# Tutorial/HW Week #10

WWWR Chapter 28
• Tutorial #10
• WWWR # 28.3,
28.13, 28.21 & 28.25
• To be discussed
during the week of
Mar 29 – Apr 2, 2010.
• By either volunteer or
class list.
• Homework #10
(self practice)
• WWWR # 28.14
Convective Mass Transfer
• 2 types of mass transfer between moving
fluids:
– With a boundary surface
– Between 2 moving contacting phases
• Analogy with heat transfer

Boundary Surfaces
• Convective mass transfer coefficient

• Hydrodynamic boundary layer
– Laminar flow – molecular transfer
– Turbulent flow – eddy diffusion
( )
A As c A
c c k N ÷ =
Example 1
Dimensional Analysis
• Defining dimensionless ratios
– Schmidt number

– Lewis number
AB AB
D D µ
µ u
= ÷ = Sc
mass
momentum
AB P
D c
k
µ
÷ = Le
mass
thermal
– Sherwood number
from

to

ratio of molecular mass-transfer resistance to
convective mass-transfer resistance
0 =
÷ =
y
A
AB A
dy
dc
D N
( )
( ) L c c
dy c c d
D
L k
A s A
y As A
AB
c
/
/
Sh
, ,
0
·
=
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷
Example 2
• Transfer to stream flowing under forced
convection
– Using Buckingham-t theory, 3 t groups:
(i)
c
c b a
AB
k D D µ t =
1
( )
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
L
L
L
M
t
L
c
b
a
3
2
1
AB
c
D
L k
= ¬
1
t
(ii)

(iii)

– The correlation relation is in the form:
Sh = Nu
AB
= f (Re, Sc)
v D D
f e d
AB
µ t =
2
AB
D
Dv
= ¬
2
t
µ µ t
i h g
AB
D D =
3
AB
D µ
µ
t = ¬
3
• Transfer to natural convection phase
– 3 t groups:
(i)

(ii)

c
c b a
AB
k L D µ t =
1
AB
c
D
L k
= ¬
1
t
µ µ t
f e d
AB
L D =
2
µ
µ
t
AB
D
= ¬
2
(iii)

defining an analogous Gr
AB

– The correlation relation is in the form:
Sh = f (Gr
AB
, Sc)
A
i h g
AB
g L D µ µ t A =
3
AB
A
D
g L
µ
µ
t
A
= ¬
3
3
AB
A A
AB
A AB
v
g L g L
D
g L D
Gr
2
3
2
3 3
3 2
=
A
=
A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
µ
µ
µ
µ µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
t t
Exact Analysis
• Blasius solution for hydrodynamic
boundary layer for laminar flow parallel to
flat surface
• Analogous situation in mass transfer
– if no reaction, constant D
AB
incompressible
2
2
y
c
D
y
c
v
x
c
v
A
AB
A
y
A
x
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c

– Boundary conditions:
at y = 0

at y = ·
0
, ,
,
=
÷
÷
· s A A
s A A
c c
c c
1
, ,
,
=
÷
÷
· s A A
s A A
c c
c c
– Defining

then

– Solving in a similar manner to momentum, we
define
s A A
s A A
c c
c c
C
, ,
,
÷
÷
=
·
2
2
y
C
D
y
C
v
x
C
v
AB y x
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
s A A
s A A
c c
c c
f
, ,
,
2 '
÷
÷
=
·
x
x
y xv
x
y
Re
2 2
= =
·
v
q
– The Blasius solution is

– The concentration gradient at the surface is

– The flux from the surface is then
( ) ( ) | |
( ) | |
328 . 1
Re 2 /
/ 2
) 0 ( ' '
'
0
, , ,
=
÷ ÷
= =
=
·
y
x
s A A s A A
x y d
c c c c d
f
d
df
q
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
· =
5 . 0
, , 0
Re
332 . 0
x s A A y
A
x
c c
dy
dc
( )
· =
÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
c
c
÷ =
, ,
5 . 0
0 ,
Re 332 . 0
A s A
x
AB y
A
AB y A
c c
x
D
y
c
D N
– From N
A,y
= k
c
(c
A,s
– c
A,·
)
we get

thus

| |
5 . 0
Re 332 . 0
x
AB
c
x
D
k =
5 . 0
Re 332 . 0 Sh
x x
AB
c
D
x k
= =
• Blasius solution for low mass-transfer into
laminar boundary layer, and Sc = 1.
• Pohlhausen’s solution when Sc = 1.
• Boundary layer relation:
– At y = 0,

