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Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics

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Sections

Mach=0.2, α=10 degrees, Re=1.6M

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
130

Computed Versus Experimental
Results

Good drag prediction
Discrepancies near stall

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
131

MultigridConvergence History

Mesh independent property of Multigrid
GMRES effective but requires extra memory

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
132

Parallel Scalability

Good overall Multigrid scalability

Increased communication due to coarse grid levels
Single grid solution impractical (>100 times slower)

1 hour soution time on 1450 PEs

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
133

AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (2001)

Transonic wing-body configuration
Typical cases required for design
study

Matrix of mach and CL values
Grid resolution study

Follow on with engine effects (2003)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
134

Cases Run

Baseline grid: 1.6 million points

Full drag polars for
Mach=0.5,0.6,0.7,0.75,0.76,0.77,0.78,0.8
Total = 72 cases

Medium grid: 3 million points

Full drag polar for each mach number
Total = 48 cases

Fine grid: 13 million points

Drag polar at mach=0.75
Total = 7 cases

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
135

Sample Solution (1.65M Pts)

Mach=0.75, CL=0.6, Re=3M
2.5 hours on 16 Pentium IV 1.7GHz

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
136

Drag Polar at Mach = 0.75

Grid resolution study
Good comparison with experimental data

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
137

Cases Run on ICASE Cluster

120 Cases (excluding finest grid)
About 1 week to compute all cases

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
138

Current and Future Issues

Adaptive mesh refinement
Moving geometry and mesh motion
Moving geometry and overlapping meshes
Requirements for gradient-based design
Implications for higher-order
Discretizations

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
139

Adaptive Meshing

Potential for large savings through
optimized mesh resolution

Well suited for problems with large range of
scales
Possibility of error estimation / control
Requires tight CAD coupling (surface pts)

Mechanics of mesh adaptation
Refinement criteria and error estimation

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
140

Mechanics of Adaptive Meshing

Various well know isotropic mesh methods

Mesh movement

Spring analogy
Linear elasticity

Local Remeshing
Delaunay point insertion/Retriangulation
Edge-face swapping
Element subdivision

Mixed elements (non-simplicial)
Anisotropic subdivision required in transition regions

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
141

Subdivision Types for Tetrahedra

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
142

Subdivision Types for Prisms

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
143

Subdivision Types for Pyramids

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
144

Subdivision Types for Hexahedra

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
145

Adaptive Tetrahedral Mesh by Subdivision

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
146

Adaptive Hexahedral Mesh by Subdivision

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
147

Adaptive Hybrid Mesh by Subdivision

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
148

Anisotropic Adaptation Methods

Large potential savings for 1 or 2D
features

Directional subdivision

Assumes element faces to line up with flow
features
Combine with mesh motion

Mapping techniques

Hessian based
Grid quality

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
149

Refinement Criteria

Weakest link of adaptive meshing methods

Obvious for strong features
Difficult for non-local (ie. Convective) features

eg. Wakes

Analysis assumes in asymptotic error convergence
region

Gradient based criteria
Empirical criteria

Effect of variable discretizationerror in design
studies, parameter sweeps

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
150

Adjoint-based Error Prediction

Compute sensitivity of global cost function to
local spatial grid resolution
Key on important output, ignore other features

Error in engineering output, not discretizationerror

e.g. Lift, drag, or sonic boom …

Captures non-local behavior of error

Global effect of local resolution

Requires solution of adjointequations

Adjointtechniques used for design optimization

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
151

Adjoint-based Mesh Adaptation Criteria

Reproduced from
Vendittiand
Darmofal(MIT,
2002)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
152

Adjoint-based Mesh Adaptation Criteria

Reproduced from Vendittiand
Darmofal(MIT, 2002)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
153

Adjoint-based Mesh Adaptation Criteria

Reproduced
from Venditti
and Darmofal
(MIT, 2002)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
154

Overlapping Unstructured Meshes

Alternative to moving mesh for large scale
relative geometry motion
Multiple overlapping meshes treated as single
data-structure

Dynamic determination of active/inactive/ghost
cells

Advantages for parallel computing

Obviates dynamic load rebalancing required with
mesh motion techniques
Intergridcommunication must be dynamically
recomputed and rebalanced

Concept of Rendez-vousgrid (Plimpton and
Hendrickson)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
155

