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Chapter 5
AM, FM, and Digital Modulated Systems
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Double Sideband Suppressed carrier (DSSC)
Assymetric Sideband Signals
Single sideband signals (SSB)
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Huseyin Bilgekul
Eeng360 Communication Systems I
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Eastern Mediterranean University
Eeng 360 2
The modulated bandpass signal can be described by
( ) ( )  
c c
f f G f f G f V ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
*
2
1
) (
( ) ( )  
c g c g v
f f P f f P f P ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
4
1
) (
Bandpass Signaling Review
The voltage spectrum of the bandpass signal is
The PSD of the bandpass signal is
( ) ( )   ; t g F f G = ( ) g(t); envelope complex the of PSD  f P
g
Where
} ) ( Re{ ) (
t j
C
e t g t s
=
=
Frequency Carier  ; 2
c
f f
c c
t e =
Where
Modulation Mapping function: Convert m(t) →g(t) Ref : Table 41
Eeng 360 3
Amplitude Modulation
)] ( 1 [ ) ( t m A t g
c
+ =
The Complex Envelope of an AM signal is given by
A
c
indicates the power level of AM and m(t) is the Modulating Signal
A
c
[1+m(t)] Inphase component x(t)
If m(t) has a peak positive values of +1 and a peak negative value of 1
AM signal 100% modulated
Representation of an AM signal is given by
( ) [1 ( )]cos
c c
s t A m t t e = +
Envelope detection can be used if % modulation is less than 100%.
Eeng 360 4
An Example of a message signal m(t)
Waveform for Amplitude modulation of the message signal m(t)
Amplitude Modulation
Eeng 360 5
Amplitude Modulation
An Example of message energy spectral density.
Energy spectrum of the AM modulated message signal.
B
2B
Carrier component together
with the message
Eeng 360 6
] 0 [i.e., modulation of absence in the envelope AM of Level 
)] ( 1 [ of value Minimum 
)] ( 1 [ of value Maximum 
min
max
=
+
+
m(t) A
t m A A
t m A A
c
c
c
Definition: The percentage of positive modulation on an AM signal is
 
max
% Positive Modulation 100 max ( ) 100
c
c
A A
m t
A
÷
= × = ×
 
min
100 min ( ) 100
c
c
A A
m t
A
÷
× = ÷ ×
The percentage of negative modulation on an AM signal is
   
max min
max ( ) min ( )
% Modulation 100 100
2 2
c
m t m t
A A
A
÷
÷
= × = ×
The percentage of overall modulation is
AM – Percentage Modulation
If m(t) has a peak positive values of +1 and a peak negative value of 1
AM signal 100% modulated
Eeng 360 7
AM Signal Waveform
A
max
= 1.5A
c
A
min
= 0.5 A
c
% Positive modulation= 50%
% Negative modulation =50%
Overall Modulation = 50%
Eeng 360 8
AM – Percentage Modulation
Under modulated (<100%) 100% modulated
Envelope Detector
Can be used
Envelope Detector
Gives Distorted signal
Over Modulated (>100%)
Eeng 360 9
( ) ( ) ( )  
( ) ( )  
( ) ( ) t m A t m A A
t m t m A
t m A t g t s
c c c
c
c
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
+ + =
+ + =
+ = =
( ) ( )
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
t m A A t s
c c
+ =
AM – Normalized Average Power
The normalized average power of the AM signal is
If the modulation contains no dc level, then ( ) 0 = t m
The normalized power of the AM signal is
Discrete Carrier Power Sideband power
Eeng 360 10
AM – Modulation Efficiency
Translated Message Signal
Definition : The Modulation Efficiency is the percentage of the total power
of the modulated signal that conveys information.
Only “Sideband Components” – Convey information
Modulation Efficiency:
( )
( )
2
2
100
1
m t
E
m t
= ×
+
Highest efficiency for a 100% AM signal : 50%  square wave modulation
Normalized Peak Envelope Power (PEP) of the AM signal:
( )   { }
2
2
max 1
2
t m
A
P
c
PEP
+ =
Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  
c c c c
c
f f M f f f f M f f
A
f S + + + + ÷ + ÷ = o o
2
) (
Unmodulated Carrier
Spectral Component
Eeng 360 11
Example 51. Power of an AM signal
Suppose that a 5000W AM transmitter is connected to a 50 ohm load;
V 707 000 , 5
50 2
1
2
= ¬ =
c
c
A
A
Then the constant A
c
is given by
Without
Modulation
If the transmitter is then 100% modulated by a 1000Hz test tone ,
the total (carrier + sideband) average power will be
( ) ( ) W
A
c
500 , 7 5000 5 . 1
50 2
1
5 . 1
2
= × =
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

( )
(
¸
(
¸
= modulation 100% for
2
1
2
t m
The peak voltage (100% modulation) is (2)(707) = 1414 V across the 50 ohm load.
The peak envelope power (PEP) is ( ) ( ) W
A
c
000 , 20 5000 4
50 2
1
4
2
= × =
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

