21548667 T Shirt Operation Breakdown | Seam (Sewing) | Yarn

Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt

Paper: Garment Manufacturing Technology Faculty: Ms. Garima Srivastava

Submitted by: Akansha Choudhary | MFM, Sem 1, 03 Anurodh Agnihotri | MFM, Sem 1, 05 Arnav Paitandy | MFM, Sem 1, 06 Natasha Dhawan | MFM, Sem 1, 16 National Institute of Fashion technology, Mumbai November, 2008

Infant and toddler shirts are sized by month and weight. Product testing and complete product specifications can help prevent poor fit. Printed T-shirt. Necklines of T-shirts should lay flat against the body regardless of styling. Set-in sleeves which fit close to the body require room for movement and arm expansion. This maybe due to. neckband is stretched slightly to fit neck edges. T-shirt fit is concerned with length and circumference of a garment body. Sem 1 | NIFT. Plain T-shirts are often referred to as Blanks for the imprint market. deep armhole. A few styles may also have pockets. provide humor. Reversible T-shirts may be made with two layers of fabric. Mumbai | 2008 T-shirts are multi-functional garment worn by all age groups as innerwear and outerwear. sleeves and a neckline. SIZING AND FIT T-shirts are produced in al size ranges. Seasonal changes in Tshirts maybe reflected in sleeve length. They are simply constructed garments that consist of a front and a back. depth of the neck band or method of assembly. big. cutoff lengths and fitted body. cut of sleeves and neckline shape and depth. ideas or interests. Many styles are now considered unisex. medium. incorrect stitch selection or too many stitches per inch. logos and licensed designs. One of the causes for poor neckline fit is banding the stretches but never recovers. Example of a T-shirt size chart: Garment Manufacturing Technology 2 . Differences in body proportions must be accommodated in the styling and fit of garments. color and fabric weight. Youth and adult sizes are small. extra large and so on. Sleeve fit is often determined by styling. Designs provide intrinsic appeal beyond the intrinsic value of the garment. Fashion maybe reflected in oversize styling. which appeal to both males and females.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. They provide identity through screen printed or heat transfer applications of lettering. During application.

Closed markers are usually used to cut tubular goods to be able to utilize the full width of the fabric. Trims maybe matching or contrasting. Mumbai | 2008 MATERIALS Fabrics used for T-shirts are primarily 100% cotton or cotton /polyester blends. All cotton is generally used in producing better quality garments. cuffs. lengths of the fabric cut to the lengths of the die must be cross or section from the new fabric. creates some challenges in preproduction that are different than products being spread and cut from flat goods. SPREADING AND CUTTING Tubular knit fabric. Die cutting usually causes less distortion problems in the cutting process. This moves the fold from what would be centre front and center back to the underarm area. which is frequently used in adult TShirts. etc. Tape maybe used on back necklines. fabrication and fabric finished also affect quality. Better T-shirt will have a tubular goods turns ¼ turn before cross cutting and stacking. screen printed designs. Sections or blocks of knife are stacked until they meet the specified ply height and the spread is moved to the die cutter. stripes and bindings Trims must be compatible with other materials. Ring-spun yarns provide long-range performance. to stabilize and enclose the seams and improve durability and performance. This will transfer the crease lines from sides of the spread to the centre. Elastic application ensures recovery of stretched seams. garment performance care and use. Narrow twill tape or stable strips maybe sewn in shoulder seams to prevent breaking of the stitch line. Heavier fabrics are often 100 percent cotton and require more yarn which leads to increase in costs. embroidery.Budget shirts are stitched with white thread. though yarn type. Tubular neckbands do not require seaming and are often used for better turtlenecks and crew necks. If it is die cut.turning the fabric although automated.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. while top-stitching is usually done with colormatched threads. Sem 1 | NIFT. Trims used on T-shirts consist of neckbands. Tubular goods may be cut with an open marker but primarily for children’s clothing. Other trims used are braids. provides a less distorted surface for centre front. Threads of many types are used in sewing T – shirt . Fabric may be knife cut or die cut. Garment Manufacturing Technology 3 . Fiber length and alignment affect durability and appearance. bindings.

Sem 1 | NIFT.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. Mumbai | 2008 COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLY OF A T-SHIRT Final T-shirt Garment Manufacturing Technology 4 .

Sem 1 | NIFT.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 5 .

Knitted fabrics do not need a wide seam allowance for good performance. sleeves are seamed before setting. Sem 1 | NIFT. Mumbai | 2008 Garment Operation Breakdown List Form Style Number: _________________________ Description: T-shirt. For other cut and sewn Tshirts. Sketch: Date: 28 November 2008 Op. This stitch/seam combination produces a narrow.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. Edge treatments. finished seam with good stretch and flexibility if properly executed. seaming of knit fabrics needs to be monitored to prevent yarn severance. Knitted fabric . Casual wear. Broken yarn caused by faulty needles or the wrong needles type may allow runs to start at seams. stitched with overedge 504 stitch. # 1 Description Stitch Seam Superimposed Seams Most T-shirt seams are superimposed seams. For tubular Tshirts. A narrow hem on a jersey is likely to curl when tension is applied to the edge of the garment. are easiest to apply while sleeves are flat. Sleeve Because of automation and ease in handling. the sleeve is set into the garment and the sleeves and the side seam are closed in one operation. flat and wide enough to avoid rolling when the fabric is stretched. Stitch tension should be loose and the stitches not visible on the right side. sleeves are often finished 504 prior to setting into T-shirts. However. Garment Manufacturing Technology 6 . 2 Superimposed 3 Hemline Better quality T-shirt 406 Efa Budget T-shirt 503 EFc Hems must be stretchy. Bands may be applied as binding (BSb) or as superimposed seam (SSa). Hems may be the first operation on a t-shirt or the last depending how the production line is set up. Automated seaming allows sleeves to be carried by conveyer to the sewing head for hemming. weather band or hems.

