\mcm-bWKpcp-hns‚

Btflm-]-tZi-i-XIw

a\-\m-hn-jv°mcw

kzman kp[n

ONE-WORLD
Publishing House
Ernakulam-682315

Malayalam Language

ATMOPADESA SATAKAM
(A Philosophical Work of Narayana Guru)

Contemplative Outpouring
SWAMI SUDHI
Published By

ONE-WORLD
Publishing House
Chethikode. P.O
Ernakulam- 682315.
Phone : 9447968014, 0484-2778515, 5502401
email : oneworldcommunion@gmail.com

Cover : Bipin, Perumbavoor
Type :Nitya Chetana
Proof : Sabari, Niranjana, Akshaya
Printed at : Gurudev Off-Set, Ernakulam
Second Edition : July, 2006
Copies : 1000
Rights Reserved

Rs. 90

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\nßfpsS Bflm-hns‚ imeo-\-ku-ay-X-bn¬ Hcp-thf Nne-h-gn-°m-\mbn D≈w XpSn-®p-t]m-Ipw. Hcp]t£. B´n≥°q´-Ønse X≈-bm-Sp-If . B IY Rm≥ \nß-tfmSp ]d-bp-Ib . \nß-fn¬ ]mIwh∂ Hcp a\- p-s≠-¶n¬ Cu IY \nßsf tNmZyw sNøpw.m-Wv.p.∏mƒ Rm\msI Akz-ÿ\ .psS ape IpSn®v B knwl-°p™v hf¿∂p hepXm-bn. BSp-Iƒ Icbp-∂X .Ø°p-dn®p knwl-Ønt\m Hcp kwi-bhpw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.ƒ ]n®n-®o¥n°f-bpw. A{Xbpw sNdnb knwl-°p-™m-bn-cp-∂p. ho´n¬\n∂pw Cd-ßn-\S.. CXp I≠-t∏mƒ hr≤-\mb knwl-Øn\p e÷bpw tcmjhpw Hcp-an®p h∂p.f . B knwl-°p-™ns‚ IÆpIƒ Xpd-∂n-´p-t]mepw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. ImcWw B IY shdpsamcp IY am{X-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.™ p. Xs∂ shdptX hnS-Ws . hr≤-\mb knwlsØ I≠-t∏mƒ a‰p BSp-Iƒ t]Sn-t®mSm≥ XpS-ßn.psS ASp-Øp-IqsS IS-∂p-t]m-Im≥ CS-bm-bn.´. Hcn-°¬ Hcp hr≤-\mb knwlw B´n≥]-‰ß .S . BSp-If . B knwlsØ At∏mƒ A¤p-X-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv. AXp ]p√v Nh-®p-Xn-∂p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.c .∂ .p-I≠v hr≤-\mb knwlw A¤pXw Iqdn. B´n≥°q-´-Ønse knwlw BSn-s\-t∏mse Ic-bp-∂X .. Aßs\ Ime߃ Hcp-]mSp Ign-™p-t]m-bn.p-t]mse B knwlhpw ]p√p-Xn∂pw. At∏mƒ B´n≥]-‰-Ønse knwlhpw `b-∂p-hn-d®p HmSm≥ XpS-ßn... bph-Xz-Øn-te°v Imeq-∂n-\n¬°ptºm-gmWv AXv hmbn-°m-\n-S-bm-b-Xv.m-bn. Hcn-°¬ Hcp knwl.a∂p ]d™v B ]mhw knwlw tIWp-Ic ..m-Wv. Ft∂m-Sp-Xs . C\n IY ]d-bs . Ah¿ Hcp-an®p Ifn®p ckn-°pw.apJ-°p-dn∏v Rms\mcp IY hmbn-®n-´p-≠v. BSp-Iƒ B knw-lsØ Xß-sf-t∏mse Icp-Xn. A¥-cm¿∞-ßf .fmsS.b .m-bn-cp∂p AXv.Ø-°p-dn®v BSp-Iƒt°m.n-te°p sIm≠p-t]m-bn..∂-bp-ff Hcp-Xcw tNmZyw-sN-øe .. B IY hmbn-®t. hr≤\mb B knwlw B´n≥Iq-´Ø .∂ Xv Hcp B´n≥]-‰-Øn-\n-S-bnem-bn-cp-∂p.`-Zs . BSp-Iƒ ]p√p Xn∂p-∂X . knwlØns‚ BIm-cs . X≈-knwlw Cc-]n-Sn-°m-\mbn Hcp Ip∂n¬\n∂pw FSp-Øp-Nm-Sn-b-t∏mƒ \ne-Øp-hogpIbpw Ahn-sS-InS∂p {]k-hn-bv°pI-bp-am-bn-cp∂p.°p™v h∂pP\nbv ° m\n.p-t]mse knwlhpw Ic-bpw.n-°p-∂X . Ip™ns\ {]k-hn® DSs\ X≈knwlw acn-®p. F∂m¬ hr≤-\mb knwlw.psS BIm-ct. Xs‚ Ipe-Øn\pXs∂ am\-lm\n hcp-Ønh-bv°p-∂-Xm-Wt√m Cu {]hrØn F∂p B knwlw Hm¿Øp. t]Sn®p hnd]q≠ IÆp-It. At∏mƒ B´n≥°q-´-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ Hcp knwlw Ifn-®p-ck . Xs‚ h¿§-Øn\p .psS Hcp Ie-hd Xs∂bm-bn-cp∂p.h . C{Xbpw \mfpw \n߃ [cn-®n-cp∂ s]mbvap-Jß .ns‚ IqsS Hm-Sn-t∏m-Ip∂ knwl-sØ∏n-Sn®v _e-ambn Hcp XSm-I° .

y-bX .b .Z. IpSpw_ambn Pohn-®p-t]m-cp∂ \mw ]e-X-c-Øn-ep≈ kmaq-ln-Ihpw cmjv{So-bhpw aX-]-c-hp-amb _‘-ß-fmepw _‘-\-ß-fmepw kzXkn-≤-amb \ΩpsS kzcq]w ad-∂p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-∂p.m-W. F∂n´v B XSm-IØ .v Cu ]pkvXIw FgpXp-tºmƒ F√m-h¿°pw Ah-cpsS kzXzsØ Xncn-®d .s .n¬ kzm¿∞amb PohnXw \bn-°p-∂h . AXns‚ ]q¿∆nIamb kvac-W-Iƒ DW¿∂p-h-∂p. B Kpcp-hn-eq-sS-bmWv Rm≥ Fs‚ kzXzØns‚ C\n-ab .nse kz—-amb Pe-Øn-\c .m¬ B´n≥]‰-Øn-e-I-s∏´ Hcp knwl-°p-™n-s\-t∏m-se-bmWv \mw hf-cp-∂-Xv.c .v \nd™ lrZ-b-tØmsS kzman kp[n .c . \ΩpsS Pohn-Xhpw CtX-t]m-se-bm-Wv..v. B knwlw Xs‚ kzcq-]sØ Xncn-®d .n-bm-\p-ff IÆm-Snbm-bn-cn-°Ww CXnse Hmtcm hm°pw F∂p Rm≥ {]m¿∞-\m-]q¿∆w A`n-ej .Øm-Sp-IqSn XSm-I° .n-°p-Ib .m-bn-cp-∂p.mWv \mw Gsd-t]-cpw.∏´ knwl-Øns‚ D≈n¬\n∂pw At∏mƒ Hcp K¿÷\w AW-s]m-´n. F∂n´p K¿÷n-®p-sIm≠p ]d™p: “FSm hnUvVn! \o Fs‚ apJtØ-s°m∂p t\m°q. AXp ho≠pw ho≠pw K¿÷n-®p.n-eI .t.mWv Kpcp \nXy-ssN-X\ .n-In¬ BSpIfp-ambn am\-kn-IX . B´n≥]-‰Ø .¿∏-WØ .m-Zmflyw ]q≠ knwlsØ sIm≠p-t]mbn \ndpØn. hr≤-\mb knwlw CsX√mw I≠p \n¬°p-Ib .pambn-cp-t∂-t\.” hr≤\mb knwlw sNdnb knwlsØ a‰p knwl-ß-fpsS ASp-tØ°p sIm≠p-t]m-bn. \mw \ΩpsS Bfl-kzXzsØ ad-∂p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-Ib . B K¿÷\w ZnK¥-ßsf apg-°p∂ H∂m-bn-cp-∂p.\v Bflm-hns‚ \nc-Xn-ib .nse Pe-Øn¬ \ns‚ {]Xn—m-b H∂p ImWq.n-s‚-IqsS ]p√p-Xn∂p Xpe-®p-If .n¬ Fs‚ apJw ImWn-®p-X∂ alm-Im-cp-Wn-I\ .m-Wv.n-™p. B kzcq-]-Øns‚ aln-am-Xn-ibw a\- n-em-°msX sIm®p-sIm-®p.h∂p-tN¿∂ A]-am-\-I-c-amb A[x-]-X-\sØ am‰n-sb-Sp-°-W-sa∂ \n›-bt.” XSm-I-Ønse Pe-Øn¬ sXfn™ apJw I≠-t∏mƒ s]s´-∂mbn-cp∂p ]q¿∆n-I-amb Xs‚ kzXz-Øns‚ \n›bw Hcp shfn-]m-Spt]mse B knwl-Øn¬ P\n-®X .n.b≠n-hc . ]e ]e XmZm-fly-ßf .p-ff {]Xew BZy-ambn \pW-™X . hr≤-\mb knwl-Øns‚ Imcp-Wy-Øn\p sIm®pknwlw \µn ]d-™p: “Aßn-√m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Fs‚ apgp-h≥ PohnXhpw B B´n≥]-‰Ø . Iptd-°mew Aßs\ Pohn-t°≠nh∂ Cubp-≈h .Xp-cp-Øp-If . Asß-\n°p ]pXn-sbmcp PohnXw X∂n-cn-°p-∂p.

1 Cu temIw Fhn-sS-\n-∂p-≠mbn? 2 Rm≥ BcmWv? 3 F¥n\p Pohn-°Ww? Cu aq∂p tNmZy-߃°pw DØcw \¬Im≥ Hmtcm-∂n\pw Hmtcm imkv{Xw cq]oIr-Xa .p≈ Hcp Ejn-bpsS lrØm-cn¬ hnf™ AssZz-X-a-I-c-µw-Iq-Sn-bm-Wn-Xv.n-∏n-°p∂ hnjbw \ap°p ]cn-Nb . At∏mƒ CXns\mcp ka-{KXbp-≠v. ]qºm-‰-Iƒ ]d-∂p-\-S-°p-∂-Xp-I≠v IuXp-I-aq-dp∂ Hcp sIm®p-Ip-™ns‚ t_m[Xehpw.N nX.\ . Cu imkv{X-Øn\p hy‡-amsbmcp e£yhpw {]Xn-]m-Z\-co-Xn-bpap-≠v.a .ns‚ [ym\-hn-lm-b  .n°m≥ Ign-bn-√. c≠v ⁄m\-im-kv{Xw (epistemology). \n¿hm-WØ . tkm{I-´okpw D]-\n-jØ .™ p.k . B\p-`q-Xn-I⁄ m-\a .pcp Bflm-arXw \pI¿∂ .c p∂ imkv{X⁄≥ {io\mcm-bW . aq∂v aqey-imkv{Xw (axiology).n-´mWv F√m Zm¿i-\n-Ik . sslk≥_¿Kpw IWm-Z-\pw. am{X-a√.X . Cu aq∂p imkv{X-tØbpw ‘{_“hnZy’ (The Science of the Absolute) F∂ Hcp kºq¿Æ-ka .b .mbn A¥¿`-hn°p∂p.n-°p-∂X .n¬ sIm≠p-h∂ .n¬ A\p-`qXn \pW-™psIm≠n-cn-°p∂ Hcp tbmKn-bpsS t_m[Xehpw Cu imkv{X-Øn¬ Htc-t]mse CSw Is≠-Øp-∂p-≠v..v. B hnjbw \mw Xs∂-bm-Wv. KW-\-bn¬s]-Sp-∂Xpw KW-\-bn¬\n∂p Ihn-™Xpw Dƒs°m-≈m≥ t]mcp∂ A\-¥-hn-im-e-XbmWv Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-X-I-Øns\ ka-{Kam-°p-∂-Xv.pcphmWv.a mbn ]d.ƒ kzm`m-hn-Ia . aq∂p tNmZy-ßf . Cu imkv{Xw B[p\n-Ii . ka-{K-sa∂p ]d-bm≥ ImcWw. hymk\pw \yq´\pw. Cu aq∂p imkv{X-ßf .apºv Btflm-]-tZ-iiXIw Hcp imkv{X-am-Wv. Cu imkv { XsØ imkv t {Xm.n-√mØ-X√ .nse Ejnbpw Du∂n-bq∂n∏d™ {]tabw: “\o \ns∂-Xs∂ Adn-bp-I. B Adnhv \ns∂ kzX-{¥-\m-°pw.mbn Hcp Pn⁄mkp tNmZn°p-∂X . F∂m¬ Kpcp-hm-Is´.v.a .mWv BXy-¥n-Ia . K . CXn¬ Ah-Xc . _p≤\pw F√mw Btflm-]-tZ-i-km-K-c-Ønse tXtPm-X-cw-K-ß-fm-Wv.F¥pw hmbn-°p-∂-Xn-\p. CXns‚ ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcmØ H∂pw-X-s∂-bn√ F∂p-f-f-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv.m°n At\z-jWw Bcw-`n-°p-tºmƒ AXn¬ {]]-©sØ kw_-‘n®pw Cuiz-cs\ kw_-‘n®pw D≈ ]T-\ß .yI-tfbpw ]cn-lc . H∂v kØm-im-kv{Xw (ontology)..mkv{Xw t]msebp≈ Hcp imkv{X-a√ .” Aßs\ Rm≥ Fs∂ {]ta-ba .z-bX-{¥Øns‚ ]cn-KW . {InkvXphpw \_n-bpw.m-bn-´p-≠v.K .nepw s]SmsX Hcp imkv{X-Øn\pw \ne-bp-d∏ .

v Aßs\ C{µn-bß .w.{. ZpxJ-Øn¬ \n∂p≈ tamN\w.¥w. krjv S n. kzbw-ap-‡\ .v Aßs\ Poh≥ PK-Øns\ XrjvWm-\n-hr-Øn-°mbn `pPn°p-tºmƒ ho≠pw ho≠pw _‘-\Ø . PK-Øns‚bpw Poh-s‚bpw {kjvSm-hmWv .v.ƒs°m≠pw a\- p-sIm≠pw _‘-s∏-Sp∂ hnj-bß .n¬\n-∂p≈ tamN\w.n¬\n∂p≈ tamN\w.v.mWv BsI PK-Øns‚ s]mXp-hm-bn-´p≈ Bhn-jvIm-cX . A⁄m-\w-sIm-≠mWv Pohn-Xw _‘-\w-t]mse tXm∂p-∂Xpw \mw ZpxJn-°p-∂X .ns‚ {]tbm-P\ .Z-ii . F∂m¬ \ΩpsS apºn-ep≈ \ma-cq-]m-flI-am-bn-cn-°p∂ temIsØ \mw Adn-bp-∂Xv \Ωn¬\n∂pw A\y-am-bn-cn°p∂ Hcp hkvXp-t]m-se-bm-W.nepw DZm-ko-\c . F¥n¬\n-∂p≈ tamN\w? _‘-\Ø .n-eq-tSbpw a\- n-eq-tSbpw hnj-bß .nepw \sΩ kzm[o-\n-°p-∂p.nepw A\n-jSv c .mWv sNøp-∂X .q-]Ø . \Ωn¬\n∂-pw A\y-am-bn-cn-°p∂ temIsØ ho≠pw ho≠pw `pPn°p-hm≥ hy{KXs∏´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ H∂mWv Poh≥.o-jn-bp-am-Wv. Poh≥ PK-Øn-s\-bmWv AXns‚ XrjvWsb HSp-°p-hm-\mbn `pPn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .Iw Hcp tam£im-kv{X-am-Wv.XIw cNn-®X . Poh≥ F∂pw ]q¿Æ-X-bv°p-th-≠n-bmWv {ian-°p∂Xv . imkv{X-Øn\v Ah-ew-_n-°m-hp∂ coXo-hn-[m\w (methodology) Pohs\ Btflm-∑p-J-am-°n-sb-Sp-°pI am{X-am-Wv. kwl¿Ømhpw Cuiz.X .b . CjvSc . F∂m¬ Iptd Ign-bp-tºmƒ Cu Poh≥Xs∂ PK-Øn¬\n∂p≈ ap‡n B{K-ln-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.n¬\n-∂p-≈ ap‡n.n-∏n-°p-Ib . {]]©w F∂ \ma-cq]m-flI . At∏mƒ ap‡n-bmWv Cu imkv{Xw ]Tn-°p-∂X ..p-cp-jm¿∞-amb ap‡nsb kqcy-Xpeyw Bfl[m-cb . As√- .q-]Ø . ⁄mXm-hmbpw I¿Øm-hmbpw t`m‡m-hmbpw Hs°-bmWv.p-sa-√mw. {]m]-©n-IX .I ¿Ømhpw kwl¿Ømhpw Bbn-cn-°p∂ Cuiz-c≥ {]]©w F∂ eoesb (play) Poh\neqsS Ah-Xc .n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-≠.mb Kpcp am\pjy-IsØ apgp-h\pw ap‡n-bn-te°p \bn-°m-\mWv Btflm-]t.v. temI-Øn¬ Pohn-°p-∂t.m-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp eoesb Poh≥ F∂p ]d-bp∂ {]mXn-`m-knI-Xb . AXp-sIm≠v Btflm-]t.n-te°p t]mhp-∂p. Cuizc≥ kzX-{¥-\m-Wv. At∏mƒ B ap‡n°v tlXp-hm-bn-´mWv Cuiz-c≥ hcp-∂X . _‘\w tXm∂p-∂X .m°n am‰nb alm-a\ .f .n-eqsS Ah-Xc .p-sIm-≠mWv Hcmƒ imkv{Xw ]Tn-°p-∂Xv.v AXp-sIm≠v \mw Cu temIsØ A\p`-hn-°p-∂Xv.c ≥Xs∂.y-\m-Wv. ]c-a] .sf A\p-`h .q-]Ø .ƒ \sΩ _‘n°p-∂p.a .n-∏n-°p-∂X . Poh≥ _‘-\-ÿ-\mbn-cn-°p-tºmƒ B Pohs\ ap‡n-bn-te°v B\-bn-°p∂ Hcp {]Xn-]m-Z-\-X{¥-am-bn-cn-°Ww imkv{X-Øn¬ D≠mbn-cn-t°-≠Xv.Xm-sSm∏wXs∂ \mw Cu temI-Øns‚ `mK-amWv.Z-ii . F¥n¬ \n∂p≈ ap‡n-bmWv? A⁄m-\Ø .Hcp Ejn-hc . \mw Cu temI-Øn¬ Pohn-°p-tºmƒXs∂ C{µn-bß .

m-bn-cn-°p∂ H∂ns\ Cu {]m]-©n-IX .m-cW .m-bn-cn-°p∂ kØ \Ωn¬ Is≠-Øp-tºmƒ AXns\ BflkØ F∂p ]d-bpw.w.d n.I . C\n Cu C{µn-bm\p-`-ß-fpsS ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ Nn¥n-®-dn-bp-∂Xpw km[m-cW Adnhp-X-s∂-bm-Wv.p-sIm-≠pXs∂ AXv C{µn-bZ.bpsS ASn-ÿm-\a .v F∂p ]d-™m¬.W p∂ Hcp Zrirw km[m. ]c-aI .p-a√ . Fs¥√mw Imcy-ßf .√ . AXp-sIm≠v C{µn-b-ØneqsS Adn-bp∂ Adn-hp-I-sfms° ]cnta-b-ß-fmWv.m-W. A]-cnta-b-amb H∂ns\ Nn¥-Iƒ°pw Dƒs°m-≈m-\m-hp-I-bn-√.n-jb . At\z-j-W-Øn-eqsS hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-t°≠ Hcp-Xcw A¥¿⁄m-\-Øn-eq-sS-bmWv (intuition) CXp km[n-Xa . Icp-hm-Is´ A]-cn-ta-ba . Af-°m-\mhm-ØX . AXns\ Icp F∂p hnfn-°p-∂p.v AXns\ ‘Icp’ F∂mWv ]d-bp-∂X .b .m-W. Cu Icp-hns‚ kz`mhw Fß-s\-bmWv? AXv Adn-hnepw Gdnb Adn-hm-Wv.m-cW . Cu {]]-©Ø .v Icp {]m]-©n-Ik .v \mw ]ca-Im-cW . Xz°p-sIm≠v kv]¿in®-dn-bp∂ Hcp kv]¿iw km[m-cW Adn-hm-Wv.c . Af-°m-\m-hm-ØX .n™p Is≠-tØ≠ H∂p-≠.m-bn-cn-°p-∂X .W v . Cu Adnhn-ep-ta-dnb Adn-hm-bn-cn-°p∂ Icp-hns\ Fß-s\-bmWv \mw Adn-tb- . AXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ AXn-s\mcp Ime-]-cn-¢n-]vXnbpw D≠m-bn-cn-°Ww. ImXpsIm≠v tIƒ°p∂ Hcp i_vZw km[m-cW Adn-hmWv.m-Wv.¶n¬ Cuiz.I bmWv .X . \m°p-sIm≠v cpNn-°p∂ Hcp cpNn km[m-cW Adn-hm-Wv.∑ p.c W Adn.m-bn´dn-bp-tºmƒ AXns\ {_“-kØ F∂p ]d-bpw.Ø .b .Xms° km[m-cW Adn-hm-W.t cm.a . At∏mƒ BZy-ta-Xs∂ kØ-bm-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp kXysØ FSpØp-ImWn-°p-∂p.a m°n Øo¿°p.a .. C{µn-bh .Z-ii .n\v Imc-Wa .n-jb .Ø . aq°psIm≠v aW-°p∂ Hcp aWw km[m-cW Adn-hm-Wv. km[m-cW Adn-hn¬\n∂pw AXoX-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcdn-hmWv. _‘-Im-c-W-amb PK-Øns\ \ncm-I-cnt°-≠Xv Pohs‚ tam£-kn-≤n°v Ah-iyw-th≠ Hcp {]{In-b-bm-Wv.n¬ ]d-bp-∂Xv? H∂m-aX .. GsX¶nepw Hcp tZi-Øp-h®pam-{Xta C{µn-b-Øn\p Hc-dn-hns\ kzoI-cn-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q.v At∏mƒ Icp C{µn-bh .J . AXn-\p-th≠ hen-sbmcp Adn-hns\ Kpcp ]d-™p-X-cp-∂p. Cu Adn-hnepw Gdnb Adn-hmWv \mw Icp-hns\ Adn-bp-tºmƒ D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv..h p.. ]c-aI .mWv Kpcp Btflm-]t.v GtXm AXmWv Icp.mbn \mw At\z-jn-®d.m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv k .v ]c-aamb I . km[m-cW AdnhpI-fn-sems° tZi-Im-e-]-cn-an-Xam-bn-´p≈ Hcp am\w D≠m-bn-cn°pw. AXpsIm≠mWv AXns\ Adn-hn-ep-ta-dnb Adn-sh∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv.s Im.m-Ip-∂X . GsXm.v IÆp.a . Icp Imc-Wam-W.a .Ø .s Im≠mtWm \ap°v Cu PKØv _‘\w F∂-Xp-t]mse tXm∂n-®Xv B Adn-hmWv hnth-I-_p-≤n.m-cW .zmcm Adn-bm-hp-∂X .m-bn-cn-°p-∂s .a .m-Wv.≠ pIm.h m.

q-]Øn¬ AI-Øn-cn-°p-Ibpw ÿqe-cq-]Ø .® p. A©n-{µn-b-ß-tfbpw IqSn-bmWv IÆp-Iƒ F∂p Kpcp \ma-I-cWw sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂Xv. ÿqe-cq-]Ø .mWv a\- v. -km[m-cW Adnhn¬\n∂pw AXo-X-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Hc-dn-hns\ a\p-jy≥ At\z-jn-°phm≥ XpS-ßp-tºmƒ B hy‡n kXym-t\z-jn-bm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.≠ n. Icp Hcp hnj-b-a-√. .n¬ ]pd-Øn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂Xv.mWv ]©-`q-XmflI-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Cu {]]©w. Aß-s\-sbmcp kXym-t\zjn imkv{Xw hfsc ka-{K-ambn ]Tnt°-≠-Xmbn´p-≠v.° p. GI-amb Icp-hns\ Adn-bmsX. CXmWv Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-X-I-Øns‚ {]ta-b-am-bn´v hcp-∂-Xv. Aßs\ hcp. Icp-hns‚ Zznap-J-ß-sf-bmWv \mw Adn-bp-∂-Xv. XmXv]-cy-ßsf apgp-h≥ Bfl-K-X-{]n-b-am-°-Ww.mb Ahÿ-bn¬ h¿Øn-°pI. D≈-S-°-sW∂p ]d-bphm≥ ImcWw AsX-t∏mgpw ]pdw-tem-I-ØmWv ta™p-sIm-≠n-cn°p-∂-Xv. Icp-hn¬ kw`-hn-®psIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ÿqehpw kq£va-hp-am-bn-cn-°p∂.n¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂X .≠-Xv? Htc-k-a-bw-Xs∂ Cu Icp Adn-bp-∂-hs‚ AI-Øpw AtXt]mseXs∂ ]pd-ØpamWv C-cn-°p-∂X . AXp-sIm≠v Icp-hns\ Adn-bWw F∂p Dd-∏n®p ]d-bp-∂p. Icp-hns\ Htc-k-a-bw-Xs∂ AIØpw ]pd-Øp-an-cn-°p∂ kØ-bm-bn-´-dn-b-Ww. sXcp-sXsc hoWphW-ß-Ww.v.v AXpsIm≠v Ffna thWw. B hy‡n Pn⁄m-kp-hm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. BZyw AXn-\p-th-≠nbmWv Icp-hns‚ ÿnXn-hn-ti-j-sØ-°p-dn®v ]d-™p-X-∂-Xv.t ºmƒ \Ω. IÆp-Iƒ F∂p ]d-™m¬. hW-ßpI F∂p ]d-™m¬ Al¥ \n¿Ωm¿÷n-Xa . a\p-jy≥ Fhn-sS-bmWv hotg-≠Xv? a\p-jy≥ hotg-≠Xv Adn-hns‚ apºn-em-Wv.n¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂X . . sXcp-sXsc F∂p≈ hm°v ss\-c¥-cy-tØm-Sp-IqSn F∂ A¿∞-Øn-emWv Kpcp {]tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv.Zr-iy-߃ am{Xw ImWp∂ IÆn-s\-b√ ChnsS hnh-£n-°p-∂-Xv.s Im. AIhpw ]pdhp-am-bn-cn-°p∂ c≠p hi-ßsf am{X-amWv Pohn-Xm-\p-`-h-ß-fn¬\n∂v \ap°v Adn-bp-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≈q. Aßs\bmWv kq£vac .mWv ⁄m\-Øn\p XS- w \n¬°p-∂X . Hcp Icp ÿqe-ambpw kq£va-ambpw Pohs\ h´w Np‰n. vAXn-\p-ti-jw-thWw Cu {KŸw \Ω-fpsS a\\-Øn\pw hnNm-cØ . kq£vac . Icp hnj-bm-Xo-X-t_m[am-Wv.C{µnb߃.w.c n. AXp Adn-hn-ep-ta-dnb Adnhm-Wv. a\p-jys‚ Al-¥b . At∏mƒ Htc Icp-hn-\p-Xs∂ c≠p Xc-Øn¬ {]Xn-`m-kn-°phm≥ Ign-bp-∂-sX-ß-s\-bmWv? AXn-emWv Poh≥ F∂pw hymtamln-X\m-bn-Øo-cp-∂-Xv.f psS PohnXØnn¬ sX‰p ]‰m\n-S-h-cp-∂p. shdptX _ew {]tbm-Kn®v \nb{¥n°pI F∂-√.mb Adn-hns‚ apºn¬ \a-kvIcn-°W .∂ p. AXp-sIm≠v ]pdw-tem-I-Øn¬\n∂pw D≈-S-°-Ww.n\pambn F-Sp-°phm≥.. ]c-aa .q-]Ø . IÆp-Iƒ A©pw D≈-S-°-Ww. C{µn-b-ß-fn¬ hym]-cn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Pothm¿÷sØ Icp-hn-te°p Xncn-°-Ww.

temIw Hcp Bi-ba .ß . tUm.m°n [mc-ap-dn-bmØ coXn-bn¬ Kpcp-hn¬ ka¿∏n-X\ .≥ X≥ Dcp-hnepw HØp ]pdØpw Adn-hnepw Gdn ˛˛ ˛ ˛ D÷z-en°pw Icp-hn\v ˛ IÆp-Iƒ A©pw D≈-S°n sXcp-sXsc hoWp-hW .m-°n.° .m-ZsØ (materialism) Icp-∏n-Sn-∏n-®p.ßn HmXn-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Adn-bp-∂h .s‚ AIØpw XØp-eyambn ]pdØpw I≠pw Nn¥n®pw a‰pw Adn-bm-hp∂ Adn-hp-Iƒ°-Xo-Xa .mWv . tPm¨k¨ `uXnI-hm-Zn-bpw.m-sc∂p hnti-jn-∏n-°m-hp∂ tUm. s_¿°nen-bm-Is´ ISpØ Bi-bh .t.n¬ tπt‰mbpw Acn-tÃm-´nepw kam-¥c .m-ZØ .sb Adn-bp-∂Xn\mbn A©p ⁄mt\-{µn-bß . Ncn-{X-Øn-eqsS Ch¿ HgpIn-sbm-gpIn c≠p hmZ-ßsf kºp-jvSa . F∂mepw Zm¿i\n-Ia .nse AXn-Im-b∑ .mbn kzm[ymbw sNø-Ww.m-Zn-bm-Wv.n-™n-Sp-∂h .p-ap-≈S.n-ep-≠v. Adn-™n-Sp-∂h . ImW-s∏-Sp∂ temI-Øn-\-∏p-dØv Hcp kXyhpw C√ F∂ .fbpw Bflm-`n-ap-Ja .m-sW-∂mWv s_¿°n-en-bpsS hmZw.n¬hsc G¿s∏-´n-´p-≠v. tπt‰m-bpsS Nn¥-If . Cu c≠p hmZßfpw ]c-kv]cw kwL-´\ .mbn {]Im-in-°p∂ Bfl-kØ .z-Nn-¥b .ambn Hgp-In-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ c≠p \Zn-I-sf-t∏m-se-bm-Wv. ]m›m-Xy-Nn-¥b . ]m›m-Xy-XØ .n˛ sØcp-sXsc hoWp-hW . tPm¨kWpw _nj∏v s_¿°nenbpw Hcn-°¬ {]`m-X-k-hm-cn-bn¬ I≠p-ap-´n.© .mb Hcp ]nW°w Ch¿°n-Sb .v.≥ X˛ ∂pcp-hn-ep-samØp ]pd-Øp-ap-÷z-en°pw Icp-hn\p IÆp-If .Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-XIw 1 Adn-hn-ep-ta-dn-bd. Ch¿ XΩnep≈ _‘w Kpcp-hn-t‚Xpw injy-t‚-Xp-am-Wv. Acn-tÃm-´n-ens‚ XØzBi-bh .Ø . Ct∏mgpw G¿s∏Sp-∂p-≠v.n-te°v (idealism) hgn-am-dn-bX Nn¥ `uXn-Ih .n-tbm-Xn-tS-Ww.

F∂m¬ C∂n-hnsS I≠p-hcp∂ metaphysics BIs´ Bi-b-hm-Z-Øn¬\n∂pw P\n-®-Xm-Wv.n-bm≥ BZyambn C{µn-bß . GsXm-∂n¬\n-∂mtWm temIw PmX-am-Ip-∂Xv B H∂mWv ImcWw F∂-Xp-sIm≠v hnh-£n°p-∂X . At∏mgpw tIm]w AS-ßmsX tUm.v ’ ‘]ns∂ \n߃ F¥n-\mWv Ic-bp-∂Xv?’ tUm. B A`n-c-a-\sØ .b .m-bn-cn-°p∂ Icp-hns\ Adn-™m¬ F√mw Adn™ A\p-`-h-am-bn.° epw tNcmsX iWvT-Iq-Sn-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. B Icp Htckabw Adn-bp-∂h .n-®p. ‘AXpw Bi-ba . tPm¨k¨ tNmZn®p: ‘Cu I√pw tNmcbpw Bi-ba .’ s_¿°nen ]d™p.mb Icp-hn-s\-bmWv Adntb-≠X . X¿°w aqØ-t∏mƒ tUm. Aß-s\-bp≈ Icp-hns\ B\p-`q-Xn-Ia . B Bfl-kØ . kzbw kwXr-]vXn-bmWv ]q¿Æm-\p-`-h-Øns‚ sXfna. Ah¿ kwkm-cn®p h∂-t∏mƒ AsXmcp X¿°ambn ]cn-Wa . tPm¨k¨ hensbmcp Is√-SpØv s_¿°n-en-bpsS Imen¬ t\m°n Htcdp sImSp-Øp. s_¿°nen hmhn´p \ne-hn-fn-®p.b mWv idealism hpw materialism hpw Hcn. thsdm-d¿∞-Øn¬ ]d-™m¬ kq£vaw AIØpw ÿqew ]qd-Øpw. Ima-\-Iƒ Hgn™ ]q¿Æ-X. Imcy-߃ At\-Ia . F√m Adn-hp-Iƒ°pw A¿∞-hp-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Chbv°p c≠n\pw H∂n-®n-cn-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ HcnSw \S-cm-P-Kp-cp-hmWv hfsc hy‡-X-tbm-Sp-IqSn imkvt{Xm-Nn-X-ambn ]d-™p-X-∂n-´p-f-f-Xv.m-W. At∏mƒ Imc-Wa .s \.hmZ-amWv `uXn-I-hm-Zw. AXn\p klm-b-I-amb Zm¿i-\n-I-]n≥_ew \mcm-b-W-Kp-cphns‚ Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-X-I-Øn¬\n∂pw Z¿i--\-am-e-bn¬\n-∂p-amWv \S-cm-PKp-cp-hn\p In´n-b-Xv.b . Cß.mbn A\p-`h . tPm¨k¨ tNmZn-®p. Imep NX™v tNmc-sbm-en-°m≥ XpS-ßn. Icp-hns\ Adn-bmsX Cu temI-Øn¬ I≠pw tI´pw sXm´pw \pW™pw aWØpw Nn¥n®pw Adn-bm-hp∂ F√mw hy¿∞-sat∂ ]d-bm-s\m-°q.m-Wv. AsXmcp ]q¿Æm-\p-`-h-am-Wv. B[p-\n-I-imkv{Xamb physics `uXn-I-hm-Z-Øns‚ k¥--Xn-bm-Wv.m-Wv. AIØv A¥-°-c-Wambpw ]pdØv FÆ-a‰ hkvXp-°-fmbpw {]Im-in-°p-∂p. Bfl-kØ F∂m¬ \ΩpsS icn-bmb D◊ Ft∂ A¿∞-ap-≈q.m-Wv.v.s‚ AIØpw ]pdØpw ÿnXn-sNøp-∂p.mtWm?’ s_¿°nen Ic-™p-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ ]d™p: ‘I√pw tNmcbpw Bi-ba .n-®d . Kpcp-tZ-hs‚ Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-X-I-Øn¬ Bibhm-Zhpw `uXn-I-hm-Zhpw ]nW-°-ß-fn-√mØ Hcp `qan-I-bn¬ kwK-an°p-∂Xv Hmtcm t«mI-Øn-eq-tSbpw IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-tºmƒ \ap°p ImWm\m-Ipw. ImcWw GI-amWv.v. Fs¥-∂m¬ Icp-hmWv F√m Adn-hp-Iƒ°pw Imc-Wam-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.fnse A`n-c-a-\sØ Dƒh-en-°-Ww. Icp Bfl-kØ .

\ma-cq-]ß . IÆn\v hnj-ba . \m°v.m-Wv. 2 Ic-W-hp-an-{µn-bhpw Itf-_cw sXm˛ ´dn-bp-a-t\-I-P-K-Øp-tam¿°n-se√mw ]c-sh-fn-X-∂n-ep-b¿∂ `m\p-am≥ X≥ Xncp-hp-cp-hmWp Xnc-™p -tX-dn-tS-Ww.v Xz°v kv]¿i-t\-{µn-ba . Bfl-km-£m-XI v m-cØ . Ic-Whpw -˛ C{µn-bhpw ˛ Itf-_cw ˛ sXm´-dnbpw ˛ At\-I. {]]©w ]©-`q-Xm-flI . Ffna-bpsS hg°w hc-Ww.n-sem-∂mb A·n-bpsS KpW-am-Wv.n¬ hoWp-hW .n\p XpS°w Ipdn-°mw.mbn sNøWw. Kpcp-hmWv Adn-hns‚ \ntI-X\ . Xz°v. cq]w ]©-`q-Xß .m-W.´. aWw ]rYzn-bpsS KpW-am-Wv.m-Wv. CXv Hcp {]mhiyw sNbvXm¬ t]mcm.n® Hcp a\ v At\z-j-I-\n¬ A\n-hm-cy-am-W.ƒ. ckw Pe-Øns‚ KpW-am-W.v kv]¿iw hmbphns‚ KpW-am-Wv.a . sNhn F∂n-hb . B {]]-©a .w.m-Is .sf ⁄mt\{µn-bß .v IÆv.hmsS \ap-°n\n kzm[ym-bØ .v. \mhpsIm≠v ckw Adn-bp-∂p.mWv ⁄mt\{µn-bß . sNhn-bn-eq-sS-bmWv tIƒ°p-∂X . aq°v.f . hnj-bm-`n-ap-Jambn {]h¿Øn-®ncp∂ Adnhv At∏mƒ Bflm-`n-ap-Jam-bn-Øo-cpw. F√mw ]c-a-amb NnZmIm-i-Øn¬ DZn-®p-\n¬°p∂ Bfl-kq-cys‚ ssNX-\y-cq-]-amWv.. C°mcyw At\zjn®-dn-bWw.pI F∂ {]{In-b. FÆn-bm-sem-SpßmØ \ma-cq-]ß .a .n\mbn Kpcp-hn¬ {i≤-bp-d∏ . Aß-s\-sbmcp At\z-jW . \nc-¥c . tIƒhn BIm-i- .f . IÆv ImWp-∂p.v Kpcphns‚ ]mZm-¥n-IØ . CXmWv D≈-S° .m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv cq]-am-Wv. aq°p-sIm≠v aW°p-∂p.Icp-hns‚ Zni-bn-te°p Xncn-®p-hn-SW .n-It.w.Ø .P-KØpw ˛ Hm¿°n¬ ˛ F√mw ˛ ]c-sh-fn-X-∂n¬ Db¿∂ ˛ `m\p-am≥X≥ Xncp-hp-cp-hmWv Xnc-™p-tX-dn-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ A¥-°-c-W-ßfpw C{µn-b-ßfpw ico-chpw C{µn-b-߃°p hnj-b-am-bn-cn-°p∂ \nc-h-[n-bmb \ma-cq-]-ßfpw a\-\-hn-t[-b-am-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬.ßWsa¶n¬ Al¥ t]mI-Ww.f . Bfl-km-bp-Py-Øn-\p≈ A`n-em-jhpw thWw.n-eq-sS-bmWv \mw Adn-bp-∂X .

Al-¶mcw F∂n-hb .mb kv^pcWß-fmWv FÆn-bm-sem-Sp-ßmØ \ma-cq-]m-flI .n¬ DZn-®p-b¿∂p-\n¬°p∂ Hc-\p-`h . a\- v.n-bp-∂ A\p`-ha .fpw XΩn-ep≈ Cu ]ckv]-c-_-≤Xbn¬\n-∂mWv {]]©w cq]-s∏-´Xp-X-s∂. a\- ns‚ kz`mhw kwibw D∂-bn-°p-Ib .mb a\-\a . kvarXn-cq-]Ø . NnØ-Øn¬ sXfn™ DØcw icntb sXt‰m F∂p \n›-bn-°p-∂Xv _p≤n-bm-Wv.o-Xnsb Ah-ew-_n-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.f√mw a\- ns‚ krjvSn-bm-Wv. Al-¶mcw A`n-am-\n-bm-Wv.a . _p≤nsb AXpsIm≠v \n›-bm-flnIm F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.v 3 shfn-bn-en-cp∂p hnh¿Ø-anßp ImWpw shfn-ap-X-emb hn`q-Xn-b-©p-tam¿Øm¬ Pe-\n-[n-X-∂n-ep-b¿∂nSpw Xcw-Km˛ hen-b-Xp-t]msebt`-Z-ambv htc-Ww.a .mb Cu {]]©w. NnØw.m-W.m-£mXvImcw kw`-hn-°p-∂p.ƒ.W .n¬\n∂pw Is≠-ØW . A¥-°-c-W-ß-fpsS klmbw Bh-iy-am-Wv. ]©o-I-cWw F∂m¬ A©p `qX-ßfpw tNtc-≠-]Sn tNcp-∂-Xm-Wv. shfn-bn-en-cp∂v ˛ hnh¿Øw Cßp ImWpw ˛ shfn-ap-X-emb ˛ hn`q-Xn-b©pw ˛ shfn-bn-en-cn-°p-∂Xp-t]mse hnh¿Ø-cq-]-Øn¬ \mw ImWp∂ BImiw apXemb A©p `qX-ßsfbpw . ]©-`q-Xß . tNmZy-Øns‚ DØcw ]q¿hm-\p-`h .n-®p-t]m-cp∂ Cu PK-Øns‚ clkyw Adn-bp-hm-\mbn ]pXn-sbmcp hnNm-cc . B Htc-sbmcp Bfl-kq-cys‚ _lp-hn-[a . C{µn-bß .m-Wv. ]q¿hm\p-`h .v.Ø .m-Wv A¥-xI-cW .ß . tXdpI F∂m¬ Bfl-kØ .mWv NnØw. {]I¿tjW ]©o-Ir-X-am-bXv {]]-©w. Cßs\ Ic-tW-{µn-bI .fpw Cµn-bß .n-t‚-Xv.m-Zn-If .psS tiJ-ca .m¬ \mw A\p-`h .ß .mWv Al-¶m-cØ .w.ƒ°v X\nsb F√mw Adn-bm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√. AXv A¥¿ap-Ja .m-W.v Aßs\ a\\w sNøp-tºmƒ \mw Xs∂-bm-bn-cn-°p∂ Bfl-kq-cy≥ Adn-hns‚ AXn-hn-iZ. _p≤n.f .nepw hnkvarXn cq]Øn-ep-amWv NnØw {]h¿Øn-°p-∂X . F¥v? FhnsS? Ft∏m-ƒ? Bcv? Fßs\? F¥n\v? F∂o tNmZy-ßs .m-sW-∂d .m-Im-iØ .t.f-_c .Øns‚ KpW-am-Wv.bpw Rm\pw At`-Za . _p≤n \n›-bn® H∂ns\ X\nbv°p thWtam th≠tbm F∂ {]nbm{]nb cq]-Øn-ep≈ {]Xn-Ic .k .

ƒ°pw Imc-Wa .q-]Ø .m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv IS-em-Wv. Pew. Aßs\ Adn-bp-tºmƒ ⁄m\w B\p-`q-Xn-I-ambn amdpw. AXp-t]mse shfnbn-en-cn-°p∂ F√m hnj-bß .q-]Ø . ]rYn-hn F∂n-h-bmWv ]©-`q-X-߃. ChnsS hnti-jc .ƒ°pw Imc-Wa . Adnhpw Adn-™nSpw A¿∞hpw ]pam≥X≥ Adnhpw Hcp BZn-a-l v am{X-amIpw hnc-fX hn´p hnf-ßpw AΩ-lØmw Adn-hn¬ Aa¿∂v ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Adn-bpI F∂ {]{In-bbpw Adn-bp∂ hnj-bhpw ‘Adn-bp-∂-h≥’ F∂ t_m-[hpw Htc-sbmcp BZn-a-amb tPymXn v am{X-am-Wv. A·n.n¬ ImW-s∏Sp∂ F√m-‰n\pw BZn-aamb Hcp GI-kØbp≠v. F∂p ]d-™m¬. {]]©w ]©-`q-Xm-fl-I-am-Wv.m-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp ]c-shfn-bp-≠v. B ]c-sh-fn-bn¬ As√-¶n¬ NnZm-Im-iØ .n¬ F√m-‰n-t\bpw t`Z-a-‰-dn-b-Ww.v. s]s´∂p t\m°ptºmƒ Cu aqe-Im-cW . 4 Adn-hp-a-dn-™n-Sp-a¿∞hpw ]pam≥X˛ ∂dn-hp-sam-cm-Zn-a-l- p-am-{X-am-Ipw hnc-f-X-hn´p hnf-ßp-a-Ω-l-Øm˛ adn-hn-e-a¿∂Xp am{X-am-bn-tS-Ww. F√m Xnc-am-eI .sØ \ap°p ImWm≥ Ign-bp-Ib . IS-en¬ Xnc-Iƒ apd-ap-db . BImiw.Hm¿Øm¬ Pe-\n-[n-X-∂n¬ Db¿∂n-Spw Xcw-Km-hen AXp-t]mse At`-Z-ambv htcWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ a\-\-hn-t[-b-am-°n-bm¬ IS-en¬ D≠mbn ad-bp∂ Xnc-I-fpsS \nc F∂-Xp-t]mse At`-Z-ambn hc-Ww. Hcp aqe-Im-cWap≠v.v. ]©-`q-X-߃sIm-≠mWv {]]©-Øn-ep-ff I√pw ]p√pw ]pgbpw ]pgphpw am\pw a\p-jy\psa-√mwD-≠m-bn-´p-f-f-Xv.n¬ h¿Øn°p∂ As√-¶n¬ hnhn-[c . AIw ]p-d-ß-fn-√msX Pzen-®p-\n¬°p∂ B al-Ømb Bfl-k-Ø-bn¬ hne-bn®v .f .psS At`-ZyX Adn-tb-≠X .n-√. hmbp. IS-en-emWv Xnc-am-eI .mbn Db¿s∂m-Sp-ßn-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xp ImWp-tºmƒ IS-en¬\n∂pw Xnc-Iƒ thsd-bm-sW-∂p-ff {]Xo-Xn-bmWv \Ω-fn¬ Dfhm-Ip-∂X .

Nn¥n°pI F∂n-h-sb√mw Adn-sh∂ {]{In-b-bpsS hnhn-[-amb kwth-Z\fm-Wv. hnj-b-sØ-bm-Wn hnsS Adn-™n-Sp-a¿∞w F∂p ]d-bp-∂X . AsX-t∏mgpw hnf-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw. BZn-a-l- m-Is´ F√m-bn-SØpw \nd-™p-hn-e-kp∂ Bfl-kØXs∂-bm-Wv.n-eqsS I≠pw tI´pw aWØpw cpNn®pw sXm´pw Hs° Adn-bmw. C{µn-bß . Adn-bp-∂-h≥˛Adnbp-I˛Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ hnjbw Chsb aq∂nt\bpw tN¿ØmWv thZm¥n-Iƒ ‘{Xn]pSn’ F∂p hnfn°p∂-Xv. F√m Adn-hnepw Adn-bm-\mbn Hcp hnj-b-ap-≠v.n-en-cn-°p∂ Poh\v ico-c-Xm-Zmflyw D≠m-Ip-tºmgmWv Cß-s\-bp-ff {Xn]p-So-t`-Z-tØmsS-bp-≈ Adn-hp-≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. ˛ a\p-jy-\nse Cu hyhlm-c-ßsf ˛ D‰p-t\m-°n-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ ˛ Aaq-ey-amb Bfl-Zo-]am-Is´ ˛ DZn-°p-Ibpw ˛ ]ns∂ AWbp-Ibpw sNøp-∂n-√. GXp hnj-bsØ Adn-bp-tºmgpw ‘Rm≥ Adn-bp-∂-h≥’ F∂ ⁄mXrXzw \Ω-n-sems° ImWp-∂p-≠v.v.f . A¥°-c-W-Øn-eqsS Nn¥n®pw Adn-bmw. 5 De-I-cp-d-ßn-bp-W¿∂p Nn¥ sNøpw ]e-Xp-an-sXm-s°-bp-ap-‰p. A⁄m-\Ø . k¿∆-hym-]-I-XbmWv B Bfl-k-Ø-bpsS kz`m-hw. AXp-am-{X-ambnØocp-∂-XmWv PohnX-Øns‚ ]c-a-amb B\-µw. al-Øm-bn-cn-°p∂ Cu BZn-a-⁄m-\-Øn¬ Aen™v. Cßs\. tIƒ°pI.]m¿Øp -\n¬°pw hne-a-Xn-bmX hnf-°p-Zn-°bpw ]n≥˛ s]men-I-bp-an-√nXp I≠p t]mbn-tS-Ww.AXp-am-{X-am-bn-tS-Ww ˛ AXp-am-{X-am-bn-Øo-c-Ww. De-I¿ Dd-ßnDW¿∂v ˛ Nn¥-sNøpw ]eXpw CsXm-s°bpw D‰p-]m¿Øp-\n¬°pw hne-a-Xn-bmX hnf°v DZn-°bpw ]n≥s]m-en-Ibpw C√ CXpI≠p t]mbn-tSWw ˛ km[m-cW P\-߃ ˛ DdßpIbpw DW-cp-Ibpw ˛ ]e-]e Nn¥-I-fpw sNøp∂p. F∂m¬ ⁄mt\mZ-bØn¬ Htc-sbmcp BZn-a-⁄m-\-Øns‚ aq∂p ]ncn-hp-Iƒ am{X-amWv CsX∂v \ap°p t_m[y-am-Ipw. ˛ Cu Bfl-Zo-]sØ I≠pPoho°Ww. ImWp-I. .

Ø .v F∂-dn-bW . B hnf°v A\m-Zn-bmb Hcp Zo]-am-Wv.f . Ch-sbms° Ca-sh-´msX I≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Hcp IÆv F√m-hc .\ .m-sW-¶n¬ C‘\w Xo¿∂m¬ AXp sI´p-t]m-Ipsa-∂p-d∏ .v. \o Xs∂-bmWv Cu temI-Øn-s‚ hnf-°m-bn-cn-°p-∂X . Aaq-ey-amb Hcp hnf-°n-t\m-SmWv Cu IÆns\ Kpcp D]-an-®n-cn°p-∂X . F∂m¬ CXv sI´p-t]m-hp-Ib . IØn-®p-h® .n-eqsS Dub-emSn Ifn-°p-Ib .n-√.km[m-cW a\p-jy-cpsS PohnXw I≠n-´nt√? Dd°w.m°nØo¿°m≥ Kpcp ]d-bp-∂p : ‘Cu hnf-°ns\ I≠p-t]m-bn-tS-Ww. CXv ⁄m\m-ar-Xa . Aß-s\-sbmcp IÆv F√m-‰n-t\bpw I≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .h .n¬ AhcpsS PohnXw ]e-]e . C°m-c-W-Øm¬ am‰-an-√mØ Bflk-XysØ Bcpw ]q¿Æ-ambn DW¿∂-dn-bp∂n-√-t√m? . GsX-¶nepw Hcp ImeØv Hcmƒ IØn-®p-h® .n¬ a\- ns\ N©-en-∏n®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ XmXv]-cy-߃ \sΩ hen-®n-g°pw.m¿°v CXv inhs‚ aq∂mw-IÆm-Wv.p-cp-hn\v Cu IÆv dialectical eye Bbn-cp-∂p.w. inh-`‡ .a .X-√.m-Wv. ]t£. 6 DW-c-W-an-∂n-bp-d-ßWw `pPn-®o˛ SW-a-i\w ]pW-tc-W-sa-∂n-h-Æw AW-bp-a-t\-I-hn-Iev]-am-I-bmem˛ cpW-cp-h-Xp-s≈mcp \n¿hn-Im-c-cq-]w? DW-cWw C\n Dd-ßWw `pPn-®o-S-Ww A-i\w ]pW-tcWw F∂n-hÆw At\Ihn-Iev]w ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ AWbpw BI-bm¬ Hcp \n¿hn-Im-c-cq]w Bcv DW-cp-h-Xp-≈Xv? ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ DW-cWw ]ns∂ Dd-ß-Ww `£Ww Ign-°-Ww C-W-tN-cWw CØ-c-Øn-ep-≈ ]e-Xc .m-W.?v F{Xsb{X kz]v\-߃? BÀm-Z-Øn-eq-sSbpw bmX-\-bn-eq-sSbpw Ah¿ IS∂pt]mIp-∂p.mWv Ah-¿°pf-fX .m-Wv.p-sSbpw D≈ns‚ Df-fn-ep-≠.v F{X-sb{X Nn¥-If .X .mbn ]ecpw Adn-bm-dn-√.m¿°v CXv Dƒ°-Æm-Wv.A¿∞w \o \ns∂-Øs∂ Adn™v Pohn-°Ww F∂m-Wv.ym-]m-cß .v \S-cm-PK . a\p-jys‚ \nc¿∞-Iamb Pohn-XsØ km¿∞-Ia .’ CXn-s‚. Zm¿i-\n-I∑ . Fs∂∂pw IØns°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂XmWv. DW¿® F∂o c≠p {[ph-߃°n-Sb .

Dd-°Øn¬\n∂pw DW¿s∂Wo-°p∂ Ah≥ CjvS-ap-ff t`mPy-߃ Is≠Øn hmcnhen®p Xn∂p-∂p. \n¿hn-Im-ca . BcpwXs∂ F¥p-sIm-≠mWv Cu Bfl-kØ . temI-hn-jb . Bfl-\n-jvT-\m-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xn\v tbmKy\s√∂p hcn-Ib .mb kzmfl-kØsb \mw ad-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p.n¬ Pohn-XØns‚ bYm¿∞ e£yw ad-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p. Hcp Znh-k-sØ Pohn-X-Øn\nSbn¬Xs∂ \ΩpsS a\ v Ht´sd {`m¥-amb B{Kl߃°p ]n∂mse ]m™p-t]m-Ip∂Xp \mw ImWm-dp-≠v.B-tflm]-tZ-iw..k . AXp-sIm≠v Bflm-hns\ Adn-bp-hm≥th≠n Pohn-XsØ \mw hn\n-tbm-Kn-°W .sb Adnbm-Xn-cn-°p-∂Xv F∂ Hcp.ß .n-te°v DW¿∂n-cn-°p∂-Xp-sIm≠v Bfl-kz-cq-]Ø . Cßs\ amdnamdnhcp∂ XmXv]-cy-ß-sf-bmWv hnIev]߃ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Ipd®p Ign-bp-tºmƒ Ah\p CWsb hmcn-∏p-W-cW-sa∂p tXm∂pw. F¥n-\m-Wn-ßs\ a\ v ]m™p-sIm-≠n-cn°p∂Xv? Bcpw AXn-s\-°p-dn®v Nn¥n-°m-dn-√. Aev]-t\cw am{Xw \ne-\n∂v sI´p-t]m-Ip-∂-h-bm-Wv. Bfl-t_m-[-Øn¬\n∂pw hyXn-Nen-®p-t]m-ImsX Ccn-°-Ww.zcw Cu t«mI-Øn¬ [z\n-°p∂p-≠v. AXmWv Kpcp \ap°p Xcp∂ D]-tZ-iw.n-te°v DW-cp-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√.km[m-cW a\p-jys‚ XmXv]-cy-߃ £W-{]-`m-N-©-e-ß-fmWv. £oWn-°p-tºm-ƒ InS∂pdßpw..]-cn-tZ-h\ .w.w.-. 7 DW-c-cp-Xn∂nbpd-ßn-Sm-Xn-cp-∂o˛ SW-a-dn-hm-bn-Xn-\n-∂-tbm-Ky-s\-∂m¬ {]W-h-ap-W¿∂p ]nd-s∏m-gn™p hmgpw ap\n-P-\-tk-h-bn¬ aq¿Øn \n¿Øn-tS-Ww.msW¶n¬ Bfl-t_m[w D≈n-ep-W¿∂v P\-\-a-c-W-ß-fpsS Nm{In-I-X .. Rm≥ Adn-hm-sW∂v Adn-b-Ww. Kpcphns‚ Cu D]-tZiw tIƒ°p-tºm-sg-¶nepw \ΩpsS D≈n¬ B DW¿® D≠m-IW .f . temIhn-jb .f .n¬ DW-cp-Ibpw thWw.n-¬ Dd-ßp-Ibpw Bfl-kØ . Cu Xnc-°n-\n-Sb .b . DW-c-cpXv C\n ˛ Dd-ßn-SmsX Ccp-∂o-SWw˛ Adn-hmbv CXn\v C∂v Atbm-Ky≥ F∂m¬ {]Whw DW¿∂v ]nd-s∏m-gn™v hmgpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ hn-j-b-ß-fn-te°v C\n DW-c-cpXv.ß .

c . AtX-t]m-se-Xs∂ thsdmcp sX‰v kw`-hn-°p-∂Xv.mb \mw A°mcyw ad∂p-t]m-Ipw.m-Ip-∂Xv? Nq≠-ens‚ sImfpØn¬ aÆn-csb sImcp-Øn´v ao≥]n-SnØ-°m-c≥ a’ysØ {]tem-`n∏n-°p-∂X . ho≠pw ho≠pw Hmtcmtcm temI-Im-cy-ßf . kzbta kzÿ-\m-Im≥ ]‰p-∂n-s√-¶n¬ Hcp Kpcp-hns\ kao-]n-°-Ww.sf Fdn™n´p Xcp-∂Xv. F∂n´v B Kpcp-hns\ tkhn®v apgp-h≥ {i≤bpw hnizm-khpw Kpcp-hn¬ A¿∏n®v Pohn-°-Ww.w.mWv.s .mbn Adn-tb≠-Xv. \mcm-bW .alm-flmhm-Wv.ƒ°v hiw-hZ.K .f-b√ \mw BXy-¥n-Ia . shfn-®-Øns‚ km∂n-≤y-Øn¬ Ccp-´n\v ÿm\-an-√t√m? 8 Hfn. Iptd-\mƒ Ign-bp-tºmƒ \Ωnse Zp¿hm-k-\-I-sf√mw £bn-°pw.b . Kpcp-hns‚ c≠p e£W߃ ChnsS FSpØp ]d-bp-∂p-≠v.ap\n-P-\-tk-h-bn¬ ˛ aq¿Øn \n¿Øn-tSWw ˛ bn¬\n∂pw ap‡-\mbncn-°p∂ Hcp Kpcp-hns\ tkhn-°p-∂-Xnepw {]km-Zn-∏n-°p-∂-Xnepw apgp-h≥ {i≤-tbbpw GtIm-]n∏n®p \ndpØ-Ww.p-Xn-\n F∂v. {]W-h-ap-W¿∂-h≥ F∂pw ]nds∏m-gn-™-h≥ F∂pw. F√mh¿°pw Cßs\ Bfl-\njvT In´n-sb∂p hcn-√.ß . AXn-\mWv Kpcp Du∂n-∏d . .p-∂X .p-t]m-se-bmWv {]IrXn \ΩpsS ap∂n-te°v hnj-bß . Cß-s\-bp-ff Hcp Kpcp-hn-s\-Ø-s∂ Is≠Ø-Ww. hnj-bß . ASpØ ho´n¬ Fhn-sS-sb-¶nepw ]e-lm-cß . Cu Atbm-Ky-Xsb Xncn-®-dn-b-Ww.ƒ Nps´-Sp-°p∂ aWw aq-°n-e-Sn-®m¬ Adn-bmsX a\ p ]dbpw: Hcp akm-e-tZmi Xn∂m≥ In´n-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬! hmbn¬ shffw h∂p\nd-bpw.ap-Xemw ]g-a-©p-ap≠p \mdpw \fn-I-bn-tedn \tb\ amdn-bmSpw Infn-I-sf-b-©p-a-cn™p Iogva-dn°pw shfn-hp-cp-th-¥n-bIw hnf-ßn-tS-Ww. CXn-\¿∞w InS-∂p-d-ßWw F∂-√. kZv-hmk-\-Iƒ ]pjvSn{]m]n-°pw. AXp-sIm≠v Dd-ßmsX Adn-hmbn Ccn-°W . B Kpcp-hm-Is´ A¥-cm-flm-hn¬ \mZm-\p`qXn D≠psIm≠ncn-°p-∂. F{X s]s´∂mWv \Ωƒ {]tem-`\ . CsXmcp Atbm-Ky-X-bm-Wv.n-te°v a\ p hgp-Xn-t∏m-Ipw. \sΩØs∂-bm-Wv. Xm≥ Bflm-hm-sW∂ Imcyw ad-∂m¬ AsXmcp Dd-°a .p-cp-hns\ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Adnhpw Bflmhpw H∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv.v: DW-cc . F∂mte t]mwh-gn-bp-f-fq. Bfl-ÿn-X\ .

