Interview Questions Test Automation: 1. What automating testing tools are you familiar with? 2.

How did you use automating testing tools in your job? 3. Describe some problem that you had with automating testing tool. 4. How do you plan test automation? 5. Can test automation improve test effectiveness? 6. What is data - driven automation? 7. What are the main attributes of test automation? 8. Does automation replace manual testing? 9. How will you choose a tool for test automation? 10. How you will evaluate the tool for test automation? 11. What are main benefits of test automation? 12. What could go wrong with test automation? 13. How you will describe testing activities? 14. What testing activities you may want to automate? 15. Describe common problems of test automation. 16. What types of scripting techniques for test automation do you know? 17. What are principles of good testing scripts for automation? 18. What tools are available for support of testing during software development life cycle? 19. Can the activities of test case design be automated? 20. What are the limitations of automating software testing? 21. What skills needed to be a good test automator? 22. How to find that tools work well with your existing system? 23.Describe some problem that you had with automating testing tool. 24. What are the main attributes of test automation? 25.What testing activities you may want to automate in a project? 26.How to find that tools work well with your existing system? Load Testing: l. What criteria would you use to select Web transactions for load testing? 2.For what purpose are virtual users created? 3.Why it is recommended to add verification checks to your all your scenarios? 4.In what situation would you want to parameterize a text verification check? 5.Why do you need to parameterize fields in your virtual user script? 6.What are the reasons why parameterization is necessary when load testing the Web server and the database server? 7.How can data caching have a negative effect on load testing results? 8.What usually indicates that your virtual user script has dynamic data that is dependent on you parameterized fields? 9.What are the benefits of creating multiple actions within any virtual user script?

General questions: 1. What types of documents would you need for QA, QC, and Testing? 2. What did you include in a test plan? 3. Describe any bug you remember. 4. What is the purpose of the testing? 5. What do you like (not like) in this job? 6. What is quality assurance? 7. What is the difference between QA and testing? 8. How do you scope, organize, and execute a test project? 9. What is the role of QA in a development project? 10. What is the role of QA in a company that produces software? 11. Define quality for me as you understand it 12. Describe to me the difference between validation and verification. 13. Describe to me what you see as a process. Not a particular process, just the basics of having a process 14. Describe to me when you would consider employing a failure mode and effect analysis. 15. Describe to me the Software Development Life Cycle as you would define it. 16. What are the properties of a good requirement? 17. How do you differentiate the roles of Quality Assurance Manager and Project Manager? 18. Tell me about any quality efforts you have overseen or implemented. Describe some of the challenge you faced and how you overcame them. 19. How do you deal with environments that are hostile to quality change efforts? 20. In general, how do you see automation fitting into the overall process of testing? 21. How do you promote the concept of phase containment and defect prevention? 22. If you come onboard, give me a general idea of what your first overall tasks will be as far as starting quality effort. 23. What kinds of testing have you done? 24. Have you ever created a test plan? 25. Have you ever written test cases or did you just execute those written by others? 26. What did your base your test cases? 27. How do you determine what to test? 28. How do you decide when you have 'tested enough?' 29. How do you test if you have minimal or no documentation about the product? 30. Describe me to the basic elements you put in a defect report? 31. How do you perform regression testing? 32. At what stage of the life cycle does testing begin in your opinion? 33. How do you analyze your test results? What metrics do you try to provide? 34. Realising you won't be able to test everything - how do you decide what to test first? 35. Where do you get your expected results? 36. If automating - what is your process for determining what to automate and in what order? 37. In the past, I have been asked to verbally start mapping out a test plan for a common situation, such an ATM. The interviewer might say, "Just thinking out loud, if you were tasked to test an ATM, what items might you test plan include?" These type questions are

