Adaptation

In Piaget's Theory of Development, there are two cognitive processes that are crucial for progressing from stage to stage: assimilation, accommodation. These two concepts are described below.

Assimilation
This refers to the way in which a child transforms new information so that it makes sense within their existing knowledge base. That is, a child tries to understand new knowledge in terms of their existing knowledge. For example, a baby who is given a new knowledge may grasp or suck on that object in the same way that he or she grasped or sucked other objects.

Accomodation
This happens when a child changes his or her cognitive structure in an attempt to understand new information. For example, the child learns to grasp a new object in a different way, or learns that the new object should not be sucked. In that way, the child has adapted his or her way of thinking to a new experience. Taken together, assimilation and accomodation make up adaptation, which refers to the child's ability to adapt to his or her environment. References: 1. Siegler, R. (1991). Children's thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 2. Vasta, R., Haith, M. M., & Miller, S. A. (1995). Child psychology: The modern science. New York, NY: Wiley.

Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a term coined by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, is a relentlessly progressive disease characterized by cognitive decline, behavioural disturbances, and changes in personality. Current estimates of prevalence of AD in Canada suggest that 5.1% of all Canadians 65 and over meet the criteria for the clinical diagnosis of AD, which translates into approximately 161,000 cases. AD prevalence is slightly higher in women than in men. It may be that this difference is due to the longer life expectancy of women although other factors have not been ruled out. The prevalence of dementia is strongly associated with age, affecting 1% of the Canadian population aged 65 to 74, 6.9% of individuals 75-84 and 26% of individuals 85 years and older (Canadian Study of Health and Aging, 1994). The diagnostic criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT) are as follows: • (A) The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both: 3. Memory impairment (impaired ability to learn new information or to recall previously learned information) 4. One or more of the following cognitive disturbances: • aphasia (language disturbance) • apraxia (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function) • agnosia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function) • disturbances in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting) • (B) The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 each cause significant impairment in social and occupational functioning and represent a significant decline from a previous level of functioning. • (C) The course is characterized by gradual onset and continuing cognitive decline • (D) The cognitive deficits in Criteria A1 and A2 are not due to any of the following: 1. other central nervous system conditions that cause progressive deficits in memory and cognition (e.g., cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, subdural hematoma, normal pressure hydrocephalus, brain tumor). 2. systemic conditions that are known to cause a dementia (e.g., hypothyroidism, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, hypercalcemia, neurosyphilis, HIV infection) 3. substance-induced conditions • (E) The deficits do not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium • (F) The disturbance is not better accounted for by another Axis 1 disorder (e.g., Major Depressive Disorder, Schizophrenia) 1

The diagnosis of AD is based on exclusionary criteria (i.e., the absence of an identifiable cause) with diagnosis confirmed at autopsy. Treatment strategies to date have been largely ineffective, with experimental treatments mainly directed toward overcoming the cholinergic deficit. References: 1. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 2. Canadian study of health and aging: Study methods and prevalence of dementia. (1994). Canadian Medical Association Journal, 150(6). 3. Whitehouse, P.J. (1993) Dementia. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Analogy
In cognitive psychology, analogy is considered an important method of problem solving. The problem solver attempts to use his or her knolwedge of one problem to solve another problem about which she or he has very little or no information. Barsalou (1992) provides the following example of problem solving by analogy: "...someone who has worked at the complex for a while could simply explain to you that the layout is analogous to a starfish. On hearing this analogy you might transfer knowledge about starfish to the office complex. Thus the knowledge that a starfish has a circular body, with five legs extending from it radially and symetrically would lead to the belief that the office complex contains a center circular body, with five tapered buildings extending from it in a radially symmetric pattern." (p.110) Obviously people do not use all of their knowledge about one problem to solve another problem. In the context of his starfish example Barsalou points out that we would not begin to think that the office complex is alive, or that it lives underwater. One problem facing cogntive psychologists is to determine how people decide upon the extent to which an analogy applies. Determining how this may be done is more difficult than it may seem. Consider that, given enough time people can find analogies between any two phenomena. We might want to say that, like the starfish, the office complex is alive--its heating ducts are like blood vessels, its doors are like mouths eating the people who enter the office complex every day. As a cognitive process analogy seems limitless. In a science that strives for regularity and lawfulness the limitlessness of analogical thinking poses a serious problem. References: 5. Barsalou, L. (1992). Cognitive psychology: An overview for cognitive psychologists. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Apparent Motion
This is a perceptual phenomenon that occurs when we perceive motion in two or more static images that are presented in succession with appropriate spatial and temporal displacements. The ability to perceive this phenomenon is mediated by the visuospatial pathway of the visual association regions of the brain. We see examples of this phenomenon almost everyday when we view television or movies. This is an example of a cognitively impenetrable perception. That is, even though we know that the images are not moving, we still perceive motion. References: 6. Marr, D. (1982). Vision. Freeman: San Francisco, pp.159-182. 7. Zeki, S. (1992). The visual image in mind & brain. Scientific American, 241(3), 150-162.

Articulatory Loop
The articulatory loop (AL) is one of two passive slave systems within Baddeley's (1986) tripartite model of working memory. The AL, responsible for storing speech based information, is comprised of two components. The first component is a phonological memory store which can hold traces of acoustic or speech based material. Material in 2

this short term store lasts about two seconds unless it is maintained through the use of the second subcomponent, articulatory subvocal rehearsal. Prevention of articulatory rehearsal results in very rapid forgetting. Try this experiment with a friend. Present your friend with three consonants (e.g., C-X-Q) and ask them to recall the consonants after a 10 second delay. During the 10 second interval, prevent your friend from rehearsing the consonants by having them count 'backwards by threes' starting at 100. You will find that your friend's recall is significantly impaired! See Murdoch (1961) and Baddeley (1986) for a complete review. References: 8. Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 9. Murdock, B.B. Jr. (1961). The retention of individual items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 618625.

See Also:
Working Memory | Visuospatial Sketchpad | Central Executive

Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence is concerned with the attempt to develop complex computer programs that will be capable of performing difficult cognitive tasks. Some of those who work in artificial intelligence are relatively unconcerned as to whether the programs they devise mimic human cognitive functioning, while others have the explicit goal of simulating human cognition on the computer. The artificial intelligence approach has been applied to several different areas within cognitive psychology, including perception, memory, imagery, thinking, and problem solving. There are a number of advantages of the artificial intelligence approach to cognition. Computer programming requires that every process be specified in detail, unlike cognitive psychology which often relies on vague descriptions. AI also tends to be highly theoretical, which leads to general theoretical orientations having wide applicability. The main disadvantage of AI is that there is a lot of controversy about the ultimate similarity between human cognitive functioning and computer functioning. Some of the major differences between brains and computers were spelled out in the following terms by Churchland (1989, p.100): "The brain seems to be a computer with a radically different style. For example, the brain changes as it learns, it appears to store and process information in the same places...Most obviously, the brain is a parallel machine, in which many interactions occur at the same time in many different channels." This contrasts with most computer functions which involves serial processing and relatively few interactions. References: 10. Churchland, P.S. (1989). From Descartes to neural networks. Scientific American , July, 100. 11. Eysenck, M.W. (Ed.). (1990). The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.

See Also:
Cognitive Science | Cognitive Psychology

Associative Memory
At its simplest, an associative memory is a system which stores mappings of specific input representations to specific output representations. That is to say, a system that "associates" two patterns such that when one is encountered subsequently, the other can be reliably recalled. Kohonen draws an analogy between associative memory and an adaptive filter function [2]. The filter can be viewed as taking an ordered set of input signals, and transforming them into another set of signals---the output of the filter. It is the notion of adaptation, allowing its internal structure to be altered by the transmitted signals, which introduces the concept of memory to the system. A further refinement in terminology is possible with regard to the associative memory concept, and is ubiquitous in connectionist (neural network) literature in particular. A memory that reproduces its input pattern as output is referred to as autoassociative (i.e. associating patterns with themselves). One that produces output patterns dissimilar to its inputs is termed heteroassociative (i.e. associating patterns with other patterns). Most associative memory implementations are realized as connectionist networks. Hopfield's collective computation network [1] serves as an excellent example of an autoassociative memory, whereas Rosenblatt's perceptron [3] is 3

often utilized as a heteroassociator. There are many practical problems implementing effective associative memories however, most notably their inefficiency; the tendency is for them to fill up and become unreliable rather quickly. This is a long running open problem for both connectionism and adaptive filter theory---one that Kohonen refers to as the "problem of infinite state memory" [2]. References: 12. J.J. Hopfield. Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computation abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 79:2554-2558, 1982. 13. T. Kohonen. Self-Organization and Associative Memory. Springer Series In Information Sciences, Vol.8. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo, 1984. 14. F. Rosenblatt. Principles of Neurodynamics. Spartan, New York, 1962.

See Also
Connectionism| Content Addressable Memory

Attention
"Attention" is a term commonly used in education, psychiatry and psychology. The definition is often vague. Attention can be defined as an internal cognitive process by which one actively selects environmental information (ie. sensation) or actively processes information from internal sources (ie. visceral cues or other thought processes). In more general terms, attention can be defined as an ability to focus and maintain interest in a given task or idea, including managing distractions. William James, a 19th century psychologist, explains attention as follows: "Everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought...It implies withdrawl from some things in order to deal effectively with others, and is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state." (1890, p. 403) Attention is important to psychologists because it is often considered a core cognitive process, a basis on which to study other cognitive processes; most importantly learning. DeGangi and Porges (1990) illustrate only "when a person is actively engaged in voluntary attention, functional purposeful activity and learning can occur." (p. 6) Poor attention is often a key symptom of behaviour disorders such as hyperactivity and learning disorders. References: 15. DeGangi, G., & Porges, S. (1990). Neuroscience foundations of human performance. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association. 16. James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Holt.

See Also:
Attention Getting | Attention Holding | Sustained Attention

Attention Getting
Attention getting is more than just the orienting reflex, it is the "initial orientation or alerting to a stimulus." Though this may be considered an automatic act, in fact it requires complex active thought processing. Attention getting is reliant on the qualitative nature of the stimulus. The stimulus must be stong enough to elicit a response. DeGangi and Porges (1990) explain the types of stimuli that are attention getting vary according to past experiences of the individual, what they already know, individual reactivity to sensory stimuli, and what an individual has determined to be important to them. A hungry person may be more apt to pay attention to the smell of food than the sounds surrounding them in a traffic jam! Attention getting is important to psychologists, particularily developmental psychologists because of its role in learning. A child's chosen attention getting stimuli can guide his/her learning abilities. "A child who learns better through the auditory channel will orient more readily to a song about body parts than a picture of a body." References: 17. DeGangi, G., & Porges, S. (1990). Neuroscience foundations of human performance. Rockville, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.

See Also:
Attention Holding | Attention Releasing | Sustained Attention 4

DeGangi. See Also: Functional Architecture | Strong Equivalence | Weak Equivalence Bilogical Naturalism Promoted by John Searle. Neuroscience foundations of human performance. A person can fatigue physically or mentally requiring release of attention. In M. G. Attention holding is important because of its role in learning. W. if true. Low motivation may present a challenge as the psychologist (or other professional) must determine if the decreased motivation is due to sensory processing problems. In other words." Stimuli that hold our attention must be both novel and complex in order to encourage information processing." Attention releasing can occur for a variety of reasons. The neurophysiological processes in the brain cause mental phenomena. therefore a different type/strength of stimuli becomes required to maintain an alert and active state. References: 19. attention releasing (the ability to shift focus) plays an important role in the learning process. Foundations of cognitive science. or event thereby allowing that person to switch attention to something new. See Also: Attention Holding | Attention Getting | Sustained Attention Behavioural Indeterminacy The claim that in principle psychology is restricted to establishing weak equivalence. S. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. cognitive impairment. Unfortunately. such features as consciousness are not reducible to neurophysiological systems. (1990). Arousal level can decrease. measuring behavioural data is unable to establish equivalence at the level of functional architecture. As with attention getting and holding. Weak equivalence is equivalence with respect to input/output behaviour. Attention releasing can simply be defined as the "releasing or turning off of attention from a stimulus. Not 5 . & Porges. DeGangi.. Attention releasing provides a person with a method to reach closure on a given activity. S. Pylyshyn. Rockville. Rockville. This issue is of importance to cognitive psychology because. Therefore. & Porges. Behavioural studies are indeterminate with respect to strong equivalence. References: 20. Z. Neuroscience foundations of human performance. However. (1989). the person will expend energy in learning. Computing in cognitive science. this can be complicated by poor motivation. G. (1990). which are also a feature of the brain. the person will expend energy in information processing. Attention holding is measured by how long one engages in a cognitive activity involving that stimulus. task. Biological Naturalism states that consciousness is a higher level function of the brain's physical capabilities. If an activity or stimulus is moderately complex.Attention Holding Attention holding is the "maintenance of attention when a stimulus is intricate or novel. Posner (Ed. or other learning-related problems (of which poor attention holding may be identified).). MD: American Occupational Therapy Association. I. MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.. it implies that cognitive psychology cannot generate insight into cognition without importing knowledge based on non-behavioural observations from other disciplines. References: 18. See Also: Attention Getting | Attention Releasing | Sustained Attention Attention Releasing Attention releasing is the final stage in DeGangi and Porges' (1990) process of sustained attention.

for example: how does neurophysiology account for the range of mental phenomena? how does consciousness come about? how advanced does a neurophysiological system have to be to produce consciousness? References: 21. The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology.). specifically assessing syntax of words while listening. (1994). (Ed. Eysenck. MIT Press. which Searle himself points out. Lower level systems categorize and describe incoming perceptual information and pass this descriptive information onto hiher levels for more complex processing. content words are selected by neural systems in Wernicke's area. The most basic perceptual systems are located at the bottom of the hierarchy. Depending on the complexity of the information being processed.W. When information flows from the bottom of the sytstem to the top of the system this is called "bottom-up" processing. 1994 Bottom-Up Processing The cognitive system is organized hierarchically. and comprehending structural complexity. and the most complex cogntive (e. M. and termination of processing routines 6 . Speech will consist almost entirely of content words. grammatical refinements are added by neural systems in Broca's area. (1990). is postulated to be responsible for the selection. which sets up the muscle movements for speaking. with cascade models the latter stages of information processing can begin operating before the completion of earlier information processing stages. initiation. the most important yet least well understood component of Baddeley's (1986) working memory model. Psychology. and that these stages can be sequentially ordered. References: 22. See Also: Discrete Processsing Central Executive The central executive. The Rediscovery of the Mind. then to Broca's area for analysis of syntax. Gray. Peter. but in other stages it may be processed in a discrete manner. New York. MA: Basil Blackwell. Searle. problem solving) systems are located at the top of the hierarchy. In speech production. See Also: Top-Down Processing Broca's Area Named for Paul Broca who first described it in 1861. the complex task can be performed by completing each distinct stage. Broca's area is the section of the brain which is involved in speech production. Auditory and speech information is transported from the auditory area to Wernicke's area for evaluation of significance of content words. NY: Worth Publishing. References: 23. Information can flow both from the bottom of the system to the top of the system and from the top of the system to the bottom of the system. People suffering from neurophysiological damage to this area (called Broca's aphasia or nonfluent aphasia) are unable to understand and make grammatically complex sentences.all brains produce this higher level functioning.g. memory. it may be transmitted between some processing stages in a cascade manner. See Also: Wernicke's Area Cascade Processing Under the assumption that a cpmplex task can be broken down into distinct stages of information processing. Unlike discrete processing. Massachusetts. and there are many questions still open in Biological Naturalism. and then the information is sent to the motor cortex. John. Cambridge. Connectionist models of information processing operate in a cascade manner and are important for the way in which these models can learn relationships between stimule and responses.

