Problem Solving Tools

Problem Solving Tools


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Deming g wheel of Improvement p 5 Why’s 5W1H Brainstorming Force field analysis Idea Ranking Cause & effect diagrams (Fishbone) Pareto 8D FMEA
Problem Solving Tools


People and teamwork








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causes. develop some potential solutions and devise an implementation plan ACT People and teamwork DO Put P t the th plan l in i t to action ti as quickly i kl and cost effectively as is prudent Check that the new situation works and measure against the old situation or target CHECK Problem Solving Tools 3 .The Deming Wheel of Improvement PLAN Establish the new situation/solution/system as the standard if the results are satisfactory y or take remedial action if not. Understand and measure the problem/opportunity its root problem/opportunity.

g. Define the system in which the problem occurs 3. 2.: The light won’t come on No power No bulb Bulb broken Supply tripped Cable broken Bulb stolen Not fitted Filament blown Smashed Power surge End d of f  l life f Electricity board Faulty wiring Asking why 5 times is usually sufficient to find the root causes Problem Solving Tools 4 . Ask why? y Five times to develop p an event tree Event trees: A structured way of identifying all the possible causes of a problem e.Problem Solving The 3 steps to problem solving: 1 Develop a thorough definition of the problem 1.

The 5 “Why’s” PROBLEM Scrap parts WHY Th operator The t made d a mistake i t k WHY ec changed a ged the e cu cutting g tools oo s We WHY We changed supplier WHY He sells cheaper tools WHY They are inferior quality Fi d th Find the root t cause Problem Solving Tools 5 .

The 5 “Why’s” (cont’d) PROBLEM Bolt installed was too short WHY The operator fitted the wrong bolt WHY On the other models. we use short bolts WHY Different designers have adopted different solutions WHY There is no standardisation on high volume articles in design WHY It is considered as secondary in the design process Find the root cause Problem Solving Tools 6 .

The 5 “Why’s” (cont’d) PROBLEM Operator Slipped WHY Oil on floor WHY Machine leaking oil WHY Seal was broken WHY Shaft damaged WHY No Preventative Maintenance Find the root cause Problem Solving Tools 7 .

point i t in i ti time) ) Considerations · · · · Could it be avoided? Could some of it be left out? Could the time frame be changed? C ld th Could the i implementation l t ti ti time b be changed? Could the person be changed? Couldn’t Couldn t the same person do it? Could it be done somewhere else? Couldn’t it be done in the same place? Would any other object/document do? Could the shape/form be changed? Is there any other way? Could it be done an easier way? 8 Who should do it? (P (Person) ) Where Where should it be done? (Location.5W1H I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew). Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. position) What What do we need to do? (Target) How ought it to be done? How (Method) Who · · · · · · · · Problem Solving Tools . Rudyard Kipling 5W1H Why When Meaning Why do we need to do it? (Objective) When does it need to be done? (Ti (Time f frame.

allow them to ‘hatch’ hatch Use pattern breaking methods to unjam – – – reverse assumptions – how can we make this worse? forcing associations – what is this problem like? other perspectives ? Think What? Where? When? How much/many? Problem Solving Tools 9 .Rules for Brainstorming • • • • • • • • • Choose a facilitator .evaluate later Everyone to participate .to scribe scribe. involve and operate ‘rules’ rules Define the problem/concern . keep record Let ideas incubate .don’t edit.write it down Generate as many y ideas as possible p -q quantity y not q quality y Encourage freewheeling .take turns if necessary Write everything down .don’t reject “silly” ideas No criticism .

ways to make more Money Problem Solving Tools 10 .Brainstorm .

Medium or Low’ or 1 to 10 or ‘smilies’ ☺ – – decide as a group the score for each idea criteria – easiest. Voting – – each person to choose best three ideas record number of times each idea is chosen to identify most popular ideas 2 ‘Pen 2. best payback.Selecting Ideas 1. Pen dots dots’ – – each person to allocate 10 dots across all ideas (maximum 5 dots per idea) count up scores for each idea 3. Problem Solving Tools 11 . most interesting IDEA: ___________________ Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Option 1 O i 2 Option Option 3 ☺☺ ☺ ☺☺☺ ….‘High. Ranking .

Selection Matrix • Assess each idea as a group on a scale of low to high based on: – the potential benefit gained – the amount of effort required to implement the idea High • Mark your assessment of each idea on the matrix • The better ideas are in the top right i ht of f the th matrix ti Low High Effort Low Problem Solving Tools Bene efit 12 .