F¥psIm-s≠-∂m¬ icocw Hcp Ipg¬ t]mse-bmWv. Poh≥ t`mKy-hn-izsØ A\p-`-hn-®p-sIm-≠ncn-°p-∂Xv A©p C-{µn-b-ß-fn-eq-sS-bm-Wv.m-Ip∂ kzcq-]t.t e°v Nm©mSn.f n. Hcp th´-°m-c≥ H‰ shSn°v Infn-Isf XmsghogvØp∂-Xp-t]mse.b-∏q˛ sØmcp sImSnh∂p ]S¿∂p-b¿∂ptahpw Xcp-hn-\S. Rm≥ ico-c-am-sW∂p-ff [mc-Wb . AXv t`mK-em-ek-X-tbmsS temIsØ `pPn-®-Xns‚ ^e-am-bn-´m-Wv. CsXmcp D]-a-bm-Wv.fpsS B¿Ønsb Acn™p Iogva-dn-°-Ww.ÿ s .Hfn apXemw ]gw A©pw D≠v \mdpw \fn-I-bn¬ Gdn \tb\ amdn-bmSpw ˛ Acn™p Iogva-dn°pw shfn-hpcp G¥n˛ AIw hnf-ßn-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ IÆns‚ hnj-b-amb cq]w XpS-ßnb hnj-b-ß-fm-Ip∂ A©p ]g-ßfpw `pPn®v As√-¶n¬ A\p-`-hn®v Cu \mdp∂ ico-c-Øn¬ hkn®v CjvSm-\p-kmcw hnj-bßfn¬ amdnamdn can-°p∂ Infn-Isf A©pw ⁄mt\{µn-b-ß-fmIp∂ A©p Infn-I-tfbpw ˛ A∏msS hcp-Xn-bn¬ hcp-Øp∂ hnthIkz-cq]sØ {]m]n®v ˛ A¥-cm-flmhn¬ ˛ DW¿∂p h¿Øn-°-Ww. \Ωfpw hnth-Ia. 9 Ccp-]p-dhpw hcp-am-dh . A©p C{µn-b-ß-sf-bmWv A©p Infn-If .mbn D]-an-®n-cn-°p-∂X .n¬\n∂pw Nn√.n¬\n∂mWv. ico-csØ Hcp \fn-I-tbm-SmWv Kpcp D]-an-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Hmtcmtcm ]g.ß ƒ sImØn.I .v. ico-c-ØnepffXp-t]m-se-Xs∂ a\ pw Hcp amen-\y-°q-ºm-c-am-Wv. C{µn-bß .fm-Ip∂ Infn-Iƒ t`mKy-hn-iz-Øn\p ]n∂mse ]mdn-]-d-°p-∂-Xv. B ico-c-Øn-emIs´ Zp¿K‘w han-°p∂ hkvXp-°ƒ am{Xtabpf-fq. Ccp-]p-dhpw ˛ c≠p ]pdhpw . F∂mte ]q¿Æ-amb Bfl-km£m-XvImcw km[n-°p-I-bp-≈q.n°p X] psNbvXp hmgpw \c\p hcm \cIw \n\-®n-tS-Ww.t \m°n ckn°p∂ Infn-I-sf-t∏m-se-bmWv \ΩpsS C{µn-b-߃ {]h¿Øn-°p∂-Xv. hr£-Øns‚ Nn√-If .a¥n C{µn-bß .

CsXmcp Nn{X-`m-j-bm-Wv (picture language). c≠p h≈n-I-sf-t∏mse Bflm-hns‚ kzcq-]sØ ad-®p-I-f-bpw. AXp-sIm-≠mWv Kpcp ]d-bp-∂Xv. \cIw F∂m¬ ZpxJ-Øns‚ Xo{hX Ft∂ A¿∞-ap-f-fq.H‰ t\m´-Øn¬ Hcp ac-Øn\p Nph-´n¬ X] p sNøp∂ Hcp k∂ym-kn-bpsS Nn{X-amWv \ΩpsS at\m-ap-Ip-c-Øn¬ A¶pcn-°p-I. Ccp-fn¬ Ccn-∏-h≥ Bcv? sNm¬I \o F∂v Hcp-h≥ Dc-∏Xv tI´v -˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Ccp-´n¬ Ccn-°p∂ \o BcmWv? ]dbq F∂v Hcp-h≥ tNmZn-°p-∂Xv tI´n´v . amb-bpsS c≠p i‡n-I-fmWv Bhc-Whpw hnt£-]-hpw. Cß-s\-bp-≈ t«mI-߃°v Hcp _mlym¿∞hpw thsdmcp A¥-cm¿∞hpw D≠mIpw. [ym\-\n-c-X-\mb \c\v Hcn°epw \cIw hcn-I-bn-s√-∂v. F∂m¬ [ym\-Øns‚ Dƒsh-fnhn¬ ambm-h-≈n-Iƒ°p ]n∂n¬ Bfl-kz-cq-]sØ DƒI-Æp-sIm≠p ImWp∂ Xm]-kt{i-jvT\v PohnXw Hcn-°epw ZpxJ-`q-bn-jvT-am-bn-cn-°pI-bn-√. 10 “Ccp-fn-en-cn-∏-h-\mcv? sNm¬I \o”sb˛ s∂mcp-h-\p-c-∏-Xp-tI´p Xm\p-tahw Adn-h-Xn-\m-b-h-t\mSp “\obp-am-sc”˛ ∂cp-fp-an-Xn≥ {]Xn-hm-Iy-ta-I-am-Ipw.. B c≠p i‡n-Iƒ. c≠p h≈n-Iƒ h∂v B acsØ s]mXn-™n-cn-°p-∂Xv F¥n-\p-th≠n-bmWv? At∏m-gmWv \ap°v kwibw D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. Cu acw km[mcW ac-a-√.hcp-amdv ]qØ Hcp sImSn ˛ ˛ h∂p ]S¿∂v Db¿∂v tahpw Xcp-hn-\-Sn°v X] p sNbvXp hmgpw \c\v hcm \cIw \n\-®n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ s]mXnbpamdv ]pjv]n®p \n¬°p∂ Hcp Im´p-h≈n IWs° hf¿∂v tate°v ]¥-en®v ÿnXn sNøp∂ ac-Øns‚ Nph-´n¬ X] v A\p-jvTn®p Ign-bp∂ a\p-jy\v \cIw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. CXneqsS ⁄m\m-\p-k-‘m-\-th-f-bn¬ X]- ns‚ A\nhm-cy-Xsb Kpcp Du∂n-∏-d-bp-∂p. bmsXmcp kwi-b-hp-w th≠. CXp ambm-a-c-am-Wv.

m-sW-¶n¬ Htc-sbmcp kØXs∂-bmWv \Ω-fn-se-√m-h-cnepw -‘Rm≥’ F∂ t_m[sØ Df-hm-°p-∂X .Rm≥’ F∂pXs∂.p∂ Bƒ°v apdn-bn¬ Btcm Ds≠∂ tXm∂¬ Df-hm-bt.v 11 ‘Al-a-l-’sa-∂-cp-fp-∂-sXm-s°-bm-cm˛ bpIn-e-Ita ]e-X-√-tX-I-amIpw AI-ep-a-l-¥-b-t\-I-am-I-bm-eo˛ XpI-bn-elws]mcpfpw XpS¿∂n-Sp-∂p. B apdn-bn¬ Hcmƒ Ccn-°p-∂p-≠.Rm≥’ F∂v.Xm\pw Ghw Adn-h-Xn-\mbn Ah-t\mSv \obpw Bcv F∂v Acpfpw CXn≥ {]Xn-hmIyw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ GI-amIpw ˛ A{]Imcw Ccp-fnen-cn-°p-∂-h\pw BcmWv tNmZn-®-sX-∂-dn-bm-\mbn tNmZyw tNmZn-®-h-t\mSv \obpw BcmWv? F∂nßs\ tNmZn-°pw.Rm≥’ F∂ kØ°v hyXym-ka .pt≠m? Ah-[m-\] .q¿∆w Xnc™p a\- n-em-°p-Ib .a .m-W:v BcmWv Ccp-´Øv Ccn-°p-∂Xv? At∏mƒ Ccp-´Øv Ccn-°p∂ Bƒ DØ-cw ]dbpw: ‘Rm≥’ F∂v. Bflm-hns‚ A\n-tj-[y-amb D◊sb X¿°-an-√mØ coXn-bn¬ AhX-cn-∏n-°p∂ Hcp ]co-£W .v IS-∂p-hc . Ccp-´Ø .nepw Ccn-°p∂ ‘.mWv \mcm-bW-Kpcp \ap°p ImWn-®p-Xc . H∂p-X-s∂-bmWv. c≠p-t]-cp-tSbpw DØcw ‘..p∂ Bfn-t\mSp Hcp adp-tNmZyw tNmZn-°pw: ‘\o BcmWv?’ At∏mƒ Abmƒ ]d-bpw: ‘.∏mƒ tNmZn-°p-Ib . Alw Alw F∂v Acp-fp-∂-sXms° Bcm-bp-In¬ AIta ]e-X√ GI-amIpw AIepw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Al¥ At\Iw BI-bm¬ ˛ ˛ Rm≥ Rm≥ F∂v \mw ]d-bp-∂-Xn-s\-sb√mw Xnc™p a\- n-em-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Dƒkmc-Øn¬ sht∆-sd-b-√.p-∂Xv. F∂nse Rm≥ thsd Ah-\nse Rm≥ thsd F∂ Xc-Øn-ep-ff Rm≥ F∂ `mhw At\-I-amsW-¶nepw . Cu c≠p hy‡n-If . Ch-cpsS c≠p-t]-cp-tSbpw tNmZy-߃°p-ff DØcw H∂pX-s∂-bm-bn-cn°pw.n-cn-°p∂ Bƒ IS-∂p-hc . \√ Ccp-´p-≈ apdn-bn-te°v Hcmƒ IS∂p hcp-∂p.

AXp a\-\w.mIp-tºmƒ AXp \nZn-[ym-k\ . Rm≥ F∂ `mh-ß-fp-sSsb√mw kmcw H∂m-sW∂ Xc-Øn¬ s]mcp-fm-bn-cn-°p∂ ]c-am¿∞-Ønep-≈ Rm≥ B[m-c-k-Xy-ambn \ne-sIm-≈p-∂p. {ih-Ww. tI´-Xns\ Bg-Øn¬ ]cn-Nn-¥\w sNø-Ww.n™p. AXp {ih-Ww.w.n-t\m-Sp-ff XmZm-flysØ Du´n-bp-d∏ .sc kw_-‘n-°p∂ Imcy-߃ ]d-bptºmƒ ‘Rm≥’ F∂mWv ]d-bm-dv.Ø-bmWv. A⁄m-\h . F√m a\p-jycpw Ah-ch.¿. AI-ep-w A-l¥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv thsd thsd F∂v \Ω-fn¬ tXm∂n-∏n-°p∂ Alw-t_m-[s .v.K-cm-bn-cn-°p-∂h .ns‚ ASn-ÿm-\Ø .Cu XpI-bn¬ ˛ Alws]mcpfpw ˛ XpS¿∂n-Sp∂p ˛ Rm≥.nep-an-cn-°p∂ ‘Rm≥’ H∂p-Xs .n-®d .nepw kmc-am-bn-cn-°p∂ GI-amb Bfl-kØ am{Xta kXy-am-bn-´p-≈q F∂v Gh¿°pw A\p-`h .w Ch aq∂pw tN¿∂p-ff Hc-t\z-jW-Øn-eqsS am{Xta ‘Rm≥’ F∂ Bfl-kXyw F√m-hc .v. \nZn-[ym-k\ .mbn Adn-bm≥ Ign-bp-Ib . 12 sXmen-bp-sa-ep-ºp-aew Zpc-¥-a-¥x˛ Ie-I-fp-ta-¥p-a-l-¥-sbm-∂p Im¨I! s]men-bp-an-X\y s]men™p ]q¿Æ-amIpw hen-sbm-c-l¥ hcm hcw Xtc-Ww.ÿ \ . \in-®p-t]m-Ip∂ . a\-\w.n-°p-Ib .v.nepw H∂msW∂v B\p-`q-Xn-Ia .∂-bmWv F∂v ]co-£n®v Adn-™p-Ig . a\\w Afl-ÿn-Xa .mb Hcp Kpcp-hn≥\n∂pw t\cn´p tIƒ-°W . Ign™ t«mI-Øn¬ \S-Ønb ]co-£W . A⁄m\w-sIm-≠mWv Aß-s\-sbmcp tXm∂¬ D≠mIp-∂X .nbm≥ Ign-bpw. F{X Bfp-Iƒ D≠m-bmepw Ahsc-√m-hcpw ‘Rm≥’ F∂mWv Ahch-sc-°p-dn®p ]d-bp-∂X .mWv sNøp-∂X .w. sXmenbpw Fepºv aew Zpc¥w A¥xI-e-Ifpw G¥pw Al¥ H∂p Im¨I s]menbpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ N¿Ωhpw F√p-Ifpw amen-\y-ßfpw ZpxJ-tlXp-I-amb hm-k-\-Ifpw hln-°p∂ Al-¥sb H∂p ImWp-I.n¬ F√m-hc . B A⁄m-\sØ \o°w sNøp-tºmƒ F√m Rm\p-If .p-≈q.i .Ø . A\p-`h .n-eqsS ico-cØ . ‘Rm≥’ F∂p ]d-bp-∂X .

tIm]w. Zw`w Chsb√mw Pohn-XsØ k¶p-Nn-Xa .m-°p-∂. icocw amwk-_≤w am{X-a-√.a .w. Bfl-kz-cq]w kz—-kp-µc . \Ωƒ Ign-°p∂ `£-Whpw sh≈hpw F√mw aq∂p aWn°q¿ Ign-bp-tºmƒ hfn-®p-\m-dm≥ XpS-ßpw. AXn-cp-I-fn-√mØ hnim-e-X-bmWv Bflm-hns‚ Xew. Chsb√mw IqSn-bp≈ \ΩpsS Pohn-XsØ H∂p t\m°n-°m-WW .CXv A\y ˛ s]men™p]q¿Æ-amIpw ˛ hen-sbm-c-l¥ hcm-hcw XtcWw ˛ ˛ CXv Ahn-Zy-bmb A\y-bmWv. AhnsS kuc`yw am{Xta D≈q.Zqjyhmk-\I . {XnKp-W-abw ˛ Xncp-\o¿ AWn™ ˛ kØzw.fm-Wv. Rm≥ Cuiz-c\ -.p-≠v. ico-cØ . AXpam{Xa√. B Al-¥bpw s]men-™p-t]m-IWw.n¬ CsXm-∂p-an-√.ß-≠X . AXn\p Cuiz-cm-\p-{Klhpw Kpcp-Im-cp-Wyhpw thWw. 13 {XnKp-W-abw Xncp-\o-d-Wn-s™m-co-i˛ ∂I-a-cecn´p hWßnb£amdn kI-e-a-gn™p XWn™p tIh-e-Øn≥˛ aln-a-bp-a‰p al- n-em-Wn-tS-Ww. am’-cyw.mWv. Xa v F∂o aq∂p KpW-ßsf Icn-s®-SpØ `kvaw ]qin-bn-cn-°p∂ . Bfl-kzcq-]Ø . cP- v.ƒ AXnepw Agp-In-bX . aZw.mepw D≈n¬ No™p-\m-dp∂ hkvXp-°f . Bflm-\p-`hw D≠m-Ip-∂X . Akqb.v.v Cu sXmen-bpsS ASn-bn¬ amwk-ap-≠v.mWv InS°p-∂X .p-hsc hmk-\Iƒ Fcn-™S. Cu¿jy.n√.m-Wv. AXn-\n-Sb .w.n\v Cu Al¥ s]men™p-t]m-IW . ico-csØ apgp-h\pw s]mXn-™n-cn-°p-∂Xv sXmen-sIm-≠m-W. Rm≥ ⁄m\n-bm-Wv.w.ns‚ ]pdw-`mKw F{X hrØn-bm-°n-h® . ]q¿Æ-am-b Bflm-\p-`hw D≠mIp-∂X . AXp-sIm≠v {]m¿∞-\m-cq-]-Øn¬ hen-sbm-c-l¥ hcmXncn-°m≥ hcw XtcWw F∂p A¿∞n-°W . Rm≥ alm-\mWv Fs∂ms° kzbw hnNm-cn-°p-tºmƒ Abmƒ henb Hcp Al¥bp≈ Bfm-Wv.n¬ Nne BfpI-fn¬ hen-sbmc-l¥ h∂v Ah-cpsS \√-Po-hn-XsØ Xmdp-am-dm-°m-dp-≠v.t.m-Wv. Xm≥ hen-b-h-\m-sW∂ Al¥ hcm-Xn-cn-°m-\p-ff hcw Xtc-Ww. AhnZym-\m-i-Øn-eqsS ]q¿ÆX ssIh-cn-°pw. AXp s]s´∂p s]men-bp-Ib . a\- ns‚ D≈n¬ Hfn-™n-cn-°p∂ hmk-\I . AXns\ Xmßn-\ndpØp∂ Hcp F√n≥Iq-Sp-≠v.

I s´. AXns\ ]tcm-£-ambn am{Xta ChnsS [z\n-∏n-°p-∂p-≈q. Cuiz-cm-\p-`hw D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ AdnbmsX \Ωƒ B B›-cy-]-c-X-bn¬ aXn-a-d∂v Hcp {`m¥-s\-t∏mse Pohn-s®∂p hcmw.v.a m.° .f . ho≠pw ho≠pw ]q¿Æ-amb \ne ssIh-cn-°p-∂-Xphsc Bg-ß-fn-te°p t]mbvsIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww. A°mcyw {]Xo-Im-fl-I-ambn kqNn∏n-°p-∂-XmWv `kvaw ]qin \rØw sNøp∂ XmWvU-h-\-S-cm-P≥.h n®p \n¬°p∂ GI-amb s]mcpfm-Wv.P o.n-\n¬°p∂ Ima-\-Isf C√m-Xm-°m≥ Ign-bpw. Ffn-a-tbmSp-Iq-Sn-thWw F√m k¶ev]-ß-tfbpw I¿Ω-ß-tfbpw Cuiz-c\p ka¿∏n-t°-≠X .m¬ kIe _‘-\ß .n¬ Np‰n-]‰ . Cuiz-cm¿∏-WØ .fpw Agn™p. Xa v F∂o aq∂p KpW-ß-fmWv a\p-jys\ I¿Ω-ß-fpsS GSm-Iq-S-Øn-te°v hen-®n-g-°p-∂-Xv.c . {]IrXn {XnKp-Wm-fln-I-bm-Wv. \Ω-fpsS k¶ev]-kq-\-ß-fmWv Cuiz-c\v A¿®-\-bmbn \¬Ip-∂-Xv.c .a p.ß . A¥°. Cu aq∂p KpW.ß ƒ krjv S n®ncp∂ NqsS√mw XWp-Øp-d™v im¥n-Zm-b-I-amb Hc-\p-`-hsØ D≈n-ep-≠m°pw.d p. cP- v. Cuiz.d pw.Ø n¬ ]ncn.t fbpw AXn. AXn-eqsS \ap°v C{µn-bß . CXv Cuiz-cm-\p-`-h-am-Wv. Cu aq∂p KpW-ß-fpsS \ocmfn-∏n-SnØ-Øn¬\n∂pw ap‡-\m-I-W-sa-¶n¬ Cuiz-c-\n¬ ]q¿Æ-ambpw icWw Kan®n-cn-°Ww. kØzw. . Ima-\-I-fmWv temI-Øn¬ \sΩ _‘n-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂X .Hcp Cui\v AI-a-e-cn´v ˛ ˛ hWßn A£w Bdn ˛ ˛ kIew Agn™v ˛ XWn™v tIh-e-Øn≥ aln-a-bp-a‰v al- n¬ BWn-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ GI-\mb Cuizc\v k¶ev]-ß-fm-Ip∂ ]q°ƒ A¿∏n®v ka¿∏-W-a-t\m-`m-h-tØm-Sp-IqSn C{µn-b-߃°phnj-b-ß-tfm-Sp-≈ sImXn Bdn-Ø-WpØv F√m euIn-I-_-‘-\-ßfn¬ \n∂pw ap‡-\mbn im¥-Nn-Ø-\mbn tIh-e-am-b-Xns‚ A¤p-Xm-Z-c-ßfpw C√m-Xmbn Bfl-tPym-Xn- n¬ B≠p-t]mbn AXm-bn-Øo¿∂n-tS-Ww.\ m. cs≠-∂p-≈ `mhw C√mXm-Ip-∂-Xp-h-sc BZn-a-l- n¬ B≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww. Ahn-sSbpw \mw \ΩpsS At\z-j-WsØ \ndpØp-hm≥ ]mSn-√.v.W .

Xpco-bm-\p-`-h-Øn\v Xt]m-\n-c-X-amb At\z-jWw thWw. C{µn-b-ßfpw {]]-©hpw XΩn¬ _‘-s∏´v Cu Ah-ÿ-bn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. F∂m¬ \√ Dd-°-hp-a-√. DW¿∂Xn\p tijta Aß-s\-bp-ff Adn-hp-≠m-Ip-∂p-≈q.pcp hnfn-°p-∂Xv Xpco-bt. F∂m¬ Dd-°-Øn¬\n∂pw DW¿∂m¬ \√ kpJ-ambn Ddßn F∂ tXm∂¬ D≠m-Ipw. AXm-bXv Dd-°w. {Xn`p-h-\-koa IS∂v ˛ Xnßnhnßpw {Xn]pSn apSn™p sXfn-™n-Sp∂ Zo]w I]-S-b-Xn°v Ic-ÿ-am-Ip-hoe F∂ D]-\n-j-Zp-‡n-c-lkyw ˛ ˛ ˛ -˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Hm¿Øn-tSWw ˛ Pm{K-Øv. {Xn]pSn apSn™v sXfn-™n-Sp∂ Zo]w F∂v \mcmb-WK . kz]v\w ImWp∂ ka-bØv C{µn-b-߃ {]h¿Ø-\-\nc-X-a-√. F∂m¬ Hcp ⁄m\n-bpsS t_m[w Cu aq∂p temI-߃°pw A∏p-d-Øp-ff Hc-\p-`-h-Øn-em-Wv. c≠m-asØ Ahÿ kz]v\-am-Wv. \ΩpsS A\p-`-h-߃°v aq∂v AXn¿Øn-Iƒ Iev]n-°mw. H∂v DW¿∂n-cn-°p-tºmƒ A\p-`-hn-°p∂ temI-am-Wv.14 {Xn`p-h-\-koa IS∂p Xnßn-hnßpw {Xn]pSn apSn™p sXfn-™n-Sp∂ Zo]w I]-S-b-Xn°p Ic-ÿ-am-Ip-ho-se˛ ∂p]-\n-j-Zp‡n cl-ky-tam¿Øn-tS-Ww. kz]v\w ImWp∂ BfpsS D≈nse ]q¿hkva-c-W-I-fmWv kz]v\-ß-fmbn A\p-`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Dd-°-Øn¬ H∂pw-Xs∂ Adn-bp-I-bn-√. aq∂m-asØ Ah-ÿsb kpjp]vXn F∂p ]d-bpw. C{Xbpw A\p-`-h-߃ \ap-s°√mw ]cn-Nn-X-am-Wv. kz]v\w.Ø-bm-Wv. Dd-ßp∂ ka-bØv Rm≥ kpJ-ambn Dd-ßp∂p F∂v Bcpw Adnbp-∂n-√._m-[s . k∂ym-kt. hb-‰p-∏n-g-∏n-\mbn thjw sI´n .hjw sI´n \S-∂m-sem∂pw Xpco-bm-\p-`hw D≠m-hp-I-bn-√. Cu Ah-ÿsb Pm{K-Z-hÿ F∂mWv ]d-bpI. B t_m[sØ ‘Xpco-bt_m[w’ F∂mWv D]-\nj-Øn¬ ]d-bpI. kpjp]vXn F∂o aq∂ptemI-߃°pa∏pdØv \nd™p-{]-Im-in-°p-∂-Xmb {Xn]p-Sn-bpsS \mi-Øn-eqsS am{Xw km£m-XvI-cn-°m-hp∂ Bfl-Zo]w I≈-k-∂ym-kn°v A\p-`-h-th-Zy-am-hp-I-bn-√ F∂ Xc-Øn-ep-≈ D]-\n-j-Øn¬ ]d-™n-cn-°p∂ cl-ky-amb Z¿i\w Ft∏mgpw Hm¿°Ww.

t_m[w X∂n¬\n∂pw A\y-amb {]Ir-Xn°v hi-s∏-´p-t]m-bm¬ Ac-\n-anjw Hcm-bncw h¿jwt]mse A\p-`-h-s∏-Spw. ]c-bpsS ]mev ˛ \pI¿∂ `mKy-hm-∑m¿°v˛ Hcp ]Xn-\m-bn-c-am≠v ˛ Hcev]-t\cw ˛ Adnhv ˛ A]-c-{]-Ir-Xn°v ˛ A[o-\-am-bm¬ ˛ Ac-s\mSn ˛ Bbn-c-am-≠p-t]mse ˛ tXm∂pw ˛ ]c-am-fl-⁄m-\-Øn¬\n∂pw Dudn-hcp∂ B\-µm-\p-`hw \pI¿∂ A\p-Kr-lo-X¿°v Hcp ]Xn-\m-bncw h¿jwt]mepw CØncn t\c-ambn A\p-`h . F∂m¬ A⁄m-\-Øm¬ Ime-t_m[w Hcp-h-\n¬ \nd-™n-cn-°ptºmƒ Hcp \nan-jw-X-s∂ Hcm-bncw h¿j-߃t]mse `mc-ap-≈-Xmbn-Øocpw. Bflm-\p-`qXn B\-µØns‚ \nd-™p-I-hn-b-em-Wv. Bflm-\p-`q-Xn-bmWv ]c-bpsS ]mev. D]-\n-j-Øns‚ ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬\n-∂psIm≠mWv Kpcp C°mcyw ÿnco-Icn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu kXyw B[p\n-I-imkv{Xw ]d-bp-∂-Xn-\p-aptº Kpcp ]d-™pI-gn™p.\S-°p∂ k∂ym-kn-amsc AXp-sIm≠v I]-S-b-Xn-Iƒ F∂mWv ]dbp-∂-Xv. Np´p-]-gpØ . F√m-h¿°pw CXv A\m-bm-tk\ {]m]y-a-√. ]c-a-amb A\p-`q-Xn-bn¬ Aa¿∂n-cn-°p∂ ⁄m\n-Iƒ°v Imet_m[w Hcp ]oU-\-ambn A\p-`-h-s∏-Sm-dn-√. `mKy-hm-∑m¿t° AX\p-`-hn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≈q. 15 ]c-bpsS ]mep\pI¿∂ `mKy-hm-∑m¿˛ s°mcp ]Xn-\m-bn-c-am-s≠m-cev]-t\cw Adn-h-]-c-{]-Ir-Xn-°-[o-\-am-bm˛ ec-s\m-Sn-bm-bn-c-am-≠p-t]mse tXm∂pw.∏Spw.s . Imew a\- ns‚ Hcp krjvSn-bm-Wv. Hcp ]Xn-\m-bncw h¿jw-t]mepw Cßs\-sbmcp A\p-`q-Xn-Z-i-bn¬ Hcp \nan-jw-t]mse tXm∂n-t∏m-Ipw. B¬_¿´v sF≥Ão≥ Hcp DZm-l-cWw ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. ZpxJ-ap-≠m-Ip-tºmƒ ImeØn\p \ofw IqSpw. a\- n¬ kpJw D≠mIp-tºmƒ Ime-Øn\v \ofw Ipd-bpw. kabw \oßm-Ø-Xp-t]mse tXm∂pw.

p- v. A[n-I-hn-im-e-a-cp-{]-tZiw˛ H∂mbv ˛ \Zn-s]-cp-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse ˛ \mZw-h∂v ˛ {ipXn-I-fn¬ hoWv ˛ w A£n ˛ F∂pw bX-an-bepw ˛ bXn-h-cy≥ Bbn-tSWw ˛ hfsc hnim-e-amb acp-`q-an-bn¬ BIth \Zn Ic-I-hn-s™m-gp-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse {]W-h-[z\n Dd-h-s]m´n h∂v Dƒ°m-Xn¬hoWv Xpd-°pAI-°Æp Xpd-∏n-°p∂p. ChnsS ]d-bp∂ IÆv ⁄m\-N£ . Ahm-Ny-kp-µ-c-amb A\p-`q-XnbmWv Kpcp Cu t«mI-Øn-eqsS ]I¿∂p-X-cphm≥ {ian°p-∂X . .v.r-Wa . B t{im{Xw DW-cW .y\v am{Xta Cu A\p-`qXn ssIhcn-Ib . ]c∂p hnim-ea . s]s´∂vv B acp-`qan apgp-h≥ \nd™pIhn-s™m-gp-Ip∂ Pe-{]-hmlw Dd-h-s]m-´n-h-cnI-bm-sW-¶n¬ B A\p-`-hw \ΩpsS k¶ev]sØ-t]mepw AXn-i-bn-∏n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. ka-kvXX . \Ω-psS c≠p ImXp-Iƒ°pa∏p-dØv Adn-hns‚ am[p-cy-aqdp∂ \mZw {ihn-°p∂ Hcp t{im{X-ap-≠v. 16 A[n-I-hn-im-e-a-cp-{]-tZ-i-sam-∂mbv \Zn s]cp-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse h∂p \mZw {ipXn-I-fn¬ hoWp Xpd°pa-£n-sb∂pw bX-an-bepw bXn-h-cy-\m-bn-tS-Ww.n-∏n-°p-∂X .n¬ \n¬hr-Xn-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Hcp-h\v aWn-°p-dp-Iƒ Ign-™p-t]m-bmepw Hcp \nan-jw-t]m-setb tXm∂pI-bp-≈q.s .m-bmWv Kpcp Ah-Xc .b . B `qan NqSp-sIm≠p X]n-®n-cn°p-I-bm-Wv.Hcp teml-Ø-In-Sn¬ Hcmsf ]nSn-®n-cp-Øn-bm¬ Abmƒ°v Hcp \nanjwt]mepw Hcm-bncw h¿jw-t]mse tXm∂pw.a .p- m-Wv.mb Nqw_-\m-enw-K\ .p-≈q.a-¶n¬ {i≤ thWw. Bfl-kw-ba\w ioe-am-°nb Hcp k∂ym-kn-hc . acp-`q-an-bpsS X]vX-lrZ-b-Øn¬ \Zn-bpsS \\hv ]S¿∂v kpJ-io-X-fna ]I-cp∂ A\p-`q-Xn. F∂m¬ Imap-In-bpsS kvt\l-ak .m-Zn-If . AXp-t]m-se-bmWv A¥-cm-flm-hn¬ \mZw DXn¿∂p-h∂v Dƒ°m-Xp-Ifn¬hoWv ⁄m\-N-£p- ns\ Xpd-∂p-X-cp-∂-Xv.mbn InS-°p∂ acp-`q-an.nepw Bfl-km-∂n≤yw Z¿in-°p∂ IÆmWv ⁄m\-N£ .sØ Imhym-flI . Bflm-\p-`h. CXn\v Ft∏m-gpw b-a\w ioe-am-°nb k∂ym-kn-t{i-jvT≥ Bbn-cn°Ww.v.

sfbmWv. ⁄mt\-{µn-bß .v a\- n¬ ]q¿∆m¿÷n-Xa .hmk-\IfmWv temI-\n¿Æ-bØ .. F∂m¬ amb-bpsS Bh-cWhpw hnt£]hpw \nanØw Bflm-hn\v A©p \mf-߃ Df-fX . ˛ Np‰n-Øn-cn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ˛ BZn-bn-√mØ Hcp Zo]w ˛ Xq°nbn´n-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se˛ Bflmhv ˛ \ngemb icocw G¥n-sIm≠v ˛ IØn--s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.nse A©p ⁄mt\-{µn-bß . sF{µnb-am-bXv ÿqeamb X´m-Wv. Xnc-»o-e-bn¬ sXfn-bp∂ Ne-®n-{Xw-t]m-se-bmWv Kpcp Cu t«mIw Na-®n--cn-°p-∂X .sfms° Hcp-°n-s°m-Sp--°p-∂X . Cu Zo]-Øn-\m-Is´.f . C{µn-bØ . c≠p X´p-Ifp≠v.m-bn-cn-°p-∂X .17 Ag-se-gp-a-©n-X-fm¿∂p c≠p -X-´m-bv˛ ®pg-ep-a-\mZnhnf°p Xq°n-bmflm \ng-ep-cp-hm-sbcn-bp∂p s\øtXm ap≥˛ ]g-Inb hmk\ h¿Øn hrØn-b-t{X. ˛ hnf-s°-cn-bm-\p-ff s\øm-sW-¶ntem ˛ aptº \Ω-n¬ IpSn-sIm-≈p∂ ]g°wsN∂ I¿Ω-hm-k-\-I-fm-Wv.nepw Fcn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-≠.p-t]mse tXm∂n-∏n°p-∂p.ns‚ apºn¬ Hcp hnjbw h∂p-\n¬°p-tºmƒ a\- mWv B hnj-bsØ \n¿Æ-bn®p a\- n-em-°m-\p-ff k∂m-lß . ˛ B hnf-°nse Xncn-I-fm-Is´.n-eqsS Bfl-Zo]w {]Im-in-°p-tºm-gmWv \mw ImWp-∂Xpw tIƒ°p-∂Xpw aW-°p-∂Xpw Hs°. kq£vaw F∂o c≠p X´pI-fmbn ˛ IØn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂.v Htc-sbmcp Bflmhv Fcn-bptºmƒ Hcp \mfta ]mSp-≈q..v .ØXv sF{µn-bw (perceptual). ChnsS A©p \mf-߃ F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv a\p-jy-ic .n-\p-th≠n Icp-°f . A©n-X-fm¿∂v ˛ c≠p X´mbv ˛ Ag-segpw Npgepw A\m-Zn-hn-f°v Xq°n Bflm \ng¬ Dcp-hmbv Fcn-bp∂p s\øv AtXm ap≥ ]g-Inb hmk\ h¿Øn bt{X Hcp ˛ A©p \mf-ß-tfmSp IqSn ÿqew.o-cØ .m-b.. H∂p am\-kn-Iw (conceptual) c≠m-at. hrØnNnØ-hr-Øn-I-fm-Wv.v A\m-Zn-bmb Bflmhv Hcp hnf-°p-t]mse Hmtcmcp-Øc .

.f . Ccp-´m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬.Bfl-Zo]w {]Im-in-°p-∂Xv \ng-ep-cp-th-¥n-bm-W.q.n¬ {]Xn-^e .n¬ Xnc-bS. F∂m¬ Rm\p≠v F∂ AdnAdn-h-Xn-\m¬ ˛ hns\ \ntj[n-°m\mhm-Ø-Xn-\m¬ Alw A‘-Im-c-a-s√∂v˛ Bflm-hmb Rm≥ Ccp-´-s√∂v Adn-h-Xn\v ˛ t_m[yw hcp-Øp∂-Xn-\p-th≠n Cßs\ ˛ C{]Imcw B¿°pw ˛ F√m-h-tcmSpw HmXn-tSWw ˛ shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-Sp-°-Ww. Cu hnf-s°-cn-bp-hm≥ C‘-\a . hnj-bk .neqsS a\- ns‚ ]›m-Øe . Rm≥ F∂p-≈ t_m[wt]mepw D≠m-Ip-hm≥ ]mSn-√m-bn-cp-∂p.m-bn-cn-°p∂ s\øv hfsc ]g-°w-sN∂ hmk-\I .w.v Bflmhv A©n-{µn-bß . I-Se . Alw Ccp-f√ Ccp-fm-In¬ A‘-cmbv \mw Alw Alw F∂v ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Bfl-t_m[w Ccp-f-√.f . Rm≥ Iqcn-cp-´m-sW¶n¬ \Ωƒ ]d-™p-t]m-cm-dp-ff Rm≥. AXpsIm-≠mWv Kpcp Du∂n-∏-d-bp-∂Xv Rm≥ A⁄m-\-am-Ip∂ Iqcn-cp-´s√∂v.ns‚ BImcw ssIs°m≠v Poh-\n¬ hnt£m`-߃ D≠m-°n-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw.n{Xw Cu t«mIw \ap°p ]I¿∂p-Xc . 18 Al-an-cp-f-√n-cp-fm-In-e-‘-cmbv \m˛ al-a-l-sa-∂-dn-bm-Xn-cp-∂n-tSWw Adn-h-Xn-\m-e-l-a-‘-Im-c-a-s√˛ ∂dn-h-Xn-\n-ß-s\-bm¿°p-tam-Xn-tSWw. Rm≥ Adn-hns‚ \nd™ shfn-®-am-Wv.n-°pw-t]mse.]mse hmk-\I .n-bm\pw Cs√-∂d .wKw D≠m-Iptºmƒ t_m[w hnj-bØ .v s\øn¬ Xncn-sb-∂t.v \ng-epcp F∂p ]d-™m¬ Xnc-»o-eb .m-W. F∂m¬ Aßs\ A√t√m? .mWv IØn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .f .n®p {]Im-in-°p∂ Hcp at\ml-cN .Ø . Rm≥ D≠v F∂ kXyw B¿°pw \ntj-[n-°m≥ Ign-bp∂n-√. Rm≥ C√ F∂p ]d-b-W-sa-¶n¬t]mepw Rm≥ D≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww.n-bm\pw Rm≥ D≠m-bn-cn-°W . Rm≥ Ds≠-∂d .p-∂p.™ p-t]m-Ip∂ Nn{X-߃t]mse Ft∂ A¿∞-ap-ff .n¬ an∂n-ad. CXn-s\bmWv NnØ-hr-Øn-Iƒ F∂p ]d-bp-∂X .v.n¬ NnØ-hr-Øn-If . Dƒ°m-gvN-t]mepw t]mbn Rm≥ D≠v Rm≥ D≠v F∂pIqSn Adn-bm-Xn-cp-∂n-tSWw ˛ Adn-bm-Xn-cn-°-W-am-bn-cp-∂p.

. AXp-sIm≠v \mw ho≠pw ho≠pw ]d-b-Ww: Rm≥ A⁄m-\-a-√. AXp-sIm≠v F√m-h¿°pw Adn-™n-cn°m≥th≠n ]d-™p-sImSp-t°≠ H∂mWv \mw Bflm-hm-sW-∂v. Rm≥ iq\y-X-b-√. AXns‚ D◊sb X≈n-°-f-bm-\m-hn-√. Rm≥ shfn-®a . Rm≥ B\-µa .m-Wv. shfn-®-Øns‚ D◊sb Ccp-´n\v \ncm-I-cn-°m-\m-hm-Ø-Xp-t]mse. Rm≥ ZpxJ-a√ . as‰m-∂mWv Df-fXv Cßs\ a\p-jy¿ shdpsX kXysØs®m√n hmZn-°p-∂p. “k¿∆w ln k®n-Zmµw t\l \m\mkvXn In©\. Rm≥ \nd-hmWv F∂v. \m\m-Xz-߃ H∂pwX-s∂-bn-√ F∂p \mcm-b-W-Kpcp Z¿i-\-am-e-bn¬ ]d-bp-∂p. Rm≥ ⁄m\-am-Wv. Rm≥ ZpxJn-°p∂p Fs∂√mw ]d-bp-tºm-sgms°bpw Rm≥ AhnsS {]Im-in-°p-∂p-≠v. F√m-‰n-s‚bpw BZn-bmbncn-°p∂ Bfl-kØXs∂-bmWv _lp-hn-[-ambn ChnsS ImWp∂ \ma-cq-]-ß-sf-√mw..m-Wv. Pe-Øns‚ kØ-bn¬\n∂pw Xnc thdn-´n-cn-°p-∂-sX-ß-s\-bmWv? . 19 ASn-ap-Sn-b-‰-a-Xp-≠n-Xp-≠-Xp-s≠˛ ∂Sn-bn-Sp-am-Znak-Ø-bp-≈sX-√mw PU-anXp k¿ha-\n-Xyamw Pe-Øn≥˛ hSn-hns\ hn´p Xcw-K-a-\y-amtam? ASn apSn A‰w AXp≠v CXp≠v AXp≠v F∂v ASn-bnSpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ BZn-a-kØ ˛ D≈-sX√mw ˛ CXp k¿∆w ˛ A\n-Xyamw ˛ PUw ˛ Pe-Øn≥ hSn-hns\ hn´v ˛ XcwKw ˛ A\y-amtam? ˛ ASn-bn-ep-≈-XmWv kXyw D∂-Xnbnep-≈-XmWv kXyw A‰-Øp-≈-XmWv kXyw AXp D≈-Xp-X-s∂-bmWv CXp D≈-Xp-X-s∂-bmWv AX-√. Bflmhv kzbw-{]-Im-in-Xam-Wv.Rm≥ ckn-°p-∂p. Rm≥ Ccp-´√ .” ˛ ChnsS k®n-Zmµw am{X-ta-bp≈q. C°m-Wm-hp-∂-sX√mw \mi-ap-≈-Xmb PU-am-Wv.

At∏mƒ thsdm-cmƒ ]d-bp∂p.psS A\n-Xy-Xzhpw Kpcp hy‡-am-°p-∂p.v Pew \nXy-am-W.W .Ø am{Xw.n¬s]´ns´-∂Xp-t]mse kXysØs®m√n X¿°n-°m≥ XpS-ßp-∂p.m-Wv. Pe-Øn¬\n∂v thdn-s´mcp AkvXnX Xnc-b° v n-√. IÆp-sIm≠p ImWp∂ H∂ns\ am{Xta Rm≥ kXy-ambn hnizkn-°p-I-bp-≈q Fs∂m-cmƒ iTn-°p-∂p. AhnsS-˛-C-hn-sS.Ww am{X-am-W.v Cu DZm-lc . B aXw icn-b-√. cq]sØ \mw Adn-bp-∂Xv \ma-I-cWw sNbvXm-Wv.psS \nXy-Xzhpw \ma-cq-]ß . Aß-s\-bmWv FÆ-a‰ .psS _mlp-ey-Øm¬ BZn-ak-Øsb hnkvac .Ø .v Pe-amWv XncbpsS BZn-ak . C\nsbmcmƒ ]dbp-∂p. 20 De-In\p thsdmcp kØ-bn-√-Xp-s≠˛ ∂pe-I-cp-c-∏Xp k¿∆-aq-l-lo\w Pf\p hnte-ibsa∂p tXm∂n-bmepw \e-an-bepw ae¿ame \mK-amtam? .f .n-ep-ambn FÆa‰ hkvXp°sf \Ωƒ ImWp-∂p≠v. AXp-≠v-˛-C-Xp≠v F∂-sXms° shdpw i_vZ-Pm-e-߃ am{Xw. Hcp Xncbv°v F{X-t\cw Pe-Øn¬ s]mßn-\n¬°m≥ Ignbpw? Aev]-t\cw am{Xw. Cu aXw icn-sb∂v thsdmcp Iq´¿. C{µn-b-߃sIm≠v BIm-iØnepw `qanbnepw A¥-cn-£Ø .v. Xnc Fhn-sS-\n-∂mWv h∂Xv? Pe-Øn¬\n-∂..n-®p-t]m-Ip-∂p. F√m X¿°-ßfpw A⁄m\Øn¬\n∂pw P\n-°p-∂X .psS ambm-Pm-eØ .m-Ip-∂X . \ma-cq-]ß . AXp-≈-X-√. Aßs\ ]d™p]-d™v X¿°-Ønte°pw ASn-]n-Sn-bn-te°pw Ah-km\w bp≤-Øn-te°pw c‡-s®mcn®n-en-te°pw \bn-°p∂ hmZ-{]-Xn-hm-Z-ß-fpsS A¿∞-iq-\yX Kpcp FSp-ØpIm-Wn-°p-Ib . Ipd®p Ign-™m¬ Xnc.fpw FÆ-a‰ cq]-ßfpw tN¿∂ hymh-lmcn-I{. D≈Xv BZn-ak .f .b . ASn-˛a . h∂n-S-tØ-°p-Xs∂ Xncn®p-t]m-Ipw. CXmWv D≈-Xv F∂v.v ⁄m\-Øn¬ X¿°w Hgn-™p-t]m-Ip-∂p.\m-aß . AXp-sIm-≠m-W-hsb PUw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.v CsXmcp DZm-lc .Cu {]]©w apgp-h\pw Htc-sbmcp kØ-bpsS \m\m-hn-[-am-bn´p-ff Bhn-jvIm-c-ß-fm-Wv. BIm-i-Ønse \£-{X-ßfpw `qan-bnse I√pw aÆpw hr£-eXm-Zn-Ifpw kmK-chpw acp-`q-anbpw arK-ßfpw a\p-jycpw F√mw Cu BZn-a-k-Ø-bpsS Bhn-jvIm-c-ß-fm-Wv.n-eqsS Bfl-kØ . ssZhw D∂-X-ß-fn¬ ad-™n-cn-°p∂p F∂v. PU-h-kvXp°ƒ Aev]m-bp- p-I-fm-Wv. Bhn-jvIr-X-amb F√m-‰n\pw Hmtcm cq]-ap-≠v.]-]©w kwPm-Xa.p-Sn. F∂n´v hm°p-If .m-W. Xnc A\n-Xy-am-W.Ø . t_m[w sXfn-hp‰ kXysØ Z¿in-°p-∂p.

bp‡nbp‡w F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ BZn-a-k-Ø°v tbmPn-°p∂ coXn-bn¬ F∂mWv a\- n-em-t°-≠Xv. Ifn-a-Æn-s\-°q-SmsX IpS-Øn-s\-ßs\ \ne\n¬°m≥ Ignbpw? AXp-sIm≠v Kpcp Dd-∏n-®p-Xs∂ ]d-bp-∂p: DeIn\p thsdmcp kØ-bn√ F∂v. temI-Øn-ep-ff F√m-‰n\pw A¿∞-am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv Htc-sbmcp BZn-a-k-Ø-Xs∂-bm-Wv F∂m-Wv. ]qam-e-bpsS BIm-chpw ]mºns‚ BIm-chpw kam-\-am-Wv. shfn-®-°p-d-hp-aqew ]qame ImWp-tºmƒ `ocp-hn\v AXv ]mºmsW∂ {`aw D≠m-Imw.De-In\v thsdmcp kØ-bn√ ˛ ˛ AXp-s≠∂v ˛ De-I¿ Dc-∏Xv k¿hw Dul-lo\w Pf\v hnte-ibw F∂p tXm∂n-bmepw \ew Cbepw ae¿ame \mK-amtam? ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ F√m \ma-cq-]m-fl-I-amb {]]-©-Øn\v Bfl-k-Ø-bn¬\n∂pw `n∂-ambn thsdmcp kØ-bn-√. . ]mºmsW∂p hnNm-cn®v `b-s∏´ Abm-fpsS a\- n¬ ]qame ImWptºmƒ D≠m-Ip∂ B›-cy-\n¿`-c-amb kt¥mjw Kpcp FSp-Øp-ImWn-°p-∂p. ]qam-e-bmsW∂p Xncn-®-dn-bp-ºmƒ AXv IqSp-X¬ {]nbw P\n-∏n-°p-∂p. hnte-ibw ]mºm-Wv. {]tbm-P-\-aq-ey-sØ-bmWv ChnsS IqSp-X¬ Du∂n-∏-dbp-∂-Xv. Adn-hp-ff Hcmƒ h∂v Xncp-Øn-s°m-Sp-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠v aqV\v D≠m-Ip∂ sX‰n-≤m-c-Wsb. ]c-a-Im-c-W-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Bfl-k-Øbn¬ F√m-‰n-t\bpw tbmPn-∏n®p a\- n-em-°p-tºmƒ B Nn¥ bp‡nbp-‡-am-Wv. Imc-W-Øn¬\n∂pw A\y-ambn Hcp ImcyØn-\pw \ne\n¬°m-\m-hp-I-bn-√. AXpsIm≠mWv thZm-¥-Ønse ÿncw ZrjvSm-¥-amb Ib-dn-s\-am‰n ]qamesb Kpcp {]Xn-jvTn-®-Xv. thZm-¥-Ønse Ibdpw ]mºpw F∂ ZrjvSm-¥-Øn\v Hcp am‰w hcpØn Ib-dns‚ ÿm\Øv ]qam-esb {]Xn-jvTn-°p-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv. A⁄m-\n°v ]mºv Ds≠∂p tXm∂n-bmepw tNtXm-l-c-amb ]qame ]mºmbn amdptam? a\p-jycpw bp‡n-bp-‡-ambn Nn¥n-°p-∂-h-c-√. BZn-a-kØ shdpw {]tbm-P-\-c-ln-X-am-bn-´p-≈ H∂√. Chn-sS-Im-Wp∂ Hmtcm-∂n\pw thsd-thsd D◊-bp-s≠∂v P\-߃ ]d-™p-t]m-cp-∂Xv F√mw bp‡n-bp-‡-a-√. AXn¬ \nln-X-am-bn-cn-°p∂ B\-µ-amWv AXns‚ aqeyw. CXp tIƒ°p-tºmƒ Cu temIw iq\y-am-sW-∂√ a\- n-em-t°≠Xv.

.m-emWv Bflm-hn¬ F√m Pohn-Iƒ°pw {]nbw P\n-°p-∂X .v Bflmhn¬ kl-Pa .m-W.a . Bfl-{]nbw ad-∂p-t]mbn B ÿm\Øv hnj-b{]nbw h∂p-Iq-Sp-∂Xv A⁄m-\w \nan-Øa .mbn tN¿°Ww.n-cn-°p-∂Xv F∂ {`aw \nan-Øa .mbn IpSn-sIm-≈p∂ B\-µ\ .m-W. Ah-cpsS CjvSw F∂n-ßs .m-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.mbn {]nb-hkvXp Bbn-cn-°p-∂Xv Bflm-hm-Wv.n\v hn`-P\w kw`-hn-°p-∂X . \ns‚ CjvSw.em-ep-]\ .fpw hyXykvXßfmbn-cn-°pw. ImcWw BXy-¥n-Ia .v CXp am‰n-sb-Sp°-Ws .v F∂m¬ Poh-\nse Al-¥m-aa .v Bflm-hm-Is´ GIhpw k¿∆hym-]n-bp-am-W.n¿`-cX .X .mWv hnj-bØ . Aßs\ hcp-tºmƒ Hmtcm-cp-Ø¿°v CjvSa .b . {]nbw Hcp PmXn CXv F≥ {]nbw XzZo-b-{]nbw A]-c-{]nbw F∂v At\-I-ambn ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ {]nb-hn-jbw {]Xn h∂nSpw {`aw X≥{]nbw A]-c-{]nbw F∂v Adn-™n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Htc-sbmcpXcw {]nbtabpf-fq. thsdm-cp-hs‚ CjvSw F∂ Xc-Øn¬ Htc {]nbw-Xs∂ At\-I-{]n-b-ß-fmbnØocp-∂-Xv.m-Zn-Iƒ ImcWw Hcph≥ hnj-bt. At\-Ia. .p-ff hnj-bß . B {]nbw Bfl-{]n-ba. CXv Fs‚ CjvSw. CjvS-hn-j-bßfn¬ D≠m-Ip∂ {`aw \nanØ-amWv.21 {]nb-sam-cp-Pm-Xn-bn-sX≥{]nbw XzZo-b˛ {]nb-a]c-{]n-b-sa-∂-t\-I-ambn {]nb-hn-j-bw-{]Xn h∂nSpw {`aw X≥˛ {]nba]-c-{]n-b-sa∂-dn-™n-tS-Ww.n-√. \ns‚ CjvSw.\-bp-ff CjvSm-\n-jSv ߃ h∂v Bfl-{]n-bØ .a-¶n¬ \ap°v {]nb-s∏-´X . Xs‚ {]nb-amWv thsdm-cp-h-s‚bpw {]nbw F∂p-ff kXyw a\- n-em-°-Ww. C°mcyw Ft∏mgpw Hm¿ΩthWw. {]nbw Ht∂-bp-≈q..n¬ Hcp-h\v {]nbw P\n-°p-∂X .mbn tXm∂p∂ Hcp Imcyw thsdmcmƒ°pw {]nbw Df-hm-°p∂ coXn-bn¬ ka-RvPk . hnj-bØ .n-emWv B\-µa .v Aß-s\-bmWv Fs‚ CjvSw.v.

H∂m-a-Xmbn. ˛ CXmWv Pohn-XsØ ka-c-k-s∏Sp-Øp∂ Hcp t]mwh-gn. {]nb-a-]-cs‚ AsX≥{]nbw kzIo-b-{]nbw A]-c-{]nbw C{]-Im-c-amIpw \bw ˛ thsdm-cp-hs‚ {]nbw GXmtWm ˛ AsX-s‚bpw {]nb-am-Wv. {]nb-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm\w Bfl-k-Ø-bm-sW-∂-dn-bp-I. a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ Hcp ka\zbw sIm≠p-h-c-W-sa-¶n¬ \mw Nne \o°p-t]m-°p-I-sfms° \SØ-Ww. AXn-\mse ˛ {]nbw GI-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xp-Im-cWw \c∂p \∑\¬Ipw{Inb ˛ Hcp-h\v \∑-bp-≠m-°p∂ {]hrØn A]-c-{]n-b-tl-Xp-hmbv ˛ thsdm-cp-h-s‚bpw kpJ-Øn-\v htcWw ˛ CS-bm-°-Ww.m-sW-¶n¬ Fhn-tSbpw kwL¿jw am{Xta ap‰n-\n¬°p-Ib . AXp- . Bflm-hns‚ {]nbw F√m-h-cp-tSbpw {]nb-am-Wv. AXn\p Zm¿i-\n-I-amb Hcp ASn-Ød-bpw D≠m-bn-cn-°-Ww. {]nb-Øns‚ Xe-Øn¬ hcp∂ ]nSnhm-in-IƒsIm≠mWv kwL¿j-߃ D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. \mw Cuiz-c-\p-th≠n Pohn°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Cuiz-c≥ \ap-°p-th-≠nbpw Pohn-°pw.22 {]nb-a-]-cs‚bsX≥{]nbw. Aßs\ hcp-tºmƒ \ap°v {]nb-¶-c-am-bn-cn-°p∂ H∂v thsdm-cmƒ°pw {]nb¶-c-am-bn-Øo-cpw. \ap°p tXm∂n-bXp-t]m-se-sb√mw sNøp-Ib . AXp-sIm≠v Bflmhns‚ {]nb-Øn-te°v tNcp-∂-Xns‚ `mK-ambn \mw {]mY-an-I-ambn sNtø-≠Xv thsdm-cm-fpsS CjvS-tØbpw \ΩpsS CjvS-Øns‚ ]cnK-W-\-bn-te°v sIm≠p-h-cnI F∂-Xm-Wv. ˛ F\n°p {]nb-s∏-´-Xp-X-s∂-bmWv ˛ as‰m-cp-h\pw {]nb-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Pohn-X-Øn\v \s√mcp s]cp-am-‰-®n´ thWw.p-≈q. thsdm-cmƒ°v CjvS-s∏´ Imcyw \ap-°pw-IqSn CjvS-s∏´phcptºmƒ \mw Aev]wIqSn hnim-e-lr-Z-b-\m-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. kzIo-b˛ {]nb-a-]-c-{]n-b-an-{]-Im-c-amIpw \b-a-Xn-\mse \c∂p \∑ \evIpw {Inb-b-]-c-{]n-b-tl-Xp-hmbv htc-Ww. \mw temI-Øn-\p-th≠n Pohn-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ temIw \ap-°p-th-≠nbpw Pohn-°pw.

A-Xn-\-∏p-d-sØmcp temI-ap-s≠∂v Ah¿ Nn¥n-°m≥t]mepw sa\-s°-Sm-dn-√.b sØ ImØp-kq-£n-°m≥ \ap°v Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q. .n-te°v Dƒh-en-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂XmWv \mw ImWp-∂X .t hm. Ir]mep F¥p sNøp-tºmgpw AXv k¿∆-Øn-s‚bpw lnXw am\n-®m-Wv sNøpI. 23 A]-c-\p-th-≠n-b-l¿\niw {]bXv\w Ir]-WX hn´p Ir]mep sNbvXn-Sp∂p Ir]-W-\-t[m-ap-J-\mbv InS-∂p-sNøp˛ ∂]-P-b-I¿Ωah-∂p-th≠n am{Xw.psS IpSpw-_] . Fhn-sS-sb-¶nepw thZ-\bpw bmX-\bpw ImWp-tºmƒ Ir]m-ephns‚ a\w Aen-bpw. Ah-cpsS ZpxJ-\n-hm-c-W-Øn-\p-th≠n Ir]mep X\n-°m-hp-∂-sX√mw sNøp-∂p. Ip´nIƒ F∂ IpSp- mb XmXv]-cy-ß-fn¬am{Xw HXpßn°q-Sp-∂-h-cmWv.ß .e .. kzm¿∞≥ A[-a-amb kpJ-t`m-K-ß-fn¬ apgpIn [¿Ω-hntcm-[n-bmb I¿Ωw Xs‚ am{Xw kpJ-Øn-\p-th≠n sNøp∂p. A]-c-\p-th≠n Al¿\niw Ir]-WX hn´v {]bXv\w Ir]mep sNbvXn-Sp∂p Ir]-W≥ At[m-ap-J-\mbv InS∂v A]-P-b-I¿Ωw Ah-∂p-th-≠n--am{Xw sNøp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ thsdm-cmƒ°p-th≠n cm∏-I¬t`-Z-an-√msX kzm¿∞X IqSmsX I¿Ω-߃ Ir]bp-≈-h≥ sNøp∂p.› .f nse kzc. Ir] XnI®pw ssZhn-I-amb Hcp KpW-am-Wv. Aßs\bp≈ at\m-`m-h-sØ-bmWv Ir]-WX F∂v Kpcp hnti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.® m¬ am{Xta {]nb. an° a\p-jycpw kz¥w `mcy. kl-Po-hn-I-fnepw Xs‚ Pohs‚ XpSn-∏p-Iƒ sXm´-dn-bp-∂-h-\mWv Ir]m-ep. A{X-am{Xw Icp-X-temSpw Dƒshfn.n¬ Bth-in-®n-cn-°p-Ibm-Wv..I qSn Pohn. F∂-tØ-°mfpw Ir]-WX C∂p P\-ßf . A—\pw AΩbpw aI\pw aIfpw am{Xw AS-ßp∂ Hcp IpSpw-_w.ns\ AWp-Ip-Spw_w (nuclear family) F∂mWv ]d-bp-∂Xv.S pw. Hcp `qXm-th-iw-t]mse P\w kzm¿∞-Xb .sIm≠v F\n°v \∑-bp≠m-°p∂ {]hrØn thsdm-cm-fpsS Pohn-XØn\p Xn∑-bmbn hcm≥ ]mSn-√.mØ-eØ .v Cu Dƒh-en-bh .