not meant to be answered conclusively, b it is a good way for the interviewer to see how you approach the task. 38. If you're given a program that will average student grades, what kinds of inputs would you use? 39. Tell me about the best bug you ever found. 40. What made you pick testing over another career? 41. What is the exact difference between Integration & System testing, give me examples with your project. 42. How did you go about testing a project? 43. When should testing start in a project? Why? 44. How do you go about testing a web application? 45. Difference between Black & White box testing 46. What is Configuration management? Tools used? 47. What do you plan to become after say 2-5yrs (Ex: QA Manager, Why?) 48. Would you like to work in a team or alone, why? 49. Give me 5 strong & weak points of yours 50. Why do you want to join our company? 51. When should testing be stopped? 52. What sort of things would you put down in a bug report? 53. Who in the company is responsible for Quality? 54. Who defines quality? 55. What is an equivalence class? 56. Is a "A fast database retrieval rate" a testable requirement? 57. Should we test every possible combination/scenario for a program? 58. What criteria do you use when determining when to automate a test or leave it anual? 59. When do you start developing your automation tests? 60. Discuss what test metrics you feel are important to publish an organization? 61. In case anybody cares, here are the questions that I will be asking: 62. Describe the role that QA plays in the software lifecycle. 63. What should Development require of QA? 64. What should QA require of Development? 65. How would you define a "bug?" 66. Give me an example of the best and worst experiences you’ve had with QA. 67. How does unit testing play a role in the development / software lifecycle? 68. Explain some techniques for developing software components with respect to testability. 69. Describe a past experience with implementing a test harness in the development of software. 70. Have you ever worked with QA in developing test tools? Explain the participation Development should have with QA in leveraging such test tools for QA use. 71. Give me some examples of how you have participated in Integration Testing. 72. How would you describe the involvement you have had with the bug-fix cycle between Development and QA? 72. What is unit testing? 73. Describe your personal software development process. 74. How do you know when your code has met specifications?

75. How do you know your code has met specifications when there are no specifications? 76. Describe your experiences with code analyzers. 77. How do you feel about cyclomatic complexity? 78. Who should test your code? 79.How do you survive chaos? 80. What processes/methodologies are you familiar with? 81. What type of documents would you need for QA/QC/Testing? 82. How can you use technology to solve problem? 83. What type of metrics would you use? 84. How to find that tools work well with your existing system? 85. What automated tools are you familiar with? 86. How well you work with a team? 87. How would you ensure 100% coverage of testing? 88. How would you build a test team? 89. What problem you have right now or in the past? How you solved it? 90. What you will do during the first day of job? 91. What would you like to do five years from now? 92. Tell me about the worst boss you've ever had. 93. What are your greatest weaknesses? 94. What are your strengths? 95. What is a successful product? 96. What do you like about Windows? 97. What is good code? 98. Who is Kent Beck, Dr Grace Hopper, Dennis Ritchie? 99. What are basic, core, practises for a QA specialist? 100. What do you like about QA? 101. What has not worked well in your previous QA experience and what would you change? 102. How you will begin to improve the QA process? 103. What is the difference between QA and QC? 104. What is UML and how to use it for testing? 105. What is CMM and CMMI? What is the difference? 106. What do you like about computers? 107. Do you have a favourite QA book? More than one? Which ones? And why. 108. What is the responsibility of programmers vs QA? 109.What are the properties of a good requirement? 110.Ho to do test if we have minimal or no documentation about the product? 11l.What are all the basic elements in a defect report? 112.Is an "A fast database retrieval rate" a testable requirement? From Cem Kaner article: "Recruiting testers" December 1999 1. What is software quality assurance? 2. What is the value of a testing group? How do you justify your work and budget? 3. What is the role of the test group vis-a is documentation, tech support, and so forth? 4. How much interaction with users should testers have, and why? 5. How should you learn about problems discovered in the field, and what should you learn from those problems?

6. What are the roles of glass-box and black-box testing tools? 7. What issues come up in test automation, and how do you manage them? 8. What development model should programmers and the test group use? 9. How do you get programmers to build testability support into their code? 10. What is the role of a bug tracking system? 11. What are the key challenges of testing? 12. Have you ever completely tested any part of a product? How? 13. Have you done exploratory or specification-driven testing? 14. Should every business test its software the same way? 15. Discuss the economics of automation and the role of metrics in testing. 16. Describe components of a typical test plan, such as tools for interactive products and for database products, as well as cause-and-effect graphs and data-flow diagrams. 17. When have you had to focus on data integrity? 18. What are some of the typical bugs you encountered in your last assignment? 19. How do you prioritize testing tasks within a project? 20. How do you develop a test plan and schedule? Describe bottom-up and top-down approaches. 21. When should you begin test planning? 22. When should you begin testing? 23. Do you know of metrics that help you estimate the size of the testing effort? 24. How do you scope out the size of the testing effort? 25. How many hours a week should a tester work? 26. How should your staff be managed? How about your overtime? 27. How do you estimate staff requirements? 28. What do you do (with the project tasks) when the schedule fails? 29. How do you handle conflict with programmers? 30. How do you know when the product is tested well enough? 31. What characteristics would you seek in a candidate for test-group manager? 32. What do you think the role of test-group manager should be? Relative to senior management? Relative to other technical groups in the company? Relative to your staff? 33. How do your characteristics compare to the profile of the ideal manager that you just described? 34. How does your preferred work style work with the ideal test-manager role that you just described? What is different between the way you work and the role you described? 35. Who should you hire in a testing group and why? 36. What is the role of metrics in comparing staff performance in human resources management? 37. How do you estimate staff requirements? 38. What do you do (with the project staff) when the schedule fails? 39. Describe some staff conflicts you've handled. Here are some questions you might be asked on a job interview for a testing opening: (from MU COSC 198 Software Testing by Dr. Corliss) 1. Why did you ever become involved in QA/testing? 2. What is the testing lifecycle and explain each of its phases? 3. What is the difference between testing and Quality Assurance? 4. What is Negative testing?

