This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
should take to complete. It can be defined as the systematic determination, through the use of various techniques, of the amount of effective physical and mental work in terms of work units in a specified task. The work units usually are given in standard minutes or standard hours. Why should we need to know how long a job should take? The answer to this question lies in the importance of time in our everyday life. We need to know how long it should take to walk to the train station in the morning, one needs to schedule the day's work and even when to take out the dinner from the oven. In the business world these standard times are needed for: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. planning the work of a workforce, manning jobs, to decide how many workers it would need to complete certain jobs, scheduling the tasks allocated to people costing the work for estimating contract prices and costing the labour content in general calculating the efficiency or productivity of workers - and from this: providing fair returns on possible incentive bonus payment schemes.
On what are these standard times set? They are set, not on how long a certain individual would take to complete a task but on how long a trained, experienced worker would take to do the task at a defined level of pace or performance. Who sets these standard times? Specially trained and qualified observers set these times, using the most appropriate methods or techniques for the purpose i.e. "horses for courses". How it is done depends on circumstances that obtain. The toolkit available to the comprehensively trained observer is described below. The reader is invited to search the individual methods on this current Website.
Selecting the most appropriate methods of work measurement
The method chosen for each individual situation to be measured depends on several factors which include: a. the length on the job to be measured in time units b. the precision which is appropriate for the type of work in terms of time units (i.e. should it be in minutes, hundredths or thousandths of a minute) c. the general cycle-time of the work, i.e. does it take seconds, minutes or days to complete
for very short-cycle work of around one minute total duration such as small assembly work. The methods PMTS. The resulting standard times can be used directly. They often prefer giving a range estimate such as "this job should take between 12 weeks and 14 weeks to complete".The length of time necessary for the completion of the range of jobs can vary from a few seconds in highly repetitive factory work to several weeks or months for large projects such as major shutdown maintenance work on an oil refinery. stating a probable time for completion. At the other end of the scale (long-cycle and project work) we need something which is quick to use. This can vary from setting times of the order of "to the nearest thousandth of a minute" (e. for large project work). c. It is quite clear that using a stop-watch. for example.g. which provides a safety net should things go wrong. b. This can exist in three main forms. Such ranges are not just picked upon at random but are statistically calculated and based on probability theory. This is another example of range estimating. Tasks of this type are filed as standard or synthetic data-banks. These are the dominant factors that affect the choice of method of measurement. estimators rely on experience of the work in order to produce estimates.0001) of a minute or hundred-thousandths of an hour (0. on the latter work would take several man-years to time to measure! Thus. Estimators may not feel comfortable with overall. analytical estimates upon which may depend the outlay of a great deal of money. more "overall" large-scale methods of timing must be employed. Again. This experience can be augmented by the provision of each time-range with a few . Analytical estimating relies on the experience and judgement of the estimator. However. At the "precision" end of the scale is a group of methods known as predetermined motion time systems that use measurement units in ten thousandths (0. short cycle factory work) to the other end of the scale of "to the nearest week" (e. Comparative estimating. such as "this job will take about eight days to complete". Estimating.00001 hour). Such a method is estimating. using this experience. using a screwdriver and similar. It is just of case of weighing up the work content and. they often are used to generate regularly used basic tasks such using assembling or disassembling nuts and bolts. The methods in this group are described in the PMTS topic in this Website. The precision is an important factor. Category estimating. too.g. a. This is a form of range estimating and requires a knowledge of the work.
4. The estimator would compare the work to be estimated with those in the various ranges until the most appropriate fit is found. It is a useful method for recycling time standards for elements of basic work over and over again. RECORD all appropriate and relevant data about the current situation. Another method of assessing the work is using activity sampling and rated activity sampling. The observer times each element of the work and obtains times that the observed operator takes to do the elements.typical. Models: A most useful method for standard or synthetic data-banks of job or element times is using computer models of the jobs. only changing the values of the variables to suit each project. These are generated as mathematical formulae in which the observed data are inserted to compile a time for completion of the task or project. The Method Study procedure The basic procedure was first developed and articulated by Russell Currie at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) and consists of six steps (SREDIM): 1. more efficient and effective method or system. EXAMINE critically. usually with a stop-watch or computerised electronic study board. SELECT the work or area to be studied. Each timing is adjusted (rated) by the pace at which the operator was working as assessed by the observer. examine the objectives of the situation and then to synthesize an improved. DEVELOP alternative approaches to making improvements and choose the most appropriate. The intermediate method between the two groups above. which are independent of the operator and can be used as the time for a trained. This produces basic times for the elements and hence the whole job. observing what the operator is (or operators are) doing at the times of those observations (see the appropriate Topic). This method is retrospective in that the job must be seen in action in order to be timed whereas the other methods are prospective and can be used for timing jobs before they start. 2. is timing the work in some way. . experienced worker to carry out the same elements. jobs that would guide estimators to the most appropriate range. Timing. descriptive. Purpose The aim of method study is to analyse a situation. 3. the recorded data. This is a method based on the observer making snap observations at random or systematic sample times. The reader is referred to the Topic on time study in this Website.
