: Average age of Students: Level of students ( Elementary ) Advanced Observer: Michael Number of years of English study (students): (please circle) Intermediate 2 years Lesson Number 1 Aims: 2 (please circle) 3 (4) By the end of the lesson students will be able to: • Give each other instructions on how to arrange people and furniture in a given room of a house • Describe the position of items in each room • Use cuisinaire rods to organise the contents of the room following directions given by a peer Personal aims: Provide a balance of interaction patterns with maximum participation Explore the use of cuisinaire rods in the language classroom To manage excess noise / excitement Assumed knowledge: Ss are aware of basic prepositions of place Most of the lexis will be familiar Ss are aware of use and form of present continuous 38 British Council 2004 .ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Name of teacher: Number: Mary Brown Candidate 03 Collegio Queen Elizabeth DAY MONTH Time of observation class Length of Institution: Date of Observation: YEAR 11 Class/grade: 09 03 12.15 – 1.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Description of language item / skill Ss will give each other instructions on how to organise a representation of a room using cuisinaire rods. prepositions of place family members. Anticipated problems Planned solutions Ss might have problems remembering the value of each cuisinaire rod Ss might find it difficult to use the cuisinaire rods in their current seating arrangement (semi circle) There will be wall posters of the equivalents I will arrange the tables so that two Ss face each other 39 British Council 2004 . Three children are functioning slightly below the class level. Materials : (please include source and attach all materials) dolls house and dolls cuisinaire rods wall posters ( reminder of cuisinaire rod equivalents worksheet used by students to give instructions (attached floor mat depicting rooms of a house Profile of learners: • describe ages and language level • outline linguistic and affective needs • explain how learners’ needs relate to aims of the lesson This class is a group of 28 children. They need practice using the vocabulary learned in the previous lesson to form complete utterances to communicate. They will use example sentences with the previously learned vocabulary. They enjoy working in groups and benefit from the use of concrete materials as well as other means of visual support. They are elementary level. He is also very shy and reluctant to participate orally. There is one child who requires special support and materials (he is just beginning to read in L1).

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Ss might have difficulties understanding instructions Distribution of the rods might cause confusion and lead to indiscipline T will give short clear instructions and will demonstrate each step Enough rods will be placed in envelopes so that the activity can be set up quickly 40 British Council 2004 .

furniture. Freer oral practice 6 follow up or homework Develop pron on TL Pre-teach use and equivalents Personalise topic Develop fluency Provide an easy quiet task after the intensive practice 41 British Council 2004 .ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Stage Aim Procedure Teacher and student activity Time and interacti on Tutor’s comments 1. review Review/ recylce vocabulary Recycle vocab /language needed for main task Hangman on board. Drill sentences eg “mother is in the kitchen Using rods. T elicit learned vocabulary (family members. lead in 2. Ss lead her into placing dolls and furniture in each room (rods) Ss in pairs take a picture of a room with a few objects and people in it and will describe it to partner whos eill have to build it using cuisinaire rods Then swap and vice versa Ss draw a picture of their own bedroom If time in the classroom or homework T. parts of house With doll’s house T and Ss will place the dolls in different rooms and positions T asks “Where do you think the sister is?” T places doll where Ss say.Ss 5 mins T – SS 10 – 15 mins” T – Ss 3 mins T – SS 5 mins PW 20 mins Indvidua l How many items? 3. controlled oral practice 4. demonstra tion 5. T dems how to build her room and place people and furniture.

