# Formulae and

Statistical Tables
for GCE Mathematics
and GCE Statistics
First Issued September 2004
For the new specifications for first teaching from September 2004

GCE Mathematics

GCE Statistics

General Certificate of Education

19MSPM

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Contents
Page
4

Pure Mathematics

9

Mechanics

10

Probability and Statistics

Statistical Tables

klj

15

Table 1

Cumulative Binomial Distribution Function

22

Table 2

Cumulative Poisson Distribution Function

24

Table 3

Normal Distribution Function

25

Table 4

Percentage Points of the Normal Distribution

26

Table 5

Percentage Points of the Student’s t-Distribution

27

Table 6

Percentage Points of the χ 2 Distribution

28

Table 7

Percentage Points of the F-Distribution

30

Table 8

Critical Values of the Product Moment Correlation Coefficient

31

Table 9

Critical Values of Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

32

Table 10 Critical Values of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Statistic

33

Table 11 Critical Values of the Mann-Whitney Statistic

34

Table 12 Control Charts for Variability

35

Table 13 Random Numbers

3

PURE MATHEMATICS Mensuration Surface area of sphere = 4πr 2 Area of curved surface of cone = πr × slant height Arithmetic series un = a + (n − 1)d Sn = 12 n (a + l ) = 12 n[2a + (n − 1)d ] Geometric series un = a r n − 1 a (1 − r n) Sn = 1− r S∞ = a for r < 1 1− r Summations n ∑ r = 12 n(n + 1) r =1 n ∑ r 2 = 16 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) r =1 n ∑ r 3 = 14 n 2 (n + 1) 2 r =1 Trigonometry – the Cosine rule a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A Binomial Series ⎛n⎞ ⎛n⎞ ⎛n⎞ (a + b) n = a n + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ a n −1b + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ a n −2 b 2 + … + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ a n −r b r + … + b n ⎝1⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝r⎠ ⎛ n⎞ n! where ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = n C r = r!(n − r )! ⎝r⎠ (1 + x) n = 1 + nx + (n ∈ N ) n(n − 1) 2 n(n − 1) … (n − r + 1) r x +…+ x + … ( x < 1. 1. for k = 0. 2.2… r Logarithms and exponentials a x = e x ln a Complex numbers {r (cos θ + i sin θ )}n = r n (cos nθ + i sin nθ ) e i θ = cos θ + i sin θ The roots of z n = 1 are given by z = e 4 2 πk i n . n ∈ R ) 1. n − 1 klm .2 1. … .

Maclaurin’s series 2 r f( x) = f(0) + x f ′(0) + x f ′′(0) + … + x f ( r ) (0) + … 2! r! 2 r e x = exp( x) = 1 + x + x + … + x + … 2! r! for all x r 2 3 ln(1 + x) = x − x + x − … + (−1) r +1 x + … r 2 3 sin x = x − x3 x5 x 2 r +1 + − … + ( −1) r +… 3! 5! (2r + 1)! cos x = 1 − x2 x4 x 2r + − … + (−1) r +… 2! 4! ( 2r )! ( −1 < x 1) for all x for all x Hyperbolic functions cosh 2 x − sinh 2 x = 1 sinh 2 x = 2 sinh x cosh x cosh 2 x = cosh 2 x + sinh 2 x cosh −1 x = ln{x + x 2 − 1} ( x 1) sinh −1 x = ln{x + x 2 + 1} ⎛1+ x ⎞ tanh −1 x = 12 ln⎜ ⎟ ⎝1− x ⎠ ( x < 1) Conics Standard form Asymptotes Ellipse Parabola x2 y2 + =1 a2 b2 y 2 = 4ax none none Hyperbola x2 y2 − =1 a2 b2 y x =± a b Rectangular hyperbola xy = c 2 x = 0. y = 0 Trigonometric identities sin( A ± B) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos( A ± B) = cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B tan( A ± B ) = tan A ± tan B 1 ∓ tan A tan B (A ± B ≠ (k + 12 )π ) A+ B A− B cos 2 2 A+ B A− B sin A − sin B = 2 cos sin 2 2 sin A + sin B = 2 sin A+ B A− B cos 2 2 A+ B A−B cos A − cos B = −2 sin sin 2 2 cos A + cos B = 2 cos klj 5 .

n The plane through non-collinear points A.Vectors The resolved part of a in the direction of b is a. then the straight line through A with direction vector b has cartesian equation z − a3 x − a1 y − a2 = = =λ b1 b2 b3 The plane through A with normal vector n = n1 i + n 2 j + n3 k has cartesian equation n1 x + n2 y + n3 z = d where d = a. B and C has vector equation r = a + λ (b − a) + μ (c − a) = (1 − λ − μ )a + λb + μc The plane through the point with position vector a and parallel to b and c has equation r = a + sb + tc Matrix transformations ⎡cos θ Anticlockwise rotation through θ about O: ⎢ ⎣ sin θ ⎡cos 2θ Reflection in the line y = (tan θ ) x : ⎢ ⎣ sin 2θ − sin θ ⎤ cos θ ⎥⎦ sin 2θ ⎤ − cos 2θ ⎥⎦ The matrices for rotations (in three dimensions) through an angle θ about one of the axes are 0 ⎡1 ⎢0 cos θ ⎢ ⎢⎣0 sin θ ⎡ cos θ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢⎣ − sin θ ⎡cos θ ⎢ sin θ ⎢ ⎢⎣ 0 6 0 ⎤ − sin θ ⎥⎥ for the x-axis cos θ ⎥⎦ 0 sin θ ⎤ 1 0 ⎥⎥ for the y-axis 0 cos θ ⎥⎦ − sin θ cos θ 0 0⎤ 0⎥⎥ for the z-axis 1⎥⎦ klm .b b The position vector of the point dividing AB in the ratio λ : μ is i a1 b1 Vector product: a × b = a b sin θ nˆ = j k a2 a3 b2 b3 μa + λb λ+μ ⎡a 2 b3 − a3b2 ⎤ = ⎢⎢ a3b1 − a1b3 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ a1b2 − a 2 b1 ⎥⎦ If A is the point with position vector a = a1i + a 2 j + a 3 k and the direction vector b is given by b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k .

a > 0 where relevant) f( x ) ∫ f( x ) dx tan x ln sec x cot x ln sin x cosec x − ln cosec x + cot x = ln tan( 12 x) sec x ln sec x + tan x = ln tan( 12 x + 14 π) sec 2 kx 1 tan kx k sinh x cosh x cosh x sinh x tanh x ln cosh x INTEGRATION FORMULAE CONTINUE OVER THE PAGE klj 7 .Differentiation f( x ) f ′( x ) 1 sin −1 x 1− x2 1 cos −1 x − tan −1 x 1 1 + x2 tan kx k sec 2 kx cosec x − cosec x cot x sec x sec x tan x cot x − cosec 2 x sinh x cosh x cosh x sinh x tanh x sech 2 x sinh −1 x cosh −1 x 1− x2 1 1+ x2 1 x2 −1 tanh −1 x 1 1 − x2 f ( x) g ( x) f ′ ( x) g( x) − f( x) g ′ ( x) ( g ( x)) 2 Integration (+ constant.

⎛ x⎞ sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ 1 a −x 2 2 1 tan −1 ⎛⎜ x ⎞⎟ a ⎝a⎠ 1 a + x2 2 ⎛ ⎞ cosh −1 ⎜ x ⎟ or ln{x + x 2 − a 2 } ⎝a⎠ 1 x −a 2 2 1 a +x 2 a+x 1 ⎛x⎞ 1 ln = tanh −1 ⎜ ⎟ 2a a − x a ⎝a⎠ 1 a − x2 ∫ u ( x < a) 1 ln x − a 2a x + a 1 x −a ( x > a) ⎛ ⎞ sinh −1 ⎜ x ⎟ or ln{x + x 2 + a 2 } ⎝a⎠ 2 2 2 ( x < a) 2 dv dx = uv − dx ∫ v du dx dx Area of a sector A = 1 r 2 dθ 2 ∫ (polar coordinates) Arc length s= ∫ s=∫ 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx (cartesian coordinates) ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ ⎛ dx ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ dt (parametric form) ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ Surface area of revolution 2 ⎛ dy ⎞ S x = 2 π ∫ y 1 + ⎜ ⎟ dx (cartesian coordinates) ⎝ dx ⎠ 2 2 ⎛ dx ⎞ ⎛ dy ⎞ S x = 2 π ∫ y ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ dt (parametric form) ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ Numerical integration The trapezium rule: b ∫ a y dx ≈ 12 h{( y0 + yn ) + 2( y1 + y 2 + … + y n−1 )} .. + y n − 2 )} b b−a where h = n 8 b−a n and n is even klm . + y n −1 ) + 2(y 2 + y 4 + ... where h = b − a n 2 ∫ a y dx ≈ 13 h{( y0 + y n ) + 4(y1 + y3 + . where h = The mid-ordinate rule: Simpson’s rule: b ∫ a y dx ≈ h( y 12 + y 3 +…+ y 2 n− 3 2 + y n − 1 ) ..

radius r: 83 r from centre Hemispherical shell. y r ). recurrence relations are: dx Euler’s method: y n+1 = y n + h f ( xn ). k 2 = h f( x r + h.Numerical solution of differential equations For For dy = f ( x) and small h. where k1 = h f( x r . x n +1 = x n + h dy = f( x. about perpendicular axis through end: 4 ml 2 3 Rectangular lamina about edge perpendicular to edges of length 2l: 4 ml 2 3 Rectangular lamina. angle at centre 2α : r sin α Sector of circle. about perpendicular axis through centre: 13 ml 2 Rectangular lamina about axis in plane bisecting edges of length 2l: 13 ml 2 Thin rod. radius r. y r + k1 ) Numerical solution of equations The Newton-Raphson iteration for solving f( x) = 0 : x n +1 = x n − f( x n ) f ′( x n ) MECHANICS Motion in a circle Transverse velocity: v = rθ Transverse acceleration: v = rθ Radial acceleration: − rθ 2 = − vr 2 Centres of mass For uniform bodies Triangular lamina: 2 3 along median from vertex Solid hemisphere. length 2l. length 2l. y r ) Improved Euler method: y r +1 = y r + 12 (k1 + k 2 ). angle at centre 2α : 2r sin α from centre 3α Solid cone or pyramid of height h: 1h 4 above the base on the line from centre of base to vertex Conical shell of height h: 13 h above the base on the line from centre of base to vertex Moments of inertia For uniform bodies of mass m Thin rod. y ) : dx Euler’s method: y r +1 = y r + h f( x r . radius r: 1r 2 from centre α from centre Circular arc. sides 2a and 2b. radius r. about perpendicular axis through centre: 13 m(a 2 + b 2 ) MOMENTS OF INERTIA FORMULAE CONTINUE OVER THE PAGE klj 9 .

2. σ 2 ) Exponential klj 1 σ 2π e Mean 1 2 ( ) x−μ − 12 σ 2 λ e − λx ( a + b) μ 1 λ Variance 1 12 (b − a) 2 2 σ 1 λ 2 11 . b] Normal N( μ .Discrete distributions For a discrete random variable X taking values xi with probabilities pi Expectation (mean): E( X ) = μ = ∑ x i p i Variance: Var( X ) = σ 2 = ∑ ( x i − μ ) 2 p i =∑ x i2 p i − μ 2 = E( X 2 ) − μ 2 For a function g( X ) : E(g( X )) = ∑ g( x i ) p i Standard discrete distributions: P( X = x) Mean Variance ⎛n⎞ x ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ p (1 − p ) n − x ⎝ x⎠ np np (1 − p) λ λ 1 p 1− p p2 Distribution of X Binomial B(n. p ) Poisson Po(λ ) e−λ λx x! p(1 − p ) x −1 Geometric Geo( p) on 1. … Continuous distributions For a continuous random variable X having probability density function f(x) Expectation (mean): E( X ) = μ = ∫ x f( x) dx Variance: Var( X ) = σ 2 = ∫ ( x − μ ) 2 f( x) dx = ∫ x 2 f( x) dx − μ 2 = E( X 2 ) − μ 2 For a function g( X ) : E(g( X )) = ∫ g( x) f( x) dx Cumulative distribution function: F( x) = P( X x) = ∫ x −∞ f(t ) dt Standard continuous distributions: Distribution of X Probability density function 1 b−a Uniform (Rectangular) on [a.

a random sample of n y observations from N( μ y . 1) ny ~ Fnx −1. then 12 ( X − Y ) − (μ x − μ y ) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎟ S p2 ⎜ + ⎜ nx n y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ~t n x+ n y −2 where S p2 = (n x − 1) S x2 + (n y − 1) S y2 nx + n y − 2 klm . 1) n (n − 1) S 2 ~ χ n2−1 σ2 X −μ ~ t n −1 S (also valid in matched-pairs situations) n If X is the observed number of successes in n independent Bernoulli trials in each of which the probability of success is p. independently. with Var( X ) = σ n 2 ∑ (X i − X ) = 2 S is an unbiased estimator of σ . n y −1 If σ x2 = σ y2 = σ 2 (unknown). σ 2 ) X −μ σ ~ N(0. σ y2 ) ( X − Y ) − (μ x − μ y ) σ x2 nx S x2 / σ x2 S y2 / σ y2 + σ y2 ~ N(0. X n of n independent observations from a distribution having mean μ and variance σ 2 X is an unbiased estimator of μ . where S 2 2 2 n −1 For a random sample of n observations from N( μ . then and Var(Y ) = E(Y ) = p p (1 − p) n For a random sample of n x observations from N( μ x . … . X 2 . and Y = Xn . σ x2 ) and.Sampling distributions For a random sample X 1 .

σ 2 ) Total sum of squares SS T = ∑ ∑ x ij2 − i j T2 n Between groups sum of squares SS B = ∑ i Ti 2 T 2 − ni n Two-factor model (with m rows and n columns): xij = μ + α i + β j + ε ij . SS R = ∑ i Ri2 T 2 − n mn Between columns sum of squares.Correlation and regression For a set of n pairs of values ( x i . SS C = ∑ j klj C 2j m − T2 mn 13 . σ 2 ) Total sum of squares. where ε ij ~ N(0. SS T = ∑ ∑ x ij2 − i j T2 mn Between rows sum of squares. where ε ij ~ N(0. y i ) S xx = ∑ ( xi − x ) = ∑ xi2 (∑ xi )2 − S yy = ∑ ( y i − y ) = ∑ y i2 (∑ yi )2 − 2 2 n n S xy = ∑ ( xi − x )( y i − y ) = ∑ xi yi − (∑ xi )(∑ yi ) n The product moment correlation coefficient is r= S xy S xx × S yy = ∑ ( xi − x )( yi − y ) = {∑ (xi − x )2 }{∑ ( yi − y )2 } (∑ xi )(∑ yi ) ∑ xi y i − n ⎛ ⎜ x 2 − (∑ xi ) ⎜∑ i n ⎝ 2 2 ⎞⎛ ⎟ ⎜ y 2 − (∑ y i ) ⎟ ⎜∑ i n ⎠⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is the product moment correlation coefficient between ranks 6∑ d i 2 When there are no tied ranks it may be calculated using rs = 1 − n(n 2 − 1) The regression coefficient of y on x is b = S xy S xx = ∑ ( xi − x )( yi − y ) 2 ∑ ( xi − x ) Least squares regression line of y on x is y = a + bx. where a = y − bx Analysis of variance One-factor model: x ij = μ + α i + ε ij .