Overlapping Unstructured Meshes

Simple 2D transient example

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
156

Gradient-based Design Optimization

Minimize Cost Function Fwith respect to design
variables v, subject to constraint R(w) = 0

F= drag, weight, cost
v= shape parameters
w= Flow variables
R(w) = 0àGoverning Flow Equations

Gradient Based Methods approach minimum
along direction :

vF

¶¶

-

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
157

Grid Related Issues for Gradient-based Design

Parametrization of CAD surfaces
Consistency across disciplines

eg. CFD, structures,…

Surface grid motion
Interior grid motion
Grid sensitivities
Automation / Parallelization

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
158

Preliminary Design Geometry

X34 CAD Model

23,555 curves and surfaces

c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
159

Launch Vehicle Shape Parameterization

c/o J. Samareh, NASA
Langley

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
160

Sensitivity Analysis

•Manual differentiation
•Automatic differentiation tools (e.g., ADIFOR and ADIC)
•Complex variables
•Finite-difference approximations

analysis code

field grid generator

geometry modeler (CAD)

surface grid generator

Grid

v

Grid

Ge

Geometry
v

Grid

Gr

my

id

oetr

f

f

s

s

F

x

x

x

F

=

14243

1424

1

1

424

3

3 4243

v design variables
(e.g., span, camber)

objective function
(e.g., Stress, CD)

c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
161

Finite-Difference Approximation Error for Sensitivity Derivatives

Parameterized
HSCT Model

c/o J. Samareh, NASA Langley

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
162

Grid Sensitivities

Ideally should be available from grid/cad
software

Analytical formulation most desirable
Burden on grid / CAD software
Discontinous operations present extra challenges

Face-edge swapping
Point addition / removal
Mesh regeneration

v

Geometry

Geometry

Grid

Grid

Grid

v

Grid

¶ ¶

¶¶

=

x

x

s

s

f

f

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
163

High-Order Accurate Discretizations

Uniform X2 refinement of 3D mesh:
Work increase = factor of 8
2nd

order accurate method: accuracy increase = 4

4th

order accurate method: accuracy increase = 16

For smooth solutions

Potential for large efficiency gains
Spectral element methods
Discontinuous Galerkin (DG)
Streamwise Upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
164

Higher-Order Accurate Discretizations

Transfers burden from grid generation to Discretization

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
165

Spectral Element Solution of Maxwell’s Equations

J. Hesthavenand T.
Warburton
(Brown University)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
166

High-Order Discretizations

Require more complete surface
definition
Curved surface elements

Additional element points
Surface definition (for high p)

Chapter 15: Computational Fluid Dynamics

ME33 : Fluid Flow
167

Combined H-P Refinement

Adaptive meshing (h-ref) yields constant factor
improvement

After error equidistribution, no further benefit

Order refinement (p-ref) yields asymptotic
improvement

Only for smooth functions
Ineffective for inadequate h-resolution of feature
Cannot treat shocks

H-P refinement optimal (exponential convergence)

Requires accurate CAD surface representation

168

Modeling Turbulent Flows

u

Unsteady, aperiodic motion in which all three velocity components
fluctuate Õmixing matter, momentum, and energy.

u

Decompose velocity into mean and fluctuating parts:

Ui(t) º Ui + ui(t)

u

Similar fluctuations for pressure, temperature, and species
concentration values.

What is Turbulence?

Time

U i (t)

Ui

ui(t)

Why Model Turbulence?

u

Direct numerical simulation of governing equations is only possible for
simple low-Reflows.

u

Instead, we solve Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)
equations:

where (Reynolds stresses)

(steady, incompressible flow
w/o body forces)

j

i

ij

u

u

R r

-

=

j

ij

j

j

i

i

k

i

k

xR

x

x U

xp

xU

U

¶¶

+

¶¶

+

¶¶

-

=

¶¶

2

m

r

Is the Flow Turbulent?

External Flows

Internal Flows

Natural Convection

5

10

5´

³

x

Re

along a surface

around an obstacle

where

m

rUL

ReL º

where

Other factors such as free-stream
turbulence, surface conditions, and
disturbances may cause earlier
transition to turbulent flow.

L= x, D, Dh, etc.