. G. (1939). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 298. increased distractibility. a difficulty in grasping the whole of a copmlicated state of affairs . perception. University of California San Diego CHIP Report 99. Baddeley. 26. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and processes.D. (but) . encoding. John Wiley & Sons 7 . He proposed the idea that cognitive development consisted of the development of logical competence. 28. cannot learn to master new types of task. (1986). Oxford: Oxford University Press.. A. (1990). A. sensori-motor 30. [the patient is] at a loss.. According to Shallice (1982). p. (Rylander. (1982). & Shallice. D. retrieving). in new situations . Shallice.g. 27.. Rylander.A. Most researchers treat cognitive maps as a tool that can usefully summarise and communicate information rather than as a literal description of mental images. T. patients suffering from frontal lobe syndrome lack flexibility and the ability to control their processing resources. Specific impairments of planning. T. Acta Psychiatrica Neurologica. Supplement No.. References: 24. The classic frontal syndrome is characterized by disturbed attention. well able to work along old routines . Cognitive Mapping Cognitive mapping is a general term that applies to a series of methods for measuring mental representations. 1990) equates the central executive with the supervisory attentional system (SAS) described by Norman and Shallice (1980) and by Shallice (1982).(e. 1939.20) In other words. Norman. storing. it is now believed that performance varies greatly within each stage and depends more on the acquisition and development of language. formal operational He also argued that a child's cognitive performance depended more on the stage of development he was in than on the specific task being performed.. abilities. functions attributed to the central executive. and real-world knowledge for any individual child. References: 33. Instead. 25. Willed and automatic control of behavior.. Baddeley (1986. and that the development of this competence consists of four major stages: 29. including: • tasks involving planning or decision making • trouble shooting in situations in which the automatic processes appear to be running into difficulty • novel situations • dangerous or technically difficult situations • situations where strong habitual responses or temptations are involved Extensive damage to the frontal lobes may result in impairments in central executive functioning.D. 30. More recent studies have cast some doubt on Piaget's theory of homogeneous performance within a given stage. Baddeley (1986) coined the term dysexecutive syndrome (DES) to describe dysfunctions of the central executive.S. 199-209. Personality changes after operations on the frontal lobes. Baddeley. A. Mapping Strategic Thought Chichester. (1980). The most widely known theory of childhood cognitive development was proposed by Jean Piaget in 1969. concrete operational 32. decision rules.. Attention to action. See Also: Articulatory Loop | Visuospatial Sketchpad | Working Memory Cognitive Development (In Children) Generally it is referred to the changes which occur to a person's cognitive structures.. Huff. Human memory: Theory and practice.. Working memory. preoperational 31.. These techniques attempt to describe mental images that subjects use to encode knowledge and information. the supervisory attentional system is a limited capacity system and is used for a variety of purposes. (1990).

The cognitive penetrability approach seeks to establish whether phenomena are equivalent at the level of functional architecture by investigating whether phenomena are independent of beliefs and goals. 1989) Simon. Pylyshyn. (1989). See Also: Strong Equivalence | Weak Equivalence Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is concerned with information processing. (ed. Foundations of cognitive science. The consensual view is probably that there are indeed striking similarities between computer minds. Cambridge MA. and memory.. Some of the ingredients of the information processing approach to cognition were spelled out by Lachman. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. H. In essence.). Cognitive Science Several students have supplied definitions for this term: #1 | #2 | #3 Definition 1 "the study of intelligence and intelligent systems.L.. W.C. The cognitive penetrability approach was used in the imagary debate in cognitive science in the 1980's. but there are also probably substantial differences. MIT Press.) 1989. 36. & Butterfield. 1995 8 . A.Cognitive Penetrability An approach to testing strong equivalence. The mind has structural and resource limitations.). If manipulation of beliefs and goals systematically alters the empirical phenomenon then the phenomenon is not describing functional architecture and is cognitively penetrable. In recent years. References: 34. R. and Butterfield (1979). Hillsdale. Foundations of Cognitive Science. with particular reference to intelligent behaviour as computation" (Simon & Kaplan. as well as in occupational and clinical psychology. MA: MIT Press. M. and so should be thought of as a limited capacity processor. I. MA: Basil Blackwell. that is if they are primitive. Z. References: 35. (1990). M. In M. A. Eysenck. and that these symbols are transformed into other symbols as a result of being acted on by different processes. Lachman. November 23. The greatest difference between the approach adopted by cognitive psychologists and by the Behaviorists is that cognitive psychologists are interested in identifying in detail what happens between stimulus and response. explicitly cognitive approaches have been adopted in social and developmental psychology. and includes a variety of processes such as attention. (1979) Cognitive psychology and information processing. Computing in cognitive science. Lachman. perception. symbol processing system. Posner (Ed. Lachman. it is assumed that the mind can be regarded as a general purpose. J. Contributed by J. in Posner.W.. learning.I. Cambridge. "Foundations of cognitive science". & C. A key issue in the field is the extent to which human and computer information processing systems resemble one another. E. (Ed. Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology. Andrews. Cambridge. It is also concerned with the structures and representations involved in cognition. Kaplan.

psychology. The field of neural networks has become richer than is encompassed by the traditional view of PDP. and linguistics. the details of human cognitive processing. thinking. This allows a network to either learn a task by iterating on training examples (induction learning). As a result of the collaborative effort between these disciplines.A. Keple. aside from the original inspiration coming from biology. There is also merit in making a philosophical distinction between PDP and connectionism. containing within it several viewpoints. it emphasizes collections of simple processing elements in place of the monolithic processors seen more commonly within computing. Cambridge. for example). M. See Also: Cognitive Psychology I Artificial Intelligence Contributed by: L. There are five major topic areas in cognitive science: knowledge representation. To the casual reader. November 5. ed. learning. See Also: Neuroscience Contributed by M. and will continue to be. This encompasses a wider range of network structures for which biological relevance is not an issue or for which a learning process per se is not utilized. A particular organization of inter-connected processing elements (a network).neuroscience. and perception.W. over time. is paired with a mathematical basis by which the connection weights are adjusted (or simply calculated directly). and the development of the theory of generative grammar and related offshoots in linguistics. Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell Ltd. and the computational modeling of those processes. The term "neural network" is somewhat misleading to begin with as. It is a relatively new science that combines knowledge gained from a number of disciplines. Originally taking its inspiration from the biological neuron and neurological organization. the development of information processing psychology where the goal was to specify the internal processing involved in perception. These simple processing elements are typically only capable of rudimentary calculations (such as summation). linguistics. whereas the latter is typified by networks such as the Hopfield and Tank model for combinatorial optimization [3]. cognitive psychology. tended to emphasize learning oriented tasks and follow a largely empirical approach. this is the study of intelligence and intelligence systems. language. "connectionism". memory. (1990). however possess a high degree of weighted inter-connectivity with one another and generally operate in parallel [2]. The cognitive science movement is far reaching and diverse. anthropology. Connectionism distinguishes itself by also viewing the network model as a computational architecture. Arguably the most widely used example of the former is the multi-layer perceptron trained via error back-propagation (see [5]. Falling into areas such as these include a wealth of recent work which has sought to establish the formal relationship between computational power of connectionist networks and abstract 9 . 1995 Definition 3 Generally stated. The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology. there have been. Kincade Dictionary Home Page Connectionism Connectionism is an alternate computational paradigm to that provided by the von Neumann architecture. These include: computer science. and thought. or to provide a system in which solutions to particular problems can be computed. PDP has been disposed to seek biological relevance for their models. language. there is nothing particularly "neural" about them and any perceived biological relevance is often debatable. neuroscience. It includes as contributing disciplines: artificial intelligence. Cognitive science grew out of three developments: the invention of computers and the attempts to design programs that could do the kinds of tasks that humans do.Definition 2 Cognitive science refers to the interdisciplinary study of the acquisition and use of knowledge. Eysenck. philosophy. Cognitive science was a synthesis concerned with the kinds of knowledge that underlie human cognition. For example. philosophy. huge advancements in our understanding of human cognition. and education. "parallel distributed processing" (PDP) and "neural networks" may be entirely synonymous.

Hinton. In the example of the computer it is stored in files on the disks. in which an individual provides information about his or her mental experience. (Ed. Marvin Minsky (1985). In D. volume 1. NY: Simon & Schuster. Hertz. Hopfield and D. Rumelhart. Neural Networks. There has been a considerable amount of controversy over the centuries concerning the value of psychology of assessing the contents of consciousness by means of introspective evidence. 1986. 38. Although debatable. Parallel Distributed Processing.L. Redwood City. Hence.[4]). See Also Associative Memory| Content Addressable Memory| Induction Learning| Learning Rule| Machine Learning| Parallel Distributed Processing Models Consciousness Consciousness refers to awareness of our own mental processes (or of the products of such processes). McClelland. In a connectionist system the data is stored in the activation pattern of the units. This type of memory has the advantage of allowing 10 .). Cambridge. References: 37. That is to say that PDP researchers are connectionists. There are certain cognitivists who would disagree with these definitions. MIT Press. 6(4):1000-1004. however not all connectionists consider themselves to be PDP researchers. Learning a class of large finite state machines with a recurrent neural network. Introduction to the theory of neural computation.J. Galton. each of its other connections will either be excited or inhibited. Horne. A.E. Cambridge. Others.G. (1883). M. Rumelhart and J. As these connections represent the content of the data. Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology . 43. Addison-Wesley. 1995. but only a little of the recent past. If these connections represent the attributes of the data then the data may be recalled by any one of its attributes. among others. if a processing unit receives excitatory input from one of its connections.L. this type of memory is called content addressable memory. C. `Neural' computation of decisions in optimization problems. Lin. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks.E. In this respect. M.machines (for example [1]. Palmer. such as Galton (1883). 1995. On the computational power of Elman-style recurrent networks. connectionism subsumes PDP. References: 42. Williams. Eysenck. F. Inquiries into human faculty and its development. Biological Cybernetics. Giles. New York. (1985). Consciousness is difficult to describe because each time we attempt to examine temporary memories. S. 39.E. 41. 44. See Also: Mandelbrot Set Content Addressable Memory In a symbolic system information is stored in an external mechanism. J. London: Macmillan. feels is an important one. and R.J. D. 52:141-152. This awareness can be made manifest by introspective reports. MA: Basil Blackwell. 8(9):1359-1365. Aristotle claimed that the only way to study thinking was by introspection. we distort the very record we are trying to interpret. Kremer. not just those that are part of an indexing system. 1991. 40. Learning internal representations by error propagation. J. (1990). B. and even harkens back to the aforementioned Hopfield and Tank model which computes solutions to problems by minimizing energy within a pre-wired system of weights [3]. T. Minsky.W. G. As the information has been encoded in some form of file system in order to retrieve that information one must know the index system of the files. Tank. The society of mind.C. argued that the position of consciousness "appears to be a helpless spectator of but a minute fraction of automatic brain work. Behaviorists tend to agree with Galton that psychologists should not concern themselves with consciousness and introspection. editors.G. maintains that human consciousness can never represent what is occurring at the present moment. this point is one that this author. data can only be accessed by certain attributes. In other words.W. This is due both because agencies have limited capacity to represent what happened recently and partly because it take time for agencies to communicate with one another. Krogh and R.