Distribution-free (non-parametric) tests Goodness-of-fit tests and contingency tables: ∑ (Oi − Ei ) 2 is approximately distributed as χ 2 Ei Wilcoxon signed rank test T is the sum of the ranks of observations with the same sign Mann-Whitney test n(n +1) U =T − where T is the sum of the ranks of the sample of size n 2 Kruskal-Wallis test H= 12 N (N + 1) 2 T ∑ ni − 3(N + 1 ) i i where Ti is the sum of the ranks of a sample of size ni and N = ∑ ni i 2 H is approximately distributed as χ with k –1 degrees of freedom where k is the number of samples 14 klm .

9786 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x n=7 0.9437 0.0000 0.3430 0.06 0.5630 0.9999 0.0000 1.6367 1.9988 0.0000 1.1160 0.9914 0.0000 1.9962 0.9393 0.0000 1.0000 1.9962 0.7514 0.0000 0.9360 0.9976 0.9997 0.9882 0.0000 1.2097 0.4219 0.3294 0.9711 0.9570 0.9993 0.0000 1.0000 1.9216 0.0000 0.9850 0.7807 0.9988 0.7373 0.9937 0.8858 0.9963 0.6485 0.0503 0.0000 0.0000 0.8503 0.9326 0.9987 0.9477 0.0000 1.0000 1.2746 0.9998 0.9999 0.6471 0.7166 0.0915 0.3025 0.9844 0.9998 0.7734 1.0000 1.8145 0.0000 1.7481 0.8702 0.9992 0.8735 0.9984 0.8464 0.6572 0.9941 0.0625 0.0000 1.2333 0.9224 0.0000 1.9942 0.9933 0.9556 0.9127 0.0000 0.9999 0.8574 0.9730 0.8681 0.9995 0.8154 0.9996 0.9527 0.1785 0.9185 0.9996 0.9703 0.7183 0.1094 1.9964 0.9999 0.0000 0.5941 0.6563 1.8281 0.9954 0.0000 1.8750 1.9999 0.9988 0.9984 0.9130 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x n=8 0.09 0.2160 0.8125 1.9919 0.9898 0.8649 0.9048 0.3164 0.8906 1.0000 1.6470 0.9115 0.2562 0.0000 1.8423 0.6083 0.0000 1.8740 0.0277 0.6141 0.0000 1.9420 0.9988 0.0000 1.5748 0.0000 1.7787 0.0000 1.8493 0.7225 0.3910 0.9999 0.5000 1.0000 1.9973 0.7837 0.4199 0.0000 0.1445 1.0000 0.9948 0.0000 0.0000 1.9951 0.0000 1.9984 0.9187 0.0000 0.8002 0.0625 1.9962 0.7969 0.9375 1.9953 0.9969 0.9688 1.9903 0.5000 1.05 0.0000 1.5120 0.01 0.9997 0.9964 0.5339 0.8059 0.9983 0.1681 0.9999 0.4278 0.9039 0.35 0.45 0.9917 0.6096 0.9998 0.0000 1.9998 0.0000 1.9774 0.9998 0.7585 0.0000 1.9969 0.4415 0.9999 0.0000 1.9995 0.9994 0.9995 0.0000 1.9875 0.9375 1.0000 1.0000 1.9973 0. where X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p.5679 0.0000 0 1 2 x n=3 0.0000 1.8192 0.9444 0.0152 0.0078 0.7443 0.3600 0.9915 0.9100 0.8836 0.9619 0.0000 1.1024 0.0000 1.8745 0.8826 0.9672 0.0632 0.0000 1.9815 0.20 0.0000 1.8438 0.9294 0.8044 0.6826 0.9994 0.9829 0.08 0.0000 1.0000 1.9842 0.7290 0.0000 1.0000 1.8208 0.0000 1.8905 0.9999 0.9995 0.3125 1.8306 0.0824 0.3438 1.0000 1.TABLE 1 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION The tabulated value is P(X p x 0 1 2 x 0 1 2 3 x 0 1 2 3 4 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x).1586 0.9978 0.9692 0.0000 1.50 n=2 0.9392 0.9844 1.9981 0.9999 0.9227 0.8100 0.1875 1.9460 0.0000 1.9993 0.9973 0.8471 0.9999 0.0000 1.9928 0.9999 0.9997 0.9998 0.9502 0.9920 0.9575 0.1176 0.2201 0.9208 0.0313 0.9959 0.8862 0.0000 1.9619 0.0000 1.6983 0.4449 0.9910 0.9996 0.9991 0.9818 0.9966 0.3191 0.9985 0.0000 1.03 0.0000 0.9992 0.5931 0.9936 0.0000 1.9896 0.0000 0.9998 0.0000 1.9590 0.9980 0.0000 1.2401 0.8520 0.9996 0.9789 0.9510 0.9947 0.6634 0.9604 0.6471 0.9953 0.02 0.0000 1.9997 0.9801 0.6561 0.9421 0.7500 1.8847 0.7738 0.9998 0.9600 0.7536 0.4305 0.7765 0.9999 0.5578 0.8948 0.04 0.9648 1.9897 0.3771 0.0039 0.0000 0.0778 0.0000 1.0754 0.0000 0.0000 1.9037 0.9412 0.4202 0.6064 0.7339 0.6400 0.9999 0.9977 0.0156 0.8508 0.9900 0.9982 0.0000 1.8208 0.9415 0.9999 0.9295 0.9909 0.7383 0.0352 0.6591 0.9958 0.9999 0.7828 0.9852 0.0000 1.5000 1.6554 0.5767 0.6857 0.0000 1.9993 0.6480 0.9887 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9720 0.9819 0.9974 0.8555 1.9961 1.9922 1.9163 0.0000 1.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 x n=6 0.9995 0.0000 1.9988 0.3633 klj p x 1.5905 0.7447 0.4900 0.5596 0.9997 0.0319 0.9606 0.8965 0.6328 0.9996 0.9262 0.8400 0.8960 0.9915 0.9975 0.0000 1.5220 0.0000 0.0000 1.1250 0.9308 0.9991 0.0000 1.0000 1.4225 0.9982 0.8263 0.9988 0.9942 0.5168 0.9978 0.0000 1.6240 0.0000 1.1678 0.0000 1.7214 0.9978 0.07 0.9966 0.25 0.0000 0 1 2 3 x n=4 0.9775 0.7975 0.3164 0.9590 0. 0.9999 0.9541 0.3277 0.9998 0.9962 0.0490 0.3671 0.9963 0.0000 1.0000 0.9089 0.9643 0.2500 0.9784 0.9995 0.0000 1.9998 0.0000 1.8587 0.9987 0.9492 0.0000 1.9980 0.9777 0.1691 0.9891 0.5314 0.5323 0.0467 0.9919 0.2725 0.9772 0.5033 0.9996 0.7164 0.0084 0.2621 0.9997 0.5443 0.8330 0.4096 0.0000 1.8853 0.9830 0.9904 0.9950 0.7564 0.9990 0.9801 0.0000 0.9571 0.9999 0.4752 0.9955 0.8688 0.9896 0.0000 1.5132 0.0576 0.9987 0.9880 0.30 0.0000 0.5518 0.9011 0.8131 0.4437 0.9879 0.7064 0.0000 1.10 0.9943 0.0000 1.0000 1.9807 0.4284 0.8306 0.4703 0.1064 0.15 0.9844 0.9996 0.0000 0.9999 0.0000 1.4783 0.6517 0.8775 0.9999 0.9728 0.8080 0.0000 1.9853 0.8352 0.9998 0.7840 0.3206 0.1296 0.0000 1.6785 0.2266 1.1636 0.9984 0.0000 1.9987 0.7102 0.9734 0.9998 0.9706 0.0000 1.9456 0.9915 0.0000 1.0000 1.9747 0.9025 0.0168 0.9937 0.0280 0.9994 0.9980 0.6957 0.8974 0.4770 0.0000 1.9997 0.9999 0.9667 0.0000 1.9996 0.9744 0.9997 0.9990 0.0000 1.9987 0.9999 0.2553 0.1780 0.8965 0.2338 0.8857 0.9971 0.9871 0.6875 1.9990 0.9409 0.9987 0.7351 0.9860 0.9428 0.0000 1.6017 0.0000 1.9321 0.6899 0.1664 0.9777 0.9727 0.9999 0.0000 1.9624 0.0000 1.8369 0.9860 0.0000 1.9375 0.8939 0.9733 0.5625 0.9227 0.9743 0.9681 0.9993 0.9812 0.2373 0.7396 0.1001 0.40 0.9961 0.1335 0.0000 1.9860 0.9999 0.9712 0.9921 0.3154 0.9993 0.9382 0.9656 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 x n=5 0.7648 0.0000 1.5282 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15 .3370 0.0000 1.

9012 0.9803 0.8953 0.6778 0.0000 0.0000 0.9874 0.9769 0.9661 0.9980 0.9999 0.7535 0.9672 0.8791 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 klm .3872 1.9679 0.0060 0.0020 x n=10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 16 0.5688 0.0000 1.0005 0.6331 0.1130 0.0000 0.9999 0.5744 0.9944 0.9078 0.0000 1.9905 0.9988 0.9998 0.4382 0.9815 0.3770 1.1960 0.9987 0.0000 0.0000 1.9522 0.9700 0.4922 0.5000 1.0193 1.8867 1.8981 0.7967 0.9970 0.9998 0.6496 0.9804 0.6938 0.5204 0.0000 1.9587 0.9997 0.0996 0.15 0.9924 0.9051 0.9959 0.9308 0.8822 0.7702 0.0046 0.9999 1.9957 0.0000 1.9978 0.9198 0.9987 0.1334 1.0195 0.9306 0.1345 0.9997 0.9972 0.3530 0.9994 0.9134 0.9991 0.9999 0.9998 0.9496 0.9995 0.1969 0.9980 0.3127 0.1422 0.9980 0.0000 1.0004 0.0000 0.6648 0.0550 0.9218 0.9960 0.9996 0.0000 0.9962 0.9999 0.0000 0.2744 1.4552 0.9916 0.07 0.3874 0.6920 0.9804 0.9022 0.0000 0.9992 0.1342 0.5833 0.8007 0.7461 1.9993 0.0000 0.8618 0.8891 0.6128 1.0000 0.0652 0.9999 0.7515 0.0198 0.9998 0.0000 0.7358 0.0000 0.9744 0.9841 0.8854 0.0207 0.2616 0.0001 0.9999 0.30 0.9915 0.9991 0.7159 0.9452 0.8661 0.9630 0.8820 0.0000 0.0037 0.9925 0.3971 0.1133 1.0000 1.9847 0.9885 0.6652 0.0014 0.1584 0.9998 0.9999 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 x n=12 0.9511 0.9500 0.0385 0.9909 0.0850 0.9755 0.9838 0.3677 0.0751 0.9456 0.9954 0.9999 0.4826 0.9797 0.9995 0.3894 0.6230 1.4344 0.0282 0.9878 0.8338 0.0000 1.5882 0.9422 0.0000 0.4474 0.8342 0.9990 0.8883 0.9900 0.0010 0.5696 0.9987 0.8864 0.9460 0.0637 0.9988 0.3614 0.9023 0.9966 0.9999 0.0000 1.6213 0.7746 0.9871 0.3487 0.0860 0.9998 0.9936 0.0000 0.9993 0.9991 0.7374 0.7513 0.9191 0.9418 0.8337 0.0032 0.9608 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x 0.9994 0.25 0.6302 0.0126 0.8497 0.9993 0.3758 0.9807 1.9930 0.7748 0.5583 0.8062 1.8705 0.9980 0.9348 0.9219 0.9998 0.50 n=9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.9942 0.9820 0.9999 0.2542 0.08 0.7847 0.0000 1.9957 0.9135 0.0000 0.9305 0.0302 0.9862 0.9925 0.0404 0.9997 0.0000 0.0317 0.7788 0.2316 0.5000 1.7382 0.9750 0.0859 0.9977 0.9965 0.2783 0.3907 0.9995 0.9972 0.9961 0.9302 0.9006 0.9614 0.9154 0.9999 0.9997 0.2001 0.9999 0.8666 1.9745 0.9453 1.0000 1.7897 0.9935 0.9948 0.0000 0.9818 0.1495 0.9805 1.5063 0.1493 0.9917 0.0000 1.9999 0.8343 0.7473 0.2824 0.0000 1.0834 0.5443 0.0000 1.1132 0.9997 0.0000 0.0563 0.9995 0.8283 0.0138 0.5995 0.4628 0.40 0.9973 0.2336 0.9806 0.0000 1.9901 0.9980 1.9998 0.9993 0.4256 0.5987 0.9897 0.9994 0.4435 0.9928 0.5005 0.0013 0.7206 0.9427 0.9999 0.9144 0.9538 0.0000 0.9995 0.0002 0.0000 1.9044 0.9852 0.0000 1.9996 0.6007 0.0135 0.9997 0.2539 1.9837 0.0327 1.7393 0.3983 0.7133 0.1074 0.9972 0.0000 1.9952 0.3383 0.9940 0.9999 0.0422 0.0000 0.9986 0.9994 0.4186 0.1189 0.9006 0.8729 0.2279 0.9983 1.7946 0.9992 0.9888 1.9944 0.5133 0.0017 0.9943 0.9998 0.7256 1.2318 0.7690 0.3326 0.9957 0.9595 0.7237 0.9707 0.0101 0.9464 0.0000 1.9009 0.9983 0.9938 0.9752 0.4268 0.0000 1.0000 1.9539 1.0008 0.0025 0.9987 0.9997 0.9376 0.9805 0.0000 0.8121 0.9995 0.9991 0.9994 0.0107 0.9893 0.0097 0.0196 0.9999 0.8088 0.0112 1.9872 0.0000 1.9997 0.9997 0.9989 0.0000 0.9973 0.8775 0.9917 0.0579 0.9390 0.7819 0.9740 0.6089 0.4362 0.8946 0.p x p x 0.9996 0.9784 0.9758 0.3544 0.3221 0.7095 1.9888 0.0705 0.9990 1.4722 0.6382 0.0000 1.0730 1.6543 0.9997 0.9984 0.5256 0.0139 0.9893 1.6730 0.9912 0.9997 0.7052 0.9657 0.0000 0.9999 0.1971 0.8186 0.9857 0.0000 1.9298 0.04 0.01 0.0057 0.9998 0.9990 0.0461 1.5044 0.9998 1.9869 0.9959 0.9995 1.6683 0.9999 0.9999 0.9963 0.9955 0.4279 0.9990 0.9968 1.9673 1.05 0.8980 0.9514 0.0424 0.4925 0.0000 1.0233 0.9997 0.9952 0.7940 0.0000 1.9201 0.8405 0.0000 1.8418 0.9969 0.9999 0.6437 0.0000 1.0687 0.9998 0.9999 0.9877 0.7873 0.9865 0.9984 0.3828 0.0606 0.9532 0.9990 0.35 0.1267 0.9274 0.1673 0.0000 1.9984 0.0000 0.09 0.9985 0.9848 0.2905 1.8424 0.8824 0.9996 0.0000 1.8171 0.0929 0.9969 0.0083 0.9991 0.6174 0.0000 0.7153 0.9957 0.9718 0.9270 1.9995 0.7297 0.7334 0.9998 0.0022 0.8816 0.5328 0.9983 0.0000 1.1211 0.9987 0.9972 0.9997 0.0000 1.3225 0.9998 0.8212 0.0000 0.0000 0.1719 1.9986 0.0898 1.1911 0.9999 0.9999 0.9993 0.0000 1.9999 0.0000 1.3373 0.7399 0.7759 0.10 0.9655 0.0049 0.0421 0.3467 0.9599 0.0000 1.3823 0.9702 0.8646 0.9499 0.6488 0.9999 0.4840 0.9999 0.1673 0.0296 0.9791 0.9436 0.9955 0.3003 0.6707 0.9938 0.0036 0.0000 1.2440 0.4206 0.3996 0.6331 0.06 0.20 0.5843 0.6214 0.6590 0.9812 0.7384 0.2660 0.6127 0.9941 1.1938 1.9944 0.5138 0.7361 0.9470 0.0000 0.0088 0.8281 1.2749 0.0000 0.0547 1.4501 0.9999 0.9999 0.0000 0.8513 0.9983 0.8591 0.2963 0.8417 0.9976 0.02 0.0000 1.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x n=13 0.9658 0.2528 0.8346 0.2025 0.5269 0.8262 0.9999 0.9980 0.0000 1.9997 0.9999 0.3044 0.0000 0.9717 0.9747 0.9757 0.9986 0.9997 0.6925 0.9975 0.9998 0.3893 0.0000 1.5404 0.9502 0.0238 0.0000 1.5386 0.0000 0.9999 0.0000 1.03 0.0000 1.0000 0.45 0.3138 0.0000 0.9104 0.9978 0.9984 0.9990 0.9068 0.9921 0.1209 0.8228 0.9880 0.9999 0.6974 0.5017 0.9947 0.9963 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x n=11 0.9922 0.9988 0.2253 0.5730 0.8483 0.9288 0.9996 0.9481 0.0000 0.9684 0.7602 0.9938 0.9658 0.5000 1.0000 0.9102 1.0000 0.0000 1.4759 0.9997 0.9761 0.7712 0.0000 0.9941 0.9964 0.0059 0.9957 0.9644 0.9999 0.9894 0.9139 0.1686 0.9994 0.0464 0.9883 0.1513 0.9527 0.8202 0.2935 0.9730 0.9999 0.9999 0.0000 0.0269 0.0000 1.8389 0.9726 0.