. Building Leadership and Management Work Study: Method Study and Work Measurement Organization’s Most Important Jobs • • Finding the customers and retaining them. MAINTAIN that new situation. 6. The problem with expressing the procedure in such a simple manner is that undertaking a method study appears to be a simple. when we start to examine data. For example. collecting data about a current situation often enables us to discover the reality behind our first perceptions and thus to refine our selection of what we are addressing. Similarly. Value for Money to Customers (VFM) Value to customer (VFM) = (Total quality "Q" X Total service inclusive of pre. linear and mechanistic process. value for money to customers should be continually enhanced by continual improvements in: • • Quality. INSTALL the new method. The method study procedure is thus a convenient representation of what may be a complex process. This cyclic process often begins with a rough first pass. For this. This description in six steps does however serve to show the underlying simplicity of the concept of method study. continually provide maximum value for money (VFM) to the customers to sustain highest level of customer satisfaction. Only the price competitiveness can be achieved. Price: price being normally an outcome of the market forces of supply and demand. and progresses to a more detailed and thorough pass which results in the collection of more detailed and more complete data which is the subject of a more rigorous scrutiny. In practice. minimizing the overall costs as much below the price as possible and thus maximizing profits. in order to make profits the overall costs should be kept well below those price levels. to make the required changes to the situation. in which preliminary data are collected and examined.5. Improving overall productivity and thereby. during and post customer service "S" X Relationship with customers "R") divided by (Price "P" X Lead times "L") Therefore. we sometimes become aware that data are missing or incomplete and we need to go back and collect (record) additional data. the procedure consists of a cyclical or iterative process in which each step may be revisited according to the findings of subsequent steps.
the equation of productivity will read as given below: Productivity = Output quality and quantity/ Input quality and quantity Productivity. thus. can be improved by three ways: • • • Increase output and keep input constant. Service and relations. output as well as input making sure that the proportion of increase in output is more than that of input. So enters the quality. material. Keep output constant and decrease input. Work Study: The Pioneering Technique of Improving Value for Money and Productivity Work study.• • Delivery. Therefore. Increase both. Method study 2. inputs are various resources: man (labor). Normally. Normally. Work study was the sequel to Taylor’s famous scientific management. the equation for productivity = Output quantity/ Input quantity It is important that the output should be an acceptable output to the users or customers. money (capital) and also. Work study has two major branches: 1. Productivity Productivity is the measure of output per unit of input. time and information. under the major discipline of industrial engineering. Work Study is defined as the systematic examination of the methods of carrying on activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities being carried out. in order to reckon and emphasize qualitative changes in output and input. Therefore. outputs are: goods (products) and/or services. Work measurement Method Study . emerged as the earliest effectiveness and efficiency technique that even to date remains the basic to all other techniques that developed later. machine (equipment).
Maintain new method. Development of better working environment. 2.Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work. men. Define existing method. time and information. Improvement in design of plant and equipment. Develop new method. Economy in human effort and reduction of unnecessary fatigue. as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. Improvement in safety standards and procedures. Define new method.e. Seven Steps of Carrying Out Method Study: The Process 1. Each activity of the method under examination subjected to systematic and progressive series of questions. 4. 6. Examine existing method. Objectives of Method Study • • • • • • Improvement in use of all the inputs i. Different Recording Techniques • • • • • • • • • • Outline process charts Flow process chart: man type. material type. machines. Layout improvements. 7.e. 3. material. Examine Examine step uses questioning technique. Primary questions . money and also. Install new method. equipment type Two handed process chart Multiple activity chart: using time scale Simo chart: using time scale Flow diagrams String diagrams Cyclegraph Chronocyclegraph Travel Chart Some Details on Step 3 of the Process of Method Study i. There are two types of questions asked: 1. It uses different sets of techniques to do so. Record existing method. 5.
Place: at which activity is being carried out. Secondary questions Primary questions: Questions are asked and answers found out on: • • • • • Purpose: for which activity is being done. Rearrange and/or Simplify the activities Secondary Questions During the secondary questions. Sequence: • • • • When is it done? Why is it done? When might it be done? When should it be done? . This primary examination is carried out with a view to • • • • Eliminate. 1. sequence.2. Purpose: • • • • What is done? Why is it done? What else might be done? What should be done? 2. persons and means are practicable and preferred as a means of improvement upon the existing method. Person: by whom activity is being rendered. Means: by which activity is being accomplished. Place: • • • • Where is it done? Why is it done there? Where else might it is done? Where should it be done? 3. Sequence: in which activity is being performed. answers to the primary questions are subjected to further query to determine whether possible alternatives of place. Combine.