BsI a\p-jycpsS BsI \∑-sb-°p-dn®v Ah-s\mcp hnNmchpw D≠m-bn-cn-°pI-bn-√.nepw ImWmw Cß-s\-bp-ff tNcn-Xn- . AXn-s\-bmWv A]-Pb . 24 Ah-\n-h-s\-∂-dn-bp-∂-sXm-s°-tbm¿Øm˛ eh-\n-bn--em-Zn-a-am-sbm-cm-fl-cq]w Ah-\-h-\m-fl-kp-J-Øn-\m-N-cn-°p˛ ∂h-b-]-c∂p kpJ-Øn-\mbv htc-Ww.f-sb√mw Nhn-´n-sa-Xn®v IS∂p-t]m-Ipw. Ah¿ kpJw Is≠-Øp-hm-\p-ff {]bm-WØ . {InkvXym-\nbpw ap…oapw CtX-t]m-se-Xs∂ lnµphns\-]‰ .v.bmWv F∂nepw \n∂nepw Ah-\nepw Ch-\nepw Hs° A¥¿[m-cbmbn h¿Øn-°p-∂X .s‚ I¿Ωw Zqjn-Xa . Ah≥ ap…oamWv Fs∂ms°.v.b . B Bfl-kØ .o-Xn. Ir]W≥ Xs‚ t\´-Øn-\p-th≠n kl-Po-hn-Is .Ah-cpsS kpJw am{X-amWv Ah¿ At\z-jn-°p-∂X .´.¿Ωw F∂p hnfn-°p∂-Xv. Ir]m-ep-XzsØ DW¿Øn hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-I.n¬ G¿s∏-Sp-tºmtgm C°m-cy-sam∂pw Hm¿°m-dn√. Hcp lnµp ]d-bpw: Ah≥ {InkvXym-\nbm-Wv. temI-Øn\p kzkvXn `hn-°s .v. km[m-cW . Aßs\bp≈ hnNm-ca .tb D≈q.I . CXmWv Ir]-Ws‚ Pohn-Xc . AXp-sIm≠v \Ω-fnse Ir]-WX If-bp-I.n-√m-Øh . temI-Øn¬ Htc-sbmcp Bfl-kØ . Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw kz¥w kpJ-Øn-\p-th≠n sNøp∂ {]hr-Øn-Iƒ a‰p-f-f-h¿°pw-IqSn kpJw \¬I-Ww. Ah≥ Ch≥ F∂v Adn-bp-∂-sXms° Hm¿Øm¬ Ah-\n-bn¬ BZn-a-amb Hcp Bfl-cq]w Ah\h≥ Bfl-kp-J-Øn\v BN-cn-°p-∂h A]-c∂v kpJ-Øn-\mbv htcWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Ah≥ F∂pw Ch≥ F∂pw \mw ]d-™p-t]m-cm-dp-ff Imcy-ß-sfms° hnNn-¥\w sNbvXm¬ temI-Øn¬ krjvSn°pw \nZm-\-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Htc-sbmcp Bfl-k-Xyta D≈q. cmjv{So-bØ .n¬ F{X Bfp-Isf thW-sa-¶nepw ZpxJn∏n-°p-hm≥ aSn ImWn-°p-∂n-√.mb I¿Ω-am-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v ‘Ah≥’ F∂p \Ωƒ ]d-bp-tºmƒ \Ω-fn¬\n∂pw A\y-amb GtXm Hcp hy‡n-bmWv Ah≥ F∂ tXm∂-emWv Df-hmIp-∂X .nbpw ]d-bpw.mbn Hcp a\p-jy≥ I¿Ωw sNøptºmtgm kwkm-cØ .

hymh-lm-cnI-\n¿Æ-b-Øn-\p-th≠n am{Xw Ah≥.Ø .s . Htc-sbmcp Bfl-k-Ø-bmWv k¿∆-N-cm-N-c-ß-fnepw kXy-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-sX∂ A\p-`-h-t_m[am-bncn-°Ww Hcp a\p-jys\ DZm-Ø-am-t°-≠-Xv.mb sX‰ns\ Xncp-ØmsX temI-Øn¬ ka-\zbhpw kam-[m-\hpw sIm≠p-hc . ˛ thsdm-cmƒ°v ˛ ]c-a-amb thZ-\sb ˛ Gev]n-°p-∂-h¿ ˛ IØn-sb-cn-bp∂ \c-I-k-am-\amb ZpxJ-°-S-en¬ . 25 Hcph-\p-\√-Xpa\y-\-√epw tN¿˛ s∏mcp sXmgn-em-flh . B imco-cn-Ik-Ø-bpsS AkvXn-XzsØ am\-Z-WvU-am°n h®p-sIm-≠mWv Xs‚ temI-Øns‚ AXn¿Øn \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂X . Ch≥ Fs∂ms° ]d-bmw. Aßs\ Hcp-h≥ Xs‚ kpJ-Øn-\mbn {]h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv F√m-h-cp-tSbpw kpJ-Øn\v ImcW-ambn `hn-°p-∂p.p-∂Xv? \mw \ΩpsS imco-cn-Ik .b-bmWv Rm\mbn Icp-Xp-∂X . Chn-sS-bmcpw \Ωn¬\n∂v A\y-c√. Hcp-h\p \√Xpw˛ A\y\v A√epw˛ tN¿s∏mcp sXmgn¬ Bfl-hn-tcm[n Hm¿Øn-tSWw ]c\v ]cw.v. {]Xy-£-Øn¬ thsd-bm-sW¶nepw ]c-am¿∞-Øn¬ X∂n¬\n∂pw thsd-b-√mØ-h≥. AXp-sIm≠mWv Kpcp A]-c≥ F∂ hm°v D]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn°p-∂Xv.cn-hp-Iƒ. A]-c≥ F∂m¬ ]c≥ A√m-Ø-h≥.]-cn-Xm]w GIn-Sp-t∂m¿ Fcn-\-cIm-_v[n-bn¬ Hcmƒ°v \∑ hcp-Øp-∂Xpw thsdm-cmƒ°v ZpxJhpw ˛ hcp-Øn-h-bv°p-∂-Xmb {]hrØn ˛ Bflm-hnse kl-P-amb sFIyØn\v \nc-°p∂-X-√.m-\mhpI-bn-√. im¥n kzm`mhn-I-ambn h∂p-tN¿∂psIm-≈pw. ]c\p ]cw ]cn-Xm-]-ta-In-Sp-t∂m˛ sccn-\-c-Im-_v[n-bn¬ hosW-cn-™n-Sp-∂p. \Ω-fpsS hnZym-`ym-k-Ønepw aX-t_m-[-\-Øn-ep-sa√mw Cu sX‰v Bh¿Øn®v Dd-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. ˛ C°mcyw ad-∂p-t]m-Im≥ ]mSn-√. Ah≥ IΩyq-Wn-Ãm-Wv.n-tcm-[n-tbm¿Øn-tS-Ww.v. Ah≥ tIm¨{K- mWv F∂ coXnbn¬. Cu {]mY-an-Ia . C°mcyw \√-hÆw a\\w sNbvXp-d-∏n®v I¿Ωw sNøp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ temIØn¬ im¥n-°p-th≠n apd-hnfn Iqt´≠ Bh-iy-an-√. Fß-s\-bmWv Cu A\yXzw \Ω-fn-te°v IS-∂p-hc .

m-Wv.°v \nc-°p∂ I¿Ω߃ am{Xw A\p-jT v n-°p-I. Bflmhv kzbta AXns‚ GI-Xm-\-X-bn¬ h¿Øn-°p-sa-¶nepw I¿Ωw sNøp-∂-h\v I¿Xr-Xzt_m[w Df-f-Xn-\m¬ I¿Ω-ß-fpsS ^e-ßfpw Ah≥Xs∂ G‰p-hmßpw.n-te°v Xncn-®p-hc .√ . \man∂p ZpxJw A\p-`-hn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ B ZpxJ-Øn\p tlXpI-amb I¿Ω-߃ \mw Ft∏mtgm sNbvXn´p-≠v. Bflm-hn¬ H∂pw-Xs∂ ]c-kv]cw Ie-ln°p-∂n-√.ƒ D≠m-Ip-∂X . AXp-sIm≠v AXns\ Kpcp Bfl-hn-tcm[n F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.hoWv Fcn-™n-Sp∂p ˛ hoWv Xo{h-ambn t\mh-\p-`-hnt°≠n hcp-∂p.v. t_m[-]q¿∆w Nne¿ a‰p-≈h¿°v D]{Zhw Gev]n-°m-dp-≠. Hcmƒ°v \∑ hcp-Øp∂ {]hrØn thsdm-cmƒ°v Xn∑ hcp-Øm-dp-≠v.v AsXt∏mƒ thW-sa-¶nepw kw`-hn-°mw. AXp-sIm≠v Bfl-t_m-[n-bmb Hcmƒ I¿Ωw sNøp-tºmƒ AXp ka-kvXX . Ae-am-eI .a .v Xs‚ kpJ-Øn-\p-th≠n thsdmcp-hs‚ Poh-s\-t∏mepw l\n-°p-hm≥ Nne¿ DZy-an-°p-∂p.. Bflm-hn¬ F√mw kzc-eb .nse \n›e-P-e-cm-in-bn-te°v sNdn-sbmcp Is√-Sp-sØ-dn-™m¬ aXn. AXns‚ kzm`m-hnI-amb kz—-X-bn-te°v Xncn-®p-h-cp-hm\m-Wv.°pw lnX-Ic . AXp-sIm≠v Bflm-hns‚ GI-Xm-\X . Hcp-hs‚ I¿Ωw \√-Xm-sW-¶n¬ \√ ^esØ Ah\v In´pw. AXpt]m-se. Hcp XSm-IØ .∏-´n-cn-°p-Ib . acn-®X . \cIw F∂ hm°v ZpxJØns‚ Xo{hm-hÿ . 26 Ah-b-h-sam-s°-b-a¿Øn-bm-Wn-bmbv \n˛ ∂hb-hn-bm-hn-sb-bm-h-cn-®n-Sp∂p Ah-\n-h-s\-∂-Xn-\m-e-h≥ \n\-bv°p˛ ∂h-i-X-bm-a-hn-th-I-sam-∂n-\mte . Aß-s\-bp≈-h¿ sImSpw-]m-XI .sb ImWn-°p-hm-\m-W.mb Hcp sFIyw Bflm-hn-\p-≠v.mbn `hn-°p-∂p. AXn¬ Btµm-f\w D≠-mIm≥. NoØ I¿Ωw sNøp-∂-h\v k¥m-]sØ D≠m-°p∂ ^e-amWv e`n°p-I.p-hm≥ {iaw \S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂p.v ]oUn-∏n-°m-dp-≠. AXp-sIm-≠v thsdmcmƒ°v Icp-Xn-°q´n ]cn-Xm]w Gev]n-°p-∂-h¿ \c-Im-·n°v kam-\amb ZpxJ-°-S-en¬ hoWv IØn-sb-cn-bpw. kl-Pa . Cß-s\-bp-ff I¿Ω-߃ Bflm-hns‚ sFIyØn\p \nc-°p-∂X .n-If .s .Bflmhv AXns‚ kz—-Xb .∏-Sm-dp-≠v. F∂m¬ ]ecnepw imco-cn-Ihpw am\-kn-I-hp-amb XmZm-flyt_m[Øm¬ BssflIyw \jvSs .n\p tij-sam∂pw BIWsa∂n-√.m-Wv.

CXmWv Ah-iX. Cu Ah-bh . Bfl-h-iØp \n¬°p-hm≥ hnthIw thWw. AXn-\m¬ kzmfl-k-Ø-bmb Bflm-hn\p hi-s∏-SmØ ˛ t_m[-iq-\yX ˛ H∂p \nan-Ø-ambn ˛ Ah≥ thsd Ch≥ thsd F∂ Xc-Øn¬ Ah-i-\mb Ahn-thIn \n\-bv°p-∂p.fms° tXm∂nb-Xp-t]m-se-b√ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv.s . Cu Poh-\m-Is´ imco-cn-I-Xm-Zm-fly-Øm¬ hymtam-ln-X-\m-Wv.(organism). H∂mw ]ZyØn¬ ]d-bp∂ Icphpw ChnsS ]d-bp∂ Bhnbpw H∂p-X-s∂. Ah-iX Ah-km-\n-°-Ww. \nc-h[n Ah-b-h-߃ H∂n-®p-tN¿∂v kzbta {]h¿Øn-®p-Xp-S-ßptºmƒ AsXmcp ‘Hm¿Km-\n’k-am-bn. ]t£. ˛ Cw•o-jp-`m-j-bn¬ Ah-b-h-Øn\v organ F∂mWv ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Bfl-km-£m-XvIm-c-Z-i-bn¬ am{Xta Hcp-h\v GI-Xz-t_m[w A\p-`-h-ambn hcnI-bp-≈q. ssI Db¿Ø-W-sa∂v C—n-°p∂Xpw Im¬ hen-°-W-sa∂v C—n-°p-∂Xpw Cu Ah-b-h-ß-sfsbms° CW-°n-\n¿Øp∂ Ah-b-hn-bm-Wv.ß . \Ω-fpsS ico-cØnepw Iptd-tbsd Ah-bh . Bflm-hns\ ‘Bhn’ F∂mWv Kpcp hnfn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Ah-i-Xbpw Ahn-th-Ihpw Imc-W-amWv Hcmƒ Ah≥thsd Ch≥thsd F∂p-ff Xp—-_p-≤n-bm¬ {]-h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv.fp≠v.Ah-bhw Hs° Aa¿Øn BWn-bmbv \n∂v Ah-bhn Bhnsb Bh-cn-®n-Sp∂p AXn-\m¬ Ah-i-Xbmw Ahn-thIw H∂n-\mte Ah≥ Ch≥ F∂v Ah≥ \n\-bv°p∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ F√m Ah-b-h-ß-tfbpw kzh-i-K-am°n Hcp tI{µ-_nµp-hmbn h¿Øn-°p∂ Poh≥ Bflm-hns\ ad-®p-I-f-bp∂p. . AXn\mI-W-sa-¶n¬ A\m-fl-h-iØp \ap°p h∂n-´p-ff sI´p-]m-SpIƒ Agn-™p-t]mI-Ww.ß . Ah-b-hn F∂p ]d™m¬ ‘Hm¿K-ss\-k¿’ (organizer). Poh≥ Hcp BWn-sb-t∏mse F√m {]h¿Ø-\߃°pw tI{µo-Ir-X-t\-XrXzw \¬Ip-∂p. Xs‚ ico-c-amWv Xs‚ kØ F∂v Poh≥ sX‰n-≤-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. B Hm¿K-ss\k-sd-bmWv Poh≥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. F∂m¬ Cu Bflmhv PohXzw ImcWw ad-™p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-∂p.

v.w.° .mWv ImWp-∂X .27 Ccp-fn-en-cp-∂-dn-bp-∂-Xm-Ip-am-flm˛ hdn-h-Xp-Xm-\Y \ma-cq-]-ambpw Ic-W-sam-Sn-{µn-b-I¿Ør-I¿Ω-ambpw hcp-hXp Im¨I! atl-{µ-Pm-e-sa-√mw! Ccp-fn-en-cp∂v ˛ Adn-bp-∂-XmIpw Bflm˛ Adnhv AXp Xm≥ AY \ma-cq-]-ambpw Ic-W-samSv C{µn-bI¿Xr-I-¿Ω-ambpw hcp-hXv Im¨I F√mw atl-{µ-Pmew! Bflm-hns\ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Ccp≠ Ah-ÿ-bn¬ Ccp-∂v Adn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-XmWv Bflm-hv. B Bflm-hp-X-s∂-bmWvv A¥-°c-W-ß-fmbpw C{µn-b-ß-fmbpw I¿Øm-hmbpw I¿Ω-ambpw amdn-a-d-bp-∂-Xv.p-≈nepw temI-hn-jb . t\m°q. DW¿∂Xn-\p-tijw am{Xta B kpJsØ Adn-bp-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≈q. AXp Adnhp Xs∂-bmWv. PmK-cn-Xhpw kz]v\hpw ]cw-s]m-cp-fns‚ ZrjvSn-bn¬ hen-sbmcp kz]v\w am{X-am-Wv. ]n∂oSv B Adn-hp-Xs∂ \ma-ambpw cq]-ambpw A¥-°-cWw apX¬ C{µn-b-߃.Ø .nepw DW¿∂n-cn°p∂ Bflm-hn-te°v \mw DW-cW . ]t£. \√ Ccp-´p-ap-dn-bn¬ Ccn-°p-tºmgpw Rm≥.ƒ ]‰n-°qSn ad-™n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.p-dØ .dn hcpw.n-¬ Ah X≈n-°b . PmK-cn-XØ . Bflm- .p-≈ s]mcp-fns\ ImWm≥ {ian°p-tºm-sgms° {]]-©{. Rm≥ F∂ B D◊ bmsXmcp D]m-[n-bp-an-√msX \ap-°-\p-`-hn-°m-\m-Ipw.]-Xo-Xn-If .n-em-Wv.Ø . Dd-ßp∂ thf-bn¬ kpJw A\p`-hn-®p-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ \mw Bflm-\p-`h .n¬ AXp Iptd°qSn hy‡-ambn tXm∂pw. Dd-ßptºmgpw Rm≥ DW¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p-sh∂ Dƒt_m[w sXfn-™-h≥ ⁄m\n-bm-bn.√m? F∂m¬ B H∂pw Adn-bm-Xn-cn-°p∂ Adn-hn√m-bva° . Ccp-fm-Ip∂ ad-bn-emWv Cu {]]©w apgp-h\pw k©-bn®p-h® .v.d .n¬ \mw H∂pw Adn-bm-dn-√t. Dd-°Ø . AXp-sIm≠v Ccpfn-en-cn-°p∂ s]mcp-fmWv Bflmhv. D .v. I¿Ωw hsc {]Xo-X-am-Ip-∂-Xv. Nnet∏mƒ kz]v\Ø . B GI-amb Bflm-hmWv ]n∂oSv \ma-cq-]m-flI .a .mb Cu hniz-ambn \ΩpsS apºn¬ {]Xn-`m-kn-°p-∂-Xv. AXp-sIm≠v Ccp-fn-\∏ . I¿Øm-hv.n-cn°p-∂X .ß . F√mw al-Ømb C{µ-Pm-ew-X-s∂! ImWm-Xn-cn°m≥ Imc-W-sa-¥mWv? AXv Ccp-fnemWv Ccn-°p-∂X .

Bfl-t_m[w PmK-cn-X-Øntem kz]v\-Øntem kpjp-]vXnbntem A\p-`-hn-®-dn-bp∂ Adn-h-√. Cu aq∂-h-ÿ-I-tfbpw D√wLn-®p-\n¬°p∂ AXo-X-t_m-[-amWv Bfl-t_m-[w. km[m-c-W-_p-≤nsIm≠p Nn¥n-°p-tºm-gmWv ASn. F∂m¬ Xpcy-t_m-[-am-Is´ Af-h-‰-Xm-Wv. Xpcobw hmkvX-h-Øn¬ Hc-h-ÿ-b-√. PU-h-kvXp-°ƒ Xpcy-t_m-[sØ Adn-bp-∂n-√. Cu A¤p-X-I-c-amb C{µ-Pm-esØ [ym\m-fl-I-ambn H∂p \nco-£n-°p-I. km[m-cW _p≤n `uXn-I-hn-j-b-ß-fp-ambn _‘s∏-´mWv {]h¿Øn®p ioen-®n-´p≈Xv. apSn Fs∂m-s°-bp-ff am\-߃ D≠m-bn-h-cp-∂-Xv. Ah-ÿm-{X-b-km£n-bm-Wv. 28 ASn-ap-Sn-b-‰-Sn-sXm´p auen-b¥w kv^pS-a-dn-bp-∂Xp Xpcy-t_m-[-amIpw PU-a-dn-ho-eXp Nn¥ sNbvXp sNm√p˛ ∂nS-bn-en-cp-∂-dn-h-√-dn-™n-tSWw. AXp-sIm≠v a\- n¬ hcp∂ tNmZy-߃s°√mw _p≤n DØcw ]d-bp-∂Xv \ofw. C°mcyw a\- n-em-°-Ww. .w-sIm-≠mWv CsX√mw kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xv. Xpcy-t_m[w km£n-ssN-X-\y-am-Wv. At∏mƒ im¥n Xmt\ Dudn-°q-Spw. Hcp Xc-Øn-ep-≈ Af-hp-tIm¬sIm≠pw Af-°m≥ Ign-bmØ{X hym]vXn-bmWv Xpcyt_m-[-Øn-\p-≈-Xv. ASn apSn A‰v ˛ ASn-sXm´p auen-b¥w kv^pSw Adn-bp-∂Xv Xpcy-t_m-[-amIpw PU-a-dn-hoe ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ AXv Nn¥-sNbvXv sNm√p∂ CS-bn-bn-encp∂ Adn-h√ Adn-™n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ASn-sbt∂m apSn-sbt∂m D≈ t`Z-Nn¥ C√mXmbn F∂m¬ ASn apX¬ apSn hsc sXfn-a-tbmsS Adn-bp-∂Xv Xpcy-t_m-[-amWv. B Xpcy-t_m[w Nn¥n®v FØn-t®-cm-hp∂ Xe-Øn¬ hcp∂ Adn-h-√.hn¬X-s∂-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp {]tXyI i‡n-Nm-e\ . Db-cw. I\w F∂o Af-hpI-fpsS am\-Z-WvU-߃ D]-tbm-Kn-®p-sIm-≠mWv. hoXn. AXp-sIm≠v AXns\ \mem-atØXv F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ ‘Xpcobw’ F∂pw ]dbmdp-≠v.

Xpcy-t_m[w A\-¥a
- m-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v ASn-sbt∂m apSn-sbt∂m
D≈ hn`-P\w Xpcy-t_m-[-Øn¬ hcp-∂n-√. F∂m¬ B Xpcy-t_m-[Øn¬ `qanbpw BIm-ihpw Dƒt®¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p. Xpco-bm-\p-`-h-Øn¬
⁄m\w kv^Sn-I-k-¶m-i-amb sXfn-a-bn¬ FØn-t®-cp-∂p. kwibw
teiw-t]m-ep-an-√. C{µn-b-ßfpw a\ pw _p≤n-bp-sa√mw P-U-h-kvXp°--fm-Wv. AXn\p kzbta {Kln-°p-hm-\p-ff i‡n-bn-√. Bflm-hns‚
{]Im-iØ
- n-emWv AsX√mw {]Im-in-°p-∂X
- v. AXp-sIm≠v PU-hk
- vXp°ƒ°v Xpcy-t_m[w D≠m-Ip-∂n-√. Nn¥nt®m A\p-am-\nt®m FSp°m-hp∂ H∂√ Xpcy-t_m-[w. F√m Nn¥-Ifpw A\p-`-h-ß-fpsS ap{ZW- ß - f mb kv a c- W Ifp- a mbn _‘- s ∏- ´ mWv {]h¿Øn- ° p- ∂ - X v .
F∂m¬ Xpcy-t_m-[a
- m-Is´ Aßs\-sbmcp kvac-Wb
- p-a√
- . AXn-\m¬
AXns\ Nn¥n-®-dn-bm-\m-Ip-sa∂p Icp-Xp-∂Xv A_-≤-am-Wv. F√m
D]m-[n-Ifpw Dt]-£n®v, Adn-hns\ kzbw {]Im-in-°p-hm≥ CS-bm°p-tºmƒ Xpcy-t_m[w kqcy-Xpeyw \Ω-n¬ {]Im-in-°pw. CXmWv
Bfl-km-£m-XvIm-cw.

29
a\-a-e¿ sImbvXp atli ]qP sNøpw
a\p-P\p as‰mcp the sNbvXn-tS≠.
h\-a-e¿ sImbvXp-a-X-√-bm-bvIn¬ ambm˛
a\p-hp-cp-hn-´p-an-cn-°n¬ amb amdpw.
a\-a-e¿ sImbvXv

˛

atl-i-]qP sNøpw
a\p-P\v
as‰mcp the
sNbvXn-tS≠
h\-a-e¿ sImbvXpw

˛
˛
˛
˛
˛

AX-√-bm-bvIn¬
ambm-a\p Dcp-hn´pw
Ccn-°n¬
amb amdpw

˛
˛
˛
˛

a\- nse k¶ev]-hn-Iev]-ß-fmIp∂ ]q°ƒ \p≈n-sb-SpØv
atl-i\v A¿®n-°p∂
a\p-jy\v
thsdmcp km[\
sNtø≠ Bh-iy-an-√.
As√-¶n¬ ]qs®-Sn-I-fn¬\n∂pw
]q°ƒ s]m´n®v A¿®n®pw
C\n AXp-a-s√-¶n¬
ambm-a{¥w Dcp-hn´v
km[\ sNøp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬
Xpcy-t_m-[sØ ad-®p-]n-Sn-°p∂
amb amdn-t∏mIpw.

a\p-jy¿ F√m-hcpw t_m[-hn-Im-k-Øns‚ Imcy-Øn¬ Htc-X-cØn-ep-≈-h-c-√. Nne¿ Bfl-X-ØzsØ s]s´∂p {Kln-°p-∂p. Nne-

cm-Is´ {Kln-°m≥ Ign-bmsX Ipg-™p-t]m-Ip-∂p. Hmtcm-cp-Øc
- nepw
Ccn-°p∂ hmk\-bmWv Ahs‚ CjvSm-\n-jvSß
- sf \n¿Æ-bn-°p-∂Xv. hmk-\b
- psS i‡nsb £bn-∏n-t°-≠Xv Bfl-XØ
- z-{K-lW
- Ø
- n\v
AXy-¥m-t]-£n-Xa
- m-Wv. AXn-\mbn aq∂p D]m-bß
- ƒ Kpcp ChnsS ]d™p-Xc
- p-∂p. CXp \sΩ klm-bn-°phm\m-Wv. Hmtcm-cp-Ø¿°pw CWßp-∂Xp am{Xw kzoI-cn-°p-I. ]t£, GXp km[\ sNøp-tºmgpw
e£yw Bfl-km-£m-XvIm-ca
- m-sW∂ Imcyw ad-°m≥ ]mSn-√.
H∂m-a-Xmbn, ]q°ƒ hncn-bp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv a\- n¬ k¶ev]ßfpw hnIev]-ßfpw A¶p-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu k¶ev]-hn-Iev]-ßsf
]qPm-]p-jv]-ß-fmbn IcpXn A¥-cm-flm-hm-Ip∂ atl-iz-c\v A¿®\
\S-Øp∂ {]{Inb XnI®pw [ym\m-fl-I-am-Wv. hfsc GIm-{KX
ssIh-cn® Hcmƒ°p am{Xta Cß-s\-sbmcp \njvT In´p-I-bp-≈q.
Aß- s \- b p- ≈ Hcmƒ°v thsd Hcp km[- \ - b psS Bh- i y- a n- √ .
Abmƒ t£{X-Øntem
]≈n-bntem t]mtI≠Xn√. A{Xbpw
B≤ym- fl nIamb Hu∂Xyw B¿÷n- ° m≥ Ign™n´n- s √- ¶ n¬
Ipd®p Im´p-]q-°ƒ CdpØv atl-iz-c\v A¿®-\-bmbn \¬Imw.
AXpa-s√-¶n¬, a\- nse amen-\y-߃ \oßp-hm-\mbn a{¥-߃
Dcp-hn-Smw. hnip-≤-amb F√m {KŸ-ßfpw Kpcq-]-tZ-i-ßfpw a{¥ß-fm-Wv. Ah \nc-¥cw kzm≤ymbw sNø-Ww. kwi-bn-t°≠.
ambm- t am- l - Ø ns‚ ]nSn- b n¬\n∂pw ]pd- Ø p- I - S - ° m≥ Ign- b pw.
hnizm-ky-X-tbmsS A\p-jvTn-°p-I.

30
PU-a-dn-ho-e-dn-hn∂p Nn¥-bn-t√m˛
XnSp-I-bp-an-√-dn-sh-∂-dn-™p k¿∆w
hnSp-In-e-h≥ hni-Zm-¥-cw-K-\mbv ta˛
epS-en-e-a¿∂p-g-ep-∂-Xn√ \q\w
PUw Adn-hoe
Adn-hn∂p Nn¥-bn-√
HmXn-Sp-I-bpan-√

˛
˛
˛

Adn-sh-∂-dn-™p

˛

k¿∆w hnSp-In¬

˛

PU-Øn\v Adn-bm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.
Xpcy-t_m-[-Øn¬ Nn¥-I-fn√.
B A\p-`hw hm°p-I-fn-te°v
]I¿Øp-hm\pw Bhp-I-bn-√.
Xpcy-t_m-[sØ Adn-bm≥ D]m[n-bpsS Bh-iy-an-√ F∂-dn™v
PU-kw-_-‘-amb F√m sI´p-]mSp-Ifpw Dt]-£n-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬

Ah≥
hniZ A¥-cw-K-\mbv

˛
˛

ta¬
DS-en¬ Aa¿∂v

˛
˛

Dg-ep-∂-Xn-√
\q\w

˛
˛

Hcp-h≥
AXn-cp-If
- n-√mØ NnZm-Im-iØ
- n¬
\nd-™n-cn-°p-∂-h-\mbnØocp-∂p.
]n∂oSv
Rm≥ ico-c-am-sW-∂p-ff
A⁄m-\-Øn\v hi-K-\mbn
ZpxJn-°p-∂n-√.
CXp Xo¿®-bm-Wv.

\mw

F¥-dn-bp-tºmgpw Nn¥n-°m-dp-≠v. Nn¥n-°msX H∂pw
\ap°v Adn-bm≥ Ign-bn-√. Nn¥n-®d
- n-bp∂ Adn-hp-Ifpw A\p-`h
- ß
- fpw
am{Xta \ap°v ]cn-N-b-ap-≈q. F∂m¬ Ft∏m-gmtWm Nn¥-I-sf√mw
\nhr-Ø-am-Ip-∂Xv, hnc-an-°p-∂Xv At∏m-gmWv Xpcy-t_m[w {]Im-in°p-∂-Xv. Cu Xpcy-t_m[w a\- p-sImt≠m _p≤n-sImt≠m C{µn-b߃sImt≠m H∂pw {Kmly-amb Xc-Øn-ep-≈-X-√. ImcWw Chsb√mw PU-h-kvXp-°-fm-Wv. Xpcy-t_m[w GIm-fl-{]-Xy-b-km-c-am-bXn-\m¬, thsd H∂n-s‚bpw klm-ba
- n-√msX kzbta Adn-bp∂p. AXmbXv \mw \sΩ-Øs∂ th‰p-a-bn-√msX Adn-bp∂p.
]m›m-Xy-XØ
- z-Nn-¥I
- c
- n¬ AZzn-Xo-b\
- mb s_¿Kvk¨ B Adnhns\ A¥¿⁄m\w (intuition) F∂p hnfn-®p. AXp-sIm≠v, PU-hkvXp-°ƒsIm≠v \mw I≠p ioen® C{µn-bm-\p-`h
- ß
- fpw Xpcy-t_m-[as√∂p \n›bn-°-Ww. Xpcy-t_m-[m-\p-`-hsØ Ct∂-hsc Bcpw
hm°p-If
- n¬ ]I¿∂p-h®
- n-´n-√. A\p-`h
- n-°p-∂h
-- \v t`m‡r-Xz-an-√m-ØXn-\m¬ samgn-bm-\m-Ip-∂n-√. IS-ens‚ Bg-af
- °
- m≥ t]mb D∏p-]mh
Xncn-®p-h∂v \Ω-tfmSv IS-ens‚ AKm-[X
- s
- b-°p-dn®v ]d-™p-Xc
- n-Ib
- ns√∂v \ap-°d
- n-bmw. ISepw ]mhbpw H∂m-bn-Øo¿∂m¬ ]ns∂ Bcp
]dbpw? Adn-hn-ea
- ¿∂m¬ ]ns∂ \m\mXz-ßf
- n-√. At∏mƒ Ahs‚
A¥-cwKw kmK-cw-t]mse A\-¥-am-bn-Øo-cpw. ]n∂o-sSm-cn-°epw
Ah\v imco-cn-It- _m-[Ø
- m¬ ZpxJn-®p-ge
- p-hm≥ CS-hc
- p-∂n-√. ZpxJw
ico-cØ
- n-t‚-Xm-Wv. Bflmhn-t‚-X√
- . Bflm-hn¬ \mw B\-µX
- p-µn-ecm-Wv. AhnsS ZpxJ-Øns‚ ]ina Ati-ja
- n-√.

31
A\p-`-h-am-Zn-bn-sem-∂n-cn-°n-e-√m˛
X\p-an-Xn-bn-√nXp ap∂-a-£n-bmte
A\p-`-hn-bm-X-Xp-sIm≠p [¿Ωn-bp-s≠˛
∂\p-an-Xn-bm-e-dn-ho-e-dn-™n-tS-Ww.

hkvXp-hns‚ Hcp Imev]-\n-I-cq-]-am-Wv. A\p-`hw F∂p \mw km[m-cW ]d-bp-∂Xv Hcp hkvXp-hns\ t\cn´p ImWp-tºm-gm-Wv.ns\ A\p-am-\n-s®-Sp-°p-hm≥ Ign-bn-√.s .w. t]cp am{X-a√ NnØ-Øn-en-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Xpco-bm-\p-`hw \ap°v apºp≠m-bn-´n-√. .m-bn-cn-°p∂ [¿Ωnsb {]Xy£-ambn Adn-bm-ØX . Cu Xpcy-t_m[w apºv C{µn-b-{]-Xy-£-ambn A\p-`-hn-®n-´n-√m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v -[¿Ω-߃s°√mw A[n-jvTm-\amb [¿Ωn Ds≠-∂p-≈Xv A\p-am-\-Øn-eqsS Adn-bm≥ ]‰p-I-bn√.w. F∂m¬ IS¬∏ip-hns\ Abmƒ°-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ Abm-fpsS {]Xn-I-cWw thsd coXnbn¬ BIp-am-bn-cp-∂p: ‘Dt∆m. Abmƒ IS¬∏-ip-hns\ t\cn´p I≠n-´n-√. \mw Hcm-tfmSp ]d-bp-∂p: ‘Rm≥ IS¬∏ip-hns\ I≠p. ImWp∂ temIw \ndw. CXns\ {]Xn` F∂p ]d-bpw. C°mcyw a\- n-em-°W . Cu temI-Øn¬ {]Xy-£Øn¬ F¥p I≠mepw \mw AXn-s\mcp t]cp sImSp-°pw. i_vZw F∂o [¿Ω-ßfm-Wv. cpNn. Bflm-\p-`hw \ap°n-√m-ØX . Abmƒ°v IS¬∏ip-hns‚ cq]sØ A\p-am-\n-s®-Sp-°m≥ Ign-™p. kv]¿iw. aWw.ƒ am{X-am-Wv.n-bp-hm\pw Ign-bp-∂n-√.A\p-`hw BZn-bn¬ H∂n-cn-°n¬ A√msX A\p-anXn C√ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ CXv ˛ ap∂w ˛ A£n-bmte ˛ A\p-`-hn-bm-b-Xp-sIm≠v ˛ [¿Ωn-bp-s≠∂v ˛ A\p-an-Xn-bm¬ Adn-hoe Adn-™n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ C{µn-b-{]Xy-£amb A-\p-`hw BZy-ta-Xs∂ H∂p-≠m-ImsX A\p-am-\n-®-dn-bp-hm-≥ \ap-°pIgn-bp-I-bn-√. AXp-sIm≠v \ap-°X .a-¶n¬ AXp aptº A\p-`h .p-sIm≠v A\p-am-\n-®d. \o It≠m? AsX-hn-sS-bmWv?’ F∂m-bn-cn-°pw. B t]cp tIƒ°p-tºmƒ \ΩpsS at\m-ap-Ip-c-Øn¬ sXfn-bp-∂Xv hkvXp-h-√. AXp-sIm≠mWv Abm-fn¬ kwibw P\n-®Xv. t]cv A¥xI-c-W-Ønse Hc-h-b-h-amb NnØ-Øn¬ t]mbn ad-™n-cn-°pw.n-Iev]ß . ]ns∂.’ At∏mƒ Abmƒ Xncn®p tNmZn-°pw: ‘IS¬∏ip-thm? AsX-¥mWv?’ CXns‚ A¿∞w Abmƒ°v IS¬∏ip-hns‚ {]Xy-£m-\p-`hw D≠m-bn-´n√ F∂m-Wv.p-sIm≠v \mw A\p-am-\n-°p-∂Xpw Duln-°p-∂Xpw shdpw k¶ev]h . C°mcyw \n›bw hcp-ØWw. {]Xy-£-Øn¬ I≠ hkvXp-hns‚ cq]hpw t]cns‚IqsS ad-™n-cn-°pw. Cu temI-Øns‚ Imcyhpw Aß-s\--X-s∂-bm-Wv.n-®n-cn-°W . am{X-a√ Xpco-bm-\p-`hw Hcp {]Xn-`bp-a-√. F∂m¬ Cu temI-Øns‚ A[n-jvTm-\a . A\pam-\n-°W .

\qepIƒ \nc-h[n tN¿∂v Hcp ]pXnb cq]sØ ssIsIm-≠-t∏mƒ AXv ssItekmbn amdn.]d-tb≠n hcpw. F∂m¬ \ndw ]qhmtWm? A√ F∂p. Cu -c-lkyw Hm¿Øn-tS-Ww. [¿Ω-ßsfbm-Wv. F¥p-sIm-s≠-∂m¬. Hcp ssIte-kp-I-jWw FSp-Øm¬. F√m [¿Ω-ßfpw tN¿∂n-Wßn hcp-tºmƒ AXp ]qhmbn amdp-∂p. A·n. aWw ]qhmtWm? A√ F∂p-Xs∂ DØ-cw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Hcp ]qsh-Sp-Øm¬. hmbp. aWw. BImiw apX-embh [¿Ω-߃ Bb-Xp-sIm≠v ]cam¿∞-Øn¬ C√m-Ø-XmWv. ChnsS [¿Ωn-bm-bn-cn-°p∂ ]qhv AZr-iyambn-cn°p∂p. ]ns∂. AXp \n¿Ωn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xp \qep sIm≠m-sW-¶nepw \mw AXv ssIte-km-sWt∂ ]d-bp-I-bp-f-fq. BIm-cw CsXms° \ap°v C{µn-b-{Km-ly-am-Wv. [¿Ωnsb ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂n√ F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv Hcp aX-hn-izm-k-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-e√. Pew.32 Adn-hXp [¿Ωn-sb-b√ [¿Ω-am-ao˛ bcp-fnb [¿Ωn-b-Zr-iy-am-I-bmte [c apX-em-b-h-sbm-∂p-an√ Xmßp˛ s∂mcp hSnhmadn-hp-≈-tXm¿Øn-tS-Ww. B ]qhns‚ \ndw. F¥mWv ]qsh∂v tNmZn-®m¬. ChnsS ]d-bp∂ [¿Ωn C{µn-b-tKm-N-ctam at\m-tKm-Nctam A√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ ]rYn-hn. [¿Ω-߃s°√mw CSw sImSp-°p∂ [¿Ωn ImWm-a-d-b-ØmWv h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv. Cu [¿Ω-ß-sf-sbm-s°tb \ap°v Nq≠n-°mWn-°m≥ Ign-bq. . {]m]-©n-I-[¿Ω-߃s°√mw Xmßm-bn-cn-°p∂ Htc-sbmcp B[mcw am{X-amb Adnhp am{X-amWv D≈-Xv. AXns‚ am¿±hw ]qhmtWm? AXpw ]qh-√. Adn-hXp [¿Ωn-sb-b√ ˛ ˛ [¿Ωamw Cu Acp-fnb [¿Ωn AZriyw BI-bmte ˛ ˛ ˛ [c apX-em-bh ˛ H∂pw C√ ˛ Xmßp∂ ˛ Hcp hSnhmw Adnhv D≈Xv Hm¿Øn-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ \mw Adn-bp-∂Xp Adn-hns‚ A[n-jvTm-\-amb [¿Ωn-sb-b-√. ]ns∂. Chsb√mw F¥mWv? Ch-bmWv [¿Ω-߃.

p-sa√mw \Ω-fpsS ImgvN-h-´-Øn-te°p hcp-∂-Xv.h-´w˛ Xncn-bp-a-em-X-kaw Xncn-™n-Sp-∂p. krjvSn F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv Adn-hn-s‚-Xs∂ .w.v hSnhv F∂ hm°v Kpcp-hns‚ IrXn-If . Ch-sb√mw [¿Ω-ß-fpsS ÿm\Øv \n¬°p-∂h . B hSn-hns\ ad-®p-h® . temI-Øns‚ ÿnXnbpw Aß-s\-Xs . A√mØ-h≥ [¿Ω-ß-fpsS sI´p-]m-Sn¬s]´v Ducn-t∏m-cm-\m-ImsX hnjan®psIm-≠n-cn-°pw.m-bn-cn-°p∂Xvv F∂p a\- n-em-°W .∂-bm-W. 33 Adnhp \nP-ÿn-Xn-bn-ß-dn-™n-Sm-\m-bv˛ ≤c apX-emb hn`q-Xn-bmbn Xmt\ adn-bp-a-h-ÿ-bn-te-dn-am-dn.\p am{Xta CXp a\- n-em-Iq. AXns‚ _mly-h-i-Øp-\n∂p t\m°p-tºmƒ Adn-hn\p ]e-X-c-Øn-ep-ff cq]t`-Z-ßfpw `mh-t`-Z-ßfpw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xmbn ImWmw.v Adnhv H∂p-am-{X-amWv [¿Ωn-bm-bn-cn-°p-∂X .m-W.\√-Xp-t]mse hnNmcw sNøp-∂h . Adnhv \nP-ÿnXn Cß-dn-™n-Sm-\mbv [c apX-emb hn`q-Xn-bmbn Xmt\ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ adnbpw Ah-ÿ-bn¬ ˛ Gdn amdn h´w Xncnbpw ˛ Aem-X-kaw ˛ Xncn-™n-Sp∂p ˛ [¿Ωn-bmb Adnhv kz¥w \nesb kzbta A\p-`-hn-®dn-bm\mbn `qan apX-emb ]©-`q-X-ß-fm-Ip∂ [¿Ω-ßsf kzbw ssIs°m-≠p-sIm≠v Ne-\m-fl-I-amb Hc-h-ÿ-bn¬ Gdnbpw amdnbpw Np‰n-Øn-cn-bp∂ Xos°m-ffn Id-°p-tºmƒ D≠mIp∂ Xoh-e-b-{]-XoXnt]mse Adn-hn¬ Id-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xn\m¬ {]]-©-{]-XoXn tXm∂n-°p- ∂p.p-sIm≠mWv `qanbpw sh≈hpw Im‰pw Xobpw BIm-ih .v Adnhns‚ Htc-sbmcp hSnhp am{Xta D≈q. Adn-hns\ Bg-Øn¬ t]mbn Adn-™m¬ ssÿXn-Ia .v hSn-hn\v Cw•o-jn¬ subsratum F∂p ]d-bpw.n¬ khn-ti-jm¿∞-Øn¬ {]tbm-Kn-°p∂-Xm-W. Cu hSn-hmWv F√m-‰n-s‚bpw B[m-ca .b .. Adnhv Htc-k-abw ssÿXn-Ihpw Ne-\m-fl-I-hp-am-Wv.mb Hcp km£nbpsS \ne-bm-bn-cn°pw.

AXn-s\-bmWv Pohs‚ Akzmÿyw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. \nP-ÿnXn Adn-™m¬ F√mw kzÿ-am-Ipw. Ac-s\mSn BZn ˛ ka-b-Øns‚ G‰hpw sNdnb am{XIfmb Bc-°m-ep-I-tfmSp IqSnb cY-N-{I-Øn¬ Ibdn Dcp-≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-XmWv temIw Acmfn B¿∂nSpw tXcp-cp-f-Xn¬ Gdn Dcp-≠n-Sp∂p ˛ Adn-hn¬ A\mZn AXmbv \S-∂nSpw X≥ Xncp-hn-f-bm-S¬ CsX∂v Adn-™n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ temIw.v.v F{X-sb{X Zriy-ßf . imkv{Xw Cu sX‰ns\ optical illusion F∂mWv ]d-bm-dv.ß . \nP-ÿnXn Adn-bpthmfw Cu Akzmÿyw \ne-\nev°pw. sIm≈n-bpsS sX√Øpam{Xta Xobp≈q F∂p \ap-°-dn-bmw.mWv amdn-amdn a\- n-eqsS IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂- . Adn-hn¬ A¥¿K-X-am-bn-cn-°p∂ C—m-i‡n aqe-amWv krjvSn-{]-{In-b°v XpS°w Ipdn-°p-∂X .Nme-\-{]-{Inb-bpsS XpS-°-am-Wv. 34 Ac-s\m-Sn-bm-Zn-b-cm-fn-bm¿∂nSpw tX˛ cpcp-f-Xn-te-dn-bp-cp-≠n-Sp∂p temIw Adn-hn-e-\m-Zn-b-Xmbv \S-∂nSpw X≥˛ Xncp-hn-f-bm-S-en-sX-∂-dn-™n-tS-Ww. F∂mepw \ΩpsS IÆns\ Ft¥m H∂v NXn-°p-∂p-≠v. {i≤m-\zn-X-ambn hnth-N-\\m]q¿∆w a\\w sNbvXmte Adnhns‚ \nP-ÿn-Xnsb {]m]n-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q. kIe Poh-Pm-e-ß-fnepw Cu Akzmÿyw ImWmw. AXp-hsc {]]-©Øns‚ {`am-fl-I-X-bn¬ \Ωfpw Ipcp-ßn-t∏m-Ipw. Hcp Xos°m-≈n FSpØv Npg-‰n-bm¬ Xos°m-≈n k©-cn-°p∂ hrØm-Im-c-Øn¬ apgp-h\pw Xo IØn-s°m≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse tXm∂pw. temIw \Ω-fn-te°v IS-∂p-hc.p-∂Xv A\p-`h. ˛ Bfl-k-Ø-bn¬ ˛ Imem-Xo-X-ambn ˛ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ˛ Bflm-hns‚ Znhy-\-S\w am{X-am-Wv.psS \pdp-ßp-Ifm-bm-W. ˛ Cu temIw F∂p ˛ t_m[y-s∏-´p-sIm-≈Ww.f . krjvSn°-s∏´ krjvSn-Pm-e-߃s°√mw Adn-hn¬\n∂pw A\y-Ym-I-cn® Hcp tXm∂-en\v CS-h-cp-Øp-∂p. {]]©-Ne\w D≠m-Ip-∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn Poh-Pm-e-߃ hn{`m-¥n-bn¬ AI-s∏-Sp-∂p.

n-te°p IS∂phcp-∂p. ChnsS temIsØ (space) Ime-Øn¬ (time) \n∂pw `n∂n-∏n-°m-sX-bmWv Kpcp ]d-bp-∂-Xv.m-eØ .f . A\m-Zn-bm-sW∂v \nKan-°mt\ H°q. cYN-{I-Øns‚ Bc-°m-ep-Isf Ime-Øns‚ am{X-Ifmbn FÆp-∂p. ASp-Ø£ .ns‚ km[yX Xøm-dm-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≠.m-eØn¬ am{Xta A\p-`h . F∂p ]d-™m¬ h¿Ø-am-\I .psS s]m≈Ø-c-߃ At∏mƒ XI¿∂p-ho-gpw.F∂p XpSßnsb∂p Duln-s®-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.u-ch .v CXn-s\-sbms° \nb-{¥n-°p∂ \nbaw F¥m-sW∂p tNmZn-®m¬ XnI®pw At⁄-ba. Hc-\p-`hw h¿Ø-am-\I . D]-\n-jØ .n¬ Nne Ahy‡ ]cm-a¿i߃ Ds≠∂ Imcyw ad-°p-∂n-√.ns‚ sN∏n-te°v ]n≥hm-ßp-∂p.ß . Adn-hn¬ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Cu cY-N-{I-k-am-\-amb Xncn-®n-ens\ Bflm-hns‚ Xncp-hn-f-bm-´-ambn-´mWv hnti-jn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Bflm-\p-`hn AXp-sIm≠v \S-\ss`-c-h≥X-s∂-bm-Wv.Ø . Hc-\p-`hw D≈nepw shfn-bnepw Htc-t]mse Xßn-\n¬°p-tºmƒ AXns\ Ac-s\mSn F∂p ]d-bpw. Hcp ]Xn-\m-bncw ˛ BZn-tX-b¿ ˛ H∂mbv hcp-h-Xp-t]mse ˛ Hcp ]Xn-\m-bncw kqcy-∑m¿ H∂n®pZn®m¬ F∂-Xp-t]mse . \ΩpsS Ir{Xn-aK .Xv.n¬ \ne-\n¬°p-tºmƒXs∂ `mhn-bn¬ C\n hmcm-\ncn-°p∂ A\p-`h . Cu {]]-©-\-S-\w.mb Hcp Xe-Øn-¬ \ΩpsS a\- p-sN∂v DS°n-\n¬°pw. hcm-\n-cn-°p∂ Bc-°m-ep-Iƒ `mhn-Im-e-Øns‚ kqN-\-I-fm-Wv. At∏mƒ sXm´p-ap-ºp≠mbn-cp∂ A\p-`hw `qX-Im-eØ . Pohn-XØns‚ Cu \S-t\m-’-h-Øn¬ \ap°pw ]¶ptN¿∂p \rØ-am-Sm≥ Ign-bW . temI-Øns‚ Cu Nm{In-I-amb Ne-\m-fl-I-Xsb Hcp cY-N-{IØn-t\m-SmWv Kpcp D]-an-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.p-°f . Hmtcm Bc-°mepw `qansb kv]¿in-°p-tºmƒ AsXmcp h¿Ø-am-\Im-em-\p-`-h-ambn.w.Ww thsdm-c\p-`hw h¿Ø-am-\I .Ø . 35 Hcp ]Xn-\m-bn-c-am-Zn-tX-b-scm-∂mbv hcp-h-Xp-t]mse hcpw hnth-I-hrØn Adn-hns\ aqSp-a-\n-Xy-am-b-bm-ao˛ bncp-fn-s\-bo¿s∂-gp-am-Zn-kq-cy-\-t{X.n\v \ne-\n¬∏p-≈q.m-eØ . {]]©w F∂Xv inhs‚ \S-\-amsW∂v ssihkn-≤m-¥n-Iƒ Icp-Xp-∂p. B Bc-°m¬ ]n∂m-ºp-d-tØ°p t]mIp-tºmƒ AXp `qX-Im-e-am-bn. C{Xbpw at\m-l-c-amb Hcp D]a thsdsb-hn-sSbpw Is≠-Øm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√.

36 Adn-hn\p i‡n-b-\-¥-ap-≠n-sX-√m˛ adp-Xn-bnSmw ka-b-\y-sb-∂n-hÆw Ccp-]n-cn-hm-bnXn-e-\y-km-ay-am¿∂p˛ ≈p-cp-hn-e-a¿∂p sXfn™pW¿∂n-tS-Ww-. aqI-\mb Hcmƒ BZy-ambn ]©-kmc Xn∂p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ B A\p`hw Fßs\ thsdm-cmƒ°v ]d™p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ Ignbpw? AtX-t]mse-bp-≈ Hc-h-ÿ-bmWv Bfl ⁄m-\n-bp-tS-Xv. AXp-t]m-sebmWv Bfl-kq-cy-\p-Zn-®m¬ A⁄m-\-Øn-t‚-Xmb A‘-Im-c-Øn\v \ΩpsSbp≈n¬ \ne-bp-d-∏n-°m≥ Ign-bmsX t]mIp-∂-Xv.hcpw hnth-I-hrØn Adn-hns\ aqSpw ˛ ˛ ˛ A\n-Xy-am-bbmw Cu Ccp-fns\ Cu¿s∂gpw BZn-kq-cy-\t{X ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv Bfl-t_m[w. Bflm-\p-`-h-sØ `mj-bn-eqsS hyh-l-cn-®p-X-cm≥ Bhp-I-bn-√. hymh-lm-cn-I-`m-j-bn¬ Bflm-hn\p XØp-ey-ambn H∂pw-Xs∂ C√.kq-cys‚ shfn-®w-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ Cu `qa-WvU-ew apgp-h≥ {]Im-i-]q-cn-X-am-Ip-∂p. Hcp. Adnhv shfn-®-am-Wv. . F∂mepw \mcm-bW-Kpcp a\p-jy-ta-[sb `mthm-÷z-e-am-°p∂ Hcp-Zm-l-cWw FSp-ØpIm-Wn-°p-∂p. Adn-hns\ aqSn-bn-cn-°p∂ ambm-aq-Sp-]Sw Xpc∂v BZn-a-amb Bfl-kq-cys‚ {]Imiw shfn-hm-Ip∂ Nn{Xw Imhy-kp-µcamWv. Adn-hn\p i‡n A\-¥-ap≠v ˛ ˛ tIh-e-amb Adn-hn\v A\-¥-amb i‡n-I-fp-≠v. Kpcphns‚ A¥cm-\p-`q-Xn-bm-Wv Cu t«mI-Øn-se -{]-ta-bw. Adn-hns‚ ]q¿Æ-Xsb s]mXn™p-\n¬°p∂ \nXy-a-√mØ amb BIp∂ Cu A⁄m-\-am-Ip∂ Ccp-´ns\ ]nf¿∂p-am‰n DZn-®p-b-cp∂ BZn-kq-cy-\mWv Bfl-t_m-[w. Cu `mhp-I-Xz-aqdp∂ Nn{Xw \ΩpsS Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cp-tSbpw D≈n¬ Hfn-™n-cn-°p∂ A\-¥-km-[y-X-Isf Zo-]vX-am-°m≥ t]mcp∂-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ Hcp ]Xn-\mbncw kqcy-∑m¿ H∂n-®p-Zn-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Ccp-´ns‚ Hcp sNdp-IWn-I-°p-t]mepw ChnsS \n¬°-°-≈n-bn-√m-Xm-Ipw.

]t£. F∂m¬. At∏mƒ D≈w sXfn-hp-≈X . AXv IqSp-X¬ kvt\l-Øns‚bpw Imcp-Wy-Øn-s‚bpw ka-\z-bØ . AXn\mbn \Ωnse XrjvWI . Cu t«m-I-Øn¬ Kpcp kzoI-cn-®n-cn-°p∂ kw⁄-Iƒ ‘A\y’ F∂pw ‘ka’ F∂p-am-Wv. At_m-[Øn¬ Hfn-™p-In-S-°p∂ Ima-˛-t{Im-[-˛-tem` t{]c-W-Iƒ F√mw Hgn™pXo-cWw. A\y°pw ka°pw CSw sImSp-°p∂ Hcp A[n-jvTm-\a . temI-hp-am-bn XmZm-fly-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂ \m\mXz-{`aw Df-hm-°p∂ _p≤n-bmWv A\y. Cu ]ncn-hn¬ A\ybpw kabpw Hcp-t]mse ka-\z-bn®n-cn-°p∂ kzcq-]-Øn¬ A\p-`-h-km-bpPyw Is≠Øn kwi-b-ß-sf√mw ]mtS t]mbn DW¿∂n-cn-°-Ww. . Ch c≠pw {]mIr-Xn-Ia .m-Wv.m-Wv.w. c≠m-a-tØXv GIo-I-c-W-i-‡n-bm-Wv. Cu i‡nIƒ°v s]mXpth c≠p Xc-Øn-ep-ff kz`m-h-ß-fmWp≈Xv.X Ah-[n-bn-√mØ-Xm-Wv. Kpcp ]d-bp-∂Xv Bfl-km-£m-XvIm-cØ .a-¶n¬ Hcp L´w IqSn apt∂td-≠X .m-bn-´p-≠v.s . Adn-hns‚ Ne-\m-flI .n-te°v AW-bW . Cu c≠p i‡n-Ifpw Adn™pw Adn-bm-tXbpw \Ω-fn-sems° {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p-≠v. Bfl-\n-jvT-amb _p≤n-bmWv ka. Cßs\ hI-Xn-cn®p a\- n-em-°p-tºmƒ BZysØ i‡n On{Z-i-‡n-bm-Wv.p-≠v. On{Z-i‡n k¿∆Ym Ie-ln®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pw. B sXfnhn¬ Ft∏mgpw DW¿∂n-cn-°W . B A[n-jvTm-\sØ Kpcp ChnsS \ma-Ic . B[p-\n-I-a-\-xim-kv{X-Øn¬ CXns\ negative mind F∂mWv ]d-bp∂-Xv. B A\y-km-ay-bn¬ Aa-cp∂-Xn-eqsS \mw Aa-c-\m-bn-Øo-cp-∂p. B A[n-jvTm\w Adn-hns‚ tIh-eX .s . AXp-sIm≠v A\ybpw kabpw _‘-tl-Xp-Ia .p≠v. F∂mepw kXym-t\z-j-I-\mb HcmfpsS Ah-[m-c-W-Øn-\mbn Kpcp ]d-™p-sIm-Sp-°p∂p. t_m[-Øn¬Xs∂ Ccn-°p∂ sFIy-s∏Sm-\p-ff Du¿÷-Nm-e-\-am-Wv positive mind.Ww sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂Xv ‘A\y-kmay’ F∂m-Wv.m-Wv.mb i‡n-If .CsX√mw ka A\y F∂n-hÆw Ccp-]n-cn-hmbv Adp-Xn-bnSmw CXn¬ A\y-km-ay-am¿∂p-≈ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Dcp-hn¬ Aa¿∂v sXfn™v DW¿∂n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Cu i‡n-I-sf-sb√mw ka F∂pw A\y F∂p-ap-≈ c≠p `m-K-ß-fmbn Xcw-Xn-cn-®p a\- n-em-°mw. AXp-sIm-≠m-WXv Ie-ln-°p∂-Xv.n-s‚bpw hgn-bm-Wv.m-bn-Øo-cpw. AXpsIm≠v Adn-hn\p i‡n A\-¥-ap-≠v. AXns‚ km[yX--Iƒ F{X-am{Xaps≠∂v \ap°v FÆn-Øn-´-s∏-Sp-Øm-\m-hn-√.b .f√mw HSp-tß-≠X .

sh-∂p-sImƒhm≥ hnj-a-a-J-WvUhn-th-I-i-‡n-sbt∂y hnj-asb sh∂-Xn-\m¬ hnth-I-amIpw hnj-b-hn-tcm-[n-\n-tbm-S-W-™n-tS-Ww.b p.A-Xns‚ ImcWw. hnj-a-X-bm¿s∂gpw A\y ˛ A\y F∂ i‡n hnj-a-X-Iƒ D≠m-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.m-sW-∂d .a m. BZy-ta-Xs∂ \mw temIsØ \Ωn¬\n∂pw A\yam-°n-b-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv.t ºmƒ Abm. AJ-WvU-hn-th-I-i-‡n-sbt∂y ˛ F∂m¬ AJ-WvU-hn-th-I-i‡n bp-s≠¶n¬ km[n-°pw. At∏mƒ temIw apgp-h≥ Xt‚-Xm-°-W-sa∂ B{K-lw Abmfn¬ P\n-°pw.I p∂ BZysØ Ahÿ Zmcn{Zy-am-Wv.q.37 hnj-a-X-bm¿s∂-gp-a-\y. Cu apgp-h≥ \mK-cn-I-X-bptSbpw hnI-k\w Aß-s\-sbmcp Zmcn-{Zy-Øn¬\n-∂mWv \S-∂p-sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.n-bp-I.\m-sW-∂d .z-cq-]\ . Fs¥m-s°-bmtWm X∂n¬\n-∂v A-\y-am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv AXn-s\sb√mw Xt‚-Xm-°p-∂Xn-\p-th≠n-bm-Wv. Rm≥ \mi-an-√m-Øh . A\ysb Pbn-°p-hm≥ hnj-a-am-Wv.\ y. CXn-s\-bmWv hnthIw . C√mbva a\- ns\ _m[n-®p-Xp-S-ßp-∂n-S-Øp-\n-∂mWv Zmcn{Zyw XpS-ßp-∂-Xv.∂ . Cu {]]©w apgp-h\pw X∂n._m-[k .n-bp-I. X∂n¬\n∂v F√m-‰n-t\bpw A\y-ambn Adn-bp-∂-XmWv A\y-Ym-{K-l-Ww. Rm≥ ]q¿Æ-\m-sW∂dn-bp-I. A∂-Øns‚ A`mhw am{X-a√ Zmcn{Zyw.¬ \n∂v A. Rm≥ AJ-WU v t.s W. AXmWv Abmsf Zcn-{Z-\m-°p-∂-Xv. AXn-\m¬ ˛ AXp-sIm≠v hnj-asb sh∂v ˛ A\y-bm-Ip∂ hnj-asb AXnh¿Øn®v hnth-I-amIpw ˛ AJ-WvU-hn-th-I-am-Ip∂ hnj-b-hn-tcm-[n-\n-tbmSv ˛ hnj-b-Øns‚ ]‰en-√mØ Bfl-t_m-[-tØmSv AW-™n-tSWw ˛ tN¿∂n-cp-∂ntS-Ww. Aßs\ Abmƒ temI-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ \S-Øp∂ ]cn{ia-߃ apgph≥. kpJw Xnc-bp-∂-Xp-t]mepw temI-hn-jb-ß-fn-em-Wv.f n¬ D≠m. sh∂p-sImƒhm≥ hnjaw ˛ CXns\ adn-I-S-°p-hm≥ hfsc {]bm-k-am-Wv. Cu A\y-Xz-ap-≈ _p≤nsb Pbn-°p-hm≥ Htc-sbmcp hgn-tb-bp-ff .d n.