,300

2

³h

D

Re

10

8

10

10 -

³

Ra

mar

b3

Pr TL

g

Gr
Ra x

D

º

=

20,000

³

D

Re

¥

-

=

D

T

T
T s

Ts= temperatureofthewall
T∞= fluidtemperaturefarfromthesurfaceoftheobject

Grashof Prandtl

How Complex is the Flow?

u

Extra strain rates

l

Streamline curvature

l

Lateral divergence

l

Acceleration or deceleration

l

Swirl

l

Recirculation (or separation)

l

Secondary flow

u

3D perturbations

u

Transpiration (blowing/suction)

u

Free-stream turbulence

u

Interacting shear layers

Choices to be Made

Turbulence Model
&
Near-Wall Treatment

Flow
Physics

Accuracy
Required

Computational
Resources

Turnaround
Time
Constraints

Computational
Grid

Zero-Equation Models

One-Equation Models

Spalart-Allmaras

Two-Equation Models

Standard k-e
RNG k-e
Realizable k-e

Reynolds-Stress Model

Large-Eddy Simulation

Direct Numerical Simulation

Turbulence Modeling Approaches

Include
More
Physics

Increase
Computational
Cost
Per Iteration

Available
in FLUENT

RANS-based
models

u

RANS equations require closure for Reynolds stresses.

u

Turbulent viscosity is indirectly solved for from single transport
equation of modified viscosity for One-Equation model.

u

For Two-Equation models, turbulent viscosity correlated with turbulent
kinetic energy (TKE) and the dissipation rate of TKE.

u

Transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are
solved so that turbulent viscosity can be computed for RANS equations.

Reynolds Stress Terms in RANS-based Models

Turbulent
Kinetic Energy:

Dissipation Rate of
Turbulent Kinetic Energy:

e

r
m m
2

k

C

t º

Turbulent Viscosity:

Boussinesq Hypothesis:

(isotropic stresses)

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

¶¶

+

-

=

-

=

i

j

j

i

t

ij

j

i

ij

xU

xU

k

u

u

R

m

d

r

r

32

2

/

i
iu

u

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

¶¶

¶¶

º

i

j

j

i

j

i

xu

xu

xu

n

e

u

Turbulent viscosity is determined from:

u

is determined from the modified viscosity transport equation:

u

The additional variables are functions of the modified turbulent
viscosity and velocity gradients.

One Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras

( )

2

1

2

2

~

1

~

~

~

~

1

~

~

~

d

f

c

x

c

x

x

S

c

Dt

D

w

w

j

b

j

j

b

n

r

n

r

n

n

r

m

s

n

r

n

r

n

-

úú
û

ù

êê
ë

é

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

ïþï

ýü

ïîï

íì

¶¶

+

¶¶

+

=

( )
( ) ú
ûù

ê
ëé

+

=

3

1

3

3

/

~/

~

~

n

n
n n

n

n

r

m

c

t

n~

Generation

Diffusion

Destruction

One-Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras

u

Designed specifically for aerospace applications involving wall-
bounded flows.

l

Boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients

l

turbomachinery

u

Can use coarse or fine mesh at wall

l

Designed to be used with fine mesh as a “low-Re” model, i.e., throughout
the viscous-affected region.

l

Sufficiently robust for relatively crude simulations on coarse meshes.

Two Equation Model: Standard k-eModel

Turbulent Kinetic Energy

Dissipation Rate

e

e

e

s

s

2

1

,

,
, C
C

k

are empirical constants

(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)

Convection

Generation

Diffusion

Destruction

{re

s

m

m

r

-

þýü

îíì

¶¶

¶¶

+

¶¶

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

¶¶

=

¶¶

4

4
4 3

4
4
4 2

1

4

4
4 3

4

4
4 2

1

43

42
1

i

k

t

i

i

j

j

i

i

j

t

i

i

xk

x

xU

xU

xU

xk

U

)

(

Destruction

Convection

Generation

Diffusion

43

42

1

4

4
4 3

4
4
4 2

1

4

4

4

4

4

3

4

4

4

4

4

2

1

43

42
1

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

-

þýü

îíì

¶¶

¶¶

+

¶¶

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

¶¶

÷
øö

ç
èæ

=

¶¶

k

C

x

x

xU

xU

xU

k

C

x

U

i

t

i

i

j

j

i

i

j

t

i

i

2

2

1

)

