Medieval Colours

between beauty and meaning
issn 218 2-3 294

N.º I

SÉRIE W 2011

fac u l da d e d e c i ê n c i a s s o c i a i s e h u m a n a s – u n l

Entrevista com Michel Pastoureau
conduzida por Adelaide Miranda e Ana Lemos

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Value and beauty: towards a double aesthetic of colours in early Romanesque book illumination
Anja Grebe

19

Étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image médiévale: l’Évangéliaire d’Otton III, fin x siècle
e

39

Marie Aschehoug-Clauteaux

Remarks on colours and pigments in the French court illumination of the 13th century
Xenia Muratova

50

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Byzantine recipes and book illumination
Doris Oltrogge

59

The Strasbourg family texts: originality and survival. A survey of illuminating techniques in medieval South Germany
Sylvie Neven

73

Les couleurs de l’enluminure: recettes de Michelino da Besozzo et d’Antoine de Compiègne
Inès Villela-Petit

86

À propos d’une notice sur le vermillon
Horácio Peixeiro

103

Binding media in medieval manuscript illumination: a source research
Stefanos Kroustallis

112

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À la recherche des pigments
Claude Coupry

126

Colours versus colorants in art history: evaluating lost manuscript yellows
Mark Clarke

138

Índice

Editorial

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152

The colour of medieval Portuguese illumination: an interdisciplinary approach
Maria João Melo, Adelaide Miranda, Catarina Miguel, Rita Castro, Ana Lemos, V. Solange F. Muralha, João A. Lopes and António e Pereira Gonçalves

174

Illuminations: secrets, alchemy and conservation in three case studies
Marina Bicchieri, Michela Monti, Giovanna Piantanida e Armida Sodo

182

Early Netherlandish manuscript illumination: technical aspects of illuminations in the Rime Bible of Jacob van Maerlant
Arie Wallert

194

Analysis of the Anjou Bible
Marina van Bos e Lieve Watteeuw

205

That it seemeth to be the thing itself. The obsession of 16th century miniature painters to imitate the beauty of nature
Timea Tallian e Alan Derbyshire

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218
Non-invasive XRF and UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopic analysis of materials used by Beato Angelico in the manuscript Graduale n. 558
M. Picollo, A. Aldrovandi, A. Migliori, S. Giacomelli e M. Scudieri

229

A protocol for non-invasive analysis of miniature paintings
Maurizio Aceto, Angelo Agostino, Monica Gulmini, Eleanora Pellizzi e Valentina Bianco

242

The application of SR-XRF to the analysis of manuscript illumination a case study
Marco Battaglia, Laura Alidori Battaglia, Richard Celestre, Peter Denes, Dionisio Doering, Tae Sung Kim e Sarah Zalusly

252

Combining visible and infrared imaging spectroscopy with site specific, in-situ techniques for material identification and mapping
Paola Ricciardi e John K. Delaney

RECENSÕES CRÍTICAS

264

Michel Pastoureau. Noir. Histoire d’une couleur. Éditions du Seuil, 2008
Adelaide Miranda e Rita Carvalho

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Mark Clarke. Mediaeval Painters’ Materials and Techniques: The Montpellier Liber diversarum arcium. Archetype, London, 2011
Stefanos Kroustallis

266

VARIA Des interactions entre scriptoria Portugais au XIIe siècle
Rémy Cordonnier

270

Highlighting manuscripts’ third dimension. Access, documentation and display of micrometric details
Inês Correia

282

À volta de um vermelho. Apresentação de edição d’O livro de como se fazem as cores, sob o olhar da ciência e tecnologia
Maria João Melo e Catarina Miguel

288

Interactive technology to explore medieval illuminations
Nuno Correia, Tarquínio Mota, Rita Carvalho e André Ricardo

292

NOTÍCIAS Colour in Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts: Between Beauty and Meaning
Maria João Melo

298

O projecto Imago
Ana Lemos

300

The awakening of the Manueline Foral charters
Ana Isabel Seruya e Maria Luísa Carvalho

301

Studies in medieval manuscript illuminations: Master and PhD thesis
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities and Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon

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Seminário e Exposição. Os Livros de Horas do Palácio Nacional de Mafra e a cultura artística do século XV
Ana Lemos

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Editorial

Os códices medievais iluminados são testemunhos da construção ideológica e cultural Europeia, assumindose ainda como objectos artísticos. No caso de Portugal, nos sécs. XII e XIII, constituem a única arte da cor, já que se perderam as pinturas murais e sobre tábua. Este número especial da Revista de História da Arte apresenta o resultado científico do congresso «Medieval colours: between beauty and meaning. An interdisciplinary conference on the study of colour in medieval manuscripts», que decorreu na FCT e na FCSH da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de 10 a 11 de Setembro 2009, sendo organizado conjuntamente pelo Departamento de Conservação e Restauro e pelos Instituto de História da Arte e Instituto de Estudos Medievais. O estímulo para a organização deste congresso nasceu da investigação efectuada no âmbito de dois projectos financiados pela FCT-MCTES e coordenados por Adelaide Miranda e Maria João Melo. A equipa interdisciplinar pretende com estes projectos valorizar os manuscritos iluminados medievais (sécs. XII/XIII), um património riquíssimo, ligado à formação da nacionalidade, que alia a importância cultural dos textos à valorização artística da iluminura. Pela primeira vez foi possível reunir os mais notáveis investigadores nesta área, incluindo químicos, historiadores da arte, cientistas da conservação e restauradores, entre outros. Os conferencistas convidados, Michel Pastoureau, Mark Clarke, Claude Coupry, Doris Oltrogge e Yarza Luaces apresentaram o estado da arte. As comunicações dos participantes de diferentes origens e instituições (universidades, museus, laboratórios) possibilitaram uma discussão frutuosa das diversas abordagens de investigação. Concluiu-se que se encontravam reunidas as condições necessárias para a criação de uma rede de investigadores e de uma base de dados internacional, que teria como objectivo principal a construção de um Atlas dos pigmentos e corantes medievais. Este Atlas será um passo importante no conhecimento e divulgação dos colorantes e significado da cor utilizada na iluminura medieval. Os artigos deste número encontram-se, tal como no congresso, organizados em torno de quatro eixos temáticos: significado da cor, cor nas fontes escritas

Medieval illuminated manuscripts are among the most valuable objects of the European cultural heritage, and are testimonies to medieval ideas, religion and policy. For Portugal, in the 12th-13th centuries, they may be considered the only surviving artistic colour, because both mural and panel paintings are practically lost. This special issue of «Revista de História da Arte» is devoted to the conference «Medieval colours: between beauty and meaning. An interdisciplinary conference on the study of colour in medieval manuscripts», organized by the Department of Conservation and Restoration (FCT) together with the Institute of Art History and Institute for Medieval Studies (FCSH), on 10th11th September 2009. The impetus for organizing this conference arose from research carried out under two projects funded by FCT-MCTES and coordinated by Adelaide Miranda and Maria João Melo. In these projects the interdisciplinary team aimed to evaluate medieval Portuguese illuminated manuscripts (12th-13th centuries), a rich heritage, linked to the formation of nationality, which combine the cultural importance of texts with the artistic appreciation of illumination. For the first time it was possible to bring together the most eminent researchers in this discipline: chemists, art historians, and conservation-restoration scientists. The invited speakers, Michel Pastoureau, Mark Clarke, Claude Coupry, Doris Oltrogge and Yarza Luaces, put into context the state-of-the-art and methods in this field. The communications presented by researchers of diverse geographic origins and institutions (universities, museums, chemistry laboratories) enabled a fruitful discussion of the different methods of research. This conference and this publication demonstrate conclusively that genuinely committed and open interdisciplinary collaboration is essential in colour research and manuscript studies, and indicates the value of «Technical Art History» across all fields of art history. A wide knowledge of cultural history helps us (for example) to avoid anachronistic interpretations of colour meanings. The careful observations of conservator-restorers, combined with chemical and physical analysis in the laboratory, helps us evaluate how colours have altered or been lost; these observations

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medievais, os materiais da cor, novas perspectivas na análise científica da iluminura medieval. Entrevista-se ainda Michel Pastoureau, historiador e pioneiro nos estudos da cor numa perspectiva social e simbólica, que nos alerta para as armadilhas mais frequentes neste campo de estudos; mas que por outro lado, nos chama a atenção para a potencialidade e riqueza desta investigação desde que levada a cabo em contextos específicos e combinando resultados alargados. O estudo da história das cores é também atractivo e lúdico, como nos conta Pastoureau «(...) avec mes enquêtes sur l’histoire des couleurs, je semblais par trop me faire plaisir.» E é esse prazer que gostaríamos de poder partilhar com o leitor!

Maria Adelaide Miranda, FCSH-UNL
mmac@fcsh.unl.pt

Maria João Melo, FCT-UNL
mjm@dq.fct.unl.pt

Mark Clarke, UvA
mark@clericus.org

and analyses, when further combined with the insights and knowledge from traditional art history, help us mentally reconstruct original appearances. Above all, interdisciplinary discussion was shown to be the «royal road» to formulating meaningful research questions – for the curator in the gallery, the art historian in the study, or the chemist in the laboratory. The papers published here are organized thematically: the meaning of colour, colour in mediaeval written sources, the materials of colour, and new trends in the analysis of medieval manuscripts. An interview with Michel Pastoureau – historian, anthropologist and pioneer of studies in the social and symbolic meanings of colour – provides the perfect framework for the topic. As an historian who pioneered the social and symbolic studies in colour, he alerts us to the many traps that may be found in this field of study, highlighting at the same time the extraordinary impact and richness that the research on the social history of colour may bring. Colour: between beauty an meaning is also an extremely attractive field of research, or as Pastoureau stated: as a researcher we can even have fun with it! «… avec mes enquêtes sur l’histoire des couleurs, je semblais par trop me faire plaisir.» 1

1. «…with my researches in the history of colors, I seem to please myself greatly.»

participantes do congresso «medieval colours: between beauty and meaning» na biblioteca da fct-unl, campus caparica, 10 setembro 2009

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est un historien médiéviste français. dont certains traduits dans plusieurs langues. Jésus chez le teinturier. proche des surréalistes . archiviste paléographe.e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u michel pastoureau ichel Pastoureau*. né le 17 juin 1947 à Paris. Il est membre de l’Académie internationale d’héraldique et président de la Société française d’héraldique et de sigillographie. Bleu: l’histoire d’une couleur. Il est historien. Couleur. sa thèse de l’École des chartes.2 0 1 1 . des emblèmes. et de l’héraldique.º i . il reçoit le prix Médicis essai pour son ouvrage Les Couleurs de nos souvenirs. soutenue en 1972. Michel Pastoureau est le petit-cousin de Claude Lévi-Strauss et le fils d’Henri Pastoureau. Il a publié une quarantaine d’ouvrages. Une histoire symbolique du Moyen-Age occidental. et directeur d’études à École des hautes études en sciences sociales et à l’École pratique des hautes études. porte sur le bestiaire héraldique du Moyen Âge. où il occupe depuis 1983 la chaire d’histoire de la symbolique occidentale. Notamment. images. Noir. spécialiste de la symbolique des couleurs. consacrés à l’histoire des couleurs. * Biografia adaptada da Wikipedia 10 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. symboles. Il a été élu le 28 avril 2006 correspondant français de l’Académie des M inscriptions et belles-lettres. des animaux et des symboles. Le 3 novembre 2010.

même si je n’ai connu que l’un d’entre eux. de classer les tubes par couleur. Du côté de mon père.2 0 1 1 Entrevista 11 michel pastoureau . certains de grand format. Parfois les peintres amis de mon père me faisaient cadeau de tubes de peinture usagés. et même votre passion. Non seulement enlever le bouchon était pratiquement impossible. destinés à la poubelle mais représentant pour moi le plus beau des présents. morte à 96 ans. ne m’étaient guère utiles pour peindre une fois de retour à la maison. J’étais cependant fier de détenir un tel trésor.º i . les peintres n’appartenaient pas à la famille mais au cercle des amis proches. dès la petite enfance. pouvez-vous nous raconter comment est née votre attirance. Mon père m’emmenait souvent dans leur atelier. C’étaient tous des artistes s’inscrivant de près ou de loin dans la mouvance surréaliste et essayant de vivre plus ou moins bien de leur peinture. de mes oncles et tantes. Trois des oncles de ma mère étaient artistes peintres et. s’ouvrant mal ou pas du tout. du côté maternel tous les appartements de mes grand-tantes. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. terrain de jeux fascinant pour un petit garçon. lourde et mate. Plaisir des yeux et du toucher plus que véritable bonheur créatif car ces tubes presque vides et desséchés. mais je ne disposais ni du matériel ni des connaissances nécessaires pour peindre à l’huile. pour les couleurs ? Mon attirance pour les couleurs est née très tôt.com conduzida por MARIA ADELAIDE MIRANDA ANA LEMOS Michel Pastoureau. de mes cousins et même de mon arrière-grand-mère. J’ai eu la chance de naître dans une famille où la peinture occupait une place importante. étaient encombrés de tableaux. de caresser leur enveloppe de plomb.

je m’imaginais qu’il existait un ordre chromatique secret qu’il me fallait retrouver.2 0 1 1 . 12 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. forgés dès l’enfance mais qui m’ont accompagné dans ma vie adulte. J’aimais notamment observer comment les boîtes de médicaments étaient rangées et classées par couleur: bleus pour les calmants et les somnifères. les visites régulières faites aux musées. En grandissant. le rose. et ce goût pour les musées et les expositions ne m’a plus jamais quitté. une partie de mon attirance pour les couleurs. Sa pharmacie.e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u et surtout de les montrer fièrement à mes camarades. Je n’avais pas encore dix ans mais classer les couleurs était déjà chez moi un plaisir récurrent. Viennent ensuite cinq couleurs «du second rang». j’ai développé une sorte d’hypersensibilité aux couleurs (ce qui m’a parfois joué de vilains tours) et je me suis progressivement fabriqué un certain nombre de principes personnels. mais acquis de bonne heure et que par la suite je n’ai jamais eu motif ni envie de remettre en question. qui ne possédait qu’une boite de crayons de couleur. Des principes pas spécialement originaux. 4. que l’on appelle à tort des «demi-couleurs»: le gris. Toutes les autres colorations ne sont que des nuances ou des nuances de nuances. Je dois également à mon père une habitude qui m’a accompagné tout au long de ma vie: la visite des musées et des expositions artistiques. bien acceptées dans le milieu des historiens et pratiquées par de nombreux chercheurs. signe de mort. Ces quelques principes. peuvent se résumer ainsi: 1. le jaune et le vert. le bleu. Le noir. et le rouge servait à attirer l’attention sur les produits dangereux: «Ne pas dépasser la dose prescrite». Elle était pharmacienne. verts pour les produits à base de plantes. passionnée de botanique. bruns pour les laxatifs. Je me trompais totalement. Comment s’est passé le début de votre carrière ? Quel rôle a pu jouer Georges Duby? Jeune chercheur enthousiaste et naïf. orangés pour les produits toniques et reconstituants. une attention maladive portée aux couleurs des vêtements et une thèse récemment soutenue sur les armoiries médiévales: tout m’avait préparé et conduit vers de telles recherches. le blanc. j’ai commencé à m’intéresser à l’histoire des couleurs – tous problèmes confondus – au milieu des années 1970. Mais je dois aussi à ma mère. 3. le violet et l’orangé. la fréquentation des peintres. Le noir et le blanc sont des couleurs à part entière. Il m’y a emmené très jeune. Que ce soit dans la pharmacie maternelle ou dans l’atelier des peintres. L’environnement familial. située à Paris tout en haut de la butte Montmartre. dans mon travail de chercheur et même dans mes modestes activités de peintre du dimanche. n’était pas utilisé en pharmacie. le brun. Il n’existe que six couleurs «de base»: le noir. était également pour le jeune enfant que j’étais un magnifique terrain de jeux. Je les croyais faciles et estimables. pas même lorsque devenu historien j’ai compris qu’il n’y avait pas de vérités chromatiques universelles mais qu’au contraire tout variait selon les époques et les sociétés.º i . 2. le rouge.

a tout de suite vu comment la couleur pouvait être un nouvel objet d’histoire. sinon dangereuse. qui n’étaient pas historiens de l’art. dans un style semi-figuratif. métiers de la teinturerie. L’idée d’un «système vestimentaire». Dans une discipline où la couleur aurait dû. à la fois inutile et impossible à conduire. se situant au coeur de la vie en société et au sein duquel les couleurs auraient pu jouer un rôle essentiel. soit il semblait totalement vain. était plus attiré par l’histoire sociale des couleurs: vêtements et codes vestimentaires. qui à ses moments perdus peignait quelques tableaux pour se détendre. et en grand nombre. une seule remarque.2 0 1 1 13 . En outre. il paraissait plus ou moins immoral.e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u A cette époque. absolument personne ne s’intéressait aux couleurs. Trois cents ou cinq cents pages sans formuler une seule idée. Duby. s’écrivaient sur l’œuvre d’un peintre ou sur tel ou tel mouvement pictural. Seules comptaient l’archéologie des formes et la nature des différentes pièces composant le vêtement au fil des âges. L’idée que le plaisir individuel du chercheur pouvait être le moteur premier de sa recherche n’était pas dans l’air du temps.º i . Elle se situe au carrefour de l’histoire sociale. presque générale au milieu des années soixante-dix. Je leur dois beaucoup. avec mes enquêtes sur l’histoire des couleurs. Or. savants. ou bien était condamnée. La couleur était la grande absente de l’histoire de l’art. c’était une performance! Elle était courante. «jaune: à coup sûr. du lexique aux symboles en passant par les emblèmes et la création artistique. et surtout pas le droit de se faire plaisir. C’était l’époque où les historiens – et d’une manière plus générale les chercheurs en sciences humaines – avaient des devoirs envers la société mais fort peu de droits. Comme leur était étranger le nom de Roland Barthes… Mais il y avait pire: l’histoire de la peinture. Il m’a poussé à conduire mes enquêtes dans tous les domaines. pas même des mots comme «bleu». deux grands historiens médiévistes. chez les historiens. occuper le premier rang. Le Goff. m’ont encouragé dans mes recherches et en ont vu l’intérêt: Georges Duby et Jacques Le Goff. je constatais que mon travail était mal reçu. personne. elle était presque toujours passée sous silence. leur était étrangère. Soit un tel sujet semblait peu sérieux. Après quelques mois d’enquêtes et de réflexions sur l’histoire des couleurs. Les documents existaient pourtant. Mais je n’étais pas au bout de mes découvertes. «rouge». mais les spécialistes du costume ne s’y intéressaient pas. Même dans des domaines où l’on se serait attendu à trouver des études sur un tel sujet. épais. et en tout cas contraire à l’éthique du chercheur. Quels r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. avec qui j’ai fait un séminaire commun pendant un dizaine d’années. Votre approche de la couleur est tout à fait novatrice. était une histoire totalement achrome. par sa nature même. Heureusement. place des couleurs dans la vie quotidienne. artistique culturelle et symbolique. presque indécente. Des livres entiers. L’histoire du vêtement. sans que jamais leurs auteurs ne parlent des couleurs. les archéologues et les historiens de l’art. Je tombais des nues. par exemple. je semblais par trop me faire plaisir. frivole même (j’avais pourtant commencé par l’historiographie). la couleur brillait par son absence. un seul mot concernant les couleurs. même pour les époques anciennes. lois somptuaires. terrain quasi vierge. C’était une attitude individualiste.

les classements du spectre ou du cercle chromatique. ce danger semble plus grand encore. sans précaution aucune. le bleu est considéré en Occident comme une couleur chaude. ne les appliquons pas. Rappelons par exemple que pendant des siècles et des siècles. de couleurs primaires ou complémentaires. Le vert entretient des rapports étroits avec le bleu mais il n’en a 14 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. par exemple. comme aujourd’hui. aux sociétés du passé. les oeuvres et les objets produits par les siècles passés nos définitions. des calculs scientifiques. Ce n’étaient pas ceux des sociétés d’autrefois (et ce ne seront peut-être pas ceux des sociétés de demain. Pour nous. le vert ne se situe entre le jaune et le bleu. les monuments. Prenons un exemple simple et attardons-nous sur le cas du spectre. C’est pourquoi l’historien qui chercherait à étudier dans un vitrail ou dans une miniature du Moyen Age ou bien dans un tableau de Raphaël ou du Titien la proportion entre les couleurs chaudes et les couleurs froides et qui croirait naïvement que le bleu y est. le noir et le blanc ont été considérés comme des couleurs à part entière (et même comme des pôles forts de tous les systèmes de la couleur). de ses définitions et de ses classements. la mise en valeur du spectre et la classification spectrale des couleurs. Le danger de l’anachronisme guette toujours l’historien – et l’historien de l’art peut-être plus que tout autre – à chaque coin de document. il est incontestable que le vert se situe quelque part entre le jaune et le bleu. Les notions de couleurs chaudes ou froides.. du Moyen Age et encore de la Renaissance cela n’a guère de sens. un «milieu» qui serait le vert. que le spectre et l’ordre spectral des couleurs sont pratiquement inconnus avant le XVIIe siècle . Ne les manions pas inconsidérément. une couleur froide. pour l’homme de l’Antiquité. Il est en effet impossible de projeter tels quels sur les images. les lois de la perception ou du contraste simultané ne sont pas des vérités éternelles mais seulement des étapes dans l’histoire mouvante des savoirs.e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u conseils donneriez-vous aux jeunes chercheurs qui sont de plus en plus nombreux à s’intéresser à ce domaine de recherche ? Aux jeunes chercheurs qui veulent se lancer dans l’étude des couleurs au Moyen Age (ou bien dans l’Antiquité ou au début de l’époque moderne). Au Moyen Age et à la Renaissance. Dans aucun système antique ou médiéval de la couleur. elles ne peuvent donc avoir un palier intermédiaire.). que l’articulation entre couleurs primaires et couleurs complémentaires émerge lentement au cours de ce même siècle et ne s’impose vraiment qu’au XIXe. De multiples habitudes sociales. des preuves «naturelles» (ainsi l’arc-en-ciel) et des pratiques quotidiennes de toutes sortes sont constamment là pour nous le rappeler ou pour nous le prouver. se tromperait complètement et aboutirait à des absurdités. nos conceptions et nos classements actuels de la couleur..º i . Or. Ces deux dernières couleurs ne prennent pas place sur les mêmes échelles ni sur les mêmes axes.2 0 1 1 . parfois même comme la plus chaude de toutes les couleurs. Mais lorsqu’il s’agit de la couleur. je leur conseillerai de se méfier de tout anachronisme. depuis les expériences de Newton. que l’opposition entre couleurs chaudes et couleurs froides est purement conventionnelle et fonctionne différemment selon les époques et les sociétés.

que penser de l’homme médiéval – dont l’appareil de vision n’est aucunement différent du nôtre – qui ne perçoit pas les contrastes de couleurs comme l’homme d’aujourd’hui. «prouvé» par l’expérience.e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u aucun avec le jaune. dans deux. Au Moyen Age. elle a son histoire. avec des moyens techniques aujourd’hui très sophistiqués. deux couleurs voisines dans le spectre. opposant une couleur primaire et sa couleur complémentaire. il l’est du reste encore dans la liturgie catholique et dans les pratiques vestimentaires du deuil. Sur les monuments. Au reste. L’historien doit donc se méfier de tout raisonnement anachronique. démonté et démontré scientifiquement. Pour ce faire. transgressif ou diabolique! Quelles sont les autres difficultés que rencontre l’historien des couleurs? Elles sont au moins de deux sortes. Et sans même solliciter la notion de preuve. associer du jaune et du vert. vernis ou supprimé telle ou telle couche de couleur posée par les générations précédentes. presque un camaïeu. Peintres et teinturiers savent fabriquer la couleur verte. Or pour nous il s’agit d’un contraste violent. Non seulement il ne doit pas projeter dans le passé ses propres connaissances de la physique ou de la chimie des couleurs. fera sourire ou sera définitivement dépassé. aucune recette ne nous apprend avant le XVe siècle que pour faire du vert il faille mélanger du jaune et du bleu. mais pour ce faire ils mélangent rarement ces deux couleurs. juxtaposer du rouge et du vert (la combinaison de couleurs la plus fréquente dans le vêtement entre l’époque de Charlemagne et le XIIe siècle) représente un contraste faible. nettoyé. les œuvres d’art. La notion de preuve scientifique est elle aussi étroitement culturelle. nous voyons les couleurs non pas dans leur état d’origine mais telles que le temps les a faites. tenter de r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. ont peint et repeint. mais un système qui peut-être.2 0 1 1 15 . Or ce travail du temps. Inversement. bien évidemment. modifié. que faire? Faut-il.º i . Or c’est au Moyen le contraste le plus dur que l’on puisse mettre en scène: on s’en sert pour vêtir les fous et pour souligner tout comportement dangereux. quatre ou dix siècles. un sous-noir. Dès lors. ils mélangent du bleu et du noir: le violet est un demi-noir. L’écart est parfois considérable. et inversement. Pour lui comme pour l’ethnologue. Au Moyen Age. les objets et les images que les siècles passés nous ont transmis. est pour nous un contraste relativement peu marqué. au fil des siècles. mais il ne doit pas prendre comme vérité absolue. Un système aujourd’hui connu et reconnu de tous. est en lui-même un document d’histoire. en effet. que ce soit en peinture ou en teinture. le spectre ne doit être envisagé que comme un système parmi d’autres pour classer les couleurs. qu’il soit dû à l’évolution chimique des matières colorantes ou bien à l’action des hommes qui. deux couleurs qui pour notre oeil voisinent sans aucune violence peuvent hurler pour l’oeil médiéval. Pas plus qu’ils ne mélangent du bleu et du rouge pour obtenir du violet. immuable. l’organisation spectrale des couleurs et toutes les théories qui en découlent. «restaurer» les couleurs. ses raisons. ses enjeux idéologiques et sociaux. Gardons l’exemple du vert. deux couleurs juxtaposées qui pour nous constituent un contraste fort peuvent très bien former un contraste relativement faible.

Grâce aux 16 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Dans un musée contemporain. Un tel exercice stimule certes la curiosité. l’effacer. les font vibrer. ils ne font bouger ni les formes ni les couleurs. Prenons pour exemple la récente restauration des voûtes de la chapelle Sixtine et les efforts considérables – tant techniques que médiatiques – pour «retrouver la fraîcheur et la pureté originelle des couleurs posées par Michel Ange». De même. quel amateur d’art ancien en tient compte? Aucun. absurde même. mais il devient parfaitement vain et anachronique si l’on éclaire à la lumière électrique les couches de couleurs ainsi dégagées. sont relativement statiques. la chandelle. elles les animent. de remettre dans la chapelle Sixtine des chandelles ou des lampes à huile. Nos éclairages électriques. au contraire. D’où un écart de sensibilité considérable entre notre regard et celui de nos ancêtres. lorsque nous essayons de remettre tel tableau ou tel œuvre d’art dans son état premier nous allons parfois à l’encontre de la volonté de l’artiste. elles semblent immobiles: la différence de perception est immense. Mais jusqu’où peut-on laisser le temps faire son oeuvre? Autre difficulté documentaire: nous voyons aujourd’hui les images et les couleurs du passé dans des conditions d’éclairage très différentes de celles qu’ont connues les sociétés antérieures au XXe siècle. Celles-ci font bouger les formes et les couleurs des images et des tableaux. Et pourtant quel historien. La torche. Que voit-on réellement des couleurs de Michel Ange et de ses élèves avec nos éclairages modernes? La trahison n’est-elle pas plus grande que celle qu’a lentement opérée le travail du temps depuis le XVIe siècle? Plus inquiétante aussi. Pour un œil antique. et ce qu’ils souhaitent pour la postérité ce n’est pas l’état premier du tableau ou du panneau mais un état ultérieur. le cierge. les couleurs sont toujours en mouvement – Aristote souligne déjà combien toute couleur est mouvement. même s’il agace un peu. pourquoi le renier. que leurs couleurs vont se transformer: ils agissent en conséquence. qu’eux-mêmes ne verront pas. Que faire? Les éclairages du passé sont tous produits par des flammes. la bougie produisent une lumière qui n’est pas celle du courant électrique.º i . ou guère. un tableau de trois mètres de haut sur cinq de long ne présente aucune zone moins éclairée que les autres. un document.2 0 1 1 .e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u les remettre dans leur état d’origine? Il y a là un positivisme qui me paraît à la fois dangereux et contraire aux missions de l’historien: le travail du temps fait partie intégrante de sa recherche. une œuvre d’art. Qu’on le veuille ou non. quel visiteur de musée ou d’exposition. d’un autre côté. les grands peintres savent très bien que leurs pigments vont évoluer. c’est aussi ce que le temps en a fait. Ainsi. Or l’oublier conduit parfois à des absurdités. détruits ou endommagés par la rencontre funeste des témoignages du passé et des curiosités d’aujourd’hui. quand on songe à l’exemple de Lascaux ou à celui d’autres sites préhistoriques. Pour l’œil d’aujourd’hui les couleurs ne bougent pas. la lampe à huile. C’est une évidence. il est impossible. médiéval ou moderne. nous n’avons aucune difficulté pour éclairer de manière uniforme une grande surface. Mais. les rendent même cinétiques (pensons à un document comme la broderie de Bayeux regardé à la lumière de torches ou de chandelles). La réalité historique n’est pas seulement ce qu’elle a été dans son état d’origine. le détruire? En outre. nous ne percevrons jamais comme eux un objet.

ou bien de l’indigo. • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. à la couleur. il faut le faire avec une certaines prudence. de l’azurite par exemple. et les historiens qui indiquent dans quelles direction les conduire. cultuels. Il faut constamment se demander: «Des analyses. Quelles informations peuvent fournir. D’où ces jeux de clairs-obscurs auxquels sont si sensibles les artistes et les publics d’autrefois. les buts. notamment pour le commanditaire et pour l’artiste. Ou bien on oublie en cours d’analyse ce que l’on cherchait au départ. on pourra constater que le manteau de la Vierge est peint avec du lapis-lazuli – un pigment très cher au XVe – tandis que les autres figures sont peintes avec des pigments plus ordinaires. Dans certains domaines. les analyses en laboratoire n’ont de raison d’être que si elles sont reliées à une problématique. à l’œuvre d’art. il faut tenir compte des dangers de l’anachronisme dont je viens de parler. Dans ce choix de différents pigments bleus pour peindre les différentes figures du panneau. peut-être plus encore. honorée. et même s’il est légitime d’utiliser nos savoirs d’aujourd’hui pour essayer de mieux comprendre le passé. Je souhaite qu’elles se multiplient et qu’elles s’appliquent à tous les supports de la couleur. les analyses matérielles et scientifiques de la couleur dans les documents et les œuvres d’art du Moyen Age? Vont-elles apporter à l’historien un regard nouveau sur ce champ d’étude? Les analyses de pigments et de colorants peuvent apporter beaucoup. Mais cela à deux conditions. les enjeux. D’une part. Cela nous en dit long sur les pratiques médiévales de la couleur et de la matière. le tableau est parfaitement éclairé dans son entier sans que la couche picturale en souffre. Quelles que soient leurs natures et leurs performances. sans problématique. Que cherche-t-on exactement? Faire des analyses pour faire des analyses ne sert à rien. selon vous. Mais en laboratoire. Il y a toujours des zones bien éclairées et d’autres qui restent dans l’ombre. nous semblera identique aux autres bleus que l’on peut voir ailleurs sur le panneau pour peindre d’autres figures. L’oeil ne voit pas la différente mais elle existe et est importante. les éclairages à base de flammes ne peuvent éclairer de façon égale une surface un peu importante. La Vierge est mise en valeur. symboliques. le bleu du manteau de la Vierge. Le savoir médiéval n’est pas le savoir d’aujourd’hui.2 0 1 1 17 .e n t r e v i s ta c o m m i c h e l pa s to u r e a u spots et à des lumières artificielles de plus en plus perfectionnées. placée au centre du panneau. l’étude en laboratoire des pigments apporte des informations importantes. Il faut une collaboration plus étroite entre les scientifiques qui effectuent les analyses en laboratoire.º i . Or j’ai l’impression qu’assez souvent c’est ce qui se passe aujourd’hui: on fait des analyses sans but très précis. Un tel exercice est impossible pour les sociétés du passé. il y a des enjeux économiques. à l’image et. Il faut sérier les problèmes. A l’oeil nu. L’arrivée de l’électricité a totalement modifié le rapport du spectateur à l’objet. et pourtant le spectateur ne s’en rend pas compte. vénérée même par le choix d’une matière colorante de très grand prix. D’autres part. pour quoi faire?». Prenons un exemple simple : un panneau peint italien du XVe siècle représentant une Vierge au manteau.

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v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n

Resumo
A investigação sobre manuscritos medievais iluminados é ainda muito dominada por uma análise baseada no estilo e na iconografia. Além disso, a maioria dos estudos sobre texto-e-imagem concentram-se no conteúdo e no significado simbólico da iluminura, enquanto questões ligadas à materialidade e paginação, que se situem para além da análise codicológica, são muitas vezes ignoradas. O mesmo acontece com a análise das cores: a investigação tem-se focado no seu significado religioso, dinástico ou ritual, considerando-as categorias abstractas sem uma materialidade específica. Mesmo um especialista em pigmentos medievais como Heinz RoosenRunge (Roosen-Runge 1967), seguiu a tradição iconográfica da história da arte e interpretou as cores com base na sua função, por exemplo, como meio de representação transcendental de ideias e ideais. Pelo contrário, historiadores como Michel Pastoureau (Pastoureau, 1990) trabalhando para «uma história social das cores», sublinharam a importância dos pigmentos e do seu simbolismo específico, e não de conceitos abstractos, para um melhor conhecimento da percepção medieval da cor. A tese de Pastoureau baseou-se principalmente na sua investigação sobre o papel da cor no vestuário e têxteis medievais. Com esta contribuição, desejo demonstrar que se tomaram atitudes semelhantes sobre a materialidade da cor em manuscritos iluminados. A recente investigação interdisciplinar sobre o «Codex Aureus Epternacensis», produzido em torno a 1045 no mosteiro beneditino de Echternach, conservado no Germanisches Nationalmuseum em Nuremberg, lançou uma nova luz sobre a consciência que os iluminadores e seus patronos tinham da materialidade da cor e do seu valor. As minhas reflexões basearam-se na análise científica do «Codex Aureus» levada a cabo por Doris Oltrogge e Robert Fuchs (Fuchs and Oltragge 2009) e, nas minhas próprias pesquisas sobre o uso e estética das cores na Idade Média (Grebe 2007). O precioso Evangeliário contem mais de 40 miniaturas a página inteira, pintadas por vários iluminadores de oficina. Os iluminadores usaram uma paleta muito variada de cores e tons, por exemplo, o «vermelho» ou «púrpura» não são apenas representados por um, mas por dois ou mais pigmentos. Entre eles encontramos os muito raros e dispendiosos pigmentos «exóticos», como o lápis-lazúli ou o quermes, que foram abundantemente usados neste manuscrito quando comparado com outros manuscritos românicos. Esta observação permite colocar como hipótese, que os iluminadores de Echternach e os seus patronos quiseram de facto usar o maior número possível de cores e as mais dispendiosas, para incluir a máxima variedade de cores no «Evangeliário Dourado». Outro nível de «consciência cromática» revelou-se pelo facto de muitas miniaturas do ciclo com a Vida de Cristo e a miniatura em duplo folio da Maiestas Domini (fol. 2v-3r) terem sido repintadas durante a produção do manuscrito. O retoque da maioria das carnações e fundos pode ser interpretado, numa primeira análise, como um «restauro estético». Surpreendentemente, os iluminadores não alteraram as composições na sua globalidade ou as formas das cabeças ou mãos, em vez disso, mudaram apenas o tom da pele e os fundos. O motivo foi, provavelmente, o de evitar contrastes violentos e unificar cromaticamente os duplo fólios executados por diferentes iluminadores. O «Codex Aureus Epternacensis» é, assim, a prova da elevada sensibilidade do período românico aos valores cromáticos e virtudes materiais de cores e pigmentos, que serão discutidos neste artigo.

palavras-chave
evangeliário manuscrito iluminado estética das cores otoniano lápis-lazúli

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Abstract
Research on medieval manuscript illumination is still dominated by the analysis of style and iconography. Also, most word-and-image studies concentrate on the content and the symbolical meaning of a miniature, whereas questions of materiality and layout beyond codicology are often neglected. The same is true for the analysis of colours: research so far focuses on the religious, dynastical or ritual symbolism of colours that are considered as abstract categories without a specific materiality. Even a specialist in medieval pigments like Heinz Roosen-Runge (Roosen-Runge 1967) followed the iconographical tradition of art history and interpreted colours with regard to their function, e.g. as media to represent transcendental ideas and ideals. On the contrary, historians like Michel Pastoureau (Pastoureau 1990), working towards a «social history of colours», have underlined the importance of pigments and their specific symbolism instead of abstract colour terms for a better understanding of the medieval notion of colours. Pastoureau’s thesis is based primarily on his investigations into the role of colours in medieval clothing and textiles. In my contribution, I am trying to show that similar attitudes towards the materiality of colours are manifested in medieval manuscripts. Recent interdisciplinary research on the «Codex Aureus Epternacensis», made around 1045 in the Benedictine monastery of Echternach, now in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg has shed new light on the consciousness illuminators and patrons had of the materiality of colours and their respective value. My reflections are based on the technological examination of the «Codex Aureus» carried out by Doris Oltrogge and Robert Fuchs (Fuchs and Oltrogge 2009) and my own research on the use and aesthetics of colours in the Middle Ages (Grebe 2007). The precious Gospel Book contains more than 40 full-page miniatures painted by several illuminators of the Ottonian Echternach workshop. The illuminators used a very varied palette of different colours and tones, e.g. the colours «red» or «purple» are not only represented by one, but by two or more pigments. Among them we find many rare and expensive «exotic» pigments like lapis lazuli or kermes, which have been abundantly used in this manuscript compared to other Romanesque manuscripts. This observation leads to the hypothesis that the Echternach illuminators and their patrons explicitly wished to use as many and costly colours as possible to include the maximal variety of colours in the «Golden Gospel Book». Another level of «chromatic awareness» is revealed by the fact that many miniatures in the cycle with the Life of Christ and the double page miniature of the Majestas Domini (fol. 2v-3r) have been painted over during the making of the manuscript. The reworking of most of the fleshy parts and backgrounds can tentatively be interpreted as «aesthetical restoration». Surprisingly, the illuminators did not alter the whole composition or touch the forms of the heads and hands, instead, they only changed the tone of the complexion and backgrounds. The reason was probably to avoid violent colour contrasts and to chromatically unify double-pages executed by different illuminators. The «Codex Aureus Epternacensis» thus proves the high sensibility of the Romanesque period towards chromatic values and material virtues of Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões article.Catarina Sousa, Pedro Fialho colours and pigments, which will be discussed in the de Ana
de Sousa, Justino Maciel, Felix Teichner e Heidi.

key-words
Gospel Book Illuminated Manuscript Aesthetic of Colours Ottonian Lapis lazuli

value and beauty: towards a double aesthetic of colours in early romanesque book illumination
a n ja g r e b e
Department of Medieval Art History University of Bamberg, Bamberg (Germany)

1. From Material to Medium
1. Letter to Jakob Heller dated November 4, 1508, ed. by Rupprich 1956, 67-68. Cf. the letters to Heller dated March 21, 1509: «the colours I used are worth more than 24 guilders» (Rupprich 1956, 69), and July 24, 1509: «I have been working on it [= the altarpiece] for more than a year using ultramarin for approximately 25 guilders.» (Rupprich 1956, 71).

In 1508, Albrecht Dürer started to work on a large altarpiece depicting the «Assumption of the Virgin» (Anzelewsky 1991, 221-228; Kutschbach 1995, 71-80; Decker 1996; Grebe 2006, 82-86; Pfaff 1971). The execution of the painting, which took Dürer more than one and a half years to complete, was accompanied by an extensive correspondence with the patron, the Frankfurt merchant Jakob Heller. Heller repeatedly complained about the delayed completion of the altarpiece and threatened to withdraw his commission. Dürer countered the reproach by pointing to the quality of the execution and his use of the best and «most beautiful colours» available. These included «vltermarin», or lapis lazuli, worth more than 20 ducats, which he claimed to have applied in 5 to 6 layers.1 And instead of apologizing to his patron, he doubled the price of the altarpiece. His arguments were: a painting executed with the maximum amount of materia and ingenium needed more time to finish, and it had its price – which Heller actually agreed to pay when he finally saw the painting. The Heller correspondence underlines the importance which was attached to certain colours and pigments at the beginning of the 16th century. Lapis lazuli, for instance, did not only provide a blue tone, but also represented quality and prestige (Pastoureau 2001; Fuchs and Oltrogge 1990; Bender 1990). The Latin name, «ultramarin», points to the far-off, exotic, and even mystical origin of the colour prepared on the basis of Afghan lapis lazuli, which was the most expensive pigment apart from gold and was therefore used as distinguishing feature in painting throughout the Middle-

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colour and meaning

Ages. Dürer probably used lapis lazuli for the blue cape of the Virgin thus enhancing its inherent symbolical value by the use of the precious and prestigious material.2 If it had been his aim to communicate only the chromatic symbolism of blue as celestial colour he could have used a less expensive pigment like azurite instead. In his letters to Heller, however, Dürer does not mention the religious symbolism of colours, but insists on the value of the colour in its literal, material sense. One should think that the primacy of «materia» would have been outdated in the age after Alberti. In his treatise «De Pittura» (1435/36), which Dürer knew from a copy in possession of a Nuremberg humanist (Fara 2002, 171-347), Leon Battista Alberti clearly put the referential value of colour, even of gold, above its material value (Alberti 2000, 290-291). According to Monika Wagner, Alberti marks the beginning of modern colour aesthetics: «Since Leon Battista Alberti […] colour was no longer judged by its material value. Now, its task was to simulate all kinds of other materials on the surface of the image.» (Wagner 2001, 17-18).

2. Unfortunately, the original panel was destroyed by a fire in the Ducal Palace in Munich in 1729. Before the painting was sold to Archduke Maximilian I of Bavaria in 1614 the Nuremberg painter Jobst Harrich made a faithful copy of the original, now in Frankfurt/Main, Historisches Museum, Inv. Nr. B 265, which, however, does not allow any judgement about the paints or pigments used. 3. Cf. Welchman 1990, esp. 8: «From the time of Plotinus (A.D. 205-70) until the High Renaissance, writers touching upon the arts and mentioning color were forced to wrestle with the troublesome and dangerous question of sensuality. Although colors were perceived through sight – the highest of senses – they were still a part of the non-celestial substance of which humankind was made. The only way to elevate the colorful, and hence intrinsically sensual, human sense of sight was to celebrate the divine nature of light.»

2. Colours in medieval book illumination: Colour systems and attempts at interpretation
In his «Theory of Colours» («Farbenlehre») of 1810, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe gave priority to the metaphysics as opposed to the materiality of colours (Schmidt 1965). He described colours as «acts of light», referring to medieval colour theories, where colours are described as reflections of the immaterial divine light which Saint Augustine had designated as «queen of all colours». 3 Referring to Fritz Haeberlein’s «Essential Features of a Post-antique Iconography of Colours» («Grundzüge einer nachantiken Farbenikonographie»), Lorenz Dittmann characterised the colours in medieval art as intended to represent the divine («Vorstellungsfarben»). Released from all referential tasks colours could now function as «vocabulary» in the system of colour symbolism (Dittmann 1987, 2-3). Although Heinz Roosen-Runge, in his fundamental study on the «Colours and Techniques of Early Medieval Book Illumination», puts his main focus on the material nature of colours, he nevertheless interprets them as a means of representation for transcendental truth (Roosen-Runge 1967, vol. 1, 26-29). Today, research on medieval manuscript illumination continues to be dominated by the analysis of style and iconography. Also, most word-and-image studies concentrate on the content and the symbolical meaning of a miniature, whereas questions of materiality and layout, which go beyond codicological issues, are often neglected. The same is true for the analysis of colours: research focuses mainly on the religious, dynastical or ritual symbolism of colours which are considered as abstract categories without a specific materiality. In view of the role of colours as bearers of meaning («Bedeutungsträger») in medieval art and culture one has to ask for the specific use of colours as well as the value(s) attached to them in the literal and figurative sense to fully understand a work of art.

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4. Cf. Pastoureau 1990, 38: «Avant tout codage extra-pictural, venant de l’extérieur, la couleur est d’abord codée de l’intérieur, par et pour un document donné. [...] Elle est à la fois surface, matière, lumière, éclat, fluide, rythme, construction, syntaxe, marque, emblème, symbole, idée, mode, atmosphère, style, art, technique, prix, beauté – tous termes certes vagues et discutables mais dont la liste [...] souligne parfaitement ce caractère polysémique et plurifonctionnel de la couleur. »

Until now, such questions have mainly been asked by historians. Michel Pastoureau, above all, has been working towards a «social history of colours» («histoire sociale des couleurs»), that takes into consideration the percipient against the backdrop of his culture, ideas, experiences and sensitivity (Pastoureau 1990, 22). According to Pastoureau, research into the use of colours in the Middle Ages should not be based on abstract theory but on the objects and their specific colouring in which the polysemantic and multifunctional character colours is manifested.4 This leads to the hypothesis, that people in the Middle Ages in many cases did not perceive colours as abstract chromatic values, but in their material form as pigments. The case of the red pigment called sanguinis draconis, for instance, clearly shows that it is necessary to develop a kind of «pigment symbolism» instead of abstract colour terms to help with our understanding of the medieval notion of colours: «Quand au XVe siècle un peintre utilise pour tel élément de son tableau le célèbre pigment sang-dragon plutôt que tel ou tel autre pigment rouge, c’est sans doute pour des raisons à la fois économiques, techniques et artistiques, liées au prix de ce pigment, à son pouvoir couvrant, aux effets qu’il permet d’obtenir, mais c’est aussi et surtout pour des raisons symboliques, liées au nom même de ce pigment et aux rêves que ce nom suscite chez l’artiste et son public.» (Pastoureau 1989, 39-40)

3. The values of colour between consciousness of material («Materialbewusstsein»), symbolic function and aesthetics
Michel Pastoureau’s thesis is based primarily on his investigations into the role of colours in medieval clothing and textiles. In the following, I would like to show that medieval manuscripts manifest similar attitudes towards the materiality of colours. The investigations of Heinz Roosen-Runge and Johan Jakob Tikkanen (Tikkanen 1933, 352-443) have shown that medieval illuminators possessed a very detailed knowledge of colours and pigments, which was transmitted orally, by written treatises such as the «Mappae Clavicula», the «Heraclius» or the «Theophilus», and by numerous individual collections of recipes and guidelines (Oltrogge 2006; Gullick 1995; Roosen-Runge 1967; Bartl et. al. 2005, 17-34). These texts consist mainly of practical instructions in the preparation and handling of colours. Sometimes however, the introductory remarks contain theoretical reflections on the meaning of colours as well as on the conjunction of «materia» and «ingenium». A 12th-century copy of the «Mappae Clavicula» provides an example: «The arts are learned little by little, step by step. The art of painting is preceded by the preparation of colours. Thus, you should first pay attention to the mixing of each colour. Only then should you start on the actual work, but you

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should always strive to let your painting appear decorative as well as natural. This book shows how artistry in combination with ingenuity will enhance your work.» (cf. Halleux 1990, 179) 5 In the Early Romanesque period, it is not only treatises, but the works of art themselves which testify to the awareness of illuminators and patrons towards the materiality of colours and their respective value. Up to now, nearly all attempts to draw up a kind of general «chromatic grammar» or system of colour symbolism based on the use of colours in illuminated manuscripts have failed. It has become clear that the application and distribution of colours varies from book to book, even when entire pictorial cycles are based on the same, constantly repeated models, as in the case of the so-called «Reichenau» and «Echternach» schools.

4. Colours in the «Codex Aureus of Echternach»
The following reflections are based on the technological examination of the «Codex Aureus Epternacensis», now in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg, which was carried out by Doris Oltrogge and Robert Fuchs in 2006, as well as my own research on the use and the aesthetics of colours in manuscript illumination.6 The «Codex Aureus», made around 1045 in the Benedictine monastery of Echternach, where it remained until the French Revolution, is one of the rare medieval Gospel books entirely written in gold ink (Oltrogge and Fuchs 2009; Grebe 2007; Kahsnitz [ed.] 1982).7 It is also one of the largest and most richly decorated manuscripts, with more than 50 large-format illuminated pages. These include a sumptuous doublepage depicting the Majestas Domini, while each Gospel is preceded by a sequence of equally lavish double-pages with the portraits of the Evangelist (fig. 1), full-page decorative initials, other decorative pages as well as four sequences of scenes from the life of Jesus. The texts of the Gospels themselves are not interrupted by scenic illustrations like in other Ottonian manuscripts. The codex is the work of at least eight illuminators, some of which executed only executed a single page. They must have been working together very closely and within a short period of time. In several cases, recto and verso of one and the same sheet of parchment are executed by different illuminators who possessed a distinctive style yet used nearly the same palette of colours. The technological examination of the manuscript has revealed a very rich and varied palette, in which nearly all the colours and hues available to 11th century scriptoria occur (Oltrogge and Fuchs 2009, 153162, 163-167). The colours «red», «blue» or «purple», for instance, are represented not by a single, but by two or more pigments. Among these we find many rare and expensive «exotic» pigments like lapis lazuli or kermes, which were actually used quite abundantly in this manuscript as compared to other Ottonian manuscripts. This observation leads to the hypothesis that the Echternach illuminators and their patrons explicitly wished to use as many and as costly colours as possible to provide

5. Translated from Halleux 1990, esp. p. 179: «C’est peu à peu, partie par partie, que s’apprennent tous les arts. L’art des peintres est précédé par la confection des couleurs. Ensuite, que votre esprit tourne ses soins vers les mélanges. Alors, passez à l’oeuvre, mais soumettez tout à la rigeur, pour que ce que vous peindrez soit orné, et comme naturel. Ensuite, par bien des preuves d’ingéniosité, l’art augmentera l’oeuvre, comme le montrera ce livre.» («Sensim per partes discuntur quaelibet artes/Artis pictorum prior est factura colorum/Post, ad mixturas convertat mens tua curas/Tunc opus exerce, sed ad unguem cuncta coerce/ut sit ad ornatum quod pinxeris, et quasi natum/Postea multorum documentis ingeniorum/Ars opus augebit, sicut liber iste docebit.») Theophilus, who treats colours always as pigments, shortly mentions the material importance of colours in the preface of his treatise, cf. Brepohl 1999. 6. Up to now, there are very few publications on the technical examination of manuscripts from the 10th and 11th centuries. Roosen-Runge 1967 focuses on English illuminated manuscripts from the 11th and 12th centuries. On Ottonian book illumination in Trier see Oltrogge and Fuchs 2005. On the Echternach «Codex Caesareus» in Uppsala see Fuchs and Oltrogge 1998. 7. Nuremberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Hs 156142.

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© nuremberg.v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n fig.1 codex aureus of echternach. john the evangelist. 112v.º i . f. germanisches nationalmuseum r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.2 0 1 1 25 . st.

for instance. f. in the Pentecost scene (fig.2 0 1 1 . 111v-112r. © nuremberg.colour and meaning fig.2a+b codex aureus of echternach.º i . double-page with scenes of the passion and pentecost. e. germanisches nationalmuseum the maximum variety of colours for the «Golden Gospels». but was used also for backgrounds. 2B). can be found as a distinguishing colour for the garments of the protagonists.g. Lapis lazuli. where we would 26 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

2 0 1 1 27 .º i . the prodigal use of the most expensive pigment must have enhanced the exceptional character of the manuscript (Pastoureau 2001. In the eyes of the contemporaries.v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n expect a less expensive pigment like azurite. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 32-40).

© nuremberg.colour and meaning The most dominant colour in the codex is purple (fig. initial page of the gospels of st. germanisches nationalmuseum fig. germanisches nationalmuseum 28 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 27-33. 19r. scenes of the infancy cycle.4 codex aureus of echternach. f. Fuchs and Oltrogge 2007. © nuremberg. The illuminators did not apply the «real» Tyrian purple extracted from the murex shell («murex brandaris»). which occurs in different tones and shades both in the miniatures and the decorative pages (Muthesius 1997. a synonym of sumptuousness and costliness and symbol both of God and the Emperor. 22r.3 codex aureus of echternach. but used less expensive pigments made from plants like different kinds of the Rocella (or auricella) or the Ochrolechia as well as Kermes vermilio. Steigerwald 1990. which were perhaps also better suited for the preparation of bodycolours (Oltrogge and Fuchs 2009. matthew.º i . f. 82-98). 3). 155-159).2 0 1 1 . Technological examination has revealed fig. The extensive use of purple enhances the religious significance of the book as an embodiment of God’s words.

v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n a preference for the darker Rocella purple. which had to be imported from the Mediterranean (Oltrogge and Fuchs 2009. whereas clothing is more often painted in the more costly Kermes purple. again displaying an awareness of the material quality of colours (Oltrogge and Fuchs 2009.5 codex aureus of echternach.º i .2 0 1 1 29 . 34-50). 2v-3r . for the less prominent sections of the miniatures. in the case of purple. which was easier to procure. amongst others the double page depicting the Majestas Domini (f. germanisches nationalmuseum r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Thus. f. Another level of this «chromatic consciousness» is revealed by the fact that many full-page miniatures. fig. 19v © nuremberg. third page of the infancy cycle with alterations by the «master of the long nosed figures». the Evangelists as well as most of the miniatures in the cycle of fig. the illuminators probably wished to enhance the more important parts of a figure or scene by using a more expensive pigment. 34-50). 6A).

2v-3r © nuremberg. This must have taken place in the workshop itself either during the making of the manuscript or immediately after the illuminations had been finished. but before the final binding 30 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 4-5).2 0 1 1 . were partially painted over at some point.colour and meaning fig. majestas domini double-page. f.6a+b codex aureus of echternach. germanisches nationalmuseum the life of Jesus (fig.º i .

º i . these alterations.2 0 1 1 31 . probably with one exception.v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n of the pages. Curiously enough. The retouches were carried out by the same group of illuminators who. had been responsible for the original or first phase of the work. which were done using the same col- r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

57-72). germanisches nationalmuseum 32 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2v.º i .7 codex aureus of echternach. the angel symbolising St Matthew or the personification of Prudentia (fig. leaving the form of the heads and hands as well as the rest of the composition untouched (Oltrogge et Fuchs 2009. the tone of the flesh and the hair of the figures. germanisches nationalmuseum fig. f. majestas domini. 34-35. fig. the alterations can partly be detected with the naked eye (fig. f. ill. © nuremberg. The figure of Christ enthroned. while below this which appear two dark points that belonged to the original features. © nuremberg.8 codex aureus of echternach. 2v.colour and meaning ours and pigments as before. detail of the head of christ. Investigation with infra-red light has revealed that the second illuminator completely covered the fleshy parts. 7-8). but did not touch the original version which is entirely conserved. only concerned the backgrounds. 9-10) each possess four eyes: one pair of eyes belongs to the «actual» face. In the case of the Majestas Domini double-page.2 0 1 1 . majestas domini. detail of the head of christ (infrared reflectography).

v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n The alterations seem to be highly unusual and demand an interpretation.9 codex aureus of echternach. 3r. detail from the majestas domini double-page. cologne fig. 11-12). A second hypothesis concerns the content of the miniatures. personification of prudentia (infrared reflectography). While the illuminators would frequently alter the tone of the flesh and some of the facial features. the illuminators did fig. however. Interestingly enough. but did not completely change the meaning of the image.º i . © robert fuchs/ doris oltrogge. The alterations were probably carried out for aesthetical reasons and can tentatively be interpreted as «aesthetical restorations». f. This observation suggests another explanation. which had originally looked straight ahead (fig. personification of prudentia. they would generally not change the posture of the head or the line of sight.2 0 1 1 33 . university of applied sciences. however. where the painter corrected the orientation of the angels’ heads.10 codex aureus of echternach. It states that the makers of the manuscript may have wished to change the character of a figure or a scene. © nuremberg. This. can be rejected in the view of the remaining. There is. fully conserved original faces. 3r. f. By re-directing them to the right the illuminator enhanced the focus on Christ as the central figure of the scene. germanisches nationalmuseum r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. One of the few exceptions is the «Noli me tangere» scene. no substantial evidence for this explanation either. A «practical» explanation could be that we are faced with an early repair of defective portions or layers of paint which were corrupted or chipped. Similar changes do also occur with some of the minor figures which are part of the decorative framework and do not carry any particular meaning.

The new. as technological analysis has revealed. but instead only retouched the fleshy parts. do indeed match better with the colours of the clothing and backgrounds. Thus. 111v. passion cycle. passion cycle. However.12 codex aureus of echternach. These examples suggest that the true reason for the alterations was probably to avoid violent colour contrasts within the images.º i . 2v). for instance. 1). Some of the trumpeting angels as well as St John the Evangelist (f. f. the rather long-nosed «face-lifting» did not really result in an improvement in appearance. the grotesque masks in the frame of the decorative initial page of the Gospels of St John (f. angel (infrared reflectography). brownish skin colour and black hair. making sure that the renewed face fitted between the hairline and the neckline. In the case of the Majestas Domini and related pages. the «Codex Aureus» underlines the high level of sensitivity of the Romanesque period towards both chromatic values and material virtues of colours and pigments. © nuremberg. 112V) even retained their original blue hair (fig. © nuremberg. noli me tangere scene.2 0 1 1 . fig. Some minor figures preserve this colouring. noli me tangere scene.11 codex aureus of echternach. germanisches nationalmuseum 34 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. the more harmonious general features of the first version had been combined with a rather garish pink skin colour and blue hair as seen in the portrait of St John. 111v. germanisches nationalmuseum fig. and these give us an idea of the original facial tones: the ox symbolising St Luke (f. which would probably have been easier. f. 111v). and to create a chromatic harmony between several of the double-pages which had been executed by different illuminators.colour and meaning not paint over entire figures. detail: angel. 114r) and St Peter in the scene of the «Doubting Thomas» (f.

42. Blau. Instead of focusing only on the symbolism of certain colours. 2 vol. • Bibliography Alberti. Fuchs. Gerke. Decker. Farbe der Ferne. 2005. 2000. 2 vol.. Cologne et al. Tempus edax rerum. Secreta colorum. 2nd revised ed. Oskar et al. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.). Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Heidelberg: Wunderhorn: 82-103. Farbgestaltung und Farbtheorie in der abendländischen Malerei. Color caelestis. Robert and Oltrogge. Geheimnisse aus mittelalterlichen Skriptorien. Der Liber illuministarum aus Kloster Tegernsee. Robert and Oltrogge. Lorenz. Berlin: Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft Bartl. Hopefully. Elementa Picturae/Das Standbild. Quellenschriften als Basis naturwissenschaftlicher Farbuntersuchungen. al. De Statua.v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n The astonishing insights into the production of the codex reveal a twofold aesthetic of colours. Anzelewsky. Hans (ed. Der Frankfurter Heller-Altar. Luxemburg: Bibliothèque Nationale: 107-124. Gerke. Grundlagen der Malerei. the new interpretation proposed here of the employment of colours and the importance attached to chromatic values in medieval and especially in Romanesque book illumination may be supported by further technical and art historical research into other manuscripts in the nearby future. Albrecht Dürer lettore e interprete di Vitruvio e Leon Battista Alberti in un’inedita versione di Cosimo Bartoli.: Böhlau. Bätschmann. Blau. 2002. which was the general supposition of research until recently. Gesamtausgabe der Schrift De diversis artibus. 2002: 171-347. Rinascimento. Albrecht Dürer. Beate. 1998. Dürer und Grünewald. Edition.2 0 1 1 35 . Farbe der Ferne. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Le bicentenaire de la Bibliothèque nationale de Luxembourg 17981998. 1990. Die Malkunst.º i . Das malerische Werk. Their aim seems to have been to enhance the status of the codex as an actual materialisation of the word of God by endowing it with the finest of colours both in the material and the artistic sense. Leon Battista. which had both the materiality of the colours or pigments and their chromatic interaction in view. Brepohl. 1987. the makers of the manuscript actually gave priority to chromatic variation. Bender. Doris.. Heidelberg: Wunderhorn: 104-130. Das Blau in der mittelalterlichen Buchmalerei. Untersuchungen zur Echternacher Handschriftenproduktion. Doris. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1999. Übersetzung und Kommentar der kunsttechnologischen Rezepte. Dittmann. Fuchs. 1991. Eine Einführung. Giovanni Maria. Erhard. (ed.). Rahmenbedingungen der Altarmalerei. Theophilus Presbyter und das mittelalterliche Kunsthandwerk. Anmerkungen zur Farbe Blau im Mittelalter. 1996. Fara. Fedja. Stuttgart: Steiner. 1990. Anna et.). transl. Bernhard. Hans (ed. De Pictura.

Pastoureau. 36 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. La couleur et l’historien. Doris. Gold und Purpur zwischen Ideal und Werkstattpraxis. Kahsnitz. Ein Meisterwerk im Wandel. Making of the medieval book. Stuttgart et al. The history of a color. 2006. symboles. 1990. Codex Aureus. Muthesius. 2001. Canossa 1077. études historiques et physico-chimiques. Gullick. Frankfurt/Main et al. 1990/1991: Le sang-dragon du Jardin des Délices. Erschütterung der Welt. 2007. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique: 173-180. Linda L. Munich: Hirmer: 555-562. Geschichte. 1990. Oltrogge. Das Goldene Evangelienbuch von Echternach. Franz. Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique: 21-40.: Fischer. Pigments et colorants dans la Mappae Clavicula. Bernard (ed.): Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen Age. Die Altäre. Princeton et al. Ein Höhepunkt der Buchmalerei vor 1000 Jahren. 2009. Pastoureau. Albrecht Dürer. (ed. Die Vermittlung kunsttechnischen Wissens im Früh. Pastoureau. Blue. 20/21. 2005. 2006. Michel.). A bibliography of medieval painting treatises. Bernard Guineau (ed. Doris and Fuchs. Anja. 2007. Michel. Michael. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen Age. Guineau. Paris: Editions Le Léopard d’Or: 9-68. Techniques of production. Halleux. images. Der Egbert Codex. 1989. Segni e testo. 1990/1991: 378-390. peinture. Michel (ed. Robert. Cat. Vers une histoire sociale des couleurs. Etudes d’histoire et d’anthropologie.º i . 1982. études historiques et physico-chimiques. Vienna: Fassbaender. Doris. Rezeptsammlungen und Traktate. Oltrogge.: Anderson-Lovelace et al. Guineau. Kutschbach. Ergebnisse naturwissenschaftlicher und kunsttechnologischer Untersuchungen des Egbert-Codex. Doris. Grebe.). enluminure. Byzantine silk weaving AD 400 to AD 1200. Werk und Zeit. Brownrigg. 1995. Paderborn. Faksimile and Commentary. CA et al. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Doris and Fuchs. Künstler. 5.: Belser. Albrecht Dürer.2 0 1 1 . Luzern/Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft: 189-216. Kunst und Kultur am Aufgang der Romanik.: Princeton University Press. Oltrogge. Die Maltechnik des Codex Aureus aus Echternach. Robert.). Das Goldene Evangelienbuch von Echternach. vol 1. Couleurs. Grebe. Gunther (ed. 1995. Gaignebet. Pastoureau. Mit Infrarot und Röntgenstrahl. Claude.). Exhib. Los Altos Hills.colour and meaning Fuchs. 2007: 31-98.: 241-244. Teinture. Robert. peinture. Robert and Oltrogge. Codex Aureus Epternaciensis Hs 156142 aus dem Germanischen Nationalmuseum in Nürnberg. Nuremberg: Verlag des Germanischen Nationalmuseums.). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Rainer (ed. Michel. 1997. Anja. enluminure. Anna. Ethnologie française.und Hochmittelalter. Teinture.

Helsingfors: Centraltryckeriet et al.und Landesgeschichte. Welchman. Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum.): The color compendium. Peter. Augustine Hope (ed. Untersuchungen zu Verwendung und Bedeutung der Farben in den Dichtungen und Schriften Goethes. 1956. München: Beck. Berlin: Deutscher Verein für Kunstwissenschaft. 1933. Annette. Roosen-Runge. 1995 M. Institutional affilation: Assistant professor of Medieval Art History at the Otto-FriedrichUniversity. Farbgebung und Technik frühmittelalterlicher Buchmalerei. Department of Art History. Rupprich. Hope. Das kaiserliche Purpurprivileg in spätrömischer und frühbyzantinischer Zeit. 1967. Goethes Farbensymbolik. Nuremberg and Associate lecturer at the University of Erlangen. Hans. 1997-2000 Graduate school «Medieval Writing Culture» at the University of Münster. Studien zu Albrecht Dürers Heller-Altar (Nürnberger Werkstücke zur Stadt. Dürer. Eine andere Geschichte der Moderne. Steigerwald. vol. Aesthetics. Munich/Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag. Das Material der Kunst. Vol. John. Since 2001 Research assistant at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum. History.2 0 1 1 37 .º i . 1965. Studien zu den Traktaten «Mappae Clavicula» und «Heraclius». New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1990: 209-239. Dissertation on Modern French Artists’ Books.v a l u e a n d b e a u t y : t o w a r d s a d o u b l e a e s t h e t i c o f c o l o u r s i n e a r ly r o m a n e s q u e b o o k i l l u m i n at i o n Pfaff. La Sorbonne. Bamberg. 1996-1997 Research assistant at the University of Constance. 1. Studien über die Farbengebung in der mittelalterlichen Buchmalerei. Berlin: Schmidt. Heinz. Johan Jakob. 1990. Biography Anja Grebe studied Art History. Gerhard. Wagner. PhD Dissertation on «Art on the Edge: Book Design in the Burgundian Netherlands after 1470». Department of Art History. 7). Nuremberg: Stadtarchiv. Monika.A. Schriftlicher Nachlass. 1971. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Tikkanen. 2 vols. 1990. 2001. and French Literature at the University of Constance (Germany) and Paris. 33. Schmidt.

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Para poder responder. interrogo-me sobre a forma como se exprime iconograficamente a cor do corpo. a presença de um matiz de vermelhos e castanho na cor do vestuário principal. a relação estreita entre a cor do corpo e o estatuto das personagens representadas. Dou uma atenção muito especial sobre a cor do nu e a sua relação com a cor do vestuário que o cobre: será que existe um laço entre estes dois «espaços» da cor. pela cor. De modo a responder às questões que me coloco. E. desempenha uma função no estatuto da personagem representada nas imagens. à questão de saber se a cor em geral. é um dos mais belos exemplos do atelier da abadia alemã de Reichenau. três elementos atraíram a minha atenção: a delicadeza do trabalho do artista para criar uma vasta gama de brancos. o excelente estado de conservação das pinturas. da pele. estes documentos parecemme reveladores duma época em plena mutação e são portadores de índices dessas mesmas mutações. Na minha investigação sobre as relações que existem entre a cor e o corpo representado. a cor do corpo em particular. mas também na forma de representar o vestuário. Mas este estudo obriga a uma grande prudência. É por isso.º i . pareceu-me prudente centrar a atenção sobre o estudo dum manuscrito otoniano datado de finais do século X. o Evangeliário de Otão III. um esforço para diferenciar. notei em certos documentos. para lá da pele. Ele obriga-me a modelar pouco a pouco e sensatamente a minha análise. A minha investigação actual articula-se em torno dos laços que existem entre a cor e os corpos na imagem medieval. fazem desta obra um elemento chave no meu estudo sobre as cores do corpo. Focalizo a minha atenção na presença ou não de técnicas cromáticas para traduzir a cor da nudez. A riqueza de tons e a densidade da cor. o de Cristo. Contudo. O manuscrito. nu ou vestido. Este esforço de classificação pode ir em certos casos. pois o que é válido para este manuscrito não o é para a maior parte dos integram o meu estudo. dos cabelos. o seu estado de conservação por vezes mau e a dificuldade de aceder às fontes. o da pele e o do vestuário? A cor do corpo. Ao olhar para este rico mostruário de cores («nuancier»). uma cor particular. pois este documento permanece uma excepção. a riqueza dos tons para a cor da pele. palavras-chave cor corpo imagem manuscrito ano 1000 • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. o estatuto da personagem apresentada. fin x e siècle Resumo O período que se estende entre o fim do século X e os finais do século XII é uma época de mutações. que ele me parece interessante para estudar a emergência de um código da cor do corpo. O conjunto iconográfico é composto de 35 pinturas a página inteira. o jogo de matizes e o perfeito estado de conservação e saturação das cores. o que faz dele um dos mais importantes da época. O que é verdadeiro para um manuscrito não o é para os outros. à primeira vista. As minhas pesquisas permitiram-me constatar que não haverá ainda um sistema cromático definido. A cor aparece aí codificada e pensada em função dum contexto bem particular.étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image medievale: l’evangeliaire d’otton iii. desempenha um papel no estatuto das personagens representadas? O pequeno número de manuscritos a cor que chegou até nós. mas tendências. não parece . justificar a minha opção cronológica. Com efeito. até dar ao corpo mais valorizado. a pele positiva da pele negativa e. O estado transitório do período que aparece por vezes em filigrana num manuscrito e a escassez de fontes directas ou indirectas sobre a cor das personagens aconselham uma grande prudência nas minhas conclusões. finalmente. A gama cromática do manuscrito é caracterizada pela variedade das tintas. O Evangeliário de Otão III não cessa de levantar um grande número de questões.2 0 1 1 39 . produzido em torno de 997. enfim.

by using the colour. a particular colour. it seemed judicious to focus our attention on the study of an Ottonian manuscript dating from the end of X th century. the excellent state of conservation of paintings. de Ana Catarina Sousa. I pay particular attention to the colour of the naked body and its relationship with the colour of the clothing that it covers: Is there a link between these two «spaces» of colour. carrying the indications of these changes. My research identified that there was not a defined chromatic system yet. which are the skin and clothing? Does the colour of the body. Felix Teichner e Heidi. Indeed. this document remains an exception. a set of shades and the perfect state of preservation and saturation of colours. of the hair. the presence of shades of red and brown in the colour of the main clothing and. I have noticed that on certain documents an effort to differentiate. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Clm. But this study requires the utmost caution. My current research is based on the existing links between the colour and the body in medieval imagery. It forces me to adjust gradually and carefully my analysis. because what is valid for this manuscript is no longer valid for the great majority of theconfiguração do of my study. at the same time. the richness of nuances in the coloring of the skin. towards 997.1 The manuscript. The colour appears codified and thought in terms of a particular context. naked or dressed. Ultimately. initially. This is why it seems interesting to us to study the emergence of a code of colour for the body. but also to represent clothing. However. three points have caught my attention: the delicate work realized by the artist to create a wide range of white. is one of the finest examples of the workshop of the German abbey of Reichenau. the question is to know if the colour in general. finally. I concentrate my attention on the presence or not of chromatic techniques to translate the colour of nudity. The transitory state of the period that appears sometimes pen flourished initials in the manuscripts and the scarcity of the direct or indirect sources on the colour of the characters. making it one of the most important iconographic programs of the time. The colour chart of the manuscript is characterized by the variety of colours. Its iconography consists of thirty-five full-page paintings. . 4453. forces the greatest of caution regarding our conclusions. their state of conservation sometimes bad and the difficulty to access the sources does not seem. that of Christ. key-words colour body image manuscript year 1000 • 1. to justify our chronological choice. these documents appear to us as an insight into a time in complete transformation and they are. beyond the skin. Pedro Fialho Agradecimentos por ajuda na manuscripts texto e sugestões de Sousa. of the skin. the close relationship between the colour of the body and the status of the characters represented makes this work a key element in our study on the colours of the body. in certain cases. This effort of classification can. Justino Maciel. made around 997. the positive skin from the negative skin and. the colour of the body in particular. but some tendencies. In my search for existing links between the colour and the depicted body. I question the way in which the colour of the body is represented from an iconographic point of view. the status of the character represented in the scene. lead to giving to the most valued body. The richness in the tinge and density of the colour. In order to answer the questions that we ask ourselves. The Evangeliar of Otto III continues to raise many questions.Abstract The period stretching from the end of the 10th century to the end of the 12th century is a time of many changes. the Evangeliar of Otto III. What is true of one manuscript is not of others. Munich. plays a role in the status of the represented characters in my pictures. In this rich colour chart. play a role in the status of the various represented characters? The small number of manuscripts with colours remaining to this day.

l’excellent état de conservation des peintures. De ce fait. il m’a semblé judicieux de focaliser l’attention sur l’étude d’un manuscrit ottonien datant de la toute fin du X e siècle. Munich.2 0 1 1 41 . 3. Paris (France) 1. 3 L’ensemble iconographique est composé de trente-cinq peintures à pleine page. La période allant de la fin du Xe siècle à la fin du XIIe siècle est une époque de mutations. en 985. à son tour. Mes recherches actuelles s’orientent autour du rapport qui existe entre la couleur et le corps dans limage médiévale. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Après la mort subite de ce dernier. L’Évangéliaire d’Otton III. fin xe siècle m a r i e a s c h e h o u g . 2. Après la mort de son père. le rapport étroit entre la couleur du corps et le statut des personnages représentés font de ce manuscrit un élément clé dans mon étude sur la couleur du corps. C’est sous son règne. avant même qu’une élection aie lieu. elle me semble intéressante pour étudier l’émergence d’un code de la couleur du corps. en 1007. s’empresse à prendre la succession. Ne laissant pas d’héritier mâle.2 le bel Évangéliaire revient à son cousin éloigné et successeur Henri II (973-1024) qui.º i . Pourtant. je n’ai malheureusement pas eu accès au manuscrit original conservé à Munich. la succession de l’empire devient incertaine. consciente des difficultés d’analyse que cela engendre.étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image médiévale: l’évangéliaire d’otton iii. Le programme pictural et christique de notre r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. la couleur joue-t-elle un rôle dans les différents statuts du corps représenté? Afin de répondre à cette question.c l au t e au x École Pratique des Hautes Études. Il fait l’objet d’une commande du jeune empereur Otton III (983-1002). Henri II devient alors duc de Bavière. Clm 4453. l’offre au trésor de la cathédrale de Bamberg. est l’un des plus beaux exemples de l’atelier de l’abbaye allemande de Reichenau. Henri II. Otton III meurt à l’âge de 19 ans au nord de Rome. réalisé vers 997. C’est pourquoi. ayant entretenu par le passé des bonnes relations avec son cousin. que la ville de Bamberg devient un évêché. parmi lesquelles vingt-neuf miniatures mettent en scène la vie du Christ et quatre miniatures sont consacrées à la figuration des évangélistes et de leurs symboles. la richesse des nuances et de densité de la couleur. la consultation du fac-similé m’a permis de soulever un certain nombre de questions. l’Évangéliaire d’Otton III. ce dernier étant très difficile d’accès. Il épouse Cunégonde de Luxembourg (978-1040) vers l’An Mil.1 Pour cette étude.

bayerische staatsbibliothek. la Passion et la Résurrection du Christ. totalement blanche. Le minutieux travail artistique pour représenter une riche gamme de blancs est un point intéressant. le cycle d’images s’ouvre sur deux peintures se faisant face. Ce dernier est représenté en majesté. la richesse des nuances dans la mise en couleur de la peau est un élément qui pose un grand nombre de questions. n’est pas une couleur «pure».colour and meaning Évangéliaire est l’un des plus importants de l’époque. J’ai relevé pas moins de cinquante-huit nuances différentes. Gallia et Roma. lorsqu’elle est appliquée au vêtement des personnages. ne sont pas figurées sur un fond d’or mais sur un fond polychrome. prêtent hommage au jeune empereur Otton III.º i . münchen. haus der bayerischen geschichte. trois éléments ont attiré mon attention. Tout d’abord. et 24 (briechle andrea. etc. (Fig. Toutefois. augsburg. Après les douze Canons de Concordance. Parmi ces nuances.. 2002) La gamme chromatique du manuscrit est caractérisée par la variété des teintes. des yeux et des plis des étoffes. l’or a une place centrale: il est la couleur principale des fonds des peintures. C’est comme si ces fonds de couleur rappelaient la nature terrestre du pouvoir impérial et la nature humaine du Christ. Le blanc vestimentaire est toujours un blanc bleuté. clercs et laïcs. Ensuite. entouré de nobles. le délicat travail que réalise l’artiste pour créer une vaste gamme de blancs. il est intéressant à remarquer que la mise en scène de la majesté impériale et les quatre dernières images du cycle christique. le jeu des camaïeux et le parfait état de préservation et de saturation des couleurs. aux folios 23 v. ou bien un blanc 42 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. et 24: les quatre provinces impériales. Germania.1 folios 23 v. Au regard de ce riche nuancier. la présence d’un camaïeu de rouges et de marron dans la couleur des vêtements principaux est intéressante à signaler. La couleur blanche. clm 4453. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. Enfin. Sclavinia.1) fig. La peinture blanche pure est seulement réservée aux rehauts de couleurs de la peau.2 0 1 1 .

(détails) (briechle andrea.. Par exemple. etc. les jeunes enfants qui entourent le Christ portent des tuniques blanc violacé et jaune clair de manière intercalée. 97 v. l’artiste n’a-t-il pas voulu traduire l’ambiguïté de ce baiser et... l’idée serait d’avoir une couleur claire pour le vêtement le plus près du corps. 94 v. tandis que le linceul de Lazare. au folio 116 v. fin x e siècle grisâtre. la tunique du dessous ou la chemise.. bayerische staatsbibliothek. clm 4453..º i . J’ai remarqué qu’il était parfois difficile de différencier le blanc du gris. au-delà du baiser.3) Mais l’usage du jaune comme couleur associée au blanc peut aussi créer une tension au sein d’un couple de personnages. qui est rouge orangé. etc. la tunique du vieux laïc à gauche d’Otton III est d’un blanc bleuté. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. clm 4453. Le gris permettant d’enrichir la gamme des blancs.2 0 1 1 43 . Par la couleur.4) Cette figuration d’habits qui ne sont pas réellement blancs n’est-elle pas le reflet d’une réalité vestimentaire. le Christ et Judas portent tous les deux des tuniques claires. (détail) (briechle andrea. haus der bayerischen geschichte. parfois même violacé. Ce blanc est la couleur la plus claire. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. haus der bayerischen geschichte. 113 et 231 v. mais celui du Christ est rouge violacé. au folio 231 v. (Fig.2 folios 24..étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image medievale: l’evangeliaire d’otton iii. bayerische staatsbibliothek. au folio 24. münchen. augsburg. augsburg. En rythmant l’image. aux tuniques blanches viennent s’ajouter des tuniques jaunes. münchen. 60 v. 2002) fig. la complexité du geste de Judas? (Fig. celle du Christ est blanc grisâtre tandis que celle de Judas est jaune clair. plus foncé que celui de Judas. Dans la scène du Baiser de Judas.3 folio 116 v. Leurs manteaux sont rouges. c’est-à-dire l’impossibilité de teindre les étoffes en blanc? r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. ce jeu de couleurs semble donner vie au groupe et rendrait la scène moins monotone.. est d’un blanc violacé. au folio 244 v. (Fig. 2002) Lorsqu’un groupe est représenté. Pourtant. certains bas-de-chausses et les voiles des femmes. Le contraste de couleurs apparaît à la fois faible et extrêmement subtil. Par exemple.2) fig. généralement réservée au vêtement porté le plus près du corps: la tunique..

das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. ou bien grisâtre ou brunâtre. nous avions mentionné la présence d’un camaïeu de rouges dans la palette vestimentaire des personnages. à l’époque qui nous concerne. augsburg. au folio 34 v. il est presque matériellement impossible d’avoir des étoffes réellement blanches. haus der bayerischen geschichte. clm 4453. (Fig.2 0 1 1 . Le rouge est enrichi de diverses nuances. Généralement. münchen. augsburg. (Fig. Au folio 24. etc. 192. 2002) > fotofig. Précédemment. tirant parfois même vers le marron.6.4 folio 244 v. haus der bayerischen geschichte. augsburg. dans ce manuscrit-ci. celles-ci sont de couleur écrue. münchen. etc. bayerische staatsbibliothek. 97 v.º i . 2002) fig. le Christ revêt un manteau couleur rouge ou marron. l’empereur Otton III est vêtu d’une luxueuse tunique rouge violacé et d’un manteau vert.. est celle de la Transfiguration. il est même difficile de distinguer le rouge et le marron. etc.6) La seule scène où le Christ ne porte pas de couleur foncée. ou qui ont subi des techniques d’éclaircissement comme le séchage au soleil. La diversité des nuances rouges et leur récurrence sur le vêtement semble imposer l’idée d’une couleur foncée pour l’habit des personnages principaux. clm 4453. On peut remarquer que la couleur foncée du vêtement principal contraste avec la couleur claire du vêtement le plus près du corps. Cela m’amène à penser que le marron. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii.5 folio 24 (détail) (briechle andrea.. au folio 113. bayerische staatsbibliothek. La longue tunique du dessous est blanc bleuté. À une exception près.6 folios 34 v.. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii.5) De son côté. (détail) (briechle andrea. Il y est vêtu d’une tunique blanche et d’un fig.. Dans certaines images. bayerische staatsbibliothek..jpg 44 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. C’est pourquoi. 231 v. 2002) fig. la couleur du manteau du Christ contraste toujours avec la couleur claire de sa tunique. fait partie de la palette des rouges. clm 4453.. et 251 (détails) (briechle andrea.colour and meaning Le fait de représenter des tuniques aux diverses nuances de blancs et de jaune n’est-il pas une manière d’exprimer la couleur changeante des tissus non-teints? Les tissus blancs sont généralement les tissus de couleur naturelle. Comme pour le vêtement impérial. münchen. haus der bayerischen geschichte. rouge ou marron.

fin x e siècle 4. etc. etc. est rehaussée d’ombres verdâtres. haus der bayerischen geschichte. beige clair rosâtre et gris verdâtre composent le nuancier de la peau. jaune verdâtre. 17 v.. augsburg. celle de l’empereur Otton III et. 32 v.7 folio 113 (détail) (briechle andrea. enfin. Depuis l’Antiquité. 20-31). 23 v. Par exemple. au folio 18. 2002) fig.2 0 1 1 45 .9 folio 17 v. (Fig. au folio 17 v.8) fig. Les différentes gammes de rouges sont plus résistantes que les autres couleurs. münchen. augsburg. la couleur de la peau semble établir une frontière entre deux âges. 18. verdâtre.. Ici. (Fig. Au début de notre cycle d’images.. etc. clm 4453. dont les teintes sont extrêmement diversifiées. 2002) fig.. 60 v..º i .. Paris. jaune verdâtre. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. relevée d’ombres marron rougeâtre. Leurs r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. au-dessus de l’une des Tables de Concordances. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. manteau orangé. (Fig. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. beige jaunâtre. haus der bayerischen geschichte. clm 4453. nous remarquons un vieillard courbé. Une première couche de couleur saturée est posée sur l’espace destiné à la peau. À l’époque romaine. beige verdâtre. 2002) Pourquoi retrouve-t-on tant de couleurs différentes pour la peau? Afin de répondre à cette question. 1989.. clm 4453. pp. Les belles étoffes sont donc généralement de couleur rouge. celle de Satan. Ensuite cette couche de base est relevée de reflets blancs et d’ombres de couleurs diverses. 97 v. le rouge est la couleur par excellence.7) La richesse des nuances de rouge et de marron sur la tunique d’Otton III et sur le manteau du Christ confirmerait le statut encore exceptionnel qu’a le rouge dans le monde occidental aux alentours de l’An Mil. La couleur claire de l’habit du Christ se ferait l’écho de ce «vêtement d’une blancheur éclatante» dont parlent les Évangiles. celle de Lazare. la plupart des pigments qui servent à teindre en rouge pénètrent mieux les fibres textiles.. Symboles. (détails) (briechle andrea.4 Le travail réalisé par l’artiste sur la couleur de la peau mérite notre attention tant il est extrêmement subtil. Le Léopard d’Or. beige rougeâtre. Sa peau est beige verdâtre.. alors que la peau d’Otton III. augsburg. münchen. münchen. Mais sa peau est marron clair. (Lire à ce sujet le chapitre consacré aux couleurs et aux teintures dans l’ouvrage de PASTOUREAU Michel. Couleurs. haus der bayerischen geschichte. celle des quatre provinces impériales. marron clair. beige clair.. Ce sont des artisans.9) Pourtant.8 folios 15 v. (détails) (briechle andrea. j’ai relevé pas moins de onze nuances différentes: beige moyen rosâtre. celle du lépreux. 113 et 149 v. bayerische staatsbibliothek. au folio 24. J’ai remarqué que la couleur des ombres variait en fonction de la couleur de base de la peau. Pour la couleur de cette couche de base.. la jeunesse et la vieillesse. bayerische staatsbibliothek. bayerische staatsbibliothek. un jeune homme et un vieillard ont été également figurés au-dessus des Tables de Concordances. Images. je ferai appel à sept cas de figure qui me paraissent significatifs: la peau d’un vieillard indigent. la peau des laïcs figurés auprès de l’empereur est beige. Face à lui.étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image medievale: l’evangeliaire d’otton iii. 30 v. un feuillet plus loin. blanc verdâtre. en train de se chauffer les mains auprès d’un feu. un jeune vigneron est aussi vêtu de court et les pieds nus. Ed. la peau du Christ. tunique courte et pieds nus.

Couleurs. münchen. lire PASTOUREAU Michel. qui est beige clair. au folio 32 v.11 folio 32 v. Le vieillard qui se réchauffe les mains auprès du feu. augsburg.. Paris. clm 4453.10 folio 18 (détails) (briechle andrea. (Fig. Ed.º i . augsburg. Images. vêtu dune courte tunique. pourrait être un indigent.. 95-97. Son corps est recouvert d’une étoffe marron clair. surtout. beaucoup plus sombre que celle du Christ.colour and meaning tuniques sont courtes et leurs jambes et leurs pieds sont recouverts. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. jambes et pieds nus.5 (Fig. pp. contraste avec celle des trois autres travailleurs représentés: l’homme est non seulement un paysan.. haus der bayerischen geschichte. bayerische staatsbibliothek. mais il est surtout un exclu. clm 4453. beige jaunâtre. haus der bayerischen geschichte. 2002) Dans les trois scènes des Tentations du Christ. ils ont tous les deux la même couleur de peau. La couleur de la peau ne crée plus seulement une distinction entre deux âges. Le Léopard d’Or. Satan a la peau beige rougeâtre. 2002) 46 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Et. etc. beige verdâtre. doublée d’une couleur sombre de peau. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. etc. Sur l’aspect péjoratif d’une couleur saturée pour le corps. L’ambivalence vestimentaire. fig. bayerische staatsbibliothek. mais elle semble établir un écart social entre l’univers des paysans et le monde des artisans.11) fig.2 0 1 1 . La couleur de sa peau.10) 5. soulignerait le caractère sournois et inquiétant de Satan. Paris. 1989. La manière dont est posée l’étoffe sur le corps du diable est particulière: elle cache une partie tout en découvrant l’autre partie. münchen. (détails) (briechle andrea. Symbolique.

les deux clercs ont aussi la peau jaune verdâtre. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. au folio 97 v. haus der bayerischen geschichte. À sa droite. Le Léopard d’Or. münchen. Le lépreux ouvre la voix du salut par la charité qu’il appelle. on peut mieux le mettre à l’écart. clm 4453.13 folio 231 v. figuré en majesté. lire PASTOUREAU Michel. Sa peau est marron. par la couleur de sa peau et par le bruit qu’il fait avec sa corne. haus der bayerischen geschichte. se prêtent également à un intéressant jeu de couleurs de la peau. Le lépreux. pp. 92-95. Bobbio. “Approche de l’iconographie politique autour de l’An mille”.. Or. les laïcs l’ont beige. est-ce que c’est un hasard si la peau de Roma. à ce propos. bayerische staatsbibliothek. semée de taches sombres.7 Toutefois. Maladie et société au Moyen Age. 2002) r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Bruxelles. a la peau jaune verdâtre. l’exclure. (Lire TOUATI François-Olivier. les lépreux et les léproseries dans la province ecclésiastique de Sens jusqu’au milieu du XIVe siècle. De cette manière. l’empereur Otton III. Archives de la lèpre: Atlas des léproseries entre Loire et Maine au Moyen Age.. (Fig. La couleur est intercalée d’une femme à une autre.13) Les personnifications féminines des quatre provinces impériales. (détail) (briechle andrea. Atti del Congresso Internazionale. La lèpre serait la plus visible des maladies de la peau. je me demande si la figure du lépreux est aussi négative que cela dans notre manuscrit.6 C’est un personnage singularisé. (Fig. clm 4453. 7. Est-ce qu’elle ne traduit pas les enjeux idéologiques de la politique impériale des ottoniens? La peau du Christ pourrait donner un début de réponse..12) Plusieurs feuillets plus loin. Paris. au folio 231 v. Images.14) Au folio 24.15) fig. Symbolique. Placée de manière intercalée. Sur le tacheté de la peau. Paris. augsburg. münchen.2 0 1 1 47 . das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. est ressuscité par le Christ. De Boeck Université. Elle représente ainsi l’archétype de la maladie de peau. in Gerberto d’Aurillac. bayerische staatsbibliothek. est peint le corps courbé. aussi dévalorisée soit-elle. Roma et Germania ont la peau de couleur jaune verdâtre. une corne attachée en bandoulière autour de son torse. couvert d’un linceul. (détail) (briechle andrea. Lire.8 (Fig..étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image medievale: l’evangeliaire d’otton iii. l’article d’ALIBERT Dominique. la province placée le plus près du pouvoir impérial. mais aussi il jouit d’un traitement de couleur particulier: sa peau. sa peau est gris verdâtre. Non seulement le lépreux bénéficie de la compassion du Christ. tandis qu’à sa gauche. 1998). 8. Paris. etc. 1996). tandis que celle de Gallia et de Sclavinia est marron clair. Couleurs.12 folio 97 v. C’est comme si cette association du gris et du vert signifiait le mieux la pâleur cadavérique. 2002) fig. da Abate di Bobbio a Papa dell’Anno 1000. Ed. lorsque Lazare. Et ainsi différencié. fin x e siècle 6. La couleur de la peau semble rapprocher l’empereur des clercs. est de la même couleur que celle de l’empereur Otton III?9 (Fig. la couleur de la peau donne du rythme à l’image. au folio 23 v. 9. n’est pas de la même couleur que celle de Satan.. (Lire à ce sujet TOUATI FrançoisOlivier. 1989. La lèpre. Archivum Bobiense. augsburg. etc.º i . le pouvoir impérial de l’Église.

münchen. bayerische staatsbibliothek. Enfin. Comme si le verdâtre était la nuance de peau qui se rapprochait le mieux du divin. Pourquoi ces différenciations? J’ai remarqué que Jésus avait la peau beige dans toutes les scènes qui ont un rapport avec sa vie terrestre et publique. comme celle du Christ en majesté ou bien de la Résurrection.2 0 1 1 .15 folio 24 (détail) (briechle andrea. etc. (Fig. (détail) (briechle andrea. etc. Une couleur de peau particulière. münchen. aux scènes du Baptême. haus der bayerischen geschichte.14 folio 23 v. la peau du Christ est entièrement verdâtre. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. À une nuance près: celle de l’empereur est jaune verdâtre tandis que celle du Christ est blanc verdâtre.16) À quelques feuillets d’intervalle. Otton III n’est pas 48 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2002) J’ai relevé trois nuances différentes pour la peau du Christ: beige clair. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii.º i . bayerische staatsbibliothek. augsburg. La couleur de leur peau se ressemble. augsburg. Je pense ici. La peau de l’empereur et celle du Christ divin tendent toutes les deux vers le verdâtre. J’ai également observé qu’il avait la peau couleur blanc verdâtre dans les scènes où la nature divine du Christ était mise en avant. clm 4453. dans la scène de la Transfiguration.. blanc verdâtre et verdâtre. 2002) fig. des Tentations. Comme s’il n’y avait aucun intermédiaire entre l’empereur et le Christ.colour and meaning fig. des enseignements. haus der bayerischen geschichte. la majesté impériale et la majesté du Christ se font écho. qui s’accorde avec la couleur claire de son vêtement. voire de la mouvance divine. mais n’est pas la même.. des guérisons et de la Passion. clm 4453. Tout en faisant partie du monde spirituel. unique dans le manuscrit.