5. What was a problem you had in your previous assignment (testing if possible)? How did you resolve it? 6. What are two of your strengths that you will bring to our QA/testing team? 7. How would you define Quality Assurance? 8. What do you like most about Quality Assurance/Testing? 9. What do you like least about Quality Assurance/Testing? 10. What is the Waterfall Development Method and do you agree with all the steps? 11. What is the V-Model Development Method and do you agree with this model? 12. What is the Capability Maturity Model (CMM)? At what CMM level were the last few companies you worked? 13. What is a "Good Tester"? 14. Could you tell me two things you did in your previous assignment (QA/Testing related hopefully) that you are proud of? 15. List 5 words that best describe your strengths. 16. What are two of your weaknesses? 17. What methodologies have you used to develop test cases? 18. In an application currently in production, one module of code is being modified. Is it necessary to re- test the whole application or is it enough to just test functionality associated with that module? 19. Define each of the following and explain how each relates to the other: Unit, System, and Integration testing. 20.Define Verification and Validation. Explain the differences between the two. 21. Explain the differences between White-box, Gray-box, and Black-box testing. 22. How do you go about going into a new organization? How do you assimilate? 23. Define the following and explain their usefulness: Change Management, Configuration Management, Version Control, and Defect Tracking. 24. What is ISO 9000? Have you ever been in an ISO shop? 25. When are you done testing? 26. What is the difference between a test strategy and a test plan? 27. What is ISO 9003? Why is it important 28. What are ISO standards? Why are they important? 29. What is IEEE 829? (This standard is important for Software Test DocumentationWhy?) 30. What is IEEE? Why is it important? 31. Do you support automated testing? Why? 32. We have a testing assignment that is time-driven. Do you think automated tests are the best solution? 33. What is your experience with change control? Our development team has only 10 members. Do you think managing change is such a big deal for us? 34. Are reusable test cases a big plus of automated testing and explain why. 35. Can you build a good audit trail using Compuware's QA Center products. Explain why. 36. How important is Change Management in today's computing environments? 37. Do you think tools are required for managing change. Explain and please list some tools/practices which can help you managing change.

38. We believe in ad-hoc software processes for projects. Do you agree with this? Please explain your answer. 39. When is a good time for system testing? 40. Are regression tests required or do you feel there is a better use for resources? 41. Our software designers use UML for modeling applications. Based on their use cases, we would like to plan a test strategy. Do you agree with this approach or would this mean more effort for the testers. 42. Tell me about a difficult time you had at work and how you worked through it. 43. Give me an example of something you tried at work but did not work out so you had to go at things another way. 44. How can one file compare future dated output files from a program which has change, against the baseline run which used current date for input. The client does not want to mask dates on the output files to allow compares. - Answer-Rerun baseline and future date input files same # of days as future dated run of program with change. Now run a file compare against the baseline future dated output and the changed programs' future dated output. Interviewing Suggestions 1. If you do not recognize a term ask for further definition. You may know the methodology/term but you have used a different name for it. 2. Always keep in mind that the employer wants to know what you are going to do for them, with that you should always stay/be positive. Pre-interview Questions 1. What is the structure of the company? 2. Who is going to do the interview-possible background information of interviewer? 3. What is the employer's environment (platforms, tools, etc.)? 4. What are the employer's methods and processes used in software arena? 5. What is the employer's philosophy? 6. What is the project all about you are interviewing for-as much information as possible. 7. Any terminologies that the company may use. Interview Questions on Software Testing 1. What is Black Box Testing and why is it performed? 2. What is White Box Testing and why is it performed? 3. When Unit Testing is performed and found working satisfactorily, why Integration Testing is needed to be performed? 4. If a program containing 20-LOC is given for testing. As a tester, what are the tests need to be performed for the program to run efficiently? 5. As a Tester, how do you proceed with the Test activities in an organization? 6. What are the Risk factors considered in Testing when the project has to be handed over in time? 7. How are the Test activities documented? 8. What are the standards followed while coding and Testing? 9. How are the Test activities measured? 10. How do you analyze the Test activities from the requirement specs? 11. How are the changes controlled during Testing? 12. How do you improve the Test Process in your organization? 13. What is an Acceptance Test?