(

e

r

e

s

m

m

e

e

r

e

e

e

Two Equation Model: Standard k-eModel

u

“Baseline model” (Two-equation)

l

Most widely used model in industry

l

Strength and weaknesses well documented

u

Semi-empirical

l

k equation derived by subtracting the instantaneous mechanical energy
equation from its time-averaged value

l eequation formed from physical reasoning

u

Valid only for fully turbulent flows

u

Reasonable accuracy for wide range of turbulent flows

l

industrial flows

l

heat transfer

Two Equation Model: Realizable k-e

u

Distinctions from Standard k-emodel:

l

Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity

where is now variable

n(A0, As, and U* are functions of velocity gradients)

nEnsures positivity of normal stresses;

nEnsures Schwarz’s inequality;

l

New transport equation for dissipation rate, e:

e

r

m

m2

k

C

t º

e

m

k

U

A

A

C

s

o

*

1

+

=

0

u2

i ³

2
j

2
i

2

j

i

u

u

)

u

u
( £

b

j

t

j

G

c

k

c

k

c

S

c

x

x

Dt

D

e

e

e

e

ne

e

r

e

r

e

sm

m

e

r

3

1

2

2

1

+

+

-

+

úú
ûù

êê
ëé

¶¶

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

+

¶¶

=

Generation

Diffusion

Destruction

Buoyancy

u

Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as Standard k-e

u

Superior performance for flows involving:

l

planar and round jets

l

boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients, separation

l

rotation, recirculation

l

strong streamline curvature

Two Equation Model: Realizable k-e

Two Equation Model: RNG k-e

Turbulent Kinetic Energy

Dissipation Rate

Convection

Diffusion

Dissipation

{

{re

m

a

m

r

-

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

¶¶

+

=

¶¶

4
4 3

4
4 2

1

43

42
1

i

k

i

t

i

i

xk

x

S

xk

U

eff

2

Generation

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

¶¶

º

º

j

i

i

j

ij

ij

ij

xU

xU

S

S

S

S

21

,

2

where

are derived using RNG theory

e

e

e

a

a

2

1

,

,
, C
C

k

(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)

Additional term
related to mean strain
& turbulence quantities

Convection

Generation

Diffusion

Destruction

{R

k

C

x

x

S

k

C

x

U

i

i

t

i

i

-

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

-

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

¶¶

+

÷
øö

ç
èæ

=

¶¶

43

42

1

4
4 3

4
4 2

1

4
43

4
42

1

43

42
1

2

2

eff

2

1

e

r

e

m

a

m

e

e

r

e

e

e

Two Equation Model: RNG k-e

u

k-eequations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical
technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous Navier-
Stokes equations.

u

Similar in form to the standard k-eequations but includes:

l

additional term in eequation that improves analysis of rapidly strained flows

l

the effect of swirl on turbulence

l

analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number

l

differential formula for effective viscosity

u

Improved predictions for:

l

high streamline curvature and strain rate

l

transitional flows

l

wall heat and mass transfer

Reynolds Stress Model

k

ijk

ij

ij

ij

k

j

i

k

xJ

P

xu

u

U

¶¶

+

-

F

+

=

e

r

Generation

k

i

k

j

k

j

k

i

ij

xU

u

u

xU

u

u

P

¶¶

+

¶¶

º

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

¶¶

+

¶¶

¢

-

º

F

i

j

j

i

ij

xu

xu

p

k

j

k

i

ij

xu

xu

¶¶

¶¶

º m

e

2

Pressure-Strain
Redistribution

Dissipation

Turbulent
Diffusion

(modeled)

(related to e)

(modeled)

(computed)

(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)

Reynolds Stress
Transport Eqns.

