P. 1
05 Stereo.pdf

05 Stereo.pdf

|Views: 18|Likes:
Published by Panos Liapis

More info:

Published by: Panos Liapis on Mar 18, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/01/2015

pdf

text

original

107

!"#$%&&'
108
4-1 !()*+#+,
)-./ 0123045674 89: /9 90;2027<32=86 -. 86;>-. -.: ?@/.3.: -A/
3A84-A/, 9/-786-A0@3986 A: -B19 -9 3B89-9 A: !"#$% &'()*+. C2 =;7?D
3.86@2 21@E6-97 A: 3B89 02= >F67 D;6: -7: 4;;6: 7G7D-.-6: -.: H;.: 6?-D: 90D
G793-4367:. I/9 =;7?D 3.86@2, 8. >F2/-9: G793-4367:, >F67 -. G=/9-D-.-9 /9
6?-6;6@ 8D/2 86-9J217?>: ?7/<367:.
)-./ 019K89-7?D-.-9 D;9 -9 3B89-9 >F2=/ G793-4367: ?97 K7’ 9=-D,
6?-D: 90D -2 /9 6?-6;2H/ 86-9J217?< ?@/.3., 80212H/ /9 9;;4E2=/ 01239-
/9-2;738D 3-2 FB12, /9 6?-6;2H/ G.;9G< 06173-12J7?< (3-12J7?<) <, 9?D8.,
3H/56-. ?@/.3., G.;9G< 3=/G=938D 86-9J217?<: ?97 3-12J7?<: ?@/.3.:.
*/ 36 ?40272 3-616D 3B89 93?.52H/ G=/4867: -2 3B89 0919821JB/6-
-97, ;@K2 < 02;H ?97 8D/789 < 0123A17/4. C9 =0256-7?4 3-6164 02= G6/ 0919821-
JB/2/-97 D-9/ -2=: 93?2H/-97 G=/4867: ;>K2/-97 (',+-#$% &.)/)%.
)-2 ?6J4;972 9=-D 59 93F2;.52H86 86 -. 86;>-. -.: 7321120@9: ?97
-.: ?@/.3.: 8.F9/7?B/ 3-616B/. L02= 9/9J61D893-6 36 3-616D 59 6//22H86
8.F9/7?D 3-616D.
4-2 '( M(N,)!() C#N )C!O!#N )#P*C#N
I/9 3-616D 3B89 80216@ /9 ?4/67 86-9J217?<, 3-12J7?< ?97 3H/56-.
?@/.3..
0.' ().+12/#$3 $*-'&' $%4) &.#5(3 6"+ .+ &'()*+ .2! &7(+.28
9,2!- .'- *:#+ .+,;.'.+. Q914G67K89 ->-279: ?@/.3.: 6@/97 . ?@/.3. 6/D: ?7RA-
-@2= 02= 2;7359@/67 04/A 36 217ED/-72 60@06G2. )-. 86-9J217?< ?@/.3. -A/ 3-6-
16B/ 73FH2=/ 27 /D827 02= G7>02=/ -./ ?@/.3. -A/ =;7?B/ 3.86@A/.
P6-9J217?< 80216@ /9 6@/97 ?97 879 ?980=;DK1988. ?@/.3.. C2 3B89
-2= 3F<89-2: 4.29 ?4/67 86-9J217?< ?@/.3. 9/ . -9FH-.-9 -2= 3.86@2= * 6@/97
@3. 86 -./ -9FH-.-9 -2= 3.86@2= S. *=-D 6@/97 G=/9-D. L-9/ >/9 3-616D ?4/67
86-9J217?< ?@/.3., -2 6=5HK19882 -8<89 02= 3=/G>67 GH2 -=F9@9 3.86@9 -2=
86-9-20@E6-97 0914;;.;9 012: -2/ 69=-D -2=. P6-9J217?< 6@/97 ?97 . ?@/.3.
02= 6?-6;2H/ 27 59;98@3?27 3-2/ -12FD -2= ;2H/9 041? (3F.4.2R).
0,. 4.< C2 ?7RB-72 6?-6;6@ 86-9-
J217?< ?@/.3.. L;9 -2= -9 3.86@9
>F2=/ -./ @G79 -9FH-.-9.
0,. 4.2 (9) , -12F74 ?456 3.-
86@2= 6@/97 ?980H;.. , ?@/.3. -2=
3B89-2: 6@/97 86-9J217?< 9J2H
-2 6=5HK19882 -8<89 *S
09198>/67 G791?B: 0914;;.;2
012: -2/ 69=-D -2=. (R) ' -12FD:
-2= ;2H/9 041? ?4/67 3-12J7?<
?@/.3.. #3-D32 ?456 59;98@3?2:
?4/67 86-9J217?< ?@/.3..
109
0.' &./21#$3 $*-'&' .2 &7(+ +""%=)# >/2&+-+.2"#&(6. )-. 3-12J7?<
?@/.3. =041F67 879 6=56@9 – 2 %?2-+8 >)/#&./2138 - 02= D;9 -.: -9 3.86@9
09198>/2=/ 9?@/.-9 6/B -9 =0D;2709 3.86@9 -2= 3B89-2: ?4/2=/ ?=?;7?< ?@/.3..
M9-4;;.;2 8>K652: K79 /9 0617K14T67 -2 0D32 K1<K219 06173-1>J6-
-97 >/9 3B89 ?40279 3-7K8<, 6@/97 . 5@-#+$3 .+,;.'.+ @. , KA/79?< -9FH-
-.-9 6@/97 G74/=389 04/A 3-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
)-2 3B89 02= 3-1>J6-97, ?456 3.86@2 ?7/6@-97 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
A ?97 K19887?< -9FH-.-9 02= =02;2K@E6-97 90D -. 3F>3. r ω υ = , D02= r .
90D3-93. -2= 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
*/ . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 6/D: 3B89-2: 02= 06173-1>J6-97 6@/97 3-9-
561< 59 ;>86 D-7 ?4/67 2(+"3 &./21#$3 $*-'&'.
*: =025>32=86 D-7 2 G@3?2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.3 -. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
1
>F67 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 @
1
6/B -. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
2
=t
1
+dt . KA/79?< -2= -9-
FH-.-9 K@/6-97 @
2
=@
1
+d@
A /!4(68 ().+B2"38 .'8 5@-#+$38 .+,;.'.+8 .2! &7(+.28 .'
&.#5(3 t, 2-2(%=).+# 5@-#+$3 )>#.%,!-&' .2! &7(+.28.

