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the mind and consciousness. b. the mental processes of individuals. c. mental disorders and abnormal behavior. d. the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. 2. Suppose you want to draw some psychological conclusions in a way that is consistent with the scientific aspect of psychology. You should base your conclusions on a. the beliefs held by most people. b. the fundamental notion of common sense. c. your personal feelings or intuitions, but only if they are reasonable. d. evidence collected according to the principles of the scientific method. 3. Which statement is MOST consistent with the perspective taken by psychologists? a. Only human behavior is of interest. b. Mental processes are of little real importance. c. Both observable behavior and mental processes are of interest. d. Behavior should only be studied in a controlled research laboratory. 4. When compared to the work of sociologists and anthropologists, psychologists are likely to focus more on a. social institutions. b. individual behavior. c. cultural differences in behavior. d. the behavior of people in groups. 5. An educational psychologist has decided to do research on reading behavior. If he were to approach this topic from the broadest level of analysis, he would be most likely to study a. whether readers move their lips while reading. b. whether attitudes toward reading vary around the world. c. the eye movements readers make while reading a page of text. d. left and right brain hemisphere differences in the processing of foreign languages. 6. To investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the narrowest, most specific level of analysis? a. What are the causes of mental illness? b. Which brain structures are associated with paranoid schizophrenia? c. Are food additives responsible for the occurrence of certain types of mental illness? d. Are there differences in the prevalence of mental illness in different countries? 7. The first task in psychology is to make accurate observations about behavior. This means that psychologists must first ________ behavior. a. predict b. explain c. control d. describe
One attributes the inability to a poor memory. but only recently have the methods necessary to answer them been developed. explanation. Although psychologists have been doing laboratory research for hundreds of years. d. Questions about human nature have existed for a long time. explain why his sister teases him. c. In 1908. One day while playing golf. description d. you catch your opponent cheating. Treatments for mental illness. c. Your subsequent belief that your opponent also probably cheats on his income tax is most consistent with which of the psychologist's research goals? a. d. A psychologist would say that the child is being encouraged to do all of the following EXCEPT a. and the development of positive parenting practices are all consistent with the idea that a.8. Hermann Ebbinghaus wrote that "Psychology has a long past. b. they are asking him to provide behavioral data to support his claim. the use of animal participants has minimal relevance to modern psychological research. measuring how strongly each friend feels about his opinion. A boy complains that his sister has been teasing him." Which statement best captures the idea that Ebbinghaus was expressing? a. attributing the inability to remember to a dispositional variable. 13. b. 11. observe his sister's behavior. description. psychology is little more than common sense. note the conditions under which his sister's teasing behavior occurs. the ability of people to eliminate unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and initiate healthy behaviors such as exercise. explanation and prediction are the two most important psychological goals. 2 . Psychologists. c. d. but only a short history. but only recently have scholars recorded the accomplishments of the profession. little of substance has been discovered about human nature. report on his sister's teasing behavior in an objective fashion. like philosophers. Therapeutic programs designed to help people substitute more positive behaviors for negative behaviors are most closely related to the psychological goal of a. prediction c. Researchers would judge which of the two explanations is best by a. d. explanation 10. determining how well each explanation predicts behavior in new situations. b. b. attributing the inability to a situational variable. The field of psychology has existed for a long time. Two students are discussing their teacher's inability to remember student names. 12. d. prediction. c. b. c. The parents ask him to tell them specifically when she teases him and how it happens. have difficulty learning from their mistakes. control. 9. but the other believes it is due to a lack of motivation. psychological knowledge can be used to help improve the quality of life. control b.