"(Belsky. of health. 47. 1990. (1970).of job. See Also: Fluid Intelligence | WAIS Cued Recall This is a component of a memory task in which the subject is asked to recall items that were presented to them on an intial training. Goulet and P. References: 45. K. Although deductive inference is easy to test or model. A. The task of making deductions consists of three stages. if the premises are true. Eysenck. (1990). Next they must be able to formulate a valid conclusion. Crystallized intelligence is important to psychologists as it relates to the study of aging. p. Horn. Pacific Grove. (1991)." (p.greater flexibility of recall and is more robust. In other words.cause disengagement from the culture. With a deductive inference. a person should evaluate their conclusion to tests its validity. it remains relatively stable over time. Bechtel. There is ongoing intense debate among psychologists as to whether or not intelligence declines with aging. and experimenter may say: "Tell me all the words from the list that were animals".). or a cue. See Also: Functional Architecture | Graceful Degradation | Parallel Distributed Processing Models | Spontaneous Generalisation | Symbolic Architecture Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized intelligence can be defined as "the extent to which a person has absorbed the content of culture. MA: Blackwell.B. "at a certain time of life the cumulative effect of losses . 1990. or initial presentation list. the results of this type of inference never increase the semantic information above what is already stated in the premises. (Ed. Baltes (Eds. Organization of data on life-span development of human abilities. Why? Because. 11 . 125) References: 46. CA: Brooks/Cole. about the items on the original list. and interventions. This distributed memory is able to work its way around errors by reconstructing information that may have been lesioned from the system. research. He claims it may even increase "as the rate at which we acquire or learn new information in the course of living balances out or exceeds the rate at which we forget. In R. it is slightly different than the free recall task because the subject is given a hint.).W. The psychology of aging theory. then B" format. of relationships ." (as cited in Belsky. New York: Academic Press. J. Crystallized intelligence is measured by most of the verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). References: 48. J. and so forgetting finally exceeds the rate at which knowledge is acquired. Cambridge. Life-span developmental psychology: Research and theory. Thirdly. (1990). Connectionism and the mind: An introduction to parallel processing in networks. However. Horn (1970) hypothesized that because crystallized intelligence is based on learning and experience. MA: Basil Blackwell. & Abrahamsen. 125) It is the store of knowledge or information that a given society has accumulated over time. Belsky. See Also: Free Recall | Intrusions | Perseverations Deductive (Logical) Inference Inferences are made when a person (or machine) goes beyond available evidence to form a conclusion. For example. p. First. a person must understand the meaning of the premises. W. Studies of human efficiency in deductive inference involves conditional reasoning problems which follow the "if A. The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology.. 125) On the other side of the debate. Belsky (1990) claims crystallized intelligence in fact declines with age. this conclusion always follows the stated premises. Cambridge. then the conclusion is valid. M.

Therefore. • Finally. Johnson-Laird. Vascular Dementia (e.49. There are many different types of dementia (approximately 70 to 80). MA: Basil Blackwell. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) 55. Alzheimer's Disease is the major cause of dementia. 1994).g. Human and machine thinking.). or as having properties it does not have-.g. See Also: Alzheimer's Disease Discrete Processing A model using discrete processing requires that information is passed from one stage to another only after the processing in the first stage is complete. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.. See Also: Inductive Inference Dementia Dementia is a clinical state characterized by loss of function in multiple cognitive domains. the cognitive impairments must be severe enough to cause impairment in social and occupational functioning.W. References: 4.how the representation can correctly represent some things which cause its activation. Alcoholic Dementia) 7.. apraxia. the decline must represent a decline from a previously higher level of functioning.basically how its content can be false of the object represented. The difficulty is that we need to explain --in a principled. Washington. disturbances in executive functioning. M. DC: Author.. Cambridge. Canadian Medical Association Journal.g. Traumatic Dementia (e. For 12 . Infectious Dementia (e.g. yet misrepresent other things which cause its activation. agnosia.). (1994). (1993). P. NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Canadian study of health and aging: Study methods and prevalence of dementia. Hillsdale.9 % of all Canadians 65 years and older meet the criteria for the clinical diagnoses of dementia (Canadian Study on Health and Aging. The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology.g. Multi-infarct Dementia) 52. accounting for 64% of all dementias in Canada for persons 65 and older and 75% of all dementias for persons 85 plus. References: 56.g. 150(6). (Ed. Alzheimer's Disease. Cardiac Arrest) 53. See Also: Cascade Processsing The Disjunction Problem Any theory of the content of a representation must be able to explain how a representation can misrepresent --how it can represent an object as being something it is not. Toxic Dementia (e. Degenerative diseases (e. • In addition. Diagnostic features include : • memory impairment and at least one of the following: aphasia. the diagnosis of dementia should NOT be made if the cognitive deficits occur exclusively during the course of a delirium. Anoxic Dementia (e. American Psychiatric Association). 5. Eysenck. Some of the major disorders causing dementia are: 50. N. The advantage of this type of model is that it provides a convienent method of understanding the effects of different variables on the performance of a given task. Pick's Disease) 51.. non-circular way-. The most commonly used criteria for diagnoses of dementia is the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders.. (1990).. Dementia pugilistica [boxer's dementia]) 54. American Psychiatric Association (1994). • Importantly. the processing time required in a discrete model is additive and equal to the sum of the time taken at each level of processing.

References: 57. we9d like to be able to say that my kangaroo representation represents kangaroos. See Also: Levels of Processing | Maintenance Rehearsal Enactment Weick (1988) describes the term enactment as representing the notion that when people act they bring structures and events into existence and set them in action. If this is so. Cambridge Mass. A framework for memory research. If so. perhaps the content is something like an unspecific description which applies correctly to all the things which can activate it. preconceptions are used to set aside portions of the field of experience for further attention. this representation doesn9t represent the wallaby as something it is not. the wallaby can be correctly represented by this representation. (1972). F. This content might better be described as 3unspecific2. rather than 3disjunctive2. by showing what a representation9s content is--exactly-. (1987). J. For example. 3Meaning and the World Order2. (1989). Fodor (1990) claims that any theory which purports to account for the content of a representation must solve the disjunction problem. Levels of processing. lawlike. arguing that covariance theories don9t explain content in a way that allows representations to misrepresent. Hence. of course. References: 60. In contrast to maintenance rehearsal.instance. 671-684. Fodor. This is especially a problem for theories which explain content in terms of covariance: some sort of reliable. A Bradford Book. Cambridge. attention to certain stimuli will guide subsequent action so that those stimuli are confirmed as important. Cummins. rather than 3liberally2. Fodor. The process of enactment involves two steps. In Psychosemantics (pp. R. Cambridge. 1990) this doesn9t work. that is. 59. 3A Theory of Content I: The Problem2. A Bradford Book. as that9s a kangaroo rather than that9s a large animal with a long tail that gets about by hopping on its hind legs. This representation has the (disjunctive) content that9s either a kangaroo or it9s a wallaby which. Such theories have to be able to justify describing the representation9s content 3conservatively2 as Cummins (1990) calls it. because the wallaby is also a large animal with a long tail that gets about by hopping on its hind legs.: MIT Press. to Fodor (1987. Massachusetts: MIT Press. elaborative rehearsal involves deep sematic processing of a to-be-remembered item resulting in the production of durable memories. Craik. then when a wallaby activates my kangaroo representation. 97-133). That is. grouping the digits together to form a phone number transforms the stimuli from a meaningless string of digits to something that has meaning. 58. connection between tokenings of the representation and the occurrence of certain types of thing in the world. and have never met a wallaby. & Lockhart. J. Mass: MIT Press. 11. Such an account must be able to explain misrepresentation.and also how a representation can be caused to be activated by something to which that content does not apply. First. (pp. Cummins summarises various attempts to do this. The problem is that if the wallaby can also cause the activation of my kangaroo representation. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour.. then the wallaby is misrepresented. then we seem to have no principled reason for saying that the content of the representation is simply that9s a kangaroo rather than the disjunctive content that9s either a kangaroo or a wallaby. So to say that some things which activate the representation are correctly represented and others are misrepresented doesn9t work.M.S. In A Theory of Content and Other Essays.I. Even if I9ve only ever seen kangaroos. the representation9s content that9s a kangaroo is false of the wallaby. Unfortunately. perception is focused on predetermined stimuli. then if a wallaby causes the activation of that representation. The result of the process of enactment is the 13 . A Bradford Book. (1990). See Also: Semantics | Misrepresentation | Representation Elaborative Rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal is a type of rehearsal proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) in their Levels of Processing model of memory. which involves simple rote repetition. such as that9s a large animal with a long tail that gets about by hopping on its hind legs. if you were presented with a list of digits for later recall (4920975). people act within the context of these portions of experience guided by preconceptions in such a way as to reinforce these preconceptions. R. Second. 5188). Meaning and Mental Representation. is true of the wallaby.

Smith. the principle states that memory is improved when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval. S. meaning and content to objects perceived in the environment. 1978).T. Tulving. people adapt their thinking to incoming information). 342-353.. E. An enacted environment is "a map of if-then assertions in which actions are related outcomes" that in turn serve as expectations for future action and focus perception in such way that these preconceived relationships will be supported. Equilibration encompasses assimilation (i. 352-373. (1973). K. 1988) . Last.. These objects are not significant unless they are acted upon and incorporated into events. 1988).. (1991). 80.e. (1978). This enacted environment comprises "real" objects but the significance.. D. S. Smith. 24(4). are in a state of disequilibration and experience cognitive conflict).). Enacted sensemaking in crisis situations. Glenberg. Contributed by Julian Andrews Encoding Encoding refers to the processess of how items are placed into memory. 1991) and so will 'enact' environment by assigning significance. Fiske. & Taylor.. they adopt a more sophisticated mode of thought that eliminates the shortcomings of the old one (i.e.M. people transform incoming information so that it fits within their existing thinking) and accommodation (i. it is therefore analogous to the concept of schema and is the source of expectations for future action (Weick. For example. Glenberg. Memory and Cognition. The importance of the notion of enactment is that it provides a direct link between individual cognitive processes and environments. & Bjork. Schema guide both perception and inference (Fiske & Taylor. Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Social cognition (2nd ed. R.M. A.e. they become aware of the shortcomings in their existing thinking and are dissatisfied (i. New York: McGraw-Hill. First children are satisfied with their mode of thought and therefore are in a state of equilibrium. Psychological Review. the encoding specificity principle would predict that recall for information would be better if subjects were tested in the same room they had studied in versus having studied in one room and tested in a different room (see S. reach a more stable equilibrium). meaning and content of these objects will vary. & Bjork.M..A. 64. Then. See Also: Adaptation | Piaget's Stage Theory of Development 14 . Specifically.enacted environment (Weick.. & Thomson.M. 62. See Also: Working Memory Encoding Specificity The encoding specificity principle of memory (Tulving & Thomson. Journal of Management Studies. S. 6. E. In this way the enacted environment is a direct result of the preconceptions held by the social actor. situations and explanations. (1988). Piaget suggested that equilibration takes place in three phases.e. Weick. development is driven by the process of equilibration. References: 63. An enacted environment is internalised by social actors as the way in which actions have led to certain consequences. See Also: Encoding | Retrieval Equilibration According to Piaget. By showing how preconceptions can shape the nature of the environment this concept allows one to argue the importance of schema in the sensemaking process. 1973) provides an general theoretical framework for understanding how contextual information affects memory. References: 61.E. Environmental contest and human memory.

if the two systems were strongly equivalent. the sense of the term is related to your experience of cats.W. (1993). This second sense is referred to as the 'intension' of the term. (31) The distinctions in the meaning of a term are important to clarify. and to also produce the same qualitative patterns of errors. their history. p. The referent of the term 'cat' is all the cats.e. respectively. etc. See Also: Intension Fluid Intelligence Fluid intelligence is tied to biology. and ii) the sense of the term. one could (for two different systems) rank order problems in terms of their difficulty. both of which refer to the same thing. all of the psychological associations that one has with that term--this is 'concept' talk. Computation and cognition. Note the following definition by Cohen and Nagel: A term [an element of a proposition] may be viewed in two ways. The first phase or aspect is called the denotation or extension of the term. Fluid intelligence is important to psychologists as it relates to the study of aging.. In an error analysis. p. This requires that evidence be collected to defend the claim that the model and the to-beexplained system are carrying out the same procedures to compute a function. 1990.Error Analysis One of the key goals of cognitive science is to develop theories that are strongly equivalent with respect to to-beexplained systems. Other words sometimes used to pick out the distinctions between 'extension' and 'intension' are 'denotation' and 'connotation'. MA: MIT Press. In either case. i. Pylyshyn. This is an example of relative complexity evidence. There is ongoing intense debate among psychologists as to whether or not intelligence declines with aging. Fluid intelligence is measured by the performance subtasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). 'Thales'. while the second is called the connotation or intension. "The development of CNS structures is exceeded by the rate of CNS breakdown. You cannot change the terms in a statement including one of them and retain the same truth value. Z. or as a set of attributes or characteristics which determine the objects. then we would expect them to produce the same rank orderings of difficulty. Cambridge." (Horn. Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company. no discussion of meaning in general can begin. 125) This is because of the physiological changes that accompany aging. What a term means has two components: i) the referent of the term--this is 'class' talk. either as a class of objects (which may have only one member). its intension is 'lover of wisdom'. a skill not basically dependant on our experience. R. Examples of the two components follow. 125) References: 15 . Belsky (1990) claims fluid intelligence "reaches a peak in early adulthood and then regularly declines. See Also: Intermediate State Evidence | Protocol Analysis | Relative Complexity Evidence | Strong Equivalence Extension The extension of the term 'cat' is the class of 'cat'. but the sense of 'morning star' and 'evening star' is not the same." (p. 1990. their attributes. and so on. The extension of the term 'philosopher' is 'Socrates'. 'intelligent'. References: 65. 'Plato'. and the like. (1984). as revealed by their likelihood to produce mistakes. Cohen. It is defined as our "on-the-spot reasoning ability. Without such distinctions. 1970 as quoted in Belsky. 125) Belsky (1990) indicates this type of intelligence is active when the central nervous system (CNS) is at its physiological peak. An Introduction to Logic. M." (Belsky. E. Indianapolis. A classic example is 'the morning star' and 'the evening star'. If we wish to construct models and theories of human language and thought--and here talk of meaning necessarily enters--we need to make precise those issues and problems we specifically want to address. and Nagel. One kind of information that could be used to examine this claim is called error analysis. and is the component of meaning to which 'extension' applies. A more detailed approach would be to classify the nature of the errors that each system made. the planet 'Venus'.

