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Air Conditioning Principles and Systems an Energy Approach 4th Edition

Air Conditioning Principles and Systems an Energy Approach 4th Edition

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A view of the concentrating and tracking solar collectors for the 100,000 square foot corporate headquarters of Honeywell, Inc., in Minneapolis. The collectors -serve a solar heating and cooling system that provides over 50% of the building's yearly heating requirements, more than 80% of the cooling, and all of the hot water. (Honeywell, Inc.)



Environmental Control Technology New York City Technical College The City University of New York




Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Pita, Edward G. Air conditioning principles and systems / Edward G. Pita.--4th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-13-092872-0 (hc : alk. paper) I. Air conditioning. 2. Buildings-Energy conservation. I. Title. TH7687.P446 2002 697.9'3-dc21 2001021390

Editor iu Chief: Stephen Helba Editor: Edward Francis Production Editor: Christine M. Buckendahl Production Coordinator: Carlisle Publishers Services Design Coordinator: Robin G. Chukes Cover Designer: Bryan Huber Cover art: Neal Moss Production Manager: Brian Fox Marketing Manager: Jamie Van Voorhis This book was set in Times Roman by Carlisle Communication Ltd., was printed and bound by R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company. The cover was printed by The Lehigh Press, Inc.

Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A., Mexico Prentice-Hall ofIndia Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Simon & Schuster Singapore Pte. Ltd. Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro

Copyright © 2002, 1998, 1989, 1981 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This pUblication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohJbited reproduction, storage in a retrievaJ system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to:. Rights and Permissions Department.


. Hall


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 0-13-092872-0



his fourth edition of Air Conditioning Principles and Systems has been significantly revised. Reflecting recent developments and concerns in the industry, substantial material has been added on indoor air quality, air pollution from combustion, and the new environmental requirements on refrigerants. Consistent with the overall philosophy of this text, the practical approach to these important issues will enable the reader to effectively address them in the workplace. Use of the Internet for air conditioning work is a major component of this fourth edition. Many Websites of equipment manufacturers are listed. Problems are assigned that make use of these Web sites for equipment performance, selection, and specifications, and to ask and receive answers to technical questions. Web sites of HVAC design software providers are also listed. These offer heating and cooling load calculations, duct and pipe sizing, psychrometrics, and energy analysis. Problems are also as~igned in these areas. Use of design software often entails a fee and restrictions, of course. The Web sites and software listed in the text are only a small sample of those available, and are not necessarily the only useful ones. A search will discover many more.

In addition to incorporating new material, many chapters have been considerably revised or amplified to enhance the learning process. This book is a fundamental text in heating, ventilation' and air conditioning (HVAC). It fills the need for a text that presents the fundamental principles and systems in a manner that is technically accurate, yet of practical use in the working world. Today's reality, which mandates time and cost effectiveness in HVAC work, dictates this practical approach. Students in air conditioning and refrigeration courses in college and technical institute programs, and consulting engineers, contractors, operating engineers, and service technicians will find this text useful in their studies or as a reference. The book is designed for a two-semester course. Supplemental work may be assigned if the instructor wishes to expand on the suggested projects. The text begins by developing the fundamental principles of air conditioning, followed by a description of equipment and systems. The text emphasizes the application of theory to both designing new systems and troubleshooting existing ones. This approach is enhanced by many. illustrative examples and problems dealing with real situations.




An underlying theme throughout the book is energy utilization arid conservation. Energy codes and standards are described, and each topic is examined from an energy conservation viewpoint, an approach that is essential for all future work in the air conditioning field. A chapter is devoted to solar heating and cooling. Following an overview of the scope of air conditioning, the text reviews physical principles. Heating and cooling load calculations are explained in a thorough yet understandable manner. The latest methods (now required by most states) are used. The newly revised design weather data is included. Load calculation forms are furnished to aid the student. The subject of psychrometries is presented in considerable detail, recognizing that it is at the heart of understanding air conditioning processes. Air conditioning and refrigeration equipment and systems are covered thoroughly. Equipment construction and selection are described. Included in the discussion are reheat, dual duct, multizone, hydronic, and variable air volume systems. The

presentation of refrigeration includes an explanation of absorption systems, heat pumps. and the scroll compress. Instrumentation and balancing and the fundamentals of automatic controls are covered in separate chapters. Of special importance is the chapter devoted to energy utilization and conservation in design, installation, and operation of air conditioning systems. Two example projects in the design of a heating and cooling system are worked out in detail. Similar projects are suggested as hands-on learning experiences. These should be of value to those who are interested in installation, operation, and service as well as design, because they require the student to analyze how the system functions. The author sincerely hopes that this presentation, based on his more than 55 years of experience in the field working for manufacturers, as a consulting engineer, and as an educator. will contribute to your knowledge and success in the HVAC industry.

Edward G. Pita is Professor Emeritus and Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Control Technology Department at New York City Technical College of the City University of New York. He received a B.S. degree from Purdue University, an M.S. degree from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Maryland, all in mechanical engineering. He is a member of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and is a registered professional engineer.

In addition to his career as an educator. Dr. Pita was chief mechanical engineer for a large consulting engineering firm responsible for HVAC projects for the United Nations. the State City of the Vatican, the U.S. Capitol, and many other governmental and private clients. He has also worked in applications and systems engineering for the Carrier Corporation and the Worthington Corporation.


An Air Conditioning Fable xv

Review Questions 15 Problems 15


THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 1 1.1 Scope of Air Conditioning 2 1.2 Components of Air Conditioning Systems 3 1.3 All-Water (Hydronic) Air Conditioning Systems 4 1.4 All-Air Air Conditioning Systems 5 1.5 Human Comfort 7 1.6 Comfort Standards 8 1.7 The HVAC System as Part of the Building Construction Field 10 1.8 Designing the HVAC System 10 1.9 Installing the HVAC System II 1.10 Operation, Maintenance, and Service of the HVAC System 12 1.11 Employment in the HVAC Industry 12 1.12 Description ofJob Responsibilities 13 1.13 Energy Conservation and Computers 14


PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 17 2.1 Units 18 2.2 Conversion of Units 18 2.3 U.S. and SI Units 19 2.4 Mass, Force, Weight, Density, and Specific Volume 19 2.5 Accuracy of Data 2! 2.6 Pressure 21 2.7 Pressure of a Liquid Column 23 2.8 Work, Power, and Energy 26 2.9 Heat and Temperature 27 2.10 Enthalpy 28 2.11 The Energy Equation (First Law of Thermodynamics) 29 2.12 Liquids, Vapors, and Change of State 30 2.13 Saturated Property Tables 36· 2.14 Refrigeration 36 2.15 Calculation of Sensible and Latent Heat Changes 37 2.16 Latent Heats of Fusion and Sublimation 40 2.17 The Ideal (Perfect) Gas Laws 40




Energy Utilization (Second Law of Thennodynamics) 41 Review Questions 42 Problems 43


Energy Conservation 100 Review Questions 100 Problems 10 1 Computer Solution Problems 10 1


HEATING LOADS 46 3.1 The Heating Load 46 3.2 Heat Transfer 47 3.3 Rate of Heat Transfer 4S 3.4 Overall Thermal Resistance 51 3.5 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U), 51 3.6 Heat Transfer Losses: Basement Walls and Floors 53 3.7 Heat Transfer Losses: Floor on Ground and Floor over Crawl Space 54 3.S Infiltration and Ventilation Heat Loss 56 3.9 Design Conditions 59 3.10 Room Heat Loss and Room Heating Load 60 3.11 The Building Net Heating Load 61 3.12 System Heat Losses 62 3.13 Summary of Heating Load Calculation Procedures 63 3.14 Energy Conservation 66 Review Questions 66 Problems 67 FURNACES AND BOILERS 71 4.1 Warm Air Furnaces 71 4.2 Furnace Controls 74 4.3 Heating Boilers 75 4.4 Boiler Controls 79 4.5 Boiler and Furnace Draft SO 4.6 Fuels and Combustion S2 4.7 Gas and Oil Burners SS 4.8 Flame Safety Controls 92 4.9 Boiler Applications 92 4.10 Boiler Rating and Selection 94 4.11 Boiler Installation' 98 4.12 Energy Use and Efficiency in Boilers and Furnaces 98


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.S 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14

5.16 5.17 5.IS 5.19 5.20


Piping Arrangements 102 Series Loop 102 One-Pipe Main 104 Two-Pipe Direct Return 104 Two-Pipe Reverse Return 105 Combination Arrangements 106 Three-Pipe System 106 Four-Pipe System 107 Hydronic Terminal Units 107 Radiators lOS Convectors lOS Baseboard 109 Fin-Tube 109 Radiant Panels I 10 Unit Heaters 110 Fan-Coil Units III Induction Units 112 System Water Temperatures and Flow Rates 113 Selection of Terminal Units 114 System Design Procedure 115 Review Questions lIS Problems liS Computer Solution Problems 119


COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 120 6.1 The Cooling Load 120_ 6.2 Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 120 6.3 Room Heat Gains 122 6.4 Conduction Through Exterior Structure 123 6.5 Conduction Through Interior Structure 130 Solar Radiation Through Glass 130 6.6 6.7 Design Conditions 137 6.8 Lighting 137

7 Friction Loss from Water Flow in Pipes 208 8.15 7.23 6.14 6.19 6. Ratio 185 The RSHR or Condition Line 186 Coil Process Line 188 The Complete Psychrometric Analysis 189 The Contact Factor and Bypass Factor 191 The Effective Surface Temperature 191 Reheat 193 Part Load Operation and Control 194 Fan Heat Gains 195 Problems 195 Computer Solution Problems 198 8 FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 199 7 PSYCHROMETRICS 164 7.8 Latent Heat Change Process Calculations (Humidifying and Dehumidifying) 177 7.8 Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings 212 8.9 6.19 7.20 7.1 Properties of Air 164 7.6 Pressure Loss from Friction in Piping and Ducts 207 8. 140 Infiltration 140 Room Cooling Load 144 Room Peak Cooling Load 145 Building Peak Cooling Load 145 Cooling Coil Load 146 Ventilation 146 Heat Gain to Ducts 147 Fan and Pump Heat 148 Duct Air Leakage 149 Supply Air Conditions 149 Summary of Commercial Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 149 7.5 Conversion of Velocity Pr>!ssure to Static Pressure (Static Regain) 206 8.7 Process Lines on the Psychrometric Chart 173 Sensible Heat Change Process Calculations (Sensible Heating and Cooling) 174 The Continuity Equation 199 The Flow Energy Equation 20 I Pressure Loss in Closed and Open Systems 203 8.11 The Air Mixing Process 182 Psychrometric Analysis of the Air Conditioning System 184 7.17 7.5 Condensation on Surfaces 172 Air Conditioning Processes 173 8. Static. and Velocity Pressure 204 8.27 6.14 7.16 6.9 Combined Sensible and Latent Process Calculations 179 7.9 Piping System Pressure Drop 213 8.4 Total.25 6. Building.18 6.2 8.6 7.4 Locating the Air Condition on the Chart 168 7.28 Cooling Load from Heat Gain Through Structure 152 Cooling Load from Heat Gain Through Windows 153 People and Appliances 154 Infiltration and Ventilation 154 Room.10 6.22 6.10 The Evaporative Cooliug Process and the Wet Bulb Temperature 181 7.13 6.11 Friction Loss from Air Flow in Ducts 218 .26 6.3 The Psychrometric Chart 168 7.18 7.21 Residential Cooling Loads 152 6. and Air Conditioning Equipment Loads 156 Summary of Residential Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 158 Energy Conservation 160 Problems 160 Computer Solution Problems 162 Determining Supply Air Conditions 184 Sensible Heat.15 6.24 6.CONTENTS IX 6.1 8.13 7.20 6.2 Determining Air Properties 165 7.11 6.3 7.21 People 139 Equipment and Appliances.17 6.16 7.10 System Pipe Sizing 216 8.12 6.12 7.

3 10. DUCTS.4 9.13 11.13 Piping Materials and Specifications 243 Fittings and Joining Methods for Steel Pipe 246 Fittings and Joining Methods for Copper Tubing 247 Valves 247 Pressure Regulating and Relief Valves 248 Valve Construction 249 Valve Selection 251 Pipe Expansion and Anchoring 251 Vibration 252 Pipe Insulation 254 The Piping Installation 255 Duct Construction 255 Duct Insulation 256 Review Questions 257 Room Air Distribution 272 Air Patterns 272 Location 273 Types of Air Supply Devices 274 Applications 276 Selection 277 Accessories and Duct Connections 281 10.11 Installation 270 10.2 10.1 9.5 11.3 9. AND INSULATION 243 9.1 System Classifications 306 12.2 9. AND VENTING 287 11 11.14 Pressure Loss at Fan Inlet and Outlet 232 8.20 Return Air Devices 282 10.7 10.2 Zones and Systems 307 12.7 9.11 11.5 10.14 10 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 258 10.1 11.9 9.12 Energy Conservation 271 Types of Pumps 287 Principles of Operation 287 Pump Characteristics 288 Pump Selection 291 System Characteristics 293 System Characteristics and Pump Characteristics 293 Pump Similarity Laws 295 Pump Construction 295 Net Positive Suction Head 299 The Expansion Tank 299 System Pressure Control 300 Compression Tank Size 302 Air Control and Venting 303 Energy Conservation 304 Review Questions 304 Problems 305 Computer Solution Problems 305 12 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 306 12.9 11.10 9.21 Sound 282 10.3 11.5 Multizone System 310 . EXPANSION TANKS.16 10.x CONTENTS 8. 239 Computer Solution Problems 242 Air Distribution Devices 272 10.6 9. VALVES.10 11.4 Reheat System 309 12.7 11.6 10.'5 Computer Solution Problems 286 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.8 Fan Types 258 Fan Performance Characteristics 259 Fan Selection 260 Fan Ratings 261 System Characteristics 265 Fan-System Interaction 266 System Effect 267 Selection of Optimum Fan Conditions 267 10.15 Duct System Pressure Loss 233 8.11 9.10 Construction and Arrangement 269 10.6 11.16 Duct Design Methods 235 Problems.12 9.19 9 PIPING.3 Single Zone System 307 12.13 Pressure Loss in Duct Fittings 221 8.4 10.9 Fan Laws 268 10.4 11.5 9.8 11.2 11.1 10.12 11.18 10.12 Aspect Ratio 220 8.22 Sound Control 283 Review Questions 285 Problems 28.14 10.15 10.8 9.17 10.13 10.

7 Types of Control Action 370 14.13 13.2 Purposes of Controls 366 14.20 12.22 12.12 12.6 12.23 13.25 Principles 350 Construction and Performance 352 Special Applications 353 Capacity Control 354 Crystallization 354 Installation 354 The Heat Pump 355 13 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 332 Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 333 13.8 12.17 13.4 13.34 Water Treatment 363 13.33 Global Warming Potential 363 13.9 12.22 13.20 13.21 12.1 13.24 13.35 Energy Conservation in Refrigeration 363 Review Questions 364 Problems 364 14 AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 365 14.19 12.32 Refrigerant Venting and Reuse 362 13.10 13.9 13.17 12.1 Understanding Automatic Controls 366 14.5 13.12 13.7 13.5 Energy Sources 369 14.14 Principles 333 Equipment 334 Evaporators 334 Types of Compressors 335 Reciprocating Compressor 335 Rotary Compressor 336 Screw (Helical Rotary) Compressor 336 Scroll Compressor 337 Centrifugal Compressor 337 Capacity Control of Compressors 338 Prime Movers 338 Condensers 339 Flow Control Devices 340 Safety Controls 341 13.11 13.18 13.29 Solar Energy-Heat Pump Application 360 13.CONTENTS xi 12.16 13.6 Component Control Diagram 369 14.31 Ozone Depletion 361 13.18 12.4 Closed-Loop (Feedback) and OpenLoop Control Systems 368 14.6 13.24 Dual Duct System 311 Variable Air Volume (VAV) System 313 All-Water Systems 315 Air-Water Systems 315 Unitary versus Central Systems 316 Room Units 316 Unitary Air Conditioners 317 Rooftop Units 318 Air Handling Units 318 Cooling and Heating Coils 319 Coil Selection 320 Air Cleaning Devices (Filters) 321 Methods of Dust Removal 321 Methods of Testing Filters 322 Types of Air Cleaners 323 Selection of Air Cleaners 324 Indoor Air Quality 325 Energy Requirements of Different Types of Air Conditioning Systems 326 Energy Conservation 330 Review Questions 330 Problems 330 13.8 13.19 Packaged Refrigeration Equipment 342 Selection 342 Energy Efficiency 346 Installation of Refrigeration Chillers 348 Cooling Towers 348 Absorption Refrigeration System 350 13.21 13.11 12.28 Selection of Heat PumpsThe Balance Point 357 13.23 12.13 12.10 12.8 Controllers 373 .26 Principles 355 13.7 12.2 13.15 13.3 13.30 Refrigerants 360 13 .3 The Control System 366 14.27 Energy Efficiency 355 13.16 12.15 12.14 12.

1 17.21 15.2 16.14 15.20 Energy Standards and Codes 388 Sources of Energy 391 Principles of Energy Utilization 392 Measuring Energy Utilization in Power-Producing Equipment (Efficiency) 393 Measuring Energy Conservation in Cooling Equipment-The COP and EER 395 Measuring Energy Conservation in the Heat Pump 397 Measuring Energy Conservation in Heating Equipment 397 Measuring Energy Conservation in Pumps and Fans 398 Measuring Energy Use in Existing Building HVAC Systems 399 Measuring Energy Use in New Building HVAC Systems 399 The Degree Day Method 400 Other Energy Measuring Methods 402 Air-to-Air Heat Recovery 403 Refrigeration Cycle Heat -Recovery 405 Thermal Storage 406 Light Heat Recovery 407 Total Energy Systems 407 Energy Conservation Methods 408 Building Construction 409 Design Criteria 409 16.9 16.25 System Design 410 Controls 410 Installation 411 Operation and Maintenance 411 Computers in HVAC Systems 412 Problems 413 16 INSTRUMENTATION.11 15.12 16.13 Controlled Devices 376 Choice of Control Systems 377 Control from Space Temperature 378 Control from Outdoor Air 379 Control from Heating/Cooling Medium 381 14.Xll CONTENTS 14.6 15.4 15.22 15.14 16.10 16.16 16.8 16.12 14.5 17.15 15.16 15.13 15.3 16.6 17.5 16.18 15.11 14.23 15. AND BALANCING 420 15 15. TESTING.7 17.1 16.6 16.10 15.13 16.14 Humidity Control 382 14.12 15.3 17.19 15.4 16.17 15.2 15.4 17.2 17.8 Procedures for Designing a Hydronic System 435 Calculating the Heating Load 437 Type and Location of Terminal Units 440 Piping System Arrangement 440 Flow Rates and Temperatures 440 Selection of Terminal Units 442 Pipe Sizing 443 Piping or Duct Layout 443 - .9 14.5 15.15 Complete Control Systems 382 Review Questions 385 Problems 385 ENERGY UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION 387 15.10 14.24 15.17 Definitions 421 Instrumentation 421 Temperature 421 Pressure 423 Velocity 424 Flow Rates 426 Heat Flow 428 Humidity 428 Equipment Speed 429 Electrical Energy 429 Testing and Balancing 429 Preparation for Air System Balancing 429 The Air System Balancing Process 431 Preparation for Water System Balancing 431 The Water System Balancing Process 432 Energy Conservation 433 Sound Measurement 433 Review Questions 433 Problems 433 17 PLANNING AND DESIGNING THE HVAC SYSTEM 435 17.8 15.11 16.15 16.3 15.7 16.9 15.7 15.1 15.

3 Properties of Saturated Steam and Saturated Water 490 Table A.12 Economic Analysis 476 18.5 Solar Radiation Energy 464 18.15 17.8 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U for Glass 500 Table A.3 Types of Solar Heating Systems 462 18. Units 513 Figure A.15 Passive Solar Heating Systems 481 Problems 481 Table A.4 Solar Cooling Systems 463 18.16 17.14 Approximate System Design Data 480 18.13 Storage System Sizing 477 18.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U for Building Construction Components 498 Table A.20 17.22 17.26 Pump Selection 444 Boiler Selection 444 Compression Tank 446 Accessories 446 Controls 447 Plans and Specifications 447 Energy Use and Conservation 448 Procedures for Designing an All-Air System 448 Calculating the Cooling Load 448 Type of System 453 Equipment and Duct Locations 453 Duct Sizes 453 Air Distribution Devices 455 Equipment 455 Accessories 456 Automatic Control System 457 Plans and Specifications 457 Energy Conservation 458 Problems 458 Bibliography 485 Appendix 487 18 SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS 459 IS.I Room Heating Load Calculations Form 509 Figure A.4 Thermal Resistance R of Building and Insulating Materials 491 Table A. Canada. I Solar Collectors 459 IS.23 17.18 17. O:.24 17. and World Locations 50 I Figure A.9 17.12 17.11 Sizing the Collector 475 18.2 Unit Equivalents (Conversion Factors) 489 Table A.I Abbreviations and Symbols 487 Table A.17 17.10 17.6 Insolation Tables 465 18.10 Collector Performance 472 18.13 17.CONTENTS Xlll 17.4 Residential Cooling Load Calculations Form 512 Figure A.2 Building Heating Load Calculations Form 510 Figure A.19 17.6 Typical Building Roof and Wall Construction Cross-Sections and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 495 Table A.5 Thermal Resistance R of Surface Air Films and Air Spaces 494 Table A.6 Psychrometric Chart.S Psychrometric Chart.11 17.3 Commercial Cooling Load Calculations Form 511 Figure A. SI Units 514 Index 515 .14 17.9 Sunshine Hours 472 18.21 17.7 Clearness Factor 466 18.2 Storage and Distribution Systems 461 18.25 17.S.9 Outdoor Heating and Cooling Design Conditions-United States.8 Orientation and Tilt Angles 471 18.


temperatures in the offices reached 95 F. The building did not have operable windows that could be opened to relieve the oppressive heat." took out a small hammer. The building manager thanked Joe and asked him what the bill was. employees started to leave. so why don't we call him?" In desperation. and tapped a valve. Within minutes. muttered "hmm. "Listen. the chief engineer agreed. "$2005 for tapping a valve?" "The bill for tapping the valve is $5.'- . No one knew what to do. and looked at the complex installation capable of delivering 8000 tons of refrigeration. Computers broke down. and tenants threatened lawsuits for damages. Finally one person said. walked around." xv . Suddenly the air conditioning system in the gigantic Acme Towers office building stopped operating. The building operating staff became frantic.AN AIR CONDITIONING FABLE t was a typical record-breaking July heat wave and the humidity felt like a Turkish bath. The answer was "$2005." Joe answered. Joe Schlepper entered the building machine room. "The $2000 is for knowing which valve to tap." "What l " the manager exclaimed. there's a fellow named Joe Schlepper who knows an awful lot about air conditioning and refrigeration. Immediately the whole plant started functioning and soon conditions in the building were comfortable again. I A few minutes later.


shade and cool water were probably their only relief from heat. and air conditioning (HVAC). It is not surprising. ventilating. which was achieved by warming air and then circulating it in hollow floors or walls. open fires were the primary means of warming their dwellings. OBJECTIVES A study of this chapter will enable you to: I. was begun scarcely 100 years ago. The development of effective heating. that providing a healthy. 4. The ancient Romans had remarkably good radiant heating in some buildings. A typical person in modern society may spend up to 90% of each day indoors. Paintings from those times show that the kings and queens wore furs and gloves indoors in winter! There were a few exceptions to this lack of progress. List the environmental conditions that an air conditioning system may control. No significant improvements in humankind's condition were made for millions of years. HVAC systems in the United States had reached a total installed value of about $50 billion yearly. Leonardo da Vinci designed a large evaporative cooler (Figure 1. Sketch the arrangement of the main components of an all-air air conditioning system. Yet by 2000. therefore. comfortable indoor environment has become a major factor in our economy. 2. In the dry climate of the Middle East. with approximately $20 billion in equipment sales. In Europe. Describe the internal environmental conditions that provide adequate human comfort. Central heating systems were developed in the nineteenth century. 5. however. . and summer air conditioning using mechanical refrigeration has grown into a major industry only in the last 60 years.c H A p T E R The Scope and Uses ofAir Conditioning or prehistoric people. Sketch the arrangement of the main components of a hydronic heating and cooling system.1). people hung wet mats in front of open doorways and achieved a crude form of evaporative F air cooling. 3. The fireplaces in the castles of medieval Europe were hardly an improvement-they only heated the area immediately around them. Describe where air conditioning is used.

stood outside the palace wall and was turned by water power-sometimes assisted by slaves. This air conditioning unit was for the boudoir of Beatrice d'Este. Air motion refers to air velocity and to where the air is distributed. Some residences have combination air heating and air cooling equi pment that provides control of "Cooling technically means the rembml of heat. 3. by the addition of a humidifier in the ducts. It is controlled by appropriate air distributing equipment. The air conditioning equipment may produce excessive noise. the water vapor content of the air. Cleanliness.) 6.1 SCOPE OF AIR CONDITIONING To the average person. the Duke of Milan. 4. the introduction of outside air into the space which dilutes the concentration of contaminants. Sound control can be considered an auxiliary function of an air conditioning system. Valves opened and closed automatically. (Courtesy: IBM Corporation. also controls air temperature in winter only. However. 7. where it was washed and forced out through the hollow shaft and piped into the room. Warm air systems are popular in residences. 1. Describe the organization of the building design team and the construction team. Motion. so we will use the following definition instead: Air conditioning is the pracess of treating air ill an internal environment to establish and mailltain required standards of temperature. or by ventilation. These types of systems are common in many individual homes (residences). this definition is neither sufficiently useful nor accurate. and motion. A hot water or steam heating system. cleanliness. the removal of undesirable contaminants using filters or other devices. in contrast to heating. it may also control humidity in winter. the addition of heat. The great wheel. piping. 2. Air temperature is controlled by heating or cooling * the air. wife of da Vinci's patron. drawing air into the drum. is controlled by either filtration. A warm air system. Temperature. consisting of a furnace. and air outlet registers. . Air humidity." For our purposes. and industrial buildings. including job opportunities. Describe the business structure of the HVAC industry. air conditioning simply means "the cooling of air. apartment houses. requiring additional sound attenuating (reducing) devices as part of the equipment. consisting of a boiler. is controlled by adding or removing water vapor from the air (humidification or dehumidification). Air cleanliness.2 CHAPTER I Let us investigate how each of these conditions is controlled: 1. humidity. Figure 1.1 Ventilator and cooling unIT invented by Leonardo da Vinci in the fifteenth century. even though the system itself may be the cause of the problem. The definition of air conditioning given here is not meant to imply that every HVAC system regulates all of the conditions described. a full story high. and radiation devices (and perhaps a pump) only controls air temperature and only during the heating season. Often both filtration and ventilation are used in an installation. or air quality. ducts. Humidity.