Walter de Gruyter. Mais l’étude de la couleur dans ce manuscrit force à la plus grande prudence. 69-78. New-York.com © Crédits photographiques: BRIECHLE Andrea. Pour la période choisie. Adresse e-mail: iotamarie@gmail. Berlin. La couleur y apparaît codifiée et pensée en fonction d’un contexte bien particulier. Clm 4453. haus der bayerischen geschichte.16 folios 174 v. La peau claire et le vêtement foncé étant mieux mis en avant que la peau foncée et le vêtement clair. la norme n’est jamais de mise. Comme si sur ces deux espaces que sont la peau et le vêtement il existait un chiasme de couleur du clair vers le foncé et du foncé vers le clair. en pleine mutation. MEYER Carla. in Edgar BIERENDE. Spiel der Farben in einem Ritual zwischen Männern». 34 v. Serait-il hasardeux de dire que la couleur est un outil de pouvoir dans l’idéologie impériale? L’Évangéliaire d’Otton III est extrêmement intéressant par le nombre de questions qu’il ne cesse de soulever.E. je suis en train de terminer un Doctorat en Histoire médiévale à l’École Pratique des Hautes Études (E. das evangeliar kaiser ottos iii. Riten. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans l’image medievale: l’evangeliaire d’otton iii. München. l’empereur n’est pas Dieu. Sven BRETFELD et Klaus OSCHEMA. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft. Il force à moduler peu à peu et prudemment mon analyse. augsburg.º i . 2008. FOX Angelika.. et 113 (détails) (briechle andrea.. 2002. Gesten. Trends in Medieval Philology. 2002) le Christ. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Car au vu de l’ensemble de mon corpus. clm 4453. Publication: Article «Ich halte Dich am Bart: Spiel der Hände. etc. fin x e siècle fig. Zeremonien.H. fin Xe – fin XIIe siècles. münchen. Das Evangeliar Kaiser Ottos III: eine Handschrift zum Blättern. Augsburg. Après des études d’Histoire à l’Institut Catholique de Paris puis à l’Université La Sorbonne-Paris IV. ce document demeure une exception. Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte. Volume 14. bayerische staatsbibliothek.2 0 1 1 49 . sous la direction de Monsieur Michel PASTOUREAU. • Biography Je suis d’origine franco-vénézuelienne. Le sujet de la Thèse est: «Les couleurs du corps nu et vêtu dans les manuscrits enluminés des Xe-XIIe siècles: une étude des rapports entre la couleur et le corps dans limage médiévale».). à Paris.P. pp. car ce qui est valable pour ce manuscrit ne l’est plus pour la grande majorité des manuscrits de mon étude.

em Paris. Luís: o Saltério de S. key-words colour pigment illumination Richard de Fournival bestiary • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. XIII. Justino Maciel. Luís que se encontra na BNF. em Cambridge.Resumo Este artigo discute as cores e pigmentos utilizados numa das cópias d’O bestiário do amor de Richard de Fournival. Felix Teichner e Heidi. datado do 3. A aplicação de uma certa paleta cromática bem como de certas especificidades iconográficas faz-nos pensar que este artista conhecia as técnicas utilizadas na produção bem mais sofisticada da Cappella Regis sob o patronato de S. palavras-chave cor pigmento iluminura Richard de Fournival bestiário • Abstract This paper considers the colours and pigments of a manuscript of the Bestiary of Love of Richard de Fournival from the third quarter of the 13th century. e o ms designado por Saltério de Isabella no Museu Fitzwilliam. . Pedro Fialho de Sousa.º quartel do séc. The particularities of the use of the chromatic palette in this manuscript. allow one to reflect on the knowledge. together with several iconographical devices. by the artist who decorated this manuscript. of the methods of work used in the most sophisticated products of the Cappella Regis under Saint Louis: the Saint Louis Psalter in the BNF of Paris and the so called Isabella Psalter in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge.

2 0 1 1 51 .º i . nonetheless. It is probable that the manuscript (or its model) was commissioned by or for Thibaud of Navarra. pigments. presents the images of Saint Louis followed by his son-in-law Thibaud V. it is.com 1. The miniatures of this manuscript give an exciting possibility for the close investigation of colours. easily recognizable by their arms. B. It is not only one of the most ancient known manuscript of the Bestiary of Richard de Fournival (it can be dated from the 1260s-1270s. Roy. Rather modest in size (23 folios. count of Champagne and king of Navarra (1235-1270). the so called manuscript T of this work (Switzerland. it is. of their deterioration and transformation. private collection)1. pigments and of the pictorial technique in an illuminated manuscript of the Bestiaire d’Amours of Richard de Fournival. of the dimension 17 x 12 cm). allegory of the persecution of a beloved by her lover in the ironical interpretation of this fine writer of the 13th century. in print. the Ilede-France version of the Old French. This study shows us the proceedings employed by an artist who knew the methods r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. and it cannot be excluded that the manuscript. X.Muratova. their reaction with the parchment and their modification visible on the reverse side of the leaves. served as a wedding present. Written in «francien». also one of the most ancient illuminated vernacular manuscripts known to us. The aim of this paper is to present the study of colours. one of the most important manuscripts of this famous work. Another important point is its relationship to the French court: the miniature of the Vulture. the last miniature of which represents the God of Love. whereas the other 23 known manuscripts of this work date from between the 1270s and the 15th century ). Ramsen.remarks on colours and pigments in the french court illumination of the 13 th century x e n i a m u r atova Professor Emeritus xmuratova@aol. Le manuscrit T du Bestiaire d’Amour de Richard de Fornuival. Edition critique et étude des enluminures.

1977. «The Psalter and Hours of Isabelle of France». His practices are those of the illuminators who were called to execute the decoration of small vernacular manuscripts. as in the majority of the French manuscripts where this kind of alternation constituted a system of personal marks in cases of the decoration of manuscripts of the a large size.H. what is also possible. 10525 of the BNF of Paris2 and the so-called Isabella Psalter. London. Milano. op. the artist transgressed several norms adopted in the French manuscript production of the 13th century. 2007. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi. Perhaps. However. pp. Imagenes e promotores en el arte medieval. the slightly orange pink colour is also used in watercolour technique and covers the surface of the background in a rather irregular manner. The Cambridge Illuminations. 545-554.. Catalogue of the Exhibition. ed. ms.º i . cit. Picturing Kingship.Muratova. Beside that. In his work. Cockerell.Panayotova. I Convegni di Parma XII. the study of the technique of the execution of the manuscript gives rather an impression that the order was particularly urgent and that the work was executed in a hurry.Branner. At the same time he was confronted with an unusual task: to ornate a profane. It is not an exception in the North French and Parisian miniature of the 13th century. Louis. 22-27 settembre 2009. op. ms. where many rules used in the ateliers specialized in the production of important Latin manuscripts were simply neglected and disregarded. C. In the Bestiary manuscript. It seems. «Officina di miniatori della Cappella Regis all’epoca di San Luigi». X. transparent blue) as well as the technique of the transparent watercolour itself used for the background are closer to the chromatic devices and to the technique used by English illuminators or by those who had an English training or were strongly influenced by it. 1905. 238-239. In rare cases. in fact that the quality of the design. The alternation of blue and pink backgrounds is not regular. X. 511-516. however. a cura di A. pp. A Psalter and Hours Executed Before 1270 for a Lady Connected with St. but in any case he was acquainted with their work. T demonstrated a surprising freedom regarding several norms which characterized the work of established workshops of illuminators and book-makers. Binski & S. 2. Quintavalle. Berkeley and Los Angeles. S. the binders were used in a too precipitated manner or. 2005.Roy. Sixty-four small miniatures of the manuscript (the height of the majority of them takes between three or five lines of the text) are placed on a blue or a pink watercolour background but the tonality of these colours (especially a very deep. Barcelona (Bellaterra). 3. Philadelphia. This orange pink is very close to the same colour in the Saint Louis Psalter.colour and meaning of work and the repertory of forms used by an important group of artists which executed the French Royal Psalters of the 1260s. «Un episode de la pratique de travail des enlumineurs au XIIIe siecle: l’utilisation des motifs bibliques pour illustration des ecrits profanes». pp. Medioevo: Le Officine.2 0 1 1 . Ten Centuries of Book Production in the Medieval West. Probably His Sister Isabelle of France. 4. Parma. 2010. 2001. X. S. 132-137. R. Stahl.5. the painter used a small amount of a binder or of a white in order to unify the tone. cit. London-Turnhout. It is also difficult to judge whether the designer and the painter who just coloured the silhouettes were the same person. History and Painting in the Psalter of Saint Louis. University Park.178-180. 52 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. pp. It is difficult to say if he belonged himself to this group of artists. 300 of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge3. Muratova. B. Panayotova. these mixtures were prepared too rapidly. Cambridge. it is characteristic for full-page miniatures of the two Royal Psalters where the coloured parts of the background surround the central parts painted in gold. brilliant. But his mixtures were too fragile and led to the deterioration of the some paintings. by P. 2005. But the use of the watercolour for the backgrounds can be hardly found in the majority of the French miniature production of this period. the degree of the heating of the mixture was too high or too rapid. The artist of the Ms.Muratova. Manuscript Painting in Paris During the Reign of Saint Louis. the Saint Louis Psalter. Miscellanea en homenaje a Joaquin Yarza Luaces.Muratova. X. «Officina…». vernacular manuscript for the decoration of which he was not always provided with the iconographical devices of several scenes4.

very simple. It is not the same pigment used in more concentrated proportions and in a more dense manner. The blue of garments and vestments is also intense. thus.1 the unicorn and the vultur. the golden frames. The presence of the infinitesimally small particles of gold (which can be observed through the microscope and in several cases can be observed even with a magnifying glass) in this yellow pigment shows the use of the orpiment. the manuscript was undoubtedly decorated by a fine professional artist.2 0 1 1 53 . of miniatures are painted in a very pale yellow which imitates probably. In several cases the artist did not follow the rules of the utilisation of pigments set in the known manuals of medieval illuminators. the azurite. In many cases the dissolved blue pigment has transgressed the lines of the silhouettes of animals and of personages. it is the deep blue sapphire colour of the backgrounds. First of all. it included corrosive substances which have profoundly penetrated the texture of the parchment. cold and intense. outside of a workshop. for instance. T were studied essentially de visu. a mineral pigment based on the acetate or a carbonate of copper. but I am inclined rather to think that he had too short a time for the execution of his order and that is why he could not respect the time needed for the «rest» (or suspension) necessary for the preparation of pigments and their mixtures. A physical-chemical analysis was attempted in a local laboratory but was not carried through to its end for several reasons having nothing to do with scientific research. light and rapid. private collection. which is by itself not an important exception in the work of the medieval illuminators who worked in the milieu dominated by an oral tradition and where the individual experience of each artist who transmitted it to his workshop. bestiaire d’amours of richard de fournival. with a magnifying glass and a microscope. The colours and the pigments of the ms. in some cases is superior to that of the colouring but several deterioration of the pictorial layer and of pigments prevent us from making a definite judgment about the execution of the miniatures by one or by two artists. in some other cases it becomes blackened because of the oxidation of the ornamental motives painted on the surface of the backgrounds. ms. even if the artist seems to do everything to avoid this extension of the blue This blue pigment. which obliged him to use the «moyens de bord». This r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. switzerland. 10v and 23r. t. Blue: the chromatic palette is distinguished by the use of various tones of blue. the auripigmentum album obtained from sulphur of arsenic and used with parchment glue as a binder. in several cases strongly dissolved and clear. I don’t think that the deteriorations of pigments in several miniatures are due to a bad knowledge of the technique. to his pupils and to his professional surrounding played the primary role. No radiographical or microspecrometrical analysis was ever produced. respectively. Some physical-chemical results confirmed hypotheses made during my study of pigments with a microscope. Yellow: the frames. fl.º i .r e m a r k s o n c o l o u r s a n d p i g m e n t s i n t h e f r e n c h c o u r t i l l u m i n at i o n o f t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y fig. This type of deterioration of the parchment shows the use of a rather active corrosive substance. He may also have found himself in a particular situation. vivid. travelling. has corroded the parchment and produced visible traces on the reverse of the sheets (where it gave clear green traces). profound and a brilliant colour but it has not the transparency of the blue of the backgrounds.

Small touches of blue grey (in the neighbourhood with the touches of clear brown colour) were used for modelling the silhouettes of animals painted in beige or in clear yellow. fl. very clear. ms. King of Navarra.10525. but of different origin. fig. the use of these resources was extremely masterly: already in the unique initial of the manuscript representing the Allegory of the Memory (Figure 2) one can find four tones of blue and five tones of pink-beige colours. transparent.colour and meaning blue pigment has none of the corrosive proprieties of the blue of the backgrounds and did not attack the parchment. very rare and particular. One should note that this pale blue colour. private collection.2 0 1 1 . This colour has a slightly corrosive action: from the other side of the sheet it gives an effect of a dark yellow or a slightly orange colouring on the vestment of the Allegory of the Memory (Figure 2). and. finally. In any case. transparent and cold. rather close in their chromatic effect. There is also the blue-grey. Green: as to the green.3 saint louis psalter. very clear and cold. This blue was obtained from indigo. the dominant tone is that of a vivid and almost emerald brilliant green. A unique case where the blue colour which has a blue celestial tone. very widespread in the medieval miniature and produced from the basic copper acetate. t. for vestments. the palette of our artist has several blue pigments. It is used for the painting of silhouettes of animals. In several cases one can observe the clearer.2 allegory of the memory. bestiaire d’amours of richard de fournival. 9r. some of them were produced thanks to the mixture with white lead and with other pigments. A similar tone of the pale and transparent blue is used also in the Cambridge Isabella Psalter (Figure 4).º i . a very rare blue grey. As is well-known. trees and grass. The variety of the blue tones shows a rather refined taste but only more profound scientific analysis could help to conclude which were exactly the resources of the painter in the matter of pigments. This corrosive effect shows equally the use of a pigment containing the copper oxide. prepared probably on a base of the fusion of various substances and based on copper sulphate. switzerland. Thus. it is one of the most aggressive pigments of the medieval painting which corrodes and penetrates the parchment and fig. 1r (ou 25v?). 54 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. is that of the lapis-lazuli with which were painted the vestment and the banner of the King Louis IX in the miniature of the Vultur: in is interesting to note that in the same miniature the painter used an extremely mordant pigment to paint in blue the back legs of the horse of Thibaud. ms. This perfect knowledge of the use of the complementary colours and the taste for the modelling and the plastic quality in the treatment of forms can unfortunately be appreciated very rarely: this extremely delicate finish and its nuances were effaced because of the extensive use of the manuscript and the fragility of the technique and can be only guessed at in certain miniatures. fl. paris. called in the Middle Ages Iarim or Iarin and a common name of which was a verdigris. bnf. and more opaque blue due to the mixture with the white lead in various proportions. In several cases of the utilisation of this mixture one can observe small losses of the pictorial layer. has analogies with the pale blue which can be found in the Saint Louis Psalter (Figure 3) but in this manuscript a different or better cleaned pigment was used and it had no corrosive action on the parchment.

who always used verdigris. the green lavis (in fact the pigment is generally dissolved with water) is one of the preferred means of chromatic expression. in any case. also used rather widely. 10r. fl. In fact. This orange pink.º i . brown: the manuscript T has a very particular pink orange colour used for the backgrounds where it is put by means of a transparent brushwork painting and in a very irregular and unequal manner which creates the darker and clearer parts of the painted surface. ms. This effect could be also produced through the use of the extract of fish gall. A clear pink colour of this manuscript is extremely fragile and inclined to deterioration: its surface is often covered with small spots. Pink. Thus.300. White is used to paint the silhouettes and vestments: it is an extremely white. testimony of the use of pigments rich in iron oxide and other metals.r e m a r k s o n c o l o u r s a n d p i g m e n t s i n t h e f r e n c h c o u r t i l l u m i n at i o n o f t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y fig. was no longer strictly attached to them. equal and regular manner. cambridge. However. preferred the tones of bottle green and of grass green and in general used the green pigment rather rarely. intense and brilliant. Its extensive utilisation in our manuscript is another testimony of the training of the artist not in Paris but in the North of France. knowing its destructive properties (Figure 5).2 0 1 1 55 . one should note that normally this brilliant tone of green is not characteristic of Parisian painting of the 13th century. private collection. where the artists. Here it is a saffron colour. 1v fig. t. their tones and nuances were used for the silhouettes of animals. as well as the watercolour technique of its utilisation which gives an impression of the irregularity of the pink orange tone can be found only in the Saint Louis Psalter executed by the artists attached to the Cappella Regis. even if he knew the old traditions and rules. a little darker or a little clearer. opaque. covers the surface in a dense. beige. Several silhouettes painted in green preserve the rest of the modelling executed with the same colour. brilliant and transparent colour obtained by the use of chalk. One of these beige-pink pigments has corrosive action on the parchment and is visible from the other side of the leaf (Figure 5). fitzwilliam museum. ms. the use of green constitutes one of the sensitive points of the Paris illumination. called often the «rose de Paris» and obtained from a mixture with lead. The drawing is perfectly visible through the its surface. In fact.4 isabella psalter.5 the tiger. under the strong influence of practices adopted in English illumination. of course. Several other orange and beige colours. limpid. the work on the order obliged him to neglect several old rules and led sometimes to a too rapid and hurried preparation of colours. bestiaire d’amours of richard de fournival. in the English miniature. This deterioration is due to the fermentation of the clarea – egg white – probably heated too rapidly. The traditional lead white is. especially in the architectural parts of miniatures. On the contrary. switzerland. the painter illuminating a vernacular manuscript. becomes visible on the reverse of the sheet. attributes and vestments. A similar bright and brilliant green is characteristic for the painting in both Royal Psalters. it was a rather refined and skillful painting where the painter knew how to use the possibilities of each pigment which he worked with a great refinement and savoir-faire. fl. orange. It is not at all common for Parisian and North French illumination where the pink colour. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

In the production of the illuminated manuscripts in vulgar languages during the third quarter of the 13th century. Faces are painted with touches of light grey and pink. private collection. Very light grey. 56 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. fl. It is not an effect which could be produced in the case of the use of white lead for the painting of the scrolls.2 0 1 1 . beige and pink orange is very particular. Grey is dissolved black ink. Even if numerous elements of the decoration have disappeared or were modified with time. The choice itself of the chromatic palette.6 the panther. shows through it and leave the black traces on the reverse of the folios. is due to the effect of the orpiment. Gold. Red is used only for the rubrics: it is a vivid and brilliant red obtained from natural cinnabar. Several silhouettes are of a dark grey colour. The gold particles. bestiaire d’amours of richard de fournival.colour and meaning Black ink was employed for the drawing of the contours and parts of silhouettes. white lead doesn’t show through the parchment. The almost total disappearance of this part of the decoration of our manuscript changed considerably the initial aspect of the manuscript. these scrolls are so blackened and oxidized that their traces appear on the reverse of the folios. pale yellow. The disappearance and the oxidation of the scrolls (Figure 6) painted with metallic pigments or their substitutes shows that the essential rules of the work with these pigments were not followed by the artist. It is probable however that the gold or its substitute was used for the decoration of ornamental scrolls on backgrounds of several miniatures. The black traces left by the pigment used for the painting of the decorative scrolls reveal the use of a substitutive pigment for the gold. At the same time. green. At the same time. this kind of approach characterizes especially the deco- fig. grey. based on the tones of blue. switzerland. It is a choice which is not due to the limited means which were at the disposal of the artist. the analysis of pigments and the choice of the chromatic palette show a refined artistic taste. mixed with white lead was used for the modelling of faces and silhouettes. However. it is not a palette characteristic of the Parisian workshops of the middle of the 13th century and of its third quarter. observations concerning the colours and the chromatic palette permit one to make several observations and to propose a number of hypotheses. ms. A small portion of such a scroll is visible in the lower part of the miniature of the Wild Ass. which can be observed in the yellow of frames and in some attributes. Besides that. These workshops attached a great importance to a perfect balance of blue and pink colours retouched with a parcimonious and skillful use of red and green. In several miniatures one can observe the degradation of the grey colour because of the use of an unadapted binder (or too hurried heating of the clarea which «turned» during the heating).º i . silver and other metallic pigments are absent at a first glance. This choice is due to his training and to his personal inclination. It is difficult to make a definitive conclusion as to the pigments used in the ms. t. T without a new verification of chemical results and microspectoscopic analysis. There is no doubt that in the beginning it produced an impression of a much more sumptuous object. red sulphate of mercury. 10v. may be of silver which often attacks the parchment.

The chromatic palette of the ms. the ms. with their variegated colours. and independent in their chromatic tastes from Parisian norms. 2005. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2003. Thus. freshness of the narration. Arte del secolo XII. Storia universale dell’arte. thick linear drawing and absence of modelling. The disregard of traditional rules. 1988. on the other hand it demonstrates the knowledge of English illumination and of its chromatic devices. She studied History of Art in Russia. the most important of these publications are monographs: Masters of the French Gothic.r e m a r k s o n c o l o u r s a n d p i g m e n t s i n t h e f r e n c h c o u r t i l l u m i n at i o n o f t h e 1 3 t h c e n t u r y ration of books executed by artists working North of the capital. Le Bestiaire medieval. reminds one of the favourite palette of English artists of the second and third quarters of the 13th century. The Medieval Bestiary. 1988. of the medieval illumination and of medieval bestiaries. on one hand. the use of pigments and colours in this manuscript shows a rather free approach to the colour. in the use of mixtures of pigments. refinement of modelling in painting and its remarkable choice of he chromatic palette. especially to the study of the 12th and 13th centuries. is a feature which seems rather becoming to the work of artists who were not bound by the secular traditions of the professional production of Latin manuscripts. She is member of numerous associations and scientific societies in Europe and in America. 1984. in its present state. Her work is dedicated to various problems of medieval art.º i . T. in relation with the majority of illuminated manuscripts of this period coming from workshops of the North and East from Paris. At the same time. Xenia Muratova works also as art critic and writes on Modern and Contemporary painting as well as on the History of the history of Art. Arte del secolo XI. in any case. T impresses one by the grace and vivacity of its linear drawing. indicated in the medieval manuals of painting. of methods of work of the medieval artist. in France and in Germany. Storia universale dell’arte. It is particularly interesting to note that in this case the artist based his work partly on the experience of artists who did not belonged to big Parisian workshops but who constituted a group of artists attached to the Capella Regis and working together on the decoration of Royal Psalters obviously intended for the French court. She is the author of several books and numerous articles and essays on these topics. These artists began to specialize independently in the decoration of manuscripts written in vulgar languages. • Biography Xenia Muratova is a Professor Emeritus of French Universities.2 0 1 1 57 .

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e os tratados pós-bizantinos como o Anónimo 1566 de Jerusalém e. Há uma enorme lacuna entre os papiros de Estocolmo e Leiden. Por outro lado. Pelo contrário quase nada parece ter sobrevivido do mundo bizantino que lhe foi contemporâneo. mesmo quando as análises científicas mostram que alguns pigmentos sintéticos importantes. iluminuras e tintas. encontram-se publicadas apenas umas poucas receitas. a arte bizantina não foi uniforme – nem em estilo. no Ocidente latino. Além disso. tais como. novos pigmentos foram inventados (amarelo de estanho e chumbo. XII. Algumas das técnicas descritas podem ser observadas nos manuscritos bizantinos. há ainda muito poucas receitas para a produção de pigmentos sintéticos. Hermeneia do séc. a produção de vermelhão e de laca vermelha.º i . a pesquisa sistemática em manuscritos catalogados poderá ampliar este número para cerca de 80 receitas relacionadas com a produção de manuscritos. Os principais tópicos são tintas. palavras-chave bizâncio receitas iluminuras crisografia pigmentos • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. sobretudo de tintas. mas é apenas possível referir uma influência directa nos manuscritos escritos por gregos exilados na Itália do séc. A técnica da pintura varia entre scriptoria de diferentes regiões e cronologias. durante os 1000 anos que durou o Império bizantino. Portanto. XIV e XV. o mais conhecido. mas uma análise rigorosa desses tratados tardios revela. influências das técnicas ocidentais pós-medievais. douradura. Tem sido muitas vezes assumido que os textos pós-bizantinos reflectem mais fielmente as tradições bizantinas. afinal. azul de esmalte) – mudanças que os textos pós-bizantinos não referem.). XVIII. Sendo a maioria das receitas «novas» e únicas. Há igualmente poucos vestígios de papiros da Antiguidade Tardia. Até agora não sobreviveram tratados sobre técnicas artísticas comparáveis a Theophilus ou Cennino. não podem ser tomados sem alguma cautela como substitutos dos textos bizantinos perdidos. crisografia. em parte. Os primeiros textos datam do séc. Do tempo bizantino.2 0 1 1 59 . Num projecto coordenado por Peter Schreiner (Universidade de Colónia) e Doris Oltrogge (Fachlochshule Koln). tendo muitos deles sido escritos nos sécs.byza n t i n e re ci pe s a n d b ook illum ination Resumo Conhecem-se centenas de receitas medievais para a produção de cores. escrito por Dionísio de Phourna. XV. nem textualmente. datados aproximadamente da terceira centúria (c. algumas técnicas são comparáveis às que são descritas nos textos do Ocidente. o amarelo de estanho e chumbo foram usados na iluminura bizantina mais cedo que no Ocidente – podendo ter sido inventados em Bizâncio.

So far no treatise on art technology – comparable to Theophilus or Cennino – has survived. are published up to now. they cannot be taken without reservations as substitute for lost Byzantine texts. key-words byzantium. Byzantine art is not uniform – neither in style nor in text – during the 1000-year-period of the Byzantine Empire. Therefore. but a close analysis of these later treatises reveals at least partly influences of postmediaeval Western techniques. only some few recipes. chrysography. Some of the techniques described can be observed in Byzantine manuscripts. written by Dionysios of Phourna. smalt) – changes on which the post-byzantine texts give no information. There is an enormous gap between the late antique papyri in Stockholm and Leiden. It has often been assumed that the post-byzantine texts reflect rather faithfully byzantine traditions. . Some techniques are comparable to those described in Western texts but a direct influence can only be stated in manuscripts which were written by Greek exiles in 15th century Italy. In a common project of Peter Schreiner (University of Cologne) and Doris Oltrogge (Fachhochschule Köln) a systematic survey on catalogued manuscripts could enlarge this number to about 80 recipes dealing with the techniques of manuscript production. The main topics are inks. From the Byzantine time. dating from about the 3 rd century. Most of the recipes are «new» and unique. Furthermore. On the other hand. On the contrary nearly nothing seems to have survived from contemporary Byzantium. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. most of them were written in the 14th and 15th centuries. mainly on inks.Abstract Hundreds of mediaeval recipes on colour production. even if analysis can show that some important artificial pigments like lead tin yellow were used in Byzantine illumination earlier than in the West – and were perhaps invented in Byzantium. Felix Teichner e Heidi. and the production of vermilion and of red lakes. Justino Maciel. The painting technique varies between scriptoria of different times and locations. recipes. book illumination. chrysography. The earliest texts date from the 12th century. new pigments were invented (lead-tin yellow. book illumination and inks are known from the Latin West. there are still extremely few recipes for the production of artificial pigments. pigments • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. There are also only few traces of the late antique papyri. gilding. and the postbyzantine treatises like the 1566 Anonymous in Jerusalem and the better known 18th-century Hermeneia.

58-102). The major Greek texts on painting technique dating from the 16th century onwards belong to the postbyzantine period.º i . 2. This is certainly true for large parts of the iconographical section: postbyzantine wall and icon painting depends largely on mediaeval models and so do Dionysios’ descriptions of the major scenes from the New Testament. However it has been stated that in some cases the iconography follows the more modern types of the Cretan school which was clearly influenced by Italian. however. and with the techniques of painting and book illumination have survived from the Latin West.2 0 1 1 61 .byzantine recipes and book illumination d o ris o ltro g g e Cologne Institute for Conservation Sciences Cologne University of Applied Sciences D-50678 Köln (Germany) 1. dating from the 1st century AD. Texts written by Greek scribes before the middle of the 15th century in places outside the Byzantine Empire – especially since the later 14th century in areas already under Turkish dominion or by exiles in Italy or elsewhere – are considered as Byzantine. This treatise is generally assumed to transmit rather faithfully the earlier Byzantine tradition. texts on art technology seem to be nearly non-existent in Byzantine times. 67). 500 and 1453 AD. i. with binding media. the time before the fall of Constantinople in 1453. And also some of r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Hetherington 1974. dyeing and alchemy (Halleux 1981). Bentchev 2004). For the most comprehensive overview see: Clarke 2001. Probably in the 3rd century AD the Leyden and Stockholm papyri were written. This is more than strange if we consider that the earliest known Latin source – the Carolingian Lucca manuscript – is clearly a translation from the Greek (Clarke 2001. There are. 8). that is in the period between ca.e. On the contrary.1 On the contrary nearly nothing seems to have come down to us from contemporary Byzantium. In this article «Byzantine» is strictly defined as a period term. The art of writing is considered in 16 recipes for true and false chrysography (Trost 1991. More than 400 mediaeval manuscripts dealing with the production of pigments and inks. Greek texts on art technology from Antiquity: information on pigments are found in the Book on stones written in the 4th century BC by Theophrast or in the medical treatise of Dioskurides. namely Venetian paintings from the middle of the 16th century onwards (Bentchev 2004. which transmit the most comprehensive collection of recipes for metallurgy.2 The Postbyzantine tradition Due to this lack of original sources from mediaeval Byzantium studies on Byzantine painting technique usually refer to the Hermeneia tis zographikis (the Treatise of Painters) written in 1730-1733 on Mount Athos by the painter-monk Dionysios of Phourna (Papadopoulos-Kèrameus 1909.

Then wool shearings are put into the lye and cooked until the colour is extracted. the date proposed for two anonymous treatises which were copied in a 17th century manuscript in the Library of the Greek Patriarchate in Jerusalem (Bentchev 2004. Dionysios § 45 (BENTCHEV 2004. 154s). The technical section of Dionysios’ Hermeneia can be traced back to about 1566. Similar recipes have often been copied in Western manuscripts from the 14th century onward (Wallert 1991).º i . Another recipe of the Jerusalem manuscript and the Hermeneia describes the production of a blue or red colour: 5 First a lye is made from quicklime and potash. 62 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. who worked in the second half of the 16th century on Mount Athos. Žefarovič is the most Western of these authors. two other postbyzantine Greek treatises on painting technique are known. 92). the Ionian painter Panagiotes Doxaras (1662-1729) translated Leonardo’s Trattato della pittura into Greek. Is this a Byzantine technique taken over by the Latins? Or was a Western recipe adopted in late or postbyzantine time by the Greek? The terminology used by the Jerusalem 3. 39). a work written most probably in Church Slavonic but translated also into Greek (Bentchev 2004. 130). 156). words of Italian. Dionysios § 42 (BENTCHEV 2004.2 0 1 1 . besides Leonardo’s Trattato he used the German Kunst. Afterwards alum and a little glair are added to the filtered colour extract. and in 1726 he wrote himself a treatise on painting Peri zographias (Bentchev 2004. 41). especially in the parts of the Byzantine Empire which were already occupied by the Turks before 1453. In 1720. But how Byzantine is this later Greek tradition? The translators of the Hermeneia have remarked that the text of Dionysios as well as that of the Jerusalem manuscript is full of unusual terms.co lo u r i n w r i t t e n m e d i e va l s o u rc e s the technical recipes reflect the techniques of Italo-Cretan and Italian oil painting (Bentchev 2004. 67).und Werck-Schul of 1705 and Pictorius’ Lackir-Kunst of 1708. but not the name of the more recent painter. and Theophanis the Crete. 97). Anonymous § 35 (BENTCHEV 2004. Dionysios of Phourna. 95). Anonymous § 39 (BENTCHEV 2004. However. §34 (BENTCHEV 2004.3 Turzisms are not unusual in the late Byzantine period. whose recipes he however copied (Bentchev 2004. 57). he also knew the Greek tradition of the Jerusalem treatises which was the major source for the Hermeneia of Dionysios of Phourna (Bentchev 2004. So the German term γόλι φάρπε (Goldfarbe – gold colour) is used explicitly to explain a Venetian gilding technique considered as unusual to Greek traditions. This treatise as well as Doxaras’ translation of Leonardo’s Trattato were used as references by the icon painter and engraver Christofor Žefarovič in his Instructions for young people desiring to learn the art of painting (Koinēnou thesia ētē Hermeneia eis tous neous…). The recipe describes thus the making of an indigo pigment from blue shearings and of red lakes from the shearings of scarlet cloth. Besides. 5. Even more interesting are some of the Italianisms. Turkish and even German origin. 40. Depending on the colour of the shearings the pigment obtained will be blue or red. Anonymous I quotes as references the painters Panselinos. 4. Dionysios also mentions Panselinos. In a recipe for the making of verdigris 4 the product is not called ios or ios chalkou as it should be in classical Greek but vardáramon which clearly derives from the Italian verderame. 58). who most probably lived in the 14th century.

The aim of this project is not only the publication of the small text compiled by Isidor of Kiev.2 0 1 1 63 . The immense gap between the 3rd century papyri and the postbyzantine treatises still remains open. It is difficult to decide what the reasons are. Even Bentchev who recognised the meaning of the recipe translates it inexactly as Stofflumpen (rags). when he discovered the first known small treatise on manuscript production from the Byzantine Period. but a commentated edition of all available Byzantine recipes on the techniques related to writing and book illumination. Compared with the abundant Western tradition the number is still very meagre. written in the early 15th century by Isidor of Kiev (Schreiner 1988. 116-125). the search had to concentrate on catalogues so that libraries without or with very old catalogisation are not considered. A major finding was done by Peter Schreiner. most of them were written in the 14th and 15th century. a word so uncommon in Greek that it has lead to some confusion in the various translations of the Hermeneia. Anonymous and Dionysios points to the latter: the shearings are called tzimarísmata. with Isidor’s of Kiev text there is a first indication for the existence of more or less systematic art technological recipe collections in Byzantium. Some ink recipes have been published by Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda in 1983. Therefore new findings will be possible when more libraries are made accessible by useful catalogues. The word clearly derives from the Italian cimatura (shearing).byza n t i n e re ci pe s a n d b ook illum ination 6. led to an interdisciplinary project with Professor Schreiner as Byzantine philologist and myself as an expert for art technology. former chair of Byzantine Studies at the University of Cologne. Byzantine texts on manuscript production These few examples show that the Hermeneia of Dionysios of Phourna and the earlier Jerusalem Anonymous should not be taken without restrictions as sources for painting techniques of the Byzantine period. Whether this was done already in the Byzantine period or only by the Anonymous of the 16th century cannot be decided. The edition is planned for 2010 (Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften). and furthermore. 6 Purely alchemical treatises are not part of the project. It seems that art technology plays an extremely smaller role in the surviving Byzantine manuscripts than in their Western counterparts. Was there less interest in the practical arts by the literate people in Byzantium? Or got the manuscripts simply lost after the fall of Byzantium because the Western collectors were more interested in luxurious codices or in literary and r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. A few instructions for making vermilion are transcribed in alchemical manuscripts (Berthelot 1887). The problem to understand the techniques described. For practical reasons. But at least a small number of recipes have survived which give us some isolated information on art technology in mediaeval Byzantium. often with ambiguous or unusual terms.º i . Nevertheless the number of recipes concerned with the art of manuscript production could already be increased to about 80. therefore most probably the recipe is a translation from the Italian. The earliest texts date from the 12th century.

gold inks and grounds for gold ink and gold leaf. just after the iron gall inks. when the group of recipe texts known as Mappae Clavicula was translated into Latin (Oltrogge 2006. at a later date. After the fall of Constantinople he had to exile to Rome where he died in 1463. but also the application of gold leaf. Topics The main interest of the scribes was their writing material. 555).co lo u r i n w r i t t e n m e d i e va l s o u rc e s scholarly pretensious texts than in recipe collections of doubtful literary quality and perhaps even «bad» Greek? At least. the recipes describe the production of gold ink. At the end he returns to chrysography with three recipes for a gold ground made from brazil wood. one for a green ink. another for dyeing bones with copper green. The compilation was not written continuously. born about 1380/90 in Monembasia (Peloponnes) was highly esteemed for his erudition. greek ambassador at the Conciles of Bale and Ferrara. Information can also be found on glues for sizing paper.2 0 1 1 . he continues with iron gall inks. Another large group of recipes deals with chrysography. vermilion for the rubrication and starch glue for sizing the paper. especially the treatise of Isidor of Kiev. a recipe for an artificial steatite and a unique description of a pseudo-sgraffito. his political and rhetorical qualities. Instructions for other pigments are extremely rare. first of all iron gall inks. The most comprehensive recipe collection is that of Isidor of Kiev with 14 recipes (an extremely small number compared to Western manuscripts). that is gold script. Despite his 64 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Remarkably smaller is the group of colour recipes. Isidor. there was a tradition of technical texts in Greek Antiquity – as documented in the papyri – which must have been still well known at least in the early Byzantine period. Isidor begins with chrysography. The two translations of this text – the version of the late 8 th century Lucca manuscript with its numerous graecisms and the philologically more correct Mappae Clavicula version which became the standard for later Latin copies – document the great interest of the Carolingian West in Greek technological literature which would be difficult to understand if this tradition would have been already interrupted in contemporary Byzantium. A second argument for the assumption that the scarce number of texts is mainly a question of survival are the few documents which have come down to us. 2r.º i . there are some arguments for the latter hypothesis: First. Isidor added two recipes for chrysography on a blank space on fol. Very few recipes do not belong to the art of manuscript production: oil varnishes. A number of recipes deals with the red lakes lachas and barzion. The production of vermilion is either described in alchemical manuscripts or related to its use for writing. The interest of Isidor is clearly the interest of a scribe. Roman Cardinal and finally Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople. but also on casein glues for other purposes. The recipes are found in rather different types of manuscripts. one for the refining of lapis lazuli. Both techniques are also appropriate for illumination. he became monk.

Therefore the scribe overwrote his text partly with another iron gall ink mixed with carbon ink. Instructions for iron gall ink often stand on fly leafs or are added on blank spaces of pages with completely different content: patristic. The recipes for pigments and chrysography are more often found in miscellanous manuscripts on nature sciences: medicine. which contains our small treatise. the other 22 instructions deal with iron gall ink. ms. gr. Bodleian Library.2 0 1 1 65 . Vatican Library. brillant career he was an industrious copyist and compilator whose scholarly interests included theology. Moreover are the recipes usually more isolated. is a good example of Isidor’s occupations. An interesting example is a New Testament. Recipes and workshop practice Inks As said before. medical excerpts. literature. Isidor must have collected recipes over a certain period. philosophy. On the whole. The black inks are always genuine iron gall inks without any additions of carbon black. In other cases we are not so well informed on the compilators. Sometimes but not necessarily they are embedded in alchemical texts. Cod. Nevertheless carbon black inks or mixtures from iron gall inks and carbon black were used in some Byzantine scriptoria. and sometimes recipes of both types stand in a sequence. Oxford. 7 To these notes he added also another recipe for iron gall ink and for paper size which are not found in the Vatican codex. which can be water. A number of recipes explicitly state that the ink should become black or light. natural sciences and – as we see – also the technological aspects of writing materials. (Schreiner 1996) The Codex Vaticanus graecus 914. written in Syria in 1273 (Rome. astrology and alchemy. Variations are given by the quantities of the ingredients and the heating or not heating of the ink. 18). Additions like nutshells or the fruits of cypresses occur in two recipes. blank leaf of an older manuscript with the works of Xenophon. With the same ink he added the initial which was embellished with gold powder sprinkled upon the wet ink. the group of iron gall ink recipes seems not to be very different from their Western counterparts. Canon. because he copied one of the recipes on iron gall ink and the instruction for making vermilion also on the last. rhetorics. Borg. astronomy. But it is striking. The iron gall ink which had first been used did not adhere well and was obviously too pale on some places. vinegar or wine. gr. There is one recipe for a gall nut ink.º i . rhetoric. vitriol and gum together with a liquid. Most of them are very common: a mixture of gall nuts. that the Greek scribes were more interested in different colours of their inks. even if up to now no exact parallel could be found. especially in the Greek monasteries in the Arabian countries or in the border areas to the Muslim world. 39.byza n t i n e re ci pe s a n d b ook illum ination 7. one of the main topics are writing inks. But even in this context we find seldom more than five recipes in a sequence. geometrical and metrological treatises and some alchemical notes by Hermes Trismegistos. the contemporary binding unites the recipe collection with rhetorical texts. This sprinkling technique as well as the carbon ink are characteristic for Arabian r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. law.

It is therefore not amazing. gum or glue are suited to disperse the gold powder. golden – and silver – script was usually written by specialists. Another. The alchemical terminology of some of the recipes makes it even more conspicious.2 0 1 1 . Also this method was already described in the 3rd century papyri but again none of the Byzantine recipes is a direct copy from these ancient models. Gold leaf or gold filings are ground together with mercury. The most simple is the mechanical grinding of gold leaf. The addition of sulfur to gold 66 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. written in the 7th century. the mercury evaporates and a very fine gold powder remains. Chrysography and gilding The next large group of Byzantine recipes concerns the gold writing.co lo u r i n w r i t t e n m e d i e va l s o u rc e s scriptoria. In the Greek Psalter in Zürich. (Bartl et al. At first sight this recipe looks like a confusion of the amalgam method with the production of vermilion. to my knowledge residues of mercury have so far not been detected in any gold ink. This technique was highly esteemed in the Byzantine culture. and the application of gold inks and gold leaf on grounds.º i . It is amazing that none of the Byzantine recipes is copied from these older texts. Grainy additives like salt pulverise the tender gold leaf and can afterwards easily be diluted in water. Gold on the other hand is inert so that the use of salt is more difficult to prove. But a more detailed analysis gives sense to the instruction. that more than 35 recipes are related to this topic. more sophisticated method is the preparation of gold powder with the help of an amalgam. where carbon inks and mixtures with iron gall inks were common writing materials (Eliazane & Engel 2006). They describe the production of gold inks. Three different methods for the preparation of gold powder can be distinguished. the chrysographers. Comparable recipes have also survived from Armenia. 92). 84). Six recipes describe a third method to prepare gold powder: gold is mixed with sulfur and mercury. And the practice to use a carbon ink for writing was restricted to very few scriptoria. «Greek ink». But also viscous materials like honey. on some places pure natrium chloride could be analysed in the gold ink – obviously the gold powder had not been washed carefully after grinding (Fuchs & Oltrogge 2007. When silver is ground with salt it reacts easily with the natrium chloride to silver chloride. There is no information on the diffusion of this method in practice. the common writing ink of Byzantine scribes was the iron gall ink which is rather good documented in the recipes. But up to now no written Greek source is known. the amalgam is heated. then heated at a rather low temperature. 2005. These methods are already described in the late antique Greek papyri. chrysography. But this may be also a question of analysis. From the Arabian countries also a number of recipes for carbon inks are known (Schopen 2004). It is amazing that in the Liber Illuministarum and some other German manuscripts of the 15th century the production of a carbon ink is explicitly called incaustum graecum. the method is comparable but the text of the recipes is new! In practice the grinding with salt must have been rather common because in a number of manuscripts with silver ink the presence of silver chloride could be proved.

The lachas can be produced from a material called lachas or from brazil wood (barzion). fig. It is possible that lachas was also a rather precious pigment in Byzantium. that both materials should give a red colour. 67) supposed that the cementation with sulfur was already known in Antiquity even if the first precise description is found in Agricola. 1). This is the process described in the Byzantine recipes. The red lake produced with this method still contains some resins. Polish or Armenian cochineals.2 0 1 1 67 . 9 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. even if the description in the recipes is not always very clear. Interestingly both. Craddock (2000. add precious information on the diffusion of this technical knowledge. It seems that first a gold powder is produced with help of the amalgam and after the mercury has evaporated the gold powder is cementated with sulfur. Brazil wood is the second base material for red lakes mentioned in Byzantine manuscripts. the name of the Indian lac insect. It can be cut to pieces and warmed with a little water for painting. a process to remove impurities from gold. Most often it is made from a red lake (lachas and barzion). then heated with soda. Silver and copper – which are often present as impurities in gold – react at low temperatures with sulfur to silver respectively copper sulfide. alum and water. ms. The red lake should be written as underlayer for chrysography or painted as ground for gold leaf. Afterwards the red liquid is filtered and dried. The analysis was done with spectrophotometry with which it is not possible to distinguish between the lakes of the different scale insects. the recipes for the lac lake and for the red lakes from brazil wood are never intended for illumination or other painting but always for gilding and writing. On the other hand it can be easily extracted in alkaline solutions. Our six Byzantine recipes. At least it is striking that the term lachas which originally meant a material could also be used to designate a red lake in general. Q 741. The term lachas is derived from the hindi lakka. The red dye is embedded in a resinous matrix and cannot be extracted in pure water. Crude lac was also known in the Latin West where it is documented as very expensive raw material for dyeing textiles and leather and for the preparation of red lakes for painting. vinegar or red wine. The earliest example for the use of lachas in the sense of red lake is found in a 13th century recipe for a brazil lake. gold does not react. Some recipes mention. Fuchs. Kermes. The best results are obtained when the gold is already pulverised. Oltrogge (forthcoming).º i . The colorant is extracted with glair. and stabilized with alum. from which a purple red lake can be precipitated with alum.byza n t i n e re ci pe s a n d b ook illum ination 8. It could be identified as a scale insect lake 8 for example in a patristic manuscript from the 11th century in Weimar (Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek. lac lake. This seems to be the reason for the addition of mercury. A red underlayer for chrysography can often be observed in Byzantine manuscripts (Mokretsova 2003. all in 14th century manuscripts. 217). that the lachas material is the crude lac. The preparation of lachas from lachas is always described in a similar manner: the lachas is crushed. We can therefore conclude. A soda solution gives a deep red purple extract. Red lakes About 20 recipes deal with the application of gold on a ground or with the preparation of this ground. and the heating at low temperature is one possible process of cementation. 9. so that the powder can be dispergated in water and painted without another binding medium.

39 (11th century): a red lake from scale insects is used as underlayer for gold leaf and to paint the red decorations. Q 743. haab. Fuchs. But at least in the 15th century there were scribes who used both. Oltrogge (forthcoming). ms. In an 11th century Gospel Book in Weimar a lake insect dye was used as rose colour in the decoration (Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek. even if the recipes do not mention this. lakes and vermilion. fig. but also yellow ochre. fol.º i . Gold grounds Red lakes were not the only gold grounds mentioned in the recipes. Rubrics in Byzantine manucripts are often written with vermilion but also with red lakes. There are still too few analysis to know if the one or the other material was prefered in certain periods or scriptoria. (robert fuchs. 1r (11th century): the red lake used as underlayer for the gold ink in script and kephalion is made from scale insects. cics. for example. 10 In few cases it is not explicitly stated that gold should be laid on top of the red lake script and it is possible that the rubrication is meant. 224). 2). (robert fuchs. q 741. mainly red: vermilion. they were thought both as underlayer for gold inks and for gold leaf. the yellow is lead tin yellow. armenian bole.2 weimar. There are also some other pigments. haab. cics. Again. Isidor of Kiev in the Vatican codex gr. red ochre. 2009) fig.2 0 1 1 . 10. q 743. 2009) Grounds for gold leaf made from red lakes can be observed in initials or in the kephalia – the ornamental head pieces – in a number of Byzantine codices (Mokretsova 2003. 914. This is different from most of the Western recipes where usually coloured grounds 68 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. fol. Certainly these red lakes could also be used in illumination.co lo u r i n w r i t t e n m e d i e va l s o u rc e s fig.1 weimar.

Isidor does not transcribe a recipe for the refining. An exception is Theophilus (I. most of them dealing with the making and tempering of vermilion and with its use either as gold ground or as rubrication.2 0 1 1 69 . Because of these differences in materials and techniques between the miniatures and the decoration of the script it is most likely that both were executed by different painters. using also Italian terms like verderami. But no Byzantine recipe for this process is known. there exist Byzantine copies of Dioskurides but these copies were probably done only for literary purposes. The only Byzantine recipe to produce a green colour describes a mixture made from indigo and a yellow colorant. The process is repeated twice so that at the end three fractions are produced. a process already described in Greek in the 1st century by Dioskurides. They are coloured red-rose with either vermilion or armenian bold. 224). Coloured grounds seem to have been typical for gilding in Byzantine manuscripts (Mokretsova 2003. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. This proves that in Byzantium the technique for the production of lead tin yellow was already well known in the 11th century – about 150-200 years before the earliest occurences in the West. it is a translation from an Italian text. But certainly other artificial pigments were well known to Byzantine painters. 29) who mentions a mixture of red lead and vermilion as underlayer for gold inks. but in this case verdigris is not produced but put into vinegar to dye bones. There is one recipe using verdigris. Only one recipe describes the refining of lapislazuli. It is amazing that up to now no recipe for the making of verdigris could be found. yellow ochre is used as an underlayer for the gold leaf in the miniatures. In the already mentioned patristic manuscript in Weimar most of the pigments analysed are artificial: red lead. whereas in the kephalia the gold leaf is put on top of a red scale insect lake. This mixture on the other hand is not described in our Byzantine texts. Sure. As mentioned vermilion was used as one of the rubrication materials by Isidor of Kiev who also copied a recipe for grinding and tempering the pigment. The pigment powder is mixed with resin. colophonium and linseed oil and than thrown into hot water. In the Byzantine recipes only the gesso grounds – for which two examples are known – are restricted to gold leaf. but also scribes like Isidor of Kiev wrote sometimes initials or did some decoration with it.º i . no Byzantine recipe for any artificial pigment is known up to now. This 14th century instruction is comparable to many Western texts even if up to now no exact parallel could be found. 213). Besides the production of vermilion. Lapislazuli has been proven in Byzantine illumination (Mokretsova 2003. lead white. In the already mentioned Gospel Book in Weimar.byza n t i n e re ci pe s a n d b ook illum ination are only described for gold or silver leaf and not for metal inks. Pigments Besides iron gall ink and gilding there are few recipes on proper colours. the same red lake is the underlayer for the gold ink of the script. a copper green – which presumably is an artificial pigment but amorphous and thus not identifiable in the X-Ray-diffraction – and even lead tin yellow.

70 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 54-71.). Craddock. 2000. Recklinghausen: Museen der Stadt Recklinghausen. 2001. 2006. Fuchs. Andrew. The Art of All Colours.co lo u r i n w r i t t e n m e d i e va l s o u rc e s Resume It is possible to fill the gap between the late antique papyri and the postbyzantine Hermeneia at least with a small number of recipes. Robert & Oltrogge. Collection des Anciens Alchimistes Grecs. Der «Liber illuministarum» aus Kloster Tegernsee. 31-98. that is the 14th and 15th century. Ink Manufacturing Methods Used in Ancient Armenia. 94-112.T. Paul (Ed. They concern mostly the art of writing: inks.): King Croesus’ Gold. London: Archetype. Doris. In some cases we can prove that the scribes were sitting in Italy as exiles from the already Turkish parts of Byzantium. Anna et al. • Bibliography Bartl. Patricia. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. M.º i . To the contrary to what one would expect direct copies from the papyri are extremely rare. Mark. Griechische und bulgarische Malerbücher. Robert. but in the 15th century we find translations and adaptations of Latin and Italian recipes easily to recognise because of their terminology. 1974. 17. Craddock. pigments for rubrication. Gayane & Engel. The relationship to the Western recipes is very loose in the beginning. The information dates mostly in the Palaeologan period. Il salterio purpureo Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Buletyn Informacyjn Konserwatorów Dziel Sztuki. Other arts are occasionally touched. P. Berthelot. Clarke. Segno e testo 5. Les alchimistes grecs. London: British Museum. Eliazane. RP 1. An English Translation. Mediaeval Recipe Books for Painters and Illuminators. Ivan. Halleux. 2007. 1887.2 0 1 1 . 2004. Ramage.Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Hetherington. 1981. Up to now no Byzantine recipe was found which could have served as a model for a translation into a Western language. Bentchev. (Ed. no recipe was written before the 12th century. But they do not give the whole palette for illuminators and scribes. Paris: Georges Steinheil. The «Painter’s Manual» of Dionysius of Fourna. chrysography. Isleworth: Saggitarius Press. P. The recipe are also useful to illuminators even if this is not explicitly stated. Historical Survey of Gold Refining. 2005.

München: Hirmer. Christoph Krekel and Manfred Lautenschlager Der Liber Illuministarum aus Kloster Tegernsee (2005). 74-83. Arie. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht. Papadopoulos-Kèrameus. She curates an online-database of art-technological sources of the Middle Ages and Renaissance <www. 1983. Reprint Athen: Spanos.º i . Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Materials and Techniques of Byzantine Manuscripts. Schopen. 1250-1400»). Cod. 867-932. 1991.de>. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung 5. Gold. Codices Vaticani Graeci. Wallert. Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Rezeptsammlungen und Traktate.und Hochmittelalter. Geschichte und Kultur der Palaiologenzeit. Forthcoming: Byzantinische TintenTuschen. 205-219.2003. 914. Oltrogge. 1991.). Peter (Ed. 2006. 1988. Canossa. Monique.fh-koeln. Les Encres Noires au Moyen Âge. together with Anna Bartl. Schreiner.re.und Silbertinten. Among her recent publications are. Tinten und Tuschen des arabischen Mittelalters. Literarische Interessen in der Palaiologenzeit anhand von Gelehrtencodices: Das Beispiel des Vaticanus gr. 1909.). Vera. Die Vermittlung kunsttechnischen Wissens im Früh. Biography Study of art history and archaeology in Göttingen and Bonn (PhD 1987 «Die Illustrationszyklen der Histoire ancienne. 555-562. Peter.byza n t i n e re ci pe s a n d b ook illum ination Mokretsova. St. Moscou: Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation. Seibt. Inna et al. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Wien 2011 (together with Peter Schreiner). Petersburg. with Robert Fuchs Ein Meisterwerk im Wandel: Untersuchungen zur Maltechnik des Codex Aureus Epternacensis (2009). since 1996 Cologne Institute of Conservation Science). Stiegemann. A. 1996. Armin. Wien: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Denys de Fourna. She published widely on the painting technique and materials of medieval book illumination as well as on sources for art technology. Werner (Ed.und Farbrezepte.2 0 1 1 71 . Schreiner. 2004. Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda. Paris: Éditions du CNRS. Manuel d’iconographie chrétienne. Christoph and Wemhoff. I. Doris. Trost. «Cimature di grana»: Identification of Natural Organic Colorants and Binding Media in Medieval Manuscript Illumination.). Matthias (Ed. Since 1987 researcher for art technology and book illumination (University of Göttingen.

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podemos também observar para certas combinações de ingredientes. em especial. mais recentemente. Perdidos em 1870. qual a estrutura básica. Graças a esta base de dados é possível analisar para cada ingrediente. Até agora. os de Oltrogge têm destacado a existência de textos com conteúdos semelhantes. A partir destes estudos. a sua frequência global ou a sua repetição no corpus de textos. à preparação de cores. Vários estudos como os de Ploss e. de forma a perceber de que maneira uma receita foi sendo modificada ao longo do tempo ou por acção de certos factores externos. para o estudo das técnicas de iluminura no Norte da Europa. esta centrou-se nos manuscritos escritos durante o período medieval. Além disso. no fogo da biblioteca de Estrasburgo. os Manuscritos de Estrasburgo foram considerados as fontes mais antigas. o seu conteúdo técnico só sobreviveu graças a uma transcrição feita por Sir Charles Eastlake. Uma comparação com um corpus maior de textos artísticos medievais provenientes de países de língua germânica permitir-nos-ia destacar a originalidade e a novidade de certos processos para a produção de cores descritos nos textos da «família de Estrasburgo». palavras-chave técnicas de iluminura manuscritos receitas artísticas materiais base de dados • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. entre 1400 e 1560.º i . dentro de um quadro preciso. XIX. reunidos de acordo com a ordem em que aparecem na receita. no séc. nas receitas.2 0 1 1 73 . foi possível definir claramente um corpo de manuscritos como pertencendo a esta família e nova evidência textual tem vindo a ser descoberta. também é possível relacionar a história de um número de prescrições e correlacioná-las com técnicas de mais ampla difusão. especialmente na Alemanha e nos países limítrofes.e. dedicadas à pintura e iluminura e. Cada instrução foi codificada numa combinação especifica de ingredientes. Os procedimentos e receitas artísticas descritas nestes manuscritos são. na sua maioria. Inicialmente. podemos propor. não só uma área geográfica mas também uma data para a sua produção.t he st ra s b ourg fami ly t e x t s : ori gi n al i t y and survival Resumo Durante muito tempo. os dados para uma história dos materiais e técnicas. Graças a uma análise filológica e codicológica. i. em língua germânica. A descoberta de novos manuscritos e o seu tratamento. mais de uma centena de manuscritos foram tratados e quatro mil receitas foram transcritas. Além disso. temos assim.. Existe ainda um grande número de receitas que descrevem quais as combinações mais adequadas de pigmentos e quais os ligantes a usar na iluminura. Através destes textos. levou à criação de uma base de dados. agrupando-os sobre o nome de «Família de Estrasburgo». para esta família de manuscritos. qual a sua frequência no corpus e evolução.

their frequency in the corpus and their evolution. the Strasbourg Manuscript has been seen as one of the oldest German-language sources containing instructions on North European illuminating techniques. Felix Teichner e Heidi. i. . the basic structure. this database concentrated on manuscripts written during the medieval period. Justino Maciel. Up until now. especially. The discovery of new witness manuscripts and their treatment has necessitated the creation of a database. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. a clearly defined corpus of manuscripts has been established as belonging to this family and new textual evidence has been discovered. In addition. Through these texts. we can propose both a geographical area in which the manuscripts of the so-called Strasbourg tradition were produced as well as a chronological range from 1400 to 1560. Several studies like those of Ploss and. more widely diffused techniques. Thanks to a philological and codicological analysis. Moreover. recipes. in order to perceive in which way a recipe has been modified over time or by other external phenomenon. A great number of recipes are also concerned with suitable combinations of pigments and specific binding agents used in illumination.e. its technical content only survives in a nineteenth-century transcription made for Sir Charles Eastlake. those of Oltrogge have highlighted the existence of texts with very similar contents. The artistic instructions of these manuscripts are mostly dedicated to painting and illuminating and. it is also possible to relate the history of a number of prescriptions to. Comparison with a larger corpus of medieval artistic texts emanating from Germanspeaking countries would allow us to highlight the originality and the newness of certain processes for the manufacture of colours described in the Strasbourg family texts. Lost in the 1870 Strasbourg Library fire. Initially. more recently.Abstract For a long time. Since the appearance of these studies. assembled according to the order in which they appear in the recipe process. we can also observe in the associations of ingredients. more than one hundred manuscripts have been treated and four thousand recipes have been transcribed. to the preparation of colours. grouping them under the name of the ‘Strasbourg Family’. and to correlate them with. especially on those from Germany as well as from some border countries. Thanks to this database it is possible to examine for each ingredient its global frequency or repetition in the corpus of texts. key-words illuminating techniques manuscript artistic recipes materials database • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. we thus have a survey of artistic materials and techniques within a precise framework. Each instruction has been coded in a specific association of ingredients.

apart from these instructions. Taking into account these characteristics. it will focus on a specific textual tradition of this kind of literature. 2005). 126). to the preparation of colours. For a long time. Clarke. Liège (Belgium) The Strasbourg Manuscript and its technical tradition The evidence provided by. This text is thus. Instead. for some specialists. 1847. the manuscript is mostly dedicated to painting and illuminating and. This paper does not intend to present a summary of their characteristics and history. But. especially. Its text was generally dated to the fifteenth century. this manuscript was especially famous for containing recipes for the manufacture of oil media at a very early period. artistic recipe books for a better knowledge of artistic practices and materials has been debated by several authors for some decades (Ploss. the Strasbourg Manuscript has been seen as one of the oldest German-language sources containing instructions on North European painting techniques.2 0 1 1 75 . or even discuss their relevance when using them as a source for the historical study of artistic practices and materials. 1962. at different levels. first director of the London National Gallery. and the usefulness of.the strasbourg family texts: originality and survival a survey of illuminating techniques in medieval south germany sy lv ie n ev e n Université de Liège. A great number of recipes are also concerned with suitable combinations of pigments and specific binding agents used in illumination. 2001.º i . such Sir Charles Eastlake. Oltrogge. the practices described may perhaps date from an earlier period (Eastlake. However. a precious witness for the r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

They have been recorded in a second dedicated file which is accessible from the first interface. to study its recurrence and its evolution through time and the different members of the family. Unfortunately. the artistic recipes have survived in a nineteenth-century transcription made for Charles Eastlake. 1847). The manuscripts of the Strasbourg family mainly originate from the south of Germany (Upper German). Like most medieval recipe books. Other arts have also been entered. place and date of origin. and the dyeing of textiles. a project has been initiated at Liège University in order to define a clearer corpus of manuscripts belonging to this family 1.º i . some results of which are presented in this paper. This project forms part of my doctoral thesis. 76 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. For two years. 2005) have highlighted the existence of texts with very similar contents. It thus shares some of its content with other books. several editions of the text have been published. The greatest part of these instructions relate to colours used in painting and illuminating 3. dedicated to descriptions of the manuscripts. grouping them under the name of the ‘Strasbourg Family’. over 100 manuscripts have been treated and 4.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s illuminating practices in medieval times. In the first instance. their content has been divided according to each of the recipes that they contain. recipe 16). 1964. recipe 15) or misunderstanding of south-western stat ‘stands’ (south-east: stet) (f. it focussed on manuscripts written during the medieval period and especially on those from Germany and some border countries.000 recipes have been transcribed. For example. Since the appearance of these studies. new textual evidence has been discovered and the Strasbourg family currently corresponds to a corpus of sixteen manuscripts.2 0 1 1 . However. Alemannic and Bavarian) can be identified in the different versions. firstly those of Eastlake. 220. with the Material for a History of Oil Painting (Eastlake. the manuscript was lost in the 1870 Strasbourg Library fire. The «Strasbourg family database» The discovery of new witness manuscripts and their treatment has necessitated the creating of a database. containing information about the title. it is now possible to propose not only a geographical area in which the manuscripts of the so-called Strasbourg tradition were produced. 219-220. Thanks to a philological and codicological analysis. leather. those of Berger (Berger. 1. 1897) and those of Borradaile (Borradaile. but also a chronological range from 1400 to 1560. Since this date. we can observe an automatical «diphthongization» of alemannic monophthongs (sey instead of si(e) ‘her’) (ff. Up until now. Relevant studies like those of Emil Ploss (Ploss. 2. description of the other contents and additional information. Some of them present consistent feature errors suggesting transpositions of an Alemannic original 2. As a second step. the Strasbourg Manuscript results from compilation of older or contemporary texts. 3. at each stage of the copying process. 1962. Initially. 1971) and more recently those of Doris Oltrogge (Oltrogge. wood or bone. such as metalwork. the current location. in the ‘Amberger Malerbuch’. More than 250 examples have been systematically recorded in a specific setting within the database. 1966). The three main dialects of this region (Franconian. the opportunity of such a group would offer us not only a chance to reconstruct the text of the lost manuscript but also to compare different versions of a nearly identical text in order to visualize a structural basis. scribes or authors when possible.

Futhermore each ingredient has been coded using an abbreviation corresponding to the first letter of its name and a consecutive number. the actual appellation (in German. it is possible to retrieve the recipes linked to a specific ingredient or a specific preparation process.º i . English and French) and a short description. Next. each association has been recorded in another file of the database r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. we have borne in mind that some ingredients were not explicitly cited. This glossary file lists each ingredient and includes their original formulation. the glossary also mentions their scientific name. This technique allows to encode each recipe as a succession of abbreviations.1 schema of the structure of the database From these instructions. which reflects the specific association and chronological intervention of ingredients in a given recipe. The glossary file is linked to a list from which it is possible to select an ingredient according to its abbreviation.When creating these associations. Thanks to this abbreviation technique. This is frequently the case when the scribe makes an allusion to an ingredient prepared in a previous recipe.2 0 1 1 77 . For most of them.t he st ra s b ourg fami ly t e x t s : ori gi n al i t y and survival DB_Recipes Key manuscript Recipe index Association Manuscript Key manuscript Recipe index Recipe number Title Subject Pagination Transcription Edition Adaptation Technique Ingredient Quantity Material Association Remarks DB_Manuscripts Key manuscript Key edition1 DB_Codicology clé_ms Ms_Title Current siglum Old siglum Content Format Paleography Binding Foliation Quirings Watermarks Support quality Previous owner Previous location Decoration style Hands Marginal notes Examination date Examined by Key manuscript Title Author Conservation Starting date Ending date Original date Original place State Language Pagination Artistic content Technique Other contents Description Remarks Edition DB_Transition Link to DB_Recipes Link to DB_Glossary DB_Bibliography Key edition Author Title Edition place Editor Revue Volume Pages Date Topic Keywords State Library Remarks Link to DB_Recipes Link to DB_Glossary Transcription DB_Glossary Key ingredient Ingredient Original language French Latin English German Dutch Synonym Definition Using Remarks DB_Association Index_association Index_association Global2 Count Number_association fig. a complete index of ingredients has been set-up.

We can thus combine the search of an ingredient. The database will count the number of recipes dedicated to this ingredient or involving it in a procedure.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s which cross-references the number of recurrences and indicates the manuscripts where this specific association appears. the way in which recipes were modified over time or by other external phenomenon. Mappae Clavicula. through factors such as frequency in the corpus. Our database enables access to this kind of information by allowing the researcher to find quickly and easily the technical instructions he needs. the use of gum lake but also Papaver Rhoeas L. and evolution. species (poppies). mentioned in a specific group of texts (Strasbourg Family. Searching with the database is carried out using keywords arranged in different thesauri that allow us to fine tune the result. Heraclius. information about the possible use of certain materials. dyeing. it is possible to observe. queries can also be done by keywords for specific recipes. The database has been cross-checked for integrity and consistency using random queries techniques.º i . graph 1 presents pigments used in the Strasbourg family recipes that produce a red coulour. The global frequency and recurrence for each ingredient can be derived from the corpus of texts. painting.2 0 1 1 . As an example. ingredients and techniques can be obtained from the research of historical written sources. less frequently. Moreover. Theophilus. methods or materials. We note the frequent recurrence of cinnabar and Brazil wood mentioned in recipes dedicated to illumination and. Thanks to subject classifications. basic structure.…) with a specific technique (illuminating. Functions of the database A survey of the materials In parallel to scientific research and material analysis.…). 300 250 Number of recipes 200 150 100 50 0 Red Brazil wood Red paris Cinnabar Lake Poppies Pigments graph 1 red colouring pigment found in the strasbourg family texts 78 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

initial research was solely concentrated on the associations or recipes which are similar to those found in the Strasbourg Manuscript.t he st ra s b ourg fami ly t e x t s : ori gi n al i t y and survival The associations Concerning associations. one of the most repeated associations is a recipe employing copper and acetic acid contained in vinegar. Quite often.2 0 1 1 79 .which involves an identical text. involving a certain number of ingredients. are repeated less frequently in the same form throughout the different manuscripts. This instruction usually serves to obtain a green copper pigment.º i . These sequences are often characterised by a more or less similar order and a specific artistic technique. We also noted that more complex procedures. These common sequences may be interpreted as the reflection of older – and probably lost – artistic manuals which perhaps served as a (partial) basis for the compilation of the manuscripts of the fig. As an example. 53 add honey and 30 involve salt.This comparative approach allows us to highlight the basic structure of certain recipes. amongst the 200 recipes common to at least two manuscripts of this tradition. 2. it has been identified in a very consistent formulation. 200 recipes have been found to be common to at least two manuscripts of the Strasbourg family. This was a very well known procedure in the Middle Ages and has been detected in a great number of cases in the Strasbourg family texts. So far. 66 include tartar. These similar recipes have been put in parallel as a means of comparing them. Of the 254 recipes dedicated to the preparation of green copper pigment using copper and vinegar. This helped us not only to recognize the witnesses belonging to the Strasbourg family but also to demonstrate their membership. it corresponds to a small number of frequent ingredients associated together in a great number of recipes. Moreover. many of the instructions are not isolated recipes but they are contained in different sequences. Moreover. diagram of the partial compilation process of manuscripts of the strasbourg family r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

Graph 2 presents the relative percentage of recipes dedicated to the preparation of Brazil wood in the different texts of the Strasbourg family. We observe that the older ones contain a great number of recipes dedicated to the preparation of Brazil wood but that this number decreases more or less linearly. These observations may be put in parallel with an examination of the recurrence or diffusion of recipe procedures within the Strasbourg family. media and so on but also by including new procedures dedicated to other artistic techniques. The oldest manuscripts partly originated from this treatise on illumination and their recipes seem to respect more or less the same order. In the later manuscripts. which has been frequently copied over time and place and from which at least a small part is found in each manuscript of the family.2 0 1 1 M N 1 po (c (c (c H (1 . Therefore. a great number of recipes are related to Brazil wood: most of them are dedicated to the preparation of this pigment.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Strasbourg group. perhaps with a view to improving the manuscripts’ practical use by ordering their material by subject. The first one appears to correspond to a treatise on illumination. especially in the earliest manuscripts. The second sequence from which the Strasbourg Manuscript may derive appears to be a more local treatise – which is only otherwise found in the so-called Colmarer KunstKunst buch and the Bamberger Malerbuch – and mostly dedicated to the mixing of colours and the preparation of media. For example. we observed that it seems to derive partly from two distinct sequences. the Strasbourg Manuscript is largely the result of a text that was widely diffused and modified. others are concerned with the mixture of several pigments including Brazil wood.º i . the content has been reorganised. except for the Colmarer Kunstbuch 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ) ) 35 ) 3) ) ) ) 2) 12 75 00 90 77 79 90 60 09 35 56 XV It (e N 2 nd -8 014 14 14 14 5803215 h) ) ) ) ) Relative percentage of recipes 64 50 47 47 45 50 53 5- a a 14 a st (1 46 (1 (1 (1 1( S L (1 A (1 (1 3 B1 B2 B3 P M 4 M T Strasbourg Family Texts graph 2 frequency of recipes dedicated to brazil wood in the strasbourg family texts 80 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. arranged according to their date. When we concentrated solely on the Strasbourg Manuscript. a great number are also dedicated to its application with a suitable media. as well as another more local one.

a great deal of evidence suggests that these recipes were also assembled in book form to serve a more literary. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. the degree of similarity is quite sometimes different between the examples. Quite often. the copyist was free to add. additions or suppression of information. So. there are fewer recipes in common and these manuscripts are also characterised by new additions to their content in the form of treatises on metalwork for example (with the exception of the Codex Palatinus Germanicus 489 – H1 – and the manuscript N2 which is a manuscript copy of the Illuminier Buch of Valentin Boltz von Ruffach).º i . In the later case. in which an unknown or expensive ingredient was replaced by a more well known one or a less expensive one. have corrected the text. on the one hand. This could happen when the copyist was not a practitioner or when he was not able to translate and/or to transcribe an unreadable formula (Halleux. 1989). On the other hand. This implies both a similar procedure but also an identical text. Thanks to the database. it may have been a voluntary reduction of the recipe text. We have observed that the older examples are those which are closest to the Strasbourg manuscript’s first sequence (fig. non-practical purpose.. When looking at the relation between the recipes of the Strasbourg texts. This sequence is thought to correspond to a lost treatise on illumination. Furthermore.2 0 1 1 81 . changes to the recipe may occur with a misunderstanding of the procedure. we can observe. It is often stated that the main reason for this change is the role the text played as a technical and instructive text. This phenomenon could indeed be explained in several ways: it could be due to an attempt to improve or to diversify a previous formula. It would thus seem plausible to find a greater number of recipes dedicated to preparation of Brazil wood. Moreover. or added information to it. the recipes themselves could be modified in their technical formulations during their transmission from one manuscript to another. as the recipe books evolved and were modified by adding new texts and procedures. it could correspond to a «quid pro quo». In the earliest examples. we observe that the change of recipe process is often due to the addition or suppression of an ingredient. some recipes are slightly different in terms of the modification of vocabulary. However. we have already noted that this manuscript is specifically dedicated to the mixing of colours and is less focussed on preparation. we can examine not only the recurrence and the diffusion of a recipe or a type of recipe within the family but also its modification through time or through the different examples of the family. the copyist conserving only the essential part of the recipe (as in the case of an «aide-mémoire»). to remove or to modify some ingredients and/or procedures. Frequently. It therefore seems likely that an author may.2). R. the most obvious parts of the recipe are not recorded. we have also seen that this sequence has been modified. However.t he st ra s b ourg fami ly t e x t s : ori gi n al i t y and survival (B2). a certain number of instructions which are exactly the same (or which perhaps differ only in the dialect or the use of some words). Evaluating the modification of recipe process Not all manuscripts belonging to the Strasbourg family have their entire contents in common with each other. voluntarily.

The most repeated recipe dedicated to this procedure corresponds to an association of Brazil wood with potash lye made of ashes from different trees and alum (B32 + A12 + L9 + A6). the procedures are almost the same to the ones occuring in the older examples of the family. Another frequently repeated recipe consists of the extraction of the colorant agent in Brazil wood through water and the addition of alum (B32 + W1 + A6). 9 8 7 Recipe frequency 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 A6 A6 1 A6 C7 A6 A6 A6 A6 C7 C7 A6 W + + 1+ 1+ 2+ + + + + 1+ + + B3 2+ E2 C7 2+ C7 V4 A6 A1 W U 2+ 1+ 2+ 2+ B3 + U 2+ 2+ B3 V4 B3 B3 L9 W L9 2+ B3 B3 2+ 2+ B3 2+ 2+ B3 B3 B3 B3 Basic recipes graph 3 typical procedures for the preparation of the brazil wood and their frequency in the strasbourg texts Graph 3 summarizes the basic procedures and their frequency in the family texts. and looking at instructions dedicated to the preparation of the Brazil wood. the database counts up to sixty five entries. In the later ones. Some other chemical agents can also be added in order to modify the pigment’s hue or charac- 82 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.2 0 1 1 B3 2+ U 1+ + + C7 E2 L9 L9 . One of the simplest only consists of Brazil wood whose colorant is extracted by putting it in a lye (B32 + L9). the content has been reorganised and the recipes are more complex.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Looking at the first sequence from which the Strasbourg Manuscript originated. If we focus more specifically on the procedure in itself within the texts of the Strasbourg family. even less frequently. We find a fewer number of preparations that specify Brazil wood plus an undetermined lye (B32+L9+ A6) and. They seem to respect more or less the same order of recipes. the use of Brazil wood and water (B32 + W1). we noted in particular two different ways in which the recipe is modified: Modification 1 (addition) Comparing the characteristic associations. we see that some basic recipes are still present as a sort of nucleus to which other ingredients may have been added. The addition of alum allows a beautiful red colour to be obtained (B32 + L9 + A6). The colour can next be fixed on alumine or alum.º i . In the Strasbourg family texts.

by highlighting similar or parallel recipes. Generally. to trace back the route of the artistic instructions. The typical red colour of this species is due to the presence of anthocyanin colorant. to reconstruct the life of a recipe. in the oldest ones.º i . Example of anthocyanin recipes As an example. We observe the use of poppies and r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. we have seen that the Strasbourg family texts convey recipes dedicated to the manufacture of red pigment or more exactly colorant obtained from poppies (graph1). and. in the later manuscripts of the family we find the typical association of Brazil wood extracted with water and fixed with alum (B32 + W1 + A6). we found recipes where vinegar is mixed with beer or the lye is mixed with urine.t he st ra s b ourg fami ly t e x t s : ori gi n al i t y and survival teristics. Example 2 (substitution) In some other cases. in a certain way. it is possible to identify the basic structure of a great number of recipes as well as study the differences and modifications appearing in the Strasbourg family texts. the addition of white lead serves to obtain a more opaque colour (B32+L9+A6+W5). If we compare it to a larger group we see that more than sixty percent of the procedures including anthocyans come from the Strasbourg family texts. The use of anthocyans is very frequent in the Strasbourg family texts. Thanks to the database. or Brazil wood extracted in a lye and fixed with alum (B32 + L9 + A6). Quite often. The Strasbourg family texts are marked in red and the other encoded manuscripts are in blue. Comparison with a larger group This method makes sense in the current framework of my PhD thesis which seeks to demonstrate and to study the place and the originality of the Strasbourg Manuscript within the family. Chalk can be added in order to modify the characteristics of the colour. these changes are due to technical or aesthetic reasons but sometimes. As an example. Graph 4 presents the proportion of recipes found in the database and employing several species of flowers or fruits for their anthocyanin colorant agent. In the earliest ones. the lye may be replaced by urine ( B32 + U1 + A6) or vinegar (B32 + V4 + A6). However. it is obtained from crushed egg shell. when comparing a certain number of recipes.2 0 1 1 83 . As an example. comparison with a larger corpus of medieval artistic texts emanating from German-speaking countries would allow me to highlight the originality and the newness of certain processes for the manufacture of colours described in the Strasbourg family texts. ingredients have been replaced by other ones. It is also possible to try to postulate in which ways the procedure has been modified. we can conclude that the the name of an ingredient has probably been misunderstood and replaced by another substance’s name whose presence cannot be justified in the recipe process from a technical or aesthetic point of view.

if their «textual architecture» is more or less stable over nearly one and a half centuries. So. However. through these texts. the use of berries such elderberry or other Sambucus species is more frequent in the other texts. which is a change in ingredients used in a recipe.2 0 1 1 . 84 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Anthocyanin species Sambucus Ebulus Sambucus Nigra graph 4 number of recipes using anthocyanin colorant in the strasbourg family texts and in the other manuscripts contained in the database cornflowers but also bilberry is also a lot more frequent in the Strasbourg familly texts than in other texts. on the other hand. Several explanations may be suggesting for explaining these modifications. substitution may be due to palaeographical problems that resulted in a word being misunderstood and thus being replaced by another well-known one. On the one hand. Moreover. Eighty percent of recipes that include poppies can be found in the Strasbourg family and more than seventy percent of recipes with cornflowers. we have a survey of illuminating practices in a more or less clearly-defined framework. the nature of certain variations or errors across the text can often tell us something about the author and the context of compilation.º i . Centaurea Cyanus L. these manuscripts convey texts that could be qualified as «living». and some procedures have been expanded with other ingredients. Conclusion and perspectives Up until now a comparative analysis has been performed for every recipe in common between the Strasbourg Manuscript and the other witnesses of the textual tradition in order to study the recurrence and evolution of the recipes. the ingredients used in the recipes have been modified. Oppositely. it may correspond to a deliberate technical improvement by the scribe of the recipe. since they have not always been the object of a simple copy but have been adapted and modified in several manuscripts. Let us take the example of substitution. One may think that. Vaccinium Myrtillus L.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s 60 50 40 Number of recipes 30 20 10 0 Papaver Rhoeas L.

Art of the Past: Sources and Reconstructions. The Strasburg Manuscript: A Medieval Painters’ Handbook Translated from the Old German. 1847. Emil. Comparison with a larger corpus of medieval artistic texts coming from german language countries allows us to underline the originality and the newness of certain processes for the manufacture of colours described in the Strasbourg family texts. PhD Student. Borradaile. The Cologne database for painting materials and reconstructions. London: Archetype Publications. • Bibliography Berger. 1897. Munich: Georg D. 1971. Oel. (eds). Ein Malerbüchlein aus dem Bamberger Karmelitenkloster.und Tempera Malerei des Mittelalters. Sylvie Neven. as illustrated through these few examples from a well known family texts. Heidelberg: Verlag Heinz Moos. Robert. I am now conducting research into historical artistic practices with a specific focus on the medieval period and. On another way. B – 4000 Liège. Emil.H. Eastlake. London: Archetype Publications. Département des sciences historiques. Halleux. it is also possible to relate the history of number of prescriptions and to correlate them with more widely diffused techniques. 1966. 693–703. recettes d’alchimistes. numéro 34 : 25-49. Stijnman (eds). I am studying the written sources for art technological research and. Emil. the techniques of painting and illuminating. we would insist on the fact that a recipe or a manuscript should not be studied in isolation. J. Ploss. As part of my PhD. Brown. Dr. Zur Verwandtschaft spätmittelhoch-deutscher Farbrezepte.2 0 1 1 85 . Belgium. Bericht des Historischen Vereins für die Pflege der Geschichte des ehemal. M. Ein buch von alten Farben. Doris. I studied the so-called Strasbourg Manuscript and the other witness manuscripts in relation to its texts. Université de Liège.W.t he st ra s b ourg fami ly t e x t s : ori gi n al i t y and survival Finally. 1964. Rosamund and Viola. Callwey. Das Amberger Malerbüchlein. Fürstbistums Bamberg: 331-346.Technologie der Textilfarben im Mittelalter mit einem Ausblick auf die festen Farben. 2001. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. 1989. Green and Longmans.ac. Ploss. Recettes d’artisan. Townsend and A. more precisely. Mark. Clarke.be r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 1B. Clarke. Ernst. Materials for a History of Oil Painting. Quai Roosevelt. phone: +32 4 3665443. London: Tiranti. 9-15.L. Charles. Oltrogge.Neven@ulg.º i . 100. London: Longman. Artes Mechanicae. Quellen und Technik der Fresko-. Festschrift Hermann Heimpel. Histoire de l’Art et Archéologie. Biography After a Master’s degree in History of Art and Archaeology. 2005. Ploss. The Art of All Colours: Mediaeval Recipe Books for Painters and Illuminators. Sylvie. 1962. Université de Liège. notably artist’s recipe books.

O Liber colorum do humanista francês Jean Lebègue. foi ditado pelo iluminador francês Antoine de Compiègne. O vermelho de sinópia. datado de 1431. but sinopis red. que parece ter utilizado profusamente este pigmento. The first recipe is a gilding process. XIV. algumas no Norte da Itália e outras em Paris. Um conjunto de quatro receitas. nos poucos e extraordinários livros que iluminou em Milão e Veneza. o mais caro da paleta medieval. contem. with the title of De coloribus ad illuminandum libros. Felix Teichner e Heidi. Justino Maciel. came from the great painter Michelino da Besozzo. entre outros textos. Biographical datas support an identification of the illuminator with the so-called Master of the Policraticus. the second for brazil lake and the last ones for two kinds of copper-green.Resumo As cores da iluminura: receitas de Michelino de Besozzo e Antoine de Compiègne. A primeira receita destina-se a um processo de douramento. saffron yellow and lazurium are also quoted. Dados biográficos permitem-nos propor que o iluminador seja o dito Mestre de Policraticus. A set of four recipes. palavras-chave azul lápis lazúli verde de cobre Jean Lebègue Mestre de Policraticuses • Abstract The Colours of miniature paintings: recipes from Michelino da Besozzo and Antoine de Compiègne. who seems to have made extensive use of this most expensive pigment of the mediaeval palette in the few exquisite books he illuminated in Milan and Venice. A receita para a produção do azul de lápis-lazúli é fornecida pelo grande pintor Michelino de Besozzo. One. active in Paris in the last third of the XIVth Century. The Liber colorum of French humanist Jean Lebègue. contains among other texts colour recipes collected a few decades earlier by a Giovanni Alcherio from Milan. some in Northern Italy and the others in Paris. o amarelo açafrão e o lazurium estão igualmente contemplados. key-words blue lapis-lazuli copper green Jean Lebègue Master of the Policraticus • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. was dictated by the French illuminator Antoine de Compiègne. activo em Paris no último quartel do séc. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. a segunda à produção de laca de pau brasil. com o título de De coloribus ad illuminandum libros. e as últimas de dois tipos de verde de cobre. . receitas de cor recolhidas poucas décadas antes por Giovanni Alcherio de Milão. dated 1431. for the manufacturing of lapis-lazuli blue.

Histoire de l’Art. C’est peu pour le plus excellent r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Antoine de Compiègne et quelques autres». Londres. copié par la suite par l’humaniste Jean Lebègue 4. un petit aide-mémoire ou vademecum du peintre conservé dans le fonds de l’atelier. «Le monde en bleu de Michelino da Besozzo» et «Frère Denis. nous examinerons ici celles attribuées à l’enlumineur parisien Antoine de Compiègne.°117 dans le recueil). IV et V. recueillies ou recopiées par le milanais Giovanni Alcherio dans les années 1390. Medieval Painting in Northern Europe: Techniques. Le monde en bleu de Michelino da Besozzo «La recette qui suit fut obtenue à Venise le mardi 4 mai 1410. mais aussi des recettes des environs de 1400. et I. Parmi ces dernières. t. Reworkings and Renewals in Late Medieval Recipe Books». octobre 1997. p. 39). Nadolny éd. La Peinture médiévale vers 1400 autour d’un manuscrit de Jean Lebègue. 39: La Couleur. Londres. qui fut également enlumineur. Quoique les modalités en soient assez variables. fol. 2006. 1995). lat. De telles recettes d’atelier. édition du Liber colorum (Ecole nationale des Chartes. Art History.les couleurs de l’enluminure: recettes de michelino da besozzo et d’antoine de compiègne I nès Vil l el a. Il inclut des textes plus anciens comme le traité de Théophile 2. 6741) est un recueil de recettes techniques pour la préparation des couleurs compilé au début du XVe siècle 1. 2. furent à la base de la constitution de son recueil. Thierry de Flandre.2 0 1 1 87 .º i . Certaines séries de recettes du Liber colorum reproduisent en effet des carnets de peintres et peuvent être qualifiées de recettes d’atelier 3. Paris (France) 1. Il correspond à deux chapitres de ma thèse: I. dans J. et encore celle-ci n’est-elle pas très originale puisqu’il s’agit de l’une des nombreuses recettes de purification du lapis-lazuli 5. Une première version de ce texte avait été présentée le 9 novembre 2006 au Séminaire sur les matériaux du livre médiéval de l’IRHT – Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes à Paris.. consignées.P e t i t Bibliothéque Nationale de France. le meilleur peintre du monde» (Recueil de Jean Lebègue. Sur les réceptaires. 23-36. 2001. pl. Villela-Petit. voir aussi: M. Villela-Petit. Du peintre Michelino da Besozzo nous ne possédons qu’une seule recette (n. il faut entendre par là les recettes transcrites sur un calepin. au même titre sans doute que les esquisses et les carnets de modèle. Le Liber colorum ou «recueil de Jean Lebègue» (Paris. «Copies. BnF. Analysis. p. Studies in commemoration of the 70th birthday of Unn Plahter. de Michelino da Besozzo. «Imiter l’arc-en-ciel: la règle des couleurs dans la Schedula diversarum artium de Théophile».. Villela-Petit. I. Clarke.. 167-181. The Art of All Colours: Mediaeval Recipe Books for Painters and Illuminators. ainsi qu’une recette du peintre lombard Michelino da Besozzo.

L’or est posé sur une assiette fortement encollée et moulée en relief. somme toute banale. 5. Tosatti. que les Annales du Dôme de Milan où il travailla aussi qualifient de pictor supremus. Ouy. et est attesté sur le chantier du Dôme jusqu’en 1442. «Propositions pour Jean d’Arbois». dont la famille était originaire du village de Besozzo sur le lac Majeur. il est à nouveau cité dans les Annales de la cathédrale de Milan: Michelinus de Molinari de Besuccio. «La formazione e gli esordi di Michelino da Besozzo miniatore». 1999. voit comme un nouvel Appelle 6 et que le grand historien de l’Art Roberto Longhi nommait «le Watteau du gothique international» 7. 75v). dans G. tenant un petit pinceau et mettant la dernière main à un panneau 3. British Library. Algeri. ms. VII: «Giovanni Alcherio e Jean Lebègue. 9. et à en souligner la source illustre. lat. ce qui en fait aussi une manière d’autoportrait du peintre lui-même (fol. 40-51. 2007. 315-344. selon Alcherio). Dans ce dernier. XXVIII. et R. Michelino Molinari. communication au Séminaire sur les matériaux du livre médiéval. 8. 129-148. parmi les scènes de la vie du Christ et les représentations des saints. t. et l’Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler de Thieme et Becker. Egerton 3266). des Epîtres de saint Jérôme exécutées à Venise en 1414 (Londres.. Il faut d’ailleurs remarquer que l’estime dont témoigne Alcherio envers lui – estime partagée par ses contemporains – est sans doute la cause première qui le pousse à consigner cette recette. Croenen et P. p. Authors and Workshops: Books and Book Production in Paris around 1400. 2006. «Un Boccacio pavese del 1401 e qualche nota per Michelino da Besozzo». Le saint y apparaît en pied. esquisse d’une confrontation devant l’œuvre de Giovanni da Modena». 1973. 116-127. la Vierge drapée dans un manteau d’un bleu profond tient l’Enfant Jésus sur ses genoux. 143-171. Sur les vitraux de Michelino da Besozzo. 11. vol. A partir de 1420. Villela-Petit. p. n. Arte Lombarda.. Sa seule œuvre signée serait un peu postérieure. «Recettes de couleurs et analyses scientifiques. est d’abord attesté à Pavie vers 1388. qu’un chroniqueur de l’époque. 1958. BnF. auteur. 83-84. 1986.. Trattati medievali di tecniche artistiche. Archives internationales d’histoire des sciences. p.1: Le Vetrate del Duomo di Milano. A côté de cette palette séduisante. 6. Paris. 111). Il s’agit d’un Mariage mystique de sainte Catherine (Sienne. 7 au 10 juillet 2004).2 0 1 1 . pictor supremus et magister a vitreatis 9. t.. S. que Michelino da Besozzo a choisi de représenter non pas tant en évangéliste. 1996. bien que son symbole soit figuré à ses pieds. 1996. t.24. Giovanni Alcherio le rencontra le 4 mai 1410 à Venise 8 où Michelino aurait participé à la décoration du Palais des Doges et où il semble avoir séjourné quelques années.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s des peintres (pictor excellentissimus inter omnes pictores mundi. p. Et non 1430 comme écrit erronément dans le Dictionnaire des peintres. l’humaniste Uberto Decembrio. Milan. mais en patron des peintres. Pinacothèque). et G. L. 944). I. Imprenditori artistici tra Milano e Parigi intorno al 1400». 269-280. un feuillet retient plus particulièrement l’attention.. Arte lombarda dai Visconti agli Sforza. Prospettiva. 16 juin 2005. Milan. Florence.B. p. Devant un fond d’or où les auréoles et les noms des saints personnages sont inscrits en relief a pastiglia 10. Même si la rencontre avec l’artiste fut brève et peu enrichissante pour son projet de réceptaire. dans La création artistique en France autour de 1400. 97-118. t.º i . Michelino fut aussi un peintre d’enluminures très recherché 11. Louvain. voir le Corpus vitrearum Medii Aevi – Italia. peint sur panneau vers 1415-1420. 5888). un saint Jean-Baptiste en tunique bleumauve fait pendant à un saint Antoine vêtu de noir à parements d’or. dans Lavori in Valpadana dal Trecento al primo Cinquecento. ou encore un précieux livre de prières dit à tort «heures» Bodmer 12 (New York. Villela-Petit. p. 88 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Voir aussi: I. Texte latin et traduction sont donnés en annexe. 10. copiste et bibliophile». Son œuvre enluminé comprend notamment un livre d’heures de la Bibliothèque municipale d’Avignon (ms. p. p. «Jean Lebègue (1368-1457). 49. chap. Longhi. 7. et G. Castelfranchi Vegas. I. Derrière. du bleu et rien de plus!? Cependant. Villela-Petit. actes des XIXes rencontres de l’Ecole du Louvre (Paris – Dijon.IV: La Lombardia.1. 2006. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library. la recette de Michelino fait pauvre figure et les indications du recueil Lebègue sur sa palette sont maigres: un bleu. «Il Tramonto della pittura medioevale nell’Italia del Nord». t.° 143. une indication de Michelino méritait d’être fièrement signalée comme telle. qui n’est pas comme on croit une commande vénitienne mais bien un manuscrit des Visconti. Longhi. préf. Celui-ci se tourne vers la sainte au visage enfantin agenouillée en manteau rose doublé de blanc. 137-138. La mention d’Alcherio nous renseigne donc sur une période à mi-parcours de sa longue carrière: il est alors en pleine possession de ses moyens et sa renommée s’est propagée de Lombardie jusqu’en Vénétie. Il s’agit de l’illustration d’une prière à saint Luc. sculpteurs et graveurs de Bénézit. p. «Alberto de Porcellis: une école de calligraphie au Moyen Age». vêtu d’un ample manteau diapré de vert et bleu. ce qui lui vaut le surnom de Michele da Pavia dans les Annales de la Fabrique du Dôme de Milan où il est mentionné en 1404. R. le Sermo in exsequiis Johannis Galeatii ducis Mediolani de Pietro da Castelleto (Paris. ms. Ainsworth éd.. Patrons. Milan.