research. but only on the character of the representation itself. or whether it represents that thing correctly or not. without that representationhaving a syntax (p227). truth reference. but the image doesn9t even have a syntax. Gunderson (Ed. Pacific Grove. taking the mind to be a 3kind of computer2) is that such processes only have access to a representation9s formal properties. 131-193). so that operations can operate on formal properties which can at least be interpreted as saying something about some part of the world (whether or not that interpretation is correct.). which fix the semantic interpretations of representations9 formal properties. true. to Fodor. In R. See Also: Crystallized Intelligence | WAIS The Formality Condition The semantic properties of a representation are the properties it has due to its relationship with the world.227) Fodor stresses that formal properties are not syntactic properties. to a representation's relationships with the world. which takes mental processes to be formal operations on representations. they have no access to the semantic properties of such representations. 3The Meaning of Meaning2. 69. The point for a computational theory of mind. In Representations (pp.g. Computational processes do not have any access to semantic properties. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. and meaning. of having referents. H. the property of being representations of the environment. On the other hand. (1980). and a process can operate on those formal properties. an experimenter might read a list of 20 words aloud. rotating an image on a screen. then they have access only to the formal properties of such representations of the environment as the senses provide. (1970). presenting a new word to the subject every 4 seconds.66. a subject is presented a list of tobe-remembered items. K. The free recall task is of interest to cognitive science because it provided some of the basic information used to decompose the mental state term "memory" into simpler subfunctions ("primary memory". See Also: Semantics | Representation Free Recall Free recall is a basic paradigm used to study human memory. (and thus. References: 68. Baltes (Eds. Cambridge. by specifying what they are not: 3Formal properties are the ones that can be specified without reference to such semantic properties as. (p233) That is. It is called a free recall task because the subject is free to recall the items in any order that he or she desires. 3If mental processes are formal. J. properties such as being true. Organization of data on life-span development of human abilities. Thus the Formality Condition incurs what Putnam (1975) calls Methodological Solipsism. CA: Brooks/Cole. (1990).). indeed.B. Hence. This curve exhibited 16 . For example. appropriate. a representation9s formal properties must somehow mirror the representation9s semantic properties. New York: Academic Press.2 (p. Massachusetts: MIT Press. that is. the properties that the representation has in itself. etc. for instance this operation is performed on the image9s formal properties. the subject is asked to recall the items (e. Belsky. or. for example. J. Methodological Solipsism Considered as a Research Strategy in Cognitive Psychology. A Bradford Book.). This is because the results of a free recall task were typically plotted as a serial position curve. its 3shape2 as it were. Goulet and P. one at at time. Fodor9s emphasis) The solution to this methodological solipsism is to pair a computational psychology with what Fodor calls a naturalistic psychology: a theory of the relations between representations and the world. are its formal properties.. Fodor (1980) defines a representation9s formal properties negatively. of saying something about some object. p231. Horn. 225-253).. "secondary memory"). Putnam. of being a representation of something. In K. Fodor. 67. Life-span developmental psychology: Research and theory. A representation can have formal properties. including the property of being true. At the end of the presentation of the list. Thus the processes that operate on representations cannot operate on the basis of what this is a representation of. In a free recall task. J. and interventions. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (pp.2 (Fodor (1980). by writing down as many items from the list as possible). The psychology of aging theory. (1975).

. more generally. See Also: Functional Analysis | Primitive | Ryle's Regress 17 . If functional analysis is applied to an information processing system. Any proposal about what constitutes the cognitive architecture can be viewed as a hypothesis about the nature of cognitive functions at the level at which these functions are subsumed. for human cognition. He proposes a three-stage methodology that defines functional analysis. Pylyshyn. mechanical or biological principles). By specifying the functional architecture. then the functional architecture is the language in which that program has been written. For instance. they must be explained by appealing to implementational properties (e. defining a programming language is equivalent to specifying the functional architecture of a virtual machine" (Pylyshyn. In other words. References: 71. and as a result will be easier to explain.g. This analysis can proceed recursively by decomposing some (or all) of the subfunctions into sub-subfunctions. the subfunctions that are defined will be simpler than the original function.g. The functional architecture is comprised of a set of primitive operations or functions. analysis is stopped by subsuming the bottom level of functions. See Also: Primacy Effect | Recency Effect | Serial Position Curve | Short Term Memory Functional Analysis Functional analysis is a methodology that is used to explain the workings of a complex system. The basic idea is that the system is viewed as computing a function (or. Indeed. A very detailed treatment of functional analysis is provided by Cummins (1983). The behavior of these two effects provided support to the hypothesis that the free recall task called upon both a short-term and a long-term memory. Computation and cognition. See Also: Functional Architecture | Primitive | Ryle's Regress Functional Architecture The functional architecture can be viewed as the set of basic information processing capabilities available to an information processing system. any "black box diagram" offered as a model or theory by a cogntive psychologist represents the result of carrying out the analytic stage of functional analysis. R. p. properties of the human brain). the homunculus problem). if it is assumed that cognition is the result of the brain's "running of a program". This means that these basic functions cannot be explained by being further decomposed into less complex ("smaller") subfunctions.k. In the third stage. Functional analysis assumes that such processing can be explained by decomposing this complex function into a set of simpler functions that are computed by an organized system of subprocessors. MA: MIT Press. one converts the black box descriptions that cognitivists create into explanations. Instead. analysis is performed. Cummins. (1983). The nature of psychological explanation. Z.a.W. In the second stage. "Specifying the functional architecture of a system is like providing a manual that defines some programming language. the to-be-explained function is defined. MA: MIT Press. Cambridge. Cambridge. then the level of subsumed functions defines the functional architecture for that information processor. As a result. Functional analysis is important to cognitive science because it offers a natural methodology for explaining how information processing is being carried out. 92). The to-be-explained function is decomposed into an organized set of simpler functions. References: 70.a recency effect and a primacy effect. The functional architecture is of interest to cognitive science because if offers an escape from Ryle's Regress (a. In the first stage. the functional architecture represents the point at which the decomposition of mental state terms into other mental state terms via functional analysis can stop.. (1984). The hope is that when this type of decomposition is performed. 1984. This means that the operation of each of these operation is explained by appealing to natural laws (e. as solving an information processing problem).

The fall in performance is sudden and clearly defined. it records the responses to that situation. Strauss (Ed. (1991). and redundancy elimination (Siegler. Children's thinking. In S. whenever a system encounters a situation. This property means that connectionist models still function relatively error free when the system has damage to its connections or units or when the input stimuli is incomplete. (1991). 74. A more powerful learning 18 . 1991). the performance will decline gradually. Cambridge. (1995). In this way. New York. M.. MA: Blackwell. and what new situations arose as a result. References: 72. They therefore developed a new theory. Regularity Detection This process uses the contents of the time line to draw generalizations about experience. R. Haith. Vasta. New York: Academic Press. The Hebbian Rule works well as long as all the input patterns are orthogonal or uncorrelated. See Also: Adaptation | Equilibration Graceful Degradation In a symbolic system removing part of the system will result in a clear degradation of performance. Siegler. & Miller. Removing a symbol token will result in the loss of the information stored in that token. the outcomes from those actions. The system notes situations that are similar and notes where variations do not change the outcomes of situations. R. Klahr and Wallace have developed a self-modifying computer simulation that models findings about children's thinking. M. These three categories are described below. & Abrahamsen. Redundancy Elimination This process improves efficiency by identifying processeing steps that are unecessary. Instead. This recording of events ensures that the system keeps all the information about an even stored so that it can be referred back to in the future. it reaches a generalization that a less-complex sequence can achieve the same goal (Siegler. In Klahr and Wallace's theory. and posited that the mechanism behind development was generalization. 1991). D.. A. The rule builds on Hebbs's 1949 learning rule which states that the connections between two neurons might be strengthened if the neurons fire simultaneously. S. 73. (1982). depending on the nature of the loss and the architecture of the system. Klahr and Wallace divided generalization into three more specific categories: the time line.Generalization Klahr & Wallace (1982) felt that Piaget's theory of adaptation was not enough to explain cognitive development.). NJ: Prentice-Hall. NY: Wiley. Bechtel. Connectionism and the mind: An introduction to parallel processing in networks. A. Englewood Cliffs. The requirement of orthogonality places serious limitations on the Hebbian Learning Rule. and can demonstrate these processes in generalization. See Also: Content Addressable Memory | Functional Architecture | Parallel Distributed Processing Models | Spontaneous Generalisation | Symbolic Architecture Hebbian Learning Rule The Hebbian Learning Rule is a learning rule that specifies how much the weight of the connection between two units should be increased or decreased in proportion to the product of their activation. In a connectionist system performance does fall sharply with either damage to the system or erroneous inputs. The loss of an operating procedure destroys the systems ability to perform the missing process. Klahr. Child psychology: The modern science. Nonmonotone assessment of monotone development: An information processing analysis. regularity detection. The Time Line The time line contains the data on which generalizations are based. U-shaped behavioral growth.. References: 75. W.

Using this paradigm.g. Pylyshyn. Bechtel. (1981). which are reflected in the large number of theories on the subject. 85. & Abrahamsen. G. NY: Simon & Schuster. Freud (1905. and surprise. Kristal. (1974). Primitives serve as the foundation of the algorithmic level of the computational hierarchy. shallow processing. the listener notices the incorrect interpretation of the ambiguous element (clubs = social groups). Schultz. it does have an important cognitive aspect. Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. (1985). 80. A. Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Canadian Journal of Psychology. Similarly.C. 249277.. T. in Minsky 1985) suggested that humorous stories are a way of fooling our internal censors. In particular. Rumelhart. Anderson.rule is the delta rule.. which utilizes the discrepancy between the desired and actual output of each output unit to change the weights feeding into it. (1993). 535-581. & McClelland. Z. Order and processing in humor appreciation. D. For example. Presumably. "Do you believe in clubs for children?" "Only when kindness fails". & Shwartz. Hebb. Incidental Learning Paradigm The incidental learning paradigm is an experimental paradigm used to investigate learning without intent. vol. but deeper than #1 19 . In the final stage the hidden meaning of the ambiguous element is perceived (clubs = sticks). Smith. 88. On the demystification of mental imagery. several groups of subjects are presented with the same list of items (e. Psychological Review. Minsky. incongruity.O.. UK: Blackwell. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences. P. 2. A joke's power comes from a description that fits two different frames at once. W. Oxford. 77. (1949). Psychological Review. MA: MIT Press. L. Imagery Debate The imagery debate centres around the problem of what can be viewed as the primitives of cognition.(1986). J. S.). (1978). W. cognitive theory helps provide an explanation of why verbal jokes are found amusing by looking at the comprehension processes involved. • count the number of letters in each word (shallow processing) • name a rhyming word for each item (again. Humor has been related to aggression.R. 409-420.E.. London: Multimedia Publications.. consider this joke by W. The imagery debate: Analogue media versus tacit knowledge. L. while the second meaning is disguised and reprehensible. New York: Wiley. The incongruity resolution theory explains the fact that a joke previously encountered will seem less funny on subsequent exposure. Schultz(1974) offered a three step theory of processing. M. The cognitive psychologist's interest in the subject is usually related to the notion that humor stems from a resolution of incongruity. In the first stage. 78. what does? Could propositions serve that function? Or both images and propositions? Or something altogether different? Kosslyn. the incorrect element of incongruity is processed ( "only when kindness fails").. 16-45. (Ed. The organization of behavior. with each group asked to perform a different activity or orienting task with the list. J. (1981). New York. References: 79. S. 81. The society of mind. The central question related to the imagery debate then is: Do images form the basis of all our higher cognition? If not. (1979). it is these primitives which are implemented in the physical substrate of the brain. In the second step. Although most cognitive psychologists have not extended their theorizing to humor. D. ABC of psychology. References: 76. For example. 1: Foundations. 20 words) and are instructed to process them in different ways (different orienting conditions). Cambridge. M. Field. See Also: Learning Rule Humor There are many reasons why people find something humorous. 28. The first meaning must be transparent and innocent. R. Connectionism and the mind: An introduction to parallel processing in networks. Pinker. S.

5: Programs for Machine Learning. M.e. However. 1976. At the end of the list presentation. The example set may be an incomplete representation of the true population. but we may be able to assign a likelihood to each conclusion. one might state: Given a set of training examples. subjects are not told that there will be a subsequent test of memory.R. C4. More formally.• form an image of each word and rate the vividness of each image (deep processing). 1993. Unlike deductive inferences. Machine Learning. As Chalmers points out. 1001 is "+"). 84. Australia.W. in the case of inductive inferences. The second is to form a hypothesis that attempts to describe the above information in relation to t person's general knowledge. The third step is to evaluate the validity of the conclusion that was reached. A. Quinlan. Similar to deductive inference. subjects are unexpectedly asked to recall as many of the words as possible. 86. Department of Computing Science. each noted as either a positive or negative example of some concept. Eysenck. inductive inferences do yield consclusions that increase the semantic information over and above that found in the initial premises. Age differences in incidental learning. References: 20 . "an inductive inference with true premises [can] lead to false conclusions" [2]. 10. The task is to infer from this data (or "induce") a rule to account for the given classification: + + 1000101 1111 100 1 1010011 + + 1110100 10010 111111 1101 11111 + + + 0101 1100110 00010 101101 001011 A rule one could induce from this data is that strings with an even number of 1's are "+". San Mateo.L. Developmental Psychology. (1974). See Also Connectionism| Inductive Inference| Learning Rule| Machine Learning Inductive (Pragmatic) Inference Inferences are made when a person (or machine) goes beyond available evidence to form a conclusion. 1987. develop a hypothesis that is as consistent as possible with the provided data [1]. The process itself ideally implies some method for drawing conclusions about previously unseen examples once learning is complete. connectionism (most neural network models rely on training techniques that seek to infer a relationship from examples) and decision list techniques [4]. 85. Adapted from lectures in a graduate course in representation & reasoning given by Dr. Chalmers. See Also: Levels of Processing Induction Learning Inductive learning is essentially learning by example. University of Alberta. 2(3):229-246. Importantly. among others. those with an odd number of 1's are "-". Processing information at a deeper level results in superior recall of that information (Eysenck.F. Techniques for modeling the inductive learning process include: Quinlan's decision trees (results from information theory are used to partition data based on maximizing "information content" of a given sub-classification) [3]. References 83. A simple demonstration of this type of learning is to consider the following set of bit-strings (each digit can only take on the value 0 or 1). 1974). induction can be broken down into three stages. we cannot be sure that our conclusion is a logical result of the premises. What is this thing called science?. 936-941. Morgan Kaufmann. R. Note that this rule would indeed allow us to classify previously unseen strings (i. An inductive inference is one which is likely to be true because of the state of the world. Peter van Beek. The first stage is to understand the observation or stated information. J. References: 82. University of Queensland Press. Learning decision lists. or correct but inappropriate rules may be derived which apply only to the example set. The resulting conclusion goes beyond initial information by incorporating one's general knowledge in the result. Rivest. It is worthy of note that this is an imperfect technique.