X v p-hn-te°v a\ v N©-en-®p-t]m-Ip-∂Xv kzm`m-hn-Ia . ]e hn[-ambv Adn-bp-∂Xv A\y H∂mbv hne-kp-hXmw ka F∂v taen--temXpw \nesb Adn™v \nh¿∂v kmay-taepw Ie-bn¬ Aen™v Ie¿∂n-cp-∂n-tSWw ˛ Adn-hns‚ GI-Xsb ]e-Xmbn Adn-bp-∂Xv ˛ A\y-bm-Wv.∂-bm-sW∂v Ah≥ Adn-bp-∂p. Hcp kqcy-civansb Hcp {]nkØneqsS IS-Øn-hn-Sp-Ib .p-tSbpw \ntI-X\w Bflm-hp-Xs .m-W. A\y F¥m-sW∂pw ka F¥m-sW∂pw \n¿hNn-°p-∂X .a v n-Isf Hcp se≥kn-eqsS IS-Øn-hn- .W . 38 ]e-hn-[-am-b-dn-bp-∂-X-\y-sbm-∂mbv hne-kp-hXmw ka-sb∂p taen-temXpw \ne-sb-b-dn™p \nh¿∂p kmay-taepw Ie-bn-e-en™p Ie¿∂n-cp-∂n-tS-Ww. sshcmKyw _ew ]nSn®p D≠m°n-sb-Sp-t°≠ H∂-√.n-eqsS a\- n-em-°mw. kpJ-hk .n-tcm-[n-bmbn `hn-°p-∂p.v Adn-hns‚ Cu KXo-bX .sh-ja . Adnhv \m\m-Xz-Øn-te°pw GI-Xz-Øn-te°pw Nen-°p∂ kz`mh-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bX .Ø .y-Øn¬\n∂p-≈ ap‡n Xmt\ kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≈pw. hntcm-[an-√mØ hntcm[n F∂p a\- n-em-°W .. ˛ kI-e-Xn-t\bpw H∂mbn Adn-bp-∂Xv ˛ ka-bmWv ˛ CXns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ C\n hni-Zo-I-cn-°m≥ t]mIp∂ ˛ Fhn-sS-bmWv \ne-bp-d-∏n-t°-≠sX∂p a\- n-em°n ˛ t_m[sØ Ccp-i-‡n-Ifn¬ \n∂pw \nh¿Øn-∏n®v ˛ A\ybpw kabpw HØp-tN-cp∂ \Sp-\n-e-bn¬ ˛ kzbw Aen-™p-tN¿∂v ˛ B A\p-`q-Xn-bn¬ Ft∏mgpw Pohn-®p-sIm-≈Ww.v F∂m¬ hnthIw D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ F√m kpJ-ßf . F∂m¬ At\-Ik .m-sW-¶n¬ AXv k]vXh . At∏mƒ kzm`m-hn-Ia .w.F∂p ]d-bp-∂X .m-bn-Xs∂ Ah≥ hnj-bh .m-W.v hnth-tIm-Zbw D≠m-bm¬ hnj-bs .¿Æ-ambn NnX-dn-∏n-cn-bp-∂Xp ImWmw.sb (dynamism) Hcp DZm-lc .q-cy-ci .mWv Cu ]Zyw.

m-Ip-∂X . Ch c≠n¬ GsX¶nepw H∂n\p {]m[m\yw sImSp-Øp-sIm-≠p-≈ Hcp Pohn-X-ho-£W-sØ-b√ Kpcp hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xv.´m¬ AsXmcp _nµp-hn¬ h∂p tI{µo-Ic .hn-h-cWw Ign™ aq∂p ]Zy-ß-fn-eqsS \¬In-°-gn-™p. . B \Sp-\n-e-bmWv kmay-taepw Ie. F∂m¬ kwt«-jWw (synthesis) Adn-hns‚ ka F∂ i‡n-bm-Wv.m-Ip-∂Xpw _lp-kz-cn-Xa . ka F∂ i‡n-sb-°p-dn®pw A\y F∂ i‡n-sb-°p-dn®pw Hcp G-I-tZ-i.pw. ChnsS Zzµzm-Xo-X-\m-bn-Øocp∂ tbmKn I¿Xr-Xz-˛-⁄m-Xr-Xz˛t`m‡rXz tZmj-ß-fn¬\n-s∂√mw hnap-‡-\m-bn-cn-°pw. Cßs\ c≠p Xc-Øn-emWv ]ncn-hp-Iƒ Bbn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. B Ie-bn¬ Aen-™ptN¿∂v AXm-bn-X-s∂-bn-cn-°-Ww. CtXt]m-se-bmWv Adnhv GI-Xm-\a . kasb D]-tbm-Knt°-≠n-SØv kasb D]-tbm-Kn-°p-hm\pw A\ysb D]-tbm-Kn-t°≠n-SØv A\ysb D]-tbm-Kn-°p-hm\pw Adn-bp-∂-h-\mWv tbmKn. 39 Acp-fnb i‡n-IsfØpS¿∂p c≠mw ]ncn-hn-h-bn¬ ka-X≥hn-ti-j-taIw hncXn hcm hnj-am-hn-ti-j-sam-∂n˛ Øc-anh c≠p Xc-Øn-em-bn-Sp∂p Acp-fnb i‡n-Isf XpS¿∂v c≠mw ]ncnhv Ch-bn¬ GIw ka-X≥ hntijw H∂v hncXn hcm hnj-am-hn-tijw CØcw c≠p Xc-Øn¬ Ch Bbn-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ apI-fn¬ ]d™ c≠p i‡n-Isf Xp-S¿∂phcp∂ c≠p ]ncn-h-p-IƒIqSn D≠v. Aßs\ c≠p {[ph-ß-tfbpw Ipi-e-X-tbm-Sp-IqSn D]-tbm-Kn-°-Wsa-¶n¬ \mw \ΩpsS D◊sb Hcp \Sp-\n-e-bn¬ \ndptØ-≠-Xm-bn´p-≠v.n-°p∂Xpw ImWmw. Cu ]ncn-hp-I-fn¬ H∂v ka-bpsS hnti-j-amWv thsdm∂v A¥-an-√mØ A\y-bpsS hnti-j-am-Wv. Chbv°p c≠n\pw Ahbp-tS-Xmb kmwK-Xy-ß-fp-≠v. {]k-‡n-bp-≠v. ]m›m-Xy-Nn-¥-I-fn¬ tI´p-t]m-cp∂ hnt«-jWw (analysis) Adnhns‚ A\y F∂ Xe-hp-ambn _‘-s∏-´Xm-Wv.

A\y F∂pw ]ncn-®p-]d . ]qh≥hm-g.n¬ H∂mWv hmg. F√m kmam-\yßfpsSbpw kam-\m-[n-Ic .F-∂m¬ AXn-te-sX-¶nepw H∂ns\ {]tXy-Ins®-SpØp ]d-bp-∂-Xn-s\-bm-Wv.∂ .m-sW-¶n¬ At\-Ih .b-≠n-hc . hntij.X v .a . kmam\yw F∂m¬ F√m-‰n-t\bpw H∂n-s®-SpØv ]d-bp∂-Xn-s\-bmWv hnti-jw.F∂m¬ Ipd-®p-IqSn hym]vXn-bn¬ Adn-hns‚ Cu i‡n-Isf°pdn®v a\- n-em-t°-≠X .\w Bh-iy-ambn jw (particular) F∂ Xc-Øn¬ ho≠pw Hcp D]-hn-`P h∂n-cn-°p-∂p.mbn-cn-°p∂ (common basis) H∂mWv Adnhv F∂ hnh-£. F∂m¬ Nne. A\y-sb-Xs∂ kmam\y A\y. hntijka F∂pw.k .mbnØocp-∂p.ß . . At∏mƒ kasb-Xs∂ kmam-\y-ka. hnti-ji .v 40 ka-bnepa\y-bnepw kZm]n h∂n˛ ßa-cp-h-Xp-≠-X-Xn≥ hnti-j-i‡n Aan-X-b-Xm-In-ep-amsI c≠n-h-‰n≥˛ {`a-I-e-bm-e-Jnew {]ta-b-am-Ipw.n-Iƒ FÆn-bm-sem-Spßm-Ø-h-bm-sW-¶nepw BsI-IqSn t\m-°n-bm¬ Cu c≠p ]ncn-hp-Ifp-tSbpw {ZpX-N-e\w Imc-W-amWv kIe temIhpw Adn-hn\p hnj-bo-`-hn°p∂-Xv.I p.m-W.pw.r-£ß . ka°pw A\y°pw kmam-\yw (general) hnti.m-bn-Øo-cm\nS-bp-≠.p-≠v. ka-bnepw A\y-bnepw ˛ kZm]n ˛ AX-Xn≥ hnti-j-i‡n ˛ h∂nßv Aa-cp-h-Xp-≠v ˛ Aan-X-b-Xm-In-epw ˛ BsI c≠n-h-‰n≥ ˛ {`-a-I-e-bm¬ AJn-ew {]ta-b-am-Ipw ˛ ˛ ˛ kao-I-cn-°p∂ Adn-hnepw A\yYm-I-cn-°p∂ Adn-hnepw Ft∏mgpw ka°v ka-bpsS hnti-ji‡-nbpw A\y°v A\y-bpsS hnti-j-i-‡nbpw HØptN¿∂p \n¬°m-dp-≠v. hmg F∂Xv Hcp kmam-\y-]-Z-am-Wv. At∏mƒ hmg hnti-ja .f .W .t.t ∏mƒ kmam\yhpw hnti-ja .v hr£w F∂ kmam-\ysØ FSp-°p-Ib . IÆ≥hmg F∂nh hnti-j] .‡ .l .v hnti-j߃ tN¿∂mWv kmam\yw D≠m.f .W .Z. IZ-fn-hm-g.nXw hy‡-am-°p-∂p-≠. C\n hcp∂ t«mIß-fn¬ C°mcyw DZm-lc .

IrXy-amb Adnhv Abmƒ°v e`n-°p-∂p. aWw. At∏mƒ ‘kqcy-Im-¥n-s®Sn I≠n-´pt≠m?’ F∂p {]tXy-In-s®-SpØp tNmZn®m¬ Abmƒ°v a\- n-em-Ipw.Hcp hkvXp-hn-s\-°p-dn®p kmam-\y-ambpw hnti-j-ambpw \ap-°dn-bm≥ Ign-bpw. kmam-\y-⁄m-\-Øn¬ Hcp GI-tZ-i-[m-c-Wtb In´pI-bp-≈q. ka F∂ Adn-hnepw A\y F∂ Adn-hnepw Cßs\ kmam\yw F∂pw hntijw F∂pw D≈ c≠p ]ncn-hp-Isf∏‰n Ign™ ]ZyØn¬ kqNn-∏n-®p-ht√m? Cu hnti-j-i-‡n-Iƒ Ft∏mgpw kmam\y-tØmSptN¿∂v h¿Øn-°m-dp-≠v.m-sW-¶n¬ \mw DS-s\-Xs∂ Hcp adp-tNmZyw Atßm´p tNmZn°pw: ‘GXp sNSn?’ sNSn Hcp kmam-\y-⁄m-\a .m-Wv.p-tºmƒ temIsØ kw_-‘n® hntijm-\p`hßsf kzmb-Ø-am-°p-hm≥th≠n-bmWv A—-t\mSpw AΩtbmSpw tNmZy-߃ tNmZn-°p-∂X . BIr-Xn. Hcp h≠v Nnd-I-Sn-°p-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ {ZpX-K-Xnbn-emWv Adn-hns‚ Cu {]{Inb \S-°p-∂-Xv. CXp IpSw F∂-Xn¬ ˛ CXp IpSamIp∂p F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ . B ]qhns‚ \ndw.n-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.m-aß .am-‘an-sX’-∂p˛ ≈Xp hnjam ‘IpS’tam hnti-j-am-Ipw aXn apX-emb atl-{µ-Pm-e-ap-≠m˛ hXn-\n-Xp-Xm≥ Icp-sh∂p I≠n-tS-Ww.v. ASpØ c≠p t«mI-Øn¬ C°mcyw DZm-l-c-Wk-lnXw Kpcp hy‡-am-°p-∂p. PmXn F{X-Imew B ]qhv Pohn-°pw? AsX-ß-s\-bmWv ]cm-KWw \S-Øp-∂-Xv? Cßs\ XpSßp∂ tNmZy-߃ FÆn-bm-sem-Sp-ßm-Ø-Xm-Wv. Hcmƒ \tΩmSv sNSn I≠n-´pt≠m F∂p tNmZn°p-Ib . CXpt]mse Hcp Ip™p hf¿∂p-hc . B kmam-\yØn¬ At\Iw hnti-j\ . \mw AXdn-bm-dn-s√∂p am{Xw. Adn-hn¬ \S-°p∂ Cu `m\-hrØn apJm-¥c-amWv temI-Øn-ep-≈sX√mw \ap°v {Kmlyam-bn-Øo-cp-∂-Xv. 41 ‘CXp IpS-’sa-∂-Xn-em-Zy. Hcp ]qhn-s\-X-s∂ FSpØp ]cn-tim-[n-®p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ Hcm-bncw tNmZy-߃ B ]qhns\ kw_-‘n®p \ap-°-dn-bm≥ B{K-l-ap-≠mIpw. hnti-j-⁄m-\-Øn¬ hkvXp-hns\ kw_-‘n® IrXy-amb Adn-hp-Iƒ e`n-°p-∂p. FÆn-bm-semSp-ßmØ Xc-Ønep-≈ hnti-jß -. kmam-\y-Øn\pw hnti-j-Øn\pw CS-bn¬ Adnhv Gdn-am-dn-Øn-cn-bp-∂p-≠v.ƒ D≈-Sß .-fmWv Hmtcm hkvXp-⁄m-\Ønepw Ccn-°p-∂-Xv.

CXp ]p√mImw. CXp aT-am-Imw. IpSw F∂ hm°p. C°mcyw hfsc kq£va-X-tbm-Sp-IqSn a\- n-em-t°≠ H∂m-Wv. a\- v. AXp tNmZy-ambn ]pd-Øp-h-cpw. NnØw. CXp ae-bmImw.. CXv F∂ kmam-\y-t_m[w Cu temI-Ønse kI-e-hn[ \ma-cq-]-ß-tfbpw K¿`w [cn-®ph®ncn-°p∂p-≠v. Cu hmIysØ \mw icn-bmbn A]{K-Yn®p t\m°n-bn-´pt≠m? Hcmƒ \nß-tfmSv ‘ CXv ’F∂ hm°p ]d™p \ndpØp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ \ΩpsS D≈n¬ Hcp BImw£ ap‰n\n¬°p-∂p-≠m-bn-cn-°pw.. \mw tNmZn°pw ‘ CXv F¥mWv?’ F∂v. At∏mƒ CXv F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv k¿∆-Øn\pw P∑w sImSp°p∂ P\-\n-bm-Wv. Al-¶mcw Cu A¥-°-cW-hr-Øn-Iƒ s°√mw Icp-hm-bn-cn-°p-∂Xpw CXm-Wv.BZy-amw CXv F∂p-≈-Xv hnj-am IpS-tam ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ hnti-j-am-Ipw ˛ aXn apX-em-b atl-{µ-Pm-ew D≠m-h-Xn-\v CXp Xm≥ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Icp-sh-∂v I≠n-tS-Ww ˛ ˛ BZyw ]d™ CXv F∂Xp-sIm≠v Dt±-in-°p-∂Xv kmam-\y-amb A\y-sb-bmWv. CXp ]S-am-Imw. _p≤n.. 42 ‘CZ-a-dn’-sh-∂-Xn-em-Zy-am-‘an-sX’-∂p˛ ≈Xp ka.s Im≠v A¿∞ am-°p-∂Xv A\y-bpsS hnti-j-cq-]-Øn-ep-≈ Adn-hm-Wv. A¥°-c-W-hr-Øn-I-fpsS C{µ-Pmew t]msebp-≈ {]Xo-Xn-Iƒ D≠m-Ip-∂-Xn-\v CXv F∂ A\y-bpsS kmam-\yi‡n-bmWv Imc-W-am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv F∂p a\- n-em-°n-s°m-≈-Ww.. CXp-hsc ]d™ A\y-bpsS kmam-\yw. Xs‚ hnti-j-amWp t_m[w . Cßs\ CXv F∂ kmam-\y-Øn¬\n∂v FÆa‰ hnti-j-⁄m-\-߃ D≠m-Ip-∂p. CXp ]Sw Fs∂ms° \mw ]d-bm-dp-≠-t√m. CXp IpS-am-Imw. CXp IpSw.. CXv F∂ kmam-\y-⁄m-\-Øn¬ FÆ-a‰ hnti-j-⁄m-\߃ D≈-S-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. hntijw F∂ XcØn-ep-≈ {]h¿Ø-\sØ \Ω-fpsS \nXy-Po-hn-X-Ønse Hcp DZm-l-cW-Øn-eqsS Kpcp hy‡-am-°n-Ø-cn-I-bm-Wv.

mb A¿∞-Øn¬ {Kln-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-Ib .. CXnse Adn-hns\ am{Xw \Ωƒ GI-ambn Adn-bW .m-W. Nn¥n-°¬ CsX√mw Adn-hm-Wv.a√ CXv.k . Rm≥ Hcp tdm-km-]qhns\ ImWp∂p F∂ hmIy-Øn¬ Rm≥ ImWp∂-h≥.n-°p-Ib . Hcp i_vZsØ tIƒ°p∂p. Ch-sbms° Adn-hp-I-fm-Wv.w.a .v Ign™ DZml-cW ... Rms\mcp hkvXp-hns\ ImWp∂p.w.lnXw hni-Zo-Ic .n-®n-´p-≠. AXp-sIm≠v Ft∏mgpw F¥-dn-bp-tºmgpw CX-dnhv.. Fs∂bpw tdmkm]p-jv]-tØbpw tN¿°p∂ ImW¬. kØm-bn-cn-°p∂ Adn-hn¬ \njvT ssIh-cpw.CX-dnhv.. ImcWw [ym\m-flI . Cu t«mI-Øn¬ ka F∂ Adn-hns‚ i‡nsb DZm-lc.p-≈q. F∂v `Pn®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww.s . Adn-hns‚ sFIysØ hnti-jn-∏n-s®-SpØv a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ _p≤n-bn¬ kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ {`am-fl-IX ]mtS t]mbvt]mIpw. At∏mƒ ImW¬. F√mw Adnhp am{Xw.aXn apX-em-b-h-sbms° amdn ta¬ kZv˛ KXn hcp-hm-\n-Xn-s\-`-Pn-®n-tSWw CZw Adnhv F∂-Xn¬ BZy-amw ka Xs‚ hnti-j-amWv t_m[w aXn-ap-X-em-b-h-sbms° amdn ta¬ kZvKXn hcp-hm≥ CXns\ `Pn-®n-tS-Ww ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ CXv Adn-hmWv F∂ hmIy-Øn¬ CZw F∂-Xp-sIm-≠¿∞-am-°p-∂Xv ka-bpsS kmam-\y-i‡ .CX-dn-hv. . ImWs∏Sp∂ hkvXp-hmb tdmkm-]pjv]w. At∏mƒ \ap°pw kZvKXn hcpw. cpNn°¬. ckw cpNn-°p-∂p. Aß-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬ ChnsS ]dbp∂ Adnhv Ht∂-bp-≈q. Hcp {]tXyI aWsØ {Lm-Wn-°p-∂p. Adn-hn¬ \n∂-\y-ambn H∂p-an-√. kv]¿in-°¬.W .mb a\- p-sIm≠p am{Xta Cu hmIyØns‚ A¿∞sØ AXns‚ kv]jvSa .n-sbbmWv kmam-\y-i-‡n-bmb ka-bpsS hnti-j-⁄m-\-amWv Adnhv F∂p-f-f-Xv.v ‘CXv Adnhv’ F∂ hmIy-Øn¬ CXv F∂ kmam-\yhpw Adnhv F∂ hnti-jhpw {]ISo-`h . kv]¿iw kv]¿in-°p∂p. Htc-sbmcp Adn-hmWv ImgvN-bmbpw kv]¿i-ambpw Hs° hcp-∂-Xv. tIƒ°¬..F∂ {]{Inb ˛ C{Xbpw Imcyßsf hyh-t—-Zn®dn-bp-hm≥ Ign-bW .Ø-t∏mse s]s´∂p a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ Hcp DZm-lc .W . A¥°c-WhrØn-I-sfms° C√m-Xmbn F√m-‰n\pw D]-cnbp≈ kXy-\njvT hcp-hm≥ ka-bpsS kmam-\y-amb Adn-hns\ CS-hn-SmsX [ym\n°-Ww. H∂mbn Adn-bp-∂-XmWv ka.

n-°p-∂X . B i‡n-bp-ambn XmZm-fly-s∏´v a\p-jy-\-S-°-ap-ff F√m Pohn-Ifpw hebp-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv.tbm Ah-ew-_n-°p-Ib .eqsS k©cn-°p-tºmgpw ho≠pw \sΩ On{Z-i-‡n-Iƒ Bt«-jn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pw.¿≤n-\n-bmb AIr-Xn-bm-Wv.v.m-cn-Iƒt]mepw \neIn´msX \´wXncn-bp∂p. {]IrXn ˛ ]nSn-®pNpg-‰nSpw {]Imcw ˛ kpIr-Xn-Iƒt]mepw Atlm! Npg-∂n-Sp-∂p! ˛ ˛ hnIrXn hnSp-∂-Xn-\mbv ˛ the sNbvhoe AIrXn˛ ^em-{K-l-a‰v ˛ Adn-™n-tSWw ˛ {]Ir-Xn-bpsS i‡-amb Npgn-bn¬s]´p Itc-dm\m-ImsX Nne k∑m¿§-k© . Cu {]IrXn Hmtcm Pohn-bnepw hyXy-kvX-am-sW-¶nepw F√m-‰n-t\bpw Hcp hyh-ÿ-bn¬ sIm≠p-hcp∂ A\p-c-W-\m-fl-IX {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ BIth \nd-™n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.ztam Ae-kX . H∂v NnX-dn-sØ-dn-®p-t]m-Ip∂ i‡n.√ . {]Ir-Xnsb \Ωƒ kwkm-c-`m-j-bn¬ ]d-bm-dp-≈ A¿∞-Øne√ ChnsS a\- n-em-t°-≠-Xv. hnln-X-I¿Ω-߃ ^te-—-IqSmsX sNøpIbpw km£n-cq-]-Øn¬ h¿Øn°pIbpw thWw. AXp PohnXsØ DZm-Øo-Ic . hnIr-Xn-bpsS ]nSn-bn¬s]-´m¬ AXn¬\n∂pw Ducn-t∏m-cm≥ \njv{In-bX . B hgn-bn. AXns\ [¿Ωw F∂mWv hnfn-°p-∂X .43 {]IrXn ]nSn®p Npg-‰nSpw {]Imcw kpIr-Xn-Iƒt]mepatlm! Npg-∂n-Sp-∂p! hnIrXn hnSp-∂-Xn-\mbn the sNbvho˛ eIrXn ^em-{K-l-a-‰-dn-™n-tS-Ww.m-Wv. F∂m¬ [¿Ω-Øns‚ am¿§-Øn-eqsS [¿Ωnsb Adn-™psIm-≠p≈ GIm-fl-I-amb Hcp bm\-ap-≠v. {]m]-©n-I-k-Ø-bn¬ \S-°p∂ F√m {Inb-I-fp-tSbpw Np°m≥ ]nSn-°p-∂Xv {]Ir-Xn-bm-Wv. B \nb-asØ ewLn-°p-hm≥ Ignbp-I-bn-√. {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ Xs∂-bp-≈ c≠pX-cw ]nSn-h-en-I-fp-≠v. AXns\ hnIrXn F∂mWv ]d-bp-∂X . ewLn-®m¬ Cc´n-i-‡n-tbmsS AXp Xncn-®-Sn-°pw. AsXmcp \nba-amWv.v. B›-cyw-Xs∂! I¿Ω-_‘w hn´p-In-´p-∂-Xn-\mbn \njv{In-b-\m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv XtamKp-Wh .

p-∂p. I¿Ω-ßs .m-bp-≈ \njv{In-bXzw Ds≠-¶nepw am\-kn-Ia .X∂p `mhn-°p-Ib .p-sIm≠v Xocp-∂n-√. Zmln°p-∂-h≥ sh≈w IpSn-°-Ww. imco-cn-Ia . Nne¿°v Fs¥-¶nepw ZpxJ-ap-≠m-hp-Ib . \mw AXn-s\√mw km£n-bm-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. H∂pw sNømXn-cn°p-∂Xv AIr-Xn-bm-Wv.v AXp-sIm-≠mWv kpIr-Xn-Iƒt]mepw _‘-\Ø .th≠-Xv.v Rm\mWv I¿Ωw sNøp-∂s .hyh-ÿm-]nXa-X-ß-fpsSsb√mw kmcw .mbn Ah¿°v hnIr-Xn-bn¬\n∂pw hn´p-t]m-cm≥ Ignbmdn-√. ]e-a-X-km-chpw ˛ ]eXmb.n-√. AXp _‘-\a . Pohn-°p∂ Pohn-Iƒs°√mw Cu Bh-iy߃ \nd-th-dp-Ibpw thWw. {]Ir-Xn-bpsS I¿Ωw AXns‚ hgn°p \S-°p-∂p. hfsc ^e-hØ .mWv. {]Ir-Xn-bnse \nb-aß .f-t∏mse H∂pw sNømsX Hcn-SØp NS-™p-IqSn Ccn°p-∂Xp ImWmw.v.m-sW-¶n¬ I¿Ωß-fpsS ^e-Øn¬ F\n°v BImw-£bpw kwKhpw D≠m-Ipw. CsX√mw Bh-iy-ßf .n\v ASns∏-Sp-∂X . hni-°p-∂-h≥ A∂w Ign-°-Ww.m-W. At∏mƒ I¿Ωw sNøpI F∂p-t]mepw ]d-bm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√. Ah-cpsS ZpxJw \njv{In-bXzw ]men-®X . AXn¬\n-∂pw Hgn™p-am-dm≥ Ign-bp-Ib .m-sW-¶n¬ Ah¿ ivaim\-ssh-cm-Kn-Is .ƒ F√m Pohn-Ifpw A\p-k‘m\w sNø-Ww.f√mw {]Ir-Xn-bptS-Xm-W. 44 ]e-a-X-km-c-hp-ta-I-sa∂p ]mcm˛ Xpe-In-sem-cm-\-bn-e-‘-sc-∂-t]mse ]e-hn-[-bp‡n ]d™p ]ma-c-∑m˛ ce-hXp I≠-e-bm-X-a¿∂n-tS-Ww. F∂n´p ^te-—-bn-√msX I¿Ωw sNøWw. AXmWp Pohn-X-Øn\p ap‡n \¬Ip-∂ -H-tc-sbmcp {]{In-b. AXpsIm≠v {]Ir-Xn-bn¬\n∂pw tamNn-Xcm-Im≥ B{K-ln-°p-∂-h¿ \√ I¿Ω-ß-fpsS I¿Xr-Xz-Øn¬\n∂pw NoØ I¿Ω-ß-fpsS I¿Xr-XzØn¬\n∂pw tamNn-X-cm-I-Ww. \√ I¿Ω-߃ sNøp-∂h .mb Hcp am¿§w Kpcp D]tZ-in-®p-Xc .c . AXn-\p-th≠n I¿Ωw sNø-Ww.mWv kpIr-Xn-Iƒ. ]t£ ‘Rm≥ hoSp-≠m°n sImSp-Øp’ F∂ Nn¥ \sΩ Al-¶m-c-cq-]-Øn¬ _‘n-°pw. hoSn-√mØ Hcmƒ°v hoSp-≠m-°n-s°m-Sp-°p-∂Xv Hcp \∑-bm-Wv. I¿Ω߃ Rm≥ sNøp∂p F∂ `mhw ]mSn-√.

]t£. B\sb ImWm≥t]mb Ipcp-S-∑m-sc-t∏m-se-bmWv Chn-sS-bp≈ Bfp-Iƒ kwkm-cn-°p-∂-Xv.ƒ°pw BNm-c-߃°pw {]Xy£-Øn-ep-ff hyXym-k-߃ I≠p-t]m-cp-∂pap≠v. F∂m¬ B\-sb∂ Pohnsb apgp-h\mbpw Ah¿°p ImWm≥ Ign-bn-√. Ah¿ FØn-t®¿∂ \nK-a-\sØ-bmWv Ah¿ ]d-bp-∂-Xv.w. Cu aX-ß-sfms° F¥n-\p-th-≠n-bmWv ChnsS kwÿm-]n-X-am-bn-´p-f-f-Xv? F√m aXßfpw apt∂m´p hbv°p∂ e£yw H∂pXs∂-bm-Wv.w. F{X-sb{X aX-ß-fmWv Cu `qap-J-Øp-≈-Xv. B\ Nqept]m-se-bm-sW-∂v. C…mw-a-Xw.f ptSbpw kmcw H∂msW. F√m \Zn-Ifpw IS-en¬Xs∂-bmWv sN∂ptNcp-∂-Xv. . ]e-a-X-km-chpw GIw F∂v. AtXm-sSm-∏w-Xs∂ aX-Øns‚ N´°qSp-Iƒ°pw A\p-jvTm-\ß .w. AXmWv aX-Øns‚ kmcw. CXp a\- n-em-°msX temI-Øn¬ Hcp B\sb∏‰n A‘-∑m¿ X¿°n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse]e-am-Xn-cn-bp-ff hmZ-߃ D∂-bn®v Adn-hn-√mØ P\w e£y-t_m-[-an-√msX Np‰n-Øn-cnbp-∂-Xp-I-≠v ˛ \mw Ah-sc-t∏mse Ae-bmsX ˛ Bfl-t_m-[-Øns‚ A`n-{]m-b-`n∂-X-bn-√mØ hy‡-X-bn¬ \nesIm-≠n. B\ apdw-t]m-se-bm-sW∂v. AXp-sIm≠v kmam-\y-P\w A¶-em-∏n-em-bn-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.ß . B e£yw H∂pX-s∂-bm-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v Hmtcmtcm bp‡nIƒ ]d™v Ah¿ X¿°n-°p-∂p. Xmthma-Xw.w. PqX-aX .GIw F∂v ]mcmsX De-In¬ Hcm-\-bn¬ A‘-sc-∂-t]mse ]e-hn-[-bp‡n ]d™v ]ma-c-∑m¿ Ae-hXp I≠v Ae-bmsX Aa¿∂n-tSWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ H∂p-X-s∂-bmWv. C\n-sbmcp Ipcp-S≥ ]d-bp-∂p. ssP\-aX . t]sc-SpØp ]dbm-hp∂ {]kn-≤-amb aX-hn-`m-K-߃ {InkvXp-a-Xw. F√m aX. a\p-jy¿ CX-dnbm-dn-√. Hcp Ipcp-S≥ ]d-bp-∂p. Cuiz-c≥ Ht∂bp-≈q As√-¶n¬ kXyw Ht∂-b≈q F∂v F√m-hcpw ]d-bp-∂p. kn°p-aX .w. GsXmcp e£y-Øn-te-°mtWm aXw Du∂p-∂X . B\ ]\-¥-Sn-t]msebm-sW-∂v.tS-Ww. AXp Xo¿°m-\mWv Kpcp ChnsS ]d-bp-∂-Xv. lnµpa-Xw. thsdmcp Ipcp-S≥ ]d-bp-∂p. jnt‚m-aX .v. GXp hgn-I-fn-eqsS k©-cn-®mepw Ahkm\w Cuiz-c-\n¬Xs∂ \Ωƒ ebn-°pw. _p≤-aX . Ch IqSmsX-Xs∂ [mcmfw Ahm-¥-c-a-X-hn`m-K-ß-fp-≠v.∂ v. I¨^yq-jnb≥ aXw. ]m¿kn-aXw Ch-sb-√m-am-Wv. Ipcp-S\v B\sb ImWm≥ Ign-bn-√-t√m? Ah¿ B\-bpsS Hmtcm Ah-b-h-sØ-bmWv ]nSn-®p-t\m-°nb-Xv.

mbn ImWp-∂X ..n¬ A√m-lp-hn-t\bpw PqX- .m-cß . AXp kmtlm-Z-cy-am-Wv.sf Kpcp IW-°n-se-Sp-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂n-√. ˛ CXn-¬ t_m[-hm-\m-bn-cn-°-Ww.ß . At∏mƒ AXp im¥n-bm-Wv..n¬ Ak-ln-jvWpX ]pe¿Øp∂ at\m-`mhw Bim-ky-a-√. 45 Hcp aX-a-\y\p \nµy-sam-∂n-temXpw Icp-h-]-cs‚ IW-°n-\q-\-amIpw [c-bn-enXns‚ cl-ky-sam-∂p-Xm-s\˛ ∂dn-h-fhpw {`a-sa-∂-dn-™n-tS-Ww. {InkvXp-a-X-Øn¬ kz¿§-ÿ-\mb ]nXm-hn-s\-bmWv k¿th-iz-c\ .. ˛ Hcp aX-Øn¬ ]dbp∂ kXyw ˛ as‰mcp aX-hn-izm-kn-bpsS ho£W-Øn¬ ˛ hnI-e-am-Wv..m-Wv..ƒ°pw bp≤-߃°pw Imc-Wa .ns‚ A¥- m-cw.m-bn-cn-°p-∂X .. AXv kzmX-{¥y-am-Wv.. Hcp aX-hn-izm-kn°v thsdmcp aX-hn-izm-knsb ]p—-am-Wv. kzaX-hn-izmkhpw CX-c-a-X-\n-µbpw ˛ shdpw NnØ-{`aw am{X-am-bn-cn-°pw. Hcp aXw A\y\p\nµyw ˛ H∂n-temXpw Icp A]-cs‚ IW-°n\v Du\-amIpw [c-bn¬ CXns‚ clkyw H∂p-Xm≥ F∂ Adn-h-fhpw {`aw F∂v Adn-™n-tSWw Hcp aX-hn-izm-kn°v thsdmcp aX hnizm-ksØ \nµy-ambn tXm∂p-∂p. ˛ C°mcyw Adn-bp-∂-Xp-hsc.-AXv kvt\l-am-Wv.. AXv B\-µ-am-Wv.mWv F√m aX-Ie .v thsdmcp-hs‚ aX-hnizm-kØ .. C…mw-aX .Ø . F√m aX-ßf.... AXv kam-[m-\a .m-Wv.. AXp ]q¿Æ-Xb .l .v. A]-cs‚ hnizmkw sX‰mWv Fs∂mcp [mc-Wb . Bbncw h¿j-an-cp∂p X¿°n-®mepw Hcp ]cn-lm-chpw Cu Xm¿°n-I-∑m¿°n-S-bn¬ D≠m-Ip-hm-≥ t]mIp∂n-√. CXp ]d-bp-tºmgpw ChnsS \nehn-en-cn-°p∂ aX-hy-hl .aX-ß-fpsS Imcy-Ønepw Cu amXncn X¿°-߃ \S-°p-∂Xv \Ωƒ tI´p-t]m-cm-dp-≈-Xm-Wv.. ˛ temI-Øn¬ ˛ aX-ß-fp-sS-sb√mw kmc-am-bn-cn°p∂ clkyw ˛ H∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv..p-tSbpw kmcw GI-am-sW-∂mWv Kpcp apt∂m-´p-hbv°p∂ aX-Z¿i-\Ø .. Xs‚ hnizmk-amWv icn. \mw AXp-sIm≠v X¿°-sa√mw Ah-km-\n-∏n®v aX-Øns‚ kmcw A¥-cm-flm-hn¬ A\p-`-hn-®-dn-b-Ww...

46 s]mcpXp Pbn-∏-X-km-≤y-sam-∂n-t\m-sSm˛ s∂mcp aXhpw s]mcp-Xm-sem-Sp-ßp-hoe ]c-a-Xh -. Ch¿°v ]c-k] v cw tN¿∂p Pohn-°m≥ Ft¥m Hcp {]bm-kw-t]m-se-bmWv. aX-c-lkyw Adn-bp∂ Hcmƒ Hcp {kjvSm-hns‚ F√m krjvSn-I-tfbpw ka-`m-h\-tbmsS ImWpw.bbpw ]c-tam∂-X\ .° . Xs‚ aX-a-√mØ aX-ß-tfmsSms° hntZz-j-ap-≈-h≥ CXp a\- n-em-°msX shdptX s]mcpXn Xpe-™p-t]mIpw F∂ shfn-hp-≠m-I-Ww. `mc-XØ .n¬ btlm-ht. aX-ß-fp-sS-sb√mw kmcw H∂-msW∂ clkyw Adn-bp-∂-Xp-hsc a\p-jy≥ Im´n-°q-´p∂ Cu tIm{]m-b-ßsf√mw shdpw {`m¥m-sW∂v Xncn-®-dn-tb-≠-Xm-bn-´p-≠v.mb \mY-\mbn {]Io¿Øn-°p∂p. Cu _mly-amb Pohn-X-{I-asØ aXambn sX‰n-≤-cn-®p-t]m-cp∂ Hcp P\X hfsc Ak-ln-jvWp-Xm-]q¿∆w CX-c-a-X-ÿs‚ Pohn-X{I-a-ß-tfmSv {]Xn-I-cn-°p∂ ImgvN-bmWv \mw ChnsS ImWp-∂-Xv.mZn-bn-tXm¿Øn-SmsX ]mtg s]mcp-Xp.s]m-en-™n-Sp-sa∂ _p≤n-th-Ww.n¬ inh-t\bpw hnjvWp-hn-t\bpw tZhn-tbbpw ]qPn-°p∂ aX-hn-izmkßfp≠v. lnµp t£{X-Øn¬ t]mbn {]m¿∞n-°p-Ibpw ]qP-Iƒ \S-Øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.a-XØ .m-c≥ akvPn-Zn¬t]mbn \nkvIcn-°p-∂p. Cu t«mI-Øn¬ a\p-jy-a-\- ns‚ B kz`m-hsØ FSp-Øp-Im-Wn°p-I-bmWv Kpcp sNøp-∂-Xv. {InkvXym\n ]≈n-bn¬ t]mbn Ip¿_m\ ssIs°m≈p-∂p. s]mcpXp Pbn-∏Xv ˛ Akm≤yw H∂n-t\m-sSm-∂v s]mcp-Xm¬ Hcp aXhpw HSp-ßp-ho-e ]c-a-X-hmZn ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ CXv Hm¿Øn-SmsX]mtg ˛ s]mcpXp s]men-™nSpw ˛ F∂ _p≤n thWw ˛ bp≤-Øn-eqsS A\y-a-XsØ tXmev]n-°m-sa-∂p-≈Xv Akm-[y-am-Wv. . kvt\l-tØm-tSbpw lrZ-bm-\p-`mh-tØm-tSbpw s]cp-am-dpw. Atßm´pw Ctßm´pw s]mcp-Xn-sIm≠v Hcp aX-tØbpw D∑q-e\w sNøm≥ Ign-bp-Ibn√. C…mw-aX .

Cuiz-cs‚ C— ka-kvX-Po-hPm-e-ßfneq-tSbpw \nd-th-d-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ `qan-bn¬ kam-[m\w kzm`mhn-I-ambn h∂-W-bpw. B sFIyw ]c-am-ÀmZ-I-c-am-Wv. B kvt\lsØ \ntj[n-°p∂ bp≤-ß-fn¬ aXw G¿s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv aqey-h-Ømb PohnXw \bn-°m-\m-{K-ln-°p∂ a\p-jy¿°v kwL-Sn-X-a-X-ß-tfmSpXs∂ ]p—w tXm∂p-hm≥ CS-bm-°n-bn-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. kwL-Sn-X-aXw `qan-bn¬ A[n-Im-c-Øn\pw A[o-i-Xz-Øn\pw th≠n CX-c-a-X-ÿsc ]mtS D∑q-e\w sNøm≥ {ian-®n-´p-≈Xpw {ian.a m. CsXm∂pw Adn-bmsX ]c-kv]cw a√-Sn®p Nmhp∂ sXcp-hp-\m-bv°sf-t∏mse aXm\p-bm-bn-Ifpw aX-h-‡m-°fpw Cu temI-Øn¬ s]cp-am-dp-∂Xv Gsd IjvS-amWv! Aev]w Dƒsh-fn-®-ap≈-h¿ Cß-s\-bp-≈ t]mc-Sn-°p∂ aXKXo-b-Xsb t{]m’m-ln-∏n-°p-I-bn-√.aXw Pohn-X-Øn¬ kam-[m-\hpw kvt\lhpw shfn-®hpw ]I¿∂p-sIm-Sp-t°≠ H∂m-Wv. AhnsS A\p-`-h-km-{µ-nabpsS Hcp sFIyap≠v.X p.° p. CX-c-a-Xm-\p-bm-bn-Isf sIm√p-∂-XneqsS Xß-fpsS aX-Øn\p Pbn°mw F∂p-≈-Xn¬ aX-Øns‚ XØz-Øn\v \nc-°mØ Hcp sshcp-≤y≠v. GIo-I-c-W-Øns‚ hN-\-ß-fmWv aX-Øn-ep-≈-Xv.N n.∏ n¬ D≠mb Ipcn-ip-bp-≤-ßfpw Z£n-tW-¥y-bn¬ ssihcpw sshjvWhcpw XΩn-ep≈ t]mcm-´-ßfpw aX-Øns‚ A{I-tam-’p-I-a-t\m-`mhsØ shfn-hm-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.a mb Ncn{Xw \ap°p ]cn. AXv a\p-jy\pw ssZhhpw XΩn-ep-ff {]W-bm-\zn-X-amb Pohn-X-am-Wv. bYm¿∞-aXw kwL-Sn-Xtam hyh-ÿm-]n-Xtam A√.X . B hN\w ssZh-Øns‚ GI-XzsØ Dd-∏n-°p-∂Xpw temI-Po-hnXw ssZth-—m-{]-Imcw \S-∏n-em-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xm-sW∂pw t_m[y-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂Xpw Bbn-cn-°pw. F∂m¬ a\p-jy≥ ssZth-—sb \nd-th-dm≥ kΩ-Xn-°m-dn-√. bqtdm. . ssZhw kvt\l-am-sW∂p ]d-bp-Ibpw.∂ .W v . aXm-\p-bm-bn-I-fpsS FÆw h¿≤n-°p-∂-Xn-\\p-k-cn®v aX-Øns‚ i‡n h¿≤n-°p-sa-∂p-≈ sX‰mb Hcp [mcW kaq-l-a-\- n-ep-≠v. Aß-s\-bmWv \ne-\n¬°p∂ bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-a-X-ß-fnepw ]nSn-hm-in-Ifpw imTy-ßfpw Ib-dn-°q-Sm≥ CS-bm-b-Xv. am{X-a-√. Aß-s\-bmWv aX-߃ kwLSn-X-am-Im≥ XpSßn-b-Xv. Ah≥ Ah-t‚-Xm-bn-´p-≈ kzm¿∞-amb e£y-ßfpw ImgvN-∏m-Sp-Ifpw sa\-s™-SpØv AXn-eqsS Ahs‚ Hcp km¶ev]nI-temIw krjvSn-°m≥ {ian-°p-∂p.

Hcp lnµp-hns‚ B{Klw.m-Wv. ]t£.mb \c-ta[-ßf . Ah-cpsS a\- n-encn∏v XßfpsS aX-am-bn-cn-°Ww B aXw F∂m-Wv. F√m aX-ß-fnse Bfp-Ifpw CXmWv ]d-bp-∂Xv B aXw Xß-fpsS aX-am-bn-cn°Ww F∂p-ff hmZw aX-hm-Zn-I-fm-cpw-Xs∂ Hm¿°p-∂-tX-bn-√. Ah-c-h-cpsS aXw Ah-c-h¿°v {]nb-s∏-´Xv Xs∂-bm-bn-cn°p∂p. `oI-ca .y-ßf .n-te°phsc aX-kw-L¿j-߃ FØn-s∏-Sp-∂Xv \mw Znh-tk\ I≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ \·-kX . a‰p aX-߃s°-Xnsc hmZ-hn-hm-Zß-sfm∂pw C√mØ ⁄m\n-Iƒ aX-hm-Z-ß-fpsS ]n∂nse A¥ m-c hn-lo-\-X-bpsS anYymXzw ChnsS ]q¿Æ-ambn Adn-bp-∂p. temI-Øn¬ Htc-sbmcp aXw D≠m-I-Ww. AXv Bfn-∏n-Sn-°pw. Hcp aX-am-Ip-h-Xn∂v F√m-hcpw Dc-∏-Xv CXv CXv ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ hmZn-I-fmcpw Hm¿°p-hoe ]c-a-X-hm-Z-sam-gn-™ ˛ ˛ ˛ ]WvUn-X-∑m¿ CXns‚ clkyw Cßv Ati-jw Adnbpw ˛ ˛ ‘ ˛ ˛ ChnsS Hcp aXw am{Xta th≠q. temI-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ a\p-jy¿ ]ckv]cw _‘-s∏´p Pohn-t°≠nhcp-tºmƒ aX-Po-hn-X-Ønse sshIm-cn-I-X-I-fp-ambn Adnt™m Adn-bm-sXtbm Dc-k-ep-Iƒ D≠m-Im-dp-≠v. At∏mƒ Ie-l-ß- sf√mw Xocpw.’ CXp ]d-bp-∂-hsc kq£n-°-Ww. kulm¿Zw ]dbp-∂h .m-hp-I. Xs‚ aX-amWv temI-Øn¬ \ne-\n¬-t°-≠Xv F∂m-Wv. sNdn-sbmcp Xos∏mcn Bbn-cn°pw BZyw {]I-Sa . F∂m¬ Hcp {InkvXym-\ntbm apk¬amt\m Nn¥n-°p-tºmƒ AhcpsS aX-Øn-\mWv B alna Nm¿Øn-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xv.mcpwXs∂ Ah-cpsS ]nSn-hm-in-bpsS Dd® NphSv am‰nhbv°m≥ Xøm-d-√.47 Hcp aX-am-Ip-h-Xn-∂p-c-∏-sX-√m˛ hcp-anXp hmZn-I-fm-cp-tam¿°p-hoe ]c-a-X-hm-Z-sam-gn™ ]WvUn-X-∑m˛ cdn-bp-an-Xns‚ cl-ky-an-ß-ti-jw. Bfp-Iƒ kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-tºmƒ AXnsems° Hfn-™n-cn-°p∂ Iptd \nc¿∞-I-X-I-fp-≠v.c . AXp-sIm≠v aX-ku-lm¿±-ßfpw a‰pw. ]ns∂. ssZhw GI- .

n-®d .√ .s bm∂pw Rm\.am-sW∂pw Cu {]]-©Ø .n-°m-dp-≠.n-√msX am\-hc . .v Ah-sc-bmWv Kpcp ]WvUnX-∑m¿ F∂p hnti-jn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂X .s S. A⁄m\w \nan-Ø-amWv \Ωn¬ Bfl-t_m[w {]Im-in-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.n-bp∂ ⁄m\n-Iƒ aX-hn-tZz-ja .≠ v . F∂m¬ Cu A⁄m.n-ep-ff F√mw ssZh-kr-jvSn-If .\ Øn¬\n∂pw \ap°p ]pd-Øp-I-S-°p-hm≥ Cu hniz-Øn-ep-ff kIe Ncm-N-c-ß-tfbpw Xs‚ D◊-bn¬ tN¿Ø-dn-bp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Abmƒ Bfl⁄m\ nXs∂-bm-Wv.∏-Sp-Øp∂ I¿Ω-ßfn-eqsS aX-Po-hn-XsØ Bhn-jI v c . Fs¥-∂m¬ H∂pw-Xs∂ X∂n¬\n∂pw A\y-ambn Abmƒ Adn-bp-∂n-√. Xs‚ kØm˛ X\p-hn-e-sX-s‚-Xn-sX-s‚-sX∂p k¿∆w X\p-X-sbm-gn™p [cn-®n-Sp∂p km£m˛ e\p-`-h-im-en-I-fm-an-tXm¿°n-emcpw. Ah. C°mcyw a\- n-em-°n-bm¬ Bcpw km£m¬ A\p-`-h-im-en-I-fm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.b p. X\p-hn¬ Aa¿∂ ˛ icocn Xs‚ kØm-X-\p-hn¬ AsX-t‚Xv CXv Ft‚Xv F∂v k¿∆w X\p-X-sbm-gn™v [cn-®n-Sp∂p CtXm¿°n¬ Bcpw km£m¬ A\p-`-h-im-en-Ifmw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ imco-cn-I-amb kzXz-hp-ambn XmZmflys∏´p Ign-™n-cp∂ Poh≥ Xs‚ Bfl-k-Ø-bn¬ AXpw Ft‚-XmWv CXpw Ft‚-XmWv F∂nßs\ F√m-‰n-t\bpw aa-X-bn-√msX Adn-™n-Sp∂p. ‘Rm≥ ico-c-amWv’ F∂ _p≤n-bmWv \sΩ F√mw _‘n-∏n°p∂ Alw-_p-≤n. Ah¿ ssZhsØ icn-bmbnAdnbp-Ibpw AXp shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.v.m-sW∂pw A¥-cm-flm-hn¬ A\p-`h . 48 X\p-hn-e-a¿∂ icocn.m-in-bpsS apgp-h≥ sFIy-tØbpw {]_-es . ico-c-Øns‚ ]cn-an-X-amb AkvXn-X-bn¬ Rm≥ Fs∂ a\- n-em-°p-tºmƒ Rm\-√mØ \nc-h[n ico-c-߃ Chn.

Cßs\ Hc-dn-hp-≠m-I-W-sa-¶n¬ F∂nse aa-Xm-t_m[w Hgn-™p-t]m-I-Ww. F√m-‰n-t\bpw lrZ-b-Øn¬ ]p¬Ip-I. AJn-ecpw Bfl-kp-J-Øn-\mbv {]bXv\w kI-ehpw Cßp˛ kZm]n sNbvXn-Sp∂p PK-Xn-bn¬ CΩXw GIw F∂p Nn¥n®v AL-a-W-bmsX ˛ AI-Xm¿ Aa¿Øn-tSWw ˛ F√m-hcpw ˛ Bfl-kp-J-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp-≈ ˛ {]bXv\w F√m-hn-[-Ønepw ChnsS ˛ Ft∏mgpw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. Hcn-°¬ Hcp ssl°q Ihn {]`mX-k-hm-cn-°n-d-ßn-b-t∏mƒ a™p s]øp-∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. t`Z-_p≤n C√msX F√m-‰nepw kz¥w D◊ Z¿in-°p-I.W v . X\pX Hgn-b-Ww. 49 AJn-e-cp-am-fl-kp-J-Øn-\mbv {]b-Xv\wk-I-e-hp-anßp kZm]n sNbvXn-Sp-∂pP-K-Xn-bn-en-Ω-X-ta-I-sa∂p Nn¥n˛ ®L-a-W-bm-X-I-Xm-c-a¿Øn-tS-Ww. F√mw Ft‚-sX∂p Icp-Xp-I. Fs‚ apfwsXm∏n-bnse lna-h¿jsØ Fs‚ a™p-]m-fnIƒ F∂-dn-bp-tºmƒ CXn-s\mcp `mc-hp-an-√t√m! CXmWv X\pX Hgn™p [cn-®n-Sp∂ hgn.s °.X m. Ft‚Xp am{X. When I think of it As my snow.BIm-iØnepw A¥-cn-£Ønepw `qanbnepsa√mw Rm\p-≠v.a √ AsX√mw Rm≥ Xs∂-bm-Wv. Bflm\p-`-hn-I-fm-Im≥ C{X-bpw sNbvXm¬ aXn. ˛ temI-Øn¬ ˛ Cu aXw ˛ H∂p-X-s∂-bmWv ˛ Cu Nn¥sb Du´n-bp-d-∏n®v Zqjy-Nn-¥-I-fn¬ AI-s∏-SmsX ˛ A¥-cw-KsØ ˛ Bflm-hn-e-a¿Øn hbv°Ww. Fs¥m. . At∏mƒ Ihn sXm∏n Ducn Iøn¬ ]nSn-®p-sIm≠v Hcp Ip™p-I-hnX sNm√n.b pt≠m AsX√mw Ft‚. Ihn-bpsS apfs¥m∏nbn¬ a™phoWv I\w h®p. Bcpw km£m¬ A\p-`-h-im-en-IƒX-s∂. At∏mƒ hnizw apgp-h\pw \sΩ Bt«-jn-°pw. how light it is On my bamboo hat.

K .n-te°p ]d-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]m-se.. w D≠m-bm¬ aXn \Ωƒ hnΩn-´s∏Spw.n-Iƒ Imem-hÿ m-t`Zw D≠m-Ip-tºmƒ hnZq-cß .. GXp Xc-Øn-ep-≈ kpJ-amWv th≠-Xv? \nXy-amb kpJw.\cw izmk-XS. F∂n´v kzm¿∞-X-sIm≠v Zqjn-X-am-ImsX a\- ns\ Bflm-\-µ-Øn¬ hnebn-∏n-°-Ww. \ne-samSv \ocv AXp-t]mse Im‰v Xobpw shfnbpw Alw-IrXn ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ `qan. temI-Øn¬ Cu aXw As√-¶n¬ A`n-{]mbw GI-am-sW∂v a\- n-em-°-Ww.F√m-hcpw I¿Ωw sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xv kpJ-Øn-\p-th-≠nbm-Wv. ⁄m\-kmK-c-am-Wv..] .v Aev]t. F√m cmjv{S-ß-fn-ep-≈ P\-ßfpw kpJm-t\z-jnIƒ Xs∂-bm-Wv. BZy-¥-hn-lo-\-amb kXy-km-K-c-am-Wv. tZim-S\ . C¥y-bn¬ am{X-a-√. ]t£ Bfl-kpJw am{X-amWv ]q¿Æ-kp-J-am-bncn-°p-∂-Xv..n-Ib . 50 \ne-samSp \oc-Xp-t]mse Im‰p Xobpw shfn-bp-a-lw-IrXn hnZybpw a\ pw Ae-I-fp-am-gn-bp-sa-∂p-th-≠-sb√m˛ hpe-Ip-ap-b¿∂-dn-hmbn amdn-Sp-∂p. a\p-jy≥ X¿°-an-√msX H∂n-°p∂ Hcp kXy-am-WnXv. Ah≥ kpJ-ap-ff aX-Øn-te°p t]mIpw. At∏mƒ Hcmƒ lnµpthm {InkvXym-\ntbm ap…otam Bbn-cn-°p-I-bn-√.£ .mWv sNbvXX .pcp ]pXnb aXsØ ÿm]n-®n-√. -F-¥n-\m-Wh ]d-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂Xv? kpJw thWw. kpJw thW-sa∂ Imcy-Øn¬ Hcp X¿°hpw C√Xs∂! lnµphm-bmepw {InkvXym-\n-bm-bmepw apk¬am-\m-bmepw kpJw thWw. AXpsIm≠v \mcm-bW . B\-µ-km-K-c-am-Wv.XpSßn AXp-t]mse Pew hmbp A·n BIm-iw-h-sc-bp-ff ]©-`q-X-ßfpw Alw-Im-chpw . F√m bm{X-Ifpw F√m At\z-j-W-ßfpw F√m Ne-\ßfpw F√m t{]c-W-Ifpw Bflm-hn-te-°p-f-f-Xm-Wv. aX-Øns‚ ImXemb XØzsØ Gh¿°pw a\- n-em-Ip∂ coXn-bn¬ Fgp-Xn-Øc . AXp Is≠-Øp-∂-Xp-hsc AXnepw CXn-ep-sams° s\m´n\p-W™v \S-°pw.f . sImSnb ]oU-\-ßfpw bmX-\-Ifpw A\p-`-hn®v Hcp-h\pw Hcp aXØnepw \n¬°p-I-bn-√.