Le rouge vif du manteau ducal. éd. ce qui lui donne une nuance plus terne et plus pâle qu’accentuent les lignes blanches marquant le plissé. Dans la scène céleste. le plus riche en pigment. C. Mais on peut distinguer au moins trois tons dans la scène céleste. Le morceau de bravoure que constitue la diaprure du manteau. et celui qui habille les Vertus manifestement désaturé. Il est omniprésent. La première eau. pur lapis-lazuli à n’en pas douter. La couleur bleue et le pigment qui lui correspond y sont ainsi à l’honneur. est couronné par l’Enfant Jésus. Ce bleu – ou du moins une partie des différents bleus employés – est vraisemblablement du lapis-lazuli. le duc de Milan. Il y a ici autant de variations sur le bleu qu’on en peut souhaiter. malheureusement écaillée par endroits. dans les deux cas. Le bleu du second cercle d’anges est moins soutenu. correspond à ce qu’un autre recueil de recettes de son temps. Effectivement. trois eaux de lavage que mentionnent d’ordinaire les recettes. le Libro dell’Arte de Cennino Cennini nomme «cangianti» 13. la Vierge porte sa traditionnelle robe bleue. de même. Excellent ou «parfait» doivent s’entendre comme le plus pur. chap. partant de la meilleure qualité de lapis.° 111). 13. prononçant l’oraison lors des funérailles. la lettrine «Heu» montre l’auteur. le bleu domine. les anges qui l’entourent sont en bleu et vert.° 114) ou encore «fleur du bleu» (n. l’augustin Pietro da Castelleto. comme le suggérait déjà la recette de Michelino. Vicence. qui passe insensiblement d’une couleur à l’autre. Il libro dell’arte. même si celle de Michelino évoque une gradation plus subtile. mieux même. Le bleu de la Vierge qui trône au milieu attire l’attention par sa densité. le bleu le plus saturé. dit «bleu parfait» (recette n. Dans cette image emblématique. fournit un excellent bleu. LXXVII à LXXX. enluminé en 1403. 1) présente une composition raffinée avec un tableau. est un autre exemple éloquent de l’importance de ce bleu. Eisler. est toute en bleu et or. L’exemplaire officiel de l’éloge funèbre de Jean-Galéas Visconti. 2004. New York. La lettrine. ce qui correspond à la fois visuellement et symboliquement au ton réservé à la Vierge. et le fond tout bleu décoré à l’encre d’or. puis un nombre indéterminé de tons obtenus par lavages successifs en augmentant progressivement la température de l’eau (gradatim) jusqu’à ce que la pâte ne dégorge plus de pigment du tout.2 0 1 1 89 . une lettrine et une bordure comprenant trente quadrilobes où alternent petits prophètes en buste tenant des inscriptions à la gloire du défunt et écus à ses armes. La représentation de saint Luc est donc pour Michelino l’occasion de déployer toute la virtuosité de son art. Dans la scène principale. quelques Vertus aussi sont en bleu. est celui dont le peintre fait le manteau de la Vierge du petit panneau. 1981. F. Ces trois tons de bleu pourraient correspondre à ceux que laissent les trois eaux successives de lavage du lapis broyé et malaxé avec une pâte qui en retient les impuretés. La seconde et la troisième eau don- r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Cennino Cennini.º i . agenouillé devant la Vierge. on y trouve du bleu. The Prayer Book of Michelino da Besozzo. et donc la portion de pigment recueillie la première. d’un cimier et du cercle des séraphins tranche et forme comme un contrepoint à la tonalité bleue générale. Frezzato. de dévotion. Le principe cependant est toujours le même et l’on se référera à d’autres recettes du recueil Lebègue pour avoir les précisions voulues sur ces différentes variétés de poudre de lapis. La page d’ouverture (fol. donc le plus saturé.l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e 12. tandis que ses godets de couleurs sont posés à proximité. celle obtenue lors du premier lavage de la pâte. Au-dessous.

Le vert (un vert de cuivre sans doute) fait donc office de bleu désaturé ou de seconde catégorie.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s nent encore un pigment de qualité. Bleu. La technique utilisée pour ces variations de teinte est donc la dilution plus ou moins grande du bleu dans le liant et non l’adjonction d’un autre pigment». 2. blanc d’œuf. 1524-1526: «Les spectres Raman des échantillons bleu clair [de manuscrits de Corbie du XIIe siècle où le seul bleu rencontré est le lapis] n’indiquent pas la présence de pigment blanc (céruse. kaolin). soit que le bleu – la robe de Marie – se double de vert avec un liseré d’or. le choix si manifeste de cette couleur dans le Sermo in 14. Gousset. réservé aux doublures des vêtements. 37-54. la plus ou moins grande pureté du pigment. p. tandis qu’on remarque une équivalence entre le bleu délavé et le rose. Hormis les visages et les mains des personnages.-T. le nombre et la nature des sous-couches (le lapis n’étant pas très couvrant). 205. En l’absence d’analyses physico-chimiques sur le manuscrit. les glacis. Et dans le toit en bâtière résonne un simple bleu pur. «Ultramarine Blue. n’est pas le seul facteur de modulation. J.2 0 1 1 . voire la simple proximité d’autres couleurs peuvent jouer et modifier notablement la résultante. Artists’ Pigments. «Les couleurs médiévales: systèmes de valeurs et modes de sensibilité». t.38: «cela est caractéristique de la sensibilité médiévale: une belle couleur est une couleur franche. bleu triste. valeurs qui sont une façon de créer une hiérarchie dans l’image entre centre et périphérie. lumineuse et saturée». colle liquide ou huile de lin. soit qu’il ait été ombré de glacis verts comme les armures bleues des anges placés de profil ou de trois-quart. rendant sa lecture plus difficile. bleu éclatant. et M. densité. ou quelqu’autre pigment mêlé de noir de charbon?. «Les manuscrits médiévaux vus par laser» La Recherche. A Handbook of their History and Characteristics. bleu et vert sont associés. mariage mystique de sainte catherine (vers 1420). Paris. Il est toujours intéressant d’observer les rapports qu’entretiennent les couleurs entre elles dans une image donnée. p. Roy éd. Le bleu ainsi produit est alors moins vif et mêlé de blanc. ce bleu-noir est la seule couleur de la scène funèbre. comme l’indique le n. Coupry et M.° 118). Mais encore. et entre les personnages représentés formant cette pyramide céleste où trône la Madone. donc nécessairement moins bon pour une époque et une esthétique qui valorisent pureté et richesse du matériau. histoire d’une couleur. caché aux yeux du spectateur supposé se trouver en face et en contrebas de ce monde divin. on ne peut cependant exclure l’emploi d’autres pigments bleus (indigo. Ici bleu virginal et rouge de royauté se complètent et se rehaussent l’un l’autre. 1988. D’autre part. mais moins pur et de plus en plus mêlé de ces impuretés qui se rencontrent nécessairement dans la roche. d’éventuels ajouts (d’autres bleus ou de blanc). dans A. On discerne donc une opposition colorée entre monde terrestre où prend place la scène du deuil et monde céleste au bleu vif où le défunt est accueilli. tandis que l’encadrement est d’un bleu plus clair avec épigraphie. M.. vivacité et saturation de la couleur 15. et en complète l’usage. azurite) pour obtenir les valeurs souhaitées. vol. 2000. le vert ou le mordoré des robes des Vertus qui forment la cour céleste. bleu éteint. Ces tons doux marquent dans la hiérarchie un degré en dessous du couple bleu-rouge saturé (lapis et vermillon?). des traces blanchâtres de calcite notamment 14. Le rideau du fond est un ton en dessous. craie. Cl. bleu-jour. Washington. pinacothèque de sienne 90 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Natural». Plesters. 1997. Paris. 15. Le choix et la proportion du liant 16 (gomme arabique.º i . comme des demoiselles d’honneur de la Vierge. 1986. un couple bleu-nuit. bleu joyeux. en l’occurrence du lapis-lazuli. peut-être un véritable noir. 35-49. En sus d’une préférence du peintre et du goût général du gothique international pour l’emploi du lapis-lazuli. michelino da besozzo. couleur de deuil. dans leur côté perdu. Dans la lettrine cependant. la nuance dominante n’est pas la même. bleu nuit. lui-même entouré d’or bruni. à la p. – et bleu saturé de la joie céleste – pur lapislazuli? C’est-à-dire. le violacé tendre. Pastoureau. qui lie les deux scènes: mort et résurrection bleues. mais aussi d’ombre du bleu. p. Deux valeurs symboliques sont donc possibles pour la couleur: bleu-noir de la souffrance terrestre – lapis. Les figures sont vêtues du ton le plus sombre. indigo. Le bleu en est très sombre et quelque peu usé aussi. Pastoureau. gypse. dans Figures et couleurs. 16.

chez l’enlumineur Antoine de Compiègne. fol. la réalisation d’un manuscrit de cette qualité. dont le blason (d’argent à la guivre d’azur hissant de gueules) et les pennons.° 349). S’il peut paraître hasardeux d’identifier un pigment à l’œil nu. le faste déployé dans ce luxueux manuscrit à la gloire du duc et de son lignage justifiait l’emploi des matériaux les plus précieux. du meilleur des peintres la plus prisée de ses couleurs. enlumineur à Paris «Le jeudi 8 août de l’an de la Circoncision de notre Seigneur Jésus Christ 1398. le même Giovanni revenu de Lombardie – c’est-à-dire de Bologne où la Curie Apostolique était nouvellement assemblée 17 – à Paris depuis plus d’un an déjà. michelino da besozzo. celui-ci résidait au quartier michelino da besozzo. pierpont morgan library. homme d’un grand âge. quelque dix ans avant sa rencontre avec Michelino à Venise. Sont-ils obtenus avec des poudres de différentes qualités? en variant les proportions de liant et de poudre? en mêlant le lapis et d’autres pigments. comtés de Bologne. Le bleu est encore une des couleurs héraldiques des Visconti de Milan.º i . Giovanni Alcherio a écrit et recopié à Paris. recueillie par Alcherio. blancs ou noirs? en employant le lapis-lazuli pour les parties principales (la Vierge) concurremment avec d’autres pigments bleus (Vertus.» (Recueil de Jean Lebègue. 5888. avait éprouvé l’ensemble des recettes qui suivent. 1 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. propagé emphatiquement jusqu’à constituer le ton dominant de l’image. alternés avec ceux d’autres possessions de Jean-Galéas (duchés de Pavie. lat. parmi lesquels le lapis.2 0 1 1 91 . le second son poids d’argent et le troisième est bon pour les sous-couches». Nous avons simplement. séjournant alors à Paris. à savoir les recettes pour l’enluminure. et mit au net ce qui suit. qui sont les sujets mêmes de l’enluminure. Le bleu de la guivre se sera. Déjà âgé. frontispice de l’eloge funèbre de jean galéas visconti par pietro da castelleto (1403). fond)? On ne saurait extrapoler à partir d’une seule recette que c’était-là le seul bleu de Michelino. pour ainsi dire. 75v : saint luc exsequiis a bien sûr des raisons symboliques. fol. en décembre 1411. livre de prières bodmer. new york. d’après les paroles de celui-ci qui toute sa vie durant. Vertus. parsèment le champ de l’image. ms. Antoine de Compiègne. confiée à l’un des meilleurs peintres de son temps. C’est aussi la couleur du ciel et. les corrigea en plusieurs endroits suivant plusieurs informations qu’il avait reçues depuis de plusieurs livres authentiques portant sur le sujet et par d’autres moyens. Giovanni Alcherio. Le lapis-lazuli purifié par le procédé des trois lavages en fait partie: «le premier vaut son pesant d’or. La question serait plutôt de savoir s’il est le seul bleu employé. Nous avons relevé plusieurs tons. antiquus homo. Pise. 944. 87) Le jeudi 8 août 1398. assimilée au noir. C’est d’abord la couleur de la Vierge à qui l’image est en quelque sorte dédiée et sous la protection de laquelle vient se placer le duc. Sienne et Pérouse). même si la vogue de la couleur au gothique international et le renom du peintre pouvaient amener celui-ci à l’employer plus qu’un autre. dit encore une recette (n. Le bleu de lapis-lazuli répondait donc au mieux à toutes ces modalités. Sans doute après le conclave qui vit l’élection de l’antipape Jean XXIII (17 mai 1410 – 29 mai 1415). fol. Enfin. paris.l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e 17. bnf. de la mort. avait rendu visite à l’enlumineur Antoine de Compiègne in domo suo. requérait en tout cas des pigments de prix. comme il a dit. Et par la suite.

enlumineur. et ne doit servir qu’en une sorte de glacis. 48. Lorentz.° 4. Histoire de la ville de Paris. Roger. mais comme libraire.346). N’ayant pas de carnet de recettes. 22. D’après A. P. Technè – Revue du Laboratoire de Recherche des Musées de France. Paris. La laque de brésil fixée sur une base de craie et d’alun est employée avec de la gomme arabique. Duke of Burgundy: The Copyist Jean L’Avenant and his Patrons at the French Court». P. quartier de nombreux peintres où il devait avoir aussi son atelier. papier. Il reste terne. Villela-Petit. p. bien qu’aux propriétés inverses. 21. furent exemptés du guet par un privilège du roi Charles V en date du 5 novembre 1368 20. servaient souvent de carnet à dessin. panneaux de bois apprêtés). suivant la méthode traditionnelle. Les richesses d’art de la ville de Paris).° 3. 1996. c’est par oral qu’il transmit son savoir-faire au visiteur. Pierpont Morgan Library. sont aussi mentionnés les panneaux de bois blanchis à la craie. 786-842. n. 20. Mais le principal défaut de ce vert est 18. Or. XIIII» 19. le pape Clément VI avait d’ailleurs accordé des indulgences aux généreux donateurs qui aideraient à sa reconstruction. Elle peut servir en peinture et pour dessiner.° 297). a peu de substance. 102. réunies en carnet par des lanières.° 4: La couleur et ses pigments. 92 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. De Winter. et les couleurs sur lesquelles il serait posé transparaîtraient. en tant que jurés de l’Université de Paris. 1982. Studies in Conservation. laboratoires de la création artistique». dans Paris 1400 – Les arts sous Charles VI (1380-1422). Villela-Petit. et fut probablement enterré dans l’ancien cimetière de l’église. Antoine s’était ensuite spécialisé dans l’enluminure: illuminator librorum. Quelques-uns se sont conservés tel le carnet de buis de Jacquemart de Hesdin 21 (New York. constituant une palette des plus réduites mais d’autant plus intéressante pour nous que les circonstances dans lesquelles ces recettes furent recueillies attestent que ces pigments-là étaient encore fabriqués dans l’atelier alors que d’autres.68-73. terminus ante quo). Musée du Louvre. Dans la première (n. La recette de rose 22 (n. Une assiette rigide composée de craie. En 1347. daté vers 1385-1400. 57.1. 1910 (collec. «Les laques de brésil dans l’enluminure médiévale: reconstitution à partir de recettes anciennes».° 299) indique les mêmes supports (parchemin. Suivent deux verts tous deux faits à base de vert de gris. nous dit la notice du recueil Lebègue (n. 1906. Ph.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Saint-Séverin. L’église de cette vaste paroisse de la rive gauche était en chantier depuis le milieu du XIIIe siècle. Je remercie Monsieur François Avril de m’avoir signalé cette référence. et de sa femme Odette 18.2 0 1 1 . obfuscatus. sans corps dit le texte. au nombre des artisans du métier du livre qui. la céruse par exemple. enlumineur de pincel. I. p. rose de bois brésil et deux verts de cuivre. 2004. Les débuts de sa carrière remontent en effet au milieu du XIVe siècle et il est déjà attesté trente ans avant cette rencontre. 2003. t. Paris. autrement connu essentiellement à travers le recueil Lebègue. puisqu’il figure. Speculum.º i . «Les carnets de dessins. outre le parchemin et le papier. permet à la feuille d’or qu’on y pose de supporter le brunissage. supports habituels de l’enluminure.° 300) est transparent. S. le second pilier du premier bas côté sud de la nef portait encore avant la Révolution une inscription en cuivre indiquant qu’il avait été élevé en 1414 aux frais de la succession d’Antoine «de Compaigne». M. Martin. 1883. Une inscription lapidaire autrefois en l’église Saint-Séverin confirme la réalité historique du personnage. Paris. p. car le procédé (ici la pose de la feuille d’or) est le même. De telles planchettes apprêtées. Il s’agit de quatre recettes prises sous la dictée et complétées par la suite par Alcherio qui les intitule De coloribus ad illuminandum libros: or bruni. 304-306. p. 19. Les miniaturistes français. CCCC. «Brésil et autres rouges: dix recettes de laque médiévales». n. t. s’achetaient chez l’apothicaire. Le texte en était le suivant: «Les exécuteurs de feux Antoine de Compiègne [ou Compaigne]. Vandroy et I. «The Grandes Heures of Philip the Bold. 155-170. actuel jardin du presbytère. t. Il décéda une dizaine d’années après la visite d’Alcherio qui remarquait déjà son âge avancé (1414. cité par H. d’ocre et de blanc d’œuf. n. L’un (n. Les édifices religieux médiévaux et Renaissance. p. et peut-être maison et atelier ne faisaient-ils qu’un. L’enlumineur devait donc jouir d’une certaine aisance matérielle à la fin de sa vie.° 298). Boinet. mais aussi comme encre rose. et de Oudette sa femme ont fait faire ce pilier du résidu des biens desdits défunts l’an M. p. Abbé Lebeuf. 212.

Valentine Visconti (Paris. technique courante mais rarement citée dans les recettes puisqu’elle relève déjà de la phase de mise en œuvre du pigment. dans B. Les superpositions sont donc à éviter. ce qui n’est d’ailleurs pas sans rappeler la technique des «cangianti» qu’affectionnait Michelino da Besozzo. Les couleurs y sont en nombre très réduit: un lavis d’encre pour les drapés. p. aux propriétés. et l’on peut également poser l’or par dessus. G.° 300). «Historié de blanc et de noir: la tradition du ‘portrait d’encre’ dans l’enluminure parisienne des XIVe-XVe siècle». 2007. Hofmann et C. à paraître dans Les rapports des arts monochromes à la couleur. L’autre vert. tout au contraire.. Toutes ces recettes sont assez précises dans l’indication des proportions à respecter.. quelques rehauts de rose pour les carnations. Une couche de vert viendra se superposer à une couche de vermillon. fol. car il ne contient pas de vinaigre. 131-147. La recette concerne donc uniquement l’enluminure et relève d’une technique moins coûteuse et moins précieuse que la peinture «en pleines couleurs». Artists’ Pigments. dans A. Jusqu’à il y a peu. de la durée. ce De coloribus rédigé sur les indications de l’enlumineur est moins pauvre qu’il y paraît puisqu’il fait allusion aux superpositions de teintes. la consistance à rechercher pour l’assiette de l’or ou putrefactio). besançon.º i . ainsi dans l’exemplaire de dédicace de L’Apparition de Jean de Meun d’Honoré Bovet destiné vers 1398 à la duchesse d’Orléans. «Palettes comparées: quelques réflexions sur les pigments employés par les enlumineurs parisiens au début du XVe siècle». rouge vermillon (ici sous le nom de sinopis). d’or pour les couronnes et. dans M.. modulera une sous-couche bleue. ombrera un rose. sans densité. maître du policratique de charles v. aux défauts et aux qualités respectives des verts de cuivre. Et. aucun manuscrit ne lui étant attribué. «Verdigris». Ce vert particulier sans autre liant que le vinaigre s’employait à même le parchemin ou le papier pour colorier des formes préalablement tracées à l’encre noire. 382-391. chronique de bernard gui (après 1384). Guineau éd. actes du colloque de juin 2009 au Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance de Tours. comme ce vert n. Villela-Petit. et le vert de gris est censé être tempéré par les sucs d’herbes ou de fleurs qui entrent dans sa composition. de rose brésil ou toute autre. Quand la peinture était dans les livres: Mélanges en l’honneur de François Avril. Pigments et colorants de l’Antiquité et du Moyen Age. opacité) et des incompatibilités entre pigments (n. Banik.. de l’effet visuel (transparence. BnF. Villela-Petit. y compris l’habituelle préparation blanche. ou du reflet de l’expérience authentique du peintre? Les trois à la fois peut-être. I. Il peut donc servir aussi bien sur papier et parchemin que sur toile ou panneau de bois blanchi. p. Ainsi passe-t-on ce vert en rehauts sur une couche de vermillon. «Green copper pigments and their alteration in manuscripts or works of graphic art».. de la consistance (par exemple. au n. pour le sol.° 298. Les deux dernières en particulier contiennent un préambule relatif à la nature. Roy éd. s’emploie aussi bien en glacis qu’en sous-couche. à l’usage. vert et or. un vert ou un jaune quasi sans substance. S’agit-il d’un topos. soit sept couleurs auxquelles il faut encore ajouter le blanc de céruse 25. cette technique fut couramment employée par les enlumineurs parisiens de la fin du XIVe siècle 24. Dite «dessin d’encre». on ne pouvait guère en dire davantage sur la manière d’Antoine de Compiègne. 25.. vert-de-gris consistant et jaune safran. p. celle du dessin colorié.° 300. fr. Kühn. ms. de lapis-lazuli. bien qu’incomplet.2 0 1 1 93 .. Rose. 1990. La «palette» d’Antoine de Compiègne peut s’étendre aux autres couleurs citées: or bruni. vert-de-gris inconsistant. Tout au plus pouvait-on le compter au nombre des enlumineurs parisiens de la seconde moitié du XIVe siècle (je r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Paris.° 301). ce sont là les couleurs du De coloribus placé sous le nom d’Antoine de Compiègne. d’ajouts dus au compilateur Giovanni Alcherio d’après des ouvrages de référence (libri autentiqui). I. 677. rose de brésil. Autant de nouvelles nuances dont il faut créditer l’expérience du maître et qui enrichissent sa palette. Lié avec une eau de gomme arabique soigneusement purifiée. 13 : le songe de nabuchodonosor d’être très corrosif 23 et de gâter les autres pigments.l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e 23.. il sert d’encre ou de peinture. Zöhl dir. bm. 811). est dulcis et corpulentus (n. H.89-102. 24. Berlin. bleu de lapis-lazuli (lazurium).

Genèse et usage de la Légende Dorée. De la sainteté à l’hagiographie. Bien que fragmentaires. 26. La carrière de l’artiste.º i . dans Paris 1400. présente en effet des coïncidences troublantes avec la biographie d’Antoine de Compiègne. sans avoir alors le loisir d’étayer mon propos 26. les données disponibles concordent et permettent à mon sens d’identifier notre artiste avec le Maître du Policratique. 265-282. Fleith et F. J’ai cependant proposé en 2004. p. Morenzoni éd. de reconnaître en lui un enlumineur de ce cercle baptisé «Maître du Policratique de Charles V» d’après le manuscrit BnF. Avril. dans B. notamment cette technique du dessin d’encre à rehauts de lavis qui semble être la destination ordinaire du vert translucide d’Antoine de Compiègne.. fr. «Maîtres peintres et enlumineurs: identités incertaines». 203.. Villela-Petit. On peut mettre l’une et l’autre en parallèle (voir le tableau ci-après).. I. 24287. 2001.2 0 1 1 . reconstituée par François Avril 27. Fr. p.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s le rapprochais en 1995 du groupe aux Boqueteaux). «Le parcours exemplaire d’un enlumineur parisien à la fin du 14e siècle: la carrière et l’œuvre du maître du Policratique de Charles V». Genève. • 94 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Les nombreux manuscrits enluminés par celui-ci illustrent au mieux la mise en œuvre des recettes du petit De coloribus ad illuminandum libros inclus dans le Recueil Lebègue.. 27.

vermillon. azur. enluminures en pleines couleurs. céruse.º i . or. dont on peut supposer qu’il était rentable Antiquus homo en 1398 Signes de sénescence de son style vers 1400 Palette: vert pour le dessin d’encre. Sainte-Geneviève (1380) et Saint-Victor (1392). collabore avec Perrin Rémiet Un des enlumineurs parisiens les plus considérés à la fin de sa vie. rose brésil. Philippe le Hardi. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. encre rose. Louis d’Anjou. bleu-gris. ocre. vermillon. verts. etc.2 0 1 1 95 . rangé aux côtés des plus grands artistes dans le recueil Lebègue Travaux d’enluminure pour Charles V. conseiller du duc de Milan (vers 1390-1395) et pour Valentine Visconti (1398) Encore actif à la fin du XIVe siècle et fait alors référence Un des rares enlumineurs importants actifs à Paris à cette époque où les maîtres pucelliens ne sont plus et ceux de la génération suivante débutent à peine Assez fortuné pour offrir un pilier à l’église Saint-Séverin sur sa succession Un atelier très productif. assiettes. safran. superpositions Dessin d’encre. jaune diaphane (safran?). Jean de Berry et Louis d’Orléans Reçoit la visite du milanais Giovanni Alcherio en 1398 Travaux pour Pasquino Capelli. bordures. lapis-lazuli. comme l’enlumineur Perrin Rémiet (et le libraire Regnault du Montet) Reçoit commande des abbayes voisines.l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e Antoine de Compiègne Maître du Policratique Attesté à partir de 1368 – † entre 1398 et 1414 En activité de 1366 à 1403 Libraire-juré de l’Université de Paris (1368) Enlumine un Décret pour l’Université de Paris Demeure au quartier Saint-Séverin. or.

ponatur aqua magis calida. fiat lexivium fortissimum et ponatur azurrum in planis vasis et superius ponatur lexivium. quo purgato. pictore excellentissimo inter omnes pictores mundi. idest lini vel olive. de Michelino da Besozzo. ajoutez de l’eau bouillante. Postea extrahatur azurrum de pastillo hoc modo: misceatur cum baculo in aqua calida parum plusquam tepida. ajoutez la poix en poudre et laissez légèrement bouillir jusqu’à ce que tous les ingrédients soient bien incorporés. séparé de l’eau et séché. et fac bullire. deux onces de vernis liquide. mittendo aquam calidiorem et miscendo donec aliquid exiverit. mettez dans une marmite neuve trois onces de bonne huile commune. c’est-à-dire de lin ou d’olive et faites bouillir. Puis filtrez dans l’eau froide à travers un tissu et malaxez avec les mains ointes d’huile commune.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Recette de Michelino da Besozzo Item in eodem exemplari sic erat scriptum: Hoc sequens experimentum hujusmodi. La pâte se prépare ainsi: pour une livre de poudre de lapis. 117 – Le bleu se prépare ainsi: Prenez une livre de lapis-lazuli et broyez-le bien sur une meule de porphyre. Postea ablue ipsum cum aqua clara. mettez de l’eau un peu plus chaude et ainsi par degrés. ponantur in olla rudi oncias III olei communis. Puis lavez-le d’eau claire. comme vous savez. Et cum videas resoluta. et extracto toto azurro et separato ab aqua et sicato. dulcifica cum aqua clara. faites une lessive bien forte. une once de mastic.° 117 – Azurium sic fit: Recipe libram unam lapidis lazuli et tere bene in lapide porfirico. Si vero non exiret. in Veneciis. et dimittatur per tres dies in dicto pastillo. Mais s’il n’en sort pas. deinde desica et reduce ipsum in pulverem. a Michelino de Vesucio. Lorsque vous le verrez dissout. En dernier lieu. Pastillum sic fit: ad libram unam pulveris lapidis. onciam I masticis. et boni. mettez le bleu dans des récipients à fond plat et versez dessus la lessive. puis incorporez soigneusement sur la meule la poudre de lapis-lazuli dans cette pâte et l’y laissez reposer trois jours. ajoutant de l’eau toujours plus chaude et mélangeant jusqu’à ce que la couleur sorte. prenez une livre de poix grecque. Postea cola per pannum in aqua frigida et mancetur manibus unctis oleo communi. et postea pulver lazulli incorporetur super lapidem cum dicto pastillo et optime. n. puis une fois le bleu entièrement extrait. et tunc masticem et vernicem pulverizatam pone in oleo et bene moveas cum ligno.º i . le meilleur peintre du monde». et taliter teneatur quousque aliquid exiverit. Le bleu s’extrait ensuite de la pâte de la façon suivante: mélangez la pâte avec un bâton dans de l’eau plus chaude que tiède et continuez ainsi tant que de la couleur en sortira. die martis IIII maii. pone libram unam picis Grece. faites sécher et réduisez en poudre. pone piscem pulverizatam et permitte parum bullire donec omnia fuerint bene incorporata. pour que sortent les saletés de la pâte amollie par l’eau claire dont vous l’aviez purgé. De même se trouvait dans le modèle la mention suivante: «La recette qui suit fut obtenue à Venise le mardi 4 mai 1410. anni 1410. ut exeant immondicii pastilli. etc. Ultimo ponatur aqua quando magis fervet. et sic gradatim. sicut nosti. oncias II vernicis liquide. 96 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. ajoutez alors dans l’huile le mastic et le vernis en poudre et remuez bien avec un bout de bois. etc.2 0 1 1 .

l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e Recettes d’Antoine de Compiègne De diversis coloribus in sequenti tractatur. sequencia capitula. homme d’un grand âge. quia melior erit putrida quam recens. et tere cum aqua clara magis spissum quam poteris. Et cum operari vis. modus prohemii: n. de coloribus scilicet ad illuminandum libros. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Postea de ipsa scribe. Postea pone ipsum colorem. color talis remansus de alia positione auri alias facta melior est. Giovanni Alcherio a écrit et recopié à Paris. accipe gersam seu cretam albam et modicum ocre de ru.° 298 – Ad ponendum aurum super diversis quod burniatur.2 0 1 1 97 . toute sa vie durant. dimittas inveterari per plures dies vel septimanas ipsam temperam. super lapidem equalem durum cum molleta lapidis similiter. et qui omnia que secuntur tentaverat toto tempore vite sue. et primo. d’après les paroles de celui-ci qui. ponas aurum in locis carte vel papiri quibus ipsum colorem vel assisiam posuisti. ubi erat curia apostolica noviter unita. per tertiam partem quantitatis crete et totum simul subtilia. en décembre 1411. Et par la suite. Ideo cum aurum poni vult.° 297 – Anno circoncisionis domini Jesu Christi 1398 die Jovis octavo augusti. Et habitis ydoneis loco et tempore et remediis. le même Giovanni revenu de Lombardie – c’est-à-dire de Bologne où la Curie Apostolique était nouvellement assemblée – à Paris depuis plus d’un an déjà. avait éprouvé l’ensemble des recettes qui suivent. postea fortius burnissorem. Et si habes tempus cum temperaveris. et de diversis cautelis utendis super hoc illuminando libros: Ad ponendum aurum in papiro. antiqui hominis. comme il a dit. a verbis que ipse Anthonius sibi dixit. ita quod ad totalem siccitatem vel nimiam putrefactionem et alterationem deductus non sit. idem Johannes qui jam per plusquam annum reversus fuerat a partibus Lombardie. idest cum pauca aqua.º i . à savoir les recettes pour l’enluminure. in pergameno seu carta. accipe de ipso in conchilla alia parviori quantum vis et modera ipsum cum claro ovi spongiato ad rationabilem molliciem seu liquiditatem pro pingendo aut scribendo de ipso. in conchilla aut in scutella figuli vitriata aut in vase vitri. scilicet dentem apri vel equi. Johannes Alcerius scripsit et notavit in Parisius in domo Anthonii de Compendio illuminatoris librorum. et in tabulis ligneis creta alba dealbatis quod aurum burniatur seu poliatur. et dimittas siccari. secundum plures informationes quas inde postea per plures libros autentiquos de talibus narrantes. et rescripsit ea ad nettum ut sequitur. et super trahe et premendo primo leviter. Traité de diverses couleurs. Postea sis in loco recluso cum aurum vis ponere et elige tempus ydoneum ut supra dictum est. en guise d’introduction: 297 – Le jeudi 8 août de l’an de la Circoncision de notre Seigneur Jésus Christ 1398. n. correxit in pluribus partibus ea. videlicet a Bononia. et mit au net ce qui suit. et d’abord. et aliter habuerat. chez l’enlumineur Antoine de Compiègne. ut dixit. qui aliter tempera vel assisia auri dicitur. et polias tantum dictum aurum quod adereat colori et lucidum fiat ut supra jam dictum est. les corrigea en plusieurs endroits suivant plusieurs informations qu’il avait reçues entre-temps de plusieurs livres authentiques portant sur le sujet et par d’autres moyens. pinge et protrahe que vis et ubi vis. dum ex interpollata visitatione deductione et ovi aut aque interpositione conservatus sit in debita liquiditate. Et postea anno 1411 de mense decembris.

ad hoc. Soyez en un endroit fermé lorsque vous voudrez poser l’or et choisissez un temps favorable. ni à trop se gâter et s’altérer. et misceas hec omnia insimul dimittendo semper ligatum in dicta pecia dictum brixillium et dimittant sic per horam unam vel circa. cum dicta pecia in qua est braxillium et per quantitatem de tribus vel quatuor vicibus quantitatis brixilii ad pondus et etiam sicut inspiciendo melius videbis convenire plus et minus secundum bonitatem brixillii. de manière qu’elle ne soit amenée ni à se dessécher complètement. parchemin et panneaux de bois blanchis à la craie. Puis mettez cette couleur autrement appelée assiette de l’or dans une coquille ou une écuelle d’argile vernissée. frottez dessus en appuyant d’abord légèrement puis plus fort le brunissoir. laissez cette assiette vieillir plusieurs jours ou semaines. Et sic ligatum. Puis écrivez.2 0 1 1 . pisto in pulverem. peignez et dessinez-en ce que vous voudrez et où vous voudrez.° 299 – Ad faciendum rosam: Ad faciendum rosam pro operando in carta et in papiro et in ligneis tabulis creta dealbatis. pone in vase figuli vitriato novo ad temperandum in lixivio aut in urina hominis ebriatoris potantis forte vinum. posez l’or aux endroits du parchemin ou du papier où vous aurez mis de la couleur ou assiette. Et si non possis habere talem. que rosa est cum cutello a lapide vel latere. accipe brixillium rasum subtiliter cum cutello vel cum vitro et liga in subtili pecia lini non stricte. Et une fois réunis le lieu. broyez le tout en poudre fine avec de l’eau claire le plus densément que vous pourrez. et repone servando pro usu. et si urina sit vetera tanto melius. ou dans un récipient de verre. comme il a déjà été dit. et ante plus quam minus. sur une meule de pierre dure et plane au moyen d’un pilon également de pierre. C’est pourquoi. deinde eleva ipsum colorem. Postea ponas vas ad ignem non lignorum sed carbonum et bulliant non nimis fortiter et per spacium quarte partis hore vel minus.º i . c’est-à-dire la dent de sanglier ou de cheval. l’assiette restant d’une précédente dorure est meilleure. ita quod solum alumen fondatur. accipe lessivium fortissimum et pone de creta alba in ipso lessivio. le temps et les moyens adéquats. sed late et fluctuanter. pourvu qu’elle ait été conservée à la fluidité voulue par une surveillance renouvelée pour la remuer et l’additionner d’œuf ou d’eau. parce qu’elle est meilleure gâtée que fraîche. Et quand vous voudrez vous en servir. Postea facias ex toto siccari ad solem. lorsque vous voulez poser l’or. Postea tollatur ipse color ita calidius ab igne et ponatur super lapidem crete concave vel super laterem de terra etc. Postea pone de alumine glacie crudo. et des nombreuses précautions à prendre pour enluminer les livres: Pour poser de l’or sur papier. quod urina seu lessivium intret in lapidem subito et color ipse remaneat ibi inspissatus et semisiccus. de manière que l’or soit bruni ou poli: prenez de la craie blanche et un peu d’ocre de ru pour environ le tiers de la quantité de craie. comme il est dit plus haut. et polissez suffisamment l’or pour qu’il adhère à l’assiette et qu’il brille.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s 298 – Pour poser de l’or à brunir sur diverses matières. 98 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Postea de ipso vase tollatur dicta pecia brixillii et exprimatur et extorqueatur fortiter ut color de ipsa totaliter exeat in eodem vase. versez-en à volonté dans une plus petite coquille et délayez de blanc d’œuf battu jusqu’à la consistance ou la fluidité requises pour en peindre ou en écrire. quod sit tantum quantum est quartum dicte crete vel circa. c’est-à-dire avec peu d’eau. et laissez sécher. Et si vous avez le temps. lorsque vous l’aurez détrempée. n.

Et ainsi attaché. idest substanciam non habentem. Et de l’eau de gomme ainsi faite détrempez le rose jusqu’à la consistance voulue et vous pourrez en faire ce que vous voudrez. ut et dictus color viridis remanet obfuscatus. qua alii colores apparent per medium ipsum et ex hoc ipse pro raritate sua. quod pene coperiatur ipsa gumma cum in ipsa ponitur aqua. papier et panneaux de bois blanchis à la craie. vel ipsi super ipsum. mélangez tout cela ensemble en gardant toujours le brésil attaché dans son tissu et qu’ils reposent ainsi environ une heure. soit en poids une quantité trois à quatre fois supérieure à celle de brésil ou plus ou moins selon ce qui à vue d’œil semblera mieux convenir et suivant la qualité du brésil. Puis ajoutez de l’alun de glace cru et réduit en poudre. Et de ipsa aqua gommata ipso modo facta distempera dictam rosam ad debitam molliciem et operaberis de ipsa que volueris. et nil vel minimum apparet. et colati postea per telam lineam. et conservez pour l’usage. qui fasse autant ou à peu près que le quart de la craie. tant pour écrire que pour peindre ou dessiner. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. ut verbi gratia clarus atque sine substancia est color safrani. ymo ex sua natura est acer et corrosivus. et tant mieux si l’urine est vieille. et plutôt plus que moins. 299 – Pour faire du rose: Pour faire un rose à employer sur parchemin. prenez une lessive très forte et mettez-y de la craie blanche avec le tissu contenant le brésil. de sorte que l’urine ou la lessive soit aussitôt absorbée par la pierre et que la couleur y reste compacte et à demi sèche. et pour un tiers d’eau claire ajoutée à cette gomme fondue et filtrée. tam scribendo quam pingendo ac protrahendo. et est talis conditionis. Et ponitur in carta et in papiro. etc. puis retirez du feu le récipient avec la couleur ainsi chauffée et versez-la sur un morceau de craie creux ou sur une brique de terre. et filtrée ensuite au travers d’une toile de lin. n. puis enlevez de la pierre ou de la brique cette couleur rose à l’aide d’un couteau. neque multum apparere potest super alios colores. idest tere super lapidem durum et planum cum aqua gummata que fit per duas partes gummi arabici fusi in tam pauca aqua. et hoc pro viride eris qui in ipso ponitur. Faites-la entièrement sécher au soleil.° 300 – Ad faciendum viride corrosivum absque substancia seu corpore: Ad faciendum viride in substancia clarum et non corpulentum. claritate et raritate. prenez-en à volonté et affinez. mettez-le dans un récipient neuf d’argile vernissée à tremper dans de la lessive ou de l’urine d’ivre amateur de vin fort. Sed ipse color viridis non est dulcis sicut est dictus color croci. Quand vous voudrez vous en servir. accipe de ipsa quantum vis et subtilia.2 0 1 1 99 . Mais si vous ne pouvez en trouver de cette sorte. mais de manière lâche et flottante.l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e Et cum de ipsa operari vis. prenez du brésil finement râpé avec un couteau ou avec du verre.º i . Puis mettez le récipient au feu non de bois mais de charbons et qu’ils ne bouillent pas trop fort pendant un quart d’heure ou moins de manière à ne faire fondre que l’alun. Otez ensuite du récipient le tissu contenant le brésil. et taliter quod destruit et rodit alios colores si ponatur super ipsos. pressez-le et tordez-le avec force pour en faire complètement sortir la couleur. idest croci qui non cooperit alios colores pro ejus subtilitate. et lier-le dans un morceau de lin sans serrer. et per tertiam partem sit aqua clara insimul cum dicto gummi fuso et colato. c’est-à-dire broyez-la sur une meule de pierre dure et plane avec de l’eau de gomme faite pour deux tiers de gomme arabique dissoute dans juste assez d’eau pour que la gomme en soit presque recouverte quand vous y verserez l’eau.

2 0 1 1 . et subtilia et tere super lapidem durum et planum insimul que dicta sunt cum aceto. comme le vert.° 301 – Ad faciendum colorem viridem cum corpore et non corrosivum: Ad faciendum colorem viridem dulcem et corpulentum.º i . Notez bien qu’on ne doit recouvrir ce vert d’aucune autre couleur. mais non sur quelqu’autre couleur blanche fabriquée ou peinte. protrahe. Et postea de ipso colore viridi scribe. sicuti posset fieri super sinopide vel super lazurio. et acritudo viridis eris mitigata est dicto succo herbe. in papiro. videlicet per lineas de colore scilicet nigro. et du fait de son acidité il détruit les autres couleurs. 300 – Pour faire un vert corrosif sans corps ni substance: Pour faire un vert transparent et sans corps par nature. postea de ipso colore viridi sic facto ut dictum est. addendo aliquantulum de aqua gommata. que dicitur in latino ‘tartarus’ et in gallico ‘gravella’. le jaune de safran. accipe viridem eris seu arani et succum herbe que dicitur in gallico ‘flamma’ et ipsum succum herbe cola per telam lineam et cum ipso tere super lapidem viridem suprascriptum. en lui-même. Et nota quod succus rute esset melior quam suprascripte herbe ad ponendum in dicta compositione dicti viridis coloris. quia ibi non est acetum. c’est pourquoi. et super ipso poni aurum etc. nullus alter color debet poni neque ipse super alios nisi solum super cartam albam vel papirum. et ce à cause du vert de gris qu’il contient: telle est sa nature.. protrahe et pinge que vis. n. ne cum infusum sit gummi in ipsa. c’est-à-dire dépourvu de substance. qui n’a aucun pouvoir couvrant du fait de sa ténuité. Mais ce vert n’est pas inoffensif comme le safran. in telis et in tabulis ligneis dealbatis. de sa transparence et de son peu de matière au travers de laquelle les autres couleurs se voient.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Accipe viride eris et modicum de feve vini sicca et fina. ac vacuum. transparent et sans substance. broyez-les ensemble et réduisez-les en poudre sur une meule de pierre dure et plane avec du vinaigre. et non super colorem aliquem album artificiatum seu pictum. si ce n’est seulement sur le blanc du parchemin ou du papier. pro operando in pergameno. il reste éteint du fait de son peu de matière et ne se voit pas ou peu. comme on l’a dit. quia ipse color viridis illo modo factus est fortis seu acer et pro sua acritudine destruit alios colores ut supra jam dictum est. comme indiqué précédemment. remplissez à votre guise ce que vous aurez dessiné. terra vel alie turpitudines. vel super rosa et aliis similibus. parce que le vert ainsi fait est corrosif ou acide. et on l’utilise sur parchemin et sur papier. Postea omnia que in carta et in papiro protrahere vis. Et nota quod super ipsum colorem viridem ut dictum est. pour prendre un exemple. Et alii sunt qui ponunt succos quarumdam aliarum herbarum. Puis dessinez tout ce que vous voulez sur le parchemin et le papier et laissez blanc l’espace entre les traits tracés au noir. Et color suprascriptus est talis qnod potest super ipso pingi cum aliis coloribus. Prenez du vert de gris et un peu de lie de vin séchée en fine poudre qui se dit tartre en latin et gravelle en français. adsint in ipsa ulle pallee. colora ad libitum ea que ut dictum est protraxeris. puis de la couleur verte ainsi préparée. ni le poser lui-même par dessus d’autres. 100 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. comme. et distempera cum dicta aqua gummata et cum dicto succo ipsius herbe. Et dicta aqua gummata debet fieri de gummi arabico lucido et collata. Postea ipsum pone in conchella vel in scutella figuli vitriata. au contraire il est par nature acide et corrosif de sorte qu’il détruit et ronge les autres couleurs s’il est posé dessus ou dessous. et posé sur d’autres couleurs il ne peut pas se voir beaucoup non plus.

toile et panneaux de bois apprêtés. car elle ne contient pas de vinaigre. Puis écrivez. comme on peut le faire sur le cinabre. Her research work concerns mainly three fields: Colour recipes and painting technics. le rose et autres semblables.i-villela-petit. papier. Et l’eau de gomme doit être faite de gomme arabique transparente et purifiée afin que. D’autres y mettent du suc de certaines autres herbes. Et la nature de cette couleur est telle qu’on peut peindre dessus avec d’autres couleurs ou poser de l’or. and Le Gothique international – L’art en France au temps de Charles VI (2004). She has published two books: Le Bréviaire de Châteauroux (2003). et l’acidité du vert de gris est atténuée par le suc d’herbe. trace de terre ou autres impuretés. a Curator at the Cabinet des médailles et antiques in Paris – Bibliothèque national de France. prenez du vert de gris et du suc de l’herbe dite clématite flammule en français. Biography Inès Villela-Petit is an Art Historian and. filtrez celui-ci au travers d’une toile de lin et broyez avec sur une meule le vert susdit en ajoutant un petit peu d’eau de gomme. and the Arts of the XIVth and XVth Centuries. dessinez et peignez ce que vous voulez de cette couleur verte.2 0 1 1 101 . etc. Puis versez le vert dans une coquille ou une écuelle d’argile vernissée. ne se retrouvent dans l’eau aucune paillette.fr r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Illuminated manuscripts. l’azur. Remarquez que le suc de rue serait meilleur que l’herbe susdite pour entrer dans la composition de ce vert. since 2003. lorsque la gomme s’y sera dissoute. Personal website: www.l e s c o u l e u r s d e l’ e n l u m i n u r e : r e c e t t e s d e m i c h e l i n o d a b e s o z z o e t d ’ a n t o i n e d e c o m p i è g n e 301 – Pour faire une couleur verte non corrosive et qui a du corps: Pour faire une couleur verte inoffensive et consistante à employer sur parchemin. et détrempez de cette eau de gomme et du suc de cette herbe.º i .

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a cor principal. no Breve Tratado de Illuminação. como também. em Tomar. tal como no Mappae Clavicula. ainda que em Alcobaça não se encontre nenhuma menção de receituários de pintura. e o colorante que. no de Santa Cruz de Coimbra e Lorvão. se bem que seja claro uma nova linguagem e um gosto internacional. o que poderia significar a pouca importância que se dava à cor mas.2 0 1 1 103 . uma maneira de produzir e aplicar as cores de acordo com uma tradição local. entre as quais o azougue de que é extraído «muyto vermelhon et muy bõo». escrito pelo dominicano Filipe Nunes. De facto. mostra-nos uma cor e uma técnica de aplicação devedora da tradição local propagada por tratados e formulários. XIII. a cor mais abundante no fundo de Alcobaça. é a cópia do «Quatrocentro» da Crónica de 1344 de D. O vermelho é. N’ O livro de como se fazem as cores. Esta tradição do vermelhão pode seguir-se. encontra-se a receita do vermelhão que nós vemos utilizada na iluminura portuguesa e na rubricação. ainda. sem nenhuma dúvida.à propos d’une notice sur le vermillon Resumo A Crónica Geral de Espanha. não acompanhando o triunfo do azul na Europa medieval. Esta informação é importante do ponto de vista do estudo da cor e. revelar uma tradição corroborada por formulários e tratados. Mas. como nós viemos a verificar desde 1986. a partir de inícios do séc. A interessante coincidência entre os dois formulários mostra-nos uma tradição desenvolvida em Santa Cruz de Coimbra. Arte da Pintura Symmetria e Perspectiva. nas Espanhas. esta notícia sobre uma matéria prima tão abundante e boa pode ser uma das justificações para que o vermelho seja a cor das imagens do rei representadas na Crónica. quase sempre. com Luísa Alves. e. em que o Mappae Clavicula está registado num inventário de livros emprestados. Pedro Afonso. conde de Barcelos. escrito por um monge da Ordem de Cristo. a partir dos primeiros exemplos.º i . particularmente. entra na sua composição é conhecido por vermelhão. também. palavras-chave crónica geral de espanha vermelhão cor vermelha imagem do rei • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. A notícia que se encontra sobre o «termho do Chão de Bellotas» remete-nos para as diversas produções da região. e no seu contemporâneo. permite relacioná-la com a abundância do vermelho na iluminura portuguesa. do primeiro quartel do séc. códice conservado na Academia das Ciências de Lisboa a partir de 1879. XIII (1218). de 1615. assunto que não mereceu a atenção da sua Livraria. a quem eu presto aqui a minha homenagem. mais tarde. Abundantemente iluminado. sendo lícito pensar que ele continua a ser. da cor na iluminura.

L’intéressante coïncidence entre les deux formulaires nous montre une tradition développée à Santa Cruz de Coimbra. Justino Maciel. étant licite de penser qu’il continue à être. aussi. depuis 1879. et. Cette tradition du vermillon pour écrire peut se suivre. du premier quart du XIIIème siècle (1218). est une copie du «Quatrocento» de la Crónica de 1344 de D. presque toujours. . et au son contemporain. à Tomar. Du fait. comte de Barcelos. Pedro Afonso. de 1615. Le rouge est. au Breve Tratado de Illuminação. sujet qui n’a pas mérité l’attention de sa Librairie. La notice qu’on y trouve sur le «termho do Chão de Bellotas» rapporte les diverses productions de la région. la couleur principale. mots-clés crónica geral de espanha vermillon couleur rouge image du roi • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. on trouve la recette du vermillon que nous voyons utilisée dans l’enluminure portugaise et dans la rubrication. Abondamment illuminée. plus tard. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. où le Mappae Clavicula est rapporté dans un inventaire de livres prêtés. Cette notice est importante du point de vue de l’étude de la couleur et. ce que pourrait signifier la petite importance qu’on prêtait à la couleur mais. notamment. sans aucun doute.Resumée La Crónica Geral de Espanha. révéler une tradition corroborée par des formulaires et traités. codex appartenant à l’Académie des Sciences de Lisbonne. la couleur la plus abondante aux fonds d’Alcobaça. depuis les premiers exemples. parmi lesquelles l’azougue dont est extrait «muyto vermelhon et muy bõo». écrit par un moine de l’Ordre de Christ. peut être une des justification à ce que le rouge soit la couleur des images du roi représentées dans la Crónica. et le colorant que. aussi. à ceux de Santa Cruz de Coimbra et Lorvão. a qui je prêt mes homages. encore. telle que dans le Mappae Clavicula. en n’accompagnant pas le triomphe du bleu en Europe médiévale. Arte da Pintura Symmetria e Perspectiva. écrit par le dominicain Filipe Nunes. de la couleur dans l’enluminure. à partir des débuts du XIIIème siècle. Mais cette notice sur une matière-première aussi abondante et aussi bonne. avec Luisa Maria Alves. il permet de la rapporter avec l’abondance du rouge dans l’enluminure portugaise. bien que à Alcobaça on ne trouve aucune mention de formulaires de peinture. bien que soit clair un nouveau langage et un goût international. entre dans sa composition est celui qui est connu par vermillon. dans les Espagnes. une façon de produire et appliquer les couleurs conformément à une tradition locale. Felix Teichner e Heidi. comme. elle nous montre une couleur et une technique de son application redevable de la tradition locale propagée par des traités et des formulaires. comme nous sommes venus à vérifier depuis 1986. Dans O livro de como se fazem as cores.

On y extrait. E Aariz he uylla em que moraron os barboros. rapporte ce pigment pour rappeler sa faible résistance à la lumière et aux agents chimiques atmosphériques. qui on ne connait un autre aussi bon que celui ramené de la terre d’outre-mer. IV. 4. «Do termho do Chaão das Bellotas. aussi. vu son Histoire et ses richesses naturelles. cap. prédestinée par Dieu. 15r. et. 119. dont la lignée descend du «grand Hercule de Grèce. 1991. On y trouve une colline où est située une mine de mercure. confinent avec Feriz ou Constantina. en Mer Noire 3. à cause. En citant Théophraste. non loin d’Almadém.2 0 1 1 105 . l’éloge des terres. La production référée vient mentionnée en divers auteurs anciens. était.: «Du territoire du Chão de Bellotas: Chão de Bellotas confine avec le territoire d’Ariz et le Nord de Cordoue. que le texte cite comme zone d’origine d’un vermillon de pareille qualité. Dans les premiers chapitres. de très bonne qualité. d’après la «Crónica». où non seulement des mer- La «Crónica Geral de Espanha». exporté vers toutes les régions d’Espagne.» (fl 2r).» 1 Ce que cet auteur du XIVème siècle nous raconte était connu depuis l’Antiquité 2: la richesse en mercure du centre-sud de la Péninsule Ibérique. Cette notice est très significative dans le contexte seigneurial de la «Crónica». E dally sacam muyto uermelhon e muy boõ que nõ saben outro tã boõ se nõ aquelle que tragem da terra d’ultra mar. Pedro Afonso. O termho do Chaão das Bellotas parte per o termho d’Aariz e jaz antre ho ouriente. Pline signale ses locaux d’origine en Espagne. d’après Pline. La «terre d’outre-mer». de Bued. Tomar (Portugal) 1. ensuite il fait. l’Auteur fait une description des fastes légendaires des premiers temps d’Espagne. 8-9. est. E som tã doces e tã saborosas que nõ as há tanto ē Espanha.» (fl. Là se trouve la ville. terre admirable. Le cinabre – désigné par cinnabar ou minium – était des pigments les plus prisés dans l’Antiquité.) 2. selon lui. «En Espagne existent plusieurs noblesses que ne r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.º i . e jaz contra o sseptentrion de Cordoua. ou il y a beaucoup de gisements de mercure. très ancienne. de Cordoue à Éciga. Vitruve. jadis. Pl. E en seu termho he o monte em que há o uyeiro de que sacam o azougue e dally o leuã pêra todallas partes d’Espanha. aussi. par les barbares. Sur ce territoire les seuls arbres qui existent sont des chênes verts. trouvée au folio 15r de ce manuscrit. E ēna demais desta terra nõ há outras aruores senõ azinheiras. Nardini Editori. 3. Voir Plínio XXXIII. La louange de l’Espagne. pleines de toute sorte de richesses. en Méditerranée orientale. XXXIII. au chapitre XII commence la description de sa géographie. Ces glands sont les plus doux et savoureux de toute l’Espagne. I colori degli antichi. décrit le territoire de «Chão das Bellotas» et de Ariz. au chapitre XXXIII. E por esta rrazon o chamon o Chaão das Bellotas. car l’auteur cherche à rehausser l’importance des Espagnes. Vitrúvio VII. E em este chaão iaz a cidade de Bued que he muy antiga cidade. est une copie du XVème siècle de la Crónica de 1344 de D. de l’extraction du mercure – argentum vivum – en lui provocant la perte de la vis vitalis. ainsi. Comte de Barcelos. Les territoires d’Ariz et de Chão de Bellotas se situent au nord-ouest de Cordoue et. Fiesole. manuscrit appartenant à l’Academia das Ciências de Lisbonne depuis 1879. Ariz est une ville habitée. beaucoup de vermillon. 119. Le sujet de cette intervention est une brève notice.à propos d’une notice sur le vermillon h o r ác i o p e i x e i ro Instituto Politécnico de Tomar. comprenant Éphèse (où on trouvait un cinabre très prisé par sa couleur rouge vif et d’extrême pureté) et la Colquide. 4 Au Prologue il indique l’objectif à atteindre avec son texte: préserver la mémoire des exploits «des très nobles et sages barons». Luciana COLOMBO. raison pour laquelle cette terre s’appelle «Chão de Bellotas» – terroir des glands.

Mais.» (fl. en plus de la moitié des manuscrits des XIVème et XVème siècles. 11). dans la Crónica do Mouro Rasis et dans la Cónica de 1344.2 0 1 1 . nommément sur: • L’abondance de vermillon. sont le réflexe de l’abondance e de la douceur du lieu. et «riche aussi en plomb. «metaees de chumbo. Voir. bleu et violette – et que. utilisant les méthodes pour l’analyse des peintures. étain.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s peuvent être racontées. Cette dissertation. ANTT – Archive Nationale Torre do Tombo. particulièrement dans la partie occidentale. fruits. as quaaes nom podem seer comtadas. surtout l’ornementation des marges. mais aussi des hommes courageux. gibier et vins. cuivre. à ce propos. de pêche. elle n’est publiée que partiellement. n’a pu avoir une dimension plus significative. avec scènes champêtres. «Animalia et aliae bestiae: Representações do 1. d’estanho. Lire: BNL – Bibliothèques Nationale de Lisbonne: BPMP – Bibliothèque Publique Municipale de Porto . 5. et aussi. pour un quart des manuscrits. lait. de chasse. je l’ai présentée en 1986. ou ce trouve tout ce que l’homme peut désirer. bucoliques. avec le rouge en alternance avec d’autres couleurs – vert. rappeler brièvement les premiers essais en laboratoire. présentée à la Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas. chef du laboratoire du – au temps – Institut José de Figueiredo. à propos des enluminures du fond d’Alcobaça de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Lisbonne. e porende os antigos que a começaram a pobrar muito a preçaram por as bondades que en ella vyron”.º i . vues les bontés qu’ils y ont trouvé. E esto por grande multidom de vyeiros que há ē Espanha e especialmente em as partes de Ocidente. faits parmi nous et. bétail. • Une justification pour le fait que le rouge continue á être la couleur principale. nous avons vérifié. bons airs. En 1984. étant insérée. (fl 10) 6. Das suas origens discursivas ao Apartado Geográfico da Crónica de 1344. On cherchait une vision générale sur les matériaux des couleurs des enluminures et les techniques d’application. Les images de la Crónica. même quand ce n’était plus le cas dans les régions d’Europe.º 6. sous le même titre. Elle est riche en poisson. veilles naturelles naîtraient. ne présentant d’autres éléments distinctifs que la taille et la couleur. vient en Isidore de Séville (Laude Spaniae) et continue dans l’historiographie hispano-arabe.» 7 (fl. 10). argent vif – mercure – fer. Et cela grâce au grand nombre de mines que s’y trouvent. malheureusement. 1998. les peupler. de ferro. O Louvor da Hispânia na Cultura Letrada Medieval Peninsular. 10. «quel serait le grand prince ou puissant seigneur ou très fort gentilhomme que n’aimerait pas posséder ces terres?» 8 (fl. 10) 5 En Espagne on trouve beaucoup de rivières et de sources. pour un ensemble de manuscrits du 106 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Lisbonne. initia un travail que. «Em Espanha há muytas nobrezas. ayant le titre: Missais iluminados dos séculos XIV e XV – Contribuição para o estudo da iluminura em Portugal. c’est pour cette raison que les anciens que sont vénus. au delà des éloges sur la terre et ses lignées. «qual seerya aquelle grande príncipe ou senhor de grande poder ou muy forte baron que nõ fora contento de seer senhor de tal terra?» (fl. Ainsi certains ont dit que «l’Espagne est l’égale du paradis de Dieu» 6 (fl. L’usage du vermillon en enluminure Depuis quelque temps déjà. 11). Tomar. 2009. revue Medievalista on line. hautes montagnes. or et argent. que la plus abondante et simple initial colorie. 11. Luísa Maria Alves. le rouge est la seule couleur utilisée. Donc. a partir d’ici. apparaît. larges vallées et plaines. on peut trouver d’autres indications dans cette intéressante information. 11) 8. Voir António REI. en même temps. Voir la dissertation que j’ai présentée comme épreuves publiques au concours pour professeur coordinateur. Dissertation doctorale en Histoire Culturelle et des Mentalités Médiévales. Par ça. d’évoquer la mémoire de quelqu’un que nous a déjà quittée et fut pionnière en ces domaines.» (fl. C’est dans ce contexte qu’ensuite sont décrites les bontés et noblesses des différentes villes et ses territoires. étant soutenue l’année suivante. dans le cadre d’assistance à l’élaboration d’une thèse de maîtrise à présenter au Département de Histoire de l’Art de l’Université Nouvelle de Lisbonne. est de signaler la présence dominante du rouge. de cobre. Les critères d’échantillonnage étaient peu sélectifs. dont celui qui est l’objet de cette notice. d’argem vyvo. 11) 9. de ouro e de prata. 2007. Universidade Nova de Lisboa. – permettez-moi de. année 5. aussi. Au moment ou l’étude de la couleur des enluminures connait un nouveau élan au Portugal – ce que je salue avec beaucoup de plaisir et satisfaction. 7. ce que suggère qu’il était fréquemment utilisé en peinture et en enluminures. Um olhar sobre a iluminura do Apocalipse de Lorvão. l’ont beaucoup prisée. n. en premier lieu. pain.

dans un traité pharmacien inédit du XVIII siècle. dans O livro de como se fazem as cores.» («appelé chez les grecs minium. Minerva. Liv. préfèrent considérer comme minium à proprement dire. étant la part inédite. L’ampleur de cette étude. de même que Cennino Cennini et la plus part des auteurs de traités. La procédure est la même pour les deux livres de recettes. et dans son contemporain «Arte da Pintura Symmetria e Perspectiva» de Filipe Nunes. Cf. Les anciens appelaient minium secundarium ou cerusa usta à l’oxyde salin de plomb que. la coïncidence XIVème et XVème siècles. du premier quartier du XIIIème siècle (1218). Une sélection fut faite. comme celle la. au moins depuis l’Apocalypse de Lorvão. développée. dans ce période. 228-245. ou «vermiculum» (vermillon – sulfure rouge de mercure) 13. Archivistes et Documentalistes. de Thomar. Voir. História Pharmaceutica das Plantas Exóticas (…) – 1777 –. Aussi l’abbé Frère João de Jesus Maria. Arquivistas e Documentalistas. Je registre. écrit par un frère de l’Ordre du Christ. comprenant centaines d’observations. fut faite ayant pour base le Livre de l’Apocalypse de Lorvão 11. 14. avec satisfaction.») Cette œuvre correspond aux deux premiers tomes. 211-212 e 234-235. deux pour un. Cette coïncidence. «A cor na iluminura portuguesa – Uma abordagem interdisciplinar». De arte illuminandi e altri trattati sulla tecnica della miniatura medievale.439-465. «chamado dos gregos minio. Les résultats furent publiés pour la première fois dans le Deuxième Congrès National de Bibliothécaires.à propos d’une notice sur le vermillon bestiário no Apocalipse de Lorvão”. nom donné aujourd’hui uniquement à l’opération faite de plomb de qu’on donne notice dans la Pharmacopeia Dogmática. en 1987. bien que. pp. «Alguns aspectos relativos ao estudo dos materiais que entram na composição de alguns códices iluminados dos séculos XIV e XV» in 2. 12. Luisa Maria P. In Animalia Presença e Representações. 2008. autant le moine Théophile que l’auteur anonyme du «De arte illuminandi». Dans «O Livro de que como se fazem as cores». peut-être. déjà édités. comme Adelaïde Miranda a démontré ce matin. le tome III. de Coimbra. Cette tradition de l’usage du vermillon pour écrire. Franco BRUNELLO. au fond de Stª Cruz de la BPMP. Quelques années plus tard. p. se situe dans une échelle complètement différente de mes modestes et presque solitaires recherches. 18 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. À Alcobaça. A. plus limitée. Instituto de História da Arte. la majeure partie datant des XIVème et XVème siècles. Malgré tout. Vicenza.2 0 1 1 1 07 . p. nº. fort intéressante – pour d’autres recettes aussi – nous révèle une tradition. transcrit au manuscrit St. au total on a couvert les différentes couleurs utilisées pour l’enluminure et l’écriture en 112 essais. 2002.ª Cruz 34/43 16. ALVES. on ne trouve plus aucune mention de recettes de peinture. tout en partant de livres de recettes. de vingt trois manuscrits. 12 Plusieurs pigments sont utilisés pour obtenir le rouge. quand même. 13. se retrouve plus tard dans le «Breve Tratado de Illuminação». Lisbonne.º i . je registre. texte de 1615. Colibri. regardant le soin technique et la diversité de la production. on peut aussi vérifier l’utilisation de ce pigment dans les deux manuscrits référés (l’Apocalipse de Lorvão et le Livro das Aves) et la présence du rouge dans presque touts les autres sept documents 14. la seule recette technique que j’ai trouvée dans le fond de manuscrits décrit la façon de coller (solfar) le parchemin 17. Neri Pozza Editore. La même tradition ce trouve aussi dans les autres «scriptoria». quelque coïncidence d’analyse. mais cette recherche a révélé que le pigment qui est presque toujours présent c’est le vermillon. 209 e s. et alii. nome que hoje em dia unicamente se confere àquella operação feita de chumbo de que se dá notícia na Pharmacopeia Dogmática. p. dans le Mappae Clavicula (un par deux dans le Theophile). ainsi que sur le «Mappae Clavícula» on trouve cette recette de vermillon utilisé dans l’enluminure portugaise et dans la rubrication. in Revista de História da Arte. 1987. ou le «Mappae Clavicula» est cité dans une liste de livres prêtés. Ed. une adjonction.º Congresso Nacional de Bibliotecários. 79-99. parmi lesquelles O Livro de que como se fazem as cores das tintas todas para aluminar os livros. comme nous avons vu dans ces deux jours. ne peut pas être comparé avec la limitation de l’essai de caractérisation de la couleur que j’ai entrepris dans l’étude référé sur l‘enluminure de l’Apocalipse de Lorvão. à propos de la description du sang de dragon. bien que les proportions de soufre et de mercure soient différentes: Un de souffre pour cinq de mercure.. dit que celui ci ne se doive pas confondre avec le cinabre minéral. 1992. semblable recherche.5. du final du XIIème siècle. Adelaide MIRANDA. la couleur n’avait pas l’importance du siècle précédent. appartenant au fond d’Alcobaça de la BNL. à la Bibliothèque et au Musée de la Cathédrale de Viseu et à la Biblioteca Pública e Arquivo Distrital de Évora. Coimbra. En regardant les résultats provisoires présentés dans l’étude «A cor na iluminura portuguesa». du monastère bénédictin de Santo Tirso et professeur de pharmacie et directeur du Laboratoire Pharmacien du Jardin Botanique. avec centaines d’observations. du groupe pluridisciplinaire de l’UNL (que heureusement organisa cette conférence). p. aux manuscrits d’Alcobaça des XIVème et XVème siècles 15. Ici. «minium» pour les anciens. Dominicain. qui donnaient ce nom au cinabre. L’ampleur de cet étude. à Santa Cruz. au ANTT 10. en 1997-98.

On peut admettre que ce rapport se maintient. pour ce que j’ai dénommé de deuxième style d’ornementation 28. il y a une pauvreté de la palette. d’après Michel Pastoureau. 20 Le rouge. Ainsi. la coïncidence des formules et procédures utilisés avec des livres de recettes. l’utilisation systématique de certains pigments. quando videris fumum exire ex ore ampullae blavum. Selon le même registre de dépenses. Voir O livro de como se fazem as cores. Bien que pour la «Crónica» on ne dispose d’aucune étude en laboratoire pour les pigments et agglutinants. Lisboa. 19 dans les différents fonds. 1960. ignem tamen lentissimum. ce que peut-être utilisé pour faire une comparaison de coûts relatifs. cooperi: et quando exierit fumus crocei coloris.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s 2. et duo pondera sulfuris albi aut crocei coloris. et des procédures peux élaborées. avant «l’éclatement» de ce vieux schéma au XIIIème siècle 22. et adhibe ignem in circuitu ampulle ex carbonibus. au de la de la facilité d’obtention. Au livre des dépenses du Couvent du Christ à Thomar 24. la première recette: «De vermiculo. 23 Mais. donc. et 40 Réis pour lettre en noir. de la première moitié du XVIème siècle. dans l’étude effectuée. 500 Réis pour chaque «lettre à vignette». 3 (4). comme par exemple la dorure. commence à se décomposer entre les siècles XI et XIII. est tenu. qui a pour pôles le blanc et le noir 21. Le recours aux commandes royales. aut iiij. la couleur par excellence.2 0 1 1 . depuis les temps Protohistoriques. Revenons à la Crónica Geral de Espanha. Si vis facere Vermiculum. et mitte ipsam ampullam super iij. S. La signification de l’usage du vermillon Brièvement. dans des périodes antérieurs. comme la première de toutes les couleurs. et habeas vermicullum optimum in ampulla». mais seulement un peu plus d’une livre de bleu courant. petras. tel que dans d’autres manuscrits du XVème siècle 27. la valeur va de 400 Réis la livre (arrátel) à 1050 l’once (28.e por este peso faras quanto vermelhon quisieres fazer e a ũa terça doazogue poye 5 libras do enxofre e a 5 libras da azogue ũa libra de enxofre equilheres ental guisa o fogo que não se queme edalhe fuego temperado nen bivo nen manso e te se per ventura sese quemar o vermelhão quebranta as olhas e moiyo e encorporao e misturao con otro peso dazogue e de enxofre e poeno en otras olhas e faze como dito e: e para been mentes nos fumos como saen asi e nunca eraras. faciles à obtenir. dans les «scriptoria» portugais (et aussi dans les ateliers de peinture). CV on voit un autre recette très pareille à celle du Composi- 108 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. trois fois et demie plus cher que celui du vermillon. 69 grammes) 25. l’enlumineur António de Hollanda était payé de 6000 Réis pour chaque frontispice. ides. mais aussi son usage fréquent. plus ou moins. centre de l’ancien système ternaire des couleurs. on trouve une série de prix des pigments pour les enlumineurs et pour les peintres. L’abondance de vermillon explique. sic tolle ignem. pour donner place au système plus linéaire qu’on utilise encore aujourd’hui. pourra signifier la permanence de vestiges de l’ancien système de couleurs que. 80 Réis pour lettre simple en indigo (anil). e toda via mecendoo con pee de cão con sua pele e sa laa ata que se torne o fogo como cinza e depoes que asi for mortificado deitao en duas olhas novas que sejam feitas como aredomas enjas de joso e estreitas encima e não fique por encerar de elas senão un furaco pequeno por o saya o umor e porás as olhas sobre o fogo en suas fornalhas e baras ben con o baro e poen ũa tijela en cima dos purados e quando o fumo vires que sal vermelho e não feder mete dentro no furaco un espeto delgado e si algua cosa se apegar ao espeto tira as olhas do fogo e leixão esfiar e depoes que for frio quebranta as panelas e ajaraa o bermelhõo feito . pendant le XVème et le XVIème siècle. dans tout l’Occident. Il suffisait à António de Hollanda d’enluminer une «lettre à vignette» pour pouvoir acheter quatre livres de vermillon. iterum cooperi: et quando videris exire fumum rubeum quasi vermiculum. On ne pourra y parler ni de pauvreté de palette. prix du «bleu fin». de que ce manuscrit est exemple.(transcription provisoire de José Ramos). ni de contentions. et il lui faudrait un frontispice pour s’offrir une once de bleu fin. Au chap. il faut aussi tenir compte le coût. bleu et or. où on trouve l’emploi d’identiques d’analyse relativement a ce manuscrit. on a vérifié que. XV: «Para fazeres vermelhon. que le prix du bleu courant 26 était. alors que le «bleu fin» (peut-être du lapis-lazuli) était 140 fois plus cher. introduit une certaine opulence et une mise au goût international dans la production de manuscrit. selon la qualité du produit. relativement bas. et sic accipe unum pondus vivi argenti.º i . azogue e põe-no en ũa arredoma o tigela grande vidrada e toma ũa libra de pedra de enxofre been miuda e deita-lhe o poo do enxofre poco e poco sobre o arjen vivo ata que seja been encorporado. on peut essayer. avec toute prudence. non seulement son coût relativement bas. le vermillon coûtait entre 120 et 53 Réis la livre (arrátel).» (Revista da Faculdade de Letras. On voit. accipe ampullam vitream et lini deforis de luto. 15. et sic cooperies ampullam ex parvissima tegula: et. un certain rapport avec des manuscrits de la même époque. «grosso modo». voir aussi le Mappae Clavicula. probablement. alors que pour le bleu. pour la période du XIVème et XVème siècles. L’importance donnée à cette couleur. Le prix du mercure (azougue) était de 100 Réis la livre (arrátel). toma cinco libras de fujativo . cap. Le bleu était le plus cher des pigments indiqués.

17.). fl. comme on l’a déjà dit. est la plus élaborée de toute la «Crónica». des yeux beaux. tout comme le Christ l’est par rapport à l’Église.. divisée en deux au menton.) 16. tel qu’en Espagne. jouant le rôle principal. Nous allons vous présenter l’exemple le plus significatif. le voyant. p. 147v. 182 e 183 – Secreti Per Colori. 289r. vol XXXVII. Col. Jardim Histórico. 326. Mappae Clavicula.º (. écrit en l’Italie.º i . évoquer la grâce spéciale du roi – une sorte de dualité. VII. est inscrite dans l’initial D.º 344. C’était. épouse de D. Avec de belles proportions et un aspect solennel. le plus parfait des hommes. London. Dans un autre traité. dans ce manuscrit.). démontrant la préférence pour le rouge. où. 7). à deux exceptions prés. au Musée National de L’Art Ancien de Lisbonne. montre que le roi est la tête du royaume. ou se décrit la figure de l’Empereur – le Christ – « visage vénérable. sine fumo. 285r. montrant clairement ses attributs. et par le rouge. en fond d’or piqué. dont la datation du XVème siècle fut. la couleur principale pour les vêtements royaux est le rouge. on le voyait. en tige.. n. représente le roi Jacques II d’Aragon (1291-1329). donc. il est habillé en rouge. dans la scène de l’acclamation.. Alc.» (Thomas Phillips. Voir António CRUZ. disparaît complètement. João I.). Voir l’Ordinário do Ofício Divino. La figure. D’autre part. au XVème siècle. IX. ms. and on various processes of the decorative arts practised during the Middle Ages. ou le roi est présent et domine. comme le Christ. comme c’est le cas du célèbre portrait de D. p. ainsi. n’est pas dépendent d’une raison graphique ou d’une combinaison chromatique. 63. un buste. C’est en lui qui se fonde la légitimité. renversant.» «– Ad idem alio modo. – Habeas unam ampollam vitream lutata de luto sapientie usque ad summum collj deinde recipe partes duas sulforis albi et bene triti et partem unam argenti vivi postea pone in ampulla sopradicta et fac de carbonibus ignem lepidissimum et circa eam cum quatuor lapidibus et ponem ampullam desuper et coperi eum cum tegula et sepe discoperias et quando videbis fumum lividum coperi dummodo videbis exire fumum rubeum tunc tolle ab igne quod factum erit. 31 introduit un nouveau discours. manuscript traetise on the preparation of pigments. que vient de la grâce divine 34 – mise en évidence par l’or. avec une couronne de pierres précieuses sur la tête. de l’iconographie des rois d’Aragon. 1847. mode la plus répandue dans la «Crónica» 32. L’image du folio 185v. frère de la reine Sainte Isabelle. ce que relève l’importance. ramures avec feuilles d’acanthe e lancéolées que se prolongent. Voir au chap. Ça veut dire que la façon de représenter le roi. n. simples et clairs. principalement. Breve Tratado de Ilvminação composto por hum religioso da ordem de Xp. 29 Les images de la «Crónica». Cette image du roi. une barbe abondante. Porto. e quando tu vederai lo fumi giallo continua lo foco per in fino che vedrai uscire el fumo rosso o vermeglio alora tolj via lo foco et quando será freddo troverai bello cinapro.2 0 1 1 109 . D’autres exemples de l’iconographie royale pourraient être indiqués. sur les couleurs utilisées pour les représentations du roi. et lava utiliter.» 33 Le traitement spécial de la tête du roi. inspirant l’amour et la crainte. lettres ornées et miniatures. la partie la plus noble du corps. nous fournissent une donné intéressante. mais aussi une évolution de la palette depuis la période antérieure et. coiffé d’une riche couronne. la couleur de l’humanité. vers les zones périphériques. et lento igni. l’ornement le plus courant. le Manuscrit de Bologne – Libro dei colori (moitié du XVème s.à propos d’une notice sur le vermillon tiones ad tingenda – «De compositione cinnabarin – Tolles ydroargiris (mercure) mundi partes ii et sulfuris vivi partem i et mitte in ampullam. Dinis. Bibliothèque Générale de l’Université de Coimbra. la figuration la plus importante. à l’envers du reste de l’Europe. le ton seigneurial sous-jacent au texte de la «Crónica». Le roi est représenté de front. BNL. 1964.ère. nous sommes tentés de y voir l’allégorie de la «Cour Impériale» (Corte imperial – XIVème siècle). par exemple. Santa Cruz de Coimbra na cultura portuguesa da Idade Média. incorporées dans la «Crónica» à un moment différent de celui de l’écriture. 203. ce qui est rare dans l’enluminure portugaise de cette époque .) et le roi enfant Henri I de Castille (fl. Duarte. une recette pour faire motifs et de procédures d’usage de la couleur: lettres phytomorphiques. créant un plus large chromatisme. la couleur de la divinité. p. on peut voir deux recettes dont les coïncidences avec le Mappae Clavícula sont évidentes: «Ad faciendum cinabrium – Tolli una parte de argento vivo et doi parte de solfo giallo e necto e bem macinato poi pone omne cose in una bocia et incoprila legiermente cum luto de sapientia poi la pone in lo fornello et dalli da prima lo foco ligireo et copre la boca della bocia cum una tegola. avec des cheveux coupés court. Cap. 18. Cette image peut. dessinés et colorées. abondait le mercure. facies cinnabarin. ou le bleu domine: le roi décédé Alphonse VI (fl.» (M Merrifield. part 1. avec la force du portrait. Tout d’abord on trouve l’or comme fond en toutes les pages. où la filigrane. le perfectionnement des procédures. decoquens. avec une longue barbe en boucles et peigné en deux. ouvrage existant à la bibliothèque du roi D. construite avec des motifs architecturaux. sur une estrade recouvert dans drap rouge. cela la transforme en ouvrage d’apparat. 30 Ce langage des images. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. la loi de l’alternance: mais son image est construite avec une intentionnalité.

M. Alors on peut penser que dans ce scriptorium on prêtait peu d’attention a cette procédure. mise en cause 35. Professeur Coordinateur au Instituto Politécnico de Tomar les dernières 22 années de ça carrières. comme roi David. Cruz de Coimbra 36. Voir ici les fls.2 0 1 1 . PASTOUREAU. O. Ed. A. du XIVème siècle. 110 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. tel que le Mappae Clavícula ou le O Livro de como se fazem as cores. Filipe NUNES. actuellement est en retraite. qu’on a lu dans un manuscrit écrit et enluminé au XVème siècle. Biographie Email: hpeixeiro@ipt. p. 1986. Le Léopard d’Or. Composto por Philippe Nunes natural de Vila Real. 65 e 66: «Tomase hum pucaro nouo.ère. 20. 185v. Fac-similé a partir de l’éd. dans sa théorie mystique de la couleur. où on peut trouver une large quantité de recettes dédiées à cette procédure.. e depois se barra muito bem que não saya o bafo fora. 23. vestiges de l’importance du rouge comme couleur par excellence. a fait la licence en Histoire (Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa. Ses études sur le livre manuscrit sont centrés sur l’enluminure portugaise aux XIVème et XVème siècles. 1 azul. En Alcobaça. on peut déduire.pt / hpeixeiro@gmail. couleurs présentes aussi dans les armoiries des rois portugais. Paris. pendant tout le Moyen Age. De la simple notice. 37. La estética en la Edad Media. que le vermillon. ou l’image de D. note 1. images et symboles – Études d`histoire et anthropologie. du «Missal Rico» de S. 130. Couleurs. Or et rouge paraissent être attributs royaux.. Voir la dissertation citée (note 9). de BRUYNE.º i . e nelle se bota o enxofre. 21. 37 • («aparelhar») le vermillon à écrire. par Luísa Maria P. Porto. la dorure est très imparfaite quant à la préparation et quant aux résultats obtenus. 22. continue d’être une source privilégié et plus bon marché pour obtenir ce rouge lumineux qu’on trouve dans notre enluminure et que va garder ici. 1994. Thomas de Verceil. de 1615.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s récemment. abondant dans la Péninsule Ibérique. Dans les prochaines années est proviseur de l’étudiant au même Institut. Cf. lumière e chaleur: «Indicibiliter se candidum et rubicundum ostendit (Deus) [.com Né en 1945. e posto ao fogo até que se encorpore hũa cousa com outra por espaço de sinco ou seis horas. Manuel.. au contraire des traités de recettes. Michel PASTOUREAU. avec introduction de Leontina Ventura. Arte da Pintura Symetria e Perspectiva. grâce à quelques donnés et une certaine fantaisie. ALVES. Figures et couleurs – Études sur la symbolique et la sensibilité médiévales. Le Léopard D’Or (1988). Missais iluminados dos séculos XIV e XV […]. Paisagem. em E. ms.» 19. p. fl. Paris. nec minus igneitas quam luciditas» Cit. 23. Au Portugais on continue a utilisé les mots «corar» et «corado» (coloratus) pour indiquer l’action de donner une teinte ou de rougir ou quelque chose coloré de rouge. E o azougue partes iguais.c. Visor. aussi. 1976) et la maitrise en Histoire de l’Art (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa 1986). le roi jacques ii d’aragon – crónica geral de espanha – academia das ciências – lisbonne. définit Dieu comme blanc et rouge. dispensable dans la notation du texte. Madrid. Ed. le statut de color principalis. p. publiées. 1982. On a utilisée les études réalisées au Laboratoire Centrale de l’Institut José de Figueiredo.] ita ut nihil aliud sit sua luciditas quam sua igneitas.

ce programme privilégie la lettre initiale. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 26. nº. Maria Amélia P. Bernardo de Alcobaça. 1999. Naissance et développements (VIe. au retour du jaune (étain et plomb) et à l’élimination du contour en noir. Fonds portugais. Tomar. 29. «O retrato de D. tel que le Leal Conselheiro et ceux qui sont désignés dans la note précédente. aussi. 137-185. de Hist. (1446-85). cofre n. sous presse. 31. Voir Mário MARTINS. Voir QUICHERAT. fl. «A Corte Imperial». Monasreio de San Lorenzo. Le roi Alphonse III d’Aragon s’habille en rouge et bleu. Instituto José de Figueiredo. fl. 1504-1552 – Études sur la culture artistique au Portugal au temps de l’Humanisme. au fl. Les nuances appliquées sur le tom de base ont l’objectif d’obtenir non seulement les lumières (lumina) et l’ombre (tractus). L’ «arrátel» fait 0. Dans l’Alc. fora da empreitada de João de Castilho. 160r – Le roi maure de Tolède avec son manteau rouge prenant sa femme chrétienne. Pedro. Voir les manuscrits produits dans l’entourage de la cours d’Avis: Leal Conselheiro e o Livro da Ensinança de Bem Cavalgar – B. 2002. mais que probablement sera son frère. le roi D. p. p. tombant en frange sur le front. Real Ac. mais. Sur ce sujet j’ai écrit un petit texte. 25. de l’Institut d’Histoire de l’Art. surtout. Ordinários do Ofício divino – Alc. 205 r – Rencontre amoureux de D. du Musée National de L’Art Ancien de Lisbonne. des éléments communs. Fl. J. 27.459 kilo et seize onces et l’once fait 28. Lisbonne. fl. Livro da Virtuosa Benfeitoria – cód.C. feita por Fr. F. œuvre contemporaine ou presque de les images de la «Crónica». 1430). PEIXEIRO. 1533-1539. Despesa das obras do convento de Tomar. 179-232. Paris. Inédites.XVe siècle). 182 r – Le roi Pierre III d’Aragon avec manteau écarlate et vert. le sage. trouvées à la Crónica. son les suivantes: fl. 63 (1483). Je remerci Manuel Guedes Vieira de la traduction en français de ce texte. 1996. Voir José Alberto Seabra CARVALHO. Livro 23. Urraca et El Cid. Alegorias e símbolos e exemplos morais da literatura medieval portuguesa. Pedro. Les autres représentations du roi. 32. avec évidentes influences de la technique de la peinture. p. – Le roi Alphonse X. nommément le personnage que la tradition a identifié comme l’Infant D. 208. dans la scène du taureau. 211. 67-75.).). A pintura de Gregório Lopes em Tomar sob o mecenato de Frei António Lisboa. fl. 33. 60-69. 1485c.º 14 (ca.à propos d’une notice sur le vermillon 24. 256. pp. 451 on voit.185v. quelques fois se prolongeant sur les marges. p.69 grammes. 62 (1475) et Alc.318r.2 0 1 1 111 . Vida e Feitos de Júlio César – Escorial. 211. Vida de Cristo de Ludolfo de Saxónia – Alc.. Lisbonne. pour le bleu. S. 37. Faculté de Sciences Sociales et Humaines de L’Université Nouvelle de Lisbonne. 9. Paris. Vincent. «Um missal iluminado de Santa Cruz». où c’est possible voir l’identité de motifs et procédés. en train d’être publié à la Revista de História da Arte. Voir Luísa Maria ALVES et Vitor SERRÃO (Coord. Le deuxième style on peut le caractériser par les feuillages et les ramures. nommément. et un autre exemplaire de la Biblioteca Municipal de Viseu.º 5 (1433-38). pp. Duarte.Gaspar. 451-453 (1440-50). On assiste. Gulbenkian. Plus simple et retenu. C’est ce modèle qui on voit aussi dans d’autres manuscrits sortis du même atelier royal. dans la période de la régence do son frère. Histoire du costume en France depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu’a la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Revista de História da Arte. 36. 459 (2. rasés dans la nuque et sur les oreilles. comme il vient décrits dans le De diversis Artibus du moine Théophile.ª moitié do XVème s.155r.1550) utilisa. Lisbonne. Avril-Juin. 287 v – Tête de roi dans un fond rouge. Duarte ou. développé dans le même Institut: Imagem e tempo – Representações do poder na Crónica Geral de Espanha. 57r l‘indication de qu’il en a achevé d’écrire et relier Fr. 56v. Là je pose l’hypothèse de la «Crónica» pouvoir être enluminée pendant le règne de D. L’auteur transcrit les payements faits à António de Holanda. Estudo da Pintura Portuguesa – Oficina de Gregório Lopes. L’atelier du peintre Gregório Lopes (c. La mode des cheveux coupés courts. Sylvie DESWARTE. la garance et le kermès. – Le roi avec manteau rouge. Henrique. 35. s’habille en rouge écarlate. Voir. en excluant toute sorte de figuration. le modelé. Brotéria. Jacques II d’Aragon s’habille en rouge. 1445-1446. thèse de maitrise. Q-I-37. 1430). p. 1980. le connétable – (ca. WIRTH. 1977. Ed. Les Enluminures da la Leitura Nova. inséré au Project Imago. en écarlate. même. Le costume a. Missal Cisterciense – Alc. Cf. «Ata aqui fez o scripvam del Rey» (Jusqu’ici il était fait par l’écrivain du Roi) et au fl. fl. CASANOVA. assis. et pour le rouge on employait toujours le vermillon et fréquemment l’ocre rouge. l’Infant D. ont les cheveux coupés de la mêmes façon. 1989. Ici l’auteur collige la documentation complète relative aux contrats avec les enlumineurs et les dépenses faites dans les achats des matériaux. João I – Revisão crítica». l’azurite. On peut voir que les figures représentées dans le polyptiques de La Vénération de S. fl. ANTT. fl. de Madrid – il a appartenu au fils de D. Méridiens Klincksieck. 5. in A Luz do mundo – Oceanos. 34. 28. Jean. 26. semble être initié en France vers 1420. 1875-77. 266r – La reine Urraca s’habille en rouge et son amant le comte de Lara. Voir Horácio A. L’image médiévale.º i . Nacional de Paris. aussi. 2008. 30. n.

Resumo A escolha do ligante para as tintas da iluminura foi um dos aspectos técnicos mais importantes a ter em conta no passado. Most medieval treatises on art technology dedicate extensive parts on tempering pigments for illumination. Felix Teichner e Heidi. The paper will study and organize the information regarding binding media quoted in these important historic textual sources. and second. palavras-chave ligante iluminura tratados medievais investigação das fontes • Abstract The choice of the binding media in manuscript illumination was one of the most important technical aspects as each medium interacts differently with pigments and optical results can be quite different. . sendo descrito com detalhe tanto a sua preparação como as misturas e aplicações. mixtures and use. with the aim to clarify several technical issues concerning the choice of a binder in relation to the pigment to be used or the wanted final appearance of colours. uma vez que este pode interagir de forma diferente com os pigmentos e contribuir de forma decisiva para o efeito visual. e também. Justino Maciel. de fornecer um instrumento útil de apoio à documentação necessária às análises em laboratório e à própria interpretação dos dados analíticos. Este artigo estuda e organiza a informação relativa aos ligantes referidos em importantes fontes históricas e textuais. to provide a useful tool for the documentary support of laboratory analysis and for the correct interpretation of analytical results. O temperar dos pigmentos para a iluminura ocupa uma parte significativa da maioria dos tratados medievais sobre técnicas artísticas. explaining with details their preparation. com o objectivo de esclarecer se a escolha de um certo ligante estava associada ao tipo de pigmento ou ao efeito visual final. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. key-words binding media manuscript illumination medieval treatises source research • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa.

binding media in medieval manuscript illumination: a source research st e fa n o s k ro u sta l l i s stefanos. and also improve its adherence to the surface of parchment. first. facilitate its application with a reed. What is more. medium preparation and mixture with pigment was one of the essential parts of the whole process of manuscript illumination. preparation and mixtures. and second. For this reason. Medieval treatises on art technology are one of the most important sources for the study of binding media in manuscript illumination (Clarke 2001). as illuminated manuscripts were gifts of high esteem due to the wealth of materials and the symbolic value of images. can provide a useful tool for the documentary support of laboratory analysis. Illumination was a major sumptuary art. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. it is not surprising that illumination is one of the techniques that constantly appear in these treatises.º i .kroustallis@gmail. Thus.com Introduction Manuscript illumination is an aqueous painting technique and therefore needs a binder to keep the pigment particles together. clarify several technical issues concerning the choice of a binder in relation to the pigment to be used or the wanted final appearance of colours. where tempering is as important as pigment identification. either as specific technical process or as part of pictorial arts. The choice of the binding medium was very important because each medium interacts differently with pigments and can change its optical properties.2 0 1 1 113 . in his case the different ways to prepare glair (Thompson 1932: 15). A good example is the scheme of painting materials and techniques in medieval treatises on art technology. The study and organization of this information can. quill or brush. the anonymous author of the late eleventh century treatise De clarea warns that to make something beautiful it is necessary to prepare materials properly. the writing material par excellence in European Middle Ages.

(eds. An anecdotic case is described in an Italian recipe from the XIII century where glair was the binding media for vermilion applied with quill «bene rocta con la spongna o con la scopa et con l´artifiggio delfico» (Tossati Soldano 1978: 142). The proof that glair was well whipped was that foam could remain adhered to the container without running. M. Liber diversarum arcium (Libri 1849: 765. mostly because any failure would mean the loss of its adhesive power. gums.1). are the three ways to make the egg white in to foam. 1979: 31-38). if egg white is not well beaten pigments could not be tempered easily. in: A. 114 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. by passing them through a wool or linen cloth. 1967: 233). Speer et al. Libro secondo de diversi colori where the author recommends to use four sponges bound together (Wallert 1995: 40. Colombini and Modugno 2009: 167) and proteins (with hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids) and a strong beating that creates foam means that proteins become completely denaturized and. There are three ways to prepare glair that. glarea. 3. However.22. casein glue (glutine casei) or parchment size (cola pergamena). spongiata). and. De coloribus diversis modis (Merrifield 1967: 265). it seems that since the thirteenth century the sponge method gained currency and the references to clara ovi spongiata become more common 3. Glair beating was a laborious and complicated process. albugine ovi). once settled. Glair consists mainly of water (circa 88%. Perego 2005: 511). so when the 1. 2r). (2011) «Reworking Theophilus: adaptation and use in workshop texts». third. In very few cases it is recommended the use of a funnel-shaped wet linen filter to prepare glair (Heraclius treatise. such as fish glue (ichtyocollon). second. De clarea text is quite explicit: containers should be very clean without grease and brass vessels shouldn´t be used.) Die «Schedula diversarum artium» – ein Handbuch mittelalterlicher Kunst? (in series Miscellanea Mediaevalia). At the De clarea treatise we have a very good description and even a drawing of this wooden whisk (f. states again our anonymous author (Thompson 1932: 19). glair can be mixed with water and become a binding medium for manuscript illumination. by whipping egg whites (verberata. percutita) with a wooden whisk 1 or spoon. albumen. The reason is given by the anonymous author of De clarea treatise who states that the use of a sponge or a filter could contaminate glair either with grease and dirt of hands or with impurities of the sponge or cloth and the result would be a weak and brittle binding media (Thompson 1956: 15). The last comment is interesting because it shows also how everyday experience interferes with artistic praxis: copper containers stabilize egg white foam and does not settle. but depending on the technique or pigment. from Latin clarus.2 0 1 1 . A survey of medieval treatises points out that until the twelfth century whipping was the only method used. so pigments would not run well from the pen of the scribe and the colour would appear unsightly on parchment (Thompson 1956: 19).co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Binding media The principal binding media used in manuscript illumination were clarified egg white or glair (clare. First. 42). mixtures were also prepared in different proportions. or the fifteenth century Bolognese manuscript (Merrifield 1967: 466). such as gum arabic (gumma): and glues. fracta. by pressing and squeezing them with a sponge (cassata. Clarke 2011 §1. something desired for culinary purposes but not for artistic ones (McGee 2004: 102-103. Glair Glair (from the late Latin clarea. 2. For example. Again the author of the De clarea treatise draw special attention to the fact that if glair was not well beaten it would behave as if it was glue. Then glair was left to rest with the container tilted. de Gruyter. ultimately. as glair can turn greenish (Thompson 1932: 17). clear) is the settled liquid of the egg white froth. When Theophilus in his Schedula diversum artium 2 refers to glair it is always the one prepared by whipping (Hawthorne and Smith.º i . see Clarke. Merrifield. Experimenta de coloribus (Merrifield 1967: 56). Moreover. Berlin–New York: W. In most cases binders were applied alone. At the De arte illuminandi a brush (pinzellum situlare) was also used to whip egg (Brunello 1992: 89). Current research considers that the treatise is a composite text and the author (or authors) was a compilation.