do not seem to be as common in Third World countries as they are in technologically advanced countries. Experience cannot alter underlying biological structures and processes. c. cognitive c. conducting statistical analyses of data c. behavioristic d. Assume that humans will cooperate with one another to achieve specific goals. a. elementary units of analysis. b. this outcome would be most directly consistent with the ________ perspective in psychology. biological c. taking care of the laboratory instruments d. a. 3 . you would be most interested in whether the a. individual had relatives who were also robbers. a. individual had a happy childhood without conflict and stress. humanistic d. Which of the following would NOT be one of these assumptions? a. 17. c. 15. evolutionary 20. All of the following are direct consequences of behaviorism EXCEPT a. According to the ________ perspective. new therapies for modifying behavior disorders. cultural b. This is an important part of using the scientific method. evolutionary 19. humanistic c. ensuring that the methods were kept secret replication is possible. such as anorexia or bulimia. individual really needed the money. Suppose you read in the newspaper that someone robbed a store after watching a particularly violent movie. d. Imagine having been a research assistant in the early laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt.14. b. Eating disorders. Focusing on reasons for the difference in the incidence of these illnesses around the world is most directly within the province of the ________ perspective. Psychologists who accept a biological explanation of behavior make certain assumptions. If cooperation among humans enhanced the survival of the human species. Behavior or behavior potential is determined by heredity. c. d. sociocultural b. precisely measuring subject responses b. sociocultural b. one purpose of behavior is to reduce the tension that has been brought about by powerful inner forces such as conflicts between personal needs and society's demands. movie affected the thoughts and attitudes of the individual. If you were a cognitive psychologist seeking to understand this behavior. the determination that humans are innately good and capable of choice. psychodynamic 16. Complex behavior is best understood if it is broken down into smaller. education of children through the use of positive reinforcement rather than punishment. guidelines to create model utopian communities. d. b. humanistic d. 18. Psychological behavior has a biochemical basis. Which of the following is LEAST likely to have been one of your duties? a.
A researcher theorizes that people are likely to perspire more when telling embarrassing stories than when telling funny stories. a researcher has one group of participants do simple addition problems and another group solve complex mathematical formulas. The dependent variable would be a. In this study. the lab where the recordings are done is very hot. He goes to a playground to watch children play and finds support for his viewpoint. the researcher should be concerned most about a. physical. b. the age of the participants. whether men or women served as participants. On some days. b. aggressive behavior. If she conducted an experiment. the presence of a confounding variable. viewing pornographic material. determinism. To measure the effects of task complexity on an individual's perception of time. a confounding variable. specific causal factors is known as a. a. but not others. b. 23. d. d. A researcher believes that boys are more aggressive than girls. A store owner is trying to determine how much advertising increases her overall profit. the researcher finds out that the participants given the complex task were in a room with higher noise levels than the other group. c. observer bias. Based on this information. a dependent variable. independent c. mental and behavioral. independent variables. This researcher's data collection may be subject to a. b. the noise level would be considered an example of a. expectancy effects. The idea that all events. Suppose you wanted to test the hypothesis that viewing pornographic material increases aggressive behavior. d. d. Both groups are then asked to estimate the time elapsed since they began the task. c. 26. coming up with an operational definition of embarrassment. d. Volunteers are asked to record a memory of an embarrassing or a funny incident and their perspiration is measured. operational d. generalization. placebo effects. b. amount of advertising would be the ________ variable. 25. confounding 24. are the result of. Later. dependent b. hypothesis. 22. c. or are determined by. dependent variables. c. standardization.21. replication. the placebo effect. 4 . an independent variable. c.