Ranking Ideas Worksheet Concern: We eight x r rate Weighting W g Weighting W g Forces which prevent Forces which help achievement of achieve the objective objective 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weight x rate W 13 Rating R Problem Solving Tools Rating R .

or S in each cell to represent if concept is better.Do Nothing then no change . or same as the datum concept.PUGH Matrix .Filter then Separate W W W S W 3 . Rating CTSs/Features Fast/Slick Governance Process Fit for purpose Simple Governance process and not over engineered Easy for originator put an idea into the process Cost effective process Fast delivery of IT solution after Passage through Governance Process Process has flexibility to accommodate changing business needs / priorities.Ideas tool 6 .Ranking Method • List ‘things’ (concepts/projects/ideas) to be evaluated across top • List Li CTSs/features CTS /f down d left l f hand h d side id • Rank each ‘thing’ against a standard or datum OR against each other PUGH Matrix . W. worse.Design Function then Merge D A T U 2 .Separate then Merge W W W W W 5 . Provides good feedback & communication with originator ΣB's ΣW's ΣS's 1 . W W W B S W W W W W M W S S W S W W 0 7 Problem1Solving S W 3 2 3 W W 0 7 1 W B 2 5 1 W W 0 7 1 Tools 14 . Work this way ----> Concept/project/idea etc Import.Evaluating and Synthesizing Concepts Put B.Filter then Merge B W B S B 4 .

Cause & Effect Diagrams (Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram) • • • • • Define the problem/concern .tackle each p part Identify main causes .use ‘6M’s’ or other Identify y sub-causes .i.rank them using Pareto MAN sub branches ‘twigs’ METHOD MATERIAL E F F E C T main branch trunk CAUSES MACHINES MAINTENANCE Problem Solving Tools ENVIRONMENT 15 . the ‘effect’ Subdivide big gp problems .attach ‘twigs’ g Circle biggest causes .e.

Poor Petrol Usage? Problem Solving Tools 16 .

Pen will Not Write? Problem Solving Tools 17 .

What makes a consistent cup of tea? Problem Solving Tools 18 .

Overlap 5. Burn 3. Porosity 4.‘The 80/20 rule’ 60 40 100 % 80 60 40 20 A B C D E F • Decide which items to study causes or effects • Collect data .Pareto Diagrams g . Undercut 6. Other (10) 30 17 10 5 2 6 30 30+17=47 47+10=57 57+ 5=62 62+2=64 64+6=70 43% 67% 81% 89% 91% 100% TOTAL 70 Problem Solving Tools 19 .check sheets. Cold Lap 2. other • Arrange in descending order biggest first • Calculate cumulative total and %’age • Draw a bar chart & cumulative %’age 20 0 PARETO ANALYSIS CALCULATIONS DEFECT NUMBER OF DEFECTS CUMULATIVE % CUMULATIVE = Cumulative Number x 100% NUMBER Total Number 1. SPC.

Thank ' the team ' . Introduce interim containment actions 4. Establish and involve ' the team ' 2. Describe the problem 3. Prevent recurrence on similar products / process 8. 6.issue feedback Problem Solving Tools 20 . Implement the permanent solution 7. Define & verify ' root cause ' 5 Verify effectiveness of permanent corrective actions 5.8D (eight disciplines) 1.

or improving recommended sure to include action? detection? Should completion month/year have actions only on high RPN's or easy fixes. 21 0 . Actions Taken Problem Solving Tools 0 What are the actions Whose What are the completed for reducing the Responsible actions taken with the occurrence of the for the recalculated RPN? Be Cause. Resp.FMEA Process or Product Name: Responsible: Key Process Input S E V How Severe is t H the effect to the custome er? O C C How w often does cau use or FM occu ur? Process Step What is the process step Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects Potential Causes What causes the Key Input to go wrong? What is the Key In what ways does the Key What is the impact on the Key Process Input? Input go wrong? Output Variables (Customer Requirements) or internal requirements? Prepared by: Page ____ of ____ FMEA Date (Orig) ______________ (Rev) _____________ D E T How well can you detect c cause or FM? R P N Actions Recommended S E V O C C D E T R P N Current Controls What are the existing controls and procedures (inspection and test) that prevent either the cause or the Failure Mode? Should include an SOP number number.

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