Air conditioning is also used to provide conditions that some processes require. cooling source that removes heat from a tluid (air or water) 3.g. this excess heat must be continually removed from the room. Applications Most air conditioning systems are used for either human comfort or for process contra/. Most heating and cooling systems have at a minimum the following basic components: 1. or steam) 2. Certain ranges of air temperature. others are not. water. require certain air temperatures and humidity for successful operation. safety devices.000 people. Air conditioning systems used for newer commercial and institutional buildings and luxury apartment houses usually provide year-round control of most or all of the air conditions described. or both. Some degree of control of air quality and motion is provided in air-type heating and cooling systems. If the air in the building is to be maintained at a comfortable temperature. printing. . Equipment (fans or pumps) for moying the air or water 5. radiationlfor transferring heat between the fluid and the room We will start with a brief introduction to the function and arrangement of these major components.:2 l. insulation. A heating source that adds heat to a tluid (air. as well as computer rooms and medical facilities. In order to maintain the room air at a comfortable temperature. In summer. cleanliness..2 View of Lower Manhattan skyline with the World Trade Center Twin Towers. For example. enough to air condition a city of 100. dampers.2 COMPONENTS OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Heat always travels from a warmer to a cooler area (see Section 2. These and other components including automatic controls. From life experiences and feelings. The equipment that removes this heat is called a cooling system. In winter. Figure 1. humidity. there is a continual heat loss from within a building to the outdoors.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 3 temperature and humidity in both winter and summer. it is becoming increasingly popular to call complete HVAC systems environmental control systems.000 tons of refrigeration. and sound and vibration reduction devices will be discussed in more detail in later chapters of the book. A distribution system (a network of ducts or piping) to carry the tluid to the rooms to be heated or cooled 4. Devices (e. yet the basic principles are the same. (Courtesy: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. heat continually enters the building from the outside. and motion are comfortable. valves. An air conditioning system may provide heating. we already know that air conditioning enhances our comfort.9). heat must be continually supplied to the air in the rooms. For this reason. and photographic processing facilities. textile. The equipment that furnishes the heat required is called a heating system.) 1. cooling. Its size and complexity may range from a single space heater or window unit for a small room to a huge system for a building complex. such as the World Trade Center (Figure 1. which have 49.

.. I _ _ To other rooms Room ""'"' ..3. with the exception that a pump is not necessary to move the steam.he at gain Room 2 Pum p . However. Water is heated at the heat source (I).4 Arrangement of basic components of a (hydronic) chilled water cooling system.. The chilled water is circulated by a pump (2) and travels to each room through piping (3) and enters a terminal unit (4)... the pressure of the steam accomplishes this. If steam is used in a heating system..4) functions in a similar manner to a hydronic heating system."". when the steam cools at the terminal unit. those that use air are called all-air systems.k" l--... Room . the components work in the same manner. A hydronic cooling system (Figure 1. Since the water loses some of its heat to the rooms. Water is cooled in refrigeration equipment called a water chiller (1). .3 ALL-WATER (HYDRONIC) AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A typical hydronic heating system is shown in Figure 1. it condenses into water and may require a condensate pump to return the water to the boiler.. Heat ~PiPing f- o Terminal unit ~ Chilled water return (CHR) from other rooms . A system which uses both air and water is called a combination or air-and-water system...T00th er rooms 1 Heat source (HW boiler) H01 water supply (H1S) Pump -"'" Heat T Room . The heated water is circulated by a pump (2) and travels to each room through piping (3) and enters a terminal unit (4)..4 CHAPTER 1 Air conditioning systems that use water as the heating or cooling fluid are called all-water or hydronic systems. Figure 1. 1. Terminal unit ~ Hot water return (HWR) from other rooms Figure 1.. '0"'" OO"~ Chilled water supply (C1S) ..-"'he at loss ~PiPing o . usually a hot water boiler.3 Arrangement of basic components of a (hydronic) hot water heating system. it must return to the heat source to be reheated. The room air is heated by bringing it into contact with the tenninal unit.

--~=~~-"1 V'" -=-~~ rooms g '6 . They may also have the added capability of controlling humidity and furnishing outdoor ventilation. Since the water is now warmed.""+'~ Exhaust air 8 ~ r._.. (It may also be a coil Figure 1. 88®@ : C. A typical all-air heating and cooling system is shown in Figure 1..L.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING " . 1. which hydronic systems cannot do.. This is because it is pos· sible to use the same piping system for both by connecting a hot water boiler and water chiller in parallel (Figure \. 5 To other rooms Room HWS Pump or CHS 1-:0 1-:0 -c=JTermlna .= ~ :J '" ~ "" ~ 0 CI) 9 Fan'I 1 ~ Supply air duct 4).6. The warmer room air loses its heat to the cold water in the terminal unit.5). I I Heating source Cooling source unit H ~ HWR orCHR From other rooms Figure 1. using each when needed.~_L-_~ ~----i----------~-----+----_ rooms . As the reader may have guessed.--------r-----~ To other Air diffuser ro ~ "E :f 8 (5 . Equipment may be packaged or separated r------------------------i Ie..4 ALL-AIR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS All-air systems use air to heat or cool rooms.5 Arrangement of basic components of a hydronic heating and cooling system. Air is heated at the heat source (I). Outdoor air 7 : I .6 Arrangement of basic components of an ali-air heating and cooling system (many other arrangements are possible)..... hydronic sys· terns are popular for HVAC systems that require both heating and cooling.... it must return to the water chiller to be recooled.. such as a furnace. ___________________ ____ -J Room 6 Return air duct Return air fan (optional) From other J. J...~ lJ--i'-.

When the warmed supply air enters the room. An example of packaged all-air system equipment is shown in Figure 1. Rooftop-type unitary air conditioning equipment. The supply air enters the room through outlets called air diffusers or registers (4) that are designed to provide proper air distribution in the room. When the cooled supply air enters the room. Inc. In summer. the same volume of air that enters the room must also exit. (Courtesy: McQuay Group.) The heated air is circulated by afan (2) and travels to each room through supply air ducts (3). air is cooled when it flows over a cooling source (5).7. Similarly.6 CHAPTER I circulating hot water. the same volume of air must be exhausted (8). the room is cooled. heated by a remote boiler. compressor Inlet air Figure 1. Figure 1. The air is then heated or cooled again. A humidifier (10) may also be included to maintain a comfortable room humidity in winter. This is usually accomplished with return air ducts (6). This arrangement is convenient for residential and light commercial air conditioning.) . and recirculated. Because a room's size is fixed. the room is heated. usually a coil of tubing containing a fluid cooled by refrigeration equipment (see Chapter 13)./'-/'-/'Warm air furnace t Supply air t - Dampers 0 ~ 0_ Filter 8 t V Cooling coil Refrig. An outdoor air intake duct (7) may be provided for introducing fresh outdoor air for increased air quality. Provisions may be made for cleaning the air with air filters (9) and for humidifying the air (10).8 /'-/'-/'. or steam. McQuay-Perfex.7 Arrangement of components of ali-year air conditioning equipment for a private residence (refrigeration condenser separate).

is shown in Figure 1. creating a feeling of warmth even at a low surrounding air temperature.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 7 Combination Systems It is frequently desirable to combine water and air systems. walls) which are at a lower temperature than the body. In radiation. If the rate of heat loss is too great. When the rate of heat loss is within certain limits. heating sources that are warmer than the body can radiate heat toward the body. one feels hot. This subject will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 12. The processes by which the body loses heat to the surroundings are: convection.8. the system designer and operator should understand the factors that affect comfort. or by being blown away.9 shows a portion of the equipment of a central system. and is replaced by more air which in turn receiYes heat. For example. Figure 1. radiation.) 1. and evaporation. rather than manufactured as a package. Some restaurants now have glass-enclosed sidewalk cafes with radiant heating panels that keep the customers comfortable . Body Heat Loss The human body creates heat when it metabolizes (oxidizes) food. showing absorption refrigeration machines. by rising naturally through the cooler air around it.. if the rate is too low. A central or built-up air conditioning system uses equipment centrally located in mechanical equipment rooms.. The factor that determines whether one feels hot or cold is the rate ofbody heat loss. which is then circulated to heating or cooling coils in large all-air systems in other parts of the building or even to a number of buildings. this is why it can be uncomfortable to sit near a window or wall in cold weather. In convection. body heat is transmitted through space directly to nearby objects (e. The warmed air continually moves away. a hydronic system in a central plant might generate hot or chilled water. An example of all-air unitary equipment mounted on a roof (a "rooftop" unit).g . cold is felt. Engineers. However.9 Mechanical equipment room of a large central station air conditioning system. even in a warm room. This body heat is continually lost to its cooler surroundings.g. the air immediately around the body receives heat from the body. (Courtesy: Syska & Hennessy.. Each piece of equipment is installed separately and connected on the job. Figure 1. room air conditioner). such as those used in supermarkets.5 HUMAN COMFORT Since the purpose of most air conditioning systems is to provide a comfortable indoor environment. Inc. this is why one feels warm in front of a fire even on a cold day. a comfortable feeling ensues. Unitary and Central Air Conditioning Systems A unitary or package air conditioning system uses equipment where all or most of the basic components have been assembled in the factory (e.

The system designer and operator can control comfort primarily by adjusting three of these conditions: temperature. air quality. The shaded regions in Figure 1. Humidity may be raised to decrease body heat loss (winter) and lowered to increase body heat loss (summer) by evaporation. The body is also cooled by evaporation: water on the skin (perspiration). 2. A list of reference sources used in this text can be found in the Bibliography. evaporates into the surrounding air. or equivalent (0.10. -. The comfort zones apply only to summer clothing of light slacks and a short sleeve shirt.6 COMFORT STANDARDS Indoor Air QualitY Another factor. which has absorbed heat from the body.1 0 are called the comfort zones. and sweater or jacket. This procedure is called ventilation. and toxic gases.5 cIo). 2. Therlllal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy."* and winter clothing of heavy slacks. published in ASHRAE* Standard 5S~ 1992. or equivalent (0. The rate of body heat loss is affected by five conditions: 1. They show the regions of air temperature and relative humidity where at least 80'K of the occupants will find the environment comfortable. Note that there are separate zones for winter and summer. 4. they can use local fans to increase convection and evaporative heat loss. Cleaning devices such as filters may be used to remove particles.:. For instance. **The clo is a numerical unit repres~nting a clothing ensemble's thermal insulation. Air temperature Air humidity Air motion Temperature of surrounding objects Clothing troducing substantial quantities of outdoor air into the building. . Some of the results of these studies are shown in Figure 1. and they can even stay away from cold walls and windows to keep warmer in winter. How are they adjusted to improve comfort? The indoor air temperature may be raised to decrease body heat loss (winter) or lowered to increase body heat loss (summer) by convection. 5. of course. Evidence has grown that there are many possible indoor air contaminants which can and have caused serious health effects on occupants. 3. Adsorbent chemicals may be used to remove unwanted gases. Indoor air quality will be discussed in Chapter 12. The level of air quality affects both comfort and health. and air motion. humidity. with a slight overlap.. The phrases sick building syndrome and building-related illnesses have been coined to refer to these effects. Air motion may be raised to increase body heat loss (summer) and lowered to decrease body heat loss (winter) by convection. 3. biological microorganisms. The subject of indoor air quality (IAQ) has become of major concern and importance in recent years.. Occupants of the buildings.. refers to the degree of purity of the air. The comfort zones apply to air motion in the occupied zone not exceeding 30 feet per minute (FPM) in winter and 50 FPM in summer.9 cIo).8 CHAPTER 1 in winter even though the cafe temperature is only about 50 F (10 C). Air quality is worsened by the presence of contaminants such as tobacco smoke and dust particles.10 is valid only for the following conditions: I. The comfort zones apply only to sedentary or slightly active persons. Intensive research and amelioration efforts are being carried out in this branch of HVAC work. The use of Figure 1. Indoor air contaminants can also be diluted in concentration by in- Studies of the conditions that affect human comf011 have led to the development of recommended indoor air conditions for comfort. have some personal control over their own comfort. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. they can control the amount of clothing that they wear. 1. taking the heat with it. *"ASHRAE" stands for the American Society of Heating. long sleeve shirt.

THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 9 conditions. (Adapted with permission from the 1993 ASH RAE Handbook-Fundamentals. Example 1. The tempe. Recommended ventilation requirements are discussed in Chapter 6. These zones apply to persons clothed in typical summer or winter clothing engaged in sedentary activity. the situations specified are very common (a typical office environment). therefore most of the occupants would feel comfortable. Furthermore. The humidity is often expressed as the percent relative humidity (% RH). of the comfort zone in winter and at the high end of the comfort zone in summer. First. See Chapter 7 for a complete definition of these terms. Although these restrictions may seem to reduce the usefulness of Figure 1. In recent years. The occupants are lightly clothed. satisfactory indoor air quality is maintained by cleaning the air and by introducing outside air (ventilation). more specific conditions have been recommended (Table 1. For example. this is not so.1 0.1 The conditions in an office building in the summer are 77 F DB and 50% RH. it is necessary to know the room air temperature and humidity. The procedures for making these corrections can be found in the ASHRAE Standard. in an effort to conserve energy. 60 70 80 90 F Air Temperature Figure 1. The comfort zones apply only under certain conditions of thermal radiation between the occupant and the surroundings. the comfort zones can be adjusted to reflect these changes. The air temperature is technically called the dry bulb temperature (DB). Air movement in the rooms is about 30 FPM.) 4.10. Indoor Design Conditions for Energy Conservation The comfort zones shown in Figure 1. an individual receiving direct solar radiation through a window in summer might feel uncomfortably-warm even though the room air temperature and humidity are within the comfort zone.10 Comfort zones of indoor air temperature and relative humidity.ratures listed are at the low end. There is negligible radiation of heat from the surroundings to the occupants. These recommendations may not be a .1).10 to find whether a specific set of conditions is comfortable or not. the condition noted (the intersection of 77 F DB and 50% RH) is within the summer comfort zone.10 leave a wide range of choices for the air conditioning system designer and operator. for changes in Air Quality Standards As mentioned previously. Applications In order to use Figure 1. Would this be a comfortable indoor condition? Solution From Figure 1.

(Exceptions may be granted for special situations. The electrical. of which it is a part.ll. Watch out-the dynamism and excitement can be addictive! 1. Operation and regular maintenance 4. Con-suiting engineers may also carry out other duties such as cast estimating and field supervision of construction. or an industrial or commercial park.10 CHAPTER 1 RECOMMENDED ENERGY CONSERVING INDOOR AIR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR HUMAN COMFORT TABLE 1. 3.8 DESIGNING THE HVAC SYSTEM The design of a large building project is an extremely complex task. if possible. The development of an HVAC system for a building consists of a number of steps. but there are exceptions. and operation. An organizational flowchart of this arrangement is shown in Figure l. and the ill.1 apply to general applications such as offices. These are: I. and how the HVAC system relates to other building systems.5 matter of choice: most states now mandate energy conserving design conditions. The design of an HVAC system for large projects is the responsibility of the mechanical consulting engineers. on application.. 1. The values recommended in Table 1. residences. Take notes.1 Air Temperature (DB) Relative Humidity (RH) % F Winter Maximum Air Velocity" FPM Clothing Insulation clo Summer . 68-72 76-78 25-30 50-55 30 50 0. When buildings are unoccupied on nights. it is common practice to lower indoor air temperatures in winter ("set-back") and raise them in summer ("set-up") either manually or automatically with the control system. For example. structural. and plumbing systems are designed by consulting engineers specializing in their respective fields. Service We will outline who is responsible for each step. senior citizens. Ask questions of your instructors. suburban mall. Lower indoor temperatures in winter might be used in department stores when customers are heavily clothed. Design 2.9 0.) California Energy Standards require indoor design values of 70 F in winter and 78 F in summer. These and other energy-saving strategies will be discussed in appropriate places throughout the text. what their tasks are.7 THE HVAC SYSTEM AS PART OF THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FIELD The student wbo intends to work in the HVAC industry should have some understanding of how the industry is organized and how it relates to the building construction field. It may take months or even years and involve scores of people. Installation . The designof a private residence is much simpler and may involve as few as one or two people. Other special applications might have different design conditions. who carry out the overall building planning and design. the New York State Energy Code requires a maximum winter indoor design temperature of 72 F and a minimum summer indoor design temperature of 78 F. At occupant level. The student is strongly advised. No textbook can substitute for this valuable learning experience. to locate a proposed building and follow the HVAC system development through planning. Higher indoor temperatures in winter may be desirable for smaIl children. Become a "sidewalk superintendent" for the construction of an urban building. and weekends. Each of these tasks is performed in cooperation With the architects. installation. holidays. and public buildings.

school system. The subcontractors must coordinate their work to avoid any physical interference. which may be a real estate company. public agency. The mechanical contractor hires these people. more detailed drawings of the HVAC system which will be necessary for the workers. This can be a . Shop drawings are larger scale.12 Organizational flowchart of a building construction team. electrical. An error in coordination can have disastrous results: The design of an HVAC system involves determining the type of system to use. The general contractor may hire subcontractors (mechanical. Architect tractor is awarded a contract by the owner. insulation workers. they list all the equipment and materials shown on the drawings and specifications. which serve as instructions on how to install the system. To do this. selection of the type and size of equipment. and so forth. sheet metal workers.9 INSTALLING THE HVACSYSTEM The overall construction of a building is the responsibility of the general contractor. The specifications are written descriptions of materials. who include pipefitters. calculations of piping and duct sizes. their employees first carry out a take-off. Coordination of the work between the architects and engineers is an important and difficult task. General contractor I I ____I L Structural J l Plumbing J I Electrical I HVAC (mech. The mechanical contractor also purchases all necessary HVAC equipment and materials. and planning the locations of each piece of equipment in the building.12 shows a typical organizational flowchart. This information is shown on the building HVAC plans and specifications. The mechanical or HVAC contractor is responsible for installing the HVAC system. This includes checking that the equipment and materials to be installed do not physically interfere with each other. 1. and so forth) to install each of the building's systems. Figure 1. that is.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 11 "Owner" l Architect I Electrical engineer I Mechanical engineer I ____I Structural engineer Other consultants (Consulting Engineers) Figure 1.11 Organizational flowchart to a building planning and design team.) l Others J (Subcontractors) . or other prospective builder. calculations of heating and cooling loads (requirements). and other skilled building trade workers. The general conFigure 1. The mechanical contractor takes the mechanical consulting engineer's drawings (called contract or engineering drawings) and then prepares shop drawings from these. The plans are drawings of the system. equipment.

Purchasing Agent. Inside Representative. tion. A mechanical contractor is a company that installs the system. maintaining comfortable conditions in the building while trying to minimize energy consump. A service company repairs and maintains the HVAC system. and better quality.12 CHAPTER 1 very involved task. will aid the student in planning his or her career. Using instrumentation. Inspector. Computer Programmer.10 OPERATION. A mechanical consulting engineer is a company that designs the heating. faster construction. The mechanical consulting engineer may check the installation as it proceeds and may also check the TAB work. 1. Regular inspection and maintenance of the system is also part of the operating engineer's duties. this contractor measures the conditions and compares them with the HVAC system plans and specifications. and to keep the system in proper working order. adjusts. or adjusting its performance. One important basic fact is that a fundamental knowledge of air conditioning. and for those already working who wish to advance themselves. better coordination is achieved. A description of the types of employers and their work. but when more complicated work is required. This troubleshooting procedure leads to the cause of the problem. in order to succeed in the HVAC field today. Their function is to operate the system. However. and Field Service Technician. preparation of drawings. Proponents of this approach claim that construction can start and continue as plans are developed for each stage-it is not necessary to wait for engineering plans and contractor drawings. principles is required. This is called the design-build approach. MAINTENANCE. air conditioning. installation. Shop Technician. Designel: Drafter. and determination of liability is easier. and quality is better because the architects and engineers have independent control over the performance of the contractors. The Design-Build (Fast Tracking) Approach In contrast to the procedures described. and balances (TAB) the HVAC system (see Chapter 16). prepare drawings and specifications. there are companies that handle all of the design and construction functions as a package: architecture. followed by a list of job titles and responsibilities. Estimator. Proper procedures. operation. and plumbing systems for buildings.11 EMPLOYMENT IN THE HVAC INDUSTRY It is helpful for students intending to work in some part of the HVAC industry. and contracting. proponents of construction projects using an independent architect. consulting engineering. a mechanical service contractor is called in. Field Supervisor.. are then carried out. perform technical calculations. ventilating. or service. there is no delay for contractor competitive bidding. responsibilities. Drafter. to know what types of positions are available and what knowledge. Positions include: Sales Engineer. Some routine servicing may be performed by the building operating staff. since one organization is responsible for everything. The proponents claim that all of these factors result in lower costs. and Energy Specialist. and contractors claim that costs are kept down by competitive bidding. It is often a branch of a mechanical . Overhead and labor costs must also be determined. They estimate costs. such as repairing or replacing equipment. AND SERVICE OF THE HVAC SYSTEM When the HVAC installation is complete and after start-up and TAB. 1. Comracl Manager. consulting engineers. the building operating engineering staff takes over. Both of the two approaches are in common use. When the installation is complete. and supervision of installation. and supervise installations. the mechanical contractor tests. and training are required. regardless of whether one is employed in design. This includes cost estimates. Positions include: Project Manager.

Field Service Engineer and Technician. such as load calculations and energy studies. Field Supervisor. a business corporation. Processes work to be handled by computer. Responsible for assembly or fab-. Sales Manager. Inside Representative. city. Checks performance after testing and balancing. Positions within operations include: Chief Engineer. and Technician. Positions include: Sales Engineer.. Application Engineer. A building owner may be a real estate company. 1. Perf()rms calculations. obtains materials and equipment. Drafter. Application Engineer. Designer. Uses plans and specifications to determine quantity of materials. This involves production. and quality. Their work involves sales and technical advice. Supervises contract. Service Manager. Orders and purchases materials and equipment. Inside Representative. Watch Engineer. Furnishes product information and prices. Responsible for fabrication of equipment in factory. Prepares energy use analyses and conservation studies. Computer Operator. May assist in design work. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Sales Manager. state. Computer Programmer. Research and Development Engineer. Positions include: Sales Engineer. Prepares costs from this data.12 Description of Job Responsibilities Project Manager. plans layout of system and specifications. Determines solutions to problems (troubleshooting). Sales Engineer. and equipment for project. Responsible for costs. inspection. Estimator. Purchasing Agent. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Production Supervisor. large property owners may have a permanent staff which checks and supervises the work of consUlting engineers and contractors that do work for them. Checks technical characteristics. Supervises installation technically. Inside Representative. Purchasing Agent. Production Supervisor. research and development. Service Manager. coordinates with other consultants and the architect. Positions include Sales Engineer. Drafter. Energy Specialist. checks calculations and plans. Supervises technical work of employees. Estimator. Estimator. Sells equipment and installation and service contracts. or federal government. selects equipment. follows up delivery time. and Field Supervisor. Assists consulting engineer or contractor to provide technical information and aid in selection of proper equipment. and Application Engineer. Processes sales and orders by phone and correspondence. Inspector. Supervises design of project for consulting engineer. Inside Representative. Supervises the service installation and contract. marketing. Positions include: Application Engineer. and installation. Contract Manager. Furnishes technical advice to customers.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 13 contractor. supervises drafters. sheet metal duct parts) or shop service and repair. A manufacturer is a company that makes HVAC equipment. labor. Designer. and sales. and Mechanic. Prepares drawings with supervision. Service Manager. and Shop Technician. A manufacturer's representative is a company that sells HVAC equipment manufactured by another company. studying varied alternatives. school system. and directs service work. time schedule. Instructs designers and drafters. specifications. rication done in shop (e. Checks comformity with drawings and specifications and resolves problems of conflict. Shop Technician. Drafter. Shop Technician. public authority. In addition to HVAC operating personnel. and others. Supervises the sales and marketing of a line of products for a manufacturer. EstimatOl. Sales Manager. Inspects the system installation during construction to check conformity with plans and .g.

Undoubtedly interactive computer graphics and text and voice communication will result in still more efficient design. the recovery. . specifications. Other sites have heating/cooling load calculation procedures. Furthermore. Computerized inventory. National certification standards have been. A professional engineering (PE) license is required for those responsible for preparing the engineering design drawings. Often. Internet Web Sites and Software At the end of appropriate chapters there will be some useful Internet Web site addresses. Licensing Operating licenses are required by local laws for those responsible for operating many categories of refrigeration equipment. and selection of their equipment (EC catalogs). large air conditioning installations are n9w designed with the aid of computers usingCADD (computer-aided design and drafting) software. Computer usage in the industry has spread to such an extent that many. recycling. National certification licensing is now required by the U. The amount of education and training required for each job varies both with the type of responsibility and how complex it is. Chief Operating Engineer. develop. Responsible for operations of computerized building systems. Through application of computer graphics and networks. if not most. A combination of education. Further on-thejob training is also extremely valuable. and examinations (usually supervised by each state) determines the granting of these licenses. installation. that is. Perhaps the biggest change has been in the use of computers. and reclaiming of refrigerants (see Chapter 13). a manufacturer's Web site may have information on performance. In addition. experience. one person may be responsible for a number of jobs if there is not enough work to employ people in each category. developed for HVAC technicians.13 ENERGY CONSERVATION AND COMPUTERS Energy conservation and the use of computers have become such important aspects of the air conditioning industry that they merit a special emphasis at the beginning of our studies. techniques. dimensions. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for refrigerant handling. preferably equivalent to two years of study. Responsible for operation and maintenance of the building system under supervision. Plan. The selection of the equipment is done by computer software. and test new types of equipment. Information may be downloaded or one may order the software. It is strongly recommended that the student visit some of these sites to become familiar with how they are used to carry out our HVAC work today. the provider's e-mail address can be used to obtain further information tion is required. Watch Engineer. their arrangement in equipment. at least a technical institute or community college program in air conditioning and refrigera- 1. For most of the categories. and service of HVAC systems in the future. These job descriptions do not mean that a separate individual always performs each task. and incinerators. and installation procedures. boilers. Computer Operator. particularly in small companies. parts ordering.S. A bachelor of engineering degree is needed for some of the categories and for improving opportunities for advancement. plans maintenance routines. See page 16 for descriptions of actual job skills needed in todays HVAC market. virtually all large and many medium-sized new installations are operated through computers. Determines method of operation for comfort and energy conservation. the office or tield engineer or technician can visually observe equipment parts.and energy analysis.14 CHAPTER 1 Research and Development Engineer and Technician. and directs work of operating personnel. and accounting are now standard practices for most mechanical contractors. duct/pipe sizing. The effort to conserve energy and reduce costs has revolutionized the design and operation of air conditioning systems and equipment. For instance. Supervises the operation and maintenance of the building system.

describe the building design team's organization and responsibilities. What are the major components of a hydronic heating system and a hydronic cooling system" 6. What two methods may be used to improve air quality? 4.1 Sketch an environmental control system that provides heating and ventilating. 1. There are also occasional references to Web sites that will expand on the information covered in the text. List the four conditions that an air conditioning system may be required to control. 1. 1. troubleshooting.6 The conditions in an office in winter are 77 F DB and 10% RH. Review Questions I. Using a sketch.7 Select two HVAC careers that interest you.5 The conditions in an office in summer are 75 F DB and 50% RH. It should be noted that Web site names and their information often change rapidly. Bear in mind that sofware is proprietary and that providers charge fees for their usage. describe the building construction team's organization and responsibilities. List the fonr major components of any air conditioning system. Sketch a diagram that shows their arrangement. 9. Manufactnrers often offer on-line information on maintenance. Label all components. Would the occupants be comfortable in winter? Would they be comfortable in summer? Explain. 7.3 In a department store. prepare a new list and compare it with this one. What are the two primary situations in which air conditioning is needed? 2. you have been instructed to raise the summer thermostat setting from 76 F to 80 F to conserve energy.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING IS on-line and to have technical questions answered. What are the indoor environmental conditions that affect human comfort? . 1. if any? Explain. Throughout the text. 1.4 The conditions in an office are 70 F DB and 40% RH. 1. 8. There may be other restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to as well. In any case. 5. Prepare a list of suggestions you might give to the building's occupants on how to minimize their decrease in comfort. Using a sketch. What changes should be made. and service of their equipment. In some cases. and it may be necessary to conduct an Internet search to find desired information. When you have completed the book. 10. Should the conditions remain as they are or should they be changed" Explain. What changes should be made. which shou Id be the more comfortable summer condition: 80 F DB and 40% RH or 78 F DB and 70% RH? Explain. 3. What do the terms design-build and fast tracking mean? Problems 1.2 As the operating engineer of an HVAC system in a large office building. List the subjects discussed in this chapter that you think are important to learn in training for these positions. Are these conditions acceptable" Explain. the information is actually a short and practical educational course on the subject! Another useful feature often provided are drawings of their equipment that can be electronically transferred onto the building HVAC drawings being developed using Autocad or another computeraided design and drafting (CADD) program ("drag and drop"). if any? Explain. although this does not always apply to manufacturers' software. Sketch a typical all-air air conditioning system and name each component. there are assigned problems requiring use of the Internet to solve. but not cooling or humidity control. it is the resposibility of the potential user to be aware of all requirements.


even when they differ slightly in meaning. 9. 4. Use the saturated property tables for water and the sensible and latent heat equations. 3. 2. Calculate density. Distinguish between energy and power. in some instances other terms that are in practice in the HVAC industry will be used. 17 5. a background in that subject will be helpful as a preparation for this book. Identify the changes that occur when a substance changes between its liquid and vapor states. Make some general conclusions regarding energy conservation in HVAC. Identify units and convert from one set of units to another. heat. 6. This approach will enable the student to communicate and work with others in the air conditioning field. .c H A p T E R Physical Principles T he HVAC practitioner often encounters problems that cannot be solved without a knowledge of applied physics. and enthalpy and show the relationship between temperature scales. will be discussed in Chapter 8. OBJECTIVES A study of this chapter will enable you to: I. In this chapter. and among absolute. however. the physical principles that are useful in understanding air conditioning will be explained. specific volume. Express the relationship between pressure and head. Describe and use the energy equation. 7.) This presentation of applied physics is not intended to substitute for a course in physics. fluid flow. (One further subject in applied physics. Generally the definitions and concepts accepted today in physics will be used here. and between stored energy and energy in transfer. and vacuum pressure. 8. Explain the differences among temperature. and specific gravity. gage.

