This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Ethics can be defined as the reflective process by which individuals, social groups and social institutions evaluate their actions from the perspective of moral principles and values. For example in the Queen v. Dudley and Stephens case, in order to escape death from hunger, kills the innocent boy for the purpose of eating his flesh, is guilty of murder, although at the time of the act he is in such circumstances that he believes and has reasonable. However, this is unethical because every human has dignity to live a life no matter in any hard circumstances. Social Responsibility is an ethical ideology or theory that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act to benefit society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual or organization has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystem. There are many ideas and theories I learnt from this subject which have its own moral values. One of the greatest ethical ideal that impressed me is “utilitarianism”. The utilitarianism theory focuses on selecting the best act that offers the best consequences of an individual. Utilitarian‟s does not examine the differences in a chosen act that is based on moral issues. They instead focus on the specific individual who is performing the act. Utilitarianism will focus on morality only if the action is considered an ideal act but if the action is not a preferred act, then morality does not play a role. Likewise, in utilitarianism ethics is not viewed when making a decision because all decisions are based on the best result for an individual. Besides that, utilitarianism ethics emphasize that action should be morally beneficial to a group. This course of ethics is often known as “the greatest good for the greatest number” or simply put, “the greater good” . In other words, the consequence of any ethical action should be beneficial for all by mass appeal.
since“they are going to be destroyed anyway. pain and pleasure . “The principle of utility aims to promote happiness which is the supreme ethical value . Utilitarianism theory suggests that an action is morally right when that an action produces more total utility for the group than any other alternative. If we assume the personhood of the embryo. First is the sanctity of human life. since they believe that embryos are human persons. A person that believes in the utilitarianism theory would stay and play for the team money aside.”. but realizes that if he was to leave that his team would be left for the wolves. If one assumes that frozen embryos are going to be . therefore putting the good of the team before their own good. There are two major themes that lead to the debate. Bentham proposed an equation which gave huge impact on utilitarianism which is “Happiness = Pleasure – Pain”. by unhappiness. That is why the theory is also described as consequentialist. Ulilitarianism may also apply in the medical field. A neglected element in the current debate is that of moral complicity. he refers to pleasure and the absence of pain. The second theme is the utilitarian rationale for the use of such embryos. wrong when they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. the Rightness of an action entirely depends on the value of its consequences. and means for the act share complicity with that evil. because they love the game and knows that the team needs them. A good example of this would be a footballer that has been playing for his university team and has an offer to go and play for a team that is much better. and that killing an embryonic human being is a moral evil. This kind of issue arises because of embryonic cell usage in the research.Utilitarianism impressed me because it is defined as putting the good of other people before you. There are many utilitarian arguments that seeks to justify such complicity on stem cell research. pain and the privation of pleasure. Many object to the destruction of embryos to obtain human embryonic stem (hES) cells. and thus have basic human rights. circumstance. then those who provide reason. According to Bentham's theory. Bentham said that.” When Bentham talks about happiness.” Actions are right in proportion when they tend to promote happiness. Nature has placed us under the governance of two sovereign masters. An act is „right‟ if it delivers more pleasure than pain and „wrong‟ if it brings about more pain than pleasure.
they stand with their argument saying that “the act of destroying embryos is a moral evil. he had the morals to continue fighting against apartheid (Denenberg. From my above discussion. my discussion. There are few successful leaders which hold utilitarianism as their key of success such as Nelson Mandela. why not utilize them for research? Even if one is distressed by the destruction of an embryo. in order to know if something is morally preferable for a utilitarian. Many potential issues may arise apart from stem cell such as genetically modified organism. It is wrong to harm others to benefit yourself because everyone counts. then it is morally preferable and ethical. By killing an embryo is still considered murder and unethical. even in business. . Apart from the medical field.discarded anyway. after he was released he showed Utilitarianism leadership through soldiering ahead to fight for apartheid and became the first black Democratic president in South Africa under the ANC. we can see how utilitarianism is actually holding a very strong position in different fields such as medicine. we must ask to ourself whether this will give us benefits or more negative impact? If the answer is more benefits. Nelson Mandela as a lawyer. After many debates. Utilitarianism doesn‟t discriminate or encourage egoism. because embryos are in fact human persons” (Dennis 2008). and deserves a thoughtful response. Immanual Kant always stated that murder is always a murder even tough we are in a very hard situation. isn‟t it better if some good can come from it? The utilitarian argument seems to make some sense. To conclude. 1995). voluntarily represented many detainees under the ANC whilst he was volunteer-in-chief for the ANC. and eugenics or baby designing. utilitarianism may apply for political background. Nelson Mandela had strong ethical values through having a heart and soul of leadership by consistently advising his followers to adopt a peaceful course of action and to avoid all violence. That‟s the reason why people are opposing the stem cell research. politics.
References 1.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 17 May 2011. (Section 5.) Last updated 2008. Australian Institute of Management. The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action by Rachels. Jan 2013. Roseville. L (2002).cbhd. 9. Baker.wordpress. Accessed February 5. Fiction. NSW. Cunningham PC. Beckwith F. Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd.Nilai University. Retrieved from http://ethicalrealism. Grand Rapids: William B.Sulivan. or Future Possibility? Retrieved from http://www. In: Kilner J. Vol 24. 6. 3. The Right to Patent a Human Being: Fact. The Formula of the Universal Law of Nature. 2. Ethical Realism : Moral Theories (Normative Theories of Ethics). 2003.org/resources/aps/cunningham_02-0603. 2008 4. The Heart and Soul of Leadership. Cameron N. “Kant‟s Moral Philosophy. Bioethics and the Future of Medicine. . JW Gray. DS3009 Ethics and Social Responsibility Lecture notes Rahman Ab.wisegeek.html. Complicity and Stem Cell Research : Countering the Utilitarianism Argument. Robert. Page 157. The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity. Wise Geek : Stem Cell research. Dennis M. Schiedermayer D (Eds). Johnson. Eerdmans.com/what-is-stemcell-research.htm 8. 1995. From Personhood to Bodily Autonomy: The Shifting Legal Focus in the Abortion Debate. August 2008.com/2010/08/20/ethical-theories/ 7. Aaron Costerisan. 5. 2007. Retrieved from http://www.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?