51 Adn-hn-en-cp-s∂m-c-l¥bmZy-ap-≠m-bv˛ hcp-an-Xn-t\m-sSm-cn-Z¥ hma-bmbpw hcp-anh c≠p-e-]-߃t]mse ambm˛ ac-a-Jnew ad-sb-∏-S¿∂n-Sp-∂p.z-cq-]X .n¬\n∂pw Hs° hnap-‡am-°p-∂p. a\p-jys‚ hnthtIm-Zb .b .n¬ \n∂pw. ÿqe-Øn¬ A`n-c-an-®n-cp∂ a\p-jy≥ ÿqesØ hn´v kq£vaØ .mWv.v.psS Ipg-ad .v.mb Xew.hnZybpw a\ pw Ae-Ifpw Bgnbpw F∂p th≠ F√m DeIpw Db¿∂v Adn-hmbn amdn-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ _p≤nbpw a\ pw Xnc-Ifpw ISepw F∂p th≠ F√m temIhpw hnIm-kw-{]m-]n®v ]c-am¿∞-m\p`q-Xn-bmbn amdp∂p.n-bp-∂p. sNdpXpw hep-Xp-ambn FÆ-a‰ XncIƒ IS¬∏-c∏ .mb F√m temI-ßfpw Adn-hns‚ tIh-ek .Dd∂p hcp∂ Aar-Xm-\p-`h .X .ns‚ ]c-tam∂-Xa . CXmWv Pohn-XØ .f .n¬ B¿Ø-e®v Ifn-t®-°mw.p-am-Wv F∂-h≥ Xncn-®d .m-bn-Øo-cp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.a .n-®n-en¬\n∂pw a\- ns‚ \qem-am-eI . \ma-cq-]m-flI .n-se√mw D◊bm-bn-cn-°p∂ IS¬ am{X-amWv kXy-am-bn-cn-°p-∂X . IS¬X-s∂-bmWv Xnc.n-eq-sS-bmWv Cu Xc-Øn-ep--s≈mcp ]cn-Wmaw t_m[-Øn¬ kw`hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X . . Xs‚ kzXzsØ Al-¥m-aa . B Xnc-If .mb Pe-X-ØzsØ Adn-bp-Ibpw Ipd-®p-IqSn kq£va-`q-X-amb A·n-XØzsØ Adn-bp-Ibpw ]ns∂ hmbp-XØ .m-Zn-If . Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-X-I-Øns‚ \Sp-hn¬Xs∂-bn-cn-°p∂ Cu t«mIØn¬ {]⁄-bpsS ]cn-Wm-asØ FSp-Øp-Im-Wn-°p-I-bmWv Kpcp sNøp-∂-Xv.n¬ \n∂pw hn⁄m-\ß .Ømfw hnI-kn-Xa .n-te°v {]th-in-°p-∂p.zsØ Adn-bp-Ibpw ]ns∂ k¿∆-hym-]n-bm-bn-cn-°p∂ BIm-it.f .a . Fs¥-∂m¬ ÿqe-Ønse B\µw Xp—hpw ss\an-jn-Ih .Ø . aÆn¬ ]Wn-sb-SpØv aÆn¬\n∂pw In´p∂-Xp-am{Xw Xn∂p Pohn-°p∂ a\p-jy¿ Aev]w-IqSn kq£va`q-Xa .

∏-Sp-∂X . FÆn-bm-sem-Sp-ßmØ {]]-©P .{.n¬\n∂pw a\ v hf-cm≥ XpS-ßp-∂p.msX thsdmcp kØ \ap-°n-√.nIƒ h∂v Hcp acsØ ad-bv°p∂Xp-t]m-se-bmWv ChnsS ambm-a-c-Øn-encn-°p∂ Al-¥bpw CZ-¥bpw BIp∂ h≈n-Iƒ ⁄m\-kz-cq-]sØ ad-®psIm≠p Xg-®p-h-f-cp-∂-Xv. AXv {]mXn-`m-kn-It. Bfl-hn-kva-c-W-Øns‚ aqe-Im-cWw thZn-∏n-°p∂ Cu t«mIw [ym\n-®p-d-∏n-®mte \mcm-b-W-Kp-cp-hns‚ XØzm-h-X-c-W-Øns‚ coXo-hn-[m\w (methodology) \ap°p a\- nem-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q.m-eß . F∂m¬ C°mcyw \mw ad-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p.mWv hymhlm-cn-IX . hnkvac .]-{In-b°v Imc-Wa . BZyw Al-¥b . CXns‚IqsS Hcp {]m]-©n-I-t_m-[hpw Al-¥°p ]cn-]q-c-I-ambn D≠m-Ipw.n¬ G¿s∏-Sp-∂X .Ø .v Pohs‚ Bh-iyßsf ]cn-]q-cWw sNøm-\m-bmWv {]]©w hnc-Nn-Xa .z-Øns‚ kz`m-hsØ ChnsS kpXcmw hy‡-am-°p-∂p.. Cu hyh-lm-cØ .mWv {]Xy-£s . Cu Al-¥bpw CZ-¥bpw c≠p h≈n-s®-Sn-Iƒt]mse ambm-acw Adn-hns\ ]q¿Æ-ambn ad-®phbv°-Ø-°-h-Æw ]S¿∂p-]-¥-en-°p∂p \mw Adn-hm-W.m-bn-cn-°p∂ Adn-hmWv kI-eX .n-\p-apºv BZyw-Xs∂ tIh-ea .em-IsØ D≠m-°p-∂p.n¬ ⁄mXrXzhpw I¿Xr-Xz-hpw t`m‡r-Xzhpw AS-ßn-bn-´p-≠..w thgvNb .n¬\n∂pw \mw AS¿∂p-t]m∂p Ign-™p. CtXmsS Adn-hns‚ \ncp-]m-[n-I{]-Xe .mbncn-°p∂ Adnhv kzbw `n∂n°p-∂p.n-t\bpw {]k-hn-°p∂ AΩ. c≠p sNSn-h≈ .m-tb-°m-hp∂ ambm-XØ .v {]]©sØ CZ¥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂p..Adn-hn-en-cp∂v Hcp Al¥ BZyw D≠mbv hcpw CXn-t\mSv Hcp CZ¥ hma-bmbpw hcpw Ch c≠p De-]-߃t]mse ambm-acw AJnew adsb ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ]S¿∂n-Sp∂p ˛ A[njvTm-\-amb Adn-hn-¬\n∂v Hcp Alwt_m[w BZyw apf-s]m-´pw.W . Al-¥bpw CZ-¥bpw ]c-k] v c . 52 [z\n-a-b-ambvKK\w Pzen-°p-a-∂m˛ fW-bp-a-Xn-¶-e-ti-j-Zr-iy-Pmew ]p\-c-hnsS {Xn]p-Sn°p ]q¿Øn \¬Ipw kz\-hp-a-S-ßp-anSw kzbw{]Imiw! .v Adnhp am{X-am-W.v Al-¥b .m-bn-cn-°p-∂X . A[n-jvTm-\a .sf {]k-hn°p-∂X .v Adn-h√.

hpw sI´p-t]m-Ipw. \mw Adn-™Xpw Adnbm-\n-cn-°p-∂X .ß .v F∂m¬ B kwKoXw au\-Øn-s‚ au\am-Wp-Xm-\pw. B CSw kzbta {]Im-in-°p∂ \ΩpsS Bflm-Imiw-X-s∂-bm-Wv.fpw Cu ]obq-jh .mbn amdn-bn-cn-°p-Ib .m-{µ-amb kwKo-Xa .mb Hcp tbmKn-bpsS lrZ-b-I-a-e-Øn¬ Dƒt®¿∂n-cn-°p∂ {]W-h-[z-\nsb hm°p-I-fn¬ ]I¿∂p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bpIbn√.n-eqsS.v.nI-amb _nw_m-tbm-P\ .t. samgn-am-dm-\m-ImØ clkyw amkvac .mbn \nd-™p-Xq-hp-Ib .n-√. {Xn]p-Sn-Iƒ°v Imc-Wa .ß .]-]© .[z\n-a-b-ambv KK\w Pzen°pw A∂mƒ AXn-¶¬ Ati-j-Zr-iy-Pmew AWbpw ]p\¿ AhnsS {Xn]p-Sn°v ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ]q¿Øn-\evIpw kz\hpw ASßpw CSw kzbw {]Imiw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ {]W-h-[z\n \nd-™p-Xqhn Bflm-Imiw shfn-®-Øns‚ \nd-IS-embn Pzen°pw Cu A\p-`-hm-ar-X-e-l-cn-bn¬ apgp-h≥ \ma-cq-]m-flI . .m-W.n-bn¬ apßn-t∏mIpw.m-bn-cn-°p∂ i_vZw {]W-hk . Bflm-Imiw apgph≥ kzbta sh´n-Øn-fß .ns‚ kwKo-Xa .psS Hcp \pdp-ßn\p-t]mepw AhnsS ÿm\-an-√.f . A\p-`q-Xn-k-º-∂\ .ØmsS Kpcp Cu t«mI-Øn¬ ]I¿Øn-h® .߃ Ft∂m ]d-bm≥ AhnsS \mhp s]mßp-Ib . B i_vZw ]pd-ta-bp-≈X-√. Ccp-fn-ab .n-cn-°p-∂p. {]Xy£-Øn-ep-ff A¿∞w ]d-™m¬ Cu t«mI-Øns‚ apgph≥ ckm-\p-`q-Xnbpw s]men-™p-t]m-Ipw. A\ym-Zr-ia .¿jm-he .p-∂p. ]ns∂ AhnsS Adnhv aq∂mbn ]ncn-™n-cn-°p∂ Ah-ÿ°v Imc-W-am-tb-°m-hp∂ i_vZhpw AS-ßpw.m-Wv.m-Wv. 53 CXn-se-gp-am-Zn-a-i-‡n-bnßp ImWp˛ ∂nXp kIew s]dpamZn-_o-P-am-Ipw aXn-b-Xn-em°n ad-∂n-SmsX ambm˛ aXn-b-dp-hm≥ a\\w XpS¿∂n-tS-Ww. [z\nsb \Ωƒ i_vZho-Nn-bm-bn-´mWv Adn-bp-∂X .pamb F√m temIm-\p-`h . ImcWw {]Whw kwKo-XØ .{. Rm≥ B\-µn-°p-∂h .mb cN-\m-]m-Sh .≥ . Adnhv ]ncn™v {Xn]p-Sn-IfmIp-∂Xv HSp-ßpw. Bfl-K-K-\-Øns‚ kmK-c-hn-im-e-X-bn¬ Pm÷z-ey-am-\a .Ft∂m CsX√mw Fs‚ {]nb-hn-jb .

\nt›-jvS-a-√. {]Im-in-°pI F∂m¬ {Inbm-fl-I-am-bn-cn-°p∂p F∂m-Wv. AXv BZn-_o-Pm-\p-k-‘m-\-amWv. AXp kzbta {]Im-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p.y-tØm-Sp-IqSn a\\w sNbvXm-emWv kI-ew-s]dpw BZn-_o-P-Øn¬ _p≤nsb sacp-°n\ndpØm≥ Ign-bp-∂-Xv! AXp-sIm≠v a\\w XpS¿∂p-sIm-≈-Ww.jn-am¿ FÆn-t∏m-cp-∂p. \mw ChnsS Im´n-°q-´p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ `‡n-b√ AXv.n¬ Bflhn-kva-c-W-Øn\p CShcm-dp-≠v. Cu BZn-a-i-‡nsb {]]-©Øns‚ BZn-Im-cW . F{X-am{Xw ss\c-¥c . Adn-hn¬X-s∂-bn-cn-°p∂ kl-P-amb Hcp i‡n-bp-≠v. AsXmcp ka¿∏-W-am-Wv. CXp kIe-Øn\pw AΩ-bm-Wv.CXn-segpw ˛ BZn-a-i‡n Cßp ImWp∂ ˛ ˛ CXp kIew s]dpw BZn-_oPw BIpw aXn AXn-em°n ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ad-∂n-SmsX ambm-aXn Adp-hm≥ ˛ ˛ a\\w XpS-¿∂n-tSWw ˛ Adnhv kzbw-{]-Im-in-X-amb Cu Adnhn¬\n∂pw Bhn¿`-hn-°p∂ BZn-a-amb i‡n ChnsS \mam-cq-]m-fl-I-ambn ImWp∂ CsX-√m-‰n-t\bpw {]k-hn-°p∂ BZn-a-amb _oP-am-Wv. {Inb sNø-W-sa-¶n¬ i‡n thWw. \ΩpsS _p≤n ambm-tam-l-߃°v Ffp∏w hi-Ka . \mcm-b-W-Kpcp-hns‚ `‡nZ¿i\w Cß-s\-bm-Wv. B i‡n-bpsS BthKw sIm≠mWv {]]-©-Ønep-ff F√mw Ncn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn°p-∂-Xv.a .ns‚ Ccp≠ X≈n-®b . Cu AΩ-bmWv {]]-©sØ {]k-hn-°p-∂-Xv. _p≤nsb B BZn-a-_o-P-Øn¬ Dd-∏n-®p-\n¿Øn BZn-a-_o-PsØ ad-°msX amb-sIm≠p h∂p-tN¿∂ {`a_p≤n Ah-km-\n-°p-∂-Xn-\p-th≠n XpS¿®-bmbn a\\w sNbvXp-sIm≠n-cn-°-Ww. At∏msgm s° t_m[-]q¿∆w BflkvarXnsb XncnsI ÿm]n-°-Ww.m-Wv. kIews]dpw BZn-_oPw F∂mWv Kpcp ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Cu BZn-am-Xmhn¬ _p≤nsb Dd-∏n-°-Ww.mbn `mc-Xo-bE . hnj-bm-[n-jvTm-\-sØ-bm-Wv. BZn-P\-\nsb Hcp \nizm-k-Øn¬t]mepw ad-°msX Hm¿-Øn-cn-°p∂ `‡nbm-W-Xv. .m-Ip-∂X . an°-hmdpw \Ω-fnsems° At_m-[Ø . Hm¿°p-∂Xv Hcp hnj-b-sØ-b-√.

At∏mƒ D≈n-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ Ccp-fn-a-sb√mw am™p-t]m-Ipw. F∂m¬ Kpcp Cu {]tl-fn-Ibn-te°v hy‡-amb Hcp Dƒ°mgvN \¬Ip-∂p-≠v.\ p.° p.¶ nepw Bflm.° .i n.c-≠p-am-Zn-am-bm˛ h\n-X-bn¬\n∂p ]pd∂p amdn-Sp-∂p. DWcpw Ahÿ ˛ Dd-°n¬ C√ ˛ Dd°w ˛ ]p\¿ DW-cp-sºm-gpXpw ˛ kv^pcn-°p-hoe ˛ A\p-Zn\w ˛ Cßs\ c≠pw ˛ BZn-am-bm-h-\n-X-bn¬\n∂v˛ ]pd∂p ˛ amdn-Sp∂p ˛ DW¿∂n-cn-°p∂ Ahÿ Dd-°-Øn¬ C√. F¥mWv Dd°w? F¥mWv DW¿∆v? B¿°pw s]s´-s∂mcp \n¿hN\w sImSp-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√. Dd-ßp∂ Ahÿ ho≠pw DW-cp-tºmgpw D≠m-Ip-∂n-√. kpJ-an-s√-¶n¬ B¿°pw Dd-ßm≥ tXm∂pI. Dd. Bcpw-Xs∂ Ddßm-Ø-h-cm-bn-´n-√.h ns‚ kzcq.] .54 DW-cp-a-h-ÿ-bp-d-°n-en-√p-d°w ]p\-cp-W-cp-sºm-gpXpw kv^pcn-°p-hoe A\p-Zn-\-an-ß-s\. H∂pw Adn-bp-∂n-s√-¶nepw Dd-ßp∂-h-\n¬ kpJ-ap-≠v.f psS A`mhw Ds≠. Dd-°-Øn¬ F¥mWv A\p-`hw? H∂pw Adnbp-∂n√ F∂-XmWv A\p-`-hw.a mb B\µw At∏mƒ {]Im.n¬\n∂v ]nd∂v sshcp-≤y-ap-≈Xm-bn Xo¿∂n-Sp-∂p.∂ p. {]]-©m-\p-`hw F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv Cu c≠p {[ph-߃°n-S-bn-emWv. DW¿∂n-cn-°p-tºmƒ ico-c-Øns‚ hni∏pw Zmlhpw a\- ns‚ Pn⁄m-kbpw Hs° ian-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°-Ww.Ø n¬ temIm. AXp-sIm≠v DW¿s∂-Wo°p-∂-Xp-hsc Rm≥ Bfl-kpJw A\p-`-hn-°p∂p F∂v F\n-°-dnbm\pw Ign-bp-I-bn-√.√ .b n.B-Ip∂ h\n-Xb . DW¿s∂-Wo-‰m¬ C{µn-bhpw a\ pw {]h¿Ø-\-\n-c-X-am-hpw. Hcp Nn{X-Im-cs‚ Im≥hm-kn¬ Idp-∏n\pw shfp-∏n\pw CS-bn¬ hcp∂ . ]d-bm\pw Ign-bp-I-bn-√. F∂m¬ Adn-bp-∂h-s\∂ ‘Rm≥ ’GtXm Hcp IdpØ aqSp-]-SØn-\p-≈n¬ AI-s∏-´n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.≠ v .` . Ccp-´n\pw shfn-®-Øn\pw CS-bn-emWv FÆ-a‰ cq]-ß-tfm-Sp-IqSnb Cu {]]©w \Ω-fn¬ A¤p-XsØ Na-®p-h-bv°p-∂-Xv.h .ß . Hmtcm-Zn-h-khpw Cu c≠-h-ÿ-I-fpw BZn-am-b. hkvXp°-tfbpw hkvXp-X-I-tf-bpw kv]¿in®pw {LmWn®pw Nn¥n-®p-sams° Adn-bm≥ XpS-ßpw.

Cu c≠-h-ÿ-I-fn-te°v t_m[w hoWpw Db¿∂pw amdn-a-dn-™psIm-≠n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Pohn-X-Øn¬ kpJhpw ZpxJhpw as‰√m sshImcn-I-X-Ifpw H∂n\p ]ndsI H∂mbn h∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pw. Hcp ambm-h\n-X-bn¬\n-∂mWv A\p-Zn-\-sa-t∂mWw Ccpfpw shfn-®hpw amdn-amdn P\n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. \ΩpsS .W m≥ Ign-bp∂ Hcp ]q¿Æ-Pm-K-cn-Xw (total awakening) kw`-hn-°p∂Xphsc \Ω-fpsS kXy-Pn-⁄m-ksb D]-i-an-∏n-°m≥ ]mSn-√.]e-]e h¿Æ-ß-fpsS tNcp-h-IƒsIm≠mWv Nn{X-Im-c≥ amkva-cnI-amb Hcp Nn{XsØ hc-®p-h-bv°p-∂-Xv. ˛ DW¿s∂-Wo-°p-tºmƒ B In\mhpw sI´p-t]m-Ip∂p. 55 s\Snb-In-\m-hnXp \n{Z-t]mse \nXyw sISp-an-Xp-t]mse In\m-hp-an-{]-Imcw sISp-aXn ImWp-I-bn√ tIh-e-Øn¬ s]Sp-h-Xn-\m-e-\niw {`an-®n-Sp-∂p. Dd-°-Ønse kz]v\w t]mseXs∂ ˛ ˛ Pohn-X-am-Ip∂ s\Snb In\mhpw sI´p-t]mIpw ˛ F∂m¬ CØ-c-Øn¬ ˛ hnj-b-_p≤n ˛ a\- n-em-°p∂n-√. Pohn-X-sa-∂Xv Hcp apgp-\o-f≥ kz]v\-am-Wv. ˛ {]]©w F∂ Cuiz-cs‚ kz]v\Øn¬ ˛ F√m-hcpw Htc-t]mse IpSp-ßn-bncn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ft∏mgpw ˛ s\Snb In\m-hns\ kXy-sa-∂-Xpt]mse Z¿in-°p-∂p.° m. CXv s\Snb In\mhv \n{Z-t]mse \nXyw sISpw CXp-t]mse In\mhpw C{]-Imcw sISp-aXn ImWp-I-bn√ tIh-e-Øn¬ s]Sp-h-Xn-\m¬ A\niw {`an-®n-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ PohnXw Hcp \o≠ kz]v\-am-Wv. F∂m¬ Adn-hns‚ tIh-e-kz-cq-]-Øn¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v Dd-° -Øn-t \bpw DW¿hn-t \bpw t\m°n. C{Xbpw ssZ¿Lyap-≈ kz]v\-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v \mw kz]v\sØ Xncn-®-dn-bm-dn-√. Dd-°-Øn¬ ImWp∂ In\m-hpt]msebmWn-Xv.

sØ Kpcp ad-®p-hb .n¬\n∂pw sI´p-]m-Sp-If .v \ΩpsS IÆns‚ ]cn-anXnbmWv N{I-hm-fß .n¬\n∂pw DW¿s∂-Wo-‰n-´mWv \tΩm-sS√mw ]d-™p-Xc .. kz]v\-Øn¬ \mw t]Sn®p \ne-hn-fn-®n-cn-°mw...w.d.n¬s]´v {`an-°pI F∂v Kpcp ]d-bp-∂X .. shfn-®w. AXp-sIm≠v Kpcp Cu Pohn-XtØbpw kz]v\t. km[mcW Pohn-XØ .Dd-°hpw Dd-°-Øn¬ ImWp∂ kz]v\hpw DW¿∂n-cn-°p-tºmƒ ImWp∂ temIhpw F√mw B s\Snb kz]v\-Ønse hnhn-[-amb Ah-ÿ-I-fm-Ip-∂p.mb Zpc-¥Ø .v AXn-s\-bmWv tIh-eØ ....v Cu temI-P\ .n¬ hnl-cn-®n-cn-°mw. 56 IS-en-segpw Xnc-t]mse Imb-tam-tcm˛ ∂pS-\p-S-t\-dn-bp-b¿∂-a¿∂n-Sp∂p apSn-hn-Xn-s\-ßnXp l¥! aqe-kw-hn-Xv˛ IS-en-e-P-{k-hp-ap-≈ I¿Ω-at{X! IS-en-segpw Xnc-t]mse ˛ Imb-tam-tcm∂v ˛ IS-en¬ Xnc-Iƒ Db-cp-Ibpw Xmgp-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xp-t]mse Hmtcmtcm icocw .. Ah A\p-`hbmYm¿∞yß-fm-Wv.n¬ \o-en-asb Z¿in-®mepw Hcp imkv{X-⁄\ . lname-bk . A\p-`hn-°p∂ thf-bn¬ Ah km¶ev]n-Iß .f . ]t£.° v p-∂n-√. Kpcp-hns‚ A\p-`h .p-∂Xv. \n{Z-bn¬ \mw ImWp∂ kz]v\w. \n{Z-hn´v Fgpt∂¬°p-tºmƒ Ab-Ym¿∞-ambn tXm∂m-dp≠v..nbmw AhnsS \oen-ab .p-´ns‚ Hcp IWnI-t]mepw ImWp-∂n-√t√m? Fs¥m-c¤ .nepw D≠m-Ip∂ {`amfl-IX .X apgp-h\pw BIm-iØ . F∂m¬ DW¿∂p IÆp-Xp-d∂p t\m°p-tºmƒ AsX√mw km¶ev]n-Iß . temIØv F√m-hcpw Cu Pohn-XsØ ]c-am¿∞-sa-∂X .. `oI-ca .n-bmw.n-bm-dp-≠v.v B DWc¬ Bfl-kq-cy-\n-te-°m-W.∂-bmWv Hcp apgp-h≥ Pohn-XØ . \ap°pw Np‰p-]m-SpIƒ Xo¿Ø thZ-\I .nse CØcw Imcy-ßfn¬t]mepw \Ωƒ {`an-®p-t]m-Im-dp≠v.X-∂v imkv{X-⁄\ .pXw! CXm-Ip∂p ]q¿Æ-t_m-t[m-Zb .n¬\n∂pw ap‡-cm-Im≥ Ign-bpw..p-t]mse \n\®v Pohn-°p-∂Xp ImWp-tºmƒ \ΩpsS D≈nepw tXm∂pw Cu ImWs∏-Sp∂ temIhpw Pohn-Xhpw BWv ]c-aa .-Cc .n¬ acn-®p-t]msb∂p hcmw..f .v shfn-®w.√ .. Kpcp Cu s\Snb kz]v\Ø .m-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂v \mw Xncn-®d .d..sf krjvSn-°p-∂s . C\n DW-c¬ Bh-iy-am-W. CXp-t]m-se-Xs .m-\p-°f .f .n-s√-∂.ns\ kzoI-cn-°m≥ {]bmkw tXm∂pw.. k¿∆{X shfn-®w.ØmSp Xpe\w sNøptºmƒ \ap-°X .mb kXy-sa-∂. B\-µw-sIm≠v \rØw sNbvXn-cn-°mw.

Bfl-km-Kc .n-emWv {]m]-©n-IX . CsXmcp alm-›c .ns‚ k¿÷-\{.DS-\p-S≥ ˛ Gdn Db-¿∂a¿∂n-Sp∂p ˛ apSn-hn-Xn-s\ßv ˛ CXp l¥! aqe-kw-hn-XvI-S-en¬ AP-{khpw D≈˛ I¿Ω-at{X H∂n\p ]pdsI H∂mbn D≠mbn amdn ad-bp-∂p.Ø .∂! 57 Ae-b-dp-am-gn-bn-ep-≠-\-¥-am-bm˛ Ie-bnXp Iey-b-\m-Zn-Im-cy-amIpw ken-e-c-km-Zn-i-co-c-ta¥n \m\m˛ hpe-Ip-cp-hm-bp-cp-hmbn \n∂n-Sp∂p.n-emWv \nc-¥c . CXv GXp kmK-cØ .e . Cu {]{In-b°v Hcp apSnhpw D≠m-hp-I-bn√. Xnc-bn-√mØ IS¬ Hcp hntcm-[m-`m-kw-t]mse tXm∂pw. Ct∏mgpw \mw Xnc-Iƒ ImWp-∂p.a . kwhnXv F∂p ]d-™m¬ Adn-hm-Wv.mbn temI-k¿÷\w \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X . ]t£.nse Xnc-If .n-bmb cq]-ßfn-eqsS {]]©w \ΩpsS apºn¬ \ne-\n¬°p-∂p-≠v. Hcp ]Xn-\m-bncw h¿j-߃°p-apºpw IS-en¬ XncIƒ D≠m-bn-cp--∂p. {]]-©hpw Xcw-Kß .∂-bmWv {]]-©Ø .v.mWv? aqe-kw-hn-XvIS.s . \mw t]m-bmepw IS-en¬ Xnc-Iƒ D≠m-Ipw. CtX-t]m-se-Xs . CXv Ah-km\-an-√msX \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ib . Ae-bdpw Bgn-bn¬ A\-¥-am-bm-Ie D≠v ˛ ˛ Xnc-bn-√mØ IS-en¬ A¥y-an-√mØ ‘ambm-Ie’ D≠v.w. IS-en¬ Xnc-bn-√m-Xmbn Ign™m¬ ]ns∂ AXv IS-e-√m-Xm-Ipw. CsXmcp B›-cy-I-c-am-bn-´p-ff kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. hnim-e-amb IS-en¬ Hcp Xncbv°pw imiz-X-amb \ne-\n¬∏n-√. \nc-h[ .]-{In-bbpw \S°p-∂X .yw-Xs .w-K߃ cq]w-sIm-≈p-∂X .m-Wv. .v.f-t∏msebmWv. Cu {]{In-b°v Hcp A¥yw Fhn-sS-bmWv? ˛ CsXmcp B›-cyw-Xs∂! ˛ {]]-©-Øn\p aqe-Im-c-W-amb Bfl-kmK-c-Øn¬ Fs∂∂pw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ ˛ k¿§-{]-{In-b-I-fm-Wn-Xv.mbn Adn-bW .v. Pew Ipd-®p-t\cw Xnc-bpsS BIm-csØ]q≠v Ipd-®p-t\cw \ne-\n∂v ]ns∂ IS-en-te-°p-Xs∂ Xncn®pebn-°p-∂p.c . Xnc F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ AXn¬ \pcbpw ]Xbpw Hmf-ßfpw Ae-Ifpw alm-X-cw-K-ßfpw F√mw Dƒs∏-Spw. Adn-hnt\bpw Bflm-hn-t\bpw At`-Za .

IS-ens‚ Bg-ßf .nepw CXp-t]m-se-bm-Wv. Cu ]mSv {]]-©k . ]t£. Ie F∂p ]d-™m¬ Hc-Sb . AXp-sIm-≠m-Wn-Xns\ Iey F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Cu ]©-`q-Xß .vac .n¬ saΩdn Ccn-°p-∂X . CXv A\m-Zn-Im-cy-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Pew. Hmtcm `qX-Øn\pw Hmtcm {][m\ KpW-ap-≠v.n-√mØ Ahÿ kwPm-Xa.m-Wv. Cu {]]©w A©p `qX-ßf . 58 \h-\-h-an-∂-se-bn-∂p. sh≈-Øns‚ KpWw ck-amWv.W .psS tNcp-hb .m-Wv ˛ Hcp ]mSv. Bfl-km-Kc . BZn-bn-√msX \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .n¬Xs∂ henb Xnc-°q-´-߃ D≠m-°m\p≈ a¿±-߃ Hfn-™n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.m-Wv. Bflm-hn¬ Cßs\ ad-™n-cn-°p∂ {]]-©k .n¬ ImWp∂ F√mw Bfl-km-K-c-Øn¬ kq£va-ambn ad-™n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.a-t‰˛ ±nh-k-an-Xn-ßs\ Nn¥ sNbvXn-SmsX Ahn-c-X-sa-Æn-b-f-∂n-Sp-∂-sX√mw {`a-samcp t`Z-hp-an-√-dn-™n-tSWw.n¬ ]dbp-I.m-Wv.m-hp-Ib . `qan-bpsS KpWw K‘-am-Wv. F√m ImeØpw Xncbpw ISepw H∂n-®p-Xs∂ Ccp-∂n-´p-≠v.n-h® . A·n-bpsS KpWw cq]hpw hmbp-hnt‚Xv kv]¿i-hp-am-Wv.n-s√∂v \mw Ign™ t«mI-Øn¬ ]d-™p. Cu {]{Inb A\m-Zn-bmWv. .´. BImi-Øns‚ KpWw i_vZa .CXv Iey ˛ A\m-Zn-Im-cy-amIpw ken-e-c-kmZn ˛ ˛ icocw G¥n \m\m DeIv Dcp-hmbv Dcp-hmbv \n∂n-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Cu ambm-Ie k¿÷-\-{]-{Inb°v ka¿∞-am-Wv.m-Wv. {]]-©Ø . IS-en¬ Hcn-°epw Xnc-If.sf apgp-h≥ D≈-S° .m-fa .sf krjvSn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°m≥ CXn\p Ignbpw.p-t]m-se. Ct∏mgpw \S-°p-∂p.\m-sf.I .Ø . B im¥X XmXvIm-en-Ia . Iºyq-´-dns‚ ssat{Im-Nn-∏p-If .m-[y-Xsb ‘ambm-Ie’ F∂mWv kmt¶-Xn-I`m-jb .fpw KpW-ßfpw tN¿∂v \m\m-Io¿Æ-amb temIw Bhn¿`-hn-°p-∂p. hfsc ka¿∞-amb coXn-bn¬ krjvSn-Pm-eß . AXns‚ KpW-amb ckw XpSßnbh-bpsS BIm-cw ssIs°m-≠v \m\m-X-c-Øn-ep-≈ temI-ß-fpsS cq]-ß-fmbn ChnsS \ne-\n¬°p-∂p. F∂mepw IS¬ ]q¿Æ-ambn im¥-am-sb∂n-cn-°s .n-´p-≠v.

hm-Wv. kw`-hn-®s .n-emWv? Ime-t_m-[Ø .X∂pw Xcw-Xn-cn°p-∂Xv GX-Sn-ÿm-\Ø .w.W-t∏mse GI-amb Ime-[m-csb JWvUn-°p-∂-Xns\ {`aw F∂mWv hnfn-°p∂-Xv.psS ASn-ÿm-\Ø .\h-\hw C∂se C∂v \msf at‰-Zn-hkw CXn-ßs\ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Nn¥ sNbvXn-SmsX Ahn-cXw FÆn Af-∂n-Sp-∂-sX√mw {`aw Hcp t`Z-hp-an√ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Adn-™n-tSWw ˛ ]pXp-]p-Ø-\mb Pohn-Xm-\p-`-h-߃ C∂se. C∂ns\ h®p-sIm-≠mWv hcm\n-cn-°p∂ \msf-sb-°p-dn®v Nn¥n-°p-∂X . a\- n-\p--≠m-Ip∂ Nne {]Xo-Xn-Iƒ am{X-am-Wv. \Ωƒ H∂ns\ ]pXn-bs .v.n-√msX BZy-¥-hn-lo-\-amb Adn-hn¬ A\p-`-h-߃ Ime-L-S-\-bn¬ s]SmsX-Xs∂ kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. ]g-bX . . a‰-∂mƒ tIh-e-amb ImesØ sh´n-ap-dn®p a\- n-em-°p∂ Xc-Øn-ep-≈ Nn¥-bn¬ G¿s∏-SmsX hncm-a-an-√msX FÆnbpw Af∂pw Adn-bp-∂-sX√mw {`aw am{X-amWv Ime-Øns‚ s]mcpƒ GIamWv.mb _¿Kvk¨ Aßs\ tIh-ea . Cßs\ Adn-b-Ww.n™ Imcy-am-Wv. C∂se F∂Xv Hcp Ime-bf . Ime-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ ]g-b-sX∂pw ]pXn-b-sX∂pw ]d-bp∂ A\p-`-hßfpw {`a-am-Wv.K . CX-dn-bp-∂-h≥ arXyp-hn-te°p \sΩ hen-®n-g-°p∂ Ime-Øns‚ ]nSn-bn¬\n∂pw ]pd-Øp-I-S-°pw.X√mw Fhn-sSbmWv Ccn-°p∂Xv? kvac-Wb . ]pXn-b-Xns\ ssIs°m-≈pw.n-emWv Ccn-°p-∂X . C∂-se-sb∂pw Cs∂∂pw \msf-sb∂pw D≈ Iev]-\-Iƒ {`aß-fm-Wv.X∂pw a\ v hnth-Nn-®-dn-bp-∂p.p-≈X .X∂pw ]g-bs .v. ]m›m-Xy-Nn-¥I .v.mb ImesØ pure duration F∂p hnfn-®p.n-emWv C∂v F∂v \mw ]d-bp-∂X . \mcm-bW . AXn¬ Hcp t`Z-h-ap-an-√.ns\ If™v ]pXn-bX . H∂ns\ ImWp-tºmƒ AXns\ ]pXn-bs . C∂v C∂-se-tb°mƒ IqSp-X¬ bmYm¿∞y-ap-≈X .n-am-hn-te°v a\- ns\ Db¿Øn-sb-Sp-°W . ]g-b-Xns\ \Ωƒ X≈n-°-fbpw. AXp kw`-hn-®p-Ig .X∂pw ]g-bs .v.ns\ ssIs°m-≈m-\mWv Bfp-Iƒ sImXn-°p-∂X .\ .m-Wv.m-Wv.l .v. Ime-Øns‚ Cu {`a-Nn-¥-bn¬\n∂pw ⁄m\-Øns‚ tIh-ea .n-emWv F√m A\p-`h-ßfpw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X . C∂v \msf. t`Z-ßf . B kvac-Wb .p-cp-hpw _¿Kvks . a\- v Fs∂∂pw ]pXpa tXSp∂ kz`m-ha .

]pkvX-I-Øn-emWv Adn-hn-cn-°p-∂-sX∂ cqV-aq-e-amb tXm∂-ep-sIm-≠mWv \Ω-fpsS hnZym-`ymkw-t]mepw ]pkvX-I-tI-{µo-Ir-X-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ Rm\pw Adnhpw Htc-sbmcp {]Imiw am{XamWv. Rm≥ F∂Xv AdnhpXs∂bm-Wv. Adn-hns\ hn´v AY Rm\pw C√ ˛ ˛ ˛ Fs∂ ]ncn-bp-In¬ Adnhpw C√ {]Im-i-am{Xw ˛ ˛ ˛ Adnhv Adn-bp-∂-h≥ F∂p c≠pw Hm¿Øm¬ Hcp s]mcpfmw CXn¬ C√ hmZ-taXpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Adn-hn¬\n∂pw A\y-ambn ]ns∂ ‘Rm≥ ’ F∂ t_m[-Øn\pw AkvXn-X-bn-√. F∂n¬\n∂pw A\y-ambn Hc-dnhpw D≠m-Ip-∂n-√. F{Xtbm Bfp-Iƒ Adn-hp-Iƒ tiJ-cn-°m-\mbn ]pkvXI-߃ hmbn-®p-]-Tn-°p-∂Xv \Ωƒ ImWm-dp-≠v. {]Im-i-am{Xw Adn-h-dn-bp-∂-h-s\∂p c≠p-tam¿Øm˛ semcp-s]m-cpfmaXn-en√ hmZ-ta-Xpw. Rm≥ Adn-bp∂p F∂ {]-{In-bbn¬ Adnhv \Ωn-¬-\n∂pw AI-∂n-cn-°p∂ H∂p-t]mse tXm∂pw.c . Ah≥ Adn-hmIp∂ kº-Øp-sIm≠v A[n-Im-csØ Iøm-fp-∂p. am{X-a-√.b n¬ Rm≥ Adn. Rm\pw Adnhpw Htc-sbmcp {]Imiw am{Xw Adn-sh∂pw Adn-bp-∂-h-s\∂pw D≈ c≠pw At\z-jn-®p-t\m-°n-bm¬ Htc-sbmcp s]mcp-fmWv CXp X¿°-an-√mØ kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. Kpcphns‚ A\p-`-h-Øn¬\n-∂mWv Kpcp C°mcyw \ap°p ]d-™p-X-cp- . hy h. Rm\pw Adnhpw XΩn¬ Hcp t`Z-hp-an-√. At∏mƒ IqSp-X¬ Adn-hp-≈-h≥ kaq-l-Øn¬ AwKo-Ir-X-\m-Ip∂p.∂ p.b p.59 Adn-hns\ hn´Y Rm\p-an√sbs∂˛ ∏ncn-bp-In-en-√-dnhpw. At∏m-gmWv aqey-h-Ømbn Pohn-°m≥ Ign-bp-I. Adn-hns\ Zpcp-]-tbmKw sNøm≥ Cß-s\-bp-≈ sX‰mb t_m[w klm-b-I-am-bn-´p-≠v. Fs‚ Adnhv Fs∂ms° ]d-bm-dp-≠v. Hcp s]mcpƒX-s∂-bm-Wv. Fs‚ Im¿ F∂ hnh-£-I-fn¬ hcp-∂-Xp-t]mse Adnhpw Rm≥ kzmb-Ø-am-°nb Fs‚ Hcp ssIh-i-h-kvXp-hm-Wv. Fs‚ Adnhv F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ Fs‚ hoSv. C°mcyw A\p-`-h-ambn´p hc-Ww.` mj. Aßs\ ]d-bp-tºmƒ hen-sbmcp sX‰ns\ ]n≥K-an-°p-I-bmWv \Ωƒ sNøp-∂-Xv.l m.

]c-am¿∞-Øn¬ Rm≥ Adnhp-X-s∂-bm-Wv. ]W-ap-≠m-°m≥ {]b-Xv\n-°p∂ a\p-jy-sc-t∏m-seXs∂. ]t£. 60 Adn-hn-s\bpw aa-X-bv°-[o-\-am°n˛ ∏d-bp-an-Xn≥ ]c-am¿∞-tam¿Øn-SmsX ]d-In-ep-a-∏-c-X-Øz-sa-∂-t]m-eo˛ bdn-h-dn-bp-∂-h-\-\y-am-Ip-ho-e. AXp-sIm≠v hmZ-ß-sfm∂p-an-√msX Rm\pw Adnhpw Hs∂-∂p-≈ A\p-`-sshIyw t\Sn-sb-Sp°p-I. hen-sbm-c¿∞-Øn¬ Rm≥t]mepw Adn-hn-t‚-Xm-Wv. tkm{I-´okv ]d™ hn{ip-Xh-N-\-ß-fn-sem-∂v. Fs‚ Adnhv F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ Adnhv F∂n¬\n∂pw _mly-amb Ft¥m H∂m-sW∂v Icp-Xpw. Fs‚ `qan. Adnhv Ft‚-X-√. AXp \ns‚ `qan. AXp-sIm≠v Adnhv kzmb-Ø-am-°m≥th≠n a\p-jy≥ {]b-Xv\n-°p-∂p. Adnbp∂h-\pw Adnhpw H∂m-bn-Øo-cp∂ AJ-WvUm-\p-`q-Xn-bn¬ am{Xta \n¿hrXn D≠m-hp∂p-≈q. CXv Fs‚ ]Ww. Rm\pw Adnhpw c≠√. Aßs\ ]d-™mepw B ]c-am-fl-XØzw Adn-bp-∂-h≥ AXp-X-s∂-bm-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse Fs‚ Adnhv F∂ Xc-Øn¬ Icp-Xn-t∏m-cp∂ Adnhv CX-dn-bp-∂-h\v Ah-\n¬\n∂pw A\y-am-bn-cn-°p-∂n-√.∂-Xv. . AXp \ns‚ ]Ww F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xp-t]mse A⁄m-\n-bmb a\p-jy≥ Fs‚ Adn-sh∂p hyh-l-cn-°m-dp≠v. hnZym-`ym-k-ÿm-]-\-ß-fnepw A°m-Z-an-I-fnepw a\p-jy-¿ IpØn-bn-cp∂p ]Tn-°p-∂Xp ImWmw. CXn≥ ]c-am¿∞w Hm¿Øn-SmsX Adn-hn-s\bpw aa-Xbv°v A[o-\-am°n ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ]d-bpw ˛ ]d-Inepw ˛ B ]c-XØzw F∂-t]m¬ ˛ Cu Adnhv ˛ Adn-bp-∂-h\v A\y-am-Ip-hoe ˛ ˛ CXv CXns‚ ]c-am¿∞w At\z-jn-®-dn-bmsX Adn-hn-s\-t∏mepw Fs‚ Adnhv F∂ Xc-Øn¬ Adn-hns\ kz¥-am°n Bfp-Iƒ ]dbpw. AXn¬ eh-teiw kwibw th≠. ‘\o \ns∂-Øs∂ Adn-bpI’ F∂m-Wv.

n-emWv Ccn-°p-∂X .. \Ω-psS aX-ßfpw XØz-Nn-¥-Ifpw Cu Zqjn-X-h-e-b-Øn¬\n∂pw D≠mb Pmc-k-¥-Xn-I-fm-Wv. At∏mƒ F¥v Ah-ti-jn-°p-∂pthm AXmWv BXy-¥n-I-amb A\p-`hw.p-t]m-se-Xs∂ IpS-Øn¬ . Jeo¬ Pn{_m≥ {]hm-N-I≥ F∂ IrXnbn¬ ]d-bp∂p: ‘Fs‚ ssZhta. C{µn-b-߃ ˛ AXm-Xns‚ [¿ΩsØ Ah-ew_n-®p-sIm≠v ˛ C{µn-b-hn-j-b-ßsf Af-∂-dn-bp∂p. 61 shfn-hn-jbw hne-kp∂p thdp-th-dm˛ bf-hn-Sp-an-{µn-b-am¿∂p Xs‚ [¿Ωw Pf-X-b-Xnßp ZnKw-_-cmZn \mam˛ hen-sbm-Sp-b¿∂-dn-hmbn amdn-Sp-∂p. Adn-bp-∂-h≥ ]c-am-flm-hm-Wv. shfn F∂m¬ BIm-ia. shfn-hn-jbw thdp-th-dmbv hne-kp∂p C{µnbw ˛ Xs‚ [¿Ωw B¿∂v Af-hnSpw PfX AXv Cßv ZnKw-_-cmZn \mam-h-en-sbmSv Db¿∂v Adn-hmbn amdn-Sp-∂p ˛ ]pd-wtem-I-Øp-≈ hnj-b-߃ ˛ sht∆-sd-bmbn ˛ FÆ-a‰ {]Xo-Xn-Iƒ D≠m-°p-∂p. Adn-hn\v \sΩ hn´p-sIm-Sp-°-Ww. F∂p hnfn-°m≥ ]mSn-√.v GsXmcp hkvXp-hn\pw ÿnXn sNøphm≥ CSw thWw. Fs¥∂m¬ Rm≥ ssZh-Øn-t‚-Xm-Ip-∂p. ˛ C{µn-b-߃ sht∆-sdbmbn Af-∂-dnbp-∂-Xv A⁄m\w \nan-Ø-amWv. hkvXp-hn¬ BImiw Ccn°p-∂p-ap≠v. ssZhØn\p \sΩ ka¿∏n-°-Ww.’ B Hc-l-¥IqSn \Ω-fn¬\n∂pw t]mI-Ww.n¬ IpSw Ccn-°p-∂X .v BIm-iØ .]c-am-flm-hns\ Adn-bp∂p F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xn¬ Hcp sX‰p-≠v. B tXm∂¬ Hcp henb iq\y-Xsb krjvSn-°pw. CXmcpw Hm¿°m-dn-√. BIm-iØ . ˛ ChnsS ˛ Zn°v. ssZhw Ft‚-X-√. F√m hkvXp-°fpw BIm-iØ . ssZhsØ kz¥-am-°p∂ \mw ssZhtØ-°mƒ ap¥n-b-h-\m-sW∂ {]Xy-£-a-√mØ Hcp A-l-¶m-c-ap-≠v. A]-I¿jt_m-[sØ krjvSn-°pw.m-W.n¬ hkvXp Ccn-°pI am{X-a√ .. AXp-t]mse Fs‚ Adnhv F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ Adnhv F∂n¬\n∂pw A\y-am-bnt∏m-Ipw. BImiw ap-X-embh ˛ \nc-h-[n-bmb \ma-k-©-b-tØm-sSm∏w ˛ Db¿∂v ˛ tIh-e-amb Adn-hns\ {]m]n-°p∂p.

n¬ ÿnXn sNøp-∂p-≠.nte°v {]nbsØ ]dn-®p-\-Sp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-b√ hnj-b-Øn¬\n∂pw {]nbsØ AS¿Øn-sb-SpØv Bflm-hn¬ Dd-∏n®p \ndpØp-∂X . At∏mƒ ImXns‚ hnj-ba .p∂ hnjbhpw ]pdwtem-IØ . C{µn-bß .v BImiw.v Kpcp JWvUn-Xa . CXdn-bp-tºmƒ B\µw Ae-X√ . am‰-an-√m-ØX .ƒ Chsb Adn-bp-∂Xv Af-∂m-W.m-W.v Cßs\ Hmtcm C{µn-bØ .m-bn-cn-°p-∂X . Hcp hnj-bØ .b-∂m¬ Cu \m\m-Xz-Øn-t‚-Xmb temI-Øn¬ \mw imiz-Xa .m-W.v B th‰pa hcp-∂Xv C{µn-bß .b .q-ey-ßsf ImWm≥ {ian-°p-∂Xm-W.mbn hcp-∂X .n¬\n∂pw thdn-´n-cn°p-∂p-≠.n-°W . cq]-amWv ChnsS IÆns‚ [¿Ω-hn-j-b-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.n¬\n∂p thsdmcp hnj-bØ .mkv{Xw Cu temIsØ Af∂p a\- n-em-°p-hm≥ {ian-®X .b .v ’ Pf-Xs .mbn Cu {]m]-©n-IX .v Hcp hnjbw thsdmcp hnj-bØ .mb Adn-hn¬ D]-kw-lc ..fpsS [¿Ω-hy-Xn-cn-‡XsIm≠mWv. IÆn\p ImWp-hm-\p-ff Ignth D≈q.ß-fm-W.v Af-hn-√mØ sshhn-[y-tØm-Sp-IqSn temI-Øn¬ cq]-߃ D≈Xpt]mse kv]¿i-ßfpw i_vZß . ]c-h-i-\mbv ]c-XØzw Fs‚-sX∂v Hm¿°-cpXv ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ euIn-I-ho-£-W-Øn\v ASn-as∏´v ]c-am-flm-hns\ Fs‚ ]c-am-flm-sh∂v Icp-Xm≥ ]mSn√ ..BImiw Ccn-°p-∂pap-≠.mWv.fpw K‘-ßfpw ck-ßfpw At\-Ia . F∂m¬ Cu am‰sØ Adn-hn-te°v B\-bn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bpw.ns‚ ^e-am-bn-´mWv hnI-kn-Xa . B Adnhp Xs∂-bmWv Rm≥. Adnhp am{Xta D≈q. B[p-\n-Ii .w.n-jb .v Cu BImi-Øn-emWv FÆ-a‰ hnj-bß . 62 ]c-h-i-\mbv ]c-X-Øz-sa-s‚-sX-t∂m¿˛ °-cp-XcpsX∂p IYn-∏-sXm-∂n-\mte hcp-a-dn-th-Xp. tIƒ°p-hm-\p-≈ Ign-hn-√.hcm IYn-∏-Xmte ]c-a-]Zw ]cn-Nn¥ sNbvXn-tS-Ww.v F√mw amdn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. CXv Adn-bp-tºmƒ PfX t]mIpw.ƒ ÿnXn sNøp-∂X .ß-tfbpw Af-°m≥ Ign-bpw.mbn ]d-bp∂p: ‘CsXms° Pf-Xb .pw. Zn°v XpSßn ]m©-`u-Xn-Iamb Cu {]]©w ap-gp-h≥ \ma-k© .v F√m \ma-ßfpw A\m-an-Ia ..n\pw AXm-Xns‚ [¿Ωhpw B [¿Ω-Øn-\n-Wß .v F√m C{µn-bh . IÆn\p cq]sØ ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂p.n¬ H∂pw-Xs∂ C√.v i_vZa . tIƒhn ImXns‚ [¿Ω-am-Wv.

D]-\n-jØpw ss__nfpw Jp¿˛ B\pw at\m-l-c-ambn Dcp-hn-Sp-hm≥ Ign-bp∂ ]WvUn-X-in-tcma-Wn-Ifp≠v.b . ]c-am-flmhv GtXm Hcp henb hkvXp--hn-s\-t∏mse am{Xta Aßs\ At\z-jn-°p-∂-hs‚ a\- n¬ tXm∂n-°p-I-bp-≈q. ]t£. Cuiz-c≥ \ns‚ {]mWs‚ {]mW-\m-Ip∂p F∂v.Acp-sX∂v IYn-∏-sXm-∂n-\mse hcp-a-dn-thXv? hcm IYn-∏-Xmse ˛ ˛ -˛ ˛ ]c-a-]Zw ˛ ]cn-Nn¥ sNbvXn-tSWw ˛ Icp-Xm≥ ]mSn-s√∂v ]d-™-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xw F¥-dn-hp-≠m-Im-\mWv? shdptX ]d-™-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xw ⁄m\w ssIh-cn-I-bn-√. Poh≥ sImcp-Øn´ sIWn-bn¬ Ahcpw Hcp ]d-hsb-t∏mse Nnd-In-´Sn®p \ne-hn-fn-°p∂ kµ¿`-߃ ]e-t∏mgpw D≠mIm-dp-≠v. G‰psNm√n lrZn-ÿ-am-°m-hp-∂-Xp-a-√. Fs‚ ]c-am-flmsh∂v Nn¥n-°p-∂Xv sX‰m-Wv. bm{X Gsd sNbvXv `qan F∂ Cu k{X-Øn¬ FØn-t®¿∂n-´p≈ ]Yn-I∑m-cmWv \Ω-sf-√m-hc . Cßs\ Nn¥n-°-cp-sX∂p ]d-™-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xw \ap°v icnbmb ]c-am-fl-⁄m\w ssIh-cn-I-bn-√. bmK-Ønepw tbmKØnepw A√. kXyw thsd Fhn-sStbm BsW∂p IcpXn AXns‚ em`-Øn-\mbn {]b-Xv\n-°p-tºm-gmWv ]ch-i-\m-Ip-∂-Xv. DØ-tc-¥y-bn¬ Pohn-®n-cp∂ ⁄m\n-bmb I_o¿ ]dbp-∂p: Cuiz-c≥ aµn-c-Ønepw akvPn-Zn-ep-a-√.v. \Ω-fpsS bm{X \Ω-sf-tØ-Sn-bp-≈XmsW∂v Adn-bp-tºmƒ CXp-hsc sNbvX bm{X-I-sf√mw hrYm-hn-em-bn-cp-∂p F∂p t_m[y-s∏-Spw. [ym\-Øns‚ kmK-c-kz-—X ssIh-cp-thmfw Cu ]cn-Nn-¥\w XpS¿∂n-tS-Ww.X . Bflm-hns‚ AKm-[-X-bn-te°v kz¥w X]- n-\m¬ B≠n-d-ß-Ww. ]c-hi . G‰hpw ASpØ H∂ns\ Adn-bmsX AI-sebp-≈-Xn-te°p Xe \o´p∂ \ΩpsS _p≤n ]mc-h-iy-am-Wv. F√m Ft‚-Xp-Ifpw Rm\-√m-Ø-XmWv. B _p≤nsIm-≠mWv ho≠pw \Ωƒ ]c-am-flm-hns\ Adn-bm≥ {ian-°p-∂-Xv.pw. .mWv Hc-phs\ Xf¿Øp-∂X . ap‡n ImWm-∏mTw ]Tn®p≠m-°m-hp∂ H∂-√. Ah¿ aWn-a-Wn-t]mse thZ-]p-kvXIw sNm√n-t°ƒ∏n®p-X-cpw. ]c-am-flm-hns\ [ym\-\n-a-·-ambn A\p-`-hn-®-dn-b-Ww. \mw \sΩ Xnc-™p-\-S-°m≥ XpS-ßn-bn´v P∑-߃ Gsd Ign-™p.

H∂m-bn-cn-°p∂ kXysØ c≠m°n hn`-Pn®v ho≠pw H∂m-°n-t®¿°p-hm≥th≠n a\p-jy≥ \SØp∂ s]Sm-∏m-Sn-s\-°p-dn-t®m¿Øv Kpcp hyk-\-kz-cØ .ƒ hmbn-®p-Iq-´pIbpw Zp¿{Kl-amb Imcy-߃ ]d-bp-Ibpw sNøp∂ Hcp _p≤n-Po-hnsb-bmWv ]WvUn-Xs . {]m¿∞n-°p-∂h .n-emWv Cu t«mI-Øns‚ Ah-km-\] .∑ .v. ⁄m\n-bpsS ]c-a-clkyamb B¥-cn-Im-\p-`hw B¿°mWv a\- n-em-hp-∂-Xv ? Bflm-t\z-jWw \S-Øp∂ km[-I-∑m-cn¬ s]mXpth kw`-hn°m≥ CS-bp-≈ Hcp sX‰ns\ Kpcp Xncp-Øn-Ø-cn-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv.ƒ sNøp-∂X . \ΩpsS tImtf-Pp-If . Bflm-hn-s\-bmWv km£m-XvI-cn-t°-≠-Xv.nepw an°- .m¿ F∂mWv hnfn-°p-∂X .v. F∂m¬ Hcmƒ km[-\Iƒ A\p-jvTn-°p-tºmƒ AXp thsd Fhn-sStbm Ccn-°p∂ H∂msW∂p Icp-Xn-bmWv A\p-jvTm-\ß .msc ]c-hi .v.nepw A°m-Za . Adn-hn-t\bpw Adn-bp-∂-h-t\bpw A\y-hev°-cn®p ImWm≥ ]mSn-√. ]WvUn-X≥ F∂-√.lkyw B¿°pw Adn-bm≥ Ignbp∂n-√t√m! BcmWv ]WvUn-X≥? sse{_-dn-bpsS Hgn™ tImWn-en-cp∂v alm-{K-Ÿß .v.n-If . F∂m¬ Kpcp CØ-c° .\∂v kmam-\y-P\w Icp-Xp-∂X .mZw Na-®n-cn-°p-∂X .63 Adn-hn-en-cp-∂-]-c-Xz-am¿∂n-Sm-Xo˛ bdn-hn-s\-bn-ß-dn-bp-∂-sX-∂ntb Xm≥ ]c-h-i-\m-b-dn-hoe ]WvUn-X≥ X≥˛ ]c-a-c-l-ky-an-Xmcp ]m¿Øn-Sp-∂p ! Adn-hn-en-cp∂v A]-c-Xz-am¿∂n-SmsX Cu Adn-hns\ Cß-dn-bp-∂-sX-∂ntb ]c-h-i-\mbv ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Adn-hn¬\n∂v Xs∂ A\y-am-°msX Bflmhp Xs∂-bmb Adn-hns\ ChnsS Adn-bm-sa-∂-√msX X∂n¬\n∂pw A\y-amWv Bflm-hv F∂pIcpXn At\z-jn°p∂-Xn- eqsS Adn-hoe ]WvUn-X≥ X≥ ]c-a-c-lkyw CXmcp ]m¿Øn-Sp∂p! ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Bflm\p`hw kw`-hn-°p-I-bn-√.cpw tbmKbpw {]mWm-bm-ahpw sNøp-∂-hcpw a{¥hpw ]qPbpw \S-Øp-∂hcpw F√mw Ah-cn¬\n∂v A\y-Ym-I-cn® Hcp kØ-bmbn I≠psIm-≠mWv Bflm-t\z-jWw \S-Øp-∂-Xv. ]WvUn-X≥X≥ ]c-ac .

au\-Øns‚ AKm-[a . Imay-hn-j-b-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp-≈ \nc-¥-c-amb {]h¿Ø-\-am-Wv.m-Ie . I¿Ωw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. hkvXphpw hnj-bhpw XΩn¬ A¥-c-ap-≠v. ]t£.n¬ tIm¿Øn-W°n samgn-™p-sIm-Sp-°m≥ Ignbp-Ib .mb Adnhpw Rm\pw c≠√ F∂ A\p-`h .nb ]Zm-he .m-Wn-X. ]c-aa .X . hnjbw hnjwt]m-se-bm-sW∂mWv AjvSm-h-{I-ap-\n-sb-t∏m-ep-≈h¿ ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Cu XS- sØ Bfl-kvar-Xn-sIm≠v X≈n-°-f-b-Ww.ysØ D≈dn-bp-∂X . Bflm-hns‚ koa-b‰ Hm¿Ω-bm¬ F√m D]m-[n-Iƒ°pw AXo-Xa .v ]c-ac .n-√.k .y-ap≈ ⁄m\n F∂m-Wv. 64 {]Xn-hn-jbw {]Xn-_-‘-ta-dn.ta-hp˛ ∂nXns\ \nP-kvar-Xnsb \ncm-I-cn°q AXn-hn-i-Z-kvar-Xn-bm-e-XoX hnZym˛ \n[n sXfn-bp-∂n-Xn-\n√ \oXn-lm\n.n-√mØ t_m[-amWv ]WvUm.l . ]WvUn-X≥ F∂ hm°ns‚ t\cmb A¿∞w A\p-`h .k . Aßs\ ]d-bm≥ Imc-Ww.mb B\-µ-L-\-amb ⁄m\w D≈n¬ sXfn-bp∂p. hnjbw \Ω-psS hmk-\sb apgp-h≥ DW¿Øn \sΩ I¿-tΩm-’p-I-cm-°pw. F∂m¬ CXv Bcpw a\- n-em-°p-∂n-√t√m F∂ Aev]w tJZw \nd™ Hcp kzchpw Cu t«mI-Øn¬ AS-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.m-Wv. {]Xnhnjbw ˛ {]Xn-_-‘-tadn tahp∂p ˛ CXns\ \nP-kvar-Xnsb \ncm-I-cn°q AXn-hn-i-Z-kvar-Xn-bm¬ AXo-X-hn-Zym-\n[n ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ sXfn-bp∂p ˛ CXn\v C√ \oXn-lm\n ˛ Hmtcm hnj-bhpw Bfl-km-£m-XvIm-c-Øn\p XS w \n¬°p∂p. Hmtcm Poh-s‚bpw ]cn-Wmaw Cu ]ca-cl . Hcp . hkvXp a\- ns‚ {]nbm-{]n-b-ß-fp-ambn Ie-cp-tºmƒ AXp hnj-b-am-bn. CXn¬ Abp-‡-ambn H∂p-an-√.b .mb Hcp Dƒsh-fn-®a .kyw F∂p ]d-bm≥ Imc-Wa . Cu A\p-`hw henb-he .n-If .sØ ]WvUm F∂p ]d-bpw. Aev]wt]mepw hn`m-Ko-bX .hmdpw B{i-a-ß-fnepw Cu ]c-h-i-∑m¿ A[--c-hym-bmaw sNøp-∂Xv \Ωƒ ImWm-dp-≠v.n-te-°mWv th≠-Xv.