With automation. This method is fast. If pockets are applied. 504 SSa Superimposed 5 504 SSa Superimposed 6 406 Bsb Garment Manufacturing Technology 7 . Shoulder Seams Budget garments may only be seamed. minimizes handling. tanks and so on. an operator places a pocket and shirt and shirt front and engages the machine. and provide a neat topstitch appearance. and attaching tubular neckbands to necklines with closed shoulder seams requiring manual application. Pocket hems of better t-shirts have filler or interlining in the pocket hem to retain shape and prevent stretching. Sem 1 | NIFT. Automatic pocket setters may be used to attach pocket to shirt fronts. Tubular Neckband Neckbands in tubular form require both shoulder seams to be closed before application. Neckbands may be applied separately to the neckline back and front or to the neckline after one shoulder seam is closed. Neckbands. and align neckbands and shirt necklines while sewing them together. the neckline is completed. stretch. Sewing operators fold. Neckline Bound Seam Neckline Bound seam neckline applications stitched with a cover stitch are fast and easy to apply. while better garments have the shoulders taped or elastic applied. Tubular neckbands are folded with wrong sides together. Closure of the shoulder seam(s) after trim is applied leaves exposed seam(s) at the neckline edge.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. are strips of rib knit fed off rolls through tensioning devices and folders. scoops. The machine aligns and stitches the pocket. amd is widely used on budget and moderate shirts. Support material is fed in as hems are stitched to the pocket. when applied as bound seams. When neckbands are applied and the shoulder seams(s) closed. They may be used to finish neckline of crew necks. it may be one of the first operations because it is easier to manipulate a flat open piece. Mumbai | 2008 4 Patch Pockets Patch pockets are found on some outwear T-shirts. Bound seams are flat except where joined at shoulder(s). Tubular neckbands may be cut from appropriately sized tubular knits or cut and sewn from piece goods. This approach may be closed before the neckbone is applied. positioned on top of the neckline in a superimposed seam.

There are standards that apply specifically to the T-shirt industry. This gives the appearance of a better-quality shirt when only the back neck is stabilized. aesthetic appeal. cover stitched or 406 SSf. Continuous taping reinforces the junction of shoulder and neckline seams. Stitches must be loose enough to allow the garment to stretch without breaking the seam. Quality Control Most of the operations in manufacturing clothing are regulated by federal and inter-national guidelines. and thread. Packaging depends on the type of T-shirt and the intended distribution outlet. Topstitching may also be used on better-quality garments in areas where the neckline is not taped. and buttons or other fasteners are attached. topstitched to improve comfort. which is subject to high stress. Optional Features Some T-shirts will have trim or screen prints added for decorative purposes. LSbn Unfinished super imposed seam at the neckline may not remain flat during wear or may not stretch and not cover. The neckline should also recover properly after being slightly stretched. More durable T-shirts are taped continuously around the back neckline and shoulder seam to flatten the seams. appropriate needles and seams. Finishing Operations T-shirts are inspected for flaws in the fabric. stitching. The shoulder seams are left open near the neck. This is intended to add fashion appeal and differentiation to some types of shirts. Sem 1 | NIFT. 9 10 11 Garment Manufacturing Technology 8 . Special T-shirts for infants have larger openings at the head. Mumbai | 2008 7 Taping of Shoulder and Neckline Superimposed neckline seam. are often taped. T-shirts must also be inspected for proper application of neck-lines. and provide hanger appeal. and durability. Only back neckline seams may be taped when neckbands are applied with both shoulder seams open. which include proper sizing and fit. maintain shape. Superimposed 8 Label Stitching Label setting is often combined with neckline with neckline seaming. and the number of stitches per inch. types of stitches. Manufacturers may also set guidelines for the company. which should rest flat against the body. Highquality T-shirts may be pressed through steam tunnels before they are packaged. Hems must be flat and wide enough to prevent curling. SSag.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM. Most T-shirts have neckline labels to provide information and appeal while some shirts have a second label sewn to the outside lower front in a separate operation.

It will add to the cost but there will be a certain cost benefit advantage. This can be avoided by employing 2 operators instead of one for attaching neckbands. Sem 1 | NIFT. This is a still a manual and time consuming process. There are many variations of attaching the neckline and each of these methods effect the appearance. Attaching the neckline is a very time consuming process and leads to accumulation of WIP. Garment Manufacturing Technology 9 . quality and cost of t-shirts. Mumbai | 2008 BOTTLENECK OPERATION We have identified the stitching of the neckline of the T-shirt as a major bottleneck operation.Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM.

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