6010 0.5155 0.0000 1.9974 0.0142 0.9998 0.0013 klj p x 1.7483 1.6042 0.8531 0.9904 0.9994 0.4143 0.p x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 0.3585 0.9999 0.15 0.9991 0.1299 0.9984 0.8516 0.0000 0.08 0.0000 1.0001 0.9245 0.9876 0.9007 0.1979 0.3917 0.9827 0.06 0.0000 0.6368 0.9941 1.2059 0.0000 0.9998 1.1268 0.9970 0.3112 0.7858 0.0000 0.0000 1.6047 1.7358 0.9965 0.3036 1.5643 0.9999 0.9997 0.4166 0.0000 0.7738 0.9327 0.9389 0.9994 0.9999 0.02 0.9757 0.9727 0.0024 0.3373 0.9992 0.0000 0.04 0.9996 0.0905 0.0692 0.7415 0.8868 0.8290 0.8870 0.8702 0.5438 0.7723 0.0009 0.9817 0.9420 0.9999 0.9987 1.0802 0.9533 0.9574 0.9961 0.9923 0.4227 0.9997 0.0000 0.2288 0.9991 0.0049 0.0081 0.9994 0.8689 0.9985 0.3186 0.0000 0.0002 1.6035 0.9790 0.9873 0.2863 0.7963 0.9944 0.0000 0.9999 0.9896 0.2120 1.4049 0.8802 0.2361 0.9990 0.7880 1.9781 0.0000 0.9974 0.9999 0.9999 0.0052 0.9468 0.0002 0.9042 0.7436 0.0037 1.5169 0.9994 0.5869 0.0510 0.9999 0.6865 0.2969 0.9985 0.9825 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 x n=20 0.2205 0.9685 0.3567 0.9995 1.8670 0.9978 0.6982 0.0000 0.9945 0.9886 0.0160 0.0017 0.9975 0.9887 0.9435 0.6405 0.0000 0.9997 0.9819 0.9976 0.3552 0.9832 0.1216 0.0353 0.4420 0.0898 1.8227 0.7507 0.0287 1.0016 0.5000 0.0444 0.0243 0.1204 0.0874 0.9993 0.6964 1.1727 0.9998 0.9958 0.9980 0.9997 0.0178 0.9561 0.0000 0.9981 0.9998 0.6172 0.9978 0.9786 0.9990 0.9916 0.7168 0.8390 0.9918 0.35 0.8601 0.9897 0.6900 0.1608 0.9996 0.9302 0.0000 1.9992 0.0000 0.9408 1.0000 1.6482 0.9987 0.0000 1.9963 0.9999 0.9401 0.01 0.8491 1.2061 0.0000 1.9270 0.6925 0.4522 0.0121 0.4481 0.9824 1.7553 0.1672 0.0352 0.8499 0.0001 0.9864 0.9987 0.9647 0.9949 0.9171 0.5647 0.8164 0.0000 1.2430 0.9992 0.9559 0.5490 0.9929 0.0000 0.9786 0.9999 0.0000 1.1671 0.4159 0.9893 0.25 0.9989 0.9247 0.4613 0.3519 0.9999 0.9561 0.0000 0.9713 1.9522 0.9998 0.9231 0.0355 0.7386 0.9294 0.8867 0.5461 0.0577 1.9434 0.9861 0.9997 0.8535 0.9985 0.9885 0.9940 0.9999 0.7879 0.9662 0.9986 0.8684 1.9983 0.0000 1.7334 0.6479 0.0134 0.9917 0.0000 0.9990 0.0000 0.2811 0.0913 0.1256 0.7805 0.9994 0.2520 0.9978 0.0000 0.8782 0.9578 0.0475 0.4119 1.9940 0.9958 0.4633 0.8809 0.0000 0.9520 0.0553 0.2517 1.20 0.9978 0.9102 1.9997 0.9790 0.7414 0.0029 0.0047 0.9963 1.9825 0.4148 0.9568 0.0000 0.0032 0.9950 0.9981 0.9050 0.9941 0.0000 1.0008 0.0000 0.9690 0.9804 0.9976 0.9999 0.6528 0.8692 0.5881 0.8725 0.6597 0.6080 0.8811 0.9999 0.9797 0.9067 0.0005 0.9999 0.0388 0.9591 0.9958 0.4114 0.9841 0.2173 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2670 0.9998 0.6535 0.7624 0.0059 1.1182 0.9848 0.0008 0.9987 0.3620 0.1028 0.0207 1.9972 0.0592 1.9500 0.2793 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 x n=15 0.9935 0.9383 0.0000 0.7536 0.5846 0.8687 0.0107 0.9996 0.3367 0.0000 0.6296 0.0271 0.9999 0.9831 0.9617 0.9998 0.9417 0.9685 0.1756 0.2608 0.9964 0.0632 0.6333 0.9920 0.0068 0.0000 0.9996 0.2454 0.09 0.9991 1.4516 0.9833 0.0000 0.9997 0.9992 0.7869 0.9884 0.50 n=14 0.9997 0.5914 0.9926 0.0001 0.8745 0.8159 0.0000 0.0005 0.4032 0.5213 0.9993 0.40 0.0000 1.0000 0.9973 0.9998 0.3980 0.7216 0.10 0.8470 0.0170 0.5842 0.8850 0.3953 0.0000 0.0617 0.0000 1.30 0.0205 0.0009 0.8982 0.9981 0.0000 1.8883 0.9997 0.9987 0.9999 0.2500 0.5956 0.0176 1.0000 0.9529 0.0424 0.0000 1.9999 0.9999 1.9906 0.9999 0.8042 0.9941 0.0000 1.9936 0.0000 0.0065 1.8298 0.9972 0.4164 0.5421 0.9907 0.0000 0.9999 0.07 0.2252 0.6477 0.0440 0.8416 0.9932 0.1243 0.0000 0.0036 0.9710 0.9935 1.9995 0.9998 0.05 0.9961 0.0021 0.9900 0.0005 0.8358 0.3953 1.7548 0.9793 1.9997 0.8103 0.9601 0.4205 0.1509 1.1887 0.4859 0.9997 0.0002 0.9976 0.0000 0.0000 0.9937 0.9997 0.8941 0.6098 0.0839 0.0189 0.9998 0.9638 0.1010 0.9699 0.6769 0.9429 0.1071 0.6605 0.9989 0.8179 0.1316 1.9998 0.9994 0.0398 0.0115 0.45 0.2901 0.9908 0.9962 0.0000 0.8182 0.9679 0.9710 0.03 0.9997 0.9829 0.4877 0.6676 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 17 .0076 0.9423 1.9355 0.9444 0.9133 0.9997 0.2342 0.9745 0.9994 0.1516 0.9996 0.2375 0.0000 0.

1935 0.9999 0.0000 0.5143 0.8246 0.7358 0.1837 0.9969 0.8462 0.0000 0.6035 0.9998 0.9999 0.9996 0.20 0.9992 0.0000 1.9903 0.9991 0.8280 0.0312 0.9982 0.0038 0.9935 0.9998 0.0591 0.9835 0.9927 0.1238 0.9977 0.9022 0.8129 0.9938 0.9971 0.0000 0.p x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 18 p x 0.0694 0.9703 0.4207 0.9029 0.8737 0.5078 0.9991 0.0000 0.0000 1.0435 0.9685 0.0005 1.6937 0.1595 0.6736 0.0172 0.3450 1.5455 0.9992 0.1002 0.9447 0.0003 0.0000 0.4668 0.7731 0.4311 0.8852 0.9995 0.0000 0.9786 1.9999 0.9302 0.9967 0.9995 1.9620 0.6550 1.9989 0.9745 0.7265 0.0001 0.10 0.2146 0.3783 0.4275 0.0075 0.7466 0.9980 0.0294 0.0020 1.1134 0.8385 0.9995 0.9989 0.05 0.9155 0.0000 0.0000 0.8909 0.4315 0.9877 0.9996 0.0000 0.0000 0.9287 0.7802 0.9971 0.9994 0.9707 0.2915 0.9999 0.2327 0.9392 0.2424 0.9599 0.0106 0.0539 1.08 0.03 0.0002 0.9694 0.7304 0.0940 0.5426 0.9784 1.0121 0.0020 0.0172 0.8713 0.6424 0.4670 0.9999 0.1808 1.9972 0.0000 0.0905 0.7077 0.4010 0.6167 0.0001 0.0320 0.9922 0.30 0.9971 0.0374 0.6474 0.9946 0.1244 0.9999 0.8169 0.9918 0.9868 0.9998 1.9988 0.9998 0.0000 0.5527 0.9396 0.9827 0.9995 0.9999 0.0000 0.9991 0.9985 0.6063 0.9831 0.9999 0.0008 0.8034 0.04 0.9040 0.9994 0.8106 0.0000 0.8192 1.0000 1.9936 0.9519 0.0000 0.0000 0.0332 0.3061 0.9996 0.9974 0.0076 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.2137 0.0214 1.9999 0.9549 0.5000 0.7691 0.9850 0.9996 0.0070 0.0000 0.6303 0.7842 0.0003 0.9905 0.7778 0.0105 0.35 0.0302 0.4555 0.9999 0.0000 0.0258 0.0931 0.9998 0.0000 1.0000 0.0718 0.9784 0.8450 0.9532 0.5025 0.4696 0.3947 0.9742 0.0000 0.9999 0.9987 0.9986 0.0021 0.0002 1.0766 0.9979 0.9020 0.9955 0.45 0.9999 0.1536 0.9998 0.0962 0.01 0.0003 0.3604 0.3481 0.0321 0.0000 0.0000 0.9995 0.9402 0.8407 0.0000 0.0000 0.0494 1.2735 0.9988 0.0000 0.9997 0.0040 0.0000 0.0000 0.9126 0.0000 0.9905 0.9999 0.9999 0.9944 0.8795 0.9995 0.6548 0.8746 0.9999 0.9959 0.4114 0.2122 0.9998 0.0011 0.3407 0.0086 0.2939 0.0000 0.5535 0.07 0.9982 0.0012 0.9999 0.0097 0.4278 0.0000 0.7636 0.9950 0.5654 0.2923 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 klm .9998 0.0000 0.9966 0.0026 1.3694 0.0000 0.2340 0.9919 1.7323 0.9305 0.5888 0.9992 0.40 0.9783 0.0000 1.9990 0.0216 1.9560 0.9893 0.0000 0.1563 0.0979 0.3217 0.8644 0.7106 0.9788 0.0015 0.2343 0.1630 0.7397 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 x n=30 0.0000 1.3286 0.0000 0.25 0.9862 0.9973 0.7712 0.5118 0.9940 0.9920 0.0090 0.2129 0.8474 0.9314 0.06 0.9917 0.7608 0.9876 0.4246 0.0826 0.9971 0.0004 0.1350 0.0023 0.0000 0.0000 0.9999 0.9826 0.0001 0.8122 0.3592 0.9957 0.0639 0.0946 0.0586 0.9942 0.6448 0.9997 0.0057 0.0000 0.0480 0.5371 0.9286 0.0093 0.0081 1.8723 0.9992 0.0442 0.7800 0.9222 0.7878 1.0095 0.0021 0.0000 0.9656 0.8649 0.9995 0.9064 0.0000 0.0736 0.9399 0.9844 0.9999 1.0073 1.5611 0.1340 0.9980 0.9937 0.6612 0.9742 0.7324 0.0000 0.8173 0.6768 0.9506 0.8506 0.9972 0.9918 0.9999 0.2026 0.0000 0.1227 0.6769 0.02 0.6821 0.0982 0.9999 0.0274 0.9666 0.0000 0.9998 0.9998 0.9389 0.9868 0.1514 0.2774 0.3575 0.9928 0.0000 0.9980 1.9907 0.3843 0.9838 0.9984 0.0820 0.6487 0.09 0.4711 0.0000 0.4855 0.9998 0.9235 0.50 n=25 0.9699 0.5785 0.8943 0.9983 0.8245 0.9519 0.9268 0.0424 0.9967 0.0024 0.9558 0.0003 0.9993 1.5245 0.2712 0.9998 0.9960 0.9114 0.1148 1.9461 1.8831 0.0000 1.9998 0.9980 0.0019 0.5858 0.0005 0.9996 0.9997 0.9998 0.9984 0.5722 1.9992 0.9986 0.9493 0.7145 0.9790 0.8998 1.9659 0.0000 0.9722 0.0000 0.2247 0.9726 0.7175 0.15 0.9745 0.2958 0.6070 0.0000 0.9921 0.0233 0.1734 0.9979 0.0007 1.9999 0.9825 0.2814 0.9639 0.0001 1.8729 0.9348 0.9666 0.9744 0.2537 0.9881 0.9996 0.0016 0.1763 0.9848 0.2552 0.9969 0.8974 0.