dt
d@
+ =
C 5@-#+$3 )>#.%,!-&' 9,)# .'- $+.);4!-&' .2! :#+-;&(+.28 d@
$+# (2-%:+ < rad/s
2
.
Q1232F< : -. KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -. 3=8R2;@E2=86 86 -2 6;;./7?D α 6/B
-./ 607-4F=/3. 02= 9/-73-27F6@ 3-. 86-9J217?< ?@/.3. -2= 3B89-2: (K198-
87?< 607-4F=/3.) 86 -2 ;9-7/7?D a .
D.+- 9-+ &7(+ ().+$#-)*.+# &.2 ,7/2 $+# .+!.6,/2-+ +""%=)# 2
>/2&+-+.2"#&(68 .2! "9() 6.# $%-)# &;-4).' $*-'&'. C>-279 ?@/.3. ?4/67 0.F.
2 -12FD: 6/D: 9=-2?7/<-2=, D-9/ ?7/6@-97 -2 9=-2?@/.-2. L0A: 3=8R9@/67 ?97 86
-2 =0D;2702 9=-2?@/.-2, 2 -12FD: 9;;4E67 5>3. 3-2 FB12 (86-9J217?< ?@/.3.)
?97 -9=-DF12/9 06173-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/4 -2=. )H/56-. ?@/.3. 6@/97 ?97
. ?@/.3. 02= ?4/67 879 19?>-9 9/ ?19-B/-9: -. 90D -. ;9R< -./ 06-4U2=86
T.;4. C &;-4).' $*-'&' (>2/)* -+ ()").'4)* @8 .2 +>2.9")&(+ .'8
)>+""'"*+8 (#+8 ().+12/#$38 $+# (#+8 >)/#&./21#$38 $*-'&'8.
C2 3F<89 4.4 G6@F/67 >/9 -12FD 02= ?=;@6-97. , ?@/.3< -2= 80216@ /9
56A1.56@ A: -2 902->;6389 -.: 609;;.;@9: 879: 86-9J217?<: ?@/.3.:, 3-./
202@9 D;9 -9 3.86@9 -2= -12F2H, ?456 3-7K8<, >F2=/ -./ @G79 -9FH-.-9 !
cm
(3F. 4.49) ?97 879: 06173-12J7?<: ?@/.3.:, KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02= 061/467 90D
-2 ?>/-12 -2= -12F2H ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3V 9=-D/ (3F. 4.4R). )-./ 06173-12-
J7?< ?@/.3. D;9 -9 3.86@9 -2= -12F2H 02= 90>F2=/ -2 @G72 90D -2/ 4U2/9
06173-12J<: >F2=/ -9FH-.-6: 86 -2 @G72 8>-12 !, 6J90-D86/6: 3-./ ?=?;7?< -2=:
0,. 4.3 (9) , KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
-2= G@3?2= 9=U4/6-97 ?9-4 d@ . '
G@3?2: >F67 KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. +.
110
-12F74. , -9FH-.-9 ?456 3.86@2= -2= -12F2H 6@/97 . 3=/73-98>/. -.: -9FH-.-9: !
cm
;DKA 86-9J217?<: ?@/.3.: ?97 -.: ! ;DKA -.: 06173-12J7?<: (3F. 4.4K).
E2 $9-./2 (%=+8.
P79 >//279 02= 90;20276@ -. 86;>-. -2= 3-6162H 3B89-2: 6@/97 . >/-
/279 -2= $9-./2! (%=+8 -2= 3B89-2:.
)-./ 67?D/9 4.2 J9@/6-97 . ?@/.3. 6/D: ?;67G72H 04/A 36 ;6@2 217ED/-72
60@06G2 86-4 90D 8@9 B5.3. 02= G>F-.?6. , 3=/2;7?< GH/98. 02= 93?6@-97 3-2
?;67G@ 6@/97 8.G>/. */ -2 ?;67G@ <-9/ =;7?D 3.86@2 59 >?9/6 6=5HK1988. 289;<
?@/.3.. Q919-.1<3-6 D-7 =041F67 >/9 3.86@2 -2= 02= ?4/67 9?17RB: ->-279
?@/.3.. C2 3.86@2 9=-D 6@/97 -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= ?;67G72H.
F9-./2 (%=+8 (cm) )-68 &.)/)2; &7(+.28 2-2(%=).+# .2 &'()*2
)$)*-2 .2! &7(+.28 >2! $#-)*.+# 6>@8 9-+ !"#$6 &'()*2 () (%=+
*&' () .' (%=+ .2! &7(+.28, +- &) +!.6 +&$2;-.+- 6")8 2# :!-%-
()#8 >2! +&$2;-.+# &.2 &7(+.
C2 ?>/-12 84E9: 282K6/B/ ?97 3=886-17?B/ 3A84-A/ 3=80@0-67 86 -2
?>/-12 3=886-1@9: -2=:. Q.F. -2 ?>/-12 84E9: 6/D: ?HR2= 6@/97 -2 3.86@2
-28<: -A/ G79KA/@A/ -2=, -2 ?>/-12 84E9: 879: 3J9@19: 6@/97 -2 ?>/-12 -.:
3J9@19:.
0,. 4.4 , ?H;73. -2= -12F2H (K)
6@/97 609;;.;@9 -.: 86-9J217?<:
?@/.3.: (9) ?97 -.: 3-12J7?<:
?@/.3.: (R). , -9FH-.-9 ?456
3.86@2= -2= -12F2H 6@/97 . 3=/7-
3-98>/. -.: -9FH-.-9: 02= >F67
;DKA 86-9J217?<: ?@/.3.: (!
cm
)
?97 -.: -9FH-.-9: ;DKA 06173-12-
J<: (!).
.
G#$. 4.< , -12F74 6/D: 87?12H
;980-<19 02= -20256-<5.?6 3-./
0617J>1679 ?=;7D86/2= -12F2H. C2
?>/-12 -2= -12F2H ?7/6@-97 6=5H-
K19889.
.
G#$. 4.2 C2 ?;67G@ -.: JA-2K19-
J@9: ?4/67 3H/56-. ?@/.3.. C2
?>/-12 84E9: -2= D8A: ?4/67 6=-
5HK1988. 289;< ?@/.3..
.
111
C2 ?>/-12 84E9: 6/D: 3B89-2: 80216@ /9 R1@3?6-97 ?97 >UA 90D -2 3B89.
C>-279 6@/97 . 061@0-A3. 73209F2H: 282K6/2H: G9?-=;@2=, -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2=
202@2= R1@3?6-97 3-2 ?>/-12 -2=. */ >/9 3B89 R1@3?6-97 8>39 36 282K6/>: 06G@2
R91H-.-9: -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= 3=80@0-67 86 -2 ?>/-12 R412=:, -2 3.86@2 G.;9G<
90D -2 202@2 061/467 04/-9 -2 R412: -2= 3B89-2:, D0A: ?97 /9 -20256-.56@.
H $;"#&' .2! ./2,2;
*: 609/>;52=86 3-./ ?H;73. -2= -12F2H (3F. 4.5). M9-4 -./ ?H;73.
?456 3.86@2 -2= -12F2H >1F6-97 G79G2F7?4 36 609J< 86 -2 G1D82. I-37, D-9/
2 -12FD: 36 F1D/2 dt 86-9?7/.56@ ?9-4 ds, >/9 3.86@2 * -.: 0617J>1679: -2=
59 >F67 3-19J6@ ?9-4 -DU2 8<?2=: ds, 3-2 202@2 9/-73-27F6@ . 60@?6/-1.
KA/@9 d". H -9FH-.-9 !
cm
-2= ?>/-12= 84E9: -2= -12F2H 6@/97
dt
ds
cm
= υ (4.1)
D8A:
R
ds
d = θ < θ d R ds =
9/-7?9573-B/-9: 3-./ (4.1) >F2=86
dt
d
R
cm
θ
υ = ?97, 6067G< ω
θ
=
dt
d
,
-6;7?4 09@1/2=86
R
cm
ω υ =
I3-A >/9: -12FD: 02= ?=;@6-97 04/A 36 0;4K72 60@06G2 (3F. 4.6). ,
KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 -2= -12F2H 9=U4/6-97, G.;9G< >F67 KA/79?< 607-4F=/3..
C2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= -12F2H 6?-6;6@ 289;4 607-9F=/D86/. ?@/.3.. */ .
-9FH-.-9 -2= ?>/-12= 84E9: -2= -12F2H ?40279 3-7K8< 6@/97 !
cm
, 59 73FH67
R
cm
ω υ = o0D-6 R
dt
d
dt
d
cm
ω υ
= ?97 -6;7?4
R a
cm
α =
D02=
cm
a . 607-4F=/3. -2= ?>/-12= 84E9: ?97 α . KA/79?< 607-4F=/3.
06173-12J<: -2= -12F2H.
4-3 O'Q, W%N*P,)
G#$. 4.3 C2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2=
G@3?2= ?7/6@-97 D0A: >/9 =;7?D
3.86@2 02= R4;;6-97 0;4K79.
.
0,. 4.5 L-9/ -2 ?>/-12 84E9:
-2= -12F2H 86-9?7/.56@ ?9-4 ds,
?456 3.86@2 3-./ 0617J>1679 -2=
3-1>J6-97 ?9-4 -2 @G72 -DU2.
0,. 4.6 )-2/ -12FD 02= ?=;467:
R a
cm
α =
112
*/ 93?<32=86 879 GH/98. 36 >/9 3B89 02= >F67 -. G=/9-D-.-9 /9
3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 3-9561D 4U2/9 -2 3B89 06173-1>J6-97 6?-D: 9/ 2
J21>9: -.: GH/98.: 061/467 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:. *0D -./ 680671@9
89: K/A1@E2=86 D-7 . 06173-12J< 02= 012?9;6@ 879 GH/98. 6U91-4-97 DF7
8D/2 90D -./ ?9-6H5=/3. ?97 -2 8>K652: -.: GH/98.: 9;;4 ?97 90D -2
3.86@2 3-2 202@2 93?6@-97 . GH/98.. +79 /9 ?;6@32=86 879 0D1-9 -.
301BF/2=86 ?2/-4 3-2 0D82;2 ?97 DF7 ?2/-4 3-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -.:
(86/-63>G6:), K79-@ 9?D89 ?97 87?1< GH/98. 80216@ /9 012?9;>367 3-12J<
-.: 0D1-9: D-9/ 6J918DE6-97 89?174 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
C2 8>K652: -2 202@2 0617K14J67 -./ 7?9/D-.-9 879: GH/98.: /9 3-1>J67
>/9 3B89 2/284E6-97 /2>3 .'8 :;-+('8 ?97 3=8R2;@E6-97 86 -2 6;;./7?D ..
H) I2>3 :;-+('8 @8 >/28 %?2-+
I3-A >/9 3B89 02= >F67 -. G=/9-D-.-9 /9 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D -2/
4U2/9 zVz . )-2 3B89 93?6@-97 GH/98. F 02= R1@3?6-97 36 60@06G2 ?456-2
3-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
I2>3 .'8 :;-+('8 F, @8 >/28 .2- %?2-+ >)/#&./2138 2-2(%=).+#
.2 :#+-!&(+.#$6 (95)428 >2! 9,)# (9./2 *&2 () .2 5#-6()-2 .2!
(9./2! .'8 :;-+('8 )>* .'- $%4).' +>6&.+&' l .'8 :;-+('8 +>6
.2- %?2-+ >)/#&./2138 ((2,"2B/+,*2-+8).
Fl = τ
C /2>3 9,)# .' :#);4!-&' .2! %?2-+ >)/#&./2138 $+# ' 12/% .'8
:*-).+# +>6 .2- $+-6-+ .2! :)?#2; ,)/#2;.
J2-%:+ /2>38 )*-+# .2 < K m.
+79 /9 0123G721@32=86 -. J214 -.: 120<: ?;6@/2=86 -9 G4F-=;9 -2=
G6U72H F6172H ?97 -9 -20256-2H86 >-37 B3-6 /9 G6@F/2=/ -. J214 ?9-4 -./
202@9 -6@/67 /9 06173-1>T67 -2 3B89 . GH/98.. ' 9/-@F6719: -D-6 G@/67 -.
J214 -2= G79/H389-2: -.: 120<:.
*/ . GH/98. F G6 R1@3?6-97 36 60@06G2 ?456-2 3-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12-
J<:, . 120< -.: 6@/97 @3. 86 -. 120< 02= G.872=1K6@ . 3=/73-B39 -.: 02=
R1@3?6-97 04/A 3-2 ?456-2 60@06G2 (3F. 4.9)
)-2 ?6J4;972 9=-D 59 86;6-<32=86 8D/2 06170-B367: 3-7: 202@6:
D;6: 27 G=/4867: 02= 93?2H/-97 3-9 3B89-9 R1@3?2/-97 3-2 @G72 60@06G2.
)6 ->-279 012R;<89-9, K79 /9 0617K14T2=86 -./ -43. 879: GH/98.:
/9 06173-1>T67 >/9 3B89 012: -. 879 < -./ 4;;. J214, F1.37820272H86 -./
9;K6R17?< -78< -.: 120<:. M9-4 3H8R93. 56A12H86 56-7?< -. 120< -.: GH-
/98.: 02= -6@/67 /9 06173-1>T67 -2 3B89 9/-@56-9 90D -. J214 -A/ G67?-B/
-2= 12;2K72H ?97 91/.-7?< -. 120< -.: GH/98.: 02= -6@/67 /9 -2 06173-1>T67
?9-4 -. J214 ?@/.3.: -A/ G67?-B/ -2= 12;2K72H.
0,. 4.7 H @G79 GH/98. 06173-1>-
J67 -./ 0D1-9 072 6H?2;9 D-9/
93?6@-97 89?174 90D -2/ 4U2/9
06173-12J<:. , FV 02= 2 J21>9:
-.: G7>1F6-97 90D -2/ 4U2/9 G6
80216@ /9 06173-1>T67 -2 3B89.
0,. 4.8 , J214 -.: 120<: -.:
GH/98.: F R1@3?6-97 86 -2/ ?9-
/D/9 -2= G6U72H F6172H.
0,. 4.9 , 120< -.: GH/98.: F
>F67 8>-12 F
x
l
113
)-2 3B89 -2= 3F<89-2: 4.10 G12=/ 27 G=/4867: F
1
?97 F
2
. T2 3B89
>F67 -. G=/9-D-.-9 /9 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2
3.86@2 ' ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06G2 -.: 36;@G9:. , 3=/2;7?< 120< 02=
G>F6-97 -2 3B89 6@/97
2 2 1 1 2 1
l F l F # # # − = + =
L) I2>3 :;-+('8 @8 >/28 &'()*2
*/ 3' >/9 6;6H5612 3B89 93?.56@ GH/98. 02= 2 J21>9: -.: G7>1F6-97
90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2=, -2 3B89 G6/ 06173-1>J6-97 (59 6?-6;>367 86-9J2-
17?< ?@/.3.). */ D8A: 2 J21>9: -.: GH/98.: G6 G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84-
E9: -2=, -2 3B89 89E@ 86 -. 86-9J217?< ?@/.3. 59 6?-6;>367 ?97 0617-
3-12J7?< KH1A 90D >/9 /2.-D 4U2/9 (6;6H5612: 4U2/9:) 02= G7>1F6-97 90D
-2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= 3B89-2: ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06G2 02= 21@E6-97 90D
-. GH/98. ?97 -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= 3B89-2:.
P0216@-6 /9 G79073-B36-6 -9 091904/A 86 >/9 82;HR7 02= R1@3?6-97
04/A 36 >/9 -190>E7. #5B/-9: -2 82;HR7 3-2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2=, -2 82;HR7 ?4/67
8D/2 86-9J217?< ?@/.3.. */ D8A: 93?<36-6 GH/98. 3-. 879 -2= 4?1. (2 J21>9:
-.: G6/ 01>067 /9 G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2=) -D-6 -2 82;HR7 3-1>J6-97
KH1A 90D >/9/ /2.-D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= ?97 -9=-D-
F12/9 86-9?7/6@-97. , 86-9J217?< ?@/.3. 80216@ /9 8./ 6@/97 68J9/<: 9/ . -17R<
9/48639 3-2 82;HR7 ?97 -2 -190>E7 6@/97 3.89/-7?< .
)-7: 06170-B367: 02= G6/ =041F67 3-9561D: 4U2/9: 06173-12J<:
F1.37820276@-97 . >//279 -.: 120<: -.: GH/98.: A: 012: 3.86@2.
I2>3 :;-+('8 F @8 >/28 &'()*2 A 2-2(%=2!() .2 :#+-!&(+.#$6
(95)428 >2! 9,)# (9./2 *&2 () .2 5#-6()-2 .2! (9./2! .'8 :;-+('8
)>* .'- +>6&.+&' .'8 +>6 .2 &'()*2 A
Fl = τ
:#);4!-&' $%4).' &.2 )>*>):2 >2! 2/*=).+# +>6 .' :;-+(' $+# .2
&'()*2 A $+# 12/% >2! :*-).+# +>6 .2- $+-6-+ .2! :)?#2; ,)/#2;.
*U723.86@A-. 6@/97 . 061@0-A3. 02= 36 >/9 3B89 G12=/ GH2 9/-@1-
1206: G=/4867: F
<
?97 F
2
86 @39 8>-19. W=2 ->-276: G=/4867: 902-6;2H/ =);-
528 :!-%()@-. */ . 90D3-93. -A/ J21>A/ -A/ G=2 G=/486A/ 6@/97 d, $
9;K6R17?< -78< -.: 120<: -2= E6HK2=: A: 012: ?40272 3.86@2 * (3F. 4.12)
02= 90>F67 90D3-93. x
1
90D -. GH/98. F
<
?97 x
2
90D -./ F
2
, 6@/97
d F x x F x F x F
1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
) ( = + = + = τ
6028>/A:
d F
1
= τ
C2 @G72 902->;6389 59 6@F986 ?97 A: 012: 20272G<02-6 4;;2
3.86@2. !028>/A:, ' /2>3 =);52!8 :!-%()@- )*-+# *:#+ @8 >/28
2>2#2:3>2.) &'()*2.
0,. 4.<0 )-2 3B89 93?2H/-97
27 G=/4867: F
1
?97 F
2
. H J214
06173-12J<: -2= 3B89-2: ?9521@-
E6-97 90D -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389
-A/ 120B/.
0,. 4.<< Q123G721738D: -.:
J214: -.: 120<: GH/98.: A: 012:
3.86@2 86 -2/ ?9/D/9 -2= G6U72H
F6172H.
0, 4.<2 '7 G=/4867: F
<
?97 F
2
902-6;2H/ E6HK2:. , 120< -2=:
6@/97 @G79 A: 012: 20272G<02-6
3.86@2 -2= 6070>G2= -2=:.
114
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.1
C2 3-616D -2= 3F<89-2: 4.13 902-6;6@-97 90D
GH2 2829U2/7?2H: ?=;@/G12=:, 86 9?-@/6: R
1
=4 cm
?97 R
2
=3 cm, 02= 3->J2/-97 KH1A 90D 3-9561D 4U2/9
x%x. ' 4U2/9: x%x 3=80@0-67 86 -2/ 4U2/9 3=886-1@9:
-A/ ?=;@/G1A/. !U 97-@9: -A/ R91B/ 02= ?1>82/-97
90D -2=: GH2 ?=;@/G12=:, -9 3?27/74 93?2H/ 3-2=:
?=;@/G12=: G=/4867: F
1
=6 N ?97 F
2
=10 N. N9
=02;2K@36-6 -./ 2;7?< 120< 02= G>F6-97 -2 3-616D.
0,. 4.<3
H>%-.'&':
, GH/98. F
1
-6@/67 /9 3-1>T67 -2 3-616D ?9-4 -. 56-7?< J214 ?97 G.872=1K6@ 56-7?< 120<
1 1 1
R F = τ .
, GH/98. F
2
-6@/67 /9 -2 3-1>T67 ?9-4 -./ 91/.-7?< J214 ?97 G.872=1K6@ 120<
2 2 2
R F − = τ .
, 3=/2;7?< 120< 02= G>F6-97 -2 3-616D 6@/97
m N R F R F ⋅ − = − = + = 06 , 0
2 2 1 1 2 1
τ τ τ
C2 91/.-7?D 01D3.82 G6@F/67 D-7 -2 3-616D 59 3-19J6@ D0A: 3-1>J2/-97 27 G6@?-6: -2= 12;2K72H.
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.2
, 14RG2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.14 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02=
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 ' ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 36 9=-<. C2 ' 90>F67 90D -9
4?19 -.: 14RG2= x
1
=5 cm ?97 x
2
=8 cm. )-9 4?19 -.: 14RG2= 93?2H/-97 27
G=/4867: F
1
=50 N ?97 F
2
=40 N. , GH/98. F
2
3F.89-@E67 KA/@9 &=30
2
86 -.
14RG2. QD3. 6@/97 . 2;7?< 120< 02= G>F6-97 . 14RG2:;
H>%-.'&' :
0,. 4.<4
, 120< -.: F
1
6@/97 56-7?< K79-@ . GH/98. -6@/67 /9 3-1>T67 -. 14RG2 ?9-4 -. 56-7?< J214. !@/97
Nm x F 5 , 2
1 1 1
= = τ
+79 /9 =02;2K@32=86 -. 120< -.: F
2
-./ 9/9;H2=86 3-7: 3=/73-B36: F
2x
?97 F
2y
86 8>-19 F
2x
=F
2
'!(30
)
?97 F
2y
=F
2
$*30
)
. , 120< -.: F
2x
6@/97 8.G>/ G7D-7 2 J21>9: -.: G7>1F6-97 90D -2/ 4U2/9 ( . 90D3-93. -.:
F
2x
90D -2/ 4U2/9 6@/97 8.G>/), 6/B . 120< -.: F
2y
6@/97 91/.-7?< ?97 @3. 86
Nm x F 6 , 1 30 .8
2 2 2
− = − = τ .
, 3=/2;7?< 120< 02= G>F6-97 . 14RG2: 6@/97
Nm 9 , 0
2 1
= + = τ τ τ
H 3=/2;7?< 120< 6@/97 56-7?<, 6028>/A: . 14RG2: 59 3-19J6@ 9/-@56-9 86 -. J214 -.: ?@/.3.: -A/
G67?-B/ -2= 12;2K72H.
115
4-4 ()'OO'Q(* )C!O!'% )#P*C')
*: G2H86 86 0276: 012X025>367: 73211206@ >/9 91F7?4 9?@/.-2
3-616D 3-2 202@2 93?2H/-97 G=/4867:.
*/ -2 3-616D >F67 3-9561D 4U2/9 80216@ /9 ?4/67 8D/2 3-12J7?<
?@/.3.. !028>/A:, K79 /9 73211206@, 91?6@ . 3=/73-98>/. -A/ 120B/ A:
012: -2/ 4U2/9 /9 6@/97 8.G>/.
I/9 6;6H5612 3-616D, D8A:, 80216@ /9 6?-6;>367 ?97 86-9J217?< ?97
3-12J7?< ?@/.3.. */ . 3=/73-98>/. -A/ G=/486A/ 02= 93?2H/-97 3-2 3B89 6@-
/97 8.G>/ -2 3B89 G6 59 6?-6;>367 86-9J217?< ?@/.3.. *=-D D8A: G6/
6U93J9;@E67 D-7 G6 59 3-19J6@. */ =041F2=/ 120>: -2 3B89 59 3-19J6@. L-9/ .
3=/73-98>/. GH/98. 6@/97 8.G>/, 9/ =041F2=/ 120>:, 9=->: 59 2J6@;2/-97 36
E6HK. G=/486A/. , 120< E6HK2=:, D8A:, 6@/97 @G79 A: 012: D;9 -9 3.86@9.
!028>/A:, K79 /9 8. 3-19J6@ -2 3B89 59 01>067 . 3=/73-98>/. 120< /9 6@/97
8.G>/ A: 012: >/9 20272G<02-6 3.86@2 (-D-6 59 6@/97 8.G>/ ?97 A: 012: ?456
4;;2).
!028>/A: 5#+ -+ #&2//2>)* 9-+ +/,#$% +$*-'.2 &.)/)6 &7(+ &.2
2>2*2 +&$2;-.+# >2""98 2(2)>*>):)8 :!-%()#8 4+ >/9>)# >/7.2- ' &!-#-
&.+(9-' :;-+(' -+ )*-+# (':9-
0 = ΣF 3
0
0
= Σ
= Σ
y
x
F
F
$+# :);.)/2- .2 +"5)B/#$6 %4/2#&(+ .@- /2>7- @8 >/28 2>2#2:3>2.)
&'()*2 -+ )*-+# (':9-
0 = Στ
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.3
'82K6/<: 217ED/-79 G2?D: *+ 02= >F67 8<?2: l=4m ?97 R412:
w
1
=200N, ?1>86-97 90D GH2 ?9-9?D1=J9 3?27/74 02= 6@/97 G68>/9 3-9
4?19 -.: ?97 73211206@. Q4/A 3-. G2?D ?97 36 90D3-93. x=1m 90D -2
4?12 -.: 3->?6-97 4/51A02: R412=: w
2
=600 N. Q279 6@/97 -9 8>-19 -A/
G=/486A/ 02= 93?2H/ -9 3?27/74 3-. G2?D;
H>%-.'&' :
'7 G=/4867: 02= 93?2H/-97 3-. G2?D 6@/97 -2 R412: -.: (w
1
), . GH/98.
02= G>F6-97 90D -2/ 4/51A02 - 6@/97 @3. 86 -2 R412: -2= w
2
- ?97 27
G=/4867: E
1
?97 E
2
90D -9 3?27/74.
0,. 4.<5
!JD32/ . 14RG2: 73211206@ . 3=/73-98>/. -A/ G=/486A/ 6@/97 8.G>/
)F=0 6028>/A: +
1
++
2
-w
1
-w
2
=0 (4.2)
?97 -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ -A/ G=/486A/, A: 012: 20272G<02-6 3.86@2 6@/97 60@3.: 8.G>/. '7
=02;2K7382@ 89: 90;2=3-6H2/-97 9/ 27 120>: 9/9J>12/-97 36 3.86@2 90D -2 202@2 061/467 8@9 90D -7:
4K/A3-6: G=/4867:. !07;>K2=86 -2 3.86@2 *.
0 = Σ
Α
τ , 419 0
2
2 1 2
= − − x w
l
w l T ,
90D D02= 012?H0-67 D-7 N
l
x w l w
T 250
2
2
2 1
2
=
+
=
*/-7?9573-B/-9: 3-./ (4.2) R1@3?2=86 N T 550
1
=
116
4-5 O'Q, *WO*N!(*)
I3-A >/9 3-616D -2 202@2 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D -2 3-9561D 4U2/9 zzV
(3F.4.17). YA1@E2=86 -2 3B89 36 3-27F67BG. -8<89-9 86 84E6: m
1
, m
2
…. , -D32
87?14 B3-6 ?95>/9 90D 9=-4 /9 80216@ /9 56A1.56@ =;7?D 3.86@2. '7 84E6: m
1
,
m
2
… ?7/2H/-97 ?=?;7?4 KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/9, 36 ?H?;2=: 9?-@/A/ r
1
, r
2

A-2(%=2!() /2>3 +:/%-)#+8 )-68 &.)/)2; @8 >/28 $%>2#2 %?2-+
.2 %4/2#&(+ .@- 5#-2(9-@- .@- &.2#,)#@:7- (+=7- +>6 .#8
2>2*)8 +>2.)")*.+# .2 &7(+ )>* .+ .)./%5@-+ .@- +>2&.%&)@-
.2!8 +>6 .2- %?2-+ >)/#&./2138.
....
2
2 2
2
1 1
+ + = r m r m I
, 120< 9G14/679: 6@/97 82/D86-12 8>K652: ?97 >F67 82/4G9 -2 1 kg m
2
.
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.4
'82K6/<: G2?D: *+, 8<?2=: l ?97 R412=: w=400 N, 73211206@
217ED/-79. C2 4?12 * -.: G2?2H 3-.1@E6-97 86 4151A3. 36 ?9-9?D1=J2
-2@F2. C2 4;;2 4?12 -.: + 3=/G>6-97 86 -2/ -2@F2 86 3?27/@ 02= 3F.89-
-@E67 KA/@9 &=30
2
86 -. G2?D. N9 R16@-6 -7: G=/4867: 02= G>F6-97 . G2?D:
90D -2 3?27/@ ?97 90D -./ 4151A3..
H>%-.'&' :
0,. 4.<6
*/9;H2=86 D;6: -7: G=/4867: 36 879 217ED/-79 ?97 879 ?9-9?D1=J. G76H5=/3..
+
x
=+ '!(30 ?97 +
y
=+ $*30
!JD32/ . 14RG2: 73211206@
,F
x
=0 < + '!(30=F
x
(4.3)
,F
y
=0 < + $*30 + F
y
=w (4.4)
!0@3.: 0 = Στ A: 012: 20272G<02-6 3.86@2
%02;2K@E2=86 -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ A: 012: -2 3.86@2 *
0
2
30 = −
l
w l T ηµ (4.5)
'7 G=/4867:
x
F F
y
?97
x
T >F2=/ 8.G6/7?>: 120>: A: 012: -2 3.86@2 *.
*0D -. 3F>3. (4.5) 012?H0-67
w T = 30 2 ηµ 6028>/A: N T 400 = (4.6)
*0D -./ (4.3) ;98R4/2/-9: =0DT. -./ (4.6) >F2=86
N F
x
3 200 =
?97 90D -./ (4.4) N F
y
200 =
!028>/A: . GH/98. F >F67 8>-12 N F F F
y x
400 ) ( ) (
2 2
= + =
?97 3F.89-@E67 86 -./ 217ED/-79 G76H5=/3. KA/@9 "
K79 -./ 202@9
3
3
= =
x
y
F
F
εφθ 419
ο
θ 30 =
0,. 4.<7 To 3-616D 80216@ /9
56A1.56@ D-7 902-6;6@-97 90D
3-27F67BG. -8<89-9.
117
' =02;2K738D: -.: 120<: 9G14/679: 6/D: 3B89-2: 3=/<5A: G6/ 6@/97
6H?2;2:.
)-2/ 0@/9?9 02= 9?2;2=56@ G@/2/-97 27 120>: 9G14/679: ?4027A/ 3A84-
-A/ A: 012: >/9/ 90D -2=: 406712=: 4U2/6: 02= G7>1F2/-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9:
-2=:. ' 3=K?6?178>/2: 4U2/9: K79 ?456 3B89 67?2/@E6-97 3-2 3F<89.
MNKHFH0 JG EN0 IAMG0 HOIHKGNH0 AIN0JGKPK QHIHFECIN0ENFPK 0PJHEPK
P0 MIA0 HRAKH MAS ONGIQGEHN HMA EA FGKEIA JHTH0
P6-9UH -.: 120<: 9G14/679:
cm
I 6/D: 3B89-2: A: 012: 4U2/9 02=
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= ?97 -.: 120<: 9G14/679:
p
I A: 012:
20272G<02-6 4;;2 4U2/9 p, 0914;;.;2 86 -2/ 01B-2 36 90D3-93. d 90D 9=-
-D/, =041F67 879 90;< 3F>3., K/A3-< A: -2 4)7/'(+ >+/+""3"@- +?6-@- <
4)7/'(+ Steiner ()-47/61).
H-
cm
I ' /2>3 +:/%-)#+8 )-68 &7(+.28 (%=+8 !, @8 >/28 %?2-+
>2! :#9/,).+# +>6 .2 $9-./2 (%=+8, ' /2>3 +:/%-)#%8 .2! @8 >/28
9-+ %?2-+ >2! )*-+# >+/%""'"28 $+# +>9,)# +>6&.+&' d +>6 .2-
>/7.2 )*-+# *&' () .2 %4/2#&(+ .'8 /2>38 +:/%-)#+8 @8 >/28 .2-
%?2-+ >2! :#9/,).+# +>6 .2 $9-./2 (%=+8 .2! &7(+.28 $+# .2!
5#-2(9-2! .'8 (%=+8 .2! &7(+.o8 )>* .2 .)./%5@-2 .'8 +>6-
&.+&'8 d.
2
Md I I
cm p
+ =
0,. 4.<8 C2 56B1.89 0919;-
;<;A/ 9UD/A/ G@/67 -. 120<
9G14/679: A: 012: -=F9@2 4U2/9
02= 90>F67 90D3-93. d 90D -2
?>/-12 84E9:
118
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.5
%02;2K@3-6 -. 120< 9G14/679: 282K6/2H: G9?-=;@2= 84E9: - ?97
9?-@/9: R, A: 012: 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -2= ?97 6@/97
?456-2: 3-2 60@06G2 02= 21@E67. C2 04F2: -2= G9?-=;@2= 6@/97 986;.->2
36 3F>3. 86 -./ 9?-@/9 -2=
H>%-.'&' :
0,. 4.<9
Z6A12H86 D-7 2 G9?-H;72: 902-6;6@-97 90D -7: 3-27F67BG67: 84E6: m
1
, m
2
….
!@/97 J9/61D D-7 m
1
+ m
2
+ ……=M
!067G< -2 04F2: -2= G9?-=;@2= 6@/97 986;.->2 36 3F>3. 86 -./ 9?-@/9 -2= R, D;6: 27 3-27F67BG67:
84E6: >F2=/ -./ @G79 90D3-93. R 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
)H8JA/9 86 -2/ 21738D -.: 120<: 9G14/679:
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2 2
2
1 1
...) ( ... ... R m m R m R m r m r m I + + = + + = + + =
[19
2
MR I =
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.6
W=2 3B89-9 986;.->A/ G793-436A/, 86 @36: 84E6: m
1
?97 m
2
,
(m
1
= m
2
=m), 3=/G>2/-97 86-9UH -2=: 86 9R91< 14RG2, 8<?2=: l. Q279
6@/97 . 120< 9G14/679: -2= 3=3-<89-2:, A: 012: 4U2/9 02= 6@/97 ?456-
-2: 3-. 14RG2 ?97 G7>1F6-97 9) 90D -2 8>32/ -.: 14RG2= R) 90D -.
84E9 m
1
;
H>%-.'&' :
9)
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1
ml l
m
l
m
l
m I =