It does not describe either the language or the skills being used and needs more work.the teacher has not listed any linguistic problems at all and this surely is necessary in a language lesson. It is rather vague. The lesson aims are clear and seem appropriate for this age. You should always put the learners first and deal with unexpected learning difficulties that arise.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Commentary on Task 12 Strengths The administrative information is complete and accurate. the key word is flexibility.this is inadequate. for example which prepositions do learners know. You must be sensitive to the learners and their difficulties and demonstrate your ability to respond appropriately. Anticipated problems . Timing for activities is mostly realistic. Making use of your lesson plan Once you have produced your lesson plan. it is worth considering how to use it in the classroom. But in class. teach the learners – not the plan. we believe that the rigorous and disciplined approach you need to adopt when lesson planning for assessed teaching and assignments on the ICELT course will be of enormous long-term benefit.this could be more detailed. Profile of learners . anticipated problems. 42 British Council 2004 . The procedure is mostly clear. For example. if learners have not understood new language it is better to go back and clarify for them. If they do not understand what to do in a pairwork activity. it is better to stop the activity and repeat the instructions. They are written from the learners' point of view so they are easily measurable when observing. Clearly you do not want to follow it slavishly not will you want to diverge from it totally in class – if you do you will not achieve your stated aims! Having thoroughly planned your lesson. The personal aims are useful and valid. Description of language item / skill . There is a variety of interaction patterns and the teacher has planned a learner-centred lesson. This shows that you are responding to your learners and you will be given credit for this.” It is unlikely that you will spend so much time or effort planning lessons once the course has finished. However. On this point Scrivener (1994) says ‘Prepare thoroughly.this should be more detailed in places although it does give a fairly good description of some individual differences within the group. Weaknesses Assumed knowledge . As a teacher you have to make many decisions while executing the lesson. considered timings etc. If this means that you cannot follow your lesson plan exactly then explain why you changed it in your post lesson evaluation.

you may wish to write about the lesson in there and you can include as much detail as you like in the journal. When writing the self-evaluation try to be objective and to put things in proportion. If part of your lesson went very well. when you write the evaluation that you hand in it is important to prioristise and pick out the most important points from the lesson. the next assessed lesson As a teacher. If you keep a journal during the course. Comment positively and critically – make sure that your critical comments are constructive though. It is much clearer for the reader if you use bullet points and/or headings rather than continuous prose. this is a very valuable activity and may be one of the most useful parts of the course for you because it: • • • • • • Provides a reflection stage which is necessary in any experiential learning Helps you improve your self-evaluation skills Puts you in control of the evaluation process Acts as a record of your learning and development Enables you to draw conclusions and to set yourself new goals Helps you to find simple practical ways to develop your teaching skills Your evaluation should not be simply a transcription of the conversation with your tutor directly after the lesson. Don’t go through the whole lesson – it is not necessary to comment on every stage of the lesson.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Post lesson self-evaluation After you have taught the lesson your tutor will discuss it with you briefly and then you must write an evaluation of no more than 500 words. This is an essential part of your portfolio and you should do it as soon after the lesson as possible. Start by giving an overall evaluation of the lesson – was the lesson. in general. say so but identify why. If something went wrong in the lesson. This also helps you to focus and prioritise so that you mention the 43 British Council 2004 . However. try to work out why and how you could do it another way to avoid the problem. colleagues and learners c) set targets for on-going development and. where appropriate. the candidate can: Lesson evaluation a) reflect critically on their plan and their teaching b) review and adapt their practice in the light of this reflection and of the views of tutors. That is an opportunity to talk through initial impressions – but both you and your tutor will need to reflect on the lesson more fully after some time has elapsed. effective or not and why. Look again at the criteria for this At PASS level.

What went well? 1. You can decide on what framework you will use for the self-evaluation but we strongly advise you to follow the guidelines suggested here as this will ensure that you are reflecting effectively. activities.1 Have they been achieved? 4. realistic and measurable points. what will your next steps be.2 How do you know? (give evidence) What were your lesson objectives? 3. if anything at all? 5. 5. Your action plan should contain small-scale. What would you do differently if you were to teach this lesson again.2 How do you know? (give evidence from the lesson) What were your personal/professional aims? 4. techniques or research. Consider both planning and teaching when commenting on strengths and weakness.1 Why? 1. 3. For example. 4. When writing your self-evaluation think of/answer the following questions: 1. and your observation of your students.1 Why? 2. what will you do in the next lesson. students production. (your action plan) 2. 6.2 How do you know? (give evidence from the lesson. you can name or describe specific strategies. You should say how you are going to achieve these goals.) What didn’t go so well? 2. class atmosphere.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING most important strengths and weaknesses.1 Why? In view of your learning experience in this lesson.2 Give evidence or justify. You must avoid simply describing what happened – you must analyse and account for strengths and weaknesses.1 Have they been achieved? 3. 44 British Council 2004 . etc. You can also refer to your reading on the course.