intensional/conceptual. no discussion of meaning in general can begin. 'Thales'. and ii) the sense of the term. The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. You cannot change the terms in a statement including one of them and retain the same truth value. desires. See Also: Intension | Extension The Intentional Stance An intentional stance refers to the treating of a system as if it has intentions. Cohen. (Notice the intentionality of the preceding statement. we know that we are dealing with something intentional. Intentional. See Also: Deductive Inference Intension What a term means has two components: i) the referent of the term--this is 'class' talk." "hey. By treating a system as if it is a rational agent one is able to predict the system's behaviour. but the sense of 'morning star' and 'evening star' is not the same. about things. their attributes. M.W.e. 88. Cambridge. both of which refer to the same thing. these expressions do not reveal what sets humans apart from the rest of the animals. See Also: Extension Intention Intentionality refers to "aboutness. First. and the like. (1993). P.87. 'intelligent'. all of the psychological associations that one has with that term--this is 'concept' talk. (1993). respectively. NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etc. either as a class of objects (which may have only one member). An Introduction to Logic.). Eysenck. MA: Basil Blackwell. i. This second sense is referred to as the 'intension' of the term. and extensional/perceptual. or mind. The extension of the term 'philosopher' is 'Socrates'. Other words sometimes used to pick out the distinctions between 'extension' and 'intension' are 'denotation' and 'connotation'. dreams. E. irrespective of whether it does. the planet 'Venus'. history and context. and Nagel. (1990). it fits well with our understandings of the 21 . intensional.) If we hear someone say "ouch. the sense of the term is related to your experience of cats.. or as a set of attributes or characteristics which determine the objects. must answer as to how intentionality is possible. This issue is important to the extent that any theory of consciousness. One can then predict the systems behaviour as that a rational system would undertake to further its goals given its beliefs. it is considered by most to be a singularly human feature. (31) The distinctions in the meaning of a term are important to clarify. If we wish to construct models and theories of human language and thought--and here talk of meaning necessarily enters--we need to make precise those issues and problems we specifically want to address. Indianapolis. R. and is the component of meaning to which 'extension' applies. Then one attributes desires to the system as those teh system ought to have given its survival needs and means of fulfilling them. Whenever we come across "that" in an utterance or piece of writing. First. Dennett argues for three main reasons for taking an intentional stance. the latter of which refers to the meaning of a term. knowledge. The first phase or aspect is called the denotation or extension of the term. (along with 'extensional'). 'Plato'. and extensional can be paired loosely in the following way: intentional/propositional. (Ed." etc. they have beliefs.. M." "oops. Johnson-Laird. and so on. A classic example is 'the morning star' and 'the evening star'. The referent of the term 'cat' is all the cats. their history. Hillsdale." Beings having intentionality have propositional attitudes. Without such distinctions. Note the following definition by Cohen and Nagel: A term [an element of a proposition] may be viewed in two ways. while the second is called the connotation or intension. N. Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company. Intentionality does. one ascribes beliefs to the system as those the system ought to have given its abilities. 'Intentional' is not to be confused with 'intensional' spelled with an 's'. etc. Examples of the two components follow. hopes. its intension is 'lover of wisdom'. Human and machine thinking.

J. Dennett. vol. for a connectionist system. The organization of behavior. 93. Third. it has been shown to be an accurate method of predicting behaviour.processes of natural selection and evolution in complex environments. (1949). & McClelland. delta rule. UK: Blackwell. 1: Foundations. In studying human subjects. generalized delta rule. D.E.. these are errors that occur when the subject includes items that were not on the original list. Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. MIT Press See Also: Intermediate State Evidence One of the key goals of cognitive science is to develop theories that are strongly equivalent with respect to to-beexplained systems. it is consistent with our folk psychology of behaviour.O. See Also: Cued Recall | Free Recall Learning Rule Learning rules. Hebb.an influential theory of memory proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) which rejected the idea of the dual store model of memory. Computation and cognition. intermediate state evidence is not directly available. A. MA: MIT Press. (1984). W.. then an immediate source of intermediate state evidence would be what the machine does to its tape with each processing step. Connectionism and the mind: An introduction to parallel processing in networks. MA: MIT Press. New York: Wiley. Bechtel. The Intentional Stance Cambridge MA. Z. are algorithms or equations which govern changes in the weights of the connections in a network.g. One of the simplest learning procedures for two. (1987).C. The learning rule is typically applied repeatedly to the same set of training inputs across a large number of epochs or training loops with error gradually reduced across epochs as the weights are fine-tuned. (1993). Rumelhart. 92. Cambridge. References: 91.(1986).W. D. This popular model postulated that characteristics of a memory are determined by it's "location" (ie. Learning rules incorporating an error reduction procedure utilize the discrepancy between the desired output pattern and an actual output pattern to change (improve) its weights during training. For example. This involves observations of the intermediate steps.layer networks is the Hebbian Learning Rule. & Abrahamsen. D.. However. References: 89. See Also: Protocol Analysis | Strong Equivalence Intrusion Errors In a recall portion of a memory task. that the two systems pass through as they move from being given a problem to providing an answer. fragile memory trace in short term store [STS] and a more durable memory trace in 22 . See Also: Hebbian Learning Rule | Parallel Distributed Processing Models Levels of Processing Levels of Processing . One type of evidence that can be used to support this claim is intermediate state evidence. This requires that evidence be collected to defend the claim that the model and the to-beexplained system are carrying out the same procedures to compute a function. Oxford. Cambridge. which is based on a rule initially proposed by Hebb in 1949. L. if one was using a Turing machine as a model. More powerful learning rules are learning rules which incorporate an error reduction procedure or error correction procedure (e. Pylyshyn. Hebb's rule states that the simultaneous excitation of two neuron results in a strengthening of the connections between them. one method that might provide some evidence about these intermediate states is protocol analysis. Second. and/or the intermediate states of knowledge. References: 90. back propagation).

LTP has also been found to occur in the mammalian nervous system. processing words based on their phonemic and orthographic components) leads to a fragile memory trace that is susceptible to rapid forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology. (1974). The evidence indicates that people of all cultures perceive colour in the same way.515) Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) was originally discovered in Aplysia. Craik. deep processing (e. 1973. See Also: Cognitive Science | Neuron Machine Learning The acquisition and application of knowledge plays a central role in describing learning. F. T. however. Craik and Lockhart also distinguished between two kinds of rehearsal. & Lockhart. depth of processing was postulated to fall on a shallow to deep continuum. (Pinel. (1969). For the most part.g.).S. J. Whorf argues that this language for snow allows the Eskimo people to "see" snow differently than speakers of other languages who do not have as many words for snow. whiule not determining the way that people think may influence the way that people think. on computers). Whereas in the English language there is only one word for snow the Eskimo language has many words for snow. particularly within artificial intelligence. elaborative rehearsal is the most effective in producing a more durable memory trace. This is an extremely important finding as it suggests that LTP could be the cellular basis of the neural implementation of learning and memory. Long-Term Potentiation The enduring facilitation of synaptic transmission that occurs following the activation of a synapse by high-frequency stimulation of the presynaptic neuron. A framework for memory research. semantic or meaning based processing) results in a more durable memory trace. 472-481. 1976. A typical paradigm employed to investigate the Levels of Processing theory is the incidental learning paradigm. 96. human beings perform this task quite well (for better or worse).the long term store [LTS].M.. especially when combined with the fact that the hippocampus is believed to be one of the major brain regions responsible for processing memories.. 1969). References: 94. 82. That is. Linguistic determination is also known as the Whorfian hypothesis or the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (Sapir. Eskimo people see subtle differences in snow that other people do not. attempt to develop methods for accomplishing this task algorithmically (i. Pinel.W. 1974). Hyde.S. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour. See Also: Elaborative Rehearsal | Incidental Learning Paradigm | Maintenance Rehearsal Linguistic Determination Linguistic determination is the argument that language directly effects that way that people think about and see the world. 1974: Hyde & Jenkins. Rosch. On the other had. 1972. Eysenck. Heider & Oliver. 671-684. Craik and Lockhart proposed that information could be processed in a number of different ways and the durability or strength of the memory trace was a direct function of the depth of processing involved. It is under the banner of machine learning that researchers. It is possible that language. Levels of processing. The Eskimo people are inhabitants of the Arctic. specifically the hippocampus. J. Whorf provides the example of the Eskimo words for snow. Exactly how language might influence thought is yet unclear. 1993. Of the two. Shallow processing (e. 1969.e. Recently. R. 10. Researchers have studied color perception across different linguistic groups to find support for the Whorfian hypothesis (Berlin & Kay. The tentative conclusion is that language does not determine the way that people think. 95.. 11.. 1968.J. Differential effects of incidental tasks on the organization of recall of a list of highly associated words. Biopsychology (2nd ed. maintenance and elaborative rehearsal. LTP is one of the first examples of a mechanisms for neural implementation of a cognitive function. Developmental Psychology. (1972). 936-941. p. References: 97. & Jenkins. 23 .g. Results reveal superior recall for items processed deeply compared to those items processed at the more shallow level (Eysenck. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon. M. (1993). Whorf. Heider. Moreover.I. 1956). Age differences in incidental learning. Instead. Miller & Johnson-Laird.

4. The society of mind. Simple rules can produce incredibly complex effects. I.Minsky. more detail shows up. 1984. whereas application to continuous data is difficult. Another way of looking at this is as follows. exhibit knowledge that is largely in agreement with the "true" information (i. the underlying order may become obscured by our inability to track every component. Annual Review of Computer Science. These issues are invariably task specific---most learning formalisms handle some subset of tasks extremely well while performance on others is substandard. F. while other topics may be simpler than they first appear. New York: Viking Press. Spring 1990. as you investigate further. Maintenance rehearsal involves rote repetition of an item's auditory representation.M. M. & Lockhart. 11.. It was originally postulated to help explain fractals. R. A formalism often employed to judge the effectiveness of a learning system is Valiant's definition of what it means for a system to be probably approximately correct [2]: the system should. Communications of the ACM.Craik. This will continue ad infinitum. 99.I. this type of rehearsal does not lead to stronger or more durable memories. & Stewart. Dietterich. L. Dietterich suggests that by defining "knowledge". References: 101. For example. NY: Simon & Schuster.e. a particular algorithm may perform well on discrete data. it will be important to define what is meant by "learning". A typical test of memory span involves having an examiner read a list of random digits (digit span) or words (word span) aloud at the rate of one per 24 . Mandelbrot sets relate philosophically to the study of cognitive science. approximately correct). 27:1134-1142.Cohen J. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour.G. • Inductive learning occurs when a system acquires new knowledge that was neither explicitly nor implicitly available previously. See Also: Consciousness Memory Span Memory span refers to the number of items (usually words or digits) that a person can hold in working memory.S. This seems to be the case in the study of groups of agencies and agents in Minsky's (1985) The Society of Mind. See Also Artificial Intelligence| Induction Learning| Learning Rule Maintenance Rehearsal Maintenance rehearsal is a type of rehearsal proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) in their Levels of Processing Model of memory. Levels of processing. where if any region of the set is magnified. • Learning by being told occurs when a system acquires new knowledge explicitly from an external source. Every time you focus further on one section. (1972). T. In contrast to elaborative rehearsal. A framework for memory research. Machine learning.. A theory of the learnable. 102. in that some theories in the field may need to be more complex in order to be fully validated. Valient. (1985). References 98.G.Dietterich differentiates between three types of learning a system can exhibit [1]: • Speed-up learning occurs when a system becomes more efficient at a task over time without external input. In order to evaluate the success (or failure) of machine learning techniques. we can simplify the specification of "learning" by defining it to be an increase in this "knowledge" [1]. new and intricate details appear. New York. See Also: Elaborative Rehearsal | Levels of Processing Mandelbrot Set A Mandelbrot set is an intricate geometric shape. A problem endemic to most machine learning techniques is a lack of generality. The collapse of chaos. Major performance issues often revolve around the ability of a given system to generalize what it has learned to novel circumstances. When "simple" laws govern systems with large numbers of variables. Vol. It is debatable whether this makes the task any easier. Tests of memory span are often used to measure working memory capacity. (1994). with high probability. References: 100. 671-684.