yielding

• Integrating over the whole plate, the total
mass transfer rate
( )
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
c
c
· =
3 / 1 5 . 0
, , 0
Sc Re
332 . 0
x s A A y
A
x
c c
y
c
3 / 1 5 . 0
Sc Re 332 . 0 Sh
x x
AB
c
D
x k
= =
( ) ( )
}
· ·
÷ = ÷ =
A
A s A c A s A c A
dA c c k c c A k W
, , , ,
( ) ( )
}
· ·
÷ = ÷ =
A
x AB
A s A A s A c
x
dA D
c c c c WL k
3 / 1 5 . 0
, , , ,
Sc Re 332 . 0
so

and
dx
x
WD WL k
L
x
AB c
}
=
0
5 . 0
3 / 1
Re
Sc 332 . 0
}
÷
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
AB c
dx x
v
D L k
0
5 . 0
5 . 0
3 / 1
Sc 332 . 0
µ
µ
5 . 0
5 . 0
3 / 1
Sc 664 . 0 L
v
D
AB
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
·
µ
µ
L x x
L L
AB
c
D
L k
=
= = = Sh 2 Sc Re 664 . 0 Sh
3 / 1 5 . 0
Example 3
Approximate Analysis
2 4 3 1
A A A A
W W W W = + +
• For non-laminar flows, or over other
geometries, we approximate the solutions
using von Karman’s theory

which is

rearranged to

having boundary conditions
At y = 0 v
x
= 0 c
A
– c
A,s
= 0
At y = o v
x
= v
·
c
A
– c
A,s
= c
A,·
- c
A,s
At y = o

At y = 0
( )
} } }
c
A + ·
c
·
c
= A ÷ + A
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
+
c c c
x x x A A s A c x A x x A
dy v c x c c k x dy v
x
c dy v c
0
, ,
0
,
0
( ) ( )
·
c
·
÷ = ÷
c
c
}
, ,
0
, A s A c x A A
c c k dy v c c
x
c
0 =
c
c
y
v
x
( ) 0
,
= ÷
c
c
s A A
c c
y
0
2
2
=
c
c
y
v
x
( ) 0
,
2
2
= ÷
c
c
s A A
c c
y
• If it is laminar flow parallel to flat surface,
we assume solution is in the form

• Thus

and velocity profile

• And the integral solution is
3 2
,
dy cy by a c c
s A A
+ + + = ÷
3
, ,
,
2
1
2
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
=
÷
÷
· c c s A A
s A A
y y
c c
c c
3
2
1
2
3
|
.
|

\
|
c
÷
|
.
|

\
|
c
=
·
y y
v
v
x
3 / 1 5 . 0
Sc Re 36 . 0 Sh
x x
=
• For turbulent flow over flat plate,
velocity profile is

and concentration profile is

with the approximate solution:
7 / 1
y v
x
| o + =
7 / 1
,
y c c
A A
ç q+ = ÷
·
5 / 4
Re 0292 . 0 Sh
x x
=
Mass, Heat and Momentum
Analogies
• Similarities between the transport
phenomenon
• 5 conditions:
– No reaction to generate heat/mass
– No viscous dissipation
– Low mass-transfer rate
– Constant physical properties
• Reynolds analogy
– Between momentum and energy, if Pr = 1
– Between momentum and mass, if Sc = 1
– From the profiles,

we get
0 0
, ,
,
=
·
=
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
c
c
y
x
y
A s A
s A A
v
v
y c c
c c
y
0 =
·
c
c
=
y
x
c
y
v
v
k
µ
µ
– Combined with coefficient of skin friction

to get

which is analogous to
( )
2
0
2
0
/ 2
2 /
·
=
·
c c
= =
v
y v
v
C
y x
f
µ
µ
µ
t
2
f
c
C
v
k
=
·
2
f
p
C
c v
h
=
·
µ
– For turbulent flow, we use Prandtl’s mixing
length hypothesis
from velocity fluctuation and shear stress

we find
dy
v d
L v
x
x
± =
'
' '
y x
x
v v
dy
v d
µ µ t ÷ =
| |
dy
v d
ε
x
M
+ = v µ t
from concentration fluctuation and
instantaneous transfer