14. What type of SDLC is followed in your organization? 15. What is Boundary Value Analysis? 16. What is Equivalence Partitioning? 17. Where do you derive the inputs for Black Box Testing? 18. What is a Test Case? 19. What arc Reviews and why is it needed? 20. What is Regression Testing? 21. What are the factors considered while performing Web Testing? 22. What is GUI Testing and how is it performed? 23. How are the Test activities performed during the implementation of the code? 24. Write the possible Test Cases for the screen with details shown below. 1. Customer Name 2. Account No. 3. Amount Deposited 4. Date Note: Field 1. Characters acceptable 2 to 64. Field 2. Maximum 6 digits. Field 3. Value between 10,000 to 1, 00,000 Field 4. DD/MM/YY 25. A sample Requirement Spec is as shown below. How do you proceed with the Test activity. Requirement Specs: 1. Banking online.2. Loan management facility.3. Web enabled.4. Credit/Debit facility.5. Facility for payment of Electric bill, Water bill & Tel bill.6. 100% increase of customers in next two years.7. Transaction information.8. Other facilities like Deposits, P.O, D.D, M.T etc WINRUNNER QUESTIONS 1. Benefits of Automated Testing? a. Fast, Reliable, Repeatable, Programmable, Comprehensive, Reusable 2. Win Runner types of tests? a. New Test b. Open Test c. Rapid Test Script Wizard 3. How to start an application i.e what type of test to use in the starting? a. Use Rapid Test Script Wizard in order to teach Win Runner a description of every GUI object the application contains. The wizard automatically generates a series of tests which u can run on your application. b. Create additional test scripts that test the functionality of your application. Use recording and / or programming to build test scripts written in TSL'S. c. Debug the tests to check that they operate smoothly and without interruption. d. Run the tests on a new version of the application in order to verify the application's behavior. e. Examine the test results to pinpoint defects in the application. f. Report any defects to a database using the Remote Defect Reporter. This phase requires that you also use Test Director. 4. What is GUI spy? It lets u spy on the properties of the objects 5. What is Rapid Test Script Wizard?

It enables you to quickly start the testing process. U should run this wizard before starting to create test scripts. It performs two tasks a. It systematically opens the windows in your application and learns a description of every GUI object. The wizard stores this information in a GUI map file. b. It automatically generates tests based on the information it learned as it navigated through the application. What is GUI MAP? You can view the contents of the GUI map at any time by choosing Tools > GUI Map Editor. The GUI map is actually the sum of one or more GUI map files. In the GUI Map Editor, you can view either the contents of the entire GUI map or the contents of individual GUI map files. GUI objects are grouped according to the window in which they appear in the application. 6. What is a GUI map file? When Rapid Test Script wizard is initiated it to learn a description of all the GUI objects it contains. The wizard opens windows, examines their GUI objects, and saves the object descriptions in a GUI map file. Later on when u run the tests Win Runner uses this file to identify and locate objects. GUI map files contain the logical names and physical descriptions of objects in the application under test. 7. What r the GUI objects properties that Win Runner looks for while Running the tests? It looks at the objects physical properties such as "class" Ex: Push Button "label" Ex: Insert Button, "width", "height", "handled" and "enabled" are few properties. However Win Runner only learns the properties that uniquely distinguish an object from other objects in the application. Ex: "OK" button Win Runner sees the location of the button in an open window or a close window, belongs to the pushbutton object class and has got the label "OK". 8. What is the learning flow in Win Runner? The learning flow determines how Win Runner will walk through your application. Two modes are available a. Express b. Comprehensive Comprehensive mode lets u customize how the wizard learns descriptions of GUI objects. And Express mode is used by the first time Win Runner's users. 9. What is the function of the User Interface test? a. GUI objects do not overlap b. GUI objects are aligned in windows c. Text labels on GUI objects begin with capital letters d. Text labels on GUI objects are clearly visible e. OK and Cancel buttons appear in every window f. A system menu is available in every window 10. What r the Recording modes? Two types of Recording modes (a. Context Sensitive b. Analog ) Context sensitive mode records the operations you perform in terms of the GUI objects (Window, menu, list or button) in ur application and the type of operation (press, enable, move or select) u perform.

