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Dr Rashmi Tikku WSRD
Patriarchy can be traditionally defined as the structuring of society on the basis of family units, where the father or man has the primary authority and responsibility and decision making powers over the rest of the family members
Patriarchy Rests on defined notions of masculine and feminine. female fertility and motherhood and valorise female subordination. . is held in place by sexual and property arrangements that privilege men‟s choices. desires and interests over women and is sustained by relationships that celebrate heterosexuality.
it also describes the custom of passing family responsibilities and assets from father to son. By contrast.Linked with Property and Inheritance Patrilineal describes the custom of tracing descent from paternal lineage. . cultures which trace their lineage maternally are called matrilineal. Typically.
One hypothesis suggested that human social organization "evolved" through a series of stages: animalistic sexual promiscuity was followed by matriarchy. social construct debate Starting from a foundation in the theories of biological evolution developed by Charles Darwin. many 19th-century scholars formulated a linear theory of cultural evolution.Biology v. which was in turn followed by patriarchy .
Sociological Gloss Most sociologists reject predominantly biological explanations of patriarchy and contend that social and cultural conditioning is primarily responsible for establishing male and female gender roles .
marriage practices and a culture of seclusion restrict women‟s lives and choices .Need for Autonomy of gender oppression from class analysis Women‟s oppression needed to be theorised on its own right and not in terms of Marxist class oppression Kinship ties.
where it is sometimes capitalized and used with the definite article . therefore. In some feminist theories. that the word patriarchy has a range of additional. negative associations when used in the context of feminist theory. the opposite of feminism is patriarchy. It is not surprising.
Ronald Dworkin has argued that equality is a difficult idea. However. It is particularly hard to work out what equality means when it comes to gender. because there are real differences between men and women . rather they argue for equality.EQUALITY Most feminists do not propose to replace patriarchy with matriarchy.
.Gerda Lerner: The Creation of Patrirachy One of the foremost historians of women's history Dr. Lerner is a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin.
and goes to the very earliest beginnings of history itself. .Women and History Women‟s invisibility in the past The fundamental division of the human race between men and women. is very. The oppression and neglect of women that occurs across all cultures and all levels of society. very deep.
or whether it was a human invention coming out of a specific historic period. as most of us have been taught.How come that women did not even know that they were subordinated for such a long time?" The crucial question is whether patriarchy was. a natural. almost God-given condition. .
.Concept of Hegemony gender indoctrination educational deprivation: the denial to women of knowledge of their history dividing women by defining “respectability‟ and “deviance‟ by restraints and outright coercion by discrimination in access to economic resources and political power by awarding class privileges to conforming women.
.C. during the second millennium B.Patriarchy : a human invention Institutionalised by the Bronze Age.C. Long Before Western civilization began If we can get underneath these ancient values that have conditioned our culture we will find the potential for new realms of our own consciousness . The process of institutionalizing it was completed by about 500600 B.
Why Patriarchy began in the Bronze Age Beginnings: Crude bronze weapons like a bronze cudgel and a hoe Societies with more women could produce more children. have more labour at hand for agriculture and consequently produce more surpluses Other effect was of creating a warfare society and intensifying warfare .
. Third. there was a need to control the natural environment for planting and harvesting purposes.The Patriarchal Paradigm Shift First. to control the breeding of domesticated animals for labor and food. men's understanding of their part in reproduction lessened their reverence for women and instigated their desire to measure descent through--and thereby control--the male line. Second.
The formation of the state was done in such a way as to strengthen patriarchy The harem become a sign and site of royal power at first it was only women's sexual conduct that was regulated .The creation of city states and nations.
Commodification of womens sexuality and reproductive capacities . with men holding positions of power over women. To establishing a worldview that ordered the world into unequal binaries. Was the prime cause for the creation of a patriarchal model that emphasized control.
Re-Thinking Production Feminists argued that in most societies women played the central role in producing the necessities of life Sexual division of labour is a historical and dynamic phenomenon and is changing Reproduction: a dynamic process includes giving birth. rasising and socialising children .
also gifted for religious and ritual purposes Gayle Rubin : Logic of exchange constituted a „sex-gender system‟ Streedhun vs land rights Loss of access to their bodies and their sexuality .Indian Marriage/ Kanyadan Woman was controlled by men through a pattern of “exchange” Became commodified A gift outright.
Link between Productive and Punitive Aspects of Patriarchy Women who were widows or infertile had no civic standing and are derided Often confined to spaces like ashrams or are invisible in homes or punished as unnatural (witches) and „defeminised‟ .
Family. Kinship and Community Practices and structures taken for granted such as marriage. kinship emotional and sexual intimacy. WS depts detatched women from the family and addresses her as a social unit in her own right as an individual .
." who are expected to bear and raise children and take care of the home. hence the sanctity (and legal binding) of marriage. This normative system of sexuality is enforced by conceptualizing men as either "real" or deviant.The heterosexual male Is viewed as the human standard against which all else (that is. non-humans such as women and homosexuals) is measured. "Real men" are sexually attracted to "real women.
Devaluing of women’s tasks/ Valorisation of Male Roles Cleaning Cooking Childrearing Looking after farm animals MALES Hunting „breadwinner roles‟ Mechanical tasks .
the media. state and national laws. Institutions such as the church. Social control over expressions of sexuality and gender is also maintained through violence. either actual or threatened. and biological and psychological theories all serve to instil and maintain this heterosexist social ideology. education. .
Supreme court judgement on custodial rape ( mathura) 1974 Status of Woman report called “ Of Towards Equality” 1980‟s: Fusion of interests between activism and scholarship: the establishment of Womens Studies Depts and women‟s visibility in human rights cases and gender equity .Concept of Patriarchy in India Mid 1970-80.
Definitions of economic activity. taboos and caste ( endogamy and exogamy) Economics: women and work.Disciplinary perspectives In Womens Studies Anthropology: Women‟s reproductive roles and structures of kinship. Economics of reproduction Development studies: existing models of economic growth produced female poverty and ecological destruction . Invisibilty of women‟s work.
literature. culture from a feminist lens Enter Political reservation debates.Need to: Re-examination history. judiciary Role of political parties and public institutions. the role of women in panchayats. Women‟s access to public land land ownership and not just jewellery .
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