9999 0.9986 0.8822 0.5681 0.0027 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0074 0.9966 0.9367 0.9996 0.0006 0.9970 0.0000 1.25 0.0032 1.9999 1.9996 0.0549 0.9998 0.7032 0.0121 0.1302 0.9256 0.6007 0.0003 1.9233 0.0061 0.8968 0.9989 1.0000 0.9993 0.0000 0.9933 0.9738 0.p x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 0.0001 0.3991 0.9997 0.6844 0.0356 0.9543 0.9953 0.8702 0.8546 0.9808 0.9997 0.7827 0.4625 0.5839 0.9686 0.4406 0.4371 0.8392 0.04 0.1613 0.2201 0.0962 0.6767 0.0709 0.1285 0.0000 0.8761 0.9104 0.9957 0.6290 0.9393 0.5092 0.0011 1.9971 0.8535 0.0009 0.8669 0.4231 0.0000 0.9999 0.9988 0.9914 0.7978 0.9804 0.9581 0.9995 0.5665 0.9909 0.0433 0.9845 0.9999 0.0000 0.0000 0.6885 0.1341 0.1326 0.07 0.0644 0.9990 0.9976 0.0015 0.50 n=40 0.9252 0.9624 0.9942 0.0026 0.0000 0.7151 0.0000 0.8659 1.20 0.6937 0.0000 0.0156 0.0000 0.9968 0.9951 0.1285 0.1594 0.9963 0.8619 0.05 0.5627 1.9608 0.9925 0.0000 0.45 0.4395 0.0015 0.0842 0.9925 0.0000 0.4408 0.9301 0.1110 0.0759 0.06 0.9597 1.7852 0.1140 0.1959 0.0230 0.9999 0.0000 0.9999 0.9328 0.6946 0.6821 0.3179 1.2112 0.03 0.2142 0.9990 0.5931 0.8646 0.9994 0.0179 0.9758 0.9999 0.0083 1.2053 0.0000 0.3143 0.9997 0.9996 0.01 0.9419 0.0021 0.9231 0.0805 0.4373 0.0001 0.7911 0.9691 0.9917 0.0000 0.9999 0.8095 0.3174 0.9993 0.7870 0.2894 0.9884 0.9595 0.0001 0.0303 0.15 0.0001 0.7103 0.6615 0.0553 0.9568 0.9983 0.7318 0.9988 0.0013 0.2990 0.9861 0.0000 0.8074 0.9976 0.9790 0.9999 0.0148 0.9999 0.9999 0.2148 0.0160 0.4391 0.0192 0.9361 0.0285 0.0079 0.9988 0.8209 0.9033 0.0002 0.9996 0.3087 0.9680 0.5721 0.9990 0.0003 0.9988 0.0000 0.9880 0.30 0.0000 1.0000 0.4325 0.0000 0.0001 1.0000 0.9919 0.0001 0.0000 0.9996 0.0386 0.0000 0.0000 0.9966 0.6690 0.0000 p x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 19 .2859 0.0486 0.6067 0.9999 0.9985 0.0006 0.0047 0.9921 0.0769 1.9806 0.8849 0.9873 0.0000 0.7868 0.0403 0.1820 0.9811 0.0000 1.2998 0.09 0.4457 0.7937 0.9997 0.9801 0.3185 0.9989 0.9005 0.0000 0.2633 0.7559 0.0086 0.9999 0.9520 0.02 0.9125 0.9937 0.0352 0.0000 1.40 0.35 0.5772 0.9977 0.0124 0.9918 0.0000 0.10 0.9949 0.0000 0.1954 0.5210 0.2228 0.9966 0.9917 1.0000 0.08 0.9637 0.9985 0.5651 0.9994 0.0001 0.0751 0.0000 0.3694 0.9991 0.0238 0.9456 0.9998 0.0000 0.0000 0.9827 0.9852 0.1215 0.9998 0.0000 klj 0.2957 0.9998 0.9701 0.4402 0.7855 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000 0.0000 0.0044 0.

03 0.0000 0.9999 0.2801 0.9995 0.9906 0.5561 0.9604 0.9832 0.8813 0.4253 0.0090 0.1878 0.0000 0.0402 0.0000 0.0183 0.0000 0.9997 0.8594 0.0133 0.4312 0.1974 0.0000 0.9966 0.0000 0.0000 0.08 0.7604 0.0427 0.9976 0.0000 0.9992 0.0827 0.8369 0.9991 0.9900 0.0266 0.0765 0.0595 0.9997 0.9999 0.1904 0.7107 0.9990 0.7358 0.2194 0.0002 1.4439 1.9999 0.9868 0.1163 0.2503 0.9974 0.9968 0.5836 0.9999 0.0000 0.0002 0.9017 0.9882 0.0002 0.9987 0.4437 0.9713 0.0000 0.0000 1.9877 0.1605 0.0073 0.0006 0.0000 1.2181 0.9990 0.7072 0.9944 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9999 0.3073 0.1265 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 0.9699 0.0029 0.3303 0.0185 0.0532 0.6216 0.0000 0.1117 0.9232 0.5188 0.9562 0.9944 0.0460 0.0000 1.9405 1.0661 0.09 0.3359 0.0000 0.0325 1.5692 0.9417 0.0013 1.9421 0.6050 0.9947 0.0000 0.9999 0.8404 0.9999 0.6134 0.0000 0.9998 1.9955 0.0052 0.0453 0.9997 0.9998 0.1611 1.9510 0.0021 0.1900 0.9999 0.6370 0.9996 0.0000 0.0160 0.1637 0.9822 0.9983 0.9991 0.5405 0.0000 0.0000 0.9999 0.0001 0.9999 0.4468 0.9957 0.3613 0.9765 0.8108 0.9793 0.0057 0.0001 0.p x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 20 p x 0.8981 0.0045 0.9840 0.0008 0.0453 0.0142 0.8801 0.9993 0.0000 0.9856 0.9022 0.9968 0.9862 0.50 n=50 0.5553 0.9522 0.9999 0.9999 0.9995 0.9994 0.9996 0.9861 0.3816 0.3279 0.6161 0.9975 0.0000 1.0001 0.9998 0.0057 0.9856 0.0000 1.0000 0.9833 0.0077 0.0000 0.1034 0.6641 0.1299 0.9978 0.9152 0.7481 0.0002 0.8034 0.9686 0.9986 0.5060 0.8139 0.9987 1.9622 0.5019 0.9995 0.9997 0.0342 0.9675 0.7702 0.0164 0.1390 0.0540 0.0769 0.9964 0.9427 0.0104 0.9973 0.0155 0.9106 0.3642 0.2229 0.9991 0.9755 0.0000 0.0000 0.0280 0.8206 0.40 0.0000 0.0000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 klm .0000 0.9875 0.0220 0.9393 0.9924 0.4465 0.0000 0.0008 0.0955 0.7822 0.15 0.9997 0.9968 0.6701 0.9216 0.7911 0.7264 0.9906 0.04 0.8139 0.5327 0.0025 0.0000 0.6290 0.0916 0.9993 0.9999 0.9937 0.9992 0.1013 0.7660 0.25 0.9556 0.9780 0.05 0.01 0.9672 0.8389 0.2369 0.0007 0.02 0.9449 0.0000 0.4162 0.0000 0.0000 0.9372 0.30 0.8609 0.2794 0.0000 0.0000 0.8438 0.9984 0.35 0.9999 0.0000 0.8721 0.5110 0.7290 0.9220 0.4005 0.9290 0.7601 1.6839 0.9749 0.8779 0.0000 0.6681 0.0000 1.9998 0.0005 0.9993 0.9993 0.9978 0.0018 0.9372 0.3108 0.8894 0.0338 0.0000 0.07 0.3889 0.3356 0.10 0.06 0.2399 0.0000 0.45 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.9711 0.5610 0.9923 1.0000 0.2260 0.9927 0.0480 0.9999 0.0000 1.1273 0.0067 0.2622 0.9224 0.20 0.0000 0.0000 0.0005 1.0000 0.9998 0.0025 0.8987 0.0022 0.9963 0.9937 0.0000 0.9981 0.7160 0.9692 0.0000 0.9967 0.7919 0.0000 0.0002 0.5277 0.1121 0.1561 0.9995 0.0194 0.0789 0.6473 0.9836 0.0001 0.0000 0.8964 0.9981 0.9884 0.6767 0.0070 0.3900 0.2862 0.8650 0.0033 0.9947 0.0002 0.

10 0.9883 0.0000 0.1991 0.0000 0.9998 0.6626 0.0183 0.9991 0.1653 0.9212 0.6288 0.9751 0.9995 0.7806 0.0611 0.9997 0.5488 0.8705 0.9960 0.9994 1.9275 0.5 5.9881 0.9098 0.9489 0.50 0.0041 0.9977 0.7851 0.9319 0.9999 0.4060 0.9865 0.4405 0.9682 0.9909 0.9769 0.9996 0.3027 0.9840 0.2017 0.0067 0.6678 0.9999 0.9998 0.2674 0.0404 0.0000 1.9994 1.8441 0.4695 0.0273 0.9631 0.9995 0.2689 0.9980 0.5289 0.2019 0.9987 0.5152 0.2650 0.1247 0.0000 1.9940 0.4493 0.9974 1.9662 0.9999 0.9962 0.5697 0.1712 0.5249 0.0000 2.9857 0.9993 0.9828 0.0884 0.9997 0.9856 0.9825 0.0000 0.0111 0.9643 0.8311 0.8893 0.8944 1.9756 0.6767 0.9973 0.9986 0.9999 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 22 x 1.0000 0.9945 0.1257 0.9997 0.9963 0.9923 0.9999 0.6160 0.9942 0.9994 0.9985 0.0408 0.0000 1.9964 0.4628 0.0000 0.6065 0.70 0.9659 0.0000 0.0743 0.9349 0.9994 0.9917 0.9041 0.8 4.1074 0.9999 0.0000 1.9810 0.7725 0.0907 0.9999 0.8156 0.1736 0.9769 0.9955 1.8153 0.0000 0.3679 0.5184 0.9966 0.9998 1.2 3.9982 0.5918 0.9091 0.0 1.9999 0.9597 0.9982 0.8781 0.9999 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 λ x 1.9998 0.0 5.0334 0.8477 0.8442 0.7306 1.4066 0.3546 0.9967 0.9884 0.9983 1.5321 0.9921 0.9992 0.7834 0.9890 1.6 2.9985 0.6860 0.0608 0.9998 0.3423 0.9972 0.4966 0.9933 0.0000 klm .9980 0.9987 0.0000 1.9996 0.9554 0.60 0.8946 0.9996 0.7029 0.9999 0.4 1.0498 0.9991 0.9919 0.9968 0.8571 0.2381 0.8795 0.9997 0.9510 0.3799 0.0000 0.9832 0.9998 0.9462 1.9421 0.9896 1.1353 0.9636 1.8095 0.9473 0.9942 0.TABLE 2 CUMULATIVE POISSON DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION The tabulated value is P(X λ x).3575 0.9829 0.0000 1.4335 0.9998 0.9998 0.8774 0.9947 0.9989 0.9992 0.5584 0.6227 0.0 4.0224 0.1108 0.0266 0.2311 0.9526 0.9976 0.4232 0.0 3.0 2. where X has a Poisson distribution with mean λ.9692 0.9943 0.40 0.7360 0.4735 0.9665 0.9999 0.9992 0.0000 1.0000 1.30 0.9197 0.9999 0.8666 0.9981 0.3012 0.20 0.9599 0.9989 0. 0.7622 0.80 0.9134 0.9993 0.2466 0.4 3.9863 0.0000 0.0000 1.1468 0.0000 0.4 2.3084 0.9999 0.9267 0.6025 0.6919 0.0000 0.9989 0.2 1.9834 0.7408 0.6 3.8194 0.9161 0.8 λ 0.9048 0.0000 0.9997 0.8335 0.5 λ 0.7358 0.2 2.7787 0.9384 0.9999 0.6472 0.0000 0.0916 0.9371 0.9994 0.9998 0.8187 0.9953 0.9998 0.9786 0.3397 0.6703 0.9997 0.8088 0.90 1.9992 0.9955 0.6 1.9925 0.0000 1.9747 1.0000 0.0000 1.8 3.9463 0.9976 0.8913 1.7442 0.9763 0.9999 0.0000 1.9919 0.9997 0.9999 0.7064 0.