Analog mode, Win Runner records the exact coordinates traveled by the mouse, as well as mouse clicks and the key board input. U should record in analog mode only when the exact mouse movements are an important part of our test. Ex: when recreating a drawing. When choosing a record mode, consider the following points: Choose Context sensitive if Choose Analog if The application contains GUI objects The application contains bitmap areas (such as drawing area) Exact mouse movements are not required Exact mouse movements are required You plan to reuse the test in different versions of the application 11. Different TSL statements and their functions? a. button_press("ok"); - if u record a mouse click on the "ok" button b. mouse_locator_track (1); - mouse track c. mtype("<Tl10>,<kLeft>-"); - left mouse button press d. mtype("<kLeft>+") - left mouse button release e. button_set ("order no.", ON); when we click an object here "order no:" is the logical name assigned f. set_window ("open order", 10) each time you begin working in a new window g. obj_type or edit_set ("edit" , 3); when u enter keyboard input h. obj_mouse_click - Win Runner generates a generic statement in the test script if u click on a non-standard GUI object, i. obj_wait_bitmap ("Insert Done ..:, "Imgl", 1); Win_wait_bitmap are the Synchronization functions j. obj_check_gui ("Order No:", "listl.ckl", "guil", 1) or win_check_gui functions to check the GUI. k. Obj_check_bitmap ("(static)", "Imgl" , 1) or win_check_bitmap functions to check the bitmap 1. edit_get_text ("#tickets" , tickets) - this function reads the text in the '#' field and assigns the value to the 'tickets' field, m. General logic: if (tickets' price == total) tl_step("total" ,0, "total is correct"): else tl._step("total", 1, "total is incorrect"); n. win_get_text or obj_get_text - and can assign the text to a variable only for non-standard GUI objects o. button_get_info, win_find_text, obj_find_text - to locate where the text is located, p. Compare_text q. ActiveX_get_info enables you to retrieve and ActiveX_set_info enables to set the properties to work with ActiveX and Visual Basic controls. r. ActiveX_activate_method to invoke an ActiveX method of an ActiveX control. s. Vb_get_label_names to retrieve the list of label controls within the Visual Basic form. 12. What r the three modes for running tests? a. Verify mode, b. Debug mode, c. Update mode

Use Verify mode when running a test to check the behavior of your application, and when u want to save the test results. Use Debug mode when u want to check that the test script runs smoothly without errors in syntax. Use Update mode when u want to create new expected results for a GUI checkpoint or bitmap checkpoint. 13. What r the tips for recording? a. Before starting to record, u should close applications that r not required for the test b. Create the test so that it ends where it started. For example, if the test opens an application, make sure that it also closes the application at the end of the test run. This ensures that Win Runner is prepared to run repeated executions of the same test. c. When recording in the analog mode, avoiding holding down the mouse button if this results in a repeated action. d. Before switching from Context sensitive mode to analog mode during a recording session, always move the current window to a new position on the desktop. This ensures that when u run the test, the mouse pointer will reach the correct areas of the window during the Analog portion of the test. e. When recording if u click a non standard GUI object. Win Runner generates a generic obj_mouse_click statement in the test script. If your application contains a non-standard GUI object which behaves like a standard GUI object, you can map this object to a standard object class so that Win Runner will record more initiative statements in the test script. Synchronization →Wait Bitmap 14. What is check GUI check objects? You check GUI objects by creating GUI checkpoints. It examines the behavior of an object's properties. Ex: The content of a field, If a radio button is on or off, if a push button is enabled or disabled. 15. What is Win Runner's visual programming tool? The Win Runner's visual programming tool is Function Generator. The Function Generator enables u to add TSL functions in two ways: a. U can point to a GUI object and let Win Runner "suggest" an Appropriate function. U can then insert this function into the test script. b. U can select a function from a list. Functions are present both by category and alphabetically. 16. What r meant by break points? Break point enable u to stop running the test at a specified line or function in the test script. 17. What do u mean by debug mode? After enhancing a test with programming elements, u should check that the test runs smoothly, without errors in syntax and logic. U can a. Run the test line by line using the Step commands b. Define breakpoints that enable u to stop running the test at a specified line or function in the test script c. Monitor the values of variable and expressions using the Watch List. d. The test results are stored in debug directory.