you assign the first fifty people who sign up to participate in your study to the experimental condition and the next fifty to the control condition. 5 . d. placebo b. If this information about gender leads you somehow to communicate to the girls in the experiment that they should do better than the boys. This relationship illustrates a.27. In preparing for the experiment. b. you need to include another control condition to draw accurate conclusions. nor does he know which participants are receiving which drugs. cause and effect. the greater the number of emotional problems they have. correlational method. What are the independent and dependent variables? a. Participants are also unaware of differences in treatments. a. you did not have enough participants to conduct your study. a hypothesis b. between-subjects 28. a positive correlation. A psychologist is doing research for a pharmaceutical company. an independent variable 30. To save time. we say that the ________ effect is operating. then measures each participant's mood with a paper-and-pencil test. The participant's mood is the independent variable and the type of music is the dependent variable. A psychologist believes that music affects a person's mood. 31. c. you needed to carry out a within-subjects design. d. Imagine that you have been hired to assist in an experiment investigating the verbal abilities of boys and girls. a dependent variable d. random assignment by chance procedure. expectancy c. The control that is being used in this study is called a a. Some of his study participants are given regular coffee to drink and some are given warm milk. a negative correlation. double-blind control. within-subjects control. The type of music is the independent variable and the participant's mood is the dependent variable. The participant's mood is the independent variable and the scores on the paper-andpencil test are the dependent variable. you read a research study that found higher verbal abilities in girls than boys. 29. b. you failed to use random assignment to conditions. 32. The interpretations you could draw from the study will be severely limited because a. You read in a health magazine that the more people drink and smoke. b. The drugs he is testing are numbered so that he does not know what they are. d. He has some participants listen to waltzes and others listen to military marches. What seems to be missing from the design? a. d. c. b. a zero correlation. a placebo control c. double-blind d. c. A researcher is testing whether caffeine makes people more talkative. The waltz music is the independent variable and the military march music is the dependent variable. c. His assistant then interviews the participants and counts the number of words each speaks during the interview.
d. 38. You are about to take your first test in an introductory psychology class. She decides to focus her attention and measurements on a particularly brutal murderer who is serving a life sentence. you will be given information about what you can expect and other details of the research. 35. Much to your surprise.33. b. You would probably be able to argue that the test is not a. the lower their test grades tend to be. b. c. b. your instructor tells you that she has found that the more classes students miss. Her approach is referred to as a a. After you present your excuse for missing class. self-report measures. intentional deception. A classmate informs you that. d. A clinical psychologist is working with the Federal Bureau of Investigation to develop an understanding of serial killers. Being familiar with observational methods. accurate. naturalistic observation. 36. case study. Imagine that you have agreed to participate in psychological research. 34. d. informed consent. naturalistic observations. representative sample. c. c. you should tell her that her study did not involve naturalistic observation because a. a combination of self-report and behavioral observations. correlation coefficient. d. expectancy effect. debriefing. 37. only one observation was made of the children's play behavior. reliable or valid. behavioral observations. This process is known as a. 6 . c. d. the instructor hands you a test that contains ten analytical geometry problems. Suppose you were interested in the kinds of movies your friends like to watch. reliable. naturalistic observational studies cannot be conducted with humans. c. Prior to the study. c. b. she had to ask the children to limit their play activity to only one area in the playground in order to make more accurate observations. the play behavior was not naturally occurring. while conducting a naturalistic observation study of children's play behavior. b. You develop a simple questionnaire that asks them about their attitudes toward different film genres and then record which films they actually attend. negative correlation. b. risk/gain assessment. her study took place in a public setting. within-subjects design. and asked to sign a form indicating your willingness to participate. This measurement technique is best described as a. d. This relationship illustrates a(n) a. positive correlation. valid.
As you enter a crowded room. organisms prefer natural environments to artificial habitats. phenotype. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce more offspring. environmental pressure. selection of fittest genotype. b. avoid being concerned with operational definitions of concepts. unintentional deception. c. competition for resources. c. 42. competition for resources. Your genetics professor has asked you to simplify the process of natural selection into a sequence of steps. d. 40. informed consent. b. debriefing. Which of the following will your professor agree is the correct sequence? a. be irrelevant to your survival. environmental pressure. enhance your chances of survival. c. reproductive success. b. each organism has the ability to choose which of nature's laws it will follow. 41. reproductive success. genotype. competition for resources. selective advantage. enhance your chances of survival. frequency of genotype increases. the size of your beak would a. but not your offspring's chances. selection of fittest genotype. language and emotion. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce fewer offspring. for a moment. c. environmental pressure. you catch a glimpse of your friend's dark hair and slim frame. b. you learn that natural selection favored two major adaptations in the evolution of the human species: a. 43. frequency of genotype increases. c. risk/gain assessment. adaptations. There. remember that correlation is the same as causation. frequency of genotype increases 7 . that you are a finch and that you live in an environment in which seeds of all types are plentiful. At the end of a research study. participants must be provided with as much information about the study as possible and any emotional or psychological problems must be addressed. What you are noticing most directly are aspects of your friend's a. This process is formally known as a. Under these circumstances. c. reproductive success. While surfing the web. frequency of that genotype increases d. fire and the wheel. detract from your chances of survival. b. d. selection of fittest genotype. consider first how to disprove a theory before seeking confirming evidence. d. 45. d. accept obvious explanations rather than seeking alternatives. you stop at an anthropology website. 44. selection of fittest genotype c. To become a more sophisticated and critical thinker one should a. d. environmental pressure b.39. competition for resources. b. According to the theory of natural selection. reproductive success. bipedalism and encephalization. reading and writing. Imagine. d. a.