9993 0.4530 0.7636 0.0786 0.9888 0.5231 0.6815 0.0000 0.9990 0.4457 0.0000 0.9678 0.9730 0.8355 0.9999 0.9661 0.8305 0.9165 0.0000 0.1912 0.1730 0.9976 0.0895 0.9970 0.0002 0.0885 0.3532 0.9991 0.5 10.9999 0.9907 0.9996 0.0996 0.4579 0.9999 0.0744 0.8472 0.0113 0.0203 0.λ 6.0458 0.9993 0.9989 0.8195 1.9015 0.7440 0.2687 0.9857 0.9827 0.9998 1.9665 0.0 7.8826 0.9999 0.3328 0.9997 0.9400 0.0000 0.0062 0.9997 0.0301 0.9953 0.0049 0.9998 0.0 9.9950 0.7720 0.9997 0.9997 0.7520 0.0000 0.8758 0.0212 0.9957 0.0 11.0998 0.0047 0.0000 0.9984 0.1301 0.9964 0.8159 0.6728 0.3472 0.4497 0.0002 0.9208 0.0000 0.2237 0.9999 0.9943 0.8622 0.8987 0.9999 0.4599 0.2851 0.1432 0.0259 0.7559 0.0203 0.9750 0.3690 0.7489 1.2517 0.9998 0.9999 0.9726 0.1512 0.5925 0.9261 0.4657 0.1118 0.2562 0.9833 0.9862 0.2068 0.7916 0.9995 0.5704 0.3856 0.9332 0.0550 0.0037 0.8645 0.0424 0.9907 0.0142 0.9928 0.7916 0.0015 0.7166 0.0093 0.9984 0.9999 0.0008 0.5730 0.9799 0.9996 0.0000 23 .9993 0.9995 0.0000 0.0671 0.0430 0.9999 0.0699 0.9467 0.9573 0.0000 0.1321 0.9976 0.0138 0.9872 0.8487 0.0374 0.9787 0.9990 0.5874 0.9996 0.3782 0.8752 1.9995 0.5 7.1848 0.9977 0.9980 0.0620 0.9998 0.0003 0.9780 0.0316 0.0000 0.8981 0.7764 0.9897 0.9998 0.0000 0.0000 1.9999 0.9996 0.9998 0.9585 0.9963 0.0028 0.0174 0.1185 0.9954 0.9370 0.9235 0.0023 0.6641 0.0296 0.0000 0.0818 0.9074 0.0000 0.3239 0.3632 0.9985 0.0028 0.9994 0.9980 0.9990 0.9987 0.9999 0.2424 0.0042 0.7813 0.5760 0.0076 0.9967 0.5218 0.2600 0.9997 0.0591 0.9911 0.9673 1.0006 0.0011 0.6887 0.9805 1.0 15.9986 0.9626 0.0 6.8881 0.0107 0.9712 0.8444 0.9987 0.9970 0.0000 0.0 12.9884 0.0293 0.9960 0.9999 0.4557 0.0 13.9521 0.7291 0.0001 0.3405 0.9302 0.9469 1.9988 0.0000 0.0001 0.0103 0.0002 0.1094 0.5987 0.6968 0.0000 0.9929 0.9998 0.0151 0.2414 0.0001 0.8030 0.9999 0.9912 0.0000 0.3007 0.9823 0.9980 0.1496 0.0019 0.9974 0.6530 0.9441 0.0403 0.0 14.0005 0.8540 0.6620 0.0005 0.9362 0.0002 0.5246 0.0 λ 0.0540 0.0018 0.8364 0.9934 0.7060 0.4616 0.0025 0.7634 0.0180 0.6453 0.0009 0.9970 0.0375 0.9918 0.3585 0.9999 1.9823 0.9999 0.0000 0.9170 1.9730 0.3918 0.9938 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 klj x 1.2320 0.9992 0.0001 0.1757 0.9924 0.6694 0.5265 0.1649 0.2202 0.5830 0.9161 0.9486 0.0030 0.1658 0.0005 0.9091 0.3134 0.9965 0.9784 0.1550 0.9574 0.0055 0.9999 0.0012 0.9996 0.9995 0.0621 0.8272 0.0012 0.9889 0.9859 0.0000 0.5 9.9983 1.0076 0.6751 0.9999 0.5681 0.4631 0.9939 0.4644 0.5793 0.9947 0.0149 0.9991 1.9573 0.1157 0.0000 0.0009 0.8774 0.9840 0.5 8.2676 0.0073 0.0000 0.8905 0.0 8.9513 0.0000 1.6063 0.9658 0.

96995 0.99989 0.99926 0.99991 0.51197 0.0 0.99965 0.99736 0.99379 0.76730 0.99982 0.99993 0.99520 0.98077 0.94408 0.97441 0.61409 0.99979 0.6 1.8 2.09 z 0.99980 0.99955 0.84134 0.98030 0.68082 0.95053 0.65173 0.81057 0.93699 0.99986 0.99683 0.89617 0.80234 0.8 0.99693 0.95907 0.97500 0.55567 0.99962 0.84375 0.8 3.86214 0.98713 0.76424 0.99946 0.5 2.83147 0.95254 0.99988 0.99774 0.6 1.94630 0.93056 0.9 2.59483 0.99992 0.99324 0.3 1.3 3.1 3.99752 0.4 2.72240 0.99836 0.91149 0.1 0.69497 0.99986 0.99990 0.99977 0.9 1.54776 0.99865 0.99245 0.91309 0.66640 0.90658 0.98461 0.80511 0.93448 0.71566 0.7 1.99934 0.99869 0.99960 0.8 2.99856 0.97558 0.99992 0.57535 0.98341 0.88877 0.99913 0.52392 0.4 1.99180 0.99903 0.99988 0.90988 0.98124 0.99878 0.99990 0.95154 0.96712 0.99831 0.64431 0. that a normally distributed random variable Z.94062 0.99674 0.99361 0.99992 0.97831 0.99664 0.77637 0.65910 0. 24 z 0.5 0.95352 0.95728 0.56749 0.70884 0.98899 0.91774 0.96784 0.99940 0.99969 0.97778 0.08 0.99430 0.8 0.99767 0.99972 0.99957 0.96856 0.99936 0.99973 0.99547 0.6 0.93574 0.92220 0.99846 0.99990 0.3 0.99560 0.99861 0.94179 0.97932 0.98257 0.99874 0.7 3.00 0.7 3.55172 0.5 3.2 3.99086 0.50798 0.57926 0.98537 0.2 2.1 1.61026 0.03 0.99958 0.8 1.99918 0.91924 0.98574 0.99653 0.99993 0.97257 0.99900 0.55962 0.9 2.74215 0. p.99996 0.96926 0.53188 0.99841 0.62930 0.85314 0.01 0.73565 0.99585 0.2 2.58706 0.78230 0.99889 0.99760 0.99446 0.99996 0.96562 0.78814 0.89796 0.99948 0.99995 0.2 1.50000 0.99966 0.59095 0.51595 0.54380 0.99598 0.73237 0.56356 0.2 0.83398 0.99975 0.02 0.0 2.96164 0.9 3.99728 0.99942 0.99343 0.93943 0.1 0.99202 0.0 2.88493 0.99916 0.52790 0.97670 0.99995 0.77035 0.87076 0.4 0.99983 0.75490 0.4 3.0 0.99720 0.81594 0.8 1.82121 0.99621 0.99994 0.99010 0.99985 0.99976 0.99632 0.99609 0.92507 0.2 1.98300 0.96638 0.97882 0.51994 0.99938 0.98745 0.89065 0.99996 0.3 0.95449 0.87286 0.99987 0.99744 0. is less than or equal to z.99534 0.94295 0.99111 0.89251 0.71904 0.99134 0.77935 0.99984 0.7 2.99961 0.90490 0.98840 0.99573 0.99882 0.99993 0.68793 0.70540 0.4 0. with mean = 0 and variance = 1.53983 0.57142 0.07 0.77337 0.99795 0.1 2.6 3.97725 0.53586 0.1 3.8 3.76115 0.79389 0.50399 0.75804 0.60642 0.68439 0.99801 0.79955 0.90320 0.99396 0.83891 0.82381 0.99944 0.92785 0.65542 0.05 0.99978 0.97381 0.99981 0.99994 0.6 3.5 0.66276 0.95543 0.99506 0.78524 0.99886 0.98928 0.81859 0.63683 0.92364 0.TABLE 3 NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION The table gives the probability.74857 0.83646 0.90824 0.7 1.99492 0.99968 0.86864 0.88100 0.93319 0.99413 0.98679 0.99061 0.98169 0.81327 0.9 3.99997 0.4 2.99996 0.67003 0.99964 0.99978 0.94845 0.84849 0.75175 0.99910 0.99266 0.99953 0.3 1.98610 0.98983 0.9 klm .99906 0.64058 0.99825 0.88686 0.0 3.96485 0.94738 0.1 2.95994 0.99991 0.99305 0.93822 0.6 2.99851 0.99994 0.99983 0.87900 0.99896 0.60257 0.80785 0.99158 0.98870 0.94520 0.97320 0.99992 0.98645 0.98956 0.99981 0.59871 0.85769 0.98382 0.2 0.1 1.62552 0.6 0.98214 0.2 3.98809 0.92922 0.88298 0.97193 0.99995 0.64803 0.69146 0.97982 0.99994 0.99989 0.97128 0.98500 0.5 2.5 3.67724 0.92073 0.99987 0.74537 0.82894 0.94950 0.99807 0.0 3.5 1.72575 0.89435 0.84614 0.4 3.82639 0.3 2.85083 0.99996 0.99974 0.99997 0.90147 0.7 0.61791 0.99971 0.4 1.86650 0.7 0.69847 0.97062 0.99970 0.0 1.71226 0.96080 0.99995 0.99924 0.79673 0.99224 0.99477 0.99950 0.96327 0.99995 0.67364 0.92647 0.0 1.99781 0.93189 0.95818 0.9 1.72907 0.85543 0.99813 0.99996 0.89973 0.06 0.99702 0.96246 0.87698 0.99461 0.7 2.98422 0.85993 0.99819 0.98778 0.6 2.99711 0.3 3.87493 0.99643 0.99893 0.99921 0.96407 0.91621 0.9 0.58317 0.5 1.3 2.86433 0.79103 0.99931 0.63307 0.99985 0.62172 0.04 0.99929 0.97615 0.99036 0.99952 0.95637 0.99788 0.99286 0.91466 0.73891 0.70194 0.

5 0.8957 1.2019 0.9945 1.0753 0.001 0.8779 0.0902 0.8808 2.0502 0.1444 2.2571 2.8 0.01 0.6 0.98 0.0364 1.6449 1.7478 2.8782 3.1701 2.97 0.6433 0.7 0.9600 1.4125 0.0537 2.7063 0.8 0.0803 1.6546 1.04 0.9 p 0.2904 2. where Z is the normally distributed random variable with mean = 0 and variance = 1.5121 2.4051 1.2262 2.3656 2.5244 0.6646 1.98 0.7507 1.7991 1.000 0.4677 0.6747 1.0251 0.05 0.1750 1.9954 2.2275 0.0335 2.8522 1.009 p 0.003 0.3263 0.6954 1.7744 1.5 0.8808 1.5758 2.005 0.3853 0.002 0.07 0.9542 0.2533 0.6449 1.1973 2.06 0.1257 0.5548 1.3408 1.99 klj 25 .1201 2.09 p 0.9431 1.007 0.9268 1.7392 1.6849 1.02 0.8663 1.0000 0.9 0.7279 1.4089 2.4573 2.7169 1.7866 1.4758 1.6745 0.7060 1.00 0.1004 0.7507 1.1764 0.03 0.08 0.9154 0.97 0.0141 2.4399 0.96 0.3263 2.TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE POINTS OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION The table gives the values of z satisfying P(Z z) = p.4958 0.9774 1.1264 1.6 0.99 1.8416 0.5534 0.7 0.8119 1.2816 1.0969 2.96 0.004 0.8384 1.7624 1.3585 0.2265 1.3055 0.95 0.006 0.5828 0.9110 1.6521 2.0749 2.8064 0.7722 0.1510 0. p 0.008 0.7388 0.8250 1.2793 0.6128 0.0537 2.95 0.3319 0.

676 2.330 1.453 2.377 2.668 1.074 2.663 1.985 2.703 2.009 2.756 1.309 1.035 2.691 2.653 1.056 2.738 1.499 1.012 1.994 2.701 2.064 2.169 1.372 1.602 2.753 2.639 1.023 2.671 2.014 2.363 1.473 2.350 1.704 1.976 2.609 1.841 1.728 1.286 1.992 2.740 2.831 1.366 2.648 1.304 1.287 1.796 2.106 1.292 1.533 2.297 1.895 2.TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE POINTS OF THE STUDENT'S t-DISTRIBUTION The table gives the values of x satisfying P(X x) = p.995 3.975 0.690 1.492 2.371 2.860 2.715 1.292 1.160 2.686 2.291 1.995 1.771 1.397 1.643 1.9 0.143 3.385 2.687 2.711 2.429 2.337 1.632 1.624 2.539 2.101 2.345 2.965 9.438 2.333 1.485 2.431 2.567 2.518 2.819 1.314 1.323 1.306 2.681 3.341 1.821 63.95 0.314 12.878 1.688 2. p ν 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 26 0.328 1.308 1.293 1.920 4.679 2.833 2.708 1.552 2.657 1.004 2.060 2.303 1.528 2.697 2.99 0.228 2.761 2.294 1.357 2.984 2.042 2.750 1.712 1.797 1.307 1.365 2.434 2.669 1. where X is a random variable having the Student's t-distribution with ν degrees of freedom.479 2.733 1.353 3.313 1.368 2.998 3.325 1.724 1.055 1.744 1.898 1.664 1.305 1.812 2.947 1.708 2.626 1.182 4.734 2.131 2.311 1.345 1.383 1.110 2.977 1.746 2.028 2.576 klm .960 2.690 2.467 2.024 2.718 3.604 1.861 1.086 2.030 2.037 2.821 3.476 2.998 2.657 1.673 2.080 2.694 2.764 3.719 1.725 2.654 1.310 1.032 2.132 2.943 2.296 1.925 1.021 2.441 2.721 2.729 2.845 1.997 2.782 2.645 1.396 2.306 1.650 3.306 1.571 3.356 1.390 2.299 1.787 1.315 1.201 2.684 2.304 1.282 1.660 1.896 3.032 1.661 1.026 2.426 2.95 0.771 2.318 1.415 1.979 2.015 2.355 1.541 5.045 2.326 2.660 1.048 2.301 1.583 2.9 0.040 2.717 2.457 2.321 1.365 4.714 2.987 2.291 1.440 1.069 2.696 2.747 4.000 2.635 1.303 6.776 3.638 2.412 2.374 2.309 1.078 6.447 3.403 2.601 1.662 1.699 2.629 1.616 1.667 1.290 1.381 2.706 2.295 1.972 2.445 2.423 2.685 2.990 2.052 2.500 2.145 2.706 31.250 1.316 1.462 2.364 2.665 1.707 1.179 2.508 2.093 2.99 0.763 p ν 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 125 150 200 0.807 1.975 0.779 1.886 2.692 2.678 1.121 2.262 2.288 1.351 2.655 1.921 1.449 2.319 1.