2 gives Ift 144in. 2 1 ft2 in. The equivalent between the known and required units is I ft 2 = 144 in 2 (Table A. 2 x 144 in. require insulation. In that case.42 ft 2 144~ =~=l ~ This is the amountef insulation required for each panel..48 gall ons (gal) I minute (min) = 60 seconds (sec) 2. dividing by I ft2 gives . by dividing both sides of the equality by either term. X Table A. by 33 in.. momentum. by canceling units that are the same in the numerator and denominator (units can be multiplied and divided in the same way as numbers). Suppose the other ratio had been used..30 meters (m) 3 I ft = 7.2). An important point to note in this example is that there are always two possible raiios that can be used in converting units. and time are called physical characteristics.. For each physical characteristic. it was either or 144 in.. 2. Here this is arranged as a ratio. The procedure is carried out in the following manner: 1. multiplied by the original quantity. the foot (ft) is one of the standard units used to measure length. pressure. however. temperature.1 Some solar heating collector panels measuring 28 in. area. Arrange the equivalency (conversion factor) between the units as a ratio. the relation between area expressed in ft2 and in. Physical characteristics are measured by standard quantities called units. 2. from Table A. = 924 in. Dividing both sides by 144 in.18 CHAPTER 2 2. How much insulation would you order for each panel? Solution The area of the insulation for each panel is Area = 28 in. as is now explained. This ratio arrangement is used when it is desired to change a quantity expressed in one unit into a Only one can be correct.. These units have fixed numerical relationships to each other called equivalents or conversion factors. I lists abbreviations and symbols used in this book.J. expressed in ft2. 2 is I ft2 = 144 in.2 pounds (lb) = I kilogram (kg) Example 2. and with units canceled: I ft 2 Area = 924 ~ x .2 CONVERSION OF UNITS The equivalence between any two units can also be written as a ratio. For instance. 2 2 The area is not in the units needed. choosing that ratio that wiII give the results in the desired units.000 ft2 . The insulation is to be ordered in square feet (ft2).) = 0." 2..~ . This result would be Area =924 in. Examples of equivalents are: Characteristic Unit Equivalents (Conversion Factors) Length Volume Time Mass I ft = 12 inches (in._ = 6. mass.4 = 133.2. 2 ---0--= 1 1 ft2 This shows that mUltiplying by the ratio of equivalent units is the same as multiplying by 1. there are many different units.tt2" 144 in. The following example illustrates the procedure for converting units.1 UNITS different unit. density. This enables us to change units. 2 1 ft2 144 in? 1 ft 2 Or.2 in the Appendix lists some useful unit equivalents. 33 in. volume. velocity. Concepts snch as length. For instance. Table A. The result wiII be the correct value in the new units. Multiply the original quantity by the ratio.

U. It is convenient to use combined conversion factors such as this for calculations that are frequently repeated.4 hr water Ib That is.n c/ =3. In this way. because the units resulting are not ft2. The inch-pound (I-P) system of units is generally used in the United States. The SI system of units uses only one unit of measurement for each physical characteristic. at about 60 F). Example 2.c' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solution From Table 2. the problem involved converting velocity from units of ft/min to nllsec. The procedure for changing units is the same when more than one unit is to be changed. unit of mass is the pound mass. manufacturer ships some aIr filters to Venezuela.S.3 -. n x _1-.0sec Combined Conversion Factors In Example 2. units will be emphasized. FORCE. with the note "Warning-maximum air velocity 600 ft/min.0'_ hr 7. One is called the inch-pound. For instance.4 Ib/ft3 at 60 F. Only certain units of the metric system are standard in the SI system.S. Imagine what your boss would have said if you had ordered 133.~.S. The SI unit is the kilogram (kg).S.-. occasionally we may use metric units that are not standard SI units.2. the density of water is 62. units will be converted between U.mi1'l_. and SI units. Arrange the ratios in the form that will give the correct units in the result.000 ft 2 of insulation! The student should adopt the habit of always writing out the unit names when doing computations. DENSITY.2 includes conversion factors for both U. SI units will be introduced in two ways: (1) in some examples and tables. the standard SI unit of length is the meter. and SI units: and (2) some examples and problems will be done completely in SI units.48 {«if Ib ) .S. .30 m I .0' water = 500 x 62. as seen in the following example. The following example shows how one is developed. because this is common practice in the HVAC industry in countries using the SI system.S.4 MASS. at 60 F. The mass (m) of an object or body is the quantity of matter it contains. However. There are two systems of units used in the HVAC industry. or English system. :.-. The U. 7.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 19 We know that this is incorrect. Find the equivalence for the flow rate of water measured in units of Iblhr and gal/min (GPM). the other is called the Sf or international system.2 A U.48 gal = I ft3 Using these values for water. AND SI UNITS Velocity = 600 - j{ pHn m x I mi1f 60 sec x 0. AND SPECIFIC VOLUME." The contractor installing the filters wishes to inform the operating engineer what the maximum velocity is in meters per second (m/sec). U.2.3 U. WEIGHT. I _ga_1 =(I ffi!I'_ min X mill 60 . whereas SI units are used in most other countries.S. Table A. Example 2. 2. From Table A. I GPM = 500 Ib/hr (for water only.1.. not the centimeter or kilometer. What information should be given? Solution We must use the equivalency between feet and meters and that between minutes and seconds. and multiply and divide values and units: 2. SI units are part of a broader system of units called the metric system. those students who wish to become familiar with SI units may do so.. In this book. However.

Example 2. BTU/lb-F Note Water Water Ice Steam Air Mercury 62. The density of water at 39 P is 62. the nnmerical value in pounds (Ib) for the mass and weight of an object is the same on earth. as both are measured in Ib/ft3 in U.S. The SI unit is the Newton (N). after finding the volume of water. Ib/ft3 d u ' = density of water at 39 P.S. Density varies with temperature and pressure.2 (Table A. However. Although weight density and (mass) density are not the same.0 0.3) 0. so the specific gravity is s.::::::-=-d".1.2) Weight density is the weight per unit volume of a substance.7 psi a At 32 F . Volume = 15 ft x 10 ft x 1.g.1 Substance PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES Density.50 0. The density of water is shown in Table 2.20 CHAPTER2 A force is the push or pull that one body may exert on another. d d (2.S. The tower basin is 15 ft by 10ft in plan and filled with water to a depth of 1. weight is a force.4 Ib/ft3 v= (2.Q75 849. 62. unit of force is the pound force. therefore no error should Occur in calculations.5 ft = 225 ft 3 Solving Equation 2. 62.5 ft.) of a substance is defined as the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water.1 ) Specific Gravity The specific gravity (s. That is.2 57.4 60.4 Ib/fe. not mass.000 Ib Ib ft x 225 fr3 volume volume III (2. Iblft3 Specific Heat.0 1.4 where d = density of substance. The confusion also occurs because the word pound is used for both mass and force in U.1 for in.g. The weight (w) of a body is the force exerted ou it by the gravitational pull of the earth.45 0. The U.0 l. units. at 39 F. III Density and Specific Volume Density (d) is the mass per unit of volume of a substance. units. Solution The weight of water in the tank is found from Equation 2.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A contractor is going to install a cooling tower on a roof. they are often used as such. He must inform the structural engineer how much extra weight to allow for the water in the tower basin when designing the roof.4 3 = 14. In any case the na~ure of a problem indicates whether mass or weight is being considered.24 At 32-60 F At 200 F Average for water vapor in air At 70 F and 14. Specific volume (v) is the reciprocal of density.1.3) TABLE 2. Densities and other properties for some substances are shown in Table 2. Unfortunately the word weight is often used for mass of a body.1. That is d= III = d x volume = 62.

3000 Ib water 2. Example 2. this is . Equipment and instrument ratings are often only accurate to within 2-5% of listed values.e. therefore there is no point in calculating or measuring data to an excess number of significant figures.4 62.342 CFM for the required air supply rate to a building. The pressure is being exerted on an area 2 ft x 3 ft = 6 ft 2 The force acting on the bottom is the total weight of water. The pressure is the force on each of the six 1 ft x I ft areas.5 Ib/ft3 What is its specific gravity? Solution Using Equation 2. but for most calculations the values from Equation 2. the units of pressure will be sa =--=--=094 '0' 62.4 . it would be reported as 18._ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hot water storage tank used in a solar heating system contains 3000 Ib of water. Expressed as an equation. F 3000lb p= .5 If force is measured in pounds and area in square inches (in 2 ). Equation 2. 500 Ib/ft". the number of significant figures are reduced) to three or four places.. decisions must be made as to the number of significant figures or places of accuracy to use in numerical values. The number might be used to select a fan. This number is said to have five significant figures. Data in HVAC work are usually rounded off (i. d 58.5 ACCURACY OF DATA In reporting results of measurements of calculations of data.300 CFM.3.4) Example 2.2.6 PRESSURE 2ft Pressure (P) is defined as force (F) exerted per unit area (A). What is the pressure exerted on the bottom of the tank. However.1 Sketch for Example 2.= = 500 Ib/ft2 A 6 ft2 The relation between force and pressure is illustrated in Figure 2. 2.. because the value of the fifth digit from the left is known.1. and then to balance the system to obtain this flow rate. they should use the examples of this book as a guide. force F p=--= area A (2. The tank is 2 ft long by 3 ft wide. in Ib/ft2? Solution A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 2.6 _ _ _ _-. This procedure is called rounding off For example.4 will be used to find the pressure.5 A fuel oil has a density of 58. neither manufacturer's fan ratings or testing instruments can produce that accurate a value. suppose the results of some calculations produced a value of 18.6. and sometimes even two. Until students become familiar with good practice in rounding off values.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 21 The value of specific gravity will change slightly with temperature. If the above value is rounded off to three places. Figure 2.3 are satisfactory. If force is measured in pounds (Ib) and area in square feet (ft2). A force of 3000 Ib is distributed over the 2 ft x 3 ft area. units of pressure will be Iblin? The abbreviations psf for Ib/ft2 and psi for Ib/in 2 are commonly used.



Total force = 3000 Ib Pressure = force on each square foot = 500 Ib


1 ft



Figure 2.2
Relation between force and pressure.

cause there is less weight of air above. For example, the atmospheric pressure in Denver, Colorado is about 12.23 psia). Pressure measuring instruments usually measure the difference between the pressure of a fluid and the pressure of the atmosphere. The pressure measured above atmospheric pressure is called gage pressure (pg). The relation among absolute, atmospheric, and gage pressures, shown in Figure 2.3, is

= Patm + Pg


Pressures of liquids and gases are of great importance in HVAC work. Some examples are the steam pressure in a boiler, the air pressure developed by a fan, the water pressure exerted on a valve, and the pressure exerted by the atmosphere.

Using gage pressure is convenient because most pressure measuring instruments are calibrated to read 0 when they are subject to atmospheric pressure. Figure 2.4 (a) shows the dial face of a typical compression gage. (Pressure gages and similar instruments will be discussed in Chapter 16.)
Example 2.7 The pressure gage connected to the discharge of a cooling tower water pump in the Trailblazers Bus Terminal in San Francisco reads 18 psi. What is the absolute water pressure at the pump discharge? Solution The pressure gage reads gage pressure, 18 psig (above atmospheric). San Francisco is at sea level. so the atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.7 psia. Using Equation 2.5,
Pab, = Pg+Patm

Absolute, Gage, and Vacuum Pressure
A space that is completely evacuated of any gas or liquid (a complete vacuum) has zero pressure, because there is nothing to exert a pressure. The pressure exerted by a fluid above the zero pressure is called its absolute pressure (PabJ. This is illustrated in Figure 2.3. The atmospheric air above the Earth exerts a pressure (Patm) because of its weight. The pressure it exerts at sea level has been measured and found to be approximately 14.7 Ib/in? absolute (psia). (This pressure decreases at higher elevations beFigure 2.3
Relations of absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures.

= 18 psi + 14.7 psi = 32.7 psia

Pabs Pg

Pressure being measured

Atmospheric pressure


_J t __ Pressure . being measured .


Pabs Zero pressure _....1.._.....L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---'_ _ _ __





/ 100



Atmospheric pressure



Atmospheric pressure

Figure 2.4
Pressure gages, (a) Compression gage reads gage pressure only. (b) Compound gage reads gage and vacuum pressure.

If a fluid exerts a pressure below atmospheric pressure, it is called a "partial" vacuum; its pressure value reading down from atmospheric pressure is called vacuum pressure (Pyac)' The relation among absolute, atmospheric, and vacuum pressures, shown in Figure 2.3, is
Pabs ::::; Patm - Pvac

60 psig, respectively. How much is the pressure increased by the compressor?
Solution Referring to Figure 2.5. the pressure increase is

pressure increase = 60 + 5 = 65 psi


Some gages are constructed to read both vacuum and gage pressure. This type is called a compound gage and is shown in Figure 2.4(b).
Example 2.8 The gages on the suction gas and discharge gas lines of a compressor read 5 psiv (Ib/in 2 vac) and

A liquid exerts a pressure because of its weight, and the weight depends on the height of the column of liquid. The relation between the pressure exerted and the height, as shown in Figure 2.6, is

Figure 2.5
Sketch for Example 2.8. - - - Discharge pressure of gas 60 psig 5 psiv Atmospheric pressure Suction pressure of gas Zero pressure

Suction gage 5 psiv

Discharge gage 60 psig

65 psi



J _______ _




Solution The density of water is approximately 62.4 Ib/ft3 (Table 2. I). Using Equation 2.7,
Liquid of density d


Ib lb 1 ft 2 p = 62.4 fe x 300 ft = 18,720 ft2 x 144 in. 2
= 130 psig

Figure 2.6
Pressure exerted by a liquid column. Pressure may be expressed as "head" (height of liquid).

p = pressure exerted by a liquid, lb/ft" d = density of liquid, lb/ft' H =height of liquid, ft

The relation between pressure and height of a liquid is used by pressure measuring instruments that have a column of liquid. These are called manometers, an example of which is shown in Figure 2.7. In Figure 2.7(a); the pressure exerted on both legs of the manometer (atmospheric pressure) is the same, so the liquid is at the same level. In Figure 2.7(b), the pressure in the duct is above atmospheric. In Figure 2.7(c), the pressure in the duct is below atmospheric (vacuum pressure), so the liquid is higher in the leg connected to the ducl.
Example 2.10 A service technician wishes to measure the pressure of air in a duct. He connects one leg of a water manometer to the duct and the other leg is exposed to the atmosphere. The difference in height of the water columns is 8 in. w.g. (inches of water gage) as shown in Figure 2.8. What is the air pressure in the duct in psig?

Other units can be used in the equation. but these are often convenient.
Example 2.9 A 300-ft vertical pipe in a high-rise building is filled with chilled water. What is the pressure in Ib/in 2 gage (psig) that a valve in the bottom of the line will have to withstand?

Figure 2.7
Manometer reading pressures above and below atmospheric pressure. (a) Equal pressure on both legs. (b) Pressure in duct above atmospheric (gage pressure). (c) Pressure in duct below atmospheric (vacuum pressure).


t L l














Example 2.11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How high would the mercury column in a barometer be, in both in. Hg and mm Hg, at a location where atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi and the temperature 32 F?
Solution Using Equation 2.7 with proper units, noting the density of mercury (Table 2.1) is d = 849 Ib/ft 3 at 32F, Changing units,


Figure 2.8 Sketch for Example 2.10.

= 14.7




Ib =2116.8 - , ft-

Solution The difference in height is related to the pressure by Equation 2.7. Changing the units of H first.
H = 8 in. w.g. x - - = 0.667 ft w.g.

Using Equation 2.7,


2116.81b/ft2 = 2.49 ft x 12 in. 849 Ib/ft3 I ft

I ft

= 29.92 in. Hg 25.4mm H = 29.92 in. Hg x - - - - = 760 mm g I in.

12 in.


Ib = 62.4 ft3 x 0.667 ft Ib I ft2 . = 41.62: x 2 = 0.29 pSlg ft 144 in. The air pressure in the duct is 0.29 psi above atmospheric pressure. Water manometers are often used for measuring relatively small pressures, particularly when testing and balancing air systems. They are not convenient for high pressures because a very high liquid column would be needed. Manometers using mercury, a liquid with a much higher density than water, are often used for measuring higher pressures. The barometer (Figure 2.9) is a special manometer used for measuring atmospheric air pressure. Mercury (Hg) is the liquid used. The tube is evacuated of all gas so that no atmospheric pressure acts on the top of the mercury column. Because atmospheric pressure acts on the bottom of the mercury, the height to which the mercury column is lifted represents atmospheric pressure.

It is often convenient to express pressure in units of head. Head is the equivalent of liquid column height (H) expressed in Equation 2.7. In Example

2.11, instead of stating that the pressure of the atmosphere was 14.7 psi, it could have been stated that it was 29.92 in. Hg or 760 mm Hg. In Example
Figure 2.9 Mercury barometer.

Height represents atmospheric pressurel





2.10, the air pressure in the duct could also have been stated both ways, p = 0.29 psig = 8 in. w.g. That is, there does not actually have to be a column of liquid to express any pressure in head units. Equation 2.7 can be used to convert to or from units of pressure expressed as head. Some of the equivalents for pressure expressed as head, obtained from that equation, are listed in Table A.2. Example 2.12 A contractor requires a pump that will have a discharge pressure of 42 psi. He looks in a manufacturer's catalog to find a suitable pump, but finds that the pump ratings are listed as "head, feet of water." What pump head should he specify in his purchase order? Solution Using the conversion factor equality (Table A.2) of 2.3 ft w. = I psi
H = 42 psi x

Power is the time rate of doing work. It is expressed by the equation
work Power=-time (2.9)

Power is usually of more direct importance than work in industrial applications; the capacity of equipment is based on its power output or power consumption. If work is expressed in ft-Ib, some units of power that would result are ft-Ib/min and ft-Ib/sec. More convenient units for power are the horsepower (HP) and kilowatt (KW), because the numbers resulting are not as large. Example 2.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ If the cooling tower in Example 2.13 is lifted by a crane in 4 minutes, what is the minimum power (in HP) required? Solution Using Equation 2.9,

2.3 ft w.
I psi

97 ft w. Power =

1,800,000 ft-Ib 4 min

= 450,000 ft-Ib/min

Work is the effect created by a force when it
moves a body. It is expressed by the following equation: Work = force x distance (2.8)

From Table A.2, I HP = 33,000 ft-Ib/min. Conv'(rting to HP,
I HP 450,000 ft-Ib/min x --.:...:...~-- = 13.6 HP 33,000 ft-Ib/min

The actual size of the engine or motor selected to hoist the cooling tower would be greater than 13.6 HP, due to friction and other losses and to allow some excess capacity as a safety reserve. Although it is a somewhat ab~tract concept. energy is sometimes defined as the ability to do work. For example, we use the stored chemical energy in a fuel by burning it to create combustion gases at high pressure that drive the pistons of an engine and thus do work. Work is therefore one of the forms of energy. Energy can exist in a number of forms. It can be grouped into those forms of energy that are stored in bodies or those forms of energy in transfer or flow between bodies. Work is one of the forms of

Example 2.13 A cooling tower weighing 6000 Ib is hoisted from the street level to the roof of the Gusher Oil Co. building, 300 ft high. How much work is done in lifting it? Solution The force required is equal to the weight of the tower. Using Equation 2.8, Work = 6000 Ib x 300 ft = 1,800,000 ft -Ib

Stored energy Energy stored in body: Enthalpy Chemical energy Potential energy Kinetic energy other forms Energy in transfer Heat (a)



Work (W)

} an~~her

Figure 2.10
Comparison of stored energy and energy in transfer.

energy in transfer between bodies. That is, one body does work on another when it moves it. Energy can be stored in matter in many forms. Figure 2.10 is a diagram showing some types of stored energy and energy ill transfa At this time we will turn our attention to a forn1 of energy in transfer or motion called heat. Some of the forms of stored energy will discussed in Section 2.10.

Heat has been described as a form of energy transfer.
Heat is the form of energy that transfers from ol1e body to anoth,er due to a temperature difference. In

Figure 2.11 graphically describes this definition. In Figure 2.11(a) heat (Q) flows from the high temFigure 2.11

perature body, hot water, in the heating unit to the lower temperature body, the air in the room. Figure 2.11 (b) shows that heat will flow from the higher temperature body, room air, to the lower temperature body, the air in the refrigerator interior, due to the temperature difference. Note that heat can only flow naturally from a higher to a lower temperature-"downhill," so to speak, as seen in Figure 2.12. Of course if there is no temperature difference, there is no heat flow. The most common unit used for heat in the United States is the BTU (British Thermal Unit). The BTU is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit (F) at 59 F. Temperature is a measure of the thermal acti\"ity in a body. This activity depends on the velocity of the molecules and other particles of which all matter is composed. It is not practical to measure temperature by measuring the velocity of molecules, however, so this definition is not of great importance in our work. Temperature is usually measured with thermometers. The most commonly used type relies on the fact that most liquids expand and contract when their temperature is raised or lowered. By creating an arbitrary scale of numbers. a temperature scale and units are developed. Some types of thermometers used in HVAC work will be discussed in Chapter 16. The unit scale most often used for measuring temperature in the United States is the degree

Examples of heat flow. (a) Heat flows from heating unit at higher temperature to room air at lower temperature. (b) Heat flows from room air at higher temperature to refrigerator air at lower temperature.

Room air = 70 F Room air = 70 F

~ ..



Heat (a)

Air at

-+-- Heating unit

40 F-+ ~ Refrigerator

at 200 F







I, A



Figure 2.12

Heat can flow only from a higher to a lower temperature. (a) If I, is greater than 12 , heat flows from A to B. (b) If t, = 1 2 , no heat follows.

Fahrenheit (F), in which the boiling point of water is 212 F and the freezing point of water is 32 F at atmospheric pressure. In the SI system of units the degree Celsius (C) is used, in which the boiling point of water is 100 C and the freezing point is 0 C at atmospheric pressure. The relationship between these two units is therefore
F = 1.8 C + 32
F- 32 C=-..,.1.8
(2. lOa)
(2. lOb)

The relations among temperature scales are shown graphically in Figure 2.13.



Example 2.15 A room is supposed to be at a temperature of 78 F in an air-conditioned building. The building maintenance engineer checks the temperature with a thermometer that has a Celsius scale. What should be the reading on the thermometer? Solution Using Equation 2. lOb.

We have noted previously that energy can be classified into energy in transfer between bodies (heat and work) or stored energy in bodies. There are a number of types of stored energy, some of which we will briefly discuss here. (We will not always define these terms rigorously, when it will not serve our purposes.) Chemical energy is a form of stored energy in a body that is released frgm a body by combustion. When a fuel is burned, its stored chemical energy is released as heat. Kinetic energy is the stored energy in a body due to its motion, or velocity.
Figure 2.13

c = _F_-_3_2 =

Relations among temperature scales. 78 - 32 = 25.6 C 1.8 Fahrenheit Rankine
672 R


373 K

There are also two absolute temperature scales. These take the value 0 for the lowest temperature that can exist. They are called the Rankine (R) and Kelvin (K) temperature scales. The Rankine is used in the U.S. sysfem, with the difference in size between each degree the same as Fahrenheit. The Kelvin is used in the SI system with the difference between each degree equal to Celsius. The relationships are R=F+460 K=C+273
(2.lOc) (2.lOd)

212 F

32 F

492 R
460 R


273 K


Absolute zero
-460 F

O R - - 273 C




Potential energy is the stored energy a body has due to its position, or elevation. There is a property a body has that is a combination of its energy due to temperature, pressure, and volume; it is called enthalpy. Enthalpy is a property of a body that measures its heat content. Specific enthalpy (h) is the enthalpy per unit mass of a substance. It is expressed in BTUllb in U.S. units. Although this definition of enthalpy is used extensively in the HVAC industry, it is scientifically imprecise. Its exact definition is best defined by a mathematical equation. For our purposes, the terms heat content and enthalpy are considered to have the same meaning and to be a property of a body. Heat, however, as defined in Section 2.9, means a form of (heat) energy in transfer or flow, not a property of a body. For this reason, it is preferable to use the word enthalpy, not heat content, so that heat is not used with two different meanings. It should also be understood that temperature and enthalpy (heat content) are not the same thing. The temperature of a body is a measure of its thermal level or thermal intensity, but by itself does not determine how much thermal energy it has. The amount of thermal energy of a body depends not only on its temperature but also on its mass and specific heat. The enthalpy of a body, however, is a property that does reflect its amount of thermal energy. For example, consider a thimbleful of molten steel at 2500 F as compared to a very large tank of hot water at 200 F. The hot water has a higher total enthalpy; it has more thermal energy available for space heating, despite its much lower temperature.

namics is a principle that may be stated in various ways, for instance, "energy can neither be created nor destroyed," or "there is conservation of energy in nature." This principle is used extensively in the HVAC industry, especially when stated as an energy balance: The change in total energy in a system equals the energy added to the system minus the energy removedfrom the system.

The word system refers to any closed body or group of bodies for which the flciw of energy in or out can be determined. It could be the air in a room (Figure 2.14), a boiler, a whole building, or a complete air conditioning system. This energy balance can be expressed as an equation, called the Energy Equation: (2.11 ) where

= change in stored energy in the system = energy added to (entering) the system Eout = energy removed from (leaving) the system

Example 2.16 illustrates the use of the energy equation.
Example 2.16 A hot water heating convector in Mr. Jones office is supplying 4000 BTUlhr of heat. Heat is being transferred from the room air to the outdoors at the rate of 6500 BTUlhr. What will happen in the
Figure 2.14 Sketch for Example 2.16.

The subject we have been examining, called thermodynamics, is the branch of physics that deals with heat and work. The First Law of ThermodyQin = 4000 BTU/hr



room? What size electric heater should Mr. Jones temporarily use to solve the emergency?

Solution We apply the Energy Equation 2.11. Figure 2.14 shows the energy (heat) added and removed:

HP. All of the energy in the lighting and from the motors is converted into heat. What is the increase in enthalpy of the room air from these sources?