goes 3moo2. Misrepresentation A Representation represents. For example. theoretical paradigms. when solving a scientific problem. 1956). or is about. As such. An example of a higher level process is analogous thinking. and freely exchange information. For instance my cow representation has a certain content. because it9s represented as a four-legged mammal that gives milk. knowledge about botany can be referenced in order to understand problems in mathematics. goes 3moo2. In Fodor's model input systems are modular. Some limits on our capacity for processing information. In contrast. The first level of the system.second. They claim that it is only because of these preconceptions that metaphor is able to affect our thinking. The average span for normal adults is 7 (Miller. References: 103. that horse is misrepresented. and personality traits). which is only eliminated if it does not fit. A representation9s content can9t be such that the representation represents whatever causes its activation. 81-97. if necessary. Modularity Jerry Fodor (1983) is the strongest proponent of a modular theory of cognition. suppose that this content is something like that9s a four-legged mammal that gives milk. Jerry Fodor9s (1990) disjunction problem points out the difficulty here. 63. So if my cow representation is activated by--and thus refers to--a short fat muddy horse seen from a distance. Fodor proposes a three tiered cognitive system. suggesting a comparison of that concept to the phrase's denoted object. object perception might be modular. A representation with content construed in this way can9t misrepresent. the input systems level. the circularity can easily be withdrawn when one realizes that after the original clumsy description is given. or mathematics modules in order to perform its operations. Mark Johnson and George Lakoff discuss preconceptual elemants (which include: general human purposes. and eats grass. This means that all of the information necessary for performing their tasks of recognition and description is contained within the input systems. The magical number seven plus or minus two. The third level of the system. the scientist can reference any knowledge that he or she has about the world to help in solving this problem. which is false of the horse. At the end of a sequence. we sstart trying to make the thing we are describing fit the model. Fodor argues that certain psychological processes are self contained--or modular. Psychological Review. individual traits and values. Anything this representation 3is about2 will be represented as something that description applies to. Theories of content. Potentially. which attempt to explain how representations correctly represent their objects have a tremendous amount of trouble explaining how they can also sometimes misrepresent their objects. This is in contrast to "New look" or Modern Cognitivist positions which hold that nearly all psychological processes are interconnected. the transducer level. transforms environmental signals into a form that can be used by the cognizing organism. The second level. While this relationship may initially appear backwards.A. higher level processes have access to all information contained within the cognitive system when performing a given operation. There are many nuances in the meanings of metaphors.Miller. Modular systems have the following properties: 25 . performs basic recognition and description functions. in which case the object perception module need not reference language modules. higher level cognitive functions. (1956). Misrepresentation happens when what that content says about the object isn9t true of the object. a certain object or state of affairs (the representation9s object) and says something about that object (the representation9s content). emotions and language. See Also: Working Memory Metaphor Metaphor is the use of a word or phrase to label an object or concept that it does not literally denote. G. subjects are asked to recall the items in order. performs complex operations on the output of the input systems. cultural instistuions and practices. Fodor provides the example of scientific reasoning (a higher level cognitive process). Fodor holds that input systems are modular and that higher level cognitive processes are nonmodular. or music modules. and eats grass. Earl Mac Cormac writes that the way in which we explain things influences how we understand them.

and neural organization in the development of models of cognition. 105. 1-42. autonomous cells. This is based on the assumption that specific brain regions are responsible for mediating certain aspects of cognitive function. Precis on The Modularity of Mind. Cognition is viewed as occuring by the interaction between neurons through complex excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Cambridge. 108.Pinel. more complex representations follow after higher level computation.. such as: • Biopsychology. B. 1985. Fodor. See Also: Analogy Neurocognition The study of the relationships between neuroscience and cognitive psychology.).A. (1983). we cannot help seeing. Kolb. J. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon. Fundamentals of human neuropsychology (2nd ed. p. Biopsychology (2nd ed. As such.A. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. cognitive_science.html?Cognitive Science | Neuroscience Neuron These are the specialized. (1993). Fodor.Modules are informationally encapsulated--they need not reference any other psycholgical systems in order to perform their operations. The goal is to look for specific neurophysiological correlates of cognitive functions. Pinel.104. 7. See Also: Cognitive Psychology|<AHREF= " C . References: 6. Biopsychology (2nd ed. • Neuroendocrinology. References: 8. J. 9. 26 . The modularity of mind. • Developmental Neurobiology. See Also: Cognitive Science | Neuroscience | Parallel Distributed Processing Models Neuroscience Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system and has many different branches.H.Their operation is mandatory. I. or hearing the world in a certain way. New York: W. cognitive scientists should recognize the need to incorporate basic properties of neurons. • Neuroanatomy. and have a computational architecture that is unique to certain stimuli.). There were originally 2 basic hypotheses about the structure and function of the nervous system (Kolb & Whishaw. 111. or they are cognitively impenetrable--beliefs cannot affect the operations of modules.). 106. functional cells of the nervous system that conduct neural information.317): 110.. or units.Modules have shallow outputs--the output of modules is very basic. (1993). References: 109.They are domain specific--they operate on.Modules are fast--modular processes are among the fastest psychological processes. Nerve Net Hypothesis: the nervous system is composed of a continuous network of interconnected fibres. (1985). The current understanding of cognition in the brain represents a combination of these hypotheses. & Whishaw. Toronton: Allyn & Bacon. 8. is a good example of a model that has attempted to account for the basic neural properties. J.this is because modules are self-contained and need not spend time referencing information outside of the module to complete their tasks. MA: MIT Press. J. The parallel distributed processing model. 107. that can interact but are not physically connected. (1985). • Neurochemistry. Neuron Hypothesis: the nervous system is composed of discrete. Freeman & Co.

• includes "standard ways of applying the fundamental laws to a variety of types of situations". the "new" world-view is virtually incompatible with that which it replaced [3]. 115. Bohm and Peat characterize this interpretation as overly restrictive [1]. Kuhn writes that in the face of a scientific revolution. although worded with science in mind. • Neuropharmacology. References: 112. the notion of paradigm is a far more significant issue. New York: Viking Press. Bantam Books.S. See Also: Cognitive Science | Neuron Occam's Razor The simplest definition of Occam's Razor is "Don't make unnecessarily complicated assumptions".D.T. They also have aesthetic principles. What is this thing called science?. They suggest that it introduces significant fragmentation within the growth process of the scientific endeavour. It typically defines what a given individual is willing to accept of his or her field. 1976.F. Chicago. & Stewart. 114. and appreciation for. I would argue in fact that this is more the norm than Kuhn seemed to feel was the case. and how they perform their own work within it---whether they are conscious of it or not. a basic understanding of. Peat. 1987. References 113. they don't just use the criterion of agreement or disagreement with observations. Occam's razor is a working rule of thumb. 27 . some of these can be seen to apply to the concept of a paradigm in general. University of Chicago Press. not the ultimate answer. Paradigm The Oxford English Dictionary defines a paradigm simply as an "example or pattern". Australia. and Creativity. Parallel Distributed Processing Models Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models are a class of neurally inspired information processing models that attempt to model information processing the way it actually takes place in the brain.D. neuroscientific principles. The collapse of chaos. In order to develop accurate models. characterizes a paradigm. I interpret this as a more reasoned attitude. Bohm and F. • possess "instrumentation and instrumental techniques necessary for bringing the laws of the paradigm to bear on the real world". it is very important to recognize the importance of neuroscience in contributing to our knowledge of human cognition. universal theory. and what does not. University of Queensland Press. In cognitive science. at the very least.Cohen J. 1970. Chalmers [2]. He states further that defining "paradigm" rigorously is inherently problematic. loosely characterizes it as a framework of beliefs and standard which defines legitimate work within the science for which it applies. Science.• Neuroethology. in a discussion of Kuhn's writings about what constitutes a shift in paradigm [3].. Order. It can be used as a philosophical way of sorting the simple theories from the complicated ones. Much animated debate occurs regarding what constitutes a shift of paradigm. as there is more potential for benefit than harm in the co-existence of (even contradictory) paradigms. They use these aesthetic principles to remove the cloud of trivially competing theories that necessarily surround every theory.A. the basic neurophysiological and neuroanatomical properties must be taken into account. Chalmers. • "consists of some very general. When scientists select theories. Cognitive scientists must have. A paradigm (from Chalmers [2]): • is composed of "explicitly stated laws and theoretical assumptions". (1994). It is here in fact that the more formal concept of a paradigm is realized. at least in part. I. and • Neuropsychology. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn. metaphysical principles that guide work within the paradigm". Within the scientific community however. and a desire for an elegant. New York. He does however offer some suggestions for what. • Neurophysiology. • "contains some very general methodological prescriptions".

Cognitive science. after all. desires. Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. different types of mental processing are considered to be distributed throughout a highly complex neuronetwork. Rumelhart. The PDP model has 3 basic principles: 116.. and McClelland (1986) state that there are 8 major components of the PDP model framework: 10. a set of processing units 11. (1986). but stored in the connections between units. about concepts. each sending excitatory and inhibitory signals to other units. For example. such as metaphysics.memory and knowledge for specific things are not stored explicitly. an output function for each unit 13. further questions arise. Cambridge. and the PDP Research Group (Eds. As such. Vol. a learning rule whereby patterns of connectivity are modified by experience 17. a propagation rule for propagating patterns of activities through the network of connectivities 15. 118.. One might ask: Are mind and body one substance?. due to the convergence of issues raised in more traditional areas of philosophy. G.This model was developed because of findings that a system of neural connections appeared to be distributed in a parallel array in addition to serial pathways. these are errors that occur when a subject repeats items that they have already said on that same recall trial. Hinton.E. 1: Foundations. 10) Rumelhart. J. MA: MIT Press. epistemology. Some questions asked by philosophers of mind reveal these origins. See Also: Cued Recall | Free Recall | Intrusion Errors Philosophy of Mind The philosophy of mind has emerged as a field of philosophy in its own right. See Also: Intention 28 . Does mind depend on the body?. & McClelland. an environment within which the system must operate References: 4. When talk turns to such intentional states or propositional attitudes. tries to answer many of these same questions. it becomes apparent why the philosophy of mind might cross over into cognitive science. Do only humans have intentionality? Must any account which attempts to explain our actions consider intentionality? Or can physical events (brain and body processes in interraction with the physical environment) wholly explain our actions? Because of the nature of these questions. & McClelland. Hinton.e. individuals have beliefs. a state of activation 12.E.L.). and ethics. or are all human acts physically determined? As well as physical states.learning can occur with gradual changes in connection strength by experience. (Rumelhart. we have mental states and many of the latter relate to each other. J. See Also: Learning Rule | Neuron Perseveration Errors On a recall portion of a memory task. an activation rule for combining the inputs impinging on a unit with the current state of that unit to produce a new level of activation for the unit 16. A general framework for parallel distributed processing. p. i. Is 'mind' identical with 'body'? These questions may lead to others: Do humans actually make free choices. Hinton. D.the representation of information is distributed (not local) 117. Rumelhart. In D. and feelings about other mental states.. 1986. a pattern of connectivity among units 14. E. McClelland. L. These models assume that information processing takes place through interactions of large numbers of simple processing elementscalled units.

& Miller. and especially language. Child psychology: The modern science. Piaget considered this the ultimate stage of development. but the child builds on these reflexes to develop more sophisicated procedures. 121.A. New York. he posited that children progress through 4 stages and that they all do so in the same order. Formal Operations (11/12 to adult) Children who attain the formal operation stage are capable of thinking logically and abstractly.Piaget's Stage Theory of Development Piaget was among other things. The Sensorimotor Period (birth to 2 years) During this time. J.M. children in the concrete operations stage are able to take another's point of view and take into account more than one perspective simultaneously. according to Piaget. They can also represent transformations as well as static situations. They learn to generalize their activities to a wider range of situations and coordinate them into increasingly lengthy chains of behaviour. Haith. This is because the primacy effect can be sharply attenuated by performing manipulations that adversely affect this system 29 . NJ: Prentice-Hall. NY: Wiley. Piaget would argue that they cannot yet perform on abstract problems. their way of thinking was as powerful as it would get. and stated that although the children would still have to revise their knowledge base. M. They can also reason theoretically. S. Piaget said that a child's cognitive system is limited to motor reflexes at birth. Although they can understand concrete problems. Whether Piaget was correct or not. R. (1995). and the primacy effect corresponds to the tail of the U on the left. however. Children. Concrete Operations (6/7 to 11/12 years) As opposed to Preoperational children.. R.Siegler. preoperational chldren can use these representational skills only to view the world from their own perspective. that is. References: 119. a psychologist who was interested in cognitive development. Generally..Santrock. This tail indicates that words presented at the start of a list of to-be-remembered items are better remembered than words presented in the middle of this list. and have an egocentric view. It is called the primacy effect because these items were the ones presented first to the subject in the memory experiment. and that they do not consider all of the logically possible outcomes.Vasta. See Also: Adaptation | Cognitive Development | Equilibration | Generalization Primacy Effect The primacy effect is found when the results of a free recall task are plotted in the form of a serial position curve. PreOperational Thought (2 to 6/7 years) At this age. 120. They are very self-oriented. Englewood Cliffs. It is now thought that not every child reaches the formal operation stage. The primacy effect appears to be the result of subjects recalling items directly from a semantic memory. it is safe to say that this theory of cognitive development has had a tremendous influence on all modern developmental psychologists. (1995). IA: Brown & Benchmark. children acquire representational skills in the areas mental imagery. These four stages are described below. After observation of many children. Developmental psychologists also debate whether children do go through the stages in the way that Piaget postulated.W. Dubuque. (1991). this curve is U-shaped. Children's thinking.