660 5.865 15.833 15.707 22.645 12.047 17.300 3.017 14.795 91.325 59.426 23.749 68.685 26.610 9.534 37.275 17.459 74.95 0.410 34.520 11.170 37.488 11.531 95.745 47.086 16.695 28.659 33.635 7.229 6.408 7.041 30.812 18.509 20.153 60.215 47.352 0.476 20.404 5.156 0.151 18.261 8.336 23.629 6.708 19.142 5.797 46.192 55.736 27.725 26.957 73.082 83.064 23.382 37.995 0.655 17.398 38.675 21.558 3.362 18.492 48.141 31.764 37.777 102.061 96.588 52.750 10.776 57.409 35.642 48.079 107.444 44.903 48.711 1.196 36.571 4.434 41.007 35.126 73.307 24.450 50.99 0.357 34.879 14.107 5.075 4.845 32.299 63.473 34.1 0.364 42.848 32.980 45.638 44.671 35.004 0.289 20.010 0.363 52.103 0.690 2.114 36.256 43.672 10.164 24.806 21.773 46.689 13.542 26.250 65.542 10.9 0.964 17.231 9.879 0.654 25.540 57.942 56.298 88.091 14.336 13.979 50.805 55.991 7.240 29.923 45.00004 0.603 47.578 101.581 18.090 21.883 19.570 36.024 6.615 32.308 16.924 36.844 15.169 p ν 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 27 .697 6.177 94.180 1.549 21.475 52.818 113.120 14.172 38.973 84.136 124.691 66.391 64.247 3.815 9.TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE POINTS OF THE χ 2 DISTRIBUTION The table gives the values of x satisfying P(X x) = p.796 73.251 0.758 59.629 112.848 15.505 61.858 129.564 8.121 14.676 0.997 8.401 8.116 128.260 10.196 50.001 0.892 62.207 0.005 0.053 3.619 61.307 20.643 9.067 16.304 18.120 62.196 11.380 82.188 46.813 33.172 53.735 33.115 0. where X is a random variable having the χ 2 distribution with ν degrees of freedom.134 16.700 3.878 24.362 24.839 106.210 10.458 15.509 29.206 49.962 9.565 113.646 2.635 2.239 1.311 25.328 70.358 118.754 65.217 100.016 2.886 10.991 29.707 32.296 28.821 89.145 1.706 3.428 65.939 37.204 30.955 2.486 56.656 65.072 22.110 43.929 82.065 74.646 44.350 57.872 1.329 116.038 118.573 16.379 91.297 0.443 28.883 79.247 67.400 50.860 11.592 14.668 59.291 20.790 21.664 23.378 9.342 63.212 50.023 100.415 39.312 23.526 34.548 2.168 14.397 79.269 25.781 40.815 17.812 22.722 49.522 112.292 85.651 27.343 49.085 24.485 40.188 2.963 49.059 49.535 20.897 10.796 9.812 6.725 54.211 4.226 6.061 58.328 15.223 21.689 63.337 44.051 0.113 43.393 118.325 4.437 58.237 1.908 7.769 27.749 35.892 7.119 29.216 0.236 0.203 57.484 0.047 20.982 12.271 42.181 9.461 13.422 44.757 3.475 20.054 59.779 0.634 61.278 96.160 12.265 7.167 67.144 32.647 69.191 55.015 8.985 48.362 15.009 5.801 5.106 24.003 15.916 41.292 35.892 53.412 0.569 22.884 27.490 13.633 8.605 5.791 18.805 37.953 16.987 18.064 7.603 3.802 53.283 11.869 31.204 0.236 122.321 55.198 13.645 12.566 39.191 38.433 26.952 39.232 52.490 31.838 9.920 24.996 21.074 19.643 47.191 33.563 38.660 54.952 44.319 4.488 30.973 134.412 31.787 14.589 2.559 10.652 40.483 23.345 12.034 8.087 42.434 8.154 79.572 58.672 14.807 140.383 41.975 0.758 51.291 107.342 60.105 43.507 17.524 13.156 6.996 56.442 48.278 2.342 129.281 21.841 5.401 13.501 17.143 13.390 10.591 13.575 5.808 12.449 16.741 40.170 57.076 41.816 4.493 20.733 3.852 36.684 16.958 42.932 41.833 12.278 50.217 28.597 7.344 1.611 16.05 0.075 26.196 61.256 16.907 10.025 0.586 19.851 12.422 98.557 45.384 56.425 104.222 77.789 19.582 7.267 5.366 30.314 46.735 2.879 106.393 110.887 19.819 4.584 6.074 3.060 68.023 21.195 46.420 76.766 24.389 64.856 12.565 4.989 1.666 23.960 22.885 41.571 7.192 18.262 7.209 25.461 48.480 53.919 19.311 77.337 26.901 28.513 53.260 9.925 73.051 51.648 16.940 4.752 123.998 54.505 71.585 46.989 28.290 11.277 14.844 7.145 118.498 124.275 19.565 15.578 32.286 51.070 12.539 19.718 6.768 39.194 49.020 0.289 42.898 69.691 22.599 40.612 33. p ν 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 klj 0.275 45.162 64.0002 0.167 1.482 43.410 69.591 10.329 85.013 18.996 27.465 24.867 23.739 55.688 29.928 18.554 0.042 19.348 11.993 13.602 51.01 0.072 0.520 77.026 23.479 38.338 14.527 90.000 34.578 17.865 25.928 11.561 135.601 5.896 61.166 27.181 19.088 2.547 22.587 30.831 1.117 11.379 17.

568 4.450 3.678 8.20 13.294 3.4 199.88 43.430 2.270 8.695 4.451 9.298 4.871 3.23 27.322 5.369 2.198 5.278 3.840 1.909 9.521 6.883 3.571 3.131 2.374 3.519 2.514 3.760 3.40 99.82 20.708 3.348 3.815 3.602 9.374 8.953 5.886 4.102 5.186 6.TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE POINTS OF THE F-DISTRIBUTION The tables give the values of x satisfying P(X x) = p.67 27.02 41.942 3.522 2.405 4.203 2.530 4.47 99.734 5.472 4.088 5.377 9.071 4.547 8.534 7.859 10.321 2.75 13.33 99.311 10.535 2.835 4.805 8.959 2.965 1.539 4.408 3.314 5.103 3.001 ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ F-Distribution (p=0.421 7.874 7.786 8.683 6.17 99.885 8.552 5.133 10.949 1.5 55.632 6.47 42.650 11.862 3.422 7.3 199.006 6.503 2.682 5.509 3.391 10.350 3.773 1.081 2.231 3.858 3.765 3.460 4.424 4.028 2.699 2.180 6.69 15.386 5.96 9.585 3.071 4.228 3.074 6.296 7.091 2.987 6.53 12.992 5.515 5.562 5.006 7.26 23.814 9.396 6.4 199.953 2.00 19.632 4. ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ ν1 ν2 4052 5000 5403 5625 5764 5859 5928 5981 6022 6056 6083 6106 6157 6209 6240 6261 6287 6303 6366 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 6334 98.538 2.963 4.466 8.140 4.318 4.400 2.665 2.394 3.272 3.279 3.173 3.107 8.952 7.030 3.427 6.21 42.48 99.697 3.358 9.453 2.893 1.415 4.010 3.46 16.56 14.513 3.142 4.060 7.233 5.13 9.519 5.559 6.661 5.044 7.167 2.417 4.14 20.626 5.49 13.039 1.98 14.542 3.976 7.814 6.688 11.473 3.397 4.226 8.674 4.678 3.820 4.117 3.45 12.004 8.608 6.855 4.939 3.862 4.895 3.114 2.171 5.99) Use for one-tail tests at significance level 1% or two-tail tests at significance level 2%.745 10.155 6.150 3.998 5.482 5.625 5.358 2.222 3.818 5.370 3.076 4.906 4.50 19.248 2.912 1.116 5.000 ∞ klm .471 5.148 8.843 2.941 3.24 9.270 4.620 4.52 43.471 7.62 13.690 9.50 26.522 9.022 2.77 13.08 42.123 3.939 3.782 3.460 7.667 5.66 14.5 199.36 99.623 4.134 6.860 3.260 8.232 3.200 5.217 7.962 4.5 199.47 99.427 8.882 10.214 3.823 2.598 1.665 3.544 12.272 2.018 3.4 199.589 9.922 6.803 5.720 3.41 26. where X is a random variable having the F-distribution with ν 1 degrees of freedom in the numerator and ν 2 degrees of freedom in the denominator.780 3.605 3.898 2.257 5.35 26.376 3.58 26.976 4.359 5.230 2.50 34.058 1.097 1.239 4.457 3.319 3.296 4.29 10.635 4.320 5.993 6.908 3.746 8.984 3.081 7.428 4.19 45.368 2.828 2.412 3.33 26.868 8.467 3.717 7.417 6.596 8.75 19.802 2.127 2.58 13.46 99.76 12.885 6.451 7.89 9.623 7.569 3.55 14.26 13.092 2.757 5.076 14.325 3.880 12.683 6.3 199.38 13.496 7.457 3.345 5.808 4.69 26.719 6.056 2.932 8.832 5.02 13.522 3.66 12.13 43.925 9.904 11.598 2.97 20.165 8.164 2.065 4.639 12.39 44.730 3.057 4.30 99.37 99.419 2.50 99.028 11.422 6.802 5.908 5.5 199.069 4.432 2.206 2.847 2.057 4.174 4.645 3.938 2.299 2.511 2.46 21.71 28.21 14.143 7.402 1.386 2.890 2.304 3.960 3.713 3.361 9.699 3.329 4.895 4.70 20.721 4.318 3.090 3.510 4.45 14.15 12.968 5.879 16.927 5.02 13.83 31.502 3.628 2.715 3.059 3.762 4.037 3.00 16.24 27.245 2.797 1.024 1.694 2.724 4.116 5.067 1.05 26.380 8.006 2.026 8.091 6.995) Use for one-tail tests at significance level 0.2 199.253 5.865 5.39 43.800 3.331 4.791 5.819 2.580 3.401 2.72 9.53 15. ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 16211 20000 21615 22500 23056 23437 23715 23925 24091 24224 24334 24426 24630 24836 24960 25044 25148 25211 25337 25464 198.4 199.46 28.057 5.949 3.05 9.155 4.619 3.694 7.625 2.603 4.215 3.717 4.220 4.993 2.598 5.785 2.469 6.80 14.034 9.562 2.798 7.073 10.354 7.170 9.713 4.206 6.250 4.359 4.849 4.228 4.330 6.67 19.912 7.422 6.778 2.176 7.82 29.727 2.064 4.247 4.979 2.567 4.06 11.025 3.988 2.005 3.35 27.857 4.274 5.87 26.561 8.970 3.454 5.259 8.97 10.099 4.613 5.407 2.266 3.926 6.350 3.956 3.45 9.805 7.620 6.096 5.488 4.441 4.223 2.772 4.537 5.0 199.862 6.355 5.708 2.227 6.088 2.43 99.643 2.359 5.178 5.514 8.864 3.67 10.986 3.680 5.302 7.17 20.519 2.653 2.24 26.951 13.00 99.549 2.801 2.375 3.91 27.205 4.049 4.098 2.847 5.28 24.288 6.191 4.358 1.066 4.84 44.257 5.96 13.963 3.017 2.067 2.810 3.828 6.49 99.781 2.459 2.94 14.004 3.51 14.241 9.696 1.850 2.236 5.278 4.20 18.786 10.108 2.80 47.569 3.42 99.826 4.153 4.042 9.754 7.693 6.38 9.517 4.39 99.508 4.129 3.956 7.314 6.316 5.241 5.112 3.708 5.339 7.229 7.353 2.265 2.178 6.900 2.250 10.902 4.5% or two-tail tests at significance level 1%.124 2.538 6.564 3.62 21.640 4.447 3.772 4.425 3.196 3.706 4.847 4.289 2.541 6.879 5.90 12.649 4.226 11.251 4.718 7.716 2.456 4.938 4.744 4.20 14.888 2.007 1.636 5.739 5.013 2.263 5.462 4.755 5.590 2.536 4.942 4.482 6.236 12.966 4.13 27.614 10.754 8.681 1.78 18.687 3.805 3.917 12.545 6.821 4.524 2.579 3.790 7.627 3.523 1.45 99.877 1.43 44.433 4.169 7.639 2.32 22.505 3.968 7.418 5.564 5.635 14.499 4.179 4.311 4.12 30.41 99.202 5.372 5.015 6.780 9.91 13.035 4.313 3.701 5.583 2.55 9.47 46.16 10.371 6.49 27.843 2.507 3.000 1.604 2.44 20.698 2.155 8.15 22.022 6.826 9.906 2.649 7.324 3.2 199.994 5.467 5.766 3.744 2.475 6.510 7.462 4.412 4.855 3.296 2.938 1.25 99.695 2.219 3.657 2.464 11.14 18.558 4.847 7.187 2.247 4.742 3.46 10.881 6.217 5.988 2.302 4.314 6.102 7.050 9.411 2.847 3.770 5.621 2.988 4.453 2.700 2.590 1.368 3.431 4.412 5.935 4.972 2.165 4.4 199.27 12.52 15.551 4.84 13.589 4.029 5.893 4.992 6.646 7.824 3.014 3.993 2.351 5.032 5.271 2.13 21.132 3.735 1.840 6.302 6.78 42.756 3.470 2.073 3.088 1.746 5.652 2.97 21.085 4.828 3.211 7.523 3.071 5.668 5.104 7.4 199.476 5.5 199.246 9.986 5.59 42.390 4.600 6.849 4.482 2.701 3.39 10.070 3.257 4.4 199.589 3.556 4.951 1.789 1.525 5.176 8.55 49.186 3.669 1.226 6.344 3.849 3.058 5.675 4.31 42.185 2.699 3.977 2.902 4.776 3.89 19.199 3.343 6.30 12.825 1.878 1.897 2.5 199.031 4.5 199.179 3.436 10.872 6.823 2.592 1.115 4.29 9.69 13.736 4.654 4.515 5.217 3.562 5.69 43.566 10.37 14.744 2.858 5.291 3. F-Distribution (p=0.643 4.227 2.559 7.814 5.4 199.98 15.911 5.537 3.222 6.188 12.666 3.203 3.100 4.177 3.404 10.31 16.191 6.255 3.701 6.323 2.260 9.647 11.372 3.35 21.111 4.165 4.388 4.825 2.591 7.020 2.485 7.153 5.396 7.656 3.944 6.