=






+






=
R)
2 2
1
0 ml l m I = + =
0,. 4.20
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.7
%02;2K@3-6 -. 120< 9G14/679: 6/D: ;60-2H 282K6/2H: G@3?2=, 84-
E9: - ?97 9?-@/9: R, A: 012: 4U2/9 02= 6@/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06GD -2=,
02= 061/467 90D -2 4?12 -2= G@3?2=.
H>%-.'&' :
0,. 4.2<
, 120< 9G14/679: -2= G@3?2= A: 012: 4U2/9 02= 061/467 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= 6@/97
2 /
2
MR I
cm
=
!J918DE2/-9: -2 56B1.89 0919;;<;A/ 9UD/A/ K79 d=R >F2=86
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
MR
MR
MR
Md I I
cm p
= + = + =
119
4-6 Z!P!&(#W,) N'P') C,) )CO'$(M,)
M(N,),)
)-./ 061@0-A3. 6/D: =;7?2H 3.86@2=, 90D -2 5686;7BG. /D82 -.:
8.F9/7?<: + F m = Σ 012?H0-67 D-7 K79 /9 86-9R;.56@ . -9FH-.-4 -2= 01>067
/9 93?.56@ 36 9=-D GH/98.. */-@3-27F2: /D82: 73FH67 3-. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3.
3-616B/ 3A84-A/. )H8JA/9 86 9=-D/, K79 /9 86-9R;.56@ . KA/79?<
-9FH-.-9 6/D: 3B89-2: 02= 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 3-9561D 4U2/9 01>067 /9
93?.56@ 3' 9=-D 120<. , 3F>3. 9/48639 3-./ 97-@9 (120<) ?97 -2 902->;6389
(86-9R2;< -.: KA/79?<: -9FH-.-9:) 6@/97
α τ I = Σ (4.7)
, 091904/A 3F>3. 6@/97 K/A3-< A: 2 4)()"#7:'8 -6(28 .'8 &./21#$38
$*-'&'8, G.;9G<,
.2 +"5)B/#$6 %4/2#&(+ .@- /2>7- >2! :/2!- >%-@ &) 9-+ &.)/)6
&7(+ .2 2>2*2 >)/#&./91).+# 5;/@ +>6 &.+4)/6 %?2-+ #&2;.+# ()
.2 5#-6()-2 .'8 /2>38 +:/%-)#+8 (!>2"25#&(9-'8 @8 >/28 .2-
%?2-+ >)/#&./2138) $+# .'8 5@-#+$38 )>#.%,!-&'8 .2! &7(+.28.
*0D -. 3F>3. (4.7) J9@/6-97 D-7 D32 86K9;H-61. 6@/97 . 120< 9G14-
/679: 6/D: 3B89-2: -D32 072 GH3?2;9 9;;4E67 . 06173-12J7?< ?9-43-93.
-2= 3B89-2:. C /2>3 +:/%-)#+8 6?J14E67 3-./ 06173-12J<, D,-7 6?J14E67 .
84E9 3-. 86-9J217?< ?@/.3., G.;9G< .'- +:/%-)#+ .2! &7(+.28 &.'
&./21#$3 $*-'&'. !/B D8A: . 84E9 6/D: 3B89-2: 6@/97 3-9561D 8>K652: .
120< 9G14/679: 6U91-4-97 ?456 J214 90D -. 5>3. -2= 4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
*/ -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ 6@/97 8.G>/, 90D -. 3F>3.
(4.7) 012?H0-67 D-7 ?97 . KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -2= 3B89-2: 6@/97 8.G>/,
6028>/A: -2 3B89 G79-.16@ -./ 012.K2H86/. 06173-12J7?< -2= ?9-43-93.,
G.;9G< 9/ -2 3B89 6@/97 9?@/.-2 59 6U9?2;2=5<367 /9 .1686@, 6/B 9/
3-1>J6-97 59 3=/6F@367 /9 3-1>J6-97 86 3-9561< KA/79?< -9FH-.-9.
P>F17 -B19 9/9J615<?986 36 3-12J7?>: ?7/<367: KH1A 90D 3-9561D
4U2/9 06173-12J<:. C9 3=80614389-4 89: K79 -./ ?@/.3. 9=-< 80212H/ /9
606?-952H/ ?97 3-7: 06170-B367: 02= 2 4U2/9: 06173-12J<: 86-9-20@E6-97.
*=-D 3=8R9@/67 3-7: 3H/56-6: ?7/<367:, 3-7: 202@6: -2 3B89 ?4/67 -9=-D-
F12/9 86-9J217?< ?97 3-12J7?< ?@/.3., D0A: 3-./ ?@/.3. 6/D: -12F2H 02=
?=;467.
' 5686;7BG.: /D82: -.: 3-12J7?<: ?@/.3.: 73FH67 ?97 3-7: 06170-B-
367: 9=->:, 91?6@ 2 4U2/9: KH1A 90D -2/ 202@2 06173-1>J6-97 -2 3B89 /9
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= 3B89-2:, /9 6@/97 4U2/9: 3=886-1@9: ?97
/9 8./ 9;;4E67 ?9-6H5=/3. ?9-4 -. G741?679 -.: ?@/.3.:.
0,. 4.22 C2 3B89 ), 8>3A -2=
3?27/72H, 93?6@ 120< 3-2/ 4U2/9
06173-12J<: 86 902->;6389 .
KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 -A/ 89EB/ m/9
9=U4/6-97.
120
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.8
'82K6/<: ?H;7/G12: 84E9: -=40 kg ?97 9?-@/9: R=40 cm, 80216@
/9 3-1>J6-97 FA1@: -17R>: KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/9 -2= 02= 6@/97 3-9561D:.
)-./ 607J4/679 -2= ?=;@/G12= >F2=86 -=;@U67 3?27/@, -2 6;6H5612 4?12
-2= 202@2= >;?6-97 86 3-9561< GH/98. F=6 N. C2 3?27/@ U6-=;@K6-97,
FA1@: 2;@35.3., 06173-1>J2/-9: -9=-DF12/9 -2/ ?H;7/G12. Q279 6@/97 .
KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -2= ?=;@/G12=;
, 120< 9G14/679: -2= ?=;@/G12= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -2=
6@/97
2
2
1
MR I = .
0,. 4.23
H>%-.'&' :
, GH/98. 02= 93?6@ -2 3?27/@ 3-2/ ?H;7/G12 012?9;6@ 120< FR = τ
)H8JA/9 86 -2 5686;7BG. /D82 -.: 3-12J7?<: ?@/.3.: α τ I = < α
2
2
1
MR FR =
&H/2/-9: A: 012: α ?97 9/-7?9573-B/-9: -7: -78>: -A/ 86K65B/ R1@3?2=86
2
2
/ 75 , 0
10 40 40
6 2 2
s rad
m kg
N
MR
F
=
⋅ ⋅

= =

α
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.9
P@9 -12F9;@9 84E9: -, 9?-@/9: R, ?97 120<: 9G14/679: . 80216@
/9 3-1>J6-97 FA1@: -17R>:, KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D
-2 ?>/-12 -.:, D0A: J9@/6-97 3-2 3F<89. +H1A 90D -./ -12F9;@9
>F2=86 -=;@U67 9R91>: /<89 3-./ 6;6H561. 4?1. -2= 202@2= ?1>86-97
3B89 84E9: m. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -./ 607-4F=/3. -2= 3B89-2:, -.
KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -.: -12F9;@9: ?97 -./ -43. -2= /<89-2:.
H>%-.'&' :
Z9 6J918D32=86 -2=: /D82=: -.: 8.F9/7?<: FA173-4 36 ?456
3B89.
'7 G=/4867: 02= 93?2H/-97 3-2 3B89 m, 6@/97 -2 R412: -2= mg ?97 .
0,. 4.24
-43. -2= /<89-2: E.
)H8JA/9 86 -2 5686;7BG. /D82 -.: 8.F9/7?<:
cm
ma T mg = − (4.8)
)-2/ -12FD 93?2H/-97 . E (90D -2 /<89), . GH/98. F (90D -2/ 2 4U2/9) ?97 -2 R412: -2= Mg.
'7 G=/4867: -g ?97 F G6 G.872=1K2H/ 120< K79-@ 2 J21>9: -2=: 061/467 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:. ' 56-
86;7BG.: /D82: -.: 8.F9/7?<: K79 -. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. G@/67
α τ I = < α I TR = (4.9)
121
&H/2/-9: -./ (4.8) A: 012: T >F2=86
cm
ma mg T − =
*/-7?9573-B/-9: 3-./ (4.9) α I mRa mgR
cm
= − (4.10)
, K19887?< 607-4F=/3. a 6/D: 3.86@2= 3-./ 0617J>1679 -2= -12F2H 6@/97
R a α =
?97 6067G< 6@/97 @3. 86 -./ 607-4F=/3.
cm
a -2= 3B89-2: 59 6@/97 R a
cm
α = (4.11)
20D-6 . (4.10) K@/6-97 α α I mR mgR = −
2