The modulation efficiency would be 33% since < m
2
(t) >=1/2
Eeng 360 12
Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)
Power in a AM signal is given by
( ) ( )
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
t m A A t s
c c
+ =
Carrier Power
Sideband power
DSBSC is obtained by eliminating carrier component
If m(t) is assumed to have a zero DC level, then t t m A t s
c c
e cos ) ( ) ( =
Spectrum
( ) ( )  
c c
c
f f M f f M
A
f S + + ÷ =
2
) (
Power ( ) ( )
2
1
2 2 2
t m A t s
c
=
Disadvantages of DSBSC:
• Less information about the carrier will be delivered to the receiver.
• Needs a coherent carrier detector at receiver
( )
( )
% 100 100
2
2
= × =
t m
t m
E
Modulation Efficiency
Eeng 360 13
DSBSC Modulation
An Example of message energy spectral density.
Energy spectrum of the DSBSC modulated message signal.
No Extra Carrier
component
t t m A t s
c c
e cos ) ( ) ( =
B
2B
Eeng 360 14
Carrier Recovery for DSBSC Demodulation
Coherent reference for product detection of DSBSC can not be obtained by the
use of ordinary PLL because there are no spectral line components at f
c
.
Eeng 360 15
Carrier Recovery for DSBSC Demodulation
A squaring loop can also be used to obtain coherent reference carrier for product
detection of DSBSC. A frequency divider is needed to bring the double carrier
frequency to f
c
.
Eeng 360 16
Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation
An upper single sideband (USSB) signal has a zerovalued spectrum for
c
f f <
A lower single sideband (LSSB) signal has a zerovalued spectrum for
c
f f >
SSBAM – popular method ~ BW is same as that of the modulating signal.
Note: Normally SSB refers to SSBAM type of signal
USSB
LSSB
Eeng 360 17
Single Sideband Signal
Theorem : A SSB signal has Complex Envelope and bandpass form as:
( ) ( ) ( )   t m j t m A t g
c
ˆ ± =
( ) ( )   t t m t t m A t s
c c c
e e sin ) (
ˆ
cos =
Upper sign () USSB
Lower sign (+) LSSB
) ( ˆ t m
– Hilbert transform of m(t)
( ) ( ) ( ) t h t m t m  ÷ ˆ
Where
( )
t
t h
t
1
=
( ) ( )   t h f H · =
( )
0 ,
0 ,
f j
f j
f H
¹
´
¦
<
> ÷
=
and
Hilbert Transform corresponds to a 90
0
phase shift
H(f)
f
j
j
Eeng 360 18
Single Sideband Signal
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
<
>
=
0 , 0
0 , 2
f
f f M A
f G
c
( )
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ < +
÷ >
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
<
> ÷
=
c c
c
c
c
c c
c
f f f f M
f f
A
f f
f f f f M
A f S
,
, 0
, 0
,
Proof: Fourier transform of the complex envelope
( ) ( ) ( )   f jH f M A f G
c
± = ¬ 1
Using
( ) ( ) ( ) t h t m t m  ÷
ˆ
Recall from Chapter 4
{ } )] ( [ * ) (
2
1
) (
c c
f f G f f G f V + ÷ + ÷ =
If lower signs were used LSSB signal would have been obtained
Upper sign USSB
Lower sign LSSB
Upper sign USSB
( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
( )
{ }
ˆ
ˆ ( )
c c
G f A M f j m t A M f jM f ( = ± · = ±
¸ ¸
Eeng 360 19
Single Sideband Signal
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
<
>
=
0 , 0
0 , 2
f
f f M A
f G
c
( )
( )
( )
,
0,
0,
,
c c
c
c
c
c
c c
M f f f f
S f A
f f
f f
A
M f f f f
¦ ¹ ÷ >
¦ ¦
= +
´ `
<
¦ ¦
¹ )
> ÷
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
´ `
+ < ÷
¦ ¦
¹ )
Eeng 360 20
SSB  Power
The normalized average power of the SSB signal
( ) ( ) ( )  
2
2 2
2
2
ˆ
2
1
) (
2
1
t m t m A t g t s
c
+ = =
( ) ( ) t m t m
2
2
ˆ =
Hilbert transform does not change
power.
SSB signal power is:
( ) ( ) t m A t s
c
2 2 2
=
( ) ( )  
2
2 2
2
ˆ
2
1
) ( max
2
1
t m t m A t g
c
+ =
The normalized peak envelope (PEP) power is:
Power gain factor
Power of the modulating signal
Eeng 360 21
Generation of SSB
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  
2
2
ˆ t m t m A t g t R
c
+ = =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
¸
(
¸
±
= Z =
÷
t m
t m
t g t
ˆ
tan
1
u
SSB signals have both AM and PM.
( ) ( ) ( )   t m j t m A t g
c
ˆ ± =
The complex envelope of SSB:
For the AM component,
For the PM component,
Advantages of SSB
• Superior detected signaltonoise ratio compared to that of AM
• SSB has onehalf the bandwidth of AM or DSBSC signals
Eeng 360 22
Generation of SSB
SSB Can be generated using two techniques
1. Phasing method
2. Filter Method
Phasing method
This method is a special modulation type of IQ canonical form
of Generalized transmitters discussed in Chapter 4 ( Fig 4.28)
( ) ( ) ( )   t m j t m A t g
c
ˆ ± =
Eeng 360 23
Generation of SSB
Filter Method
The filtering method is a special case in which RF processing (with a
sideband filter) is used to form the equivalent g(t), instead of using
baseband processing to generate g(m) directly. The filter method is the
most popular method because excellent sideband suppression can be
obtained when a crystal oscillator is used for the sideband filter.
Crystal filters are relatively inexpensive when produced in quantity at
standard IF frequencies.
Eeng 360 24
Weaver’s Method for Generating SSB.
Eeng 360 25
Generation of VSB
Eeng 360 26
Frequency Divison Multiplexing
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