X v . Cu kvarXn-bn-eq-sS-bmWv \Ωƒ AXn-cp-I-fn√mØ ⁄m\sØ Bflm-\-µ-ambn A\p-`-hn-®-dnbp-∂-Xv.c n. Bflmhns‚ kvarXn-sbbmWv AXn-hn-i-Z-kvarXn F∂v Kpcp hnti-jn-∏n®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.s Im. B Bfl-k-Ø-bn¬ {]m]-©n-I-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ apgp-h≥ Hm¿Ω-Itfbpw kq£vaambn tImdn-bn-´n-´p-≠v. CXp X¿°-an-√mØ kwKXn-bm-Wv.∏ n. sXfn-a-bp≈ Hcp Pohn-X-Øn\v thsd Hcp t]mwh-gnbpw C√. H∂v hnj-b-kvar-Xn-bpw.f .≠ n. F¥n-\mWv Aam-¥n-°p-∂Xv? hnj-bß .j . Hc¿∞-Øn¬ Htc-sbmcp kvarXn Xs∂-bmWv c≠p apJß-fn-te°p Xncn-™p-\n∂v {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-Xv. 65 Hcp Ipdn \ma-dn-bm-Ø-sXm-∂p-an-ßn˛ √pcp-a-d-hm-e-dn-ho-ep-W¿∂n-sX√mw Adn-h-h-cn-√-Xn-c-‰-Xm-I-bm-eo˛ bcp-a-sb-bm-c-dn-bp-∂tlm! hnNn{Xw! Hcp Ipdn \mw Adn-bm-ØXv ˛ ˛ Hcp hi-Øp-\n∂pw t\m°n-bm¬ \ap°v Adn-bm≥ Ign-bmØ .t e°p t{]cn. ]ns∂ F\n°pw Bflm-hn\pw CS-bn¬ Hcp a[y-h¿Øn C√.∂ . Bfl-kvarXn ap‡n-k-µm-b-I-am-Wv.® p.° p.b . c≠p Xc-Øn-ep-ff kvarXn-Iƒ (memory) \Ω-fn¬ {]h¿Øn°p-∂p-≠v.Ø n. thsdm∂v Bfl-kvar-Xn-bpw. Iw]yq-´-dnse ssat{Im-Nn-∏pI-fn¬ saΩdn kq£n-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-X-s∂-bmWnXv. Hmtcm hnj-b-Nn-¥bpw ‘F\n-°mZyw ]q¿Øo-I-cWw \¬Iq’ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv \sΩ Imayhn.psS XS w hnj-b-Nn¥ D≈n-S-tØmfw am{Xta D≈q.w. Bfl-\n-jvT-amb km[\ A\p-jvTn-°W . Bfl-kvar-Xn-bn-eqsS am{Xta hnj-bkvar-Xnsb C√m-Xm-°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q. F√m kvac-W-I-fp-tSbpw aqe-I-µ-amWv Bfl-k-Ø. hnj-b-kvarXn _‘-\Øn\p Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p.hnjbw \ΩpsS A\p-`-h-Øn-te°p IS-∂p-h-cp-tºmƒ B hnj-btØmSp tN¿∂ At\Iw hnj-b-߃ Iq´w-Iq-´-ambn at\m-Z¿∏-WØn-te°v X≈n-°-bdn hcpw. Aßs\ Hcp PohnXw apgp-h≥ hnj-b-Nn-¥-tbm-SptN¿∂ {]h¿Ø-\-ß-fp-ambn \Ωƒ Ign-®p-Iq-´p-tºmƒ Pohn-X-Øns‚ BXy-¥n-I-amb e£yw ad∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p. ChnsS Cuiz-cs‚ akvXn-jvI-Øn-emWv CsX√mw tiJ-cn-°p-∂sX∂v ]d-tb-≠n-h-cpw.

cq]-ßf .Xm-∂p-an-ßn√. CXn-s\-sbmcp km[y-X-bm-bn-´mWv a\- n-em°p-∂-Xv.b .p-≠v. Hcp a¨Xcnsb Adn-bm-sa-¶n¬ `qansb apgp-h≥ Adn-bm≥ Ignbpw F∂p-≈Xv Hcp km[y-Xb . ]t£. BIm-iØns‚ AXn¿Øn-Iƒ Fhn-sS--bmWv? {]]©w F¥n¬\n-∂mWv D≠mbXv? {]]-©-kr-jvSn°p ]n∂n¬ Fs¥-¶nepw Dt±-iyapt≠m? Cßs\-bp-≈ tNmZy-߃s°√mw Hmtcmtcm DØ-c-߃ ]co-£-W-ß-fneq-tSbpw \nco-£-W-ß-fn-eq-tSbpw Is≠Øn B DØ-c-ß-sf-sb√mw tN¿Øp-h®v Nn¥n-°p-tºmƒ temIsØ kw_-‘n-°p∂ ]cn-¢n]vXn-bp-≈ Hcp DØcw In´p-sa∂pXs∂-bmWv temPn-°¬ t]mkn‰o-hn-kp-I-fpsS hnizm-kw.X .t.{kw cq]-߃Xs∂-bm-W.W-Xb . H∂ns\ thsdm-∂n¬\n∂pw thsd-th-sd-bm°n-bmWv \Ωƒ Adn-bp-∂X .v.f√mw FÆn-s∏-dp°n Xn´-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ t]mIp-∂X .v.W . AXn\p ImcWw Hcp hkvXp-hns\ \mw Adn-bp-tºmƒ AXn\v Hcp cq]w Ds≠-∂p-ff .n-bp∂ Hcp kam-\m-[n-Ic .psS ad ImcWw Cu kam-\m-[n-Ic . Ch-cpsS Nn¥sb temPn-°¬ t]mkn-‰o-hnkw (logical positivism) F∂mWv hnfn-°p-∂-Xv.n-°m≥ Ignbp-∂X .fbpw ka-\z-bn-®d . temIw F∂p ]dbp-∂Xv _lp-kl . AXp hnNm-cn®v BcmWv `qan-bn-ep-ff a¨X-cn-Is .v.v B cq]-߃s°√mw \ma߃ sImSp-°p-tºm-gmWv temI-hp-ambn \ap°v hyh-lc .v.m-Wv. Aßs\ Bsc-¶nepw {ian-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ AXns\ apgpØ {`ms¥t∂ ]d-bms\m-°p. F√m \ma-cq-]ß . \mcm-b-W-Kpcp CXn-s\-sbmcp hnizm-kam-bn-´√ ImWp-∂-Xv.mWv. Cßs\ Hcp ho£W-tIm-Wn¬\n∂pw t\m°p-tºmƒ \ap-°-dn-bm-\m-Im-Ø-Xmbn Cu temI-Øn¬ H∂pw-Xs∂ C√ F∂mWv Kpcp ]d-bp-∂X . Cu Nn¥m-]-≤-Xn-{]-Imcw Cu temI-Øn-ep-ff F√m Adn-hpIfpw Hcn-°¬ \ap°v Adn-™p-Xo¿°m≥ Ign-bpw. ˛ cq]-ß-fpsS ad ImcWw ˛ Cu temI-hn-j-b-ß-sf-sb√mw ˛ Bfl-t_m-[-Øn¬ DW¿∂v \mw Adn-bp-∂n√ ˛ A\-¥-hn-im-e-am-b-Xn-\m¬ ˛ t{]a-kz-cq-]n-bmb Cu Bflm-hns\ ˛ Adn-bp-∂-h¿ Bcpw C√Xs∂. Hcp Ipdn \mw Adn-bm-Øs .n-te°v .X . ˛ As√-¶n¬ CsXms° Bc-dn-bp∂p ? ˛ A¤pXw \nd™ Cu A\p-`hw Fs¥m-cp hnNn-{X-am-Wv! _¿{Sm‚ v d -en-s\-t∏m-sebp-ff Nn¥-I-∑m¿ ssZh-Øn¬ hnizkn-°p-∂n-s√-¶nepw Adn-hns‚ i‡n-bn¬ hniz-kn-°p-∂p-≠v.H∂pw Cßv C√˛ Dcp ad-hm¬ CsX√mw DW¿∂v Adn-hoe AXn-c-‰-Xm-I-bm¬ Cu Acp-asb Adn-h-h-cn√ Bc-dn-bp∂p Atlm! hnNn{Xw! H∂pw-Xs∂ temI-Øn¬ C√. Cu Adn-hn¬ Hcp XI-cm-dp-≠v.

\mw B Adn-hp-X-s∂-bm-Wv. hc-h-‰p-\n-ev]-tXIw Adn-hXp. hni∏v A·n-t]m-se-bmWv Pzen-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.mb Cu Adn-hns\ Bcm-Wd .WX Pohn-XØ . am{X-a√ Cu kam\m-[n-Ic .n-°m≥ Ign-bpw.n-s‚-Xs∂ ]c-aa .a . GI-amb AXv Adn-hm-Wv. a‰p≈ F√m-hcpw B GI-amb Adnhns‚ kzXzw ssIs°m≠v \ne-\n¬°p∂p F√m Pohn-Ifpw P\n-°p-∂Xv hni-t∏m-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. Cc apX-em-bh F∂pw C{]-Imcw hcp-an-\nbpw hc-h‰v \nev]Xv GIw Adnhv AXv \mw AXp-Xs∂ a‰p F√m-hcpw AXp-X≥ hSn-hm¿∂v \n∂n-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ kpJZpxJk-Ωn-{i-amb hnj-b-߃ F√m-bvt∏mgpw Ct∏m-g-sØ-t]m-se-Xs∂ C\nbpw h∂p-sIm-≠n-cn°pw \n-›-e-ambn \n¬°p-∂Xv H∂p am{X-am-Wv. Pzen®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ A·n-bn-te°v hnd-Ip-Iƒ C´p-sIm-Sp-Øm¬ Ah IØn-®m-ºe . ho≠pw ho≠pw Cu hnj-b-߃ h∂p- . \ma-Xp-Xs∂ a‰p-sa-√m˛ hcp-a-Xp-X≥ hSn-hm¿∂p \n∂n-Sp-∂p.m-Ipw.psS NnØ-Øn¬ elcn ]I-cp∂ Cu A\p-`hw F{X hnNn-{X-amWv! F√m A¤p-X-ß-fn-te°pw-h®v alm-¤p-X-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Bfl-\n¿hrXn Atlm! hnNn{Xw! 66 Cc apX-em-b-h-sb-∂p-an-{]-Imcw hcp-an-\nbpw.n-bp-∂Xv? A{Xbpw ⁄m\-]n-]m-kbpw kXymt\z-j-W-]-c-Xbpap≈ Hcmƒ°v Cu Acp-a-bpsS Aa-c-k-√m]w Km\]o-bq-ja . i_vZ-kv]¿icq-]-c-k-K-‘m-Zn-I-fmb Cc-Isf Xn∂mWv Poh≥ IqØm-Sp-∂-Xv.a\- ns\ DW¿Øn-sb-Sp-°m≥ \ap°v Ign-bm-dn-√. Xn∂mepw Xn∂mepw Xocn-√. hni-∏m-Ip∂ A·nsb ian-∏n-°p-hm\pw Cc thWw. hni∏v Hcp Ima-am-Wv. tbmKn-If .mb B\-µhpw t{]ahpw hgn-s™m-gp-Ip∂ Acp-ab . Cu hnj-b-{]-]-©-sa√mw \ΩpsS Ima-\-I-fpsS D]-i-a-\-Øn-\m-bp-≈ Cc-I-fm-Wv.mbn A\p-`h . \nc-Xn-ib .mb A¿∞-am-Wv. ]e-X-c-Øn-ep≈ Cc-Iƒ \ap°p thWw.

]-{In-b° .v Kpcp ]d-bp∂ Cu hn`P\w ]m›m-Xy-Nn-¥I . CXp Xo¿®-bm-Wv.b p. C{µn-b-߃sIm≠pw a\- psIm≠pw KWn-®-dn-bm-hp∂ H∂v.mbn \n¬°p∂ km£n-kz-cq-]\ .∏ .p≠v. B GIw At\I-XIƒs°√mw Imc-Whpw A[n-jvTm-\h .sf c≠mbn ]Ip-Øp-h®v a\- n-em-°p-∂Xv imkv{Xo-ba.c psS Nn¥°v Hcp ASp°pw apdbpw D≠m°ns°mSp-t°-≠Xv Kpcp-hns‚ [¿Ω-am-W. KW\ F∂ hm°p tIƒ°p-tºmƒ .m-WX . Cu al-Ømb Adn-hns‚ {]kv^p-c-W-ß-fmWv _m°n-bp-ff F√mw. Ah¿ Nn¥n-°p-∂Xpw Aß-s\-Xs . Fhn-sSbpw C√.]-{In-bb .p-am-Wv.v At∏mƒ Aß. F∂m¬ Cu ssPhn-I{. 67 KW-\b .X-c-Øn-ep≈ Hcp A-dnhv DW¿∆nepw C√. Rm≥ B-cmWv? F∂ tNmZy-Øn\v Rm≥ GI-am-Wv.n¬\n∂p Ihn-™s .sIm≠ncn°pw.cpw AwKo-Ic . B Adnhv As√-¶n¬ Bfl-⁄m\w h∂pwt]mbpw Ccn-°p∂ Xc-Ønep-≈X-√. Dd-°-Ønepw C√.m-W.∂-bmWv F∂ DØ-camWv e`n-°p-∂-Xv.v H∂v tkm]m-[n-Ia .v. Ch c≠pw IqSmsX thsd Fs¥-¶n-epw. Adn-hns‚ taJ-eI .s \.a . Rm≥ Adn-hp-Xs . KW-\-bn¬ \n∂v ˛ Ihn-™Xv H∂v km[m-cWw ˛ ˛ Ch c≠pw Hgn™ Hcp A\y-cq]w ˛ ˛ \n\-hnepw C√ CXp \n{Z-bn-¶epw ta¬ C\-\-K-c-Ønepw Fßpw C√ \q\w ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ C{µn-b-Øn-t‚bpw a\- n-t‚bpw IW-°p-Iq-´-ep-Iƒ°v A∏pd-Øp-≈ H∂v.mb Adn-hn-t\m-Sp≈ B`napJyw P\n-°p-∂X .v Nne a\p-jy¿ kwkm-cn-°p-tºmƒ ]eXpw Iq´n-°p-g®p kwkm-cn-°pw.∂-bm-W.≈ h.p-dØv Hcp ssZhn-I{. \nivvNe .Xm∂p km[m˛ cW-anh c≠p-sam-gn-s™m-c-\y-cq]w \n\-hn-ep-an-√Xp \n{Z-bn-¶epw ta˛ en\-\-K-c-Øn-ep-sa-ßp-an√ \q\w.n-°p-∂X .mb Hcp coXn-bm-W. kz]v\Ønepw C√.mb Adnhv (relative knowledge). AXv GI-am-Wv.

hnjm-ZØ .ßfpw AXp-t]mse t_m[˛At_m-[˛A¿[-t_m-[{.t\y \n߃°p kzoI-cn-°mw.m-W.mb ⁄m\-kº .AXv shdpw IW-°p-Iq-´¬ am{X-a√ .v C\n ]d-bm≥t]m-Ip∂ Adnhv tbmKm-\p-`q-Xn-bn¬ ssIh-cp∂ tbmKn-bpsS sXfn-hp‰ D≈-am-W.ß .n-sems° s]cp∏n®p ]d-™p-t]m-cmdp≈ hy‡nK-Xa .n-ep≈ C{µn-bm-\p-`h .√ . a\ v F{X k¶-ev]n-®mepw AsX√mw km[m-cW Adnhp am{X-am-Wv.mbn Ah\p Pohn-°m≥ Ign-bpw.\ .v CXv F√m Adn-hnepw Ihn™ Adn-hm-W.f-t∏mepw km[mcW Adn-hns‚ KW-Ønte Kpcp s]Sp-Øn-bn-´p-ff .m-W.mbn t_m[sØ Db¿Øn-sb-SpØv \ncp-]m-[n-Ia .n-Xa .cw F∂Xv kz]v\Ø .q.AXo-X⁄ m\w Cu c≠v ]´n-Ib .]-{In-bI . Ac-h-h-Sm-Ir-Xn-t]m¬ ˛ Al¥ c≠mbv Adn-hnepw AwKn-bnepw IS-°-bmte Hcp Ipdn Bcy ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Ib-dns‚ BIm-csØ ]mºmbn sX‰n-≤-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]mse Poh≥ c≠p [mc-bmbn Bfl-k-Ø-bn-te°pw A\m-fl-k-Ø-bn-te°pw Htc-t]mse {]th-in-°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Bfl-h-i-Øp-\n∂pw t\m°p-tºmƒ ap‡n-bn-te°p \bn-°p∂ Adn-hmbpw .v km[m-cW Adnhv At\-Ia .n¬s]Sp∂ Adnhv km[m-cW .Ø .Xmcp Xc-Øn-ep≈ Adnhpw C√ F∂p Kpcp JWvUn-Xa .mb hn{`am-flI .m-tI≠ Imcy-an-√. At∏mƒ KW-\b .a .f .n¬\n∂pw KW-\m-Xo-Xa .s .n¬ Pohn-°p-∂h\v temIw _‘-\a .X . C°mcyw kwi-bte-ia .fpw ChnsS ]d-bp∂ KW-\b .mb (hallucinatory) A\p-`h .v _p≤n-sIm≠v Nn¥nt®m C{µn-bß . 68 Ac-h-h-Sm-Ir-Xn-t]m-e-l-¥ -c-≠m˛ bdn-hn-ep-aw-Kn-bnepw IS-°-bmte Hcp Ipdn-bmcy-bn-Xn-ß-\m-cy-bm-Ip˛ s∂mcp-I-pdn-sb-∂p-W-tc-W-aq-l-imen.b .v Im‚ v ]d-bp∂ transcendental knowledge . C\-\K .. Nne aX-{K-Ÿß .∂ .ƒsIm≠v KWnt®m Adn-bm-hp∂ KW-Øn¬ s]´-X√ Cu Adn-h. kwK-cl .a .psS ]cn-KW .ns‚ t. F√m-Øc ..nt\m \ncm-ibvt°m hiw-hZ.mbn ]d-bp-∂p.m-Wv.v At∏mƒ KW-\b .em-Ia .b .n¬ hcp-∂X .\ .m-W.mbn aq∂m-as .n¬ s]Sm-ØX .

m-bn-Øo-cpw.fl . \ap°pw {]]-©-Zr-iy-ßsf \ncm-Icn®v A[n-jvTm-\-amb Bfl-k-Øsb km£m-XvI-cn-t°-≠-Xm-bn-´p-≠v. CXv Bcy-bm-Wv. CXp t_m[n-∏n-®p-X-cp-hm≥ th≠n thZm-¥n-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°m-dp-≈ Hcp ZrjvSm-¥-sØ-bmWv Kpcp ChnsS amXr-I-bmbn FSp-Øn-´p-≈Xv. C°mcyw Cu t«mIØns‚ LS-\sb shfn-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ klm-b-I-am-bn-cn-°pw. As√¶n¬ Ah≥ ]c-a] . F∂Imcyw a\-\-io-e≥ A\m-flm-hn¬\n∂pw Bflm-hnte°p DW¿∂p a\- n-em-°-Ww. At∏mƒ AXns\ hmk\ F∂mWv hnfn-°p-I. H∂p-In¬ Ah≥ sX‰mb Adn-hns‚ taml-he . Nne¿ shfn-®-°p-d-hp-sImt≠m at‰m Npcp-≠p-IqSn InS-°p∂ Ibdp ImWptºmƒ AXp ]mºm-sW∂p \n\®p `b-hn-lz-√-cm-Im-dp-≠v.p-am-bn-´mWv.mb H∂m-W.t ºmƒ B Adnhv A\m.ß .j .I .n¬ Hcp-h\ . Ib-dn¬ ]mºns\ ImWp-∂Xv Adnhp Xs∂-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ Ib.c-bp-≈ Pohn-XØ .W v .ƒ Ah-\n¬ h∂p `hn-°m≥ CS-bp-≠v. \mw {]m]-©n-I-Zr-iy-ß-fn¬ kXysØ Z¿in.b . Cu c≠p hgn-Ifpw \ΩpsS apºn¬ Ds≠-¶nepw GXp Xncs™-Sp-°W-sa∂ \n›bw hcp-Øp∂Xv \Ω-fpsS AXp-hs .f .° p.ƒ \ΩpsS km[m-cW kvac-WI . F∂m¬ AXv Chn-S-sØ kµ¿`-Øn¬ A\m-cy-bm-Wv.psSIqsS \ΩpsS Hmtcm Znh-ksØ PohnX-kw-kI v c .Sv ß .f . Hmtcm Ip™pw P\n-°p-∂Xv Iptd ]q¿∆-ka v c .n-®m-bn-cn-°pw.a m.I . Ahy-‡X .n¬ Ipcpßn IjvS\ .psS IW°p-Iƒ ]d™v Pohn-°p∂ kmam-\y-P\ .ysØ Adn-bm≥ XpS-ßp∂Xv Bcy-bm-W. Aß-s\-bp≈ Rm≥ ]caamb Adn-hn-te°v Xncn™v A[n-jT v m-\k .p-cp-jm¿∞-amb ap‡n-bn-te°p \bn-°p∂ Adn-hns\ kzoI-cn®v B am¿§-Øn-eqsS Ncn®v ]q¿Æ\pw kzX-{¥-\p-am-bn-Øo-cpw.v As√-¶n¬ t{ijvTa . Hm tcm Ip™pw ChnsS P\n®phogp-tºmƒ c≠p Xc-Øn-ep-ff km[y-XI . hmk-\b .v F∂m¬ {]nbm-{]n-b-ß-fpsS I¿XrXzw Gs‰-Sp-Øn-´p-≈ AwKn-bnemWv Rm≥ h¿Øn-°p-∂s .Ø .pw-IqSn tN¿°-s∏-Spw.W .ƒt]mseb√. . B kvac-WI .f .e .h .ns‚ kz`mhw A\p-kc .Hcp Ipdn ˛ CXv Cßv A\m-cy-bm-Ip∂p F∂v Dul-imen DW-tcWw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ A\m-fl-h-i-Øp-\n∂pw t\m°p-tºmƒ CXv ChnsS _‘-Im-c-W-ambpw Xocp∂p.X .X-¶n¬ AXv A\m-cybmb Adn-hm-Wv.W . At∏mƒ hmk-\bpw kwkvIm-chpw Hcp hy‡n-bmb F∂n¬ {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p.Øn¬ {]h¿Øn-°p∂ t{]c-W-I-fm-Wv.d n¬ ]mºns\ I≠ B BƒXs∂ shfn®w hcp-tºmƒ Ib-dn¬ I≠ ]mºns\ \ncm-I-cn®v Ib¿ F∂ kXysØ Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂p.

v. Cu bm{X XpS-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv Ft∂m kw`-hn® Hcp A⁄m-\-Øn¬ \n∂m-Wv. F{X Hm¿Ωn-®n´pw Fhn-sS-bmWv Rm≥ Ccn-°p-∂-sX∂v F\n-°-dnbm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√. AXnse k©m-cn-bm-bn-cn°p∂ Rm≥ {]Xna IW-s°-bmWv Ccn-°p-∂-Xv.w. ]t£ IpXn-cI . {ipXn apXemw ˛ XpcKw sXmSpØv ˛ Hcp Bfl-{]-Xn-a-sbgpw ˛ IcW{]ho-W≥ Bfpw ˛ cXn-c-Y-tadn Al¥ ]pdta cay-cq]w{]Xn AP{kw s]cp-am-dn-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ C{µn-b-ß-fnsem∂mb sNhn apX-emb IpXn-c-Isf ]q´n Bflm-hns‚ {]Xna Fgp-∂≈p∂ a\-s ∂ kmcYn \nb-{¥n°p-∂-Xp-amb cXn-bm-Ip∂ cY-Øn¬ Ibdn Al¥ ]pd-Øp-≈ kpJ-hn-j-b-߃s°m∏w ho≠pw ho≠pw Np‰nØn-cn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. cXncYw F∂mWv B hml-\-Øns‚ t]cv. Bflm-hn¬ Rm≥ \n›-e-\m-Ipw..ƒ D≠v. Rm≥ thsd Fhn-sS-bp-a√ . F∂mWv Cu bm{X°v Hcp Adp-Xn-bp≈Xv? Rm≥ F∂nse Fs∂ Adn-b-Ww. {]Xna Poh-\m-Wv. F∂nse Ima- . Fhn-sS-tbm-h®v Rms\s∂ ad-∂p-t]m-bn. \mw Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw B bm{Xbn¬ ]¶m-fn-I-fm-Wv. Aßs\ Hcp bm{X-bpsS ca-Wo-b-amb Hcp Nn{XoI-c-W-amWv Cu t«mIw.f . ⁄mt\-{µn-bß . Rm≥ F∂n-em-sW∂v Adn-bW . At∏mƒ bm{X Ah-km-\n-®p. Ahn-sS-\n-∂mWv \mw bm{X Bcw-`n-°p-∂-Xv. Fs‚ cY-Øn\p A©p IpXn-cI . Gsd {]ho-W-\mb a\-s ∂ Ic-W-amWv IpXn-cI-fpsS ISn-™m¨ ]nSn-®n-cn-°p-∂X . Rm≥ {]Xn-a-bm-bn-S-Øp\n-∂mWv F\n°v bm{X sNtø≠nh∂-Xv. \mw bm{X sNøm≥ Hcp hml\sØ B{i-bn-°p-∂p-≠v.69 {ipXn apXemw XpcKw sXmSp-sØm-cm-fl-˛ {]Xn-a-sbgpw Ic-W-{]-ho-W-\mfpw cXn-c-Y-ta-dn-b-l¥ cay-cq]w {]Xn ]pdta s]cp-am-dn-Sp-∂-P{kw. PohnXw Hcp bm{X-bm-Wv.m-Ip∂ A©v IpXn-c-Iƒ. kpµ-c-cq-]-ßfpw arZpkv]¿i-ßfpw lrZy-amb cpNn-Ifpw hmk-\-Ifpw I¿Æm-\-µ-I-c-amb i_vZ-ßfpw C{µn-b-ßsf -c-an-∏n®p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p.ƒ°m-Is´ kpJhn-j-b-ß-fn¬ IpXn-®p-]m-bm-\mWv hy{K-X. Bflm-hns‚ {]Xn-_nw-_-cq-]-amWv Poh≥.

Al-¥. AXv Bflm-\-µ-am-Wv.p-≠m-bn-cn-°pw.v At∏mƒ I¿Ω-Øn¬ ip≤o-Ic . 70 Hcp cXn.mb I¿Ω-߃sIm-≠m-W.\-IfpsS Xo AW-bpw.n-cn-°p∂ D]m-[n-If .W . thsd F√mw I]-S-t{km-X- p-I-fm-Wv. Bflm-hns\ am{Xta B\-µØ . Ht∂-bp-≈q. . C{µn-b-߃. a‰p Nne¿°m-Is´ F{X tI´mepw a\- n-em-hp-I-bn-√. Hcp cXn-Xs∂ Al¥ C{µnb A¥x-I-cW Itf-_cw F∂n-sXm-s°-bmbn hncnbpw thdmw Adn-h-h≥ F∂-dn-thmfw CXn∂p hncm-a-saßv? Hm¿Øn-tSWw B\µw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Htc Hcp B\µw Xs∂-bmWv A-l-¥-bmbpw C{µn-b-ßfpw A¥°-c-W-ßfpw ico-chpw F∂n-h-sb√mw Bbn thsd-th-sd-bmbn Xo¿∂n-Sp∂Xv.ns‚ t{kmX- mbn Adn-bm≥ ]mSp-≈q.psS tZmjsØ Xo¿Øv Bfl-kz-cq-]sØ Fßs\tbm Aß-s\-Xs∂ ImW-Ww. hy‡n-i-co-c-Øn\v D]m-[n-I-fn-eqsS am{X-amWv Adnbm≥ Ign-bp-∂p-≈q.ƒ Gev°p-tºmƒ Aen-™p-t]m-Ip-∂X ..ß .p-t]mse Xntcm-`-hn-°pw. anYym-Xzw-sIm-≠mWv \Ωƒ Atßm´v Hen®p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv. Nne¿°v F√mw Bg-Øn¬ Nn¥n-®-dnbm-\m-Ipw.psS IÆp-Iƒ°v \√ ImgvN-i-‡n-bm-Wv. CXv Bflm-hns‚ tZmjw-sIm-≠√ . D]m-[n-Iƒ°v Cu tZmjw ssIh-∂n-cn-°p-∂Xv \ΩpsS hnI-ea . Nne Bfp-If . Adn-bp-∂-h-\mb Rm≥ thsd F∂p a\- n-em-°p-∂n-S-tØmfw Cu \m\m-Xz-{`-a-Øn\p hncm-a-sa-ßs\ D≠m-Im-\mWv? \∂mbn C°mcyw Hm¿Ω thWw. icocw CsX√mw hy‡n-]-c-amb D]m-[n-I-fm-Wv. A¥°-c-W-߃. F∂m¬ thsdm-cmƒ°v h¿Æ-ßsf Xncn-®dn-bm-\m-hp-I-bn-√. IpXn-c-Ifpw tXcm-fnbpw cY-N-{I-ßfpw aqS¬a™n¬ kqcy-In-cW .psS tZmjwsIm-≠m-Wv. Bflm-hns\ ad-®p-h® .X-s∂-b-l-¥-bn-{µn-bm¥x Ic-W-I-tf-_-c-sam-∂n-sXm-s°-bmbn hncn-bp-an-Xn∂p hncm-a-saßp thdm˛ adn-h-h-s\-∂-dn-thm-f-tam¿Øn-tS-Ww. D]m-[n-If .w.Ww sIm≠p-hc . Hmtcm a\p-jy-\nepw Cu D]m-[n-Iƒ°v hyXym-ka .

∑ . B `K-hms‚ Nmb-°q-´p-If . D]m-[n-t`-Zw-sIm≠p am{X-amWv hnjb-t`m-K-Øn-\p-ff Xzc hcp-∂-Xv.Htc-sbmcp B\µw am{Xta D≈q.c .n¬\n∂pw Dcphw sIm≈p∂ \mw Pohn-XsØ Icp-∏n-Sn-∏n®v sIm≠p-hc .p-s≠∂v ]d-bp-Ibpw AsX-¥msW∂v Is≠-Øm≥ {ian-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ XØz-Nn-¥m-hn-`m-Kß . `mK-hX .f .p-≠. Bflmhv Ht∂-bp-≈q-sh-¶n¬ B\-µhpw ]e-Xm-Im≥ CS-bn-√. kh-\-sam-gn™v Ah-\n-bn¬ Bcpw ka-Xz-am¿∂p \nev]oe A\m-Zn-eo-e-bt{X ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Ahn-cf-amIpw CXv BIth Adn-™m¬ Ah\v AXn-c‰ kpJw `hn-®n-Sp-∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ P\-\hpw ac-Whpw C√msX temI-Øn¬ Bcpw-Xs∂ \n›-e-amb \ne-bn¬ \n¬°p-∂n√.‡ . P\-\hpw ac-Whpw Pohn-Xhpw BZn-bn-√m-sØmcp eoe-bm-Wv.b . hnj-b-t`m-K-ØnemWv t`Zw hcp-∂-Xv.p-≠.m¿ {]]-©sØ `K-hms‚ eoe-bm-bn-´mWv Z¿in-°p∂-X. AXp-sIm≠v F√m t`mK߃°pw Hcp AdpXn hcp-Ø-W-sa-¶n¬ Bfl-cXn H∂p am{X-amWv kXy-am-bn-´p-≈q F∂ A\p-`-h-\njvT B¿÷n-°p-I-bmWv th≠-Xv.\ \SØn Ifn°p-∂p. apS-°-an-√msX \S-°p∂ Cu {]{In-b-Isf ]q¿Æ-ambpw B\p-`q-Xn-I-ambn Adn-™m¬ B ⁄m\n°v AXn-cp-I-fn-√mØ ]c-am-\µw e`n-°p∂p.v .v `K-hm≥ Hcp sIm®p-Ip-™n-s\-t∏mse {]]-©c . AXns‚ ImcWw Kpcp shfn-s∏-SpØp-∂Xv A\p-`-hn-°p∂ hnj-bhpw A\p-t`m-‡mhpw thsd-th-sd-bmsW∂v Adn-bp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv. Bflm-\-µ-Øn¬ Cu th‰p-a-bn-√.N .`.r-jvSn°v Hcp tkmt±-iy-Xb .ptºm-tg°pw `K-hm≥ ]pXnb Nmb߃ tX®v \sΩ ambv®p-If .v F∂m¬ Aßs\ Hcp e£yhpw C√ F∂pw hmZn-°p-∂h . AhnsS thsdmcp Nn{Xw hc-b° v pw.pw. 71 kh-\-sam-gn™p ka-Xz-am¿∂p \nev]o˛ eh-\n-bn-em-cp-a-\mZn eoe-bt{X Ahn-c-f-am-Ip-an-Xm-I-th-b-dn-™m˛ eh-\-Xn-c‰ kpJw `hn-®n-Sp-∂p. {]]-©k .

I bpw sNøp. ]n.k . \ma-cq-]-ßsf \ncm-I-cn®v ]q¿Æ-amb Bflm-hns\ H∂mbn Adn-b-Ww. \sΩ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw A\m-Zneo-e-bn¬ ]q¿Æ-ambpw \Ωƒ ]¶m-fn-I-fm-bn-´n-√. GsXmcp K¿`Øn¬\n∂pw H∂v PmX-amtbm B K¿`m-i-b-Øn-te-°p-Xs∂ AXns\ Xncn-s®-Sp-°p-∂X .∂ p. {]k-hhpw {]Xn-{]-k-hhpw Fs∂∂pw Bflm-hn¬ \S-∂p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p. GI-amb Bflm-hmWv Cu \ma-cq-]-߃°v A[n-jvTm-\w.Un Hukvs]≥kvIn F∂ Nn¥-Is‚ {]kn-≤-amb Hcp {KŸamWv Tertium Organum. F∂m¬ F√m \ma-cq-]-ß-tfbpw Iq´n-h-®mepw Bflm-hns‚ ]q¿ÆX In´p-I-bn-√. \qdp ss]k-Iƒ tN¿Øp-h-®m¬ Hcp cq]-bmIpw F∂p-≈Xv \ΩpsS km[m-cW KW-\-bm-Wv. Hcp apSn-hp-an-√.n-s\-bmWv {]Xn-{]-khw F∂p ]d-bp-∂X . At±lw djy-bn¬ P\n® Hcp anÃn-°mb Kp¿Pn-^ns‚ injy\m-Wv. tIhew Nn˛ ∑bn adp-Iq-dnXp hnZy. {]k-hn-°pI am{X.√ . F∂m¬ Bflm-hns\ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Cu KW\ hne-t∏mIp-∂n-√. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Hcp cq]bn¬ \qdp ss]k-Iƒ tN¿∂ncn°p∂p. 72 {Inb-sbmcp Iqdn-X-hnZy. {]Xn.h n. AXv At\I-am-Wv. At∏mƒ Ah≥ ]c-am-\-µ-Øns‚ koa-b‰ thyma-Øn¬ aXn-a-d∂mÀm-Zn-°p-∂p. Hukvs]≥kvIn ]q¿Æ-tØbpw (whole) Awi-tØbpw (part) kw_-‘n-°p∂ Hcp XØz-hn-Nmcw Cu {KŸØn¬ \S-Øp-∂p-≠v. AXp-sIm≠v B eoe-bn¬ Dƒt®-cpI F∂p-≈-XmWv \ΩpsS kp\n›n-X-amb Dt±-iyw.v.a .mWv {]]©w F∂p ]dbmw.f . {]k-hn-°p-∂-Xn-s\-bmWv kh\w F∂v Dt±-in-°p-∂-Xv. FÆ-a‰ \ma-cq-]ß . \mcm-b-W-Kpcp AXp-sIm-≠mWv Ahn-c-f-am-Ip∂ Cu kh-\-{]{In-b-Isf BIth Adn-bWw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Aßs\ {]]-©-eo-e-bn¬ Dƒt®-cp-∂-Xn¬ XS w \n¬°p∂ hy‡nK-X-amb Al-¥sb \n¿Ωm¿÷\w sNøm-\p-≈ {iaw \mw \S-tØ≠-Xm-Wv. ]q¿Æw F∂m¬ AXn¬ At\Iw Awi-߃ D≠m-Imw.° p. Cu KW\ \Ω-fpsS Nn¥-bn¬ Fs∂∂pw hmkvX-h-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. amb-bmte \nb-X-an-Xn-ßs\ \nev°n-epw ]ncn-™˛ ±zb-]-c-`m-h\ Xpcy-ta-In-Sp∂p.≠ v .Cu c≠p KW-Ønepw \mcm-b-W-Kpcp ]d-bp∂ A\m-Zn-eo-esb Dƒs∏-Sp-Øm≥ Ign-bp-Ibn-√. . Cu {]I-c-W-Øn¬ Bflm-hn-emWv {]k-h-߃ \S-°p-∂-Xv.{ ]. AXns\-bmWv A¥¿⁄m\w F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv.

⁄m\-e-_v[n-°p-th≠n I¿Ωw sNøp-∂-Xn-eqsS ⁄m\-I¿Ω-k-ap-®-b-tZmjw kw`-hn-°p-sa∂v i¶m-cm-Nm-cy¿ ]d-bp∂p. AhnZy F∂ ssZz-X-Øn-\∏p-dØp≈ Bfl-t_m-[sØ [ym\n-°p-∂-Xn-eqsS Xpco-bm-\p-`qXn D≠m-Ip∂p. i¶cm-Nm-cy¿ ⁄m\-sØ-bmWv I¿Ω-Øns‚ ÿm\Øv Bfl-km-[-Iambn ImWp-∂-Xv. amb ImcWw hnZybpw Ahn-Zybpw Cßs\ F∂pw thdn´p \n¬°p-sa-¶nepw hnZy.ImcW-amWv. Fs¥-∂m¬ kpJw {Inb-IfpsS kz`m-h-a-√. Pohs‚ kwXp-e-\m-hÿ°v hnZybpw Ahn-Zybpw ]c-kv]cw klm-b-I-ambn h¿Øn-°p-sa-¶nepw ]q¿Æ-amb . a\p-jy≥ Fs¥√mw sshhn-[y-ap≈ I¿Ω-ß-fmWv sNbvXp-sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv! Hcp arK-Øns‚ Pohn-X-Øn¬ C{X-am{Xw k¶o¿Æ-XIƒ H∂pw ImWp-∂n√. CXns‚ FXn¿h-i-Øp-\n∂pw t\m°n-bm¬ GI-amb Adn-hns‚ \ndhp am{Xw. CXv Ahn-Zy-bm-Wv.m-bn-cn-°p∂ kpJ-Øn-\p-th≠n IW-°n√msX {Inb-Iƒ sNbvXpIq´n-bn-s´¥p Imcyw? AXp-sIm≠v bmK-ßfpw b⁄-ßfpw AXp-t]m-sebp≈ A\pjvTm-\-ßfpw Bfl-km-£m-XvIm-c-Øn\p t{]m’m-l-\o-b-ß-f-√. Imep-sIm≠p \S-°m-hp∂ a\p-jy≥ Imdpw hnam\hpw I≠p-]n-Sn-®Xpw \n¿Ωn-s®-Sp-ØXpw {Inb-I-fn-eq-sS-bm-Wv. hnZy Hcp ⁄m\-{]-{In-b-bm-Wv. a\p-jy≥ {Inb-Iƒ sNøp-∂Xv ^tem-t±-iytØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv.{Inb Hcp Iqdv ˛ CXv AhnZy adp Iqdv ˛ ˛ tIhew Nn∑bn CXv hnZy amb-bmte CXv Cßs\ \nbXw ]ncn-™p-\n-ev°nepw B Zzb-]-c-`m-h\ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Xpcy-ta-In-Sp∂p ˛ Hcp hi-Øp-\n∂pw t\m°p-tºmƒ {Inb-Iƒ \S-°p-∂p. I¿Ω-ß-fpsS adp-]p-d-ambn hcp-∂Xv ⁄m\-am-Wv. Aß-s\-bmWv imkv{Xw Hmtcmtcm I≠p-]n-SnØ-߃ \S-Øns°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. kpJØn-\p-th≠n {Inb-Iƒ sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xv Ahn-Zy. Nn∑-b-am-bn-cn°p∂ t_m[sØ Adn-bp-∂-XmWv ChnsS hnZy F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Ch c≠pw amb-bpsS A[o-\-X-bn¬ hcp-∂-Xm-Wv. Bflm-hns‚ kz`m-ha . CXv hnZy-bm-Wv. AXn\p I¿Ω-Øns‚ Bh-iy-an-√. Ipd®p kpJ-Øn¬\n∂v IqSp-X¬ kpJ-amWv F√m I¿Ω-ß-fp-tSbpw e£yw. Bflm-hns‚ kz`mh-am-Wv. Akw-kvIr-X-h-kvXp-°sf kwkvI-cn-°-Wsa-¶n¬ AXn¬ a\p-jy≥ Ahs‚ A≤zm-\sØ sNep-tØ-≠-Xm-bn´p≠v. Cßs\ hnZybpw Ahn-Zybpw c≠mbn ]ncn-™p-Xs∂ Ft∏mgpw \n¬°p-∂p. AXv B¥-cn-I-ambn Adn-tb≠ H∂mWv.

Htc-sbmcp am‰¿ Cu {]]-©-Ønse sshhn-≤y-ßsf ]ns∂ Fß-s\-bmWv P-\n-∏n-®Xv? _lp-hn-[-amb ssPh-ssh-hn-≤y-ß-fn¬ F√mw Htc-sbmcp am‰¿ Xs∂-bmWv Ccn-°p-∂-sX∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ \mw X¿°w ]d-bm-dn-√.f . F∂m¬ temI-Ønse aX-߃ {]]-©-Øns‚ {kjvSm-hmbn AZriy-amb Htc-sbmcp Cuiz-cs\ {]Io¿Øn-°p-tºmƒ Nne¿ AXn¬ Ahn-iz-kn-°p-Ibpw Nne¿ Aan-X-ambn hniz-kn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.m-cWw A¿∞-ambn Ccn-°p-∂p-s≠∂pw Adn-bp-∂X . Cuim-hm-tkym-]-\n-jØv XpS-ßp-∂-Xp-Xs∂ PK-Øn-se√mw Cui≥ Bh-kn-°p-∂p-s≠∂p ]d-™p-sIm-≠m-Wv.X∂pw FÆ-a‰ krjvSn-Pm-eß . Hcp s]mcp-fn-¶¬ At\-I-ap≠v At\Iw s]mcp-fn¬ Hcp A¿∞-hpw F∂ _p≤n-bmte At`-Z-ambn Adn-hn-e-Sßpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ CXv F√m-hcpw Adn-hoe ˛ ˛ AXn-tKm-]-\o-b-amIpw ˛ Hcp kØ-bn¬ At\Iw cq]-t`-Z-߃ kw`-hn-°p∂p. CXp Xo¿Øpw cl-ky-amb ⁄m\-am-Wv. Cu ⁄m\-ap-≠m-bm¬ cq]-t`-Z-ß-sf√mw t]mbn Adn-hns‚ GIm-fl-I-X-bn¬ F√mw hne-bn-°pw.n-eqsS .]tl-fn-Isb \ap°v Xo¿°m≥ Ign-bp-∂Xv. Cu Zm¿i-\n-I{. `uXn-I-imkv{Xw {]]-©-Øns‚ kØsb At\z-jn®p sN∂t∏mƒ AXp am‰¿ BsW∂p a\- n-em°n. 73 Hcp s]mcp-fn-¶-e-t\-I-ap-≠-t\Iw s]mcp-fn-sem-c¿∞-hp-sa∂ _p≤n-bmte Adn-hn-e-S-ßp-a-t`-Z-am-bn-sX-√m˛ hcp-a-dn-ho-e-Xn-tKm-]-\o-b-am-Ipw.n-se√mw B ]c-aI . Aßs\ Hcp Zzb-]-c-`m-h-\-bmWv Xpco-bm-\p-`q-Xn-bn-te°v \sΩ \bn°p-∂-Xv.Bflm-\p-`-h-Øn\v Cu Zzµz-tØbpw D√w-Ln-t°-≠-Xm-bn-´p-≠v. At\Iw cq]-t`-Z-ß-fn¬ Hcp A¿∞ambpw ÿnXn sNøp-∂p. Cu Z¿i\w F√m-h¿°pw a\- n-em-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√. ]c-aamb Imc-W-Øn¬ \n∂mWv Cu temIw D≠m-bs .

CXn-semcp cl-ky-kz-`m-h-ap≠v.Hcp ka-\z-b_ .mkv{Xw ]d-bp-∂Xv . ]d-™p-sIm-Sp-Ømepw _p≤n-sIm≠v a\- n-em-°m-sa-∂√msX A\p-`q-Xn-bpsS Xe-Øn¬ hc-W-sa-¶n¬ hmk-\m-£bw D≠mbn Bfl-tN-X-\-bn¬ \njvT D≠m-I-Ww.p-≈X . AXp-t]mse PUw NnØn¬ D≈-en-bp∂p. Fs¥√mw Xc-Øn-ep≈ s]mSn-Iƒ? B[p-\n-Ii . F√m-h¿°pw Cu XØzw Adn-bm≥ Ign-bm-ØXv F¥psIm-≠mWv? Kpcp ]d-bp∂p: CXv tKm]y-am-sW-∂v. Adnhp am{Xta F√m AkvXn-X-Iƒ°pw Dd-hn-S-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≈q. s]mSn Hcp `qhn¬ AkwJyw B s]mSn°v Dƒs∏Spw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Hcp `qhv CXn-\n√ `n∂-`mhw ˛ ˛ AXp-t]mse ˛ PUw NnØnepw Aa-cp∂p˛ NnØv DS-enepw ˛ Cßv CXn-\m¬ Hm¿°n¬ CXv GIw Cu ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ s]mSn Cu `qan-bn¬ FÆ-a-‰-XmWv. 74 s]mSn-sbm-cp-`q-hn-e-kw-Jy-a-s∏m-Sn-°pƒ˛ s∏Sp-samcp `qhn-Xn-\n√ `n∂-`mhw. NnØv PU-amb DS-enepw D≈-en-bp∂p CXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ ChnsS a\\w sNbvXp t\m°n-bm¬ NnØpw PUhpw H∂mWv. `qan apgp-h\pw s]mSn-sIm≠v IpØn-\n-d-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.p≤n ssIh-cn-°p∂-Xn-eq-sS-bm-Wv.p-sIm-≠mWv Kpcp CXv tKm]-\o-ba . PU-a-a-cp-∂-Xp-t]mse NnØnepw Nn˛ ØpS-en-ep-an-ßn-Xn-\m-en-tXm¿°n-teIw.m-sW∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.m-Ipw. GIhpw At\-Ihpw F∂p≈ Nn¥-t]mepw Ah-km\w Adn-hn¬ hneo-\a . B s]mSn-bpsSsb√mw D≈m-bn-cn-°p∂ Htc-sbmcp `qan `qan-bn¬\n∂p thdn´v s]mSnt°m s]mSnbn¬\n∂p thdn´v `qant°m D◊-bn-√. hmk-\-bpsS i‡n-bmb X≈n-®-aqew Bfl-_p≤n sXfn-™p-In´m≥ hfsc {]bm-ka .

Imev]-\n-I-ambn a\p-jy≥ krjvSn-® t`Z_p-≤n-I-sf-sb√mw Kpcp ka-{K-ambn ka-\zbn-∏n-°p-I-bmWv ChnsS sNøp-∂-Xv. Kpcp ChnsS `qan-bnse s]mSnsb DZm-l-cn®p ]d-bp-tºmƒ hfsc hni-Z-amb A¿∞-Øn-emWv AXns\ a\- n-emt°-≠-Xv. a\ pw ico-chpw cs≠∂p [cn-°p∂-Xn-eqsS Pohn-X-Øns‚ Akw-Xp-en-Xm-hÿ XpS-ßp-I-bm-bn. Bflm-hn\p kmK-c-Øns‚ kz`m-h-am-Wv. Rm≥ Rm≥ F∂v e£y-an-√msX Ae-bp-∂Xv Xcw-K-\n-c-I-fmWv Bfl-kq-\-ambn hncn™ .v CeIvt{SmWpw t{]mt´mWpw \yqt{SmWpamWv Hcp B-‰-Øns‚ DƒL-SI-߃. Ipih≥ Hcp IpSw D≠m-°n-bm¬ AXn-\p-]-tbm-Kn® IfnaÆv s]mSn-bm-Wv.m-bn-´p-≈Xv F∂m-W. IpS-Øn\v BIm-csØ \¬Ip-∂Xv s]mSn-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ sU°m¿´ns‚ Nn¥ tcmKm-Xp-c-amb Hcp hy‡n-Xz-Ønte-°mWv a\p-jys\ \bn-®-Xv. sds\ sU°m¿´v F∂ ]m›m-Xy-Nn-¥-I-\mWv a\- n-t\bpw icoc-tØbpw ]ncn-®p-h®v Nn¥-bvs°mcp cq]-`-{ZX sIm≠p-h-cp-hm≥ {ian®-Xv. ico-c-߃ sh≈-°p-an-f-Iƒ t]mse-bm-Wv.c-Wp-°ƒ .]c-at. AXpsIm≠v Kpcp NnØpw PUhpw F∂p≈ hn`m-Ko-b-X-Iƒ Hcn-°epw kw`-hn-®n-´n-√. s]mSnsb hn´v IpS-Øn\ncn-°mt\m IpS-sØ-hn´v s]mSn°ncn-°mt\m Ign-bp-I-bn-√. Cß-s\-bp≈ FÆ-a‰ B‰-߃ {]]-©-\n¿Ωn-Xn-bn¬ ]¶ptN¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.sIm≠mWv {]]-©w. {]IrXn Pew X\p t^\w ˛ ˛ Bgn Bflm ˛ Alw Alw F∂v Ae-bp-∂Xv Du¿Ωn-Pmew AI-a-e-cm¿∂ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ {]IrXn Pe--kam\amWv.\n¿Ωn-Xa . \mw a\- n-t\bpw ico-ctØbpw Nne-t∏m-sgms° c≠m°n a\- n-em-°n-t∏m-cm-dp-≠v. B IpSw apgp-h≥ s]mSn-bmWv. Atßm´pw Ctßm´pw Dƒt®¿∂n-cn-°p∂ Cu Ahÿ Xs∂-bmWv \ΩpsS Poh-\nepw D≈-Xv. B s]mSn-bn-se√mw IpSw Ccn-°p-∂p.F∂pw PU-Øn¬ NnØ-a¿∂n-cn-°p-Ibpw NnØn¬ PUa-a¿∂n-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p-s≠∂v shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn. 75 {]IrXn Pew X\p t^\-am-gn-bm-flm˛ hl-a-l-sa-∂-e-bp-∂-Xq¿Ωn-Pmew AI-a-e-cm¿∂-dn-shms° apØp-Xm≥ Xm≥ \pI-cp-h-Xm-a-ar-Xm-b-Xnßp \q\w.

ƒ Al-¥b .v. Bflmhv Bgn-t]m-se-bm-Wv. B Pew Ipan-f-Iƒ°v cq]w sImSp-°p-tºmƒ AXns\ {]Ir-Xn-bn¬ ImWp∂ sshhn-[yam¿∂ ico-cß . B IS-en-\S. 76 aW-e-f-h‰p sNmcn™ hm]n-bn-t∑˛ eWn-b-Wn-bm-be hoin-Sp-∂-hÆw A\r-X-]-c-ºc hoin-b-¥-cm-flm˛ hns\-b-Ita _lp-cq-]-am-°n-Sp-∂p. .Adn-shms° apØp-Xm≥ Xm≥ Aar-Xm-b-Xnßv \pI-cp-hXmw \q\w ˛ Adn-hp-I-sf√mw ˛ ]c-am-Àm-Z-I-c-amb apØp-IfmWv. ˛ Hcp-h≥ Ahsb Aar-X_nµp-°fmbn ChnsS ˛ Xo¿®-bmbpw \pIcp∂p.n-bn¬ apØp-Iƒ Hfn-™n-cn-°p-∂Xv D]-cn-X-e-Øn¬\n∂pw t\m°n-bm¬ ImWn-√.n-cI .n-™n-cn-°W .p-tºmƒ apØn-t\-°mƒ hne-bp≈ Bflkq-\ß . Bgn Htc-kabw Bg-ap-≈Xpw A\-¥-hp-am-Wv. At∏mƒ apØp-If . B Bgn-bnse Pew-t]m-se-bmWv {]Ir-Xn.∏´p ImWm-dp-≠. AXp-t]m-se-bmWv ‘Alw’ hnj-b߃°p ]n∂mse Ae-™p-Xn-cn™v kzbw `·m-i-\mbn Bflmhn¬Xs∂ h∂phne-bn-°p-∂X .mbn ImW-Ww. \nc-\n-cb .m-Wv. D]-a-I-fn-eq-tSbpw _nw_-ß-fn-eq-tSbpw {]Xo-I-ß-fn-eq-tSbpw kwkm-cn-°p-∂Xv temIØv Fhn-sS-bp-ap≈ ]ucm-Wn-I-amb B≤ymfln-I-kw-ln-X-I-fpsS Hcp {]tXy-I-X-bm-Wv. B ]ucm-Wn-I-kw-kvIrXn-bpsS IÆn apdn-bmØ irwJ-esb {]Xn-\n-[m\wsNøp∂ \mcmb-W-Kp-cphpw D]-a-I-fn-eq-sSX-s∂-bmWv Bflm-t\z-j-I-\n¬ AarX-h¿jw sNmcn-bp-∂-Xv.f .f .v Kpcp A{Xam-{Xw IS-ens\ ASp-Ød .m-bn-cn°pw B Adn-hp-Iƒ. Cu Ah-\n-bn¬ Bgn-tb-°mƒ t{ijvT-amb Hcp D]-asb thsd Hcp hkvXp-hnepw Z¿in-°m-\m-hp∂n-√.n¬ apgp-h≥ ISen-s‚ Nn{X-߃ ho≠pw ho≠pw {]Xy-£s .w.m-sW∂p a\ n-em-°W .psS IÆ-©n-°p∂ Ieh-d-bn¬ \Ωƒ FØn-t®cpw .w. Kpcp-hns‚ IrXn-If .n-jy-µn-bmb Cu A\p-`h-ßsf Hcp ⁄m\n-bpsS Ft∏mgpap≈ Hcp Ah-ÿb . Pe-amWv Bgn°v kØ-bm-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.ƒ F¥mWv At\z-jn-°p∂Xv? Ah Ic-bn-te°v HmSn-b-W™v kzbw X√n-Ø-I¿∂v ISen¬Xs∂ Xncn®phne-bn-°p-∂p.mbn Ae-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Xcw-KP . AXp-t]mse Bflm-hns‚ Bg-ßfn¬\n∂pw Adnhv DW¿∂p-hc .m-eß . Aar-X\ . BgØn-te°p t]mI-Ww. Xcw-K\ .

m°n tXm∂n-∏n°p∂p.ƒ h∂phoWv A¥cwKw Imdpw tImfpw sIm≠ IS¬t]m-se-bm-Ip-∂p.psS Im‰p aqew _mly-hn-jb .]-£p-_v[X .m¬ Pe-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp∂ im¥n `RvPn°-s∏-Sp∂p.ß . ChnsS Hcp Ipf-Ønse Pe-Øn-t\m-SmWv Bflm-hns\ D]-an-®n-cn-°p∂-Xv. hnj-b-ßsf Bflm-hns‚ kz—-am¿∂ Pe-cm-inbnte°v IS-Øn-hn-SmsX t\m°Ww. CXp-t]mse-bmWv A¥-cm-flm-hns‚bpw kz`m-hw.b .∏mƒ \mw Fhn-tSbpw Z¿in-®n-cp∂GIX s]mbvt]m-Ip-∂p.nse F√mhn[ sshIm-cn-I{.q-]ß .a .f .c .e . kz—hpw \n›ehp-amb Hcp Pe-cm-in-t]m-se-bm-Wv.mbpw Nne-t∏m-sgms° Bk‡n Df-hm-°p-∂hbmbpw amdp-∂p.I .m¬ {]£p-_v[a . aW-ens‚ ]X-\m-Lm-XØ .f . \mw \ΩpsS Bflm-hns\ AXns‚ kzm`m-hn-I-X-bn¬ im¥am-bn-cn-°m≥ am{Xw A\p-h-Zn-°p-I.aW¬ Af-h‰v sNmcn™ hm]n-bn-t∑¬ AWn AWn-bmbv Ae hoin-Sp∂ hÆw A\r-X-]-c-ºc hoin ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ A¥-cm-flm-hns\ AIta _lp-cq-]a . tSmƒkvt‰mbn-bpsS Cu t\mh-ens‚ X\n-bm-h¿Ø-\-߃Xs∂bmWv \Ω-fpsS Pohn-X-Ønse ]e kw`-h-ß-fpw. Pohn-XØ .m-bn. Ipfw apgp-h≥ Ae-am-eI . s]mXpth kz—-am-bn-cn-°p∂ Bflm-hn¬ hmk-\I . tSmƒtÃm-bn-bpsS A∂m-I-cn-\o\ F∂ hntizm-Ø-c-Ir-Xn-bn¬ A∂-bp-tSbpw Ico-\n-s‚bpw kam-[m-\-]q¿Æ-amb Pohn-X-Øn-te°p IS-∂p-h∂ t{hm¨kvIn F∂ A∂-bpsS Imap-I≥ AXp-hsc \ne\n-∂n-cp∂ im¥-kp-µ-c-amb Pohn-XsØ Cf-°n-a-dn-°p-∂p. kvt\l-Øn\p th≠n-bp≈ anYy-bmb ]c-°w-]m-®n-en¬ Dd® Hcp \new \jvS-s∏´v ]nSn-®p-\n¬°m-\mhmsX A∂ sdbn¬∏m-f-Øn¬ Xe-h®v Bfl-lXy sNøp-∂p.n-em-Wv. . IpSpw_-_-‘-߃ BSn-bp-e-™p.mWv.m-°p-∂h . B Ipf-Øn-te°v \nc-¥c .f . \m\m-Xz-{`aw Df-hm-°p∂ {]]-©k . kuay-amb Bfl-hn-ip≤n \nd-™n-cp-∂t.fpw kw`hn-°p-∂Xv CØ-cØ .m-°n-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ ˛ Bflmhv Af-hn-√msX \nc-¥-c-ambn aW¬ hoWp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Ipf-Øn¬ H∂n\p ]ndsI H∂mbn Ae-am-e-Iƒ D≠m-Ip-∂-Xpt]mse Ak-XyßfpsS -]c-º-c-bm-Ip∂ Im‰p hoin kz—-amb B¥-cn-I-t_m-[sØ AXn¬Xs∂ ] .mbn aW¬ hoWp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ib .r-jvSn-Iƒ shdp∏p-fh .

p-t]m-eX .n-eq-sS-bmWv \S-∏n-em-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .n¬ D≠m-Ip∂ tkm]m-[n-Ia . C\n B¥c-{]-]© . Cßs\ kØpw NnØpw Hcp hyh-ÿ-bn¬ A©p XØz-ambn \ns∂-cn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.n-¬ XØp-ey-ambn ]c-aa.hm-bp. Pe-a-£.ƒ.CsXms°-t®¿∂ _mly-{]-]© .mb Adn-hp-Iƒ.fpw H∂n-°p∂ Hcp k‘n-ÿm-\h .v AIhpw ]pdhpw F∂ t`Z-an-√msX ka-{K-ambn Nn¥n-°p∂ Hcp LS-\s .v Hcp hiØv BIm-iw.pap-≠.v \mcm-bW .m-W.77 ]c-samcp hnÆp.v Cu c≠p hyh-ÿI . ]c-∂S. systems thinking. ]rYn-hn. network thinking.w.F-s∂m-s°bWv At±lw B Nn¥m-co-Xn°p t]cp-sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂X . Pew. k¿∆-hym-]n-bmb ambm-i-‡nbmWv Im‰m-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.v Cßs\ ka-kX v Xtbbpw Dƒs°m-≈p∂ Hcp Nn¥m-kw-hn-[m\sØ]‰n {^ntPm^v Im{] ‘Pohs‚ amdme’ (Web of Life) F∂ {KŸØn¬ khn-kX v cw N¿®sNøp-∂p-≠. \nXy-Po-hn-XØ . A·n. A©p `qX-ßfpw Adn-hns‚ A©p `mh-ßfpw tN¿s∂-cn-bp∂ Cu clkyw GI-amWv. ]c-samcp hnÆv ]c∂ i‡n Im‰mw ˛ ˛ Adnhv A\-e≥ Pew A£w C{µn-bm¿∞w [cWn CXn-ßs\ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ A©p XØz-ambv \ns∂-cnbpw CXns‚ clkyw ˛ ˛ ˛ GI-amIpw ˛ ]c-a-amb Bflm-hmWv BImiw. Adnhv A·n-bmWv.mb t_m[w. ]c∂ i‡n Im‰m˛ adn-h-\-e≥.s∂ B¥-cn-It. C{µn-bß .v _mly-tem-IØv {]]-©Ø .n-cn-°p-Ib . {] ]©w Hcp hyh-ÿbmWv (system).p-≠.mb Nne \nb-aß .n-°p∂ ambm-i‡n. B hyhÿ \nin-Xa. . -an-{µn-bm¿∞w [c-Wn..K .p-≈X .p-cp-hm-Is´ CsX√mw hfsc aptº ASp°pw apd-tbm-SpwIqSn Adn-bp∂ hn[w ]d-™p-X∂ . -bn-Xn-ßs\b©p XØz-ambv \n˛ s∂cn-bp-an-Xns‚ cl-ky-taI-am-Ipw. holystic thinking.f . C{µn-b-߃ Pe-amWv. C{µn-b-hn-j-b-ß-fmWv `qan.em-IØpw Hcp hyh-ÿb .n-s\mcp hyh-ÿb .b (structure) At±lw aptºm-´p-hbv°p-∂p..Ø . organismic thinking .