!028>/A:
2
mR I
mgR
+
= α (4.12)
*/-7?9573-B/-9: 3-./ (4.11) R1@3?2=86 K79 -. K19887?< 607-4F=/3.
2
2
mR I
mgR
a
cm
+
= (4.13)
, -43. + =02;2K@E6-97 9/ 9/-7?9-93-<32=86 -./ (4.12)3-./ (4.9)
2
mR I
mgR
R
I
R
I
T
+
= = α <
2
mR I
mg I
T
+
=
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.10
To K72 - K72 902-6;6@-97 90D >/9 87?1D ?H;7/G12, 3-2 ?=1-D 8>12:
-2= 202@2= >F67 -=;7F-6@ 02;;>: J21>: >/9 3?27/@. M19-B/-9: -2
6;6H5612 4?12 -2= 3?27/72H ?97 9J</2/-9: -2/ ?H;7/G12 /9 0>367,
-2 3?27/@ U6-=;@K6-97 ?97 2 ?H;7/G12: 06173-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D >/9
/2.-D 217ED/-72 4U2/9, -2/ xxV.
N9 =02;2K@36-6 -./ 607-4F=/3. -2= ?>/-12= 84E9: -2= ?=;@/G12=.
W@/6-97 . 120< 9G14/679: -2= ?=;@/G12=
2
2
1
mR I = ?97 . 607-4-
F=/3. -.: R91H-.-9: g. Z6A1<3-6 D-7 36 D;. -. G741?679 -.:
?@/.3.: -2= ?=;@/G12= -2 3?27/@ 09198>/67 ?9-9?D1=J2.
H>%-.'&' :
0,. 4.25
'7 G=/4867: 02= 93?2H/-97 3-2/ ?H;7/G12 6@/97 -2 R412: -2= mg ?97 . GH/98. T 90D -2 3?27/@.
+79 -. 86-9J217?< ?@/.3. -2= ?=;@/G12= 73FH67:
cm y
ma F = Σ <
cm
ma T mg = − 20D-6
cm
ma mg T − = (4.14)
!J918DE2/-9: -2 5686;7BG. /D82 -.: 3-12J7?<: ?@/.3.: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 xxV >F2=86
α τ I = Σ < α I TR = (4.15)
*/-7?9573-B/-9: -./ (4.14) 3-./ (4.15) R1@3?2=86
α I mRa mgR
cm
= −
< α
2
2
1
mR mRa mgR
cm
= − < α R a g
cm
2
1
= − (4.16)
L8A: α R a
cm
= 20D-6
R
a
cm
= α
*/-7?9573-B/-9: 3-./ (4.16) R1@3?2=86
cm cm
a a g
2
1
= − <
3
2g
a
cm
=
122
4-7 )CO'$'OP,
H 218< 902G6@F-.?6 8>K652: 7G79@-619 F1<3782 K79 -./ 0617K19J<
-.: 86-9J217?<: ?@/.3.: -A/ 3-616B/. C2 9/-@3-27F2 -.: 218<: -2= 3-6162H
3-. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. -2 2/284E2=86 &./212/(3.
Z9 21@32=86 01B-9 -. 3-12J218< 6/D: =;7?2H 3.86@2= 02= ?4/67
?=?;7?< ?@/.3., 3-. 3=/>F679 59 21@32=86 -. 3-12J218< 3-6162H 3B89-2:
?97, ->;2:, -. 3-12J218< 3=3-<89-2: 3A84-A/.
H) 0./212/(3 !"#$2; &'()*2!
I3-A >/9 =;7?D 3.86@2 84E9: m ?97 218<: p 02= ?7/6@-97 36 0617J>-
1679 ?H?;2= 9?-@/9: r (3F. 4.26).
A-2(%=2!() &./212/(3 .2! !"#$2; &'()*2! @8 >/28 9-+ %?2-+
zUz >2! :#9/,).+# +>6 .2 $9-./2 .'8 $!$"#$38 ./2,#%8 $+# )*-+#
$%4).28 &.2 )>*>):6 .'8 .2 :#+-!&(+.#$6 (95)428 >2! 9,)# (9./2
r p L = 3 r m L υ =
:#);4!-&' +!.3 .2! %?2-+8 zUz $+# 12/% .2! $+42/*=).+# +>6 .2-
$+-6-+ .2! :)?#2; ,)/#2;. J2-%:+ &./212/(38 )*-+# .2 <kg m
2
/s.
L) 0./212/(3 &.)/)2; &7(+.28
I3-A -2 3-616D -2= 3F<89-2: 4.27 02= 06173-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D -2 3-9-
561D 4U2/9 z´z 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 A. M9-4 -./ 06173-12J< -2= 3B89-2: -9
G74J219 3.86@9 -2= G79K14J2=/ ?=?;7?>: -12F7>: -9 60@06G9 -A/ 202@A/ 6@/97
?456-9 3-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:. L;9 -9 3.86@9 06173-1>J2/-97 86 -./ @G79 KA-
/79?< -9FH-.-9 A, . K19887?< -9FH-.-4 -2=: D8A: 6@/97 G79J216-7?<, ?97
84;73-9 9/4;2K. 86 -./ 90D3-93< -2=: 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:. YA1@E2=86
-2 3B89 36 3-27F67BG. -8<89-9, 86 84E6: m
1
, m
2
…. , -D32 87?14 B3-6 ?95>/9
90D 9=-4 /9 80216@ /9 56A1.56@ =;7?D 3.86@2. '7 3-12J218>: -A/ 3-27F67AGB/
9=-B/ 89EB/ >F2=/ D;6: -./ @G79 ?9-6H5=/3. ?97 8>-19,
1 1 1 1
r ! m L = ,
2 2 2 2
r ! m L = , …. C &./212/(3 .2! &7(+.28 )*-+# .2 %4/2#&(+ .@- &./2-
12/(7- .@- !"#$7- &'()*@- >2! .2 +>2.)"2;-.
...
2 2 2 1 1 1
+ + = r m r m L υ υ
!067G< -9 =;7?4 3.86@9 m
1
, m
2
… ?4/2=/ ?=?;7?< ?@/.3. 27 -9FH-.->: -2=:
!
1
, !
2
… 80212H/ /9 K19J2H/
1 1
r ω υ = ,
2 2
r ω υ = ?. 2. ?. 20D-6
( ) ... ...
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
+ + = + + = r m r m / r m r m L ω ω
D8A: I r m r m = + + ...
2
2 2
2
1 1
6028>/A:
C &./212/(3 )-68 &.)/)2; &7(+.28 >2! >)/#&./91).+# 5;/@ +>6
%?2-+ #&2;.+# ()
ω I L = (4.17)
9,)# .' :#);4!-&' .2! %?2-+ $+# ' 12/% .'8 2/*=).+# +>6 .2- $+-
-6-+ .2! :)?#2; ,)/#2;.
0,. 4.26 C2 =;7?D 3.86@2 84E9:
m ?7/6@-97 ?=?;7?4. , 3-12J218<
-2= 6@/97 ?456-. 3-2 60@06G2 -.:
-12F74: -2=.
0,. 4.27 C2 3-616D 80216@ /9
56A1.56@ D-7 902-6;6@-97 90D
3-27F67BG. -8<89-9 86 84E6: m
1
m
2
… M456 84E9 6?-6;6@ ?=?;7?<
?@/.3. KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/9 0617-
3-12J<:.
0,. 4.28 ' ?B/2: -2= 3F<89-2:
06173-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2-
/9 z´z 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /. ,
3-12J218< -2= 3B89-2: 6@/97 ./,
R1@3?6-97 04/A 3-2/ 4U2/9 ?97 .
J214 -.: G@/6-97 90D -2/ ?9/D/9
-2= G6U72H F6172H.
123
0./212/(3 ()/#$7- &@(%.@-
C12F79?< ?@/.3. -.: +.: 2,7×10
40
kg m
2
/s
Q6173-12J< -.: +.: 5,8×10
33
kg m
2
/s
C12FD: 9=-2?7/<-2= (!=90km/h) 10
2
kg m
2
/s
W@3?2: 07?-90 (33 3-12J>: 9/4 min) 6×10
-3
kg m
2
/s
C12F79?< ?@/.3. .;6?-12/@2= 1,05×10
-35
kg m
2
/s
)07/ .;6?-12/@2= 0,53×10
-34
kg m
2
/s
C. 3-12J218< 02= 3F6-@E6-97 86 -./ 06173-12J7?< ?@/.3. 6/D: 3B-
89-2: KH1A 90D 4U2/4 02= 061/467 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= 3=F/4 -./
2/284E2=86 &>#-, K79 /9 -. G79?1@/2=86 90D -. 3-12J218< 02= 80216@ /9
>F67 -2 3B89 ;DKA 4;;.: ?@/.3.:. +79 0914G67K89, . +. >F67 307/ 6U97-@9:
-.: 06173-12J<: -.: KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/4 -.: ?97 3-12J218< 6U97-@9: -.:
?@/.3<: -.: KH1A 90D -2/ \;72, G.;9G< -.: -12F79?<: -.: ?@/.3.:.
C9 3-27F67BG. 3A89-@G79 - .;6?-1D/79, 01A-D/79 ?97 /6-1D/79 -
>F2=/ 307/ 8>-12= 0,53×10
-34
J s. *=-< . 3-12J218< 307/ 3=/<5A:
6?J14E6-97 A: !
2
1
, D02= ! =1,05×10
-34
J s (012J>16-97 >7-: 8041) ?97 6@/97
879 5686;7BG.: 023D-.-9 3-12J218<: 02= 68J9/@E6-97 3=F/4 3-. ?R9/-7?<
J=37?<.
V) 0./212/(3 &!&.3(+.28
)6 >/9 3H3-.89 3A84-A/, &./212/(3 2-2(%=).+# .2 :#+-!&(+-
.#$6 %4/2#&(+ .@- &./212/(7- .@- &@(%.@- >2! +>+/.*=2!- .2 &;-
&.'(+. !4/ G.;9G< 27 3-12J218>: -A/ 3A84-A/ -2= 3=3-<89-2: 6@/97 L
<
,
L
2
, .., . 3-12J218< L -2= 3=3-<89-2: 6@/97
L=L
<
+L
2
+…
VGKNFAEGIC ONHESMP0C EAS WGJGXNPOAS0 KAJAS
EC0 0EIAYNFC0 FNKC0C0
*0D -. 3F>3. 4.17 012?H0-67 D-7 9/ 36 9067123-4 87?1D F1D/2 dt .
KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 -2= 3-6162H 86-9R;.56@ ?9-4 d/, . 3-12J218< -2= 59 86-
-9R;.56@ ?9-4 ω d I dL =
*0D -. 3F>3. 9=-< 012?H0-67 0 I
dt
/ d
I
dt
dL
= =
?97 6U97-@9: -.: (4.7)
dt
dL
= Στ (4.18)
!028>/A: .2 +"5)B/#$6 %4/2#&(+ .@- /2>7- >2! :/2!- &) 9-+
&.)/)6 >2! >)/#&./91).+# 5;/@ +>6 &.+4)/6 %?2-+, )*-+# *&2 ()
.'- +"5)B/#$3 .#(3 .2! /!4(2; ().+B2"38 .'8 &./212/(38 .2!
, 3F>3. 9=-< 6@/97 K79 -. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. -2 9/4;2K2 -2= :);.)/2! -6(2!
.2! Newton.
124
O /D82: 9=-D: 73FH67 ?97 36 3H3-.89 3A84-A/. )6 >/9 3H3-.89 3A-
84-A/, -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 D;A/ -A/ 120B/, G.;9G< -A/ 120B/ 02=
2J6@;2/-97 3-7: 6UA-617?>: G=/4867: ?95B: ?97 6?6@/A/ 02= 2J6@;2/-97 3-7:
63A-617?>: G=/4867:, 6@/97 @32 86 -2 1=58D 86-9R2;<: -.: 3-12J218<: -2=
3=3-<89-2:.
, 2;7?< 120< -A/ 63A-617?B/ G=/486A/ 6@/97 8.G6/7?<. )H8JA/9
86 -2/ -1@-2 /D82 -2= Newton 27 63A-617?>: G=/4867: 909/-2H/ ?9-4 E6HK.
(G143. - 9/-@G193.). )6 ?456 ->-272 E6HK2: 27 G=/4867: 6@/97 9/-@56-6:. ,
120< ?456 ->-272= E6HK2=: A: 012: 20272G<02-6 3.86@2 6@/97 8.G6/7?< ?97
6028>/A: -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ D;A/ -A/ 63A-617?B/
G=/486A/ /9 6@/97 8.G>/. I-37 . 3F>3. 4.18 K79 3H3-.89 3A84-A/ K14J6-97
dt
dL
= Σ
εξ
τ (4.19)
D02=
εξ
τ . 120< 879: 6UA-617?<: GH/98.: ?97 L . 3-12J218< -2=
3=3-<89-2:.
4-8 W(*C,O,), C,) )CO'$'OP,)
)-. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. 73FH67 >/9: /D82: G79-<1.3.:, 9/4;2K2: 86 -2
/D82 G79-<1.3.: -.: 218<: 02= 73FH67 3-. 86-9J217?< ?@/.3.. C2 8>K652:
02= G79-.16@-97 3-. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. 6@/97 . 3-12J218<.
C :#+.3/'&' .'8 &./212/(38 &) 9-+ &7(+
*/ 36 >/9 3B89 -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ 6@/97 8.G>/, 90D
-. 3F>3.
dt
dL
= Στ 012?H0-67 D-7 0 =
dt
dL
, 6028>/A:, . σταθ = L , 3-12-
J218< -2= 3B89-2: 09198>/67 3-9561<.
+79 0914G67K89, ?9-4 -./ 06173-12J< -.: +.: KH1A 90D -2/ 69=-D
-.: (7G7206173-12J<), 6067G< . 6;?-7?< GH/98. 02= G>F6-97 90D -2/ \;72 G6
G.872=1K6@ 120<, 9J2H 2 J21>9: -.: G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -.:, .
3-12J218< -.: +.: 09198>/67 3-9561<. !028>/A: . F12/7?< G741?679 0617-
3-12J<: -.: +.: KH1A 90D -2/ 69=-D -.: 09198>/67 3-9561< –24 B16:.
C :#+.3/'&' .'8 &./212/(38 &) &;&.'(+ &@(%.@-.
' G6H-612: /D82: -2= Newton K79 -. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. 3-./
061@0-A3. 3=3-<89-2: 3A84-A/ >F67 -. 821J<
dt
dL
= Σ
εξ
τ . *0D -. 3F>3.
9=-< 012?H0-67 D-7 9/ -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ -A/ 6UA-617?B/
G=/486A/ 3-2 3H3-.89 6@/97 8.G>/, . 3-12J218< -2= 3=3-<89-2:
G79-.16@-97 3-9561<. , 01D-93. 9=-< 6@/97 K/A3-< A: +/,3 .'8
:#+.3/'&'8 .'8 &./212/(38
G%- ' &!-2"#$3 )?@.)/#$3 /2>3 &) 9-+ &;&.'(+ )*-+# (':9- '
2"#$3 &./212/(3 .2! &!&.3(+.28 >+/+(9-)# &.+4)/3.
0,. 4.29 , 3-12J218< -.: +.:
–;DKA -.: 7G7206173-12J<: -.:-
G79-.16@-97 3-9561<
125
*/, ;DKA 9/9?9-9/28<: -.: 84E9: (6U97-@9: 63A-617?B/ G=/486A/),
86-9R;.56@ . 120< 9G14/679: 6/D: 3B89-2: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:
-2=, 86-9R4;;6-97 ?97 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-4 -2= 9;;4 . 3-12J218< -2=
G79-.16@-97 3-9561<. P0212H86 6028>/A: /9 K14T2=86:
2 2 1 1
ω ω I I =
C9 0919G6@K89-9 J97/28>/A/ 3-9 202@9 G79-.16@-97 . 3-12-
J218< 6@/97 02;;4. )-./ 67?D/9 4.4 J9@/6-97 879 95;<-179 -2= ?9;-
;7-6F/7?2H 09-7/4E, 02= 3-17J2K=1@E67 3-2 09K2G1D872. , 95;<-179
80216@, 3=80-H332/-9: -9 F>179 ?97 -9 0DG79 -.:, /9 9=U<367 -. KA-
/79?< -9FH-.-9 06173-12J<: -.:. !4/ . -17R< -A/ 09K20>G7;A/ 86 -2/
04K2 56A1.56@ 986;.->9, 27 6UA-617?>: G=/4867: - D0A: -2 R412: ?97
. GH/98. 02= G>F6-97 90D -2 >G9J2: - G6 G.872=1K2H/ 120< A: 012:
-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -.:, 6028>/A: . 3-12J218< -.: G79-.16@-97,
G.;9G< -2 K7/D86/2 ω I 09198>/67 3-9561D. )=80-H332/-9: -9 F>179
?97 -9 0DG79 -.: . 120< 9G14/679: 867B/6-97, 20D-6, 9J2H -2 K7/D86/2
ω I 8>/67 3-9561D, 9=U4/6-97 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 06173-12J<: -.:.
L-9/ 27 9?12R4-6: 5>;2=/ /9 ?4/2=/ 02;;>: 3-12J>: 3-2/
9>19 3=80-H332=/ -9 F>179 ?97 -9 0DG79 -2=:. M9-4 -./ ?@/.3. -2=
9?12R4-. 3-2/ 9>19, 82/9G7?< 6UA-617?< GH/98. 6@/97 -2 R412: -2=,
-2 202@2, 6067G< G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9:, G6 G.872=1K6@ 120<
?97 . 3-12J218< -2= G79-.16@-97. P6 -. 3H80-=U. -A/ 4?1A/
867B/6-97 . 120< 9G14/679:, 6028>/A: 9=U4/6-97 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
06173-12J<:. )-2 3F<89 4.30 J9@/6-97 0A:, 86 -./ -6F/7?< 9=-<, 879
?9-4G=3. 80216@ /9 K@/67 02;H 56989-7?<.
C9 93->179 -9 202@9 3-2 -6;6=-9@2 3-4G72 -.: EA<: -2=: >F2=/ 84E9
90D 1,4 >A: 2,5 J21>: -. 84E9 -2= \;72=, 86-9-1>02/-97 36 93->16: /6-
-12/@A/ < pulsars. C9 93->179 9=-4, D-9/ 6U9/-;<32=/ -7: 0.K>: 6/>1K679:
02= G795>-2=/, 3=117?/B/2/-97 ;DKA -.: R91H-.-9: 8>F17: D-2= . 0=1</6:
-A/ 9-D8A/ -2=: 91F@32=/ /9 6J40-2/-97, 86 902->;6389 . 9?-@/9 6/D:
->-272= 93-6172H /9 6@/97 8D/2 15-20 km. !067G< . 3=11@?/A3. 2J6@;6-97 36
G#$. 4.4 , F216H-179 3=80-H332/-9: -9
4?19 -.: 9=U4/67 -. KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
06173-12J<: -.:.
0,. 4.30 P6 -. 3H80-=U. -A/ 4?1A/ 867B/6-97 . 120< 9G14-
/679: -.: ?9-9GH-179: 86 3=/>0679 -./ 9HU.3. -.: KA/79?<:
-9FH-.-9: 06173-12J<: -.:.
126
63A-617?>: G=/4867: . 3-12J218< G79-.16@-97 3-9561< ?97 6067G< . 120< 9G14-
/679: -2= 93-6172H 867B/6-97 G1989-7?4 >F2=86 879 9/-@3-27F. 9HU.3. -.: -9FH-
-.-9: 06173-12J<:. %02;2K@E6-97 D-7 >/9: 93->19: /6-12/@A/ 06173-1>J6-97 86
3=F/D-.-9 3000 3-12J>: -2 G6=-61D;60-2. +79 3HK?173., /9 9/9J>12=86 D-7 .
061@2G2: 06173-12J<: -2= \;72= 6@/97 25 8>16:.
4-9 M(N,C(M, !N!O+!(* &'+# Q!O()CO'$,)
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.11
' 4/51A02: 3-2 3F<89 4.31, >F67 -9 F>179 -2= -6/-A8>/9 ?97 3-2
?456 F>17 -2= ?19-467 >/9 R914?7 84E9: -=4 kg.!U97-@9: 879: B5.3.:
02= G>F-.?6, 2 4/51A02: 06173-1>J6-97 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /
1
=4
rad/s. P6 0279 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 59 3-1>J6-97 9/ 3=80-HU67 -9 F>179
-2=;
C2 ?457389 04/A 3-2 202@2 ?456-97, 2 4/51A02: 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97
FA1@: -17R>:, KH1A 90D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9, 02= 6@/97 2 4U2/9: 3=886-
-1@9:. , 120< 9G14/679: -2= 9/51B02= (FA1@: -9 R914?79 02= ?19-467)
D-9/ >F67 -9 F>179 -2= -6/-A8>/9 6@/97 3,25 kgm
2
?97 D-9/ 3=80-H3367
-9 F>179 -2= 6@/97 2,5 kgm
2
.
0,. 4.3<
M456 R914?7 90>F67 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: 1 m, 3-./ 91F< ?97 0,2 m 3-2 ->;2:. , 120< 9G14/679: -2=
?95@389-2: 6@/97 986;.->9.
H>%-.'&' :
, 91F7?< 120< 9G14/679:
1
I -2= 3=3-<89-2: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:, D-9/ 2 4/51A02:
6@F6 -9 F>179 -2= -6/-A8>/9, <-9/ -2 45127389 -.: 120<: 9G14/679: -2= 9/51B02= ?97 -.: 120<:
9G14/679: -A/ 3A84-A/ 02= ?19-467.
2 2
1 1 1 1 1
25 , 11 2 m kg MR I I I I
0("1 201 0("1
= + = + =
, 120< 9G14/679:
2
I -2= 3=3-<89-2:, D-9/ 2 4/51A02: ?9-6R4367 -9 F>179 -2= 6@/97 . />9 120<
9G14/679: -2= 9/51B02= ?97 . 120< 9G14/679: -A/ 3A84-A/.
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
82 , 2 2 m kg MR I I I I
0("1 201 0("1
= + = + =
!067G< 3-2 3H3-.89 G6/ 6/61K2H/ 6UA-617?>: 120>: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:, . 3-12J218< -2=
G79-.16@-97 . W.;9G< 73FH67:
2 2 1 1
ω ω I I = < s rad
I
I
/ 16
1
2
1
2
= = ω ω
127
C2 3B89 -2= 3F<89-2: 4.32, 02= 3-1>J6-97 86
KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 A, KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/9 z´z, >F67 ?7/.-7?<
6/>1K679.
Q12?678>/2= /9 =02;2K@32=86 -./ ?7/.-7?<
6/>1K679 -2= 3B89-2:, -2 FA1@E2=86 36 3-27F67BG67: 84E6:
... ,
2 1
m m '7 84E6: 9=->: >F2=/ -./ @G79 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
/ ?97 K19887?>: -9FH-.-6: 02= G@/2/-97 90D -7: 3F>367:
1 1
r ω υ = ,
2 2
r ω υ = , …
(4.20)
, ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 -2= 3B89-2: 6@/97 @3. 86 -2 45127389
-A/ ?7/.-7?B/ 6/61K67B/ -A/ 89EB/ 90D -7: 202@6:
902-6;6@-97,
G.;9G< ...
2
1

2
1
2
2 2
2
1 1
+ + = υ υ m m K
, 3F>3. 9=-< K@/6-97, 90D -./ (4.20)
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
...) (
2
1
...
2
1

2
1
ω ω ω + + = + + = r m r m r m r m K
L8A: I r m r m = + + ...
2
2 2
2
1 1
?97 6028>/A:
2
2
1
ω I K =
Q1>067 /9 -2/73-6@ D-7 . 6/>1K679 9=-< G6/ 6@/97 879 />9 821J<
6/>1K679:. , 3F>3. 3-./ 202@9 ?9-9;<U986 902-6;6@ 90;4 879 R2;7?< >?-
J193. K79 -./ ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 6/D: 3B89-2: 02= 3-1>J6-97.
*/ -2 3B89 6?-6;6@ -9=-DF12/9 86-9J217?< ?97 3-12J7?< ?@/.3.,
D0A: 2 -12FD: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.33 . ?7/.-7?< -2= 6/>1K679 6@/97 @3. 86 -2
45127389 -.: ?7/.-7?<: 6/>1K679: ;DKA 86-9J217?<: ?97 ;DKA 3-12J7?<: ?@-
/.3.:.
2 2
2
1
2
1
ω υ I M K
cm
+ =
D02= M . 84E9 -2= 3B89-2: ?97
cm
υ . -9FH-.-9 -2= ?>/-12= 84E9: -2=.
4-10 !O+' M*C* C, )CO'$(M, M(N,),
L-9/ 09-486 -9 06-4;79 -2= 02G.;4-2= 93?2H86 GH/98. ?97 0914-
K2=86 >1K2. I1K2 0914K6-97 ?97 90D -. 8.F9/< -2= 9=-2?7/<-2= ?95B:
3-1>J67 -2/ 4U2/9 -A/ -12FB/. C2 >1K2 879: GH/98.: 02= 3-1>J67 >/9 3B89
80212H86 /9 -2 6?J1432=86 36 3=/41-.3. 86 -. 120< -.:.
I3-A D-7 . GH/98. F 93?6@-97 3-./ 0617J>1679 6/D: -12F2H 9?-@/9:
R, ?9-4 -. G76H5=/3. -.: 6J90-28>/.: (3F. 4.35). M9-4 -./ 9067123-4 87?1<
3-12J< -2= -12F2H ?9-4 KA/@9 θ d . GH/98. 0914K67 >1K2
0,. 4.32 , ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679
-2= 3B89-2: 6@/97 -2 45127389
-A/ 6/61K67B/ -A/ 3-27F67AGB/
89EB/ 90D -7: 202@6: 902-6;6@-97
0,. 4.33 ' -12FD: >F67 ?7/.-7?<
6/>1K679 ;DKA 86-9J217?<: ?97
;DKA 06173-12J7?<: ?@/.3.:
128
ds F dW =
*/ . KA/@9 86-17>-97 36 9?-@/79 -D-6 θ d R ds = ?97
θ d R F dW =
C2 K7/D86/2 FR 6@/97 . 120< # -.: GH/98.:.
!028>/A: θ τ d dW = (4.21)
+79 /9 =02;2K@32=86 -2 >1K2 879: GH/98.: ?95B: >/9 3B89 3-1>J6-
-97 ?9-4 KA/@9 " FA1@E2=86 -. KA/@9 36 9067123-4 87?1>: KA/@6: ... ,
2 1
θ θ d d
?97 9512@E2=86 -9 9/-@3-27F9 >1K9. */ . 120< -.: GH/98.: 6@/97 3-9561<,
D0A: 3-./ 061@0-A3. -2= 3F<89-2: 4.35, 90D -2 45127389 012?H0-67
θ τ = W
*0D -./ (4.21) 09@1/2=86
dt
d
dt
dW θ
τ =
' 1=58D: 0919KAK<: >1K2= dt dW / 6@/97 ' #&,;8 P .'8 :;-+('8
?97 -2 dt d / θ 6@/97 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 ω -2= 3B89-2:, 6028>/A:
τω = P
, 120< 879: GH/98.: 86-9R4;;67 -./ ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 -2= 3B89-2:
?9-4 023D-.-9 @3. 86 -2 >1K2 -.:. I-37, 3-. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3., -2 56B1.89
>1K2= - 6/>1K679: 09@1/67 -. 821J<
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
ω ω I I W − =

G.;9G< .2 +"5)B/#$6 %4/2#&(+ .@- 9/5@- .@- /2>7- >2!
+&$2;-.+# &.2 &7(+ )*-+# *&2 () .' ().+B2"3 .'8 $#-'.#$38
)-9/5)#+8 >)/#&./2138 .2! &7(+.28.
0,. 4.34 P6 -./ 60@G193. -.:
GH/98.: F -2 3B89 3-1>J6-97
?9-4 KA/@9 d". C2 3.86@2 6J91-
82K<: -.: F 86-9-20@E6-97 ?9-4
ds=R d".
129
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.12
'82K6/<: ?97 73209F<: 14RG2: 8<?2=: L=0,3 m ?97 84E9: M,
3-1>J6-97 FA1@: -17R>: KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9 ' 02= G7>1F6-97 90D
-2 >/9 4?12 -.:. *1F7?4 . 14RG2: 6@/97 217ED/-79 ?97 3-. 3=/>F679
9J</6-97 6;6H561.. Q279 6@/97 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-4 -.: -. 3-7K8< 02= 59
0614367 90D -./ ?9-9?D1=J. 5>3.; W@/6-97 D-7 . 120< 9G14/679: -.: 14-
RG2= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 ' 6@/97
2
3
1
ML ?97 . 607-4F=/3. -.: R91H-.-9:
g=10 m/s
2
.
H>%-.'&' :
0,. 4.35
, 8.F9/7?< 6/>1K679 -2= 3=3-<89-2: G79-.16@-97. !07;>K2=86 A: 60@06G2 8.G6/7?<: G=/987?<:
6/>1K679: -2 217ED/-72 60@06G2 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 8>32/ -.: 14RG2= & D-9/ R1@3?6-97 3-./ ?9-9?D1=J.
5>3.. C2 8>32/ -.: 14RG2= 6@/97 -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -.: .
L-9/ . 14RG2: R1@3?6-97 3-./ 217ED/-79 5>3. >F67 G=/987?< 6/>1K679
2
L
Mg
L-9/ . 14RG2: 0614367 90D -./ ?9-9?D1=J. 5>3., 59 >F67 ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679
2
2
1
ω I , D02= I .
120< 9G14/679: -.: 14RG2= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 '.
)H8JA/9 86 -2 56B1.89 G79-<1.3.: -.: 8.F9/7?<: 6/>1K679: 73FH67
2
2
1
2
ω I
L
Mg = <
2 2
3
1
2
1
2
ω ML
L
Mg =
90D D02= s rad
L
g
/ 10
3
= = ω
130
ANC()C'(YI), C,) P!C*$'O(M,) M(N,),) )C!O!'%
P! C, )CO'$(M, M(N,),
Q*O*W!(+P* 4.13
'82K6/<: ?H;7/G12: 84E9: - ?97 9?-@/9: R ?=;@6-97 ?9-4 8<?2:
0;4K72= 6070>G2= KA/@9: J. Q279 6@/97 . -9FH-.-9 -2= ?>/-12= 84E9:
-2= ?=;@/G12= D-9/ . ?9-9?D1=J. 86-9-D073< -2= 6@/97 h.
H 607-4F=/3. -.: R91H-.-9: (g) 56A16@-97 K/A3-<. , 120< 9G14/679:
-2= ?=;@/G12= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/4 -2=
2
2
1
MR I = .
H>%-.'&' :
, ?H;73. -2= ?=;@/G12= 2J6@;6-97 3-./ -17R<. , 120< -.: -17R<:
A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 3=886-1@9: -2= ?=;@/G12= 6@/97 9=-< 02= 06173-1>J67
-2/ ?H;7/G12. , -17R< G6 86-9-20@E67 -2 3.86@2 6J9182K<: -.:, 9J2H
?456 3-7K8< 93?6@-97 36 G79J216-7?D 3.86@2 -2= ?=;@/G12=. Q1D?67-97,
G.;9G<, K79 3-9-7?< -17R<. !028>/A: . 8.F9/7?< 6/>1K679 -2=
?=;@/G12= G79-.16@-97 9J2H . 3-9-7?< -17R< G6/ 0914K67 >1K2,
0,. 4.36
*/ 56A1<32=86 D-7 3-./ ?9-B-61. 5>3. -2= . G=/987?< 6/>1K679 -2= ?=;@/G12= 6@/97 @3. 86
8.G>/, 3-./ 9/B-61. 5>3. -2= 2 ?H;7/G12: >F67 G=/987?< 6/>1K679 Mgh .
)-./ ?9-B-61. 5>3. -2= 2 ?H;7/G12: >F67 ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679, 02= 732H-97 86 -2 45127389 -.:
?7/.-7?<: 6/>1K679: ;DKA 86-9J214:






2
2
1
cm
! M ?97 -.: ?7/.-7?<: 6/>1K679: ;DKA 06173-12J<:






2
2
1
/ I .
)H8JA/9 86 -2 56B1.89 G79-<1.3.: -.: 8.F9/7?<: 6/>1K679:
2 2
2
1
2
1
ω υ I M Mgh
cm
+ = <
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
ω υ MR M Mgh
cm
+ =
<
2 2 2
4
1
2
1
ω υ R gh
cm
+ = (4.22)
L8A: . -9FH-.-9 !
cm
-2= ?>/-12= 84E9: 6@/97
R
cm
ω υ = (4.23)
, (4.22) K@/6-97 90D -./ (4.23)
2
2 2
4
1
2
1






+ =
R
R gh
cm
cm
υ
υ 90D D02=
2 2
4
1
2
1
cm cm
gh υ υ + = ?97 -6;7?4 gh
cm
3
4
= υ
131
P6-9J217?< ?@/.3. )-12J7?< ?@/.3.
Z>3.
x
+A/@9
"
C9FH-.-9
dt
dx
= υ
+A/79?< -9FH-.-9
dt

ω =
!07-4F=/3.
dt
d
0
!
=
+A/79?< 607-4F=/3.
dt

α =
WH/98.
F
O20<
.
P4E9
m
O20< 9G14/679:
.
Z686;7BG.: /D82: -. 8.F9/7?<:
+ F m = Σ
Z686;7BG.: /D82: -.: 3-12J7?<: ?@/.3.:
α τ I = Σ
'18<
p=m !
)-12J218<
L=I/
W6H-612: /D82: -2= Newton
dt
dp
F = Σ
W6H-612: /D82: -2= Newton 3-. 3-12J7?<
?@/.3.
dt
dL
= Στ
W79-<1.3. -.: 218<:
*/ )F
6U
=0 p=3-9561D
W79-<1.3. -.: 3-12J218<:
*/ ,#
34
=0 L='#0"315
M7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 ;DKA 86-9J214:
2
2
1
υ m K =
M7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 ;DKA 06173-12J<:
2
2
1
ω I K =
132
)%N'],
, 5@-#+$3 )>#.%,!-&' 6@/97 @3. 86 -o 1=58D 86-9R2;<: -.: KA/79?<: -9FH-.-9:.
dt

α =
I2>3 :;-+('8 F, @8 >/28 %?2-+ >)/#&./2138 2/284E6-97 -2 G79/=389-7?D 8>K652: 02= >F67 8>-12
Fl = τ
D02= l . ?456-. 90D3-93. -.: GH/98.: 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:, G76H5=/3. 9=-< -2= 4U2/9 0617-
3-12J<: ?97 J214 02= G@/6-97 90D -2/ ?9/D/9 -2= G6U72H F6172H. , 82/4G9 120<: 6@/97 -2 1N m.
I2>3 :;-+('8 F @8 >/28 &'()*2 A 2/284E6-97 -2 G79/=389-7?D 8>K652: 02= >F67 8>-12 Fl = τ
D02= l 90D3-93. -2= 3.86@2= 90D -2 J21>9 -.: GH/98.:, 82/4G9 -2 1N m, G76H5=/3. ?456-. 3-2 60@06G2
02= 21@E6-97 90D -. GH/98. ?97 -2 3.86@2 ' ?97 J214 02= G@/6-97 90D -2/ ?9/D/9 -2= G6U72H F6172H.
+79 /9 73211206@ >/9 9?@/.-2 3-616D 01>067 0 = ΣF <
0
0
= Σ
= Σ
y
x
F
F
?97 0 = Στ
I2>3 +:/%-)#+8 )-68 &.)/)2; A: 012: ?40272 4U2/9 2/284E6-97 -2 45127389 -A/ K7/28>/A/ -A/ 3-27-
F67AGB/ 89EB/ 90D -7: 202@6: 902-6;6@-97 -2 3B89 60@ -9 -6-14KA/9 -A/ 9023-436B/ -2=: 90D -2/ 4U2/9
06173-12J<:
...
2
2 2
2
1 1
+ + = r m r m I
A 4)()"#7:'8 -6(28 .'8 &./21#$38 $*-'&'8 6@/97
α τ I = Σ
0./212/(3 !"#$2; &'()*2! -02= ?7/6@-97 ?=?;7?4- A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -.:
?=?;7?<: -12F74: ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06GD -.: 2/284E6-97 -2 G79/=389-7?D 8>K652: 02= >F67 8>-12
pr L = < r m L υ =
G76H5=/3. -. G76H5=/3. -2= 4U2/9 ?97 J214 02= ?9521@E6-97 90D -2/ ?9/D/9 -2= G6U72H F6172H. , 82/4G9
3-12J218<: 6@/97 -2 1kg m
2
/s.
0./212/(3 &.)/)2; &7(+.28 -02= 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9- 6@/97 . 3=/73-98>/. -A/ 3-12J218B/
-A/ 3-27F67AGB/ 89EB/ 90D -7: 202@6: 902-6;6@-97 -2 3-616D. , 3-12J218< 3-6162H 6@/97 @3. 86
ω I L =
C &./212/(3 )-68 &!&.3(+.28 :#+.'/)*.+# &.+4)/3 64/ . 3=/2;7?< 6UA-617?< 120< 3-2 3H3-.89 6@/97
8.G>/.
A :);.)/28 -6(28 .2! Newton &.' &./21#$3 $*-'&' 6@/97
dt
dL
= Στ
C $#-'.#$3 )-9/5)#+ &.)/)2; "65@ >)/#&./2138 6@/97
2
2
1
ω I K =
E2 9/52 (#+8 &.+4)/38 /2>38 ?9-4 -. 3-12J< 6/D: 3-6162H ?9-4 KA/@9 5 6@/97
τθ = W
C #&,;8 (#+8 /2>38 6@/97 τω = P
To 4)7/'(+ 9/52! - )-9/5)#+8 &.' &./21#$3 $*-'&' K14J6-97
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
ω ω I I W − = Σ
133
<. L/)*.) .2 $9-./2 (%=+8 )-68 &7(+.28 :;2
:#+&.%&)@-.
MDT-6 >/9 F91-D/7 02= G6/ >F67 K6A86-17?D
3F<89 ?97 9/91-<3-6 -2 90D >/9 3.86@2 -2=. L-9/
7321120<367 -2 F91-D/7 F914U-6 04/A -2= -./
?9-9?D1=J. 02= 061/467 90D -2 3.86@2 9/41-.3.:.
!067G< -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ 01>067
/9 6@/97 8.G>/, -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2= F91-2/72H 59
R1@3?6-97 3’ 9=-< -./ ?9-9?D1=J.. )-. 3=/>F679
?16843-6 -2 3B89 90D >/9 G6H-612 3.86@2 ?97
609/9;4R6-6 -9 @G79. C2 ?>/-12 84E9: R1@3?6-97
3-2 3.86@2 -28<: -A/ GH2 K1988B/.
2. F+.+&$)!%&.) (#+ =!5+/#%.
MDT-6 >/9 F91-D/7 36 3F<89 -6-19KB/2=. M16843-6 -2 36
>/9 ?91J@ 02= 061/467 90D -2 3.86@2 ' 3F<89 4.389, B3-6 /9 80216@
/9 3-1>J6-97 6;6H5619. )-2 @G72 ?91J@ ?16843-6 ?97 >/9 6=5HK19882
3H189 02= 59 G6@F/67 -. G76H5=/3. -.: ?9-9?D1=J.:. )-616B3-6 3-2
>/9 4?12 -2= F91-2/72H >/9 9/-@R912 K/A3-<: 84E9: (-) ?97 3-2
4;;2 >/9 3=/G6-<19 B3-6 /9 80216@-6 /9 ?168436-6 87?14 9/-7?6@-
86/9 (3F. 4.38R). ).867B3-6 04/A 3-2 F91-D/7 -./ ?9-9?D1=J.
D0A: 21@E6-97 90D -2 3H189. "6?16843-6 -2 F91-D/7 ?97 86 >/9
82712K/A8D/72 F914U-6 04/A -2= ?;@89?9 K79 -. 8>-1.3. KA/7B/.
C2 8.G>/ -.: ?;@89?9: /9 9/-73-27F6@ 3-. K1988< 02= F914U9-6 86
R43. -2 3H189. )-616B3-6 04;7 -2 F91-D/7. */ 90D -2 3=/G6-<19
?168436-6 >/9 87?1D 9/-7?6@86/2 4K/A3-.: 84E9: 80216@-6 /9
=02;2K@36-6 -. 84E9 -2=.
)-. 5>3. 7321120@9: -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ A: 012: -2
' 6@/97 8.G>/.
0 = − mgd Mgx < 0 = − συνθ α ηµθ α mg Mg
20D-6 εφθ M m =
WO*)C,O('C,C!)
0,. 4.37
0,. 4.38
134
P6 -./ 012X0D563. D-7 . 84E9 -2= F91-2/72H 6@/97 87?1<, 9/ K/A1@-
E2=86 -. 84E9 - ?97 86-1<32=86 -. KA/@9 ?9-4 -./ 202@9 3-1>J6-97
-2 F91-D/7 80212H86 /9 =02;2K@32=86 -. 84E9 m.
3. Z-+8 $;"#-:/28 >2! «+['1%» .' B+/;.'.+
M2;;<3-6 3-2 63A-617?D 6/D: ?=;7/G17?2H
?2=-72H 86K4;.: G798>-12= 879 87?1< 86-9;;7?<
14RG2, 0914;;.;9 86 -2/ 4U2/4 -2= ?2=-72H. *J2H
3.867B36-6 -. 5>3. -.: 3-2 6UA-617?D 8>12: -2=
?;6@3-6 -2 ?2=-@.
P0216@-6 /9 ?4/6-6 -2=: J@;2=: 39: /9 -9
F432=/, /28@E2/-9: D-7 -2 ?2=-@ G6/ 9?2;2=56@ -2=:
K/A3-2H: /D82=: -.: JH3.::
C20256-<3-6 -2/ ?H;7/G12 36 0;4K72 60@06G2 86 87?1< ?;@3.,
D0A: G6@F/67 -2 3F<89 ?97 9J<3-6 -2/ 6;6H5612. +79 ;@K2 2 ?H;7/G12:
0.K9@/67 012: -9 604/A. QB: 6U.K6@-97 9=-D;
F#-'(+.#$3 .'8 >)/#&./2138
4.1 , KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 06173-12J<: 6/D: -12F2H 86-9R4;;6-97 86 -2
F1D/2 D0A: J9@/6-97 3-2 3F. 4.409 Q272 90D -9 G79K14889-9 R, K, G,
6 09173-4/67 -. KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -2= -12F2H 36 3=/41-.3. 86 -2
F1D/2;
4.2 I/9 3B89 ?4/67 289;< ?=?;7?< ?@/.3.. Q279 6@/97 . KA/79?< -2=
607-4F=/3.;
4.3 I/9: G@3?2: 3->J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97
90D -2 ?>/-12 -2= ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06G2 -2=.
, KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 -2= G@3?2= 36 3=/41-.3. 86 -2
F1D/2 09173-4/6-97 3-2 G74K19889 -2= 3F<89-2: 4.41
Q276: 90D -7: 012-4367: 02= 9?2;2=52H/ 6@/97 3A3->:;
9) , KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -2 F12/7?D G743-.89
t
1
-t
2
9=U4/6-97.
0,. 4.39
!O#C,)!()
0,. 4.40
0,. 4.4<
135
R) C2 8>-12 -.: KA/79?<: 607-4F=/3.: -. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
4
6@/97 87?1D-612 90D -. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
1
.
K) C. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
1
-2 G74/=389 -.: KA/79?<: 607-4F=/3.:
>F67 9/-@56-. ?9-6H5=/3. 90D -./ ?9-6H5=/3. -2= >F67 -.
F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
4
.
G) C. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
3
. KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. >F67 8>-12
86K9;H-612 90D -. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
1
.
136
4.4 I/9 3-616D 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 3-9561D 4U2/9. Z6A1<3-6 GH2 3-27-
F67BG67: 84E6: -2= 3B89-2: 02= 90>F2=/ G79J216-7?< 90D3-93. 90D
-2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:. Q279 90D -9 86K>5. 9) K19887?< -9FH-.-9
R) KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 K) KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. ?97 G) ?6/-128D;2:
607-4F=/3., >F2=/ -./ @G79 -78< K79 -7: GH2 84E6:;
4.5 !@/97 G=/9-D >/9 3B89 /9 >F67, 879 F12/7?< 3-7K8<, KA/79?< -9FH-
-.-9 8.G>/ ?97 KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. G79J216-7?< 90D 8.G>/;
4.6 I/9 3-616D ?4/67 3H/56-. ?@/.3.. %041F67 ?40272 3.86@2 -2= 3-6-
162H -2 202@2 /9 >F67 04/-9 -./ @G79 -9FH-.-9 86 -2 ?>/-12 84E9:;
*7-72;2K<3-6 -./ 904/-.3. 39:.
I2>3 – #&2//2>*+ &.)/)2;
4.7 )=80;.1B3-6 -9 ?6/4:
, 120< GH/98.: A: 012: 3.86@2 >F67 8>-12 @32 86 -2 K7/D86/2 -2=
8>-12= -.: GH/98.: 60@ …… …… …… ……… ………, G76H5=/3.
02= 6@/97 ?456-. 3-2 60@06G2 02= 21@E6-97 90D …… … ……… …….
?97 J214 02= 21@E6-97 90D …. …… …… …….. ……..
4.8 C9 ;6AJ216@9 ?97 -9 86K4;9 J21-.K4 >F2=/ -78D/7 86K4;.: G798>-
-12=. C7 6U=0.16-6@ 9=-D;
4.9 )-. 14RG2 -2= 3F<89-2: 4.42 93?2H/-97 0>/-6 28260@06G6: G=/4867:
-2= @G72= 8>-12=. , 14RG2: 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02=
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 ' ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06G2 -A/ G=/4-
86A/. N9 ?9-9-4U6-6 -7: G=/4867: ?9-4 -. 36714 86 -./ 202@9 -2 8>-
-12 -.: 120<: -2=: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 9=-D/ 9=U4/6-97.
4.10 , 14RG2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.43 6@/97 ?9-9?D1=J. ?97 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-
-97 KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 '. )-2
>/9 4?12 -.: 14RG2= 93?6@-97 . 217ED/-79 GH/98. F
1.
+79 /9 8.
3-1>J6-97 . 14RG2: 93?2H86 217ED/-79 GH/98. F
2
3-2 4;;2 4?12
-.:.
9) Q279 01>067 /9 6@/97 . ?9-6H5=/3. -.: F
2
;
R) )=K?1@/6-6 -9 8>-19 -A/ F
1
?97 F
2
.
0,. 4.42
0,. 4.43
137
4.11 )-2 3F<89 4.44 J9@/6-97 879 217ED/-79 14RG2: 02= 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-
-97 KH1A 90D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9 2 202@2: G7>1F6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 '.
)-9 GH2 4?19 -.: 14RG2= 93?2H/-97 27 217ED/-76: G=/4867: F
1
?97 F
2
?456-6: 36 9=-</. , 14RG2: 09198>/67 9?@/.-.. , 90D3-93. -.: GH-
/98.: F
1
90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: 6@/97 @3. 86 -9 2/3 -2= 8<?2=:
-.: 14RG2=. C2 8>-12 -.: GH/98.: F
2
6@/97
9) F
1
/2 R) 2F
1
/3 K) F
1
/3 G) 2F
1
6) 3F
1
/2 3-) 3F
1
!07;>U-6 -. 3A3-< 904/-.3..
I2>3 +:/%-)#+8
4.12 , 14RG2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.45 6@/97 9R91<: ?97 27 84E6: m 90>F2=/ -2
@G72 90D -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:. */ . 90D3-93. -A/ 89EB/ 90D -2/
4U2/9 06173-12J<: G70;93793-6@, . 120< 9G14/679: -2= 3=3-<89-2:
9) 09198>/67 @G79.
R) G70;9374E6-97.
K) -170;9374E6-97.
G) -6-190;9374E6-97.
4.13 I/9: -12FD: 9=-2?7/<-2= ?97 >/9: -12FD: 02G.;4-2=
06173-1>J2/-97, FA1@: -17R>:, KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/4 -2=: 86 -./ @G79
KA/79?< -9FH-.-9. Q272: 90D -2=: GH2 -12F2H: 9?7/.-20276@-97 072
6H?2;9;
W7?972;2K<3-6 -./ 904/-.3. 39:.
4.14 )-2 3F<89 4.46 J9@/2/-97 -1@9 =;7?4 3.86@9 02= 06173-1>J2/-97
KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/9 zVz. , 84E9 ?97 . 90D3-93. ?956/D: 90D -2/
4U2/9 06173-12J<: J9@/2/-97 3-2 3F<89. N9 3=K?1@/6-6 -7: 120>:
9G14/674: -2=: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 zVz.
4.15 , 120< 9G14/679: 6/D: 3-6162H A: 012: 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2
?>/-12 84E9: 6@/97 87?1D-61. 90D -. 120< 9G14/674: -2= A: 012:
20272/G<02-6 4;;2 4U2/9 02= 6@/97 0914;;.;2: 3V 9=-D/.
QB: 618./6H6-97 9=-D;
4.16 +14T-6 86 9HU2=39 36714 -7: 120>: 9G14/679: .
1
, .
2
, .
3
?97 .
4
-2=
2152KA/@2= 0919;;.;6070>G2= A: 012: -2=: 0914;;.;2=: 4U2/6: 1,
2, 3 ?97 4 (3F.4.47)
W)()"#7:'8 -6(28 .'8 >)/#&./2138
0,. 4.44
0,. 4.45
0,. 4.46
0,. 4.47
138
4.17 , KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. 6/D: 3-6162H 02= 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 3-9-
561D 4U2/9 6@/97
9) 9/4;2K. 86 -. 120< 9G14/679: -2= 3-6162H A: 012: -2/
4U2/9 06173-12J<:.
R) 9/-@3-12J9 9/4;2K. 86 -. 84E9 -2= 3B89-2:.
K) 9/4;2K. 86 -. GH/98. 02= 93?6@-97 3-2 3B89.
G) 9/4;2K. 86 -. 120< 02= 93?6@-97 3-2 3B89.
!07;>U-6 -. 3A3-< 904/-.3..
4.18 )-2 3F<89 4.48 R;>02=86 -./ -28< 879: 0D1-9: 86 -2 217ED/-72 60@-
06G2. , 0D1-9 902-6;6@-97 90D GH2 G79J216-7?4 =;7?4. C2 =;7?D 1
>F67 86K9;H-61. 0=?/D-.-9 90D -2 =;7?D 2. C9 GH2 =;7?4 ?9-9;98R4-
/2=/ -2/ @G72 FB12. *0D 0279 86174 01>067 /9 -20256-.52H/ 27 86/-6-
3>G6: B3-6 . 0D1-9 /9 9/2@K67 ?97 /9 ?;6@/67 072 6H?2;9; W7?972;2-
K<3-6 -./ 904/-.3< 39:.
4.19 ' 217ED/-72: G@3?2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.499 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97 KH1A
90D 3-9561D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -2= ?97 6@/97
?456-2: 3V 9=-D/. )-2 G@3?2 93?6@-97 217ED/-79 GH/98. F 02=
6J40-6-97 3-2 G@3?2. , GH/98. F 86-9R4;;67 -. KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
06173-12J<: -2= G@3?2= D0A: J9@/6-97 3-2 G74K19889 4.49R
Q276: 90D -7: 60D86/6: 012-4367: 6@/97 3A3->:;
9) , KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. 6@/97 3-9561<.
R) C. F12/7?< 3-7K8< t
1
02= . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 6@/97 8.G>/, .
GH/98. F 6@/97 8.G>/.
K) , 120< -.: GH/98.: 9=U4/6-97 86 -2 F1D/2.
G) , GH/98. F >F67 3-9561D 8>-12.
4.20 P79 3J9@19 9J</6-97 3-2 3.86@2 * 0;4K72= 6070>G2= ?97 ?=;@6-97
FA1@: 2;@35.3. 012: -. R43. -2= (3F. 4.50). M9-4 -./ ?@/.3< -.:
9=U4/6-97 -D32 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 06173-12J<: D32 ?97 . -9FH-.-9
-2= ?>/-12= 84E9: -.:, 6028>/A: . 3J9@19 902?-4 ?97 KA/79?< ?97
K19887?< 607-4F=/3.. +14T-6 -7: G=/4867: 02= 6@/97 =06H5=/6:
9) K79 -2 D-7 . 3J9@19 G6/ 2;7359@/67.
R) K79 -. KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -.: 3J9@19:.
K) K79 -. K19887?< 607-4F=/3< -.:.
0,. 4.48
0,. 4.49
0,. 4.50
139
0./212/(3 - :#+.3/'&'8 .'8 &./212/(38
4.21 I/9 9=-2?@/.-2 ?7/6@-97 012: -2 S2114, 36 217ED/-72 G1D82. Q279
6@/97 . ?9-6H5=/3. -.: 3-12J218<: -A/ -12FB/ -2=;
4.22 C2 3F<89 4.51 G6@F/67 >/9 3=809K< ?=?;7?D G@3?2 ?97 >/9 ?=?;7?D
G9?-H;72 02= >F2=/ -./ @G79 9?-@/9 ?97 -./ @G79 84E9 ?97 80212H/ /9
3-1>J2/-97 KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9. C. 3-7K8< 8.G>/, 02= -9 GH2
3B89-9 6@/97 9?@/.-9, 93?2H/-97 3’ 9=-4 G=/4867: -2= @G72= 8>-12=,
6J90-D86/6: 3-./ 0617J>1674 -2=:. N9 3=K?1@/6-6 -. 3-12J218<
-2=: 879 F12/7?< 3-7K8< t.
4.23 , 3-12J218< 6/D: 3=3-<89-2: 3A84-A/ G6 86-9R4;;6-97 D-9/
9) . 3=/73-98>/. -A/ G=/486A/ 02= 93?2H/-97 3-2 3B89 6@/97
8.G>/.
R) -9 3B89-9 ?4/2=/ 8D/2 06173-12J7?< ?@/.3..
K) 27 4U2/6: 06173-12J<: -A/ 3A84-A/ 6@/97 3-95612@.
G) -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ -A/ 6UA-617?B/
G=/486A/ 6@/97 8.G>/.
!07;>U-6 -2 3A3-D.
4.24 I/9: ?9;;7->F/.: -2= 09-7/4E 06173-1>J6-97. )-./ 91F< 2 ?9;;7->-
F/.: >F67 -9 F>179 90;A8>/9 ?97 3-. 3=/>F679 -9 3=80-H3367. Q279
90D -7: 012-4367: 02= 9?2;2=52H/ 6@/97 3A3-<;
9) , 120< 9G14/674: -2= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -2=
9=U4/6-97.
R) , 3-12J218< -2= 9=U4/6-97
K) , 3=F/D-.-9 06173-12J<: -2= 9=U4/6-97.
G) ' ?9;;7->F/.: 09H67 /9 06173-1>J6-97.
4.25 */ >;7A/9/ 27 ?21=J>: -A/ 02;7?B/ 09KDR2=/A/, 59 9/>R97/6 ;@K2 .
3-458. -.: 54;9339:. C7 60@0-A3. 59 6@F6 9=-D 3-. 3=F/D-.-9
06173-12J<: -.: +.: KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/4 -.:;
*7-72;2K<3-6 -./ 904/-.3. 39:.
4.26 I/9 097G@ ?456-97 36 ?457389 -2 202@2 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97 FA1@:
-17R>:. )-9 F>179 -2= ?19-467 -2/ 4U2/9 6/D: -12F2H 02G.;4-2=. '
-12FD: 3-1>J6-97. *1F7?4 -2 097G@ ?97 -2 ?457389 6@/97 9?@/.-9. C7
59 609?2;2=5<367, 9/ -2 097G@ K=1@367 9/402G9 -2/ -12FD; !4/ 019K-
89-20272H39-6 -2 06@1989, 59 G79073-B/9-6 D-7 9097-6@-97 86K4;.
GH/98. K79 /9 K=1@36-6 9/402G9 -2/ -12FD 02= 3-1>J6-97, 02;H 86-
K9;H-61. 90D -. GH/98. 02= 59 F1679ED-9/ 9/ 2 -12FD: <-9/ 9?@/.-
-2:. QB: -2 6U.K6@-6;
4.27 ' 217ED/-72: G@3?2: 1 (3F. 4.52) 3-1>J6-97 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /,
KH1A 90D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -2=.
Q4/A 3-2 G@3?2 9J</2/-97 /9 0>32=/ 27 G@3?27 2 ?97 3 27 202@27
6@/97 D82727 86 -2/ 1. , KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 86 -./ 202@9 59 0617-
3-1>J6-97 -2 3H3-.89 59 6@/97:
9) / R) 2/ K) 3/ G) //2 6) //3
!07;>U-6 -. 3A3-< 904/-.3..
0,. 4.5<
0,. 4.52
140
Z/52 $+# )-9/5)#+ $+.% .'- >)/#&./213
4.28 I/9: ?HR2: 90D 04K2 ?97 8@9 3J9@19 9J</2/-97 90D -2 @G72 HT2: 36
0;4K72 60@06G2. , 3J9@19 ?=;@6-97 ?9-4 8<?2: -2= 0;4K72= 6070>G2=
6/B 2 ?HR2: 2;7359@/67 FA1@: -17R<. '7 84E6: -A/ GH2 3A84-A/ 6@/97
@36: ?97 27 G793-4367: -2=: 87?1>: 36 3F>3. 86 -2 HT2: 90D -2 202@2
9J>5.?9/ /9 ?7/.52H/ . N9 3=K?1@/6-6
1. C2 >1K2 -2= R412=: ?9-4 -./ ?@/.3. -A/ GH2 3A84-A/.
2. C./ -9FH-.-9 86 -./ 202@9 -9 3B89-9 J-4/2=/ 3-. R43. -2=
0;9K@2= 6070>G2=.
4.29 )6 -12FD 2 202@2: 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 3-9561D 4U2/9 93?6@-97 GH-
/98. F 02= 86-9R4;;67 -. KA/79?< -2= -9FH-.-9:
9) 90D 1 rad/s 36 3 rad/s.
R) 90D 4 rad/s 36 6 rad/s.
K) 90D -2 rad/s 36 5 rad/s.
G) 90D -3 rad/s 36 4 rad/s.
)6 0279 061@0-A3. -2 >1K2 -.: GH/98.: 6@/97 86K9;H-612;
4.30 )B89 02= 9J</6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 * 0;4K72= 6070>G2= ?=;@6-97 8>F17
-2 3.86@2 +, 02= R1@3?6-97 3-. R43. -2= 0;4K72= 6070>G2=. C2 3.-
86@2 S 6@/97 >/9 6/G748632 3.86@2 -.: G79G128<: -2= 3B89-2:.
N9 3=80;.1A56@ 2 0@/9?9:.
O!-+(#$3
)-9/5)#+
F#-'.#$3 )-9/5)#+
+>6 .' ().+12/#$3
$*-'&'
F#-'.#$3 )-9/5)#+
+>6 .'- >)/#&./2-
1#$3 $*-'&'
H 120 J
L 40 J 20 J
V 80 J
4.31 )=80;.1B3-6 -2/ 0@/9?9:
0;(B2"2 D-2(+ J95)428
1
J2-%:+ &.2 SI
+A/79?<
C9FH-.-9
rad/s
rad/s
2
G79/=389-7?D N m
.
L