I am going to improve my instructions I’m going to give my students more control. 4. 4. This should help me to be more realistic about timing for activity types when planning lessons. 45 British Council 2004 . I am going to experiment with scripting my instruction on my lesson plan and rehearsing them with a colleague before the lesson. 3. 3. I am going to record a lesson next week and investigate why students do not seem to understand my instructions. I am going to plan a short section in my next lesson where the learners can ask me what they want to know about the topic of the lesson. I am going to read more about drilling in Learning Teaching by Scrivener and experiment with it in my next lesson. I am going to experiment with scripting my instruction in my lesson plan and rehearsing them with a colleague before the lesson. 2. In my next two lessons I am going to write down exactly how long learners take to do different activities. How could they be improved? 1. I am going to record a lesson next week and investigate why students do not seem to understand my instructions. Commentary on task 13 1. 2. I’m going to think of drilling more.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Task 13 – Writing Action Points Look at the following action points – none of them is acceptable. Example: 1. I feel insecure if my lesson is not planned in great detail and sometimes this means that I don’t respond to learners. I’m going to be more careful with my timing.

ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Section Three Methodology Assignment Two . extension/remedial work or focus on new target language 2. For your rationale you should consider one or all of the following issues: a. Select one piece of material and/or one classroom activity that you would use to achieve one of these aims (1a. homework or self-study. justify your decisions in 2b and 2c.Planning Beyond the Lesson Analyzing the task Task 3 a Here is the rubric for the assignment. Read it carefully and underline the key words. Outline: You are required to teach and evaluate a language-focussed lesson and complete follow up work. NOTE: You may use published ELT material or materials from another source. what extra practice your learners need in order to develop their skill in using the target language from this lesson b. how could you help them extend their analytical understanding of the target language from this lesson. comment on the difficulties that the learners might have with the materials/activity and how you would help them c. 46 British Council 2004 . NOTE: you are NOT required to give a detailed description of outline practice activities. Include a sourced copy of the material used. (NOTE: could be remedial or extension work with the target language) c. After teaching and reflecting on the lesson. outline your plan for the next three or four lessons and give a rationale for your plan. explain how you would use the material or organise the activity in order to achieve the aim (NOTE: could be presented as a full lesson plan or a written description/rationale or a combination of both) b. 1b or 1c) in one of your lessons. Guidelines: • This must be developed from a language focus lesson (not a skills based lesson) • The lesson may be (but need not be) one of your assessed lessons) • Sections 1 & 2 below will probably be about the same length • Include the original lesson plan and evaluation with this assignment 1. The practice or development may be planned for classroom use. what language development work would you move onto next and give reasons. a.

justify your decisions in 2a and 2b. The practice or development may be planned for classroom use.Task 3 a Outline: You are required to teach and evaluate a language focussed lesson and complete follow up work. how could you help them develop their analytical understanding of the target language (NOTE: could be remedial or extension work with the target language) c. outline your plans for the next three or four lessons and give a rationale for the sequencing you describe. what language development work would you move onto next and justify your choice NOTE: you are NOT required to give a detailed description of outline practice activities. For your rationale you should consider one or all of the following issues: a.Select one piece of material and/or one classroom activity that you would use to achieve one of these aims (1a. comment on the difficulties that the learners might have with the materials/activity and how you would help them c. explain how you would use the material or organise the activity in order to achieve the aim (NOTE: could be presented as a full lesson plan or a written description/rationale or a combination of both) b. NOTE: You may use published ELT material or materials from another source. homework or self-study. Include a sourced copy of the material used. a. 47 British Council 2004 .ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Commentary . extension/remedial work or focus on new target language 1 2. 1b or 1c) in one of your lessons. what extra practice your learners need in order to develop their skill in using the target language from the lesson b. Guidelines: • This must be developed from a language focussed-lesson (not a skills based lesson) • The lesson may be (but need not be) one of your assessed lessons) • Sections 1 & 2 below will probably be about the same length • Include the original lesson plan and evaluation with this assignment After teaching and reflecting on the lesson.