Clarke 2011 §1. Theophilus in his treatise recommends beating egg white with water in summer and without it in winter. Glair could be modified with water to improve pigment’s fluidity. The main disadvantage was the formation of bubbles while pigments were tempered (spumositates de coloribus). But as egg yolk left pigments brighter. the reasons was that it had not a good adhesive power. The recommendation of almost all authors to avoid this problem was to add earwax (ceroti auricule) in the mixture. For example. glair was kept in a glazed clay pot or even in the shell of the egg because according to a widespread medieval belief. at the same time. But. Theophilus recommends old glair to varnish gilded areas (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 37). again. the natural container of substances was the best to conserve them. as many authors warn not to work more than a day with the pigment tempered with glair. the better it gets. Many of these difficulties were resolved with the mixture of adhesives. sometimes pigments had to be varnished after drying 4. It seems that. according medieval treatises on art technology.3. because colour would look shine with a short of varnish brilliancy (Merrifield 1967: 142) and the author of De coloribus naturalia used old putrefied glair to give shine and strength to blue pigments (Thompson. Finally. Glair was an optimal medium for miniature painting. It seems that old glair was more appreciated than the new one. Merrifield 1967: 410). Merrifield 1967: 134. which was really annoying to illuminators. 1935: 139). as it has to sit and the older it is. glair needs to be prepared a few hours before it can be used. pigment surface cracked and made spots (Thompson 1932: 73). because becomes darker and its beauty gets spoiled (Livro de como se fazen as cores. The author of De coloribus faciendis recommends to use a three or four days old glair as a binder for the mixture of red lead and vermilion. foam would become liquid it could be easily collected. Merrifield 1967: 410). 1979: 36). As glair reduces the natural saturation of colours. De coloribus faciendis. although its permeability and solubility decreases with ageing (Colombini and Modugno 2009: 238). As the author of De clarea stated. as it is more greasy than glair. where putrefied glair and yolk is specially recom- r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.19).2 0 1 1 115 . it was rarely used alone as a binder in manuscript illumination. blue pigments were the problem. Another inconvenience is that. especially if it was going to be used with azurite blue and vermillion (Liber diversarum arcium. Another problem was the fact that if glair stayed too long mixed with pigments it could damage them. In that moment it was really important to control environmental conditions as low temperatures could freeze glair and high ones could dry it. unlike egg yolk and gums that can be used more or less immediately. as glair dries fast. The use of this mixture is also found in the Marciana manuscript.b i n d i n g m e d i a i n m e d i e va l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n at i o n : a s o u r c e r e s e a r c h 4. Old glair was a very common varnish in manuscript illumination and bookbinding as it forms resistant and elastic films. once tempered.º i . besides the above-mentioned difficulties. Libri 1849: 747. Egg yolk Egg yolk (vitello ovi) was the foremost medium for panel painting in late medieval and early Renaissance Europe. the intensity and brilliancy of yolk was combined with the durability of glair (Bolognese manuscript. free flowing and easily applicable. yolk was added and. but there were also some inconveniences in its use as a binding media. For example. he also recommended mixing it with glair and taking advantage of the characteristics of both media. Bolognese manuscript. Blondheim 1930-1: 82. so it would never become too dry or too aqueous (Hawthorne and Smith.

5r). the amount of water in the tempering process would be really important.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s mended for «colours which have no body» (Merrifield 1967: 610). cherry or other gum trees» (Alpini 1592: f.1). The anonymous author of the twelfth century Hi sunt omnes colores also quotes the use of yolk as a binding media for illumination. a common adjective for water is also albam. The main advantages of gum arabic are its high solubility in water. according Prosperus Alpini. cherry and almond trees» (Laguna 1556: 87). something that not always was possible. Merrifield 1967: 235). In the case of manuscript illumination cherry and plum gums (the «local» ones 6) were frequently used. this gum was imported from Arabia and there were commercially available three kinds. The disadvantage is its brittleness. together with glair and cherry gum (Novák 1996: 77). The term albam here is not used in the sense of something opaque white.23. The preparation process was really easy: egg yolk was removed from its sac by making a hole very carefully with a thorn or a needle and it was mixed with a drop of water (De coloribus et artibus romanorum. for example. its good adhesive power. rather than imported ones is quite applicable in this case (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 12). because it could be used either with water or wine and it could maintain 116 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.º i . stated that in his time «the ordinary gum arabic in drugstores unworthily have such a name [. if not. the fact that the gum came directly «from Egypt or Arabia then was the original.] as it was born here. we must take into account that during Middle Ages «gum arabic» was also a generic term to refer to any kind of gum used as a binding medium in painting techniques. It is obvious that access to true gum arabic depended on commercial routes to and from Northeast Africa (Senegal still is the main gum Arabic producing country). 5. and normally it had to be emulsified with natural plasticizers like honey. but in the sense of something bright and transparent. according colour: the best quality was the white one (albam 5) and of a lower quality was the yellow (citrinum) and the pink (subrussum). 6. However. Finally. Therefore. Finally. Gums Gum arabic was one of the most common binding media for pigments in manuscript illumination and the exclusive medum in writing inks.2 0 1 1 . pigments tempered only with yolk clot on the brush.. the commercial aspect was very important as. It seems that Theophilus´ recommendation to use local products. among us. It is well known that in Middle Ages the appearance of a substance prevailed over any other property and a gum that was a good binder in manuscript illumination could be perfectly considered as «gum arabic». then it was well done. as they don´t have plum. equally good and less expensive. so only a small amount could be applied each time. As the author of the Liber diversarum arcium states (Libri 1849: 766. from plums. Yet in the sixteenth century the famous Spanish physician Andrés Laguna. which were powdered or soaked in water. But the fact that it was very common to commercialize local fruit trees gums under the name of gum arabic does not mean necessarily that artists were tricked into using a gum of lower quality. Then it was tested with fingers: if they stuck together tightly. That is why. until they were completely dissolved. more gum should be added. as it saturates pigments. Clarke 2011 §1. as it could influence the transparency of the colour. The gum was very easy to prepare and use: it was commercialized in solid lumps. For example. in this case. pear. it was filtered with a linen cloth and mixed with pigments. and the fact that gives intensity to colours. That is why the author of De Arte Illuminandi recommends to chose always a gum that is lucidisima or albam et claram (Brunello 1992: 99).. in the text Hi sunt omnes colores we read that pigments for books were tempered with cherry gum.

Brunello 1992: 45).º i . Also Theophilus recommendation that cherry and plum gums should be left in sun. according to animal or the part used. mainly in gilding. tempering certain colours or as additives to glair or gum arabic. textiles. until broth got concentrated (Heraclius treatise. Parchment size was considered as the highest quality of all animal glues and it was prepared by boiling parchment clippings. and. Merrifield 1967: 410) or in parchment gilding (De arte illuminandi. during summer. bones. during winter. Animal glues derive from collagen. the author of the treatise De coloribus naturalia exscripta et collecta. in the text Tractatus qualiter quilibet artificialis color fieri possit almond gum was mixed with glair in a gilding process with gold leaves (Thompson 1934-5: 467-8). A prolonged boiling can transform them into a substance similar to gum arabic (Perego 2005: 340). Parchment size does not r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Recipes for its preparations are very common in medieval treatises like De arte illuminandi (Brunello 1992: 93). Glues Glues of animal origin were used since Antiquity in art techniques (Pliny. panel or wall painting. Parchment size was used mostly in gilding on parchment. then it was strained through a piece of cloth and allowed to cool. The advantage of using cherry gum in tempering pigments for illumination is that it is less viscous than gum arabic. the fact that it is only partially soluble in water and it is one of the most viscous vegetables gums. Perego 2005: 338). In the above mentioned text Hi sunt omnes colores cherry gum was prepared either by softened in water a whole night or by boiling it with water or with wine (Novák 1996: 77). using also cherry gum (Thompson 1935: 143). a protein present in skins. sculpture. but less frequent than cherry or plum tree gums. The use of tragacanth gum is problematic due to. although cherry gum films chips easily if used alone and for that reason it has to be emulsified also with honey or fig tree sap.2 0 1 1 117 . A century later. Cherry gum gives great transparency and brightness to colours. chrysography. For example. but it is only partially soluble in water (60% soluble fraction and 40% insoluble one. In the Liber de coloribus illuminatorum sive pictorum the author tells us that the gum from plum tree was also a good binder (Thompson 1926: 287). In illumination techniques parchment size (cola pergamena) and fish glue (cola piscium. gives a recipe to prepare an artificial gum arabic. second. Merrifield 1967: 230). particularly in woodworks. It seems that also almond tree gum was used a binder.236). it gives mat pictorial films (Perego 2005: 334-335). is probably due to this low solubility of both gums (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 33). Livro de como se fazen as cores (Blondheim 1930-1: 82) or De coloribus faciendis (Van Acker 1972: 190). draganto) appears in De arte illuminandi as a binder in manuscript illumination but its use is anecdotic (its adhesive power is less than other gums) and only as an additive to other gums or glair (probably as an emulsifier) for the tempering of blue pigments (Bolognese manuscript. or close to fire. Gum tragacanth (adragante.b i n d i n g m e d i a i n m e d i e va l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n at i o n : a s o u r c e r e s e a r c h its strength even for a year (Novák 1996: 77). Various types of animal glues are available. ichtyocola) are the ones that most often appear in medieval treatises on art technology. first. and connective tissue. Historia Naturalis: 28.

Schedula of Theophilus. as in a case of yellow colour made by orpiment and sulfur (Experimenta de coloribus. However. Merrifield 1967: 96).1B. Fish glue (or «isinglass» when it was prepared from swim bladders) was prepared in a similar way. the glue remained liquid and did not need heating (Pacheco 2001: 451-2. That is why a series of substances were added in the tempering mixture. Merrifield 1967: 56). Additives Additives to modify the properties of binding media and facilitate their preservation were two very important aspects in medieval workshop praxis. 7.2 0 1 1 . Horie 2005: 143). so it is incompatible with pigments like salt verdigris. Pomaro 1991: 120. as the turning of book pages could deteriorate pigments. arsenic. chrysography and argyrography (Experimenta de coloribus. See for example the recipe for cheese glue in De coloribus faciendis (Van Acker 1972: 180) or in Il libro dell’ arte de Cennino Cennini (Brunello 2002: 151-2). It seems that fish glue was a common binder in manuscript illumination on parchment. Brunello 2002: 148-9. Honey and sugar was the most employed additives to prevent binders becoming brittle (Borradaile 1966: 59). so they are easier to use when precision is needed but shrinkage is considerable and plasticizers should be used (Horie 2005: 143).co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s spread so easily as gums or glair. by boiling skins or bones in water. Francisco Pacheco and Antonio Palomino. Cheese glue (or casein glue) was another animal protein glue based on casein and obtained from milk or cheese. still it is not very clear the purpose of the use of fig tree sap and alternative explanations can be found like fungicide replacing the use of vinegar or because it clots and holds together egg temple (Villarquide Jevenois 2004: 392). But the same author also warn not to put too much honey otherwise pigments will get spoiled as they will not dry easily (Brunello 1992: 81). 8. Only rarely fig tree sap was used alone as a binder. Increase the flexibility of the adhesive film once dried was a key point. due to latex. Fig tree sap also provided flexibility and. moreover. like pike or eels (Il libro del arte. Libri 1849: 765. Fish glue is transparent. The most famous fish glue was the one made from the sturgeon fish (Heraclius treatise. as the eighth century manuscript Compositiones ad tingenda quotes (Hedfors 1932: 33). Wallert 1995: 42. 118 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. with good adhesive power and it does not darken as do other animal glues (Colombini and Modugno 2009: 168) and its solutions resist gelling in room temperature (it can melt even at 6º C while parchment size has to be kept warm during use. Clarke 2011 §1. If the alkali is lime the adhesive is highly water resistant (Gettens and Stout 1966: 8). clove. although in latter treatises fish glue was used normally in gilding techniques. In animal glues wine and vinegar (alcohol) could prevent the formation of a gel at room temperature. mixed with an alkali 7 (Horie 2005: 144). quotes that by adding branches and leaves of fig tree to parchment size. as it needs 30-50º C. Merrifield 1967: 475). Merrifield 1967: 192). Small quantities of vinegar added to animal glues facilitate their solubility as an agent against gelification (Perego 2005: 216-7). Fish glue is too sensible in the presence of salt (Perego 2005: 220). Palomino 1724: 80). Vinegar was added to gum arabic (aceto gumato) when used with colorants in order to control pH and consequently the tone of the colour (Pomaro 1991: 115).22. myrrh or even orpiment (in glair) were added (Brunello 1992: 97. could increase adhesive power and water-proof the painting film 8 (Blondheim 1930-1: 80. but other fishes were also used. Borradaile 1966: 29. According the author of De arte illuminandi an illuminator should have always prepared a «water of honey» or a «water of sugar» as an additive to glue or glair (Brunello 1992: 100-103). camphor. Finally to prevent from mould and insects.º i . the well known Spanish painter and writer. Merrifield 1967: 676). although for the purest form the swim bladders were used. Dodwell 1961: 29).

We can see this in several medieval illuminated manuscripts where scenes were developed in intense gold or blue backgrounds. Probably the most important aesthetic aspect was the fact that intense and brilliant colours were synonymous with richness and beauty. so it looked like purple has been employed (Thompson 1932: 71). painter Pierre Lebrun and author of the so called Brussels manuscript (1635 AD) quotes that gum is used in illumination because gives lustre and brilliancy to colours (Merrifield 1967: 784). as the pigment could run easily from the pen (Liber diversarum arcium. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. The technique where both glair and gum Arabic were used as binding medium allowed a slow and careful work. In this regard it is understandable the choice of gum Arabic as the only ink binder: an adhesive that technically is stronger than glair (good covering) but weaker than animal glues (less crackling possibilities) and. etc. The same Theophilus argues that if someone wanted to spread up his work. otherwise orpiment will never dry (Merrifield 1967: 235). thus aesthetic criteria had also to be taken into account. the anonymous author of the Strasbourg manuscript warns about the necessity to control the relationship between binding media (glue) and pigment (vermilion) for a satisfactory result (Borradaile 1966: 23-24). Cherry or plum gums were added to other binders to control fluidity. in the illumination of manuscripts technical aspects such as the necessary drying time of the pigment or its opacity were more important. the author of De clarea states that vermilion tempered with yolk will be very bright and that it could be used to dye low quality parchments. Manuscript illumination was a sumptuary art.17A) and tiny strokes could be employed for details. Clarke 2011 §1. Libri 1849: 746.º i . in order to create light and shadows effects. Technically this means that the artist had to work with pigments and binders that give intensity and lustre with opaque or semi-opaque pictorial layers. For example. as we see in Mappae clavicula (Phillipps 1846: 223) or in De coloribus faciendis (Van Acker 1972: 195). then he had to use cherry or plum tree gum. Some technically interesting results of a survey on medieval treatises on art technology regarding pigments and their binders in manuscript illumination will now be detailed. On the contrary. with detailed representations of clothing. In this sense it should be interpreted the reference in the small treatise on book illumination that precedes the main text of Mappae clavicula (a later addition commonly referred to as De coloribus et mixtionibus) that all colours on parchment should be «spissi et clari» (Phillipps 1846: 188).3. moreover. jewellery. saturates pigments increasing their intensity. as it dries faster than the others (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 33). then more thickly. Theophilus in his treatise De diveris artibus made it quite clear in stating that «in a book all pigments should be applied twice. as colour would be bright and opaque enough.2 0 1 1 119 . Such a preoccupation is very common in treatises on art technology.b i n d i n g m e d i a i n m e d i e va l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n at i o n : a s o u r c e r e s e a r c h The tempering of pigments The basic technical principle that always should be followed in the tempering of pigments and colorants was that for illumination they should be prepared in order to be applied more than one time. first very thinly. furniture. And Heraclius in his De coloribus et artibus romanorum recommends to use instead of oil yolk. but only once for letters» (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 38). Centuries later. Finally.

º i . as egg yolk and animal glues (Easteaugh et al 2004: 135). Normally lead white and verdigris were used on parchment diluted with wine or vinegar (Liber de coloribus illuminatorum sive pictorum. De arte illuminandi.7. 10. the whole area had to be varnished with old glair (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 40). Brunello 1992: 113. probably because folium changed colour according to acidity or alkalinity of its environment (rubeum. Merrifield 1967: 234. therefore. Bolognese manuscript. Thompson 1926: 289. A possible reason could be the fact that normally alum was used in their preparation. Merrifield 1967: 54. purpureum or saphireum) and casein does not denature in strong alkaline solutions. Mappae clavicula. Omer stated in his De coloribus faciendis. Another reason is given by the author of the Liber diversarum arcium who explains that colours tempered with a mixture of egg yolk and glair would flow better from pen or quill (Libri 1849: 746. as master Peter of St.13. It has already been mentioned that yolk gives intensity to colours. The reason of this could be the fact that yolk is a fat medium and glair. Clarke 2011 §1. they would be good binders for reactive or artificial pigments like the above mentioned lead white and verdigris or orpiment and vermilion (Experimenta de coloribus. once dry. Technologically there is a certain af- 9. it is also equally common to find recipes where lead white and verdigris were tempered with glair or egg yolk (Liber de coloribus illuminatorum sive pictorum. De arte illuminandi. Liber diversarum arcium. De diveris artibus. But the fact is that the same author contradicts himself as in the first recipe on salt verdigris he recommends the use of wine or vinegar. Clarke 2011 §1. but he warned that once illumination was finished. like indigo or saffron. Merrifield 1967: 502) that could interact easily both with their environment or with nearby pigments. Libri 1849: 757. V) comments that earlier painters were tempering blues with animal glue because yolk turned colour to greenish hues (Brunello 2002: 151). Nevertheless. In manuscript illumination its use in not so frequent and appears almost exclusively in the preparation of the pigment folium on parchment (De coloribus faciendis.2 0 1 1 . However Vasari in his Introduzione alle tre arti (Pittura. Il libro del arte. It seems that there was also a tendency to temper some vegetable colorants. where the pigment was mixed with the juice of gladiolus (De coloribus diversis.3. Van Acker 1972: 181. 120 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. this was right only for artificial greens and whites prepared without salt 9 (Van Acker 1972: 177). Van Acker 1972: 180. Liber diversarum arcium Libri 1849: 752. Casein glue of a high pH values is incompatible with pigments that contain aluminium (Perego 2005: 166) so it could not be a binding media for any lake pigment. Clarke 2011 §1.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Casein glue was used traditionally for woodwork (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 26) or as an additive to earth plasters or as binding media in the «a secco» wall painting technique. Phillipps 1846: 189). Thompson 1926: 293. Theophilus used folium purpureum without any tempering. is impermeable to air and humidity.17A). Brunello 1992: 105. 127). Well known is Theophilus´ recommendation not to use salt verdigris on books (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 38) because it is too reactive. But. Copper salt-based pigments like verdigris can react with proteinaceous material. Merrifield 1967: 286). cap. that is why azurite and vermilion were also tempered like this. Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 38. and lake pigments (like brazil) with glair (De coloribus faciendis. Gum arabic was used as a binder for verdigris on parchment or paper mostly in the «not corrosive» version. Le Begue. and probably this is the reason of master Peter´s previous recommendation. Brunello 2002: 101) 10. Experimenta de coloribus of J.3-4).

Cennini also tempers gesso mordant in gilding on parchment or on paper with «well beaten glair» (Brunello 2002: 196-7). Alum can form a complex with egg white. 1979: 36). In this case. Perego 2005: 511) and it could not alter the tone in animal or vegetable colorants sensitive to pH changes. Incompatibilities The presence of tannins in the tempering process could be a great inconvenience. Van Acker 1972: 192). leather) and in other techniques (silver writing. such as the type of parchment to be gilded: for parchment made of sheep´s skin several a mixture of glair and plum tree gum or gum arabic was specially recommend. as both were the principal ingredients for alumine zuccarino. wood. 31). gold leaf imitations. as this type of parchment is too fat and a stronger binding media might be needed (De coloribus faciendis. Although we will only refer to binding media for parchment gilding. most authors when referring to gum arabic advised to use r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. workshop practises are more clear. or the anonymous compiler of Compositiones ad tingenda. and secondly to apply glue moderately otherwise gold leaf will lose brilliance and it will be spoiled (Hawthorne and Smith. But he warns. the same materials were also used to gild other surfaces (silver.º i . On the contrary.b i n d i n g m e d i a i n m e d i e va l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n at i o n : a s o u r c e r e s e a r c h 11. write that when gold leaves were applied directly on the parchment glair should be used (Hawthorne and Smith 1979: 31. Hedfors 1932: 23. gum or glue was used more frequently. Gilding media Gilding was one of the most important techniques in manuscript illumination 11. alum was distempered always with glair (Easteaugh et al 2004: 12). Theophilus in Schedula. glair can crack it. For example. master Peter of St. because as the author of the Bolognese manuscript writes. but also quotes that glair is more rigid and less flexible and that gilding could fall off from parchment or paper (Merrifield 1967: 269). tin. For gesso mordants. a base for lake pigments and. In this binding media selection process other technical criteria were also taking into account. but in this case fig tree sap is added (Merrifield 1967: 462). copper.2 0 1 1 121 . otherwise burnished gold will get spoiled (Thompson 1926: 305). presenting a neutral pH and stabilizing it (Cunningham 1995: 298). As was mentioned earlier. Another reason could be the fact that pH of glair close to neutral (around 7. as does the anonymous author of the Bolognese manuscript.4. 474). according to the desired results. the surface was polished or not. especially in warm weather. Gold was applied in fine gold leaf or in powder and. To apply gold powder Theophilus recommends parchment size or fish glue for gold powder either for writing (chrisographia) for use in gilding of illuminated manuscripts. finity in the use of alum and glair. firstly to pay special attention in fish glue preparation as if it is left too thick during boiling gold will flake. moreover. etc. whereas Alcherius in his treatise De coloribus diverisis modis not only recommends parchment size. The anonymous author of the Liber illuminatorum sive pictorum adds also that such gilding method should be carried out in a damp place. Omer in his treatise De coloribus faciendis writes that gum arabic is excellent for gilding on parchment (Van Acker 1972: 192).). but he also gives a recipe «according to the German manner» where gesso and white clay were tempered with glair and fig tree sap (Merrifield 1967: 446.

together with the nature of pigments. Gum Arabic is also incompatible with gelatin. medieval treatises on art technology do not corroborate such a hypothesis. XVI and even XVII century 12 (Bolognese. or glair for lighter one (Blondheim 1930-1: 75). Conclusions Glair and gum Arabic were the main binders for pigments in medieval illumination techniques and they were used continuously throughout Middle Ages and it is imposible to establish any chronological criteria for their use. Merrifield 1967: 408.2 0 1 1 . The fact that these texts were written by practising artists indicates more a traditionalism of workshop practices than a mere copy of old contents. 500). In this sense we have to interpret also the fact that there is no clear criterion on the 122 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. mostly is presence of salt (Perego 2005: 336) and probably this is the reason why the mixture of parchment size with gum Arabic is not so frequent in the tempering of pigments. unlike what happened with what he calls «the old temple» where opaque and intense colours were used. as parchment size. Paduan or Brussels manuscripts. Marciana. the use of glair or gum in the tempering process is a technical aspect that. 664.º i . glair and gum Arabic are mentioned constantly in texts from XV. due to aesthetic criteria. parchment size and fish glue in the presence of tannins become insoluble (Perego 2005: 217). determines the election of the two possible – grosso modo – illumination techniques as described by the Spanish painter and writer Pacheco in his Arte de la Pintura (1649). This optical behaviour of binders once tempered with pigments was well known and much employed by medieval illuminators as a technique to achieve different tones and hues in the same work. like the preference for bright and vivid colours since that century. the author of the Livro de como se fazen as cores advises to use gum for a dark tone in blue. The author states that in his days in manuscript illumination the colour of parchment was used as «light» with transparent pigments and subtle tones (so gum arabic or one of its mixtures should be used). We have several examples of this use. due to long contact with bark (Perego 2005: 336) and tannins can react with iron ions (iron based pigments or pigments where iron can be present as impurity) and the result is a dark coloration that could easily spoil the final colour. In short. but if they supposed to be used in capital letters or decorative motives. Moreover. for blue gum arabic or glair was more appropriate and for vermilion glair and yolk (Merrifield 1967: 408. «closer to oil painting» (so glair or one of its mixture were more suitable) (Pacheco 2001: 454-5). The anonymous author of De clarea quotes that to control glair and water in the tempering process was very important as the artists could do things as he wished. This was really an important aspect as the most coloured gums contain tannins. However. For example. there is a very common assertion that until the fourteenth century the widely used binding medium for illumination was glair and after was replaced with gum Arabic. In the Bolognese manuscript we read that for body colours blue should be tempered with animal glue or parchment size and vermilion with glair and fig tree sap. In the same way. 610. 12. glossy or mat (Thompson 1932: 75).co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s the most transparent one. 786).

Distempering of pigments is a good example. illuminator’s guild rules obliged the use of specific pigments in different parts of illumination as. Such an observation shows that technical limitations were equally (or even more) important in artistic praxis: paper is more flexible and absorbent than parchment. as most of them were tempered one way or another depending on the necessities of the illuminator or even on workshop (or school) traditions: Egg yolk increase intensity and gives depth. Merrifield 1967: 110). Limning. (1690: 621). Moreover. Probably the only valid conclusion we can draw is that artistic praxis was strongly influenced by traditions (local or international) and workshop experience. as it is very common to find in medieval treatises expression like «do what from your experience seems better to you» (De arte illuminandi. Washing or Colouring of Maps and Prints (1652: 20-1). because many aesthetic studies and laboratory analysis dedicated to medieval illumination. 1992: 105) or «according to the choice of the artist and the nature of the work which is to be done» (Experimenta de coloribus.º i . and second. for example. since the sixteenth century onwards. luxury books for wealthy patrons. cherry gum makes colours brighter. as animal glues were very common in icon painting. use of a specific binder with each pigment. The progressive use of paper as support for writing and illumination meant that. Both works show a strong Byzantine influence and it seems that the use of fish glue can also relate to this tradition.b i n d i n g m e d i a i n m e d i e va l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n at i o n : a s o u r c e r e s e a r c h 13.2 0 1 1 123 . Carducho 1633: 132). that by no means could be representative of the common practise in manuscript illumination. Jenner`s A Book of Drawing. This technical and historic aspects should be always taken into account. 447). de la sculpture. thus washing techniques and gum arabic as binder are more appropriate. The almost exclusive use of gum arabic is also found in Salmon´s Polygraphice (1685: 95. Francisco Pacheco (1649) and Vicente Carducho (1633) describe the «aguadas de colores» as the appropriate type of painting executed on paper (Pacheco 2001: 452. etc. medieval illuminators used binding media and pigments according to their specific characteristics and properties and according the illumination technique they thought appropriate in order to carry out their work. Brunello. • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. And consequently it was felt that the gum arabic was the binding media par excellence even in medieval illumination. and then it was tempered. recommended in the oldest treatises on art technology in the Occident such as the Compositiones ad tingenda (Hedfors. are based on exceptional pieces. gum Arabic gives a glossy appearance. As we have seen. backgrounds. 1932: 33) and Mappae clavicula (Phillipps 1846: 218). glair without varnish gives a flat mat finish. first. and Félibien´s Des principes de l’architecture. That is why the binder should be the last ingredient to add in order to control the development of the tone. A representative case is the use of fish glue as a binder for all pigments. and when a gum or glue was used in the grinding process normally the pigment was washed to remove the excess of adhesive. foliage. gum arabic appeared almost exclusively in printed treatises of painting techniques 13. Two centuries later things changed as in the small treatise on book illumination that precedes the main text of Mappae clavicula (the De coloribus et mixtionibus) where we read that all colours on parchment should be tempered with glair (Phillipps 1846: 188). because the place where a sample was taken for analysis becomes really important as results can vary (different binders and pigments in capital letters. azurite in pictures and only lapis lazuli in capital letters. Cennino Cennini makes a very interesting comment when he writes that for illumination on paper only gum arabic should be used (Brunello 2002: 198).) and conclusions might be wrong or over generalized. de la peinture.

and Modugno. F. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wicksells Boktryckeri-AB. Siddall. Eastaugh. V. (2004): On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. de la sculpture. H. (1967): Original treatises on the arts of painting. New York: Food Products Press: 289-315. V. Venice: Franciscum de Franciscis Senesem (impr. (1996): «Hi sunt omnes colores. Novák. Borradaile.. (1592): De plantis Aegypti liber. 4: 77-9. Laguna. Brunello. Washing or Colouring of Maps and Prints.. N. adhesives and coating. (2004): Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary and Optical Microscopy of Historic Pigments. (1995): «Egg-product pasteurization». Madrid: Fr. Horie. Ravaisson. Chaplin. Colombini. Esencia.J. London: M. H. A Medieval Painters´ Handbook. R. Limning. C.). vol. M. Organic consolidants.2 0 1 1 . (1849): Catalogue Général des Manuscrits des Bibliothèques Publiques. Martínez (impr. J. (1556): Pedacio Dioscorides Anarzabeo. Clarke. Carducho. F. London: Archetype Publications.J. Libri. Origen. acerca de la material medicinal y de los venenos mortiferos traduzido de lengua griega en la vulgar castellana e illustrado con claras y substanciales Annotaciones y con las figures de numerosas plantas exquisitas y raras. v. P.E. Modas y Diferencias. A.. Walsh. fol. F. (2005): Materials for conservation. W. M. F. (2009): Organic Mass Spectrometry in Art and Archaeology. (1932): Compositiones ad tingenda musiva. Félibien. in Stadekman. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale. McGee. New York: Dover Publications. Salamanca: Mathias Gast (impr. Vicenza: Neri Pozza. M. Paris: La Veuve and fils Jean Baptiste Coignard (impr. T.) Hawthorne. V. Text from the 12th century from the Library of St Peter´s Monastery in Salzburg a XI 4.). Hedfors. (1652): A Book of Drawing. Technologia Artis.. 1. Merrifield. Smith. (eds.). 241». New York: Dover. New York: Scribner. (1690): Des principes de l’architecture.P. Definición. (1979): Theophilus. London: Archetype.co lo u r i n m e d i e va l w r i t t e n s o u rc e s Bibliography Alpini. M. R. C. (1966): The Strasburg Manuscript. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. O. (1633): Diálogos de la Pintura. de la peinture. (2011) The Medieval Painter’s Methods (The Montpellier ‘Liber Diversarum Arcium’). 124 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Cunningham. A. Clarke. (1992): De arte illuminandi. Borradaile. and Cotterill.G. On divers arts.). Jenner..V.). (2001): The art of all colours. London: Alec Tiranti. I. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Simmons (impr.º i . T. Egg science and technology. Chichester: Wiley. A. M.

painting. Greece).º i . (1724): El Museo Pictórico y Escala Optica. D. Madrid: Viuda de Juan García Infanzón (impr. limming.V. from Erfurt. Madrid: Cátedra (edición. A. Thompson. Sloane Ms.V. Walert. (eds. L.b i n d i n g m e d i a i n m e d i e va l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n at i o n : a s o u r c e r e s e a r c h Pacheco. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Currently he is working on developing a Thesaurus data base on art materials and techniques for museum cataloguing. XXV. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Mark Clarke for his comments and his open-handed exchange of knowledge.N. in conservation and restoration (Escuela Superior de Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales of Madrid. 1754». I. Stadtbücherei.V. in Isis (23): 456-468. introducción y notas de Bonaventura Bassegoda i Hugas). London. (1934-5): «Medieval color-making: Tractatus qualiter quilibet artificialis color fieri possit from Paris B. Pomaro.2 0 1 1 125 . II. Speculum. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications. (1995): «Libro secondo de diversi colore e sise da mettere a oro». He is a graduate in history (University of Athens. D. Milan: Editrice Bibliográfica. Latin 6749». B. Ms. Salmon. (1685): Polygraphice: or the arts of drawing. Technical Studies in the Field of the Fine Arts III (3): 133-45. Biography Dr.V. A. Hermens. Stefanos Kroustallis is a researcher into historic art materials and techniques. I: 280-307. San Sebastián: Nerea. (1956): The materials and techniques of medieval painting. (1978): Miniature e vetrate senesi del secolo XIII. 25). El arte de la pintura. F. especially in medieval sumptuary arts. E. D. Thompson. Tosatti Soldano. Palomino de Castro y Velasco. (2005): Dictionnaire des matériaux du peintre. A.). Thompson. D. t. Spain) and he received his doctoral degree (Complutense University. (1972): «Petri pictoris carmina». Amplonius Quarto 189 (XII-XIV century)». F. Peek. Genova: Universita di Genova (Collana Storica di Fonti e Studi. (1926): «Liber de coloribus illuminatorum sive pictorum from. Van Acker. (2001).. in Corpus Chistianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis. Historical Painting Techniques.. G. engraving. (2004): La pintura sobre tela. Madrid) on medieval art technological source research. Ms. in Wallert. Materials and Studio Practice. M. No. A.) Perego. (1991): I recettari del Fondo della Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze. etching. Turnhout: Brepols: 145-246. Villarquide Jevenois.. New York: Dover. (1935): «De coloribus naturalia exscripta et collecta. W. Thompson. Paris: Belin.

analisados noutros manuscritos. Este artigo.Resumo Em trabalhos anteriores. this report reveals a chronological use for the blue pigments. lapis-lazuli and azurite. the hypothesis of verdigris is suggested. dado o seu teor em cobre. propõe uma cronologia para o uso dos pigmentos azuis. por microscopia Raman. Raman microscopy was unable to identify green pigments in X-XI manuscripts. por microscopia Raman. São ainda discutidos outros pigmentos verdes. de manuscritos franceses. Justino Maciel. estudaram-se os pigmentos azuis e verdes. as spectra are dominated by a strong fluorescence. are considered. Including the most significant published results. Different green pigments. X-XI. . Felix Teichner e Heidi. identified in other manuscripts. key-words identification analyse physico-chimique pigments bleus pigments verts • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. Because of their copper-content. para além de incluir os resultados mais relevantes que entretanto foram publicados. sugerindo-se a possibilidade de se tratar de verdigris. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. devido à forte emissão de fluorescência que domina os espectros. lápis lazúli e azurite. palavras-chave identificação análise físico-química pigmentos azuis pigmentos verdes • Abstract Blue and green pigments in French manuscripts have been investigated in previous works by Raman microspectrometry. indigo. Não foi possível a identificação dos pigmentos verdes em manuscritos dos sécs. índigo.

L’observation à l’œil nu puis sous microscope est une première étape indispensable alors que son intérêt est souvent sous-estimé. Au contraire. l’historien va s’intéresser particulièrement à cette dernière caractéristique. amélioration ou changement dans les techniques. est présenté. leur stabilité. correspondant à des niveaux différents d’information. Soulignons que les conclusions ont un sens lorsque que les manuscrits sur lesquelles elles s’appuient sont parfaitement datés et localisés. permettent d’étudier les pigments dans les manuscrits médiévaux. Produit naturel ou préparé? S’il s’agit d’un produit naturel.º i .2 0 1 1 127 . par quel(s) procédé(s). à partir de quels composés? Les changements observés dans le choix des pigments utilisés sont d’un grand intérêt et les raisons peuvent en être multiples: produits nouveaux ou artisans novateurs. obtenus par broyage de minéraux. du commerce. un nombre restreint de manuscrits. des pratiques artistiques. les pigments illuminent de leurs couleurs les manuscrits. bleues et vertes. souvent leur prix. UMR CNRS – Université Paris VI – Pierre et Marie Curie. traditionnelles ou de tracé récent? Pour un produit fait de main d’homme. l’artiste. Pour le copiste. rarement leur nature. Les produits naturels minéraux. les plus significatifs pour étayer notre démarche. effets de mode… A la variété des produits.a la recherche des pigments cl au de co upry Ingénieur honoraire. leur teinte. Plusieurs approches. le peintre. Notre propos n’est pas de parcourir l’éventail exhaustif des produits et des palettes utilisés. de dimensions supérieures au micromètre. De même. Une recherche sur la nature des pigments décorant les manuscrits apparaît ainsi comme riche d’informations pour l’histoire des techniques. Interaction et Réactivité 1 (LADIR). présentent des r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. A la fois matière et beauté. étudiés pour la plupart au Laboratoire de Dynamique. L’appréciation de la forme et de la taille des grains de pigments fournit des éléments de caractérisation. La collaboration entre historiens de l’art et analystes est indispensable pour l’intégration des résultats dans une problématique historique. avant tout. comptent. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France) 1. d’où vient-il? Est-il de provenance locale ou a-t-il nécessité un long voyage? Par quelles routes commerciales. s’ajoutent les possibilités de leur mise en œuvre dans des mélanges aux tons subtils. leur éclat. mais de dresser un bilan simple sur les pigments de deux couches colorées. qui témoigne de l’apport et des difficultés de ces études. parfois leur symbolique.

2 0 1 1 . permettent d’identifier. correspondant à la taille des grains de pigments. sans ambiguïté dans la très grande majorité des cas le composé analysé. les manuscrits ayant fait l’objet d’analyses ont été 128 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. La teinte obtenue est ensuite comparée à celle de manuscrits mais similitude de teinte ne signifie pas identité des pigments. non des certitudes (Porter 1995). L’analyse est faite sur une surface micrométrique (de l’ordre de 10 µm2). Seuls. l’analyse par microspectrométrie Raman (Coupry et al.º i . le spectre Raman. deux causes peuvent empêcher l’identification: l’observation Raman ne permet pas de caractériser des bandes avec une intensité suffisante ou lorsqu’un spectre est obtenu. Ces premiers indices peuvent être confrontés à la liste des produits potentiels. Approche analytique Pour identifier avec certitude les pigments. Les données obtenues. obtenu par synthèse. Une autre approche consiste à procéder à une expérimentation: un pigment est préparé. l’orpiment est aisément reconnaissable par ses longues aiguilles jaune brillant. Les études faites au LADIR 2 ont été réalisées essentiellement sur des micro prélèvements. à la fois sans risque pour le manuscrit et représentatifs de la couche picturale. Travaux réalisés en collaboration étroite avec Marie-Thérèse Gousset. Une technique photographique innovante (Isacco 2008) a été expérimentée pour l’identification de certains pigments de miniatures indiennes. Cependant l’observation. fournie par le dépouillement des réceptaires médiévaux. Parmi celles-ci. d’importance très variées. naturelle et ultraviolette. Néanmoins. mais de probabilité d’utilisation inconnue. la reconstitution des produits fournissent des suggestions. basée sur l’étude simultanée de clichés en lumière infrarouge. elle ne nécessite aucun contact entre l’appareil de mesure et la zone analysée. Ainsi. comme la décharge d’une lettre sur le feuillet en vis-à-vis. il est nécessaire d’avoir recours à l’analyse. l’exploitation des textes. La couleur peut être diffuse ou concentrée dans des particules discrètes. ingénieur à la Bibliothèque nationale de France. 2.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r formes anguleuses alors que les grains du même produit. Les techniques physico-chimiques s’imposent alors comme moyen d’investigation. par comparaison avec des spectres de référence. d’époque. Les deux modes expérimentaux ont des avantages et des inconvénients. sont souvent de forme arrondie et de dimensions inférieures au micromètre. 1996) présente des caractéristiques particulièrement intéressantes: totalement non-destructive. Les micro échantillons sont prélevés à des emplacements choisis avec soin. Le choix de la technique analytique est guidé en fonction de certains critères. Pigments bleus Les pigments bleus participent avec une grande fréquence au décor des manuscrits d’où la possibilité d’une large enquête sur des manuscrits d’origine. dont le plus important est le respect de l’ouvrage. le mode in-situ n’ayant utilisé que dans le cas d’un feuillet isolé. Qu’elle trouve ici l’expression de nos remerciements. sur un micro-prélèvement ou directement in-situ sur le manuscrit. associé à un liant et déposé sur une feuille de parchemin (Roosen-Runge 1967). il ne figure pas dans la bibliothèque de références.

les prélèvements ont été réalisés dans les différents types de lettres et de teintes. simples lettrines. Quelque soit la localisation du prélèvement. Présent dans les manuscrits aux riches couleurs du début du siècle. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Comme pour l’étude des manuscrits de Corbie. Quelque soit le grain bleu analysé. Sur l’ensemble des manuscrits. ce qui a permis d’étudier cette production sur une durée d’un siècle. Ce résultat atteste de façon formelle la présence de ce pigment bleu en Picardie dès le XIIe siècle. un seul produit a été identifié. Les prélèvements ont été choisis de façon à explorer au mieux l’éventail des situations: différentes teintes. Un des pigments. Ce pigment minéral est extrait d’une pierre semi-précieuse. dans le scriptorium de l’abbaye de Cîteaux 3. la Bourgogne. pour les lettres filigranées. le bleu de lapis-lazuli. Elle a été confirmée dans une zone géographique plus large. Ces pigments ont fait l’objet de recherches sur un groupe de manuscrits écrits au XIIe siècle à l’abbaye de Saint-Pierre de Corbie (Guineau et al. les rubriques. deux pigments bleus ont été identifiés par leurs spectres Raman qui les différencient sans aucune ambiguïté. Par contre. les teintes grises révèlent un mélange de grains très bleus et de particules noires. qui n’a cependant pas affecté le choix du pigment. retenus. Aucun pigment blanc n’a été mis en évidence. Quatre abbatiats vont se succéder jusqu’en 1139 avec des cycles de grande activité intellectuelle et artistique.2 0 1 1 129 . au décor monochrome en accord avec l’élan ascétique suscité par saint Bernard. lettres historiées ou décoration secondaire. l’indigo. les teintes claires sont obtenues par dilution dans le liant. jugés comme représentatifs de ces différentes périodes. Communication privée. dont le gisement d’Afghanistan était déjà exploité à l’époque médiévale comme en témoigne Marco Polo dans le Livre des Merveilles. ainsi que dans les différentes mains des manuscrits. le lapis-lazuli. la vie religieuse y est restaurée avec l’arrivée de chanoines avant 990. Celui de l’abbaye de la Trinité de Fécamp (Normandie) a eu une production importante.º i . il peut avoir une teinte grise. dont le MontSaint-Michel. suivie par celle de moines clunisiens en 1001. On observe une utilisation du bleu avec des fréquences différentes. ont été sélectionnés en privilégiant l’abbatiat de Jean d’Alie (1028-1078) en raison de son intérêt artistique et historique. 1986). alumino-silicate de sodium polysulfuré. celui-ci montre sous microscope la présence de grains microscopiques d’un bleu intense et saturé au sein d’une matrice blanche. Neuf manuscrits. Le bleu est rare dans les premiers manuscrits. identifiées comme étant des particules de noir de carbone. le bleu de lapis-lazuli y a été également identifié dans la production du milieu du siècle. Une partie importante de la production de son scriptorium est conservée à la Bibliothèque nationale de France. L’ensemble des manuscrits de Fécamp de cette période conservés à la Bibliothèque nationale de France a été pris en compte.a la recherche des pigments 3. une seule fois dans quelques-uns jusqu’à très abondamment dans certains. bien conservée et bien documentée. jamais dans plus de dix ouvrages. très fréquent dans les derniers. pâle ou foncé. dans le filigrane ou le corps de lettre. l’abbaye fut détruite en 842. L’enquête se poursuit par l’étude d’un scriptorium sur une période longue (Coupry 1999). en relation avec les centres anglais et les abbayes normandes voisines. Fondée en 658.

La molécule responsable de la couleur est l’indigotine.2 0 1 1 . Un tout autre pigment bleu a été identifié dans des manuscrits géographiquement proches et postérieurs. deux techniques complémentaires non-destructives. BnF lat. Tout oppose ces deux produits naturels. Il importe alors de considérer des manuscrits d’autres origines. de prix que l’on peut supposer différents. ce qui témoigne du large usage de ce pigment. Le bleu de lapis-lazuli éclaire de son éclat les vêtements de la Vierge et des saints tandis que l’indigo est réservé pour les personnages peu nobles. 111). ou à Toulouse dont il fit la richesse aux XVe et XVIe siècles. utilisé pour teindre les textiles. Les teintes claires ne sont pas obtenues par dilution mais par ajout d’un pigment blanc. naturel pour les époques qui nous intéressent. bleu franc ou bleu-vert. a été analysée (Villela-Petit et al. attribuées alors au liant et/ou à une mise en œuvre différente. mais avec des concentrations différentes (Cardon 2000. L’indigo n’est utilisé que dans un seul manuscrit de Fécamp.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r est un produit colorant bleu. en Italie. 163) identifie un seul pigment. l’azurite. un produit minéral naturel. organique et végétal pour l’un. l’autre jamais. D’origine végétale. qui expliqueraient ces variations. à Chypre et surtout en Allemagne d’où son qualificatif d’azur d’Allemagne. l’un utilise fréquemment le bleu. il est obtenu à partir de plantes de très nombreuses familles dont le pastel des teinturiers. décorés par des artistes au renom prestigieux soit du début soit de la fin du XVe siècle. 2003) par spectrométrie d’absorption par réflexion diffuse dans le visible et par spectrométrie de fluorescence X. Les fonds bleus des vêtements. plus sombre pour le manteau de la Vierge que pour la tunique de saint Jean. malgré l’absence de documents comptables. Les principaux gisements de ce carbonate basique de cuivre se rencontrent en France. Des publications d’un très grand intérêt permettent d’étendre notre enquête vers des manuscrits princiers. une splendide enluminure se déploie sur deux feuillets en vis-à-vis. réalisé au début de la décennie 1410. 4801. Ces résultats établissent avec certitude la présence de bleu de lapis-lazuli en Normandie-Picardie pour la période des XI-XIIes siècles. écrit et conservé à Narbonne. Ainsi. produit localement ou de provenance lointaine. quelque soit la teinte de la couche picturale. La robe du Christ présente trois tons de bleu. la surface des océans est peinte avec de l’azurite. le blanc de plomb. toujours en mélange avec le 4. et. La palette du Livre d’Heures du maréchal Boucicaut. comme le montrent les manuscrits lat. à l’exclusion de tout autre pigment bleu. Communication privée. pour lesquels l’analyse (Cardon 2000. daté de la fin du Xe siècle. dans une Géographie de Ptolémée du XVe siècle 4. leur origine et leur structure. L’observation ne met pas en évidence des grains d’autres couleurs. daté de 1221.º i . 130 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. est décorée d’enluminures de qualité médiocre. sont réalisés avec un même et seul pigment. cultivé en Normandie et Picardie au Moyen Âge. 2253 et 3776. minéral pour l’autre. La présence de pigment bleu peut relever d’un choix du copiste. l’indigo. dans un sacramentaire du XIVe siècle de l’évêché de Carcassonne (sud de la France). Les deux mêmes copistes ont participé à leur réalisation. La page de garde d’un recueil des coutumes et franchises de Narbonne. Plus tardivement. nommé guède au nord et pastel au sud. indigène en France. Le bleu de lapis-lazuli est le pigment bleu présent dans le décor de tous les autres manuscrits. Paris.

est un ouvrage précieux. le Livre des propriétés des choses. avant qu’il devienne peintre officiel de la cour de France. BnF latin 270 f.2 0 1 1 131 . va s’ajouter de façon exceptionnelle un autre pigment. Il contient en particulier la première représentation de la Fontaine de Vie au symbolisme fort. présente des repeints XIV-XVe siècle. Par contre. Ce produit fabriqué en Egypte dès 3000 BC est le grand pigment bleu du monde méditerranéen antique et disparaît de la palette des artistes à une date encore imprécise. principalement dans le manuscrit réalisé au début de sa carrière. manuscrit luxueux réalisé vers 805. identifié seulement dans quelques manuscrits. BnF latin 1205 f. identifiés comme étant du bleu de lapis-lazuli pour le saint patron de l’abbaye et de l’indigo pour l’abbé.106v.º i . Le manuscrit a fait l’objet d’une étude très complète (Roger 2007). du nom du scribe qui l’a réalisé. L’Evangéliaire de Charlemagne. Cet édifice. le Commentaire d’Haymon d’Auxerre sur Ezéchiel. blanc de plomb. la production de Jean Bourdichon s’étend sur plus de trente ans. présente sur le feuillet 2r une scène dédicatoire. ont été décorés avec du bleu de lapis-lazuli 5 pour l’un et de l’azurite 6 pour l’autre. avec des produits bleus similaires pour les trois enlumineurs. déjà identifié à Fécamp est confirmée. Trois manuscrits du nord de la France témoignent du choix des pigments bleus disponibles: les deux premiers. le troisième. Vita sancti Wandregisli. l’a été avec de l’indigo 7. Un manuscrit écrit à l’abbaye Saint-Germain d’Auxerre (Bourgogne. donc r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Sanctorale. dans lequel il intervient aux côtés du Maître de Bedford et du Maître d’Orose. de Barthélemy l’Anglais. Actuellement ce pigment a été identifié par le même chercheur dans deux autres manuscrits.24v. Les deux personnages sont vêtus de bleu (Coupry 1990). et le Bréviaire de Châteauroux. A ce groupe de trois produits. la Fontaine de Vie des Evangiles de Saint-Médard de Soissons. Evangelia. Trois manuscrits couvrant l’étendue chronologique de son activité montrent par spectrométrie Raman (Trentelman et al. écrit vers 781-783 en lettres d’or et d’argent sur parchemin pourpré et magnifiquement illustré.92v. Mais l’artiste a aussi recours à un mélange faisant intervenir l’azurite. estimée vers les VII-VIIIes siècles. 6. celui de la couche postérieure est l’azurite. copiés à Corbie au IX e siècle. BnF Nal 18315 f. l’abbé Helric prosterné devant saint Germain. 2008) la présence de bleu de lapis-lazuli dans tous les feuillets analysés. Il est nécessaire d’étendre nos investigations vers des époques antérieures afin de préciser l’introduction du bleu de lapis-lazuli en Europe occidentale. Un rapprochement peut être fait avec la stratigraphie des couches picturales de la chapelle des Moines à Berzé-la-Ville (Bourgogne. France). Le choix de ces deux pigments souligne la hiérarchie des personnages et la présence en France vers l’an mil du bleu de lapis-lazuli. La présence de ces pigments a été confirmée dans deux autres manuscrits décorés attribués au Maître de Boucicaut. L’analyse des couches picturales bleues montre la présence d’indigo dans l’ensemble de l’ouvrage à l’exception de la Fontaine de Vie dont les paons sont peints avec du bleu égyptien. Le pigment de la couche originelle est le bleu de lapis-lazuli. bleu vif pour l’un et bleu sombre pour l’autre. A la fin du siècle. 7. France). dit aussi Evangéliaire de Godescalc. Notons que l’indigo n’a été observé dans aucun des trois manuscrits. construit pour l’abbé Hugues de Cluny dans la deuxième moitié du XIe siècle.a la recherche des pigments 5. daté du VIIIème siècle.

qui montra la seule présence de l’indigo. l’étude fut reprise (Brown et al. ce qui repoussait l’utilisation de ce dernier au début du VIII ème siècle. daté de 715-721 et conservé à la British Library (Londres).t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r quasiment contemporain. semblent irréalisables avec les possibilités techniques actuelles. illustrent les difficultés et l’intérêt de l’identification des pigments. Nous avons tenté de différencier par spectrométrie Raman les différents bleus de lapislazuli (Torrès-Bourdel 2003) soit sur des échantillons provenant de manuscrits soit sur des échantillons minéraux. dont on peut évaluer par spectrométrie Raman les proportions relatives. est réalisée avec du bleu de lapis-lazuli dont ce serait une toute première attestation d’utilisation. L’identification de ces produits conduit à des problèmes spécifiques. minéral argileux qui doit son nom à sa couleur bleue. comme pour l’azurite.2 0 1 1 . Ainsi l’aérinite. La décomposition et l’ajustement des bandes principales des chromophores montrent des différences 13 2 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Dans une première démarche. Le schéma suivant propose l’utilisation chronologique des trois principaux pigments bleus dans le décor des manuscrits occidentaux. nous nous sommes intéressés à la couleur. Ce résultat souligne la fragilité d’une identification fondée sur une observation visuelle. des ions polysulfures. présence attestée de pigments bleus dans des manuscrits médiévaux d’europe occidentale Il ne faut pas négliger l’utilisation possible de pigments locaux. A partir de ces résultats. En 2004. il est possible de tirer un premier bilan. la caractérisation de l’espèce végétale. les Evangiles de Lindisfarne. due à la présence de deux chromophores. dont le logis abbatial de la grande abbaye de Moissac (Daniel 2008). quelque soit la nuance de la couche bleue. la détermination du gisement d’exploitation. Pour l’indigo. établie sur un nombre restreint de manuscrits analysés. se trouve dans quelques gisements des Pyrénées. certes à compléter et à préciser en fonction de nouvelles analyses et de nouvelles identifications. Il a été identifié en peinture murale à proximité de son lieu d’exploitation dans quelques sites des XI-XII es siècles. et infirma l’utilisation de bleu de lapis-lazuli. 2004).º i . A-t-il pu être utilisé également pour des manuscrits? La recherche reste à faire. Les recherches sur un autre manuscrit de grande importance. La première étude réalisée en 1956 identifia par comparaison visuelle deux pigments bleus: l’indigo et le bleu de lapis-lazuli.

La composition peut être extrêmement variable. déjà présentés. plus de trente. 1999) ou au bleu de lapis-lazuli (Burgio et al. Un comportement identique a été rapporté pour des manuscrits d’origine variée et antérieurs très souvent au XIIIe siècle. de ce fait. que le rouge et le bleu. tandis le spectre Raman des grains verts du second manuscrit était la combinaison des spectres de l’indigo et d’un pigment jaune. de la plus élaborée à la plus simple. ce qui ouvre également des perspectives de recherche prometteuses. 1999). L’analyse élémentaire sur des verts de manuscrits de Fécamp montre la présence de cuivre. aluminosilicates de fer. la fluorescence. sans que nous ayons corrélé ces termes à des données colorimétrique. mélanges ternaires. Ainsi les verts peuvent être décrits comme vert clair franc. vert foncé terne. avec une grande diversité de tons. ce qui élimine l’hypothèse de terres vertes. la couleur verte observée étant la combinaison des couleurs bleue et jaune.2 0 1 1 133 . les pigments verts de l’un d’entre eux n’avaient pu être identifiés. Couches picturales vertes L’étude des couches vertes dans la décoration de manuscrits répond à une problématique très différente: elle est centrée sur la détermination de leur nature dans les neuf manuscrits de Fécamp. De façon analogue. l’observation Raman a toujours été masquée par un phénomène de très grande intensité. mélanges binaires jaune/vert ou bleu/vert. indigo/orpiment avec des proportions différentes. interdisant d’accéder à la moindre identification.º i . dans différents types de lettres. Cette grande diversité recouvre-t-elle une diversité de produits? Ceci a conduit à effectuer un grand nombre de prélèvements. répartis au mieux pour tenir compte de ces différentes observations. vert olivâtre. l’orpiment. y occupe néanmoins une place importante. Or. Lors d’une recherche précédente (Coupry 2007) par microspectrométrie Raman sur deux manuscrits coptes. potassium et magnésium. Le problème n’est donc pas limité à un scriptorium et acquiert. dont l’interprétation est à poursuivre. le spectre Raman obtenu avec de nouvelles conditions expérimentales montre des bandes attribuées à des ions polysulfures plus condensés. l’obtention d’une teinte verte par le mélange Bleu/Jaune a été observée dans de nombreux manuscrits. vert vif d’une nuance émeraude. Certaines couches sont corrosives vis-à-vis du parchemin. 2003) ou le pigment de synthèse jaune de plomb et d’étain associé à l’azurite (Vandenabeele et al. d’autres s’écaillent. Cette couleur. 2004). Plusieurs sels de cuivre peuvent être utilisés comme pigments: les r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. quelque soit l’échantillon et les conditions expérimentales. Plusieurs combinaisons sont possibles et reflètent les possibilités d’approvisionnement en l’un ou l’autre des constituants. n’a pas été identifié.a la recherche des pigments qui suggèrent des variations dans les environnements électroniques des ions. d’autres combinaisons ont été observées. moins présente. Indigo/orpiment est identifié dès 715-720. chimiquement instable. comme bleu de lapis-lazuli/orpiment (Villa-Petit et al. Si le mélange orpiment/azurite. D’autre part. une portée plus générale pour la connaissance des pigments verts. pour offrir une très grande variété de couleurs (Cennini 1978. dans les Evangiles de Lindisfarne (Brown et al. 32).

2 0 1 1 . Les sels le plus fréquemment cités dans les traités de peinture médiévaux sont les acétates. La littérature technique. c’est la chronologie et les aspects artistiques. la malachite. La constitution des mélanges bleu/jaune et la chronologie de leur utilisation n’ont pas fait l’objet de synthèses. turquoise… La composition du pigment est souvent non stœchiométrique. 2006). • 13 4 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Le spectre Raman ne permettait pas d’identifier le pigment au cuivre.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r spectres Raman du carbonate basique. Mais tous les pigments verts non identifiés ne sont pas du vert-de-gris comme le montre l’étude d’un manuscrits italien du XVe siècle (Bruni et al. C’est le recours à la microspectrométrie IRFT par réflexion qui a permis de caractériser la malachite. 1999). Les pigments bleus principaux dans les manuscrits de l’Europe médiévale sont connus et facilement identifiables. les recettes proposent des composés additionnels: le vinaigre pour modifier la teinte. et attribuée au composé complexé. ils n’ont été que très difficilement et très rarement observés dans les couches picturales vertes de manuscrits. sont à identifier. ainsi pour les verts dans des manuscrits de Jean Bourdichon (Trentelman et al. le savon ou le miel pour stabiliser le produit. Il s’agit d’une «identification» par élimination. chimiquement proches et pouvant évoluer d’une forme à l’autre. est riche de nombreuses recettes de fabrication. souvent regroupés sous le terme de «vert-de-gris». ou de sulfate permettent généralement leur identification. La palette verte recèle toujours bien des inconnues. ne peut conduire qu’à proposer l’hypothèse d’un vert-de-gris. En conséquence.º i . La cause principale est la très forte fluorescence. le safran comme anti-oxydant. basées sur l’action de vinaigre sur des feuilles de cuivre. dépendant de nombreux facteurs. Alors que les spectres Raman des différents acétates de synthèse sont connus (Chaplin et al. La nature et la structure des pigments verts. bleus. en l’absence d’une identification formelle (carbonate ou sulfate). plusieurs produits peuvent être obtenus. Les réactions sont lentes et complexes. L’ajout de jus de cerise ou de baies de fleurs sans répondre à des buts clairement établis ne fait qu’augmenter la complexité du mélange pigmentaire. Ces quelques exemples montrent l’avancée très différente des recherches sur les pigments. Ils sont verts. Pour modifier la teinte ou les propriétés du pigment. ce qui permettrait d’élucider leur mode de préparation. 2008) qui n’y utilise pas le mélange bleu/jaune. inexistante dans les composés purs. la présence de cuivre dans un pigment vert. L’interaction avec les liants protéiniques à base d’œuf doit être prise en compte dans la structure du produit final ainsi que la dégradation au sein de la couche picturale même. antique et médiévale. économiques et sociaux de leur utilisation qui ouvrent des perspectives intéressantes dans le domaine historique. dérivés des acétates de cuivre.

M. Gousset. Carcassonne/Terrassa. Ed.... Cardon D. Coupry C.. paintings and other artefacts by Raman microscopy: application to the study of three German manuscripts. Daniel F. 1997. Clark R. 1986. XL: 157-171 Isacco.. 1990. 1978. et Coulon E.H. Coupry. 405: 1-11. C. Bouet et M. Approche analytique du décor de deux manuscrits coptes. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta.revues.H.a la recherche des pigments Bibliographie Brown K. B.2 0 1 1 135 . and Scott D. The Lindisfarne Gospels and two other 8th century Anglo-Saxon/Insular manuscripts: pigment identification by Raman microscopy. «Etude des pigments Manuscrit Paris BN latin 12302» in L’Ecole carolingienne d’Auxerre.J. 2008.. Scriptorium.P.º i . Identification de bleu de lapis-lazuli dans six manuscrits à peintures du XIIe siècle provenant de l’abbaye de Corbie. and Brissaud D. 33: 4-12 Bruni S. Trad. Cariati F.A.H 2004. Paris) 119. Forgerit. ArchéoSciences: 32. Coupry C. Burgio L. and Corset J. P. Le Livre de l’Art ou Traité de la Peinture.T. Mounier A. Ciomartan D.D.org/987. Coupry C.. 37: 223229. Paris) Chaplin T. «Les pigments utilisés pour l’enluminure à Fécamp aux XIe et XIIe siècles» in Manuscrits et enluminures dans le monde normand (X e-XVe siècles).. 1999.. 2006. and Clark R.. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. J. 163: 199-208. Coupry C. ed. Identification of pigments on a XV century illuminated parchment by Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies. Le pigment d’aérinite dans deux peintures romanes du Sud-Ouest de la France. D. Les pigments des miniatures indiennes. 1999. de Nobele. L’Asiathèque Paris. Jewelry and Forensic Science» in Raman Microscopy.J. Casadio F. 1999. http://archeosciences. Laborde B. C. 1996.. «Application in Art. and..J. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2007. 2008. Pigment identification on medieval manuscripts. J. Teintures précieuses de la Méditerranée. Mottez. Dosdat (Presses Universitaires de Caen) 69. Spectrochimica Acta Part A 55: 1371-1377. 1437. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. Jeudy et Lobrichon (Beauchesne. and Toniolo L. Turrell G. ed. Iogna-Prat.A. Study par Raman microscopy of nine variants of the green-blue pigment verdigris. E. V. 1978 (F. (Academic Press) 421. Journal of Molecular Structure. Guineau. Clark R..L. Cennini C. Vezin. ed.

Art de l’enluminure. «You can’t tell a Pigment by Its Color». Analyst. Roger P. and Klockenkämper R.2 0 1 1 . Activité scientifique: Résonance magnétique Nucléaire. Pigment investigation of a late-medieval manuscript with total reflection X-ray fluorescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Interactions et Réactivité.Bourdel A. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.fr 20. Musées du Louvre. 1995. l’évangéliaire de Charlemagne. 40: 577-584. Dekeyzer B. Arts Décoratifs. Spectrométrie vibrationnelle. Anderson-Lovelace Ed.. Colorants textiles. and Turner N. Etude des couleurs et de la pratique picturale. 20: 46-66. Recherches en collaboration avec: Bibliothèque nationale de France. Farbgebung und Technik frühmittelalterlicher Buchmalerei. Principaux centres d’intérêt: Pigments dans les manuscrits et les peintures murales. de la Mode et du Costume.coupry@orange.. Diplôme d’Etudes Supérieures. Matériaux contemporains. Trentelman K. Vandenabeele P. In Making the Medieval Book: Techniques of Production. Villela-Petit et Guineau B. Biographie Ingénieur en retraite du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Laboratoire de Dynamique. 1967.. H.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Porter C. 2009. Manufacture des Gobelins.º i . Art de l’enluminure. 2003.. Thèse en Chimie Physique (Université de Bordeaux) et Licence d’Histoire (Université de Paris IV – Sorbonne). Torrés. Wehling B. Archéologues et historiens du CNRS. 1999. principalement microspectrométrie Raman. 111. 2207. rue Clisson 75013 Paris (France) 136 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Le Maître de Boucicaut revisité. Investigation of the painting materials and techniques of the late-15 th century manuscript illuminator Jean Bourdichon. Roosen-Runge. Centre d’Etudes Médiévales d’Auxerre. Moens L. 124: 169-172. Berlin. Distinction: Cristal du CNRS claude. Université Bordeaux3.. plastiques (identification) et verres (structure et altérations). 6: 3-34. Carnavalet. Cardon B. Palette et technique d’un enlumineur parisien au début du XVe siècle.. 2003. Centre des Peintures Murales Romaines. auparavant en charge de l’équipe «Matériaux des Objets du Patrimoine»).Etude de la lazurite dans des roches et des pigments de lapislazuli par spectrométrie Raman.…. von Bohlen A.

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6 are reproduced by permission of de Sousa. Figures 1. as cores que hoje vemos nem sempre correspondem às aplicadas pelo artista. enriquecerá o olhar do historiador da arte. A especulação histórico-artística deve ser. (iii) mediaeval artists’ recipe books. and other art history starts from looking at — and enjoying — the colours of manuscripts. psychology. This is severe for yellows. Ignorance of this alteration results in serious errors of interpretation. Art-historical speculation must be preceded by the evaluation of original appearances. . Estas podem ser bastante dramáticas em amarelos. key-words manuscript illumination discoloration fading technical art history art technological source research • Acknowledgments This paper derives from a presentation at the conference Medieval colours: between beauty and meaning (Universidade Nova de Lisboa: Instituto de História da Arte. It is concluded that art historians can benefit from an awareness of possible colour alterations. filosófica. Figures 2. ‘Technical art history’ offers three ways to evaluate the original appearance of manuscript colours: (i) iconography and visual harmony of colour. palavras-chave iluminuras alteração cromática perda de cor história e técnicas de produção artística fontes para os materiais e técnicas da arte • Abstract All our aesthetics. Justino Maciel. Cambridge. como será descrito neste artigo. (iii) livros de receitas de artistas medievais. No entanto. 7. 4 are reproduced na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. Figures 5. Departamento de Conservação e Restauro. (ii) technical analysis of surviving paint.Resumo A nossa abordagem estética. and for their generous hospitality. A investigação em História e técnicas de produção artística oferece três formas de avaliar qual o aspecto das cores originais: (i) iconografia e harmonia visual das cores. O ignorar destas alterações cromáticas pode induzir a sérios erros na interpretação da sua intenção original. and from an awareness of the application of scientific analysis as an interpretive tool. philosophy. 8 are by the author. precedida por uma avaliação sobre qual seria o aspecto original das cores. This paper therefore concentrates on the example of lost manuscript yellows. assim. Uma observação mais cuidadosa pode evidenciar perda ou alterações de cor. Felix Teichner e Heidi. Este artigo focar-se-á pois no caso destes amarelos desaparecidos. However this paper demonstrates that colours observed today are not always those applied by the artist. nomeadamente nos corantes orgânicos utilizados no passado. Instituto de Estudos Medievais. especially for organic colorants commonly used in manuscripts. (ii) análises científicas de tintas originais. psicológica e outras da história da arte começam no olhar – e apreciar – as cores da iluminura. Pedro Fialho Agradecimentos por ajudaby permission of the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College. em manuscritos. Close visual examination reveals areas of fading or discolouration. 2009). ***STA CRUZ***. I would like to thank the organisers Maria João Melo and Adelaide Miranda for their kind invitation to participate. a consciência destas alterações cromáticas bem como da aplicação dos métodos de análise aos materiais como ferramenta interpretativa. Concluí-se que. 3.

Similarly for scientists. Colours can disappear almost completely.º i . psychology. Colours can change their colour. Amsterdam (The Netherlands) mark@clericus. and other art history starts from looking at – and enjoying – the colours of manuscripts. However – as this paper will demonstrate – the colour observed today on an artwork such as a manuscript is not always the original colour as chosen. or deductions concerning the appreciation and comprehension of colour by mediaeval artists and their contemporary audience.2 0 1 1 139 . failure to suspect the presence of some hidden material may result in failure to apply suitable methods of analysis. Ignorance of this alteration results in serious errors of interpretation. cannot be correct if the colours that interpretations are based on are not those that were originally intended. Clearly all theorising must be preceded by the evaluation of the original appearance and likely original material composition. or attempts to group manuscripts by stylistic use of colour. It is perhaps less obvious that all scientific (chemical and physical) analysis also starts from the observation of the colours: analysis depends on the observation that there is something distinctive present that requires analysis. Interpretations of the iconography and symbolism of colour. philosophy. The r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. and applied by the artist. Colours can change their intensity and saturation. composed.org Introduction All our aesthetics.colours versus colorants in art history: evaluating lost manuscript yellows mark clarke University of Amsterdam. The loss of mediaeval colour Colours can change their appearance.

1b).º i . Even ‘fine art’ paintings have not survived well: they have invariably undergone periodic restorations. Knowing this provides a powerful tool for the study of manuscripts. between a colour and the colouring material making that colour. and can inform an art historian far more profoundly than a simple examination of colour ever can. any given colour can be made in a variety of ways. either obvious or almost undetectable. and parchment (itself chemically stable) has alkaline surface treatments that help to counteract the acidity of modern air. However. and to talk of ‘colours’ is to talk of a property of those materials. enamels. and secondly because many interesting Portuguese examples exist. A knowledge of materials derived from chemical analysis is therefore not only interesting to a scientist or a conservator-restorer. jewellery. and from atmospheric pollutants. and scenery for pageants. and this alteration and loss needs to be thought about analytically.1 (a) one colour prepared from two different materials. Perhaps more surprisingly any one pigment may exhibit more than one colour depending on its preparation method (Fig. Colours versus colorants Analytical thinking about colour (whether by an art historian or a chemist) must begin with an appreciation of the difference between a colour and a colorant. Colorants and colours do not have a one-to-one correspondence.e. fig. and in different regions and periods (Clarke 2001b). but also to a book-historian or art historian. Compared with such losses manuscripts have survived comparatively well. Unlike clothes they do not wear out. wall-hangings. unlike jewellery or precious metalwork they are not broken down and re-modelled as tastes change. But even when the original paint is not lost extreme changes of colour occur: for example increased yellowing due to aged varnish is familiar. that is. street signs. This paper considers the example of yellows: firstly because with yellows the effects of colour loss may be either dramatic or subtle. wallpaintings. sometimes with fairly drastic reconstruction of losses. It has been shown by physical-chemical analysis that specific colours were made in different ways by different artists or ateliers.2 0 1 1 . 1a). (b) different colours prepared from one material (rocella tinctoria) Examination of colours Much work has been done grouping manuscripts stylistically based on patterns of colour use. much colour in manuscripts has become altered or lost colour. from touch. Identifying pigments can thus help clarify provenance and authorship. Nevertheless. Manuscripts are relatively safe containers for text and image: illustrations in a closed book are protected from light fading. To talk of ‘pigments’ is to talk of physical materials. Any colour can be made by more than one pigment or combination of pigments.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r vast majority of mediaeval colour has disappeared: clothes. as is the loss of yellow glazes (due to fading or over-cleaning) resulting in unnatural blue foliage. For example the plant yellow ‘weld’ (Reseda luteola) and the artificial pigment lead-tin yellow have identical colours (Fig. Presum- 140 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Two examples illustrate the difference between considering colours and considering colorants. i.

c o l o u r s v e r s u s c o l o r a n t s i n a r t h i s to r y : e va l u at i n g l o s t m a n u s c r i p t y e l l o w s 1. Unpublished results. with age. who stated in the firmest terms that ultramarine was not present. and is used today in chemical analysis of manuscript pigments. Examination of colorants (pigments) Visual naming of colours has been shown to be unreliable. British Library MS Arundel 155 was examined by two independent art historians. The first example results from a study of pigments in 100 Anglo-Saxon manuscripts (Clarke 2004b). These reconstructions are made based on mediaeval artists’ recipe books. For example. It is an inadequate tool. Two particular manuscripts from c. It is extremely common for people to attempt to identify pigments by eye. Similarity in materials strengthens an attributed grouping. carbon and iron gall ink. orpiment. and recent reliable analysis has shown all of them to be to some extent wrong (Clarke 2004 a. but where pigment analysis produced useful arthistorical evidence. colours may degrade beyond recognition. It follows that it is not enough to group manuscripts based on similar appearance: the materials should be the same too.º i . 1 Many of these authors expressed caveats regarding the limitations of visual examination. ably within a workshop the choice of method would be consistent. Comparison of their results reveals very little agreement (such disagreement alone should alert us to a problem with visual analysis). but the limitations of analytical techniques then available (which required unacceptably large samples to be removed) meant visual examination was used faute de mieux. indigo. This may easily be demonstrated by comparing the results of visual ‘pigment identification’ and chemical analysis. which subsequent chemical analysis has shown to be incorrect. lichen purple (Rocella tinctoria) and some unidentified translucent yellow/brown. The problem lies in the use of visual examination to do the comparison. b). and partly because. of which hundreds survive (Clarke 2001a). with inconsistencies solved only by chemical analysis of the colorants. However this independence of colour and pigment is not always appreciated. using simple visual examination. One might ask: why might chemical analysis of colorants interest anyone but a chemist? Consider two examples where looking at colours was not helpful. One had a secure provenance of Canterbury Christ Church. Chemical analysis has shown such visual examination to be largely worthless. yet chemical analysis found it. Trinity College Dublin: Raman spectroscopy found red lead. and inconsistency in materials weakens it. Often categorical statements as to which pigments are or are not present have been made by visual examination. and it should not be practiced today. and it r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. gypsum.2 0 1 1 141 . partly for the reasons outlined above (that one colour may be made from alternative colorants and that one colorant may exhibit different colours). This methodology of comparing unknowns (the materials on manuscripts) with knowns (historically accurate reconstructions) is essentially valid. Typically the appearance of a sample observed on a manuscript is compared with samples and reconstructions of known composition. and any attempt to identify pigments by eye is doomed to failure. Similarly a number of authors have used visual examination to ‘identify’ the pigments on the Book of Kells and the Lindisfarne Gospels.980 AD share text and illustrative programme.

however. or ivory black (an expensive pigment) or bone black (indistinguishable and inexpensive). while Team B consistently used azurite. Thus pigment analysis confirmed and reinforced the proposed division of labour. When analysis demonstrates the use of local products.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r had been suggested on stylistic grounds that the other might also originate there. Attitudes to inexpensive imitations There were various mediaeval attitudes to substitution and imitation. In the second example stylistical research into the Lochorst Bible suggested it was illuminated by two teams of artists.) Theophilus seems to have favoured this attitude when he warned not to disparage any thing ‘just because your native soil has spontaneously and unexpectedly produced it for you’ and asks.º i . magical. I have. Mixtures and imitations Any one colour may also be made from many different mixtures of pigments. Another example is the choice of mosaic gold or real gold.1000. plants or minerals. In jewelled objects one stone would certainly be chosen over another for its symbolic value. why would you ‘despise these as cheap local products and travel over land and sea to procure foreign ones that are no better and are perhaps of less value’ (Prologue to Book I). Similarly mediaeval recipes explain how red brazil-wood dye could be added to blue azurite to imitate the more purple hue of the costly pigment ultramarine. it has often been asserted that Tyrian purple (derived from shellfish) was used to dye parchment pages. For example. this itself becomes a useful provenanceing tool. This was only introduced c. The pigment ultramarine (lapis lazuli) found on both. and to find it so early was most unusual. so its presence in both manuscripts strengthened the link between them. We might consider a third attitude: the symbolic. perhaps.2 0 1 1 . according to the lapidary texts. but analysis indicates this is extremely rare compared to purples made from other ingredients and from mixtures. and ultramarine to highlight iconographically important elements in a picture is well known. a more flexible use of material conventions consistent with stylistic liberties.300 AD onwards treatises survive recording hundreds of recipes for imitating expensive colours such as ultramarine or Tyrian Purple (Clarke 2001a). It is useful to consider these when evaluating whether (and why) certain yellow colorants were used. Other recipes describe manufacture of a tin-based compound called ‘mosaic gold’ which contains no gold but can look remarkably like it. Team A consistently used ultramarine. skill could be considered as more important than the use of expensive materials. From c. 2 142 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. (This. Team A worked in an archaic traditional style. One attitude was that to use valuable materials was desirable in itself. was the choice made by the stylistically more progressive Team B in the Lochorst Bible when they used the latest illusionistic techniques but inexpensive azurite. whereas team B (probably the Zweder Masters) were more naturalistic and illusionistic. These substitutes can be completely convincing to the eye. The use of gold. precious stones. 2. Alternatively. This preference for final appearance over cash-value is one reason for the popularity of imitations and substitutes. found no evidence that such values were ever attributed to pigments. and spiritual value.

However. And yet to the naked eye it is not always clear. but for more sophisticated work. for example.2 0 1 1 143 . Another solution was layering. These combinations allow for more sophisticated or more representational art. The problem was overcome in two ways. where a thin or transparent layer of one colour was used on top to modify another. not just to imitate precious materials. Mediaeval artists’ recipe books contain thousands of prescriptions for mixtures (Clarke 2011). This is directly relevant to the study of manuscript yellows because. and that in consequence they did not mix pigments. and express the juice.g. this was certainly done in manuscripts.c o l o u r s v e r s u s c o l o r a n t s i n a r t h i s to r y : e va l u at i n g l o s t m a n u s c r i p t y e l l o w s These attitudes created reasons to choose one material over another (given otherwise similar colours and working properties). and chemical analyses have shown a great variety of mixed pigments. either to make lake pigments. and dry. And temper it again. on paper or parchment.e. and dry. imitation gold was common. and indeed. since a face or a landscape could be adequately modelled with one or two crude colours. These flower extracts are often specified to be for use ‘in carta’. The first method used to increase the range of available colours was mixing pigments. organic pigments based on plant material are very prone to change colour and fade. i. Another method of increasing the gamut of available of colours was to harness the colours of plants. and sometimes not. regions. Sophistication of the palette Of course there are other reasons to use pigment mixtures. whereas an imitation may have been considered appropriate for a different object or by a different artist. or simply to colour white pigments with the juices: ‘Take yellow flowers.1420. One might contrast for example Suger with Bernard of Clairvaux. notably those mixed to produce greens (Clarke 2001b). to be more realistically representational. That sometimes there were genuine expensive materials used. Until very recently there was. and repeat thus a third time’ (Glasgow MS Hunter 110. we find more and more mixtures and transparent over-layers. the shortage of subtle colours was a problem. Clearly if chemical analysis can discern between expensive and inexpensive materials this is helpful in indicating which attitude or attitudes applied to which objects or to which periods. c. a great shortage of green pigments. around the ‘Eyckian turning point’. artists or patrons. f. It is often stated that mediaeval artists. There are many recipes based on plant extracts. Not all colours can be obtained from a single pure natural material. These attitudes would have been present in different proportions in different individuals. This is simply not true. Consequently sometimes an artist might have chosen to use a genuine expensive material. For symbolic or diagrammatic work this was not problematic. and grind. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. is in itself interesting. The use of intrinsically expensive materials is an important indicator of the attitude of the artist and the patron to a book. as we shall see.40r). e. and temper white lead with this juice. even in a relatively well-protected environment as a closed book.º i . having made such efforts to obtain pure colouring materials. not only in panel painting or in oil painting (Clarke 2011). did not want to adulterate them.

3 a. Similar discolouration and fading of red and yellow is visible in Figure 3. 13r fig. fig. one can search for it. ms144 (england.º i . c cambridge. 8th century) 14 4 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 8th century).1r (england. f.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Lost manuscript yellows Careful examination of manuscripts reveals areas where colour only remains as faint transparent traces. b cambridge. The transparency clearly seems to indicate a faded organic colour. corpus christi college ms69 (england. b. Figure 2 shows transparent infills in orange. yellow and blue.20r. corpus christi college ms69. f. red-pink.2 a.2 0 1 1 .14r. Once alerted to such fading. f. 9th century) f.

and yellow plant-based pigments fade worst of all. Why are lost manuscript yellows so particularly interesting and important? One reason is that so often yellow was used either to represent gold. 12th century) r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Orpiment is unusual in this respect. The most common ingredient of recipes for imitation gold is saffron. 1320-1200 BC) the yellow pigment orpiment and the orange pigment realgar (two forms of an arsenic mineral) have both become white (having converted to a third form of the mineral. and indeed some of the most ancient artists’ recipes we have are for imitation chrysography. This does not reproduce well in print. arsenolite). f. 3 Clearly in this and in many other early manuscripts the paint is extremely thin. the unexhibited pages retain their colour. This phenomenon is not confined to English examples. or to be a substitute for gold. My attention was first drawn to this phenomenon while studying the earliest mediaeval manuscripts from the British Isles. or is a liquid dye or stain rather than a solid pigment bound in a medium. The other reason for concentrating on yellow is that its colour changes and fades away so dramatically.2 0 1 1 145 . corpus christi college ms2.48r is a zoomorphic initial that only the closest inspection shows is infilled with a colour not quite the same as the parchment. but compared with the other colours the yellow is dull. There are a great many recipes for imitation gold.7r (england. or to imitate gold. Plant-based pigments. all tend to fade very badly. indeed the changes to yellows are often the strongest indication – and the strongest argument – that colours in manuscripts have changed at all. In the Cathach of St Columba (Dublin Royal Irish Academy) on f. Examples of degraded yellow are found in the earliest manuscripts. a de luxe manuscript. b cambridge. nor to very early examples. Figure 4 shows a page from the Bury Bible.º i . On the exhibited pages of British Museum papyrus EA10470 (Egyptian.c o l o u r s v e r s u s c o l o r a n t s i n a r t h i s to r y : e va l u at i n g l o s t m a n u s c r i p t y e l l o w s 3. If we concentrate on yellows. then fading phenomena can be still dramatic in the highest quality twelfth century Romanesque manuscripts. which are usually stable. and in any picture golden objects are of undoubted iconographic importance. on the other hand. The rubric is composed of primary colours. and one cannot dismiss it as the result of ‘primitive’ materials and techniques.4 a. fig. because it is a mineral pigment.

and translucent. MS Ii. indeed.171). 6th). cruz ms58 (12-13th century) f. MS183 (England. Cruz (e. MS1 f. and organic pigments are those most prone to fading.10 (England 9th).32).140 The use of a transparent yellow is confirmed in other Portuguese manuscripts.1. to highlight a rubric (Fig. 13th).1 (b) f. (ii) technical analysis of surviving paint.30 146 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 8th). 4. from England.g. France. 5b).2 0 1 1 . Santa Cruz MS1. Evaluating losses Visual examination and comparison clearly reveals areas of fading or discolouration.32 (England 10th). MS4 and MS94 (England. MS395 (Catalan 15th). That this yellow was intended as a highlighter is confirmed by this unambiguous red used similarly (Fig. 4 Transparency in aqueous paint media such as those used on manuscripts is important as it implies the use of an organic pigment. I first noticed it on English examples.6 sta cruz ms40 (13th century) f. suggesting it was always transparent.º i . f. central Europe and Iberia. Here surely we can infer that this buff or yellow-brown colour must originally have been intended to be a strong colour as well.6. 8th). Italy.g.23 (England.g. Cambridge University Library: MS Ll. MS17. 10th. MS Ff. Further examples of faded and discoloured yellows (shown at the conference) include: Cambridge Corpus Christi College: MS256 (Italy.7v. MS82 (France. and was most interested to see it again in the Torre do Tombo and the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal.2 and MS17 f. especially severe for yellow. whereas the yellow is painted all over. In some cases we can deduce that some faded yellows were deliberately transparent. fig. and Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal MS Alcobaça 333 and MS360. MS411 (Channel. 11th). (iii) mediaeval artists’ recipe books.1000). and examples might be multiplied indefinitely.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r weak. The red is carefully painted around the letters. 5a). MS L16 f. from 6th to 15th century. This phenomenon appears in Romanesque manuscripts from all over Europe. 43 and 76. This use of transparent yellow is confined neither to Portugal nor to this period. and from Sta. 11th). in some cases it is not obvious that an area was coloured at all. ‘Technical art history’ offers three ways to evaluate what the original appearance of manuscript colours may have been: (i) iconography and visual harmony.5 (a) sta. e. f. 12th). Examples of this same alternation of strong colours with a drab buff were noted from Lorvão (e. MS394 (England 14th).25r).1. 6). where it is used in combination with patterns of dots (Fig. most probably a bright yellow imitating gold. fig. 5 (Switzerland 12th). c. Glasgow University Library: MS Hunter 404 (Italy. Often a transparent yellow has been used much as one might use a yellow fluorescent pen today. MS193 (France. Engelberg Stiftsbibliothek: Cod. MS69 (England. Portuguese Romanesque examples include Lorvao L16.

3 b) we may conclude that it would have been decoratively valueless. blue and green letters is intense. Fortunately.2 0 1 1 147 . dark and saturated. but they do need to be not too degraded. but possible useful motifs include heraldic devices (specified in unambiguous terminology: ‘or’ should be yellow). (David Jacobs. Audemar (c. 6 The application of other analytical techniques to manuscripts is being developed. but only when it has survived in good condition.) Iconography and visual harmony One must re-consider images where one might expect yellow for iconographical reasons. The Wollaton Antiphonal (University of Nottingham MS250). including Direct Injection Mass Spectrometry (requiring only tiny samples) and fluorescence spectroscopy (requiring no samples). Even without iconographical clues we can deduce when the colours must be wrong by loss of visual harmony. but is difficult for yellows. Cheryl Porter. The organic yellows were also found mixed with verdigris. where broom is a local product. Some years ago I suggested that the use of Infra-Red lasers might overcome the fluorescence problems that have until now hindered analysis of organic pigments by Raman spectrosopy.1300) stated saffron was produced in France (but that it was not good). Technical analysis Unfortunately chemical analysis is unusually problematic for faded yellows. analysis can be very helpful. who in 2010 will examine certain Anglo-Saxon manuscripts where I identified faded yellow organics. personal communication 2009. Especially in these Romanesque examples it seems clear that the pale-brown colour is incongruous. 7 Recipes So. Perkin-Elmer have now lent an Infra-Red FT-Raman instrument to the British Library. personal communication 2009. including for organic yellow pigments. All are found on a base of either chalk or lead white. is also invisible to Raman. in summary. The majority of these use saffron (Crocus sativus). sometimes with weld added. and thus is surely degraded. even in mixtures. including yellows from broom (Genista tinctoria). but it requires samples.º i . For organic pigments the currently favourite technique for manuscript analysis – Raman spectroscopy – is unsuitable.c o l o u r s v e r s u s c o l o r a n t s i n a r t h i s to r y : e va l u at i n g l o s t m a n u s c r i p t y e l l o w s 5. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. BL. 7. arsenolite. painted with a very full palette. Recent HPLC analysis identified several plant-based pigments. or representations of golden objects and haloes. There survive a considerable number of mediaeval treatises containing artists’ recipes. Saffron has been detected using Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. In cases where a colour is barely distinguishable from the colour of parchment (e. thickly applied. is a high-quality English manuscript c. strong. the yellow in Fig. Sometimes when a yellow colorant degrades it can be identified by its degradation products (although not in the case of saffron). we have another clue. but the brownyellow letters are dull and insipid. and in one remarkable case. as for example in Fig. and a strong yellow would surely have made better pictorial sense alongside the other strong colours. these only need to be very small. Preliminary results using reconstructions seem promising.1420. Of particular interest is that it has been suggested that this book was made in the English region of East Anglia. for example.g. 5 The best method of analysis of organic colours is High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Despite these problems there have been successes. There are few motifs in mediaeval European art where the iconographic meaning of yellow is sufficiently robust and consistent to deduce a lost yellow. when analysis is not able to provide the answer. on the synthetic inorganic pigment lead-tin-yellow. Degraded orpiment. 4 where the colour of the red. 6.

) It is satisfying that recipes in the 15 th century Portuguese Livro de como se fazem as cores (Clarke 2001a. #2950) seem to correspond well with chemical analysis of Portuguese manuscripts. and thus more visually coherent. (right) saffron Microscopic examination of the lettering shown in Fig. almost colourless brown.7 reconstructions (left) safflower. fustic (Rhus cotinus). This effect has been reconstructed in Figure 8 by digitally increasing the degree of colour saturation.e. The prevalence and wide diffusion of recipes for organic yellows means that we should be looking for traces of them. and the best from ‘Sicily’ [read: ‘Cilicia’ i. #2790). fig. 4 showed the paint medium to be thick.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r that it was imported from Spain and Italy. (The prevalence of recipes for mosaic gold after c. and to exhibit craquelure. Turkey] (Clarke 2001a. safflower (Carthamus tinctorius).) If indeed the Bury Bible lettering was originally made with saffron (or similar) then all the colours of the lettering would have originally been equivalent in terms of strength and saturation. lead-white.g. (Reconstructions showed that saffron in a glue or gum medium needs to be applied thickly. buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). e. chalk and gypsum. plant fibres are visible (Fig.º i .1400 suggests analysis of what appears to be gold is also needed. Knowledge of the recipes suggests lines of enquiry: in reconstructions of saffron and safflower recipes.2 0 1 1 . 148 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. The 11th century specialist treatise De clarea (‘On glair’) devotes a large proportion of its short length to saffron (Clarke 2001a. blackthorn (Prunus spinosa). 7). and the gall of an ox or fish. so it would be worthwhile trying to find them (although a careful illuminator may have excluded them). suggesting that its recipes for yellows may well explain these faded areas. Surely this makes more decorative sense. #140). by Le Begue in 1431 (Clarke 2001a. aloes. #2790). Alternatively organic colorants could be added to inorganic white substrates such as egg-shell. This is what would be found if it had originally been a yellow transparent colorant in a thick glue medium. although hide glue was also suggested. These were usually mixed in glair (egg white). Other yellows suggested by recipes include weld.

º i . 22v.and panel-paintings. and analysis confirms this.) Saffron was added to azurite to make green. British Library Add. minium or azurite may be identified by reliable and robust techniques. but includes some pages of late tenth century illustrations that have been pasted in (f. although saffron also reduces corrosion of pages by verdigris. Consequently loss of yellow organic colorants can cause colour change in even non-yellow areas. but regarding manuscripts are largely silent. Recipes warn that certain pigments are chemically incompatible and will discolour each other if mixed. and other recipes specify that some pigments (notably organics) were suitable for manuscripts but not suitable for other supports (such as panels and walls).1500 itemise painting saffron onto fore-edges – apparently now lost. whether it was noticed.c o l o u r s v e r s u s c o l o r a n t s i n a r t h i s to r y : e va l u at i n g l o s t m a n u s c r i p t y e l l o w s fig. but ultramarine is also found on the original eighth century initials (23r and 50r).49v). Pigment analysis is useful in finding anachronistic materials that document this. Financial documents record mediaeval restorations of wall. nevertheless the colours may not be original (Clarke 2011). Accounts from Merton College Oxford c. and so although inorganic pigments such as verdigris. or whether repairs were carried out.8 digital reconstruction with enhanced yellow Recipes supply the surprising information that the problem of faded yellow pigments is not confined to faded yellow colours. Examination shows ‘improvements’ to manuscripts certainly were carried out: not really restorations but rather re-decoration projects. Mediaeval responses to colour loss It is unclear how much durability of pigments was understood by mediaeval craftsmen. One might easily spot these added pages by their later style.2 0 1 1 149 . Other organics were added to other inorganics too. MS 40618 is an Irish eighth century manuscript. It is not clear how soon colour loss occurred. and even to improve orpiment. Recipes document that the addition of saffron to verdigris was common in Europe (and Persia). f. This is because saffron was not just used in yellow pigments. clearly these original initials must have been re-touched while the book was undergoing improvement r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. (The stated reason was to improve colour. but was also an additive to other pigments.

manuscripts are also archaeological artefacts. Furthermore many non-yellow pigments contained an organic component. which has probably altered in colour too. but also in certain areas such as verdigris green. to identify intrusive anachronistic elements. from inspection of surviving traces of colour. and a renaissance in the philology of artists’ recipe books. Since what is seen now is clearly not always what was originally there. more work is needed to build up a substantial and statistically significant corpus of analyses (similar to that extant for easel paintings). a subtle or drab yellow-brown seems out of place. and to deduce original appearance. This yellow loss is not confined to areas originally coloured yellow. the appearance of manuscripts must be re-assessed. that there was an extensive use of vivid organic yellows.2 0 1 1 . with increasingly sensitive analytical instruments available. if it had always been this colour it would have made no decorative sense. • 150 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. especially transparent yellows. and so I suggest that it would make more decorative sense if it had originally been golden-yellow. why so little gold was used in Portuguese manuscripts in this period. but. for example. This must be collaborative. The buff or brown colour in Romanesque manuscripts has in the past been accepted as a bona fide colour. and even allowing for some darkening and yellowing of the parchment. Chemical analysis is helpful to establish provenance. It does contrast somewhat with parchment. compared with elsewhere in Europe. which are now lost. and art historians. regions. But to establish what was conventional usage for different periods. librarians. and from mediaeval recipes. It seems. as the best analyses are done by physicists and chemists working closely with conservators. In addition to being vehicles for the transmission of texts and images. In the case of transparent yellow. Conclusions Clearly there has been a loss and change of colour in mediaeval European manuscripts. and one must constantly bear in mind this physicality. or ateliers.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r (Clarke 2004b. since the other colours are usually all strong and bright. and is legible. This is a golden age for the study of the physical properties of art works in general and manuscripts in particular. It may help to explain.º i . Clearly art historians can benefit from an awareness of possible colour alterations. due to the degradation and fading of colorants. the contrast with the parchment is often negligible. which see for another example). and in particular there has clearly been a particularly severe loss of yellows. Whether lost yellows were repainted remains to be determined.