. Each production has a condition and an action. It can be shown in the following example: A subject is shown the word nurse. If the temperature is outside that range then a different production will be activated and the system will change behaviour. the functional analysis goes on indefinitely and falls prey to Ryle's Regress. and so more familiar to the subject.-. doctor. Presumably the subject will then think of other words related to the word nurse. (1972). However. then concepts related to it are also activated. In this sense. To provide an example that gives a nice intuition about what a primitive is.A.. H. If a child asks us "What does `bachelor' mean?". However.. consider teaching a child the meanings of different words. This means that the functional analysis is not explanatory. Priming is a phenomenon related to this concept. Primitives are important in cognitive science because of its tendency to view information processors functionally instead of physically. It is assumed that concepts that have some relation to each other are connected in some mental network.cannot. In the above example will the thermostat will stop as long as the temperature remains within the range of 70 and 72 degrees. 122. Instead. so that if one concept is activated. Human problem solving. If the condition is found to be true by the system then the action will be performed. Complex systems can be decomposed into simpler things.by definition -. The word nurse then serves to "prime" the second word. 30 . if a child asks us "What does `red' mean?".. If the subject is then shown either the word doctor or the word butter. See Also: Free Recall | Recency Effect | Serial Position Curve Priming Priming is discussed in the context of the activation theory. NJ: Prentice-Hall. `red' represents something that we might call a semantic primitive (a basic meaning). if this decomposition is not stopped. functional components. A. which is required by functional analysis. Newell. researchers use a methodology called functional analysis to decompose a complex information processor into simpler. Because of this view. because it is difficult to decompose such a basic term. we might break "bachelor" down into other meanings ("`Bachelor' means that someone is a `man' who is `not married'"). The primacy effect was important to cognitive science because it provided empirical evidence for the decomposition of memory into an organized set of subsystems. but primitives -. References: 18. we are not likely to do this. Researchers try to escape Ryle's regress by identifying a set of primitive functions which cannot be further decomposed. This set of functions is the functional architecture for cognition.such as using fast presentation of items (which does not permit much elaborative rehearsal to transfer memories from short-term to long-term stores). then . we are more likely to point to different things that are `red'. Englewood Cliffs. See Also: Functional Analysis | Functional Architecture | Ryle's Regress Production A production systemis program that comprises a series of conditional statements that specify what action is to be taken under certain circumstances. These 'If . a production system for a thermostat may contain a production such as the following. Primitive A primitive is a basic building block of a system. the subject should be able to read the former word more quickly than the latter word because doctor is related to nurse and therefore has been recently accessed. For example.' statements are known as productions. If the condition to the left of the arrow is true then the process to the right of the arrow will be performed.. & Simon. while `bachelor' does not. or by using list items that have similar meanings (and thereby producing semantic confusions).temperature > 70 and temperature < 72 ----> stop Information from the environment is compared to the conditions of the production.

For example. NJ: Prentice-Hall. (1990). Human problem solving. Common conflict scheduling productions are.. H. refractoriness and recency.). 123. References: 31 .. J. References: 19. a verbal protocol. the problem behavior graph is used to create a computer simulation (typically created as a production system) that will solve the problem. The propostion is the most basic unit of meaning in a representation. specificity. Finally.. (1972). Anderson (1990) gives the following example of a setence divided up into its constituent propositions: "Nixon gave a beautiful Cadillac to Brezhnev. then . which reflects state transitions as subjects search through the problem space in their attempt to solve the problem. Cognitive psychology and its implications (3rd ed.A. order in the production system.during the problem-solving process. It is the smallest statement that can be judged either true or false.. The third step is to create a problem behaviour graph. and their verbal behaviour forms the basic data to be analyzed. the behaviour of the simulation to the verbal protocol. In protocol analysis. However.Nixon gave a Cadillac to Brezhnev.ball pitched short on leg side and slow------> hook Information from the environment is matched against all productions and if the condition on the left of the arrow is true then then action on the right will be performed. the program provides a rich description of an individual's processing steps. subjects are trained to think aloud as they solve a problem.' statements are known as productions. Englewood Cliffs. propositions function as basic units of representation--or the building blocks--of the mind. Production systems were one of the first attempts to model cognitive behaviour and form the basis of many existing models of cognition.e.Brezhnev was the leader of the USSR. The first step of a protocol analysis is to obtain. In turn. 128..R. The system must contain a production that will determine which production of the many possible will be fired. In such a structure. References: 20.ball outside offstump ------> no action 124. & Simon. A. the connections between propositions.ball pitched on wicket and good length ------> forward defensive stroke 125. A popular view in cognitive psycyhology is that the mind is structured much like a language." This sentence can be divided into three propositions: 127. infer the rules being used. a production system for a cricket batsman may comprise a series of productions such as the following. Anderson. See Also: productions Proposition The proposition is a concept borrowed by cognitive psychologists from linguists and logicians. and transitions in knowledge.The Cadillac was beautiful. Freeman. one can validate the assumptions that led to the program's creation.ball pitched short on leg side and fast------> duck 126. as systems become more complex many productions may be triggered and the system will face a scheduling problem. It is the content of the propositions. The next step is to take the protocol and use it to infer the subject's problem space (i. H. and the strength of the connections between propositions that determine the structure of mind. New York: W.See Also: Production System Production System A production system is program that comprises a series of conditional statements that specify what action is to be taken under certain circumstances. These 'If . and then transcribe. By comparing.. in detail. Newell. who was the leader of the USSR. as well as various knowledge states concerning the problem). 129. Protocol Analysis Protocol analysis is one experimental method that can be used to gather intermediate state evidence concerning the procedures used by a system to compute a function.

(1992). See Also: Cued Recall | Free Recall Recursive Decomposition Recursive decomposition (Palmer & Kimchi. Generally.H. The information approach to cognition. & L. HITS: These are the responses that correctly identify items as being from the original list when they actually are.130. and the recency effect corresponds to the tail of the U on the right.Ericsson. Human problem solving. at the level of physics). It is called the recency effect because these items were the ones presented most recently to the subject in the memory experiment. & Simon. they must simply identify which items (from a larger group of items) were on the original list. but instead. Cognitive psychology. 1986) refers to the process whereby any complex informational event at one level of description can be specified more fully at a lower level of description by decomposing the event into: • a number of components and • processes that specifiy the relations among these components The information processing model of memory provides a good example of recursive decomposition. or by using list items that have similar sounds. TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Robertson (Eds. Cambridge. Knapp. the subject may be read a large list of items and be asked to say "YES" if the item was on the list. In T.g. K. which is based on the assumption that the best of correct level of description is the most specific one (e. D. it reflects short-term memory for items. Englewood Cliffs. This task is slightly easier than the cued or free recall task. The recency effect was important to cognitive science because it provided empirical evidence for the decomposition of memory into an organized set of subsystems. See Also: Intermediate State Evidence | Strong Equivalence Recency Effect The recency effect is found when the results of a free recall task are plotted in the form of a serial position curve. R. H.. (1984). In other words. MISSES: These are the responses that fail to identify a word as being from the original list when it was. and say "NO" if it was not on the list. & Simon. Approaches to cognition. Fort Worth. A. Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. (1972). S. 32 .A. & Kimchi. References: 136.such as delaying recall of list items with a distractor task. The answers provided by the subject fall into 4 categories: 132. 133.Newell. Model of Memory The research strategy. 137.. (1986). which is required by functional analysis. relies on the principle of recursive decomposition.Palmer. This tail indicates that words presented at the end of a list of to-be-remembered items are better remembered than words presented in the middle of this list..L. Recursive decomposition should not be equated with reductionism. The recency effect appears to be the result of subjects recalling items directly from the maintenance rehearsal loop used to keep items in primary memory. FALSE POSITIVES: These are responses that incorrectly identify items as being from the original list when they were not on that list.. The subject is not required to explicitly state the items.). functional analysis. H. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. this curve is U-shaped. This is because the recency effect can be sharply attenuated by performing manipulations that adversely affect such rehearsal -. NJ: Prentice-Hall. MA: MIT Press. B. See Also: Free Recall | Primacy Effect | Serial Position Curve Recognition Recall This is a variation of the recall portion of a memory task.A. 131. & Ross. CORRECT NEGATIVES: These are the responses that correctly state an item as not being on the original list when it actually was not. For instance. 134.Medin.A. 135.

1932. purposes. and concludes that such theories cannot be scientific. 172): Signs. We could then present the same problems to a group of children. Ryle (p.. and he used intentional terms (e. but they do not occasion action. and then rank order them in terms of the number of processing steps that each problem required. This led to a famous attack on Tolman's work by Guthrie (1935. See Also: Intermediate State Evidence | Protocol Analysis | Strong Equivalence Retrieval Retrieval refers to the processess through which we recover items from memory.. So far as the theory is concerned the rate is 33 . If they are not strongly equivalent (as we would expect in this example). The philosopher Gilbert Ryle (1949) was concerned with critiquing what he called the intellectualist legend. Tolman has neglected to predict what the rat will do. whenever an agent does anything intelligently. 31) argued that the intellectualist legend results in an infinite regress of thought: According to the legend. To collect relative complexity evidence concerning this claim. expectancies. which required intelligent acts to be the product of the conscious application of mental rules. If the two systems are strongly equivalent. [. Variants of Ryle's Regress are commonly aimed at cognitivist theories. References: 138.g. occasion in the rat realization.g. For instance. we could present a number of different addition problems to the Turing machine. Edward Tolman (e.] Must we then say that for the hero's reflections how to act to be intelligent he must first reflect how best to reflect how to act? The endlessness of this implied regress shows that the aplication of the appropriateness does not entail the occurrence of a process of considering this criterion.See Also: Functional Analysis Relative Complexity Evidence One of the key goals of cognitive science is to develop theories that are strongly equivalent with respect to to-beexplained systems. and rank order the difficulty they caused the children on the basis of reaction time taken to solve the problems. or abstraction.. One type of evidence that can be used to defend this claim is called relative complexity evidence. or judgement. Cambridge. (1984).Pylyshyn. meanings) to describe their behavior. then differen rank-orderings would emerge because different procedures are used to solve the problems. or hypotheses. This requires that evidence be collected to defend the claim that the model and the to-beexplained system are carrying out the same procedures to compute a function. MA: MIT Press. p. then we would expect the same rank-orderings to be obtained for both the Turing machine and the children. in order to explain the behavior of rats. Computation and cognition. Z. or cognition. his act is preceded and steered by another internal act of considering a regulative proposition appropriate to his practical problem. In his concern with what goes on in the rat's mind.W. For instance. See Also: Working Memory Ryle's Regress Ryle's Regress is a classic argument against cognitivist theories. Tolman suggested that his rats were constructing a "cognitive map" that helped them locate reinforcers.. Imagine that someone is proposing that a Turing machine is a strongly equivalent model of how children do mental arithmetic. 1948) found that he had to use terms that modern cognitive scientists would be very comfortable with. in Tolman's theory.

indicate. They are also general. and stringing all the attributes together. J. Perhaps the best we can hope is that the formal properties of all my representations are consistent. New York. or whether it misrepresents that object. Cognitive psychology and its implications.Tolman. not the concern of the theory. is that if a process which operates on a representation is to be sensitive to the semantic properties of the representation. The problem is that if cognitive scientists define the essence of cognition as processes operating on representations. Fodor9s (1990) Formality Condition maintains that any process which operates on a representation can only operate on the representation's nonsemantic or formal properties. J.C. The concept of mind. E. 6. Semantics Semantics deals with the relationship between representations and the world. and must ensure that their theories include a principled account of how the (potentially) infinite regress that emerges from functional analysis can be stopped. 3Tom Swift's Procedural Grand-mother2. (1932). Cognitive maps in rats and men. The schema represents a concept by pairing a class of attribute with a particular value. And semantic properties like truth are transparent to the processes that operate on my representations. London: Hutchinson & Company. This is why the identification of the functional architecture is one of the fundamental goals of cognitive science. (1990). so that processes which operate on this representation (such as those which allow me to utter 3Cows give milk. rather than specific. 34 . then. J. So when we talk about what object (the thing in the world) represents. then that representation9s semantic properties must somehow be mirrored in the representation's syntactic properties. 189-208.left buried in thought.Fodor. 142. Purposive behavior in animals. NY: Freeman. E. point to. Psychological Review. Semantics is what makes the word Coffee9 mean that smelly muddy brown hot liquid that people drink. and form a coherent network of beliefs that facilitate my acting successfully in my environment. 3(1).Anderson. The psychology of learning. G. 3Methodological Solipsism Considered as a Research Strategy in Cognitive Psychology2.Tolman.2) can operate on those properties. 145. E. 63-109.R. (1935). (1948). Whether these are true or not is inaccessible to the brain-processes which operate on those representations. 55. References: 139. New York: Harper 140. we're talking about the representation's semantic properties. (Hence what Fodor (1980) calls 3Methodological Solipsism2) References: 144. The idea. References: 143.Fodor. then any process which operates on a representation has no access to that representation's semantic properties. and somehow 3contain2 formal descriptions of all the properties I ascribe to cows. They are a way of encoding regularities in categories. New York: Century Books. (1949). whether these regularities are propositional or perceptual. So my cow representation must be fairly complex. (1980). if he gets to the food-box at the end that is his concern.Guthrie.C. Anything which can said to be a representation--which could be said to stand for. Behaviour and Brain Sciences. See Also: Functional Analysis | Functional Architecture | Primitive Schema A schema representation is a way of capturing the insight that concepts are defined by a configuration of features. refer to.Ryle. and each of these features involves specifying a value the object has on some attribute. Whether what I believe is true or not is a semantic property of that representation9s relationship with the world. so that they can be used in many situations. mean. Cognition. 141. such as what object it represents. or in some way be about something else--has semantic relations to that something else. Cognitive scientists must be constantly aware of Ryle's Regress as a potential problem with their theories. A representation's semantic properties are those properties the representation has in virtue of the sort of relationship the representation has with a part of the world. But whether the properties I ascribe to cows in such formal descriptions are true of cows is inaccessible to those processes. (1978). represent.R. or whether the representation is a true representation of its object or whether it's a highly inaccurate representation of that object.