Pressure/velocity
fluctuations

Turbulent
transport

)

(

j

ik

i

jk

k

j

i

ijk

u

u

p

u

u

u

J

d

d +

¢

+

=

Reynolds Stress Model

u

RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by
solving additional transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.

l

Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the
momentum equations with a fluctuating property

l

Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation

l

Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided

u

Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.

u

RSM has high potential for accurately predicting complex flows.

l

Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates

nCyclone flows, swirling combustor flows

nRotating flow passages, secondary flows

Large Eddy Simulation

u

Large eddies:

l

Mainly responsible for transport of momentum, energy, and other scalars,
directly affecting the mean fields.

l

Anisotropic, subjected to history effects, and flow-dependent, i.e., strongly
dependent on flow configuration, boundary conditions, and flow parameters.

u

Small eddies:

l

Tend to be more isotropic and less flow-dependent

l

More likely to be easier to model than large eddies.

u

LES directly computes (resolves) large eddies and models only small
eddies (Subgrid-Scale Modeling).

u

Large computational effort

l

Number of grid points, NLES µ

l

Unsteady calculation

2

Re tu

Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models

Model

Strengths

Weaknesses

Spalart-
Allmaras
Economical (1-eq.); good track record

for mildly complex B.L. type of flowsNot very widely tested yet; lack of

submodels (e.g. combustion,
buoyancy)

STD k-e

Robust, economical, reasonably
accurate; long accumulated
performance data

Mediocre results for complex flows
involving severe pressure gradients,
strong streamline curvature, swirl
and rotation

RNG k-eGood for moderately complex

behavior like jet impingement,
separating flows, swirling flows, and
secondary flows

Subjected to limitations due to
isotropic eddy viscosity
assumption

Realizable
k-e

Offers largely the same benefits as
RNG; resolves round-jet anomaly

Subjected to limitations due to
isotropic eddy viscosity
assumption

Reynolds
Stress
Model

Physically most complete model
(history, transport, and anisotropy of
turbulent stresses are all accounted
for)

Requires more cpu effort (2-3x);
tightly coupled momentum and
turbulence equations

Near-Wall Treatments

u

Most k-eand RSM turbulence
models will not predict correct
near-wall behavior if integrated
down to the wall.

u

Special near-wall treatment is
required.

l

Standard wall functions

l

Nonequilibrium wall functions

l

Two-layer zonal model

Boundary layer structure

Standard Wall Functions

r

t m

/

2/
1

4/
1

w

P

P k

C

U

U º

*

( )

ï
î

ï
íì

>

ú
ûù

ê
ëé

+

<

=

*

*

*

)

(

ln

1

Pr

)

(

Pr

*

*

*

*

T

t

T

y

y

P

Ey

y

y

y

T

k

m

r m P
P y

k

C

y

2

/
1

4

/
1

º

*

q k

C

c

T

T

T

P

p

P

w

¢¢

-

º

&

2/
1

4/
1

)

(

*

m

r

Mean Velocity

Temperature

where

where

and Pis a function of the fluid
and turbulent Prandtl numbers.

thermal sublayer thickness

( )

*

*

= Ey

U

ln

1

k

NonequilibriumWall Functions

u

Log-law is sensitized to pressure gradient for
better prediction of adverse pressure gradient
flows and separation.

u

Relaxed local equilibrium assumptions for
TKE in wall-neighboring cells.

u

Thermal law-of-wall unchanged

÷÷
øö

çç
èæ

=

m

r

k

r

t

m

m

y

k

C

E

k

C

U

w

2

/
1

4

/
1

2/
1

4/
1

ln

1

/

~

ú
ûù

ê
ëé

+

-

+

÷
øö

ç
èæ

-

=

*

*

m

rk

rk

y

ky

y

yy

k

y

dx

dp

U

U

v

v

v

v

2

2/
1

2/
1

ln

21

~

where

Two-Layer Zonal Model

u

Used for low-Reflows or
flows with complex near-wall
phenomena.

u

Zones distinguished by a wall-
distance-based turbulent
Reynolds number

u

High-Re k-emodels are used in the turbulent core region.

u

Only kequation is solved in the viscosity-affected region.

u eis computed from the correlation for length scale.

u

Zoning is dynamic and solution adaptive.

m

r y
k

Rey º

200

>

y

Re

200

<

y

Re

Comparison of Near Wall Treatments

Strengths

Weaknesses

Standard wall
Functions

Robust, economical,
reasonably accurate

Empirically based on simple
high-Re flows; poor for low-Re
effects, massive transpiration,
Ñp, strong body forces, highly
3D flows

Nonequilibrium
wall functions

Accounts for Ñp effects,
allows nonequilibrium:
-separation
-reattachment
-impingement

Poor for low-Re effects, massive
transpiration, severe Ñp, strong
body forces, highly 3D flows

Two-layer zonal
model

Does not rely on law-of-the-
wall, good for complex
flows, especially applicable
to low-Re flows

Requires finer mesh resolution
and therefore larger cpu and
memory resources

Computational Grid Guidelines

Wall Function
Approach

Two-Layer Zonal
Model Approach

lFirst grid point in log-law region

lAt least ten points in the BL.

lBetter to use stretched quad/hex
cells for economy.

lFirst grid point at y+

»1.

lAt least ten grid points within
buffer & sublayers.

lBetter to use stretched quad/hex
cells for economy.