Tools and equipment to be used and diagrams of jigs/fixtures etc. Install New (Improved) Method • • • Gaining acceptance of the change by the Management. Means: • • • • How is it done? Why is it done that way? How else might it be done? How should it be done ? Some Details on Step 5 of the Process of Method Study i. Person: • • • • Who does it? Why does that person do it? Who else might do it? Who should do it? 5.033.e. Keeping a close eye on the progress of implementation of the new method till it starts running satisfactorily. formerly. Gaining acceptance of the change by the workers. Relative costs in material. labor and overheads of the new method and the existing method and expected savings. formerly $16 .417 Average cost per ton: now $0. It should include: • • • • • • Description of the method.215 Net saving: $36. Define New (Improved) Method A report on new improved method should be prepared.040 Cost of handling these materials: $30.072 Average earnings per man per day: now $1.88.15 Average tons handled per man per day: now $57.4. Cost of installing the new method.798 Former cost per year: $67. $1. Diagram of the work place layout. including cost of new equipment and of relaying out shops or working areas. Classic Example of Early Application of Method Study as Done by Taylor in his Shoveling Experiment • • • • • • • Tons handled on piece work during the year ended 30th April 1901: 924. Some Details on Step 6 of the Process of Method Study i.e. formerly $0. Executive actions required to implement the new method.
forearms. Frank Gilbreth and his wife Lillian Gilbreth. institutionalized motion and time study through their famous motion economy principles. To facilitate it. through their various experiments. (You may find it very interesting to refer their biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by the Dozen). For this. formerly 400 to 600 Motion Economy Principles As an important part of method study. forearms.try to reduce them. Class 4: Body members moved in this class are upper arms. Gilbreth came out with the idea of conducting micro motion study. Class 5: Body members moved in this class are torso. Class 2: Body members moved in this class are hands and fingers and the pivot is wrist. hands and fingers and the pivot is shoulder. a set of fundamental motions required for a worker to perform a manual operation was defined. the movements are classified in 5 classes as given below: • • • • • Class 1: Body members moved in this class are fingers and the pivot is knuckle. hands and fingers and the pivot is trunk. Further.• Number of men: now 140. Class 3: Body members moved in this class are forearms. the time taken for the activity can be significantly reduced. hands and fingers and the pivot is elbow. each describing a standardized activity. upper arms. These are listed below: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Search Find Select Grasp Hold Position Assemble Use Disassemble Inspect Transport loaded Transport unloaded Pre-position for next operation Release load Unavoidable delay . The set is called "therblig" (read Gilbreth in reverse order and you get this term "therblig" with ‘th’ treated as one letter). The set consists of 18 elements. If one can study the motions and micro motions performed in carrying out an activity and economize on them.
The new procedure also decreased fatigue. Establishing wage incentive schemes. Work sampling. Evaluating workers’ performance. Work Measurement Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working or at a defined level of performance. Determining available capacity. Comparing various work methods. Facilitating operations scheduling. Thus ineffective time can be studied and by way of method study described in earlier paragraphs. Some Techniques of Work Measurement • • • • Stop-watch time study. Predetermined time standards (PTS). Standard Data. It measures the time taken in performance of an operation or a series of operations and in can separate out ineffective time from effective time. . The worker’s productivity increased from laying 120 bricks per hour to laying 350 bricks per hour. Fair Day’s Work Amount of work that can be produced by a qualified worker/employee when working at normal pace and effectively utilizing his time and where work is not restricted by process limitations.• • • Avoidable delay Plan Rest to overcome fatigue Classic Example of Early Application of Motion and Time Study as Done by Gilbreth in his Bricklaying Improvement Frank Gilbreth designed a special scaffold and a new brick laying procedure that reduced the movements needed from 18 to 5 and in one case to 2. Objectives of Work Measurement • • • • • • • • Finding ineffective time in an activity or a process (series of activities). Assessing and planning manpower needs. the ineffective operations can be reduced or eliminated. Setting standard (norms) for output level.