present materials with a professional appearance 6. their grasp of the previously taught material and the objectives b) organise activities in logical sequence and describe the rationale behind this ordering c) shoe an ability to identify potential problems and offer some realistic possible solutions d) justify planning decisions reached on the basis of evaluation of their own teaching 48 British Council 2004 . show knowledge and understanding of relevant theory and principles contained in the ICELT syllabus 4.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING TASK Read the assessment criteria for this assignment carefully. Remember if you do not meet ALL of the following criteria your assignment cannot be graded PASS. and to draw up justified plans for their own continuing development as ELT practitioners 5. Task Specific Assessment Criteria a) select (or adapt or design) materials/activities appropriate to the learners' needs. complete the assignment as detailed in the Assignment outline 2. Assessment Criteria PASS level assignments will show that the candidate can: General Assessment Criteria 1. accurate and easy to read in relation to requirements of ICELT 3. draw on this knowledge and understanding to evaluate their own strengths weaknesses as English teachers. Each assignment should provide evidence of the candidate having read sufficiently to show his/her understanding of the main points of accepted current theory and the ability to relate these points to his/her classroom practice. present the assignment in language which is sufficiently clear. include acknowledged references to a limited number of appropriate sources relevant to the theme of the assignment.

Explain what your aims. Introduction (200 words approximately) Very briefly describe the language focus lesson (the main aim of the lesson MUST NOT be language skills) that you taught. Very briefly say what was successful and why. Explain why you have chosen this sequence.you are strongly advised to follow it. 49 British Council 2004 . You may include references to you reading in this section. These can be downloaded from the ICELT website. 1. You DO NOT need to include detailed lesson plans in this section.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Planning the structure Task 3 b What do you think would be a good structure for this assignment? How many sections do you think there should be in this assignment? Approximately how long will each section be? Commentary on Task 3b Here is a suggested structure for this assignment . Assignment Front Page You must include a British Council ICELT Assignment Front Cover with each assignment you submit. Further Practice Needed (200 words approximately) Identify one area that your students still need to further practice on and / or Describe briefly how you could help your students to develop their analytical knowledge of the target language and / or Describe briefly what language development work you would go on to next NOTE: you may address just one of these points if you like – you do NOT have to cover all these areas You may include references to your reading in this section 4. The next lessons (300 words approximately) Briefly describe your plans (in relation to 3 above) for the next 3 or 4 lessons. 2. Assignments given in without this will not be marked. 3.

Explain how you will use the activity / material in the classroom This must relate to your learners needs that you identified in 3. Explain why you have chosen it.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING 5. These should be written in the style described in distance unit 1. 9. 8. Learner difficulties and solutions (200 words) Describe potential difficulties your learners may have with the activity / material and how you will help them with these difficulties. Conclusion (150 words approximately) Explain why you have made the planning decisions outlined in this assignment with relation to your evaluation of your own teaching. Description of material or activity and how you would use it in the classroom (350 words approximately) Describe one piece of material or one of the activities (from 4 above) in more detail. This section can be presented as a lesson plan or a written description or a combination of both. Remember to label appendices clearly and make reference to them in the assignment. This must relate to the lesson aims you have outlined on 4. 6. Appendices For this assignment you must include: • a copy of your original lesson plan (this should be written on the ICELT lesson plan form) and lesson self-evaluation • sourced copies of the material / activity that you have chosen. 50 British Council 2004 . References Remember you MUST include references to your reading in order to pass. 8.

51 British Council 2004 . Can you think of a way of developing your learners' knowledge of the language from the lesson you taught? Make notes here. This might be using it correctly. form or and pronunciation for example.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Planning ideas Consider the language-focussed lesson that you have taught. Make some notes here. Reflect carefully on the lesson and think about at least one part of structure that you learners need further practice on. What language development work would be appropriate to follow this lesson? Make notes here.

make sure there is balance and variety in your lessons.outline you plans for the next two or three lessons . Write you ideas here. 52 British Council 2004 .ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Bearing in mind your notes above . Now think about one piece of material or an activity that will help you to achieve the aims outlined above. Make sure you say WHY you have chosen it.