BTU BTU = 4000 - - - 6500 - hr hr BTU =-2500-hr The negative sign means the room air energy is decreasing. This loss in enthalpy (heat content) will cause the room air temperature to drop, making it uncomfortable. A solution is to install an electric heater that will make up the heat loss which the convector does not supply, 2500 BTUlhr. There will then be no net loss of heat from the room, and the temperature will not drop. The capacity of an electric heater is normally expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (KW) rather then BTUlhr. The heater should therefore have the following capacity. From Table A.2, 3410 BTUlhr= 1000 W 2500 BTUlhr x 1000W 3410 BTU/hr = 733 W

Solution The energy added to the room air will increase its enthalpy. Applying the Energy Equation 2.11 and converting all units to BTUIhr,


3.4IBTUlhr = 1000 W x - - - - lW
+1 O HP>.<

2545 BTUlhr 0 I HP

= 28,860 BTUlhr

Substances can exist in three different states (also called phases)-solid, liquid, or vapor (gas). The state that a substance is actually in depends on its temperature and pressure. The meaning of this for liquids and vapors is best understood by describing the experiment (which the student could carry out at home to check the results) shown in Figure 2.15. Figure 2.15(a) shows a pot of water at room temperature. Being open, it is subject to atmospheric pressure, 14.7 psia at sea level. At (b) heat (Q) is being added to the water, and it is noted that its temperature continually rises as heat is added. At some point in time (e). however, it is noted that the temperature stops rising (at 212 F). Even though more heat is added after that (d),' the temperature does not increase for a while. What is observed now, however, is that the liquid water will gradually change into its gas or vapor state (steam). This process is called boiling or vapori~a­ tion. As heat is added, no further temperature increase occurs as long as some liquid remains. At (e), all the water is evaporated.

The nearest size larger heater manufactured would probably be 750 W. Example 2.16 illustrates the sign convention that will be used in the Energy Equation: An energy decrease in the system is negative; an energy increase is positive. The example also shows that any units used for energy are interchangeable, regardless of the form of energy, whether heat, work, or enthalpy. Example 2.17 will illustrate this, as well as a further application of the Energy Equation.

Example 2.17 A business equipment room has 1000 watts of lighting and some small motors with a total output of 10



If more heat is added, it will be noted that the temperature (of the steam) will begin to rise again, above 212 F, as seen in (j). (This part of the experiment would be difficult to carry out, because the steam will escape into the room.) The whole series of processes just described could also be carried out in reverse. Removal of heat (cooling) from the steam in Figure 2.15(j) lowers its temperature. When the cooling continues to (e), the temperature no longer drops, but the gas begins to condense to a liquid (d). After all of the steam is condensed (c), further removal of heat will result in a temperature drop of the liquid, (b) and (a). A useful summary of all of this information is shown in Figure 2.16, called the temperatureFigure 2.15

enthalpy diagram. When heat is added to the water between 32 F and 212 F, both its enthalpy and temperature increase. However, if more heat is added at 212 F, note that although its enthalpy continues iucreasing, the temperature remains constant. What does happen is that the water gradually boils until it all vaporizes to steam, still at 212 F, assuming enough heat is added. Once all the liquid is evaporated, if more heat is added, then and only then does the temperature start to increase again. (The enthalpy continues to increase as before.) The temperature and enthal py increase of the steam will then continue if further heat is provided.

Experiment showing change of state of water at atmospheric pressure (14.7 psia). (a) Initial condition (subcooled liquid). (b) Heat added, temperature increases {subcooled liquid). (c) Heat added, liquid reaches boiling point (saturated liquid). (d) Heat added, liquid changing to vapor, no temperature increase. (e) Heat added, all liquid vaporized (saturated vapor). (f) Heat added, temperature of vapor increases (superheated vapor). Note: Subcooled liquid is liquid below its boiling point. Saturated liquid and saturated vapor are the liquid and vapor at the boiling (condensing) point. Superheated vapor is vapor above the boiling point. 14.7psia 14.7 psi a 14.7 psia

(a) Subcooled liquid

Q (b) Subcooled liquid

Q (c) Saturated liquid

(d) Mi~ture of saturated

(e) Saturated vapor

(f) Superheated vapor

liquid and vapor

If the same experiment were carried out with the surrounding pressure at 6 psia. the boiling process begins and the temperature remains constant until the liquid has completely evaporated. the boiling point is 240 F at 24. i 1ii Q) :0 Q. The conditions shown in Figure 2. BTU/lb Figure 2.7 psia.16 also shows the temperatureenthalpy changes that occur between the liquid and solid state. it does not boil. Example 2.18 Will water exist in the liquid state.16 are correct for water only when the surrounding pressure is 14. or as steam.17 represents the same heating process. but the temperature continues to rise. For water. which will be discussed later. To the left of the line it can exist only as a liquid and to the right only as a vapor.7 psi a surrounding pressure. E ~ Melting or Solid freezing 32 (r t Latent heat of fusion 144 Sensible heat of liquid (water) 180 Latent heat of vaporization 970 Sensible heat of vapor (steam) Heat content (enthalpy). say 24. if its temperature is 225 F and its pressure is 25 psia? . or as mixture of the liquid-vapor. it is called the boiling point curve or saturation vapor pressure curve. Figure 2. the boiling process would begin at 170 F. Let us conduct the same experiment where the surrounding pressure is at a higher value. This shows that the temperature at which the water boils changes with pressure. When the water reaches 212 F (e) and more heat is added. vapor.9 psia. When the"temperature reaches 240 F (d). These facts show that the boilingicondensing temperature of water depends on its pressure. or cooling if done in reverse. Along the line it can exist either as liquid. 212 Superheated steam Saturated vapor lL. Figure 2. This means that water cannot be made to boil at a temperature below 240 F if the pressure is 24.7 psia (atmospheric pressure at sea level).9 psia. Water can exist at its boiling/condensing temperature and pressure only on this line. however.16 Temperature-enthalpy (heat content) change of water at 14. We will now examine what changes occur at different pressures.9 psia.18 shows a line representing these temperature-pressure values for water.32 CHAPTER 2 Note: p = 14. Figure 2.7 psia Saturated liquid Vaporizing or condensing . we would find that when heat was added. Dependence of Boiling Temperature on Pressure In the experiment just described the surrounding pressure was 14.

Also molecules in the gaseous state move more rapidly than molecules in the liquid state. the molecules are closer together than when it is in its gaseous state. Note that the water is not boiling at 212 F. liquid reaches boiling point. temperature of vapor increases (superheated vapor). All matter is composed of particles called molecules. alcohol at 170 F.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 24. 240 F. Let us examine what causes this change in boil' ing point temperature. (f) Heat added. Note that the higher the pressure on the wale I. Solution Locating the pressure-temperature (p-t) condition on Figure 2. (b) Heat added. This same relation holds for other substances.18. When a substance is in the liquid state. and therefore the attractive forces are greater. They are also attracted to each other by forces. The closer the molecules are to each other.9 psia 33 (a) Subcooled liquid Q (b) Subcooled liquid Q (c) Subcooled liquid 24. (e) Heat added. temperature increases (subcooled liquid). the higher the boiling temperature. the lower the temperature at which it will boil.17 Experiment showing change of state of water at 24. The Molecular (Kinetic) Theory of Liquids and Gases The process of boiling and the dependence of boiling point temperature on surrounding pressure can be explained by referring to the molecular (kinetic) theory of liquids and gases. temperature increases (subcooled liquid).9 psia 24. This same dependence of boiling/condensing temperature on pressure holds for all fluids. the greater the attractive forces.9 pSia Q (d) Saturated liquid (e) Saturated vapor (I) Superheated vapor Figure 2.9 psia 24. The molecules in a substance are constantly in motion. The water is in a liquid state. all liquid vaporized (saturated vapor).9 psia. For example. (c) Heat added. it is found to be in the liquid region. and the lower Ihe pressure. at 14. except the p-t values are different. (d) Heat added. and . and copper at 4250J:<.7 psia ammonia boils at -28 F. (a) Initial condition (subcooled liquid).

are near the s. surrounded by air at 14./ V 60 40 / / Subcooled liquid region 20 .low evaporation from the surface.7 ps. required to boil a liquid. at a s.18 Figure 2.el of water at 70 F. This. "' '" "' 6 4 / 2 1 17 7 / Superheated vapor region - 8 6 4 -. The heat energy is. also called the saturation vapor pressure curve.ia. J / 2 II o.ome are moving fas.ure of the average velocity of its. molecules. 10 / 50 100 150 200 Temperature. there will be very s.s. That is.urface. However. holding the molecules. s. 300 200 /' 100 80 /' . a meas. have velocities well above the average. The water is therefore in a liquid s.. F 250 300 350 400 .e together. the higher the temperature. If some of these molecules.ter. This. required to overcome the attractive forces. they will escape. The higher the average velocity.ubstance is. is. is. The average velocity of the molecules.~BOiling point curve / / .lower average velocity and there- Boiling point pressure-temperature curve for water. some slower. not all molecules move at the average velocity-s. not great enough for them to escape rapidly.o that they move further apart and change state to a gas.34 CHAPTER2 " " therefore they have more energy. why heat is. The temperature of a s.19 shows an open ves. Figure 2.~ '" 10 8 ~ ~ 0.. However.tate. a small fraction of molecules. leaves the remaining molecules. relatively clos.

At saturation. When the temperature of the liquid is below its saturation temperature. We have all noticed this effect when alcohol is rubbed on the skin. because energy is removed. A slight cooling effect of the liquid has occurred as a result of the evaporation. It gradually evaporates and cools itself and the skin. Figure 2. but it can exist as a saturated liquid or vapor at only one temperature for a given pressure. and the boiling point is technically known as the saturation temperature and saturation pressure. The molecules escaping from the surface of a liquid create vapor. a typical boiling point curve. and Superheated Conditions The pressure and temperature condition at which boiling occurs is called the saturated condition. as will be seen in Section 2. then the liquid cannot rapidly evaporate (boil).18. if the temperature of the liquid is increased enough. the process is called a sensible heat change.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES Resisting surrounding pressure Vapor pressure of liquid 35 tttttttttttttt t tttt t t t t t tt t by the liquid. and saturated liquid is liquid at the boiling temperature. The energy of the molecules is now great enough to overcome the reduced resistance. then the enthalpy change in the . Saturated. If the pressure exerted by a surrounding gas is above the vapor pressure. When the temperature of the vapor is above its saturation temperature (boiling point). Note that a substance can exist as a subcooled liquid or superheated vapor at many temperatures for a given pressure. When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a change in state. the temperature of the liquid must be increased further to reach the boiling point. or mixture of liquid and vapor at the saturated condition. the molecular velocity increases to a point at which the molecules break the bonds holding them together as a liquid and the liquid boils. That is why the temperature does not increase during boiling. it is called a subcooled liquid. That is. illustrates this. fore at a lower temperature. and they escape rapidly. the liquid boils. it is called a superheated vapor. However. Escape of some molecules through surface causes a vapor pressure. Boiling has been achieved by a lowering of pressure. a higher temperature increases the molecular velocity enough to cause boiling. the liquid is called saturated liquid and the vapor is called saturated vapOl: Saturated vapor is vapor at the boiling telllperature. the heat applied is breaking the molecular bonds that hold the molecules close together. It is not increasing the velocity of the molecules. Subcooled. It is also of importance to note what happens if the pressure exerted by a gas above a liquid is reduced to a value below the vapor pressure exerted Figure 2. the liquid will suddenly boil.19 Slow evaporation of liquid. The vapor pressure of the liquid has been increased to a value greater than the surrounding resisting pressure. That is.14 and in Chapter 14. the substance can exist as a liquid. While the bOiling process is occurring. In this case. The pressure exerted by the vapor at the surface of the liquid is called the vapor pressure. As seen from the experimental description. vapor. This cools the remaining liquid. This process is essential in refrigeration. If the resisting pressure is higher. Sensible and Latent Heat When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a temperature change. but no change in state. because the surrounding pressure is now less than the vapor pressure exerted by the liquid.

If the pressure is increased.3. the saturation (boiling) temperature at 150 psi a is about 358 F. Because the actual temperature is higher (200 F). the molecules increase in velocity.20 Use the steam tables to determine if water is in a liquid or gas state at 300 F and 150 psia. the saturation temperature at 10 psia is about 193 F. the molecules will have enough energy to escape at a lower temperature. If the temperature is known. the molecules will have to reach a higher velocity-a higher temperature-to escape. the water will exist as steam. The opposite effect.3 is a saturated property table for water. and other properties at saturation conditions may be found in tables designed for that purpose. The actual temperature is less. This heat absorbed from the surroundings at the low temperature is refrigeration.22. and at some temperature (the boiling point) they will escape rapidly-the liquid will vaporize.21 The operating engineer of a hot water heating system reads the temperature and pressure at the pump depends on the surrounding pressure. Example 2. suction to be 200 F and 10 psia. Example 2. Solution Using Table A. liquids absorb heat when they boil (latent heat of vaporization). saturation temperatures. in the pump. If the pressure is known. As also noted. To what value should the surrounding pressure be lowered? . It is commonly called the Saturated Steam Table. Examples 2. I 9-2. interpolate to obtain the correct value. Note that both parts of the table have the same information.3. The pressure surrounding a liquid inhibits the escape of the molecules. as seen in Example 2. because there is steam. therefore the water will be in a liquid state (subcooled liquid). It is equal to the latent heat of vaporization. use the part of the table that lists temperatures first. we read the saturation temperature (boiling point) at 10 psia to be about 193 F. The enthalpy increase as it changes from a liquid to a vapor is called the latent heat of vaporization. This is how refrigeration can be accomplished. The surrounding pressure is reduced below the saturation pressure. corresponding pressures. Example 2.22 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--'-_ _ The boiling of water is to be used to accomplish refrigeration at 50 F. Should the engineer be concerned? Solution From Table A.21 illustrate various uses of saturated property tables. however. 2. A liquid is used that boils at a low temperature for the reduced pressure that can be achieved. not as liquid. if the surrounding pressure is lowered enough (to the saturation point). Example 2. On the other hand. the enthalpy decrease as it changes from a vapor to a liquid is called the latent heat of condensation. but also have a considerable velocity energy. use the part of the table that lists pressures first. Therefore the operator should be very concerned. and the liquid suddenly boils.14 REFRIGERATION It has been stated that the boiling point of a liquid At what temperature will water boil at a pressure of 10 psia? Solution From Table A. not water.19 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2. Even boiling water can be used to achieve re~ frigeration.13 SATURATED PROPERTY TABLES For various substances. if the pressure can be lowered enough. If the liquid temperature increases.36 CHAPTER 2 substance is called a latent heat change. This was explained by considering that all matter consists of particles (molecules) which are attracted to each other. Table A. If the knoll'n value is between two listed values.3.

thus cooling that body.20). Example 2. This requires (latent) heat. except for processes with large temperature changes. Refrigeration chiller Q (heat removed) (2.178 psia. it can be assumed constant. This change is described quantitatively by the sensible heat equation: "'-"- Using Equation 2.12) where Q. using the values shown in Table 2. Examples 2. but there is no change in state of the substance.12 to find the heat removed (refrigeration capacity). appropriate values of specific heats can be found in handbooks. BTUlhr m = weight rate flow of substance. 500lblhr I GPM (for water) = 2. What is the cooling capacity of the refrigeration chiller in BTU/hr. The sensible heat equation can be used to calculate the heat added to or removed for most HVAC processes where there is a temperature change and no change of state. However. For air and water. BTU/lb-F TC= t2 .S. Heat will flow to the water from any surrounding body at a temperature higher than 50 F.20 Sketch for Example 2.23-2.23.1. units. tons of refrigeration. and KW" Soilltion The capacity of the refrigeration chiller means the amount of heat it is removing from the water. The specific heat of liquid water is I BTU/lb-F at 60 F. lblhr c = specific heat of substance. 5000 GPM I I. For other conditions.3.000.000 . Qs=mxcxTC Ib BTU = 2.500.23 There are 5000 GPM of chilled water being circulated from the refrigeration plant to the air conditioning systems of the buildings at the Interplanetary Spaceport. = 55 F t2 = 43 F . m = 5000 GPM x 2. First.tl = temperature change of substance..000 Ib/hr Sensible Heat Equation A sensible heat change was described as a process where the temperature of a substance changes when heat is added to or removed from it... F ~.15 CALCULATION OF SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT CHANGES The processes that occur in HVAC systems usually involve the addition or removal of heat from air or water. The water is cooled from 55 F to 43 F (Figure 2. Specific Heat The specific heat (c) of a substance is defined as the amount of heat in BTUs required to change the temperature of lib of the substance by I F.1. If the surrounding pressure is reduced below this value.x (43 .PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 37 Solution From Table A. the specific heat changes slightly with temperature.55) F hr Ib-F . in U.500. = rate of sensible heat added to or removed from substance. = -30. Values of specific heat for some other substances are shown in Table 2.2l.000 BTUlhr Figure 2. the water will boil. Boiling of water at a very low temperature to achieve refrigeration is accomplished in refrigeration equipment called absorption units (see Chapter 13).xl . the saturation pressure of water at 50 F is 0. change the units for the water flow rate from GPM to Iblhr (Table A.25 illustrate uses of the sensible heat equation. The procedures for calculating the amount of heat involved will be explained in this section.

000 BTUlhr = 2500 tons The capacity in KW is IKW 30.12..000.1.000 BTU/hr x . A spare preheater with a capacity of 100. using the density of air from Table 2. expressed in fe/min (CFM)" Solulion Converting units to tons ofrefrigeration.. First.21) has a capacity of 2 KW. The mechanical contractor is balancing the system and wants to find out how much air is flowing in the duct.12. Example 2.38 CHAPTER2 Note: the negative sign resulting for Qs means that heat is removed. Convert the heater capacity to BTU/hL B.000. so the refrigeration chiller capacity is reported as Qs = 30.000 BTU/hr x .0 Ib gal = 4800·lblhr Rearranging and using Equation 2.5 BTU/lb-F j I.075 Ib = 316 ft3/ m in Figure 2. the refrigeration capacity is I ton 30. =42F 12 = 42 + I.21 Sketch for Example 2. The oil must be heated to 180 F in order to flow readily. From Table 2. How much air is flowing. The boiler requires 10 GPM of oil. = 42 + 60 = 102 F 100. not heated.24 BTUllb-F x 20F = 1420 Ibll1r Step C. However.x x-:"'-'hr 60 min 0. It will not do the job.000 BTU/hr The preheater will heat the fuel oil to only 102 F. The density of the oil is 8..5 BTU/lb-F.12. 3410 BTUfhr = 6820 BTUlhr I KW Step B. convert GPM of oil to Iblhr.000 BTU/hr is available. and then use Equation 2. =8800 KW Example 2.24 BTU/lb-F.000. Use Equation 2. solving for the mass flow rate of air..3410 BTUlhr A. C.000 BTUlhr 4800 Iblh x 0. Convert the flow rate units from Iblhr to ft 3/min (CFM). it is common practice in the HVAC industry to drop the negative sign for heat removed. Step A. TC = ~ mxc TC=12. m= Qs eX TC = 6820 BTUlhr 0. the water is cooled.0 Ib/gal and its specific heat is 0. the specific heat of air c = 0. that is.. 2 KW electric heater gal 60 min I hr min x-- 8. =80 F • n I I I I I I " J I I I I I I . Is the spare preheater big enough? SO/lilian Q.1. The contractor measures the temperature before and after the heater as 80 F and 100 F.25. = 2 KW x .1.24 The fuel oil preheater for a boiler has become damaged.25 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An electric booster heater in an air conditioning duct (Figure 2.12 to find the temperature to which the oil would be heated by the spare preheater: m=IO--x Ib 1 hr I ftO CFM= 1420 .. The oil is at 60 F in a storage tank.

000 Ib/hr (188.. .3 + 960. using enthalpy change instead of temperature change.13). the latent heat equation. How much heat is required? Solution The enthalpy increase of the water is the sum of the sensible and latent heat change.12 is Ib BTU Q=mxcxTC= 10. Q=m(h 2 -h l ) where (2. The property tables list enthalpy data.hr Ib = 20. the results can be found by simply adding the two effects together. The sensible change is to the boiling point.26.1 . Example 2. not its pressure. Either one is ac£eptable.147. Note that it changes with temperature.hfl) = 10. BTU x 1008. BTU/lb hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor. Using Equation 2. Example 2.1 = 1008. at 30 psia. found by applying the Enthalpy Equation 2. the enthalpy of the subcooled liquid is always looked up in the table at its temperature. When a heating or cooling process involves both a sensible and a latent heat change to the substance.1 BTU/lb The total enthalpy change per pound is the sensible plus latent heat: 48. Ib/hr h2 . The change in sensible heat content of the liquid is hj2 . The water enters the boiler at 180 F.12 for the sensible heat change process.000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 20 psia.13) Q = rate of heat added or removed from substance.26 A hot water boiler heats 10.x 1 .9) = 402. How much heat is added to the water? Solution The enthalpy of liquid water (hf ) is listed in Table A.000 .3.4 .000 BTU/hr Example 2. hr Ib-F = 400. Ib/hr hf =enthalpy of saturated liquid.9 = 48.2 - 147. BTUllb The latent heat of vaporization for water is shown in TableA. Note: As was done in Example 2.3. BTU/lb hIg = latent heat of vaporization.3. BTU/hr m = weight flow rate of substance.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 39 The Enthalpy Equation The heat added or removed in HVAC processes can also be fonnd from another equation called the enthalpy equation (Equation 2.000 BTU/hr The result using Equation 2.168.000 BTU/hr -.27 A steam boiler generates 20. the boiling temperature is 228 F at 20 psia.13 to the change in state: (2.26 compares the two methods.3 BTUllb The change in the latent heat content at 20 psia IS hfg = 960. BTU/hr m = weight flow rate.13 at each temperature. Q = m(hf2 . From Table A.4 BTU/lb The total heat required is The two equations give almost identical results.000 - lb. Latent Heat Equation The change in enthalpy that occurs when a substance evaporates or condenses is determined from Q = 20.000 Ib/hr of water from 180 F to 220 F.hfl = 196.14) where Q = heat added to or removed from substance. if the enthalpy is known.hI = specific enthalpy change of substance.x40F . BTU/lb This equation can be used instead of Equation 2.

with absolute pressures (Pab.000 (1156.18) 1 • ~ If the pressure is constant. This process is called sublimatioll.17. stored in a 10 ft3 tank at 150 psig.3 . assuming the temperature remains constant. The heat accompanying the melting or freezing process is called the latent heat of fusion. Air at the tem- Example 2. its temperature will no longer increase when more heat is added. Ibfft2 absolute V = volume. we will use this equation for air conditioning processes. . For water the latent heat of fusion is 144 BTU/lb.26 and 2. and temperature of gases are related by an equation called the perfect or ideal gas law.27 illustrate that the Enthalpy Equation 2. At very low pressure and temperature it is possible to change some substances directly from the solid to the gas state.28 Compressed air required for operating the pneumatic controls in an air conditioning system is. In Chapter 7. ft3 m = weight of gas. If only two of these three variables change. volume.17) If the volume is constant. the pressure. It is used in the procedure called freezedrying. A substance in a solid state will increase in temperature when heat is added to it (sensible heat). the following equation results: (2. degrees R We will use the equation in this form in Chapter 7. and the substance will begin to change state to a liquid-it will melt. 1'2 PI ~ ~ (2.16) The gas law is useful in finding changes in p. V. the equation simplifies. If the temperature is constant.19) I ~ 2. The perfect gas equation can be expressed pV=mRT where I' (2.9) = 20.17 THE IDEAL (PERFECT) GAS LAWS Under certain conditions. The air is used in the controls at 15 psig.16 LATENT HEATS OF FUSION AND SUBLIMATION The change of state of a substance from liquid to gas involves gaining the latent heat of vaporization.40 CHAPTER2 Equation 2. by using the initial and final enthalpy values of the whole process: Q = m(h2 . IS) = pressure. = Pg + Palm). removal of heat from a liquid. peratures and pressures iu air conditioning work follow this equation.168. If the reverse process is carried out. to prepare dried foods by first freezing them and then evaporating the ice in the food directly to vapor. V2 VI (2. but when a certain temperature is reached.147. Ib R = a gas constant T = absolute temperature. its temperature will drop but eventually it will freeze into a solid.13 can be used for both sensible and latent processes involving water if there are property tables available that list enthalpy values. 2. By rearranging the terms in the equation for two different conditions of the gas.13 can be used to solve this example in one step instead of two. and T for changed conditions. What volume of air is available for the controls? Solution Using Equation 2. I and 2. 1'2 PI VI V2 T2 TI T2 TI (2.hi) = 20.ilt a very low pressure.000 BTUlhr Note that Examples 2.

18 ENERGY UTILIZATION (SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS) We have seen how the First Law of Thermodynamics can be used. Therefore. or to consider each aspect as it is brought up. To 580 never all available for a useful purpose. it is CFM 2 = -=.CFM] = x 5000 = 5800 CFM T] 500 The technician would now check the system-design specifications. In Chapter 15.7 psia Example 2. if we are using an engine to drive a refrigeration compressor. Whenever heat energy is used to do work. However. B. because the same unit of time is involved. Friction causes loss of useful energy. The Second Law may be expressed as an equation but it is not simple to use in energy utilization analysis. these ideas will be gathered together and additional ones will be discussed. we can determine the best efficiency possible and compare it with an actual installation. If it called for 5800 CFM. utilization. partly due to a lack of understanding of the Second Law. 4. There are a number of physical effects that are called irreversible which cause a loss of available energy.29 A technician testing and balancing a system measures 5000 ft 3/min (CFM) of air entering a heating coil at 40 F. the engineering specifications call for measuring the volume flow rate leaving the coil. it tells us nothing about the answers to such . with volume flow rate instead of volume. For instance. Included among them are: A. However. Temperatures must be in absolute uuits R=(F+ 460): and concern. 2. The temperature differellce for heat trails· fer. to solve problems in HVAC work. Unfortunately. and this can be compared with the actual system.7-. the capacity of a refrigeration machine. he knows that the proper amount of air is flowing. Friction. Greater temperature differences cause greater losses. even though he measured 5000 CFM. The minimum amount of energy required to produce a given amount of refrigeration can be calculated. only 2. but should be reduced to a minimum. Basically..PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 41 v] = _P2 V2 = _1_64_. Some must be lost and unavailable for the job to be performed. in the form of the Energy Equation. 3. Energy conservation has become of great necessity part of the energy in the fuel can be used. the rest will be wasted. and therefore should be minimized. efforts in this area have sometimes been haphazard. That is. fan. and leaving at 120 F. and we will use it again. in evaporators and condensers. These effects cannot b. therefore temperature differences between fluids should be kept as small as practical.-ps_i_a x 10 ft3 = 55.5 fe p] 29.19 can be used. as for example.questions as "Can I use a smaller pump. Throughout the book we will suggest energy conservation steps.e avoided. What is the airflow leaving the coil? Solution Equation 2. many based on these conclusions. what we will do here is state some conclusions derived from the Second Law. and similar information). The maximum amount of energy that can be made available in a power-producing device such as an engine or turbine can be calculated. Some of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Second Law are: 1. or refrigeration machine?" or "How do I reduce the energy consumption of an HVAC system?" An understanding and application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics will enable us to investi- gate problems of more efficient energy. The reader may wish to treat the whole subject of energy conservation at that time. it tells us how much energy is used for a given task (the power of a pump. .