As in traditional models of short-term memory. First. the second item. Serial memory search is often contrasted with parallel memory search in which a number of pieces of information are retrieved at the same time.g. After entering the sensory store. That is. These unique characteristics. short-term store. underlying memory system. some information proceeds into the short-term store. plus or minus two. working memory is limited in the amount of information that it can store. "chunks" of informaton.: The Harvester Press. 1969a. 1975) argued that retrievel from short term memory relies upon serial type searches. Graphically.K. which is typically obtained by averaging across a number of subjects The serial position curve is important to cognitive science because it revealed two effects.(Both of these are reprinted in Fodor (1981).) See Also: The Formality Condition | Misrepresentation | Representation Serial Position Curve The serial position curve is used to plot the results of a free recall experiment. pp204-224 and pp225-256. Serial searches are represented by a linear function. The x-axis of this curve indicates the serial position of to-be-remembered items in the list (e. among others. and so on).. short-term memory can contain at any one time seven. which were fundamentally important pieces of evidence for the functional decomposition of "memory" into an organized set of subsystems. and the length of time that it can store information. That is. items remain in short-term memory around twenty seconds. Brighton U. See Also: Free Recall | Primacy Effect | Recency Effect | Short Term Memory Serial Search A type of memory search in which information is retrieved one piece after another. Sternberg (1966. This short-term store is commonly refered to as short-term memory. The y-axis of this curve indicates the probability of recall for the item. the third item. Short-term memory has two important characteristics. the recency effect and the primacy effect. As an alternative to short-term memory Baddely and Hitch have propsed the concept of a working memory. the first item. when retrieval time is plotted against the number of items to be retrieved the slope of the graph is constant. and long-term store. and is equivalent to the amount of time that it takes to retrieve a single piece odf information. 1969b.Representations. See Also: Short Term Memory Short Term Memory Generally cognitive psychologists divide memory into three stores: sensory store. whereas retrieval from long term memory relies upon parallel type searches. See Also: Working Memory | Free Recall Spontaneous Generalization 35 . suggested to researchers that short-term memory was autonomous from sensory and long-term memory stores Craik and Lockhart (1972) argued short-term memory was not autonomous from the other memory systems. They suggested that short-term memory and long-term memory were different manifestations of a single. the slope of the line representing parallel search is zero. as the number of items to be retreived increases the amount of time that it takes to retrieve these items remains constant. Second.

as well as evidence to support the claim that a proposed architecture is primitive." Therefore. Rockville. Cambridge. Connectionism and the mind: An introduction to parallel processing in networks. they often present with an accompanying inability to adapt to environmental demands or modify behaviour (including inhibition of inappropriate behaviour). and 152. 151. sustained attention is important for cognitive development.they compute the same function (i. then.Connectionist networks may be designed so that they can retrieve information from cues that are too vague to match a particular memory and provide a generalized picture of what is common to the memories that match the cues. Z. Thus the network has the ability to generalize about classes of memories as part of its architecture. and 149. DeGangi. Computation and cognition. When a person has difficulty sustaining attention.. See Also: Attention Getting | Attention Holding | Attention Releasing 36 . References: 21. 148.W. MA: MIT Press.g.they use the same program to compute this function.e. As far as "algorithmic" approaches to cognitive science are concerned (e.. & Abrahamsen. MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.Bechtel. DeGangi and Porges (1990) indicate there are 3 stages to sustained attention which include: 150. S. G. Neuroscience foundations of human performance. that the search for strongly equivalent theories is a formidable (but necessary) challenge for cognitive scientists.. See Also: Content Addressable Memory | Functional Architecture | Graceful Degradation | Parallel Distributed Processing Models | Symbolic Architecture Strong Equivalence Strong equivalence is a stronger condition for model validation than is weak equivalence. (1990). One must be able to focus on the activity of reading long enough to complete the task. This requires collecting evidence to support the claim that a simulation uses the same procedures to solve a problem as do human subjects. & Porges. Sustained attention is important to psychologists because it is "a basic requirement for information processing. the aim of the discipline is to generate strongly equivalent theories of people. experimental psychology." In order to complete any cognitively planned activity. (1984). A distraction can interrupt and consequently interfere in sustained attention. W. It is not surprising.attention holding.attention releasing. Problems occur when a distraction arises. Pylyshyn. References: 22.attention getting. References: 146.this program is written in the same programming language (i. Cambridge. A. An example is the act of reading a newspaper article. the two systems have the same functional architecture). psycholinguistics). or any thought one must use sustained attention.e. If two systems are strongly equivalent then 147. they are weakly equivalent). (1991). See Also: Functional Architecture | Weak Equivalence Sustained Attention Sustained attention is "the ability to direct and focus cognitive activity on specific stimuli. any sequenced action.. MA: Blackwell..

(1983). Z. See Also: Functional Architecture Top-down Processing The cognitive system is organized hierarchically. CA: Morgan Kaufman. Computation and cognition. and the most complex cogntive (e. When information flows from the top of the sytstem to the bottom of the system this is called "top-down processing". This later requirement is called strong equivalence. Cambridge. although weak equivalence is necessary for validating theories in cognitive science. J. Extreme versions of top-down processing argue that all information coming into the system is affected by what is already known about the world.A. Fodor argues that top-down processing occurs only in some parts of the cognitive system at certain times. human chess players and computer chess players are weakly equivalent. an interesting question is how humans can play chess so well given that they do not use brute force search methods!) Weak equivalence is important in cognitive science in two respects. then we can say that they are computing the same function (or generating the same external behavior).Pylyshyn. The implications of this top to bottom flow of information is that information coming into the system (perceptually) can be influenced by what the individual already knows about the information that is coming into the system (as information about past experiences are stored in the higher levels of the system). (1988). memory. in the sense that they both play the game of chess. (1984). If these systems are only weakly equivalent. problem solving) systems are located at the top of the hierarchy.). In his theory of modularity. References: 155.Collins. For example. MA: MIT Press. this approach to cognitive architecture has been challenged by the connectionist architecture approach. which is why it is also sometimes called Turing equivalence.E. but that they are using different procedures to do so. Indeed. Fodor rejects the idea that all stored information can potentially effect all incoming information. & Smith.Fodor. which is beyond the memory capacity of human players. Cambridge.W.Symbolic Architecture Symbolic architecture refers to the classical view of the architecture of the mind. First. MA: MIT Press. In this approach the mind is viewed as a process in which symbols are manipulated. but use very different procedures to decide which move to make next in a game. See Also: Bottom-Up Processing | Modularity Weak Equivalence Weak equivalence is a relationship between the outputs of two systems that are being compared. it is the kind of comparison that the Turing test offers. it is not sufficient. (Eds. (Computer chess players usually use some form of intensive search. it is also crucial that they compute these functions in the same way. E. An alternative version is offered by Jerry Fodor (1983).g. The modularity of mind. The most basic perceptual systems are located at the bottom of the hierarchy. See Also: Strong Equivalence | Turing Test 37 . A. Symbols are moved between memory stores such as long term and short term memory and are acted upon by an explicit set of rules in a particular sequence. The symbolic architecture is the manner in which memory stores are related and the set of rules applied to the system. San Mateo. More recently. Readings in cognitive science: A perspective from psychology and artificial intelligence. This is because while it is required of theories or simulations in cognitive science that they compute the same functions as the to-be-explained system. References: 154. The symbolic architecture approach has been widely applied and formed the basis of influential work such as Newell & Simon's Human Problem Solving. Information can flow both from the bottom of the system to the top of the system and from the top of the system to the bottom of the system. References: 153. Second.

). The conversations can be about anything. the parieto-occipital region is believed to process visuospatial and visual motion types of information. J.M. et al. This is an important aspect of cognitive functioning because it is responsible for a wide range of activities of daily living. 162. Computing machinery and intelligence.). Indeed. because many different systems can generate correct behaviours for incorrect (i.H. 194-216 See Also: Visuospatial Perception This is one component of cognitive functioning and it refers to our ability to process and interpret visual information about where objects are in space. 38 . (1988). K. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.Turing.M.g. one human. 158. If. For instance. Other researchers take the position that the Turing test is too weak to be useful in this way.M. Fundamentals of human neuropsychology (2nd ed.M. 157. yet simplification increases the probability of a false characterisation and hence error. New York: W. the inferotemporal region of the brain is believed to mediate our ability to process visual information about the form and color of objects.. (1950).Colby. & Whishaw. The association areas of the visual cortex are separated into two major component pathways.. In humans. the judge cannot distinguish the machine from the human on the basis of the conversation. 59. (1985). and are believed to mediate different aspects of visual cognition. San Francisco. Henderson. J. 433-560. Famous examples of this are Weizenbaum's ELIZA program and Colby's PARRY program.Pinel. References: 156. 2. C. Conversely. I. 47-51. A. et al. the other a machine. Turing argued in a 1950 paper that conversation was the key to judging intelligence. the optimal level of veridicality is problematic. unintelligent) reasons. B.e. (1973) Turing-like undistinguishability tests for the validation of a computer simulation of paranoid processes. Negotiated belief structures and decision performance: An empirical investigationOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. then Turing argued that we would have to say that the machine was intelligent. In particular. The value of a knowledge structure lies in its ability to simplify an environment. Artificial Intelligence. K. Some researchers argue that it is the benchmark test of what Searle calls strong AI. This is a construct of interest as our understanding of the relationship between knowledge structures and information environments is weak. one of the founding figures in computing.P. (1976). the general acceptance of ELIZA as being "intelligent" so appalled Weizenbaum that he withdrew from mainstream AI research. Visuospatial perception is also involved in our ability to accurately reach for objects in our visual field and our ability to shift our gaze to different points in space. References: 161.Walsh. it underlies our ability to move around in an environment and orient ourselves appropriately. Computer power and human reason.. Artificial Intelligence.Colby. CA: W. at the end of this time. It was originally proposed by mathematician Alan Turing. (1993).J. and as a result is crucial to defining intelligence. an hour). & Deighton. Biopsychology (2nd ed. The study of veridicality is concerned with investigating the consequences of this trade off between accuracy and efficiency. Mind.Weizenbaum. (1972) Artificial paranoia. Freeman. J. Freeman. 1-26. a judge has conversations (via teletype) with two systems. See Also: Turing Equivalence | Weak Equivalence Veridicality Veridicality is the extent to which a knowledge structure accurately reflects the information environment it represents.. and proceed for a set period of time (e. 42.H.Kolb. In the Turing test. There are a number of different views about the utility of the Turing test in cognitive science. 159. which he attacked in his landmark 1976 book. 3. References: 160.Turing Test The Turing test is a behavioural approach to determining whether or not a system is intelligent.

Working memory. never before encountered problem (Belsky. the articulatory loop. People who suffer from neurophysiological damage to this area (called Wernicke's aphasia or fluent 39 . 121). how well a person can master a new. p. 119) Belsky further asks if the dramatic age decline is confined mainly to particular subtests. An updated version of the scale (WAIS-R) was developed in 1981.See Also: Apparent Motion Visuospatial Sketchpad The visuospatial sketchpad or scratchpad (VSSP) is one of two passive slave systems in Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. literary or biological facts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Belsky (1990) says critics must be looking critically at the appropriateness of the measures themselves. more is known about the second slave system. knowledge relating to competent functioning in the world. (1990). Werenicke's area appears to be crucial for language comprehension. J. Each subtest has items ranging from easy to increasingly more difficult. but it is often at the centre of the debate of whether or not intelligence declines with age.Belsky. It is divided into two parts: the verbal scale and the performance scale. The VSSP is responsible for the manipulation and temporary storage of visual and spatial information. WAIS measures global or general intelligence and is commonly used by psychologists. 120). knowledge of the meaning of specific words. Speed is critical to these tasks as these subtests are timed. Performance subtests (except picture completion) contain relatively unfamiliar tasks. References: 164. to people of that test subject's age group. Each of these two parts is further divided into subtests. (1986). The IQ measure of a person is derived by comparison to a particular reference group. each of which taps a specific verbal or nonverbal skill. and interventions. CA: Brooks/Cole. References: 163. The psychology of aging theory. Pacific Grove. Verbal subtests measure "our store of knowldedge" (Belsky. Therefore.K. than about visual coding in memory. 120). It is questionable whether the current intelligence tests (specifically the WAIS) are appropriate for use with older persons. knowledge of mathematics. See Also: Crystallized Intelligence | Fluid Intelligence Wernicke's Area Named for Carl Wernicke who first described it in 1874. They measure on-the-spot analytical skills. p. See Also: Articulatory Loop | Central Executive | Working Memory WAIS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was developed by Wechsler in 1955. Would we see the same age loss if we looked at data other than the cross-sectional studies used to determine the norms? (p. They focus on learned or absorbed knowledge [testing] knowledge of historical. 1990. the raw score has a different meaning depending upon the test subject's age. (p. 1990.Baddeley. research. questioning whether existing tests of intelligence are really doing an adequate job of tapping cognitive ability in middle-aged and elderly adults. A. To date. The WAIS is not only important to psychologists as a commonly used assessment tool.

used it to demonstrate that split brain patients had two separate visual inner worlds. The two storage systems within the model (the articulatory loop [AL] and the visuospatial sketchpad or scratchpad [VSSP] are seen as relatively passive slave systems primarily responsible for the temporary storage of verbal and visual information (respectively). The most important. 1986 for a review). London: Multimedia Publications. reasoning. and then the information is sent to the motor cortex. not both at once. L. There are two types of components: storage and central executive functions (see Baddeley. 40 . and least understood. the patient recognized it when it was presented again to the same hemisphere.g. aspect of Working Memory is the central executive. Sperry. A. and unable to produce meaningful sentences. References: 165. grammatical refinements are added by neural systems in Broca's area. the more contemporary term for short-term memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In speech production.g. the patient had no recollection of having seen it before. (1986). and comprehension). and termination of processing routines (e.aphasia) are unable to understand the content words while listening.. if the same object was presented to the other half of the visual field. See Also: Broca's Area Working Memory >Working memory. which sets up the muscle movements for speaking.Baddeley. initiation. References: 166. which is conceptualized as very active and responsible for the selection. then to Broca's area for analysis of syntax. ABC of psychology. References: 167. Psychology. (1981). However. is conceptualized as an active system for temporarily storing and manipulating information needed in the execution of complex cognitive tasks (e.). See Also: Articulatory Loop | Central Executive | Encoding | Retrieval | Visuospatial Sketchpad Z Lens The Z Lens is a sophisticated piece of apparatus developed by Roger Sperry and his associates in 1955 to enable them to project visual stimuli onto the retina of the eye so that they are interpreted either by the left or right hemisphere of the brain. If the picture of an object was presented to the left hemisphere. Auditory and speech information is transported from the auditory area to Wernicke's area for evaluation of significance of content words. New York. (1994).Gray. Peter. content words are selected by neural systems in Wernicke's area. (Ed.. NY: Worth Publishing.Kristal. their speech has grammatical structure but no meaning. storing. Working memory. encoding. a pioneer of the split brain operation. learning. and retrieving).

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