Although you didn't know it at the time. All the neurons of the brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system. all animals have spirits. the human body is an "animal machine. axon. terminal buttons. peripheral c. 51. sensory neuron d. d. your ________ nervous system slows down your heart rate and calms you down. interneuron. dendrites. terminal buttons. shake someone else's hand. frontal lobe. d. interneuron." c. motor neuron. axon. feel the difference between velvet and sandpaper. b. In the middle of the night. peripheral 50. You may also remember the pain and your hand automatically jerking away. 48. soma. soma. You remember as a child seeing an insect buzzing on a flower and trying to catch it. interneuron. axon. your reflexive withdrawal was controlled by your a. brain. dendrites. Unfortunately. the correct order is a. sympathetic 8 . somatic. c. imagine what it feels like to be paralyzed. motor neuron b. from the time of the prick through withdrawal of your hand and realization of pain? a. c. b. b. somatic c. motor neuron 49. brain. d. preparing you for "fight or flight. sensory neuron. a. parasympathetic. autonomic nervous system. pull his or her hand from a hot stove. somatic b. brain. spinal cord. brain." When you learn it is just your roommate coming in late. Your ________ nervous system increases your heart rate and sends blood away from internal organs to your muscles. motor neuron. Beginning with incoming signals. b. dendrites. your thumb encounters a thorn and you jerk your hand away. soma. peripheral. A French philosopher by the name of Descartes has proposed the radical idea that a. humans are no more intelligent than animals. axon. The children in a classroom are playing the role of different parts of a neuron and arranging themselves in the order that information follows as it passes along the neuron. interneuron. dendrites. sensory neuron. 52. Imagine traveling back in time to the seventeenth century.46. sympathetic. terminal buttons. autonomic d. a. parasympathetic d. What is the order in which information is communicated. you hear two loud thumps outside your bedroom door. c. terminal buttons. sensory neuron. soma. d. Imagine that you have gone to the garden to pick a rose. brain c. central b. human action cannot be understood by using scientific means. when reaching for a flower. 47. Involvement of the brain is not necessary for a person to a.
thalamus. What is the route she will follow? a. reticular formation 57. believes that it is still 1970 and that the last Olympic games were held in Mexico in 1968. cerebral cortex b. 9 . A student is walking through an exhibit at the science museum entitled "The Living Brain. pons b. you predict that it is the a.. Your friend remembers correctly that the ________ is involved primarily in autonomic processes such as heart rate and breathing. cerebral cortex. which arouses the cerebral cortex to attend to new stimulation and keeps the brain alert even during sleep. cerebral cortex. cerebrum. cerebellum d. While discussing the functions of the brain stem. brain stem.53. limbic system 54. 58. brain stem. limbic system. cerebellum. she has been gaining a lot of weight. and you remember that the ________ is involved in motivation. brain stem d. She is always reading medical journals and is constantly experiencing imagined symptoms of medical problems. d.R. limbic system. You are working with a friend to develop flash cards to help your study of brain structures and their functions.R. cerebrum. and feels that her internal physiological processes are out of balance. a. Lately. hypothalamus. cerebrum. cerebral cortex. emotion and memory processes. hippocampus. cerebrum c. cerebrum. cerebral cortex b. even though it is now the 21st century. In the brain. parietal lobe. G. c. A woman is a hypochondriac. b. c. a. the ________ and its surface layer. limbic system c. brain stem d. coordinates your movements. Before the doctor divulges the part of the brain that is damaged in this individual. A doctor on television is discussing the curious case of G. hypothalamus. and facilitates abstract thinking and reasoning. a. cerebellum 56." The exhibit takes her from the outer layers of the brain to its deepest recesses. limbic system. integrates sensory information. limbic system. cerebrum c. She is most likely to conclude that she has suffered brain damage to her a. medulla. the lecturer notices that many of his students appear to have fallen asleep. brain stem 55. the ________. This reminds him of the ________. cerebrum. a patient who has suffered damage to his brain. cerebral cortex d. b. brain stem b. brain stem. d. thalamus. medulla c. amygdala.