Figures 1. 6 are reproduced by permission of BPMP. Clarke. Bibliography Clarke. M. London: Archetype Publications. (2001a) The Art of All Colours: Mediaeval Recipe Books for Painters and Illuminators. He specialises in the interdisciplinary study of historic artist’s paint. (2011) Mediaeval Painters’ Materials and Techniques: The Montpellier ‘Liber diversarum arcium’. 2009). and written sources.º i . The Netherlands. M. M. (2004a) «Really don’t trust your eyes to identify manuscript pigments!» Gazette du livre médiéval 44: 50-53. (2001b) ‘The analysis of medieval European manuscripts’ Reviews in Conservation 2: 3-17. 8 are by the author. with an interdisciplinary doctorate on medieval manuscript paint. Departamento de Conservação e Restauro. historically accurate reconstructions. He is currently working on the early history of oil paint at the University of Amsterdam. at the University of Cambridge.org r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Biography Mark Clarke (°1962) trained in England in conservation and conservation science. mark@clericus. and FOMAMOLF. and for their generous hospitality. Instituto de Estudos Medievais. Clarke. Cambridge. I would like to thank the organisers Maria João Melo and Adelaide Miranda for their kind invitation to participate.2 0 1 1 151 . 1071 ZC Amsterdam. the Fitzwilliam Museum. He has made a particular study of mediaeval artists’ recipe books. combining technical analysis. Figures 5. M. Figures 2. art history. Rijksmuseum Ateliergebouw. University of Amsterdam. (2004b) ‘Anglo-Saxon Manuscript Pigments’ Studies in Conservation 49: 231-244. and is an invited Fellow of the VLAC Institute of Advanced Study of the Royal Flemish Academy. 4 are reproduced by permission of the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College. Clarke. Hobbemastraat 22. 3. the Institute Collectie Nederland. He co-founded the International Council of Museums (Conservation Committee) working group on Art Technological Source Research. 7. He has been a researcher in technical art history and art technological source research. M.c o l o u r s v e r s u s c o l o r a n t s i n a r t h i s to r y : e va l u at i n g l o s t m a n u s c r i p t y e l l o w s Acknowledgments This paper derives from a presentation at the conference Medieval colours: between beauty and meaning (Universidade Nova de Lisboa: Instituto de História da Arte. London: Archetype Publications. Clarke.

detecting the contributions of the three medieval cultures which forged Portugal. yellow and orange. particularly to the São Mamede do Lorvão. red. São Pedro de Arouca. Lorvão Apocalypse and De Avibus respectively. It is in this cultural universe. . Colour distribution was quantified by mapping the relative areas of the main colours. Santa Cruz de Coimbra and Santa Maria de Alcobaça monasteries. we started a narrative that will allow us to unveil the meaning of the colour in medieval codices. rico de referências religiosas. Procuramos ainda dar início a uma narrativa que nos permita chegar ao significado da cor nos códices medievais (sécs. muçulmana e cristã. that is the Hebrew. verde. políticas e artísticas que nos propomos estudar a cor. O trabalho de investigação levado a cabo por uma equipa interdisciplinar permitiu assim lançar novas hipóteses em relação às opções estéticas e simbólicas dos iluminadores e à datação dos manuscritos. Justino Maciel. Procedeu-se à quantificação das principais cores presentes. vermelho. particularmente aos mosteiros de São Mamede do Lorvão.Resumo A iluminura românica que chegou até nós encontra-se intimamente ligada ao mundo monástico. political and artistic references that we propose to study colour. XII e XIII). detectando as contribuições das três culturas medievais que forjaram o Portugal moderno – hebraica. entendemos a procura de certas combinações e padrões bem como de efeitos visuais particulares. São Pedro de Arouca. respectivamente do Apocalipse do Lorvão e os De avibus. blue. Felix Teichner e Heidi. É neste universo cultural. através do mapeamento da cor. green. The interdisciplinary research that was carried out has put forward new hypotheses in relation to aesthetic and symbolic options of the illuminators and to the dating of the manuscripts. palavras-chave iluminura medieval cor análises científicas apocalipse do lorvão de avibus • Abstract The Romanesque illumination is intimately linked to the monastic world. Muslim and Christian cultures. obtendo-se assim a distribuição das áreas relativas para o azul. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. By exploring how colour was created and applied in specific patterns and for especial visual effects. amarelo e laranja. Finally. Como formas de construção da cor. rich in religious. we aim to contribute for a better understanding of its symbolic and social meaning. Santa Cruz de Coimbra e Santa Maria de Alcobaça. key-words medieval illuminations colour scientific analysis lorvão apocalypse de avibus • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa.

POCTI/EAT/33782/2000. In this paper. at that r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Caparica (Portugal) M a r i a a d e l a i d e m i r a n da ( co o rd in ator ). computer scientists have recently joined the team. PTDC/EAT/65445/2006. Departamento de Química.2 0 1 1 15 3 . Universidade do Porto. FCSH. a n a c l a ro. v. The identity of Portuguese medieval manuscript illumination in the European context. we started an interdisciplinary project on the colour of medieval Portuguese illuminations. UNL. Lisboa (Portugal) 1. within which an interdisciplinary team 1 was created. a n a l e mos Instituto de Estudos Medievais and Instituto de História da Arte. An interdisciplinary approach to the study of colour in Portuguese manuscript illuminations. São Pedro de Arouca. The team includes researchers from Art History. Lorvão and Santa Cruz monasteries The Romanesque illumination is intimately linked to the monastic world. r i ta ca stro Departamento de Conservação e Restauro and Requimte. Apocalypse and The Book of Birds (De Avibus of Hugh of Fouilloy) from São Mamede do Lorvão monastery.the colour of medieval portuguese illumination: an interdisciplinary approach maria j oão m e lo (co o r d i n ato r ) cata rin a mi g u e l . Caparica (Portugal) j oão a . Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear. The two last monasteries present the more homogeneous and consistent collections of our Romanesque scriptoria and. 2. The study of colour was continued in a project that included the scriptoria of Santa Cruz de Coimbra and Santa Maria de Alcobaça as well as a larger and representative selection of manuscripts 3. Santa Cruz de Coimbra and Santa Maria de Alcobaça monasteries 4. Faculdade de Farmácia.º i . Two important and dated manuscripts were selected as case studies. The Romanesque illuminated manuscripts in Portugal and the Alcobaça. UNL. lo pe s REQUIMTE. the findings of these two projects will be presented. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia. Conservation and Chemistry. The experimental design as well as the modus operandi were developed and fully tested 2. UNL. Porto (Portugal) a ntó nio p e r e i r a g on ç a lv e s Departamento de Química. m u r a l h a VICARTE: Vidro e Cerâmica para as Artes. s o l a ng e f. FCT. particularly to the São Mamede do Lorvão. 3. Lisboa (Portugal) Preamble In 2004. 1.

Miranda. Liber Testamentarum do Mosteiro de Lorvão. Lemos. particularly in the illuminated manuscripts. Ensaios de História Medieval. purpose and circulation of medieval manuscripts.. Miguel. A. and together with donations made from or orders made to the most prestigious productive centres at that time. and Melo. were central for the formation of the Portuguese nationality. 1996. PhD Dissertation. uma abordagem interdisciplinar. A. J..A.. Os antepassados dos navegadores in Naquele tempo. H. (coord. 1996. Augustinians and Cistercians.A. Miranda. Nascimento. les couleurs prennent en charge tel ou tel réseau de significations. A Iluminura de Santa Cruz no Tempo de Santo António. will integrate in their scriptoria important treatises for the artistic techniques. 6. M. Claro. localisé. Tomar: IPT/EST/DTAG/ACG.» 7. A.) 1999. We will approach this subject within an international context. Lisboa: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Paris: Le Léopard d’Or.º i .A. and the french monasteries which they were associated with (mother abbeys) 154 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Lisboa: Temas e Debates/Círculo de Leitores. daté. A Iluminura Portuguesa. the new religious orders.). with which the Portuguese monks were connected. Il n’y a pas de symbolique des couleurs envisagée hors du temps et de l’espace.. 5.A. Benedictines.2 0 1 1 . we aim to contribute for a better understanding of its symbolic and social meaning in medieval Portuguese illuminations in these monasteries. A Iluminura Românica em Santa Cruz de Coimbra e Santa Maria de Alcobaça. Lisboa: Edições Inapa. A Iluminura em Portugal: Identidade e Influência (do séc. M. X ao XVI): catálogo da Exposição. 2008. through the circulation of manuscripts between the monasteries which they were associated with.. It is in this cultural universe 5.p. namely considering the leading French monasteries. and the monasteries in which they were established. Couleur. M.28. The monastic libraries of Alcobaça and Santa Cruz were produced in their scriptoria. The monks’ artistic creativity is present in the architectural space they inhabited as well in the liturgical arts. santa cruz de coimbra and santa maria de alcobaça. political and artistic references that we propose to study colour 6. M.240: «(. Peixeiro. is important for having a better understanding of the origin..1 portuguese medieval monasteries: são mamede do lorvão. Revista de História de Arte – FCSH. Inheriting of ancient traditions. Pastoureau. images. 4. By exploring how colour was created and applied in specific patterns and for especial visual effects. Colour appears as a fundamental element in the organisation of the Codex. certamente mais antiga que o documento de 857 (. creating sense and beauty. Mattoso. 2009.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r time. 5: 228-245. assuming artistic protagonism in the kingdom. p. symboles. M.A. mais seulement de multiples systèmes de la couleur ou dans un contexte donné. sd. M.J. comprovando ele que a comunidade monástica recebe doações nessa data. A. rich in religious. C. Miranda. such as the Mappae Clavicula in the library of Santa Cruz de Coimbra 7 and On divers arts very likely present in Alcobaça. A short presentation of the monastic medieval libraries.47: «La symbolique des couleurs est une notion floue dont on use et abuse.. É esta. Ora Lorvão situa-se precisamente junto a Coimbra e era um centro importante da cultura moçárabe». Efectivamente. há que admitir a sua existência anterior» in Nascimento.) investigações recentes acerca da cultura dominante em Coimbra e nas cidades portuguesas do Sul mostram que os conhecimentos dos Moçárabes estavam ainda suficientemente vivos imediatamente a seguir à conquista cristã e que exerceram uma influência profunda sobre os clérigos destas mesmas cidades durante o século XII.. A Iluminura do Apocalipse do Lorvão. see Figure 1. 1996. «A documentação do Liber Testamentorum toma por referência a comunidade monástica do Lorvão. in Monarquia y Sociedad en el Reino de León. 1998. p. Lisboa: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal. Provas públicas para professor coordenador. 2007. précis. 8. Miranda.A. De fig.

M. Until the first quarter of the thirteenth century. J. conserved fig.º i . Santa Cruz has approximately 36 illuminated manuscripts from which a significant number will have here its origin. proposes 857 8 and 917 9 for its foundation. This monastery had an important role in the period before the Portuguese Kingdom was founded. sabemos que os bens do mosteiro provocavam as ambições do bispo de Coimbra. We know that the scribes substituted the Visigoth by the Carolina script between 1054 and 1072 in the documents of the chancellery 14. Aires Augusto do Nascimento proposes 857 and Fernández Catón 907 or 917. in Mediavalista. coordinated by Aires Nascimento and Fernández Catón. The communitarian life started the following year and its importance was reinforced by the fact it was the first royal pantheon. For the medieval period. Não podemos. The first Codex is dated of 1139.2 lorvão apocalypse (1189). 1996. Mattoso. Ruf of Avignon. depending on the Holy See due to the conflicts with the Cathedral of Coimbra 13.. A recent publication on Chartularium Laurbanense (Cartulary of Lorvão). 467-475)». the collection has 18 manuscripts. Fernández Catón. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. mas inclina-se mais para 917 (pp. Fernández Catón considera esta opinião impossível e propõe 907 ou 917. Lisboa: FCSH: «Enquanto A. porém. 115. León. 172v. 2. 43. Liber testamentorum coenobii laurbanensis (estúdios). Its collection is heterogeneous and from 1206. J. also known as Livro dos Testamentos do Lorvão. 777. ff. 7. J. These manuscripts can be found in the National Archives (Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo) 12. we believe it will no more have a scriptorium.2 0 1 1 155 . como atestam as cópias de livros aí feitas entre 1183 e 1189. 315-339. 209v and 210. being the writing of the Codex close to this date. which dates back to 1131. photo © antt r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2009. XII é neste mosteiro uma época de prosperidade e de vitalidade religiosa. The São Mamede do Lorvão monastery provides us scarce documental evidence on the date it was founded. Homiliário Santa Cruz 4 (Appendix 1). Fernández Cáton. 9. the date from which it starts to follow the feminine Cistercian 11. While both scholars agree with the fact that the date mentioned in the ms. must be corrected. Além disso. even though there are doubts of its production in this monastery 15. Nascimento defende a correcção do evidente erro de data do referido documento de 777 para 857. J. 167-168: «Provavelmente ignoraremos para sempre até que ponto eram verdadeiras as acusações feitas aos monges de Lorvão.. ed. even though it continues to enrich its library. is one of the most important monasteries linked to the construction of Portugal as an independent kingdom. XIII» in Religião e Cultura na Idade Média Portuguesa. (ed).t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h Alfonso III a Alfonso VII. Please see also Mattoso. and was involved in the Iberian resistance to the introduction of the monarchism from Cluny 10. Donations from the crown and nobility were in the origins of the monastery that will follow the regular Canons of Saint Augustine and the guidelines of St. contra as quais os monges se queixavam amargamente por volta de 1200». Léon: Centro de Estudios y Investigación. of which two have colophon.ª ed. deixar de notar que o fim do séc. Santa Cruz de Coimbra. 10. The collection has a total of 99 codices. «A vida religiosa dos beneditinos portugueses durante o séc. particularly significant for the history of illumination in Portugal – the Lorvão Apocalypse (1189) (Figure 2) and the De Avibus of Hughes de Fouilloy (1183-1184) (Figure 3). Recension to the paper by Nascimento A.

Azevedo Santos. e estudos introdutórios. 18. It is one of the monasteries that have received more attentions from scholars 17. Liber Testamentorum cit. Characterization of the manuscripts from Alcobaça. the year in which St. Athanasius. 277-278. St. 2001. Its foundation is also regulated through a «Carta de Couto» given to the white monks. 11. Lisboa. Ferreira. which are kept in the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal 18. sombras e realidade – Das origens a 1737. O tratamento documental de manuscritos ao serviço 2. Lisboa: Colibri.gov. Limine Conscriptionis: Documentos. Eusebius of Caesarea and John Chrysostom. Nascimento. 2000.J. A. Only few codices are dated. John of Damascus. S. Vol. Origen. ff. in both. A. In Alcobaça we found a significant number of Fathers from the East. The illuminations of these two codex are available at http://digitarq. Borges.C. O Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r fig. Vilares Cepeda. 1978. shows that the scriptorium would have started to operate lately. St.D. 6. but the fact the construction of the monastery only started in 1179. Da visigótica à carolina. «Vida de D. A. which was justified by the presence of the Bernardin spirituality in the formation of Alcobaça monastery. Telo» in Hagiografia de Santa Cruz de Coimbra. Lisboa: Centro de História – Universidade de Lisboa. 1998. A. T. Nascimento. Chancelaria e Cultura no Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra: Séculos XII-XIV. St. a strong predominance of works related to the Patristics (documents written by the Fathers of the Church transmitting the Christian thoughts of the 3rd to 8th century). Amongst them.A. there is. Paris: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian. it was however almost absent in Santa Cruz. Routier des Abbayes Cisterciennes du Portugal. 16. Cyprian. 1993. 2003. 5. Inventário dos Códices Iluminados até 1500.A. Séculos XII-XV.3 de avibus (book of birds) from lorvão monastery (1183-1184). M. we only have Origen and Eusebius of Caesarea with the Ecclesiastic History. As far as the Latin Patristics is concerned. In Santa Cruz.2. M. It possesses a set of approximately 458 volumes from the Middle Ages. and Santana. Coimbra: Polimage Editores.2 0 1 1 . Martins. 2002. Gomes.195. critic. trad. and Ferreira.dgarq. Bernard died. 25 and 50v. the resemblance 156 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. N.A. Arte monástica em Lorvão. A escrita em Portugal de 882 a 1172. p.D. 16. Santa Cruz collections (12th-13th centuries) As far as the contents of the libraries of Alcobaça and Santa Cruz are concerned. Lisboa: FCG/JNICT. T. Although in Alcobaça the Greek Patristics were highlighted. 14.pt 13. Gomes.Lorvão. 15. I. 1994. Ephrem. 81-82.º i .A.C. Ed. Santa Maria de Alcobaça is a Cistercian monastery founded in 1153. of which 160 illuminated ones from the last quarter of the 12th and first quarter of the 13th century. Cocheril. photo © antt in the Public Library of Porto 16. 17. 12.

is a large Summa Theologica. We emphasize also the presence of the Bible. show the importance they had in this library. 20. These manuscripts constitute one of the most important remaining hagiographic collections from the 12th century. which are well represented through Papias. and also with Alexander of Villedieu. Garnier of Rochefort (Cistercian monk of Clairvaux) and an Alegoric Dictionary of Pedro Cantor. of mystic character. The encyclopaedias are the second group of works. the Psalters and Missals. Gregory in Alcobaça. existing in Alcobaça as well as in Santa Cruz. contemporary for the ms. Saint Augustine appears about twenty times). Peter Lombard. 1. between both libraries should be stressed. In both monasteries. contrary to what expected. Here. and Saint Augustine and Saint Isidore.º i . Bede and Cassian). The De Sacramentis. while present in Alcobaça but with an insignificant number. Another well represented group in Alcobaça. We highlight the Grammar works linked to teaching 20. a polemic author whose work is considered by some to be one of the most important for the study of dialectics and by others a compiler. 19.2 0 1 1 157 . even though his works spread rapidly through the library of Alcobaça. Finally. however it is absent from Santa Cruz. Saint Isidore with Etimologias. the Book. a text that was meant to be a behaviour model for the lay – brotherhood community. the Proslogium and the De Veritate. the Cistercian Carta Caritatis and Consuetudines (Charter of Charity). Cur Deus Homo. Bede with De Rerum Naturam and Hugh of Saint Victor with Didaskalion. but three of his fundamental works are absent: the Monogium. not present in the library but whose existence is known in Clairvaux. we can also find one of the first works of Saint Anselm.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h da investigação: a experiência da Biblioteca Nacional. However. due to the importance given in terms of dimension and care to its execution and ornaments. explaining to them r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. studied. At the end of the twelfth century. Gregory. whose existing copies. St. Pontigny and Fontenay. St. being present Saint Augustine with De doctrina christiana. The Decretum Gratiani. the narration of miraculous and exemplary achievements of the Saints. Writings in Law are absent from Santa Cruz. being significantly higher in number in Alcobaça (for example. the Canons of the Fourth Council of the Lateran. St. with the New Testament being absent in this library. the encyclopaedias from Honorius Augustodunensis and William of Conches are absent 19. there are also texts from theologians and homileticians. Bernard is not the most represented author. p. apart from Bucardo and Bernardo Papiense. there are the liturgical books. In Santa Cruz there is only one copy from Papias. is the Hagiography. the Livros do Uso de Cister. with the latter being an important author as he represents the speculative mystics. due to their number and quality. the Portuguese monastic cultural context was spiritually propitious to the De Avibus of Hughes de Fouilloy. being an important link in the history of the first Cistercians legendaries. Twelfth century encyclopaedias. It is also worth mentioning that the two Santa Cruz bibles present only the Old Testament. Cadernos BAD. is considered as one of the lost manuscripts from the library. are the most representative authors. is largely represented in Alcobaça. In the libraries of both monasteries. St. Saint Augustine and St. though less significant than in Santa Cruz. Bernard and Hugh of Saint Victor. such as St. in Santa Cruz (library in which we also find a copy of Saint Ambrose. which are quite significant in the constitution of these two libraries.

The three monasteries had a copy of the «Book of Birds» 21. 181182. 2010. Enarrationes in Psalmos (1183). A. Lorvão 5. The involvement of the Bishop of Coimbra. section Events – Medieval Colours Conference. 3.pdf 27. are available as Supplementary Material 24. a monk who lived at the turn of the eighth to the ninth century. one Livro das Calendas and two dated manuscripts. it will be possible to reproduce. Many of the manuscripts are only tentatively dated. in the laboratory. Within this project were studied the manuscripts dating from the Iberian monachism period of the monastery until the Cistercian period. This selection was based not only on the chronological period established. The Lorvão monastery. indigo. January 2009 and May 2009.J. D. The manuscripts selected for study. in the framework of the Eu-ARTECH European project. molecular analysis of the original artworks and historical accurate reconstructions 25. Although included in Figure 4. M. 25.2 0 1 1 . in Liébana and wrote a Commentary to the Apocalypse of Saint John. Accounts of Chemical Research. one Gradual. With this knowledge. Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto (BPMP) 26 and Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal (BNP) were carried out during November 2007. respectively. orpiment. This included the best colourants available during medieval times: vermilion. including the proportions of which colourants.unl. www. in an environment of belief in the end of the world. This in part explains our engagement in the critical edition of The book on how to make colours that is presented in the Varia section of this number. binders. a name derived from the Beatus of Liébana. The BPMP manuscripts were studied in a Molab mission. present a very heterogeneous collection 22 as well as a few number of manuscripts.) The Materials of the Image. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. and eleven from the Lorvão collection. one Martirology. which include two Lectionaries (one Temporal and one Santoral). the medieval Portuguese molecular palette was proposed Figure 4 28. but also on the richness of artistic and chromatic features.U. It is believed that the original manuscript would have been illuminated and that it would communicate the visual message of the events that occurred since the Revelation of Christ up until the moment of the reconstruction of New Jerusalem. As Matérias da Imagem. white lead. unlike the two other monasteries. that were necessary for the religious service as De Avibus and the Lorvão Apocalypse.org/files/MEDMAN-UserReport. The experimental design and the analytical techniques are described in Appendix Experimental Design 27. et al. one Psalter. 26. dcr.Tables AP1-AP3. Supplementary material at www. In this research. we aim to unveil the complete paint formulation. in Afonso. possibly some mss.eu-artech. lapis lazuli. produced during the 12 th and the first half of the 13th century. Santa Cruz 4 and 27.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r the mysteries of incarnation using birds as examples. L. Bright light: microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments and dyes in works of art. together with the folia object of molecular characterization. fillers and other additives were used. The Lorvão Apocalypse is part of a large collection of manuscripts known as Beatus.A. Thirteen manuscripts were chosen from the Santa Cruz collection. fourteen from Alcobaça.1 Colourants Missions to Torre do Tombo (ANTT-DGARQ). In the Portuguese illuminations of the 158 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 43(6): 857-866. In these manuscripts text and image are intrinsically interconnected. materials and techniques of the Book of Birds in Portuguese scriptoria.fct. This section will describe the results of the molecular analysis in Portuguese medieval paint colours. Pedro Soares. Alcobaça 410.. and only 6 24 present a colophon in which a date was originally included by the author. Melo. M. From the study of all three monasteries’ manuscripts. Colour: molecular characterization We approach the study of the materials and techniques of medieval illuminations from three perspectives: art history. 23. On Wings of Blue: The history. azurite and malachite were very seldom used 30. (ed. accentuated by the closeness to the end of the millennium and an Iberic Peninsula that was converted to the Islam. Miranda. 3. as previously referred. carbon and bone black 29 as well as a synthetic copper green named bottle green. 22. in the expulsion of the Benedictine monks from the Lorvão monastery.º i . Claro. a medieval paint that will be as durable and luminous as the colours that we still find in medieval illuminated manuscripts. 2010. a manuscript of Saint Augustine. 21. red lead (minium). lac dye (and possibly other red dyes). we will also be better prepared to preserve this illuminated heritage. 43 and 50. prompt us to consider the possibility that they would have carried with them some of the codex and left others. the Book of Birds (1183/84) and Lorvão Apocalypse (1189) 23. 24.

na Arte e na Natureza. C. Alongside the molecular analysis of the artworks.4 colourants and colour patterns in portuguese medieval illuminations twelfth and thirteenth century. In this text carmine describes a dark red. Mussak (eds). They will become later the colour for blue and green [Moura. J. Das Artes da Idade Média (1.. História Breve dos Pigmentos. QuímicaBoletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Química. Jewish Quarterly Review. 2009. together with pink and white.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h 28.A. that will allow a better understanding of the degradation mechanisms and to study the most appropriate conservation strategies. both carbon black and bone black were employed. A. A.. Sources and Serendipity – Testimonies of Artists’ Practice.. C.P.1928. lapis lazuli was the colour for blue and was usually used as a pure pigment 31. M. see also next section). and Lopes.. Dark blues were obtained by adding indigo to lapis lazuli (Santa Cruz) or by using indigo (Lorvão). Other shades of yellow and brownish colours were also found in the studied manuscripts. Melo.J.P. 4: 210-223. Seixas de Melo. M. 35. J. namely for typical visual effects.A.J. M.J. A Study on Portuguese Manuscript Illumination: The Charter of Vila Flor (Flower Town). A.M. B. in the Bible Sta Cruz 1 and in the Homiliário Sta Cruz 4. As moléculas da cor. 2007. Green. 32. J. M.. A. Claro.M. contact. 8: 299-306].J. named bottlegreen.. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 29. C. História Breve dos Pigmentos. Cornell University. 2001. Cabral. A. S. M. Red lead was used for the orange colour. 101: 44-55. having been found in the Lorvão Apocalypse. These form an important reference database. Miguel. Melo. Melo. found ubiquitously in all manuscripts. Revista da Faculdade de Letras. T. blue. PhD Dissertation. A deep saturated green. D. 33. Strolovitch. 82: 57-64. 5: 228-245.º i .J.ª parte). 1960. C.. Melo. 30. Revista de História de Arte – FCSH.2 0 1 1 159 . L. greenish blue or bluish green? Copper pigments in medieval Portuguese Illuminations.. Bechtold and R. London: Archetype: 33-38. 2005. Miranda. Orpiment was less often employed. Dark reds or carmine colours 33 could be obtained both with an organic dye as lac dye 34 (Lorvão) or by adding an organic dye to vermilion (Santa Cruz). 116-184. Moreira de Sá. 2009. uma abordagem interdisciplinar. M. where it was extensively applied. Handbook of Natural Colorants. Química-Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Química. 2006. Pink and grey colours were consistently applied in the Alcobaça manuscripts and will be discussed in the section «Colour construction and meaning». Cabral. obtained from an organic red dye such as lac dye (laccaic acids A. and convivência. 2006. 1512. Claro. 19: 97-135. Miguel. Reds were obtained with vermilion that we found as a pure pigment in the lettering or mixed with chalk or red lead (Lorvão) for more extensive painting. as depicted in column 2 and 4 of Figure 4. 103: 33-44. and for the black colour. J. 31. 4. An old Portuguese work on manuscript illumination. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons 3-18. Old Portuguese in Hebrew Script: convention. and Melo. Química-Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Química. 2008. etc. III – Das artes grega e romana... Journal of Cultural Heritage. Claro. fig. but until now their characterization was not possible (please.) or cochineal (kermesic and carminic acid). 34. A Iluminura Portuguesa. The whites and lights were applied using white lead. Casanova. Claro. was always applied as a single colour 32. paint historical reconstructions were produced based both on the analytical data and the recipes found in the medieval treaties «The book on how to make colours» 35. History of natural dyes in the ancient Mediterranean world. Lemos. Blondheim.

16 and 50. The infrared spectra showed that the binder was protein based and therefore the reference database included infrared spectra for the most probable medieval proteineaceous binders: egg white. see bellow. and in the loss of the ubiquitous bottle green in all 36. These degradation phenomena are not frequent in the studied collections. 12.5 scores plot of a pca model for red (l) and blue paints (l). 38. It is possible that some of those faded achromatic yellow paints were originally bright yellows. To address this issue. to characterize the binders present. Other colour changes that may give rise to misleading interpretations are the darkening of white lead and red lead. colour changes over time must be taken into account as they may not only dramatically transform the original colour paint. chemometrics methodologies were used to compare a considerable number of infrared spectra of medieval paint colours.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r 3. egg white (n). not only to fingerprint the specificities of the paint’s formulations of Portuguese medieval illuminations. See also the paper by Mark Clarke. as these may be interpreted as shading. or a combination of both. faded shades of «yellow colours» are yet to be characterized. Binders can be applied as a single binder (e. parchment glue and glair) as well as more complex formulations where several additives are present in however minor amounts. the invisible component of a paint colour. Figure 7. The most dramatic changes were observed in the extensive darkening of the orange colour used in Apocalypse. 37. in this volume. antigen-antibody essays are currently in progress. but are present in several manuscripts as Lorvão Apocalypse. Vermilion red and lapis lazuli blue were chosen because they are colours ubiquitously present in the medieval illuminations 38. 13. but also to understand the degradation problems that are now visible in some manuscripts. 39. However. A set of 19 micro-samples (six blue paint micro-samples and 13 red paint micro-samples) from eight Lorvão manuscripts 37 was analysed. unveiling multivariate hidden patterns and by comparison with a reference database. 15. To quantify the binder composition. the grey circle represents the 95% of confidence limit. is necessary for the cohesion and adhesion. As previously discussed. However. binders projected onto this model: parchment glue (n). Lorvão Apocalypse..2 0 1 1 . under microscope. egg yolk and casein glue 36. Bible Sta Cruz 1 and Etymologies. The Book of Birds. this algorithm was able to break down the infrared spectra to its «pure binders»: mainly a collagen binder together with egg white. 138. Lapis lazuli does not absorb in the selected protein region and vermilion does not absorb in the entire spectral range. Therefore. Alc 446.2 Binders.. It influences the perception of colour and it may also play a key role in colour changes over time as well as in the stability of the colour paint. egg yolk (s) and casein glue (s) 3. a region less vulnerable to pigments and fillers and therefore a good infrared window to discriminate the proteinaceous binding media. It was not yet possible to ascertain if the binders were applied as a mixture or as binder and varnish. Figure 6.3 Colour degradation over time When studying medieval illuminations. its characterization becomes important. 160 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.brown stimulus upon degradation 39. in mixtures of two or more polymers (e. but also our perception of the overall colour construction and its meaning.º i . parchment glue. as one must also consider that many organic dyes (including blues.g. egg yolk). Lorvão 3. the degradation is clearly visible. the invisible side Binding media. Figure 5. evidence must be found to corroborate this hypothesis. fig. but could still contribute to the paint’s film performance and permanence. pag. To further test these results.g. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied in the 2840 to 3000 cm-1 spectral window. reds and yellows) may have evolved to an achromatic yellow. a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) analysis was performed.

techniques and meaning of the green and red colours in medieval Portuguese illuminations. as this knowledge is fundamental for the development of stabilization procedures. Miguel. Ongoing PhD Thesis (SFRH/ BD/44374/2008). Projects were launched aiming to unveil the degradation mechanisms 40.96v evidencing signs of degradation on the white lead on the flesh paint.2 0 1 1 161 . Relevant aspects of this on-going research will be next presented.º i . f. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. C. image © bnp (please see text for more details) the codices. «Le vert et le rouge»: A study on the materials.6 alcobaça 446 (13th century).t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h 40. fig.

7 details from lorvão apocalypse for orange degradation: no visible degradation (angel. f. following three general degradation patterns: a very textured surface where a pastel yellow colour and red grains were observed. To further understand the degradation mechanisms. 162 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. pH and the two other pigments used 43. Based on the quantification of As. which confirmed galena as the main degradation product of red lead 41. C. and severe degradation that may be misinterpreted as a paint shadow (dragon. Melo. Work is currently in progress on the framework of a PhD Thesis 40.S. Gonçalves.º i . Historic reconstructions were performed to further characterize this paint. V. Hg and S by micro-EDXRF and molecular fingerprint by microRaman.153v). 1-4% and vermilion below 2% (%wt) was detected 42. Lorvão Apocalypse (1189).º observer angle). J.75 a*=-9.99 b*=7. 45. a thin black-grey layer over the orange and. Claro. 44. A. previously dissolved in a 50 year aged homemade vinegar. pointing to the existence of a copper proteinate. The bottle-green has a glassy fractured appearance under the microscope and under polarized light it appears as a non-crystalline structure. A. Figure 7. a set of experiments were designed to test the influence of extenders. finally. The experimental design was based on the material analysis of the greens found in manuscripts. to further elucidate both its synthesis and degradation mechanisms. 40: 1966-1973. degradation (beast. it has however affected the invisible component of the paint: the binder. The results obtained indicated that lead sulphide 44 (PbS) was one of the main degradation products 45. P. M.2 0 1 1 . two macro photos evidence it Bottle-green32 The bottle-green paints are also suffering from extensive degradation. 42. 43.. proved to be adequate. f. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.58 (D65 illuminant and 10.118). from all tested compounds. and Muralha. Bottle-greens are being lost due to a weakening in the cohesion and adhesion of the support. The reproduction of the bottle-green colour concludes that copper sources play an important role and.158). L*=35. namely by μ-FTIR. micro-EDXRF and XRD.. Also known as galena. Colour coordinates in the Lab* system. f.. Miguel. for more details please see 41. and even though this has not affected the brightness or the intensity of the deep green 46. The experiments were followed by microRaman. 2009. A study on red lead degradation in the medieval manuscript.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Orange 41 The red lead from Lorvão Apocalypse changed from being a bright orange to a dark brown. based on the fact that in the orange paints the presence of orpiment in ca. The general reaction pathway could be described by the general reactions described in eq (1) and (2): (1) 2Pb3O4 + As2S3 ➝ 3PbS + (AsO4)2Pb3 3– (2) 2AsO4 + 3H2O ➝ As2O3 + O2 + 6OH– 46. a thicker layer of a metallic appearance. fig. using several copper salts as the source for colour. 41. 118. This concurs with the results obtained in situ and from Raman analysis on a micro-sample of a degraded area in f.F. only verdigris.

blue. using predominantly the contrasts yellow/green/red. 364v. 197. the study of colour in the Santa Cruz monastery collection was carried out in the framework of a Molab mission and it was possible. yellows.8 details from santa cruz manuscripts. important evidence for the characterization of the Santa Cruz palette. Figure 8 fig. Lorvão and Alcobaça. when applied on a large surface. vermilion.º i .t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h 47. None of the mixtures mentioned represents an obstacle for the colours’ visual impact. such as in the Psalter Santa Cruz 27 or the Bible Santa Cruz 1. However. As already described. where the contrasts red/blue or red/green are frequently used. 338. 314. in the pinks and greys. as already described. with this dye. 362v. which. As indigo is easily identified both by fluorescence data as well as by Raman spectroscopy it was possible to conclude that the dark blues were obtained mixing lapis lazuli with indigo. matiz and highlights are also used to give volume and to create a greater visual impact. 4. red and green. The colours are opaque. In a considerable set of manuscripts. the presence of emission was detected but it was low and no match was found in the database. from top to bottom: santa cruz 20 in ff. 152. With regard to the carmine or dark red colour. as it was not observed in the manuscript collections of the two other monasteries. in vermilion. yellow). which would be replaced in the end of the 12th century by blue/red. to acquire emission spectra and to measure fluorescence lifetimes in situ. or in the use of fillers. 128v and 92. is sometimes mixed. being luminous and with unique hues (red. in itself. saturated and bright and they are applied homogeneously in backgrounds. 4. 173v. such as calcium carbonate. The detection of these mixtures for the dark blue and red colours is. to a red lead (minium) with no alteration of its hue. 206v. such as Santa Cruz 58 and 17.1 Santa Cruz The manuscripts dating from the middle of the 12th century. colours are applied almost as a pure colourant in a proteinaceous tempera. Another palette with clear dominance of blues. Exceptions have been found in the construction of some dark reds and blues. Figure 4. obtained by adding white lead to red or black (or to dark blue indigo).2 0 1 1 163 . Colour construction and meaning In all the collections. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. obtained by mixing an inorganic pigment with this dye 47. greens and reds would later replace. with the aid of a portable fluorimeter. it was possible to conclude that the dark red was obtained again by mixing an inorganic pigment. green. 364 and 362v. santa cruz 1 in ff. were probably the first to be produced and present a palette consisting of yellow. This contributes to the effect of radiance of light and colours which streams from the Portuguese medieval illumination.

Dans la partie supérieure de l’arche. 49.. le jaune et le vert». Hugues dispose trois poutres adjacentes dans le sens de la longueur. as well as in Catalunya. Paris : Du Cerf. Gage. 51. A. on a successivement le jaune. Miranda. Figure 10. uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Claro.389 : «La façon de placer les couleurs est particulièrement intéressante. Enfin dans la troisième partie. fig. 50. BNF. Lucet. Dans la seconde partie. the particularities of Lorvão Apocalypse in the context of Romanesque illumina- fig. Wirth. Dans l’ensemble. Bourgogne and Champagne. on a la pourpre. Besides the restricted palette of red. it includes two manuscripts that present relevant characteristics in the national and international context. La codification cistercienne de 1202 et son évolution. the matiz technique generalized in the Clairvaux scriptorium allowed to develop volume and a diversity of shades in one letter. yellow and black colours. celle de la grâce. having. Lemos. Color and Culture. 5: 232. In Alcobaça. This can be verified in the set of Alcobaça missals 49.2 0 1 1 . C. contractée entre les deuz autres.. In this counting are not included canon tables. M. Litterae unius fiant et non depictae (Letras de uma só cor e não figuradas). La plus forte est à l’extérieur et celle du milieu est la plus fine. mostly at an ornamental level. formant des bordures successives d’inégale épaisseur. Roma: Editions Cistercien. for this reason.º i . This influence is visible in Italy. A. p. and Melo. Alc 249. 252 and alcobaça 446 in f.A. the monks only applied monochromatism as an exception and used this technique in letters full of volume and exuberance. correspondant à la loi écrite. le vert et la pourpre. le vert est à l’extérieur. laissant le parchemin nu sur la plus grande partie de sa surface. 1974. delivered through prescriptions and treatises presenting a Byzantine influence. They are Lorvão Apocalypse and the Book of Birds. which will be later discussed.2 Alcobaça: matiz and volumetry It has been revealed that the religious community of Alcobaça knew the new processes of manuscript painting. De part et d’autre de l’arche. J. orange. Revista de História de Arte – FCSH. 251-53. schema and marginal illustration.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r 4. 52. elles forment des bordures et ne couvrent qu’exceptionnellement un champ. 2008. London: Thames and Hudson. alcobaça 426 in f. J. Figure 9 48. B.. 1999.J. The ornament presents a more restrictive palette in the first manuscripts. a monographic treatment. la pourpre au milieu et le jaune à l’intérieur. 61-64. Miguel.10 colour mapping of lorvão apocalypse by relative areas 164 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 53. 2009. 1v and 91v.3 Lorvão Even though the Lorvão collection is the most heterogeneous. 255-59. from top to bottom: alcobaça 419 in ff. Besides Saint Bernard’s prohibitions 48 on image and colour. M. correspondant au temps de la loi naturel.9 details from alcobaça manuscripts. L’image a l’époque romane. 96v 4. A Iluminura Portuguesa. diversifying latter in the liturgical manuscripts.

The symbolic and eschatological character of the text and image in the literary tradition of the commentary on Apocalypse.) quant à / cramoisi/ (<qirmizi »rouge de kermès». for more details please see (Melo. Parma 1959) in Afonso. the Hebrew community had the necessary knowledge to prepare a medieval colour paint and. (ed. could be a characteristic of the Portuguese medieval illumination and. Castro. was a colourant used in luxury fabric dyeing. History of natural dyes in the ancient Mediterranean world. where it is linked to the divine 5. Lisboa: Campo da Comuni- tion in Portugal are also due to the fact it is the only one with an iconographic programme 50. This organic red. The etymology of carmine is described by Kristol. 57.L. we may conclude that there are evidences that. Further investigation in the technological aspects of the Book on how to make colours will probably allow us to reach conclusions on the contribution of this community to the colour of the Portuguese illumination. Lombard. in the 15th century. provoke a luminous effect.252. c’este le terme rouge cochenille qui designe le «rouge foncè». M. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. two recipes are described to obtain a lac dye carmine 58 as well as one for a parchment glue tempera. we can say that. I. lac dye in the Book of Birds. Zurique: Éditions Francke Berne. it is mixed with white lead to create a scale from dark to light (matiz).2 0 1 1 165 .87: «escrita deste texto em aljamia hebraica. we observe an extensive use of carmine 54. 58. In the other manuscripts. even more important. The use of white lead for the white colour is also characteristic. 61. no séc. Anil is synonymous for indigo and it was commonly used in Portuguese until the first decades of the twentieth century. This practice had a large widespread in the Western Christian manuscripts. 60. p. The contemporary European production presents many common characteristics. p 170: «carmim. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. Color. generally. M. L. Les Textiles dans le monde musulman: du VIIe au XIIe siècle. XV. the predominance of yellow (50% of the area). materialized in the orpiment. He opted for the use of contrasting and luminous colours applied in the backgrounds and transparent bodies. 27 and 44.U. On Chapters 13 and 14 (this one is incomplete. generally speaking. 9. I. The exclusive use of theses colours makes us search for its meaning. These red dyes could be obtained from animal or plant sources.º i .. Notas sobre a língua do Livro de como se fazen as cores (ms. As Matérias da Imagem. de uma comunidade judeo-portuguesa bem integrada no tecido nacional. states that this manuscript is the product of a cult and socially integrated Hebrew community. such as the use of lapis lazuli for blue. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. would have conducted the artist of the Lorvão Apocalypse to create an iconographic programme which is conveyed in 88 52 images. 59. Notas sobre a língua do Livro de como se fazen as cores (ms. like in Diagrama da Pomba (Book of Birds. By that time. Limoges and Moissac) and also the Saxon world. a Portuguese expert in linguistics. It is worth to stress that Besides Ivo Castro 59. formation hybride à partir d’un élément de provenance arabe et d’un élément latin (<qirmizi x minium). The Portuguese illuminators would use this painting process for a long time. Les langues romanes devant le phénomène de la couleur. com elevada competência de literacia tanto em hebraico como em português». (ed. with no reference for the colour source). For producing rose colours. The latter being applied pure. L. f. 2010. «rouge violâtre. 2010. 1978. or in a matiz from pink.) The Materials of the Image. Paris: Mouton Editeur. 2010. allowed us to obtain the colours described 25. L. Figure 4. to darken it and create an effect of relief (incidire). So.) The Materials of the Image. A. 29-43. of vermilion for red and the presence of minium in the palette. Bechtold and R. There is a predominance of the use of drawing. Fécamp Abbey) and Southern France communities (Albi. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons 6-7). also Devon Strolovitch 60.. 1978. c’est-à-dire «rouge de cochenille» aussi) dont l’introduction est postérieure d’un siècle environ à celle d’/ écarlate/ et de /carmin/ (première attestation 1298).» 55. namely by the Norman (Mont Saint Michel. and the need to spread a message in the political and religious context of the peninsular Christian expansion.U. together with blue 55 indigo. (ed. T. Parma 1959) in Afonso. percebe-se a existência. D. as already described.) The Materials of the Image. Our critical edition of the science involved also shows that some recipes reflect complex technological processes but. (. which may be related to an aesthetic of light common to the Christian and Arabic worlds. directly applied on the parchment. which seems to exalt the spirituality present in the text. in the Book on how to make colours 35. both colourants were integrated in the extensive net of trade routes created by the Arab conquest 56. As Matérias da Imagem. in Afonso. Strolovitch. Handbook of Natural Colorants. As Matérias da Imagem.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h 54. dark red and very dark red (or black) 57 Figure 4.6). Castro. p. being colour applied in the backgrounds 53. It is important to mention that. Mussak (eds). «pourpre». 2009. Old Portuguese in Hebrew script: beyond O livro de como se fazem as cores. this know-how was part of a more ancient tradition as discussed in a recent linguistic analysis 61.U. author of one of the recent critical editions of this manuscript. other recipes are present based on Brazilwood on chapters 8.M.J. 56. or on the minium. Moreover.

Les langues romanes devant le phénomène de la couleur. fig.4 General conclusions From our investigation of colour of medieval Portuguese illumination. Melo. being part of the illumination. Color. to the semiprecious stone lapis-lazuli from which the most coveted colour of the Middle Ages was obtained 64. p.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r cação. Possibly this vocabulary was brought by the Arabs into the Peninsula. vermiculum in Latin 63. èditions Francke Berne. the Portuguese etymology is for both directly related to the source producing the colour 62. This comparative analysis is however not yet possible 65. Bechtold and R. such as France and Spain. 2009. 65. the red and blue.º i . The cultural importance of the materials of colour is well presented in our language.M. where many terms used to designate colour come from the materials source. are shown slightly out 4. 62. Les langues romanes devant le phénomène de la couleur. T. one of the aims of this investigation would be to compare the materials used in the creation of colour of the Portuguese medieval illumination with some of the used ones in other important European centres. M.7. the small parasite from which dye was extracted.11 colour analysis for the book of birds of the portuguese monasteries (lorvão. lãzaward. Thus. collections contemporary to ours. A. p. 237. but it derives from the Persian word for the blue stone lapis-lazuli. 64. Handbook of Natural Colorants.J. Mussak (eds).87: «a co-presença de camadas linguísticas de diferente cronologia mantém a possibilidade de fontes textuais mais antiga». Lack of published molecular data on the ms. A. 63. Èditions Francke Berne.M. santa cruz and alcobaça) and the french abbey clairvaux. in the blue.238. Kristol. Kristol. taking for example. which includes quantifying relative proportions of the area occupied for each colour 166 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. reds used for lettering. Color. medieval colourants. and in order to overcome this obstacle. that is. it emerges that the materials used in its production. 1978. 1978. play an important role in a global history. Thus. History of natural dyes in the ancient Mediterranean world. we decided to launch a project on colour mapping. In the case of red.2 0 1 1 .

Based on the findings of Rémy Cordonnier and discussion with Patricia Stirnemann. In a first analysis. 2002. 68. 67-68. 5. J. as expected. London: Thames and Hudson. green. the blue ascending to the main colour in the medieval palette. which coined the western modern civilization. Outlook One of the often-neglected components in the study of medieval illumination is what it is made from: paint. BM 177. which coexisted in the Romanesque Portugal. As proposed by Pastoureau. Lezione sui colori. it was possible to verify that the distribution of colours of the codex of Alcobaça is identical to the one of Clairvaux. it is possible to add that this hypothesis is in agreement with the new dating of the Clairvaux manuscript. The work of the investigation conducted by the interdisciplinary team has put forward new hypotheses in relation to aesthetic and symbolic options of the illuminators and to the dating of the manuscripts. This recipe is clearly described in detail in the Hebrew-Portuguese Book r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. the red and the blue. which was increasing from the Santa Cruz manuscript to the Alcobaça at the expense of the blue. obtained by (al)chemical synthesis.1995. orange. black and yellow. One of the most interesting and unexpected results which emerged from the analysis of the Book of Birds from Lorvão is the evidence of the amount of red being identical to the blue one. lapis lazuli and lac dye (dark red) were imported from Afghanistan and India. Thus. We emphasise the low proportion of green in this manuscript. Bleu. combining mercury and sulphur. became a production of Arabic sciences. two of the most important colours of the medieval palette. Gage. p 13. that is. blue. were traded and/or processed by the Arabs or Jews. their process and technology involved were not also a cultural product. Color and Culture. In the technological revolution started in the Middle Age. In the Portuguese case. and Brussatin. Moreover. 1170. 2009. M. With the present interdisciplinary project. As if the materials. B. However. even apparently dispersed. we hope to give contribution to a cultural history of medieval colour. the technological production is a cultural product with a high impact. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. we will quantify the areas of the main colours used in the Portuguese manuscripts: the red. For example. so many times paradigmatic. taking for itself.2 0 1 1 1 67 . proposed by Patricia Stirnemann and Rémy Cordonnier 68. intrinsically global. as if those two colours existed in its contrast. the progression of blue 67 (and the regression of green) corresponds to a change of paradigm. the vermilion. Will these data allow us to propose a review in the dating of theses codices towards a more recent dating of the Lorvão manuscript? In other words. 67. Manuscript preserved at Troyes Library. comparing them with the one of the Clairvaux monastery 66. Lorvão Apocalypse and De Avibus respectively. In a first phase. We tested the potential of this approach with the Books of the Birds from the Portuguese monasteries.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h 66. in the illuminations. considering the similarity of its iconographic programme. We have integrated diverse evidences which. M.º i . Figure 11. allowed us to forecast a consistent pattern. it is possible to associate a molecular palette to these colours. an analysis that is actually going on. we tried to start a narrative that integrates the contributions of different cultures. Veneza: Libreria Editrioce Cafoscarina. the meaning of spiritual colour? This is a question to which only an analysis on a larger number of manuscripts could answer. carmine. Oro e azzurro. though it could be imported from the Almaden mines as a mineral.

) 2010. Inês Villela-Petit was one of the first scholars to propose a new date for the ms. As matérias da Imagem. • Bibliography Afonso. 103: 33-44.M. Blondheim.M. A.Das artes grega e romana. B. the first version could date form the 13th14th centuries. (ed. As well as paper by Maria João Melo and Catarina Miguel in Varia section of this volume. from a Mozarabic codex of the 10th century. 70. published online at http://www. Lezione sui colori. This installation will simulate the illuminations’ creation process in the medieval period. The Materials of the Image. it is in the meaning of the colour itself that we can find evidences of the Islamic culture influence. 19: 97-135. J. 69. with the main focus on children and young publics. These workshops are based on the step by step [Melo.J.pt/imagens/index.Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Química. addressing several aspects from the materials’ origin and production methods to the painting process. (ed. based on linguist analysis. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. 168 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. M. L.asp?id_video=302). consistent with the fact it was copied in Lorvão. to a public ranging from 7 to 77 years old (please see http://www. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. Lemos. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. Lisboa: FCG/JNICT.fct. (coord. A. pag. detecting the contributions of the three medieval cultures which forged together Portugal. As Matérias da Imagem. and Miguel. IV. Miranda.1928. was recently proposed by the team of FLUL that studied the treaties on the art of painting produced in Portugal from Medieval Ages to 1850. in addition to hands-on workshops of production of medieval illumination that we frequently organize since 2007 71.Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Química. 294. 15th century.P. À descoberta da cor na iluminura medieval com o Apocalipse do Lorvão e o Livro das Aves. M. 2007.1995. We intend to achieve an engaging.) The Materials of the Image. J. intuitive and easy to use interactive system.. L. Castro.J. M. 72. In the case of. the workshop that was organized in the framework of the International Day of Museums. Within the current on-going project Colour in medieval illuminated manuscripts: between beauty and meaning 70. 71.) The materials of the Image. The new date for this ms.cvtv. Das Artes da Idade Média (1. Cabral. A escrita em Portugal de 882 a 1172. that is the Hebrew.pt/ imagens/index. L. M. New devellopments in the study of O Livro de como se fazem as cores das tintas in Afonso. It will also show users the historical and social context of that time and reveal the meanings of the colours and images depicted. An old Portuguese work on manuscript illumination.dcr. 82: 57-64. we will also explore the modern computer interaction technologies 72.pt/step-by-step]. C. Brussatin. I.unl. Química. Química. Da visigótica à carolina.cvtv. p. História Breve dos Pigmentos. For more details please see. Claro. 2010. As an example. It is probable that some of the processes described in the manuscript reflect older traditions. (ed. Jewish Quarterly Review. Parma 1959) in Afonso. Cabral. Luís Afonso (p14) e Ivo de Castro (p93-94) in Afonso. Oro e azzurro. and as a way to share our findings with the interested audience.2 0 1 1 .87.A..U.º i . 2010.P.). Azevedo Santos. PTDC/EAT-EAT/104930/2008. História Breve dos Pigmentos. 2006.ª parte). III . 1994. Notas sobre a língua do Livro de como se fazen as cores (ms. 290. As Ivo Castro could establish. Muslim and Christian cultures. L. pag.U. we wish to deepen this lead and seek for new evidences which will allow us to unveil the meaning of the colour in medieval codices. located in a region that was an important centre of the Mozarabic culture.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r on how to make colours 69. See paper on Varia section of this volume.U. 2001. Finally.asp?id_video=295 and http:// www. Veneza: Libreria Editrioce Cafoscarina. As Matérias da Imagem.U. S.

Léon: Centro de Estudios y Investigación in Mediavalista. XIII in Religião e Cultura na Idade Média Portuguesa. Sources and Serendipity – Testimonies of Artists’ Practice.. Gage.A. Claro C. Ensaios de História Medieval. O Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra. Lemos. A vida religiosa dos beneditinos portugueses durante o séc. History of natural dyes in the ancient Mediterranean world in Bechtold. Lisboa: FCSH.J. Melo. Melo.866.D. A. Color and Culture. Published online at http://www. M.M..fct. Les langues romanes devant le phénomène de la couleur. 2009. and Santana..J.A. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. The Analysis of Medieval European Manuscripts. 7. Os antepassados dos navegadores in Naquele tempo. Claro A. À descoberta da cor na iluminura medieval com o Apocalipse do Lorvão e o Livro das Aves. Miguel C. Fernández Cáton. The Art of All Colours: Medieval Recipe Books for Painters and Illuminators. O tratamento documental de manuscritos ao serviço da investigação: a experiência da Biblioteca Nacional. 1978. Paris: Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian. 1996. Caen: Presse Universitaires de Caen. M. Chancelaria e Cultura no Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra: Séculos XII-XIV. Les Textiles dans le monde musulman: du VII e au XIIe siècle. Gomes. 2003. Séculos XII-XV. and Miguel..pt/a-descoberta-da-iluminuramedieval. A. Limine Conscriptionis: Documentos. J. M. M. Lisboa: Centro de História-Universidade de Lisboa. 2000. 2009. 2001. M. Coupry. 1978. XI-XII ème siècle in Bouet. C.º i . Les pigments utilisés pour l’enluminure à Fécamp. (ed). C. London: Thames and Hudson. greenish blue or bluish green? Copper pigments in medieval Portuguese Illuminations. 3-18.ª ed.unl. Mattoso. Coimbra: Polimage Editores.A. La codification cistercienne de 1202 et son évolution. Lisboa: Temas e Debates/Círculo de Leitores. Lisboa: APBAD.. 2007. B. J. Color. 69-79. A. Cadernos BAD. Zurique: Éditions Francke Berne. Accounts of Chemical Research. (eds). 43(6): 857. 1993. 2001. Lucet. (eds) Manuscrits et enluminures dans le monde normand (X-XVème siècles). J. Paris: Mouton Editeur.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h Clarke.A. Liber testamentorum coenobii laurbanensis (estúdios). J. Mattoso. 1974. 1999. Dorchester: Archetype Publications. blue. Claro. Melo M.J. 2. 2009. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. S. Recension to the paper by Nascimento A. J. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda. M.. A. Miranda. London: Archetype: 33-38. M. M. 1978.J. J. 2010. R. Handbook of Natural Colorants.. Lopes. 2009. Ferreira. M. Kristol.dcr. Melo. Clarke. Mattoso. Bright light: microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments and dyes in works of art. (coord. P. Routier des Abbayes Cisterciennes du Portugal. T. and Dosdat. Reviews in Conservation.2 0 1 1 169 . Cocheril. Lombard. 2:3-17.). and Mussak. A. T. Roma: Editions Cistercien. Green. Martins. 2009.C.

J. L. 2010. 1996. Arte monástica em Lorvão. Lisboa.A. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional Casa da Moeda. Journal of Cultural Heritage.) The Materials of the Image. na Arte e na Natureza.S.. Couleur. A. images. M. PhD Dissertation. Miranda. C. D.. A Iluminura de Santa Cruz no Tempo de Santo António. M.J. 1999. Melo. Claro. 2010. Miguel. J. Wirth. Michel. Lisboa: Edições Inapa. Melo.D. 116-184.. 1960. Claro. 5: 228-245. Gonçalves. and convivência. (ed. 67-68. Casanova.. Strolovitch. Melo. As moléculas da cor. 2002. symboles. C. Peixeiro. On Wings of Blue: The history. Moura.. A. 101: 44-55..2. Revista de História da Arte. Lorvão Apocalypse (1189).) 1999. A. L. e estudos introdutórios. Paris: Le Léopard d’Or. Pastoureau. 2002. 1998. H. trad. 1998. Miguel. Miranda. 1996. M.A. Lisboa: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. contact. As Matérias da Imagem. A Study on Portuguese Manuscript Illumination: The Charter of Vila Flor (Flower Town). Vilares Cepeda.A. Lemos. and Muralha..t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Miguel. 1996.C. A. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação..U. L.. Telo in Hagiografia de Santa Cruz de Coimbra. 2007. uma abordagem interdisciplinary. 2001. M. 2008. Borges. L’image a l’époque romane. 1512. A Iluminura Portuguesa. M. and Melo. A.. M. Tomar: IPT/EST/DTAG/ACG. A Iluminura Românica em Santa Cruz em Santa Cruz de Coimbra e Santa Maria de Alcobaça. P. critic. Miranda. I. 2005. A. M. Lemos. A. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. Miranda. Claro. Nascimento.. Pastoureau. N. Moreira de Sá. Lisboa: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal.. sombras e realidade – Das origens a 1737. M. 29-43. Revista da Faculdade de Letras. V. M. J. As Matérias da Imagem. A.A.J. Claro.A. Inventário dos Códices Iluminados até 1500. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. Nascimento.L. and Ferreira. A. materials and techniques of the Book of Birds in Portuguese scriptoria in Afonso. Melo. C.A.2 0 1 1 .J. C.. Provas públicas para professor coordenador. T.. Vol. A Iluminura em Portugal: Identidade e Influência (do séc. D.. Vida de D. Lisboa: Colibri. Old Portuguese in Hebrew script: beyond O livro de como se fazem as cores. Strolovitch. M.F. Ed.J. 2006. 8-299:306.X ao XVI): catálogo da Exposição. (ed. Nascimento. Química-Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Química. 2009. 40: 1966-1973. Old Portuguese in Hebrew Script: convention. Paris: Du Cerf.A. A Iluminura do Apocalipse do Lorvão. Cornell University.º i . (coord. Miranda. M. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. Seixas de Melo. A.) The Materials of the Image. in Afonso. PhD Dissertation. A. A study on red lead degradation in the medieval manuscript. 170 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.A. Bleu. 4: 210-223. Liber Testamentorum cit.U.

working on the study of colour in Portuguese Medieval Illuminations. New University of Lisbon. Lisbon University. Maria Adelaide Miranda has graduated with a degree in History from Faculdade de Letras. Her primary research focus is the study of materials applied in illuminated manuscripts. High Temperature Chemistry and Crystallochemistry. She worked at the Getty Conservation Institute as a Visiting Post Doc (2009). Technical University of Lisbon. she joined Maria João Melo research group (DCR-FCT-UNL) on the study of colour in Portuguese Medieval illuminations. Portugal. also by IST. His research interests include Chemometrics. Currently. Presently. Lisbon. António Pereira Gonçalves is graduated in Chemical Engineering by Instituto Superior Técnico (IST). in-situ. with the thesis «Um Novo olhar sobre o livro de Horas de D. Ana Lemos is graduated in History-Art History by Faculdade de Letras. and member of the Physical-Chemistry group of Faculdade de Farmácia. she is focusing her studies on art and technological source research. In 2006 she integrated the research team supervised by Maria João Melo and Maria Adelaide Miranda. Lopes is graduated in Chemical Engineering by Instituto Superior Técnico (IST). and PhD in Chemistry (IST). in the framework of her PhD thesis «Le vert et le rouge: A study on the materials. After a final internship at the Portuguese Institute for Conservation and Restoration (IPCR) in 2004. and PhD. Process Systems Engineering and Biospectroscopy.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h Biographies Ana Claro obtained her PhD in Conservation and Restoration in 2009 from the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. João A. He is a Researcher at Requimte. Vibrational Spectroscopy. non-destructive and automatic systems for monitoring. and is responsible for the High Temperature Synthesis and Crystal Growth and for the Films Deposition Laboratories. Materials Science. she is working on her PhD thesis entitled «Catálogo dos livros de horas iluminados de origem francesa nas colecções públicas portuguesas (primeira metade do século XV)». João A. Main research interests consist on on-line. techniques and meaning of the green and red colours in medieval Portuguese illuminations». António Pereira Gonçalves is currently a Principal Researcher at Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN). In 2009. He has been focusing his research on solid-state chemistry. Oporto University. Lisbon University. Process Analytical Chemistry. Duarte». She was a trainee assistant at this University (2005-2009) and joined the Associate Laboratory REQUIMTE-CQFB (FCT-UNL) in 2004 and the Medieval Studies Institute (FCSH-UNL) in 2005.º i . Technical University of Lisbon. Technical University of Lisbon. MA and PhD degrees. Currently she is doing research on Asian organic colorants as Post Doc at Centre for Overseas History (CHAM-UNL) and Hercules laboratory – Évora University. Lopes current research activity is focused on the development and application of chemometrics and data-mining tools through the principles of process systems engineering. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Ana Lemos got a Master degree by Faculdade Ciências Sociais e Humanas. Catarina Miguel studied Chemical Engineering at Instituto Superior Técnico (IST).2 0 1 1 171 .

she intends to develop these subjects in a PhD in Conservation and Restoration. She is a fellow researcher at Instituto de Estudos Medievais and associate researcher at Instituto de História da Arte as well as member of the editorial board of the journals Medievalista on line (IEM) and De Arte (Univ. she joined the Conservation Unit at the New University of Lisbon. Chemistry and Conservation at the New University of Lisbon (Caparica). where she is responsible for the C&R scientific laboratory. Rita Castro studied Art History. after a Post Doc at ICVBC-CNR in Florence. in 1995. The same year she started her research in the field of Conservation Science at the University College of London. Since 1999 she has also been researcher at Requimte. The research interests follow the colour in medieval illuminations field but also provenance studies on artistic glazed tiles. namely the study of the mechanisms of photodegradation in polymer systems and colour paints. Dissertation on Chinese hand-painted wallpaper (18 th century). 172 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Lisbon).A. especially Raman spectroscopy. M. having coordinated interdisciplinary projects such as «The colour of medieval illuminations» and «Imago». New University of Lisbon. The author acquired a proficiency in several analytical techniques. she joined the Conservation Unit at the New University of Lisbon. 2009. from New University of Lisbon. Other areas of interest are Color in Art and Nature and Semiochemistry. Currently. In 1999. she carries out research in medieval illumination manuscripts. iconography and manuscript illuminations. with special emphasis on Islamic illuminations. de León). from the University of Lisbon. Her research interests include the colour of medieval illuminations and conservation of Modern Art. Since 2010. Maria João Melo obtained her PhD in Physical Chemistry.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r (FCSH). Solange Muralha obtained her PhD in Physical Chemistry in 2005. particularly in the assessment of parchment and in the study of the meaning of color.º i .2 0 1 1 . After this thrilling experience with collaborations with the Institute of Archaeology in London and the Vitoria and Albert Museum. Her research interests in Medieval Art include the study of colour. Associated professor of Medieval Art History at the Department of Art History (FCSH-UNL.

paints are also analyzed by optical microscopy which allows to understand how the final colour is built up (e. binders and additives. moreover its 70 μm enable us to obtain data that is representative for the distribution. where the equipment is transported to the institutions where the manuscripts are preserved. one must choose between a folio by folio analysis or selecting representative illuminations. During the missions. Analytical techniques based on emission fluorescence have been recently experimented for the identification of dyes and lake pigments with rewarding results. From these manuscripts a relevant number of folia were analyzed in order to ensure statistical relevance. allowing to have statistical value that can also be used in other analytical techniques. An estimate time to analyse a 10x10 cm illumination with the entire palette applied (Figure A2. Together with the spectroscopic investigation. sample destruction may occur. without the time constraint that in situ mission implies.1 • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. MicroRaman and microDXR may be used to address specific points. the first screening is carried out by microEDXRF. as it requires no contact with the sample and employs a low-intensity radiation. as regards the colorants. A2. reveals that five hours would be needed to assure its representativeness. and were used to study the organic colourants in Portuguese medieval illuminations.t h e c o l o u r o f m e d i e va l p o r t u g u e s e i l l u m i n at i o n : a n i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h Appendix 1 Experimental Design The global approach and experimental design set-up for a comprehensive study on colour production for medieval Portuguese illuminations will be briefly described. MicroRaman. to detect possible degradation phenomena and to sample the colour paints that will be subjected to a more detailed characterization in the laboratory. Missions. Regarding the number of illuminations by manuscript and the real time to analyse them. fig. which allows for high spatial resolution (1. were prepared after a careful selection of the manuscripts by the Art history experts.2 0 1 1 173 . Designed micro-sampling presents several advantages. To quantify mixtures even more acquisitions were needed. and for each colour. namely it keeps to a minimum the handling of the manuscript and allows for more detailed studies in the laboratory. in the manuscript. five representative areas and three points in each colour area enabled to have relevant and representative data. allowing for binder characterization and to gain an insight into the full paint formulation. microXRF and microXRD are powerful complementary techniques and were used for the characterization of colorants in medieval manuscripts.g.. of a certain paint colour. 11 micro-Raman and 1 microsampling would take at least 50 minutes. by layers or by mixture).º i . microspectrofluorimetry may be carried out first. such as chemometrics. in the laboratory a sample is first analyzed by microFTIR. 11 micro-EDXRF analyses. MicroRaman.5 μm spot) and enables the diverse paint components to be excited separately as well as emission fluorescence techniques are used to address specific points.1) . which indicates the possible colorants and extenders present and allows a first quantification of these elements. For instance in a blue colour. such as the molecular characterization of an inorganic pigment or a dye. This was performed by selecting in each folio. with both methods. Typically. microFTIR. respectively. If a dye is present.

We present the results obtained by means of non destructive spectroscopic molecular (Micro Raman) and elemental (XRF and α-PIXE) techniques in three case study. Museo Diocesano. no estudo de três manuscritos. Salerno. Florença. Italia).207 (13th century. key-words pigments xrf raman α-pixe mosaic gold • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. Italy) and the ms. tintas de escrever e corantes permite a identificação das paletas utilizadas pelos iluminadores e. colours and dyes allows to recognize the palettes used by miniaturists. Museo Diocesano. Justino Maciel. Italy). . Piana 3. Italia). Italia) e o ms Piana 3. the Amiatinus Bible (7th-8th century. o Pontificale 492 (séc. identify posterior treatments and additions and assess the proper methods and products to be used in conservation. Felix Teichner e Heidi. Biblioteca Malatestiana Cesena. sometimes distinguishing the scriptoria themselves. the Pontificale 492 (13th century. Neste trabalho serão apresentados os resultados obtidos. Biblioteca Malatestiana Cesena. palavras-chave pigmentos xrf raman pixe ouro musivo • Abstract The huge experience of the Institute in non destructive analysis and characterization of pigments. Italy). por análise molecular (microRaman) e elementar (XRF e PIXE). dos próprios scriptoria. Salerno. inks. XIII. Caracterizam-se ainda tratamentos e intervenções passadas bem como se avaliam os métodos e produtos mais adequados para a sua conservação. Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana.Resumo A grande experiência do Instituto em análises não-invasivas para a caracterização de pigmentos. a Bibbia Amiatina (sécs VI-VIII. por vezes. Firenze. XIII.207 (séc. Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana. Pedro Fialho de Sousa.

MicroRaman. in some cases) give a fluorescence response below the detection limit. the combination of XRF.it a r m i da s o d o Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario. so it is impossible to detect organic substrates even though the organic matrix contributes to the global spectrum.uniroma3. Cultural heritage objects represent complex and multifaceted problems and conclusions drawn from observations with the naked eye are likely as faulty as those drawn from limited diagnostics. the use of destructive techniques as many traditional methods actually are is to be avoided. 2004. based on multidisciplinary analyses.monti@beniculturali.) spectroscopies can be found. michela. Roma (Italy). FT-Raman. priceless specimens. Head of Laboratory of Chemistry. 229. DRIFT. Unfortunately.it Achieving highly accurate information on miniatures composition allows to customize conservation and restoration strategies aiming at the best preservation with the least impact. alchemy and conservation in three case studies m a r i n a b i cc h i e r i Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario. Quantitative XRF analysis requires. From the experimental point of view. in fact.it mich el a mo n t i Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario. In order to work out reliable. Roma (Italy). α-PIXE and Micro Raman was considered the proper setup choice. laboratory simulations and proper statistics. Moreover. α-PIXE .) and molecular (ATR-FTIR. unambiguous information from non destructive methods a truly scientific approach. marina. EXAFS. At the same time. LIBS. since samples are often unique. XRF spectrometry is often (Malzer et al. 2004. must be combined to the knowledge of history.illuminations: secrets.. Roma (Italy). giovanna.2 0 1 1 175 . 703) applied to pigments and dyes analysis: information can be achieved in reasonable times (minutes).it g i ova n n a p i a n ta n i da Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario.bicchieri@beniculturali. the X-rays penetration depth increases inversely to the atomic weight of the target element and a sheet of paper or parchment is completely crossed.º i . Roma (Italy). sodo@fis. Researcher of Laboratory of Chemistry. Department of Physics. Researcher of Laboratory of Chemistry. that the thickness of the sample could be considered as r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. and Università di Roma Tre. 169).. Researcher of Laboratory of Chemistry. 2001. Cesareo et al. a rich literature upon the use of elemental (XRF. art and of course alchemy that guide the illuminator’s hand. In the light of previous experiences (Bicchieri et al... since elements lighter than Al (Si. such information is only qualitative on paper and parchment substrates.piantanida@beniculturali.

1990. They will be only synthetically reviewed in present work. 2008. in fact. The Bibbia Amiatina.207 and the related experimental work on pigments analysis and simulation of mosaic gold. Piana 3. 114).e. 2005. Piana 3. The first goal of the analyses laid in the establishment of the original arrangement of the sheets present in the first booklet. Contrariwise. Pappalardo et al. α-PIXE allows controlling the penetration into the sample and quantitative elemental information even on trace and lighter elements (above Na) can be obtained. Raman spectroscopy can be used (Colthup et al. the portable α-PIXE and XRF spectrometers were entirely designed and developed at LNS/INFN laboratory and the portable micro-Raman spectrometer was a custommade instrument developed at Physics Dpt. whereas a major focus will be given to the investigation campaign on the ms. that actually constitute a «fingerprint» of the material. Therefore its historical interest is inestimable. Some pigments. Measurements on the ms. The full sets of analyses on Bibbia Amiatina and Pontificale 492. The manuscript is the most ancient and complete witness to the Vulgate Latin Bible and it is also a great example of English uncial writing and of illuminations in anglo-saxon style. influenced by the Mediterranean-Bizantine one.2 0 1 1 . Roma Tre University. 1. 1074). Raman spectroscopy is a technique sensitive to vibrational states of matter.º i . measures 345 mm x 540 mm and weighs around 50 kg. making it impossible to extract data. Calibration of the measuring arrangement and the use of reliable calibration model that must be representative of the matrix and target element morphology (particle size distribution. (Bicchieri et al.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r infinite. Codex Amiatinus. The simultaneous use of XRF and α-PIXE gives an almost complete characterization of the elemental composition of the sample (Pappalardo et al. but rather 176 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Amiat. The main problem with Raman applications is that fluorescence is excited together with the molecular states and sometimes «screens» the measurement. It is composed of 1029 parchment sheets. 60) to identify the molecular composition or even the different state of aggregation of the species in the sample under investigation. greater than the average thickness crossed by the used XRF radiation. The advantages of Raman spectroscopy consist in the short measurement time (seconds-minutes) and in the high sensitivity to inorganic compounds. It should be underlined that the ordering of the sheets coming out from such a method did not necessarily correspond to the original one. heterogeneity and surface condition) and concentration ranges of the sample to be analysed are also necessary. 2008. including the instruments and their specifications. 466). is the last surviving out of three copies of the Bible produced in Ceolfrith’s scriptorium in the area of the twin monasteries of Wearmouth Jarrow in Northumbria between the end of the 7th century and the beginning of the 8th.207 were performed with the Assing Lithos 3000 portable XRF spectrometer and the Renishaw In-Via Reflex Raman microscope currently owned by the Institute (Bicchieri et al. 2001. are fully described in dedicated articles. Laur. 169. As far as measurements on the Pontificale 492 and Bibbia Amiatina are concerned. i. left offsets on the adjacent sheet that were analyzed under ultraviolet light of two different wavelengths (253 nm and 365 nm). ms.

ascribed to anonymous illuminators working in the Bologna area. Using the different penetration depth of the three applied techniques it was possible to carry out a completely non-destructive stratigraphy. XRF and α-PIXE and have been recognized and classified (Table 1). For a complete characterization of the precious manuscript all illuminations were analyzed coupling Raman. organic lakes. scholars agreed to adopt it when re assembling the book. in other cases the preparation was not covered by the gold-leaf. earths organic lake mixed with lead white armenian bole + gypsum. azurite ochre. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. cinnabar lapis-lazuri. white lead red lead. The manuscript consists of 349 parchment sheets each having dimensions 400 x 285 mm. sometime white lead) mixed with blue and carbon black. verdigris mixed with an unidentified organic compound white (sometime calcite.2 0 1 1 177 . gypsum + white lead table 2 the pontificale palette. only rarely added with silver mosaic gold. 492 Pontificale of Museo Diocesano di Salerno is dated back to a period from the end of 13th century and the incoming of the 14th. Resulting palette is summarized in Table 2 . a l c h e m y a n d c o n s e r vat i o n i n t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s represented the sequence that the pages had likely followed for the bulk of the document’s lifetime. armenian bole + gypsum + white lead. Colour White Red Blue Brown Yellow Green Gray Metallic inks Composition calcite. The miniatures of excellent quality. organic lakes. Colour Gold Yellow White Red Blue Brown Pink Preparations for gold Composition pure gold leaf. copper-based pigments sometimes mixed with earths earths (iron and sometime copper) often mixed with orpiment or with gold orpiment.º i . lead. Silicates containing copper and iron were also used mixture with variable composition of copper. However. These circumstances gave the unique opportunity to investigate the different techniques used by the miniaturists and in particular the composition of the gold preparations and their comparison with the medieval recipes. yellow-ochre lead white red lead. were not always completed: in some cases only the preliminary design was present.i l l u m i n at i o n s : s e c r e t s . gold and sometime added with orpiment (arsenic) and earths (iron) table 1 the bibbia amiatina palette The ms. earths not yet identified pigment. silver. earths blue and yellow (orpiment) mixtures.

The code consists of 329 parchment sheets (455 mm x 280 mm) and is preserved at the Biblioteca Malatestiana in Cesena.2 0 1 1 . piana palette. but the most detailed recipe was found in De Arte Illuminandi 1.207 had been preserved in a very good condition up to the ‘80s. ms. Very interesting was the discovery that gilded miniatures had been realised either with pure gold or with mosaic gold (tin IV sulphide.). ICPL (now Icpal). azurite ochre. we decided to prepare mosaic gold following ancient recipes. Piana 3. an initiative of Alumina – Nova Charta press – with the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic (Savoia 2008). was responsible for the thorough scientific analysis of the manuscript and for the subsequent restoration. To confirm the presence of mosaic gold. In the following years. Colour Gold Yellow White Red Blue Brown Green Black Other colours Preparations for gold Composition pure gold leaf. that were artificially aged and deteriorated in order to test different adhesives on them and to choose the best and less invasive preservation treatment. Italy). Piana was applied not as goldimitation but in order to obtain particular hues. 2291) had been obtained from the modern compound. contour lines and shadows) mixture of the previously described pigments for other colours and tones white lead table 3 the ms. earths indigo. and stolen. XRF and Raman measurements allowed us to characterize the palette (Table 3). also known as Concordantia discordantium canonum is a collection of Canon law. Piana 3. a yellow crystalline powder that closely resemble gold. The Decretum Gratiani. yellow-ochre lead white red lead. earths not fully reacted mosaic gold mixed with indigo carbon black (for inks. Handbook of technical recipes. 2003. Fig. 178 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. written in Latin by anonymous authors in the 14th century and currently kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli (Napoli. was widely used in Europe in the Middle Age and in the Renaissance and in ms.107) which is now considered lost. not cited in 1. Concerning amounts of reagents. the law enforcement retrieved all the missing pages but one (c.207 was the topic of project Salviamo un codice 2nd edition. mosaic gold not fully reacted mosaic gold. The latter pigment.º i .207 (13th-14th c.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r The experimental results also allowed to prepare laboratory reproductions of the original illuminations. The restoration of ms. Due to the fact that modern preparation of stannic sulphide differs from the ancient methods and that Raman spectra from literature (Edwards et al. damaging the sewing of the binding. Italy. Ms. a standard Raman spectrum was necessary. cinnabar. Many texts were consulted. only rarely with traces of copper. Piana 3. when it was dramatically maimed: thirteen pages were torn off.1 and 2). the institutional authority appointed for library materials preservation.

x tube tension 25 kV. They are transported into the «labyrinth of the transformation of matter» by the external fire. acquisition time 600 s. current 0.) their marriage is celebrated and is only possible with the help of the arcane fire of salt – the alchemic Priest – able to transform the metals.207 is total and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that the two compounds had the same structure.2 0 1 1 179 . Sulphur and Mercury are the alchemic pair. The procedure foresees many steps: preparation of Hg-Sn amalgam. collimator 0. When no more fumes appear. confirmed once more the Institute choice of pioneering and always pursuing multidisciplinarity based on strictly non-destructive methods.1 x spectrum of mosaic gold from the original (christ robes). the related scientific advance and the more than positive feedback from restorers who take advantage from the obtained information. microscope image «a») and of the original pigment (red line. In meantime elemental tin is oxidized to tin IV. Ed. Even when observed at the microscope. a l c h e m y a n d c o n s e r vat i o n i n t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s 2.9 keV fig. esd silicon detector. In chemical terms. the recipe. Ammonium chloride decreases the reaction temperature. the similarity between the mosaic gold prepared in the lab and the pigment used on the ms. the nigredo (mixing amalgam and the two others compounds the mixture becomes black) and the albedo (during heating.300 ma. resolution 160 eV at 5. In the Temple (crucible. microscope image «b»). we decided to use the proportions suggested by Villavecchia: Dizionario di Merceologia e di Chimica Applicata (Villavecchia 1932). excitation λ = 785 nm r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. In this process we can recognize the two first steps of the alchemic Opus Magnum. allowing the formation of stannic sulphide.5 mm diameter.º i . amalgam increases the reactivity of tin. The effectiveness of the presented techniques in analysis of such invaluable manuscripts.i l l u m i n at i o n s : s e c r e t s . mercury reduces sulphur to sulphide. Piana 3. dense white fumes rise) 2.2 comparison between the raman spectra of mosaic gold laboratory sample (black line. addition of sulphur and ammonium chloride and heating for a long time. choosing the temperature in order to obtain the desired hue. x ray source 96mo. • fig. heating is stopped and a gold-coloured powder is found in the crucible: this is mosaic gold.

Daniela. Per giusta causa.. Il restauro del Decretum Gratiani (Ms. Scowen. 2001.» X-Ray Spectrometry 37 no 4: 466 69. Marina. Ian J. Armida Sodo. 2008. 2004. Andreas G. Michela Monti. Oliver Hahn and Birgit Kanngießer. Wolfgang. Padova: Edizioni Nova Charta. Maurizio Marabelli. Pappalardo. Lighea Pappalardo. Norman B. 2008. Francesco Paolo Romano. San Diego: Academic Press Inc. 180 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2004. Roberto. Armida Sodo. Marina Bicchieri. Lawrence H.» Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 213: 703–06. «The LNS portable PIXE-alpha system for the examination of gold preparations in the Salerno 492 code miniatures. Introduction to Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Francesco Paolo Romano.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Bibliography Bicchieri. Villavecchia.º i .2 0 1 1 . Fernando Rull Perez. 1932. 4. Karydas. Milano: Ulrico Hoepli. «Lead/ tin mirror formation from mixtures of red lead and tin sulphide. Luigi Cosentino. Daly and Stephen E. Wiberley. Michele Nardone. Emma L. Pappalardo.» Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 239:114-21. Howell G. Pio Alfonso Russo. Marcella Leole. Despina Kotzamani .207) della Biblioteca Malatestiana di Cesena. ed.» X Ray Spectrometry 33: 229 33.. Malzer. 1990. vol. Antonio Brunetti. PIXE-α and Raman. Colthup. «Non-destructive Analysis of the Bibbia Amiatina by XRF.M. Giuseppe Pappalardo. Dizionario di merceologia e di chimica applicata. Lighea. Francesco Paolo Romano and Charalambos Zarkadas. Piana 3. «A fingerprint model for inhomogeneous ink–paper layer systems measured with micro-x-ray fluorescence analysis. Michele Nardone. 2005. Bicchieri. Stefano Quarta. no 8: 1074-78. Dixon. Giovanna Piantanida and Armida Sodo.Giuseppe Pappalardo. Lighea. Savoia. 2003. Giovanni Buccolieri. «Complementary use of PIXEalpha and XRF portable systems for the non-destructive and in situ characterization of gemstones in museums. Paola Santopadre. «Portable equipment for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of Giotto’s frescoes in the Chapel of the Scrovegni. Vittorio. Alfredo Castellano. Cesareo.» Spectrochimica Acta Part A 59: 2291 99. «All that is iron ink is not always an iron-gall!» Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39. 2008. Marina.» Qvinio: International Journal on the History and Conservation of the Book 3: 169 79. Edwards.

co-funded by ICPL. The research project was the finalization of diagnostic protocols based on physics methods. UV-Vis-NIR. From 2002 to September 2005 she worked as consultant for industrial safety. she obtained the PhD in Chemical Physics and then got a post-doc position at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility). parchment.º i . the European Union. Armida Sodo is researcher at the Physics Department of University Roma Tre. at University of Rome «La Sapienza». After the degree in Chemistry (1998). Marina Bicchieri works since 1979 in cultural heritage field and from 2000 she is the director of the chemistry department in Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario of Rome-Italy (former ICPL). μ-IR. material characterisation and development of instruments devoted to Cultural Heritage applications. She taught classes in chemistry. focusing on the prevention of chemical risk. Her research studies concern principally spectroscopic – principally Raman – investigation on Cultural Heritage.M. she is a fellow researcher at the Laboratory of Chemistry Icpal (former ICPL) and she is pursuing PhD in analytical chemistry at University of Ljubljana. Since September 2005 she works for the Chemistry Department of the Istituto Centrale il Restauro e la Conservazione del Patrimonio Archivistico e Librario (former Istituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro). a l c h e m y a n d c o n s e r vat i o n i n t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s Biographies Dr. in Physics (2000). SEM) for writing supports and graphic media. books and conference proceedings. Her research activity is focused on the chemistry of library materials (cellulose. XRF. From 2001 to 2002 she worked as researcher in the field of conservation of cultural heritage at the University of Udine and at the Istituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro in Rome. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. worked for three years in the Italian R&D site of L. AFM. charges. adhesives. sizes). pigments. in particular degradation process analyses. in particular Atomic Force Microscopt. She gives university courses and is co-author of more than 40 publications on international journals. the study and set-up of new restoring products and new nondestructive diagnostic methods (μ-Raman. Ericsson Corporate.2 0 1 1 181 . and several private institutions. Sc.i l l u m i n at i o n s : s e c r e t s . She then decided to turn back to research activity and obtained a post-doc position in the Department of Physics. conservation and restoration organized by Italian and foreign Universities and Public Institutions. focusing on the application of X-ray fluorescence for the analysis of library materials and carrying out research projects on new methods for restoration and conservation of paper and parchment. inks. Giovanna Piantanida. PIXE-α. Michela Monti obtained her Master Degree in chemistry at University of Rome «La Sapienza» in 2000. after achieving a M. an institution within the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities. Currently.

microscopia óptica. Omer. both from North-western France are compared with results of scientific examination of Van der Borch’s ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. key-words southern flanders maerlant netherlandish illumination analyses de coloribus • de Sousa. O fol. Stylistic features of these illuminations fit quite well into the idiom that was current in Flanders and Northwest France. foram analisadas por reflectografia de infravermelho (IRR). i. and in the De Coloribus Faciendi by Peter of St. O que permite considerá-las como as mais antigas obras de arte flamenga datadas e com colofon. The analyses helped to identify paints and pigments and the different strategies that were employed to deal with colour in order to organise the composition. Os aspectos estilísticos destas iluminuras estão de acordo com o idioma que era comum tanto na Flandres como no noroeste de França. These small-scale paintings were examined with infrared reflectography (IRR) and light microscopy. On fol. Comparam-se os resultados obtidos com as instruções presentes em tratados técnicos contemporâneos como o Liber de Coloribus siue Pictorum e o de Peter de Saint Omer. 152v it has the inscription: «Doe men screef int iaer ons heren MCCCXXXII verlichte mi Michiel van der borch». As análises permitiram identificar as tintas e pigmentos bem como as diversas estratégias de aplicação da cor para organização da composição. Estas pinturas. fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). . Justino Maciel. energy dispersive micro.e. sugerindo que a formação de Van der Borch pode ter aí decorrido.: «Foi no ano de 1332 que fui iluminado por Michiel van der Borch».: «It was in the year 1332 that I was illuminated by Michiel van der Borch» This makes the illuminations the earliest signed and dated Netherlandish works of art. i. Terminology and formulae in contemporary technical treatises such as the Liber de Coloribus siue Pictorum. palavras-chave flandres maerlant iluminura flamenga análises científicas de coloribus • Abstract The illuminations in De Rijmbijbel van Jacob van Maerlant belong to the most important Early Netherlandish paintings. de pequena dimensão. fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energias (µ-XRF). espectroscopia por reflectância no UV-VIS (FORS) e ainda por técnicas de imagiologia espectral. Felix Teichner e Heidi. Pedro Fialho Agradecimentos porilluminations. and some (radio)spectral imaging techniques.Resumo As iluminuras de De Rijmbijbel van Jacob van Maerlant são consideradas das mais importantes pinturas dos Primitivos Flamengos. ambos provenientes do noroeste da França.e. 152v apresenta a seguinte inscrição: «Doe men screef int iaer ons heren MCCCXXXII verlichte mi Michiel van der borch».x-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF). and suggest that Van der Borch may have been trained there.

MS 10 B 21) is one of the most important historical texts in Netherlandish culture. Stylistic features of these illuminations fit quite well into the idiom that was current in Flanders and Northwest of France. But contrary to contemporary tradition. The execution of the illuminations in the Maerlant manuscript compares very nicely with the characteristics of either the miniatures r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Rijksmuseum Meermanno-Westreenianum.early netherlandish manuscript illumination: technical aspects of illuminations in the rime bible of jacob van maerlant a rie wa l l ert Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.000 verses by Jacob van Maerlant. Amsterdam (The Netherlands) The Rijmbijbel (The Hague. the Rijmbijbel has achieved a canonical status for its significance in the development of the Netherlandish language. It is a conflation of the Historia Scholastica by Petrus Comestor and the Bello Judaico by Flavius Josephus. At the same time. He was also the first to put the whole Bible in rime in the Netherlandish language. Maerlant was the most important Netherlandish author of the Middle Ages. and to write a complete world history. He was the first to deal in the vernacular with such diverse matters as geography. politics and the arts of government. this text written in 35. the illuminations in this manuscript can be considered to be the most important Early Netherlandish paintings. biology and the interpretation of dreams.º i . 1996) Therefore. was in the vernacular rather than in Latin.2 0 1 1 183 . (Van Oostrom.

what their art works looked like. presently in the J. Los Angeles (Ms. liturg. in the miniatures of the Rime Bible. Ludwig IX 3. may therefore provide relevant information on the making of Van der Borch’s illuminations (Liber de Coloribus. or those in the so called Ruskin Hours.8o). 152v is the inscription: «Doe men screef int iaer ons heren MCCCXXXII verlichte mi Michiel van der borch». in a psalter in the Kongelige Bibliothek in Copenhagen (Ms.2 0 1 1 . Identified works of art of the period are scarce. of the Destruction of Jerusalem on fol. (Lyna. 3384. Only a few artists are known by name: Hennequin de Bruge. and that Jean de Saint-Omer worked on one of the tombs of Jeanne d’ Evreux. Hoc minium cum nullo colore miscetur nisi cum albo et uermiculo.º i .» «You grind minium with water.ML. you dry the colour. et ita ponenda est glarea ovi. d. compositional organisation. Oxford. If we can identify illuminations of the period and the region. both in the collection of the Bodleian Library. 83. 248-250) The drama and narrative of the figures. 276-362) There is little documentary information on the production of those manuscript illuminations. albeit in a very much smaller scale. This makes the illuminations the earliest signed and dated Netherlandish works of art. These manuscripts all share the same stylistic features. et eiecta aqua de cornu. Lat. 1981. and still is. We do not know. we generally do not have any certified example of their works. Terminology and formulae in more or less contemporary technical treatises such as the Liber de Coloribus siue Pictorum (British Library. we usually do not know the names of their makers. and the De Coloribus Faciendi by Peter of Saint-Omer (collection Jehan LeBegue. MS Sloane 1754). siccabis. describes the manner in which red lead should be prepared and applied. and when the water has been poured out of the vessel (horn).99). Paul Getty Museum. Les Fastes Gothiques. like vermilion. and Jean de Saint-Omer. it is generally agreed that the illuminator of the ‘Rime Bible’ must at least have had training in southern Flanders or northern France. however. Girard de Hainault.e. Ms 6741). Even though this signature and the presence of his name in the archives strongly suggest a more Northern Netherlandish origin (Utrecht). If we know the names of the illuminators. The Liber de Coloribus for instance. Only from documentary evidence do we know that Girard de Hainault worked for the dukes of Burgundy around the 1350s.42. i. and then add white of egg to it and use it for illuminating. or those in the Psalter MS Douce 5. famous for his impressive design of the stunning ‘Angers Apocalypse tapestries’. appears to be re-enacted.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r in MS. facial types. et sic illuminatur ex eo. both from North-western France.: «It was in the year 1332 that I was illuminated by Michiel van der Borch». The exception being Hennequin who was. 1944. De Coloribus Faciendi). 1979. presented more than life size in the Angers tapestries. This minium must not be mixed with any other colour except 184 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. and the colours that could be mixed with it: «Minium molendum est cum aqua sicut uermiculum. Under the full page painting in the Maerlant manuscript.(Calkins. Bibliotheque Nationale. colour schemes. and patterned backgrounds that are characteristic for the gothic style that was current in Flanders and Northern France in the beginning of the fourteenth century.

2 0 1 1 185 . 1 Similarly. visible in abraded areas of the gilding could be related to a passage in the Liber de Coloribus: «Ocrum si necessarium tibi fuerit in percameno.… de ocro siue de gipso» «If you need ochre on parchment. or conventions for trees or draperies. H2O).º i . or copied from precedents in modelbooks. 284-285) The finding of those elements is perfectly fitting for the use of a mixture of yellow ochre. Infrared reflectography (IRR) was done with a Hamamatsu C 2400-07 camera.2 Van der Borch especially seems to have had difficulties in defining a correct anatomy for the human figure. and a Wratten 87c (B+W 093) filter. and S in a tan-coloured pigment mixture. sometimes very complex illuminations were not based on. but you will not have any use for it except when you wish to lay gold in books. 1 and 2) These drawings were made after Fig. All the illuminations and small figures in the borders of the texts were begun with a fine brush dipped in a carbon black.8/55 mm lens. Fe. and when this has been done. (Liber de Coloribus.normal light b. a calcium sulphate dihydrate (CaSO4 . The Liber de Coloribus is very explicit that these pigments can only be used for laying a gold ground. The underdrawings often show uncertainties in elements that went beyond typically formulaic figures and shapes like the faces of Christ. and the crack pattern is indeed typical for a binding medium based on glair. add strong white of egg to it. infrared reflectogram assembly Fig. a Nikon Micro-Nikkor 1:2. 2H2O). No attempts to indicate shading or volume were made at this stage. Images were recorded with a digital Leica DFC 420 C camera.1 a. grind it well with water. except that. This would suggest that these. a hydrated iron oxide (Fe2O3 . you lay it in first with ochre and gypsum. infrared reflectogram assembly r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. IRR-assemblies were made with Adobe Photoshop CS2. normal light b. Digitized documentation is done with a Pinnacle PCTV framegrabber. 12. when you wish to make a letter of gold.2 a. 282-283) Analyses of red areas in the Rime Bible do indeed reveal those admixtures. And indeed.» (Liber de Coloribus. expulsion from paradise (detail). 20. These drawings define the outlines of the figures. We also used a AM411T-Dino-Lite Pro digital microscope with 10x ~ 50x . with white and vermilion. and: «Gypsum is ground like ochre. Observations with the microscope were done with a Zeiss stereo microscope with 8. and gypsum.e a r ly n e t h e r l a n d i s h m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n : t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n t h e r i m e b i b l e o f jaco b va n m a e r l a n t 1. but ‘invented’ on the parchment. And then you put on the gold as we have described in speaking of ochre». But you must know that ochre is needed only by painters of murals. equipped with a N2606 IR vidicon. (figs. the finding of a strong presence of Ca. 32. 2. those were the only instances where that combination of elements could be found.200x magnifications. creation of man (detail).». to 50 x magnifications.