we get

with the analogous heat transfer equation
dy
c d
L c
A
A
=
' ' '
, y A y A
v c N =
( )
dy
c d
D N
A
D AB y A
c + ÷ =
,
( )
dy
T d
c
A
q
H p
y
c o µ + ÷ =
• Prandtl and von Karman analogies
– Effect of turbulent core and laminar sublayer
– In the sublayer, for momentum

and mass

we get

µv
ç t
ç
s
x
v =
( ) ç
ç
AB
s y A
A
s A
D
N
c c
, ,
,
= ÷
( )
ç
ç
t
µv
A
s A
s y A
AB
x
c c
N
D
v
÷ =
,
, ,
– In the core, using Reynolds analogy,

– Combining both turbulent and laminar
equations

and simplify to
( )
( )
( )
·
·
·
÷
÷
= ÷ =
, , , A
A
x
s
A
A
c y A
c c
v v
c c k N
,
ç
ç
µ
t
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
÷
·
·
1
,
, ,
AB
x
s y A
A s A
D
v v
N
c c
v
t
µ
ç
( )( ) 1 Sc / 1
2 /
÷ +
=
· ·
v v
C
v
k
x
f
c
ç
– At the laminar sublayer,

substitute to get the Prandtl analogy

– Multiply by v
·
L/D
AB
and rearrange, we get
2
5
f
x
C
v
v
=
·
ç
( ) 1 Sc 2 / 5 1
2 /
÷ +
=
·
f
f
c
C
C
v
k
( )
( ) 1 Sc 2 / 5 1
Sc Re 2 /
Sh
÷ +
=
f
f
C
C
– With a buffer layer between the laminar
sublayer and turbulent core, we use the von
Karman analogy
for heat transfer

for mass transfer

( )
( ) | | { } 6 / Pr 5 1 ln 1 Pr 2 / 5 1
Pr Re 2 /
Nu
+ + ÷ +
=
f
f
C
C
( )
( ) | | { } 6 / Sc 5 1 ln 1 Sc 2 / 5 1
Sc Re 2 /
Sh
+ + ÷ +
=
f
f
C
C
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + + ÷ +
= =
·
1 Sc
6
5
1 ln 1 Sc 2 / 5 1
2 /
Sc Re
Sh
f
f
c
C
C
v
k
• Chilton-Colburn analogy
– Modification to Reynolds’ analogy, for all Pr
and Sc
– j factor for mass transfer

– For fluids within 0.6 < Sc < 2500, we know

2
Sc
3 / 2
f
c
D
C
v
k
j = ÷
·
3 / 1 5 . 0
Sc Re 332 . 0 Sh
x x
=
– Divide by Re
x
Sc
1/3
,

– Substitute in Blasius solution,

– So the analogy is
2
Sc
Sc
Sc Re
Sh
3 / 2
3 / 2
3 / 1
f
c AB
AB
c
x
x
C
v
k D
xv D
x k
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
· ·
µ
µ
µ
µ
5 . 0 3 / 1
Re
332 . 0
Sc Re
Sh
x x
x
=
2
f
D H
C
j j = =
Example 4
Example 5
Example 6
Models
• Film theory
– Film of laminar flow fluid next to boundary
– All resistance in the film
– Transport by molecular diffusion
– For diffusion through stagnant fluids,

– For equimolar counterdiffusion,
lm B
AB
c
p
P D
k
,
c
=
c
=
AB
c
D
k
0
• Penetration theory
– Diffusion of a short distance
– Mass flux at interface of gas and liquid is:

– Surface elements will be renewed by eddies
from the turbulent core
– Instantaneous mass transfer, with solute
penetrating into eddy after exposure to surface

( )
·
÷ =
, , A s A
AB
A
c c
t
D
N
t
– Total solute transferred is

with average mass transfer rate

– With distribution in element ages at the surface,
rate of surface renewal is constant and given a
factor s, so mass transfer is
( )
2 / 1
exp
, ,
0
2
exp
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
·
}
t
t D
c c dt N
AB
A s A
t
A
( )
2 / 1
exp
, ,
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
·
t
D
c c N
AB
A s A A
t
( )
·
÷ =
, , A s A AB A
c c s D N
• Boundary-layer model
– Average mass transfer coefficient
3 / 1 5 . 0
Sc Re 664 . 0
L
AB
c
L
D
k =