a player slips and hits the back of his head so hard that he "sees stars. she should a. b. spontaneous recovery. The CS in this case is the a. pain the child feels when bitten by the dog. and says "Blink" all day long when the girl is out. d. 64. d. stimulus generalization. frontal b. A new dog owner is trying to use classical conditioning to train her dog to blink whenever she says "Blink. but not when adults. To improve her training technique. then we would encourage humans to live in a. 10 . an enriched environment even after childhood. occipital 60. not say "Blink" until after the dog has blinked. Change can occur in behavior or in behavior potential. barking dog. d. her parrot overhears the procedure." Which lobe of the brain was stimulated when he hit his head? a. 61. c. an environment that is full of stimulation when children. All of the following are critical elements that define learning EXCEPT for which one? a. extinction. c. During summer recess her fear of going to school decreases and she is eager to go back. give the dog a treat whenever he blinks. c." but the dog is not learning to blink at her command. It appears as though a. 65. b. While going for the ball in the soccer league championship. savings. sight of the house. c. A child is bitten by a dog while delivering a newspaper to a house. Change in behavior must be relatively consistent. c.59." She blows into his eyes. the first day back to school her fear returns once again. d. spontaneous recovery has occurred. b. The next day when he sees the house he feels anxious. an environment that is deprived of unnecessary stimulation. However. When she returns." Unfortunately. d. A girl classically conditions her dog to blink by blowing into her dog's eyes just after saying "Blink. b. 62. a stressful environment in order to strengthen the functioning of the hippocampus. say "Blink" without blowing into the dog's eyes. the dog is now under the parrot's control. temporal c. If we can apply Mark Rosenzweig's research on rats raised in impoverished or enriched environments to humans. The reappearance of her fear is an example of a. b. extinction has taken place. 63. even though the dog is nowhere in sight. d. Change in behavior must be permanent c. the dog's behavior has generalized. but he does not blink. Change in behavior must be based on experience. say "Blink" before blowing into the dog's eyes. b. then says "Blink. pain the child feels when remembering being bitten by the dog. the girl says "Blink" to her dog. parietal d. A girl has been hit by the school bully and is afraid to go to school.
predict weather based on idiosyncratic physiological states or hunches. ignore car alarms because they are not dependable predictors of burglary attempts. escape. d. a negative reinforcer. d. A drug addict always "shoots up" at his girlfriend's house. c. c. b." b. d. a negative punisher. 69. enter a door that says "no admittance" if they see others using the door. c. Based on the research findings of Shepard Siegel. 70. Hot dogs and peanuts go together. the attention he receives is a. 67. but this time it is in his own home. 72. Which of the following statements is an example of a reinforcement contingency? a. he had developed strong masochistic tendencies.66. escape c. they found that a. he injects himself with his usual dose of heroin. A friend has taught her dog to bark whenever she says "Speak. On the day that they break up. b. d. A youngster finds that whenever he cries. After Watson and Rayner established conditioned fear in Little Albert. A pigeon pecks a key to receive a food reinforcer. 68. a positive reinforcer. 11 . spontaneous recovery." The dog's behavior is an example of a. c. Covering your ears when you find yourself in a room that is too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning." But he barks whenever she says "Sit. is less likely to overdose. 71. he had only been pretending to be afraid. will become less addicted. d. b. d. Jim blinks in response to the flash of the camera. believe the predictions of horoscopes because they are based on random events. A child's mother will give him what he wants. neither a reinforcer nor a punisher. stimulus generalization. Baby Terri coos in order to be picked up by mom." Now. the addict a. you should turn it on before mixing the ingredients. avoidance. b. will experience effects no different than before. his fear generalized to other furry objects. because both are sold at baseball games. All of the following behaviors are instances of operants EXCEPT for which one? a. So he cries a lot more in order to receive attention. avoidance b. you should knock before entering. he receives attention from his mom. she wants to teach him a new trick by saying "Sit. operant 73. classical. c. If the recipe says to preheat the oven. d. stimulus discrimination. extinction. b. wearing earplugs that reduce sound intensity before going into a room that you know will be too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning. Ted raises his hand in class and waits to be called. Technically. but only if he says "please. c. is more likely to overdose. a. it was fairly easy to remove the experimentally conditioned fear. When a door is closed. classical d. b. c. operant. The results of Robert Rescorla's research on the importance of contingency in classical conditioning are analogous to the real-world situation in which people a.