«If you wish to lay black over other colours on parchment. and you must know that the older the vermilion is by nature. is shown to be mixed throughout the flesh tone with lead white (Pb Lα.est in minio». 40kV. and Pb Mα). This might suggest that the ink could have been made or stored in a brass vessel. Ca. 4) In this image the area for the gold ground is indicated by the distribution of calcium. Mo-anode. The vermilion. the scribe writing in iron gall ink.: « If the vermilion is very good and new. 4. In general. and scarcely the third part of minium.. present in the gypsum. The (abraded) gilding is shown by the distribution of the Mα lines for gold. the darker and less useful it is. illumination with text (detail). The exception being the flesh tones where admixtures of vermilion in lead white frequently occur. K. and the darker it is. leaving specific spaces open for the illuminator to work on. But if the minium is dusky and very old. and make the remainder of minium. smaller amounts of Mn. This was continued in a fairly limited palette. 4 (fig. Larger areas appear to be blocked in with single unmixed colours. 3). vermilion appears to have been very sparsely used. Analyses of the writing ink showed a strong presence of Fe. 60 sec.7 L/min). This practice corresponds to warnings in the treatises: «Si vero minium…. less of it must be 186 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. you must not put incaustum. infrared reflectogram assembly The outlines in carbon black provided the basis for painting. but also traces of Cu and Zn. normal light b.090µm capillary lens. Pb. but know that you must take charcoal distempered with egg» (De Coloribus Faciendi. unmixed colours. HgS (here indicated by the distribution of mercury Mα lines). 138-139 ) (fig. For the distribution images a dwell time of 10 seconds was allowed. 3 This is evidenced by the fact that sometimes the illuminator made corrections in carbon black to the texts written in ink. This was further emphasised in the shadow areas with emphatic strokes of carbon black and in the highlights with linear contour strokes of pure and unmixed lead white.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r the text was written. 0. over 50keV energy range. Definition of forms is still largely dependent on the elongated contours and strokes in carbon black paint. that the iron vitriol needed for the making of the ink also contained traces of zinc vitriol and other associated minerals.º i . Fig. This correction process also corresponds with contemporary recommandations: «Sed si in pergamenis… cum ovo distemperatos assumes». put a half or a third part of the vermilion. Otherwise.3 a.2 0 1 1 . Van der Borch seems to have had a preference for the use of single. This can be demonstrated quite nicely in the elemental distribution images of the head of Christ. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses were generally done with a Bruker Artax µ-XRF spectrometer. or more likely. Helium flush (1. I put two parts of it. Modulation of drapery folds was accomplished by laying thin translucent washes over these colour fields. 500µA. and S. 3.

The turbid liquid. If it was ground too fine. or dripping from the wounds of Christ. The coarser the powder. face of Christ (detail) added to the minium» ( De Coloribus Faciendi. the slurry was transferred to a bowl in which the powdered substance remained suspended by continuous stirring. which was drawn from above the sediment into the next bowl. Azurite is a difficult pigment to work with. leaving the finer material suspended in the water. fig. To prepare it for painting. As in some regions barium salts are paragenetic with azurite. The coarsest and heaviest particles quickly subside. In the illuminations. a very powerfully deep blue azurite of good quality was used. The separation of the coarser. Most red passages. it tended to look rather pale greenish sky-blue. A remarkable feature of the azurite used in this manuscript was the notable presence of barium and potassium. and was allowed to stand for a certain time. Then it was allowed to settle for some time. the mineral needed to be broken up and reduced to powder. paler ones was accomplished by a process of levigation. was poured into the first of a series of bowls. This affords for the subsequent separation of the mineral into various grades of fineness. in particular for the patterned backgrounds. before being poured off to a second basin. because of the slower subsidence of the finer particles from suspension.2 0 1 1 187 . The liquid is passed from bowl to bowl. darker particles from the finer. As a turbid liquid.e a r ly n e t h e r l a n d i s h m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n : t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n t h e r i m e b i b l e o f jaco b va n m a e r l a n t 5. 142-143) The vermilion must have been very old indeed! Only a slight admixture was very occasionally found in areas that were otherwise done in red lead. 5 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.º i . The mineral was ground to powder while wet.4 distribution of elements. the more time is necessary for their deposition. are done in red lead. the blue areas appear blocked out only in pure azurite. a copper(II)carbonate mineral (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). since the finer and lighter the particles. remaining in each subsequently longer than in the preceding one. the darker and nicer the blue. this may provide an indication for geographical origin of pigment. even the blood on the face of Goliath. Similarly.

which were often glazed over with darker. and mix the green wine with it. «Put verdigris in a dish made of bronze or electrum and pour wine upon it.2 0 1 1 . i. allowing the reflective brightness of the parchment – or better still. The Liber de Coloribus advised: «Lignum brasilii accipitur. As no samples could be taken. and temper it with the same. let alum be added in proportion to the quantity of the brazilwood. copper carboxylate substance. draw it off»… «If you mix white with brazil.». a proper identification by chromatography was not possible. The illuminator obtained a splendidly deep emerald green paint that flowed easily from the brush. add wine a third time. translucent strokes. It is notable that in order to obtain a lighter blue.e.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Observation of blue passages under the microscope clearly demonstrated that the artist exploited a finer grained – and thus paler blue – azurite for the lighter passages. We also found frequent passages executed in a light. particulate texture of the deep blue azurite. Roger. 5) The smoothness of the thin. If you wish to illuminate more easily. Pour the liquid portion of this mixture into another bronze vessel. so that the wine may become green. «Take brazil-wood and scrape it down with a knife into a dish. The organic colorant for both the opaque pink as well as the translucent purple was tentatively identified as a brazilwood lake.et sic bonum erit. again much as recommended in the texts: «Viride de Gretia in uase…operari poteris.º i . the liquid should be drawn off and kept in another vessel. 7. syrupy. put it in a vessel made of glass or wax. when it has settled. When the brazil has saturated it. 1986. cover it with white of egg.5 micrograph of green translucent glaze over reflective background (magnification 20x) 188 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. gold leaf – to shimmer through. 2003. deep red. And when it has steeped and commenced to grow ripe. And when this too has been saturated and removed. and thus it will be good. and you will be able to keep it in a good condition for a long time. The pigment thereby looses its ‘grittiness’ and acquires much more pleasant working properties. take some yolk of egg. or elsewhere. and grind the green pigment with this mixture upon the stone. And after it has all been reduced by scraping. were found to be consistent with indigoid colorants.» (Liber de Coloribus. et al. add white of egg again. The optical features under the microscope and behaviour of the dark blue in infrared. quite translucent paint films. Darker. When it is fit for writing. Fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) was done with an Avantes AvaSpec-2048 Fiber Optic Spectrometer. the pigment dissolving into the wine converts into a very dense. Mikropack HPX-2000 xenon light source. sometimes purple or maroon. add a little saffron and the powder of calcined bones. pink colour. translucent green accords beautifully well with the grainy. choosing finer grade particles was apparently preferred over admixture with white. Then you may leave off. verdigris (Cu2(OAc)4(H2O)2). 200-1100nm. to thicken. and pour wine once more into the first vessel from which you remove the liquid. If it is too dark.» And: «Pone uiride in uino…. based on symmetrical Czerny-Turner design with 2048 pixel CCD detector array. «Put some green in wine. take the liquid part and put it in moderate sunlight. and when this has been done. 282-285) By treating copper acetate in this manner and making an almost saturated solution of it. 155-170). fig.». in particular on the background patterns. and rub it well with your finger. (fig. 6 An equally strict adherence to the use of unmixed pigments in the Rime Bible was encountered in the application of copper-based greens. opaque. and when it has become saturated. It was applied in relatively thick opaque layers but also in thinner. seem to be of organic nature and may very well be woad indigo. 7 Brazilwood lakes were the most important organic reds in the Middle Ages (Wallert. it makes rose- 6.… purpureus color». sometimes almost black accents. 52-70.

and 85B-2B filters were used.8D lens were used. (Liber de Coloribus.7 a. The analyses of the illuminations helped to identify paints and pigments and the different strategies that were employed to deal with colour as a means to organise the composition.º i . Images taken in ultraviolet light give a good impression about the extent of the use of this organic colorant 8.e a r ly n e t h e r l a n d i s h m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n : t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n t h e r i m e b i b l e o f jaco b va n m a e r l a n t 8. tobit setting out on his journey (detail). (figs. with 24-105mm 1:4L lens and Nikon D70 with Micro Nikkor 60mm 1:2. distribution of organic lake in ultraviolet fluorescence Fig. 284-285) In the Rime Bible. Canon EOS 400D. 6 and 7) It appears to have been applied quite generously in remarkably swift and open touches. the white added to the brazil wood extract was a simple calcium carbonate white. and with azure it makes purple». Fig. normal light b.2 0 1 1 189 . normal light b. distribution of organic lake in ultraviolet fluorescence r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. This imparted opacity to the mixture and served as colour-stabilising substrate for the organic colorant. Image processing was done with the use of digital filters and Adobe Photoshop CS2. tobit healing his father’ s eyes (detail). colour. Frequently 81A.6 a.

1933. Merrifield. 451-469). all the procedures described in the treatises seem to have been followed. 48 (2003). Callebat and O. ‘La matérialité et l’immatérialité des couleurs a propos du traite De Coloribus d’Avranches 235’. consciously exploiting effects of opacity and translucence. There the artist allowed himself considerable liberties. I (1926). • Bibliography R. Especially in his use of washes with organic colorants. I. Olms-Weidmann. F. vol. In the making of the Rime Bible miniatures. In this development towards techniques that allowed greater flexibility. De Coloribus Faciendis. this rigidly ordained system of operative forms seems to have been strictly prescribed. Les Fastes du Gothique. Hildesheim. In the next step. alternative approaches induced by the work of the great encyclopaedists may have played a role. No. however. 1754’. each field of colour is provided with its own fixed colour of a much lighter nature: matizatura. 280-307. le Siècle de Charles V. Paris 1981. 116-165. P. Meier-Staubach.155– 170. 1849. Roger. (Meier-Staubach. Michiel van der Borch went beyond the rules of tradition 9. London. except for the application of the incidis and matizatura system. Amsterdam. 9.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r According to the historical technical treatises compositions should be formed on the basis of a three-step system of colour application. Calkins. The points of departure are the individual fields of colour. such as the Liber de Coloribus siue Pictorum and De Coloribus Faciendi.º i . De Vlaamse Miniatuur van 1200 tot 1530. Les laques de brésil dans l’enluminure médiévale: reconstituition a partir de recettes anciennes. ‘Liber de Coloribus siue Pictorum.2 0 1 1 . De Coloribus Faciendi: Magistri Petri de Sancto Audemaro. John Murray.G. Especially Book XIX: De Coloribus. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. eds L. In his lively brushwork he added a remarkable sense of freedom and liveliness to the functionality of the mediaeval method. odoribus et saporibus (pp. 190 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Each of these fields of colour tends to be provided with a specifically prescribed colour for darker shades: incidis. In the technical treatises of the time. Studies in Conservation. Science antique. Vandroy. from Sloane MS. Cornell University Press.P. Monuments of Medieval Art. Desbordes.V. Speculum. Ithaca and London. Science médiévale. I. Lyna. in M. 1979. Villela-Petit and S. Thompsom. 2000. Liber de Coloribus: D. 2000. Original Treatises on the Arts of Painting. 451-469. 848-871) of Bartolomeus Anglicus’ De Proprietatibus Rerum must have been influential. C. actes du colloque international.

the characterisation of pigments. 52-70 Biography Arie Wallert holds a PhD from Groningen University. (1986). A.2 0 1 1 191 . a. the study of art technical historical sources and the scientific examination of mediaeval manuscript illumination. 1071ZC Amsterdam. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. he has been curator for the Scientific Examination Department of Paintings of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.º i . Rijksmuseum.e a r ly n e t h e r l a n d i s h m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n : t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f i l l u m i n a t i o n s i n t h e r i m e b i b l e o f jaco b va n m a e r l a n t F. 92. His principal interests are the analysis of museum objects. Maltechnik/ Restauro.wallert@rijksmuseum. Since 1996. Maerlants Wereld. Wallert. 1996. senior scientist in the Department for Conservation RMA. Prometheus Amsterdam. Van Oostrom.nl. ‘Verzino and Roseta Colours in 15th Century Italian Manuscripts’. Address: Department of Conservation. Hobbemastraat 22.

. Justino Maciel. XIV proveniente de Nápoles. azuis e verde de cobre.Resumo A fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energias (XRF) foi utilizada na análise de uma Bíblia do séc. lead white. vermilion. amarelo de estanho e chumbo em combinação com pigmentos orgânicos ou folha de ouro e prata ou ainda com tinta de estanho. lead tin yellow in combination with organic pigments and with gold and silver leaf or with tin paint could be identified. originating from Naples. red ochre. copper blue and copper green. Puderam assim ser identificados pigmentos como o vermelho de chumbo (mínio). palavras-chave manuscritos iluminados fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energias análise in situ pigmentos folhas metálicas • Abstract X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) has been used to examine a 14th century bible manuscript. Este equipamento transportável permite uma análise in situ dos materiais presentes nestas luxuosas iluminuras. Felix Teichner e Heidi. vermelhão. key-words illuminated manuscript x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy non destructive analysis pigments metal foils • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. ocre vermelho. Mineral pigments like red lead. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. This portable equipment provides a powerful aid to analyse in a non-destructive way the materials of the rich illuminations. branco de chumbo.

At the age of seven years (1334).be Introduction to the Bible The Anjou Bible is a unique bible manuscript originating from the beginning of the fourteenth century. Blijde Inkomstraat 21.2 0 1 1 193 . On the death in 1343 of her grandfather. Born in Naples. Jubelpark 1. From then until the 18th century. a library. his will provided that Andrew should be crowned King of Naples in his own right as well as Joan’s. rooms. The precious manuscript remained in Royal circles and in 1402 the manuscript is described in the inventory of Jean Duc de Berry (1340-1416). the son of Charles I of Hungary and younger brother of Louis I. 1984. the Bible came in the hands of Johanna’s chancellor Nicoli Alifio. 2. as a present for his diplomatic missions.kuleuven. Nicolaus Ruterius founded the college in 1508 as a home for poor students. Robert having displaced Andrew’s father. At the end of the 15th century – beginning of the 16th century. Robert of Naples. Center for the Study of the Illuminated Manuscript. Avril et al.watteeuw@arts.1). the manuscript was deposited at the Maurits Sabbe Library of the Faculty of Theology of the Catholic University of Leuven 2. full page illuminations © kik/irpa brussels r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. king of Naples and was intended as a present for Andreas of Hungary who was engaged to the granddaughter of Robert of Anjou. brother of the French King Charles V (Avril. two courtyards and an interior garden. 1969. from the Neapolitan throne.be l iev e watte e u w K. 3000 Leuven (Belgium) lieve. with a reception hall. Art History and Musicology.analysis of the anjou bible m a r i n a va n b o s Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK/ IRPA). Johanna was the daughter of Charles. it was gradually converted into a residential college. The Cardinal crowned Joan alone as Queen of Naples at Santa Chiara in Rome in August 1344. 1000 Brussels (Belgium) marina. a chapel. After the French Revolution it was sold. Department of Archeology. The bible was ordered by Robert I of Anjou. Joan married three more times: with Louis of Taranto. Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen. 2005).vanbos@kikirpa. fig.º i . Its size 1. Charles Robert.1 anjou bible.Leuven. Duke of Calabria (eldest son of King Robert of Naples) and Marie of Valois (a sister of King Philip VI of France). Johanna of Naples 1. The bible contains almost the complete text of the old en new testament (fig. When Andreas was murdered in 1345. with James IV of Majorca and Prince of Achaea and with Otto. Illuminare.U. she was betrothed to her six-yearold second cousin Prince Andrew of the Hungarian branch of the House of Anjou. After the assassination of Andrew in 1345 (remaining unclear if under her own orders or not). the manuscript ended up at the library of the Arras College in Leuven (Belgium) via the Bishop of Arras and there it stood for centuries until finally in 1970. Laboratory Department.

detail of folio 308 © kik/irpa brussels fig. Therefore in May 2008. The conservation state of the manuscript was bad: in the beginning of the 20th century the manuscript was re-bound but the covers were too tight making the manuscript difficult to open. The project fig. fig.2 0 1 1 . 2007). 25) (Bräm.2 anjou bible. Systematically the imperfection of the edge cuttings in the parchment were camouflaged by a wide range of fantasy birds with long necks and tales. all executed in soft pastel colors (fig. Despite the fame and the richness of the manuscript. using the profile of King Robert and other royal members.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r is 420 by 280 millimeters and it contains 338 folios with two full-page miniatures and more than 160 decorated initial and marginal illuminations leaves. The perspective and architectural settings are simple and straightforward and the facial expression isn’t very detailed nor expressive. A second illuminator added decorations when the codex was probably already in possession of chancellor Alifio since he adapted the rich decorations to the new owner. the parchment was folded and pigments and gold leaves were flaking off.3 anjou bible with marginal decoration of a second illuminator © kik/irpa brussels The two full-page illuminations in the beginning are clearly made by his hand. and the building passed through the hands of a succession of private owners until it was repurchased by the university of Leuven in 1921. Often classical themes and fantasy animals are added to the narrative scenes (fig. a conservation and preservation project started. He was the best-known illuminator in the Neapolitan surroundings in the second quarter of the fourteenth century (Maere 1909. One of them names himself on folio 308 at the sequence of the Apocalypse: Christophorus di Orimina (fig.4 anjou bible with decorations of a third illuminator © kik/irpa brussels 194 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. The text has been written by one scribe but the rich illumination is the work of at least three different hands. The third hand is probably the best miniaturist and he is responsible for all the marginal work and decoration.3).4).2).º i . the bible has almost never been reproduced nor displayed in public. 279 and Maere 1910.

XRF 1) results in a spectrum with a large peak for lead (fig. Robert is sitting on a polychrome throne ornate on both sides with gilded lion heads. Manuscript Department).U. Experimental The manuscript is now unbound and the loose folios offer a unique opportunity to examine the manuscript in detail in the laboratory.P.Leuven.a n a ly s i s o f t h e a n j o u b i b l e 3. 147).6. Although XRF is an ‘elemental’ analysis technique with no information on the molecular composition of the lead containing pigment.2 0 1 1 195 .7a and 7b). Getty Museum. AF microNikkor 60 mm) were documenting the techniques and the damage-assessment (Cumulus 5. 168.º i . was already known Fig. This XRF technique offers a multitude of advantages: it is a non destructive technique with a very small spot size of only 70 µm. Results for the first full page illumination The first full page illumination is full of self promotion for the Anjou dynasty. Germany) with a Rhodium tube and a built-in color CCD camera (fig. Library. 2010. The reds XRF analysis of the orange border (fig. 2008.Leuven.5©/ digital asset management software).Leuven.5). Digital back Light Phase I / Nikon D 70 and EOS I D-Mark II. London). Research Center for Medieval Art). under a colourful canopy with on the background the gilded lilies of the Anjou dynasty. Watteeuw et al.Leuven. Macro photographs (Nikon D 70. During the experiments an energy of 50 kV. since we are analyzing an orange-red color. an artificial pigment. Red lead. the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage in Brussels and Museum M of Leuven and is funded by the InBev-Baillet Latour Foundation 3. Chris Coppens (K.5 arttax xrf equipment © kik/irpa brussels r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. transmitted and racking light (digital camera MAMIYA RZ 67.U. which is important to be able to analyze small features in a miniature. we can assume with high certainty that lead is present as red lead (Pb3O4). it offers the possibility to simultaneously analyze multiple chemical elements and it is a fast analysis technique: each measurement only takes 120 seconds.). 4. The exact location of the measuring spot can be followed (or changed) via the computer screen and also the focusing of the measuring head to the desired position is done via the computer. One can read: Rex Robertus. For generous support and discussion we thank: Jan Van der Stock (K. 100 mm macro lens).U. rex expertus in omnia scientia. a current of 500 µA and a Mo 25µm filter were used.U. is a collaboration between the Department of Art History. Leo Kenis en Luc Knapen (K. The King is surrounded by eight cardinal virtues and at the bottom we find seven vices with Diablo. Christina Ceulemans (Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium). Watteeuw and Van Bos. K. It is obvious that the study of such a precious and delicate work of art has to be done using non-destructive techniques. Further infra-red photography and infrared reflectography (InfraCAM SWIR – short-wave infrared – video camera) was combined with highly detailed digital photographs with direct. Tabularium. 310. Faculty of Theology) and Nancy Turner (Senior paper conservator. Then analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). John Lowdon (Courtauld. We used the mobile Arttax equipment (Bruker AXS Microanalysis. First an extensive series of highly detailed digital photographs with transmitted light and complementary infrared digital photographs were taken 4 (Watteeuw 2009. J.

114). This suggests that also red earth (containing hematite Fe2O3) is present here. A different result is obtained for the red in the baldachin (see fig.9a and 9b) .8a and 8b).t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Fig. the use of the artificial vermilion. full page illumination with indication of some of the xrf measuring spots © kik/irpa brussels for miniature painting and manuscript illumination in Europe since the 8 th century on (West Fitzhugh 1986. Brunello. Although the pigment mercuric sulfide can also be obtained from the mineral cinnabar (HgS). was already so widespread in the 14th century that nor in ‘Il libro dell’Arte’ from Cennino nor in ‘De Arte Illuminandi’ (Thompson et al. 1933.6.º i . Munoz Vinas. made by heating mercury with sulfur. 109. XRF 2). Associated with the large iron peak is the small peak for 196 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 1975) a recipe can be found for the preparation of this vermilion. 1998. lead (lead white or red lead) and than a very large peak for iron (fig. XRF 3) gave again a different result: a spectrum with different peaks indicating a mixture of pigments: mercury (indicating vermilion).2 0 1 1 . XRF measurement results in a large peak for mercury indicating without doubt vermilion (HgS) as vermilion is the only pigment containing mercury (fig.6 anjou bible.6.7a and 7b xrf spectrum of the orange border and arttax image of the measuring area © kik/irpa brussels Fig. Measurement of the red used for the arm of the throne (see fig.

10). As organic reds are known for manuscript illumination. This spectrum corresponds well with the spectrum obtained for the parchment itself. is responsible for the bright red color.2 0 1 1 1 97 . which can not be verified by XRF measurement. XRF 4). it is likely that an organic red.º i . XRF measurement gives only a weak response with a mayor peak for calcium (fig.9a and 9b xrf spectrum of the red used for the arm of the throne and arttax image of the measuring area © kik/irpa brussels titanium probably indicating the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) present in the naturally found red ochre’s (Eastaugh. 2004.6.a n a ly s i s o f t h e a n j o u b i b l e Fig. 320) A bright red can be found on the border of the miniature (see fig.8a and 8b xrf spectrum of the red used in the baldachin and arttax image of the measuring area © kik/irpa brussels Fig. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.

Azurite.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Fig. a basic copper carbonate (2CuCO3.º i .11 xrf spectrum of a blue area © kik/irpa brussels 198 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. probably indicating azurite as blue pigment (fig.10 xrf spectrum of the bright red border © kik/irpa brussels The blue All blue areas in the full page illumination. ranging from dark blue to light blue or from architectural decoration to the clothes of the King or one of the cardinal Virtues gave all a comparable result after XRF analysis: a large peak corresponding to copper.2 0 1 1 . Spain and particularly Germany (‘azurium de Alamania’).11). Cu(OH)2) is prepared by grinding and washing of the mineral which was occurring in copper deposits in Italy. Fig.

6. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. it is likely that a mixture of pigments is used here: lead white. a copper green or copper blue and a lead tin yellow (fig. Metal: paint and foil Gold leaf is used for the scepter hold by the King or for the decoration in the baldachin. is described in the Arte Illuminandi as the only white color suitable for illuminating practice. This gold leaf is either applied on a grayish ground layer or on a bright red under layer. give different color intensities: ‘more’ copper for the darker green areas.12 xrf spectrum of a green area in the socle of the throne © kik/irpa brussels The white The white inscription on top of the illumination is based on lead white as evidenced by the large lead peak in the XRF spectrum. Although the exact interpretation of this result in terms of composition ànd paint layer built-up can not be given. as shown by different peak heights of lead and copper. copper and tin. Different relative amounts of these pigments. occasionally a transparent organic layer is applied to brighten the color. On top of this green layer.Pb(OH)2). made by reaction of vinegar to lead strips.Cu(OH)2) with giallorino (an artificial made lead-tin yellow) was described by Cennino.2 0 1 1 199 . Fig.a n a ly s i s o f t h e a n j o u b i b l e The green XRF analysis of the green socle of the throne (see fig.º i .12). The mixture of malachite (CuCO3. Lead white. XRF 5) resulted in a spectrum with peaks for lead. the basic lead carbonate (2PbCO3.

a large copper peak is present as well in the resulting XRF spectrum (fig.14a and 14b). As the gold leaf can be very thin. In the Arte 200 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. In this spectrum also a relative small peak corresponding to mercury is present. Since the lilies are painted on top of the blue ground. Silver leaf is used as well: XRF measurement of part of the decoration in the socle of the King’s throne (see fig. using a red under layer gives a warmer color to the gold compared to the same gold leaf applied on a grey under layer.14a and 14b xrf spectrum of decoration in the socle of the throne and arttax image of the measuring area © kik/irpa brussels A surprising result was obtained when analyzing the quadrofold in the canopy or the lilies in the baldachin (see fig. no information about the composition of this layer is obtained.6. XRF measurement of the bright red under layer shows however the presence of vermilion as shown by the large mercury peak in the resulting XRF spectrum. an orange glacis layer is occasionally applied on top of it as can be seen for the belt of the King (fig.13). using our XRF analysis method. based on gesso. XRF 6) shows the presence of silver (fig.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r A grey ground. This red under layer is often based on Armenian Bole (clay pigmented with iron oxides). XRF 7). The silver leaf could be applied using the same size as for gold leaf.2 0 1 1 . Although these decorations look like gold.15a and 15b). is frequently observed in the gold size used in medieval manuscripts. XRF measurement of this layer indicates only calcium which is not surprisingly as with this XRF equipment only elements higher than sodium can be detected and the sulfur associated with the calcium can not be detected.º i .13 arttax image of the decoration on the belt of the king © kik/irpa brussels Fig. following the recipes of the Arte Illuminandi or Il Libro dell’Arte. Fig. To further embellish the gilding.6. This result could point to the use of Mosaic Gold. XRF analysis reveals the presence of tin. However.

Fig. and the other places to be ornamented. Then. The preparation of this mosaic gold starts with: «take one part of tin and melt it. take some of the saffron with which silk is dyed.10Al6Si6O24S2. 5 Fig. materials of robes. gold or silver] and still want to embellish your work in some way.4) made from lapis lazuli. red lead for the orange border. Although it concerns a very intense blue colour.º i . mill it. take pure tin. using a quill. and let it stand overnight. the coat of arms of chancellor Alifio is present (fig. and wash it as you did the gold..a n a ly s i s o f t h e a n j o u b i b l e 5. and throw upon it one part of pure quicksilver». foliage.. pointing out towards the use of mosaic gold.16).2 0 1 1 201 . Then.17). Mosaic gold could replace the costly true gold powder but did not show the same full brilliance of gold. the same materials as present in the miniature were identified: Vermilion applied on a white lead layer for the red and white triangles. draw fine lines with minium around the letters. with the same glue. For this coat of arms.e. detail with coat of arms © kik/irpa brussels r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. leave the rest [of the tin bare] to take the place of silver. silver leaf and gold leaf. On the following day cover with a pencil [dipped in this medium] those places you wanted to gild. apply it on letters or other places that you wanted to ornament with gold or silver. a pigment that can not be identified using XRF. Therefore it was recommended to model it up with gold powder.15a and 15b xrf spectrum of lilies in the baldachin and arttax image showing the measuring area © kik/irpa brussels The coat of arms At the bottom of the page.16 anjou bible. After polishing it with a tooth. This result could indicate the use of the blue pigment ultramarine (Na8. Theophilus 37 Illuminandi mosaic gold (stannic sulfide SnS2) is described as an imitation gold color. only a relative small amount of copper was detected during the analysis (fig. A different result was obtained for the golden fess which is a gold paint ‘shell gold’ and not a gold leaf. pour glair without water over it. Analysis of the decoration with small crosses in the baldachin shows this mixture of gold and tin applied as paint (no metal leaf) on top of the lead white layer. Also Theolfilus describes the use of tinpaint in his chapter: How paintings in Books are Embellished with Tin and Saffron/ If you have neither of these [i. Another difference was found when analysing the blue ground of the coat of arms.. scrollwork. scrape it very fine.

all original coats of arms were removed by abrasion and over painted. Although the use of a non destructive technique.2 0 1 1 . Andreas of Hungary was present. the Anjou Bible was now for the first time ever examined in detail. The combination of highly detailed photographs with transmitted light in combination with the non destructive XRF analysis provides more insight into the craftsmanship of the miniaturist. But when Alifio became the new owner. A very rich pallet of mineral and organic pigments in combination with gold. silver and tin as foil or as paint has been identified. This however has to be confirmed using a complementary analysis technique (like non destructive micro Raman spectroscopy). The coat of arms as present now is not the original coat of arms. this technique is extremely useful when analyzing very delicate and precious works of art.17 xrf spectrum of the blue ground in the coat of arms © kik/irpa brussels Conclusion Although having a long history. Originally. like X-Ray fluorescence has its limits. The spectrum shows also an important iron peak (red earth) which indicates the underlying original coat of arms. In that respect. • 202 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r Ultramarine was a very expensive pigment with well known outstanding characteristics. Fig.º i . it is maybe not surprisingly that such an expensive and precious pigment is used. the coat of arms of the first owner of the manuscript. as a clear possession mark.

Munoz Vinas. Robert L. Dix siecles d’enluminure italienne (VI e. pp. Daniel V jr The Craftsman’s Handbook ‘Il libro dell’Arte’ by Cennino d’A. September 2006. Salvador «Original Written Sources for the History of Mediaeval Painting Techniques and Materials: A List of Published Texts».2 0 1 1 203 . 2004. 109-139. 1975. Innovation and Participation. Brunello. Corpus of Illuminated Manuscripts. Vol 18. Ms IV 40)’. A handbook of their History and Characteristic. ICOM CC.27. a dictionary of historical Pigments. Louvain la Neuve. Royal Library. Watteeuw Lieve ‘The conservation assessment of the Philips of Clève Book of Hours (Brussels. Studies in Conservation. Daniel jr and Heard Hamilton. 114-124. New Haven – Yale University Press.. 320. in The Anjou Bible. Cennini. Maere R. Thompson. Avril. 1933. A Royal Manuscript revealed. West Fitzhugh.E. 1986. New Delhi. Thompson. Translated from the Latin of Naples MS XII. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Paris. Manuscrits enluminés d’origine italienne.a n a ly s i s o f t h e a n j o u b i b l e Bibliography Avril. Cambridge University Press. Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes 127 (1969): 293-328. New Haven – Yale University Press. Eastaugh Nicholas et al The Pigment Compendium. De Arte Illuminandi. François en Marie-Thérèse Gousset. 2005. Volume1. in The Quest for the Original. Naepolitanische Bilderbibeln des Trecento: Anjou-Buchmalerei von Robert dem Weisen bis zu Johanna I. 1984 . 2 (1998). Wiesbaden. «Trois manuscrits Napolitains des collec¬tions de Charles V et de Jean de Berry». 43. in Diversity in Heritage Conservation: Tradition. Bruges. No. 2009: 168-174. Franco. The Techniques of a Fourteenth-century Neapolitan Illluminator Explored». Vol. 2007. Understanding craftsmanship through interdisciplinary research: preliminary investigation’. Watteeuw Lieve and Van Bos Marina «Illuminating with Pen and Brush. ed Lieve Watteeuw & Jan Van der Stock. François. ‘Une Bible angevine de Naples au Séminaire de Malines’.XVI e siècles). Vicenza: Pozza. Avril. Francois et al. Feller Editor.26 September 2008. Oxford. Elisabeth «Red lead and Minium». Symposium XVI for the Study of Underdrawing and Technology in Painting. De arte illuminandi: e altri trattati sulla tecnica della miniatura medievale. The technique of Manuscript Illumination. Bräm. in Artist’s Pigments. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 15th Triennial Conference 22 . ed. Watteeuw Lieve and Van Bos Marina ‘The conservation assessment of an Illuminated Book of Hours. 2008: 310-316. 1933. Andreas. Peeters 2010.º i . Paris. George. Revue de l’art chrétien 59 (1909): 279-291 and 60 (1910): 25-34. Bibliotheque nationale. 147-169.

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Classificou também os pigmentos em diversos tipos (categorias? graus). Esta abordagem revelou-se muito frutuosa. para imitar o efeito brilhante das pedras preciosas ou esmaltes. mas também na sua formação como ourives. palavras-chave retratos em miniatura limning hilliard técnica pictórica alquimia • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. em parte baseadas na tradição da iluminura medieval. para reproduzir o efeito do veludo preto e das sedas. Esta última tinta aplicada muito espessa. constituído por partículas muito finas. enquanto que um outro tipo. foram muitas vezes esmagadas ainda quando frescas e apresentam-se lascadas ou quebradiças quando secas. utilizou diversas técnicas. XVI pelos seus retratos em miniatura. A produção das reconstruções baseou-se tanto nos resultados obtidos por análises científicas de miniaturas e observação do efeito visual como na pesquisa de fontes escritas contemporâneas ou anteriores. um tipo médio de branco de chumbo seria o ideal para imitar o aspecto «de pó» de uma maquilhagem. seria o ideal para o impasto brilhante necessário para realçar um laço. que se tornou famoso no séc. alguns obtidos a partir das sementes de frutos carbonizadas. Os autores reconstruíram muitos destes métodos e efeitos especiais no âmbito de um projecto levado a cabo no Victoria and Albert Museum (Londres).º i . sem que no entanto o tenham levado a alterar a sua técnica.t h at i t s e e m e t h to b e t h e t h i n g i t s e l f Resumo Nicholas Hilliard. «That it seemeth…the work of god and not of man». Utilizou um número invulgarmente elevado de pigmentos pretos. resultante da mistura do branco de chumbo com muita goma. pois permitiu tanto reproduzir os magníficos efeitos visuais que terão existido nas miniaturas originais como identificar danos típicos associados ao uso de certos materiais e técnicas. apresenta um craquelê característico e falta de adesão. Resinas aplicadas muito espessas em fundos prateados. Um outro exemplo. que também apresenta problemas de conservação uma vez que a prata cedo começou a escurecer (embaciar?). perseguia o ideal de uma representação da natureza tão próxima do real quanto possível. Para atingir esse objectivo. Alguns destes danos podem ter sido visíveis ainda no tempo de vida do artista.2 0 1 1 205 . Por exemplo. é o da aplicação de prata em pó (para as armaduras e os realces nas pérolas).

to match the appearance of black velvet and silk cloth. To achieve his aim he used several special methods and techniques. The practical approach proved to be highly informative as it not only helped to reconstruct the amazing effects of the original appearance but also to identify typical damage inherent in the use of specific materials and techniques. key-words portrait miniature limning hilliard painting technique alchemy • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. a 16th century English painter of portrait miniatures or limnings. He applied an unusual number of black pigments. Some damage might have already occurred during his life-time. which caused them. . Justino Maciel. The thick application of lead mixed with a lot of gum to achieve this effect led to typical cracks and flaking.Abstract Nicholas Hilliard. Thickly applied resin on silver grounds to create the glossy impression of precious stones and enamel often became squashed when fresh. Another example is the application of powdered silver (for armour and the highlights on pearls). He also sorted pigments into various grades. «That it seemeth… the work of god and not of man». instrumental analysis of original portrait miniatures and extensive analysis of earlier and contemporary written sources. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. nevertheless he continued to use the techniques. Felix Teichner e Heidi. and chipped or flaked of when dry. which partly derived from medieval book illumination traditions but also from his own background as a goldsmith. The authors practically reconstructed many of these methods and effects used on limnings in the context of a research project in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. which turned out to be problematic as the silver soon started to tarnish. with very fine particles. The practical work was based on visual examination. some made from charred fruit-stones. For instance a medium grade of lead white was ideal to imitate the powdery appearance of makeup and another grade. for the glossy impasto paint he used to depict lace. was driven by the idea of depicting nature as realistically as possible.

1490 to 1495 – London 1544) was a Flemish artist who moved to England in the mid-1520s together with his sister Susanna and his father Gerard and worked there as «King’s Painter» and court miniaturist to King Henry VIII from 1525 until his death. (Ghent c. 1. computer image manipulation. London (England) that it seemeth to be the thing itself a l a n d e r bys h i r e Victoria and Albert Museum. Hilliard and his circle left us with a detailed written account of their ideas.the obsession of 16 th century miniature painters to imitate the beauty of nature t i m e a ta l l ia n Ethnographical Museum. The three main sources used for this research have been the manuscripts associated with Nicholas Hilliard. Edward Norgate and John Hoskins. What makes the research on limnings so unique is an abundance of written source material. Unlike the many anonymous illuminators from previous centuries. ideals and working methods. This process was aiming to understand the reasons why certain materials have been used but from a 16th century viewpoint. However trial and error provided many new insights and a lot more questions. Instrumental Analysis of original limnings has been performed in the conservation department of the Victoria and Albert Museum since the 80s (in particular by the late Jim Murrell and more recently by Alan Derbyshire and various students). Raman Spectroscopy and XRF in the last 10 years have allowed many new opportunities to update and amend the information derived from earlier research. London (England) Introduction and sources The information presented in this article is mainly based on source material related to the English limner Nicholas Hilliard (1547-1619) and his followers and students. Vienna and the V&A Museum. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Their knowledge originates directly from those illuminators of the Ghent Bruges School. Advances in non-destructive techniques such as digital photography. His father Gerard Horenbout was an important Flemish manuscript illuminator (Reynolds 2006: 45).2 0 1 1 2 07 . (see table 1). Lucas Horenbout. Another indispensable source of knowledge and understanding was the practical reconstruction of materials and techniques. who were called to live and work in England by Henry VIII 1.º i . often called Hornebolte in England. Reconstruction was not always a success and in most cases a humbling experience as we were not able to achieve the same quality and effects as observed on the originals.

t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r It also suggested that some typical deterioration phenomena must have occurred quite rapidly after the making of the objects.º i .1-14 Norgate MS Oxford. Further the gentry. Tan. ethnographic. Reconstruction also suggested that the skins of small mammals. Nevertheless limners continued to use them for some time until the 1640s. LaingIII174. 92-93 The Arte of Limning – That it Seemeth to be the Thing Itself… Illumination did not stop with the invention of printed books. in particular white rabbits. First of all because it required a gentle nature and was clean to use (did not spoil expensive clothing like oil!). On the contrary. University Library.C. not having to make a living (unlike the notoriously financially struggling common artist) could spend the full time required to produce excellent works of art. The pricy materials include. paint made from the metals gold and silver. about 7x5cm average). table 1 Hilliard MS Edinburgh. Muller and Murrell 1994 Extracts published in Muller and Murrell 1997:237-252 and in Murrell 1983:76-79. Each pigment needed to be washed. 80-84.2 0 1 1 . It is often claimed to be made from the smooth skin of a (yet hairless) animal embryo (called ‘abortive’). The 16th century gentry conveniently could 208 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. British Library. Bodleian Library. Limning was (and is. Harley 6376. 20-995-1906. Hilliard and Norgate amongst others stated that it should ideally be practised ‘by gentlemen only’. Thornton and Cain 1992 ed. • Copy – (Hoskins MS copy). ground and prepared in a particular manner. Also they could easily afford the best quality materials. in war and scientific studies. that it had to be mounted on a playing card (limnings are usually quite small. if one aims at accurate reconstruction) indeed expensive. f. still continued to use certain methods and materials. But also cheaper materials like earth colours and lead pigments had to be of high quality for the fine painting.A. MS copy of Harl. It was so thin and fine. NAL. It is recommended for the young gentry as an innocent pastime and useful skill for a future career at court. pigments derived from semi-precious stones. R. in the 16th century it was not only used for luxury books and important documents but also for portraits after life and illustrations in scholarly publications (for instance of a geographic. and many exotic materials (like the binder gum Arabic or Indian lake). 6376. zoological or botanic nature). It can be said that the search for a parchment support of sufficient quality has been difficult and the biggest obstacle for an accurate modern reconstruction. first of all. This paper aims to explore the reasons why limners.326 Hoskins MS (known as Gyles’ book) • Original – London. Beside all this the best quality fine parchment was required. ed. might have been a possible source or at least an alternative. who according to their writings were aware of the risks.

the English equivalent to Virgin Mary. suggesting to use the material to depict itself: «… worketh the metals gold and silver with themselves» (Thornton and Cain: 63) He even set a real diamond into one of his miniatures (coronation portrait of queen Elizabeth. used some of those pigments. a plant or even a piece of textile. an enamelled jewel. Most of the pigments he mentions are prone to fading in light or have the tendency to discolour when being mixed with other pigments (as vermilion – HgS or orpigment – As2S3) . selfportrait 1577. azurite. More than her wrinkles. indigo. also illustrate this point. Any wilful damage to her picture was in fact considered to be high treason. p. orpiment. watercolour on parchment. natural ultramarine. It was Hilliard who first observed that the effects of sulphurous pollution on pigments and he states that the working place should be free from the «Sulphurous aire of Sea Cole» (Thornton and Cain p. 1559. which was poisonous and had already corroded the metal. similar to icons. This was ideal for fine details and the use of techniques r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.1 detail from nicholas hilliard. Nevertheless it has been shown by analysis that he. others might change to a dull colour (the copper pigments: Verdigis. Hilliard clearly was very aware of reactive chemical processes and is probably one of the first authors describing the deleterious effect of sulphuric gases on pigments 2 and classifies in his treatise some colours as «not fit to be used in limning». pararealgar. However it does not only aim for the naturalistic depiction after life but aspires to transmute pigment and binder into something different. Miniature portraits of her and even medals were treated with the highest respect. 41mm (v&a. Indeed it seems to be basically atmospheric hydrogen sulfide which causes the discoloration by converting lead white (basic(II) lead carbonate) into the black compound lead(II) sulfide. simply a hypocrite. Verditer) 1. Wellbeck collection). In many ways the usage of 16th century English limning is comparable to the use of photography. lead red. as for instance Alexander Brown (Browne 1679: 39). Tallian 2007). massicot. Portrait miniatures of the aging Queen Elizabeth I. which was the Virgin Queen. dia. They certainly did not intend to realistically depict the physical appearance of a nearly 60 year old queen.º i .2 0 1 1 209 .155-1910) Limnings were made to be looked upon at close distance. red ochre. and carbon black (Derbyshire 1999. Was he betrayed by his colour merchant. it was essential for Hilliard to depict the essence of Her Majesty. ‘Gloriana’. There is no evidence that Hilliard was an alchemist but he certainly had a chemical understanding of materials due to his experience as goldsmith. against better knowledge. as for instance vermilion and orpiment. in a way. or did he have good reasons not to stick to his own rules? Previous and recent Raman analysis of Hilliard’s palette allowed 13 pigments to be unambiguously identified: lead white. Interestingly Harrison defended himself by claiming that the damage was not intentional and that Nicholas Hilliard (!) had made the metal image and that it had dissolved again in the wooden box into quicksilver (mercury) (Auerbach pp.32-33). yellow ochre.75).t h at i t s e e m e t h to b e t h e t h i n g i t s e l f 2. For instance Thomas Harrison was accused of endangering Queen Elizabeth’s I life by placing a medal with the picture of her Majesty next to mercury sublimate. Special effects fig. purchase materials ready prepared from professional limners. vermillion. for instance into a real gemstone. Hilliard also puts a lot of emphasis on «super» realistic depiction. intimately held in the hand and to be worn in jewels. There is also an arcane aspect of limning. malachite.

These effects fascinated not only contemporaries but have the power to enchant us till the present day. was still used by him (proved by analysis) in the face and lips as it produces a radiant red and for the very same reason this pigment was applied by the ladies as rouge and lipstick. Sparkling silver looked too good in combination with gold. even though Hilliard tried his best. Ultramarine was a precious gemstone. which attracts dust and is prone to dry out and crack). occasionally caused problems due to the inherent properties of the used materials. even though it has its tendency to be a difficult pigment. Silver tends to tarnish.t h e m at e r i a l s o f c o l o u r taking advantage of raking light and movement. It was all too tempting. making the portrait look even more like a jewel. ivory black tends to flake and so does the thick and heavily gummed layers of lead white. And the raised white laces. ideal for strong shadows or ornaments in dark costumes or the dark centre of the eye. glistening and brilliantly blue ultramarine backgrounds. Venetian turpentine resin dries very slowly and is easily squashed. condemned by Hilliard as an ‘unfit’ colour. accurately dribbled in fine lines onto the parchment like icing sugar. his crisp golden calligraphy. even Hilliard had to lose his battle against ‘stubborn’ painting materials and time. In strong contrast to our modern reconstructions: those almost immediately showed all sorts of problems. However to a certain percentage. Indian lake easily fades and requires – for a good colour – a lot of gum and sugar (a combination. how to refine ultramarine and most important how to refine lead white and to prevent it from tarnishing). is creating probably the most appealing and again pricy ‘blackest black’ available.º i . burnished silver highlights on pearls. But interestingly he did not give up his technique. casting their own shadows. the detailed black textiles and the raised lace of glossy lead white impasto. Precaution and Deterioration There are various suggestions in the treatises to prevent certain deterioration phenomena (to protect the silver. Unfortunately most of the mentioned techniques. which is evident in Hilliard’s best miniatures and their excellent condition.2 0 1 1 . Special effects became Hilliard’s trademark e. Hilliard must have been clearly in a dilemma. Indian lake was used also in reality to colour expensive bright red luxury textiles (and was one of the most costly pigments at the time). exquisite and worth the risk. how to prepare and to use black pigments to ensure quality and prevent cracking. the bright red Indian lake crimson curtain. just looked strikingly real.g. 210 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. All these methods worked to a large extend. Fading Colours The most dramatic change is probably the fading of colours of organic origin. it was adding to its material value and also provided a great contrast for gold inscriptions. ultramarine is of a gritty sandy consistence and sometimes (when the pigment binder ratio is not right) rubs or flakes off. And vermilion. little sparkling life-like rubies. which Hilliard probably used amongst other applications to model the features of fair ladies. Charred Ivory.

Other treatises suggest protecting silver with garlic juice. fig. private collection presently on display in the british galleries of the v&a. This caused the notion that Hilliard’s portraits are particularly flat and mask-like. that any (more effective) protective layers of gum or varnish could have been removed through abrasion or later cleaning attempts with solvents such as alcohol. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. c. N. 1998) Together with Alan Derbyshire he was the first to combine source research. To show the splendour of how the silver highlights really should have looked. Nicholas Frayling. Many portraits of Queen Elizabeth I appear unusually pale with white faces. In comparison to those portraits of her which were more exposed to light this picture shows much stronger modelling and colour (see Figure 2). presented to Sir Francis Drake. Due to the fashion of the time and ‘make up’. PhD student at the V&A/ RCA conservation course was fundamental in making Tudor miniatures and their techniques more accessible using digital media and the latest computer software. Hilliard’s treatise suggests that he tended to use (lightfast) earth colours for male sitters for a more dark or sunburned complexion. (Frayling.2 detail from hilliard’s portrait of queen elizabeth. computer manipulation is a great tool. This is suggested by the portrait of Elizabeth. practical reconstruction and computer image manipulation. which is well known to promote the tarnishing of silver.º i . instrumental analysis. 1600 (see figure5) and the portrait mounted in the ‘drake jewel’. Garlic seems to be a strange choice as it contains sulphur. It also needs to be considered.t h at i t s e e m e t h to b e t h e t h i n g i t s e l f 3.2 0 1 1 211 . However they still might have had a subtle modelling. the miniature mounted in the locket shows clearly less fading Silver The most evident blemishes for the non-conservator are the dark dots on the pearls. which was kept inside a jewelled pendent. caused by tarnished silver. Nick Frayling has provided stunning examples how to utilise digital media and the computer in combination with reconstruction for a better understanding of the original appearance of Tudor miniatures 3. portraits of ladies were certainly much paler than those of male sitters. faint red cheeks and red lips. Some of the male portraits like Hilliard’s self-portrait (see figure 1) seem to be less faded.

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Artificial Gemstones
Less obvious, unless viewed with the microscope, is the vanished sparkle of artificial gemstones. Reconstruction experiments have suggested that some of those stones might have been squashed not too long after their making by a cover glass or careless handling (see figure 2). During reconstruction (based on the treatises) the viscous honey-like Venetian turpentine (in our case, larch resin) was mixed with pigments (Indian lake for a ruby, verdigris for an emerald and ultramarine for a sapphire). The resin was applied with a hot needle, in a warm room or near a heating source, on top of a burnished silver ground (see figure 3). Further heat was required for the stringy resin to settle from the shape of a stringy, ‘dwarf hat’ into a round dome. To pick up the right amount of resin is quite difficult and to pick up too much is very tempting as the sparkling resin dome looks great at first. However, the thickly applied resin on the reconstruction was not dry even after a period of several months, and some stones were accidentally squashed by handling. Indeed there is evidence in some treatises that limners experienced the same problem. There are clear warnings to observe certain drying times 4. But even if the pigmented Venetian terpentine resin had time to dry without being squashed, the thick layer of resin tended to be brittle and crack after some time. Hilliard often depicted enamelled miniature lockets in miniatures by coating them with resin. Those in some cases chipped of completely, leaving the blank parchment or a (meanwhile tarnished) silver ground. Variations in the technique can be observed on Hilliards later miniatures. Instead of applying a tick layer of resin Hilliard tried to apply a thinner layer of coloured resin on a silver coated thick blob of lead white. But unfortunately, as mentioned, also raised layers of lead white tended to crack and chip off, leaving blank parchment.

4. The most detailed description of making a ruby can be found in a manuscript by Daniel King, DL Add. 12461 MS.

fig.3 detail of a ruby, nichlas hilliard, elizabeth i (v&a, 622-1882) [photo by nicholas frayling]. reconstruction of a ruby

Craquelure – Too Gummy?
Each pigment requires a different ratio of pigment and binder. A good method to determine the right ratio was to mix the paint up in a shell. Pigment (which was stored dry in paper or boxes) and powdered gum were mixed with a drop of purified water using the ring finger. If the dried colour in the shell formed a shiny layer like oil

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paint there was too much gum. If there was too little, the paint would powder off. If the ratio was right, the paint would smear thinly on the smooth surfaces of the shell and neither crack nor shine (and also made it easier to detect impurities as specks of dust). Some effects and some pigments required more gum than usual. Indian lake needed gum for its colour and ivory black was working better when gummed freshly just before it was used for painting. In the case of the paint used for the lace, gum was required for the shiny effect and the ‘impasto’ consistency. In all these cases it was easy to use accidentally more gum than required. For this reason areas where such paints were used (red background, eye centre, black costume, lace) show an increased tendency for craquelure and for flaking.
fig.4 detail of the lace (~4mm), nicholas hilliard (v&a, p.3-1974) and a uv image of nicholas hilliard’s wife alice, by nicholas hilliard, dia. 59mm, (v&a, p.1541910) the uv image shows the extend of loss in the area of the ruff and also the differences in the thickness of the white paint layers

Due to their enormous historical and artistic value Hilliard’s limnings are treated by conservators as sparsely and non-invasively as possible. They are rarely opened and are usually not permitted to travel and further subjected to a strict lighting and display policy. The most common reason to open these early miniatures is their need for consolidation. The fine craquelure and flaking of paint might be not obvious with the naked eye but easily detected under the microscope. Flaking of the ead white, in the thickly applied paint layers of the ruff and costume, is possibly the most serious deterioration phenomenon on Hilliard’s work and other limnings. The difference in the thickness of the lead white paint layer in the face area (very thin) in the ruff (very thick), (and losses of paint) can be clearly seen with x-ray spectroscopy and with the help of UV examination (see figure 6).

Lead white purification
Hilliard and other sources mention lead white and ceruse as prime pigments for white paint. According to the most recent hypothesis, the difference in the colour terms might refer to different stages of preparation or different grades of quality

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rather than different chemical compositions. Raman analysis on some of the most prominent miniatures by Hilliard in the V&A unambiguously detected only lead white (basic lead (II) carbonate – 2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2) in all examined white areas (Derbyshire 1999). Interestingly there is only minor evidence for the blackening of lead white, which is a more common phenomenon in later portrait miniatures, in particular of the late 17th century. This is likely to be the result of careful preparation methods, which are described in great detail in the treatises. As Hoskins says: it will be no lost labour to be curious in this Colour, because it is the ground & foundation of all your other works, for if this become faulty, all is lost & cast away. The experience whereof does frequently appear in many excellent peices, being heightned with white lead unprepared are spoild & the Colour all rusty & dead (Hoskins MS Copy, NAL-R.C.A.20-995: 31). Analysing these recipes, the limners seemed to have picked out the whitest flakes from yet un-ground flake white from the outer crust of the lead coil 5. Like this they were able to avoid contamination with pure lead splinters or yellow/grey rusty flakes from the inside of the coil. These snow white flakes were ground and the hairs/dust and water-soluble salts (as lead acetate) were washed away with distilled water (till the water had no harsh taste anymore). The remaining product was dried in the sun or a chalkstone slab. To achieve the powdery appearance of lead white paint, which was required for the carnation – Hilliard had to remove the fine lead white particles by washing. During this process the ground flake white pigment was stirred in distilled water, after a short while the floating fine particles were decanted in a separate shell or container. (When dry these very fine particles were rapped in paper and later mixed with gum for the glossy lace and pearls.) Than the mixture was stirred again and after a shorter period the floating particles were decanted in a different container. This middle portion was ideal for painting non-glossy areas. The bottom layer of big heavy particles was ground again and the process repeated. This simple method of particle separation was used for nearly all pigments as it is crucial to remove dust, the too fine particles and the too coarse ones.

5. Lead white was produced by suspending a coil of lead in a glass or ceramic container above vinegar in a warm carbon dioxid rich environment (recommended is a barrel with horse dung).

Mineral blues
The correct application and preparation of natural ultramarine pigment still largely remains a mystery. There is no doubt anymore (due to analysis) that Hilliard used unadulterated mineral blues (made from lapis lazuli and azurite). His blue backgrounds are surprisingly strong in colour and at the same time very fine and smooth. Limners probably purchased blue pigments made of the best quality raw material. It is unlikely that limners produced these pigments directly from the gemstones, as the preparation was a well kept secret and required probably large quantities of the raw material (Hilliard mentions ultramarine from Venice and notes its enormous costs). Again limners purified the pigment by removing very fine particles. This is of the greatest importance as particles under 5 microns appear to be colourless and would settle on the surface spoiling the blue colour underneath with a greenish or greyish cloud.

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6. The following book is very much recommended. It shows amazing pictures from a traditional Indian miniature workshop, The materials and techniques are reminiscent to those described in the treatises: Lazaro 2005. 7. Hoskins MS Copy, NAL-R.C.A.20-995, fol.35.

The second step was again to remove coarse particles, which would hinder a smooth application and the final burnishing of the paint. This is a very narrow line. Approximate evaluation of the particle sizes of the blue pigments under high magnification showed a minimum of 5 micons, an average of 10 microns and a maximum of about 25. How the blue has been laid down can best be learned from contemporary Indian miniature painters or those miniature painters still working in the Islamic manuscript tradition 6. However, as experienced by the author there is a great difference between watching and doing it yourself. Even ignoring the lack of good quality pigment and experience, it seemed to be generally a nerve-racking and difficult business.

fig.5 nicholas hilliard, elizabeth, c. 1600, oval, 64.5x49mm (v&a, p.1-1974). a quantity of good quality azurite has been separated into various colour shades and grain sizes by the method of ‘washing’. the shell in the middle is the one hilliard would have used (the pigment is not too coarse, not too fine and has a good colour)

Black is not black
The most satisfying was the reconstruction of black pigments. According to the treatises some limners prepared black pigments themselves from the raw materials. Only in this way could they ensure the quality and authenticity of their final product. And limners were very specific what they wanted: namely cherrystone and Ivory black. Cherrystones consist of very dense almost grain-less wood. During the charring process organic materials keep their original shape – a nutshell, a plum stone or a willow twig when charred would produce different pigments, of different texture and shade. Cherrystones produce a black paint with very fine regular particles, which is very nice to work with. The shade it produces is of a silvery grey/ black colour. Charring fruit stones turned out to be relatively easy. They were placed in a metal container with a lose lid and placed in an ordinary burning wood stove. Within a quarter of an hour, coloured flames escape the container and the process is then finished. Charring is a reduction process – the less oxygen enters the container the better. In the case of ivory the temperatures needed to be somewhat higher. Hoskins says that the iron container needs to be of a dark red colour for about an hour. According to Hoskins MS the container was fully packed with ivory splinters and ‘luted’ (sealed) with a mixture of wet clay mixed with salt 7. (The salt probably prevents sudden shrinkage of the clay. The woodstove was heated with coal to its full temperature and the container left inside till the stove cooled down. All this is described in some detail in the treatises. But every treatise seems to provide only a tiny piece of information. The combination of all sources was needed to reproduce

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the recipe in reality is a key for understanding what is meant. After this experience there was little doubt that it was easy for the miniature painters to collect scraps of broken ivory, combs, scrapings from sculptors etc and produce their own pigment from scratch to achieve exactly the effects they wanted to. The amazing detail of Hilliard’s costumes shows it was well worth the effort.
fig.6 detail of the black costume. nicholas hilliard. unknown lady, 159093, oval, 59x47mm (v&a, p.9-1947). ivory black after breaking the clay seal of the crucible used for reconstruction. paint made from the reconstructed ivory black seemed to flake in a similar way as the black paint in the miniature (lower edge) also did the paint an irregular shine similar to the one on this miniature

Summary
The research into 16th century limnings is far from being finished. It rather feels that it has just been started. Further research for instance might include exploring the link with earlier manuscript illumination (i.e. Ghent Bruges School). Reconstruction provided a few new insights as well as many new questions. Which was surprising as Hilliard’s technique was always thought to be well understood due to the abundance of treatises based on it. However, today we know that not all of the information given is necessarily correct. Also we became more aware that the appearance of artefacts today is not necessarily the appearance intended by the artist. To study the artists intentions, the cultural circumstances in which a work of art was produced and to learn about the methods and techniques it was made with, greatly adds to the art works’ value and appreciation.

Acknowledgments
We greatly want to thank the large number of people investing time, sharing their knowledge and resources in helping with the research and reconstruction work on Hilliard’s materials and techniques: First of all the Royal College of Art and the V&A Museum, which provided an amazing platform for the research, thanks to William Lindsay, Nick Frayling and Katherine Coombs. We also want to thank Carmen Krisai-Chizzola, Mike Wheeler, Dr. Georg Kremer (Kremer pigments), David Margulies, Anita Chowdry, Dr. Spike Bucklow, Dr. Mark Clarke and the scientists: Dr. Robert Withnall, Dr. Lucia Burgio and Dr. Vincent Daniels.

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Bibliography
Auerbach, E.. 1961. Nicholas Hilliard. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Browne, A.. 1679. Ars Pictora. London. Derbyshire, A. and R. Withnall. 1999. ‘Pigment Analysis of Portrait Miniatures Using Raman Microscopy.’ Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 30, 185-188. Frayling, N.. 1998. ‘An exploration of the original appearance of Nicholas Hilliard’s portrait miniatures using computer image manipulation.’ V&A Conservation Journal 28, July 1998, 4-6. Lazaro, D. P.. 2005. Materials, Methods and Symbolism in the Pichhvai painting tradition of Rajastan. Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing. Muller, J. M. and J. Murrell (1997) Edward Norgate, Miniatura or the Arte of Limning. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. Murrell, J.. 1983. The Way Howe to Lymne – Tudor Miniatures Observed. London: V&A Publications. Peacham H.. 1622 The Compleat Gentleman. London. Reynolds, Graham. 2006; The Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, Royal Collection Publications Ltd. Tallian, T.. 2007. Reconstruction of Nicholas Hilliard’s Materials and Techniques, a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Royal College of Art fort the degree of Master of Philosophy, May 2007, The Royal College of Art / Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Thornton R. K. R. and T. G. S. Cain. 1992. The Arte of Limning by Edward Norgate. Manchester: Carcanet Press.

Biographies
Timea Tallian studied art history and fine art before she joined the conservation course at the Academy of fine Arts in Vienna (MA in 2003). Initially trained as paper conservator she developed a strong interest for ethnographical objects, portrait miniatures and the study of miniature painting techniques in general. In 2003 she embarked on a research project, at the V&A/RCA postgraduate conservation course, focusing on the practical reconstruction of Hilliard’s materials and techniques (Mphil 2007). After a year break, working as conservation consultant in Bhutan, she is back in London, presently working as a free lance conservator. Timea is affiliated with the Ethnographical Museum, Vienna and the V&A Museum, London. Email:- timea.tallian@network.rca.ac.uk Alan Derbyshire obtained a BSc in Physics fromU.M.I.S.T. in 1975 before going on to study paper conservation at Gateshead Technical College. He is Head of Paper, Books and Paintings Conservation at the Victoria and Albert Museum, where he has worked since 1983. For the last twenty years he has specialised in the conservation of portrait miniatures on ivory and vellum. He has written, taught and lectured extensively on the conservation of works of art on paper and on portrait miniatures. He is an accredited member of ICON. Email: aland@vam.ac.uk, Address: Paper Conservation, Victoria and Albert Museum, London SW7 2RL, Telephone:- 0207 942 2113

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as camadas cromáticas são tipicamente muita finas quando comparadas com a pintura de cavalete. Para além disso. or even micro-samples.and panel-paintings as well as manuscripts and illuminations. Pittore miniatore o miniatore pittore? in which the technique and materials used by the artist in making manuscripts and panel paintings were investigated and compared between these two different forms of art. normalmente. 1400-1455). que foram seleccionadas de entre as possíveis técnicas não-invasivas e de aplicação in situ. His talent was celebrated in 2007-08 at the San Marco Museum in Florence with a special exhibition Fra Giovanni Angelico. Exceleu tanto em pintura mural e de cavalete como nas artes da iluminura. He excelled in wall. non-invasive analytical methodologies are usually considered to be the most suitable techniques for the investigation of manuscripts since taking samples. que integra a colecção permanente do Museu: o Graduale n. Pedro making the Justino Maciel. Este artigo descreve o uso da fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energias (XRF) em conjunto com a reflectografia de UV-VIS-NIR por fibra óptica (UV-Vis-NIR FORS). selected from the available por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de the materials used in Fialho Agradecimentos in situ non-invasive techniques. as decorações cobrem áreas pequenas. Due to the fragility of parchment-based artworks. from such delicate art objects is generally considered unacceptable. para o estudo dos materiais utilizados no Graduale n. técnicas não invasivas são consideradas as mais adequadas. em particular. 558 • . key-words illuminated manuscripts x-ray fluorescence (xrf) fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (fors) beato angelico graduale n. Pittore miniatore o miniatore pittore. painted decorations usually cover relatively small areas. De facto. and near infrared fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-NIR FORS). Tendo em conta que se tratam de obras em pergaminho. Este centrou-se nos materiais – pigmentos e corantes – utilizados por Angelico em manuscritos. 558. Felix Teichner Heidi. better known as Beato Angelico or Fra Giovanni da Fiesole (c. Acresce que. Also. de Sousa. XV. 558 by BeatoeAngelico. são de preferir métodos de análise que permitam uma identificação in situ. O seu talento foi celebrado em 2007-08 no Museu de São Marco em Florença. the manuscript paint layers are typically very thin compared to those of wall and panel paintings. The focus of the study in the context of the exhibition was on the materials – pigments and dyes – used by Angelico to produce manuscripts and. por ocasião da exposição Fra Giovanni Angelico. palavras-chave manuscritos iluminados fluorescência de raios-x dispersiva de energias (xrf) reflectografia de uv-vis-nir com fibra óptica (fors) fra angelico graduale n.Graduale n. numa das suas obras mais belas. Indeed. This report illustrates the effective use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and ultraviolet. was one of the most important artists of the 15th century. in particular. no âmbito da qual se levou a cabo um estudo comparativo dos materiais e técnicas que o artista utilizou na iluminura e na pintura sobre tábua. Moreover. visible. uma vez que é difícil recolher amostras ou micro-amostras. 558 • Abstract Guido di Pietro. 558 de Beato Angelico.Resumo Guido di Pietro. one of his most beautiful pieces located in the permanent collection of the San Marco Museum: the Graduale n. foi um dos mais importantes artistas do séc. 558. the application of in situ non-invasive analytical techniques is strongly recommended for analyzing the materials used by artists in making the manuscripts. 1400-1455). to identifyAna Catarina Sousa. mais conhecido por Fra Angelico ou Frei Giovanni de Fiesole (c.

non-invasive xrf and uv-vis-nir reflectance spectroscopic
analysis of materials used by beato angelico in the manuscript graduale n. 558
m . p i co l lo
IFAC-CNR, Firenze (Italy)

a . a l d rova n d i
Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Firenze (Italy)

a. migliori
Dipartimento di Fisica e INFN , Firenze (Italy)

s . g i acom e l l i
Società Internazionale per lo Studio del Medioevo Latino, Firenze (Italy)

Introduction
In the study of artworks the application of more than one analytical technique permits one to better identify the materials and the techniques used by the artists (Clarke 2001, Ricciardi et al. 2009). These techniques are grouped in two main categories: non-invasive and invasive. Among the first group of techniques both X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical fiber reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) provide conservators and curators with useful information about works of art (Bacci et al. 2009, Dran et al. 2009). Their non-invasiveness enables these light and compact devices to acquire a large amount of data in situ. In some cases, it may be necessary to integrate the data obtained with some noninvasive methods with other non-invasive or micro-invasive analytical techniques. For example, FORS and XRF can also be very useful tools, in conjunction with other techniques, for locating areas for micro-sampling and for extending local data from micro-analyses to a broader scale, thus reducing the extent of micro-sampling. However, the small size of the illuminates and the presence of very fine details prohibit, in most cases, the use of the precise analytical chemical methods typically used on paintings, because of the sample size limitation. In this case, XRF and ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) FORS were selected from the available in situ non-invasive techniques and applied to iden-

m . s cu d i e r i
Museo di San Marco, Firenze (Italy)

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tify the materials used in making the Graduale n. 558 by Beato Angelico. Guido di Pietro, better known as Beato Angelico or Fra Giovanni da Fiesole (c. 1400-1455), was one of the most important artists of the 15th century. He excelled in wall – and panel – paintings as well as manuscripts and illuminates. His talent was celebrated in 2007-08 at the San Marco Museum in Florence with a special exhibition Fra Giovanni Angelico. Pittore miniatore o miniatore pittore? There, the technique and materials used by the artist in making manuscripts and in making panel paintings were investigated and compared. The focus of the study, in the context of the exhibition, was on the materials – pigments and dyes – used by Angelico to produce manuscripts and, in particular, one of his most beautiful pieces of the permanent collection of the San Marco Museum: the Graduale n. 558.

Methodology
The artwork
The Graduale n. 558 represents one of the most famous illuminate masterpieces of Angelico’s young production and was made for the church of San Domenico in Fiesole where the artist lived at the beginning of his monastic life. Fra Angelico was a versatile artist who excelled in the fresco, illuminate, and panel paintings techniques. The Graduale n. 558 was probably made in two different periods: in 1424-1425 and in 1428-1430. Consequently, the illustrations present some different stylistic characteristics, which make it possible to group the miniatures in four groups by their chromatic, stylistic, and decorative features. This choir book is constituted of 260 folios written in «Testualis» with text and music. These folios were bound together probably when the Graduale was added in the Leopoldo II di Lorena Collection in the 19th century. The illustrations are composed of 986 watermarked letters, 30 miniatures, and seven decorated letters.

Analytical techniques
FORS was performed using two spectroanalyzers: Zeiss model MSC501 and MCS511 NIR 1.7 operating in the 200-1700 nm range. The approximate spectral resolution was less than 3 nm in the 200-1000 nm range (MCS501) and 10 nm in the 900-1700 nm range (MCS511 NIR 1.7). An internal tungsten lamp (Zeiss model CLH500) was used for the final operative range (350-1700 nm). The sampled area was smaller than the approximate 2 mm diameter, and the acquisition time for each spectrum was less than one second. The spectrometers were calibrated using a white Spectralon® 99% reflectance standard. A 0°/45°/45° reflectance configuration was adopted to avoid specular reflectance. The identification of the pigments was accomplished by comparing the acquired unknown spectra with spectral databases (http://fors.ifac. cnr.it). Assignments were made using both the primary and first derivative spectra. Given the thinness of the paint layers and the presence of overtone bands in the NIR associated with the vellum substrate, the assignment of peaks to pigments required

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particular care. The NIR region was, however, found to be particularly useful for the identification of some pigments as well as gypsum. XRF analyses were performed with an Assing LITHOS 3000 portable spectrometer equipped with a molybdenum tube and a Peltier cooled Si-PIN detector with a sensitive area of 7 mm2, thickness of 0.5 mm and a berillium (Be) window 12.5 μm thick. The resolution was of approximately 165 eV at 5.9 keV. For the measurements on the Graduale the X-ray tube voltage was 24 kV, the current was 300 μA, and the acquisition time was 100 seconds (in case of intense X-ray counting rate the current was reduced and the acquisition time was increased). Also, a 1 mm collimator was used for an investigated area of approximately 2 mm in diameter. The distance between the investigated area and the detector was about 2.8 cm. The X-ray sending and collecting angles were approximately 45° and 50°, respectively. Due to the intrinsic limitation of XRF, which does not yield results spatially resolved in depth; and, in order to avoid confusing results, the areas for analysis were chosen, whenever possible, so that no decoration was present in the corresponding area on the verso of the manuscript leaf.

Results and discussion
On the Graduale approximately 130 FORS and 50 XRF spectra distributed on about 30 pages were acquired. Pigment identification was achieved by combining FORS and XRF spectral data. From the XRF measurements the preparation of the parchment was found to be made with calcium carbonate as calcium, with a small amount of arsenic, were the only chemical elements recorded. However, the calcium element could have been related to the presence of calcinated animal bones (Brunello 1975). FORS measurements in the presently available operative range were not able to better specify the materials used to prepare the parchment (Fig. 1). FORS data, on

fig.1 fors spectra of the parchment (dashed line) and of the gypsum with iron oxide (hematite) in the preparatory layer for the application of the gold leaves (f.33v)

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the other hand, made it possible to exclude the use of calcium sulfate bi-hydrated (gypsum) or calcium sulfate hemi-hydrated (plaster of Paris) in the ground layer (Bacci et al. 2007). This information was also confirmed by XRF because no sulfur was found in the preparation of the parchment. The gypsum was present only as a preparatory layer for the application of the gold leaves (c.33v, c.86v, c.124r) in mixture with iron oxide (hematite) based pigments (Fig. 1). In one case, XRF also found the presence of mercury, together with iron, in the preparatory layer. This was due to the presence of cinnabar, which gave a reddish tint to the layer. The gold leaves, which were extensively used in the Graduale for background and aureole areas, were made with pure gold. The XRF analysis did not show the presence of impurities such as silver, tin, lead, or copper (c.9r, c.21r, Fig. 2).

fig.2 xrf spectrum of a gold leaf, made with pure gold. from the xrf data the gold leaves did not show the presence of impurities such as silver, tin, lead, or copper (f.9r)

As found by FORS spectra on about 30 different areas of the Graduale the painted blue areas were made with ultramarine blue (lapis lazuli). Ultramarine blue was also used in mixture with a red pigment, red lake mainly, at different concentrations to depict violet-purple details (Figs. 3 and 4). Azurite was used only for the watermarked letters. This second blue pigment was positively identified by the two analytical techniques. A copper based green pigment, such as malachite, mainly, created the green zones. This pigment was used to depict both the cloths of the characters and the landscapes. Also, as illustrated by FORS measurements on 12 areas of the illuminated manuscript, it was used to make frames and decorations surrounding the painted scenes. Another green pigment, green earth, was only applied to paint complexion (flesh tones) areas in mixture with lead white, iron oxide and hydroxide (yellow and brown ochre or earth pigments) pigments, and cinnabar. In this Graduale the artist

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fig.4 fors spectra from blue areas made with ultramarine blue (lapis lazuli). spectrum a from folium 33v; spectrum b from folium 60v; spectrum c from folium 93r

did not use mixtures of blue (azurite, indigo, lapis lazuli) and yellow (lead-tin yellow, orpiment) pigments to produce green hues/shades. In one case only, the FORS acquired spectrum resembled a mixture of ultramarine and lead-tin yellow pigments; but here the yellow pigment was painted as a glaze on the blue sky. The yellow and brown colors were obtained by using lead-tin yellow pigment for lighter areas and iron oxide and hydroxide pigments for darker and less saturated hues. The first pigment was identified by the presence of contemporary lead and tin in the XRF spectra (Fig. 5) and from its reflectance spectral shape (FORS); the second pigments showed typical FORS, in which the characteristic absorption bands
fig.3 detail of the folium 33v with reported some xrf and fors measurement

fig.5 xrf spectra of yellow and brown areas obtained by using lead-tin yellow pigment (red curve, f. 93r), iron oxide and hydroxide pigments (sienna earth, black curve, f. 21r), and orpiment (green curve, f. 60v)

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of trivalent iron are easily detected, and XRF spectra. In the case of XRF data, the presence of iron is usually linked to manganese, which usually is related to the occurrence of Sienna and, more typically, of umber earths. In the folium 60v the dark yellow mantle of San Peter was depicted using orpiment (Fig. 6). This material was only identified in this area of the Graduale by the presence of arsenic in XRF spectrum and by its FORS spectrum, even though the reflectance spectra of most of the yellow pigments could be easily modified when mixed together or with red pigments (Fig. 5).

fig.6 detail of the the folium 60v with the dark yellow mantle of san peter depicted using orpiment (xrf measurement n. 92)

The red areas were created primarily by use of cinnabar and red lakes. In certain cases red lead (minium) was found, even if most of the time it was associated with cinnabar (Fig. 7). Cinnabar is easily detected by XRF due to the presence of mercury in the paint layer. This pigment was extensively used for the main scenes, the decorations, and the watermarked letters. The red lake, instead, was mainly used to paint the purple-violet glazes and to produce hues from pink to purple. This pigment is not seen by XRF, and its identification by means of FORS is certain only when red lakes are used as glaze on a light substrate or in a mixture with a white pigment, such as lead white. To date, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there have been no systematic studies to determine how preparation, ageing, and type of lake affect the reflectance spectra. Many of the absorption features can vary depending on the preparation of the dye into a lake (Bacci et al. 2001) as well as the preparation of the paint (Bisulca et al. 2008). In some cases characteristic features are less intense

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fig.8 fors spectra of red lead (solid line - a, f. 13v), cinnabar (dashed line – b, f. 13v), and red lake (dotted line – c, f. 93r)

or absent altogether, which can cause misleading results in interpretation of spectra. While it is sometimes possible to distinguish between these dyes or to broadly classify them as of animal or insect in origin, in the analysis of real paintings identification is complicated by the presence of other pigments, the nature of their application, and the effects of natural ageing. These factors can mask or alter characteristic features in UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra (Fig. 8). Finally, it was noteworthy to report that sometimes, such as in the folium 85v, the ring shape bronze/light brown decorations of the letter were made by using mosaic gold, a very fine powder made with tin and copper, as revealed by XRF (Fig. 9).
fig.7 detail of the folium 13v where red lead (minium) and cinnabar were found

fig.9 xrf spectrum from the ring shape bronze/light brown decorations of the letter of folium 85v made by using mosaic gold, a very fine powder made with tin and copper

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Conclusion
The combination of high fidelity site-specific methods (FORS and XRF) proved to be a useful tool for the examination of illuminates and miniatures artists’ materials, as already found in easel and mural paintings. Expanding the FORS range of analysis further into the infrared, improving the XRF procedure in the detection of light chemical elements, and adding Raman spectroscopy to the list of applied techniques, would make possible more precise descriptions of the characteristics of the materials found in this kind of artworks, in particular when organic materials, such as binding media, need to be identified.

Bibliography
Bacci M., Orlando A., Picollo M., Radicati B., Lanterna G. 2000. Colour analysis of historical red lakes using non-destructive reflectance spectroscopy. Compatible Materials for the Protection of Cultural Heritage, in PACT 58, 21-35. Bacci M., Magrini D., Picollo M., Radicati B., Trumpy G., Tsukada M., Kunzelman D. 2007. Modern white pigments: their identification by means of non-invasive ultraviolet, visible and infrared fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy in Proceedings of the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, Tate modern, London, May 16-19, 2006. Editors T.J.S. Learner, P. Smithen, J.W. Krueger, M. Schilling. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 118-128. Bacci M., Boselli L., Picollo M., Radicati B. 2009. UV, VIS, NIR Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) in Practical handbook on diagnosis of paintings on movable support, Editors D. Pinna, M. Galeotti, R. Mazzeo, European Project ARTECH, Centro Di, Firenze, 197-200. Bisulca C., Picollo M., Bacci M., Kunzelman D. 2008. UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy of red lakes in paintings in Proceedings of the 9 th International Conference on Nondestructive investigations and microanalysis for the diagnostics and conservation of cultural and environmental heritage, Jerusalem, May 25-30, 2008. Clarke, M. 2001. The analysis of medieval European manuscripts, Reviews in Conservation 2, 3-17. Brunello F. 1975. De Arte Illuminandi, Neri Pozza Editore, Vicenza. Dran J.-C-, Laval E. 2009. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in Practical handbook on diagnosis of paintings on movable support, Editors D. Pinna, M. Galeotti, R. Mazzeo, European Project ARTECH, Centro Di, Firenze, 210-213. Ricciardi P., Delaney J.K., Glinsman L., Thoury M., Facini M., de la Rie R. 2009. Use of visible and infrared reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy to study illuminated manuscripts: pigment identification and visualization of underdrawings in Optical Methods for Arts and Archaeology – Aug. 2009 Proc. SPIE Vol. 7391, R. Salimbeni, L. Pezzati Eds. http://fors.ifac.cnr.it. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectra (FORS) of Pictorial Materials in the 270-1700 nm range.

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Biographies
Marcello Picollo, geologist, is a Researcher at the Institute of Applied Physics «Nello Carrara» IFAC-CNR, Florence. He has been working on spectroscopic investigations of works of art since 1991. His main focus is on pigment characterization using non-invasive spectroscopic, imaging and X-ray techniques. Address: Institute of Applied Physics «Nello Carrara» IFACCNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy). E-mail: m.picollo@ifac.cnr.it Alfredo Aldrovandi received his Master in Science in Physics at the University of Modena. He has been working from 1983 at the Restoration Laboratories of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence. His main focus is on the development and application of non-invasive diagnostic investigation techniques on artworks. Address: Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Via degli Alfani 78, 50121 Firenze, Italy. E-mail: alfredo.aldrovandi@gmail.com Alessandro Migliori received his Master in Science in Physics in June 2001 and his PhD in «Science for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage» in December 2004, both at University of Florence. He is an expert in techniques for compositional analysis using ion beams (Ion Beam Analysis techniques: PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA) and X-ray radiation (XRF), mainly in the field of Cultural Heritage. He has worked at CMAM laboratory in Madrid and Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence. Presently he is working as researcher at LABEC laboratory of INFN-Florence. Address: Dipartimento di Fisica e INFN (Florence), Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy. E-mail: migliori@fi.infn.it Sara Giacomelli received her Master in Humanities in 2004 with a thesis on History of Ancient Book Illumination. She received a post Master specialization in Art history in 2008 with a thesis on techniques and pigments used in miniatures. She has worked at the Museum of San Marco for the exhibitions «Miniatura in Umbria del Rinascimento. Suggerimenti per un percorso artistico» (2004); «Fra Giovanni Angelico. Pittore miniatore o miniatore pittore?» (2007-2008); «L’Angelico ritrovato. Studi e ricerche per la Pala di San Marco» (2008-2009); «Beato Angelico. L’alba del Rinascimento» (2009). Her publications dealt with Umbrian and Florentine illumination artworks. Address: Società Internazionale per lo Studio del Medioevo Latino (S.I.S.M.E.L.), Certosa del Galluzzo, Via della Certosa 1, 50124 Firenze, Italy. E-mail: saragiacomelli@gmail.com Magnolia Scudieri received her Master in Humanities specializing in Medieval and Modern Art history. She is the Director of both the Museum of San Marco and the Conservation Laboratories of Soprintendenza of the Florentine area. She is actively involved in encouraging and initiating study and research to further the knowledge on the permanent collection of the Museum of San Marco. She is responsible for creating proficient collaboration with prominent institutes dedicated to the investigation of, in particular, the artistic production of Beato Angelico and his followers. She has organized several exhibitions and published works on this topic. Address: Museo di San Marco, Piazza San Marco, 50100 Firenze, Italy. E-mail: scudieri@polomuseale.firenze.it

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por sua vez. Esta paleta constitui-se como ponto de partida para a construção de uma base de dados para a análise espectroscópica. De seguida. causando pouco ou nenhum stress aos manuscritos analisados.. Após o que se conduzem as análises de XRF que permite caracterizar os pigmentos metálicos (i. Finalmente a espectroscopia de Raman será aplicada a casos que ainda levantem dúvidas. mas árduo numa perspectiva científica: é difícil recolher amostras. é necessário utilizar técnicas analíticas que sejam não-invasivas e rápidas. prepararam-se tintas à base de goma arábica e clara de ovo.º i . explorando as vantagens de cada uma delas. pode ser considerada uma técnica preliminar promissora. Antes de mais. A fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energias (XRF) é uma alternativa poderosa. devido ao stress que se poderá causar aos manuscritos. etc. mas sendo uma técnica de análise elementar. utilizando equipamento transportável e efectuando análises in situ. utilizando instrumentação transportável. cores degradadas. preparou-se uma paleta com os diversos pigmentos que se sabe terem sido utilizados na Idade Média. na maioria dos casos será necessário trabalhar in situ. É assim importante enfatizar o facto dos espectros obtidos com esta paleta serem mais fiáveis que os obtidos a partir do colorante em pó. mas apresenta algumas limitações óbvias. Após a aplicação destas técnicas obtém-se muita informação. prata e cobre). a espectroscopia de Raman será a mais informativa. Isto permite a identificação de cerca de 60-70% dos colorantes presentes. i. no entanto. nalguns casos não permite chegar a conclusões precisas. em modo de reflectância com fibra óptica (FORS). seguindo receitas antigas descritas em tratados medievais tais como De arte illuminandi by anonymous. O protocolo começa com uma análise global levada a cabo com FORS.e. verificar a presença de camadas sobrepostas. para além disso. reproduzindo cenários semelhantes aos encontrados nos manuscritos.. não é aconselhável utilizar técnicas que necessitem de contacto (i. e ainda identificar eventuais produtos secundários que.i n v a s i v e a n a ly s i s o f m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g s Resumo A caracterização das paletas de cor utilizadas na iluminura medieval é tarefa importante de um ponto de vista histórico-artístico. requer tempos de análise longos.2 0 1 1 229 . de forma não-invasiva.. De entre as técnicas possíveis. dado o seu potencial de diagnóstico. Neste trabalho é proposto um protocolo de análise para a caracterização de iluminuras em manuscritos.e. identificar mordentes em corantes e lacas. sendo adquiridos espectros em todas as áreas pintadas do manuscrito e comparados com a base de dados.a p r o t o c o l f o r n o n .e. Este protocolo permite a identificação de colorantes através da aplicação sucessiva de técnicas complementares. procede-se a uma inspecção visual das cores com uma câmara digital acoplada a um microscópio 10-80x. Compositiones ad tingenda musiva by anonymous and Il libro dell’arte by Cennino Cennini. palavras-chave in situ fors raman xrf iluminuras • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Por estes motivos. Nesta fase cerca de 90% dos colorantes presentes estarão identificados. IR em modo de ATR) nem levar a cabo sessões de análise longas. A espectroscopia de UV-VIS-NIR. por forma a obter boas imagens das áreas onde se obtiveram espectros de FORS inconclusivos. fornecerão informação útil para estudos de proveniência das matérias-primas. pigmentos à base de ouro. misturas de pigmentos.

to identify mordants for dyes and lakes and to identify contaminants in pigments yielding information useful to study the provenance of raw materials for colorants. This palette is the base on which to build a database of spectroscopic analysis. causing little or no stress at all to the manuscripts under analysis. therefore. In this work a protocol of analysis is proposed for characterisation of miniature paintings on manuscripts in non-invasive way. . to verify the presence of overlapping layers.e. Then XRF spectrometry is performed in order to characterise metal pigments (i. XRF spectrometry is a powerful alternative but.Abstract The characterisation of palettes used in medieval manuscript illumination is an important task from the historical-artistic point of view. in some cases it does not yield accurate results. IR in ATR mode) and to perform long-lasting analytical sessions. It is important. in most of cases it is necessary to work in situ with portable instruments Among available techniques working in portable versions. dyes and lakes on parchment has been prepared with colorants that were in use in Middle Ages. to stress the fact that spectra collected from this palette are more reliable than spectra obtained from analysis of colorants in powder. according to ancient recipes described in medieval textbooks such as De arte illuminandi by anonymous. using only portable techniques and performing in situ analysis. being an elemental technique. The protocol is started with an overall investigation with FORS. mixtures of pigments. paints have been prepared in gum Arabic and in egg white. After application of these techniques a wealth of information is obtained. gold. altered paints. Compositiones ad tingenda musiva by anonymous and Il libro dell’arte by Cennino Cennini. The protocol allows identification of colorants by successive application of complementary techniques.e. in order to have a clear image of areas that show uncertain FORS spectra. UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometry in reflectance mode with fibre optics (FORS) can be promising as preliminary technique with some apparent limits. it is unsuitable to use techniques operating in contact (e. due to its diagnostic power. etc. but a hard one from the scientific point of view: miniatures cannot be sampled. long time of analysis. Finally Raman spectroscopy is used for the most uncertain cases. i. key-words non invasive fors raman xrf miniatures • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. Felix Teichner e Heidi. This allows to identify almost 60-70 % of the colorants present. Justino Maciel. it requires. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. though. For these reasons it is necessary to use analytical techniques both non-invasive and fast. moreover. reproducing a situation similar to the one present on manuscripts. At this stage almost 90% of colorants can be identified.g. exploiting the advantages of each technique. silver and copper pigments). First of all a palette with several pigments. due to the stress that can be imparted to manuscripts. Raman spectroscopy is the most informative. Then visual inspection of the paintings is performed with a digital camera connected with a 10-80x microscope. collecting spectra from all painted areas of the manuscript and comparing them with the database.

Secondly. Information must be gained either on macroscopic scale (1-3 mm spot) to identify the main components.0.1 .2 0 1 1 231 . University of Turin (Italy) r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy) a n g e lo ag o st i n o Department of General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry. of varnishes and protective layers and of mo n ica g u l m i n i el eo n o ra pe l l i z z i va l e n t i n a b i a n co Department of Analytical Chemistry. when used alone. it is clear that only portable. University of Turin. Illuminators used sometimes a mixture of indigo and orpiment called vergaut or vergant. Another important consideration is the following: no analytical technique. – while performing analysis sessions. Italy. University of Eastern Piedmont (Italy). Due to these drawbacks. non invasive and fast analytical techniques must be used. NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) (Italy) Introduction The characterization of palettes used in miniature painting is an important task as a great amount of information can be obtained at the disposal of art historians.º i . so that only in situ analysis can be performed. Mixtures can be apparent (brown ➮red + black. – it is not possible to use analytical techniques working at contact with the sample. can yield all information needed to characterize palettes. though. pink ➮ red + white. and on microscopic scale (0. Several aspects support this statement. information must be gained either with surface techniques and with indepth techniques. such as ATR-IR. grey ➮ white + black) or less evident (green ➮ blue + yellow. to obtain a green hue. It is. prolonged opening of manuscripts can cause stress to painting layers and to parchment itself.001 mm) to identify single components in a mixture. purple ➮ red + blue). Many problematic aspects must be considered: – sampling from miniatures is usually not allowed by owners and institutions. Centro Interdisciplinare per lo Studio e la Conservazione dei Beni Culturali (CenISCo). Surface techniques (such as Raman spectroscopy) allow identification of colorants in the last pictorial layer. so that after few hours sessions must be closed. a hard task since miniatures are among the most precious and fragile artworks.a protocol for non-invasive analysis of miniature paintings mau riz io ac e to Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.

2008) but results are sometimes not conclusive. so that we can hypothesize that the author used the layering technique. In the miniature shown in fig. This can be seen from the following example. Raman and FORS analysis. though. that is the superimposition of different pigments (Aceto et al.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s alteration compounds. 28. lengthy times of analysis. Bersani et al.º i . though available in portable version. it requests short analysis times and it can be used in all geometrical situations. 2006. both show the presence of ultramarine blue in the surface layer. XRF spectrometry has a good diagnostic power (Bruni et al. This technique is easy to use.2 0 1 1 .1. moreover it cannot be used to identify organic compounds. 232 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.1 complementary analysis on the virgin’s robe from a xv century miniature In the analysis of manuscripts. A good alternative to these powerful but sophisticated techniques is UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. It requests. 1999) and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry (Duran et al. Bacci 2000). 2008). 1997. while in-depth techniques (such as XRF) allow identification of underlying pictorial layers. taken from a XV century Book of hours by Antoine de Lonhy. whose acronym is FORS when it is used with fiber optics (Bacci et al. 2009). XRF analysis on the blue area shows the presence of copper. fig. among the techniques available in portable version Raman spectroscopy is with no doubt the one with the best diagnostic power (Aceto et al. due to the fact that it is an elemental technique. held in the Museo Civico di Arte Antica in Turin (Italy). information on preparation layers and on grounds. are at present still difficult to be used in situ as self-consistant techniques. 2006). IR spectrophotometry (Bruni et al. the Virgin’s robe is painted in blue. though. suggesting the use of azurite.

fast and with minimal impact on the object being examined. It must be considered. such as colorants. due to the present performances of probes. ligands and varnishes. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. This is because it is much better to compare analytical results from unknown samples with analytical standards prepared in similar conditions. As said before. that in miniature painting the range of colorants is usually narrow and known according to age and geographic zone. – XRF can yield information on elements present in colorants as key-elements. no analytical technique can fulfill all these requirements when used alone. and that usually varnishes are not present. – preliminary analysis with UV-visible FORS – chemometric treatment of spectral data – visual inspection with digital camera – XRF analysis – Raman analysis As it is obvious. Analytical protocol In order to address these issues. choosing colorants among those used by medieval artists and following recipes of medieval technical treatises such as De Arte Illuminandi (Brunello 1971a).2 0 1 1 233 . To simulate the painting techniques used by ancient illuminators. due to fact that these must be non invasive and portable. in order to identify the colorants. The protocol is composed by the following steps. to be executed on macro and micro scale. The range of information available from the cited techniques is the following: – Raman and IR can yield information on compounds present. – UV-Visible FORS can yield information on compounds present in the surface layer. Its major drawback is that results are hard to interpret in case of mixtures and when varnishes or patinas are present. in order to have information on the origin orf raw materials. we propose the development of an analytical protocol to optimize the number and type of analysis needed in the characterization of miniature paintings. In fig. paints were prepared either in egg tempera and in gum Arabic. on surface and in-depth. it is clear the need to operate with more techniques.º i . in order to build spectral databases in proper conditions. Compositiones ad tingenda musiva also known as Manoscritto di Lucca (Caffaro 2000) and Il libro dell’arte (Brunello 1971b). A palette of colorants on parchment was therefore prepared. Moreover. though. To resume. it is not fit to analyze short painted areas (< 3 mm). being a surface technique. the application of the protocol must be preceded by a proper knowledge of bibliographic sources. and as impurities.2 the resulting palette on parchment is shown.i n v a s i v e a n a ly s i s o f m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g s Truly portable instruments are available on the market.a p r o t o c o l f o r n o n .

identification performed on a single painted area can be extended to all items. Upon classification of FORS spectra into different classes.e. green and purple colorants.2 0 1 1 . i. white and grey) is performed according to their spectral features: reflectance or absorbance maxima for blue. all but black.3). inflexion points for yellow. FORS analysis is executed on all painted areas of a manuscript (fig.º i . all painted areas belonging to the same class.4 spectral features in the fors spectrum 2nd stage Multivariate analysis is performed on FORS spectra in order to identify painted areas obtained with similar pigments.2 the complete palette of colorants on parchment 1st stage In the preliminary stage. Among unsupervised pattern recognition techniques. fig. red and orange colorants (fig.4). Identification of colored colorants (i.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s fig.3 analysis of miniatures by fors fig. It must be noted that classification must be performed 234 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.e. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) or Principal Components Analysis (PCA) can be used.