Practical applications of the First and Second Laws are discussed in much greater detail in later chapters. regular cleaning of condenser water piping will reduce the roughness of the pipe wall. 7. and enthalpy. 5. This is called a constant entropy. A constant entropy process is an ideal reversible process that can never really occur. according to the Second Law. the least amount of work is required if the entropy of the fluid does not change. What are the three common states in which matter may exist? cooled conditions. and 15. Although a reversible process is an ideal case that is impossible to achieve. we always try to minimize irreversible effects in the interests of energy conservation. and we try to minimize this increase. In a constant entropy process. 12.. Define the saturated. this definition is not useful here. It is defined as the ratio of the heat added to a substance to the temperature at which it is added. 10. or isentropic process. 13. 6. and pressure. What is head? 11. Entropy is a physical property of substances related to energy utilization and conservation. Define density. I Review Questions 1. 4. weight. Which would be the best choice to minimize energy consumption? Solution Copper tubing has a smoother surface and therefore less friction. the entropy increases. 6. However. specific volume. temperature. With the aid of a sketch. and specific gravity. However. Define heat. Any process that occurs without any of these effects is called a reversible process. friction). 3. but should be minimized or even avoided when they cause a loss of available energy. Rapid expansion. 14.42 CHAPTER2 For example. It is important to understand that entropy is a measure of the energy that is not available to do work.30 A mechanical contractor has a choice of using copper tubing or steel piping of the same diameter in a chilled water system. force. They will be discussed in Chapter 12. Mixing. Example 2. t I i. superheated. D. 12. and sub- j I . Fluid friction will be reduced. Mixing fluids of different temperatures can result in a loss of useful energy.' studying it gives us a goal to aim for. Define mass. An example of possible wasted energy that results from this is the generation of high pressure steam and then expanding it in a "flash tank" to a low pressure before using it for heating. For any process that requires work. Mixing processes are common in HVAC systems. In any real process where work is required. 4. no heat is added -to or removed from the substance (adiabatic process) and there are no irreversible effects (e. What is the difference between work and power? State the energy balance as a sentence and as an equation. explain gage pressure and absolute pressure. and less energy will be lost in pumping power. such as driving a refrigeration compressor. 9. C. What is a unit? What problems may arise when using units? What is a conversion factor? What are the advantages of the SI system of units? Explain what is meant by rounding off. Less energy will be used in the pump. i 13.g. 2. I 15. especially Chapters 3. What is a compound gage') What is meant by stored energy and energy in transfer? Name types of energy in each category and give an example of each. Dual duct systems and three pipe systems are two types of air conditioning systems using mixing that can result in energy waste. 8.

What is the pressure in psi on a val ve 3 ft above the bottom of the tank? 2. 88 F to C B. kg/m3.9\.93? 2. units to the SI units specified: A.13 A vat 25 ft high is filled with Big Brew Beer that has a S. KW. energy.1.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 43 16. 542 2.S.16 Change the following temperatures to the new units specified: A.12 The absolute pressure in the suction line to a compressor is 12.2 ft 3/sec to gal/min (GPM) 2.sstamped "100 kg/m.S. Hg to Ib/in? E.7 psi. 12.2 in.0. in. GPM. specific volume. 347. It is fi lied to a depth of 6 ft. List four conditions that should be sought in HVAC systems to minimize energy use." How many pounds must the crane be capable of lifting? Round off the following numbers to three significant figures: A. 83.10 What is the density in Ib/fto of a fuel oil with a S. as suggested by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. and density. 0. Change the following quantities to the new units specified: A. = 0. -10 C to F D.9 E. 2.2. What is the pressure in ft w? 2. pressure.3 c. Hg. What would be the reading on a Hg manometer attached to the tank in inches. 280 KtoC E. 18.. 17. high.g.17 A room receives 1200 BTUlhr of heat from solar radiation. = 0. HP. 630 Fto R C. flow rate. unit for each of the following physical characteristics: power.14 The discharge pressure of a pump is 32.7 .1 List the physical characteristics measured by each of the following units: Ib/in 2 . wide by 6 ft 6 in. A contractor wants to lift 100 sections of steel pipe each 20 ft long.2 in. 629 fto/min (CFM) to m 3/sec C. m1sec. BTU.500 BTU/hr to tons of refrigeration D. mass. Hg.2 2. Explain what is meant by a sensible heat change and a latent heat change. in in.8 D. ft2. B.4 Ib/ft3 to kg/m3 2.7 psia to Ib 2. 31 CtoR 2.5 2. The pipe. loses 1450 BTUlhr through 2. 62.242 B. Hg? 2. 120 Ib/in 2 to ft w.6 ft 2 to m2 B.6 Find the area in ft2 of a window that is 4 ft 3 in.1. made in Germany. velocity. and ft 3llb. 2760 Iblhr water to GPM C.91 HP to BTU/min 2. What is the absolute pressure in psi? What would the absolute pressure be if the boiler were in Denver" 2. What is the weight of water in the tank" What is the water pressure on the bottom of the tank.8319 Change the following quantities to the units specified: A.11 The pressure gage on a boiler in Boston reads 28. 41. in Ib/in 2 ? Problems 2. 76.4 Change the following quantities from the U. List the standard SI unit and a typical U..793. 276 gal water to Ib B.7 ft w.9 A hot water storage tank for a solar-energy system measures 18 ft long x 9 ft wide.800 ft3 air at 70 F and 14.000 BTUlhr to KW D. and in mm? 2.685 C.g.g.15 The air pressure in a tank is 3. What pressure would a \'acuum gage read at sea level.6 psig.

Hg? 2. 750 gal/min to ft 3 /hr C.29 A barometer reads 70S mm Hg.5 psia and 67. What is the pressure on the bottom of the pipe. 16 ft 2 to in? 2.37 0. 180 F and 5 psia C.20 A hot water boiler heats 6400 lblhr of water from 180 F to 220 F.32. 16 psi to ft w.3.000 BTUlhr to KW Name each of the physical characteristics in Problem 2. Name each of the physical characteristics in Problem 2.44 CHAPTER2 heat transfer to the outdoors. 20 psia and 400 F D. Hg vacuum? .19 Determine the state of water at the following conditions: A. To what temperature is the air heated? 2. in psi? If the pressure in the suction line to a compressor at sea level is 5.8 psia.2 KW of appliances operating.1 Ib/gal.33 Convert the following quantities to the ne'" units specified: A.30 A refrigeration unit has a cooling capacity of 327. what is the required volume of the tank? 2.34 2. 23 ft w.28 A 24 ft high pipe filled with water extends 2.36 from a condenser on the top floor of a building to a cooling tower on the floor above.0 psia? 2.18 An electric heater is to be used to heat an enclosed porch that is losing 7900 BTUlhr to the outdoors. and has 2.24 ft to in. B. B. What is the pressure exerted on the condenser in psi? 2. 10 psi to Hg C. What size heater should be used? 2. A water supply pipe to a building is filled with water to a height of 280 ft.32 Convert the following quantities to the new units specified: A. 2.31 A water chiller with a capacity of ISO tons of refrigeration cools 320 GPM of water entering the chiller at 52 F. 2. what would the reading on a vacuum gage be.700 CFM of outdoor air at 10 F and heats it to 120 F. How much heat is the boiler supplying? 2. Hg to psi 2. to psi E. What is the atmospheric pressure expressed in psi and in in. 10. At what temperature does the water leave 'the chiller? 2. 3 KW to BTU/hr D. !:low many CFM of air are leaving the unit? 2.9 BTU/lb-F and a density of 8. Hg E. 17 in. 230 F and 18 psig B.5 KW electric heater in a duct is heating 1300 Iblhr of air entering at 40 F.25 An air conditioning unit takes in 15.27 Is water liquid or vapor at 270 F and 50 psia? 2.24 If 520 ft3 of air at atmospheric pressure at sea level is to be compressed and stored in a tank at 75 psig. 15 ft3 to gal.23 Water enters a steam boiler at 160 F and leaves as saturated steam at 30 psig.21 How many tons of refrigeration are required to cool 46 GPM of milk from 80 F to SO F? The milk has a specific heat of 0. reading in. Express this capacity in tons of refrigeration and in KW.000 BTUlhr.26 What is the boiling point (saturation) temperature of water at pressures of 7.1 psia and SO F 2. at a flow rate of 5300 Iblhr.35 2. What is the net heat gain or loss to the room? 2.22 A 2. How many BTUlhr of heat are required? Solve by the sensible heat equation and by using enthalpies in Table A. 0. 2.33.

42 How many BTUlhr will a 12 KW electric heater supply? 2.39 A steam boiler delivers 750 Iblhr of saturated steam at 230F.000 BTU/hr through the roof and 19.38 If a fuel oil has a density of 58. Water enters the boiler at 140 F. 2.000 BTUlhr? 2. Find the temperature of the water leaving the chiller. What capacity (KW) electric heater must be used to keep the room from getting cooler? .91b/ft3 . what is its specific gravity? 2.40 A water chiller cools 60 GPM of water entering the chiller at 54 F.000 BTUlhr.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 4S 2.41 What size electric heater (KW) must be used to supply 350. The room loses 12. 2.000 BTUlhr through the walls. Find the boiler heating capacity in BTUlhr. The chiller has a capacity of 530.43 A room has a solar heat gain of 4200 BTUlhr and an internal heat gain of 6300 BTU/hr.

c H A p T E R Heating Loads I n this chapter. Calculate room and building heat transfer losses. we know that if the heating system in a building stops functioning in winter. the indoor air temperature soon drops. components. we obtain (3. and leakage of cold air through openings in the building (il(fiitratioll). Determine. Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design conditions. To counteract these heat losses. 3. we will discuss methods for determining the amount of heat required to keep the spaces in a building comfortable in winter.1 ) . This 46 temperature decrease occurs for two reasons: heat transfer from the warm inside air to the cold outside air through walls.)' The change in stored energy (Eeh ) is the change in the room air enthalpy (Heh ). 3. I. The heat remo\'ed (E"u. The methods presented here will be those which are believed to be the most accurate and the most energy efficient.and U-values for building 2. 4. windows.) is the heat loss (Q"u. The energy added to the room air (Ein) is the heat supplied by the heating system (Qin). Calculate room and building infiltration and ventilation losses. heat must be continually added to the interior of the building in order to maintain a desired air temperature. 5. room and building heating loads.1 THE HEATING LOAD From our own experiences. Find R. Substituting into Equation 2. . and other parts of the building envelope. you will be able to: I. This can be shown by applying the Energy Equation (Chapter 2) to the air in a room or building. OBJECTIVE After studying this chapter.

It was noted previously that heat is transferred only when there is a temperature difference between two locations. Equation 3. A familiar example of convection is the air in a room heated by a unit such as a hot water convector.2 tells us that if the room air enthalpy (and therefore temperature) is to be maintained at a constant desired value.1. because the heat losses from a building can be easily calculated. and radiatio/!. however. or (3. 3. it is necessary to understand some basic features of this process. If the air enthalpy decreases. Conduction is the form of heat transfer through a body that occurs "'ithout any movement of the body.2 HEAT TRANSFER Because building heat losses are partially a consequence of heat transfer. piping and duct sizing. H eh =O. Another example of conduction is heat transfer througb a building wall or roof. Siuce we want the room air to remain at a constant elevated temperature. This can result in unsatisfactory indoor air conditions and increased energy costs. the enthalpy does not change. the enthalpy must also remain constant. If heat furnished to room (Oin) equals heat lost from room (Oout).1 illustrates the heat flow into and out of a room.HEATING LOADS 47 where Heh Room air Q'n~~~ Qin Qout = change in room air enthalpy = heat supplied by heating system =heat losses from room air to outside 'f I The room air temperature depends on its enthalpy. The heating load must be determined because it is used in the selection of the heating equipment. when the metal body of a pot is heated on a stove.2) Figure 3. Convection is the form of heat transfer that results from gross movement of liquids or gases. An explanation of these will now be presented. Substituting into Equation 3. then this information can be used to determine the required capacity of the heating equipment. an additional form of heat transfer is more usual in fluids (convection). The amount of heat that must be supplied to keep the building or room air at the desired temperature is called the heating load. Conduction heat transfer can also occur through liquids and gases. Accurately determining the heating load is a fundamental step in planning a heating system. its temperature decreases. States and_ agencies have established codes that now require accurate heating and cooling load calculation methods. many inaccurate methods have been used to find heating loads. room air temperature remains constant (Teh ~ 0). the heat flows through the handle and then to your hand.1 Heat exchanges between room air and surroundings.) The heating load requirements for buildings result from two types of heat losses: heat transfer losses and infiltration/ventilation losses. This is a valuable conclusion. . convection. There are three different ways that heat transfer can occur: conductio/!. Conduction is most familiar in heat transfer through solids-for example. the heat supplied by the heating system must equal the heat losses from the room. and in energy utilization studies. and that the heat always travels from the location of higher temperature to the location of lower temperature. In the past. it is a result of molecular or electron action. That is. (Cooling load calculation methods will be discussed in Chapter 6. we obtain (heat from heating system) Q'n ~ Qout Heh ~ a Teh ~ a -+-~Qout (heat loss to surroundings) Figure 3.

This warmed air then moves vertically upward because it is now less dense (lighter) than the surrounding cooler air. Color tinted glass. and the heat received from the sun (Figure 3. As with all forms of heat trausfer.48 CHAPTER3 Heat is transferred to the air adjacent to the metal surface. Most of the radiation received passes through transparent materials like clear glass. The less dense part of the fluid rises and the more dense (heavier) fluid drops. The rate of fluid motion and therefore the rate of heat transfer can be increased by using a fan for gases or a pump for liquids.3) . The area of the surface through which heat is flowing 3. and therefore the resulting rate of heat transfer is relatively small. however.3 Heat transfer by radiation from the sun to objects in a room. increasing its temperature. The rate of fluid motion created by natural convection effects is generally quite low. the presence of an opaque solid object between the bodies will block radiation.3 RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER The rate at which heat is conducted through any material depends on three factors: I. The thermal resistance (R) of the material to heat transfer Figure 3. one body must be at a higher temperature than the other. 3. The temperature difference acioss which the heat flows 2.xAxTD R I (3. Dark. Figure 3. called heat absorbing glass. and some is reflected. When radiation is received by a solid surface. However. some is absorbed. sometimes called wave motion. When there is a gas between the bodies. The proportion absorbed depends on the color and the roughness of the surface. This form of convection is called natural convection because the fluid moves by natural gravity forces created by density differences.2). This is calledforced convection. So air continually moves throughout the space (Figure 3. Heat transfers between the two bodies even if there is a vacuum (an absence of all matter) between them. Ceiling Warm (air Window 8conve~or Hot water C~I air This can beexpressed by the following equation: Q= . Thermal radiation is the form of heat transfer that occurs between two separated bodies as a result of a means called electromagnetic radiation. can prevent the transmission of a good part of the solar radiation. rough surfaces absorb more radiant heat than lighter-colored smooth surfaces.3). heating the material. Familiar examples of radiation are the heat our body receives when standing in front of a fire.2 Heat transfer by natural convection from a terminal unit (hot water convector) to room air. heat still transfers by radiation but usually at a lesser rate.

5). The temperature of the air in the store is 70 F.4.5.5. hr-ft2-FIBTU A = snrface area through which heat flows. Example 3. R = 0. On the other hand.3 allows us to understand how the thermal resistance affects. Materials with high R-values will transfer heat at a low rate. A=80x 18= 1440ft2. that is. These films also have a thermal resistance. it is assumed that the air velocity outdoors is 15 MPH. For winter conditions (heating loads).1.2 A wall of a supermarket measures 80ft by 18 ft. for example "R-6.HEATING LOADS 49 where 110 It -f-~Q Q = heat transfer rate.80 hr-ft2-FIBTU Area of wall A = 110 ft x 20 ft = 2200 ft 2 TD = tH . R = 0. Q= lIRxAxTD = 110. Since R is in the denominator.20 hr-ft2-FIBTU per in.5 lists thermal resistances of these air films. From Table A.} A 110ft long by 20 ft high wall is made of 4 in.4 illustrates the conditions. Table A. still air is assumed. building heat energy losses or gains. ft2 TD = tH .80 hr-ft2-FIBTU x 2200 ft2 x 40 F = 110. = 0. BTUlhr R = thermal resistance of material. common brick. Equation 3. Example3." This means R = 6. The thermal resistances of various building materials are listed in Table A. high R-values mean low heat transfer (Q).tL = temperature difference across which heat flows. x 4 in. and on the outside surface the temperature is 25 F. Thermal Resistance The thermal resistance R of a material is its ability to resist the flow of heat through it. horizontal. using a material with a low R-value (metal) for equipment such as a boiler is desirable because it helps to increase the rate of heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water. and low R-values mean high heat transfer. For the indoor surface of any building element. What is the heat loss through the wall? Solulion The resistance is the inside air film on a vertical surface (Figure 3. and the inside surface of the wall is 60 F.000 BTUlhr Thermal Resistance of Surface Air Films There is a very thin film of still air on each side of a solid building element such as a wall or roof.3. from higher temperature tH to lower temperature t L.4. F 20 It Wall 65 F 25 F Figure 3.tL = 65 .68. What is the rate of heat transfer through the wall? Solution Figure 3. The resistance of an air film depends on the spatial orientation of the surface (vertical.25 = 40 F Example 3. or on a slope).2 illustrates the use of TableA. and on the air velocity near the surface. Building construction materials with a high R-value are desirable because they reduce heat losses. just as solid materials do. From Tabie A. The resistance is often expressed by a symbol. Using Equation 3. they are good thermal insulators.4 Sketch for Example 3. TD=70-60= IOF . The temperature on the inside surface of the wall is 65 F.

thick insulating board made of glass fiber. What is the thermal resistance of the insulation? Solution From Equation 3. Q= IIR xA xTD = VO.4. Solution Both R-values are found from Table A. in. it is 32 times more effective per inch of thickness as a thermal insulator! In the next section. = 0. BTUlhr-ft2 -F k =conductivity.68 Using Equation 3. The thermal conductance (C) of a material is the reciprocal of its resistance: It is not necessary to memorize the definitions just described. conductance and conductivity are terms which are used to describe a material's ability to transfer heat.4 Compare the thermal resistance R of an 8 in. system.7 hr-ft2-F BTU = 21. C= ':.II For the insulating board. although it is only \ith as thick. of glass fiber insulation with a thermal conductivity k = 0. Its relationship to conductance is C= L k (3.0 where C =conductance.5) Example 3. BTUlhr-ft2 -F per in. The thennal conductivity (k) of a material is defined as its conductance per unit of thickness. .24 =0. of thickness L =thickness of material. and for a material with a low resistance.3. as it is being used in all new building standards and codes.50 CHAPTER3 70 F m~-60F Example 3. we will learn how to determine the overall thermal resistance of a building' component. R = l. For the concrete block..24 BTUlhr-ft2 -F per in. The concept of thermal resistance is the important one to understand. Remember that for a material with high thermal resistance. Note from Example 3.200 BTUlhr Conductance and Conductivity Besides thermal resistance. the opposite meaning of resistance. The thermal conductance ofthe air film adjacent to a surface is often called the film coefficient. thickness. the conductance is Air film --l>~1 0-<4--Wall '--"<~ Figure 3. heat transfer will be low. That is. thick.06 BTU L 4 hr-ft2 -F Using Equation 3.5. R = 4. solving for R. three oval core concrete block (with sand and gravel aggregate) to that of I in.S.2. I R= C =- I x 1440 x 10 0. The thermal conductance may be thought of as the ability of a material to transfer heat.3 A roof has 4 in.06 = 16.4) C is measured in units of BTUlhr-ft2 -F in the U. c= IIR (3. heat transfer will be high.4 that the insulation has about four times the thermal resistance of the concrete block. The units used for conductivity are usually BTUlhr-ft2 F per inch of thickness.4.5 Sketch for Example 3.

4 OVERALL THERMAL RESISTANCE The heat transfer through the walls.x ll52xSO 6. the heat transfer loss is Q= ..6) Ro = overall (total) thermal resistance R J. Equation 3. ... .' : Inside --. but fortunately.. . The overall (total) thermal resistance of the combination can be found very simply by adding the individual thermal resistances as follows: Solution A section through the wall is illustrated in Figure 3..2S0 BTUlhr I I Figure 3.) Outside air film Overall resistance Ro = 0. and then through the air film on the other side.5 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) For each application.5 The exterior wall of a building is constructed of S in. ____ Outside • \ Insulation air film Concrete. . many tables do not list the results as overall resistance. The overall thermal resistance Ro is found by adding the individual resistances (see Equation 3. including air films Once the overall resistance Ro is known..overall conductance. The wall is 72 ft long by 16 ft high.68 0. Wall Item R Ro = R I + R2 + R3 + etc.5. the designer can calculate the overall thermal resistance for each part of the building structure through which heat flows.6). What is the heat transfer through the wall? Using Equation 3.xAxTD Ro = . etc. where (3.. '.17 6.45 5.5. The indoor and outdoor temperatures are 70 F and -10 F.(-10) = SO F Example 3. these calculations have already been made for many . R-5 insulation. These elements are usually made up of layers of different materials.. floor.94 The wall area is A=72ftx 16ft= ll52ft2 The temperature difference is TD = 70 .3 can be used to find the heat transfer.\ in.6 Sketch for Example 3.64 0.08/in. R 2 .different combinations of building materials.4 and A. and other elements of a building is through the air film on one side.. gypsum board.. sand and gravel aggregate concrete (not oven dried).' · ' .. as illustrated in Example 3. air film Gypsum board :.6. = individual thermal resistance of each component.• - · .'. .HEATING LOADS 51 3. called the overall heat transfer coefficient . The thermal resistances of the air films on the inside and outside surfaces must also be included. through the solid materials. However.. '. ·: . All of the resistances are found in Tables A. but as . \ .. -10 F • 3.5. x 8 in. Inside air film Gypsum board Insulation Concrete (R = 0.3 and the overall resistance Ro.94 = 13. •..0 0. roof.' 70F. and Y.

06 0. j Solution From TableA.5 MPH wind in summer. 3.7. 1.6 is also valuable because many of the assemblies listed meet V and Ro values required in energy codes.7 0. of course. it should be calculated by adding the individual resistances. BTUlhr-ft2-F. From Example 3. using Equations 3. depending on which one matches the construction assembly in the case encountered.14 The results agree. ft2 TD = temperature difference.5.8 show how to use Equation 3. Compare it with the value that would be found from Example 3. Table A. (3. Degree day values for localities are shown in Table A. as explained' previously. V =0.52 CHAPTER3 (U). Either table may be used. TABLE 3.Ra (fe-hr-F/BTU) MaxU (BTu/hr-tt2-F) and Vis 1 V=- Ro (3.05 0. For an actual building.6 also shows graphically the sections through each building component. The relationship between Ro U-values and Energy Standards State energy codes and standards attempt to limit the amount of energy used by HVAC systems. A.6 and A. Table A. and doors. One way of doing this is to prescribe maximum allow-.5.7.6. walls. BTUlhr V = overall heat transfer coefficient.8) Component Wall Roof Glass 18 20 1. able V-values (and minimum Ro values).7. 3. The following comments should help the student use these tables correctly.7. Using Equation 3. The V-values also include the effect of the window or door frame (also called sash. Example 3.8.7 list V-values for roofs.1 ENERGY CONSERVING Ra AND U-VALUES Min. The V-values in Table A. These should be examined so that the student learns how the construction assembly is actually arranged. When V-value tables do not include the appropriate construction. 2.7) In terms of V. V=-=-=0. Table 3. I I Ro 1 6. The values in Table 3.1 are not those from an actual state. Examples 3. and A.6 and 3. F Overall V-values for some combinations of building components are listed in Tables A.8 are for glass windows and glass doors. and 3. floors.6 Find the V-value for the wall described in Example 3.6. This is because the R-values of the outside air film coefficients used in finding the V-values are based on a IS MPH wind in winter and 7. with windows).1 is a simplified example of this type of regulation. The degree day is a number that reflects the length and severity of a heating season.9. one having a degree day (DD) value of about 4000-6000.5. Note that there is a slight difference in V-values between winter and summer.7. but are similar to those prescribed in some states for a somewhat cold winter climate. Tables A.60 Note: This table is adapted from various state energy standards.94. the designers would refer to the applicable real energy code or standard. Ro = 6.8 and the V-value tables to calculate heat transfer through building components. The summer U:values are used in cooling load calculations (see Chapter 6).94 .14. using Table A. BTUlhr-ft2-F A = surface area through which heat flows. The degree day concept and a more detailed explanation of energy standards are discussed in Chapter IS.7. partitions. the heat transfer equation then becomes Q=VxAxTD where Q = heat transfer rate.

9).6 or Table A. wood siding.09 BTUlhr-ft2 -F = 12 x 8 = 96 ft 2 Wall Net A = 96 . However. single glass. lightweight aggregate concrete.. The U-values from Tables A.6 HEAT TRANSFER LOSSES: BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS Equation 3. If any part of the basement is above ground.5 ft2 .09 BTU hr-ft -F 2 X 4800 ft 2 X 60 F The heat transfer is: Wall Q = 0. Q=UxAxTD = 0.7 _ _ _ _~_~_ _ _ __ A building 120 ft long by 40 ft wide has a flat roof constructed of 8 in. the U-values from Table A. However.7 and A.7 Sketch for Example 3. U Equation 3. To find the TO for the below grade wall or floor.10 BTUlhr-ft2 -F A = 3 X 4.900 BTUlhr Example 3.. 2 in. with a finished ceiling.5 Wall Gross A = 13. aluminumframe The room temperature is 68 F and the outdoor temperature is 2 F. for the part of the structure which is below grade.5 ft 2 Wall U = 0. = 0.10 x 13. the U-values and TO used in Equation 3. the fact that the basement floor and part or all of the wall is underground (below grade) complicates the use of the equation.5 x 66 = 980 BTU/hr Wall: 12ft by 8 ft.8 A frame wall of the bedroom of a house has the following specifications: Window Q = 1. The inside and outside design air temperatures are also used to find the TO (see Section 3.8 is also used to calculate the heat losses through basement walls and floors . There is heat transfer through the opaque part of the wall and through the window. alld inside finish Window: 3 ft by 4 ft 6 ill. of insulation with R -7 value. What is the heat transfer loss through the wall and window combined? total Q = 1470 BTUlhr 3. the outside winter design temperature is taken to be Solution Figure 3.8 will be different. Using Figure 3.7 illustrates the wall.5 = 82. Table 3. The inside temperature is 65 F and the outdoor temperature is 5 F.2 lists recommended Uvalues for below grade basement walls and floors.8.HEATING LOADS 53 Example 3.09 BTUlhr-ft2-F.7.5 x 66 = 490 BTUlhr = 25.8.09 x 82. lVood sheathing.13. What is the heat transfer loss through the roof? 8' 12' Solution From Table A. This is due to the effect of the surrounding ground on the thermal resistance and the heat flow path.7 are used.8 and the areas are: Window U = 1.

Basement Inside Temperature A number of possible conditions may exist basement. For any area that the heat source is in or substantial hot ducts or piping pass through. In items 2 and 3b. 111 a Floor Over Crawl Space If the crawl space is vented during the heating season (t. Iffhe basement is partitioned. This situation exists when the furnace and ducts or boiler and piping are located in the basement. . the beat transfer losses from each part should be calculated separately.7 HEAT TRANSFER LOSSES: FLOOR ON GROUND AND FLOOR OVER CRAWL SPACE Special calculations also apply for the heat transfer which occurs through a concrete floor slab on grade and through a floor with a crawl space below. uninsulated Wall. The room temperature is 70 F.~ be ~k"l.2 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT U FOR BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS. a separate calculation for each area is required. The temperature in an unheated basement (with no heat sources) will be between the design inside and design outside temperatures.I. For other partitioned off areas. Unheated basement. No heat loss calculation from the basement should be made. because of the possibility of freezing water in piping.1d .04 Notes: Values are for a 7 ft high below grade basement. i. The following guidelines are recommended: A. Insulation is full depth of wall. assume an unheated basement (as in item 2).. A.o prevent moisture condensation). sign temperature.54 CHAPTER3 TABLE 3. R-4 insulation Floor 0.04 x 220 x 20 = 180 BTU/hr Wall Q = 0. assume the inside temperature is equal to that of the rest of the building. The separate heat losses should then be added to tind the tota1. using the appropriate U. B. the ~rawl space air temperature will equal the outside mr de- I j' '. Floor Q = 0.16 0. BTU/HR-FT2-F Component U Wall.. Example 3.ttd ~i"g Eq""ioo 3. there will still be a heat loss from the floor above which should be added to the heat losses from those rooms.08 x 400 x 20 = 640 BTUfhr total Q = 820 BTUfhr Remember that if part of the basement wall is above ground and part is below. an estimated unheated basement temperature of 50 F should be used. If the specitic basement conditions are not known. I.' .8. This temperature varies between about 40 F and 60 F in cold climates in the continental United States. and TD values. BELOW GRADE.2.9 The recreation room of a basement has a floor area of 220 ft" and an insulated wall below ground of 400 ft2 area. What is the heat loss from the room? Soilltion Using recommended U-values from Table 3. J~ . The basement heat losses should be calculated using the basement inside design temperature. 3.wall heat loss. The heat loss through the flO~~. Basemellt heated (with terminaillnits). the deep ground temperature value. 3.) Example 3. Basement heated by heat source equipment. 2. (A temperature below this should not be permitted anyway.08 0.h. and calculate the resulting heat transfer loss..9 illustrates a calculation of heat losses from a below grade basement. An uninsulated wall is not recommended in cold climates. and the ground temperature is 50 F.