C{µn-bm¿∞-߃ Ch A©n-t\bpw ]©-`q-Xß
- f
- p-ambn X´n-®d- n-bW
- w.
BImiw \ap°v ]cn-Nn-Xa
- m-W.v F∂m¬ ]c-aa
- mb Bflm-Imiw \ap°v
]cn-Nn-Xa
- √
- . AXp-sIm-≠mWv BIm-iØ
- ns‚ A\-¥X
- bpw Hu∂-Xyhpw
kq£vaX
- bpw k¿∆-hym-]I
- X
- bpw F√mw IW-°n-se-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v ]c-aamb t_m[sØ AXp-ambn tN¿Øp-hb
- °
v p-∂Xv.
hmbp-hns‚ i‡n A{]-Xn-lX
- a
- m-W.v F√m-bn-SØpw ]c-∂S- n-®p-sIm≠n-cn-°p∂ Im‰n-t\m-SmWv ambm-i‡
- nsb _‘-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X
- v. Hcp
sNdnb AWp apX¬ BImiw hsc-bp≈ k¿h-Ønepw ambm-i‡n
Hfn™pw sXfn™pw hoip-∂p-≠v. t_m[-Øn-ep-≠mIp∂ F√m Adnhp-Ifpw A·n-X-Øz-am-Wv. C{µn-b-ß-fm-Is´ Pe-X-Øz-sØ-bmWv
{]Xn\n[m\w sNøp-∂X
- v. [c-Wnsb C{µn-bh
- n-jb
- ß
- f
- p-ambn tbmPn∏n-®d
- n-bW
- w. At∏mƒ \mw Nn¥n®v Hcn-°epw ImSp-Ib
- dn t]mhp-Ib
- n√. tIh-et- _m-[Ø
- n¬ Ch-sb√mw Hcp hyh-ÿt- bm-Sp-IqSn s]cp-amdp∂Xv Hcp km£n-sb-t∏mse t\m°n-°m-Wm≥ Ign-hp-≠m-Ipw. ]c-aa
- mb
BÀm-Za
- m-WX
- v.

78
ac-W-hp-an√ ]pd-∏p-an√ hmgvhpw
\c-kp-c-cm-Zn-bp-an√ \ma-cq]w
acp-hn-e-a¿∂ acoNn \ocp-t]m¬ \n˛
evs]mcps]mcpfmw s]mcp-f√
- n-tXm¿Øn-tSWw.
ac-Whpw C√
]pd∏pw C√
hmgvhpw
\c-k-p-c-cm-Znbpw C√
\ma-cq]w

˛
˛
˛
˛
˛

acp-hn¬ Aa¿∂
acoNn \ocp-t]m¬
\nevs]mcp s]mcpfmw
CXv s]mcp-f√

˛
˛
˛
˛

Hm¿Øn-tSWw

˛

ac-Whpw C√.
P\-\hpw C√.
AXn-\n-S-bn-ep≈ Pohn-Xhpw C√.
a\p-jy≥, tZh-∑m¿ XpS-ßn-b-hcpan√.
Ch-sb√mw \ma-ßfpw cq]-ßfpw
am{XamWv.
acp-`q-an-bn¬ ImWm-dp-≈
Pe-{]-Xo-Xn-t]mse
\ne-\n-¬°p∂ H∂m-WnXv.
\ma-cq-]-ß-sfm∂pw ]c-a-amb
kXy-a√.
CXv Ft∏mgpw kvacn-°-Ww.

ac-W-amWv a\p-jys\ h√msX `b-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv. acn-°p-tºmƒ
\ap°v ]eXpw \jvS-am-Ip-∂-Xp-t]mse tXm∂pw. Cu temI-Ønse
kpJ-߃ ]ns∂ A\p-`-hn-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√. ac-W-ap-≈-XpsIm≠v am{X-amWv kXytØbpw ssZh-tØbpw a\p-jy≥ At\z-

jn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-epw. ItTm-]-\njØn¬ arXyp-hns‚ h{‡-Øn-te°v
A`n-i-]vX-\mb \Nn-tI-X v [oc-X-tbmsS \S-∂p-sN∂v tNmZn-°p∂
tNmZyw, arXyp-hns\ Fßs\ AXn-ew-Ln-°m≥ Ignbpw F∂p-≈Xm-Wv. kn≤m¿∞-cm-P-Ip-am-c≥ ac-W-Øns‚ _o`-’-apJw I≠v
`b∂pw ZpxJn®pw BWv sIm´mcw hn´v Cd-ßn-t∏m-b-Xv. ac-W-Øns\mcp ]cn-lm-c-ant√ F∂-dn-bm≥ th≠n.
Kpcp ]d-bp∂p, ac-Whp-an√. ‘Rm≥ ’acn-°p-∂n√. acn-°p-∂n-√ F∂p
am{X-a√ Rm≥ P\n-®n-´n√ F∂pw Kpcp kzbw ]d-bp-∂p. P\n-®n-´n-√mØ
Kpcp-hn-s\-°p-dn-®mWv \mw X¿°n-°p-∂X
- .v P\n-®n-´n-√mØ Hcp Kpcp-hns‚
t]cn-emWv \mw kwL-S\
- I
- s
- fms° D≠m°n AWn-\n-c°
- p-∂X
- .v Kpcp
ho≠pw ]d-bp∂p: F\n-s°mcp PohnXw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n√ F∂v.- B-tflm]-tZ-ii
- X
- I
- Ø
- ns‚ clkyw a\- n-em-°n-sb-Sp-°W
- s
- a-¶n¬ euIn-I_
- p≤n-tbm-Sp-IqSn Nn¥n-°m≥ ]mSn-√. Bfl-_p≤n sXfn-™ph-cW
- w. Rm≥
Bflm-hm-sW-∂d- n-bp-tºmƒ imco-cn-Ia
- mb AkvXn-Xb
- n¬\n-s∂√mw hnap‡-\m-bn. Bflm-hm-Is´ P\-\a
- c
- W
- ß
- f
- n-√msX F∂pw \ne-\n¬°p-∂
D◊-bm-W.v
ico-ca
- mWv P\n-°p-∂Xpw \ne-\n¬°p-∂Xpw acn-°p-∂X
- pw. Rm≥
ico-ca
- m-sW∂p Icp-Xp-∂h
- ¿ acn-°p-∂p. ico-cØ
- n-s\-s¥-¶nepw £Xw
]‰n-bm¬ ZpxJn-°p-∂p. Pohn-X-Øn-ep-S-\ofw Ch¿ ]cm-Xn-Ifpw Ip‰s∏-Sp-Ø-ep-I-fp-ambn Pohn-®p-t]m-cp∂p. F∂m¬ Kpcp \Ωsf Bflmhn-te°p £Wn-°p-I-bm-Wv. AhnsS Rm≥, a\p-jy≥ t]mep-a-√.
AhnsS tZh-∑mtcm Akp-c-∑mtcm C√. Bfl-t_m[w DW¿∂-h\v
CsX√mw shdpw \ma-ßfpw cq]-ßfpw am{X-am-Wv. Np´p-s]m≈p∂
shbn-ep-≈-t∏mƒ acp-`q-an-bn-eqsS Zml-P-e-Øn-\p-th≠n Ae-™p-Xncn-bp-tºmƒ Aß-Ise Pem-ibw ImWp-∂p. sh≈w sI´n-°n-S-°p∂-Xp-t]mse. ]t£, F{X \S-∂mepw B Pem-i-b-Øn-te°v \ap-°v
FØm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√. ho≠pw ho≠pw AI-∂p-t]m-bvs°m-t≠-bn-cn°pw. AXp Im\¬P-e-am-Wv. Im\¬ F∂m¬ tXm∂¬ F∂mW¿∞w. Im\¬P-ew-sIm≠v Zmlw Xocp-I-bn-√. Im\¬P-e-Øn\p
bmYm-X-Yy-amb \ne-\n¬∏pw C√.
AXp-t]mse P\-\hpw ac-Whpw \ne-\n¬∏pw F√mw Bfl-ÿnX-\mb Hcp-h-\n¬ acp-`q-an-bn¬ ImWp∂ Pe-{]-XoXn t]msebmWv.
AhnsS bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Pew D≠mtbm? Pew D≠m-bn-´n-√. F∂mepw
\Ωƒ I≠p. Pew D≈-Xp-t]m-sebpw Pew \ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xp-t]msebpw tXm∂n-∏n-®p. kqcys‚ {]Imiw Ipd-™p-h-∂-t∏mƒ Pe-{]Xo-Xnbpw \jvS-ambn. CXp-t]m-se-sbm-s°-bmWv Pohn-X-Øns‚ Imcyhpw. s\Snb In\m-hmWv PohnXw F∂p ]d™ Kpcp-hn\v AtX kzcØn¬Øs∂ ]dbmw ac-W-hp-an√ ]pd-∏p-an√ ]ns∂ F¥mWv
PohnXw?

79
P\n-k-abw ÿnXn-bn√ P∑n-b-\y˛
£W-a-Xn-en-√n-Xn-cn-∏-sX-{]-Imcw?
l\-\-hp-an-ß-s\-X-s∂-bm-I-bmte
P\-\-hp-an-√nXp NnXv{]-`m-h-sa-√mw.
P\n-k-abw
˛
ÿnXn-bn√
˛
P∑n
˛
A\y-£-W-a-Xn¬
˛
C√
˛
CXv Ccn-∏Xv F{]-Im-cw ˛
l\-\hpw Cßs\ Xs∂˛
BI-bmte
P\-\-hp-an√
CXv F√mw
NnXv {]`mhw

˛
˛
˛
˛

P-\n-°p∂ thf-bn¬
P-∑n-sb∂ Ahÿ C√.
P-\n-°p-∂-h≥
P\n-°p∂ ka-b-Ø-√msX
P-∑n°p \ne-\n-ev]p-an√
Htc-k-abw D◊bpw C√m-bvabpw
H∂n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv Fß-s\-bmWv
P\-\-sØ-t∏m-se-X-s∂-a-c-Whpw
Cß-s\-X-s∂-bm-Wv.
AXp-sIm≠v
P-\-\-hp-an-√, ac-W-hp-an-√.
ChnsS ImWp-∂-sX√mw
Adn-hns‚ A¤p-X-I-c-amb
{]`mhw am{Xw.

P\n-°pI F∂-sXmcp {Inb-bm-W.v {Inb F∂m¬ Ne-\a- m-W.v Nen°p∂ H∂n\p \n›-eX
- b
- n-√. {Inb-bn¬ AXp-sIm≠v ÿnXn-bn-√. P\\w
F∂ {Inb \S-°p∂ thf-bn¬ P∑n°v AXn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øm≥ Ign-bpI-bn-√. P\-\a
- p-≈h
- \
- mWv P∑n. P∑n ssÿXn-Ia
- mb Hcp \ne-bm-W.v
AsXmcp {]{In-bb
- √
- . Cu {]tl-fn-Im-P\
- y-amb hmgvhns‚ cl-ky-Ønte°v shfn®w hoip∂ Cu t«mIw [ym\m-flI
- a- mbn Cg-]n-cn-s®-Sp-t°≠
H∂m-W.v P\n-°p∂ ka-bØv P∑n C√m-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw P\\w Ign-™m¬
]ns∂ P∑n F∂p hnfn-°m≥ Ign-bm-Xn-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. P\\w
F∂ {]{In-bb
- n¬\n∂pw thsdmcp {]{In-bb
- n-te°p IS-°p-tºmƒ AhntSbpw P∑n°p ÿm\-an-√msX t]mIp-∂p. Cu temIw F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv Ne-\hpw \n›-e-Xbpw IqSn-°e¿∂-Xm-Wv. t_m[w \n›-e-am-Wv. temIw Nen-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xm-Wv. Hcp DZm-lc
- Ww ]d-bp-Ib
- m-sW-¶n¬ IS-ens‚ Bg-Øn¬ \n›e- X - b p- ≠ m- b n- c n- ° thXs∂ apIƒ∏- c ∏v {]£p- _ v [ - a m- b n- c n- ° pw.
thsdmcp DZm-l-cWw FSp-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Npg-en-°m-‰n-s‚ \m`n-

m-sW-¶n¬ AXn\p \mihpw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Hcp hkvXp Hcn-SØv ÿnXn sNøp∂p F∂p ]d-™m¬ B hkvXp \n›em-hÿ b .w. P\-\hpw ac-Whpsa√mw B alm-{]-`m-h-Øn¬ kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. Nen-°p-tºmƒ B hkvXp ÿnXn sNøp-∂p-an-√.\n›-ea . Bflmhn\p P∑-ap-s≠∂p ]dbp-Ib . AXn-\n-S-bn-ep≈ A¥-cmfhpw thWw. Cu t«mIw Du∂¬ sImSp-°p-∂Xv F√m {Inb-Ifpw Adn-hn¬ \S-°p∂ A¤p-X-I-c-amb {]`m-h-߃ am{X-amsW∂p ]d-bm-\m-Wv.n-emWv F∂-dn-bW . ÿnXn.s . Cu {]]-©-Øn¬ \mw I≠p-t]m-cp∂ ]e-kw-`-h-ß-fnepw Hfn™n-cn-°p∂ sshcp-≤y-ßsf \mw {i≤n-°msX t]mbn-´p-≠v. Cßs\ ÿnXnbpw KXnbpw Htck-abw tNcm-Ø-Xp-t]mse krjvSn. ÿnXn-K-Xn-t]mse ˛ hntcm-[n-bmb -˛ krjvSn-ÿnXn ebw ˛ Fsßmcp Zn°n¬ HØp hmgpw Ch aq∂n\pw ˛ ˛ ˛ KXn Fßpw C√ CtXm¿Øm¬ £nXn apX-em-bh Kocp am{X-amIpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Hcp hkvXp ÿnXn sNøp-tºmƒ Nen-°p-∂n-√. ÿnXn .a-¶n¬ . Ne\w XpS-ßm≥ HcnSw thWw. 80 ÿnXn-K-Xn-t]mse hntcm-[n-bmb krjvSn˛ ÿnXn-e-b-sa-sßmcp Zn°n-semØp hmgpw? KXn-bnh aq∂n-\p-sa-ßp-an-√n-tXm¿Øm¬ £nXn apX-em-bh Kocp am{X-amIpw. ]ns∂ AXn-\v Fß-s\-bmWv Ne\w D≠m-hpI? hkvXp Ht∂-bp≈p F¶n¬ AXv ]ns∂ FhnsS\n∂v Ftßm´v Nen°pw? Nen-°p∂Xv Hcn-S-Øp-\n∂v thsdm-cn-S-tØ-°mWv. ebw Ch aq∂n\pw kzX-{¥-amb Hcp AkvXn-X-bn-√. Bfl-t_m[w sXfn-bp-tºmƒ Cu {]`m-h-Øns‚ Im¥nI-X-bn¬\n∂pw \mw ap‡-\m-Ipw. ebw F∂o {]{In-b-Iƒ Fß-s\-bmWv Htc-bn-SØv H∂n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv? krjvSn.mb Hcp tI{µ-amWv. Cßs\ hnNn-¥\w sNbvXm¬ `qan apX-emb F√m `qX-ßfpw shdpw hm°p-Iƒ am{Xam-sW∂p t_m[y-am-Ipw. Ah-km-\n-°m≥ HcnSw thWw. P\n-∏n-°W .

n-°p- . CXmWv hnI-kn®p \n¬°p∂ t`mKy-hn-iz-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Hcp tai h®n-cn°p∂ CSØv Hcp Itk-c°p ÿnXn sNøm≥ Ign-bp-Ib .p-≈q. krjvSn F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv Hcp Ne-\-am-Wv. AXn-\n-S-bn-ep≈ \ne-\n¬∏ns\-bmWv ÿnXn F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. AXp-sIm≠v Bfl-kØ GI-am-bn-cn-°p-∂X .v. Ne\-an-√mØ H∂n\v \n›-ea .n¬ Ne-\a . {]IrXn ]ncn™v Hcp Iqdv t`m‡r-cq]w Hcp Iqdv CZ-¥-bmte Cl-]-camw kI-e-hp-ambn shfntb kap-√-kn°pw CXv hnI-kn-Xamw t`mKy-hn-iz-amIpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Bfl-i‡ . 81 {]IrXn ]ncn-s™mcp Iqdp t`m‡r-cq]w kI-e-hp-ambv shfntb kap-√-kn°pw Cl-]-c-am-samcp Iqdn-Z-¥-bmte hnI-kn-Xam-anXp t`mKy-hn-iz-am-Ipw. ebw As√-¶n¬ \miw F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv thsdmcp Ne-\-am-Wv. CsXms° Bfl-k-Ø-bpsS GIXsb [ym\n-®p-d-∏n-®m¬ shdpw hm°p-Iƒ am{X-am-bn-Øo-cpw.bw Ccn-°m≥ Ign-bp-Ib .n-√.mbn \n¬t°≠ Bh-iy-hp-an-√. kpJw D≈-bn-SØp am{Xta Bcpw Pohn-°p-Ib .n-√.n-bmb {]IrXn ]ncn™v Hcp `mKØv t`m‡m-hmbn \n¬°p-∂p. c≠v D◊Iƒ°v Htc-bn-SØv Htc-ka .n-\m¬ Bfl-kØ .p≈ CS-tØ°v Bfp-Iƒ t]mIm-dnt√? \√ kº-Øp≈ CSßfn-te°v Bfp-Iƒ t]mIm-dnt√? kpJsØ Xnc-™p-sIm-≠mWv a\pjy≥ Hmtcm \nan-jhpw Pohn-°p-∂X . Cu kpJsØ A\p-`h . \√ Imemh-ÿb . adp-`m-KØv CZ¥ ImcWw Cl-]-c-ß-fmb F√m-ambn _mly-temIw {]Xn-`m-kn-°p-∂p. Bfl-t_m-[-Øn¬\n∂pw hm°ns‚ {]k-‡n-Isf AS¿Øn-am-‰n-bm¬ krjvSn F∂pw ÿnXn F∂pw ebw F∂pw \mw ]d-™p-t]m-cp∂ {]{In-b-Ifpw Ah-km-\n-°pw.b .n-√. Cu \nd-hmWv sshcp≤y-an-√mØ \ΩpsS B¥-cn-I-X. \mw hymh-lm-cn-I-tem-I-Øn¬ A\p-`-hn-°p∂ F√m A\p-`-h-ß-fnepw hm°p-I-fm¬ \n¿Ωn-°-s∏´ Hcp {]m]-©n-I-t_m-[-amWv \sΩ \nb{¥n-°p-∂-Xv.thsd H∂v D≠m-bn-cn--°Ww. At∏mƒ c≠v D◊ D≠m-Ip-∂p.

mWv Kpcp ChnsS sNøp-∂X . Bfl-kz-cq]w At∏mgpw hnIm-c-c-ln-X-am-bn-Øs∂ \nesIm-≈p-∂p. t`m‡msh∂ ]pdhpw t`mKy-hn-iz-sa∂ adp-]p-dhpw tN¿∂v hymh-lm-cn-I-temIw D≠m-bn-h-cp-∂p. \ΩpsS hmbn¬ Hcp a[p-c-]-e-lmcw C´p-X-cn-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ At∏mƒØs∂ \ap-°X .p-hm-\p≈ CS-amWv t`mKy-hn-izw.° .f . AXns\ hni-Zo-Ic .s .ns‚ ^ew e`n-°p-∂X .v.n-®p-sIm≠n-cn-°p∂ Cu ]pdw-temIw c≠p Xc-Øn-ep≈ kpJw {]Zm\w sNøp∂p-≠v.sØ \¬Ip-∂p.\n¬°p-∂Xns\ ASn-ÿm-\a .n-°p-Ib .bp-tºmgpw t`m‡m-hn\v ckw D≠m-Ipw.a-¶n¬ Al¥ t`m‡m-hns‚ cq]w ssIs°m-≈W .v. Nne t`mKy-߃ At∏mƒXs∂ kpJw sImSp-°p-∂p. t`m‡mhv A\p-`h . A{]nbw Df-hm-°p∂ hkvXp-°sf X≈n-°f . AcWn IS-s™gpw ˛ A·n-t]mse ˛ Bcmbvhh-cn¬ Ccp∂v ˛ AXn-c-s‰gpw hnthIw ˛ ]c-a-Nn-Zw-_-c-am¿∂ ˛ AcWn IS-bp-tºmƒ AXn¬ \n∂pw Pzen-®p-b-cp∂ Xo t]mse ⁄m\sØ At\z-jn°p-∂-h-cn¬\n∂v AXn-cp-I-fn-√msX DZn-®p-bp-cp∂ ⁄m\-{]-Imiw ]c-a-amb NnZm-Im-i-Øn¬ \nd-™p.n-bmw.\n¬°p∂ . 82 Ac-Wn-I-S-s™-gp-a-·n-t]msebmcm˛ bvhh-c-en-cp-∂-Xn-c-s‰gpw hnthIw ]c-a-Nn-Zw-_-c-am¿∂ `m\p-hmbv \n˛ s∂cn-bp-a-Xn-∂n-c-bm-bn-Sp∂p k¿hw.∂Xv BcmWv? AsXmcp Al-¥b . `pPn-°W . Nneh Iptd Ign™v kpJm-\p-`h . kpJw A\p-`h . ck-ap≈ hkvXp-°ƒ am{Xta t`m‡m-hn\p {]nbX D≠m-°p-∂p-≈q.m-°n-bmWv Clw F∂pw ]cw F∂p-ap≈ hnh£ ChnsS tN¿Øn-cn-°p-∂X . F∂m¬ Hcp hmg h®m¬ Iptd Ign-™mWv \ap-°X . B {]IrXn kzbw c≠mbn ]ncn-bp-∂p. Ah ]c-ßf .v Bflm-hn¬Øs∂ Ccn-°p∂ Hcp i‡n-bmWv {]Ir-Xn. I¿Ω-ßf .w.m-Wv.ns‚ ck-ad . Ah sFln-Iß .m-Wv. temIsØ `pPn-°phm-\p≈ Xøm-sd-Sp-∏m-Wn-Xv.m-Wv. AXpw {]IrXn-bpsS Hcp ]pd-am-Wv..pw sNømw. \mw Bfl-kØ Xs∂-bm-Wv. Cu t`m‡m-hn\p ta™p-\S.psS ^ew Cßs\ ]ncn™p.n-°p-Ib .

Imaw. CXmWv ]c-aamb A¿∞w F∂-dn-b-Ww. AhnsS Pzen-®p-b-cp-∂Xv B\-µ-aq¿—-bm-Wv. B ac-I-jW-ß-sf-bmWv Ac-Wn-Iƒ F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.p-t]m-se-bm-Wv. ChnsS Pohn-X-am-Ip∂ X]-\-{]-{In-b-bn¬ Hcp Xm]-k\v t`m‡mhm-bn-cn-°p∂ Xs‚ Al-¥bpw t`mKy-hn-iz-am-bn-cn-°p∂ {]]-©hpw XΩn-emWv ]c-a-amb Hcp aqey-km-£m-XvIm-c-Øn-\p-th≠n kwL¿jW-Øn-te¿s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. 83 DS-bp-an-cn-°p-ap-Zn-°p-sam-∂p. ssaYp-\-{]-{In-b-bnepw CtX-t]m-ep≈ Hcp aY-\-amWv \S-°p-∂-Xv.n¬\n∂v \ap°p ]pd-Øp-IS. IS-®n¬ AXns‚ aq¿—bn¬ FØp-tºm-gmWv AXn¬\n∂pw A·n Pzen-®p-b-cp-∂-Xv. t`m‡mhpw t`mKy-hn-izhpw Hcp {]tXyI A\p-c-W-\m-fl-I-X-bn¬ FØn-t®-cp-tºmƒ Bflm-\p-`hw {]f-bm-·nt]mse Al-¥-tbbpw euIn-I-X-tbbpw hngp-ßn-°-f-bp-∂p.{]Im-in-°p∂p.m≥ Ign-™ncn-°p-∂p. ssZzXß-f‰ Dƒshfn tXP n-b∂ Hcp kqcy-\m-bn. b⁄-Ip-WvUØ .n¬ Xo ]nSn-∏n-°p-hm≥ c≠v ac-°-j-W-߃ XΩn¬ Dc-®mWv Xo D≠m-°p-∂-Xv. B X]-\-{Inb \S-°p-∂Xv Ac-WnIƒ IS-bp-∂X . PohnXw Hcp X]- m-Wv. Xmsg h®n-cn-°p∂ AcWnsb A[-cm-cWn F∂pw apI-fn¬ IS-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ AcWnsb DØ-cm-cWn F∂p-amWv hnfn-°p-∂-Xv.am-dn˛ ØpS-cp-an-Xn-ßp-S-en≥ kz`m-h-amIpw apSn-bn-en-cp-∂-dn-bp∂p aq∂p-am-flm˛ hnS-c-dp-sam-∂nXp \n¿hn-Im-c-amIpw. PohnXØnse Ccp≠ i‡n-If . DSbpw Ccn°pw DZn°pw ˛ ˛ ˛ \in°pw ÿnXn sNøpw P\n°pw . Cu km£m-XvIm-c-amWv Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-XIw \ap-°p≠m-°n-Ø-cp-∂-Xv.`m\p-hmbv \ns∂-cnbpw ˛ AXn∂v Cc-bm-bn-Sp∂p k¿hw ˛ -˛ Bfl-kq-cy-\mbn Fcn-™psIm-≠n-cn°pw B ⁄m\m-·n-bn¬ F√mw IØn-sb-cn-bp-∂p.° . t{Im[w. PohnXØns‚ NnZw-_-c-Ønte°v \sΩ ssI]n-Sn®p-b¿Øp-∂p. Akqb Ah-sb√mw ⁄m\m-·n-bn¬ ZKv[am-bn-t∏m-bn.

H∂p-≠m-hp-Ibpw \ne-\n¬°p-Ibpw \in-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xv ico-cØ .m-sW-∂m-Wv. {]]-©-Ønse Cu ssPhn-I-{]-{In-b-Isfsb√mw \ap°p XSp-°m≥ Ign-bp-Ib .⁄ ¿ DØpw-Km-\p-`qXn (peak experience) F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv apSn-bn-en-cp∂v Adn-bp-∂-Xn-s\-bm-Wv.s .f .ns‚ £Wn-IX .sf Adn-bp∂p.K . F∂m¬ \mcm-bW . `mhm- . _p≤≥ ]d-bp∂p: ‘ temI-Po-hnXw ic-¬°m-et.ƒ amdn-amdn hcp-∂X .nepw B k¿§-{]-hmlw A\m-tcm-Ky-Ic .i m. AXoXw F∂p ]d-™m¬ CXn\p ]pdØv F∂√. XSp-Øm¬ am\-kn-IX . {io_p≤-\mWv Pohn-XØ .mb Hcp ]cn-t{]£yw (perspective) \ap°v BZyw ]d-™p-X-∂-Xv. apSn F∂p ]d-™m¬ DØpw-Ka .p-≠v.pcp Aß-s\-sbmcp hnjm-Zm-flI . F{_lmw amkv t emhns\t∏msebp≈ a\x.a-Lß .f-t∏mse-bm-Wv. Bflmhv apSn-bn-en-cp-∂v aq∂pw Adn-bp∂p. Icn-ta-L-߃°p IpdptI Hfn-an-∂p∂ Hcp hnZyp-√X IW-s°-bmWv Pohm-bp v IS-∂pt]m-Ip-∂-Xv.mb B\-µsØ {]Zm\w sNøp-∂n-s√∂v \sΩ t_m[y-s∏-SpØn.s . At±lw {]]-©h .mb Hcp hnj-ak .ƒ°pw Bflm-hn¬ ÿm-\a .nsb krjvSn-°pw.k ..H∂p-am-dn-Øp-Scpw ˛ CXv Cßv DS-en≥ kz`m-h-amIpw ˛ ˛ ˛ apSn-bn-en-cp∂v Bflm aq∂pw Adn-bp∂p CS-cdpw H∂nXv \n¿hn-Im-c-amIpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Hcp cq]w amdn thsdmcp cq]Øn¬ XpScpw Cu ]cn-Wmaw ChnsS ico-c-Øns‚ Xe-Øn¬ kzm`m-hn-I-ambn kw`hn-®psIm-≠n-cn°pw k¿∆m-Xo-X-ambn h¿Øn®v t_m[w krjvSn-ÿnXn-eb .mepw Bflm-hn\v Hcp `mh-t`-Zhpw kw`hn-°p-∂n-√.b-°p-dn®v Zm¿i-\n-Ia . F∂m¬ Cu aq∂v {]{In-bI . Cu aq∂v {]{In-bI .kz`mhw F∂m¬ am‰an-√mØ \nbaw F∂m-Wv. Cu Bflmhv am‰-an-√m-Ø-Xp-amWv.vXp-°f .sb ]‰nb√ ]d-bp-∂-Xv.ß .p-sa√mw imiz-Xa . Fs¥mcp {ZpX-K-Xn-bm-W-Xn-\v.n-√. ZpxJw A‰p-t]mb Cu Bflmhv GI-amWv.Ønepw imco-cn-IX .k v { X. sN¶p-Ømb Hcp aebn¬\n∂pw Dut°msS Xmtg°p {]h-ln-°p∂ Pe-]mXw t]mse-bmW-Xv.‘ .p-t]m-se-bmWv P\-\hpw ac-Whpw kw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.mb Xew.e .Ø .a .psS P\-\hpw \ne-\n¬∏pw ac-Wh . F∂m¬ ChnsS thsdmcp t]mwh-gn]d-bp∂p: Rm≥ F∂p ]d-bp∂ kØ krjvSn-ÿnXneb-߃°v AXoX-amb Hcp D◊-bm-sW-∂m-Wv.e .’ AXp-sIm-≠mWv _p≤≥ temI-Po-hn-XsØ ZpxJambn I≠Xv.ns‚ kz`m-ha .X . Hcp \rØ-Øn¬ Ne-\ß .

n\pw ASns∏-Sp-∂n-√.v AXv Ft∏mgpw Adn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ NnØm-W.≥ Cu kØsb substance F∂mWv hnfn-®X . Hcp Ipem-e≥ Ifn-aÆv Ac®p Ipg®v AXns\ Ipem-eZ.Xo-XX-ew. FÆ-a‰ Xc-Øn¬ ImW s∏-Sp-∂sX√mw kz¥-ambn AkvXn-X-bn-√mØ \ma-cq-]-ß-fmWv Adn-hn¬\n∂pw Fgp∂p hcp∂ {]Ir-Xn-bpsS kzcq-]-am-Wn-sX√mw. Ifn-aÆ . kv]nt\mk F∂ ]m›m-Xy-Nn-¥I .n¬ \n¿Ωn® B Hmtcm cq]tØbpw t\m°n \nß-tfmSv tNmZn-°p-Ib . ]m\.n¬\n∂v Ipem-e≥ D≠m°nsbSp-°p-∂p. B ]Zm¿∞-amWv B hkvXp-hns‚ bYm¿∞ kØ-bm-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv.ÆhnsSt∏mbn? Iew F∂ \ma-Øn-s‚bpw cq]-Øn-s‚bpw ad-hn¬ Ifna- . AXp-sIm≠v Bflmhv Hcp Xc-Øn-ep≈ hnIm-cØ . hkvXp \n¿Ωn-°p-∂X . CXp N´n-bm-sW-∂v.v. At∏mƒ Ifn-as . AXv Ft∏mgpw D◊-bp-≈X .v AsX-t∏mgpw B\-µn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ B\-µa . N´n. Iew. IpSw apX-em-bh D≈-Xm-sW∂v \mw ]d-bm-dp-≠v.WvUpw N{Ihpw D]-tbm-Kn®v ]cph-s∏-SpØn ]m{X-߃ D≠m°p-∂p.n\pw Hcp ]Zm¿∞w Bh-iy-amWv.m-W. kXyØn¬ aÆp am{Xtabp≈q. IpSw CsX√mw B Ifn-aÆ . Adn-h-Xn-\m¬ Ah\o hnImcw ˛ ˛ Ds≠∂v Acpfpw D≈Xv D¿ho CtXm¿°n¬ AkXyw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ \nc-h-[n-bm-bv ˛ \ne-b‰p \nev]-sX√mw ˛ Adn-hn-segpw {]IrXn kzcq-]-amIpw GsXmcp ˛ ˛ Adn-bp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v aÆns‚ cq]m-¥-c-ß-fmb Iew. N´n F∂o hnIm-c-ß-sf√mw Ak-Xy-am-Wv. Hcp Xc-Øn-ep≈ ZpxJhpw Bflm-hns\ ]nSn-Iq-Sp-∂pan-√. IqP. CXp IeamsW∂v.m-Wv F∂ A¿∞-Øn¬ kØm-W.mWv: CsX-¥mWv? \n߃ ]dbpw. CXdn™m¬ Iew.v 84 Adn-h-Xn-\m-e-h-\o-hn-Im-c-ap-s≠˛ ∂cp-fp-an-tXm¿°n-e -k-Xy-ap-≈-Xp¿ho \nc-h-[n-bmbv \ne-b‰p \nev]-sX-√m˛ adn-hn-segpw {]Ir-Xn-kz-cq-]-am-Ipw.

F√m-bn-SØpw {]Xo-X-am-bn-°mWp∂ temIw Hcp _nw_sØ B{i-bn®p \ng-en-°p-∂-X-√. a\ v \ma-ß-fpsS kzm[o-\-Øn¬ s]´n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. Cu {]]-©Ø . ChnsS ]d-bp∂ cq]m-fl-I-Xbpw \mam-fl-I-Xbpw ]mcam¿∞n-I-X-bn¬ am{Xta \ne-b‰p \n¬°p-∂p≈p F∂pw Adn-bWw.psS taml-he . kØsb ad-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂p.mb {]k-‡nbpw {]m[m-\yhpw \mw Adn-bmsX sImSp-Øp-t]m-Ip-∂p.v°p-∂p. B a\ n¬Xs∂ cq]-ß-fpsS {]Xn-`-I-fp-ap-≠v. B Adn-hmWv \sΩ kzX-{¥-\m-°p-∂-Xv.n¬ \nc-h[n cq]-ßfpw \nch[n \ma-ßfpw tN¿∂v {]]-©Ø .n¬ \mw IpSp-ßn-t∏m-Ip-∂p. \ng¬ Hcp _nw_w At]-£n-bmsX \nev]oe Fgpw DeIv Fßpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ A_nw-_-am-I-bmte ˛ \ng-ep-a-X√ CXp t\cp-a√ hnZzm≥ Fgp-Xn-bnSpw ^Wn-t]mse ImWp-sa√mw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ \ng¬ Hcp _nw_sØ B{i-bn-®-√msX \ne-\n¬°p-∂n-√.Ø . F∂m¬ sh≈-Øn\v at\m-tKm-N-c-amb Hcp {]Xn-`-bp-ap≠v. . \ma-Øn\pw cq]-Øn\pw Aan-Xa . 85 \ng-semcp _nw_-a-t]-£n-bmsX \nev]o˛ segp-ap-e-sI-ßp-a-_nw-_-am-I-bmte \ng-ep-a-X-√nXp t\cp-a√ hnZzm˛ s\gp-Xn-bnSpw ^Wn-t]mse ImWp-sa√mw. NXp-c-\mb Hcp Iem-Im-c≥ hc-bv°p∂ ]mºn-s\-t∏mse F√mw ImW-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wv.sÆ∂ kØ AI-s∏-´p-t]m-bn.f . kzbw kØ D≈-Xp-a√. C{µn-b-tKm-N-c-amb sh≈w IpSn-®mte \ΩpsS Zmlw amdpI-bp-≈q. a\- n-e-S-ßn-bn-cn-°p∂ sh≈-Øns‚ {]Xn` \ΩpsS Zmlw am‰p-I-bn-√. C{µn-b-tKm-N-c-amb cq]w hymh-lm-cnI-am-Wv.ns‚ kØsb ad-®p-hb . AXn-\m¬ {]]©w \ng-ep-a√. \macq-]ß . cq]w F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ AXn\v C{µn-b-tKm-N-c-amb Hcp A-kvXn-Xbpw at\m-tKm-N-c-amb thsdm-cp AkvXn-Xbpap≠v.b .

X\p apX-em-bXp k¿∆w H∂n¬ H∂n√ AXn-\mse A\y-`mKw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ icocw apX-em-bh F√mw Hcp ico-c-Øn¬ thsdmcp ico-c-an√.m-W. AXp-t]m-se-bmWv Bflm-hnepw {]]-©c .mb B Pem-ib .Ø .{.n-°pw. \n¿hNn-°m≥ Ign-bmØ coXn-bn-emWv {]]-©Ø . {]]-©Ø . {]]©w Hcp {]Xn-_nw-_a .Hcp Pem-ib .mbn tXm∂m-dp≠v..m-bncn-°p∂ _nw_w Fhn-sS-bm-Wn-cn-°p-∂Xv? Bflmhv GIam-W.c .mbn ]d-™p.v AXo-h\ .mb Hcp Iem-Im-c≥ Nn{Xw hc-®m¬ B Nn{Xw Poh- p-‰X .mWv el-cn-Zm-bI .bmsS Bkz-Zn-°p-∂X .m-sW-∂mWv \n¿h-Nn-®X . B¬_¿´v sF≥Ão≥ {]]©w Ime-Øn-s‚bpw tZi-Øn-s‚bpw kΩn-{i-Wa .psS ]T-\Ø .n-°pI-bn-√. Pe-Øn¬ {]Xn-Omb D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv \mw D≈-Xp-sIm-≠m-W.m-sW-¶n¬ {]]-©Ø .n-≤m¥w uncertainty principle Bbn amdn-bX .c-Wp-°f ..w.ns‚ kq£vat.mWv {]]©w F∂p ]dbms\m-°p-Ib . Hcp ]mºn-s‚-bmWv Nn{Xw hc-b° v p-∂s .Ø .n\p Imc-Wa .v CXp \n¿h-Nn®p a\- n-em-°p-∂X .m-ia .N\ \S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .¶ .v.v \mw BWv _nw_w.n-\m-Is´ kzbta Hcp AkvXn-Xb .¿ {]]-©Ø . AXp-sIm≠v Bflm-hns‚ {]Xn-_nw-_a .n-√.v AsXm-cn-°epw \m\m-Xz-tØm-Sp-IqSn {]Xn-^e . Aßs\ {]Xn-^e ..n¬ {]Xn-^e .v AZz-ba .n-\mbn Xp\n-™t∏mƒ AhnsS ]c-am-Wp-°ƒ Ds≠∂pw Cs√∂pw ]d-bm≥ Ign-bmØ ÿnXn-bn¬ imkv{X-⁄∑ .v F∂m¬ {]]-©sØ Hcp \ng¬t]mse IcpXm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√.p-an-√.X .msc {`an-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂X .v F∂m¬ sslk≥ _¿Kn-s\-t∏mep-≈h . AXp-sIm≠v Hcp ico-c-Øn¬ C√mØ a‰p ico-c-߃ .v Bflm-hn¬ Xs∂-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp i‡nbmWv XqenI ]nSn-°p∂-X.n-t\-°mƒ A¤p-X] .ns‚ \ne.n-°p-tºmƒ Pe-Øn¬ ImWp-∂Xv \ΩpsS {]XnOmbbm-W.X-¶n¬ B Nn{Xw I≠m¬ \mw `b∂p \ne-hn-fn-°pw.¥-Xt. thZm-¥hpw {]]-©sØ D≠m-°n-°m-Wn-°p∂ ambsb ‘A\n¿h-N\ . 86 X\p apX-em-bXp k¿h-sam-∂n-sem-∂n˛ √\r-X-hp-am-b-Xn-\m-se-b-\y-`mKw A\p-Zn-\-a-kvX-an-bm-Xn-cn-°-bmte ]p\-cr-X-cq-]-hp-ambvs∏men-™n-Sp-∂p.ns‚ apºn¬ \mw sN∂p \n¬°p-tºmƒ \ΩpsS BsI cq]w kv^Sn-Ik .n-]p-W\ .ob’ F∂mWv hnfn-°p-∂X . Aß-s\-bmWv sslk≥_¿Kns‚ {]]-©k .

p-am-Wv.n\pw Ime-Ønepw tZi-Ønepw am{Xta ÿnXn sNøm-\m-hp-Ibp-≈q. Cu Adn-hmWv imiz-Xa .psS Dcp-hß .n-√.m-Wv..m-W.X√mw C√mØh-bm-Wv.n\pw ÿnXn sNøm≥ ÿew thWw.o-cßsf apgp-h≥ EX-ambn Adn-bW . Fs‚ tai-∏p-dsØ ]q∏m-{X-Øn¬ Cs∂mcp tdmkm-]pjv]w Ccn-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ thsdmcp tdmkm-]p-jv]Ø . Ak-Xy-hpam-Wv. ]q∏m-{XsØ kw_-‘n-®n-St.v GsXmcp ico-cØ . AXv Bfl-k-Ø-bm-Wv.A\r-X-hp-ambn ˛ ]p\x ˛ A\p-Zn\w ˛ AkvX-an-bmXncn-°-bmte ˛ EX-cq-]-hp-ambv s]men-™n-Sp∂p ˛ ˛ Ak-Xy-ambnØocp-∂p.Ømfw Ah-sb√mw ]q∏m-{X-Øn¬ C√m-Øh . Ah-sb√mw A\y-`m-Ka . Hcp icocw {]tXyI CS-Øn¬ ÿnXn sNøp-∂X . CsX√mw Zm¿i-\n-I-amb Ipg-a-dn-®n-ep-I-fm-Wv. Itk-c-bn¬ tai°pw ÿnXn sNøm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√. F∂p ]d-™m¬ GsXmcp ico-cØ . Cu thsdm-∂pI-sfms° A\y-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ hfsc A\m-bm-k-ambn Kpcp CXns\ kao-I-cn-°p-∂Xv Cß-s\-bm-Wv: F∂m¬ Hcp kØ Aev]w-t]m-epw aß-te¬°msX Cu ico-c߃s°√mw B[m-c-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. X\p F∂m¬ ico-ca. H∂n¬ thsdm-∂ns‚ A`m-hsØ \mw ImWp-∂p-≠v.c .v . AXv DZ-bm-kvX-a-b-ß-fn-√m-Ø-Xm-Wv. At∏mƒ B ]q∏m-{X-Øn¬ Ccn-°m≥ Ign-bmsX t]mIp∂ At\Iw ]q°-fp-≠v.f . AXm-bXv B Htc-sbmcp tdmkm]qhv A√m-Øs .v Cu {]m]-©n-Ii . s]menbpanX\y F∂v KpcpXs∂ ]d-™n-´p≠v.w.v AXp-sIm≠v AXns\ D]-\n-jØ .pt]mseXs∂ AXn-s\mcp Imehpw thWw. tbip-{In-kvXp-hn¬ {io_p-≤\v ÿnXn sNøm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√. CXp-t]mse ico-c-ß-fpsS Xe-Øn¬ H∂n¬ thsdm-∂n\p ÿnXn sNøm≥ Ign-bp-Ib . Fs¥√mw ChnsS Dcp-th-¥n-bncn°p∂pt≠m Ah-sb√mw B Bfl-kØ .n¬ ]d-bp-∂Xv EXw F∂m-W.n\v B ]q∏m-{X-Øn¬ Ccn-°m≥ Ign-bn-√.b . Hcp ]qhn\p am{Xta ÿnXn sNøm≥ AXn¬ CSap-≈q.mb PohnXsØ {]Zm\w sNøp-∂X .m-Wv.b . AXpsIm≠v A\r-Xh .m-W. F∂m¬ Fs∂∂pw (B-fl-k-Ø) \in-®p-t]m-Im-Xn-cn°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v EX-amb icocw G¥n-sIm≠v {]Im-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.

AXp hm°p-sIm≠v samgn-bm-\mhm-Ø-Xm-Ip-∂p. ]cn-tim-[n-®p. Iºnfn C√ F∂p ]d-bp-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√. XΩn¬ Hcn\w as‰m-cn-\-Øn¬ C√ CXp-t]mse icocw apX-em-bh kØ-bp-≈-X√.n-√. FSp-Øp-t\m-°n-bm¬ F√m-‰n\pw D◊bp-≠v.87 X\n-sb-bn-sXm-s°-bp-ap≠p XΩn-temtcm˛ cn\-an-X-cß-fn-en-√-. Iºn-fn°v hymh-lm-cn-Ia .m-Wv. \mb-bp-≠v.psS temI-Øn¬ HcpXcw A\n¿h-N\ . X\nsb CsXm-°-bpap≠v ˛ XΩn¬ Hmtcm C\w ˛ CX-c-ß-fn-en√ ˛ C{]-Imcw ˛ X\p apX-em-bXv ˛ kØp-a√ ˛ Hm¿Øm¬ ˛ A\r-X-hp-a√ ˛ AXv Ahm-Ny-am-bn-Sp∂p ˛ Hmtcm-∂n-t\bpw Hmtcmtcm hkvXp-°sf H‰-bvs°m‰°v FSp-Øp-t\m-°n-bm¬ CsX√mw D≈-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv. kØ kam-\m-[n-Ic .t\m-°n-bm¬ Ah C√m-Ø-Xp-a√.p-a√ .p-sIm≠p ]pX-b° v p-tºmƒ XWp∏v AI-∂p. F∂m¬ amdn-s°m≠n-cn-°p∂ ico-c-߃ C√m-bva°v hg-ßn-s°m-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬. kØm-sW-¶n¬ Fhn-sSbpw F√m-bvt∏mgpw D≠m-bn-cn-°Ww. tXß-bp-≠v.W . IpXnc thsdmcp C\-am-Wv. shbn-¬ C√ F∂p ]d-bp-hm≥ Ign-bp-∂n-√. kØ°v C√m-bvab . kØ°v C\-an-√.t]m-Ip-∂p-≠v.a . AXp-sIm≠v AXv A\r-Xh .mb AkvXn-Xbp-≠v. ]ip Hcp C\-am-Wv. amß-bp-≠v.v Fs¥-Sp-Ømepw Ds≠∂pw Cs√∂pw Htc-ka . ]ip-hp-≠v.f . amß.C√ F∂p ]d-bphm≥ Ign-bp-∂n√.bw ]d-bm≥ Ignbpw? Ds≠∂pw Cs√∂pw Hcp-an®p .bn-{]-Imcw X\p apX-em-bXp kØp-a√tbm¿Øm˛ e\r-X-hp-a-√-X-hm-Ny-am-bn-Sp-∂p.n-√. \√ XWp-∏p≈ cm{Xn-bn¬ Iºn-fn-∏p-X∏ . F∂m¬ Ahsb ]q¿Æ-ambpw C√ F∂p ]d-bm-\pam-hp∂n-√.o-bX Xßn-\n¬°p-∂p-≠. ag-bp-≠v.. F∂m¬ ]ip-hn¬ IpXn-cb .psIm≠v icocw kØm-sW∂v ]d-bp-hm≥ Ign-bmØXv. NqSp In´p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p-. \in-®p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xn-\m¬ Ahbv°p kzbw D◊-bn-√ F∂p ]d-bm≥ Ign-bpw. ico-cß . shbn-ep-≠v. H∂n¬ thsdm-∂ns‚ C√mbva hcp-∂X .

AI-ap-J-ambv ˛ Bflm-`n-ap-J-ambn Adn-bm-bvIn¬ ˛ Adn-bm™m¬ ambbmw h≥]I ˛ amb-bm-Ip∂ henb i{Xp ]eXpw ˛ \m\m-Xz-_p-≤nsb DW¿Øn {`ata-In-Sp∂p ]mcw ˛ henb {`aw D≠m-°p-∂p.v Poh≥ F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv {_“wXs∂-bm-W.ns‚ A¿∞w.ØmsS AXns\ hymJym-\n-®p.b . Bfl-ÿn-X\ ..]d-bp-∂Xv Hcp sshcp-≤y-am-Wv.. kz¥-ambn D◊ C√m-ØXpw amdn-s°m-≠ncn-°p-∂Xpw F∂mWv B hm°ns‚ A¿∞w. BNm-cy-kzm-an-Iƒ ‘Pothm {_-ss“h \m]cm’ F∂p IqSn Iq´n-t®¿°p-∂p-≠.mb F√mw Bfl-km-£m-XI v m-cØ . AXp Xncn-®d .n-\p-ff Hcp D]mbw F∂ \nebv°p am{X-amWv i¶-c≥ anYy-bmbn ]d-bp-∂X .Kpcp kI-ehpw D≈Xp-Xs∂ F∂p Dd-∏n-®p-]d .X-∂√ . XØz-Nn-¥m-{K-l≥ ˛ XØzsØ a\\wsNbvXp a\- nem-°p-∂-h≥ CXp k¿∆hpw ˛ \ma-cq-]m-fl-I-amb apgp-h≥ temItØbpw GI-ambv {Kln°pw ˛ Htc-sbmcp D◊-bmbn Df-f-dnbpw. 88 kI-e-hp-ap-≈-Xp-Xs∂ XØz-Nn-¥m-˛ {K-l-\nXp k¿∆hp-ta-I-ambv {Kln°pw AI-ap-J-am-b-dn-bm-bvIn¬ ambbmw h≥˛ ]I ]eXpw {`a-ta-In-Sp∂p ]mcw.v {_“-amWv kXyw.p-∂X .v {_“-km-£m-XI v r-X\v F√mw H-tc-sbmcp kXyw am{Xw.Im¨ C√m-ØX . \ma-cq-]m-flI .p-sIm-≠mWv Cu sshcp≤yw P\n-°p-∂X .n-bWw. temIw anYy-bm-sW∂p tIƒ°p-tºmƒ B Z¿i-\sØ Bfp-Iƒ sIm≈cp-Xm-ØXpw _p≤n-iq-\y-hp-ambn Icp-Xp-∂p. kI-ehpw D≈-Xp-Xs∂ ˛ F√mw D◊-bp-≈-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v i¶cm-Nm-cy¿ ‘{_“-kXyw PK∑nYym’ F∂p ]d-™t.a .∏mƒ euIn-It. PKXv anYy-bm-W.v .`m-KnIƒ ]c-a] . anYy F∂p ]d-™m¬ C√m-Øs . Ahm-Ny-amb H∂mWv temIw.p-—t. B A¿∞-Øn-emWv ChnsS \mcm-bW . \ap-s°mcp icn-bmb ho£-Wt.v thsd H∂pw A√ F∂mWv i¶-cm-Nm-cy¿ ]d-™X . D◊bpw C√m-bvabpw hensbmcp D◊-bn¬ \S-°p∂ Gdn-am-dn-Øn-cn-be .m-Wv.v.mb Hcp-h\v Cu sshcp-≤y-߃ D≠m-Ip-∂n-√..

n¬ D◊sb H∂mbn {Kln-°m≥ Ign-bmØ Hcp ÿnXnhnti-ja .√ . _‘\w D≠m-hp-Ib .mbn Adn-bp-∂Xpw Htc Adn-hp-Xs ._ .w-`h . \nß-fn¬ Hcp i{Xp \n߃s°-Xnsc {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p-≠v.X√mw D≈-Xp-Xs . \mw XØz-Nn-¥m-{K-l\m-bX .v. AXp-sIm≠mWv Bflm-hns\ AI-ap-Ja.y-ßfpw hntcm[hpw shdp∏pw F√mw IqSn-°e ..v _¿Kvks‚ XØz. H∂mbn Adn-bmsX kI-ehpw D≈XpXs∂ F∂p hnNm-cn®v temI-t`m-Py-ßsf DÆm≥ t]mbm¬ Ah t`m‡m-hns\ sIWn-bn¬ hogvØpw.. thZm-¥Ø .m-°p-∂X .nse intuition \pw AI-ap-Ja bm-W. sltK¬ F∂ Nn¥-I≥ CXns\ negativity F∂mWv hnfn-®X .¿∂v a\p-jy-Po-hnXw Xmdp-am-dm-Ipw.n¬ am{X-a√ amb-bp-≈X .v.v AXn-\m¬ Cu hnizw apgp-h\pw H∂mbn Adn-bp-I.n-°p-∂X .p-∂X .mb coXn-bn¬ \nß-fpsS I¿Ωßsf hnI-ea .n-bp∂ BsfbmWv XØz-Nn-¥m-{K-l≥ F∂p hnfn-°p-∂X .v. ]e-]e ck-ßfpw ]e-]e XmXv]c . \n߃ sNbvX GtXm Hcp sX‰n\v ]I ho´m-\p≈ {ia-Øn-emWv AXv \ntj-[m-flI . Cu \ntj-[m-fl-I-amb amb h∂m¬ \m\m-Xz-_p-≤n-bmWv ]ns∂ {]h¿Øn-°p--I. C√m-ØX .n-√.mbv Adn-tb-≠n-hc . F√m a\p-jy-cp-tSbpw Pohn-XØ . Adn-hn-en-cp∂v AkZv AkvXn F∂v ˛ ˛ AkwJyw s]mcn CfIn `ph\w kv^pcn-°-bmte Adn-hns\ hn´v ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ tIh-e-amb Adn-hn-en-cp∂v Ds≠∂pw Cs√∂pw Htc-k-abw tXm∂-Ø° hn[-Øn¬ I-W-°‰ Xos∏m-cn-Iƒ Cf-In-sØ-dn®v {]]©w {]Xo-X-am-Ip-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Adn-hn¬\n∂pw thdn´ .a . 89 Adn-hn-en-cp∂k-Z-kvXn-sb-∂-kwJyw s]mcn-bn-f-In-`p-h\w kv^pcn-°-bmte Adn-hns\ hns´mcp hkvXp-h-\y-an-s√˛ ∂dn-b-W-ao-b-dn-ssh-I-cq-]y-ta-Ipw.∂. F√m-‰n\pw IqSn H‰ D◊tb D≈q.∂Nn-¥b . F∂m¬ Chsb√mw thsd-thsd D≈-X-√.p-≤n-bn-eq-sS-bmWv Cu intuition k .n-®d ..n-cn-°p-∂Xv amb-bm-Ip∂ h≥]-I-bm-Wv. Aßs\ k¿h-Øn-s‚bpw D◊ H∂m-sW∂p A\p-`h .v. Cu sIWn Hcp-°n-h® .p-≠v. H∂mbn IcpXn B\µn-°p-I.v GI-Xz-{K-lW .Cu ImW-s∏-Sp-∂s .n-\p-tijw Cu temI-Øn¬ F¥p thW-sa-¶nepw `pPn-®p-sIm≈q.

p-≠v. DW¿hpw Dd°hpw F√mw amb-bpsS hcp-Xn-bn¬ hcp-∂X . AXns‚ coXn-hn-[m-\-Øn-\p (methodology) hyXym-k-ap-≠v. Cß-s\-bp-ff ⁄m\w GI-cq]w \¬Ipw Htc XØzw Xs∂-bmWv ]e-hn[ ZrjvSm-¥-ß-fn-eqsS Kpcp BhnjvI-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Hm¿Ωbpw ad-hnbpw. Adn-hns\ hns´mcp hkvXpA\y-an-s√∂v AXp-sIm-≠-dn-b-Ww.Hcp hkvXp A\y-an-s√∂v˛ Adn-bWw ˛ Cu Adnhv ˛ sFI-cq-]y-taIpw ˛ thsdmcp kØ Cs√∂v Adn-b-Ww.W . Hcp Xos∏mcn Ipd-®p-t\cw hmbp-hn¬ Xßn-\n∂v Nmc-ambn Xocp-∂p. B {]XoXn-bmIs´ hfsc £W-am-{X-amb t\cta \ne-\ne-\n¬°p-∂p-ff . .v. Htc-k-a-bw-Xs∂ kZv`m-hhpw Ak-Zv`m-hhpw temI-Øns‚ {]tXy-IX-bm-Wv. ambsb AXnew-Ln-®p-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ tIh-e-amb Adn-hn\v \ne-\n¬°p-hm≥ Ignbpw. \sΩ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Adnhv F∂ hm°v tIƒ°p-tºmƒ a\- n¬ ]Xn-™p-t]mb Iptd A¿∞-ß-fmWv s]m¥n-h-cn-I. F∂m¬ CXp-hsc \Ωƒ a\- n-em-°n-bn-´p≈ A¿∞Øn-sem-∂p-a√ Kpcp Adn-sh∂v {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv.m-Wv. hnizm-khpw Ahn-izm-khpw.q.p-t]m-se-bmWv temIw {]Xo-Xa . F∂m¬ Poh-Xm-Zm-fly-ap-≠m-bm¬ Cu amb Ahn-Zym-cq-]-Øn¬ F√m Pohn-I-fnepw hkn-°pw. F∂m¬ Adn-hm-Is´ kØm-am-{X-am-Wp-Xm-\pw.m-Ip-∂X . B kØbn¬ \n∂mWv kØpw AkØpw IqSn-°-e¿∂ `ph\w P\n-°p-∂-Xv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv C{X-am-{Xw hni-Zo-Ic . F∂m¬ am{Xta ChnsS ImWp∂ \m\m-cq-]-ß-fnepw sFIy-Øns‚ {]Im-i-[m-csb hnf-°n-sb-Sp-°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q.p-≈q. amb Adn-hn¬ \nln-X-am-sW-¶nepw amb-bm¬ A_m-[n-XamWv Adn-hv. Aß-s\-bmWv temIw Ds≠∂pw Cs√∂pw apd-amdn {]I-S-am-Ip∂-Xv. F∂m¬ Adn-hns‚ tIh-e-kz-cq-]-Øn¬ Cu Zzµzm-\p-`-h-ß-fn¬ \ns∂ms° hnap-‡n-bp≠v. A·n-IpWvUw \Ωƒ I≠n-´nt√? AXn¬\n∂pw Xos∏m-cn-Iƒ NnX-dn-sØ-dn-°p-∂X . AXpsIm-≠mWv Ak-Zv. F∂m¬ ]m›m-Xy¿°v Cu c≠p hm°p-Ifpw Ah-cp-tS-Xm-bn-´p-≈ A¿∞-I-ev]-\-I-fn-eq-sStb a\- nem-°m≥ Ign-bp-Ib .hpw hn]p-e-\hpw \¬tI≠nhcp-∂-Xv. CXn¬ Ak-Øn\p Imc-W-am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv amb-bm-Wv.-AkvXn ˛ Cs√∂pw Ds≠∂pw ]d-bm-hp∂ AkwJyw Xos∏m-cn-Iƒ Cf-Ip-∂p F∂p Kpcp ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Cw•ojp `mj-bn¬ awareness F∂pw consciousness F∂pw GXm-s≠ms° ASpØp-hcm-hp∂ c≠p kw⁄-If . F∂m¬ Hcp t«mIw thsdmcp t«mI-Øn\p ]Icw hbv°m\pw Bhp-∂-X-√.

