# The DC Drive

In the beginning

• • • • • •
Speed Reference Minimum Speed Maximum Speed Acceleration Deceleration Current Limit

Speed Reference
• Typically it is a potentiometer that an operator turns to adjust the speed of the machine.

Adjustments – Min. . Speed • Minimum Speed • How fast the machine will operate with the Speed Reference turned all the way DOWN.

Adjustments – Max. . Speed • Maximum Speed • How fast the machine will operate with the Speed Reference turned all the way UP.

Adjustments . .Acceleration • Acceleration Rate • How much time it will take to go from stop to full speed.

Deceleration • Deceleration Rate • How much time it will take to go from full speed to stop.Adjustments . .

.Adjustments . It’s based on the motors Full Load Amps.Current Limit • Current Limit • This limits the amount of current coming out of the drive.

network data or keypad input Signal is modified by Min.20mA signal from a controller. Can be analog 0 .Basic DC Drive Operations • • Speed Reference . Speed Adjustments Goes to the Ramp Circuits • • • .10vdc or 4 . Can also be a adjustment via parameter.How fast you want the machine to go. and Max.

The time periods are adjustable via a pot. . parameter or network data. Output goes to a summing junction.Basic DC Drives Operations • • • Ramp (Rate) circuits get the speed reference and ramps the signal up over a period of time.

Basic DC Drive Operations .

• The result out of the summing junction is an error signal indicating the difference between the speed reference and the feedback.voltage or current.Basic DC Drive Operations • Summing Junction • Takes the signal from the Ramp circuits and adds them together with some sort of feedback. Another way to look at it is “ difference between how fast I want it to go verses how fast it is actually going” • Output goes to the Major Loop (Speed or Voltage Loop) . • Feedbacks can be speed.

Basic DC Drive Operations .

• There is a feedback loop around the amplifier. This loop has a resister and capacitor (digital drive’s would be integrator and proportional response) • Tuning these values of the feedback loop will affect the overall response (stability) of the drive.Basic DC Drive Operations • Major Loop Operational Amplifier (Loop 2) • The speed error signal from the summing junction is the input. This amplifies the error signal. .

Basics DC Drive Operations .

Basic DC Drive Operations Stability .

Basic DC Drive Operations • Second Summing Junction • The input to this junction is the amplified error signal out of the Major Loop (Loop 2) operational amplifier. . • Current Reference is “Summed” together with the current feedback signal. The signal is now called Current Reference. • The output signal goes to the Current Minor Loop (Loop 1) Operational Amplifier.

Basic DC Drive Operations .

This amplifies the error signal.Basic DC Drive Operations • • Current Minor Loop (Loop 1) The current error signal from the summing junction is the input. There is a feedback loop around the amplifier which is a resistor and capacitor. (Digital drive’s is Integrator & Proportional response) Tuning these values will affect overall response (stability) of the drive. • • .

Basic DC Drive Operations .

• Everything in the drive up to this point is there to tell these circuits when to fire. . Input from CML.Basic DC Drives Operations • Gate Pulse Driver Circuits • These circuits provide the pulse to the gate inputs on all the SCR’s.

Gate Pulse Timing .

Basic DC Drive Operations .

• The Power Module has AC power connected to it which is what gets switched (through the SCR’s) to the motor armature circuit as DC.Basic DC Drive Operations • Power Module • This is where the SCR’s live. .

Basic DC Drive Operations .

SCR Construction .

Typical DC Drive .SCR’s .

Power Module (SCR’s) Non-Regen .

Power Module (SCR’s) Regen .

• Typically the Field coils have a constant voltage applied and we vary the voltage in the armature to get variable speed (up to Base speed) • To go above base speed we have constant maximum voltage in the armature and then we weaken the field voltage.Basic DC Drive Operations • Motor • The interaction of 2 magnetic fields causes rotation (armature & field). .

Speed Regulator .

Voltage Regulator .

Current Regulator .

Position Regulator .

Force Transducer Tension Regulator Basic .

Contactor Reversing .

3 Basic Types of Braking • • • Coast to Rest Dynamic Braking Regenerative Braking .

• Dynamic Braking • Inertia contained in a load causes the load to continue rotating generating a voltage and current in the armature circuit opposite in direction of motoring and being dropped across a high wattage resistor. . Time to rest is determined by Friction. Windage and Inertia of the load.Braking Methods • Coast to Rest • The application coasts to a stop.