does not involve a CS-UCS association. In the future. but he is using a. 79. c. positive punishment. secondary reinforcement. disappear for a while. d. but then reappear. primary reinforcement. 80. a fixed-interval schedule. 76. fixed-ratio c. and were taught to respond by pecking keys of different colors. b. 12 . c. d. 75. d. positive punishment. were responding exclusively on the basis of perceptual similarity. b. and chairs. negative reinforcement. he encourages her to be a little neater before telling her she did a good job. shaping by successive approximations. A boy runs on an icy sidewalk. d. can be learned with a long delay between CS and illness. be difficult to stop. pigeons were presented with photographs of people. taste aversion a. You are told further that gamblers are often under the control of this schedule. The boy may not know it. d. it can be expected that the child's fussing will a. c. positive reinforcement. Imagine being quizzed by your teacher on schedules of reinforcement. On the basis of the partial reinforcement effect. could learn a complex task by applying blind trial-and-error solutions. The parents are trying to get their three-year-old daughter to go to bed without fussing. The boy's change in behavior is an illustration of a. he no longer runs on icy sidewalks. c. b.74. and falls. b. flowers. even if the sheets are still rumpled. were capable of categorizing objects in different ways. Unlike most other instances of classical conditioning. At first. a. A boy is teaching his younger sister how to make her bed. be easy to stop. negative reinforcement. he sits down quietly. but sometimes they give in to her tears and let her stay up later. develop into a discriminative stimulus. he tells her she did a good job if she gets the bedspread pulled up. In a study by Lazareva and colleagues that is described in the textbook. variable-interval d. His getting hurt is an example of a. showed marked preferences for people in their response choices. When he returns to the living room. variable-ratio 78. positive reinforcement. is easy to extinguish. negative punishment. requires many CS-UCS pairings. Each following day. cars. slips. You are asked to name the schedule that generates the highest rate of responding and the greatest resistance to extinction. fixed-interval b. b. You should respond that this describes a ________ schedule of reinforcement. 77. A boy is sent to his room and is not allowed to watch television with the rest of the family until he can do so without yelling and jumping in the living room. c. This research was important because it demonstrated that the pigeons a. c. negative punishment. b. d.
navigational pilot c. phonological loop 13 . you might form a mental picture of your house in order to answer the question. A student has taken a summer job answering telephone calls for sales orders. 83. elaborative rehearsal. chunking. the partial-report procedure. This best illustrates a. procedural memory. c. The daughter obviously is engaged in a. the capacity of sensory memory is quite limited. the student is having trouble with longer strings of numbers because a. A father has sent his daughter to the grocery store. According to the conclusions of researcher George Miller. studying for his test. encoding b. On their way to their 25th high school reunion. the savings method. b. c. 84. If someone were to ask you how many windows there are in your house. the savings method. iconic memory. b. The activity that is most closely related to his procedural memory is a. riding his bike. c. a husband asks his wife if she can remember the name of the "class clown" the year that they graduated. d. b. b. where he studies for his test and then talks with some friends. d. talking with his friends. Being able to use knowledge at some later time requires the operation of three mental processes. According to the view suggested by Alan Baddeley. c. episodic memory. the father can hear her repeating. The professor has become so good at reviewing students' papers that spelling errors just seem to jump out at him. As his daughter leaves. After waking from a nap. a. an implicit use of memory. napping. the ________ component of working memory would be used to form the mental image. d. d.81. storage d. maintenance rehearsal. 82. an explicit use of memory. 86. b. but it is much more difficult to keep track of a sixteen-digit credit card number. a student rides his bike to the library. memory span does not exist. visuospatial sketchpad d. He quickly learns that it is pretty easy to remember a customer's five-digit ZIP code and seven-digit phone number. c. Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of these processes? a. d. recoding c. retrieval 85. "a dozen eggs and a loaf of bread" over and over again. the information is staying in his sensory memory. This best illustrates a. central executive b. memory span covers only five to nine items. 87. an explicit use of memory.