1
+14T-6 8@9 90D -7: ;>U67: 82/D86-12 < G79/=389-7?D.
141
F#-'(+.#$3 .2! &.)/)2;
4.32 , KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 6/D: -12F2H 02= 3-1>J6-97 86-9R4;;6-97 86 -2
F1D/2, D0A: J9@/6-97 3-2 G74K19889 -2= 3F<89-2: 4.53. Q279 6@/97 .
KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -2= -12F2H; Q279 F12/7?< 3-7K8< . KA/79?<
-9FH-.-9 -2= -12F2H 59 >F67 -78< 20 rad/s;
[*0: 0,25 rad/s
2
, 72 s ]
4.33 I/9 DF.89 ?7/6@-97 6=5HK19889 86 3-9561< -9FH-.-9 20 m/s. '7
-12F2@ -2= >F2=/ 9?-@/9 40 cm. %02;2K@3-6 -. KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 86
-./ 202@9 3-1>J2/-97.
[*0: 50 rad/s ]
4.34 I/9 DF.89, 27 -12F2@ -2= 202@2= >F2=/ 9?-@/9 cm r 40 = , ?7/6@-97 86
607-4F=/3. 2 m/s
2
. P6 0272 1=58D 9=U4/6-97 . KA/79?< -9FH-.-9
-A/ -12FB/ -2=;
[*0: 5 rad/s
2
]
4.35 I/9: G@3?2: 9?-@/9: 8cm ?=;@6-97 04/A 36 217ED/-72 60@06G2. ,
-9FH-.-9 -2= ?>/-12= -2= G@3?2= 6@/97 5 m/s. %02;2K@3-6:
9) -./ -9FH-.-9 86 -./ 202@9 ?7/6@-97 -2 9/B-612 3.86@2 -2= G@3?2=.
R) -. 3=F/D-.-9 86 -./ 202@9 3-1>J6-97.
[*0: 10 m/s , 9,9 ,z ]
4.36 C. F12/7?< 3-7K8< 8.G>/ -o ?>/-12 6/D: -12F2H, 9?-@/9: R=20 cm,
02= ?=;@6-97, >F67 -9FH-.-9 !
)
=8 m/s. , -9FH-.-9 -2= -12F2H
8.G6/@E6-97 9J2H G79/H367 90D3-93. x=20 m.
Q279 6@/97 . KA/79?< 607R14G=/3< -2=;
[A0: 8rad/s
2
]
I2>3 :;-+('8
4.37 +79 /9 3J@U67 879 R@G9, >/9: 61K4-.: F1.37820276@ ?;67G@ 8<?2=:
20cm. , 8>K73-. GH/98. 02= 80216@ /9 93?<367 2 61K4-.: 6@/97
200N. Q279 6@/97 . 8>K73-. 120< 02= 80216@ /9 93?<367; QB: 01>067
/9 93?.56@ . GH/98. B3-6 . 120< /9 6@/97 8>K73-.;
[*0 : 40 N m ]
4.38 ' -12FD: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.54 >F67 9?-@/9 R=0,5 m ?97 80216@ /9
3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -2= ' ?97 6@-
/97 ?456-2: 3-2 60@06GD -2=. )-2/ -12FD 93?2H/-97 6J90-286/7?4 27
G=/4867: F
1
=20N ?97 F
2
=30N. Q279 6@/97 . 3=/2;7?< 120< 02= G>F6-
-97 2 -12FD:;
[*0 : 5 N m ]
*)M,)!()
0,. 4.53
0,. 4.54.
142
4.39 H 14RG2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.55 >F67 986;.->2 R412: ?97 80216@ /9
3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 ' ?97 6@/97
?456-2: 3' 9=-<. )-. 14RG2 93?2H/-97 27 G=/4867: F
1
=20N, F
2
=2N
?97 F
3
=10N. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -2 9;K6R17?D 45127389 -A/ 120B/ -A/
G=/486A/ 02= 93?2H/-97 3-. 14RG2. W@/2/-97: x=2 m ?97 &=30
2
.
[*0 : 16 Nm ]
N&2//2>*+ &.)/)2; &7(+.28
4.40 C2 R912H;?2 6/D: 0.K9G72H 902-6;6@-97 90D -H809/2 9?-@/9: R
1
=20 cm,
3-2 202@2 6@/97 0123918238>/. F6712;9R<, 8<?2=: R
2
=0,5 m. L-9/
3-1>J6-97 . F6712;9R<, -2 3?27/@ -=;@K6-97 3-2 -H809/2 ?97 >;?67
J21-@2 (?2=R4: 86 /61D) R412=: 150 N. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -. GH/98.
02= 01>067 /9 93?.56@ 3-. F6712;9R<.
[*0 : 60 N ]
4.41 *0D -9 4?19 * ?97 S 9R912H: 14RG2=, 8<?2=: l=2 m, ?1>82/-97 86 3?27-
/74 GH2 R41. w
1
=200 N ?97 w
2
=300 N (3F. 4.56). )6 0272 3.86@2 01>067 /9
3-.17F-6@ . 14RG2: K79 /9 73211206@ 217ED/-79;
[*0 : 1,2m 90D -2 4?12 * ]
4.42 ' 6;972F1A89-73-<: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.57 3->?6-97 04/A 36 G2?D
8<?2=: l=4 m ?97 R412=: w
1
=150 N. H G2?D: 3-.1@E6-97 3-9 3.86@9
* ?97 S 02= 90>F2=/ -2 ?95>/9 1 m, 90D -9 4?19 -.:. C2 R412: -2=
6;972F1A89-73-< 6@/97 w
2
=700 N. )6 0D3. 90D3-93. 90D -7: 4?16:
80216@ /9 3-956@ 2 6;972F1A89-73-<: FA1@: /9 9/9-1906@ . G2?D:;
[*0 : 79 cm ]
4.43 '82K6/<: G2?D: *+ 86 8<?2: l ?97 R412: w
1
=100 N 73211206@ 217ED-
/-79 (3F. 4.58). C2 4?12 * -.: G2?2H 3=/G>6-97 86 4151A3. 36
?9-9?D1=J2 -2@F2. C2 4;;2 4?12 -.: + 3=/G>6-97 86 -2/ -2@F2 86
3?27/@ 02= 3F.89-@E67 KA/@9 &=30
2
86 -. G2?D. )-2 4?12 + ?1>86-97
86 3?27/@ 3B89 R412=: w
2
=40 N. %02;2K@3-6 -./ -43. -2= 3?27/72H
?97 -. GH/98. 02= G>F6-97 . G2?D: 90D -2/ -2@F2.
[*0 : +=180 N, F=163,7 N, 6J"=0,32 ]
I2>3 +:/%-)#+8 $+# 4)()"#7:'8 -6(28 .'8 &./21#$38 $*-'&'8
4.44 M95>/9 90D -9 ->33619 0-61HK79 -2= >;7?9 -2= 6;7?20->12=
(3F.4.59) 80216@ /9 56A1.56@ 282K6/<: 14RG2:. C2 8<?2: ?456
0-61=K@2= 6@/97 6m ?97 . 84E9 -2= 100kg. %02;2K@3-6 -. 120<
9G14/679: -A/ -63341A/ 0-61=K@A/ A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<:
-2=:. W@/6-97 D-7 . 120< 9G14/679: 282K6/2H: 14RG2= 8<?2=: L, A:
012: 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -.: ?97 6@/97 ?456-.
3V 9=-<, 6@/97
2
12
1
ML I =
[*0: 4800 kg m
2
]
0,. 4.55
0,. 4.56
0,. 4.57
0,. 4.58
0,. 4.59
143
4.45 )-./ 0617J>1679 6/D: -12F2H, 84E9: -=2 kg ?97 9?-@/9: R=0,5 m,
02= 3-1>J6-97 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /=100 rad/s KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/4
-2= 93?6@-97 3-9561< GH/98. F, 6J90-286/7?< 3-2/ -12FD. ' -12FD:
3-989-467 86-4 90D 5s. N9 =02;2K@36-6:
9) -. KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. (607R14G=/3.) -2= -12F2H.
R) -2 8>-12 -.: GH/98.: F.
, 120< 9G14/679: -2= -12F2H 6@/97
2
2
1
MR I = .
[*0 :
2
/ 20 s rad 0 = N F 10 = ]
4.46 '17ED/-79 282K6/<: 14RG2:, 8<?2=: L=1 m, 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97
KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 >/9 4?12 -.:
(3F.4.60). Q279 6@/97 . KA/79?< 607-4F=/3. -.: 14RG2=, -. 3-7K8<
02=, 90D -./ 217ED/-79 5>3., 9J</6-97 6;6H561.;
, 120< 9G14/679: -.: 14RG2= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/4 -.: 6@/97
2
3
1
ML I = ?97 . 607-4F=/3. -.: R91H-.-9: g=10 m/s
2
.
[*0 : 15 rad/s
2
]
0./212/(3 - +/,3 :#+.3/'&'8 .'8 &./212/(38
4.47 WH2 3J9@16:, 02= . ?956874 >F67 84E9 m=100 g 3=/G>2/-97 86-9UH
-2=: 86 9R91< 14RG2, D0A: 3-2 3F<89 4.61. C2 3H3-.89 06173-1>J6-
-97 36 217ED/-72 60@06G2 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /=16 rad/s, KH1A 90D
-2/ ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9 z´z. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -. 3-12J218< -2=
3=3-<89-2:. W@/6-97 l=0,8 m.
[*0: 5,12 kg m
2
/s ]
4.48 %02;2K@3-6 -. 3-12J218< 6/D: -12F2H 84E9: -=2 kg ?97 9?-@/9:
R=0,4 m, 02= 3-1>J6-97 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /=10 rad/s KH1A 90D
-2/ 4U2/4 -2=. Z6A1<3-6 D-7 . 84E9 -2= -12F2H R1@3?6-97
3=K?6/-1A8>/. 3-./ 0617J>1674 -2=.
[*0 : 3,2 kg m
2
]
4.49 '17ED/-72: G@3?2: 9?-@/9: 20 cm ?97 84E9: 1 kg 3-1>J6-97 86
3=F/D-.-9 2 Hz KH1A 90D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9 02= 061/467 90D -2
?>/-12 -2=. *0D ?40272 HT2: 9J</6-97 >/9 ?2884-7 ;430. 84E9:
100gr, 02= ?2;;467 3-2 G@3?2 36 90D3-93. 10 cm 90D -2/ 4U2/9
06173-12J<:. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -. />9 3=F/D-.-9 06173-12J<:.
, 120< 9G14/679: -2= G@3?2= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -2=
6@/97
2
2
1
MR I =
[*0 : 1,9 Hz ]
0,. 4.60
0,. 4.6<
144
F#-'.#$3 )-9/5)#+ - 9/52
4.50 '82K6/<: 14RG2: 84E9: -=3 kg ?97 8<?2=: L=40 cm 3-1>J6-97 86
KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /=10 rad/s KH1A 90D 3-9561D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97
90D -2 >/9 4?12 -.: ?97 6@/97 ?456-2: 3V 9=-</. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -./
?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 -.: 14RG2=. , 120< 9G14/679: -.: 14RG2= A: 012:
4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 84E9: -.: 6@/97
2
12
1
ML I
cm
= .
[*0 : 8 J ]
4.51 '82K6/<: G@3?2: 84E9: -=8 kg ?97 9?-@/9: R ?=;@6-97 36 217ED/-72
60@06G2. C2 ?>/-12 -2= G@3?2= ?7/6@-97 86 -9FH-.-9 !=5 m/s. N9 R16-
56@ . ?7/.-7?< 6/>1K679 -2= G@3?2=. , 120< 9G14/679 -2= G@3?2= A:
012: 4U2/9 02= 061/467 90D -2 ?>/-12 -2= 6@/97
2
2
1
MR I = .
[*0 : 150 J ]
4.52 I/9: ?7/.-<19: 93?6@ 120< 4 Nm ?97 3-1>J6-97 86 3=F/D-.-9 50 ,z.
Q279 6@/97 . 73FH: -2=; [*0 : 4000 W ]
4.53 '82K6/<: G@3?2: 84E9: m=40 kg ?97 9?-@/9: R=20 cm, 3-1>J6-97 86
3=F/D-.-9 5 ,z KH1A 90D 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -2= ?97
6@/97 ?456-2: 3V 9=-D/. 9) QD32 >1K2 9097-6@-97 K79 /9
9?7/.-2027.56@ 2 G@3?2:; R) %02;2K@3-6 -. 8>3. 73FH -.: 120<:
02= 01>067 /9 93?.56@ 3-2 G@3?2 K79 /9 9?7/.-2027.56@ 36 5s.
W@/6-97
2
2
1
mR I = ?97 10
2
≈ π .
[*0: 400J , 80W ]
4.54 H 14RG2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.62 02= >F67 8<?2: L=2 m ?97 84E9 -=3kg,
6@/97 217ED/-79 ?97 3-1>J6-97 KH1A 90D 3-9561D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9
02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 4?12 -.: '. )-2 4;;2 4?12 * -.: 14RG2=
93?6@-97 217ED/-79 GH/98. 8>-12= F=10 N 02= 6@/97 G791?B: ?456-.
3-. G76H5=/3. -.: 14RG2=. , 14RG2: 91F7?4 <-9/ 9?@/.-. ?97 86 -./
60@G193. -.: GH/98.: F 91F@E67 /9 3-1>J6-97. N9 =02;2K@36-6:
9) C2 >1K2 -.: GH/98.: F, 36 8@9 06173-12J< -.: 14RG2=.
R) C. KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 02= 59 >F67 902?-<367 . 14RG2: -.
3-7K8< ?9-4 -./ 202@9 59 >F67 2;2?;.1B367 879 06173-12J<.
K) C2 1=58D 86 -2/ 202@2 . GH/98. 86-9J>167 6/>1K679 3-.
14RG2 (73FH: -.: GH/98.:) -./ @G79 3-7K8<.
, 120< 9G14/679: -.: 14RG2= A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -.:
6@/97
2
3
1
ML I = .
[*0 : W=400 J , /=7,9 rad/s, P=158 W ]
4.55 H 282K6/<: 14RG2: *+, 8<?2=: l=30 cm, 6@/97 ?9-9?D1=J. ?97
80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97 FA1@: -17R>: KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9 02=
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 4?12 -.: * (3F. 4.63). , 14RG2: 9J</6-97 90D -./
?9-9?D1=J. 5>3.. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -./ -9FH-.-9 02= >F67 -2 3.86@2
0,. 4.62
0,. 4.63
145
+, -. 3-7K8< 02= J-4/67 3-2 >G9J2:.
, 120< 9G14/679: -.: 14RG2= A: 012: 4U2/9 ?456-2 3-2 8>32/ -.:
6@/97
12
2
ml
I = ?97 . 607-4F=/3. -.: R91H-.-9: g=10 m/s
2
.
[*0 : 3 m/s ]
4.56 '82K6/<: G2?D: *+ 8<?2=: l ?97 R412=: w=100 N 73211206@ D0A:
J9@/6-97 3-2 3F<89 4.64. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -7: G=/4867: 02= G>F6-97 .
G2?D: 90D -2 3?27/@ ?97 90D -./ 4151A3. *. W@/6-97 &=60
2
.
[*0 : 3 / 3 2 6J5 , 7 50 , 3 50 = = = N F N T ]
4.57 C2 680DG72 3-2 3F<89 4.65 >F67 HT2: h ?97 2 -12FD: 9?-@/9 R ?97
R412: w. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -2 6;4F73-2 8>-12 -.: 217ED/-79: GH/98.:
F 02= 01>067 /9 93?.56@ 3-2/ -12FD K79 /9 =0610.G<367 -2 680DG72.
[*0 : F >
h R
h R h
w

