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CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Analysis and Design of Beams for Bending

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

**Analysis and Design of Beams for Bending
**

Introduction Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Sample Problem 5.1 Sample Problem 5.2 Relations Among Load, Shear, and Bending Moment Sample Problem 5.3 Sample Problem 5.5 Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending Sample Problem 5.8

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5-2

All rights reserved.structural members supporting loads at various points along the member • Transverse loadings of beams are classified as concentrated loads or distributed loads • Applied loads result in internal forces consisting of a shear force (from the shear stress distribution) and a bending couple (from the normal stress distribution) • Normal stress is often the critical design criteria σx = − My I σm = Mc M = I S Requires determination of the location and magnitude of largest bending moment © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Analysis and design of beams • Beams . 5-3 .Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Introduction Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Objective . Inc.

5-4 . Inc. All rights reserved.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Introduction Classification of Beam Supports Beer • Johnston • DeWolf © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Determination of maximum normal and shearing stresses requires identification of maximum internal shear force and bending couple. • Shear force and bending couple at a point are determined by passing a section through the beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on the beam portions on either side of the section. Inc. 5-5 . • Sign conventions for shear forces V and V’ and bending couples M and M’ © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. determine the reaction forces • Section the beam at points near supports and load application points. . • Apply the elastic flexure formulas to determine the corresponding maximum normal stress. 5-6 For the timber beam and loading shown. draw the shear and bendmoment diagrams and determine the maximum normal stress due to bending. Inc. All rights reserved.1 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Treating the entire beam as a rigid body. Apply equilibrium analyses on resulting free-bodies to determine internal shear forces and bending couples • Identify the maximum shear and bending-moment from plots of their distributions. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

1 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Treating the entire beam as a rigid body.5 m ) + M 2 = 0 V3 = +26 kN V5 = −14 kN M 3 = −50 kN ⋅ m M 5 = +28 kN ⋅ m V4 = +26 kN M 4 = +28 kN ⋅ m V6 = −14 kN M 6 = 0 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. 5-7 . Inc. All rights reserved. determine the reaction forces from ∑ Fy = 0 = ∑ M B : RB = 40 kN RD = 14 kN • Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses on resulting free-bodies ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M1 = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M2 = 0 − 20 kN − V1 = 0 V1 = −20 kN M1 = 0 V2 = −20 kN M 2 = −50 kN ⋅ m (20 kN )(0 m ) + M1 = 0 − 20 kN − V2 = 0 (20 kN )(2.

2 2 1 ( )( ) S=1 b h 0 . All rights reserved. Inc.1 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Identify the maximum shear and bendingmoment from plots of their distributions.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5.33 × 10− 6 m3 σ m = 60.0 ×106 Pa © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 080 m 0 . 250 m = 6 6 = 833. 5-8 . Vm = 26 kN M m = M B = 50 kN ⋅ m • Apply the elastic flexure formulas to determine the corresponding maximum normal stress.33 × 10− 6 m3 MB 50 × 103 N ⋅ m σm = = S 833.

Apply equilibrium analyses on The structure shown is constructed of a resulting free-bodies to determine W10x112 rolled-steel beam. All rights reserved. for the beam and the given loading. Find the reactions at B by considering the beam as a rigid body.2 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Replace the 10 kip load with an equivalent force-couple system at D. (a) Draw internal shear forces and bending the shear and bending-moment diagrams couples.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. 5-9 . determine the maximum normal stress to the left and right of point D. (b) determine normal stress in sections just • Apply the elastic flexure formulas to to the right and left of point D. Inc. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Section the beam at points near the support and load application points.

10 . Find reactions at B. • Section the beam and apply equilibrium analyses on resulting free-bodies. From A to C : ∑ Fy = 0 ∑ M1 = 0 − 3x − V = 0 V = −3 x kips = 0 M = −1.2 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Replace the 10 kip load with equivalent forcecouple system at D.5 x 2 kip ⋅ ft (3x )(1 x )+ M 2 From C to D : ∑ Fy = 0 − 24 − V = 0 V = −24 kips ∑ M 2 = 0 24( x − 4) + M = 0 M = (96 − 24 x ) kip ⋅ ft From D to B : V = −34 kips M = (226 − 34 x ) kip ⋅ ft © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. Inc. 5 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. To the left of D : σm = M 2016 kip ⋅ in = S 126 in 3 To the right of D : M 1776 kip ⋅ in = S 126 in 3 σ m = 16. From Appendix C for a W10x112 rolled steel shape.11 .1 ksi © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 ksi σm = σ m = 14.2 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Apply the elastic flexure formulas to determine the maximum normal stress to the left and right of point D. Inc.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. 5 . S = 126 in3 about the X-X axis.

Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf Relations Among Load. Inc. Shear.12 . (M + ∆M ) − M − V ∆x + w∆x ∆x = 0 2 ( ) w x ∆x − 1 ∆ 2 2 xD 5 . and Bending Moment • Relationship between load and shear: ∑ Fy = 0 : V − (V + ∆V ) − w ∆x = 0 ∆V = − w ∆x dV = −w dx VD − VC = − ∫ w dx xC xD • Relationship between shear and bending moment: ∑ M C′ = 0 : ∆M = V dM =0 dx M D − M C = ∫ V dx xC © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

• Apply the relationship between shear and load to develop the shear diagram.13 . All rights reserved.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. Inc. determine the reactions at A and D. 5 . • Apply the relationship between bending moment and shear to develop the bending moment diagram.3 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Taking the entire beam as a free body. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beam and loading shown. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

3 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Taking the entire beam as a free body.linear variation over uniform load segment © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.14 .Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. Inc. ∑MA = 0 0 = D(24 ft ) − (20 kips )(6 ft ) − (12 kips )(14 ft ) − (12 kips )(28 ft ) D = 26 kips ∑ Fy = 0 0 = Ay − 20 kips − 12 kips + 26 kips − 12 kips Ay = 18 kips • Apply the relationship between shear and load to develop the shear diagram. dV = −w dx dV = − w dx . All rights reserved. 5 . determine the reactions at A and D.zero slope between concentrated loads .

bending moment variation between A. B. C and D is linear .bending moment at A and E is zero . Inc.bending moment variation between D and E is quadratic .Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5.15 .3 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Apply the relationship between bending moment and shear to develop the bending moment diagram. All rights reserved.net change in bending moment is equal to areas under shear distribution segments . 5 .total of all bending moment changes across the beam should be zero © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. dM =V dx dM = V dx .

All rights reserved. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. determine the reactions at C. Inc.5 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Taking the entire beam as a free body. • Apply the relationship between bending moment and shear to develop the bending moment diagram. 5 .Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. • Apply the relationship between shear and load to develop the shear diagram.16 . Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beam and loading shown.

Compatible with free body analysis © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5 . ⎡ ⎛ ⎤ x2 ⎞ ⎛ x⎞ ⎜ ⎟ VB − V A = − ∫ w0 ⎜1 − ⎟ dx = − ⎢ w0 x − ⎜ ⎟⎥ a a 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎢ ⎝ ⎥0 0 ⎠⎦ ⎣ a a VB = − 1 w a = − ( area under load curve) 2 0 .17 . All rights reserved. determine the reactions at C.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5.No change in shear between B and C.5 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Taking the entire beam as a free body. • Apply the relationship between shear and load to develop the shear diagram. w a + RC ∑ Fy = 0 = − 1 2 0 a⎞ ⎛ − w a L ∑MC = 0 = 1 ⎜ ⎟ + MC 2 0 ⎝ 3⎠ a⎞ ⎛ − MC = − 1 w a L ⎜ ⎟ 2 0 ⎝ 3⎠ RC = 1 wa 2 0 Results from integration of the load and shear distributions should be equivalent. Inc. .

All rights reserved. 2 ⎞⎞ ⎡ ⎛ x 2 x3 ⎞⎤ ⎛ x M B − M A = ∫ ⎜ − w0 ⎜ x − ⎟ ⎟ dx = ⎢− w0 ⎜ − ⎟⎥ ⎜ 2 6a ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2a ⎟ ⎢ 0⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦0 a⎛ a 2 MB = −1 w a 0 3 M B − MC = ∫ − 1 w a dx = − 1 w a(L − a ) 2 0 2 0 a L ( ) a w0 ⎛ a⎞ ( ) 3 − = − MC = − 1 w a L a L ⎜ ⎟ 0 6 2 ⎝ 3⎠ Results at C are compatible with free-body analysis © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.18 . 5 . Inc.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5.5 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Apply the relationship between bending moment and shear to develop the bending moment diagram.

5 .19 . All rights reserved. Inc. the one with the smallest weight per unit length or cross sectional area will be the least expensive and the best choice. This criteria leads to the determination of the minimum acceptable section modulus.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Design of Prismatic Beams for Bending Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • The largest normal stress is found at the surface where the maximum bending moment occurs. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. σ m ≤ σ all S min = M max σ all • Among beam section choices which have an acceptable section modulus. M max c M max σm = = I S • A safe design requires that the maximum normal stress be less than the allowable stress for the material used.

select the wide-flange shape that should be used. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Develop the shear diagram for the beam and load distribution. determine the reactions at A and D. determine the maximum bending moment. Choose the best standard section which meets this criteria.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. • Determine the minimum acceptable beam section modulus. A simply supported steel beam is to carry the distributed and concentrated loads shown. Inc. All rights reserved. Knowing that the allowable normal stress for the grade of steel to be used is 160 MPa. 5 . From the diagram.20 .8 SOLUTION: Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Considering the entire beam as a freebody.

V A = Ay = 52.21 .5 m ) − (50 kN )(4 m ) D = 58. M max = (area under shear curve.0 kN • Develop the shear diagram and determine the maximum bending moment.Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5. All rights reserved. Inc.0 kN − 60 kN − 50 kN Ay = 52.8 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Considering the entire beam as a free-body. 5 . ∑ M A = 0 = D(5 m ) − (60 kN )(1.6 kN © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. A to E ) = 67.0 kN VB − V A = −(area under load curve) = −60 kN VB = −8 kN • Maximum bending moment occurs at V = 0 or x = 2.0 kN ∑ Fy = 0 = Ay + 58. determine the reactions at A and D.6 m.

22 .Third MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Sample Problem 5.8 W360 × 32.5 × 10− 6 m3 = 422. All rights reserved.8 W200 × 46.7 W250 × 44. Inc. 5 .1 S .8 Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Determine the minimum acceptable beam section modulus.5 × 103 mm3 • Choose the best standard section which meets this criteria. mm3 637 474 549 535 448 W 360 × 32.9 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 W310 × 38. S min = M max 67.6 kN ⋅ m = σ all 160 MPa = 422. Shape W410 × 38.

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