20 0.3 lists values of E for various wall constructions. the edge loss method is recommended only for perimeter rooms. FOR FLOOR SLAB ON GRADE (BTU/hr-F per It of edge) Wall Construction Edge Insulation None R-5 Degree Days 3000 0. This is the only case where heat transfer is not calculated using Equation 3. rather than the area of the floor (Figure 3.8 should be used. block with face brick. with the U and TD values for basements. . heated floor None R-5 (3.53 2. both with and without edge insulation.64 5400 7400 8 in. The last entry applies to a heated floor slab. E.8.72 0. Degree days are 5400. an overall R-20 value isa typical requirement in state energy codes. the floor should be insulated.56 0.51 l. The floor edge has R-5 insulation.48 0. the heat loss is greatest near the outside edges (perimeter) of the building and is proportional to the length of these edges. Insulation is usually required by energy codes. If the crawl space is used for the warm air heating ductwork. TD=65-4=61 F From Table 3.3 EDGE HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT.15 0.50 0.8 Exalllp Ie 3. and L. The outdoor air temperature is 4 F.62 0.) =0. (Actual insulation arrangement may differ.90 Floor Slab on Grade When a floor is on the ground.50x 160x61 = 4880 BTU/hr The edge loss method (Equation 3.58 2. Equation 3. F Table 3.47 1. TABLE 3.54 1. BTUlhr-F per ft of edge length L = total length of outside (exposed) edges of floor. Consult the ASHRAE Handbook or local energy codes.9) is recommended for buildings with small floor slab areas. Figure 3. E.50 for 5400 degree days Edge length L = 2(60 + 20) = 160 ft Using Equation 3. block with face brick 4 in. BTUlhr E = edge heat loss coefficient.84 0.34 0.72 0.93 0. where Q = heat transfer loss through floor on grade. block with face brick Metal stud with stucco 0.73 0. For buildings with large floor slab areas.10 A 60 ft by 30 ft (in plan) garage built with a concrete floor slab on grade is maintained at 65 F. Q=EXLxTD Heat loss through floor of building without basement. ft TD = design temperature difference between inside and outside air.HEATING LOADS 55 cold climates.68 0.49 l. E = 0. which is recommended in more severe winter climates.80 0.9) Adapted from ASHRAE 1997 Handbook-Fundamentals.84 0. The following equation is used instead: Q=ExLxTD None R-5 None R-5 Poured concrete.3. The walls are 8 in.12 0. What is the heat loss through the floor? Solution First find TD. For the interior areas.9.8). the heat loss calculation is more complicated.

If the lower room air humidity resulting from infiltration is acceptable. using the appropriate specific heat of air. The resulting amounts of heat required are called the infiltration heating load and the ventilation heating load.15). This is expressed by the following equation: Q/ = 0.Wo') Sensible Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air Infiltration occurs when outdoor air enters through building openings.humidity ratios (W) for Equation 3. Wo ' = higher (indoor) and lower (outdoor) humidity ratio in grains water/lb dry air (gr wlIb d. If the units are converted.=mxcxTC (3. fe/min Wi.8 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION HEAT LOSS In addition to the heat required to offset heat transfer losses in winter. If the room air humidity is to be maintained. The two means by which cold air may enter the building are called infiltration and ventilation. BTUlhr m = weight flow rate of outdoor air infiltration. Q. BTU/hr CFM = air infiltration or ventilation rate.12) where Qs = heat required to warm cold outdoor air to room temperature.11 are used to find the room air sensible and latent heat losses resulting from infiltration air. Therefore. the room air humidity may fall to an unacceptable level for comfort. air flow rates in HVAC work are usually measured in f~/l1!in (CFM).56 CHAPTER3 3.10 and 3. heat is also required to offset the effects from -any cold outdoor air that may enter a building.' For the interested student.12 is expressed in Iblhr.) (2. and open doors.lxCFM xTC To sum up.a. Infiltration air entering a space in winter would lower the room air temperature. heat must be furnished to the room to overcome this effect. fe/min TC = temperature change between indoor and outdoor air.11 ) where Q/ = latent heat required for infiltration or ventilation air. BTU/lb-F TC = temperature change between indoor and outdoor air. where Qs = sensible heat loss from infiltration or ventilation air. the sensible heat equation' is (3. Finding the Infiltration Rate There are two methods used to estimate the CFM of infiltration air: the crack method and' the air change method. However. The openings of most concern to us are cracks around window sashes and door edges. water vapor must be added.11 can be read from the psychometric chart. The addition of this moisture requires heat (latent heat of vaporization of water). The amount of heat required to offset the sensible heat loss from infiltrating air can be determined from the sensible heat equation (Section 2.11 are derived in Chapter 7. F Latent Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air Since infiltration air is often less humid than the room air.10 and 3.10) Qs= l. Iblhr c = specific heat of air. Equations 3. The . also introduced in Chapter 7.68 x CFM x (W/ . F The weight-flow rate of air (m) in Equation 2. This heat is in addition to the heat required to offset the heat transfer losses. Equations 3. The sensible heat loss should always be calculated.. then the latent heat loss effect may b~ neglected. BTUlhr CFM = air infiltration (or ventilation) flow rate. due to wind pressure. .

Example 3. Energy codes list maximum permissible infiltration rates for new construction or renovation upgrading. based on a 25 MPH wind. the infiltration sensible heat loss is Qs= 1.5. Example 3. of course. Table 3.1 xCFMxTC = 1. Poorly fitted windows may have up to five times the sash leakage shown in Table 3.00 CFM per ft 2 of door area Note: This table is adapted from various state energy standards. but the infiltration effects cannot be additive.11 The windows in a building are to be replaced to meet local infiltration energy standards. If there are different types or sizes of openings on each side. the infiltration that results from door opening should be included. TABLE 3. What will be the sensible heat loss due to infiltration? Solution I.37 CFM/ft X 17 ft = 6. 2. The rate of door usage (number of people per minute) is first determined.37 CFM per ft of sash crack 0. (Note the allowance for the crack at the middle rail of a double-hung window.11. The crack lengths and areas are determined from architectural plans or field measurements. The windows are 3 ft W x 4 ft H.4.4. with the advice of the architect or owner.4 lists typical allowable infiltration rates. the projected crack lengths for each side are less. in order to find the total building infiltratiDn rate.HEATING LOADS 57 Crack Method The crack method assumes that a reasonably accurate estimate of the rate of air infiltration per foot of crack opening can be measured or established. The total infiltration rate for the window is CFM = 0. double-hung type. Door Usage For buildings that have frequent door usage (e. Some average infiltration rates are shown in Table 3.9 Sketch for Example 3. The procedure for combining the infiltration rates of individual rooms on different walls. we assume that infiltration air comes through cracks on one side only. . The wind changes direction..g. Corner Room Infiltration When the infiltration rate is calculated for a room with two adjacent exposed walls (a corner room) with door or window openings on both sides. the side that has the greater CFM should be used for the calculation.1 x 6.3 CFM 4. since the wind can only come from one direction at any given time.9. as shown in Figure 3. since they occur at different times. Component Infiltration Rate Windows Residential doors Nonresidential doors 0. Indoor and outdoor design temperatures are 70 F and 10 F. From the Table 3. Using Equation 3. the overall effect is the same as if the wind came directly from one side only (using its actual crack lengths).11 . the new allowed infiltration rate is 0.37 CFM per ft of sash crack.) 3. The total crack length L= 3(3) + 2(4) = 17 ft. department stores).5 CFM per ft2 of door area l.4 TYPICAL ALLOWABLE DESIGN AIR INFILTRATION RATES THROUGH EXTERIOR WINDOWS AND DOORS 3'W 4' H f==~==l1 Figure 3. If the wind comes obliquely (toward the corner).3 x (70 -10) = 415 BTUlhr The quality of installation and the maintenance of windows and doors greatly affect the resultant crack infiltration.10.11 illustrates use of the crack method. will be discussed in Section 3.

The air change method is used primarily in residential construction heating load estimates. idential construction. special means may be used to try to offset infiltration. 2. and air curtains. wall penetrations. . but the following suggestions may be helpful: I. which rises through the building and exits out through cracks on upper stories. no vestibule Swinging door.= 18. However. Suggested values range from 0.5 ACH to 1. There are many excellent publications available from governmental agencies and utility companies on this subject.58 CHAPTER3 TABLE 3.=0.lJge is defined as being equal to the room air volume.7 x . Air Challge Method This procedure for finding the infiltration rate is based on the number of air changes per hour (ACH) in a room caused by the infiltration. which direct a vertical warm air barrier across the opening. The room volume is V=20x IOx8= 1600ft' 2.12. Find the infiltration rate in CFM. Unit heaters. In high-rise buildings. but there is no reason why the "rack method cannot be used if reliable data are available. Equation 3. There is no unqualified answer. are two such methods. Consult the ASHRAE Handbook for more information. It is often difficult to estimate leakage rates in older buildings because the condition of the Determination of the expected number of air changes is based on experience and testing. a themlal stack effect may increase infiltration through existing cracks.. is replaced by colder outside air entering through cracks on lower floors. The crack method is generally used in nonres..12 shOUld help to clarify the meaning and use of the air change method.12 A 20 ft by 10 ft by 8 ft high room in a house has 0.12) For doors that are left indefinitely open. Swinging door. Much publicity has been given to reducing infiltration in existing buildings by use of weatherstripping and the sealing of cracks around frames.5 ACH for buildings ranging from "tight" to "loose" construction. Reliable data from window manufacturers and quality control of installation and maintenance may provide good estimates using this metQpd. which can blow warm air directly at the opening. CFM = air infiltration rate to room. This occurs when the warmer inside air.7 air changes per hour due to infiltration. CFM=ACHx . vestibule Revolving door V CFM=ACHx60 where (3. sealant coatings or other coverings may be applied to them. CFM ACH = number of air changes per hour for room V = room VOlume. If the walls have significant porosity. and other openings. ft3 Example 3. Example 3. Additional air infiltration may occur through a porous wall.7CFM 60 60 V 1600 Crack Method versus Air Change Method The obvious question arises as to which of these methods should be used.5 INFILTRATION RATES FOR FREQUENT DOOR USAGE Type tt" per Person 900 550 60 Using the definition of an air change. sillplates. Solution l.12 can be used to find the air infiltration rate in CFM. aile air cha. it is difficult to determine the effect on the bnilding heating load of these methods. Using Equation 3.

6 and shown in Figure 1. However. in modem "tight" residences. Example 3. However. A separate word of caution on pressurizing buildings: it is not uncommon to find that overpressurization results in doors that require great force to open or close. this should not be a problem.9 DESIGN CONDITIONS The values of the indoor and outdoor air temperature and humidity that are used in heating (and cooling) load calculations are called the design conditions. resulting in long-term health problems from indoor air pollutants. in this case there is no ventilation load component. More specifically. Outside ventilation air should be introduced in such cases.10.l x 5000 x 77 =423. The indoor design conditions are generally chosen within the area of the comfort zone. it is part of the total building heating load. Table A. Outside winter heating design temperatures are based on weather records. When it is felt that the building is relatively tight and pressurized.13 illustrates the calculation of ventilation loads. State or local energy standards may . Infiltration generally provides adequate freshair. so only the sensible heat of the ventilation air is calculated. for 35 hours each year the outdoor air temperature has been less than the listed value. the indoor design conditions listed in Table 1. This provides a reasonable design temperature without resulting in oversized heating equipment for a rare colder occasion. The outside ventilation air will be an additional part of the building heating load. since the entering air is at the outdoor temperature and humidity. In this case. as described in Section 1. Some nonresidential buildings have fixed windows (no openable part). but since heating load calculations for existing buildings are usually being made when upgrading for energy conservation. The go\"erning state energy code must also be followed in choosing the design condition. crack infiltration is limited to exterior doors only. Equations 3. This will reduce or even prevent infiltration. Mechanical ventilation systems for large buildings are usually designed and operated so that fans create a slightly positive air pressure in the building.l xCFMxTC = l.9 list recommended outdoor design conditions for winter for some localities in the United States and other countries. Using Equation 3.1 are compatible both with comfort and responsible energy conservation.11 are also used to find the ventilation heating load. Therefore. but not part oflhe individual room heating loads.10 and 3. the ventilation air is heated (and humidified. 3.10. only the outside air ventilation load is included. In any case foresightful operation of the heating system can still provide comfortable indoor conditions when the outdoor temperature is slightly lower. Qs= l. there is concern that there may be inadequate natural infiltration. Example 3. before it enters the room. The outdoor air heating design temperature is shown for each location under the heating DB column.500 BTUlhr Ventilation (Outside Air) Load Some outside air is usually brought into nonresidential buildings through the mechanical ventilation equipment (air handling units) in order to maintain the indoor air quality. of course.HEATING LOADS 59 windows is not known.13 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A building with sealed windows is maintained at 72 F. with an outdoor temperature of -SF. Air distributing systems in residences often use recirculated air only. What is the additional sensible heating requirement from this effect? Solution The inside humidity conditions are not specified as being fixed. On the a\'erage. The procedures for determining the appropriate quantity of outside ventilation air are explained in Chapter 6. no allowance for infiltration is made. The mechanical ventilation system introduces 5000 CFM of outside air. if required) in the air conditioning equipment. These values have been obtained from weather records over a period of years.

which is the actual air temperature. double glass. it is better to assume the space is at outdoor temperature.15 illustrates the procedure for finding the room heating load. Use of these values will be discussed later. Examples of this calculation will be discussed later. it is assumed that the outdoor air humidity design level is zero. gypsum board finish Window: 5 ft H x 4 ft W pivoted type. is the number of degrees of latitude from the equator for the location. (The abbreviation DB stands for dry bulb temperature. Example 3. The reason it is given this name is explained in Chapter 7 and need not concern us now.10 Floor plan for Example 3.9 also includes outdoor design data for summer cooling (see Chapter 6). !!. it can be assumed to be at indoor design conditions. Iowa. The room heating load is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the room to maintain it at the indoor design temperature. ft). Example 3.1 an indoor air design condition of 68 F is chosen. Find the design room heating load. we explained that the room heating load is equal to the room heat loss. Illinois.15 The office room shown in Figure 3. Some designers assume that the temperature of the unheated space is halfway between indoor and outdoor design conditions. metal deck. The column entitled Degree Days expresses the severity of the heating season.. so the heat transfer can be neglected. aluminum frame. suspended ceiling Ceiling height: 9ft Unheated Space Temperature Unheated rooms or spaces between a heated room and the outdoors will have a temperature lower than the heated room. The building has a heated basement. Also remember that the values specified in the appropriate local Code would be those actually used.60 CHAPTER3 mandate slightly different design conditions.50CFM/ft Roof: fiat roof. R-8 insulation. R-8 insulation. If the unheated space has a large exposed glass area. Construction is as follows: Wall: 6 in. The heat loss from the heated room through the separating partition should be calculated.10 is in a onestory building in Des Moines.) If the building is to be humidified in the heating season. This is the low end of the recommended values. What outdoor and indoor winter temperatures should be used for designing the heating system? Solution From Table A. Figure 3. concrete (120 #/cu. Infiltration rate is 0. The column titled Lat. the recommended outdoor heating design temperature for Chicago is -6 F. in. In Section 3:1.) 3. In this case.14 Plans are being prepared for the Big Bargain Department Store in Chicago. If an unheated space is totally surrounded by heated spaces. (A justification for this is that people generally keep their winter coats on while shopping.15. • 14 ft - • r Office plan view 12 ft 1 1 r 5ftHx4ftW . Table A. From Table 1. Example 3.9.10 ROOM HEAT LOSS AND ROOM HEATING LOAD The room heat loss is the sum of each of the room heat transfer losses and infiltration heat losses. the resulting latent heat energy required must be calculated.

Building Infiltration Loss Although the building generally has more than one side with openings. The building net heating load is the sum of the building heat transfer losses. This is because.08 Total heat transfer loss Infiltration heat loss ~ 1.11 THE BUILDING NET HEATING LOAD In addition to calculating the individual room heating loads. doors.. however.11. 4. 3. The heat transfer losses are found using Equation 3. the biJilding heating load must also be determined. there is no reason why they should not be considered in calculating net heat losses. the wind comes from only one direction at any given time. . because it is affected by interior conditions such as partition arrangements. Air that infiltrates on the windward side of a building leaks out through openings on the other sides. The indoor and outdoor temperatures are 70 F and 10 F. The building heat transfer loss is 170. windows. and roof of the building.10 Window 0. The infiltration heat loss is found using Equation 3. 2.11.16 Find the infiltration heat loss and net heating load for the building shown in Figure 3. (It is also the sum of the room heat transfer losses.8. Example 3.000 BTUlhr. if any. The building net heating load is the amount of heat required for the building at outdoor design conditions. Indoor temperature is 71 F.9.10 and A. but it is preferable to calculate it directly. 1.60 x 20 x Roof x 168 x 0. Find one-half the infiltration rates for all sides of the building: Building infiltration CFM = 300 + 100 + 200 + 100 2 =350CFM ~. infiltration losses.50 CFM/ft x 18 ft 82 82 82 ~ ~ 870 980 1100 2950 810 3760 x 82 ~ Room heating load In calculating design heat losses. 3. outdoor temperature is -9 F. For a building that is not mechanically ventilated and that has reasonably free interior passages for air movement. of course. 6. as noted earlier.) 1. A table is arranged to organize the data. Mechanical ventilation will reduce and often prevent significant infiltration. It is difficult to evaluate this. A solar heat gain could not be guaranteed. Infiltration rates are shown in Figure 3. usually no credit is taken for heat gains.6 and A.10. floor. The U values are found from Table A.HEATING LOADS 61 Solution Building Heat Transfer Loss This is the sum of the heat transfer losses to the outdoors through the exposed walls. The room heating load is the sum of all the losses. Design temperatures are selected from Tables 1. and ventilation load. it should be understood that infiltration air cannot enter through all sides at the same time. 5. Solution u BTU/hr-tt"-F x A x TO F Q ft> BTu/hr ~ Wan x 106 x 0.8. For buildings that have steady internal gains. the following rule is suggested: The building air infiltration CFM is equal to one-half the sum of the infiltration CFM of every opening on all sides of the building: The following example illustrates the procedure for finding the building infiltration heat loss and the building net heating load. measuring total building areas.1 x 0.

The loss is usually insignificant in private residences. For instance. however.l x CFM x TC = l. there are often system heat losses. It is suggested that 2-5% of the building sensible heat loss be added to account for duct heat loss. A minimum of R -4 insulation is recommended for ductwork in all cases. 2. this additional capacity is gained at a sacrifice to cost. shafts. there will be heat transfer from the air in the duct to the cooler surrounding spaces. ~ 200 CFM C " Piping Losses In hot water or steam heating systems. This constitutes a heat loss when the air leaks into unconditioned spaces. It is explained in the following discussion. Many other strategies are available for bringing the space temperature up to design in sufficient time.. In large buildings. Of course. and surrounding temperatures. It is normal practice in the boiler industry to specify a combined piping and pickup factor (allowance) that can be used when sizing a heating boiler. such as heat loss from ducts and piping. on start-up of the system. this loss is usually negligible. Find the building net heating load: Heat transfer loss Infiltration heat loss = 170. Furthermore. ~=r--~~ ~~D---~==~ :2 o o o LL :2 o o o LL " Inf. In this situation.16. the heating equipment may not be able to bring the rooms up to design temperature quickly enough.100 BTUlhr Pickup Factor or Allowance When a building is intermittently heated. An allowance is sometimes made for heating the system itself. if the weather forecast is for cold weather. but can reach 510% of the load in larger buildings.10) = 23. This is called the pickup factor. it may be desirable to allow a pickup loss in sizing the central heating equipment. This range of values depends on the length of ductwork. attics. in large buildings mUltiple boilers and excess standby' capacity are common. Since piping is relatively small and always should be insulated.62 CHAPTER3 Figure 3.g. an equipment siziug allowance for setback is not standard practice. Duct Heat Transfer Loss In a warm air heating system. there may be heat lost from the hot piping.12 SYSTEM HEAT LOSSES Besides the direct room and building heat losses (heat transfer and infiltration/ventilation). and up to 40% for a 10 F night setback in residential equipment. or when regular nighttime temperature setback is practiced.100 Building net heating load = 193. Inf. This factor combines the piping and pickup losses described earlier. depending on 3. and if the equipment capacity just equals the building load.100 BTUlhr 3. the system may be started earlier.10): Q = l. . basements. ~ 300 CFM Duct Leakage There is usually some air leakage from supply ducts at seams. insulation. depending on the quality of the sheet metal installation. crawl splices). Find the infiltration heat loss (Equation 3. The standard piping and pickup factor varies from 15-25%. if the ducts pass through unheated spaces (e. Some designers allow an extra 10% loss for intermittently heated buildings.000 BTUlhr = 23.l x 350 x (70 .11 Sketch for Example 3.

This load should then be included when sizing the boiler. 3.000) Furnace capacity (gross load) Room Heating Load I.000 = 140.10 to find the infiltration heat loss. Use Equation 3. The forms are suitable for both residential and commercial estimates.000 BTUlhr = 35. Net and Gross Heating Load The net heating load is the amount of heat needed for all the building rooms. 2.12). This is the heat output that the heating equipment must furnish. Calculate the heat transfer losses through all exposed surfaces in the room (Equation 3. A.000 BTU/hr. they are loads on the boiler or furnace. 5.1 and A.17 illustrates this relationship.000 Pickup allowance (OAO x 350. For basement floors and walls below grade. through which there will be heat transfer. The system heating losses (ducts.9). as suggested here. find areas of exposed windows. What is the building gross heating load (the required furnace capacity)? Solution The system losses are added to the net load. load of 350. Room heating load = r00111 heat transfer loss + room infiltration loss = 350. It is estimated that the combined duct heat transfer loss and heat loss due to leakage is 10%. piping. forth) as well as for space heating. Total these to find the room heat transfer loss. infiltration can usually be considered negligible.9 and Table 3. Figure 3.10 x 350. Example 3. Remember if the building is pressurized by the mechanical ventilation system. baths.000 BTUlhr Service (Domestic) Hot Water Heating The heat output of a boiler is sometimes used to heat service water (for kitchens. they should be calculated. When they are added to the net load. Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design temperatures (Tables 1. and so forth.8). Find the room heating load. use the V-values from Table 3. .8 or calculate from R-values if necessary (Tables AA and A.3). For each room.2 and outdoor ground temperature. A. use the edge loss (Equation 3. Find the room infiltration heat loss. and so . pickup) are not part of the room loads. Use only one wall for corner rooms. and exterior rooms.13 SUMMARY OF HEATING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The following step-by-step instructions summarize how to calculate heating loads.5). 3. Example 3.1. C.17 A building has a building net heating . Procedures for determining hot water use loads may be found in the ASHRAE Handbooks.13 is a building heating load calculations form. if there are doubts.HEATING LOADS 63 boiler type and size (see Chapter 4). the sum is called the gross heating load. 4. For floor slabs on grade. walls. For the crack method: A.6-A. Select appropriate overall heat trausfer coefficients (V-values) from Tables 3. Obtain dimensions from architecture plans. 6. if any. The actual piping and pickup losses may be greater or less than these values. The space temperature will be set back at night by 10 F. Use Table 3A (or the equivalent) to find the infiltration rate. B.000 = 525. B. The individual room data and results are recorded on a room heating load calculations form (Figure 3. Net heating load Duct losses 0. Use architectural plans to find window crack lengths and door areas.

Room Heating Load Calculations Project Engrs. by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Chk.1 x (CFM) A x B x TC (CFM) A x B x TC 1.1 1. ft Area.1 x 1. Room Plan Size Heat Transfer Walls P.1 .. Indoor DB _ _ _ F Outdoor DB _ _ F Location _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Calc.1 1.1 Infiltration Heat Loss Room Heating Load Room Plan Size Heat Transfer Walls I I I I I I U x A x TO ~ BTU/hr U x A x TO ~ BTU/hr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr Windows Doors Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Heat Tr. Heat Transfer Loss Infiltration Window Door I ~ I 1.1 x 1..~1 (CFM) A x B x TC ~ 1.1 x 1.12 Room heating load calculations form. 1.1 x 1.1 (CFM) A x B x TC ~ I 1.1 1.msfer Loss Infiltration Window J ~ J 1. ft2 CFM perft2 Figure 3.1 x 1.1 1.1 (CFM) A x B x TC (CFM) A x B x TC ~ Door ' 1. . _ _ _ of _ _ _ PP.1 Infiltration Heat Loss Room Heating Load Infiltration CFM Windows Doors ColumnA I I ColumnS I I I I CFM per ft Crack length. by U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr Windows- Doors Roof/ceiling Floor Partition .1 I ~ 1.1 1.

DB. Using the crack method. Take one-half of this CFM.68 x CFMx GFMx TC= grllb= % % % . A. Use the total exterior areas of the walls. F W'. find the infiltration CFM for all openings in the building. 1. and so forth.13 Building heating load calculations form. Do not use areas from each room-this leads to errors. find the building infiltration heat loss.1 x OL =0. roof. by Q1 U ~ A ~ TO 1 BTU/hr Roof Walls Windows Doors Floor . and using Equation 3. To find this. Chk. Duct Heat Loss Duct Heat Leakage Piping and Pickup Allowance . Heat Transfer Subtotal Infiltration Os:::: 1. by Intdoor Outdoor Ditt. Service HW Load Boiler or Furnace Gross Load . B.HEATING LOADS 65 Building Heating Load The steps for finding the building heating load are as follows. Building Net Load Ventilation Os = 1. Figure 3. There is an infiltration heat loss if the building does not have medianical ventilation that pressurizes the interior. Calculate the heat transfer losses through all exposed surfaces.1 x CFMx TC= .gr/lb Project Location Engineers Heat Transfer Calc. Building Heating Load Calculations 2.10.

Using Equation 3. 4.66 CHAPTER3 3. 5. 9. Use ample insulation throughout the building.10. use of glass. find the ventilation sensible heat load. Practice setback (lowering) of temperature during unoccupied periods.1 l.2 at this point for an account of some practical problems encountered in doing an actual estimate. A. Consider using 68 to 72 F. 4.com www. except in mild climates. 8. To find this. Heat losses shall be calculated using thorough. find the ventilation latent heat load from Equation 3. If the building has mechanical ventilation that sufficiently pressures the interior. 6. What is their relationship? What are the t\Vo methods for estimating infiltration? How is the infiltration for a corher room found when using the air change method? What is meant by the term setback? What outside temperature is used to find the heat transfer from below grade surfaces? Through what part of a'building is the heat transfer loss proportional to the perimeter? 3. Find the building net heating load: Building net hearing load = building hear transfer loss + infiltration loss 5. The student is advised to read Sections 17.11). 6. C. 5.com \vw\V. correct procedures. Find the building gross heating load (this is the required furnacelboiler capacity): Gross heating load = net load + venti/arion loads + s)'Stem losses + sen'ice hot warer load An example of heating load calculations for a building may be found in Example Project I in Chapter 17.1 and 17. Web Sites The following Web sites provide heating load calculation software: www.wrightsoft. 6. . 3. 3. Be certain all windows and doors are weatherstripped. Find the service hot water load. and use either double glass or storm windows. Review Questions I.elitesoft.com www. 7. 4. B.17. 2. Follow applicable energy conservation construction standards.14 ENERGY CONSERVATION Reducing the building heating load provides a major opportunity for energy conservation. an overall roofceiling resistance of R-20 to R-30 is recommended for residential buildings in colder climates.hvacsoft.com l. there is a ventilation heat load but no infiltration heat loss. and so forth) should be consistent with reducing energy consumption. Use inside winter design temperatures that provide comfort but not excessive temperature. Some ways this can be achieved are as follows: 7. 7. Determine the CFM of outside ventilation air from Table 6. For instance. What is the heating load and what items make it up? What is the infiltration loss? What is the ventilation load? Define resistance and conductance. If the building is to be humidified. if the boiler is to handle this. The practice of using temperatures as high as 75 F is often unnecessary.carmelsoft. Find any system losses such as duct losses and piping and pickup allowances (Section 3. Building construction in the past has been scandalously wasteful of energy due to inadequate insulation.com www.hvac-calc. type of materials. 2. The building architectural design (orientation.