43 19.79 5.787 3.919 1.009 1.249 2.849 1.153 3.575 2.087 2.62 4.831 1.754 3.0 236.62 14.054 2.04 6.35 19.2 899.16 19.756 2.523 5.366 5.353 3.820 5.568 4.447 2.0 254.38 8.226 3.730 2.463 2.602 2.987 5.25 14.774 2.039 1.218 3.832 1.187 2.484 1.885 3.80 5.02 8.58 8.099 4.752 1.095 3.717 3.891 3.457 2.534 4.059 5.15 6.507 2.008 2.688 3.501 3.26 6.604 3.5 864.46 8.276 4.86 5.725 6.475 2.13 9.376 3.295 4.599 1.509 4.969 2.747 3.079 1.46 19.01 13.671 2.686 4.667 3.41 39.882 2.126 2.774 2.715 1.40 39.5% or two-tail tests at significance level 5%.506 1.882 1.09 6.9 993.588 2.474 3.247 2.7 224.000 3.39 39.073 6.8 937.077 1.102 4.919 1.744 1.096 4.907 1.333 6.6 973.543 3.663 3.43 8.123 2.17 39.807 3.36 9.96 13.81 8.60 9.644 2.696 2.700 2.362 4.490 3.026 1.1 1001.259 3.085 3.3 18.112 2.792 1.403 2.027 4.904 2.835 3.308 2.317 2.287 3.637 2.635 2.640 1.915 2.515 2.94 6. ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 647.51 19.604 3.913 2.074 2.026 3.236 4.752 1.355 3.445 3.838 3.660 1.42 14.84 8.531 2.871 4.305 2.249 2.463 2.12 14.5 241.840 3.606 2.855 3.456 4.119 4.674 2.12 9.171 3.595 6.22 10.340 3.33 19.996 2.461 3.75 8.59 8.385 2.999 3.117 4.08 14.948 2.91 5.708 3.666 1.832 2.275 4.25 19.1 1013.458 2.073 2.131 4.37 19.109 1.180 2.36 5.841 2.955 1.617 2.068 1.549 2.199 3.74 8.311 3.699 2.613 2.459 2.714 2.296 4.906 5.372 2.759 2.79 8.881 3.937 3.90 12.848 2.88 4.211 2.200 4.135 3.525 1.837 2.667 3.1 251.804 3.950 3.080 6.089 2.43 39.227 5.62 8.30 19.41 19.63 8.073 3.943 2.203 2.739 3.8 253.863 3.321 2.198 2.066 4.102 3.49 39.641 2.388 3.737 4.074 2.922 2.197 4.975 3.77 5.560 3.899 4.859 3.993 1.177 3.38 19.896 2.813 7.015 1.078 4.300 2.906 2.137 3.828 3.461 5.152 3.01 8.756 2.767 2.571 6.191 2.88 14.209 3.008 2.312 3.874 3.388 2.972 3.468 4.938 3.637 5.515 3.599 6.844 3.54 14.949 2.727 1.221 3.544 2.050 2.39 6.709 4.89 8.761 1.715 5.424 4.010 1.963 2.079 3.307 2.789 1.19 5.066 3.599 2.266 2.236 2.125 2.250 2.334 2.260 6.912 3.768 1.170 2.26 10.46 39.263 2.401 2.872 1.866 1.542 5.206 4.707 2.284 3.693 1.61 5.048 1.351 3.500 3.472 3.871 2.717 2.803 2.200 4.334 2.507 2.965 4.670 7.66 5.350 2.436 3.573 2.250 3.993 1.053 4.66 8.39 7.2 956.522 3.490 2.878 1.419 3.79 8.677 3.390 3.761 4.952 1.72 5.783 1.182 2.753 2.996 2.414 4.289 3.52 4.452 2.330 3.124 2.183 2.545 5.600 3.839 1.901 2.841 1.585 2.123 3.774 3.404 3.44 16.5 215.405 4.604 2.0 243.913 2.833 2.293 3.2 1018.230 5.867 2.46 39.996 1.282 2.966 1.256 3.726 3.209 5.182 3.76 6.284 4.000 ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ F-Distribution (p=0.053 2.025 2.95 4.357 3.16 6.46 19.18 6.357 4.41 5.690 2.072 3.326 3.14 6.339 2.103 3.319 3.739 3.232 2.092 2.880 1.242 3.73 14.57 6.936 2.08 6.98 8.719 2.128 3.894 3.388 3.099 2.27 6.994 1.746 2.626 1.107 5.47 14.032 1.381 2.130 2.147 4.121 3.020 2.20 9.817 4.403 3.721 2.514 2.F-Distribution (p=0.024 3.142 7.671 2.603 3.32 8.624 2.848 2.44 4.687 2.526 3.103 2.796 1.114 2.589 1.842 1.34 14.529 2.482 3.638 2.006 2.340 3.56 8.866 2.56 4.003 1.566 1.70 8.573 1.560 2.411 2.310 2.994 1.764 2.336 2.666 4.44 15.529 4.165 2.676 2.581 3.012 4.70 4.945 1.350 1.796 2.728 3.392 1.784 1.034 3.589 3.588 3.3 250.478 3.05 4.449 2.116 2.387 4.118 3.553 2.603 2.179 3.854 2.98 9.33 39.349 2.395 5.732 2.975 1.759 3.388 2.765 4.741 1.41 8.767 3.416 5.438 3.153 3.438 3.96 5.646 2.537 2.178 2.890 5.182 2.694 3.404 4.00 5.55 9.938 1.04 14.538 4.204 2.007 2.778 2.883 6.66 8.849 2.3 968.255 3.143 4.964 3.711 2.915 4.10 14.956 2.204 3.50 10.850 1.0 976.833 1.515 1.770 1.975 2.71 6.893 2.101 3.864 2.1 251.278 2.374 3.991 2.463 3.095 3.400 2.321 3.00 39.661 2.275 3.347 3.605 2.288 2.696 2.17 14.426 2.616 1.467 4.818 2.458 2.412 2.380 3.298 4.576 3.1 948.533 2.511 2.695 1.474 2.9 243.085 5.68 6.90 8.779 1.963 2.787 5.106 2.607 3.76 8. ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 161.95) Use for one-tail tests at significance level 5% or two-tail tests at significance level 10%.724 5.753 2.051 3.554 5.707 4.038 2.320 4.421 2.415 3.060 3.37 14.283 3.570 2.708 1.786 2.393 2.43 6.007 1.968 1.459 4.341 2.483 1.664 3.988 5.49 19.544 2.85 6.665 3.45 39.309 4.9 248.837 2.76 7.651 2.179 3.62 6.744 2.511 3.924 1.633 3.374 3.65 9.464 2.498 2.695 5.129 2.534 2.634 1.1 998.94 5.978 2.77 4.557 2.287 2.55 8.020 2.243 4.118 2.849 8.505 3.943 1.192 2.40 19.9 240.04 15.9 245.483 3.839 2.36 39.061 3.394 1.165 2.689 3.0 249.380 2.600 5.630 4.396 2.622 4.674 2.408 2.652 4.646 2.412 2.656 1.982 3.30 39.844 2.571 1.6 230.026 2.250 3.47 39.313 3.51 39.575 3.592 1.230 2.669 5.98 6.296 1.466 2.975) Use for one-tail tests at significance level 2.065 5.269 5.718 4.50 4.687 1.871 1.000 klj ν1 ν2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 20 25 30 40 50 100 ∞ 29 .417 2.769 3.285 5.826 4.996 3.780 2.53 7.682 3.012 2.591 4.968 1.199 2.25 39.46 4.077 2.68 4.7 963.484 4.565 2.601 2.567 2.808 3.073 3.261 2.995 4.286 2.027 2.744 2.862 2.3 38.120 3.980 4.348 2.242 3.857 4.587 3.2 234.256 4.410 5.927 1.347 4.588 2.40 19.50 17.314 2.45 19.318 4.958 2.886 1.098 2.044 3.405 2.6 1008.056 2.932 1.150 3.487 6.8 238.8 799.986 1.676 1.568 4.523 5.043 3.316 2.826 2.347 3.48 39.936 3.85 8.459 1.108 3.124 2.621 3.230 3.07 8.937 5.52 6.875 1.41 39.63 6.788 2.477 1.288 2.779 3.94 8.868 3.512 3.23 6.845 2.70 5.565 2.179 2.195 2.7 984.060 4.347 5.328 2.637 3.285 3.790 2.241 2.33 6.00 19.214 2.74 4.928 5.277 3.75 5.493 3.948 2.913 2.711 4.337 2.866 3.917 2.244 2.433 4.126 2.50 8.843 4.197 3.892 3.28 9.179 3.677 2.147 3.428 1.124 2.82 4.47 19.689 2.41 4.162 3.4 199.965 4.534 2.411 3.344 3.800 2.48 19.823 4.790 2.266 2.474 4.291 3.217 3.207 4.293 3.712 3.072 3.01 7.6 921.806 3.4 1005.280 2.168 5.37 39.430 3.757 4.243 1.216 2.59 6.210 4.

r.3365 0.3961 0.7293 0.4716 0.7348 0.4762 0.2352 0.6411 0.4259 0.6614 0.6084 0.2940 0.3610 0.3494 0.6021 0.3843 0. for different significance levels.5214 0.1292 0.7545 0.5256 0.2913 0.2220 0.2907 0.2826 0.5140 0.3457 0.5052 0.2199 0.2512 0.7977 0.6215 0.2746 0.3598 0.7887 0.3981 0.3420 0.5509 0.3314 0.4296 0.4973 0.3550 0.2702 0.5067 0.2869 0.6664 0.1843 0.9587 0.3060 0.5923 0.4629 0.3665 0.1925 0.4869 0.2638 0.9900 0.5% 5% 1% 2% 0.5155 0.7079 0.4409 0.3515 0.2377 0.5034 0.6319 0.3882 0.4187 0.4958 0.2542 0.2785 0.6851 0.8329 0.6835 0.2156 0. of the product moment correlation coefficient.2960 0.2497 0.1883 0.5614 0.3887 0.3673 0.6581 0.4124 0.2043 0.2455 0.2546 0.9800 0.9343 0.4973 0.3783 0.2353 0.2597 0.7498 0.4357 0.3916 0.2774 0.3809 0.3233 0.3536 0.8745 0.1745 0. for varying sample sizes.4534 0. n.5760 0.1678 0.3297 0.4622 0.1966 0.2914 0.2605 0.2429 0.3621 0.5577 0.2787 0.3578 0.4329 0.8114 0.4821 0.3291 0.3061 0.2254 0.2449 0.4785 0.5151 0.6120 0.5487 0.TABLE 8 CRITICAL VALUES OF THE PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT The table gives the critical values.2403 0.2407 0.3077 0.7646 0.5368 0.4093 0.1982 0.5494 0.4487 0.3810 0.3384 0.8054 0.4182 0.4575 0.4132 0.2542 0.2097 0.4372 0.2653 0.1852 0.2992 0.3801 0.1947 0.4128 0.2144 0.6055 0.3761 0.5% 1% 0.4705 0.1654 0.5425 0.2324 0.3202 0.2997 0.4227 0.2876 0.2565 n 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 One tail Two tail n 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 60 70 80 90 100 klm .2327 0.9500 0.4716 0.2483 0.4421 0.2366 0.3338 0.2126 0.2018 0.4238 0.2451 0.3972 0.2973 0.3271 0.3712 0.3301 0.5751 0.2816 0.9172 0.2072 0.6339 0.3646 0.3760 0.3388 0.4683 0.1993 0.3120 0.8783 0.2187 0.3044 0.5529 0.3978 0.1970 0.3009 0.2289 0.4044 0.4428 0.3383 0.8822 0.3687 0.2841 0.3507 0.4451 0.3646 0.4158 0.2598 0.1863 0.3862 0.2776 0.2573 0.5822 0.3348 0. One tail Two tail 10% 20% 5% 10% 2.3246 0.8000 0.3281 0.2673 0.1903 0.5285 0.4555 0.4032 0.2711 0.7067 0.3440 0.2709 0.4556 0.3172 0.1448 0.3610 0.4226 0.3802 0.3438 0.5324 0.2845 0.4815 0.3081 0.8343 0.1550 0.6694 0.4438 0.3683 0.3115 0.5897 0.5742 0.4026 0.6870 0.4076 0.2070 0.6226 0.4297 0.3932 0.3008 0.3170 0.3739 0.7155 0.1364 0.3496 0.3721 0.9000 0.2864 0.4921 0.3887 0.3160 0.4000 0.

exact significance levels cannot be obtained in most cases.5285 0.8571 0.6091 0.6485 0.7000 0.2542 0.8571 0.4265 0.2774 0.3843 0.4093 0.3457 0.2960 0.1550 0.3496 0.2914 0.4026 0.8286 0.4227 0.4238 0.1993 0.5029 0.3673 0.9000 1.2126 0.5179 0.5034 0.2070 0.1863 0.3536 0.3578 0.3202 0.5714 0.5824 0.2455 0.3887 0.6713 0.3338 0.1947 0.4705 0.7818 0.0000 1.4182 0.4044 0. One tail Two tail 10% 20% 5% 10% 2.2973 0.2542 0.3739 0.2785 0.6786 0. n.2869 0.3271 0.4833 0.4297 0.7857 0.4226 0.3610 0.3687 0.1966 0.2565 n 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 60 70 80 90 100 klj One tail Two tail n 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 60 70 80 90 100 31 .1843 0.5368 0.4329 0.7381 0.2598 0.2451 0.1982 0.8929 0.3382 0.6324 0.2702 0.4780 0.5577 0.3440 0.2913 0.3500 0.3932 0.3862 0.3550 0.7273 0.3388 0.6429 0.5636 0.3760 0.3761 0.2018 0.2673 0.6571 0.4556 0.5874 0.2841 0.8167 0.2709 0.2940 0.4032 0.2776 0.2366 0.3384 0.3061 0.5052 0.4124 0.2327 0.3077 0.9429 0.4421 0.3665 0.2711 0.3801 0.3961 0.5487 0.5151 0.6536 0.4716 0. rs.2653 0.3986 0.2187 0.3978 0.4429 0.4593 0.3297 0.2826 0.2497 0.2746 0.1903 0.4372 0.3683 0.5385 0.2512 0.1292 0.TABLE 9 CRITICAL VALUES OF SPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT The table gives the critical values.2377 0.4683 0.3621 0.5476 0.3060 0.3348 0.2352 0.6978 0.3916 0.6747 0.4815 0.3281 0.4487 0.3008 0.7667 0.2097 0.1970 0.4000 0.3712 0.2597 0.6220 0.7333 0.2907 0.2043 0. The critical values given are those with significance levels closest to the stated value. Since rs is discrete.4869 0.3810 0.3646 0.1654 0.4534 0.4076 0.3598 0.1364 0.2072 0.2156 0.1852 0.3887 0.4629 0.0000 1.2144 0.9000 0.4128 0.2864 0.3009 0.2407 0.5425 0.1448 0.1678 0.3791 0.2876 0.3882 0.2546 0.2638 0.4158 0.5% 1% 1.4622 0.3809 0.3301 0.3314 0.5256 0.2289 0. of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.3081 0.2605 0.4132 0.7000 0.2220 0.4451 0.3420 0.4424 0.6833 0.3170 0.3972 0.2787 0.5035 0.4182 0.0000 0.4821 0.2403 0.3438 0.3610 0.2992 0.4296 0.3365 0.3044 0.4555 0.6484 0.3783 0.1883 0.5% 5% 1% 2% 0. for different significance levels.2573 0.1745 0.9429 0.2254 0.2816 0.7714 0.3670 0.2845 0.7545 0.6000 0.0000 1.1925 0.5897 0.3721 0.2353 0.3246 0.4958 0.4921 0.4785 0.2483 0.4357 0.6055 0.2324 0.3172 0.5751 0.5155 0.4438 0.3494 0.6000 0.0000 1.2997 0.3291 0.5273 0.3233 0.2199 0.3120 0.3515 0.5604 0.2429 0.0000 1.5614 0.8095 0.0000 0.2449 0.3160 0.3115 0. for varying sample sizes.