− ) 2 (
]
4.58 '82K6/<: 3?4;9 R412=: 400 N 80216@ /9 7321120<367 3-.17ED86/. 3-2
>G9J2: ?97 3-2/ -2@F2 (3F. 4.66) 8D/2 D-9/ . KA/@9 & 02= 3F.89-@E67 86
-2 >G9J2: 6@/97 86K9;H-61. -A/ 30
2
. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -2 3=/-6;63-<
2179?<: 3-9-7?<: -17R<: -.: 3?4;9: 86 -2 217ED/-72 60@06G2. Z6A1<3-6
986;.->9 -./ -17R< 9/48639 3-. 3?4;9 ?97 -2/ -2@F2.
[*0 : 2 / 3 ]
4.59 ' 0@3A -12FD: 6/D: 02G.;4-2= >F67 9?-@/9 R=0,33 m?97 84E9 1 kg. '
-12FD: 3-1>J6-97 86 3=F/D-.-9 100 3-12J>: 9/4 ;60-D - FA1@: /9 >1F6-97
36 609J< 86 -2 >G9J2:. Y1.3782027B/-9: -2 J1>/2 9?7/.-20272H86 -2/
-12FD 36 5 s. ' 3=/-6;63-<: -17R<: 2;@35.3.: 3-./ 609J< -12F2H -
J1>/2=, 6@/97 0,69. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -./ ?456-. GH/98. 02= 93?6@ -2 J1>/2
3-2/ -12FD. (Z6A1<3-6 D-7 -2 J1>/2 >1F6-97 36 609J< 86 -2/ -12FD 8D/2
90D -. 879 -2= 0;6=14 ?97 D-7 . 84E9 -2= -12F2H 6@/97 3=K?6/-1A8>/.
3-./ 0617J>1674 -2=). [*0: 1 N]
4.60 , 14RG2: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.67 6@/97 217ED/-79 ?97 80216@ /9 3-1>J6-97 KH1A
90D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 8>32/ -.:. C2 8<?2: -.:
14RG2= 6@/97 L=1 m?97 . 84E9 -.: -=0,6 kg. )6 90D3-93. r=0,2 m90D -2/
4U2/9 06173-12J<: R1@3?2/-97 GH2 86-9;;7?2@ G9?-H;727 84E9: m=0,1 kg 2
?95>/9:, 02= 3=/G>2/-97 86-9UH -2=: 86 >/9 /<89. C2 3H3-.89 3-1>J6-97
KH1A 90D -2/ 4U2/9 86 3=F/D-.-9 f
1
=10 ,z. M40279 3-7K8< -2 /<89 30467
?97 27 G9?-H;727, ;DKA 9G14/679:, A52H/-97 3-9 4?19 -.: 14RG2=.
%02;2K@3-6 -. />9 3=F/D-.-9 86 -./ 202@9 59 3-1>J6-97 -2 3H3-.89. ,
120< 9G14/679: -.: 14RG2= A: 012: 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12
84E9: -.: 6@/97
2
12
1
ML I = .
QO'S&,P*C*
0,. 4.64
0,. 4.65
0,. 4.66
0,. 4.67
146
[*0 : 5,8 ,z ]
4.61 , -9FH-.-9 -2= ?>/-12= 84E9: 879: 3J9@19: 02= ?=;@6-97 36
217ED/-72 60@06G2 6@/97 5 m/s. , 3J9@19 3-./ 0216@9 -.: 3=/9/-4
0;4K72 60@06G2 KA/@9: ?;@3.: 30
2
?97 3=/6F@E67 04/A 3V 9=-D -./
?@/.3< -.:. , ?@/.3. -.: 3J9@19: K@/6-97 FA1@: 2;@35.3.. N9
=02;2K@36-6 -2 G743-.89 02= G79/H67 . 3J9@19 3-2 0;4K72 60@06G2
8>F17 /9 3-989-<367. , 120< 9G14/679: -.: 3J9@19:, A: 012: 4U2/9
02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -.:, 6@/97
2
5
2
mR . W@/6-97 g=10 m/s
2
.
[*0 : 3,5 m ]
4.62 )=809K<: 3J9@19 ?9-6R9@/67 FA1@: 2;@35.3. 36 0;4K72 60@06G2 86
?;@3. 30
2
. , 120< 9G14/679: -.: 3J9@19:, A: 012: 4U2/9 02=
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -.:, 6@/97
2
5
2
mR I = ?97 . 607-4F=/3. -.:
R91H-.-9: g=10 m/s
2
. N9 =02;2K@36-6 -./ 607-4F=/3. -2= ?>/-12=
-.: 3J9@19:.
[*0 : 25/7 m/s
2
]
4.63 , -12F9;@9 -2= 3F<89-2: 4.68 6@/97 282K6/<: 86 84E9 m=2 kg ?97
9?-@/9 R. C9 3B89-9 )
1
?97 )
2
>F2=/ 84E6: m
1
=3 kg, m
2
=1 kg. N9
=02;2K@36-6 86 0279 607-4F=/3. 59 ?7/.52H/ -9 3B89-9 9/ 9J652H/
6;6H5619. , 120< 9G14/679: -.: -12F9;@9: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/4 -.:
6@/97
2
2
1
mR I = ?97 . 607-4F=/3. -.: R91H-.-9: g=10m/s
2
. C2
R412: -2= /<89-2: 56A16@-97 986;.->2.
).86@A3.: , -17R< 9/48639 3-./ -12F9;@9 ?97 3-2 3?27/@ 6@/97 91-
?6-4 86K4;. B3-6 /9 8./ 0919-.16@-97 2;@35.3..
[*0 : 9 =4 m/s
2
]
4.64 C2 3J971@G72 ) -2= 3F. 4.69 >F67 84E9 200 gr ?97 G79K14J67 ?H?;2
9?-@/9: 30 cm 86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 40 rad/s. C2 3?27/@ 3-2 202@2
6@/97 G68>/2 -2 3J971@G72 061/467 90D ?9-9?D1=J2 3A;</9 M&.
Q272 6@/97 -2 >1K2 -.: GH/98.: 02= 01>067 /9 93?<32=86 3-./
6;6H561. 4?1. -2= 3?27/72H 8>F17: D-2= . 9?-@/9 06173-12J<: -2=
3J9717G@2= ) K@/67 15 cm; (Z9 56A1<36-6 D-7 3’ D;. -. G741?679 -2=
J97/28>/2= -2 3?27/@ 6@/97 217ED/-72 ?97 D-7 G6/ =041F2=/ -17R>:
86-9UH -2= 3?27/72H ?97 -2= 3A;</9).
[*0 : 43,2 J ]
4.65 O -12FD: -2= 3F<89-2: 4.70 >F67 120< 9G14/679: 0,18 kg m
2
?97 3-1>J6-97
86 KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 /=25 rad/s KH1A 90D 217ED/-72 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97
90D -2 ?>/-12 -2=. *3?B/-9: 3-2 3.86@2 * -2= 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -./
?9-4;;.;. GH/98. -2/ 86-9?7/2H86 B3-6 /9 K@/67 ?9-9?D1=J2:.
%02;2K@3-6 -2 8>-12 -.: 86-9R2;<: -.: 3-12J218<: -2= -12F2H.
[*0: 4,5 2kg m
2
/s ]
0,. 4.68
0,. 4.69
0,. 4.70
147
4.66 )-./ 0617J>1679 879: 9?@/.-.: -12F9;@9:, 9?-@/9: 20 cm, 6@/97 -=;7K-
8>/2 3?27/@. *3?B/-9: 3-2 3?27/@ 217ED/-79 GH/98. 206 N 06173-1>-
J2=86 -./ -12F9;@9. S1>5.?6 D-7 D-9/ . -12F9;@9 >F67 ?4/67 ->33617:
06173-12J>: >F67 3=F/D-.-9 f=4 Hz. N9 =02;2K73-6@ . 84E9 -.:.
W@/6-97 D-7 . 120< 9G14/679: -.: -12F9;@9: A: 012: -2/ 4U2/9
06173-12J<: -.: 6@/97
2
2
1
mR I = . [*0: 50 kg
]
4.67 I/9: -12FD: 9J</6-97 /9 ?7/.56@ 36 0;4K72 60@06G2 02= 3F.89-@E67
86 -2 217ED/-72 KA/@9 &. +79 0276: -78>: -2= 3=/-6;63-< 3-9-7?<:
-17R<: . ?@/.3< -2= K@/6-97 FA1@: 2;@35.3.; W@/6-97 . 120<
9G14/679: -2= -12F2H A: 012: 4U2/9 KH1A 90D -2/ 202@2 3-1>J6-97
2
2
1
mR I = .
[*0: * > 3 / εφϕ ]
4.68 C2 K72 – K72 -2= 3F<89-2: 902-6;6@-97 90D ?H;7/G12 86 84E9 m=120
g ?97 9?-@/9 R=1,5 cm, KH1A 90D -2/ 202@2 >F67 -=;7F-6@ 02;;>:
J21>: /<89 (3F. 4.72). M19-B/-9: -2 6;6H5612 4?12 -2= /<89-2:,
9J</2=86 -2/ ?H;7/G12 /9 ?9-6R9@/67. N9 =02;2K@36-6
9) -2 1=58D 86 -2/ 202@2 9=U4/6-97 . 3-12J218< -2= ?=;@/G12=
?95B: ?9-6R9@/67, ?97
R) -./ -9FH-.-9 -2= ?>/-12= 84E9: -2= ?=;@/G12= -. 3-7K8<
02= >F67 U6-=;7F-6@ 3?27/@ 8<?2=: 30cm.
Z6A1<3-6 -2 /<89 ?9-9?D1=J2. , 120< 9G14/679: -2= ?=;@/G12=
A: 012: -2/ 4U2/4 -2= 6@/97
2
2
1
mR I = . W@/6-97 g=10 m/s
2
.
[*0: 9) 6×10
-3
kg m
2
/s R) 2 m/s ]
4.69 P79 87?1< 3J9@19 84E9: m ?97 9?-@/9: r 9J</6-97 90D -2 3.86@2 *,
04/A 36 2G.KD, D0A: J9@/6-97 3-2 3F<89 4.73. */ . ?@/.3. -.:
3J9@19: K@/6-97 FA1@: 2;@35.3., 0272 6@/97 -2 87?1D-612 HT2: h 90D
-2 202@2 01>067 /9 9J656@ . 3J9@19 K79 /9 ?4/67 9/9?H?;A3.;
W@/6-97 R=20 cm. , 120< 9G14/679: -.: 3J9@19: A: 012: 4U2/9 02=
G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12 -.: 6@/97
2
5
2
mr I = . , 9?-@/9 -.: 3J9@19:
6@/97 02;H 87?1< 36 3F>3. 86 -./ 9?-@/9 R. [*0: 54cm ]
4.70 '7 4U2/6: GH2 282@A/ ?=;@/G1A/ M
1
?97 M
2
6@/97 0914;;.;27,
R1@3?2/-97 3-2 @G72 217ED/-72 60@06G2 ?97 36 90D3-93. d. *J</2=86 8@9
73209F< 282K6/< 39/@G9 ) 04/A 3-2=: ?=;@/G12=: >-37 B3-6 -2 8>32/
-.: /9 R1@3?6-97 04/A 90D -2 8>32/ -.: 90D3-93.: M
1
M
2
?97 86
?9-4;;.;2 8.F9/738D R4E2=86 -2=: ?=;@/G12=: 36 06173-12J<, D0A:
G6@F/67 -2 3F<89 4.74. */ 2 3=/-6;63-<: -17R<: 9/48639 3-. 39/@G9 ?97
3-2=: ?=;@/G12=: 6@/97 *, /9 R1656@ . 061@2G2: -9;4/-A3.: 02= 59
6?-6;>367 . 39/@G9 9/ -. 86-9-20@32=86 ;@K2 90D -. 5>3. 7321120@9:
-.:.
0,. 4.7<
0,. 4.72
0,. 4.73
0,. 4.74
148
[*0:
g
d
µ
π
2
2 ]
149
4.71 I/9 .;6?-17?D -16/4?7 84E9: m=2kg 80216@ /9 ?7/6@-97 04/A 36
>/9 86K4;2 217ED/-72 -12FD (3F. 4.75). ' -12FD: 80216@ /9 3-1>-
J6-97 KH1A 90D ?9-9?D1=J2 4U2/9 02= G7>1F6-97 90D -2 ?>/-12
-2=. *1F7?4 ?97 2 -12FD: ?97 -2 -16/4?7 6@/97 9?@/.-9. M40279
3-7K8< -2 -16/4?7 91F@E67 /9 ?7/6@-97 86 -9FH-.-9 !=8,4m/s. N9
=02;2K@36-6 -. KA/79?< -9FH-.-9 86 -./ 202@9 59 3-1>J6-97 2
-12FD:. W@/6-97 D-7 . 120< 9G14/679: -2= -12F2H A: 012: -2/
4U2/4 -2= 6@/97 .=11,52 kgm
2
?97 D-7 -2 -16/4?7 90>F67 90D -2/
4U2/9 06173-12J<: R=1,2 m.
[*0: 1,75 rad/s ]
!"#C!O(M' +(N'P!N'
%041F67 >/9 K7/D86/2 02= F1.37820276@-97 6=1>A: 3-. J=37?<.
'/284E6-97 6UA-617?D K7/D86/2. C2 6UA-617?D K7/D86/2 GH2 G79/=384-A/ H
?97 L (3=8R2;@E6-97 H×L) 6@/97 6U 217382H >/9 G74/=389 ?456-2 3-2
60@06G2 -A/ H ?97 L, 86 8>-12
ηµφ AB C =
D02= J . KA/@9 9/48639 3-9 G79/H389-9 H ?97 L.
, J214 -2= G79/H389-2: C 21@E6-97 90D -2
;6KD86/2 VV?9/D/9 -2= G6U7D3-12J2= ?2F;@9VV. )H8JA/9 86
9=-D/, -2 01B-2 90D -9 GH2 G79/H389-9 (H) 3-1>J6-97 012:
-2 G6H-612 (L), 9?2;2=5B/-9: -. 87?1D-61. KA/@9 9/48639
3-9 G79/H389-9. , J214 -2= C 6@/97 . J214 012: -./ 202@9
59 ?7/.56@ >/9: G6U7D3-12J2: ?2F;@9:, 02= 3-1>J6-97 D0A:
-2 G74/=389 H.
I/9: 4;;2: -1D02: K79 /9 ?952173-6@ . J214 -2=
G79/H389-2: C 6@/97 2 ?9/D/9: -2= G6U72H F6172H: */ -9
G4F-=;9 -2= G6U72H F6172H R1@3?2/-97 ?9-4 8<?2: -2= H
?97 ?98J52H/ K79 /9 G6@F/2=/ 012: -2 L (8>3A -.: 87?1D-61.: KA/@9:
9/48639 3-9 GH2 G79/H389-9), 2 9/-@F6719: G6@F/67 -./ ?9-6H5=/3. -2= C.
L0A: 012?H0-67 90D -./ 6U@3A3. 02= G@/67 -2 8>-12 -2= C, -2 6UA-6-
17?D K7/D86/2 9/48639 36 GH2 0914;;.;9 G79/H389-9 6@/97 8.G>/.
0,. 4.74
0,. 4.76
150
*/ *
x
, A
y
, A
z
6@/97 27 3=/73-B36: -2= G79/H389-2: H, 36 -1732152-
KB/72 3H3-.89 9UD/A/ ?97 B
x
, B
y
, S
z,
27 3=/73-B36: -2= G79/H389-2: L, -2
6UA-617?D K7/D86/2 36 ?91-6379/>: 3=/-6-9K8>/6: G@/6-97 90D -./ 6U@3A3.
z y x
z y x
B B B
A A A
k j i
B A C = × =
D02= i, j ?97 k -9 82/9G79@9 G79/H389-9 3-2=: 4U2/6: x, y ?97 z, 9/-@3-27F9.
To 6UA-617?D K7/D86/2 G6/ 6@/97 9/-786-956-7?D 9;;4
A B B A × − = ×
G1+/(2598 .2! )?@.)/#$2; 5#-2(9-2!
, 120< 879: GH/98.: F A: 012: 3.86@2 ' 21@E6-97
90D -. G79/=389-7?< 3F>3.
F r . × =
(4.24)
D02= r 6@/97 >/9 G74/=389 86 91F< -2 3.86@2 ' ?97 ->;2:
>/9 3.86@2 -2= G79/H389-2: F. )H8JA/9 86 -2/ 21738D -2=
6UA-617?2H K7/28>/2= . 120< 6@/97 ?456-. 3-2 60@06G2 02=
21@E6-97 90D -9 G79/H389-9 r ?97 F ?97 . J214 -.: G@/6-97
90D -2/ ?9/D/9 -2= G6U72H F6172H.
To 8>-12 -.: 120<: 02= 012?H0-67 90D -2/ 21738D 9=-D
6@/97
ηµφ τ rF = (3F. 4.77 )
*/ 0412=86 =0DT. D-7 d r = ηµφ D02= d, . ?456-. 90D3-93. 9/48639 3-2
3.86@2 ' ?97 -2 G74/=389 F, ?9-9;<K2=86 3-. K/A3-< 3F>3. Fd = τ (4.25)
!028>/A: . ?9-6H5=/3. ?97 -2 8>-12 -.: 120<: 6@/97 9/6U41-.-9 90D -2 3.-
86@2 -2= F 3-2 202@2 ?9-9;<K67 -2 G74/=389 r.
' 21738D: -.: 120<: 3H8JA/9 86 -. 3F>3. (4.24) 0;62/6?-6@ >/9/-7
-.: (4.25) G.;9G< -.: 3F>3.: 86 -./ 202@9 36 012.K2H86/. 0914K19J2 21@-
3-.?6 -2 8>K652:, G7D-7 . (4.24) 21@E67 D-7 6@/97 G79/=389-7?D 8>K652: ?97
G@/67 -2 8>-12 ?97 -./ ?9-6H5=/3< -.:.
, 3-12J218< =;7?2H 3.86@2= 02= 3-1>J6-97 KH1A
90D 3.86@2 ', 21@E6-97 90D -. 3F>3.
! r p r L × = × = m
(4.26)
D02= r . 607R9-7?< 9?-@/9. Q919-.1<3-6 04;7 D-7 9=-D: 2
-1D02: 217382H 6@/97 02;H 072 ?28TD: 90D -2/ 21738D 02=
GD5.?6 3-./ 0914K19J2 4-7. , 6U@3A3. (4.26) G@/67
0;.12J21@6: K79 -2 8>-12 -. G76H5=/3. ?97 -. J214 -.:
3-12J218<:.
Q>19 90D -./ 90;D-.-9 ?97 -./ ?28TD-.-9, 86 -./ 202@9 8>3A -2=
6UA-617?2H K7/28>/2= 21@3-.?9/ . 120< ?97 . 3-12J218<, =041F67 ?97 879
R95H-61. 97-@9 02= ?4/67 9=-D -2/ -1D02 217382H -2=: 90919@-.-2. )-. J=-
37?< 27 6U73B367: 0>19 90D -. 3=/>0679 -A/ 82/4GA/ ?97 -A/ G793-436A/
01>067 /9 >F2=/ ?97 G79/=389-7?< 3=/>0679. *=-D 3.89@/67 D-7 -9
G79/H389-9 80212H/ /9 0123-652H/ < /9 6U73A52H/ 8D/2 86 G79/H389-9. '7
0,. 4.77
0,. 4.78
151
6U73B367: (4.24) ?97 (4.26) >F2=/ 9=-< -. G79/=389-7?< 3=/>0679.
M97 4;;9 86K>5. 3-. J=37?<, D0A: . GH/98. 02= 93?6@ -2 89K/.-7?D
06G@2 36 ?7/2H86/2 .;6?-17?D J21-@2, 21@E2/-97 86 G79/=389-7?D K7/D86/2. ,
GH/98. 9=-< (GH/98. Lorentz) 21@E6-97 90D -. 3F>3.:
L ! F × = q
M(S#C(' C*Y%C,C#N M*( P!C*W'), C,)
M(N,),) )C' *%C'M(N,C'
)’ >/9 9=-2?@/.-2, 9/48639 3-2/ ?7/.-<19 ?97 -2=: ?7/.-<172=: -12-
F2H: =041F2=/ 8.F9/7382@ 02= 607-1>02=/ < 6802G@E2=/ /9 86-9G@G6-97 .
3-12J7?< ?@/.3. -2= ?7/.-<19 3-2=: -12F2H:. '7 8.F9/7382@ 9=-2@ 607-=KF4-
/2=/ 60@3.: G79J216-7?>: 3=F/D-.-6: 06173-12J<: 9/48639 3-2/ ?7/.-<19
?97 -7: 1DG6:. C2 3H/2;2 -A/ G79-4U6A/ 9=-B/ 3=/73-2H/ -2 &;&.'(+ ().%-
:2&'8 .2! +!.2$#-3.2!.
C' *PQO*+(*^ (3=80;>?-.:)
C2 98019K74E 6@/97 -20256-.8>/2 9/48639 3-2/ ?7/.-<19 ?97 -2
?7RB-72 -A/ -9F=-<-A/. C2 98019K74E 607-1>067
- -+ &!(>"9$2!(), G.;9G< /9 019K89-20272H86 879 0122G6=-7?< 3H/-
G63. 9/48639 3-2/ 01A-6H2/-9 4U2/9 06173-12J<: -2= ?7/.-<19,
(3-12J9;2JD12) ?97 -2 =0D;2702 3H3-.89 86-4G23.:.
- -+ +>2&!(>"9$2!(), G.;9G< /9 ?9-91K2H86 0912G7?4 9=-< -. 3H/-
G63. ?9-4 -. G741?679 -A/ 9;;9KB/ -9F=-<-A/.
C' M(S#C(' C*Y%C,C#N
)-./ 061@0-A3. 6/D: ?;937?2H 9=-2?7/<-2= 64/ 6J918DE986 90’ 6=-
56@9: -. 3-12J7?< ?@/.3. -2= 3-12J9;2JD12= 3-2=: -12F2H:, -D-6, K79 3=/.-
5738>/6: 3=/5<?6: ;67-2=1K@9: -2= ?7/.-<19 (4000 3-12J>:/min), -2 9=-2?@-
/.-2 59 >01606 /9 ?7/6@-97 86 -9FH-.-9 450 km/h. '7 -12F2@ 01>067 /9 0617-
3-1>J2/-97 072 91K4 90D -2 3-12J9;2JD12.
C2 ?7RB-72 -9F=-<-A/ 06-=F9@/67 9?17RB: 9=-D/ -2/
=0202;;90;937938D -A/ 3-12JB/.
E2 $#B7.#2 .+,!.3.@- G@/67 -. G=/9-D-.-9
- 3-2=: -12F2H: /9 3-1>J2/-97 072 91K4 90D -2/ ?7/.-<19,
- /9 86-9R4;;2=86, 9/4;2K9 86 -7: 9/4K?6: -.: 3-7K8<:, -. 120< -2=
E6HK2=: G=/486A/
1
02= 93?6@-97 3-2=: ?7/.-<172=: -12F2H:.