23 BTUlhr-ft2-F per inch. acoustical tile ceiling.10 What is the heat transfer loss through a 40 ft by 20 ft basement floor when the room is at 65 F and the ground temperature is 50 F? 3.6. block with brick facing. R-S.3? A roof is constructed of built-up roofing on top of a metal deck. What is the heat loss through the floor? 3. What must be the R-value of insulation added to the wall in Problem 3.4 The wall in Problem 3. The inside temperature is 68 F.1 A homeowner asks an energy consnltant to find the heat loss from his home.1 1/2 in. gypsum board -j~~-i7~ . acoustical tile on furring ceiling.6 if 2 in.8 CFMfft. The room temperature is 69 F and the outdoor temperature is -8 F. Ohio.6 Figure 3.~+'71'. respectively. R-8 insulation. Compare the result with the value from Table A. vented attic. Inside and outside temperatures are 72 Fand-2 F.HEATING LOADS 67 Problems 3. sand and gravel aggregate (not dried) concrete R-5 insulation --t".12 Find the sensible heat loss from infiltration through a casement window with a 3 ft wide by 4 ft high operable section if the infiltration rate is 0. How many inches of the material should the contractor install if energy conservation specifications call for insulation with an R-12 value? 3.7 culate the R~value of the roof in winter.8 3. Find the R-value of the roof in Problem 3. is 100 ft by 40 ft in plan. 3. wide by 3 ft high wood sash window with indoor and outdoor temperatures of 68 F and 3 F.9 3.. with a suspended !6 in. Calculate the heat transfer loss through a 4 ft 6 in. the consultant measures a temperature of 66 F on the inside surface of the wall and 18 F on the outside surface. What is the rate of heat loss through the wall? 3. The indoor temperature is 70 F.3S ft 2 -F-hrIBTU.14 Sketch for Problem 3.14.S insulation. R-5 insulation is used around the edge.--.S A state energy code requires a certain wall to have an overall R-1S value. The wall has a thermal resistance of 0. On one wall.3. 3. The wall construction is 4 in.3 Find the overall R value and U factor in winter for the wall with construction as shown in Figure 3. Cal- 3. more of glass fiber insulating board is added.2 An insulating material has a thermal conductivity of k = 0. and !6 in. 3.11 A warehouse in Cleveland. measuring IS ft by 9 ft (without windows). What is the heat transfer loss through the wall on a day when the outdoor temperature is -S F? 3. 6 in. Calculate the heat transfer loss through a 2S ft by 30 ft roof-ceiling of a house with pitched asphalt shingle roof.3 is 30 ft long by 12 ft high. built on grade.

6 CFM/ft.8 in.16 Find the total heat loss from heat transfer and infiltration through a single-glazed 5 ft wide by 4 ft high double-hung vinyl frame window in a building in Springfield. R-4 insulation. asphalt shingles. Infiltration rate 0. casement type. 7ft high Ceiling height: 9ft. as described: 16 ft Office j Wall: 4 in. double-hung. wood. Utah 3.15 Floor plan for Problem 3.5 air changes per honr.15 on an intermediate floor in an office building in Toronto. face brick. aluminum frame. The infiltration rate is 0.19 Find the design heat loss from the room shown in Figure 3. Wisconsin. Use recommended energy conservation design values.68 CHAPTER3 Figure 3. The room is at 68 F. R-8 insulation.2 CFM/ft. R-5 insulation.17 A corner room in a building in Pittsburgh. building paper. l!in. Use recommended energy conservation design values suggested in this chapter. maintained at 71 F. has two 3 ft wide by 4 ft high casement windows on one side with an infiltration rate of 0. What is the reduction in the design heat transfer loss? 3. Pennsylvania. wood sash. calculate the design heat transfer loss through the windows. gypSU/11 board interior Windows: double-hung. single glass Roof: pitched. cinder block.20 Calculate the individual room heating loads and building heating load for the house shown in Figure 3.21 Calculate the heating load for the building shown in Figure 3. Location: Hartford. wood sheathing. 3. it has been decided to install double glass windows on the building in Problem 3.15 To save energy. double glass. furred gypsum wallboard Windows: 4 ft wide by 5 ft high. . Salt Lake City. The inside temperature is 72 F.19. 8 in. Wall: 8 in. wood sheathing.5 CFMljt Location. has 2000 ft2 of single-glazed vinyl frame windows. gypsum board ceiling. Illinois. 0 in. 3. 3. concrete. Ontario. building paper. attic Doors: 10 in. 3. The building is constructed on grade.16.13 A room 15 ft by 20 ft by 10 ft has an air infiltration rate of 1.7 CFM/ft. No basement 3.17. Using the recommended outdoor winter design temperature.14 A building in Milwaukee. Connecticut Walls: wood siding. The room is at 72 F and the outdoor temperature is 1 F. Find the design infiltration heat loss from the room. 3. What is the heat loss from infiltration? 3. and a 7 ft by 3 ft door on the other side with an infiltration rate of 1.18 Find the total heat loss through the exterior wall and windows of a room at 72 F. 30ft long by 15ft high Windows: (5) 4 ft wide by 4 ft high double glass. gypsum wallboard.14. vinyl frame Ceiling height: 9ft 3.

3 I~ 17 N r Bedroom No.16 Building plan for Problem 3.21 using heating load calculation software available from one of the following Web sites: www. finished ceiling . Kansas. aluminum frame Computer Solution Problems 3.com Mechanical ventilation: 2500 CFM Doors: 1 in.20.21(continued) Location: Topeka.19. Utility room Kitchen Bath Bedroom NO. Factory Walls: 8 in.HEATING LOADS 69 Figure 3. 3. = 1 It-O in. furred gypsum board Windows~·aouble· glazed. concrete block.com www.1 Bedroom No.2 Living room [ All windows 3' -6" H x 4' W Scale 1/8 in. lightweight concrete.22 Solve Problems 3.elitesoft. 3.carmelsoft. and 3. wood Roof: 4 in.20. lh il1.

Factory building Heig ht: 12 ft Windows: 8 ft W x 6 ft H Doors: 8 ft H x 5 ftW Scale: 1/16 in.70 CHAPTER3 Figure 3.21.17 Building plan for Problem 3.= l' -0" .

4. Warm air furnaces are popular in private residences and small commercial· installations. by using a combined heating/cooling central unit or add-on cooling unit. and methods of pollution control. 7. you will be able to: I. 3. in very small buildings. Describe the basic types of gas burners and oil burners. 71 8. summer air conditioning may be easily added at a minimal cost.1 WARM AIR FURNACES A warm air furnace heats by delivering warmed air to the spaces in a building. 5. Describe the basic features of warm air furnaces and heating boilers. Explain the functions of the basic operating and safety controls for furnaces and boilers. The heat pump. warm air systems with ductwork are often less expensive than hydronic (hot water heating) systems. products of combustion. 2. Describe commonly used fossil fuels. Solar heaters will be discussed in Chapter 18. used for both heating and cooling. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.c H A p T E R Furnaces and Boilers T his chapter will examine boilers and furnaces. A third advantage of warm . Explain the function of flame safety controls. 'pollutants. The heat which is produced by this equipment is most often used for heating. but may also be used in cooling (see the discussion on absorption refrigeration in Chapter 13). since. Also. 4. will be discussed in Chapter 13. Describe the energy conservation methods that are associated with the use of furnaces and boilers. Select a warm air furnace or heating boiler. Explain draft and how it is created and controlled. if the ductwork is already installed. the most common heat source equipment used in air conditioning. 6.

1 Components of a warm air furnace. however. The basic components of a warm air furnace are shown in Figure 4. controls. airflow in duct heaters is created by a separate blower-housed unit. Some heating units. others rely solely on the convected motion of the warm air. After its heat is transferred to the circulating air. or masonry chimney. The heated air exits through the warm air outlet and travels through ducts to the rooms in the building. furnaces are made in a variety of physical configurations. duct heaters. Furnaces may have coal. The furnace may also have a humidifier and an air filter. air passes over the outside of the heat exchanger. Warm air outlet Flue connection Heat exchanger Burner and controls Filter air inlet . which has been warmed from the inside by hot combustion gas passing through it.72 CHAPTER4 air systems over hydronic systems is that when nighttime temperature setback is used. Additional heating equipment that is usually grouped with furnaces includes space heaters. air blower (fan). The hot combustion gas (also called flue gas) inside the heat exchanger is produced by the burning of fuel. The vent may be a pipe. oil. The hydronic system. Figure 4. The low-boy type may be used if there is less headroom. or wood burners. except that commercial furnaces have larger capacities. The lIpflow or high-bo\' type is suitable for fullheight basement or utility room installations with overhead ductwork. or in a crawl space. The downflow type is practical when the supply air ductwork is under a floor or grade. Oil and gas burners are discussed in Section 4. Some space heaters have blowers. wall and floor furnaces.7. Unlike warm air furnaces. discharge combustion gases directly into the room where the heater is located. full heat can be delivered to rooms faster in the morning. and insulated housing cabinet.1). Components The main parts of a warm air furnace are the heat exchanger. these are not designed to be connected with ductwork (except for duct heaters). the combustion gas is exhausted through a vent to the outdoors. The horizontal type is suitable for an attic.) Types of Furnaces To fit in different spaces. as a heat source. fuel burner. sheet metal stack. resting on the floor. the Figure 4. Duct heaters are mounted in a section of duct. but instead deliver air directly into the space to be heated.2 shows some arrangements of residential type furnaces. gas. The construction of furnaces for residential or commercial use is similar. or electric heaters. and unit heaters. Pushed by a blower. it is popular for commercial rooftop installations. Unit heaters are generally Operation Circulating air enters the furnace through the return air inlet (Figure 4. (Heating units in which the combustion gases are discharged to the outdoors are called vented appliances. are structurally stronger. does have advantages in many applications (Chapter 5). and may have more complex controls than residential furnaces. Space heaters are usually freestanding units. The wall furnace and floor furnace are designed to be recessed into a wall or floor. when weatherized for outdoor service. called unvented appliances.1.

. Flue pipe Relief air Circulatingplenum Heat exchanger Gas burner Circulating air Filter "'-_____ Vent pipe Circulatingair blower ! __ Circulatingair blower Filter . Commercial furnaces are available up to about 1 million BTUlhr.2 Arrangements of residential warm air furnaces.Combustion air Gas-supply .'. they may be gas or oil fired.FURNACES AND BOILERS 73 hung from a ceiling. If '-Invented appliances are to be used. Residential type furnaces are available in capacities from about 35. Allowances must be made for any duct or pickup losses (see Chapter 3). Because incomplete combustion may cause toxic pollutants.~~*. Another version is the gas-fired radiant heater which works by using the flame and hot combustion gases to heat an element to a very high temperature. the CFM of air to be circulated and the duct system air static Figure 4.'o'mbustion air Gas-supply Gas burner manifold Horizontal type Circulatingair plenum Downflow type - Draft diverter Relief air Control compartment Combustion air Gas-supply manifold Heat exchanger Circulatingair plenum Circulating Filter Heat exchanger air • \ Flue pipe Circulatingair plenum Heat exchanger Gas burner Flue pipe [Jraft hood Relief air Control compartment ~.-~=-n.I air l~:2J§~~~~~~~c. the use of unvented appliances is often restricted by legal codes. The system designer needs to know both the net heat available to heat the room or building and the gross furnace output at the bonnet.. rather than having warm air circulate. In addition to the heating capacity.000 BTUlhr.000 -175.-=:7IL-" air t----'-~--Ir-+----.mllnifold Circulating air t Draft hood Relief air Control compartment Circulatingair blower ~::::::=J~~~~~~~combustion air Gas burner Basement type Gas-supply manifold Circulatingair blower Filter t Upflowtype . they must have ample room veutilation and special safety shut-off devices. or may use heating coils (Chapter 5). Capacity and Performance Manufacturers rate heating capacity in BTU/hr at the furnace outlet (bonnet). the heat is then radiated directly from the element to solid objects in the space.

and air and gas flow. Combustion gas flow is tested. and safety code regulations. Manual control of the fan is provided to allow continual air circulation in the summer. Commercial furnaces need more complex control arrangements. type offue1. the main gas valve opens. A fan control thennostat located in the circulating air fan plenum (discharge) automatically starts the fan when the air has been warmed to a comfortable level and stops it . which may have efficiencies as high as 95%. a safety control that detects flame presence is also used (Section 4. The operation of a residential oil-fired furnace is similar. Air circulation is tested by a pressure switch. The steady-state efficiency of warm air furnaces typically ranges from 75-80%. and ifproven.8).12). 4. the sequence of events is often called a programming control sequence. if the flame fails later. 4. A limit switch thermostat (high limit) will shut off the gas valve if the air temperature becomes dangerously high (about 200 F). the space thennostat closes the heating control circuit (only if all safety controls are also closed). 3. the pilot gas itself may be ignited on a call for heating. In these more complex arrangements. the quantity of gas-air mixture that remains in a large furnace after a shutdown is enough to be an explosion hazard. 3. A timed prepurge cycle (typically 30-60 seconds) exhausts combustion gases which may remain in the furnace from the last operation. The combustion fan starts. The pilot flame ignites the main gas. the valve will close. therefore. Instead of a standing (continuous) pilot flame. A pilot flame (pilot light) safety control checks for the standing (continuous) pilot flame.7) and the air circulation fan during normal operation. Fan shutdown can also be delayed until after the valve closes. Safety controls may sense air and combustion gas temperatures. except for so-called high-efficiency furnaces (Section 4. 7. Operating controls regulate the burner (Section 4. If the flame is present. For instance. called intennittent ignition. Combination heating!cooling units generally have two-speed fans to enable them to provide more airflow in the summer. 2. 2.74 CHAPTER4 pressure loss requirements must be detennined (see Chapter 8). The safety control will continually check for flame presence. the pilot flame is off. a switch in the room thermostat closes. The following sequence outlines the operation of a typical residential gas-fired furnace: I.2 FURNACE CONTROLS The controls for a warm air furnace are of two types: operating controls and safety (limit) controls. 4. thus saving energy. The controls used in each application depend on the equipment. 6. On a call for heat. and if airflow is proven. A simple occurrence such as blocked airflow from dirty filters can cause this.into the furnace control operations. purge cycles are incorporated . A typical programming control sequence for a larger gas-fired furnace might be: I. is used to save energy. This arrangement. is to use a timer to delay the fan's start until a short period after the air starts warming. except that the space thennostat starts the oil burner pump motor and activates the circuit providing an ignition spark. When the furnace is not heating. which achieves the same result. Safety controls (also called limit controls) stop or prevent furnace operation if safe limits are exceeded. when the air is too cooL An alternate arrangement. On a call for heating. because it consists of programmed steps. 5. utilizing the "free" remaining heat left in the heat exchangers. The main gas valve opens and the spark ignition circuit is activated. The air circulating fan starts.

controls. probably the boiler is where one should be most sensitive about safety to life. the system shuts down and "locks out" (a manual reset is necessary). Their specific application 2. also called a steam generatOl. Their pressure and temperature ratings 3. since this is more than adequate for the vapor pressure exerted by 250 F water. Items 6 and 7. fuels and draft. whereas high pressure boilers do. although so named because they are used to generate steam to be utilized in generating e1ec~ tric power. A hot water boiler heats water to a high temperature. according to: 1. If ignition does not occur (in about 4 seconds). Hot water temperatures are limited to 250 F. Since it does not actually boil water. heats water to the boiling point to make steam. Whether the boiler and accessories are assembled on the job site or at the factory 6.) 9. heat exchanger. will be discussed in relation to boilers and furnaces together. . and enclosure. Whether water or combustion gas is inside the tubes (watertube or firetube) 5. B. This is because there is a tremendous amount of energy packed into a boiler. Components The main parts of a boiler are the combustion chamber. Of all the equipment used in HVAC systems. the main gas valve closes. burner. In New York City in 1962. This may affect the choice of low or high pressure Boilers produce hot water or steam. A timed postpurge cycle exhausts combustion gases from the furnace. For higher temperatures and pressures. Ignition is tested (with the flame safety control). the flame safety control continually checks the flame. and steps 6 aud 7 are repeated (prep urge cycle aud attempted ignition). the ASME Code for Power Boilers applies. The ASME Code for Heating Boilers limits maximum working pressure to 15 psig for steam and 160 psig for water. because steam turbines require steam at a relatively high pressure. will be discussed together.FURNACES AND BOILERS 75 8. since they apply to both types of equipment. but does not boil it. How draft (airflow) is achieved The basic features of these groupings will be explained separately. When the thermostat is satisfied. the ignition circuit is deactivated. (During operation. 10. Hot water boilers are usually manufactured for 30 psig maximum working pressure. a hot water boiler would be better named a hot water generator. The type of fuel used 7.3 HEATING BOILERS Pressure and Temperature Ratings The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has developed standards for the construction and permissible operating pressure and temperature limits for low pressure heating boilers which are used in the United States. any important differences will be noted. a heating boiler in a telephone company building exploded. Power boilers. the system shuts down. killing 21 and injuring 95. Boilers may be classified in various ways. having similar features. At this point. which is then delivered through pipes to space heating equipment. can be used in high temperature hot water (HTW) hydronic heating systems. Their materials of construction 4. If the flame fails or is unstable. 4. Another application for high pressure boilers in HVAC systems is to use them with steam turbine-driven centrifugal refrigeration machines. This tragic incident is mentioned to stress the importance of obtaining a thorough working knowledge of boilers. If the second ignition attempt fails. a few words about safety should be said. Both hot water and steam boilers. A steam boiler. Low pressure heating boilers do not require the attendance of a licensed operating engineer in many locations. A.

) ~Automatic vent damper _Draft hood Figure 4. Steel boilers have a heat exchanger constructed of steel tubes arranged in a bundle. The sections are assembled together similar to cast iron radiators. controls. Watertube boilers are not often used in HVAC installations. They range from small to fairly large capacity. The Scotch marine type firetube boiler (Figures 4.4 Steel firetube boiler arrangement. Their main application is for large steam power plants or for creating process steam to be used in industry. Figure 4. In firetube boilers (Figure 4. Watertube heating boilers range from medium size to about 100 million BTU/hr. horizontal return tube. as seen in Figures 4. up to about 10 million BTUIhr. locomotive. the water flows inside the tubes and the combustion gases outside.5. Figure 4.4).3 Cutaway view of small gas-fired cast iron hot water package boiler. and Scotch marine type) are in their construction (a specialized subject. the combustion gases flow inside the tubes and the water circulates outside. and housing.76 CHAPTER4 boilers for an installation. In watertube boilers. The HVAC engmeer should always check that a boiler conforms to ASMEcodes. Combustion gas Gas Burner[ Furnace ~TI~I---TI~I--TI~I- . The differences among types offiretube boilers (e. (Courtesy: Burnham Corporation-Hydronics Division. it can be shipped in parts and assembled on site. and reliability.g. Note draft hood and automatic flue gas damper. Firetube or Watertube Steel boilers can also be classified as either jiretube or watertube.4 and 4. and not important for our purposes).5) is the most popular for commercial heating service because of its compactness. Firetube boilers range from small capacities to about 20 million BTUlhr.4 and 4. low cost.3 shows a small cast iron boiler complete with burner. The water flows inside these with the combustion gases outside. Firetube boilers are less expensive than watertube boilers but are less durable. Boilers that have copper tube heat exchangers are also available. An advantage of this construction is that when the boiler is too large to fit through the building access opening. Materials of Construction Cast iron boilers have a heat exchanger constructed of hollow cast iron sections..

and decreases the contractor's field work. A package boiler is completely assembled and tested in the factory. burner.5. and safety of boilers. and accessories. (Courtesy: Cleaver-Brooks. Figure 4. increases reliability by ensuring that components are properly matched.3. This procedure reduces cost.FURNACES AND BOILERS 77 Built-Up and Package Boilers A built-up boiler is a boiler whose components are assembled at the job site. The small cast iron residential type boiler shown in Figure 4. and the Scotch marine type boiler shown in Figure 4.) .5 Package firetube boiler. Boiler Accessories Certain accessories are needed for the proper operation. this includes the combustion chamber. others are required by codes or by law. maintenance. Inc. are both package boilers. heat exchanger. Some accessories are optional.

A pressure reducing valve (PRV) prevents excess pressure from being exerted on the boiler from the water make-up source. Afiow check valve closes when the pump stops. An expansion tank provides space for the increased volume of water when it is heated (Chapter 11 ).7 Water column and gage glass. hot water would circulate by Figure 4. The ASME Code specifies the type of valve which is acceptable for a particular application. A water column with a gauge glass (Figure 4. when mounted on the side of a steam boiler. (Courtesy: McDonnell & Miller ITT. aids the operating engineer in checking performance. Accessories Required for a Hot Water Boiler A dip tube. Air control devices may be required in the· water circuit. these devices divert air in the system to the expansion tank. it will stop burner operation if the water level falls below a safe level. In the New York explosion incident mentioned earlier. prevents air that may be trapped in the top of the boiler from getting into the water supply line. Water level .6 Low water cut-off.7). A make-up water connection allows for filling the system and replenishing water losses.8. heating rooms even when no heat is called for. which is a piece of pipe from the boiler outlet extending down below the water line. mounted on or near the boiler outlet. Without this valve. natural convection.) Figure 4.9) opens if boiler pressure is excessive. allows the operator to see the water level. A typical piping arrangement with accessories for a hot water heating boiler is shown in Figure 4.78 CHAPTER4 Accessories Required for a Steam Boiler A low water cut-off (Figure 4. A pressure gauge and thennometer.6) senses water level in a steam boiler. Accessories Required for Both Steam and Hot Water Boilers A safety relief valve (Figure 4. This valve must be connected separately at the boiler. one of the claims in the investigation was that the safety relief valve did not open and relieve the excessive pressure which had developed.

conveys combustion gas as it travels from the boiler to the chimney or flue. (Courtesy: TACO.7) during normal operation. if heavy fuel oil is to be used. the boiler regulates the burner operation: in steam boilers a pressure controller is used. like furnace controls. Cranston.9 Safety relief valve. heats the oil to a temperature at which it will flow easily. operating controls and safety (limit) controls. a controller sensing a condition in . and in . reduces heat loss. In smaller units. Operating Controls Operating controls regulate the burner (Section 4.) A combustion gas connection. called a vent on small boilers and a breeching on larger boilers. RI. A preheater.. Inc. are of two types. (In small systems. the pump may be located in return line.8 Typical piping arrangement and accessories for a hot water boiler. 4. It may be field installed or applied in the factory. Figure 4. when applied around the boiler. a room thermostat starts and stops the burner' in response to space conditions.FURNACES AND BOlLERS Flow check valve Pressure reducing valve 79 Return Expansion tank Air control device Relief Supply Check valve Make-up water \ (fililine)i--+-V1-W---tk:l--l I Dip tube Flow check valve ! To drain Hot water boiler To drain Note: Unions or equivalent for service not shown. In larger units.) Thermal insulation. Figure 4.4 BOILER CONTROLS Boiler controls.

After an automatically timed period (a few seconds). this pressure prevents leakage of potentially toxic combustion gas into the equipment room. Since the heated gas is lighter than the cool air outside. When the thermostat is satisfied..02 in. perhaps -0. but as the equipment's size and complexity increases. . When the pilot flame lights. safety (limit) controls prevent or stop an unsafe condition from occurring. heat exchanger. If the main flame does not light. 2. the main fuel valve closes. must be created to force air and gas through the equipment and chimney. When operating correctly. room thermostats may be used to control the flow of hot water to the terminal units in each room. The term draft is also used in an associated manner to refer to the air or gas flow itself caused by the pressure differential. On a call for heat. secondary operating controls are often also used. Postpurging. it rises through the chimney. a fan starts. called draft. 2. It is important to keep in mind both meanings of draft when dealing with combustion problems: draft is both the pressure to move the air and gas. the resistance to airflow also increases. 4. A typical programming control sequence for a small commercial gas-fired boiler might be: I. to allow for the pressure drop through the furnace heat exchanger. 3. The manufacturer will provide precise values. the flame safety control continually checks the flame.g. For instance. Under normal circumstances. legal restrictions. resulting in a need for more draft. and flue. purging any combustion gases that might remain in the boiler from the last operation. and the J10l!. the main gas valve opens.5 BOILER AND FURNACE DRAFT Since boilers and furnaces need a constant supply of fresh combustion air. 5. Safety Controls As discussed earlier. drawing cool air into the boiler through the openings at the bottom (the chimney flue effect). and cost. 4. the flame safety control shuts down the burner. If the flame fails or is unstable. On shutdown.2). The pressure in the flue outlet will be slightly more negative. w. operate automatically in a specific programmed sequence.80 CHAPTER4 hot water boilers. Natural draft provides enough combustion air for simpler equipment. Note that this is an extremely small pressure. like furnace controls (Section 4.g. Conditions that boiler safety controls may check for are 1. a pressure differential. but this approach has physical limits. Draft can be created either naturally or mechanically. Natural draft results from the difference in densities between the hot gas in the combustion chamber and the surrounding cool air.04 in. the pilot gas valve opens. Prepurging. the fan continues to run for a short time after the burner stops to purge the remaining combustion gases. a temperature controller ("aquastat") is used. and the pilot flame is lit. High steam pressure (steam boilers) High hot water temperature (hot water boilers) High or low fuel oil/fuel gas pressure High or low fuel oil temperature Low water level Flame failure Programming Control Sequence Commercial boiler controls. 6. When controls sensing conditions in the boiler are used. itself. the flame safety control shuts the pilot flame gas val ve. the system shuts down. 4. plus problems with aesthetics. an ignition transformer is energized. 5. 3. The pressure differential must be great enough to allow the flowing air and gas to overcome the resistance from friction in the combustion chamber. Natural draft can be increased by usin. A small negative pressure (relative to the atmospheric pressure) exists in the furnace in a natural draft unit.g a taller chimney. w. If the pilot flame does not light. the overfire (combustion chamber) draft pressure reading in a typical residential furnace will be about -0. During operation.