One tail 10% 5% 2.5% 1% 0.TABLE 10 CRITICAL VALUES OF THE WILCOXON SIGNED RANK STATISTIC The table gives the lower tail critical values of the statistic T. T is the sum of the ranks of observations with the same sign. The critical region includes the tabulated value. exact significance levels cannot usually be obtained. The critical values tabulated are those with significance levels closest to the stated value. Since T is discrete.5% Two tail 20% 10% 5% 2% 1% n 32 3 0 4 1 0 5 2 1 0 6 4 2 1 0 7 6 4 2 0 0 8 8 6 4 2 0 9 11 8 6 3 2 10 14 11 8 5 3 11 18 14 11 7 5 12 22 17 14 10 7 13 26 21 17 13 10 14 31 26 21 16 13 15 37 30 25 20 16 16 42 36 30 24 19 17 49 41 35 28 23 18 55 47 40 33 28 19 62 54 46 38 32 20 70 60 52 43 37 klm . The upper tail critical values are given by 1 n(n + 1) − T 2 .

The critical region includes the tabulated value. The critical values tabulated are those with significance levels closest to the stated value.TABLE 11 CRITICAL VALUES OF THE MANN–WHITNEY STATISTIC The table gives the lower tail critical values of the statistic U. U =T − n(n + 1) where T is the sum of the ranks of the sample of size n. 2 Since U is discrete. exact significance levels cannot be obtained. The upper tail critical values are given by mn − U .5% 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5 0 1 3 4 5 7 8 10 11 12 14 6 0 2 4 5 7 9 11 12 14 16 18 7 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 18 20 22 8 1 3 6 8 11 13 16 18 21 24 26 9 1 4 7 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 10 2 5 8 11 14 18 21 24 28 31 34 11 2 5 9 12 16 20 24 27 31 35 39 12 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 39 43 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Two tail 5% m 2 n 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 0 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 klj 5 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 6 0 1 2 4 5 7 8 10 12 13 15 7 0 2 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 18 8 0 2 4 6 8 11 13 15 18 20 22 9 0 3 5 7 10 13 15 18 21 23 26 10 1 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 11 1 4 7 10 13 17 20 23 27 30 34 12 1 4 8 11 15 18 22 26 30 34 38 33 . One tail 5% Two tail 10% m 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 n 2 One tail 2.

085 1.35 1.3512 10 1. To obtain an estimate of σ .001 b 2.784 5.066 4.096 0.063 0.3249 12 1.309 0.199 0.5908 4 0.45 1.251 4.595 3.001 3.92 2.67 2.45 1.682 5.03 0.4857 5 0.36 0.63 0. Normal distribution is assumed.16 1.41 1.59 1.29 0.484 0.69 0.76 0.410 4.823 0.999 D0.09 0. multiply σ by the appropriate value of D.025 E 0.925 6.55 1.060 0.361 5.674 4.25 0.86 0.41 0. multiply σ by the appropriate value of E.367 0.55 1.303 3.29 0.3698 8 0.TABLE 12 CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABILITY For range charts.24 3.025 D0.27 1.3069 klm .605 5.20 0.835 1.730 0. For standard deviation charts. multiply the mean range by the appropriate value of b.8862 3 0.654 E 0.3946 7 0.49 1.984 5.170 4.15 0.51 1.33 0.535 1.15 0.93 0.197 5.494 5.975 2 34 D0.975 E 0.76 2. Sample size D0.03 0.4299 6 0.850 4.884 4.293 1.999 E 0.691 1.41 1.619 0.60 2.973 0.

TABLE 13 RANDOM NUMBERS 2 6 8 7 9 9 2 3 5 9 9 5 7 7 6 2 0 5 0 1 7 6 2 3 7 6 2 1 2 5 6 2 0 7 9 1 7 6 5 1 8 8 6 2 2 7 0 4 2 0 8 3 1 7 3 0 0 2 9 3 7 7 1 5 5 8 2 9 0 5 4 0 3 4 4 3 7 8 0 3 7 9 8 6 2 5 3 7 6 9 4 3 6 6 0 2 8 6 2 4 6 6 7 2 9 2 8 6 5 5 4 3 7 4 3 4 5 6 6 1 6 8 3 8 2 1 6 9 9 6 3 2 0 2 1 4 7 9 4 7 8 6 7 0 6 1 5 7 7 3 7 3 4 1 6 2 3 6 9 8 7 4 8 6 8 3 0 8 2 6 0 1 1 6 8 4 8 5 6 9 8 2 9 1 4 5 7 0 1 1 1 5 8 7 7 1 8 9 3 9 4 4 3 5 7 2 2 9 2 3 3 9 6 7 4 1 2 4 9 4 5 9 8 3 2 1 0 4 9 8 7 2 4 4 8 4 3 0 0 7 9 8 3 5 8 0 4 1 8 3 6 1 5 3 7 4 6 1 6 7 9 6 6 4 1 0 8 6 6 2 0 0 8 6 7 1 7 8 9 9 2 6 5 9 5 6 6 9 7 7 9 3 0 1 8 0 7 7 7 3 9 4 2 5 4 5 2 2 7 0 4 4 6 6 6 7 3 8 5 6 4 7 3 1 6 5 2 0 0 8 3 7 6 2 2 8 9 1 5 5 4 9 1 1 3 9 4 9 2 9 6 2 2 9 8 4 4 5 8 4 7 7 3 7 2 9 1 6 8 2 1 8 0 5 4 3 0 3 8 9 5 9 5 6 4 8 5 4 4 3 4 6 8 9 5 3 6 0 1 4 4 4 9 7 4 4 3 1 6 1 8 8 3 8 9 3 2 3 1 7 2 1 4 2 9 0 8 0 1 3 1 9 1 0 2 2 3 5 3 8 9 1 2 2 2 6 5 2 4 3 3 9 0 2 5 3 5 3 6 7 3 1 1 6 9 8 9 8 2 2 0 8 3 3 9 4 4 6 0 1 7 1 2 0 4 4 6 7 5 2 4 8 0 5 9 4 4 6 0 0 0 8 6 5 0 2 9 5 2 8 9 0 5 3 1 3 6 3 2 1 6 6 1 9 8 5 1 4 9 9 7 7 7 0 5 3 9 7 2 4 0 6 6 9 7 3 3 7 2 3 3 3 4 3 9 1 9 2 7 1 4 0 3 5 5 5 4 4 0 8 8 2 7 8 6 2 5 5 9 5 8 0 1 7 8 6 7 8 3 9 6 9 9 1 5 9 1 9 0 3 2 4 3 9 7 2 4 3 2 4 5 6 5 0 9 3 8 8 4 9 8 3 2 9 8 6 1 2 4 7 6 5 8 7 3 8 1 0 3 9 8 3 9 6 5 4 4 8 5 0 3 1 4 8 5 8 9 3 0 4 3 9 1 2 6 7 0 6 4 6 0 9 8 2 2 4 9 9 6 7 9 8 0 8 2 1 6 5 6 7 0 3 9 0 1 3 4 3 4 1 9 3 7 9 4 2 1 6 0 3 1 8 2 2 4 5 7 4 9 4 0 0 8 8 1 7 5 6 3 8 8 6 0 8 7 2 8 3 5 1 1 3 7 9 0 1 9 9 5 8 2 6 9 5 8 7 0 8 2 2 7 4 2 0 1 6 7 0 4 5 2 8 4 8 5 1 6 5 9 4 8 2 9 5 3 1 1 2 1 6 3 2 5 3 5 5 9 4 7 0 4 8 5 7 8 3 7 1 3 1 4 1 6 3 9 7 4 1 6 6 9 9 6 3 7 6 6 4 5 5 1 0 1 3 6 6 2 0 3 3 9 4 9 0 4 8 0 1 7 8 7 0 1 3 1 7 9 1 7 9 7 0 8 9 8 6 7 1 1 7 8 9 8 4 8 0 3 1 2 7 0 8 1 7 5 2 5 0 9 8 2 6 0 0 1 3 7 1 3 3 0 7 2 4 3 8 4 5 2 2 1 8 9 4 2 9 2 0 1 9 3 9 0 7 1 0 5 8 5 5 5 1 1 0 7 3 6 2 1 6 0 9 6 0 5 2 5 5 6 3 1 5 2 2 4 1 1 5 4 2 3 6 3 7 1 5 8 3 5 3 2 2 9 2 5 4 9 4 9 3 8 7 3 4 6 3 6 8 6 4 6 6 7 6 4 9 0 5 4 0 5 9 3 1 7 5 7 8 1 9 7 1 5 6 4 3 1 6 1 2 1 0 3 1 7 8 6 4 0 1 1 9 3 5 1 1 5 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 6 8 0 0 0 0 2 6 3 7 1 1 9 6 7 5 0 7 2 0 6 3 7 8 9 6 7 6 9 1 6 2 2 7 9 5 9 2 8 6 5 5 7 8 3 6 3 3 1 3 8 4 6 0 8 2 9 5 1 6 2 8 4 8 8 5 0 6 9 5 4 7 3 5 0 4 4 5 9 7 9 2 5 7 5 6 4 0 6 0 4 0 3 6 3 2 9 4 7 8 2 6 4 2 5 2 5 2 5 7 9 7 2 2 0 5 4 8 8 1 9 1 2 7 1 2 9 4 2 2 0 3 0 4 2 8 5 9 8 6 0 6 1 6 8 5 1 9 1 9 3 1 3 0 7 4 9 9 3 0 5 1 8 1 0 5 1 7 3 0 0 7 7 1 7 9 9 1 4 7 0 5 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 4 4 4 9 5 8 1 6 6 4 0 0 4 3 5 3 5 9 0 2 9 0 4 2 3 8 1 2 8 6 3 4 8 7 0 2 1 4 6 1 6 5 9 9 1 8 1 2 7 8 8 1 4 6 2 9 3 4 7 7 3 7 9 1 8 3 6 9 5 9 1 2 7 6 3 7 0 3 3 5 7 7 4 9 3 1 0 7 7 0 0 9 2 9 0 7 7 2 1 2 5 8 1 6 1 7 8 8 7 4 5 8 4 7 2 0 7 1 8 4 3 5 1 7 1 4 0 6 9 5 9 6 0 6 9 1 2 2 2 5 7 2 0 9 0 5 7 6 2 7 8 6 8 0 6 0 1 9 7 1 3 3 1 1 1 8 3 0 1 3 4 5 7 3 6 7 4 9 4 6 2 0 2 0 4 3 6 4 5 6 0 5 4 0 7 3 3 2 5 0 8 4 9 0 8 8 0 5 5 6 1 5 9 7 3 7 5 7 8 5 7 1 3 5 7 0 3 1 9 7 6 9 2 4 9 0 6 4 7 7 5 1 3 7 8 6 0 6 3 2 2 7 8 0 0 7 6 3 4 3 7 0 0 3 3 1 4 7 9 1 0 3 0 4 9 2 0 5 2 2 8 2 5 0 3 5 6 9 8 6 1 0 5 5 7 2 9 5 2 4 3 2 7 8 6 1 2 3 2 0 9 4 9 9 8 5 0 7 8 1 2 4 3 8 4 0 0 1 2 3 2 7 9 7 2 0 3 1 2 4 4 6 1 4 5 0 1 4 8 9 4 7 4 2 3 2 2 2 5 2 2 6 2 4 2 4 4 5 7 6 1 4 8 1 5 9 1 2 0 2 5 1 8 4 5 9 5 2 3 1 3 4 7 4 8 7 1 3 4 4 2 6 6 9 3 5 0 7 4 7 5 1 3 2 9 4 9 0 1 0 5 7 4 2 5 4 0 5 2 9 2 4 3 5 8 3 8 5 2 5 9 1 0 5 4 4 9 3 9 5 4 7 5 5 7 8 7 5 5 6 7 1 7 7 5 0 6 4 5 3 3 5 0 3 8 8 3 0 0 3 7 1 3 1 4 2 8 6 3 9 6 5 8 2 6 5 5 5 6 8 1 3 4 1 6 2 9 7 7 6 9 0 5 0 1 7 1 1 2 1 8 8 6 1 8 2 9 0 9 1 4 0 2 8 2 1 3 1 0 9 2 6 7 1 2 6 0 7 8 9 5 1 1 5 3 7 2 7 8 3 9 5 3 2 8 9 3 0 5 8 9 4 9 4 0 3 6 6 2 2 8 8 3 8 0 9 6 2 2 7 9 9 0 7 4 9 5 7 4 3 4 2 1 6 4 3 2 8 2 9 0 8 2 6 7 9 4 7 4 3 5 0 8 0 7 6 0 1 8 0 7 0 1 6 7 3 0 1 6 9 2 0 1 9 5 5 4 9 1 3 9 2 2 3 9 8 5 5 7 7 5 5 3 1 4 8 4 1 4 2 2 5 2 4 0 8 8 4 5 2 4 7 1 8 4 5 7 4 9 1 7 0 7 3 6 7 8 3 1 2 4 3 4 4 5 5 4 9 7 7 4 5 6 8 6 6 8 2 5 1 4 5 4 8 5 5 8 0 8 6 4 4 9 4 6 2 2 0 2 0 4 5 5 7 6 9 6 4 1 8 2 0 9 9 4 4 9 7 6 0 9 5 4 1 5 6 6 4 3 5 7 2 8 8 7 1 1 9 4 9 0 5 4 8 8 3 9 1 7 2 5 5 klj 35 .