central executive 89. Over his lifetime. The essay test that you will take in your History of Civilization class places more emphasis on your ability to ________ the relevant information. sensory d. procedural c. recall. primacy b. contextual distinctiveness d. semantic b. episodic d. even when the words had been learned on the beach. a. a student reads the textbook chapter. semantic b. In a study that is mentioned in the textbook. When tested for retention of those words. a physicist has learned a lot of mathematical equations and facts. The multiple-choice test that you are taking now requires that you ________ the relevant information. b. while going over the material with his study group. navigational pilot c. when the words had been learned under water. a. 14 . recognize 90. c. recognize c. recognize. The information that is the basis for his recollection is part of his ________ memory. Researchers of implicit memory have investigated the relationship between encoding and retrieval by using priming based on physical features or meaning. 93. As preparation for a test. under water. the divers did better recalling the words learned if they did so while they were a. This information is stored primarily in his ________ memory. Now middle-aged. recognize. recall b. This illustrates what psychologists call the ________ effect. d. sensory 92. episodic 91. recency c. a man can still remember his exploits on the football field when he was in high school and he is more than willing to discuss these memories with his children. recall d. c. phonological loop b. b. a. Later. d. procedural c. Deciding which portions of a psychology lecture to pay attention to is part of the ________ component of working memory. on the beach.88. he seems to recall the material at both the beginning and the end of the chapter. priming works best with fragment completion tasks. under water. They have concluded that a. a. physical priming works best. priming works best when processes at encoding and retrieval match. under water. serial position 94. visuospatial sketchpad d. recall. scuba divers learned lists of words while they were either on a beach or under water. the form of priming that works best is independent of how information is initially encoded. but he remembers little from the middle. a.
Which of the following is an example of proactive interference? a. 98. b. c. where you order your food at a counter. d. This method emphasizes the use of a. encoding specificity. You call your old girlfriend by your new girlfriend's name. cerebral cortex. mommy pays for it before you get it. 100. amygdala. participants were shown a film of a car accident. Your grandfather seems particularly good at recalling many of the colors and smells associated with his childhood experiences. 97. you find your old squash stroke is ruined. metamemory. b. After learning Spanish. schema. d. 15 . b. 99. c. engram. being asked which car had a broken window. d. rhymes. An actor is using the method of loci to help him remember his lines for a play. whether they had seen pictures of the accident. and where you play in the playground after eating. This child's mental representation of a restaurant.95. c. b. d. making stories that use concepts in creative ways. d. striatum. you find it difficult to remember your previously-learned Italian verbs. The part of the brain responsible for these memories is the a. memory hierarchy. it was found that the participant's memory of whether they had seen broken glass after an accident was most influenced by a. c. cerebellum. You call your new boyfriend by your old boyfriend's name. After learning how to play racquetball. chunking. d. familiar locations. 96. b. prototype. A child thinks of a restaurant as a place where you go when you are hungry. is an example of a(n) a. c. You are actually engaging in a. stories. which is likely to change as she gets older. c. you form visual images. the reports given by other eyewitnesses. b. In trying to prepare for an exam. elaborative rehearsal. the words used to describe the impact of the two cars. sound associations. In a study by Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues on eyewitness memory. When tested a week later.
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