Record the complete description of the method.com Training on various "Productivity Techniques" and "Efficient Work Practices/Methods" is provided by Prodcons Group’s Mr Shyam Bhatawdekar. Standard rating: Rating is the assessment of the worker’s rate of working relative to the observer’s concept of the rate corresponding to standard pace (or standard rate). allowances for the working conditions etc) to be made over and above the "basic time" for the operation. Extend the observed time to "basic time" by factorizing the actual time (observed time) by the assessed rating. Assess the rating of the worker. 7. provided that he knows and adheres to the specified method and provided that he is motivated to apply himself to his work. Obtain and record all available information about the job. quantity and quality. 6. 8. Measure with a stopwatch and record the time taken by the worker to perform each element of the operation. Thus. . 4. eminent business executive. break it down into elements. Training and Consultation Contact: prodcons@prodcons. The time taken to achieve the standard performance by the qualified worker is called "standard time". Apply those allowances on the "basic time". Standard performance (pace or rate): It is the rate of output which a qualified worker will naturally achieve without over-exertion as an average over the working day or shift. For More Guidance. personal allowances. 5.Conceptual Framework for Carrying Out Work Measurement It is essential to understand the following concepts in order to undertake work measurement exercise in any organization: • • • Qualified worker: Qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes. 3.par excellence with distinction of having trained over 150. the worker and the surrounding conditions likely to affect the execution of the work.g. Determine the allowances (e. who possess the required intelligence and education and who has acquired the necessary skills and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety.000 professional from around 250 organizations. management consultant and trainer. relaxation allowances. determine the "standard time" for the operation. 2. Assistance. Steps in Carrying Out Work Measurement (Determining the Standard Time): The Process 1.
While studying a job. the practical minimum is generally 0. Standards for similar or related jobs can also be easily established. eliminated. Also. A few points may be mentioned regarding elementalization: 1.02 or 0. 2. but in actuality he may be waiting for a machine element to complete. the elements should be as short as possible without losing accuracy of measurement. or once in every 40 cycles the operator may have to place the tray filled with finished work pieces . 6. and this can then be subjected to a critical examination to eliminate/ substitute the element. Such division into elements provides a detailed method description which can be used for training new workers. The key step in stopwatch time study is that of subdividing the job into component elements. The observation equipment consists of the stopwatch. to the precision of 0. Make direct observations of the work elements while the operator is actually performing the job and record the time of each element. therefore. Calculate the normal time. It helps in separate performance rating of each of the job elements. 4.Steps involved in Stop Watch Time study Stopwatch Time Study makes direct observations by means of a simple stopwatch measuring.027 minutes or 45 TMU (Time measurement Unit) The following are uses of this breakdown into elements: 1. It highlights the inconsistency in working conditions. 4. Obviously. elements of work other than the usual cycle may be encountered frequently. the observation sheet and a pencil. 3.01 minute. Performance rate each element and record 5. Element/s with large variation in time can be examined for necessary changes in the job design or method. One must separate the machine time from the worker time. generally. Compute the standard time. Establish allowances 7. 5. 2. If a job method changes in terms of only one or two elements. Make a statistically adequate number of repeated measurements and record the time of each element. One should take care that the elements are distinct or well defined and therefore amenable to repeated measurements.03 minute the time required to read and record being 0. 2. instead of performance rating the whole job (which may lead to much error in the Time Standard). Subdivide the job into observable and distinct elements. the revised time standard can be easily established in the future. the worker cannot be performance rated low for this element. the recording board. For instance. 6. It highlights the work element which consumes excessive time. Make a statistically adequate number of repeated measurements and record each time. The steps involved in such a study are: 1. once in every 10 cycles the operator may clean the tool. Choose acceptable operator/s for study 3. unnecessary time studies are. At certain times the worker may appear to be working slow.
there is no unique method of subdividing a job into elements. But since these elements are outside the routine cycle. The theme is to: 1. He is one amongst many operators who are trained sufficiently in the job to be performed and are healthy and skilled or capable of performing the job at an acceptable pace day in and day out.with an empty tray. or he may get the raw material once a few cycles. 4. . He is not an abnormally fast or slow worker but one amongst the many who fall in between who might qualify for dong the job. the type of jobs encountered in the plant. eliminate the extraordinary (in either sense) and 2. Only the precautions of distinctiveness and appropriate shortness of elements and of differentiating between constant variable elements and man-or-machine elements needs to be observed. The Work Study analysts must note all the foreign elements as and when they occur. to time study only those jobs that have received sufficient learning or training (reaching saturation in terms of learning) and in general all the working conditions are well established/settled. These elements have got to be included in the time analysis since that are integral part of the work. Much depends upon the particular job being studied. they are called foreign elements. There may be some genuine foreign elements such as when the worker is talking to a fellow employee or some other interruption which is not a part of the work. 3. Also. It may also help if the analyst separates the constant elements from the variable elements. For the Time Study one has to choose an acceptable operator. and finally the judgment of the analysts.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.