1
WH2 9/-@56-6: G=/4867: 86 @39 8>-19 ?97 G79J216-7?2H: J216@: 902-6;2H/
E6HK2:. C2 8>-12 -.: 120< -2= E6HK2=: 6@/97 @32 86 -2 K7/D86/2 -2= 8>-12= -A/
0,. 4.79
152
C2 ?7RB-72 -9F=-<-A/ 0617;98R4/67 >/9 3H3-.89 K19/9E7B/
G79J216-7?B/ G798>-1A/.
*023=80;>?2=86 09-B/-9: -2 98019K74E. P6 -2 82F;D -A/ -9F=-<-
-A/ J>1/2=86 36 609J< >/9 K19/4E7 -2= G6=-616H2/-2: 4U2/9 (>U2G2: -2=
?7RA-@2=) 86 >/9 -2= 6/G798>32= 4U2/9 (3F. 4.80). *J</2=86 -2 98019K74E, 2
3-12J9;2JD12: 5>-67 36 06173-12J< -2/ 6/G748632 4U2/9 (6@32G2: -2= ?7RA-
-@2=) ?7 9=-D: 86 -. 36714 -2= -2 G6=-616H2/-9 4U2/9.
0.'- >/7.',
-2 K19/4E7 W
1
-2= G6=-616H2/-2: 4U2/9 3=/918DE67 86 -2 K19/4E7 !
1
-2= 6/-
G748632= (3F. 4.80). , 9?-@/9 -2= K19/9E72H W
1
( )
1 ∆
R 6@/97 061@02=
->33617: J21>: 86K9;H-61. 90D -./ 9?-@/9 -2= K19/9E72H !
1
( )
1 E
R . */4-
8639 3-7: KA/79?>: -9FH-.-6: 06173-12J<: -A/ K19/9E7B/ 73FH67 . 3F>3.
1
1
1
1
∆ Ε

=
R
R
E
ω
ω
90D -./ 202@9 012?H0-67 D-7 . 3=F/D-.-9 06173-12J<: -2= W
1
6@/97 ->33617: J21>: 87?1D-61. 90D 9=-</ -2= !
1
. C9=-DF12/9 . 120< -2=
E6HK2=: 02= 3-1>J67 -9 K19/4E79 59 6@/97 ->33617: J21>: 86K9;H-61. K79 -2
W
1
36 3F>3. 86 -2 !
1
K79-@ 6/B 27 G=/4867: 6@/97 @36: . 90D3-93. 86-9UH -A/
J21>A/ -2=: -6-190;9374E6-97 3-2 W
1
(3F. 4.81).
C2 9=-2?@/.-2 G6 80216@ /9 9/90-HU67 86K4;6: -9FH-.-6:, D8A: 012-
>?=T6 >/9 4;;2 DJ6;2:. C2 ?7/.-<172 E6HK2: G=/486A/ 86-93F.89-@35.?6 3’
>/9 E6HK2:, 02= 36 -6;7?< 9/4;=3. 93?6@-97 3-2=: -12F2H:, 86 879 02;H 3.-
89/-7?D-61. 120<. !@/97 7?9/D /9 U6?7/<367 -2 9=-2?@/.-2 < /9 -2 9/6R4367
36 9/.J217>: 86 86K4;. ?;@3..

G=/486A/ 60@ -./ ?456-. 90D3-93. 86-9UH -A/ J21>A/ -2=: ( ) l F ⋅ = τ . , 120<
6/D: E6HK2=: 6@/97 @G79 A: 012: 20272G<02-6 3.86@2 9/9J214:.
0,. 4.80
153
Q9-B/-9: -2 98019K74E 9023=80;>?2=86 -2 3-12J9;2JD12 90D -2
?7RB-72 -9F=-<-A/ ?97 86 -2 82F;D -A/ -9F=-<-A/ 86-9?7/2H86 -2 G6=-616H-
2/-9 4U2/9 36 3F>3. 86 -2/ 6/G748632.
0.' :)!.9/+,
-2 K19/4E7 W
2
3=/918DE67 86 -2 K19/4E7 !
2
(3F. 4.80). . 3F>3. -A/ 9?-@/A/
-B19 6@/97
1
2
2
2
=

E
R
R
. , 3=F/D-.-9 06173-12J<: -2= W
2
6@/97 . 873< 9=-<:
-2= !
2
?97 . 120< -2= ?7/.-<172= E6HK2=: G70;4379.
)-./ -1@-. 2 G6=-616HA/ 4U2/9: 3-1>J6-97 86 3=F/D-.-9 @3. 86 -9
2/3 9=-<: -2= 6/G798>32=, 3-./ -6-41-. 27 3=F/D-.-6: 6@/97 061@02= @36: ?97
3-./ 0>80-. . 06173-12J< 6@/97 K1.K21D-61. 3-./ >U2G2 -2= ?7RA-@2= -9F=-
-<-A/ 90’ D-7 3-./ 6@32G2. , 0>80-. -9FH-.-9 607-1>067 /9 06-=F9@/2=86 86-
K4;6: -9FH-.-6: ?9-9/9;B/2/-9: 3F6-7?4 ;7KD-612 ?9H3782. L-9/ >F2=86
0>80-. -9FH-.-9, D8A:, . 120< -2= E6HK2=: >F67 867A56@ 02;H ?97 6@/97 GH-
3?2;2 /9 607-9FH/2=86 -2 9=-2?@/.-2 9/ F16793-6@, 0.F. 3’ >/9 01230>19389.
0.'- 6>#&4)-,
2 G6=-616HA/ 4U2/9: K=1/467 86 9/402G. J214 90D 9=-</ 02= K=1/2H36 3-7:
4;;6: -9FH-.-6:. *=-D 607-=KF4/6-97 86 -. 8632;4R.3. 6/D: -1@-2= K19/9-
E72H 9/48639 3-2 G6=-616H2/-9 4U2/9 ?97 -2/ 6/G748632 (3F. 4.80).
'7 3F>367: 9?-@/A/ -A/ K19/9E7B/ 027?@;2=/ 90D 9=-2?@/.-2 36
9=-2?@/.-2.
*"'N*) P!C*W'),) M*( W(*$'O(M'
*/48639 3-./ >U2G2 90D -2 ?7RB-72 -9F=-<-A/ ?97 -2=: ?7/.-<172=:
-12F2H: R1@3?2=86 >/9/ < 061733D-612=: 4U2/6: 86-4G23.: ?97 -2
G79J217?D.
L-9/ -2 9=-2?@/.-2 3-1@R67 2 -12FD: 02= R1@3?6-97 3-2 63A-617?D
-.: 3-12J<: G79/H67 87?1D-612 G743-.89 90D -2/ 6UA-617?D -12FD. !JD32/
-2 -DU2 -.: 3-12J<: K79 -2/ 63A-617?D -12FD 6@/97 87?1D-612 59 01>067 /9
3-1>J6-97 6?6@/. -./ B19 86 87?1D-61. 3=F/D-.-9 90D -2/ 6UA-617?D.
0,.4.8<
154
W79J217?D 6@/97 6?6@/2: 2 8.F9/738D: 02= R1@3?6-97 3-2 8>32/ -2=
4U2/9 ?@/.3.: (3F. 4.82 ) ?97 82714E67 -7: 3-12J>: 3-2=: G=2 -12F2H: B3-6
/9 K=1@E67 2 ?95>/9: 86 -./ ?9-4;;.;. 3=F/D-.-9. C2 G79J217?D 60@3.:
82714E67 3-2=: -12F2H: -./ 73FH 02= J-4/67 90D -2/ ?7/.-<19.
*/ 2 4U2/9: ?@/.3.: <-9/ 82/2?D889-2: -2 9=-2?@/.-2 59 6@F6 02;H
R91H -78D/7, 59 <-9/ 02;H GH3?2;2 3-./ 2G<K.3. ?97 59 >J56716 02;H K1<-
K219 -9 6;93-7?4 -2=.
0,. 4.82

4-1

ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗ

Στην προσπάθειά μας να απλοποιήσουμε τη μελέτη της κίνησης των σωμάτων, αντιμετωπίσαμε ως τώρα τα σώματα ως υλικά σημεία. Το υλικό σημείο ορίζεται ως σώμα που έχει όλες τις άλλες ιδιότητες της ύλης εκτός από διαστάσεις. Ένα υλικό σημείο, μη έχοντας διαστάσεις, έχει τη δυνατότητα να εκτελεί μόνο μεταφορικές κινήσεις. Στην πραγματικότητα όλα τα σώματα έχουν διαστάσεις και γι’ αυτό, εκτός από το να εκτελούν μεταφορική κίνηση, μπορούν να αλλάζουν προσανατολισμό στο χώρο, να εκτελούν δηλαδή περιστροφική (στροφική) ή, ακόμη, σύνθετη κίνηση, δηλαδή συνδυασμό μεταφορικής και στροφικής κίνησης. Αν σε κάποιο στερεό σώμα ασκηθούν δυνάμεις το σώμα παραμορφώνεται, λίγο ή πολύ και μόνιμα ή προσωρινά. Τα υποθετικά στερεά που δεν παραμορφώνονται όταν τους ασκούνται δυνάμεις λέγονται μηχανικά στερεά. Στο κεφάλαιο αυτό θα ασχοληθούμε με τη μελέτη της ισορροπίας και της κίνησης μηχανικών στερεών. Όπου αναφερόμαστε σε στερεό θα εννοούμε μηχανικό στερεό.

4-2
κίνηση.

ΟΙ ΚΙΝΗΣΕΙΣ ΤΩΝ ΣΤΕΡΕΩΝ ΣΩΜΑΤΩΝ
Ένα στερεό σώμα μπορεί να κάνει μεταφορική, στροφική και σύνθετη

Στη μεταφορική κίνηση κάθε στιγμή όλα τα σημεία του σώματος έχουν την ίδια ταχύτητα. Παράδειγμα τέτοιας κίνησης είναι η κίνηση ενός κιβωτίου που ολισθαίνει πάνω σε οριζόντιο επίπεδο. Στη μεταφορική κίνηση των στεΣχ. 4.1 Το κιβώτιο εκτελεί μετα- ρεών ισχύουν οι νόμοι που διέπουν την κίνηση των υλικών σημείων. φορική κίνηση. Όλα του τα σημεία Μεταφορική μπορεί να είναι και μια καμπυλόγραμμη κίνηση. Το σώμα έχουν την ίδια ταχύτητα. του σχήματος 4.2α κάνει μεταφορική κίνηση αν η ταχύτητα του σημείου Α είναι ίση με την ταχύτητα του σημείου Β. Αυτό είναι δυνατό. Όταν ένα στερεό κάνει μεταφορική κίνηση, το ευθύγραμμο τμήμα που συνδέει δύο τυχαία σημεία του μετατοπίζεται παράλληλα προς τον εαυτό του. Μεταφορική είναι και η κίνηση που εκτελούν οι θαλαμίσκοι στον τροχό του λούνα πάρκ (σχ.4.2β).

Σχ. 4.2 (α) Η τροχιά κάθε σημείου είναι καμπύλη. Η κίνηση του σώματος είναι μεταφορική αφού το ευθύγραμμο τμήμα ΑΒ παραμένει διαρκώς παράλληλο προς τον εαυτό του. (β) Ο τροχός του λούνα πάρκ κάνει στροφική κίνηση. Ωστόσο κάθε θαλαμίσκος κάνει μεταφορική κίνηση.

108

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->