. Using a second set of SCR’s connected opposite than the first set. these are fired so that current flow is allowed to flow in the opposite direction back to the AC line supply.Braking Methods • Regeneration • Inertia contained in a load causes the load to continue rotating generating a voltage and current in the armature circuit opposite in direction of motoring current.

DC Dynamic Braking .

Braking Force .

Stopping Methods Compared .

The AC drive Then there was AC .

AC Drive Power Section AC Line Motor Input rectifier Filter Inverter .

Drive Basics - PWM AC Operation
+ DC Bus 1 - DC Bus 3 Phase Current 10 Amps / Div. M2.00s Ch1 VLL @ Drive 500 Volts / Div.

1.18V

PWM waveform is a series of repetitive Voltage pulses

NEMA Enclosures For Drives
NEMA TYPE 1 - General Purpose Indoor, Nonvent &
Ventilated
Designed for use indoors Intended for areas where no unusual service conditions exist (relatively clean/dry) Prevent accidental contact with the enclosed equipment Panels are louvered and not sealed/gasketed Provide good protection against falling dirt

NEMA Enclosures For Drives
NEMA TYPE 1 - General Purpose Indoor, Nonvent &
Ventilated

5 HP SP500 w/Mains Filter

FlexPak 3000 w/NEMA 1 Enclosure

NEMA Enclosures For Drives
NEMA TYPE 4 - Water-tight/Dust-tight, Indoor/Outdoor
Nonventilated
Intended for use indoors to protect against:

Splashing water Falling or hose-directed water Seepage of water Severe external condensation
Must have conduit hubs for water-tight connection at conduit entrance Mounting method must be external to equipment cavity No louvers, no ventilated openings

NEMA Enclosures For Drives NEMA TYPE 4 .Water-tight/Dust-tight. Indoor/Outdoor Nonventilated Gaskets on doors NEMA Type 4X are also corrosion-resistant NEMA 4/12 1 HP MinPak Plus SP500 .

Dust-tight/Drip-tight.NEMA Enclosures For Drives NEMA TYPE 12 . Indoor Nonventilated Suitable for indoor industrial applications Designed to protect against: Fibers wFlyings wLint Dust wDirt wLight splashings Seepage wDrippings External condensation of noncorrosive liquids All holes/conduit openings must have oil-tight gaskets and use oil-tight or dusttight mounting mechanisms .

Dust-tight/Drip-tight.NEMA Enclosures For Drives NEMA TYPE 12 . Indoor Nonventilated Doors must have oil-resistant gaskets Mounting method must be external to equipment cavity Enclosures must have captive closing hardware and provision for locking Reliance often times combines Type 4 with Type 12 to make a versatile NEMA 4/12 (water/dust) enclosure .

Dust-tight/Drip-tight. Indoor Nonventilated Type 4X/12 Type 4/4X/12 Type 12 .NEMA Enclosures For Drives NEMA TYPE 12 .

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Open Loop AC .

Closed Loop AC Vector .

Open Loop SensorLess .

3 Components of Vector Control Torque Current Motor Current Magnetizing Current .

Optimizing Torque output Torque Current 90 Degrees Motor Current Magnetizing Current Torque is optimized by maintaining Magnetizing & Torque Current @ 90 degrees .

50% of Motor FLA • Fixed from 0% to 95% of Motor Base RPM • Proportionally decreased in Field Weakening Range Fixed @ 30% .Magnetizing Current • Identified during Auto-tuning • Typically ranges from 30%.50% FLA Motor Base RPM 95% Motor Base RPM Magnetizing Current is decreased in the Field Weakened area .

Torque Current • Represents the actual load at the motor shaft • Current demand above Magnetizing is Torque Torque Current varies from Magnetizing to Max FLA 95% Motor Base RPM Motor Base RPM Magnetizing Current is fixed Mag. Current is decreased .

Motor Current • The vector sum of Magnetizing and Torque Current • Regulated by internal current feedback Torque Current varies from Magnetizing to Max FLA 95% Motor Base RPM Motor Base RPM Motor Current is the sum of Magnetizing and Torque Magnetizing Current is fixed Mag. Current decreases .

General Purpose Mode V/Hz .

Vector Mode Torque Curve .

AC Snubber Braking .

AC Regeneration .

Transportation Application Matrix .

Metals Application Matrix .

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Paper Application Matrix .

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Consumer Application Matrix .

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Gas/Oil/Mining Application Matrix .

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• THE END .

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