What problems might they have with the material / activity you have chosen? What are you going to do to help them with these problems? Write you ideas here. Think about your learners.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING You need to describe how you are going to use this activity / material in class .make notes on that here. Learners' difficulties Planned solutions 53 British Council 2004 .

are you confident that you have addressed all the assessment criteria? 54 British Council 2004 . Editing Now you need to look at your writing critically. Use the notes you have made above and include references to your reading. There are three main areas that you need to consider: 1. Remember this is the first draft and you can make changes later. Organisation Have you included headings for the different sections? Introduction / Further Practice Needed / The next lessons / Description of the activity/material / Using the material/activity in class / Learner difficulties and solutions / References Have you paragraphed your writing appropriately? Is your writing coherent and easy to understand? Have you respected the word limit? 2. Language Have you spelled words correctly? Do you need to check any spellings in a dictionary? Have you used correct punctuation? Have you used a wide range of vocabulary? Have you used a mixture of shorter and more complex sentences? Have you linked your ideas appropriately? Is everything you have written clear for the reader or will some things confuse the reader? Have you written in a fairly formal style? Finally.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Drafting Write a first draft of your assignment. Content Have you answered all parts of the task? Have you included evidence for the points you have made? Do the points you have made refer to the areas mentioned in the task guidelines? Have you included references to your reading? 3. At this stage it is a good idea to show the writing to your peers. especially if there is somebody on your course who you work closely with.

* 3. Complete the assignment as detailed in the Assignment outline 2. draw on this knowledge and understanding to evaluate their own strengths and weaknesses as English teachers. accurate and easy to read in relation to the language requirements of ICELT. make sure you do the following:   Complete the BC ICELT assignment front page accurately Type your assignment (hand-written is NOT acceptable) Use 12 point font size (and preferably universal or Ariel font) Use double spacing Leave an extra line between paragraphs Use sub headings within you writing to guide the reader Use LETTER sized paper Type your name on each page Insert page numbers Make sure your references section is complete and follows the standard laid out in this unit Make sure your appendices are complete and labelled clearly Include a word count at the end of the assignment before the references section           55 British Council 2004 . present the assignment in language which is sufficiently clear. show knowledge and understanding of relevant theory and principles contained in the ICELT syllabus 4.it is time to type your assignment.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING Writing Having analysed your draft critically . Each assignment should provide evidence of the candidate having read sufficiently to show his/her understanding of he main points of accepted current theory and the ability to relate these points to his/her classroom practice In order to pass this criterion. include acknowledged references to a number of appropriate sources relevant to the theme of the assignment.look at criteria 5 again 1. present materials with a professional appearance 6. Before you write the final draft . and to draw up justified plans for their continuing development as ELT professionals 5.

1994. Scrivener. 193-7 Parrott. In ELT Journal.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING References: Maclennan. Learning Teaching. Heinemann. 3. Wajnryb. 1987. Cambridge University Press 56 British Council 2004 . Classroom Observation Tasks. Woodward. Tasks for Language Teachers. R. Ur. S. Cambridge University Press. Integrating lesson planning and class management. P. A Course in Language Teaching. 1991. Cambridge University Press. Models and Metaphors in Language Teacher Training. 1991. M. 1993. J. 1992. Cambridge University Press. 41. T.

In fact. I should acknowledge the way to plan lessons way it is suggested in this unit is quite demanding. Was the level of the material? Too challenging About right X Too easy 4. Thank you for taking time to complete this form. Please write any other comments you have here. it’s been hard for me to find the description and assessment criteria for the first TP. It seems to me like there are too many things in this unit that might confuse the reader at some point. and I haven’t been able to find anything related to this task. Apart from this.ICELT distance unit 6 LESSON PLANNING FEEDBACK on lesson planning unit 1. Please assess the overall presentation of the unit. Good OK X Poor 6. Please assess the clarity of the writing in the unit. On the other hand. How long did it take you to work through this unit? Less than 6 hours About 6 hours X More than 6 hours 2. In general. Good X OK Poor 5. I don’t understand why this unit contains the guidelines for a peer observation task that has been already done (patterns of interaction). I’ve read through the unit several times. We appreciate your comments 57 British Council 2004 . how did you find the unit? Good X OK Poor 3. This unit requires a great deal of concentration on the part of the candidate.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.