6 a similar result is obtained by red painted areas from a XV century Italian manuscript: again. In fig. fig. it is apparent the classification in distinct groups. moreover identification of altered areas and of particular features can be obtained.7 visual inspection on a manuscript with a digital camera and a zoom lens r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. in order to have a look under the microscopic scale. in this case made of minium and cinnabar. fig. the differences among hues would be stronger than the differences among pigments of the similar hue. In fig.i n v a s i v e a n a ly s i s o f m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g s separately on painted areas of a single hue: if all hues were classified simultaneously. it is useful to carry out a visual inspection of painted areas in order to better understand the result of FORS analysis. respectively made of azurite. which can help tuning the interpretation of FORS spectra.2 0 1 1 235 .5 dendrogram from cluster analysis on blue painted areas from xii century italian manuscript fig. held in the Archive and Chapter Library of Vercelli (Italy).6 dendrogram from cluster analysis on red painted areas from a xv century italian manuscript 3rd stage After performing FORS analysis. indigo and ultramarine blue.7). Visual inspection can yield useful information concerning the identification of mixtures. This can be made through a digital camera connected with a zoom lens (in the present case a 10x-80x zoom.º i .a p r o t o c o l f o r n o n .5 a dendrogram is shown resulting from cluster analysis on blue painted areas taken from a XII century Italian manuscript: painted areas are clearly grouped into three classes. In the following figures some examples are shown. taken from inspection on a XII century Italian manuscript called Liber Evangeliorum. fig.

11 the miniature shows the Virgin’s and Saint John’s robes painted in a very weak blue hue.8 a blue initial from a xii century italian manuscript fig. shown in fig.12 magnified image (80x) of the blue paint on the virgin’s robe 236 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.2 0 1 1 . suggests the presence of azurite but we must note that the reflectance maximum is red-shifted.12) put into evidence that residual particles of ultramarine blue are present: most probably both robes were painted in blue but the painted areas were later subjected to a phenomenon known as ultramarine sickness.9. possibly due to a dirty brush.10) allows to clarify this behavior: little red particles.9 fors spectra of the blue initial (blue line) and of a standard of azurite (black line) fig.11 a highly degraded miniature from a xii century italian manuscript fig. fig. An image at 80x magnification (fig. The image at 80x magnification (fig. as a consequence we must think that the blue initial was painted with a mixture of azurite and cinnabar.º i . fig. The corresponding FORS spectrum.10 magnified image (80x) of the blue initial In fig.8 a blue initial is shown. later identified as made of cinnabar. in which ultramarine looses its color as a consequence of interaction with acidic agents. are present that cause the red shift in the spectrum.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s In fig.

fig. fig. Application of XRF is mandatory to address the following issues that cannot be fulfilled by other techniques: – characterization of metal pigments such as gold.15 a translucent layer of iron-rich paint is shown. useful to yield information on the provenance of raw materials.13 it is possible. identification of colorants is followed by XRF analysis (fig. in fig.e.17 which shows the relationship among copper and barium as determined by XRF on blue painted areas laid with azurite on a XV century Italian manuscript. i. black and grey pigments that cannot be identified by FORS. which was later identified as iron-gall ink used as pigment. either in foil or in powder form.14 magnified image (80x) of a oro di mistà gilding fig.16 analysis of miniatures by xrf spectrometry fig. Same result is obtained for copper and zinc in green areas laid with malachite. the geographical origin of the minerals used can be determined. – identification of mordants used with dyes and lakes. In fig. silver.i n v a s i v e a n a ly s i s o f m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g s In fig. These results suggest a link among the pigments and the minerals from which they were obtained: if large enough information is available.17 relationship among copper and barium in blue paints r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. tin. Finally.13 magnified image (80x) of a paint made from iron-gall ink 4th stage After FORS analysis. white.º i . – characterization of uncolored colorants.16). to see the preparation layer underlying a gold foil and to hypothesize that the preparation be of the flat gilding type. It is apparent the good correlation among copper (chromophore in azurite) and barium (impurity in azurite).14 another gilding shows the presence of gold and silver foils overlapped (the so-called oro di mistà).13 magnified image (80x) of a gilding fig. – identification of impurities in pigments. The last issue is exemplified in fig.2 0 1 1 237 .a p r o t o c o l f o r n o n . that is with glue. – identification of overlapping layers. etc. at high magnification.

X n.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s 5th stage At this stage almost 80-90% of the colorants is already identified. x = colorant identified by the technique. Hg.20 shows a peculiar feature. The miniature in fig. X X X n.2 0 1 1 .i. n. n. Its spatial resolution helps in fine-tuning identification.i.i.i. Identification was possible only by complementary application of analytical techniques. which is together the most sophisticated and the most cumbersome of the cited techniques.i. Finally. • 238 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. X X n. in which the original paint in ultramarine blue was reinforced with phtalocyanine blue laid on titanium white. to illustrate the application of the proposed protocol. X X X X n. Ti Au Au Sn. Again.i. fig. Sn Ag.i. The whole palette is reported in tab. n. Zn Pb Raman X X X X n. n. = colorant not identified by the technique In fig. Ba Cu.i. can be used as far as uncertain cases are left and to confirm previous identifications.i. S Pb. XRF Pb Cu Cu.º i . The manuscript is the already cited Book of hours by Antoine de Lonhy. held in the Museo Civico di Arte Antica in Turin (Italy) and dating to the XV century.i.i. Au n.i. the application of the protocol allowed to put into evidence a later retouch in the background sky.i. S Pb Cu.19 a miniature taken from the Book of hours shows the presence of four different yellow pigments used by the author in order to obtain different effects. X X X n. Hue White Blue Colorant lead white ultramarine blue on azurite azurite phtalocyanine blue Yellow gold foil shell gold mosaic gold lead-tin yellow type I Grey Black Red gold on silver carbon cinnabar minium Green Violet malachite lake (kermes?) with lead white FORS n.18 analysis of miniatures by raman spctroscopy table 1 palette of the book of hours by antoine de lonhy (xv century).18). an intervention made later than 1935 when phtalocyanines were patented.1. n. following the protocol described. results from characterization of the palette of a manuscript are described. Raman analysis (fig.

i n v a s i v e a n a ly s i s o f m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g s fig.º i .19 yellow pigments identified on a xv century miniature fig.20 original and later added blue pigments on a xv century miniature r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.2 0 1 1 239 .a p r o t o c o l f o r n o n .

Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology.. Walter. Poldi.i. Franquelo. Toniolo. Chemical Analysis Series. F.. vol. S. Techne. Lottici. S. vol. Raman. Identification of pigments on a XV century illuminated parchment by Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies. 55: 1371-1377. Spectrochimica Acta Part A. Salerno: Palladio. Gulmini. Ciliberto. 2008. vol. 92: 103-108.. Siena. J.2 0 1 1 . Duran. Aceto. Applied Physics A. 1999. The joined use of n. UV-VIS-NIR.. Porcinai. 1971b. Vicenza: Neri Pozza.. Reconstructing the palette used in a fifteenth century manuscript illuminated by Antoine de Lonhy. M. vol. E. Agostino. Il libro dell’arte. B. P. Bacci. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. Guglielmi.. Perez-Rodriguez. Bacci..P. E. S.. 395: 1997-2004.º i . Brunello. Scrivere in oro. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. Castronovo. Bruni.. F. Spoto eds. A study of medieval illuminated manuscripts by means of portable Raman equipments. 37: 1012-1018. Radicati. F. Crivello. De arte illuminandi. Non destructive spectrophotometry and colour measurements applied to the study of works of art. Casadio. 2006. In: E. vol.. Vicenza: Neri Pozza... A. S. Bruni. F. G. Boccaleri. G. T. J. vol. Zanichelli. S. Vignali.. 12-16 Maggio 2008. Evidence for the degradation of an alloy pigment on an ancient Italian manuscript. 37: 1160-1170. F. 2000. Cerutti Garlanda. Picollo. 2000. F. M. A. visible reflectance spectrometry and EDXRF – to study drawings and illuminated manuscripts... L. A.. Bersani. Agostino. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry.. L.. G. 2008.. 5: 28-33. spectroscopic analyses – FTIR. V. M. 155: 321-361. vol.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s Bibliography Aceto.. Espejo. M. Brunello. L. 2006. Characterization of illuminated manuscripts by laboratory-made portable XRD and micro-XRD systems... D. FT-IR and FORS spectroscopies. 1971a. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2009. 240 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. P. M. Pellizzi. Caglio. A. M... 1997. Porceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry. Caffaro. Castaing.. M. Cariati. A.

Tel. University of Turin. Michel. he is also a member of Centro Interdisciplinare per lo Studio e la Conservazione dei Beni Culturali (CenISCo). Italy.a p r o t o c o l f o r n o n .it. Italy). Italy). Italy) and obtained a PhD in Chemical Sciences (University of Turin. 5 – 10125 Turin. University of Turin. ceramics and pictorial artworks with spectroscopic techniques.º i .2 0 1 1 241 . Tel. Currently she is research associate at the Department of Analytical Chemistry. agostino@unito. Address: Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Collections.: +39 011 6707585.it. Italy) and obtained a PhD in Chemical Sciencs (University of Turin. via P. 5 – 10125 Turin. 48 – 10125 Turin. France. Angelo Agostino graduated in Chemistry (University of Turin. Currently he is technician at the Department of General and Applied Organic Chemistry. Italy) and obtained a PhD in Chemical Sciences (University of Turin. c. E-mail: maurizio. Giuria.so M. Address: Department of Analytical Chemistry. Address: Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. E-mail: monica.: +39 0131 360265. Currently he is research associate at the Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.: +39 011 6707618. 11 – 15100 Alessandria. d’Azeglio. Tel. Giuria. University of Eastern Piedmont. E-mail: angelo. Eleonora Pellizzi graduated in graduated in Sciences and Technologies for the Cultural Heritage (University of Turin. University of Eastern Piedmont. Italy). Valentina Bianco graduated in graduated in Sciences and Technologies for the Cultural Heritage (University of Turin. via P. sede of Vercelli. University of Turin. he is also a member of Centro di Eccellenza NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces). Fax: +39 011 6707615. Fax: +39 0131 360250. aceto@unipmn.i n v a s i v e a n a ly s i s o f m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g s Biographies Maurizio Aceto graduated in Chemistry (University of Turin. His research interests concern characterisation of glasses. Address: Department of Analytical Chemistry. Fax: +39 011 6707585. Address: Department of General and Applied Organic Chemistry. Italy. University of Turin. University of Turin. gulmini@unito. Italy. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. University of Eastern Piedmont. Italy. His research interests concern application of X-ray spectroscopic techniques to the characterisation of materials of artisticarchaeological interest. 36 rue Saint Hilaire – 75005 Paris. University of Turin. via T. Italy). His research interests concern characterisation of colorants of pictorial artworks with non-destructive and noninvasive spectroscopic techniques. Italy). Monica Gulmini graduated in Chemistry (University of Turin. Italy.it. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle.

in situ e não-invasiva. key-words synchrotron x-ray fluorescence manuscript illuminations fra angelico • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. . Justino Maciel. em torno a 1450. Felix Teichner e Heidi.Resumo A fluorescência de raios-X por radiação de sincrotrão é uma técnica eficaz de análise elementar. fully-depleted CCD sensor to the analysis of the pigments on the illumination of a manuscript decorated in the circle of Fra Angelico around 1450. Physical data are integrated with stylistic analysis and archive research in the interpretation of the process of manuscript decoration in XV century Florence. Os dados obtidos são utilizados conjuntamente com a análise estilística e a pesquisa em arquivos para a interpretação do processo de decoração de manuscritos no séc. no estudo dos pigmentos utilizados numa iluminura de um manuscrito produzido no círculo de Fra Angelico. elemental analysis. com um sensor CCD (thick fully-depleted). XV em Florença. Apresentamos um estudo onde a SR-XRF é utilizada. The use of new detectors enables operation at large fluxes without loss of resolution. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. palavras-chave sincrotrão fluorescência de raios-x dispersiva de energias iluminuras fra angelico • Abstract Synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray fluorescence is an effective technique for noninvasive. O uso de novos detectores permite operar com fluxos elevados sem perca de resolução. in-situ. We present a case-study application of SR-XRF with a thick.

57-101. This paper is organized as follows. pp. Berkeley.2 0 1 1 243 . the beam can be made monochromatic and its energy changed to fit the analysis requirements. in Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques. This case study is based on the analysis of the illuminated opening page of a manuscript decorated by Battista di Biagio Sanguigni and another artist. CCD sensors offer several advantages over a conventional Si(Li) detectors. and of the 1. First we discuss some aspects of the organisation of manuscript decoration in Florence around 1450 as it emerges from archival sources. in areas which appear to be due to different artists. around 1450. high-resistivity.. We employ a thick. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Analyse des couleurs dans un groupe de manuscrits enlumines du XII au XV siècle avec l’emploi de la technique PIXE. Their active surface is large and the high pixellisation allows us to operate with large X-ray fluxes without pile-up effects. XRF 2 and PIXE 3 analyses have already provided us with fundamental data for the study of the pigments used in the decoration of Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts. M Picollo et al. the experimental set-up and the CCD performance. these proceedings and references therein. CA (USA) l au ra a l ido r i b at tag l i a University of California at Santa Cruz. front-illuminated Charge Coupled Device (CCD).º i . The small spot size probes tiny regions and disentangles individual pigments and small pitch scans can be performed to acquire detailed pigment maps. Citta’ del Vaticano. 2. The physical data are integrated with stylistic analysis and archive research in the interpretation of manuscript illumination. the other authors for the XRF analysis. CA (USA) Introduction The use of synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is well suited for the elemental analysis of pigments in artworks since the analysis is fast and non-destructive. Then we present the manuscript under study. 3.the application of sr-xrf to the analysis of manuscript illumination a case study 1 m a rco b at tag l i a University of California at Santa Cruz and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 1993. In this article LAB has been responsible for the sections on art history and archive research.. Finally we discuss the results of the analysis of the red pigment composition. This analysis introduces also a novel detector for XRF. CA (USA) rich a rd cel e st r e p eter den es d io nis io do e r i n g ta e s u n g k i m sa ra h z a lu sky Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Here we discuss pigment analysis by SR-XRF to clarify the methods of work and sharing of responsibilities among artists of the circle of Fra Angelico in mid-XV century Florence. M Bernasconi et al.

can be reconstructed from few documented commissions from the 1430s 5. with Zanobi Strozzi from around 1430 until 1438. c. n.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s rendering of the «incarnato». Anno 57. In at least one instance the exchange of leaves from one artist to the next during the decoration process is documented 13. Elenco dei Confratelli c-c 17. He later shared a house. 5. Zanobi Strozzi istoriatore e non miniatore (Indagine nel mondo della miniatura muovendo dai quattro piu’ importanti corali quattrocenteschi fiorentini). while Zanobi Strozzi is documented to work on the same leaves as «istoriatore». A Dillon Bussi. it was Battista di Biagio who introduced Guido di Pietro (Fra Angelico) to the Compagnia di San Niccolo’ di Bari in 1417 (ASF. published in W Cohn. Nuovi documenti. as it has recently been pointed out 7. Filippo di Matteo Torelli. Three examples are particularly pointing. 9. pp. in the majority of the manuscripts for which Fra Angelico painted the historiated initials 14. 7. at least according to the recent identification of the so-called Maestro del 1419 with Battista di Biagio 4. 15-25. a large corpus of illuminations has been assembled. 207-216. located near San Domenico in Fiesole where Guido di Pietro moved after joining the Dominican order. n. the «Libro delle Ricordanze del Convento di San Marco. 78. ASF. 13v (1432): note of a credit with the monastery of San Gaggio: «Batista miniatore dee avere per insino a di’ primo di novembre 1432 per miniature d’uno ynnario grande notato e per miniature in uno salterio grande da coro e per miniature negli antifonari nuovi». c. Firenze. As it is well known. Starting from these works. p 107: «nel qual libro abbiavamo speso insino nel 1437 in fare fare le figure del minio della messa di san pancratio e piu’ altri fogliami ed adorneza di detto minio. Corporazioni Religiosi Soppresse dal Governo Francese 88. n. 321-331. 14 d. Rara Volumina. pp. 234. Compagnie Soppresse. n. Una «glorificazione di San Pancrazio» di Zanobi Strozzi. Not only did he collaborate with Fra Angelico and Zanobi Strozzi to the decoration of manuscripts. Il Beato Angelico e Battista di Biagio Sanguigni. The analysis of documented commissions of manuscript decoration by these artists has clarified the difference of roles between «istoriatore» and «miniatore». or «storia». Michele Visdomini. pp. The profile of Battista di Biagio as illuminator. 63. Catasto 1433.º i . vol. This small group of artists included Zanobi Strozzi and Battista di Biagio Sanguigni and they all worked both as panel painters and as illuminators. The choirbooks for San Gaggio. c. responsible for the marginal decoration and the body of the letters. «fogliami e oro e altri adornamenti». 90 (2002). n. Battista di Niccolo’ da Padova and a not yet identified Bartolomeo 11. Zanobi Strozzi miniatore and Battista di Biagio Sanguigni. but he also developed close personal relations to these artists 6. 2 per resto di sua ragione per i libri miniati al munistero …». Specific artists are named as responsible for the «figure» in the main scene. 8. 215-216. 1. 4. Rivista d’arte. 77. as they were responsible for some of the most prestigious cycles of service books. We know from stylistics analysis that Battista di Biagio was similarly active as «miniatore». These roles are generally respected: Filippo di Matteo Torelli is attributed almost exclusively the role of «miniatore». pp 3-19. and others for the leafy marginal decoration. published in M Levi d’Ancona. A» relates us details of the making of the choirbooks for the Dominican foundation by Zanobi Strozzi and other artists from 1446 to 1454 12. 33 s. comparing it with that by other artists active in Florence in the same decade. San Pancrazio. 1962. 264r (1433): note of a credit with Bardo de’ Bardi «per un libricciuolo gli fe’». The second is the 1445 commission for the decoration of the antiphonaries of Santa Maria del Fiore 10 to Zanobi Strozzi. vol 1549: Compagnia di San Niccolo’ di Bari in Santa Maria del Carmine. Battista di Biagio emerges as one of leading illuminators in Florence in the second quarter of the XV century and his relationship to Fra Angelico and the other artists of his immediate circle appears of special importance. ASF. vol. ASF. in particular pp. 30 (1955). This collaboration may date 244 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. The first is the 1437 commission for an illumination for the monastery of San Pancrazio 8 to Zanobi Strozzi and Filippo di Matteo Torelli 9. 6. 507) and lived near his house in S. Soppr. San Gaggio. Olschki. 482. LB Kanter. ibid. 13 (2006). Arte Cristiana. Finally. now at San Marco. are the centerpiece for the identification of his style. 69 (2006). Cohn 1955. Paragone Arte. Miniatura e Miniatori a Firenze dal XIV al XVI secolo. In all these documents the sharing of roles is clearly defined. which still needs to be studied in detail.2 0 1 1 . c. 410 e a-c 18. 213. 34r. Il quale fece «Ad faciendum storias» and «ad miniandum»: the Sharing of Illumination Roles and the circle of Fra Angelico Fra Angelico and the artists of his immediate circle enjoy a privileged role in the landscape of manuscript decoration in XV century Florence. A Dillon Bussi. 35r (1435) «Batista di … miniatore de avere a di’ 14 ottobre (1435) lb. Conv.

x r f t o t h e a n a ly s i s o f m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n Zanobi degli Strozi cioe’ le figure et il resto Pippo di Matteo che dacordo ebbono insino a di’ 17 di maggio 1437 L. pp. While archival sources are generally scarce on such details of the process of manuscript production. sharing the same pigments. M Bollati (ed). 10. This peculiar organisation of work. Nuovi documenti su Vespasiano da Bisticci la sua bottega e la sua famiglia.t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s r . 12. Libro delle Ricordanze di San Marco «A». 1962. Indagini su botteghe di cartolai e miniatori a Firenze nel XV secolo. even though the quality of the colours to be employed is often mentioned in contracts 19. in Federico da Mon- as early circa 1425 in the work for the choirbook Ms 558 for San Domenico. Archivio Opera del Duomo. L Fabbri and M Tacconi (eds. The sources do not help us in clarifying this point. miniatori.e. 217-224 (Tacconi). locaverunt Zanobio Benedicti Carocii de Strozis ad faciendum storias de uno ex antifanariis locatis ad scribendum Goro. Therefore.. in the surviving documents for XV century Florence.1630: «Nobiles viri … operarii antedicti omni modo etc. i. Firenze 1985. the «Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore». today we see the spaces left for the «storie». see I libri del Duomo di Firenze: codici liturgici e biblioteca di Santa Maria del Fiore (secoli XI-XVI). E Sesti (ed. The organisation of artist workshops has been studied in details. pretii (sic) alias fiendo. As the decoration of the missal was left unfinished. 79-96 (Dillon Bussi) and pp. Il Duomo di Firenze. We recognize again his hand in the decoration of the two Psalters. in La miniature italiana tra Gotico e Rinascimento. the identification of another manuscript where Battista di Biagio shares the decoration work with an artist of the immediate Fra Angelico circle. vol. was completed. One of these is the case of a group of leaves for one of the antiphonaries being produced for Santa Maria del Fiore and brought to Filippo Maria Torelli in 1450 17. Item locaverunt ad miniandum alium antifanarium Bartolomeo minatori…». 11. we are faced with the question whether different artists did work side-by-side. possibly Sanguigni himself. Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana. n. we know about the effective organisation of manuscript production. See for example and references therein: A Guidotti. c. probably. Responsible for this was in general. Milano 2004. thus confirming the evidence from the archival sources. It is suggestive to assume that the same form of organisation could also ensure the uniformity of the decorative work. et remuneratione alias fiendis. which ensured the constant quality of the final product 16.º i .). 41t .20 s. Beato Angelico. Firenze 1997. II (1988). the «cartolaio» but in the specific case of the choirbooks of the Duomo this role was taken by the patron itself. On 23 May 1447 Zanobi receives from Filippo Matteo Torelli two letters to be decorated. San Marco 902 cit. Item locaverunt ad miniandum unum de dictis antifanariis Filippo Mathei Torelli. Firenze. Atti del II Congresso di Storia della Miniatura Italiana. documents confirm that single leaves were brought to the artist for being decorated. Firenze. by Sanguigni. 13. Since the appearance of the finished manuscript does not reveal to us chromatic inconsistencies. San Marco 902. possibly due to their high cost 18. are mostly limited to the gold and the «azzurro». in the choirbooks for San Gaggio. from the acquisition of the parchment to the writing. pp. Mss. All these examples demonstrate that the decoration of the letters and their marginal extensions and those of the «storie» belonged to two distinct and possibly independent phases in the process of manuscript decoration. paints all the letters and their marginal decoration leaving the space for the work of the «istoriatore». provides us with the opportunity to better understand their working practice and confirm the stylistic evidence with physical data. I-1-4. but several foliated decorations were left unfinished. Edili 148-151 in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana. f 23r published in M Levi D’Ancona. In fact. p 39. 54 published in G Poggi. even when «storie» and decorative borders where painted by different hands at different locations. in at few instances. which sees two different artists working on the same initial is further confirmed by the analysis of Missal Ms 534 from San Marco where one artist. which can be dated circa 1449 near the end of his life and are very close in style to the miniature analyzed here. 15 including the relations between the workshop principal and his collaborators and the role of the «cartolaio» in the distribution of the work of manuscript production and decoration. Miniatura e miniatori a Firenze dal XIV al XVI secolo. 473-507. ad vocem Guido di Pietro. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Mss 530 and 531 of San Marco. now in San Marco. in Dizionario biografico dei miniatori italiani: secoli IX-XVI. pp. 14. dispatching the parts through the work chain. or the observed chromatic uniformity is the result of a high degree of organisation of this process. 1964. p 265. mentions of transactions of colours between patrons and artists. Now. decoration and binding. It likely continued shortly afterwards in the decoration of Ms. f 26v: «Ricordo come Zenobio degli Strozzi miniature à auto da me frate costantino [da Nocera] de san marcho per storie fan el primo graduale delle feste florin dodici in duo partite» and following entries published in S Orlandi. pp 116-117 and 194-195.2 0 1 1 245 . pro pretio. which followed the various stages of the work.-». A Guidotti. 334-335. the main illumination. Item locaverunt magistro Batiste…ad faciendum storias in alio antifanario predicto pro pretio alias fiendo. Gerli 54 in Biblioteca Braidense of Milano. 15. LB Kanter. Conversely.).

which gives a continuum X-ray spectrum up to ~20 keV. Il Duomo di Firenze. componenti e ruoli della bottega laica tra XIV e XV secolo. Atti del II Congresso di Storia della Miniatura Italiana. while performing pixel-by-pixel pedestal subtraction and noise computation from CCD exposure taken without beam. 38 (1989). 97-111. Appunti e documenti per la storia della miniature a Prato nel Quattrocento. For this study the beam energy was chosen to be 12 keV. The final spectrum analysis and peak search is performed in ROOT. Firenze. The offline analysis is performed using custom clustering processors in the Marlin C++ analysis framework. E Sesti (ed. The CCD response is calibrated in the range 3-12 keV using thin metal foils in the same geometry used as for the manuscript analysis. Synchrotron radiation is produced by the 1. Medieval illuminators and their methods of work. tre s. 354). Bartolomeo alle Sacca» in nearby Prato where leaves written in the convent scriptorium were sent to an outside workshop for being decorated. 17. The XRF analysis sampled a total of twenty-six points on the decorated tefeltro: lo stato. A Dillon Bussi. JJG Alexander. M Gregori et al.0) e— ENC. xi demo a Pippo miniature per oncia 1 dazuro de la magna e per ¼ oncia dazuro ultramarino ». 54 pubblicato in G Poggi. c . 18. For example. G Cerbeni Baiardi et al (eds. Maestri e botteghe : pittura a Firenze alla fine del Quattrocento. such as at a light source. pp. 246 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Thick. The CCD has an active surface of 118 mm2 with 1024x512 pixels arrayed on a 15 μm pitch and two output channels. in La Pittura in Italia. c. The spectrum is reweighted to correct for the effect of X-ray absorption in the kapton window and the inactive detector surface. Firenze nel Quattrocento: divisione e organizzzione del lavoro nelle botteghe. pile-up clusters and scattered photons striking the detector at large angles. p 47. Roma. I. Catasto 1430. II (1988). The beam spot at the sample surface has a diameter of ~1 mm. 1277 (2009). who expresses a style very close to that of Fra Angelico himself. matching or surpassing that of conventional solid-state X-ray detectors.). The sample is mounted on a computer-controlled XY stage. Upstream from the sample a mono-chromator selects the beam energy.2±1. This is particularly important when performing XRF on a high intensity primary beam. Another case concerns the Olivetan convent of «S. L Alidori Battaglia.º i . while a second artist.1672: «A Filippo di Matteo Torelli.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s SR-XRF Analysis of a Miniature by Battista di Biagio Sanguigni and a Collaborator of Fra Angelico The illumination analysed in this study is on the opening page of a manuscript containing works attributed to St. 1986. VIII-4-1. Organizzazione. paints the figure of the St. M Ciatti. la cultura. Firenze. A collimator eliminates the white beam and defines the monochromatic beam geometry while a shutter controls the exposure time. 2006. Milano. (eds). Ricerche di storia dell’arte.).). vol 389. now in a private collection. in La miniatura italiana tra Gotico e Rinascimento. in particular p. ASF. vol. 509-533. 16. 19. New Haven 1992. front-illuminated CCD sensor developed at LBNL on high resistivity Si. One is responsible for the body of the initial and its foliated extensions and can be doubtlessly identified with Battista di Biagio Sanguigni. L Indrio.1 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS). Under the operating conditions adopted for this analysis the sensitive thickness is ~450 μm. Jerome in the initial. 528. This SR-XRF analysis was performed on beam line 5. n.9 GeV electron beam in one of the main ring bending magnets. Rara Volumina (2006). An unpublished miniature from the circle of Fra Angelico. A Guidotti (ed. 1986. CLI. 1985. 20. Firenze 1992. Archivio Opera del Duomo. high-resistivity CCDs offer high detection efficiency and an excellent energy resolution. 518-525. vol.). pp. The single pixel noise is measured to be (4. 535.9 keV.2 0 1 1 . The stylistic analysis indicates that its decoration is the work of two distinct artists. 61-70. Giornale H. n. Badia vol. Data are saved in the fits format and subsequently converted to the lcio format. E Castelnuovo (ed. X-rays are detected with a thick. Giornale (1435-1441). decorated around 1450 20.3. in Il colore dell’antico. Cluster shape analysis is helpful for rejecting spurious background signals. Il Duecento e il Trecento. le arti. Filippo di Matteo Torelli is paied for blue pigment in 1437 «l. which allows us to perform automated scans of the surface of the manuscript. Il mestiere del «dipintore» nell’Italia Due-Trecentesca. The Burlington Magazine. Battista di Biagio contracted a debt with the friars of Santa Maria degli Angeli for blue pigment in 1430 (ASF. 529-540. pp. miniature. A Guidotti. pp. pp. Conventi Soppressi 78. addi’ 6 di luglio gli porto’ a chasa Martino manovale cho’ licenza di Pazino operai 2 asse d’albero nero entrovi… charte scritte e notate del primo antifanare si fanno di nuovo perche’ lle minii … Rimando’ dette cose all’opera». Beam back-scattering from the sample is removed by subtracting a reference spectrum obtained with the beam aimed at a non-decorated part of the parchment. The energy resolution measured for reconstructed clusters from a 55Fe source is 155 eV FWHM at 5. in particular p. which offers high spectral sensitivity up to energies well above the beam energy. Jerome.

x r f t o t h e a n a ly s i s o f m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n surface of the manuscript (see Figure 1). Ten different pigments have been analyzed. c.t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s r .2 0 1 1 2 47 . the same pigment has been sampled at different locations to study the effect of possible local in-homogeneities. tempera on parchment. Jerome face.º i . 19 by 14 cm (private collection). fig. jerome from the regula monachorum.1 page with the initial l with st. In some cases. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 1r. Here we discuss the pigment composition on those parts which appear to be due to two different artists and the technique for the rendering of the «incarnato» of St.

The XRF analysis enables us to compare the pigment composition on the forehead. This technique is adopted by Fra Angelico as well as Zanobi Strozzi. This composition indicates that the artist mixed minium with another pigment. 65-74 reports subsequent interventions on the same initials.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s First.and efficiency-corrected xrf spectra for the red pigment on the book hold by the saint (black histogram) and on the marginal leaf (gray histogram). revealed by infra-red photography. Instead. the red pigment on the book is characterized by a large quantity of Cu with Pb. Differences in the pigment composition. pp.2 absorption. 21. Anno VI (2007). Zn and Ti. The analysis of the beard shows that the pigment has Fe. we study the composition of the red pigment at various locations on the foliated decoration and on the book hold by the St.2 0 1 1 . Instead.. Cu. 1993 identifies differences in pigment composition between Florentine-style and Lucca-style artists working on BML. Arte Medievale. possibly an «ocra rossa». We sampled three distinct spots on the leaf and two on the book.º i . On the contrary. on the forehead there are larger brushstrokes beneath the final painted layer. fig. Amanuensi e miniatori in un Decretum Gratiani del Walters Art Museum di Baltimora. associated to the work of different artists in the same manuscripts have already been observed 21. Fe with traces of Zn and Ba. The analysis reveals Pb and a small amount of Cu in the red pigment on the leaf protruding from the letter. Soppr.s. the breast and the hand. M Bagnoli. Pb and traces of Ba. The second part of this study attempts to elucidate the technique employed for the rendering of the «incarnato». The different composition of the two pigments seems to support the indication from the stylistic analysis that there are two artists working independently on the miniature. 298. Jerome are obtained with brushstrokes in an olive colour. This is consistent with what we would expect for minium. The composition of the pigment used on the breast and on the hand appears to be identical. possibly a «terra verde» which follows the outline of the cheeks and the beard. with traces of Cu. 2. Conv. Results are consistent. n. The deep shadows on the face of St. Jerome. we observe a much larger Fe and 248 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. M Bernasconi et al. The four spectra are shown in Figure 3. The spectra are shown in Figure 2. It is characterised by Fe and Pb.

103-119. Cu content on the forehead.º i . Other pigments differ significantly in the two manuscripts. For example.t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s r . A PIXE analysis of Manuscripts Illuminated bu Francesco di Antonio del Chierico.and efficiency-corrected xrf spectra for the pigment on the forehead in the region of the deep shadow (continuous black histogram) and away from it (continuous gray histogram). This manuscript is dated 1455 in the colophon and was decorated by Francesco d’Antonio del Chierico. On the leaf by Battista di Biagio in our manuscript the pink is characterized by Sb. the analysis reveals only Ca. Ancient and Medieval Book cit.3 absorption.22 of the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana 22.. Cu and Fe. Even within the limitations imposed by data collected from a single manuscript. 66. from the parchment preparation. We attempted to combine the results of SR-XRF analysis with stylistics analysis and archival research. The rendering of deep shades on the face by underlying a Cu-based green pigment has already been observed in the PIXE analysis of ms. Manuscript decoration was a well-organized and structured process r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. the picture which emerges is very consistent and quite encouraging for the continuation of such studies. These comparisons are particularly interesting since they refer to two manuscripts decorated within a few years by two of the most prominent workshops in Florence and highlight the variety of techniques and pigments adopted by these artists. pp. in a pink-coloured area in the miniature of Francesco d’Antonio. with traces of Mn and Cr. on the breast of the saint (dashed black histogram) and on the hand (dashed gray histogram). fig. Pb.x r f t o t h e a n a ly s i s o f m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n 22. Conclusions and Perspectives This case study offered us with the opportunity to address some issues in the practice of manuscript decoration in mid-fifteenth century Florence. R Cambria et al. Plut.2 0 1 1 249 . which suggests the use of a pigment of organic origin.

n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t s with different artists contributing as «miniatori» and «istoriator». after several months and after more than a year.. 23. E. Contrary to the case of protons. 24. Proton irradiation is known to induce the so-called «dark spot» phenomenon which appears to be related to the generation of colour centers 23. but also on minor commissions consisting of a single illuminated initial per manuscript. offer new opportunities for high resolution spectroscopy with large photon fluxes.2 0 1 1 . pp. No effect was detectable. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. We carried out some observations on the pigments on a XV century bas-de-page after exposure to a 15 keV X-ray beam at the ALS.º i .. in SR-XRF. Enguita et al. However. At the same time it is apparent that more data on pigment analysis should be made available to support the work of art historians in the understanding of manuscript decoration practice and techniques across chronological and geographical boundaries. Finally the use of advanced pixellated sensors. as the high-resistivity CCDs adopted for this case study. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. 90-97. 53-56. Results of physical elemental analysis confirm the evidence from stylistic analysis and documents. it would be important to further study the issue. The results of this case study highlight the need to tightly integrate future campaigns of elemental analyses with well-defined art history problems which can be answered by the knowledge of pigment composition. but there is only limited understanding on the mechanisms responsible for pigment damage and on their reversibility 24. Damage induced by proton irradiation in carbonate based natural painting pigments. the X-ray energy is often below threshold for displacement damage. B198 (2002). Observations were performed immediately after the irradiation. B219-220 (2004). Study of color centers induced by PIXE irradiation. • 250 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. which will benefit the study of manuscript pigments both in terms of the exposure time and sensitivity to trace elements. This seems to be the case not only in the decoration of major cycles. The effect of the intense X-ray beam from a light source on the pigment and the parchment is an issue which is often raised by conservationists and curators and deserves further studies. pp. J Absil et al.

.

Examples of the experimental workflow and results obtained by using it to study several illuminated leaves are presented. Ainda que o número de técnicas não-invasivas esteja a crescer. Instead site-specific in situ techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy are commonly used to identify pigments. . com métodos pontuais como a espectroscopia de UV-VIS por reflectância com fibra óptica (FORS) e XFR. all are site-specific and thus cannot be used to survey the entire work of art. Pedro Fialho de Sousa. como a fluorescência de raios-X dispersiva de energias (XRF) e microscopia Raman têm sido utilizadas para a identificação de pigmentos. é possível identificar e mapear os pigmentos principais utilizados em iluminuras bem como visualizar o desenho preparatório e eventuais alterações na composição. Em alternativa. palavras-chave imagiografia multiespectral fluorescência de raios-x dispersiva de energias fors iluminuras • Abstract The fragility and small dimensions of illuminated manuscripts prohibit the use of chemical methods that rely on small samples being taken from the artwork as is typically done for paintings. Recently we have found that by combining results from multispectral visible/infrared reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy with those from site-specific methods such as fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and XRF. key-words multispectral imaging x-ray fluorescence fors manuscript illuminations • Agradecimentos por ajuda na configuração do texto e sugestões de Ana Catarina Sousa. Recentemente descobrimos que combinando os dados obtidos através de técnicas de imagiografia multiespectrais. Descrevem-se exemplos do procedimento experimental e dos resultados obtidos em diversos fólios iluminados. Justino Maciel. técnicas com boa resolução espacial e passíveis de aplicação in situ. While the number of non-invasive analytical techniques is growing. são todas de aplicação pontual e como tal não são utilizadas para investigar a obra de arte por inteiro.Resumo A fragilidade e pequeno tamanho das iluminuras torna difícil a aplicação de métodos químicos que requeiram pequenas amostras como é comum fazer em quadros. baseadas em reflectância de VIS-NIR e luminescência. as well as visualize the underlying preparatory sketches and compositional changes. Felix Teichner e Heidi. it is possible to successfully identify and map the primary pigments on medieval illuminated leaves.

r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.. two are most relevant for conservation science.2 0 1 1 253 .º i . Of particular interest is the study of illuminated manuscripts. Site-specific analytical techniques. Namely. in-situ techniques for material identification and mapping pao l a riccia r d i .ricciardi@gmail. d e l a n e y Scientific Research Dept.combining visible and infrared imaging spectroscopy with site specific. and elucidating the construction techniques used such as layering and the use of preparatory sketches. Washington. j ohn k. for use in conservation science. National Gallery of Art. is aimed at adapting the imaging spectroscopy methods. particularly the colorants. Among the many questions often addressed in the analysis of illuminated manuscripts. (USA) paola. Washington DC (NGA). which have a simpler palette than many paintings and often cannot be sampled.C. originally developed for remote sensing. D.gov Introduction The work being carried out at the National Gallery of Art. the identification of the materials used.com j-delaney@nga. such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy. and in particular to explore the resulting synergy when these results are combined with in situ chemical methods.

Ricciardi et al. representing the «Birth of John the Baptist». mostly organics dyes. one attributed to the workshop of Pacino di Buonaguida. 1). However such imaging spectroscopy methods have required light levels too high for works of art on paper or parchment. notably. 2009a. In the case of reflectance imaging spectroscopy the spectral features collected relate to the electronic transitions and some vibrational modes of the artist’s materials. This is useful to help in the identification of pigments which have 254 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Combining the imaging spectroscopy results with data from low light fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and X-ray fluorescence. and UV-excited fluorescence. 2005.2 0 1 1 . is luminescent when excited with UV/blue light. they cannot be used to survey the entire surface of a miniature. spectra are usually acquired on visually identified sites thought to be representative of the pigments and mixtures used for the illumination. thus «transforming» the imaging process into «imaging spectroscopy». Delaney et al.º i . By grouping similar spectra maps can be made. and the average spectra from each map can be compared to data-bases to help with the identification. 15 spectral bands). Delaney et al. infrared reflectography (IRR). We have used this camera system to acquire reflectance and luminescence images of several 14 th century Italian illuminated leaves in the NGA collection. This is done by generating reflectance and luminescence spectra at each pixel and thus over the whole imaged art object. Delaney et al. and preparatory sketches and changes can be visualized (Delaney et al. 2010). 2009c. On the other hand visual imaging techniques such as microscopic observation.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m s are usually employed to identify the pigments and possibly the binders used for the illumination. Here we present some results regarding the use of a high sensitivity multispectral visible/infrared camera system (400 to 2500 nm. Summary of experimental techniques Imaging spectroscopy involves the acquisition of spatially co-registered images in many spectral bands in order to allow construction of a spectrum at each point in the spectral image set (Fig. which can provide chemical information about materials. While such methods are analytically powerful. 2009). Luminescence imaging spectroscopy exploits the observation that a subset of artists’ pigments. research carried out mostly on paintings has proved that imaging spectroscopy techniques can be effectively used for material identification and mapping on works of art (Casini et al. 1999. are employed to visualize the preparatory sketches and understand the layer structure of the miniature. we have found that the primary pigments on these medieval illuminated leaves can be identified and mapped. Such visual inspection may not always ensure an adequate representation of the pigment diversity present. With both techniques. which operates at illumination levels of approximately 150 lux. representing «Christ in majesty with twelve apostles». Radiometric calibration of images acquired in numerous visible/infrared spectral bands can be used to produce quantitative results. In recent years. and another attributed to Niccolò da Bologna.

with the reconstruction of the reflectance spectra for a blue and a red area from the multi-spectral images of «christ in majesty with twelve apostles» by the workshop of pacino di buonaguida (visible image detail at top left).n e w t r e n d s i n t h e s t u d y o f m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at e d m a n u s c r i p t s fig.1 (top) schematic representation of the working principle of reflectance imaging spectroscopy.2 0 1 1 255 .º i . the gray gaussians and rectangles represent the wavelength ranges analyzed by the imaging cameras r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. (bottom) high-resolution reflectance spectra of the same areas collected with the fiber optics reflectance spectrometer.

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses are carried out using a Bruker ARTAX Pro instrument equipped with a Rh tube and 75 μm capillary optics. not always straightforward. the combination of elements identified in each spectrum is compared with possible pigment/mixture 256 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. A helium flush is used to be able to detect light elements (> Na). The presence of numerous parchment-related absorption bands in the infrared range also makes it harder to separate which spectral features actually relate to the pigment. Whenever possible. 40 nm FWHM). in order to avoid confusing results due to the intrinsic limitation of XRF which does not yield results spatially resolved in depth. respectively). and gypsum. Thus site-specific methods such as XRF and FORS can be used to aid in the identification. the use of imaging spectroscopy for the study of light-sensitive materials such as illuminated manuscripts can be problematic. Derivative spectra can be used to distinguish for example between red lead and vermillion. comparable to a few times gallery light levels) is currently carried out at NGA with an optimized low-noise.e. and it is for this reason that it is useful for the analysis of illuminated manuscripts. as may be the case for organic dyes. which creates a large amount of inelastic scattering in the spectrum compared with the small amounts of material actually being analyzed in the manuscript. allowing the observation of preparatory sketches and compositional changes at the same low light level used for MSI. ~595 nm. Infrared reflectograms (IRR) in the 750 to 950 nm and 1000 to 2500 nm range can be acquired using the Si-CCD camera (see above) and a highly sensitive InSb camera equipped with infrared filters. lead white. allowing access to the short-wave infrared region. As noted before. While multispectral imaging spectroscopy in this spectral range (visible to near infrared) is a powerful tool to spectrally separate and cluster similar materials it is not robust enough to identify directly most artist’s materials. to date in fact.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m s reflectance spectra that lack unique features.2 0 1 1 . It is worth noting that XRF analyses of works of art on parchment are difficult due to the low density of this material. The study of works of art on paper and parchment requiring low illumination (about 150 lux. i. thanks to the difference in the position of the transition edge (~570 vs. This system is used to collect 12 narrow-band reflectance and luminescence images in the visible to near infrared range (400 to 950 nm.º i . high-sensitivity 4 mega pixel Si-CCD imaging camera. while carbon-based inks and most metalpoints remain visible throughout this range. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is used to collect higher resolution reflectance spectra in selected areas in the 350 to 2500 nm range. The interpretation of spectra acquired on mixtures is. In both cases. most iron-based inks are in fact totally transparent in the 1000-2500 nm range. additional data treatment is required. which yields important information for the identification of certain materials such as azurite (easily recognizable by two absorption bands at about 2285 and 2352 nm). many of the multi-spectral imaging (MSI) camera systems having high spatial fidelity require high light levels. XRF data are interpreted using traditional methods. however. areas for analysis are chosen so that no decoration is present in the corresponding area on the verso of the manuscript leaf. IRR is also useful to distinguish between the materials used for underdrawings.

An example of the experimental workflow used during the study of the «Christ in majesty with twelve apostles» by the workshop of Pacino di Buonaguida. i. Case Studies In the case of the illuminated manuscript leaves analyzed at NGA.º i . the described analytical methodology yielded distribution maps for several pigments typically used for illuminations in the Middle Ages (Brunello 1975). quite commonly found in Conservation Departments.e. and added to the multispectral reflectance cube. the luminescence image cube (500 to 900 nm) is constructed from images acquired while the manuscript is illuminated with blue light (380 to 450 nm) to excite the fluorescence. the use of imaging spectroscopy allowed. such as XRF. Ricciardi et al. These calibrated images are then spatially «registered».2 0 1 1 257 . 2009b. is illustrated in Fig. among other things. 2009). In two separate cases (Delaney et al. The reflectance and luminescence images are processed to correct for pixel and illumination non-uniformity and calibrated to reflectance or emittance using standards. from a user selected site in the image cube. In a similar manner the luminescence spectral cube can be probed and maps of areas having the same emission spectra found. The cube is probed with the spectral angle mapper algorithm which finds pixels having similar spectra to the reference spectrum. i. 1500 to 1800 nm and 2000 to 2400 nm. vermillion. Next. Spatial maps of the primary spectral elements can be made directly by probing the low-resolution reflectance image cube with a reference spectrum. The reference spectrum can come from a spectral library. to map selected blue r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. along with some indication of pigment layering in the blue and red areas. aligned together to remove lens and filter related image shifts. These maps then can be used to guide selection of sites where more definitive in situ analysis can be performed. Raman spectroscopy. 2. Comparing these results with those from the spectral methods can help finalize the assignment to the most likely candidate.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e s t u d y o f m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at e d m a n u s c r i p t s compositions. Second. ultramarine. Methodology First. This leads to several possible assignments and thus not always to a unique answer. These maps are produced using all 12 spectral bands as opposed to creating false color maps from just three bands. regions of azurite. or as result of principle component based analysis with software designed to find the primary spectral components. ensuring more meaningful results.e. and brown earth. It should be noted that imaging in the 400-1600 nm range can be easily performed with relatively inexpensive equipment. infrared reflectance images are collected in three spectral bands: 1100 to 1400 nm. or fiber optics reflectance and luminescence spectroscopy. the multispectral reflectance image cube is constructed from 12 reflectance images (400 to 950 nm).

washington dc) areas not identified by other techniques.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m s fig. accession number 1952.8.º i . not requiring a time-consuming detailed observation under the microscope.277. specifically showed the presence of lead white and «mosaic gold» (tin sulphide). XRF and FORS analyses of selected sites. image courtesy of the national gallery of art. or with a metalpoint. 258 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. either executed with a carbon-based ink on a fine brush.2 experimental workflow used to collect and analyze the reflectance images followed by site-specific analysis. During the analysis of «Birth of John the Baptist» by Niccolò da Bologna (Ricciardi et al. chosen following the indications provided by the MSI maps. 2009).2 0 1 1 . infrared reflectograms revealed a few preliminary sketches. 1989). a practice which was common in 14th century Italy (Bomford et al. The reflectance and luminescence datacubes therefore allowed mapping the pigment distribution and layering on the illuminated leaves in a totally non-invasive and relatively fast way. The near infrared images also showed that the skin tones were loosely painted and do not always match the finely detailed preparatory lines. as carried out during the study of «christ in majesty with twelve apostles» by the workshop of pacino di buonaguida (rosenwald collection. where a layer of ultramarine was painted over azurite. The presence of organic dyes was identified and mapped through the analysis of the luminescence image cubes. They also helped «guide» the choice of the sites to be analyzed by XRF and FORS for more accurate pigment identification.

The analysis of each miniature. and Raman spectroscopy into a single setup. at the moment requires two days for the MSI and IRR. yielding a complete characterization of the materials in situ (e. at least one day each for XRF and FORS. following the methodology presented in the previous sections. In the future starting with the MSI-derived maps improved results could be obtained by combining XRF. and by the observation of preparatory sketches. the illuminated manuscript leaves contained in one manuscript. Finally. such as Raman spectroscopy and XRF. providing improved in situ mapping and identification of pigments on illuminated manuscripts in a relatively short time. FORS. FORS. which would have to be performed on hundreds of spots. if not all. Conclusions The combination of reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy. which would allow acquiring different kinds of information on the same sites. This approach of combining high fidelity site-specific methods (FORS and XRF) with the mapping capability of multispectral reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy appears thus to be a useful tool. the identification of the organic binding media could be attained by adding Raman spectroscopy or mid-IR spectroscopy to the list of analytical techniques. scientific analyses are usually applied to many. results on a single illuminated manuscript leaf can thus be obtained in about a week. Significant.2 0 1 1 259 . for example by improving the correlation between the luminescence and reflectance images in order to improve the characterization of organic dyes and yellow pigments. This methodology can be further refined. and XRF has proved useful for the identification and mapping of the primary pigments on medieval illuminated manuscript leaves. identification of the binding media and organic pigments). increasing the possibility to obtain significant results and providing a chance for extensive comparisons. the imaging was made «quantitative» thanks to calibration and this allowed reconstructing reflectance and emission spectra. The availability of a relatively quick procedure would allow surveying a large number of leaves. Imaging spectroscopy. even in only a few bands.g. obtained by the identification and mapping of the primary pigments. including data acquisition and treatment. This is therefore a «quick» and effective methodology compared to the time (and effort) which would be required to obtain pigment identification and mapping at a comparable level using only site-specific methods. • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.º i . The final goal is a comprehensive characterization of the manuscript. if preliminary.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e s t u d y o f m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at e d m a n u s c r i p t s Additional remarks In order to produce results which are relevant from the point of view of art historical issues. has shown its utility for pigment mapping.

Doug Lachance. Jason G. Studies in Conservation 44: 39-48.2 0 1 1 . Washington D.C. Ricciardi. 10. 7391.: The National Academies Press. Rene de la Rie. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. David. Brunello. ed. Roy Littleton. 2009a.1117/12. Franco Lotti. Delaney. Morales. d. Roy T.. 1975. 2005. Use of visible and infrared reflectance and luminescence imaging spectroscopy to study illuminated manuscripts: pigment identification and 260 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Luca Pezzati and Renzo Salimbeni. Elizabeth Walmsley. Mathieu Thoury and René de la Rie for their respective roles during the experimental part of this work. Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy of Picasso’s Harlequin Musician: Mapping and Identification of Artist Materials in situ. Mellon Foundation and the Samuel H. Jason G. and Ezio Buzzegoli.827493. Application of imaging spectroscopy to the study of illuminated manuscripts. in Los Angeles. 2009. Zeibel. De Arte Illuminandi e altri trattati sulla tecnica della miniatura medievale. Jill Dunkerton. Mathieu Thoury. Michael Palmer. 2010. Ashok Roy. 120-136. John K. E. Multispectral imaging of paintings in the infrared to detect and map blue pigments.º i . Casini. 2009b. 739103. 1999. Lisha D. Lisha D. Applied Spectroscopy. Franco. Fletcher.. Kathryn M. Art in the Making – Italian painting before 1400. Mathieu Thoury. 64(6): 584-594. Colin F.. Andrea. Berrie. John K. 1989. In Scientific examination of art – modern techniques in conservation and analysis. Glinsman. Ann Hoenigswald. Littleton. In O3A – Optics for art. and Paola Ricciardi. Michelle Facini. René de la Rie. John K. Lorenzo Stefani. John K. Michael Palmer. Paola. Lisha D. E. Image spectroscopy mapping technique for non-invasive analysis of paintings. Visible and infrared imaging spectroscopy of paintings: pigment mapping and improved infrared reflectography. Kress Foundation. Delaney.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e a n a ly s i s o f m e d i e v a l m s Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Andrew W. Vicenza: Neri Pozza Editore. Marcello Picollo. Glinsman. Mathieu Thoury. Bibliography Bomford. May 19-22. Michelle Facini. They also wish to thank their colleagues Michelle Facini. Delaney. Delaney. USA (and manuscript in preparation). Glinsman.. Poster presented at the 37th AIC annual meeting. John K. Mathieu Thoury. René de la Rie. and E. architecture and archaeology II. Delaney.i. London: National Gallery Company Ltd. Zeibel.o. Dillian Gordon. Barbara H.

10. 2000B South Club Drive.º i . Address: as for Ricciardi. Delaney is the senior imaging scientist at the National Gallery of Art. and glass. since 2008 as the Samuel H. architecture and archaeology II. paola. He received his PhD from the Rockefeller University and completed post-doctoral studies at the University of Arizona and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She received her undergraduate degree in Physics from the University of Rome La Sapienza in 2003 and her PhD in Conservation Science from the University of Florence in 2008 with a thesis on the application of Raman spectroscopy to the analysis of ancient pottery.gov r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. He is also a research professor in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at George Washington University in DC.i. 739106. Md. d. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. Washington DC. Biographies Paola Ricciardi has been at the National Gallery of Art. In O3A – Optics for art. Washington DC.1117/12.827415. 20785. porcelain.com John K. j-delaney@nga. ed.n e w t r e n d s i n t h e s t u d y o f m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at e d m a n u s c r i p t s visualization of underdrawings. Luca Pezzati and Renzo Salimbeni.ricciardi@gmail. where his research focuses on the development of in situ imaging methods for art conservation and the understanding of the optical properties of varnishes. 7391.o.2 0 1 1 261 . Her research focuses on the application of in situ analytical methods to the study of light-sensitive works of art. National Gallery of Art. Landover. Kress fellow in imaging science. Address: DCL.

Michel Pastoureau brinda-nos com mais um volume em que a cor é apresentada do ponto de vista do historiador. o autor aborda-o enquanto parte integrante de um sistema de cores. Com efeito.15) dá-nos um exemplo bem claro: «Croire.2 0 1 1 . longe de estudar o preto isoladamente.» Pastoureau chama a atenção para a importância da consciência das dificuldades inerentes ao estudo da cor. cronológico e simbólico. elle ne fonctionne pleinement du point de vue social. afirma (2008. obra decisiva para a introdução desta temática na História e da História da Arte. será um trabalho árduo mas profícuo para o historiador. Dans toute isbn 9782020490870 – 39 € 264 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 2008 ma ria a del a id e m i r a n da rita ca rva l h o Instituto de Estudos Medievais e Instituto de História da Arte. XVIII. alertando-nos para a necessidade de o estudar num contexto social. material e técnica. da Antiguidade romana até ao séc. mas cujo impacto recai sobre variadíssimos ramos de conhecimento.recensões · noir. não esquecendo a sua dimensão científica. nomeadamente as alterações que esta sofre através dos tempos e a especificidades dos meios através dos quais se transmite. 12): «Une couleur ne vient pas seule. p. images. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas. elle ne prend son sens.º i . Neste sentido. o autor mantém-se fiel aos princípios enunciados nas suas obras pioneiras. est à la fois naïf et anachronique. Histoire d'une couleur» (2002). Descodificar o documento. Universidade Nova de Lisboa. histoire d’une couleur noir. C’est une erreur de méthode. A este respeito. Histoire d'une couleur» (2008) marca um etapa importante nas publicações mais recentes sobre a cor. Confessa-nos igualmente que esta obra se insere num desejo mais vasto de construir uma história das cores nas sociedades europeias. No seguimento de «Bleu. Pastoureau (2008. p. não caindo na armadilha de aceitar passivamente a forma de nomear as cores. ponderar a procura de significados. Muito embora se trate de um estudo monográfico sobre o preto. par exemple. Lisboa (Portugal) michel pastoureau «Noir. artistique et symbolique que pour autant qu´elle est associée ou opposée à une ou plusieurs couleurs. symboles» (1989). qu'une porte noir prenant place dans une miniature du XIIIe siècle ou dans un tableau du XVII e représente une porte véritable qui a réellement été noir. das quais não podemos deixar de citar «Couleurs. histoire d’une couleur éditions du seuil.

as dificuldades na obtenção de um preto brilhante. o «mau preto» também podia ser apanágio de virtude e austeridade. antecipa em muito o carácter moral do preto associado à pobreza e austeridade que irá dominar o vestuário laico e religioso protestante. Também relevante é a ligação que vai tecendo. o preto assumia-se como uma cor positiva porque ligada a terra fértil. desde cedo. É esta caracterização do negro que marcará o período seguinte. particularmente da história social do vestuário e da pintura. que o hábito negro dos cluniacenses em oposição ao hábito branco dos cistercienses. caso do hábito dos monges cluniacenses e mendicantes. Aplica-se ao demónio. a sensibilidade judaico-cristã aliou. também utilizado para obter tintas de escrever ferrogálicas.º i . já que o de melhor qualidade era importado da Europa Oriental ou do Norte de África. raízes de árvores ou partes de plantas ricas em taninos que. É através da heráldica e dos seus códigos que Michel Pastoureau nos apresenta uma nova ordem das cores. desenvolvendo de forma coerente e estimulante aquilo a que se propunha.» Dotada de grande clareza.ª metade do séc. Revela um profundo conhecimento histórico. fazendo-se representar no leão das armas do conde da Flandres e na águia do imperador do Sacro-império. ou à une fenêtre. Para a mudança de atitude face ao negro. o clima austero decorrente da Peste Negra. Com efeito. esta obra evidencia uma notável erudição. rouge ou d'un autre noir.recensões · noir. as leis sumptuárias que. vedando à burguesia cores como o azul e o vermelho. burgueses e príncipes adoptassem o preto como cor do vestuário para que se divulgasse o preto obtido à base de noz de galha. concepção sempre presente nas suas obras. ao longo do texto. em quatro períodos. produziam tons acastanhados ou acinzentados. expressa na riqueza das notas e vasta bibliografia. No caso do vestuário. image. Assim. une porte noire est d'abord noir parce qu'elle s'oppose à une autre porte. por um lado. Devemos ter em conta. Um mordente liga-se simultaneamente à fibra têxtil e ao corante. Contudo. permitiram a escolha do negro para o vestuário de uma classe social abastada. Na Antiguidade e até ao ano mil. Inseria-se num sistema triádico em combinação como o branco e o vermelho. o negro às trevas (a luz é condição para a vida). O carácter transdisciplinar deste estudo está patente na relação que estabelece com grande agilidade. que são sem dúvida os grandes eixos nos quais o preto toma lugar na ordem das cores. ou seja. entre a construção material do preto e a sua carga simbólica e social. conferindo assim resistência à cor quando da lavagem do tecido. leva a que o negro adquira todas as conotações maléficas. contribuem ainda. qui est blanc.2 0 1 1 265 . XIV os negros r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. em que o preto se desvincula do seu sentido negativo. e por outro. por exemplo. Seria preciso que letrados. voire à une autre objet. Mergulhamos na perspectiva histórica de longa duração. homogéneo e duradouro deviam-se aos materiais a partir dos quais era produzido – cortiça. o autor optou por uma organização cronológico-temática (ditada pelo próprio percurso do negro no mundo ocidental). O ião ferro poderia ser introduzido através de compostos como o sulfato de ferro. produto dispendioso. mordentadas com o ião ferro 1. Esta atitude face ao preto não é uniforme. No entanto. entre o bestiário. No que respeita à estrutura da obra. histoire d’une couleur 1. por exemplo. no período medieval. a heráldica e o preto. a cristianização do mundo ocidental e a oposição ao paganismo e ao mundo islâmico. e a todas as formas animais que lhe estão associadas. um «mau preto». a partir da 2. à morte e progressivamente ao inferno.

º i . O vestuário apresenta cores alegres e luminosas. é a cor utilizada pelos totalitarismos mas também pelos movimentos de libertação. amarelo. promovendo-o como uma das cores emblemáticas da modernidade. Se valorizado nos meios intelectuais. mesmo em ambientes financeiros. que explorando tons e texturas. No entanto. histoire d’une couleur produzidos nas tinturarias vão adquirindo uma qualidade superior. que nos fará tomar uma posição afirmativa face à interrogação: O preto é uma cor? • 266 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.2 0 1 1 . mas são os pintores e designers. quer na encadernação escolhida quer na ligação entre o texto e as excelentes imagens. verde. Uma nova sensibilidade propicia o que Pastoureau designa por cromofobia (sendo as cores associadas à sedução. príncipes como Filipe o Bom vestem-se já de negro. rosas amarelos e cinzentos. Na sequência desta descoberta. já que mercadores e legistas o exigiam. Tal como nos primeiros tempos. o negro recebe igualmente a conotação negativa provinda dos sombrios meios operários da II revolução industrial. XIX com o romantismo. noite. da morte e mesmo do macabro. laranja e vermelho). de tons pastel. azul. Toda esta atitude face ao negro é confirmada pela descoberta do espectro das cores de Newton que o exclui da ordem das cores ao demonstrar que a luz branca é uma mistura de todas as cores (violeta. ou como uma cor à parte. XVI e XVII assume um papel histórico na cultura ocidental através da sua utilização sistemática no texto impresso e na gravura. particularmente na literatura. criativa e funcional. Valoriza-se nesta época o papel intelectual do livro. produzem pretos excepcionais e expressivos. A fotografia e o cinema contribuem em muito para o já mencionado mundo em preto e branco. No séc. nos sécs. os múltiplos significados do preto (ou dos pretos) só podem ser entendidos nos seus contextos sociais. sendo por esta razão desprestigiadas as imagens coloridas tão características do livro iluminado.recensões · noir. A difusão e a criação de uma nova paleta de cores vivas justificam esse recuo do negro. vindo apenas a revalorizar-se no final de século. Não se poderá ficar indiferente à apresentação gráfica do presente volume. principalmente na gama dos azuis. que trás consigo o culto da melancolia. indigo. Não estaremos face a um objecto produto do design contemporâneo. De facto. o que irá generalizar o uso do preto. Tal como num manuscrito medieval. não deixando de estar igualmente associado a superstições e mesmo por vezes a um bestiário do diabo. que só vai ser valorizado no séc. afirmando-o como negação da cor. é contudo excluído da ordem das cores. cujo design honra o estudo e a cor que apresenta. numa atitude ética em parte herdada pelos protestantes. O significado desta cor não se esgota no universo das artes: socialmente o preto está presente nas bandeiras das ideologias contemporâneas. o século das luzes assiste a um recuo dos negros. agora uma cor valorizada. ao luxo e ao pecado). a construção do volume é cuidada. O preto perde terreno. reforçando a oposição entre «cores» e «preto». XV. o preto torna-se omnipresente na vida quotidiana. A descoberta da imprensa vem inaugurar um mundo a preto e branco. esta cor. no contexto de um exotismo literário. com os quais os outros grupos sociais não se queriam identificar. Com a Reforma Protestante o preto.

cuya recopilación ya llevó a cabo el autor en su obra (The art of all colours. Archetype). El autor acompaña la traducción de las prescripciones con extensos comentarios históricos. folios 81v-101v. Los tratados medievales de tecnología artística se han convertido en las últimas décadas en una importante herramienta de trabajo para varios campos de estudio. como la historia del arte y de la tecnología o la conservación. 2011 ste fan os k rousta l l i s stefanos.º i . témpera. Hoy en día se conocen más de 400 tratados medievales de tecnología artística (desde textos extensos hasta recetas singulares). además. 2001. pintura al óleo. En el presente trabajo el autor se centra en el estudio de uno de estos tratados (o recetarios) el Liber diversarum arcium que forma parte del manuscrito Ms H 277. pintura sobre vidrio y ce- r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. london. de la Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire.r e c e n s õ e s · m e d i a e va l pa i n t e r s ’ m at e r i a l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s mediaeval painters’ materials and techniques: the montpellier liber diversarum arcium archetype. section medecine.kroustallis@gmail. principalmente. pintura mural. junto con la primera traducción al inglés del texto en latín.com mark clarke isbn 9781804982647 – 50 € Mark Clarke en su libro Mediaeval Painters’ Materials and Techniques: The Montpellier Liber diversarum arcium ofrece una edición crítica (con el estudio codicológico del manuscrito) del tratado medieval de tecnología artística Liber diversarum arcium. de Montpellier (Francia). Medieval recipe books for painters and illuminators. al describir los materiales y técnicas empleados por los artistas y artesanos en el pasado. barnices. El tratado es un texto extenso de alrededor de 580 prescripciones técnicas agrupadas en cuatro secciones (o libros) y dedicadas.2 0 1 1 2 67 . soportes. a las técnicas pictóricas (preparación y mezcla de pigmentos y aglutinantes. técnicos y artísticos y. realiza un estudio comparativo de estas recetas con otras similares de otros tratados. dibujo.

jerarquizando las recetas para facilitar las referencias y las llamadas cuando es necesario. propio de un manual de taller.º i . dibujo y técnicas pictóricas avalan. con varias secciones cada uno. Mark Clarke en su estudio argumenta. a este tipo de prescripciones. la propuesta del autor y 268 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. 1849. El libro se complementa con varios apéndices donde se reúnen el estudio codicológico del manuscrito. sirven como argumentos a las tesis propuestas por el autor anteriormente. estrechamente relacionado con el aprendizaje de la técnica de la pintura. así como otras técnicas decorativas auxiliares). su importancia dentro del esquema de la transmisión de los conocimientos técnicos y su relación con el resto de los tratados medievales. en Venecia o sus alrededores. En la introducción del libro Mediaeval Painters’ Materials and Techniques el autor explica de manera breve y concisa la historia del tratado Liber diversarum arcium. en Catalogue général des manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques des departaments. así como la manera en la que sus recetas técnicas fueron reelaboradas. A continuación.r e c e n s õ e s · m e d i a e va l pa i n t e r s ’ m at e r i a l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s rámica. corregidas y aumentadas. de manera convincente. reincorporando material nuevo y actualizado. data aproximadamente de 1430 y fue escrito en latín. Las prescripciones técnicas del tratado y su organización en la preparación de pigmentos. En la siguiente sección se estudia la manera en la que el tratado fue compuesto y compilado. precisamente. la estructura y el contenido del tratado muestra un claro afán práctico. aparte de su valor documental. Tal como señala Mark Clarke la publicación del libro Mediaeval Painters’ Materials and Techniques se debe al hecho de que el Liber diversarum arcium constituye el tratado medieval de tecnología artística más interesante y exhaustivo que sintetiza el estado del arte y la técnica de la pintura en la Europa del siglo XIV. El resto del libro se organiza en dos capítulos. el autor ofrece extensos y detallados datos y comentarios técnicos e históricos sobre los procedimientos descritos que. El Liber diversarum arcium es anónimo. En el segundo capítulo se exponen las principales características de la técnica pictórica coetánea al tratado de Montpellier y se resaltan las analogías tecnológicas entre ellas (propias del siglo XIV). sobre un núcleo original del tratado que fue escrito cerca de 1300 y refleja prácticas artísticas del norte de Europa. fueron añadidas prácticas de influencia italiana. Además se hace hincapié en la importancia del Liber diversarum arcium en la historia de la pintura al óleo y se argumenta sobre las razones que hacen el tratado tan importante e interesante para el estudio de las técnicas pictóricas medievales. A lo largo del siglo XIV. su uso como fuente de tecnología artística. v.2 0 1 1 . Sigue la traducción al inglés del texto. Además. En el primer capítulo se contextualiza el Liber diversarum arcium dentro de la tratadística medieval de tecnología artística y se resaltan las similitudes textuales con algunos de ellos. sobre todo. Un vocabulario inglés-latín de términos técnicos sirve como puente entre la traducción y la nueva transcripción del texto (fue transcrito por primera vez por Libri. I). prescripciones y referencias a otros tratados de tecnología artística que facilitan la comprensión del texto y. una muy interesante lista de referencias modernas sobre el Liber diversarum arcium y la manera en la que fue considerado y utilizado por la historiografía especializada. bajo la mano de un compilador y revisor experto en las técnicas descritas.

como las famosas telas tornasoladas que aparecen con mucha frecuencia en la pintura de la época. me gustaría destacar el hecho de incorporar en la publicación el estudio codicológico del manuscrito entero y no simples referencias a los folios del tratado concreto. toda la información técnica que ofrece para los juegos de luces y sombras y la imitación de texturas. sin pretensiones literarias y al que no se puede atribuir a un único arquetipo: el texto de las prescripciones técnicas se ha cotejado con similares en otros manuscritos y se han señalado los pasajes adicionales o divergentes. la publicación del Mediaeval Painters’ Materials and Techniques: The Montpellier Liber diversarum arcium de Mark Clarke explora al máximo los posibles enfoques (históricos. lingüísticos) de un tratado de tecnología artística y estoy seguro que pronto se convertirá en una referencia obligatoria a la hora de tratar estos textos como una fuente para la historia del arte y disciplinas afines. no como una novedad sino como un conocimiento tecnológico subyacente que estaba a punto de eclosionar estéticamente. En definitiva. De este modo se consigue evitar o mitigar el problema en la traducción de términos técnicos del latín vulgar y en la identificación de un nombre con una sustancia concreta. adaptando los principios de la crítica textual a la realidad de un texto tecnológico. un hecho que permite sacar conclusiones interesantes sobre la transmisión de la tecnología técnica e indagar sobre sus autores. técnicos. que incluyen elementos como la incorporación en la traducción de los términos en latín para los materiales cuando el autor considera que es necesario para facilitar la comprensión y evitar equívocos. Otro elemento a destacar es la metodología de trabajo en la traducción y transcripción del texto. artísticos. Finalmente. El Liber diversarum arcium permite sacar conclusiones más generalizadoras sobre la historia y la técnica de la pintura en la Europa de los siglos XIV-XV. estéticos. En segundo lugar.2 0 1 1 269 . • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. el tratamiento que se da a la pintura al óleo. su finalidad y su público. Mencionaré sólo dos de los casos que Mark Clarke ha sabido resaltar en su estudio: en primer lugar. Otro punto que el autor ha sabido gestionar muy bien es la transcripción del texto latín.º i . al darse cuenta los artistas de las posibilidades que ofrecía tal técnica.r e c e n s õ e s · m e d i a e va l pa i n t e r s ’ m at e r i a l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s lo sitúan al mismo nivel de interés que el célebre Il libro dell´arte de Cennino Cennini.

7-2-21 (XIIIe s. Quant à celui qui provient de Lorvão. • Porto. The Medieval Book of Birds: Hugh of Fouilloy’s «Aviarium». tous illustrés du cycle iconographique complet 8. dans la mesure où il destine son ouvrage à un lectorat peu cultivé. il est le plus ancien Aviarium daté à ce jour. notice 390.).. Le fait que l’auteur du texte soit également le concepteur des illustrations confère à ces dernières un statut particulier.º i . State University of New York (Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies.com Introduction Le corpus des manuscrits de l’Aviarium de Hugues de Fouilloy est riche de 128 manuscrits dont une soixantaine sont illustrés de tout ou partie du programme iconographique 1. Arquivo Nacional Torre do Tombo. vers 1200). cette question n’est pas encore entièrement 272 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Seville. 1. 253-271 (ici p.) 6. comptent parmi les plus beaux exemplaires du corpus. 80). SAEZ GUILLEM. ms. Colibri. 1992. ms. et l’exemplaire de Bruxelles. Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Biblioteca Colombina. cat. p. • Lisboa. Portugal (Santa-Cruz de Coimbra ?).) 7. Ces illustrations ont été conçues par l’auteur lui-même si l’on en juge par le contenu de la dédicace et du prologue du traité 2. Pour la liste des manuscrits voir Baudouin VAN DEN ABEELE. 264-267). S’il y a de fortes chances pour que ces trois manuscrits aient été copiés au Portugal. Van den Abeele que je remercie chaleureusement. Lisbone. Portugal. Binghamton. Santa-Cruz de Coimbra (Aug. Hugues explique en effet que. et d’une liste des autres exemplaires connus à l’époque. ms. 1999. «Trente et un nouveaux manuscrits de l’Aviarium: regards sur la diffusion de l’œuvre d’Hugues de Fouilloy».2 0 1 1 . p. Il faut y ajouter l’exemplaire de Sevilla. C’est probablement cette valeur didactique qui a valu au Traité des oiseaux de connaître une telle diffusion à travers toute l’Europe médiévale 3. les images ont pour fonction de faciliter la transmission de l’information à ceux qui auraient des difficultés à saisir la subtilité du texte. d’un catalogue des manuscrits illustrés recensés par l’auteur. Ces trois manuscrits. Alc 238. 57-2. Catalogo de manoscritos de la Biblioteca Colombina de Sevilla. Ce livre s’accompagne d’une étude introductive. Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto. du XIIIe s. «Livro das aves» Hugo de Folieto: Tradução do latim et intradução por Maria Isabel Rebelo Goncalves.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e des interactions entre scriptoria portugais au xii e siècle rémy co rdo n n i e r artuslemerle@gmail. déb. 2003. Le texte a été édité et traduit en anglais par Willene B. y compris au Portugal où ont sont conservées trois prestigieuses copies dont au moins deux furent réalisées dans une abbaye lusitanienne 4: • Lisboa. Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal. Scriptorium. Signalons également l’édition à partir des trois manuscrits concernés par cette étude et accompagnée d’une traduction en portugais par Maria Isabel REBELO GONCALVES. 467-468 – qui m’a été signalé par B. Saint-Mamede de Lorvão (OSB puis OCist. 1184 (Era 1222 – colophon) 5. vers 1200-1210. 43. SantaMaria d’Alcobaça (OCist. CLARK. Lorvão 5 (anc. 202. 90). Y. F.

unesp. 269. 2: Fontes. même si la tradition n’est pas exempte d’erreurs de copies ou de réinterprétations 16. installée entre Amiens et Corbie 11. la miniature du palmier. 177. 189-202 5URL: http://www. Lisboa. soit dans la bordure du cadre de l’illustration s’il y en a un. Voir la carte donnée par B. 128-147. Pedro de AZEVEDO. s. notre note 1).) que j’ai découvert lors de mes recherches doctorales. et le Pastoral de Grégoire le Grand auquel Hugues à largement puisé. toutes sont annotées. p. «Un 128 e exemplaire de l’Aviarium de Hugues de Fouilloy: Bruxelles. p. p. Ces compositions picturales s’inscrivent dans la tradition de l’exégèse visuelle 15. 1963. Broteria. 1965. III-9. 2003 (art. «Anotações e comentários sobre o Livro das aves». Bibliografia de textos medievais portugueses. le diagramme de l’autour. XIV». p.fclar. Les deux principales sources doctrinales du traité sont d’ailleurs la Règle bénédictine qui donne sa structure thématique au traité. «Uma versão portuguesa de historia natural das aves do sec. Les chercheurs qui se sont penché sur la question auparavant n’ont pas put donner de réponse définitive 9. 2330 et du même: «Hugues de Fouilloy. Instituto nacional do livro. «O Livro das aves». 4). 413-416. imagier de ses propres œuvres?». II 2313». Série Estudos Medievais. 1925. j’ai eu l’occasion de travailler directement sur ces manuscrits et d’y faire des observations qui me permettent de proposer de nouvelles hypothèses de recherche. soit simplement autour de la miniature.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e KBR.br/poslinpor/gtmedieval/interno.. Edição preparada por Jacira Andrade MOTA. Revista Signum. et la vie active à la pratique des bonnes actions et de la prédication. à qui le Prieur de Saint-Laurent se propose d’enseigner les principes de la vie régulière 12. voir Rémy CORDONNIER. p. 1960. Mais elles sont aussi accompagnées d’une inscription placée soit en incipit du chapitre. ancien chevalier devenu frère convers. Revista lusitana. 31-43. Hugues a pris soin d’adapter son propos en l’enrichissant de figures peintes destinées à en faciliter la compréhension à ceux qui ne sauraient pas se contenter du texte. 1967. cit. Voir aussi: Serafim DA SILVA NETO. leitura crítica. Son Traité des oiseaux est donc illustré de miniatures qui forment des compositions complexes reliées de façon étroite pour relayer le message de l’auteur auprès des illiterati 14. introdução.php?secao=fontes). Le traité des oiseaux Le De avibus fut rédigé au milieu du XIIe siècle par Hugues de Fouilloy. Revue du Nord. Américo Venâncio LOPES MACHADO FILHO. Il existe également une version partielle de l’Aviarium en ancien portugais réalisée au XIVe siècle et actuellement conservée à Brasilia: Livro das aves. Rio de Janeiro. Rosa Virgínia MATOS. L’importance du rôle des images dans l’économie du sens de l’Aviarium explique le grand nombre d’exemplaires illustrés qui nous sont parvenus. 20-39. Elles sont beaucoup plus simples car elles ne font que représenter l’oiseau en question dans le chapitre qu’elles accompagnent. 3. traditionnellement représentés par des oiseaux dans la symbolique chrétienne 13. 25:1-4. Gutenberg-Jahrbuch. Reprodução fac-similar do manuscrito do séc. Dans la mesure ou il écrit pour des lecteurs qui ne sont pas formés «es lettres». l. La miniature de la dédicace.º i . MEC / Casa de Rui Barbosa. Firmino CRESPO et Frade FERNANDO. Ministério da educação e cultura (Dicionário da língua portuguêsa. 1962. le diagramme de la colombe. ms.2 0 1 1 273 . 37. Mais dans le cadre d’un récent séjour au Portugal 10. Le cycle iconographique complet de l’Aviarium comprend trente miniatures. 1956. Vera Lúcia SAMPAIO e N. p. Textos e vocabulários. 68-69 et Rosa Virgínia MATTOS E SILVA. 2. XIV. Le choix du symbolisme des oiseaux est motivé d’abord par le fait qu’Hugues s’adresse à des religieux. p. le diagramme des trois colombes. Textos medievais portugueses e seus problemas. ms II 2313 (XVe s. 4. 11-1. notas e glossário. 2010. Les diagrammes et les miniatures de la première partie du traité expliquent la signification allégorique des oiseaux concernés et les figures idéalisées de la seconde partie ont pour fonction de mettre en évidence la dimension signifiante des autres oiseaux décrit par Hugues. Charles DE CLERCQ. Ce traité est dédié à un certain Rainier. Ce sont les compositions les plus originales. Lyell 71)». brève description codicologique du mansucrit. prieur d’une communauté de chanoines réguliers augustiniens. ROSSI. Je ne prétends pas non plus pouvoir le faire à ce stade de mes recherches. Mário MARTINS. Publicações do Centro de estudos filologicos. 40-45 . VAN DEN ABEELE. p. la miniature de la tourterelle et la miniature du cèdre et des passereaux. p. «Fontes para o conhecimento da língua portuguesa de trezentos: Os mais antigos manuscritos portugueses existentes no Brasil». L’Aviarium est organisé de façon binaire afin de refléter les deux aspects de la vie religieuse au Moyen Âge: la vie contemplative et la vie active – la vie contemplative étant principalement consacrée à la lectio divina. Maria Adelaide VALLE CINTRA. Les vingttrois autres miniatures illustrent la seconde partie du Traité des oiseaux. illustrent la premières partie du traité. qui décrivent le manuscrit clarifiée. «Le rôle de l’image dans un manuscrit médiéval (Bodleian. p. 358-411. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. KBR. 1963. 2009. 77-5. Geographica. 5.

L’assimilation de ces personnages à des figures négatives voir démoniaques est corroborée par la mutilation apotropaïque des visages dont ils ont fait l’objet 18. La miniature du cèdre et des passereaux est un arbre stylisé. qui devait comprendre la miniature du prologue et le diagramme de la colombe. Peut-être est-ce une évocation du Psaume 90.). spes et amor autour de l’oiseau dans le médaillon central.2 0 1 1 . 5-10. p. p. 7. Le rubricateur a oublié le mot nigra entre anima et formosa dans l’inscription de la bordure du médaillon de la colombe de Noé. Maria Adelaide MIRANDA. Ils ne font pas partie du cycle originel du traité. 10. Porto. revêtu d’une robe et enveloppé et surtout ses enluminures. 6. Dans le diagramme des trois colombes. d’une flèche volant le jour». Um Códice Ignorado Idêntico ao de Lorvão». assez fidèles à la principale tradition iconographique du traité 17. 1999. Johana LENCART. 207v. Victor Palme. notice dans A. p. J. 1999.° 23. «Hugues de Fouilloi. BN. Identidade e Influências. 1. Catálogo dos códices da Livraria de Mao Do Mosterio de Santa Cruz de Coimbra na Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto. J’ai plaisir à remercier à cette occasion l’équipe du projet FFCT/FCT/UNL «Color in medieval illuminated manuscripts: between beauty and meaning» et tout particulièrement Adélaïde Miranda. «O Livro das Aves. Paris. CLARK.) 20. Lisboa. 413-416. MEIRINHOS. 1992 (op. 11. desiderio. sensé représenter une rose des vents. cit. 3-5: «C’est lui-même qui m’arrachera au filet de l’oiseleur et d’une parole meurtrière. Henri PELTIER. dans l’aviaire de Lorvão. f. dans Histoire Littéraire de la France. Ivan GOBRY. 492-507. CLARK. A Iluminura Românica em Santa Cruz de Coimbra e Santa Maria de Alcobaça. p. voir aussi la notice de Maria Adelaide MIRANDA. 1986. 1999. Il te mettra à l’ombre sous ses épaules. XIII. Revista de Ciências Historicas. dans l’ensemble. 161-174. 24. MARTINS. notice dans A iluminura em Portugal. p. 77-5. pour son chaleureux accueil. Les inscriptions habituellement placées sur les bras de la croix servent de rubrique aux chapitres 12. 8. Ils présentent néanmoins quelques variations intéressantes à signaler pour l’étude de la tradition portugaise du Traité des oiseaux. il se peut aussi qu’il s’agisse simplement de figures destinées à combler l’espace vide du feuillet créé par le rejet du diagramme de la colombe sur la pleine page en regard. A Iluminura em Portugal: Identidade e Influências. 47. prieur de Saint-Laurent de Heilli». Les inscriptions du patibulus servent quant à elles de rubriques aux chapitres 25 et 27. 13 et 14 21. 1946. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas. Lisboa. et tu n’auras pas à craindre d’une terreur nocturne. Le médaillon central avec l’oiseau est ici encadré par les rubriques inscrites normalement dans le stipex de la croix.184191. Ministério da Cultura/Biblioteca Nacional. L’exemplaire de Santa-Cruz est hélas lacunaire du premier feuillet. p. La thématique du Psaume 90 est par ailleurs très proche de celle des premiers chapitres de l’Aviarium et du diagramme de la colombe dont les inscriptions évoquent la recherche de sécurité et l’espoir du repos éternel. 190. Des rinceaux s’enroulent autour de son tronc. n. prieur de Saint-Laurent-au-Bois». W. BM. Lisboa. 1997. Revue du Moyen Âge latin. Comme le suggère W. Identidade e Influências. notre note 1). notre note 1). Biblioteca Pública Municipal do Porto. BN. un arbalétrier et un archer sont représentés sur la page en regard de celle du diagramme de la colombe (f. Clark 19. 41-50. et sous ses ailes tu espèreras. J. p. p. F. Lisboa. cat. NASCIMIENTO. 1992 (op. 184.181-184. La miniature du palmier est partiellement inscrite dans un médaillon dans le cadre duquel est reportée la rubrique du chapitre 24 déjà inscrite de part et d’autre du tronc. La miniature de la tourterelle perd son apparence cruciforme. cit. Les termes clericus et miles qui identifient les oiseaux de la miniature du prologue n’ont pas été reportés. 1986 p. Sa vérité t’environnera de son bouclier. Son feuillage dessine une mandorle losangée à fond rouge. Les miniatures du cycle traditionnel de la première partie du traité présentent quelques modifications plus ou moins importantes par rapport au cycle originel. dans A iluminura em Portugal. 25-44. 1963. catálogo de exposição. Broteria. en plus de ce qu’en dit W. Le diagramme de l’autour. L’enlumineur s’est peut-être inspiré d’archers représentés dans d’autres manuscrits du scriptorium d’Alcobaça (Clark donne l’exemple de Porto. Maria Adelaide MIRANDA. Sur Hugues de Fouilloy. 5v. 9. 2. et les mots timor. la colombe du christ est dissociée des deux autres mais les trois oiseaux restent visibles en même temps car ils sont figurés sur deux pages en visà-vis. chanoine régulier. orientação cientica Adelaide Miranda. Dictionnaire de spi- 2 74 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Ainsi. ms 31. Antonio CRUZ. «Hugues de Fouilloy». est ici remplacé par un médaillon contenant la figure de l’oiseau. Dans le diagramme de la colombe il manque les inscriptions pennas vitutum et volabo desiderio dans les écoinçons supérieurs. p. A. 1879.º i . 199-203. Mário S. voir notamment: Jean BRIAL. «Hugues de Fouilloy. au centre de laquelle est figuré un jeune Christ imberbe au nimbe crucifère 22.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e Spécificités iconographiques des exemplaires portugais Les diagrammes et les miniatures de la première partie Les trois exemplaires portugais sont. p. «O Livro das Aves».

Le rubricateur a fait le même oubli que celui de Lorvão: le nigra entre anima et formosa. La miniature est aussi plus colorée. qui n’était décidément pas brillant. exégèse visuelle». là aussi. Texte.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e ritualité. 13.revues. dans F. Le nimbe du Christ est bleu. 2010. ESMEIJER. Le diagramme de l’autour est là encore transformé en un simple encadrement situé non plus au centre de la page mais aux deux tiers de la colonne de texte de droite. a preliminary study in the method and application of visual exegesis. 14. MAGNANI et D. 167-202. février 2009. Voir Rémy CORDONNIER. il devait comprendre à n’en pas douter le prologue et la dédicace ainsi que la miniature du prologue et le diagramme de la colombe qui sont donc perdu à ce jour. Adam Biro/Musées de Strasbourg. Dans le diagramme de la colombe. Strasbourg. «La plume dans l’Aviarium d’Hugues de Fouilloy: sénéfiance(s) d’une «propriété» aviaire». col. Rémy CORDONNIER. Il n’y a pas d’inscriptions non plus dans le médaillon central. 1978.). 303-312. p. 24-29. morale et milieu monastique: le De avibus d’Hugues de Fouilloy (XII e siècle)». histoire d’un face à face. la bordure centrale du losange et la hampe du sceptre. 1993. Il tient un sceptre crucifère au lieu d’un livre dans la main gauche. 21. a fait une troisième erreur. Enfin. RUSSO. Diagrammes médiévaux et exégèse visuelle: le Libellus de formatione arche de Hugues de Saint-Victor. 12. la mise en page du diagramme des trois colombes isole la colombe du Christ de celles de Noé et David. p. 2005. Rennes. image et mise en page dans l’Aviarium d’Hugues de Fouilloy. p. Contrasting Images of the Book of Revelation in Late Medieval and Early Modern Art: A Case Study in Visual Exegesis. «Enluminure et spiritualité: le sens du signe et ses difficultés». «Hugues de Fouilloy entre l’ordo antiquus et l’ordo novus». «Haec pertica est regula. l’aviaire d’Alcobaça est d’un style beaucoup plus fruste que ceux de Lorvão et Santa-Cruz et a vraisemblablement été illustré par le scribe lui-même ou en tout cas par un peintre qui n’était pas artiste de formation. Oxford University Press. Assen. mais cette erreur a été rectifiée par le correcteur au Moyen Âge. Histoire de l’art & Anthropologie. Les autres miniatures de la première partie du traité sont. Six médaillons à fond bleu sont dessinés dans le tracé du feuillage de part et d’autre du Christ et un septième au sommet de la mandorle qui se termine par une palmette fleurdelisée. La robe du christ. dans L’homme-animal. Willene B. 71-110. les inscriptions pennas vitutum et volabo desiderio dans les écoinçons supérieurs sont absentes à l’exception du mot penne inscrit dans l’écoinçon supérieur gauche. Les inscriptions du digramme de l’autour et de la miniature de la tourterelle sont. «The Illustrated Medieval Aviary and Laybrotherhood». Institut d’études médiévales. Chaque médaillon comprend un oiseau. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles. CLARK. t. La corne et la plume dans la littérature médiévale. Patrice SICARD. H.org/index11323. E. Il bénit de la main droite et de la gauche maintient un livre posé sur sa cuisse. VAN DEN ABEELE (éd. p. Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Cosimo Damiano FONSECA. O’HEAR. 1969. Les modifications les plus importantes apparaissent finalement dans la miniature du cèdre et des passereaux. iconographiquement et du point de vue de la composition. 15. devenues les rubriques des chapitres 12. La miniature du pal- r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. La miniature du prologue y est néanmoins complète. Il n’est plus assis sur un arc et ses pieds reposent désormais sur une extension des rinceaux du tronc. Divina quaternitas. Gesta. Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. Histoire et images médiévales. 3. p. 1973.). l’une est sur le recto du feuillet et les deux autres sur le verso et de ce fait l’unité visuelle de l’ensemble est entièrement perdue. Dans l’inscription du médaillon de la tourterelle il a inscrit in nido pour in nidulo. Comme dans l’exemplaire de Lorvão. Le diagramme des trois colombes reçoit la même mise en page qu’à Santa-Cruz et reproduit le problème du recto-verso. 2010. 7. 13. corrigé par le relecteur monastique. 880-886. 1982. Brepols (Bibliotheca Victorina 4). Natasha F. 15. Il avait en plus inscrit nigra au lieu de nivea dans la bordure du médaillon de la colombe du Christ. Exégèse textuelle. POMEL (dir.º i . Van Gorcum. Le rubricateur. Le Christ y est désormais barbu et moustachu. L’enlumineur a peint en vert l’intérieur du tronc. Oxford. Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre [En ligne]. Paris-Turnhout. Louvain-la-Neuve. 16. Sur l’exégèse visuelle voir notamment: Anna C. des rehauts de vert servent à modeler les plis du pallium. 72-81. mis en ligne le 22 octobre 2009 (URL: http://cem. 16. Bestiaires médiévaux. p. 14. Paris. 13 et 14 sur les vents et 25 et 27 sur le palmier. Séminaires.html). dans un pallium. 63-74. «Histoire de l’art et anthropologie. Mais cette fois. Le rubricateur a placé les inscriptions de la croix en tête des chapitres 12. identiques à celles de l’exemplaire de Lorvão. «Le convers et les oiseaux. Monde animal. L’aviaire de Santa-Cruz est enluminé dans un style très élégant et coloré. Le premier feuillet a été hélas découpé (l’onglet est encore clairement visible).2 0 1 1 275 . Les décorations de la ceinture du Christ et certaines parties des rinceaux du tronc sont en rouge. Thématique 15: les arts de la couleur. dans B. Il est assis sur un arc de cercle tandis qu’un autre arc lui sert de reposepieds. 2004. Jacques BERLIOZ et Rémy CORDONNIER. certaines parties du corps des oiseaux ainsi que les bras de la croix du nimbe et la bordure extérieure du feuillage sont en jaune pâle. Rémy CORDONNIER.