AtXmsS At±lw kXysØ ]q¿Æ-ambn Adn-bm≥ th≠n-bp-ff {iaw Bcw-`n-°pw. C√m-XmbnØocp-∂n-√. Hcp \pW ]d-™m¬ B I≈w s]mfn-bm-Xn-cn-°W .\ .v Hmtcm A\p-`-hhpw kØm-tNX-\-bm¬ \nd-hp≈-XmW.s .m-Xn-cn-°n-√. A\r-Xw ˛ Hc-kvXn-Xsb ad-bv°p-In√ ˛ kZv AkvXn F∂n-hÆw˛ F∂ A\p-`-h-ap≠v ˛ A\p-]Zw ˛ AkvXn-X-bm¬ ˛ CXm-hrXw ˛ AXn-\mse ˛ Itf-_-cmZn Imcyw ˛ kZvL\w ˛ AkXyw kXysØ ad-bv°p-I-bn√ Bfl-kØ Ds≠-∂p-ff Xc-Øn-ep-≈ A\p-`hw F√m-h¿°pap≈-XmW.90 A\r-X-sam-c-kvXn-Xtb ad-bv°p-I-ns√˛ ∂\p-`-h-ap≠p kZ-kvXn-sb-∂n-hÆw A\p-]-Z-a-kvXn-X-bm-en-Xm-hrXw kZv˛ L\-a-Xn-\mse Itf-_-cm-Zn-Im-cyw. A\rXw Aim-iz-X-am-Wv. \ΩpsS Hmtcm A\p-`-h-Ønepw \nd- .a .\ n.n-eqsS \S-∂p-\o-ßp∂ P\m-he .’ ‘Rm≥ C√’ Fs∂m-cmƒ hnfn-®p-]-d-™m¬ Abmƒ C√m-Xm-Iptam? ‘Rm≥ A⁄m-\n-bm-Wv’. Ccp-fS. ae-ap-I-fn¬ ]WnX Hcp \K-csØ H∂p-sIm≠pw ad-®p-h-bv°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-Ib .n-√.n-sb t. ‘Rm≥ A⁄m. kXyw F{X ad-®p-h® .ns‚ ]cn-cw-`W .p-jy\v Ft∏m-sg-¶nepw kXyØns‚ Hcp t\¿Ø A\p-`hw D≠m-Im-Xn-cn-°p-Ib .b mWv ’ F∂p ]d.n√.’ \mw F{X \ntj-[n-®mepw \Ω-fn¬ a-d™n-cn-°p∂ kØm-tN-X\sb Fß-s\-bmWv C√m-Xm-°m≥ Ign-bpI? ‘Rm≥ C√. \Ω-psS kmaq-ln-IX .™ K¿Ø-ßf .q.Ø .mepw adt™ Ccn-°p-∂p-ff .v Cu hymP-Po-hn-XØ .n¬s∏´n-cn-°p∂ km[m-cW .w.v AXp-sIm≠v icocw XpS-ßnb Imcy-{]-]©w apgp-h\pw kØn-\m¬ hym]vX-am-Wv.a-¶n¬ \nc¥cw \pW-Iƒ ]d-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°W .™ m¬ Abmƒ A⁄m-\nbm-Iptam? ⁄m\w-sIm-≠t√ Abm-fXv ]d-bp∂Xv? ⁄m\-an-√m-™m¬ Fß-s\-bmWv Abmƒ A⁄m-\n-bmsW∂v Adn-bpI? AXp-sIm≠v kØsb Hcn-°epw AkXywsIm≠p ad-bv°p-hm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.bpw aXhpw hnZym-`ym-khpw amaq-ep-Ifpw F√mw hymP-am-W. F∂mepw kXyw Fs∂-¶nepw Xe \o´n ]pd-Øp-hc . kXyw imiz-X-amWv.\m°n tbip ]d™p: ‘\n߃ temI-Øns‚ shfn-®-am-Wv.

n-epancn-°p∂ \Ω-fpsS {]nb-Xsb .n-bm¬ kpJ-ap-≠m-bn. kZvL-\-ambn Adn-bp-tºm-gmWv At\-I-XIƒ Xntcm-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.f . AXn-s\-bmWv kZvL\w F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.ß .v.ns‚ A`m-ha .ƒ tXSn-bmWv Ah≥ Ae-bp-∂X . ]mbkw kpJ-hk . Hcp kXym. AXv GIhpw AZz-b-hp-amWv.j nbm.v kpJ-hn-jb .I p.X n. 91 {]nb-hn-jbw {]Xn sNbvXnSpw {]bXv\w \nb-X-hp-a-ßs\ Xs∂ \nev°-bmte {]nb-a-P-a-hy-b-a-{]-ta-b-ta-Im˛ Zzb-an-Xp-Xm≥ kpJ-am¿∂p \n∂n-Sp∂p.a pºv kzm`m. Aßs\ kZm-\-µ-ambn \ap°p Pohn-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂p.vXp-hmb ]mbkw Abm-sf-s°m≠v ]Øp •ms -¶nepw \n¿_-‘n®p IpSn-∏n-®m¬ Abmƒ°v B ]mb-kØ . hni-∏S.™n-cn-°p∂ D◊Xs∂-bmWv F√m {]m]-©n-I-h-kvXp-°-fnepw \nd™n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.t \z.mWv hnis∏∂p ]d-bp-∂X .I ambnXs∂ Hcp kpJm-t\z-jn-bm-W.vXp-hm-bn-cn-°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Abm-fn¬ Fßs\-bmWv ]ns∂ AXv shdp-∏ns\ D≠m°p-∂Xv? \mw temI-Øn-ep-≈ F√m hnj-bß .\ p. AXv \mi-an-√m-Ø-Xm-Wv.v. B ZpxJsØ \nhm-cWw sNøp-hm≥ A∂sØ Xnc-bp-∂p. a\pjy\pw Dc-K-ßfpw ]£n-Ifpw arK-ßfpw ama-e-Ifpw aÆpw hnÆpw F√mw kZvL-\-am-Wv. Cu {]nbw Xs∂-bmWv B\-µ-kz-cq-]ambn \n¬°p-∂-Xv.∂ .k .v IqSp-X¬ A∂w Ign-®m¬ Aßs\-bm-sW-¶n¬ IqSp-X¬ kpJw Int´-≠X -. t]mj-WØ . Ft∏mgpw kpJw-tX-Sp∂ hy{KX \ne-\n¬°pw. AXv Adn-hn\v hnj-b-am-hm-Ø-XmWv. hni∏v Hcp ZpxJ-am-Wv.h n. Hcm-fpsS CjvSh . {]nbw AXv P\n°m-Ø-XmWv.t√? AsXm-cn-°epw kw`hn°p-∂n-√.X-∂. {]nb-hn-jbw {]Xn ˛ sNbvXnSpw {]bXv\w ˛ \nb-Xhpw ˛ Aß-s\-Xs∂ ˛ \n¬°-bmte ˛ {]nbw ˛ APw ˛ Ahybw ˛ A{]-tabw ˛ GIm-Zzbw ˛ CXp-Xm≥ ˛ kpJ-am¿∂p \n∂n-Sp∂p ˛ a\p-jy≥ kpJ-ap-≠m-°p∂ hnjbw t\Sm-\mbn \mw {]bXv\w sNøp∂p.n-t\mSv shdp∏p hcm≥ XpS-ßpw. At∏mƒ Ah≥ IcpXpw A∂-Øn-emWv kpJw Ccn-°p-∂s .ß .

hnj-bkp-J-߃ At\-I-am-sW-¶nepw Bfl-kpJw GI-am-Wv.[ym\m-flI . Cu B\-µ-kz-cq-]-ta¥n \mw \ΩpsS Pohn-XsØ kw^p-√am-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. Bflmhn¬ am{Xta \nXy-amb B\µ ap≈q.I . Bflm-\µw AP-am-Wv. {]nbsØ At\z-jn-®p-≈ bm{X Hcn°epw Ah-km-\n-°p-∂n-√.Ø Xv ? F∂m¬ £Wn.mbn aqey-hn-th-N\w \SØn t\m°p-Ib . P\-\hpw hn\m-ihpw IqSmsX B\µw {]Im-in-°p-∂p.a .s . AXv Fs∂-¶nepw D≠m-bn-´p-≈-X-√. ]mbkw Hcp hnj-b-am-Wv. D≠m-Im-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v \in-°p-Ibpw C√. Bflm-\µw Hcp hnj-b-a-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ A{]-ta-b-am-Wv.m-sW-¶n¬ {]nbØns‚ t{kmX v hnj-ba . Bflm-\-µ-Øn\v _mly-ambn sNøp∂ {Inb-Iƒ Bflm-\-µsØ tZymXn-∏n-°p∂ _mlytNjvS-Iƒ am{X-amIpw. ck-\-bn-eq-sS-bmWv AX-dn-bp-∂Xv. Aßs\ XyPn-°ptºmgpw kpJm-t\z-jWw \nb-X-am-bnXs∂ \n¬°p-∂p. a[p-cap-≈ ]mbkw IpSn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-b√ Bflm-\µw A\p-`-hn-°p∂-Xv. hyba-W-bmsX ˛ shfn°p the sNøpw ˛ \nbaw Ccn-∏-XpsIm≠v \nXy-amIpw {]nbw AIta ]ncn-bmsXbp≠v ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ CXn∂v ˛ Cu {Inb ˛ Hcp _mly-enw-K-amIpw ˛ hncm-a-an-√msX _mly-ambn \mw I¿Ωw sNbvXpsIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p F∂ \nbaw Df-f-Xp-Im-cWw \nXy-amb B\µw \Ωn¬ A¥¿\n-ln-X-ambn Ccn°p-∂p-≠v.√∂pw {]nb-Øns‚ t{kmX v Bfl-kØ-bm-sW∂pw Adn-bm\m-Ipw. . {]nb-hkvXp \nXy-amb B\-µsØ {]Zm\w sNøp-∂n-S-tØmfw At\z-jWw \o≠p-\o≠p t]mIp-∂p. AZz-b-hpam-Wv. C{µnb-߃sImt≠m a\- p-sImt≠m Adn-bm≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√.a mb kpJsØ imiz-X-amb kpJ-Øn-\p-th≠n hnth-In-I-fm-b-h¿ XyPn°m-dp-≠v. 92 hyb-a-W-bmsX shfn°p the sNøpw \nbaan-cn-∏-Xp-sIm≠p \nXy-amIpw {]nb-a-Ita ]ncn-bm-sX-bp-≠n-Xn-∂o {Inb-sbmcp tIhe_mly-enw-K-amIpw. B¿°mWv kpJw th≠m.

{]IrXn apgp-h≥ hk-¥-k-ao-c-W-\n¬ ]qh-Wn-bp-tºmƒ ]qØp-ºn-Iƒ Xp≈n°-fn-°p-Ibpw a[p-a-£n-I-Iƒ aqfn-∏m´p ]mSp-Ibpw tImIn-e-߃ ImIfn ]mSp-Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ Bfl-Z-cn-{Z-\m-b-h≥ KZvKZw s]mgn°p-∂Xv DØ-a-amb Z¿i-\-am-bn-cn-°n-√. Bflmhv alm-k-º∂-\m-Wv. thsd H∂pw ChnsSbn√. Hcp \¿ØIn \rØ-am-Sp-tºmƒ Ag-Im¿∂ AwK-N-e\-ß-fn¬\n∂pw \b-\-ßfnepw apJØpw ]cn-tim-`n-X-am-bn-cn-°p∂ {]km-Zm-fl-I-X-bn¬\n∂pw Hs° \mw a\- n-em-°p-∂Xv.c p.I . {]nbw F∂m¬ B\-µw. Kpcp AXv Xncp-Øp-∂p: Bflm-hn\p Zmcn-{Zy-an-√.fbpw XInSw adn-bv°p∂ shfn-s∏-Sp-ØemWv ‘{]nbw AIta ]ncn-bmsXbp≠v’ F∂p-≈X . anYp-\-ß-fpsS -kwtbmKw Zpc-¥]q¿Æ-a√. k¿hw ln k®n-Zm-\µw t\l \m\mkvXn In©\.t. \mw B\-µ-am-Wv.c. D≈n-en-cn-°p∂ B\-µ-amWv ]pdsØ Ne-\sØ krjvSn-°p-∂-sX-∂m-Wv.k .Ø bn¬\n∂pw ]ncn-bmsX Ccn-°p-∂p-≠v.\mw t]dn-\S. 93 Ne-ap-S-e‰ X\n°p Xs‚-bm-flm˛ hnep-a-[nIw {]nb-h-kvXp-hn-√-b\yw hne-kn-Sp-am-fl-KXw {]nbw hnSmXo \ne-bn-en-cn-∏-Xp-sIm≠p \nXy-amflm.n-cp∂ F√m ap≥[m-cW . Aß-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬ AXn¬ {]nbX Df-hm-°p∂ t{]cWsb Cu {]m]-©n-I-X-bn¬ ImWp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.t Sbpw D≈n¬ \nXy. F√mw k®n-Zm-\µw am{Xw. Nn{X-Im-c≥ Nn{Xw hc-°p-∂Xpw I¿j-I≥ hb-en¬ hnØn-d-°p∂Xpw Bimcn ac-Øn¬ sImØp-∂Xpw Fgp-Øp-Im-c≥ kmln-Xy-߃ Ipdn®n-Sp-∂Xpw F√mw B\-µ-Øns‚ _mly-enw-K-ß-fm-Wv.a mb B\µw Bfl. ZpxJa-√.h .v.CXp-hs. Zmcn{ZysØ Hcp `mKy-ambn Icp-Xp-∂Xv {]Xn-tem-a-I-c-amb Hcp Z¿i-\-am-Wv. At∏mƒ ZpxJ-sØ-°p-dn®v IhnX Fgp-Xn-b-hcpw IY-Iƒ Na-®-hcpw Z¿i-\-߃ Icp-∏n-Sn-∏n-®-hcpw \n¬°-°-≈n-bn-√msX \´w Xncn-tb≠n hcpw. [\y-Xbpw \ndhpw Bflm-hp-X-s∂-bm-Wv.∂ . F√m krjvSn-Ifpw B\-µØn¬\n∂mWv kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xv. \mw sNøp∂ {Inb-I-sf√mw AXns‚ _mly-amb Bhn-jvIm-c-߃ am{X-am-Wv. CXmWv Kpcphns‚ Z¿i-\w. F√m. New DS-e‰ ˛ am‰-Øn\p hnt[-b-am-Ip∂ . tbip ]d™p: Bflm-hn¬ Zcn-{Z-cm-b-h¿ `mKy-hm-∑m¿ F∂v.

Ah-fpsS ssZ\y-Xb . DS-en-t\m-Sp≈ {]nbw Gdn-b-Xp-sIm-≠mWv Ahƒ°v ZpxJw D≠mb-Xv.hm≥ ]d-™p: ‘\o Fhn-sS-\n-s∂-¶nepw Hcp ISp-Ip-aWn hmßn-s°m≠p hcq. Ahƒ Ip™ns\ AhnsS InSØn ISp-Ip-aWn hmßn-°p-hm-\mbn HmSn. F∂m¬ B DS¬Xs∂-bmWv _mey-Øn-eq-sSbpw Iuam-c-Øn-eq-sSbpw buh-\-ØneqsSbpw hm¿≤-Iy-Øn-eq-sSbpw ]cn-W-an-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. B Krl-\m-Ys‚ A—≥ Ipd-®p-\m-fp-Iƒ°p-ap-ºmWv acn-®p-t]m-b-Xv.p-ambn FØn. Bcpw acn-°mØ ho´n¬\n-∂m-bn-cn-°Ww ISp-Ip-aWn sIm≠p-hcp-hm≥.’ Iri-Ku-Xan F∂mWv B bph-Xn-bpsS t]cv. AhnsS ISp-Ip-≠v. F∂n´v {io_p-≤s‚ injy-bmbn.n¬ Aenhp tXm∂nb _p≤-`K .™ p. {io_p-≤s‚ ASpØv Hcp bphXn Xs‚ acn-®p-t]mb Ip™n-s‚ ih-ic . BZyw I≠ ho´n¬ Ibdn.\mSv At]-£n®p: ‘Fs‚ Htc-sbmcp Ip™v acn-®p-t]m-bn. Ahƒ°p a\- n-embn acWw F√m. Ahƒ Xncn-®p-h∂v _p≤s‚ Im¬°¬ InSØn-bn-cp∂ Ip™ns\ FSp-Øp-sIm-≠p-t]mbn kwkvI-cn-®p. kzm`m-hn-I-amb Hcp {]im¥n Dudn-°q-Sn. Ahƒ tIWp-Ic .sIm≠v {io_p-≤t. F\n-°n\n Bcpan-√.X-\n°v Xs‚ Bflm-hnepw A[nIw {]nb-hkvXp C√ ˛ hne-knSpw Bfl-K-X-{]nbw hnSmsX Cu \ne-bn¬ Ccn-∏-Xp-sIm≠v Bflm \nXyw icocw ico-c-tØmSp XmZm-fly-an-√m-Xmb ˛ Hcp-h\v ˛ Xs‚ Bflm-hn-t\-°mƒ ˛ A[nIw {]nb-s∏-´-Xmb hkvXp A\y-w as‰-hn-sSbpw C√. ˛ kv]jvS-ambn A\p-`-hn-°p∂ ˛ Bflm-hn-t\m-Sp-≈ {]nbw ˛ hn´p-t]m-ImsX ˛ CtX \ne-bn¬Xs∂ ˛ XpS-cp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v ˛ Bflmhv \nXy-amWv. Xs‚ Ip™v am{X-a√ acn-®sX∂v. AhfpsS D≈n¬ Adn-hns‚ Xnf-°w A\p-`-h-s∏-´p.o-ch . Hcp inip-hm-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ icocw \t∂ arZphpw Zp¿_-e-hp-am-bn-cn-°pw.’ _p≤≥ bp-hXnsb t\m°n. ]t£. Atß-s°s‚ Ip™n\v ]p\¿P∑w \¬Im-\m-hpw. icoc-Øns‚ Cu Ne-\-kz-`m-h-hp-ambn XmZm-fly-s∏-´m¬ kpJ-Zpx-J-߃ amdn-amdn h∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pw. k‘y-bm-Ip-thmfw hoSpIƒtXmdpw Ib-dn-bn-d-ßn-bn´pw Bcpw acn-°mØ ho´n-¬\n∂pw KuXan°v ISp-Ip-aWn In´n-bn-√. am‰-Øn\p hnt[-b-am-Wv. F∂m¬ Xncn®v AXn-\p-]cn Hcp kXyw Ds≠∂v Ahƒ°v .hoSpI-fnepw kw`-hn-®n-´p-s≠-∂v.

t_m[y-s∏-´p. Aßs\ Bflm-hn¬ {]nbw P\n-®p. ico-c-Øn-t\m-Sp≈ XmZmflyw hnS-Ww. Bflm-hn¬ {]nbw P\n-®m¬ am{Xta DS-ent\m-Sp-≈ cmKw A‰p-t]m-hp-Ib
- p-≈q. hncmKX ASn-t®¬∏n°m-sX-Xs∂
Bflm-hn-ep-≈ {]nbw hnI-kn-∏n-s®-Sp-°p-Ib
- mWv th≠Xv. Bflmhv
{]nb-Øns‚ Ccn-∏n-Sa
- m-Wv. _rl-Zmc-Wy-tIm-]\
- n-jØ
- n¬ bm⁄-hevIy≥ ssat{X-bn-tbmSp ]d-bp∂p: `mcy `¿Øm-hns\ kvt\ln-°p-∂Xv
`¿Ømhn-ep-≈ {]nbw sIm≠-√. Bflm-hn-ep-≈ {]nbw-sIm-≠m-Wv.
`¿Ømhv `mcysb kvt\ln-°p-∂Xpw `mcy-bn-ep-≈ {]nbw sIm≠-√.
Bflm-hn-ep-≈ {]nbw-sIm-≠m-Wv. Bflm-hn¬ {]nbw P\n-®m¬
H∂nt\mSpw shdp∏p tXm∂p-Ib
- n√ . ico-cX
- m-Zm-fly-ap≈-h¿°p am{Xta
shdp∏v F∂ hnImcw P\n-°p-Ib
- p-≈q.
‘\ns∂-t∏mse \ns‚ Ab¬°m-c-t\bpw kvt\ln-°p-I.’ Cu
Ab¬°mc≥ \ΩpsS Bflm-hmbn hc-Ww. Rm≥ Fs∂ kvt\ln°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv Ab¬°m-cs\ kvt\ln-°p-∂-Xv. Bflm-hnep-≈ {]nbw DW¿∂mte B kvt\lw k^-e-am-Iq. ss__n-fn¬
kv t \l- s Ø- ° p- d n®v tbip a[p- t cm- Z m- c - a mbn kwkm- c n- ° p- ∂ p.
ssZhw kvt\l-am-sW∂p ]d-bp-∂p. F∂m¬ Kpcp Bflm-hn-en-cn°p∂ {]nbw Xs∂-bmWv ssZhm-\p-`qXn F∂p ]d-bp-I-bmWv sNøp∂-Xv. \mw \sΩ \√-hÆw kvt\ln-°p-I. Ne-ap-S-e‰v kvt\ln-°pI. At∏mƒ B\µw kzm`m-hn-I-amb Hcp Ah-ÿ-bmbn amdpw.
kzm`m- h nIw F∂m¬ Cgn- h n- √ mØ B\- µ - a m- W v . AXp- s Im≠v
B\µw Bflm- h p- X - s ∂- b m- W v . \ΩpsS F√m A`n- c - a - \ - ß fpw
Bflm- [ n- j v T n- X - a m- b - X p- s Im≠v Bflmhv \nXy- a m- W v . Bflmhv
Fs∂∂pw D≈-Xm-Wv. CXp [ym\n-°p-I.

94
De-I-hp-ap-≈-Xp-am-bv°-e¿∂p \nev°pw
\ne hep-Xm-sbmcp \oXn-tI-Sn-Xt{X,
Adp-Xn-bn-Sm-\-cp-Xm-X-hm-Mva-t\m-tKm˛
Nc-an-Xn-seßp Ncn-®nSpw {]amWw?
De-Ihpw
D≈-Xp-ambn
Ie¿∂n-\nev°pw \ne
hep-Xmb
Hcp \oXn-tI-Sn-X-t{X
Adp-Xn-bn-Sm≥ Acp-XmX

˛
˛
˛
˛
˛
˛

\ma-cq-]m-fl-I-amb temIhpw
]c-a-k-Xy-hp-ambn
H∂n®p Ie¿∂n-cn-°p∂ ÿnXn
hfsc henb
Hcp \oXn-tI-Sm-Wv, sshcp-≤y-amWv.
Adp-Xn-bn-√mØ Cu hntcm-[m-`mkw

Ahm-Mva-t\m-tKm-Ncw

˛

CXn¬
˛
Fßp Ncn-®nSpw {]amWw? ˛

hm°p-sIm≠p hnh-cn-°mt\m a\ psIm≠p {Kln-°mt\m Ign-bpI-bn-√.Cu sshcp-≤y-Øn-¬
Fßs\ {]am-W-߃
{]h¿Øn°pw?

shfn-®-ap-≈n-SØv Ccp-´n\p \n¬°m≥ Ign-bp-I-bn-√. CXp X¿°a‰ kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. F∂m¬ shfn-®hpw Ccp´pw H∂n-®n-cn-°p-∂n-SØp
am{X-amWv {]]-©-{]-XoXn D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. Hcp hkvXp-hns\ ImWm≥
klm-bn-°p-∂Xv hmkvX-h-Øn¬ shfn-®w-sIm-≠p- am-{X-a-√, B
hkvXp-hn\p Ccp-´n-s‚-Xm-bn-´p≈ Hcp ]›m-Ø-ehpw thWw. GXp
cq]w FSp-Ømepw AXn¬ Ccp´pw shfn-®hpap≠v. shfn-®-Øns‚
A`m- h - a mWv Ccp- s ´∂p ]d- b p- ∂ - X v . shfn- ® - Ø n¬Xs∂ Ccp´v
Dƒt®¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v. CsXmcp henb sshcp-≤y-am-Wv. Ccp-´p-t]mse-X-s∂-bmWv \ma-cq-]m-fl-I-am-bn-cn-°p∂ temIw Ak-Xy-am-bn-cn°p-∂-Xv. B temIw BXy-¥n-I-am-b- k-Xy-hp-ambn H∂n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv
Zm¿i-\n-I-X-bn¬ hcp∂ Hcp sshcp-≤y-am-Wv. AXn-s\bmWv Kpcp
\oXn-tI-sS∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. Cu \oXn-tI-Sns\ Xo¿°p-hm≥ th≠nbmWv F√m XØz-Nn-¥-Ifpw Z¿i-\-im-kv{X-ßfpw H∂-s√-¶n¬
thsd Xc-Øn¬ XØz-ßsf Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. F∂n´v C∂pw Cu
{]iv\w ]cn-lr-X-am-bn-´n-√.
{]iv\w F¥mWv? sshcp-≤y-ap-≈ c≠p hkvXp-°ƒ H∂n-®n-cn°p∂p F∂p-≈-XmWv {]iv\w. hmkvX-h-Øn¬ kXy-Øn\p sshcp≤y-an-√. sshcp≤yw \Ω-fn-emWv Ccn-°p-∂-Xv. \Ω-fpsS sshcp-≤yamWv kXy-Øn¬ \Ωƒ Btcm-]n-°p-∂-Xv. XØz-Nn-¥m-{K-l\v
sshcp-≤y-an-s√∂v Kpcp-Xs∂ ]d-™n-´p-≠v. hm°p-sImt≠m a\- psImt≠m ]d-bp-hmt\m hnNm-cw-sN-øphmt\m Ign-bm-Ø-XmWv Bflk-Xy-Øns‚ \ne. Cßs\ hm°pw a\ pw {]th-in-°mØ H∂ns\-°p-dn®v Fßs\ a\- p-sIm≠v Nn¥n-°m\pw hm°p-sIm≠p ]dbm\pw Ignbpw?
F∂m¬ \Ωƒ CXn-s\-°p-dn®v h¿j-ß-fmbn N¿∆n-X-N¿∆Ww
\S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. {]am-W-߃ D≤-cn-°p-∂p. Hmtcm imkv{XØn\pw AXn-t‚-Xmb {]am-W-ß-fp-≠v. Nm¿∆m-I\pw F∏n°yqd pw
ImWp-∂-Xns\ am{Xta kXy-ambn FÆp-∂p-≈q. Ah¿ {]-Xy-£hm-Zn-I-fm-Wv. {]Xy£w am{Xta Ah¿°p {]am-W-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p-≈q.
Nne¿ A\p-am\tØbpw AXns‚IqsS Iq´pw. At∏mƒ I≠-Xns‚
ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ A\p-am\w \SØn AXn-eq-sSbpw kXyw Is≠Øm≥ {ian-°pw. a\ v Ncn-°mØnSØv A\p-am-\-Øn-\v F¥v kmwKXy-am-Wp-f-fXv? CXp-t]mse D]-am-\w, i_vZw, A¿∞m-]-Øn, A\p]-e_v[n F∂o {]am-W-ß-sfms° thZm-¥n-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-®p-t]m-

cm-dp-≠v. F∂m¬ AsX√mw shdpw t\c-tºm-°p-Iƒ am{Xw. Bflk-Øbpw temIhpw H∂n-®n-cn-°p∂ \ne Hcp A¤p-X-{]-Xn-`m-k-amWv. B {]Xn-`m-ksØ B›-cy-`-cn-X-\mb Hcp inip-hn-s\-t∏mse
I≠n-cn-°m≥ am{Xta H°p-I-bp-≈q. I≠n-cn-°-W-sa-¶n¬ a\ p
IÆmSn t]mse-bm-I-Ww. AXn\v AsssZz-Xm-\p-`hw D≠m-I-Ww.

95
hn]p-e-X-bm¿∂ hnt\m-Z-hnZy ambm˛
hyh-ln-X-bmbv hne-kp∂ hniz-hocyw
Ch-fn-h-fn-ß-h-Xo¿Æ-bm-bnSpw X˛
∂h-b-h-a-WvU-I-Sm-l-tIm-Sn-bmIpw
hn]p-e-X-bm¿∂
hnt\m-Z-hnZy

˛
˛

ambm-hy-h-ln-X-bmbv
hne-kp∂
hniz-hocyw
Chƒ
Chƒ Cßv

˛
˛
˛
˛
˛

Ah-Xo¿Æ-bm-bnSpw
X≥ Ah-bhw

˛
˛

AWvU-I-Sm-l-tIm-Sn-bm-Ipw˛

A-Xn-cp-I-fn-√mØ
Hcp B\-tµm-’-h-amWv
{]]-©-{]-Xn-`mkw
amb-bm¬ Bhr-X-ambn
{]I-S-am-Ip∂
hniz-ho-cy-amWv
Chƒ.
Cu hniz-hocyw ChnsS
{]]-©-cq-]-Øn¬
{]Xy-£-am-bn-Øo-cp∂p.
hniz-ho-cy-amb Ch-fpsS
Ah-b-h-ß-fmWv
FÆ-a‰ £oc-]-Y-߃.

Kmcn kpJmhv F∂ imkv{X-⁄≥ Dancing Wuli Masters
Fs∂mcp {KŸ-sa-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≠v. Cu {KŸ-Øn¬ At±lw {]]©sØ
Du¿÷-tc-Wp-°f
- psS kwL-\r-Øambn-´mWv h¿Æn-°p-∂X
- v. kwLSnX Du¿÷-]S- e
- s
- Ø-bmWv wuli F∂ ssN\okv ]Zw-sIm≠v A¿∞am-°p-∂-Xv. B[p-\n-I-im-kv{Xw-t]mepw Du¿÷-I-W-߃ \rØw
sNøp∂p F∂p ]d-bp-tºmƒ \mcm-bW
- K
- pcp hniz-X{- ¥sØ Hcp hnt\mZ-hn-Zy-bm-bn-´mWv FÆp-∂X
- v. B hnt\m-Zh
- n-Zy°v am\-ßf
- n-√ (dimensionless). B¬_¿´v sF≥Ão≥ hymJym-\n-®p-X∂ hniz-Nn-{X-Øn\v
\mev am\-ßf
- m-Wp-ff
- X
- v. \ofw, hoXn, Db-cw, Ne\w F∂n-hb
- mWv B
\mep am\-߃. F∂m¬ AXn-cpI-fn-√mØ \S-cm-Ps
- ‚ B\-tµm’hw
`mc-XØ
- ns‚ mythologyI-fn¬ shdptX ]d-™p-t]m-cp∂ Imev]-

p-≈Xpw Cu tZhnbpsS AwK-hn-t£-]ß . sNdnb AWp-hnepw _rl-Ømb BIm-iØ .v i‡n ssN\-°m¿°v yin BWv.v {iocma-Ir-jW v ] .l . AXv Al-¥-bpsS cq]-sa-SpØv k¶p-Nn-X-ambn s]cp-am-dm-dp-≠v.v amb hnt£-]i .m-W.p-dØ . F√m hkvXp-°fpw H∂n-®p-tN-cp-tºmƒ AXv AJ-WvU-am-bn.v ambmi‡n-bm-WXv..v Cu ImWm-hp∂ {]]©hpw AXn-\∏ .n-em-kwXs∂ kw`-hn-°p-∂X . hniz-ho-cysØ Chƒ F∂mWv Kpcp ]d-bp-∂X . G‰hpw hep-Xn-s\-bmWv AJWvUw F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. BflkXyw Htc-k-abw sNdp-Xnepw sNdpXpw hep-Xnepw hep-Xp-am-Wv. A\-¥cw Ds≠∂pw Cs√∂pw F∂p≈ A\p-`-hhpw \ne-\n-¬°m-\m-ImsX A{]-Xy-£-amIpw G‰hpw sNdnb H∂n-s\-bmWv AWp F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv.nepw {Xkn®p\n¬°p∂ hniz-ho-cy-Øns‚ X≈n-®s .c . .a. At\Iw AWp-°ƒ tN¿∂mWv Cu {]]-©-Ønse Hmtcm hkvXphpw D≠m-bn-´p-≈-Xv.b ..n-sIm-≠mWv temIsØ D≠m-°n-°m-Wn-°p-∂X .v 96 AWp-hp-a-J-WvU-hp-akvXn \mkvXn-sb-∂n˛ ßs\ hne-kp-∂n-cp-`m-K-ambn c≠pw AW-bp-a-\-¥-c-akvXn \mkvXn-sb-∂o˛ b\p-`hw \ne-b‰p \n∂p-t]mIpw AWphpw AJ-WvUhpw AkvXn \mkvXn F∂n-ßs\ Ccp-`m-K-ambn hne-kp∂p c≠pw AWbpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ A\-¥cw AkvXn \mkvXn F∂o A\p-`-hhpw \ne-b‰p \n∂p-t]mIpw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ G‰hpw sNdpXpw G‰hpw hepXpw D◊bpw C√m-bvabpw F∂Xc-Øn-ep≈ Zzµzm-fl-I-X-bn¬ Bfl-k-Ø-bpsS c≠p hi-ambn {]Xo-X-am-Ip-∂p.∂-bmWv _¿Kvk¨ elan vital F∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-t±-in-°p-∂X .\n-IX .√ .v AXp-sIm≠mWv Kpcp hniz-ho-cysØ Chƒ F∂p hnfn-°p-∂X .. i‡n inhs‚ hma-`m-Ka. Bflm-\p-`-h-tØmsS Zzµz-߃ \in°pw. Cu i‡nsb-Xs .Im-≠mWv {]]-©h ..v.w-k¿ {_“sØ tZhn-bm-bn-´mWv Z¿in-°p-∂X .‡ ..ƒ am{Xam-W..

n-ep-≈ Btµm-f\w \ne-bv°p-∂-Xns\-bm-Wv. AJ-WvU-amb kXyw At∏mƒ ]q¿Æ-Xsb {]m]n°pw. \Ω-fpsS s]m´n-sØdn t{Im[m-th-i-Øn-emWv ]cn-W-an-°p-I. \n¿hmWw D◊tbm C√m-bvatbm A√. AXp sNdptXm heptXm A√. Xo sISp-∂-Xp-t]m-se. C√mbva \ncm-im-P-\-I-am-Wv. {]]©w ISp-Ip-a-Wn-tbmfw Npcp-ßn-bn-cn-°p∂ Hcp Ah-ÿ-bn¬ \n∂mWv s]m´n-sØ-dn-®-Xv. AXp hmK-Xo-X-amb A\p-`-h-am-Wv. AJ-WvU-amb . Xs‚ hy‡n-K-X-amb kpJ-Øn-\p-th≠n am{Xw Pohn-°p-∂n-SØv Hmtcm a\p-jy\pw \nIr-jvS-amb Hcp hy‡n-Xz-Øn-te°v Xmgp-IbmWv sNøp-∂-Xv. kzm\p-`qXn hcmsX CX-dn-bn√. Aßs\ s]m´n-sØ-dn® {]]-©-amWv Ct∏mƒ hnI-kn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.t]m-se-X-s∂-bmWv a\ v D◊-bp-tSbpw C√m-bva-bp-tSbpw {[ph-ß-fn¬ X´n De-bp-∂Xv. {io_p≤≥ \n¿hmWw F∂p ]dbp-∂Xv a\- ns‚ {[ph-߃°n-Sb . AtX. D◊ {]Xym-im-P-\-I-am-Wv. D≈n-s‚-bp-≈n¬ Npcp-ßn-t∏mIp-tºmƒ \Ωfpw s]m´n-sØ-dn-°mdp-≠v.Al¥ AWpXzw ssIh-cn-°p-tºm-gmWv k¶p-NnXXzw D≠m-Ip-∂Xv. F∂m¬ k¶p-Nn-X-amb Hcp a\- ns\ If™v hnizsØ apgp-h≥ kvt\ln-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ Hcp AJ-WvU-t_m-[am-bn-Øo-cp-hm\pw \ap°p Ign-bpw. Aßs\ sI´p-t]m-Ip∂ Ah-ÿ-bnemWv \n¿hmWw kw`-hn-°p-∂-Xv. CsX√mw sI´pt]m-Ipw. 97 AWp-h-dn-hn≥ aln-am-hn-ew-K-an-√m˛ XW-bp-a-J-WvU-hp-a∂p ]q¿Æ-amIpw A\p-`-hn-bm-X-dn-ho-e-J-WvUamw NnZv˛ L\-anXp au\-L-\m-ar-Xm-_v[n-bmIpw AWp Adn-hn≥ aln-am-hn¬ AwK-an-√msX AWbpw AJ-WvUhpw A∂v ]q¿Æ-amIpw A\p-`-hn-bmsX Adn-hoe AJ-WvUamw ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Poh≥ tIh-e-amb Adn-hns‚ al-X-z-Øn¬ imco-cn-IX A‰p-t]mbn hnebw {]m]n°pw. F∂m¬ CsXms° tXm∂-ep-Iƒ am{X-am-Wv. {]]-©-{]-Xo-Xn-Isf√mw \ne-bn-√msX \ne-®p-t]m-Ip∂ Cu A\p-`-h-km-I-eysØ FSpØp-Im-Wn-°m-\mWv Cu t«mI-Øn-eqsS Kpcp {ian-°p-∂-Xv.

√ . A\p-`h . IS¬°-cb .p-hm≥.b .ns‚ ]q¿Æn-a.m-sØmcp t_m[w.mb au\w! Nn¥m-cl . A¥-cm-flmhns‚ tX\nºw kzm\p-`q-Xn-sIm-≠pXs∂ \pW-bW .n-Xa .NnZvL-\-anXv ˛ au\-L-\m-ar-Xm-_v[n-bmIpw˛ NnZvL-\-am-WnXv. \m\m-Xz-{`-a-Øn\v CS hcp-Øp∂ Nn¥-Iƒ C√m-Xm-bmepw Bfl-kzXzw . AWphmb Poh≥ F{X-sb{X k©-cn-®mWv Bflm-hns‚ Xoc-sØ-Øn-bn-cn°p-∂-Xv.b . s]s´-∂Xv IS-embn amdn. \ns‚ t{kmX- mWv Cu A\-¥X .w.n¬ au\w XnSw h®p \n¬°p∂p. au\w L\o-`q-X-amb Aar-Xkm-K-c-am-Wn-Xv.Ø .mb `qanI! AarX-Øns‚ \oe-km-Kcw! 98 CXp-hsc \msamcp hkvXp-hn-ß-dn-™o˛ eXn-kp-J-sa-∂-\niw IYn-°-bmte aXn apX-em-bh amdn-bm-ep-am-fl˛ kzX-b-gn-bm-X-dn-sh∂p sNm√n-tS-Ww..n¬ Aen-bm-\mWv \o P\n-®X .n-√. L\o-`q-Xa . JWvUn-Xa .b-°p-dn®v Fßs\ samgn-bm-\mWv? ]d-™mepw Abmƒ°v a\- n-em-hp-Ib .v..Cu A\-¥X . ]ns∂ H∂pw an≠m≥ Ign-bp-Ib .b -. Hcp-]m-Sv ImØn-cp-∂n-´p-thWw IS-eW . tX≥ IpSn-®n-´n-√mØ Hcm-tfmSv tX\ns‚ a[p-cn-as . IW-Øn\p IS-em-Ip-hm≥ Hcp s\mSn aXn.n-√. ]t£. B aln-X-hn-im-e-Xsb I≠-t∏mƒ Pohs‚ D≈n-s‚-bp≈n¬\n∂v Hcp kzcw h∂p. Bfl-im-¥n-bpsS AKm-[X . AXn-kp-J-sa∂v A\niw IYn-°-bmte CXp-hsc \mw Hcp hkvXp Cß-dn-™oe aXn apX-em-bh ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ amdn-bmepw Bfl-kzX ˛ ˛ IqSp-X¬ kpJw thWsa∂v Ft∏mgpw ]d-bp-∂-Xp-Im-cWw C{Xbpw Ime-am-bn´pw \mw GI-amb Bfl-hkvXp ChnsS Adn-™-tX-bn-√. AXmWv \ns‚ kmbp-Pyw.nse ]p¬s°m-Sn-bn¬ Xßn-\n-∂n-cp∂ Pe-IWw ISen¬ hoWp. Pohs‚ PohXzw Adn-hns‚ al-Xz-hp-ambn Ie¿∂p-cpIn H∂m-bnØo¿∂p.

\√ hoSv. F∂m¬ Adn-bm≥ th≠n-bm-bn-cp∂p A°m-Z-an-I-fn¬ t]mbn ]Tn®-Xv. ‘Hcp kpJØn¬\n∂v AXnepw sa®-ap-≈ thsdmcp kpJ-Øn-te° v ’ AXmWv \ΩpsS ap{Zm-hm-Iyw. kpJw thWw kpJw thWw F∂mWv ]d-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.ß ƒ DS. Hcn-°epw \in-®p-t]mImØ Cu A¥¿⁄m\w ho≠pw ho≠pw \mw Adn-™p-sIm≠n-cn-°-Ww. \√ Im¿. AXp-sIm≠v Zn\w-{]Xn ^mj≥ amdp-∂p. Hmtcm cmjv{Shpw Ah-cpsS Pohn-X-\ne-hmcw sa®-s∏-Sp-Øphm≥ imkv{X-km-t¶-Xn-IX-Isf hnI-kn-∏n®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. XI¿∂p Xcn-∏-W-am--Ipw. hnjm-Z-—-hn-bn-√mØ NnZm-Im-i-am-Wv.∂ p.I ƒ amdp.s Im. .° p.ß . Al-Ω-Xn-bn¬\n∂pw ]Sp-Øp-b¿Ø-s∏´ PohnXw ]fp-¶p-sIm-´mcw t]mse-bmWv. \√ hkv{Xw.® p. ]ns∂ FhnsS-bmWv \ap°v \sΩ Adn-bp-hm≥ t\cw? \mw \ΩpsS {]im-¥n-bpsS XocØv CØn-cn-t\-c-sa-¶nepw Ccp-∂n-´pt≠m? \ΩpsS Bflm-hns‚ {]W-ha¿Ω-c-ßsf C\n-a-tbmsS Bkz-Zn-®n-´p-t≠m? \mw \ΩpsS Bflmhns‚ Bg-ta-dnb hnlm-b- n¬ t`Z-ß-fn-√msX Hcn-°-se-¶nepw hnebn-®n-´pt≠m? Cs√∂p ]d-tb≠n hcpw. AXns\-bmWv Bfl-kzX F∂p ]d-bp-∂-Xv. ]d-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ibpw thWw.c n. AXn-kp-J-sa∂v A\niw IYn-°-bm-te. AXp {]im¥n-bpsS el-cn-bmWv.ß .ƒ CsXms° kpJm-t\z-j-W-Øns‚ ]mX-bn-ep-ff Is≠-Ø-ep-I-fm-Wv. Fs¥√mw {]bm-k-ß-fmWv a\p-jy≥ A\p-`-hn-°p-∂Xv? GIm¥-Xbpw \ncm-ibpw DXvI-WvTbpw `oXn-bp-sa√mw Hcp-hs‚ hy‡nXzsØ Im¿∂p-Xn-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. aXn F∂m¬ _p≤n-bm-Wv. hyh-t—-Zn-°p∂ _p≤n.≠ n.N n.∏-Sp-Øn-s°m≠n-cn-°p∂ imkv{Xhpw kmt¶-Xn-I-Xbpw Ht´sd {]hr-≤-am-bn-°-gn™p.mb `£-Wß . F\n-s°s∂ Adn-bm-sa∂p hºp ]dbpw. kpJ-hn-jb . A°m-Z-an-Iƒ aXn-h¿≤n-\n-I-fm-Wv.a . cpNn-Ic .h m¿Øp. A`ncp. \mw H∂pw Adn-™n-´n-√. F∂m¬ Bfl-kzm-X{¥yw B\p-`q-Xn-I-am-Wv.ƒ°p ]n∂mse ]c°w ]mbp∂ a\p-jy≥ Bflim¥n Fs¥∂v Adn-bp-∂n-√.AgnbmX Adn-sh∂v sNm√n-tSWw ˛ ˛ Agn-hn-√mØ Adn-hm-sW∂v samgn-™n-tSWw kpJ-hn-jb .∂ p.sf hn]p-es . sNdn-sbm-cm-LmXw aXn. F∂mepw \mw Adn-hm-f∑m-sc-t∏mse kwkm-cn-°pw. aXn h¿≤n-°p-tºmƒ AXns\ Al-ΩXn F∂p ]d-bpw. _‘.

B kn≤m¥w CXmWv. GI-am-Wv. Xs∂ k¿h-Ønepw I≠-dn-bp-∂h . Bh-cWw Hgn-bm-Ø-h\v C°m-cy-Øn¬ X¿°-ap-≠v. awKfw ]mSp-∂-Xn\p apºmbn AXns‚ kn≤m¥w Hcn-°¬°qSn Ac-°n´v Dd-∏n-°p-∂p.mWv.ns‚ emfn-Xy-Øn¬ [n°mc-Øns‚ kzcw tIƒ°p-∂Xv A⁄m-\w-sIm-≠m-Wv.mw. Pdp-k-te-anepw tPm¿Zm≥ \Zo-X-Sß-fnepw tbip hnfw-_cw sNbvX kvt\l-k-tµiw AssZzX-t_m-[-Øn¬\n∂v Dd-h-sIm-≠-Xmbn-cp-∂p. Adnhpw Rm\pw c≠-√. Cu GIXzw Adn-bmØ-h-sc-°p-dn®p≈ ]cn-K-W-\bpw Kpcp hn´p-If-bp-∂n-√. F{X at\m-lc . ]t£. F∂m¬ Cdm- . \mcm-b-W-Kpcp B GIm-fl-I-X-bpsS Pohn-°p∂ km£y-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]c-a-amb Adn-hn¬\n∂v Rm≥ thsdbm-sW∂p h∂m¬ Cu Adn-hns\ ChnsS Adn-bm\pw Bcpw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-I-bn√. AXp-sIm≠mWv Bh-c-W-sam-gn-™-h¿°p am{X-amWv Adn-hn-t‚bpw Al-Ønt‚bpw GIm-fl-IX D◊-bn¬ sXfn-™p-h-cp-∂p-≈q. Adn-h-l-sa-∂Xp-c≠ .a . Ffn-b-h-\n¬ Ffn-b-hs‚ kzc-amWv AXn¬ [z\n-°p-∂X .99 Adn-h-l-sa-∂-Xp-c-≠p-ta-I-am-am˛ hc-W-sam-gn-™-h\\y\p≠p hmZw Adn-hns\ hn´-l-a-\y-am-Ip-sa-∂m˛ edn-hn-s\-bn-ß-dn-bm-\p-am-cp-an-√. k¿h-Ønepw Xs∂bpw.v. Rm\pw Fs‚ ]nXmhpw c≠√ F∂p ]d™ tbip [n°m-cn-b-√. Adnhv Alw F∂Xp c≠pw Bh-cWw Hgn-™-h\v GIamw A\y\v hmZ-ap≠v Adn-hns\ hn´v Alw A\y-amIpw F∂m¬ Adn-hns\ Cßv Adn-bm\pw Bcp-an√ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-XIw tIh-e-amb Adnhv Rm≥ F∂p≈ c≠pw ambm-ad amdn-b-h\v GIamWv.p-ta-Ia .¿ Imcp-Wy-im-en-If .m-Wn-Xv. Atd-_y≥ aW-em-c-Wy-Øn¬ sIm≠p-]n-Sn® lnwk-Iƒ°n-S-bnepw {]hm-N-I-\mb apl-ΩZp\_n Imcp-Wy-Øns‚ ]q¿Øo-I-c-W-amb PohnXw temI-Øn\p ImWn®p-sIm-Sp-Øp.a . AssZz-XØ .mb {]Jym-]\ .

a{µa-[p-c-amb kwKo-X-at√ Cu D◊! 100 AXp-an-Xp-a√ kZ¿∞-a-√lw k˛ ®nZ-ar-X-sa∂p sXfn™p [oc-\mbn kZ-k-ZnXn {]Xn-]-Øn-b‰p ktØm˛ anXn arZp-hmbv arZp-hmbv Aa¿∂n-tS-Ww. Cu hnizw apgp-h\pw Htc-sbmcp D◊-bm-Wv. temIw H∂mbn ImWm≥ B{K-ln°p∂ kØp-°ƒ Xncn-®-dn-tb≠ Hcp kwKXn. AXp t]mbm¬ a\p-jy≥ ]pXn-sbmcp hk¥m-cm-a-Øn-te°p {]th-in-°pw. Rm\pw kXyhpw c≠√ F∂mWv AXns‚ A¿∞w. c≠p D◊-Iƒ Hcn-°epw km[q-I-cn-°-s∏-Sm-hp-∂-X-√. Fs∂hn´v Adnhpw C√. A\¬ l°v ˛ Rm\mWv kXyw F∂v. B ]SpX ambm-a-d-bm-Wv. Rm≥ Cs√∂p hcn-I-bmsW-¶n¬ Adn-hns\ Adn-bp-hm≥ ChnsS Bcpw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-I-bn-√.Jn¬h®v Hcp kq^n-h-cy≥ CtX. At∏mƒ At±-lsØ Kf-t—ZwsNbvXp. kØpw NnØpw B\µ-hp-amWv F∂ sXfn™ A\p-`q-Xn-bp-≠mbn A`b\mbn kØn-t\mSpw Ak-Øn-t\mSpap≈ {]Xn-]Øn C√m-Xmbn kØmb HmwIm-c-Øn¬ . Rm≥ kØns‚ A¿∞-hpa√. ]t£. Zzµz-߃ ]q¿Æ-ambn A‰p-t]m-I-Ww F∂p-f-f-Xm-Wv. AXp-sIm≠v Rm\pw Adnhpw H∂m-Wv. ‘A\¬lJv’ F∂v a¨kq¿ A¬l÷v F∂ kq^n-k-∂ymkn samgn-™-t∏mƒ AXns‚ A¿∞w km{º-Zm-bnI-hm-Zn-Iƒ°v lrZ-bI-tTm-c-am-bn-Øo¿∂p. Alw AXpw CXpw A√ ˛ ˛ kZ¿∞w A√ k®n-Z-arXw F∂p sXfn™v [oc-\mbn kZv AkZv CXn {]Xn-]-Øn-b‰v kZv Hmw CXn ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ Rm≥ AsX∂pw CsX∂pw ]d-bm-hp∂ H∂pw-X-s∂-b-√. ssZh-Øn\pw a\p-jy\pw CS-bn¬ A⁄m-\-Øns‚ hen-sbmcp ]SpX C´n-´p-≠v. AXns‚ Xmf-`-{ZX \Ωƒ A\p-\n-anjw A\p-`-hn-®p--t]m-cp-∂p-ap≠v. kzm`m-hn-I-amb ⁄m\-Øn¬ c≠n-√.kXyw temI-Øn-t\mSp sXm≠-bn-Sdn-sIm≠v hnfn®p ]d-™p. Adnhns\hn´v Rm\pan√. Adn-hns\hn´v Rm≥ A\y-am-sW∂p hcn-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ Rm≥ kzbw D◊bn√mØ H∂m-bn-Øo-cm≥ CSbp-≠v. Cu Ak-ln-jvWpX t{]m’ml-\o-b-a-√.

AXp-sIm-≠m-Wv BZy-ta-Xs∂ Rm≥ AXp-a√ CXp-a√ F∂ c≠p \ntj-[ß . CXp-hsc \mw \ΩpsS D◊sb a‰p ]e-Xp-ambn X´n®p a\- n-em°p-Ib . Fs∂ Rm≥ F¥n\p `b-°Ww? Rm≥ Fs∂ Xo{h-ambn kvt\ln-°p-∂p.Xt∂m hyh-t—-Zn-°m≥ Ign-bmØ D◊bpsS \nd-hmWv Rm≥.m-W. Bg-ta-dnb au\w! HmwIm-cØ .ns‚ [\yX! AXv samgn-bm-\m-hp-∂n-√.. F\n°v Rm\-√msX thsd Bcp-an-√.sØ Dd-∏n-°m\mbn AXp \ns‚ lrZ-bØ ..√.n-eqsS kwkn-≤a .. Rm≥ Akw-K\ .. Rm≥ ip≤-amb t_m[-amWv F∂Xv Hcp kn≤m-¥a .f .m-W. AXv A\-¥X .v AXv kzmX-{¥y-am-Wv.m-°p-∂X . F∂n¬Xs∂ B ]cn-afw \nd-™p-Ih .n-te-°p-≈ Fs‚ AkvXn-Xz-Øns‚ {]th-i\ ..p-Ib .v F√mw F\n-°n-t∏mƒ sXfn™p ImWm≥ Ign-bp-∂p..X√mw Rm≥X-s∂-bmWv.v.n-te°p Nq≠n A\p-`h .v F∂n´p lrZ-bØ . ssZhcmPyw B ae-bntem Cu ae-bntem A√ F∂p tbip Xd-∏n®p ]dbm≥ ImcWw.a . F∂nse GIm-flI ..X . Rm≥ ]cn-afw {]k-cn-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.mbn ]cn-KW .v Fs‚ kØ Imcp-Wy-kmK-cw-t]mse arZp-ea .n-√m-ØX .m-bn-cp∂ F√mw Rm≥ X≈n-°f .msX thsd Btcbpw ImWp-∂n-√. Hcp hkvXp-°t. kz¥w A\p-`q-Xn--Xs∂-bm-Wv. ImcWw Rm≥ Fs∂-b√ .m-W. Aß-s\-sbmcp XmZm-fly-_p≤n P\-ßf .p-t]mse a\- n-em-°n-bmepwt]mcm.n-°m≥ ]mSn-√.v kpK-‘t..arZp-hmbv arZp-hmbv Aa¿∂n-tSWw ˛ ˛ arZp-hmbn arZp-hmbn Aa¿∂n-tS-Ww. D≈-sXt∂m C√m-Øs .m-bn-cp-∂p. F∂n¬ A[y-kvXa .b .b .n-em-Ip∂p F∂p ]d-bp-∂p.n¬ F√mw arZp-hmbn arZphmbn hne-bn®v hne-bn®v H∂mbn amdn-bn-cn-°p-∂p. thsd F∂p ]d-bp-∂s .mb Cu \nan-jØ . Bfl-kØ Hcp hkvXp-hns‚ A¿∞-sa-∂X .v F\n°v `bw tXm∂p-∂n-√.n¬ Ccn-°p-∂Xp-sIm-≠m-W.n-bp-∂p. AXv kØpw NnØpw Aar-Xhpw Ie¿∂n-cn-°p∂ ckm-\p-`q-Xn-bm-W.fmSpw F\n°v {]tXy-In®v Bk‡n tXm∂p∂n-√.a-dnb Hcp ]qhpt]mse-bmWv Rm≥. .ns‚ kuay-amb \mZw! ]c-am-Àm-ZI .a .m-W.c .m-Wv. F\n°v AXn-cp-If .b ..n\m¬ Rm≥ A\-¥a . At∏mƒ \mw AXns\ ho≠pw Hcp kn≤m-¥a .

Adp-Xn-bn-Sm-\-cp-Xm-X A-hm-Mva-t\mtKm-N-cw CXn-seßp Ncn-®nSpw {]am-Ww? B≤ym-fln-I-{K-Ÿ-߃ a\pjy\v Btflm-∑p-JX (self-orientation) am{Xta D≠m-°n-Ø-cp-∂p≈q.s etb tXm∂p. Aßs\ sNbvXn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ Iptd hm°p-Iƒ CW°. F∂m¬. CsXmcp lm≥Uv_p-°m-Wv. F¥pX-s∂-bm-bmepw Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-XIw Hcp alm-Z¿i-\-am-sW∂v a\ n-em-°p-hm≥ Cu hymJym\w [mcmfw aXn-bm-Ipw.b p.√ msX Iq´n.I .v. \ap°p sIm≠p-\S-°m-hp∂ Hcp ]pkvX-Iw.n¬ Hcp hymJym\w F∂ \ne-bv°√ CsX-gpXn-bp-´p-≈-Xv. AXv Kpcp-hns‚ `mj-bn-ep≈ ss\]pWn hnfn-t®m-Xp-∂-Xm-Wv.D]-kw-lmcw Btflm-]-tZ-i-i-X-I-Øn\v Hcp-]mSv hymJym-\-ßfpw hni-Zo-I-cW-ßfpw D≠m-bn-´p-≠v. CXn¬ ]Z-t—Zw sNbvXn-cn-°p∂Xpw A¿∞w ]d-™n-cn-°p-∂Xpw Kpcp-hns‚ Z¿i-\sØ BIth B[m-c-am-°n-s°m-≠m-Wv. kzm\p-`hw. AXp-sIm≠v hm°p-Iƒ°v A¿∞w ]dbp-tºmƒ \nL≠p-hn¬\n∂pw t\sc A¿∞-sa-SpØp ]d-bp-I-b-√ sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂X .≈ q. A°q-´Ø . Bflm-\p-`q-Xn°v Hcp ]pkvX-Ihpw klm-b-I-am-hp-I-bn√ F∂p≈ kXyw Kpcp-Xs∂ shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xm-W-t√m.t ]m. kXym-t\z-j-Whpw Kpcp-Ir-]bpw k‘n-°p-∂nSØp\n∂pw B\-µ-kz-cq-]-ambn Dd∂phtc≠-Xm-Wv. Kpcphpw hmNym¿∞-Øn-\p-]-cn-bmbn hm°p-Iƒ°v Hcp e£yw Ipdn-°p-∂p-≠v.X p.h . - .a n. Kpcp-hns‚ ImcpWyw \Ω-fn-se√mw Aar-X-h¿jw sNmcn-b-s´.® .

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