500

50 £
£ +

y

Estimating Placement of First Grid Point

u

Estimate the skin friction coefficient based on correlations either
approximate or empirical:

l

Flat Plate-

l

Pipe Flow-

u

Compute the friction velocity:

u

Back out required distance from wall:

l

Wall functions

•Two-layer model

u

Use post-processing to confirm near-wall mesh resolution

2.
0

Re

0359
.
0

2

/

-

»

L

f

c

2.
0

Re

039
.
0

2

/

-

»

D

f

c

2

/

/

f

e

w

c

U

u

=

º r
t

t

y1 = 50n/ut

y1 = n/ ut

Setting Boundary Conditions

u

Characterize turbulence at inlets & outlets (potential backflow)

l k-emodels require kand e

l

Reynolds stress model requires Rijand e

u

Several options allow input using more familiar parameters

l

Turbulence intensity and length scale

nlength scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy.

nFor boundary layer flows: l »0.4d99

nFor flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l »opening size

l

Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter

nIdeally suited for duct and pipe flows

l

Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio

nFor external flows:

u

Input of kand eexplicitly allowed (non-uniform profiles possible).

10

/

1

<

< m
mt

GUI for Turbulence Models

DefineÕModelsÕViscous...

Turbulence Model options

Near Wall Treatments

Inviscid, Laminar, or Turbulent

Additional Turbulence options

Example: Channel Flow with Conjugate Heat Transfer

adiabatic wall

cold air
V = 50 fpm
T = 0 °F

constant temperature wall T = 100 °F

insulation

1 ft

1 ft

10 ft

P

Predict the temperature at point P in the solid insulation

Turbulence Modeling Approach

u

Check if turbulent ÕReDh= 5,980

u

Developing turbulent flow at relatively low Reynolds number and
BLs on walls will give pressure gradient Õuse RNG k-ewith
nonequilibrium wall functions.

u

Develop strategy for the grid

l

Simple geometry Õquadrilateral cells

l

Expect large gradients in normal direction to horizontal walls Õ
fine mesh near walls with first cell in log-law region.

l

Vary streamwise grid spacing so that BL growth is captured.

l

Use solution-based grid adaption to further resolve temperature
gradients.

Velocity
contours

Temperature
contours

BLs on upper & lower surfaces accelerate the core flow

Prediction of Momentum & Thermal
Boundary Layers

Important that thermal BL was accurately resolved as well

P

Example: Flow Around a Cylinder

wall

wall

1 ft

2 ft

2 ft

air
V = 4 fps

Compute drag coefficient of the cylinder

5 ft

14.5 ft

u

Check if turbulent ÕReD= 24,600

u

Flow over an object, unsteady vortex shedding is expected,
difficult to predict separation on downstream side, and close
proximity of side walls may influence flow around cylinder
Õuse RNG k-ewith 2-layer zonal model.

u

Develop strategy for the grid

l

Simple geometry & BLs Õquadrilateral cells.

l

Large gradients near surface of cylinder & 2-layer model
Õfine mesh near surface & first cell at y+

= 1.

Turbulence Modeling Approach

Grid for Flow Over a Cylinder

Prediction of Turbulent Vortex Shedding

Contours of effective viscosity meff= m+ mt

CD= 0.53

Strouhal Number = 0.297

UD

St

t

º

where

Summary: Turbulence Modeling Guidelines

u

Successful turbulence modeling requires engineering judgement of:

l

Flow physics

l

Computer resources available

l

Project requirements

nAccuracy

nTurnaround time

l

Turbulence models & near-wall treatments that are available

u

Begin with standard k-eand change to RNG or Realizable k-eif
needed.

u

Use RSM for highly swirling flows.

u

Use wall functions unless low-Reflow and/or complex near-wall
physics are present.

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