Lille. 101. voir A. cit. 2010. p. ce qui n’est pas le cas dans l’exemplaire de Lorvão. CORDONNIER. Mediaeval Studies. p. cit. 276 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. ce dernier tient un sceptre crucifère au lieu d’un livre dans la main gauche. Lisbonne. 24. notre note 1). notre note 5). f. Il a également été suggéré que ces personnages pourraient évoquer le «miles» du prologue. A. le médaillon a visiblement été rajouté après dans la mesure où il passe par-dessus le dessin de l’oiseau. 1959. f. 176. 19. MELO. le coq. Cette lacune n’est pas mentionnée par W. c’està-dire la tête renversée en arrière sur le dos et claquant du bec. L’enlumineur de Santa-Cruz l’a en outre affublée de deux petites oreilles qui caractérisent habituellement les rapaces nocturnes. 21. LEMOS. 18.. p. Dans le manuscrit de Santa-Cruz l’autruche s’éloigne de l’échassier de Lorvão pour s’apparenter à un rapace palmipède. B. 20. 1992 (op. «Satan the Fowler». 190. notre note 1). où elle est représentée en train de craqueter. en regard de la miniature du palmier. 17. Il y a aussi cette manière particulière de figurer l’autruche avec son croupion emplumé de touffes presque «pileuses». Les inscriptions du patibulus sont placées dans l’entrecolonne et les inscriptions du stipex servent de rubriques aux chapitres 25 et 27. 76-79 et du même. A . Dans l’aviaire de Santa-Cruz l’enlumineur a fait déborder les plumes de la queue de la grue sur l’inscription du médaillon et a reporté en bleu dans la marge adjacente le mot que sa peinture avait occulté: viuent.º i . Le tronc et le feuillage sont teints en vert. M. On peut aussi relever la position particulière de la cigogne dans ces deux manuscrits. Les deux manuscrits présentent par ailleurs une certaine parenté formelle. On retrouve notamment dans ces deux exemplaires l’un des petits du pélican mystique dessiné à l’horizontale sur la droite de la composition. Dans l’exemplaire d’Alcobaça seul le corbeau. REBELO GONÇALVES. p. material and technique of the Book of Birds in Portuguese scriptoria». Clark 24. notre note 1). cit. 23. CLARK. notre note 1). Sur le thème du diable oiseleur voir: B. J. notre note 1). on note les différences suivantes: disparition des arcs sur lesquels le Christ était assis. The Materials of the Image/As Matérias da Imagem. L’hirondelle de Santa-Cruz a l’aile droite relevée. Les caladres sont figurés comme des palmipèdes. ALFONSO (ed. thèse en 4 vol. 1992 (op. p. p. cit. dans L. Il faut mentionner cependant l’absence de la figure du hibou dans le manuscrit de Lorvão en raison d’un arrachement de la moitié supérieure de la page où se trouvait la miniature 23. p. 171-184 (ici p. mais si le Christ y est jeune et glabre. 50. 22. BM. 45. Elle mentionne aussi l’exemplaire de Valenciennes. 1999 (art. l’enlumineur a figuré les plaies des pieds du Christ qui reposent sur un escabeau. 1992 (op. Voir R. 1 p. «On Wings of Blue: The history. cit. mais elle est signalée par M. cit. le cèdre est stylisé pour devenir une mandorle losangée. on retrouve ce Christ jeune à la croix dans l’exemplaire de Bordeaux. en revanche il tient une sphaera mundi à la place de la croix. Comme le signale M.). mais je reviendrai sur ce point plus bas.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e mier est au milieu de la colonne de texte de gauche. Le coq et l’hirondelle posent un autre problème car leur style est nettement différent du reste du manuscrit. La miniature de la tourterelle est transformée en un simple médaillon placé au milieu de la colonne de texte de droite. Le héron de Lorvão tourne la tête vers l’arrière alors que celui de Santa-Cruz regarde devant lui. 1999 (op. p. ms. U. W. BM. En revanche. 121-174. Les portraits d’oiseaux de la seconde partie Les portraits d’oiseaux qui illustrent la seconde partie de l’aviaire de Hugues ne présentent pas de différences notables dans les exemplaires portugais par rapport à la principale tradition du corpus. B. G. Université Charles de Gaulle. vol. 995. MIGUEL. Dans l’exemplaire de Santa-Cruz elle lève en plus la patte gauche. Outre le style. 175). CLARK. MIRANDA. W. 67v. ms. 176-184. Universidade de Lisboa. 21. CLARK. notre note 14). mais l’un et l’autre présentent la même ondulation du cou.2 0 1 1 . 286287. Et sa rubrique est aussi portée deux fois: entre les branches du feuillage et sous le tronc en tête du chapitre 24. le vautour et l’hirondelle sont dans un médaillon. I. MIRANDA. Comme dans l’aviaire de Lorvão. KOONCE. B. Toutefois l’agressivité de ces archers rend cette interprétation difficilement recevable dans la mesure où le miles du prologue est présenté comme quelqu’un s’étant converti à la vie religieuse. L’illustration du «De avibus» de Hugues de Fouilloy: symbolisme animal et méthodes d’enseignement au Moyen Âge. cit. Dans l’ensemble les figures présentent les caractéristiques du groupe d’Heiligenkreuz déterminées par W. 2005 (art. D’après la numérotation de l’édition de CLARK. Dans les manuscrits de Lorvão et de Santa-Cruz tous les oiseaux sont figurés dans un médaillon dont la bordure comprend à chaque fois la sentence rimée qui résume le trope principal du chapitre. 2007. 1992 (op. et on ne compte que six médaillons au lieu de sept. C. non éditée. Pour les figures du corbeau et du vautour. 42.

mais les différences textuelles qui les distinguent sont minimes. sous l’influence de Dona Teresa. Les aviaria de Lorvão et Santa-Cruz sont très proches stylistiquement et les chercheurs qui s’y sont intéressé sont tous d’accord pour situer leur production au Portugal. France ?. cat. dont le point de départ correspond à l’application de la loi romaine en Espagne en 38 av.XXI (f. Ini- Relations entre les manuscrits État de la question Selon le classement proposé par Clark 25. Pour le premier la chose est évidente grâce aux deux colophons présent dans le manuscrit: ad honorem Dei et sancti Mametis in Monasterio laurbanense est scribtus [sic] liber iste.. J. v. 1300). les trois manuscrits portugais appartiennent au groupe des aviaires illustrés dit d’Heiligenkreuz. ms. ms. Les enlumineurs de l’Aviarium sont également les deux mêmes qui se sont chargé d’illustrer le Beatus. 1992 (op. L’ensemble constituait une suite logique décrivant la signification des créatures vivantes en commençant par l’homme et en poursuivant par les oiseaux et les mammifères. Saint Mamède de Lorvão est passé sous plusieurs obédiences depuis sa fondation.) 27. 11. BL. VAN DEN ABEELE. notre note 1). Beinecke ms. 189 (v. fin du XII e siècle). 2495 (XIII e s. Certes au XIIe siècle les voyages prenaient plus de temps que de nos jours. BNF. 26. Le troisième sous-groupe réunit les manuscrits de New Haven. ms. Les quatorze manuscrits qu’il comprend seraient issus d’un modèle dit «modèle A». (art. et Paris. qui était soit l’original soit très proche de ce dernier. Cette hypothèse est corroborée par la coïncidence entre le trou situé à coté du genou du Créateur dans la miniature de la création d’Ève et une tache brune que l’on observe à peu près au milieu de la page d’incipit de l’Aviarium. p. du nom de l’Abbaye autrichienne où est actuellement conservé le manuscrit type du groupe (Heiligenkreuz. CLARK. v. 286-287. Bordeaux.déb. Bien qu’étant le plus ancien manuscrit daté du corpus.º i . p. 27. La date est donnée selon l’Ère espagnole. 1999 (art. cit. 1993. C’est le groupe le plus nombreux et qui comprend les plus anciens témoins de l’Aviarium. dont il souligne la parenté des illustrations avec les exemplaires portugais en précisant: «il pourrait donc s’agir d’un chaînon entre les manuscrits français et ceux du Portugal» 28. 31. Or Lorvão. 711 (fin de XIIe s.). 1250.). celui du fameux Beatus de Lorvão 33. 1220-1230). ne devint une abbaye cistercienne de femmes qu’en 1206. 264. ms. In diebus Johannis abbatis FINITO LIBRO DONA DEN[IQUE] 29 LARGIORA magistro. W.2 0 1 1 277 . B. MIRANDA. Le second réunit nos trois manuscrits portugais plus les exemplaires de Troyes. ms. B.-C. 253.C. BM. p. et confirmée dans ses statuts en 1213. KBR. notre note 1). XIIIe) et Cambrai. 1992 (op. 30. B. Bruxelles. BM. B.) 30. VAN DEN ABEELE. Du point de vue textuel. cit. ms. v. Par ailleurs. Van den Abeele a ajouté un manuscrit au groupe. l’exemplaire de Lorvão a été copié au moins dix ans après la mort d’Hugues de Fouilloy (survenue probablement vers 1173) et plus de vingt ans après la rédaction probable du traité que je situe entre 1130 et 1160. Société archéologique. La majorité de ces manuscrits sont d’origine cistercienne. p. Cansanatense. 21. 28. cit. Le plus doué des deux étant cependant moins présent dans l’Aviarium que dans le Beatus 34. 29. M. celui de Montpellier. 41-51. p. 8 (fin XIIe . et ils semblent rattachés de près ou de loin au scriptorium de l’abbaye de Morimond. cit. 1200). ms. Rome. in diebus Johannis abbatis. A. ms. Comme le souligne W. StiftsB. «Note sur un “traité des oiseaux” conservé parmi les manuscrits de la Société archéologique de Montpellier». StiftsB. v. Sur ce ms. 1200. notre note 1). notre note 5). Era M. Plus récemment B.CC. 190 donne DEN[TUR]. Era M. ce qui donne 1184 pour le premier colophon et 1183 pour le second 32. B. ce qui en fait le meilleur représentant potentiel du traité originel. Le scribe a été identifié comme étant Egeas.C. Lyell 71 (Lombardie?. (ar t. Yale UL. les modifications apportées au digramme de l’autour et à la miniature de la r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.XXII (f. 8536-43 (Flandres ou France du Nord?. 259 (région parisienne. mais en vingt ans un texte avait bien le temps d’être largement diffusé y compris jusqu’au «lointain Portugal» pour reprendre les mots de Charles de Clercq 35. p. ms. 393-401. Le premier comprend l’aviaire d’Heiligenkreuz plus les exemplaires de Zwettl. 258. 90v. et Oxford. Clark distingue trois ensembles au sein de ce corpus 26. fille du roi Sanche I. Pas de doutes donc sur son lieu de production ni sur la datation qui le situe dans la période bénédictine de l’abbaye 31. BM. 1230-1235). notre note 1). ms. 226. l’aviaire d’Heiligenkreuz est l’exemplaire qui possède le plus de points communs avec le reste du corpus. voir Martine SAINTE-MARIE. CLARK. 67) et: Scriptus est liber este ad laudem et honorem Dei omnipotentis et sancti Mametis laurbanensis monasterii temporum regis Alfonsi.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e 25. cit. 444 (v. XIIIe s. l’ordre des cahiers a donc vraisemblablement été inversé l’ors d’une reliure antérieure et les cahiers contenant le texte d’Isidore de Séville sur la création de l’homme et de la femme devait initialement se trouver avant l’Aviarium et les extraits de l’Exameron sur les animaux. 995 (2e moit. Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Montpellier.

Ambroise de Milan. ut devoret. id tu pro cibo sumis. vol. W. et visceribus infundis internis ? Sed medicatur interdum doloribus. et ieiunium fugis. 413. Charles DE CLERCQ. Um estudo de O Apocalipse do Lorvao e sua relação com as ilustrações medievais do Apocalipse. quod et leopardus fugit ? Denique sicubi allium aliquis confricandum putaverit. Petra tua Christus est. B. remedia tua! Tu nescis quomodo virtutem eripias adversario. 145] Lupus si prior hominem viderit De lupus. CLARK. quo possit sanari. 33. 1 p. vocem tibi aufert: et si obmutueris. CLARK. 71-72. 1 p. 286 – transcrits par M.] et prior cursum verborum eius impedias. 1992 (op. p. les miniatures ne sont pas les seuls éléments du traité à avoir subit des modifications. 37. notre note 1). 302. nec terrere te poterit. Ursus aeger formicas devorat. quia dexteram amplexus est Christi. et iam novit sua arma tentare. Methoden in Wissenschaft und Kunst des Mittelalters. ici p. Ergo ferae norunt ea [ex]petere quae sibi prosint . et de vulnere excludit sagittas. Cuius venenata fera odorem non potest sustinere. l’exemplaire de Lorvão témoigne plutôt de ce que vingt ans après la rédaction du traité. 1970. notre note 1). L’image dans le Beatus de Lorvão. O Comentário do Apocalipse do Lorvao e Suas Iluminuras. o homo. a mal interprété les propos de Charles de Clercq et lui fait dire que l’aviaire de Lorvão aurait été copié d’après le premier exemplaire. de Gruyter (Miscellanea Mediaevalia. REBELO GONÇALVES. 45. solve amictum tuum. y compris dans des exemplaires produits loin de la région d’origine du traité. Exameron. cit. fugit lupus.2 0 1 1 . 21. ut oculo tuae mentis eius perfidiam deprehendas. Il est en outre suivit sans transition d’une dizaine d’autres passages du même texte. F. En outre. Leopardus capreae agrestis sanguinem bibit. Coimbra. VI. 1999 (op. Berlin. atque ea quae nondum expertus sit. et tamquam habeat. W. Sumatur pro medicamento. consultée sur place. 7). Voir W. non potest currere. p. I. bestiarum Leo aeger simiam quaerit. 279-302. 146] ab aegrotantibus. [f. B. Cervus oleae ramusculos mandit. non pro cibo: sumatur [f. dans A. cum titubaret in fluctibus. p. De medicamine capre Capra vulnerata dictamnum petit. GOMES DA SILVA ROCHA. et invenit. 36. ut sermonem resolvas. 1929. 32. NEUSS. petram cape. notre note 5). B. tu ignoras. leopardus inde exsilit. n. et vim languoris evitat. in (sic)pudentiam eius et acumen disputationis obtundas. non éditée. 76 et 78. M. 1992 (op. L’abbaye devint progressivement bénédictine entre 1064 et 1109. vocem eripit. De Leo gallum et maxi leo fortitudine Me album veretur. notre note 1).. deponit ferociam. 45. 1845). CLARK. cit. MARTINS. cit. dans le manuscrit le texte est à longues lignes. 46. Anne DE EGRY. En effet. tialement créé sous une version remaniée de la regula communis de saint Fructueux. Voir J. De cervo Nondum cervo cornua. sous l’influence de l’abbé réformateur Eusèbe. Idem si se praevisum senserit. serpens Ieiuni De sputo ieuni hominis moritur hominis sputum si serpens gustaverit. son cycle iconographique avait déjà subit d’importantes modifications et déperditions de sens. Hanc petram quaesivit Petrus. J’ai rendu le texte comme il apparait sur le manuscrit sauf pour l’organisation sur deux colonnes. «La nature et le sens du De avibus d’Hugues de Fouilloy». n. auquel le scribe s’est contenté d’ajouter une série de rubriques indiquant de quel animal traite le passage adjacent: [fin de l’Aviarium] De infantulo sit. cit. W. [f. tela ¶minitatur. le texte a aussi été augmenté par l’interpolation de deux passages de l’Exameron d’Ambroise de Milan (V. 145v. Contrairement à ce que suggérait Ch. De catulo Nondum catulo dentes. p. (Je remercie chaleureusement Alain Dierkens et Jacqueline Leclercq-Marx pour m’avoir signalé et prêté un exemplaire de cette étude). choisie ici pour gagner de la place. De leone pardo quod alia odorem refugiat Quid dicam allio homines delectari. W. De même. et fugit.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e tourterelle montrent quand même une nette divergence par rapport au cycle originel. c. CRESPO et F. quasi maius aliud remedium reperire possis. Medicamentum Ieiunium salubre est coporis quaeris. 1992 (op. Omnis fera aegra canis hausto curatur sanguine. B. 1992 (op. Et si in te insurrexerit lupus. 1963 (art.). et despicit eum tamquam vocis ablatae victor. M. ut te tamquam praeventus lupus effugere non pos- 278 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. thèse en 4 vol. et tamen fronte praeludit. La suppression de la composition cruciforme de ces deux miniatures les ampute d’une grande part de leur signification exégétique. 26-29 (PL 14. cit. ZIMMERMANN et R. notre note 1). 74) entre les chapitres 15-16 et 16-17 36. la séparation de la colombe du Christ de celles de Noé et David dans le diagramme des trois colombes rend impossible la lecture ascensionnelle de ce dernier et en supprime la dimension anagogique. et illud ad escam sumere. 2008. cit. ore proprio se quaerit ulcisci. notre note 1). Lisbonne. p. Université Libre de Bruxelles. Vix infantulo coeperunt dentes prorumpere. Quod si te ille praevenerit. 35. De remediis Norunt et bestiae remedia sua. 1972. non ab epulantibus. Or de Clercq ne fait qu’affirmer l’existence du cycle iconographique dans l’exemplaire originel à partir du constat de la transmission relativement stable de ce cycle au sein du corpus.Paris. HOFFMANN (éds. 123-273 .º i . 34. de Clercq. CLARK. Si ad Christum confugias. nec resistit. 2 p.

extraits trad. W. A. B. et (p. ut et sputo suo homo terrenum serpentem interficiat. 2004. d’origine anglaise. A iluminura românica em Santa Cruz de Coimbra e Santa Maria de Alcobaça. 30 et M. MIRANDA. là encore. cit. 44. 1927. si les trois manuscrits ont été réalisés dans la région de Coimbra. 1999 (art. l’aviaire de Santa-Cruz. DA ROCHA MADAHIL. 177).De nido turtulos suos incurset lupus. a relevé une caractéristique stylistique commune à certains oiseaux des manuscrits de Lorvão et d’Alcobaça. Vides quanta vis ieiunii sit. 2 p. de celui d’une Bible produite à Santa-Cruz (Porto. 184 et 190. LENCART. 47. I. Fac-similé du manuscrit 177 de la Médiathèque de l’Agglomération troyenne. Parallèlement. Clark considère donc comme possible que l’aviaire d’Alcobaça ait été copié r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. G. 45. A.º i . 1992 (op. 33 donnent la liste des rubriques ajoutées dans le manuscrit. 46. Sa construction ne débute effectivement qu’en 1178. bien que leur style soit différents. Clark avait émis des hypothèses de localisation sans pouvoir se prononcer avec certitude quant à leurs interrelations ni sur le lieu de production de l’aviaire d’Alcobaça 42. BP. REBELO GONÇALVES. chanoine de Saint-Vincent de Lisbonne. En témoigne un ensemble de manuscrits de grande qualité produits à cette époque et qui se démarquent nettement de la production de Lorvão 40. «Os códices de Sant Cruz de Coimbra». Il s’agit du motif en forme de soleil radiant (sunburst) que l’on trouve sur les genoux du Christ de Lorvão et sur les épaules de plusieurs oiseaux du même manuscrit ainsi que sur les figures du coq et de l’hirondelle d’Alcobaça. 38. ms. par Rémy Cordonnier. CLARK. le scriptorium le plus susceptible d’en avoir possédé le modèle commun serait Santa-Cruz dans la mesure où il s’agit d’une maison augustinienne. cit. notre note 1). mais son scriptorium est déjà pleinement en activité à la fin du XIIe siècle. son style plus nerveux éloigne l’enlumineur de Santa-Cruz de la production traditionnelle locale et le place sous l’influence de l’art roman français. identifiait ces passages à des extraits la seconde famille du Bestiaire latin tout en soulignant par ailleurs que cette famille du Bestiaire. Maria Adelaide MIRANDA. W. notre note 1). Au vu des ressemblances et des divergences entre les trois exemplaires portugais. Pour elle. ne pul. tu negligis quomodo adversum lupos nequitiae spiritalis posteritatem vitae huius habeas tutiorem? 37 Le scriptorium de Santa-Cruz était bien actif à la fin du XIIe et au début du XIIIe siècle 38. notre note 5).2 0 1 1 279 . notre note 1). 46-47. En grande partie reprises par M. p. 41. 1964. Santa Cruz de Coimbra na cultura Portuguesa da idade média. soit 1274. 1997 (art. 39. moritur. Pourtant. Les miniatures des aviaires d’Alcobaça et de Clairvaux sont virtuellement identiques à l’exception. 1992 (op. 42. ce qui nous donne un terminus ante quem. W. Mais l’enquête se complique avec l’inclusion nécessaire dans le corpus d’un quatrième témoin illustré. 1992 (op. dans ses notices sur les aviaires de Lorvão et Alcobaça. p. 386-391. mais situe la production de l’aviaire de Santa-Cruz après celui de Lorvão 39. Porto. Boletim de Biblioteca da Universidade de Coimbra. notre note 1). 40. est la 53e fille de Clairvaux. 1996. 31. Clark a relevé de nombreux points de contact entre l’iconographie des deux exemplaires. De avibus. et merito spiritalem. Toutefois. cit. 409-442. p. cit. CLARK. 130-136. bien que celui de Clairvaux soit moins fautif que celui d’Alcobaça 45. p. Lisboa. cit. 43. 1992 (op. p. Selon Clark. notre note 5). Clark a relevé la présence d’une initiale au début du premier chapitre de l’aviaire d’Alcobaça. p. 1999 (art. daté lui aussi de la fin du XIIe siècle ou du début du XIIIe siècle. cit. Il est donc très probable que l’aviaire y ait été produit. notre note 6). n. ms. J. ce qui lui fait dire que l’exemplaire d’Alcobaça aurait pu avoir été copié à Lorvão. est iconographiquement très proche de l’exemplaire de Lorvão. Marânus. CRUZ. M.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e FRADE. mais pas identique. et qui a appartenu à l’Abbaye cistercienne de Clairvaux 44. n’est connue par d’autres sources sur le continent qu’à partir du milieu du XIIIe siècle. Ce manuscrit est mentionné en 1472 dans le catalogue de l’abbaye composé par Pierre de Virey. le situe dans la première moitié du XIII e s. 8. cit. voir Françoise BIBOLET. Leurs textes sont très proches également. cit. squillae folia superiacit. Quantam Dominus etiam minusculis infudit prudentia[m]! ris Turtur nido suo. Clark. 135-139. SC 2) 41. p. A. Novit enim quod huiusmodi folia lupi fugere consuerint. Il s’agit de l’exemplaire actuellement conservé à Troyes (Médiathèque municipale. soit l’ordre auquel appartenait Hugues de Fouilloy 43. W. Le monastère Sainte-Marie d’Alcobaça. donc le style est très proche. p. A. fondé en 1153. 200) mentionne une note au f. Le codex contient en outre un catalogue des manuscrits de l’abbaye qui débute avec la mention d’un don fait en 1207 (Era 1245) par Pierre Vincent. p. des miniatures du coq et de l’hirondelle. 199. B. B. 1967 (art. en fr. B. CLARK. p. notre note 5). cit. W. Hugues de Fouilloy. notre note 1). 1999 (op. Novit vulpecula quomodo posteritatem foveat suam: et tu ignoras. 117 avec la date «Era 1312». nous l’avons dit. MIRANDA. Paris. CLARK. Traité des oiseaux (extraits). p. W.

CLARK. présentés par Benoît Chauvin. Vincenzo DE GREGORIO. Ce dernier ayant terminé sa formation cléricale à Avignon. Alcobaça et Clairvaux. Tous les quatre auraient alors été copiés indépendamment mais à partir d’un même modèle aujourd’hui perdu. Les deux manuscrits cisterciens peuvent aussi.). Les manuscrits de la Charité. 49. cit. 1993. Le dessin sous-jacent de l’oiseau est en revanche trop effacé pour que l’on puisse objectivement le comparer à celui de Clairvaux. 46. XIIIe s. Clark conclue en proposant sans l’affirmer une origine portugaise pour les aviaire de Lorvão. ms. L’inverse est également envisagé par l’auteur. 409. comme s’il avait été gratté. B. BIBOLET. p. p. La médecine de l’âme. Troyes 177)». l’inspection de ces deux miniatures à l’aide d’une lampe de Wood a confirmé mon hypothèse en révélant les traces légères mais bien visibles d’un dessin sous-jacent différent de celui des miniatures actuelles. p. 1949-1978. 45. notre note 42). Santa-Cruz. ayant peut-être appartenu à l’abbaye cistercienne de Montier-en-Argonne 49) 50. Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato. cit.. 43. p. Letterari e Artistici. dans Benoît CHAUVIN (éd. Libreria dello Stato. W. qui pourrait correspondre à celle qui encadre le même médaillon dans l’aviaire de Clairvaux. mais les différences entre les deux manuscrits ne lui permettaient pas de l’affirmer. CORDONNIER. ne partage pas son avis et considère que le style de l’aviaire correspond à la production claravalienne de la fin du XIIe siècle. Cheminon et Montieren-Argonne. et devraient permettre de faire avancer la problématique de l’interrelation entre les manuscrits concernés. Beernem. Les deux miniatures qui empêchaient cette affirmation jusque là ont été ajoutées a posteriori d’après un des deux autres exemplaires portugais. dont l’origine est pour le moment indéterminée 47) et celui de Rome (Bibliothèque Casanatense. notre note 1). 301-302. p. notre note 11). vol 5. également attribuée à Hugues de Fouilloy». C’est une compilation des traités d’Hugues contenant outre l’Aviarium: Le cloître de l’âme. 23).º i . qui argue du caractère plus portugais que claravalien de l’exemplaire de Clairvaux. [II (Histoire cistercienne). Mais on ne sait pas comment il est entré en possession du livre auparavant. Cette hypothèse est par ailleurs corroborée par les nombreuses corrections textuelles qui ont été faite 280 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. CLARK. 1992 (op. selon Clark. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane (Pubblicazioni dell’Università degli Studi di Salerno. cat. puis archevêque d’Arles. Cloches et Horloges: le Temps au Moyen Age. Presses universitaires de Rennes (sous presses): «On sait simplement qu’il fut offert aux Célestins d’Avignon au XVe siècle. 47. IV (abbayes)]. Napoli. v. En y regardant de plus près. Ada DI MORICCA CAPUTI (dir. notre note 1). ms. Le coq et l’hirondelle de l’aviaire d’Alcobaça sont donc des repeints. B. j’ai en effet pu faire des observations intéressantes sur les miniatures du coq et de l’hirondelle qui posaient problème en raison de leur nette différence stylistique avec les autres illustrations du manuscrit. Lorsque j’ai consulté le manuscrit d’Alcobaça. ici p. W. Collections cisterciennes et voies Nouvelles découvertes De nouvelles données codicologiques peuvent désormais être ajoutées au dossier. cat. 444. B Chauvin. Mélanges à la mémoire du Père Anselme Dimier. Finalement. 2495..). cit. 1984 (art. cit. 306. 27-29 et du même «Le coq et les cloches dans l’iconographie». par le cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny (1342-1426) évêque d’Ostie. Pour le coq. BNF. j’ai pu constater que la portion de parchemin qui a reçu les deux miniatures était plus sale et plus veloutée que le reste de la page. le cercle intérieur du médaillon qui a été gratté dans le manuscrit d’Alcobaça correspond à celui présent dans la miniature du coq de Clairvaux. W. 47-48. notre note 1). «Portraits d’oiseaux illustrant le De Avibus d’Hugues de Fouilloy (Manuscrit de Clairvaux. 1230-1240 48. Anne-Marie TURCAN-VERKERK. p. Catalogo dei Manoscritti della Biblioteca Casanatense. le dessin de la tête de l’ancien oiseau est encore visible à droite de l’aile de la figure actuelle et il correspond au dessin de la miniature de Clairvaux. 1984. On distingue aussi la trace d’une ancienne rubrique grattée sous le médaillon du coq d’Alcobaça. avoir été réalisés à Alcobaça d’après un même modèle et l’un des deux offert ensuite à Clairvaux 46. 48. lat.). Pour l’hirondelle. vol. 49 p. il est probable qu’il ait fait don du manuscrit aux Célestins de la ville à ce moment là. Il aurait pu alors avoir été la copie et non le modèle. déb. B. Il me semble donc que l’on peut désormais considérer les aviaires de Clairvaux et d’Alcobaça comme des exemplaires jumeaux. dans Fabienne POMEL (éd. 409-447. 2009 (art.2 0 1 1 . 73-74 . Rennes.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e d’après celui de Clairvaux. 1992 (op. ce qui explique que l’on y retrouve certains motifs typiques de ces scriptoria – comme les soleils radiants sur les épaules. Elle ajoute pour finir que nombre de variantes textuelles et certaines des caractéristiques iconographiques que l’on trouve dans ces manuscrits se retrouvent également dans deux autres exemplaires illustrés : L’aviaire d’Avignon (Paris. l’un des cercles du médaillon du coq est nettement estompé comme si lui aussi avait subit une tentative d’effacement. W. cit. Roma. CLARK. En outre. La Biblioteca Casanatense di Roma. 1992 (op. F. Les noces spirituelles et charnelles et une Visio cuiusdam monachi. R. Sezione di studi Filologici. 411.

Kraus on his 60 th Birthday. CLARK et Meradith T. p. dans Willene B. notre note 1). Toutefois. dans l’aviaire de Clairvaux. Ces observations ont pu être faites à l’aide d’un éclairage spéciale à la lumière rasante (selon un angle de 30 à 15 degrés) qui révèle nettement les irrégularités du manuscrit et dévoile les trous de pochoir ainsi que les traces de poinçon pour la réglure et pour certains tracés de dessins préparatoires.. p. cit. document and display micrometric details. 50. p. Gebr. 104). Il n’y a plus de rubrique autour du médaillon. Philadelphie. Paris. Ces corrections sont clairement repérables car l’encre d’écriture qui a servit à les inscrire est beaucoup plus sombre. notamment entre les pattes de l’autour (f. 250. B. Or ce tracé ressemble beaucoup à celui de la miniature idoine dans l’exemplaire de Lorvão. le rubricateur a inscrit la sentence rimée du coq autour du médaillon: gallus alis se percutiens est doctoris aliis exemplum praebens. 1990.). cit. Berlin. une autre découverte codicologique récente tendrait à désigner l’exemplaire de Lorvão. 93 voir aussi de la même: «The Aviary-bestiary at the Houghton Library Harvard».va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e de transmission des textes (IXe . et était-ce au Portugal ou en France ? • Les aviaires d’Alcobaça et de Santa Cruz ont fait l’objet de corrections textuelles et iconographiques.2 0 1 1 281 . Dorothy MINER. Books. dans Helmut LEHMANN-HAUPT (éd. du moins de réorienter les recherches et de proposer de nouvelles hypothèses concernant les interactions entre ces quatre manuscrits. Nous avons donc là une poignée de nouveaux indices qui permettent. et dans la bordure de celui-ci il a reformulé une des idées principales du texte courant: Intelligentia galli prudentia magistri. p. 92) ou la queue de la cigogne (f. 47. mais est-ce à partir de l’exemplaire de Lorvão ou d’un autre manuscrit ? r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. mais ont-ils été copiés l’un sur l’autre ou à partir d’un modèle commun. Homage to a Bookman: Essays on Manuscripts. Cette méthode a été observée dans un autre aviaire par W. dans ce même ouvrage. presque noire. Sur certaines des miniatures de ce derniers on distingue en effet un tracé sous-jacent léger mais qui est encore visible ça et là. CLARK. «Highlight manuscripts third dimension – access. sinon d’apporter des réponses définitives. W. En effet. the bestiary and its legacy. cit. seule la sentence rimée est inscrite dans la bordure du médaillon. 57. Or W. On peut se demander pourquoi l’on a souhaité reprendre seulement deux miniatures du cycle. 51. Les recherches menées par l’équipe de conservateurs et de chercheurs en charge de la restauration du manuscrit 52 ont en effet montré que le contour de trois miniatures de ce manuscrit a été piqueté pour servir de pochoir (le merle. Some examples shown at ms. Mann. le phénix et le paon) – une technique largement utilisée au Moyen Âge pour faciliter la copie des enluminures 53. 1992 (op. souligne que cette encre noire est typique d’Alcobaça et Santa-Cruz 51. B.). 2000. 1992 (op. si tant est que ce soit l’un de ces deux là. 26-43. Pour faciliter son travail le correcteur du manuscrit d’Alcobaça a probablement gratté entièrement l’ancienne miniature. «More about Medieval Pouncing». Maxdorf. Il me semble en outre que l’aviaire de Lorvão a peut-être servit de modèle à celui de Santa-Cruz. Voir notamment l’article d’Inês CORREIA. W. Mojmir FRINTA. Punched Decoration on Late Medieval and Miniature Painting. son médaillon et les rubriques pour les remplacer par la composition actuelle. MCMUNN (éds. 49.º i . CLARK. 1992 (op. Il n’est pas non plus possible pour le moment de déterminer lequel des aviaires de Lorvão et de Santa-Cruz fut l’exemplaire de référence du correcteur d’Alcobaça. 1998-2000. Lorvão 5 – De avibus». 87-107. ANTT. B. p. 53. On ne peut hélas pas en dire autant de la miniature de l’hirondelle car la rubrique qui encadre l’oiseau est correcte et les traces de grattage sur le parchemin ne concernent que la figure de l’oiseau. dans l’exemplaire d’Alcobaça. mais est-ce pour celui de Santa Cruz ou pour un tout autre manuscrit ? • Les aviaires de Clairvaux et d’Alcobaça étaient bel et bien des manuscrits jumeaux à l’origine. Beast and birds of the Middle Ages. que l’encre brune du manuscrit. CNRS éditions. Clark. Pour le coq il semble que la réponse se trouve dans les sentences rimées et rubriquées qui accompagnent lesdites miniatures. Prague. p. p. notre note 1). il a du y en avoir une mais elle a été visiblement grattée. Or dans le manuscrit d’Alcobaça. CLARK. 284. 52. 2 vol. 1967. qui mentionne ces corrections. notre note 1). • L’aviaire de Lorvão a été utilisé comme modèle.XIXe siècles). and Printing Written for Hans P.

cit. de l’oie. notre note 20). du héron. Les connections entre les scriptoria de Lorvão et de Santa-Cruz peuvent aussi en partie s’expliquer par leur histoire. du nictocorax. 174. MARTINS. MIRANDA et al. 282 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. A ce sujet on consultera M. MIRANDA et al. du vautour. A. M. 1979. Un style qui se caractérise notamment par abandon progressif du «formalisme plastique des artistes romans» 55 par un assouplissement de la ligne et une multiplication de plis serrés dans les drapés. Enfin les techniques de dessin évoluent. p.º i . Dans les figures animales cette nouvelle expression se traduit par une plus grande attention aux détails. du geai. M. du hibou. On observe également un abandon progressif de la mise en couleur par aplats couvrants au profit d’une technique plus «impressionniste». Ainsi le diagramme des trois colombes et les miniatures de l’autour. L’enluminure à l’époque gothique 1200 . De son coté. des figures plus animées..1420. plus mouvementées. 8. Le fameux motif en soleil radiant utilisé à Lorvão pour dessiner les épaules des oiseaux est nettement moins présent dans les enluminures de Santa-Cruz dont l’artiste semble préférer un motif de palmette pour dessiner l’articulation des ailes. cit. A. l’enlumineur de Santa-Cruz s’est réapproprié le programme iconographique du Traité des oiseaux et en a adapté l’expression à son propre style. 1963 (art. Il est évident que cette période d’affiliation temporaire a renforcé les liens entre les deux maisons et probablement occasionné des échanges importants entre les scriptoria.. Bibliothèque de l’Image. A. du caladre. M. notre note 20). Je les attribuerais donc à un enlumineur plus proche de l’ancienne tradition romane locale. Il se détache des influences mozarabes encore fortement présentes dans l’exemplaire de Lorvão 54. du phénix. François AVRIL. du merle. qui abandonne par ailleurs le type lusitanien jeune et imberbe pour un Christ barbu plus «français».2 0 1 1 . Cela se remarque notamment dans les vêtements du Christ de la miniature du cèdre. de la perdrix. p. Sa 54. marquant le passage du roman au gothique dans l’enluminure. 55.. Elle retrouvera néanmoins son indépendance dix ans plus tard. Toutefois. pour se tourner vers le nouveau courant stylistique qui fleurit en Europe de l’ouest autour de 1200. de la cigogne. du coq. 57. du corbeau. de l’hirondelle. de la grue. montre une plus grande sureté et une plus grande finesse du tracé ainsi qu’un sens plus aigüe de la couleur 57. cit. du paon et de l’aigle. Toutefois je dois admettre que la distinction n’est pas évidente et que pour certains oiseaux tels que l’autour. p. du cèdre et des passereaux. 56. p. MIRANDA. 2010 (art. 2010 (art. rééd. de l’autruche. cit. Famot. plus vivantes 56. de la huppe. l’autruche ou la caille l’attribution à l’une ou l’autre main est loin d’être évidente. 1999 (art. je suis tenté de voir deux mains dans la réalisation des miniatures de l’aviaire de Santa-Cruz en raison du contraste qualitatif que l’on observe dans certaines miniatures. du palmier.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e Conclusion Si le manuscrit de Lorvão a servit de modèle pour celui de Santa-Cruz. 190. 413. notre note 5). du milan. Outre une grande proximité géographique. Santa-Cruz est un produit conjoint de la Réforme Grégorienne et de la nouvelle monarchie. notre note 5). de la caille.. du cygne. en 1109 l’abbaye de Lorvão a été confiée aux autorités ecclésiastiques de Coimbra par Henri de Bourgogne (1066-1112 comte de Portugal à partir de 1093). du pélican. me semblent moins abouties et plus maladroites dans leur dessin et leur mise en couleur que les autres miniatures du manuscrit. constituée de petites touches multicolores destinées à rendre le détail du plumage. Alors que les miniatures de la tourterelle. Paris. 1995.

Lisboa. de leur vaste diffusion dans toute l’Europe et de la mixité de leurs vœux qui leur permet de bénéficier de l’aura de piété propre aux religieux réguliers tout en cultivant le contact avec les populations laïques. Elles concernent essentiellement le doublon Clairvaux-Alcobaça. La présence d’une grande. Portugal Medieval. p. M. cit. 60. 1992. «A iluminura Românica em Portugal». BN. 139. p. de celui d’Alcobaça ou chacun de leur scriptorium d’origine où ils auraient alors été copiés d’après un modèle commun? J’espère qu’une étude comparative plus poussée de ces deux témoins et notamment de leurs textes permettra de faire avancer la question. dans A iluminura em Portugal. 73-74. Ils étaient alors bien placés pour diffuser la réforme et appuyer le pouvoir royal nouvellement instauré 59. GOMES DA SILVA ROCHA. 59. 111. INCM. J. et tenter d’affiner la situation des aviaires portugais au sein du groupe d’Heiligenkreuz. José MATTOSO.º i . 1 p.2 0 1 1 283 . • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. faisait de Lorvão le lieu tout désigné où trouver des manuscrits susceptibles d’aider les religieux de Santa-Cruz de combler les lacunes de leurs armaria. Identidade e Influências. Il faudra également se pencher sur le cas des aviaires d’Avignon. fondation en 1131 coïncide avec le déplacement de la cour royale à Coimbra. afin de déterminer comment ils s’intègrent au corpus.va r i a · d e s i n t e r ac t i o n s e n t r e s c r i p to r i a p o rt u g a i s au x i i e s i è c l e 58. En dépit des ces nouvelles découvertes. Dans ce contexte particulier. vol. Lisboa. venant juste de s’installer dans la région. Novas Interpretações. Ces manuscrits proviennent-ils tous-deux du scriptorium de Clairvaux. Maria Adelaide MIRANDA. Toutefois. riche et ancienne abbaye bénédictine non loin de là. de Rome et de Montpellier. les chanoines de Coimbra ont certainement eu besoin d’enrichir leur fonds initial. le choix des chanoines augustiniens était stratégique en raison de leur réputation d’érudition. même s’ils avaient apporté des manuscrits avec eux. Les différences stylistiques s’expliquant alors par l’influence française (languedocienne ou aquitaine 60) des chanoines de Coimbra qui ont réalisé leur exemplaire et certainement contribué au développement du gothique lusitanien dans l’enluminure. pour lequel je ne suis toujours pas en mesure de trancher au sujet de leur lieu de production. plusieurs questions majeures restent en suspend pour le moment. notre note 28). La ville devient alors le centre du pouvoir de la nouvelle monarchie et permet à Alphonse I d’affirmer son autonomie face au pouvoir des puissants laïcs du nord 58 et de renforcer sa position en se rapprochant de la zone de conflit avec les musulmans. 2008 (op. 1999.

M. Metzeger. more parallel to the parchment (‘grazing’ or ‘raking’ light). 8). When illuminated in the same way. (dir. J. where overlapping strokes can be better controlled because of similar lighting. 284 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. similar to a raking light. Porto: BPMP. documentation and display of micrometric details inês co rreia DGARQ – National Archives of Torre do Tombo and IEM.com Introduction Medieval scribes complained of the difficulty and physical effort of the long and hard labour of illuminating or copying manuscripts with the dim light coming through the windows of the monasteries 1. with light from the side as it would have been in a Scriptorium. Paris: CNRS. The position of the scribe and the angle of incidence of the light source are not clearly attested by written sources. such as blind ruling. Leyde: BNF. a manuscript can expose an extraordinary dimension – texture. pricking) will be lost (at worst) or not appreciated (at best). Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas – UNL.). Azevedo Santos. Le Livre au Moyen Âge. In modern reading rooms the lighting is generally more diffuse and homogeneous.e. Conservation treatments can remove or reduce this evidence through flattening. If this seems redundant. 123-132. Furthermore. 1988.ineia@gmail. 3. increasing reliance on digitised im- 1. We are not considering the cases in which the light enters through the roof. i. modelled by the orientation of the room and time of day. We can make some interesting reflections on the characteristics of that light. As condições técnicas e materiais da cópia de manuscritos na Idade Média in Catálogo da Exposição Santa Cruz de Coimbra: A cultura portuguesa aberta à Europa na Idade Média. 2001. It is not rare to find the scribe or copyist monk depicted as seated in profile at their working table. but may be found in iconography 3. and in consequence the surface texture of a manuscript is not perceived in the same way. 4. imagine the difficulty in following lines ruled with a punctorium (blind ruling) without such raking light (Figure 1).J. 2. It would reach the working table at an extreme angle 2.2 0 1 1 .º i . stylus markings. subtle surface textures. 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal) ines. When did scribes begin to use writing desks? in Historical and literary studies. Jewish and Christian (New Testament Tools and Studies. 40-41. 2 éd. III-XIX.va r i a · h i g h l i g h t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s ’ t h i r d d i m e n s i o n highlighting manuscripts’ third dimension access. Such light could also help when painting. Pagan. B. 1968. Therefore there is increasingly a danger that the evidence of the manufacturing processes and later uses of a medieval manuscript that are detectable within its third dimension (subtle surface deformations. Glenisson. sometimes framed by the arches of the cloister 4.

we deal with a so-called ‘low tech’ method based on a specific lighting plan. highlights the ruling marks of a blind tool. W. Dated. 21(1): 63-74. but as an essential and routine measure. right. habits from handling or owner censorship (Figure 3b). Clark. Bringhamtom: Medieval & Renaissance texts & studies. by colophon to 1184. and can thus help improve the understanding of the relations between monastic institutions. detail captured with raking-light (optic fibre). f. theological and doctrinal influences. 33. 1992) as the earliest surviving dated copy of Hugh of Fouilloy text 6. (LP) 5 applied to particular manuscripts. 1992.2 crow in f. for the bi-dimensional perception of the folio. yet. From a ‘low tech’ method to ‘high tech’ possibility figs. which simultaneously improve our perception of important details in the manuscript.1 illuminating the folio with cold light at a sharp angle. Some of these relations are revealed in. Clark. 1982. in which the gradual increase in resolution does not compensate. De Avibus from Lorvão Monastery (Lorvão 5). and. and helping the interpretation of marks left by copy processes. In this fully illustrated manuscript the depiction of the twenty-two r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.º i . lorvão 5. Sequence of images obtained with a different type.The Medieval Book of Birds. the effect of a deliberate mutilation is recognized in the marks left by a tool tip 5.2 0 1 1 285 . 12 ages of manuscripts by scholars means that these clues can be overlooked (because these features are rarely visible under the types of illumination used for photography and scanning). both in terms of assessing its conservation status. Gesta. 6. We propose to improve the access-preservation of these manuscripts based on a recovering of optical effects by variable and raking-light as a result of manipulating the orientation and intensity of a proper light source. The Illustrated Medieval Aviary and the Lay-Brotherhood. The illumination of objects from a light source at an oblique angle or almost parallel to the surface reveals significant information on the codex production. We propose the use of raking-light. p 41. In this context.va r i a · h i g h l i g h t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s ’ t h i r d d i m e n s i o n fig. Hugh of Fouilloy’s Aviary. it is known (Clark. W. during direct physical access. migration of models or illuminators and several other contextual matters. Direct access to the manuscript itself would be justified to assess three-dimensional surface details that are not recorded on digital format. on or beyond the surviving material of a unique cultural heritage. Within this framework. we propose the revaluation of digital objects created from the transfer programs of medieval manuscripts. not as an optional or secondary procedure. intensity and orientation of light in order to obtain specific information. left. The method proved to be useful for the study of an important medieval manuscript. author’s receptivity.

«Visible & Beyond». 8. 58v-46. Parchment distor tion produced by over tension of sewing. 1. On Wings of Blue: The history. Five years have elapsed since a conservation treatment. A – Stereoscopic Light B – Raking Light C – Standard Light Macro for lapis lazuli. 1999. from http://www. Clark. public service of the Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement (IDEA). PTDC/EAT-EAT/104930/2008. 1st edition. displaying text. data on colour. which is. p. freeing the folios of the structure.gov. optical recording is converted into digital image with variable resolution. observed through the microscope with optic fibre lighting. the dismantling of the codex.U.. 54. Claro A. 3) «Colour in medieval illuminated manuscripts: between beauty and meaning». 286 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. has also facilitated the scanning of high resolution (300dpi). a ‘low tech’ easy to manipulate source of light. we can observe depth of thick paint layers.. which was carried out because of the risk of structural collapse. Ib idem. mapping not only physical changes but also dimensional phenomena like retracting. We will focus on lighting of type B.J. and Melo M.A. in Afonso. System of optic fibre with rheostat. revealing much about this Portuguese manuscript’s production 9 and suggesting that there is more to be revealed. curling or slight undulations. M. POCTI/EAT/33782/2000. 16. Lisboa: Edições Colibri. Michael Douma. opacity and gloss. 10. Miguel C. For further information about Portuguese «Book of Birds». General view. Lemos A. 9.dgarq. Projects: 1) «An interdisciplinary approach to the study of color in Portuguese manuscript illuminations».org/pigments/.pt. «Visible & Beyond». public service of the Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement (IDEA). materials and techniques of the Book of Birds in Portuguese scriptoria. rakinglight and a standard homogeneous source 7. which is currently available on-line 10 (Figure 6). 2) «The identity of Portuguese medieval manuscript illumination in the European context». Standard lighting from scanning technology.. W. 11.. Miranda. Interdisciplinary projects had been developed since then. At very sharp angles to the surface of the manuscript. f.webexhibits. (Table 1). (ed. Reference code: PT/TT/MSML/B/5.org/pigments/. M. stabilization and restoration of parchment support and binding.I.2 0 1 1 . PTDC/ EAT/65445/2006.webexhibits.va r i a · h i g h l i g h t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s ’ t h i r d d i m e n s i o n birds is very natural. L. Table 1-B. Table 1 Manuscript Lorvão 5.º i . details such as surface defects or distortions can be easily revealed. Hawk. At a closer look. This blue pigment area will be characterized at the molecular level by microRaman and micro FTIR. the illuminator combines in his drawings the classical tradition of the representation as nature and as allegorical symbol 7. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. f. see Rebelo Gonçalves. Michael Douma. which reveals information about macroscopic texture and planar distortion 1. Its importance in medieval art justifies its presence in numerous thematic exhibitions 8. Simultaneously. As Matérias da Imagem.) The Materials of the Image. http://digitarq. tool incisions and even subtle scribal corrections 11. 2010. f. Intervention included disassembly of the structure. from http://www. Livro das aves / Hugo de Folieto. as mentioned before.40.

The first example. eyes easily adapted to this low levels of light intensity and. 2008. respectively. It also shows some interference coming from verso side writing. just as in the Aberdeen Bestiary. which was not enough to reveal micrometric details of texture. one of most popular copying techniques.3: a).abdn. where such holes can be found on several of the images. Michael Arnott and Ian Bevan. «Improved Damage Assessment of Parchment». During the last conservation treatment (2005). and which have been largely studied as pouncing. shows the possibility of surface assessment by reducing the translucent character of parchment. show three examples of LP application to Lorvão 5. d) texture revealed by raking-light at 300 (50 lx) r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Images indicated ‘A’ were digitized using standard lighting from analogue capture. The studies on this manuscript did not fig. revealing even subtle creases. all the images with this kind of contour prick were documented on the conservation report. when the manuscript was observed under filtered natural light (35 lx). «Pouncing». Final report. Figure 3b and Figure 4b. where no holes were found. This example is also significant because it enabled detection of the fine holes along the bird contour. Figures 3 and 4.hti#pounce. The Aberdeen Bestiary. more was revealed on the texture surface with an additional raking light source 13.uk/ bestiary/codicology.62. 14.2 0 1 1 287 . 15. 13. Directorate-General for Research. Articulated optic fibre was used with rheostat supply. c) details acquired with a standard homogeneous light source (>800 lx) for the Phoenix and the Partridge. http://www. data collection and sharing of knowledge 2007.ac.va r i a · h i g h l i g h t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s ’ t h i r d d i m e n s i o n 12. If light direction is changed during examination we can understand the causes of mechanical damage such as shrinkage or local distortion. 12/04/2003. 14 To better document the impact of the pricking tool. at the same time. but it was never contextualised as an artistic or historic issue. while backlighting was used to help parchment infill. b). Inês Correia.º i . which is increased by the high intensity of the lighting. Assessment. On the other hand. which became the basis of a current research in image damage and its relation with transmission and censorship 12. European Commission. IDAP. the verso side was documented (Figure 3b) as well as the next folio. «What Image physical disturbance can tell?» (in progress). f.

not so abrasive. 15 These treatments have a direct impact on appearance: decreasing surface texture they may decrease or remove the evidence related to the manufacturing processes and 288 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. in f. accelerate chemical reactions and produce irreversible shrinkage. is documented for the Partridge. c). f.2 0 1 1 . even at room temperature.º i . Conclusion . suggesting two different drawing options.va r i a · h i g h l i g h t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s ’ t h i r d d i m e n s i o n Fig.4: a) detail acquired with a standard homogeneous light source (>800 lx) for the Ostrich (f. A blind trace.62v. revealed by raking-light at 150. d) texture revealed by raking-light at 300. Conservation procedures. previously unnoticed. types of physical damage: a deep incision along the contour made with some sharp tool. respectively. such as cleaning. Raking lighting is shown to be a shortcut to bring this past to light. with 35 and 50 lx. Medieval manuscripts are full of significant texture – maybe due to the light angle. 61v. Looking at the next examples it is easy to agree on the importance of the details unveiled. but this time. The indications detected on the surface of Lorvão 5 thus can increase our knowledge on its reception and transmission. Even a small variation induces changes in its dimensions such as curling and waving. b) stilus incisions. which is clearly seen under 50 lux and a deliberate scratching on the image. out of bird contour. 50 lx proceed to a systematic texture examination. may increase the stiffness.Texture conservation and display Parchment is particularly sensitive to relative humidity and temperature changes. even with a small amount of moisture. flattening and pressure with heavy load on moist parchment may cause considerable change of colour and transparency. The Ostrich (Figure 4) seen under raking light at 200 reveals two distinct. 40). with which they were written and illuminated. Also.

namely to assess the conservation status. (editors) 2008. but the risk is higher if information at the micro level is not even acknowledged.L. Bibliography Azevedo Santos. Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 11: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen 24th-25th April 2008 (Paperback). FCT-MCTES. M. Rome: Instituto Centrale di Patologia del Libro. L. It is concluded that. This evidence may be disclosed with raking-light. digital scanning is not carried out systematically under raking light. Lisboa: Edições Colibri. 1999.A. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra (Humanitas).º i . A iluminura e o iluminador no contexto de produção do códice. applied with a low light intensity to avoid photodegradation. Oxford: The Red Gull Press. Silvestre Lacerda. Gand: Éditions Scientifiques StoryScientia S.I. A. Maria João Melo and Adelaide Miranda for helpful suggestions. Prolégomènes à la codicologie – Recherches sur la construction des cahiers et la mise en page des manuscrits médiévaux. and to Mark Clarke. Innovation in Preserving and Conserving Book Heritage. We propose that this lighting may bring us closer to what might have been the medieval conditions of its manufacture and use. should be also digitized with raking light.R. Reducing the level of information should always be avoided. Rebelo Gonçalves. Selected manuscripts. raking-light examination is an indispensable tool. One of those manuscripts should be. The author would like to thank the Director of Torre do Tombo. Batori. University of Copenhagen. Gilissen. and Ragnheiour.2 0 1 1 289 . L.J. 2001. with relevant micrometric details noticed by conservators or researchers. M. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.P. this could be easily achieved. As far as we know. The Book of Birds from Lorvão. A Ars Scribendi: Textos e Imagens. the author is also grateful to Mark Clarke for his generous assistance in the text editing. Livro das Aves. in order to preserve and highlight manuscripts’ third dimension. Making the Medieval Book: Techniques of Production. 1998.J. Conpenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. M. Miranda. Brownrigg. A produção do livro: do monge ao artesão. • Acknowledgements The National Science Foundation. 2003. Driscoll.va r i a · h i g h l i g h t i n g m a n u s c r i p t s ’ t h i r d d i m e n s i o n later uses of the codex. undoubtedly. 1995. M. 1977. M. for an accurate recording of medieval manuscripts. Coimbra: Câmara Municipal: INATEL: ADDAC. Vol L. is gratefully acknowledged for the PhD grant SFRH/BD/44192/2008 and for funding the project PTDC/EAT-EAT/104930/2008.

translated into English as The book on how to make the colours of the paints. talvez a reprodução mais complexa de todo o tratado. 290 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. making it an example of the practice of Iberian aljamia writing. esperamos. a receita descrita pelo praticante medieval. o que. Universidade Nova de Lisboa. no nosso caso. Nas palavras de Luís Afonso. com sucesso. pois deseja actualizar práticas e materiais vindos de um passado longínquo.v a r i a · à v o lt a d e u m v e r m e l h o apresentação de edição d’ o livro de como se fazem as cores . Ivo Cruz e António João Cruz. A edição crítica pioneira foi a de Blondheim. optamos por uma edição on-line 2.) The text on colours is written in Portuguese language but using Hebraic script. O livro de como se fazem as cores 1. O desafio intelectual foi grande e podemos afirmar que este é um trabalho em aberto e novas descobertas na história e arqueologia do passado nacional permitirão maior rigor na reconstrução destes pigmentos e corantes medievais. FCT. o mais utilizado na iluminura medieval. Centramo-nos neste número especial no caso do vermelhão 3. A datação deste tratado tem intrigado estudiosos tendo sido reavaliada recentemente por um grupo de investigadores portugueses. Para este contribuíram. Se numa receita culinária. o sucesso é medido aferindo se o produto final é esteticamente apelativo e saboroso. O que significa reproduzir. os muitos alunos de História e Técnicas de Produção Artística do Mestrado em Conservação e Restauro da Universidade Nova de Lisboa. O livro de como se fazem as cores das tintas. that is the use of Arabic or Hebrew script to write a text in an Iberian romance language. sob o olhar da ciência e tecnologia ma ria j oão m e lo e c ata r i n a m i g u e l Departamento de Conservação e Restauro and Requimte. FCSH. Assim. HgS. em que se destaca a participação de Luís Afonso. most of them concerning materials and techniques to be used in the illumination of manuscripts. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia. a que neste momento se junta a mais recente tese de Devon Strolovich. Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Le vert et le rouge.. levará a uma actualização eficiente.º i . Lisboa (Portugal) O processo de preparação da síntese de um vermelho medieval que a seguir se apresenta é o resultado de muitos anos de investigação em torno de um dos mais interessantes tratados técnicos medievais.2 0 1 1 . 1. A presente edição distancia-se em muitos aspectos de outras excelentes deste tratado. Catarina Miguel no âmbito do seu projecto de doutoramento. o sucesso é medido pela beleza (e durabilidade) da cor obtida. para que o leitor participe na história do vermelho dos vermelhos. is a Portuguese technical text written during the Late Middle Ages dealing with the preparation of artists’ materials. Lisboa (Portugal) à volta de um vermelho ma ria a del a id e m i r a n da Instituto de Estudos Medievais and Instituto de História da Arte. Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas. It is composed by forty-five chapters of different lengths.. e mais recentemente. (. de modo a permitir uma rápida partilha e discussão com outros investigadores e curiosos. com inúmeras tentativas de reprodução da receita.

– Strolovitch. e aí seleccionar arquivo digital. Série Monográfica «Alberto Benveniste» 3. 29-43. always stirring it with a dog's foot that has its hair and wool. The Medieval History Journal. When needed. And seal them. I. As Matérias da Imagem. and fired as necessary to obtain a ceramic pot." [1] The proportion present in the treatise was followed: 1. a silver-black compound with a cubic crystal structure. Old Portuguese in Hebrew script: beyond O livro de como se fazem as cores. www. In this reproduction. break the pots and grind it and incorporate it and mix it with another measure of mercury and sulphur. Reproduction The olhas (clay container) were designed. As Matérias da Imagem. after two and a half hours. until the fire turns to ashes. small amounts of water were dropped over the necessary areas to avoid flames or lowering the temperature. – Blondheim. 2010. – Strolovitch. With these measures you ill made as much vermilion as you wish: for a terça of mercury take five pounds of sulphur. Rationalization / Chemical reactions In the first step. O vermelhão é um sulfureto de mercúrio de fórmula química. D. On this note. neither quick nor slow. remove the pots from the fire and let it cool. A.    To make vermilion  Figure 1. Afonso (ed. take five pounds of quicksilver. And if anything sticks to the spit. p. being thermodynamically stable only for high temperatures.fct. in L. What is observed may be described as in the treatise "until the fire turns to ashes" [1].2 0 1 1 291 . For maintaining the embers. 116-184. we used a white crucible made of two parts: a base where metacinnabar is heated and a cover. (ed. 2010.L. And pay attention to the vapours that escape. L. 19: 97-135.pt/LivComoFazemCores. U. sulphur was slowly added and mixed with mercury.unl. thus you will never ruin anything.) The Materials of the Image. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. And regulate the first in such as way that it does not [10v. above about 370ºC. if by chance the vermilion burns. 3. the pot was taken from the fire and cooled to room temperature. place it in two new pots that are made like bottles. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação. handmade using white or red clays.º i .U. and for five pounds of mercury take one pound of sulphur. This step takes time and patience. and place it in a bottle or large glazed bowl. PhD Dissertation.] And once the fire has thus died down. which is the kinetic product of this reaction [2. D. And place the pots on the fire on their holders and cover them well with clay.047g of mercury and 0. 2010. contact. and place a bowl over the holes. in -Afonso. In a successful experiment. broad below and narrow above. L. mercury and sulphur are ground to produce metacinnabar. 3-27. [10r. And when you see the smoke coming out red and not malodorous. Parma1959) in Afonso. was then transferred into the base of the clay crucible. and place them in other pots and proceed as described. 3. Experiments placing the pot directly into the fire were carried out. place a thin spit in it.J. leaving only a small hole through which the vapor will escape. 2008. And pour the powdered sulphur over the quicksilver little by little until it is well incorporated.v a r i a · à v o lt a d e u m v e r m e l h o Para mais informação consultar a bibliografia abaixo elencada. Lisboa: Cátedra de Estudos Sefarditas «Alberto Benveniste» da Universidade de Lisboa. S. and take a pound of very fine virgin sulphur.87. Main steps in the reproduction of the process of making vermilion. To improve the incorporation of both compounds. and convivência.1674g of sulphur were weighed and ground in an agate mortar with a pestle.dcr. Notas sobre a língua do Livro de como se fazen as cores (ms. HgS. And once it is cool break the pots and you will find the vermilion made. 11: 1-28.U.1928. and Afonso. For more details please see [2-11]. New developments in the study of O livro de como se fazen as cores das tintas. "To make vermilion. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. and keep the fire moderate. The thermodynamic stable form at room temperature is the hexagonal mercury sulphide (vermilion).U. Black mercury sulphide.U. L. 2005. On the Date and Contents of a Portuguese Medieval Technical Book on Illumination: O livro de como se fazem as cores. the olha was opened and vermillion was found inside its base. until all were bound and a silver-black-greyish compound was formed. Old Portuguese in Hebrew Script: convention. Jewish Quarterly Review. 4]. – Cruz. Afterwards. 2.) The Materials of the Image. – Afonso. that is mercury. An old Portuguese work on manuscript illumination. which was covered and sealed with fresh clay. Chapter 15.º Volume. combustion air was introduced with the aid of a wooden air blower. (ed.) The Materials of The Image: As Matérias da Imagem. L. – Castro.] burn. Cornell University.

1959.W. The only smoke observed was black. The stability relations of cinnabar and metacinnabar. Missing / Obscure indications Pot design: There is no precise information about the shape of the olha. starting with about 0. Temperature at which black metacinnabar is converted into red vermilion is "the crucial" parameter. It is important to stress that.25: vermilion is found in mixture with the extender calcium carbonate. the dog's foot: "always stirring it with a dog's foot that has its hair and wool until the fire turns to ashes" is possibly one of the most beautiful instructions found in a medieval treatise. A. 116-184.D. Strolovitch in his translation refers to it as a vessel “like bottles. Comments heating temperature: The reference of “red smoke” as a signal for the complete transformation of metacinnabar into cinnabar. This product can be a mixture of meta and hipercinnabar [3]. although in the text grinding is described and with very specific details. Lorvão Apocalypse. and Vaughan. is formed. 1993. as found in Santa Cruz 20. The later compounds were added as extenders as they did not affect the final colour. heating or using amalgam. for temperatures higher than 580ºC.A. D. To transform the black mercury sulphide form (α’-HgS) into the red form (α -HgS). neither quick nor slow". embers’ temperature fall between 620670ºC. On the other hand. [4] . metacinnabar is heated at 350370ºC.210 with red lead. From left to right: Santa Cruz 20. contact. 74: 8596.Pattrick. F. Bell. Alcobaça 419.Sharma. we found pure vermilion in the lettering and mixtures of vermilion with variable percentages of red lead (from 5% up to 40% wt) or other additives in big size illuminations. Reaction scheme for vermilion synthesis. Journal of Phase Equilibria. displaying a very good conservation condition. and convivência”. the higher the temperature the more efficient will be the solid state reaction that enables the conversion of the cubic black form into the red one. In fact this smoke colour was never observed. Works cited [1] . as those described in the text. [1]. 2005. The use of a fluffy surface could help in capturing Hg. Examples of vermilion in Portuguese medieval illuminations. [2] . f. PhD Dissertation. remove the pots from the fire and let them cool” [1]. 14:100-109. If anything sticks to the spit. we found that introducing the pot in the sand bath heat at 285ºC for 2h30 and afterwards rising the temperature (heating rate of 15ºC/min) until circa 350ºC for 2h30 produced the best results.º i . [3] . D. pot design: The olha’s base thickness is essential on the inset temperature control. Cornell University. facilitating the grinding and reaction of big amounts of Hg and S. for our experimental conditions. Vermilion as a proteinaceous paint was applied as a pure pigment or mixed with red lead or/and calcium carbonate and white lead. To produce dark reds. Only a black smoke was seen due to the overheating of the bottle (olha). undoubtedly the two most determinant parameters of this recipe. G. during the grinding. it was used both to paint the rubricae and in the illuminations.137v: pure vermilion paints for the red and a mixture with an organic dye for the dark red.v a r i a · à v o lt a d e u m v e r m e l h o Figure 2. Y. the production of red mercury sulphide – vermilion – is a solid-state reaction and not a sublimation process [12. probably the result of metacinnabar sublimation. not yet characterized. broad below and narrow above". 44: 471-487. Where was this fire made? In a special apparatus or just on the ground? How was it maintained and controlled? We infer. When sublimation occurs. the description "until the fire turns to ashes" not only conveys a beautiful image but it also depicts accurately what is observed. Usually.C. Also. place a spit in it. “Old Portuguese in Hebrew Script: convention. Heating time and red smoke: The information present in the treatise says “and when you see the red smoke coming out red and not malodorous. For our experimental conditions. it is clear that this reaction takes hours and not days. [1].. the yellow sulphur and the bright mercury are transformed into a greyish colour that may be described as "ash colour".J. 292 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. indeed. Those who have tried to mix sulphur with mercury know how "fugitivas" the small drops of mercury may turn to be. In the Lorvão collection. namely on allowing a controlled heating rate and on maintaining constant temperature inside the olha.T.Strolovitch. vermilion. To test the influence of Figure 3.2 0 1 1 . R. f. 2010. and Tunnel. De Avibus (Lorvão 5). a black product. that the experiment time was to be expected more in the 1-2h range than in the 3h-6h. no red smoke was observed in any of the many experiments conducted. prompt us to considerer that a sublimation process could be present.A. f. sand baths were used and temperature was measured over time in the sand. and Chang. temperature control over reaction yield.M. R. Structural evolution of aqueous mercury sulphide precipitates: energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies. Heating temperature and time: the only information given is “place the pots on the fire” and "keep the fire moderate. Key aspects Reaction stoichiometry: one mole of sulphur reacts with one mole of mercury. Mixing mercury with sulphur to produce black mercury sulphide may be achieved by a thorough grinding. However. In our reproductions we tested both thorough grinding and amalgam formed by heating sulphur: both worked in the same way. it was mixed with an organic dye. American Mineralogist. heating time: Although there is no specific information about the heating time. f. 13]. from the lack of information.91v: pure vermilion paint. Vermilion in Portuguese medieval illuminations Vermilion red is an important colour in Portuguese Medieval manuscripts. In a second step.Dickson.5 g of black metacinnabar. Mineralogical Magazine. and will rearrange into the hexagonal form that corresponds to the red product. We do not know if the pots should be placed directly on the fire neither for how long (a couple of hours? all day?). it is necessary to avoid temperatures above about 400-450ºC. The HgS (Mercury-Sulfur) System.

96 22. (eds. Sublimation of IIB-VIA compounds. R. American Mineralogist...77 Spectroscopic characterization Further reading Written Sources Blondheim.W. Vaughan. Afonso. Mosselmans.. The vapour pressure.R. C.F.64 46.30 36. S. New York: Dover Publications. L. D.º i . Miranda. [10] . Phase relations in the binary Hg-S.68 26. The structural evolution of mercury sulfide precipitate: an XAS and XRD study. and Oliveira. and Onnerud.Historically accurate reconstructions from The book on how to make colours.W. 1973.S.) The Materials of the Image.. [11] . Histoire Naturelle. Lopes. A. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials.P. Relative thermal stability and heat of transformation of blackmercury sulfide (metacinnabar). F. Plinio.. Cinnabar or vermilion?. XRD diffractogram acquired with a Philips X’Pert diffractometer using monochromatised CuKα radiation. Smith..Potter II. 1928. Lisbon.. and Miguel. 2003. 1979. Cennini.Y. 47: 28:32. M. L.. 2008.24 b* 19. M. [7] . with a molybdenum anode.. J. and Livens. The making of vermilion in medieval Europe .72 49. A. Similarity of structure properties of Hg1-xMnxS and Cd1-xMnxS (structure properties of Hg-MnS and Cd-MnS). Kashkooli.G. A. A. M. N. and transition point of mercury sulphide. London: Archetype. New York: Dover Publications. J. Medieval and Renaissance Treatises on the Art of Painting: original texts with English translations. 2011. (eds.. An old Portuguese work on manuscript illumination.Rodic. On Divers Arts. M. Livre XXXIII. Thomson. J. D. L. 1928... 1978. characteristic bands @ 253. 2010. C. M.2 0 1 1 293 . L. Revista da Faculdade de Letras. High Temperature Science. 63: 1143-1152. Vermillion and Cinnabar.A.J.U. Merrifield.. Melo. V. and Feller.141-143.u. As Matérias da Imagem.64 46. 1999.. S. J. [9] .D. [6] . in Kroustallis.J. C.). V. in Afonso.18 37. 2010. and Thomas. Fatto D’Archimia: history and identification of artificial pigments.Gettens.v a r i a · à v o lt a d e u m v e r m e l h o [5] .Sources and Methods. Moyes.U. Lisboa: Campo da Comunicação.8nm. P. I. New developments in the study of O livro de como se fazem as cores das tintas. R. Vol. 15 25 35 45 55 65 2 teta (º) Raman spectrum acquired with a Labram 300 Jobin Yvon spectrometer with λexc= 632. (ed. Fatto D’Archimia: history and identification of artificial pigments.V. Colour coordinates.Miguel.30 27. The Craftsman's Handbook – The Italian “Il libro dell’arte”. L. 285 -1 and 343 cm EDXRF spectrum acquired through ArtTAX spectrometer. Clarke. Madrid: IPCE. 5: 8-15. H. and Del Egido. and Hawthorne. May 1972. Theophilus. in Preprints of the XVI ICOM-CC Triennial Conference. Melo. 1960. A Study in Scarlet – vermilion red and colour paint formulations in medieval illumination. Paris: Belles Lettres. and Barnes. 152: 159-164. Produced following "The book on how to make colours" Colour Table 1. and Clarke.Munir. Madrid: IPCE. 17. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas. C. Bajorek. 4: 210-223. Support Filter paper Parchment Binder Parchment glue Arabic gum Parchment glue Arabic gum L 49. in Kroustallis. M.N. Other Garcia-Moreno. 1985. Z. M. (eds).Miguel. 88: 1197-1203.M. for vermilion paint reconstructions using two different binders (arabic gum and parchment glue) applied over filter paper and parchment. R. 2010. 1960. R. 2: 45-69.Rinse.A. [13] .). Moreira de Sá. El bermellón de Almadén: de Plinio a Goya. translated by D. Spasojevic. M.56 a* 36. M. London: Dover Publications. dissociation.. American Mineralogist. London: Archetype. 1996. 19: 97-135.J.Charnock. 3-27 Appendix Vermilion characterization. Pattrick. J. The “book on how one makes colours of all shades in order to illuminate books” Revisited. R. Chase. G. Bruquetas. Jewish Quarterly Review. C.97 38. Studies in Conservation.A. in “Technology and Interpretation Reflecting the Artist's Process”. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.. R.Melo.B. Miranda. [12] . M. and Del Egido. [8] . Lab*. and Street. in Art Technology. a. S.J.

as well as the historical context surrounding it. illustration. The installation builds on this previous work. The installation has three components that can work independently or as a full installation. Universidade Nova de Lisboa Introduction The main goal of the installation is to allow wide dissemination and awareness about color in Portuguese medieval illuminations. chemistry and conservation sciences. This theme. was already the object of some dissemination to non-scientific audiences. art history.º i . with several iterations on the content and technology. namely in several workshops where illuminations and color paints were produced using techniques similar to the original ones. Universidade Nova de Lisboa rita ca rva l h o Instituto de Estudos Medievais. The design and development process was carried out by a multidisciplinary team from areas including computer engineering. using a digital platform. ta rq u í n i o mota Centro de Informática e Tecnologias de Informação.2 0 1 1 . The following sections describe each of these components and how they contribute to the overall experience. history. Virtual Scriptorium This component aims to provide an individual experience of producing an illumination. n u n o cor r e i a . design. It also works as a trial for interaction experiments regarding innovative computational interfaces and how they can be developed and used in a cultural heritage setting. It works as an extension of a real workshop on medieval 294 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. the theme of the project within which these components are being developed 1. Faculdade de Ciências e Sociais e Humanas. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia.va r i a · i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y to e x p l o r e m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at i o n s interactive technology to explore medieval illuminations a ndré rica rd o.

users can produce their own paints (fig. The goal is not to create an experience equivalent to a real workshop (differences.2 paint production. Similarly to the workshop. but to provide a new approach to the production of an illumination. helping to divulge the ancient art of illuminations through a playful and engaging experience. or the running down of the ink/paint in the pen brings a certain manual feeling to the application. attracting participants with several ages and backgrounds (fig.2 0 1 1 295 . As in the real workshop. the user is guided through several steps in order to construct an illumination (fig. The application contains also information concerning each illumination from the «Book of Birds» as well as the corresponding texts. public libraries and archives. workshop of medieval illumination fig. Their challenge is to reproduce an image from the «Book of Birds» or «Apocalypse of Lorvão». 1). r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. virtual scriptorium illumination which takes place regularly at the University. The session includes the production of paints.º i . this digital component aims to support the construction of an illumination from the «Book of Birds». 3). 4). through actions like grinding carefully a lapis-lazuli stone in order to have a proper pigment (as in the color blue).va r i a · i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y to e x p l o r e m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at i o n s fig. with its own specificities. Being easy to set up. virtual scriptorium fig.1 e 1a image creation. such the ones regarding touch and smells are obvious). this application can be placed in cultural sites with broad audiences such as museums.3 image creation. both romanesque manuscripts from the Monastery of Lorvão. Details such as the brush thickness.4 paint production. based on medieval recipes (fig. or mixing it with the binder. 2). Using a tablet PC and a pen instead of parchment and brushes. workshop of medieval illumination fig.

5 initial diagram. In «scriptorium» the user can explore the instruments and materials used by the copyist or by the illuminator during the process of production of the codex. visible in a playful initial panel (inspired by medieval genealogical diagrams) (fig. the item «monastery» provides an important overview of the site where the workshops or scriptoria were placed. Besides a brief scientific explanation of color. It also shows their applicability at that time and their possible social meaning(s). 7) is an item in which the user can find concise information about the context of the Iberian Peninsula between the second half of the 12th century and the first of the 13rd century. It will display virtual versions of the codices «Book of Birds» and «Apocalypse of Lorvão» that the user may flip as in a real codex. and the art that was produced. interactive panel fig. its organization. Users may explore several items such as «colors». the item «colors» (fig. artistic and historical point of view. and also acknowledge the different tasks involved. «codex» or «Romanesque Portugal». and displaying how the page layout of an illuminated manuscript was carefully designed regarding its different functions. Special relevance is also given to the illuminated codex production process and to its historical context. Some of those items will now be described. Since the monks were the agents of codex production at that time. interactive panel Interactive Panel The interactive panel provides an overview of color from a scientific.6 color diagram. 6) explores the way paints of different colors were made in the Middle Ages. «scriptorium».º i .2 0 1 1 . social. showing the enormous importance of the book at that time (in spite of its limited access). 5).va r i a · i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y to e x p l o r e m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at i o n s fig. namely the multicultural Portuguese society. «Romanesque Portugal» (fig. showing also a glimpse of a monk´s life at that time. 296 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. The item «codex» also plays an important part.

2 0 1 1 2 97 . interactive panel r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.7 e 7a Romanesque Portugal.va r i a · i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y to e x p l o r e m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at i o n s fig.º i .

While manipulating a real codex (a reproduction of a Portuguese medieval one) containing sensors that detect its orientation. that is.º i . enabling the display of virtual content related to that page. Information concerning the parchment and some relevant elements of the folios are also accessible through actions like opening the book or turning pages. facing its spine. All these items contain images largely based on illuminations analyzed within the research project. 8).2 0 1 1 . Within each page. it provides a physical experience of the book while the digital content augments this experience. Augmented Book The augmented book is the most innovative component of the installation in terms of interface device. to the actions and elements that turn a gathering of folios into a book as a functional object.va r i a · i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y to e x p l o r e m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at i o n s The panel contains also a gallery of existing illuminations that were previously done with the tablet. a model of that same book is displayed.8 e 8a testing prototype for the augmented book 298 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. In opposition to the other two components. This panel has the advantage of allowing access by multiple users at the same time and of establishing a connection with the tablet. to make the book as similar to a real codex as possible (fig. it is also possible to navigate through the content performing swipe gestures with the hand in front of the book. visual and written information will be provided about the way quires were sewed. All of the electronics are hidden within the covers of the book. accompanied with information relating to its binding. All of fig. as the user turns the book. relating practical and theoretical knowledge. For instance. The book can detect when specific pages are open.

and testing with good results was achieved. Extended user tests will be conducted to assess the experience that is proposed. • r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Conclusions and future work Prototype versions for the three components were developed.º i . Better integration of the three components regarding the software is also a relevant issue for future work.va r i a · i n t e r a c t i v e t e c h n o l o g y to e x p l o r e m e d i e va l i l l u m i n at i o n s these actions can be performed whether the book is standing on the table or is being held by the user. The ultimate goal is to deploy the complete installation in a museum. specially the Virtual Scriptorium component. library or similar institution and for this preliminary contacts have been carried out.2 0 1 1 299 . Current and future work includes content development to add additional contextual information in the Interactive Panel and information about the book as an object in the Augmented Book component. technology and desired user experience. The development process is iterative and the different members of the team contribute at each iteration in the content.

Apocalipse do Lorvão (1189). Arte. Luís – Iconografia Musical Medieval. MOURA. Caparica: FCT/UNL. Laura – Caracterização dos materiais e estudo de conservação da folha de rosto do Foral manuelino de Vila Flor. 2011. 2004. Ana – Caracterização dos materiais e estudo de conservação de um manuscrito iluminado. 2004. Master thesis ongoing ARAÚJO. LEMOS. SOUSA. Lisboa: FCSH/UNL. Ana – Um Novo olhar sobre o livro de Horas de D. Caparica: FCT/UNL. ongoing 304 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Lisboa: FCSH/UNL.va r i a · m a st e r t h e s i s studies in medieval manuscript illuminations master and phd thesis from faculty of social sciences and humanities and faculty of sciences and technology. Ana Rita – Os Livros de Horas (séc. 2009. Caparica: FCT/UNL.2 0 1 1 .º i . Duarte. Liturgia e História no Livro de Horas dito de D. new university of lisbon (unl) Master thesis (or graduate) CLARO. CUSTÓDIO. (1512). Delmira – A Luz da grisalha. Leonor – IL 165 da BNP. Lisboa: FCSH/UNL. 2004. XV) na colecção do Palácio Nacional de Mafra: estudo e conservação.

Inês – Estudo Arqueológico dos Códices Iluminados do Fundo Laurbanense (Sécs. r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.2 0 1 1 305 . Caparica: FCT/UNL. MIGUEL. presentes e futuras. FCSH/UNL. Caparica: FCT/UNL. Lisboa: IEM. Ana – Catálogo dos livros de horas iluminados de origem francesa nas colecções públicas portuguesas (primeira metade do século XV). ongoing. Catarina – Le vert et le rouge: A study on the materials. Lisboa: FCSH/UNL. ongoing. LEMOS. Delmira – Relações artísticas entre Portugal e a Flandres através dos Livros de Horas. 2011. Caparica: FCT/UNL.XIII) – A recepção dos manuscritos no reflexo de intervenções passadas. CORDONNIER. Lisboa: FCSH/UNL. Iconografia musical na arte do final da Idade Média em Portugal. PhD thesis ongoing CASTRO. Maria Alessandra – Juridical manuscripts production and illumination in Portugal between 14th and 15th centuries and theirs connections with manuscripts production and illumination in the French «Midi» (specially Toulouse. XII . Ana – An interdisciplinary approach to the study of colour in Portuguese manuscript illuminations. From the expression of a multicultural aesthetic to the elaboration of a specific symbolism (12th-13th c. FCSH/UNL. Lisboa: IEM. Rita – The Book of Birds in Portuguese scriptorium: preservation and assess. ongoing. Luís – Speculum Musicae. MIGUÉLEZ CAVERO. SOUSA. 2009. submitted. CORREIA. Lisboa: FCSH/UNL.). ongoing. Alicia – Análisis del lenguaje gestual en el Apocalipsis de Lorvão y su comparación con otros beatos y obras artísticas românicas. ongoing. ongoing. Lisboa: IEM. FCSH/UNL. Avignon and Montpellier) and in the North-Mediterranean regions (Italy and Cataluña). Lisboa: FCSH/UNL. ongoing. Pos-Doc projects ongoing BILLOTA. techniques and meaning of the green and red colours in medieval Portuguese illuminations.va r i a · p h d t h e s i s a n d p o s d o c p ro j e c t s PhD thesis CLARO.º i . Rémy – The bestiary of Portuguese medieval art and though. CUSTÓDIO.

Lorvão and St. addressing several aspects from the materials’ origin and production methods to the painting process. where physical objects similar to the ones used in real life. we explore the issues related with the symbolic and social meaning of colour in medieval Portuguese illuminations. with the main focus on children. in the manuscript collections of Alcobaça. We approach this subject from an art history and molecular sciences point of view. We started by quantifying the dominant colours and its combinations. Jewish and Christian. or at institutions where the books are preserved. We intend to achieve an engaging. As degradation processes affect our perception of colour. Particular attention is devoted to their complete characterization by using non-conventional techniques recently applied in the field of cultural heritage. contributing to divulge the ancient art of illuminations through the exploration of modern computer interaction technologies. Quantification is performed by computer image analysis of colour areas. the invisible component of a paint colour. We will afterwards proceed to the comparison with other international collections. Arab. Cruz. in national manuscript collections. namely. may also have a fundamental influence on colour perception as they play a key role in the colour changes over time. produced during the twelfth and first quarter of the thirteenth century in Alcobaça. The tasks and objectives proposed within this project will promote innovation that will contribute to a better access and conservation of medieval illuminations . It will also show users the historical and social context of that epoch and reveal the meanings of the used colours and images depicted. funded by FCT-MCTES. This interactive installation can be easily deployed at cultural sites. describing the main findings and breakthroughs of our research is being prepared. Colour use and production in Portuguese medieval illuminations was a consequence of the technology available as well as of cultural and artistic options. The binding media. This installation will simulate the illuminations’ creation process in the medieval period. intuitive and easy to use interactive system. enriching an exhibition. Lorvão and St Cruz monasteries. We also explore new ways of sharing our results with the general public.2 0 1 1 . 300 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. when making the illuminations.º i . such as ELISA. a book.va r i a · n ot í c i a s notícia Colour In Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts: Between Beauty and Meaning In this project. Arouca. aiming to characterize the monastery scriptoria and their evolution during the twelfth and first quarter of the thirteen centuries. Finally.antigen-antibody assay. examination at the molecular level is essential in order to avoid misinterpretations of the colour meaning and distribution. by defining the specificities of its use and production we contribute to fingerprint the influences of the three different cultures that coexisted in Portugal at that time. will be used.

and the multimedia interfaces by Nuno Correia. catarina miguel. requimte and dcr/fct-unl. mafalda sagarruça and solange muralha. the image analysis by João Lopes. adelaide miranda. FCT-UNL team. vicarte-fct-unl r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Consultant Mark Clarke contributes with his expertise to the overall project as well as Augusto Aires do Nascimento. ana matias. teresa romão. rémy cordonnier. conceição casanova.º i . iict and dcr/fct-unl. team members not present in this photo: ana lemos. from citi and di/fct-unl. the molecular characterization by Maria João Melo.va r i a · n ot í c i a s The team is constituted by 19 members. • Maria João Melo DCR e Requimte. tarquínio mota. ibet-unl. rita carvalho. including five PhD students and five research fellows. catarina duarte. The art history research is coordinated by Adelaide Miranda. iem and dha/fcsh-unl. teresa serra.2 0 1 1 301 . for the Lorvão manuscripts). from left to right: andré ricardo. for the Santa Cruz collection and DGARQ-ANTT. BPMP. mark clarke (consultant). iceta-ff-up. for the Alcobaça nucleus). nuno correia. inês correia. Fruitful partnerships are maintained with the BNP. joão lopes and rita castro. eduardo dias. maria joão melo.

va r i a · n ot í c i a s O projecto IMAGO O projecto Imago 1.º i . de um importante utensílio de pesquisa para os estudiosos da imagem. 2009 do IHA. 284. 1. elaboradas por um grupo de investigadores. à semelhança dos existentes nos restantes países da Europa. fcsh.° 7.2 0 1 1 . a base de dados sobre iconografia medieval conta já com algu- mas fichas no campo da iluminura e da escultura. através do projecto POCTI/EAT/45922/2002. Foi financiado pela FCT-MCTES. coordenadores do projecto. tem por objectivo contribuir para a construção de um centro de iconografia medieval português. Sediada na página da Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa e integrada no Instituto de Estudos Medievais e Instituto de História da Arte. em Portugal. uma base de dados sobre iconografia medieval (abrangendo dois campos de estudo: o da iluminura e o da escultura). Permitindo aos investigadores o acesso a dados fundamentais no campo da investigação. • Para sua consulta ir até http://imago. visa colmatar a inexistência.pt Ana Lemos Instituto de Estudos Medievais 302 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n.unl. um bolseiro do projecto (Joana Ramôa/escultura) e dois colaboradores (Ana Lemos e Luís Sousa/iluminura) sob a orientação dos Professores Doutores José Custódio Vieira da Silva e Maria Adelaide Miranda. ver artigo de Joana Ramôa na revista n. p.

In this context they were written on parchment in gothic style characters and illuminated with precious ornaments such as the coat of arms and the armillary sphere used to express the authority of the realm. Transcription and high resolution digital color photographic documentation of all the foral charters will be made. Raman and Fourier transform infrared analysis). Sofia Pessanha (CFAUL). and a collective entity. • Maria Luísa Carvalho Centro de Física Atómica (UL) fig. King D. Isabel Cabaço (CFAUL). Marcel Besnard (CFAUL). The project will invite other research teams working on related subjects to participate in workshops where results on the Manueline foral charters will be also divulged. Foral charters produced since the 12th century – were copied into renewed codices in the contemporary language and adjusted to the present community rules. such as a village. diffuse reflectance. Ariana Webb (ANTT). a systematic analytical (physical and chemical). Filipa Roldão. the already fragile pieces.cii. With this project. Coordination team: Ana Isabel Seruya (CFAUL) and Maria Luísa Carvalho (CFAUL) Other team members: Marta Manso (CFAUL). Whenever necessary. whose state of deterioration would not recommend their manipulation. to enable online access.pt/ForaisManuelinos.2 0 1 1 303 . whose purpose was to regulate the juridical relation between a master. parchment) and methods used by the scribes and artisans.va r i a · n ot í c i a s The awakening of the Manueline Foral charters The awakening of the Manueline Foral charters: science and technology insights into the masterpiece is a three year project (2011-2014) financed by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia carried on by a multidisciplinary team including experts from Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa (CFAUL). dyes. Mário Costa (CFAUL). This was one of the most ambitious works carried out by D. optical microscopy) or by micro-sampling (X-ray diffraction. José Manuel Garcia (CML). will be restored beforehand. Information regarding the project will be available in http:// manuelin. binders. Teresa Figueiredo (ANTT). This way. 1514 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Agnès Le Gac (DCR/FCT-UNL and CFAUL). The major outbreak is the thorough analytical study of around fifty charters by non-destructive techniques either in situ (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Sónia Domingos (ANTT). won’t have to leave the controlled environment of the archive where they are kept nowadays. such as the king. António Candeias (IMC).º i . A Foral charter was a royal document in Portugal and its former empire. charter of sintra. and preventing further damages to this heritage. inks. Manuel for whom the esthetic of the charters was as important as the message they carried in.fc. Manuel I of Portugal promoted a large restructuration of the historical written memory of the realm. Within this restructure. paleographic and codicological study of Manueline foral charters will be performed by applying methodologies that will enable the identification of materials (pigments. the foral charters. fillers. In the beginning of the 16th century. These Foral charters became known as Manueline foral charters and represent the most important written heritage of the Portuguese Art in the Renaissance. Instituto dos Museus e Conservação – laboratório José de Figueiredo (IMC) and Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (ANTT).ul.

apreender a cultura artística portuguesa do século xv de forma a tentar perceber. Resulta este seminário das questões surgidas da problematização sobre os manuscritos em termos artísticos. por outro lado. por razões devocionais e de gosto. a data em que os manuscritos chegaram até nós. Lieve Watteeuw (Centro Illuminare. Roger Wieck (Pierpont Morgan Library. Desenvolvendo. o facto de no nosso país se ter dado preferência a livros de horas oriundos da escola flamenga. desenvolvemos o estudo de um conjunto de 8 manuscritos conservados na biblioteca do Palácio Nacional de Mafra. Importa esclarecer o que até à data se tem vindo a dizer sobre o assunto.pt http://iem.pt Ana Lemos IEM/FCSH-UNL 306 r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. e determinar. do conjunto de manuscritos deste período existentes em Portugal. Paris) e Patricia Stirnemann (IRHT/CNRS. Bruxelas). isto é.º i .fcsh. o estudo das relações com os manuscritos iluminados da época.unl. Paris). assim. Michel Pastoureau (EHESS.va r i a · s e m i n á r i o e e x p o s i ç ão os livros de horas do palácio nacional de mafra e a cultura artística do século xv Seminário e exposição No âmbito da tese de doutoramento em história da arte intitulada «Catálogo dos livros de horas iluminados de origem francesa nas colecções públicas portuguesas (primeira metade do século xv). E porque o estudo deste núcleo de manuscritos não seria possível sem a colaboração de alguns dos especialistas da área.2 0 1 1 .unl. Universidade de Louvaina. bem como a caracterização estilística da arte dos iluminadores.lisboa 217908300 coloquios. organização instituto de estudos medievais palácio nacional de mafra comissão institucional mário pereira (pnm) teresa amaral (pnm) comissão científica aires augusto do nascimento (fl-ul) maria adelaide miranda (iem/fcsh-unl) maria joão melo (dcr/fct-unl) curadoria da exposição ana lemos (iem/fcsh-unl) comissão executiva ana lemos (iem/fcsh-unl) ricardo naito (iem/fcsh-unl) rita carvalho (iem/fcsh-unl) teresa amaral (pnm) informações frequência no seminário mediante inscrição limite de inscritos: 50 participantes período de inscrição: de 1 a 24 de novembro propina do seminário estudantes | 10 euros outros | 20 euros informações adicionais / inscrições instituto de estudos medievais faculdade de ciências sociais e humanas av. Nova Iorque). numa tentativa de determinar a sua datação mais rigorosa. e os que resultam de uma aquisição posterior por coleccionadores portugueses. 1069-061 . de berna 26-c. visa este seminário um debate sobre toda a problemática envolvente. ao juntar alguns dos especialistas nas diferentes áreas do saber. Análise estilística e iconográfica». culturais e sociais bem como da ponderação de cada um deles enquanto obra de arte singular. Pretende-se. se possível.projectos@fcsh. gostaria de aqui deixar uma palavra de reconhecimento aos que não poderão estar presentes. os que foram adquiridos na época quatrocentista e quinhentista.

pausa 16h20 Os livros de horas iluminados do Palácio Nacional de Mafra Ana Lemos (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 16h40 O que nos dizem os materiais da cor sobre os livros de horas do PNM? Maria João Melo (DCR/FCT-UNL). Leonor da BNP Delmira Custódio (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 16h00 . Ana Rita Araújo (DCR/FCT-UNL) e Ana Lemos (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 17h00 Debate e conclusões 26 novembro Exposição «Os livros de horas iluminados do Palácio Nacional de Mafra» Inauguração pelas 16h00 (Entrada livre) r e v i s ta d e h i s t ó r i a d a a r t e s é r i e w n. Maria Adelaide Miranda (IEM/FCSHUNL) e Ana Lemos (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 10h30 Problemática dos livros de horas: As particularidades da colecção de Mafra Aires Augusto do Nascimento (Academia das Ciências e CEC/FLUL) e Ana Lemos (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 11h00 . Uma problemática histórica revisitada Carlo Moura (IHA/FCSH-UNL) 12h40 .Pausa 11h20 O uso do livro em conventos e mosteiros femininos portugueses visto através das marcas de posse Fernanda Maria Guedes de Campos (BNP) 11h40 A biblioteca do Palácio Nacional de Mafra .os catálogos de 1755 e 1819 Teresa Amaral (Palácio Nacional de Mafra) 12h00 Os livros de horas e a devoção dos leigos na baixa idade média: novas questões Maria de Lurdes Rosa (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 12h20 A iluminura quatrocentista e a noção de espaço pictórico segundo Pierre Francastel.pausa para almoço (livre) 14h00 La dévotion aux saints dans les livres d´heures: l´exemple de Paris au XVème siècle Claudia Rabel (Institut de Recherche et d´Histoire des Texts .2 0 1 1 3 07 .CNRS) 14h20 A pintura mural portuguesa do século XV Luís Urbano Afonso (FLUL) 14h40 A iluminura hebraica portuguesa do século XV Luís Urbano Afonso (FLUL) e Débora Matos (FLUL) 15h00 A heráldica portuguesa do século XV: propostas para o seu estudo Miguel Metelo de Seixas (CHAM-IEM/ FCSH-UNL) e João Bernardo Galvão-Telles (CLEGH-ULL) 15h20 A reencadernação de manuscritos – características e significados Inês Correia (IEM/FCSH-UNL) 15h40 Willem Vrelant/Juan de Carríon: elaboração de um percurso através da comparação de modelos para o livro de horas dito de D.va r i a · s e m i n á r i o e e x p o s i ç ão 25 Nnovembro Seminário «Os livros de horas do Palácio Nacional de Mafra e a cultura artística do século xv» 10h00 Abertura Mário Pereira (Palácio Nacional de Mafra).º i .

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