18. What is text checkpoint and what r their uses? We can read text from any bitmap image or GUI object by adding text checkpoints to a test script. A text checkpoint reads the text from the application only for non-standard GUI objects. Ex: A graph U can a. Verify a range of values b. Calculate values c. Perform certain operations only if specified text is read from the screen Ex: obj_get_text ("GS_DRAWING", text, 346, 253,372, 234); 19. How to teach fonts to the Win Runner? If Win Runner does not recognize the fonts in the application we are testing we will teach fonts to the Win Runner. To teach a font to Win Runner u: a. Learn the set of characters (font) used by ur applications b. Create a font group, a collection of fonts grouped together for specific testing purposes c. Activate the font group by adding setvar. TSL function to a test script. In Tools options, a menu item known as Fonts Expert is used for this purpose. 20. What do u mean by Font Group? After Win Runner learns a font u must assign it to a font group. A font group can contain one or more fonts. 21. What is a Batch Test? By creating a single Batch Test, u can run an entire suite of tests unattended. It contains call statements, which opens other tests, For Example: call "c:\\qa\\flights\\lession8"(); To call a test 3 times For(i-0; i<3; i++) { call "c:\\qa\\flights\\lession5"(); call"c:\\qa\\flights\\lession6"(); call "c:\\qa\\flights\\lession7"(); } 6. What do Runtime Database Record Checkpoints do? Runtime Database Record Checkpoints enable you to check that your application inserts, deletes, updates or retrieves data in a database correctly. By mapping application controls to database fields, you can check that the values in your application are correctly read from or written to the matching database fields when you run your test. 7. How does selective recording work? You can specify exactly which applications WinRunner should record of those currently running on your desktop. This avoids the common problem of extraneous script lines when you suddenly switch to other applications while recording a test. 8. What is the use of GUI Map File per Test mode? This mode automatically manages GUI map files for you, so you do not have to load or save GUI map files in your test. GUI map files per test can be combined into the Global GUI map file if needed. 9. What is GUI Spy? GUI Spy is an integrated tool for spying on standard, ActiveX and Java controls. It displays the properties of standard controls and the properties and methods of ActiveX

and Java controls. You can copy and paste functions for activating Java methods from the GUI Spy into your test script. 10.What add-ins are available for WinRunner 7.x? Add-ins are available for Java, ActiveX, WebTest, Siebel, Baan, Stingray, Delphi, Terminal Emulator, Forte, NSDK/Natstar, Oracle and PowerBuilder.

Context Sensitive Context Sensitive mode records your actions on the application being tested in terms of the GUI objects you select (such as windows, lists, and buttons), while ignoring the physical location of the object on the screen. Every time you perform an operation on the application being tested, a TSL statement describing the object selected and the action performed is generated in the test script. As you record, WinRunner writes a unique description of each selected object to a GUI map. The GUI map consists of files maintained separately from your test scripts. If the user interface of your application changes, you have to update only the GUI map, instead of hundreds of tests. This allows you to easily reuse your Context Sensitive test scripts on future versions of your application. WinRunner reads the object descriptions in the GUI map and then searches in the application being tested for objects matching these descriptions. It can locate objects in a window even if their placement has changed. Analog Analog mode records mouse clicks, keyboard input, and the exact x- and y-coordinates traveled by the mouse. When the test is run, WinRunner retraces the mouse tracks. Use Analog mode when exact mouse coordinates are important to your test, such as when testing a drawing application. The GUI map is actually the sum of one or more GUI map files. There are two modes for organizing GUI map files: WinRunner stores the information it learns in a GUI map. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects: It reads an object’s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested. WinRunner uses a logical name to identify each object. The logical name is actually a nickname for the object’s physical description. The physical description contains a list of the object’s physical properties. The logical name and the physical description together ensure that each GUI object has its own unique identification. WinRunner identifies each GUI object in the application being tested by its physical description:

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