(A power unit has a combustion air fan in the burner.10 Draft hood. mechanical draft fans provide closer control of draft (airflow quantity) than natural draft does. An induced draft fan. Generally. as will be seen in the following discussion. blows air through the furnace. reducing efficiency because the excess air is being heated and then thrown away.g. In addition to being able to develop more pressure than natural draft. this reduces the chimney draft to its previous leveL A momentary decrease in updraft will be canceled by an opposite reaction in the flue. or both. these potential problems. t Flue Draft Control Draft (airflow) should remain constant for a given fuel firing rate. power burners. However. mechanical devices must be used. A draft hood (Figures 4. The barometric damper. Because of. A forced draft fan. is used to control draft in oil-fired equipment and some power gasfired units. pulls combustion air through the equipment and discharges it into the stack. adequate draft control can usually be achieved using a draft hood (also called a draft diverter) or barometric damper. creating a dangerous situation. the draft hood diverts the air into the surrounding space rather than into the combustion chamber. The terms powered combustion. thereby wasting fuel. excess draft results in too much air. A sudden downdraft (gas flow down the chimney) due to outside disturbances can even blowout the flame. A momentary increase in updraft will draw more surrounding air from the room into the flue via the hood. Draft hood / Room air "'- Gases from boiler or furnace t ~- . Changes in te)lJ. In this arrangement.. Too Iowa draft supplies insufficient air so that combustion' is incomplete. a draft fan may be used with a tall chimney. and the chimney flue effect handles the required stack draft. so that the two together develop the needed draft. located at the equipment's air inlet. The greater volume of air in the flue increases the resistance to airflow.3 and 4. Either an induced draft fan or a forced draft fan may be used. Since the forced draft fan creates positive pressure in the boiler/furnace.10) is used on vented gas-fired equipment. wind) can cause changes in the draft through the equipment. For smaller units.11).perature and outside air conditions (e. and mechanical draft all refer to the use of fans to develop sufficient pressure to move the combustion gases through the boiler/furnace and flue.FURNACES AND BOILERS 81 When the natural draft would be insufficient. also called a barometric draft regulator (Figure 4. a means of maintaining constant draft is needed. Note that the draft hood is a safety device as well as a means of maintaining approximately constant draft. adversely affecting the equipment's performarice. located at the equipment's outlet. and only a short stack is needed. a fan with adequate pressure is used to create both furnace and stack draft. If a downdraft occurs. where it could blowout the pilot or main flame or cause poor combustion.) As stack updraft increases or Figure 4. if mechanical draft is to be used. the fan creates only the furnace draft. care must be taken in the equipment's design and maintenance to prevent combustion gas leakage into the room.

When the vent damper closes. This may be acceptable with small equipment. oil. H 2 . Gases frarr: boiler or furnace t 4. This is the thermal energy that the boiler or furnace attempts to capture (as much of as is practical). but the inefficiency is too costly for larger units. they control stack draft better than controlling furnace draft.6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION Combustion is the rapid chemical combination of the combustible substances in a fuel with oxygen (in the air). When combustion is complete. In the process. However. S) or as COlllpounds of those elements. eventually causing corrosion. a highly toxic gas. the furnace draft may still vary too much to maintain an efficient air/fuel ratio. The products of combustion are mostly gases at a high temperature. the damper will open or close. incomplete combustion of carbon produces carbon monoxide (CO). The possible combustible substances in these fuels are carbon (C). They are easier to handle and generally have less pollutant products. Coal is still extensively used in many large power plant boilers because of its lower cost. the possible products are carbon dioxide (CO. producing a different product. Furnaces or boilers that have power burners (i. a new problem arises. and sulfur dioxide (SOl)' Combustion may be incomplete. (The vent damper can also be installed in existing systems. and coal. hydrogen (H2)' and sulfur (S). Fossil fuels may also contain small amounts of noncombustible substances. an automatically controlled outlet damper is often used instead of a barometric damper.g boilers and furnaces. for . These may exist in the fuel in their element form (C. special chimney or vent materials may be required to prevent this occurrence. canceling the momentary change in draft in the same way that a draft hood does. For example. This device is regulated by a pressure sensor in the furnace and adjusts automatically to maintain the proper furnace draft. with burner draft fans) may use one of the draft regulating devices discussed or may rely only on the burner fan to control draft. Gas and oil have largely replaced coal as the fos. but instead closes automatically to prevent airflow through the stack when the system is shut down. These gases are used to heat water or air or to generate steam. the hydrocarbon methane (CH4 ) is a combustible compound often present in fuel. decreases.11 Barometric damper. In larger equipment. sil fuels for space heatin. For instance. Because the draft hood and barometric damper are located in the vent stack. Not all fuels contain all of the combustible elements or compounds.3). Consequently.82 CHAPTER4 t Flue -Damper Room air example. This may reduce energy losses. stored energy is released as thermal energy (heat) in the products of combustion. The fan also improves draft control. !be chimney cools down for long periods and water vapor may condense on start-up.e..) The fan is needed to overcome the greater resistance of the larger heat exchanger. water vapor (H2 0). The three major fossil fuels used in boilers and furnaces are gas. Figure 4. a closed damper prevents the loss of warm air from the building. The vent damper in the flue i's not modulated. Newer higher efficiency residential units often use a mechanical draft combustion air fan and an automatic vent damper (Figure 4. if the boiler/furnace is in a heated space.).

I oil Combustion The chemical reaction In which a fuel combines with oxygen in the air and releases heat is called TABLE 4. convenience.1 IS. Since oil must be stored in tanks. This eliminates deliveries and storage needs. primarily methane (CH4 ) and lesser amounts of ethane (C2 H6 ).9 1000 BTUlft3 140. Oil Fuel oils are available in different grades (numbers I. market conditions. Wood-fired units are growing in use. . 1 8. No.2 fuel oil No. This limits their usage to larger installations with auxiliary heating equipment. Values are approximate.6 ft 3/ft3 1410 ft 3/gal IS20 ft3/ga l 940 ft 3/lb 12.000 BTU/lb Notes: Air/fuel ratios based on air densjty of 0. 2. Their advantage is that they cost less than No.6 fuel oil Bituminous coal 9.6 and No.5 11.3 13.000 BTU/gal IS3. as the composition of fuels varies.9 12. Waste-fired boilers. For residences. unlike both oil and coal. The lower number grades are lighter in density and have a lower viscosity and slightly lower heating values.O 16. The products of complete combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor.6 IS.1 FUEL COMBUSTION DATA Percent CO2 in Combustion Gas Quantity of Air Supplied Fuel Theoretical Air/Fuel Ratio Theoretical 20% Excess 40% Excess Heating Value Natural gas No.2 9.1. (kerosene) is limited to small space heaters.FURNACES AND BOILERS 83 Gas Natural gas is the most commonly used gaseous fuel. save depletable fuel resources and aid in garbage disposal problems. :2 heating oil and natural gas.5 oils require preheating before they become fluid enough to be used.4 10. the popular choices are No. cost. Biogas is a fuel gas (largely methane) that results from decomposing garbage. Fuel Choice The system designer should consider availability. There are already a number of installations tapping biogas from large garbage landfills in the United States. In some cases. depending on the source. as required with oil and coal. The cost of each varies with location. Fuel oil is composed largely of hydrocarbons and a small amount of sulfur. in others. and 6). 5.2 oil is generally used in residential and small commercial furnaces and boilers. for larger installations. No. They are convenient where piped natural gas is not available. Natural gas is composed of a number of hydrocarbons. Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) is the name given to both of the hydrocarbon gaseous fuels propane and butane.075 Ib/ft3 are by volume. which use garbage. The exact composition varies. Use of No.6 12. gas is cheaper. and legislated price controls. it is less convenient than natural gas. A few cities are already successfully using large waste-fired boilers. Heating values for various fuels are shown in Table 4. Its greatest convenience is that it is delivered directly from the gas wells through pipelines to the consumer. It also contains virtually no pollutants. oil costs less. because they are liquified and bottled for use. 4. In smaller quantities. and pollution effects of the various fuels.S 18. The amount of heat released by complete combustion of natural gas (called the heating value) is about 1000 BTU/fe.000 BTU/gal 13.2 oil. oil storage tanks are buried underground or placed outdoors. oil may be stored indoors. particularly in those areas where wood is abundant.

.. Because it is not practical or economical to construct equipment to mix air and fuel perfectly... excess air (air above the theoretical quantity) is always furnished. ~ ..... The result is unburned fuel and a waste of energy.......... However. Manufacturers furnish data on recommended air/fuel ratios for their equipment.. r---........ r--.. and fuel heating values.....r--- - t-- II. 8 7 6 5 ...- '" ~ . I'--.... r-. The amount of air required for complete combustion is called the theoretical air quantity and the resulting ratio of air to fuel is called the theoretical air(fUel ratio... Generally..................12 used.. the efficiency of a boiler/furnace is maximized by using the minimum excess air needed for complete combustion..... (Courtesy: Dunham Bush/Iron Fireman.. . efficiency is unnecessarily reduced.. :--f-.... ... I'-.I"--- -..... Furthermore... burning. "- ~ .... ~ r--... Table 4... resulting in a tremendous energy waste........ To prevent this problem. r--.. a highly toxic pollutant.... In practice. r-.........84 CHAPTER4 combustion.... --.. . "'""''" ~ 'r-.. I"-.. r-....12 show theoretical airlfuel ratios. because the excess air is being heated and then thrown away. CO 2 content in the combustion gases for different excess air quantities...... incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide (CO).. ...... Ijeil~ l..ighl ......... larger units need less excess air. The minimum amount of excess air actually needed for complete combustion to occur depends on the type of fuel and the construction of the heat.. ~ r----. If too much excess air is Figure 4....... if a boiler or furnace is furnished with the exact theoretical air quantity.. r-- I"--..1 and Figure 4.... or more commonly. many installations are operated with huge oversupplies of excess air..Pg~s -- t-- r-- N~ 60 o 10 20 30 40 50 r 70 80 90 100 Percent excess air .r--__ Jail .. and may vary from 5-50% above 100% theoretical air. combustion will not be complete. Effect of excess air on CO 2 percentage in flue gas. ing device and controls.. ...... r----.) 18 17 16 15 14 N ~ Effect of excess air on CO 2 for typical oil and gas fuels 0 0 13 12 11 10 9 C Q) Q) e CL '" "" "'" '" .

Using measurements of the stack gas temperature and percent CO2 in the flue gas (see chapter 16). After such a test. resulting in corrosion of the chimney and the heating unit. Some newer. the heating specialist can determine the combustion efficiency of the equipment from Table 4.2 illustrate how the heating specialist can use measurement of percentage of CO 2 in the stack gas to detennine the necessary amount of combustion air and the percent excess air used. Combustion Efficiency Some of the heat in the combustion gases is not transferred to the boiler water or furnace warm air. In units that are operating well. as seen in Figure 4. The flue gas analyzer reads 10% CO2 .) Example 4. the more the heat input has been utilized. After the results are compared to the manufacturer's data. This testing should be performed regularly.FURNACES AND BOILERS 85 Examples 4. Table 4.flue gas loss heat input (4. it is not advisable to cool the gas much below 300 F because the water vapor in the gas might condense.The quantity of excess air therefore should be kept at the minimum that still results in complete fuel combustion. This lost heat is called the flue gas loss. and noting that the actual air quantity should be 1. Excess air The excess air beyond the theoretical amount needed for complete combustion is air that is heated in the furnance and then wasted up the flue. Flue gas temperature The hot flue gas going up the stack means that some of its heat has not been used.1 and 4. How many CFM of combustion air should be supplied? Solution Using the air/fuel ratio data from Table 4. Is the air/fuel ratio satisfactory? Solution From Figure 4. adjustments may be performed to improve the unit's efficiency. defined as: Combustion efficiency = --~-~~---xIOO% There are two sources of the flue gas loss. The lower the temperature.x 1.2 oil are taken.2 uses the difference between the temperatures of the stack gas and of the boiler room. However. percent CO 2 and temperature on the percent of heat input from the fuel that is lost to the flue gas.1 A boiler firing IS gallhr of No. The answer is a loud NO! A great deal of excess hot gas is going up the stack. the technician may adjust the air/fuel ratio if the air is excessive. the flue gas is discharged from about 300-600 F. "high efficiency" heating equipment is intentionally designed with larger heat exchangers. 45% excess air is being used.12.12.2 A technician measures 8 % CO 2 in the combustion gas of a natural gas-fired boiler that requires 15% excess air for complete combustion.1) .2 times the theoretical (20% excess).3 In carrying out an energy study. The amount of excess air is represented by the CO2 percentage in the flue gas.x . The stack gas temperature is heat input . (Note: Table 4. enough heat is transferred from the combustion gases so that the flue gas temperature is as low as 110 F. The measure of the effectiveness of using the available heat imput from the fuel is the combustion efficiency. Example 4. Both the chimney/flue and heat exchanger must be constrncted of corrosionresistant material. Note that the higher the percent COlo the less excess air.2 oil requires 20% excess air for complete combustion. due to physical and economic limitations on the size of the heat exchanger. readings on a boiler burning No.2 gal hr 60 min =423 CFM Example 4. in accordance with the manufacturer's data.2.1.2 shows the effect of flue gas. ft3 gal I hr CFM= 1410 x 15 ...

6 19.6 37.5 38.8 22.7 17.0 13.6 27.4 28.3 22.1 32.3 24.2 23.0 41.8 31.0 6.0 9.8 22.5 20.8 30.36 H 9.4 23.0 42.3 40.0 7.1 23.4 19.5 16.2 31.8 28.7 37.6 28.150/1b % by Weight C 89.5 43.0 27.4 32.5 30.0 5.2 31.3 CO2 0.0 25.6 21.6 17.1 31.3 25.8 33.6 22.2 24.9 50.6 32.3 11.750/1b % by Weight C 86.0 39.1 22.0 13.4 15.8 15.7 25.7 25.5 7.1 28.7 20.3 IS.7 20.4 19.8 22.1 25.4 21.2 20.4 22.0 18.1 22.9 29.6 22.1 16.8 29.0 11.9 23.0 S.0 5.3 29.4 35.3 34.2 22.3 20.7 27.0 26.5 27.5 21.0 31.2 24.8 19.2 24.5 6.3 27.3 26.2 50.5 9.4 35.5 26.5 19.3 20.9 24.0 36.4 21.0 31.O 8.0 37.5 27.0 15.6 33.1 28.2 N 0.5 5.6 17.4 28.5 6.6 49.5 19.5 10.4 29.7 40.1 45.6 33.2 28.9 29.5 25.4 27.8 32.5 8.2 23.3 29.8 23.7 27.1 29.8 14.8 25.9 24.6 22.4 23.8 24.9 17.4 15.3 33.7 19.4 28.5 21.5 32.TABLE 4.0 30.2 30.5 26.7 20.6 31.2 26.0 28.5 13.2 25.9 35.9 32.2 48.6 38.8 27.3 21.2 26.1 27.4 24.0 14.2 14.2 19.8 21.3 30.2 25.2 31.4 18.9 29.2 32.3 18.9 25.6 16.3 25.1 20.0 29.5 14.7 28.4 17.5 47.9 18.7 14.6 17.2 19.3 33.6 18.5 40.5 33.7 21.9 23.9 16.4 13.0 23.8 21.5 7.5 26.0 25.1 43.0 22.6 IS.8 25.5 10.8 25.8 40.9 30.3 14.1 27.8 26.3 28. I 17.3 17.19 Ash 0.5 34.5 20.4 27.8 17.7 23.1 20.3 20.0 19.8 3S.8 39.9 27.0 11.3 20.6 0 0.5 27.0 14.9 19.4 24.9 18.8 39.3 16.2 29.8 35.3 33.3 22.5 7.05 (Courtesy: Dunham Bushnron Fireman.2 16.0 23.8 47.5 4.0 6.7 26.0 38.0 5.) .3 15.4 30.7 41.3 29.2 24.5 146 .3 N2 2.1 26.4 26.4 32.6 15.0 22.2 EFFECT OF FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AND CO2 ON HEAT LOSS (%) TO FLUE GAS % CO 2 Difference Between Flue Gas and Room Temperature in Degrees F 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 NATURAL GAS Fuel Analysis 1120 BTu/cu It % by Volume CH 4 79.1 37.6 16.7 25.5 25.3 24.3 22.8 22.6 18.6 28.5 S.0 4.6 23.9 22.4 20.9 C2H6 17.30 S 0.5 16.8 23.5 43.8 12.9 25.5 18.5 8.4 33.2 32.8 26.0 9.0 17.1 29.1 35.1 16.9 30.2 40.3 37.1 42.7 41.5 25.0 34.3 26.9 35.8 24.9 36.8 27.9 31.5 19.0 14.8 28.8 25.4 21.2 23.2 18.7 35.0 7.1 30.3 32.2 23.8 43.6 30.5 21.4 25.9 34.0 18.6 FUEL OIL Fuel Analysis BTU 18.6 26.3 35.5 12.3 30.0 24.5 21.0 15.0 12.8 22.6 18.0 17.6 18.8 36.4 34.1 17.6 27.8 32.8 44.9 19.0 26.9 20.1 30.0 6.3 20.7 26.5 30.S 26.5 38.8 25.9 25.1 I NO.5 29.5 19.0 29.4 20.8 22.7 33.1 24.2 37.3 21.3 21.5 30.9 27.0 35.4 31.8 25.7 NO.9 28.2 36.1 28.2 FUEL OIL Fuel Analysis BTU 19.3 35.0 18.2 24.0 20.6 36.4 21.2 31.5 19.9 28.9 16.4 31.9 27.5 17.1 26.8 33.0 22.1 13.2 43.5 10.1 44.6 14.0 9.3 32.0 5.1 19.0 25.0 29.9 35.1 46.4 28.7 25.8 42.1 25.6 23.6 17.9 16.0 12.5 23.6 26.6 30.1 46.5 30.20 0 0.3 21.4 44.9 36.0 19.1 H 13.9 17.5 9.3 20.4 17.2 47.90 N 0.6 21.1 28.2 19.0 18.2 21.4 19.4 23.1 23.9 16.2 20.8 18.0 2S.0 30.0 19.2 20.6 28.4 13.4 34.1 14.3 39.4 21.3 33.8 27.7 22.8 15.4 31.4 23.7 20.9 24.4 19.9 20.2 36.1 17.1 23.5 23.8 18.1 17.7 24.4 20.0 22.0 22.0 16.2 27.8 41.7 33.7 21.8 40.0 22.0 26.3 21.8 23.7 36.0 11.1 26.3 26.0 29.1 53.9 23.8 34.8 35.3 16.5 13.0 33.9 13.7 26.3 18.2 17.0 5.5 15.7 38.5 6.4 22.5 29.7 15.5 34.1 30.1 22.4 23.0 24.8 15.7 24.4 20.6 36.6 20.9 37.4 20.9 21.1 18.0 40.5 24.4 21.2 23.0 8.2 24.7 15.8 34.5 9.8 41.0 7.8 44.1 22.2 22.2 16.4 28.4 21.5 35.7 24.0 38.0 25.2 32.9 2S.9 31.5 IS.

Control methods are the same as for smoke and ash. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an extremely toxic gas resulting from incomplete combustion of carbon or hydrocarbons. Some of the pollutants contribute to respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis. The HVAC specialist needs to be aware of what these pollutants are and how they can be controlled.18. The pollutants include smoke.0 .2. Using Table 4. Nitrous oxides result from high flame temperatures. ranging from light to dark. When present. representing the opacity or density of smoke. it may result from fuel oil combustion. They react with other substances in the atmosphere to form smog. Soot is carbon-ash particles.70 = 400 F. Poor mixing of fuel and air (even with sufficient air) 3. the heat loss to the flue gas is 21. What is the combustion efficiency of the boiler? Solution The difference between the stack gas and room temperatures is 570 . Nitrous oxide control methods include using natural gas instead of oil and maintaining low excess air and low flame temperatures. ash. Pollution codes limit the density number. They can also result in damage to forests. A significant fuel savings (about 3%) has been accomplished.0%. larger in size than smoke. Burning with too much air . Proper adjustment of the air~fuel ratio and maintenance of burners and combustion controls are necessary to prevent smoke.21. Although it is formed primarily from coal combustion.1 = 81. A.3.0%. and the quality of lakes. Smoke as dark or darker than #2 density shall not be allowed at aiL B. less than the theoretical air) 2. For instance. it can be removed by filters or similar means. For instance. This is a card with four sections numbered from 1 to 4. What is the combustion efficiency? Solution The difference between the stack gas and room temperatures is now 470 . The combustion efficiency is 100.0 = 79. Fuel oil is generally more of a problem than natural gas. carbon monoxide (CO). and lung cancer. Smoke is very small particles from the combustion process formed by 1. Proper maintenance and adjus·tment of burners and draft will prevent its formation. Sulfur trioxide (S03) can be removed by neutralizing it with an additive compound.2 fuel oil used in New York City cannot contain more than 0. The combustion efficiency is 100. for No.2.2 oil. which has serious respiratory effects.4 A soot blower is used to clean off the heating surfaces of the boiler in Example 4. Smoke is easily measured by the Ringlemann Chart. sulfur dioxide (S02). From Table 4. Sulfur dioxide (S02) results from the combustion of sulfur present in fuel oil and coaL Fuel oil with very low sulfur content is required in many urban areas. . soot.0 . at 500 F and 10% CO 2. Ash consists of particles of noncombustible solids produced after combustion. ExampZe4.1 %.. No.2% sulfur.70 = 500 F. emphysema. the New York City Air Pollution Code sets the following smoke limits. due to insufficient excess air. The stack gas temperature now reads 470 F. Insufficient oxygen (that is. devices. Another method of control is to remove the S02 gas in the stack with appropriate .FURNACES AND BOILERS 87 570 F and the boiler room temperature is 70 F. Combustion and Air Pollution The combustion of fossil fuels can unfortunately produce air pollutants. Premature chilling of a partially burned mixture 4. Smoke darker than # 1 but less than #2 shall not be given off for more than 2 minutes in anyone-hour period. and nitrogen oxides (NOJ. sulfur trioxide (S03). agricultural crops. the heat loss is 18.9%.

Figure 4.14) include a manual shut-off valve or cock. there is a perpetual waste of heat up the stack. or direct spark igllition. Gas Burner Ignition Fuel ignition in a gas burner may be achieved by a standing pilot. A ring -burner has the ports arranged around a ring-shaped pipe (like a kitchen stove). each designed to match the furnace characteristics and size. the electrically controlled main valve. the air/gas mixture then goes into the combustion chamber. where a standing pilot may be blown out by wind. The remainder of the combustion air (called secolldal). Power gas burners use fans to deliver the air. the pilot flame ignites it. To save energy. intermittent pilot ignition rnay be used. into the gas stream. (This arrangement is also called a premix type burlleJ.88 CHAPTER4 4. There is no pilot. breaks up the liquid oil into a spray of small droplets.2 and 4. mixing of the fuel gas and primary air is enhanced by vanes or other devices. The pilot and main gas are both shut off when the heating requirement is satisfied. and the pilot piping. The fan creates turbulence to promote air and gas mixing.13) deliver the gas vertically upward. a single combination valve (Figure 4.7 GAS AND OIL BURNERS The fuel burner is a device for delivering the fuel and part or all of the combustion air to the furnacel boiler. existing equipment may often be easily converted to intermittent pilot ignition. It also helps to mix the fuel and air. The fan may be designed for complete forced draft (to overcome furnace and stack draft loss) or only to overcome furnace draft loss. an intermittent pilot. only on a call for heating. When the main gas fuel enters the combustion chamber. Another version has a narrow slot (ribbon). and when fuel oil is used.13). since some of the air and gas mix before entering the burner ports. Ins/lOt burners have ports located to deliver the gas horizontally. The amount of primary air may be varied by using adjustable shutters or dampers at the opening. a gas pressure regulator.13 Atmospheric gas burner. air) is drawn by natural draft directly into the combustion chamber around the burner head ports (openings). Typical gas manifold connections to a burner with a pilot flame (Figure 4. Intermittent pilot ignition is also useful on rooftop equipment. Burner head is upshot type. Since the pilot flame remains burning when the burner is off.) In some burners. relying on natural induced draft for the stack. multiple pipes can be arranged in parallel. Descriptions of typical ignition procedures were given in Sections 4. The pilot is lit by a spark. Many states have banned standing pilots on new gas-fired equipment as an energy conservation measure. On newer residential equipment. and sensor. a pilot safety coritrol. A standing pilot is a continuously burning small gas flame. burner. the fuel gas is fed into the combustion chamber and a spark ignites the gas directly. Gas Burners Atmospheric gas burners and power gas burners differ in how the air and fuel gas are delivered to the combustion chamber. The pilot flame then lights the main fuel. upshot burners (Figure 4. Some gas fuel equipment uses direct spark ignition. Although not usually legally required.4. On a call for heating.15) serves the functions of gas . the flow of fuel through a Venturi (a nozzle-shaped tube) draws part of the combustion air (called primary air) through an opening. In the atmospheric burner (Figure 4. Various burner head anangements are available. The burner may have one or more ports in a pipe.

Except for one type. it is . and main gas valve. Home Study Institute Division.14 Gas manifold valves and burner arrangements. (Courtesy: North American Heating & Air Conditioning Wholesalers Association. Because the vaporization is slow and difficult to control. all oil burners have the additional function of mechanically assisting in vaporizing the fuel oiL Vaporizing the oil is necessary since oil will not burn in its liquid state.) cock. (Courtesy: North American Heating & Air Conditioning Wholesalers Association. The vaporizing pot burner is basically a bowl filled with fuel oil.) Generator Lighting dial External vent connection Pilot Gas Connection Figure 4. Oil Burners An oil burner mixes fuel oil and combustion air and delivers the mixture to the combustion chamber. The oil at the surface vaporizes naturally due to its vapor pressure. pressuni"regulator. the vaporizing pot burner.FURNACES AND BOILERS Pressure regulator Safety shut-off Automatic Venturi & 89 orifice I Gas supply • Pilot burner Cock Pilot filter generator Figure 4. Home Study Institute Division.15 Combination gas valve. pilot safety control. aided by the turbulence and heat from the combustion gas.

and atomizing. This process.Iql~~ Oil flows through stationary fuel tube Primary air damper Worm drive for oil pumps Magnetic oil valve . or mechanical pressure atomizing burner (Figure 4. causing atomization.. these types of burners are used with larger commercial equipment and are suitable for both heavy and light oils.17). They differ considerably from each other. The horizontal rotary cup burner (Figure 4.¢¢""""""~~ Atomizer cup/b~~.. atomizes oil by pumping it under high pressure through a small diameter nozzle.. Side sectional view Standard motor Primary --ff--tl~ I~ air fan Air nozzle \. increases the oil's surface area.. Deflector vanes at the burner outlet (head) cause mixing and proper distribution of the oil-air mixture. Each burner type has an oil pump. The gun burner. turbulence.90 CHAPTER4 used mainly in space heaters burning No. is used in both resi- Figure 4. called atomizing.2 oil. 1 oil. Steam atomizing or air atomizing burners use steam or air under pressure to create fuel and air mixing. and an ignition system. which vaporizes more rapidly than heavier oils. A combustion air fan introduces air through a tube surrounding the nozzle. a combustion air fan. causing it to vaporize faster. The other types of oil burners help vaporize oil by breaking it up into very small droplets..16) has a rotating cup which throws the oil into the air stream. The gun burner. both in the means of atomizing the oil and introducing it into the combustion chamber. which usually uses No.16 Rotary oil cup burner.

The methods of burner capacity control are: On/Off. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA). Essentially it has the components of both burner types in the burner housing. Combination Burners A combination burner can burn both oil and gas. resulting in higher combustion efficiency. Gun burners have a relatively low turn-down ratio. which is used with warm air furnaces and residential boilers. Steam or air atomizing burners and rotary cup burners have a relatively high turn-down ratio.. or where prices may change so that the relative costs of the fuels reverse. Oil Burner Ignition Ignition of the oil-air mixture in gun burners is done with a high voltage electric spark.) dential and smaller commercial oil-fired boilers and furnaces. fuels. or by a steam pressure or water temperature controller.FURNACES AND BOILERS Ignition electrode Air-adjusting collar Ignition Electrode bracket 91 Electric motor Strainer Oil line from tank Nozzle tube Nozzle ad'.17 High pressure atomizing ("gun type") burner. which limits their ability to operate at part capacity. Other controls are available. A high turn-down ratio is desirable because the boiler/furnace can operate at a low capacity when necessary. Gas and Oil Burner Firing Rate Control Burner capacity (firing rate) may be controlled by a space thermostat.pt'3' Ignition transformer Cut-off valve Nozzle strainer Fuel pump Pressure-relief valve Figure 4. Ignition of rotary cup and steam or air atomizing burners is usually done with a gas pilot flame or a spark ignited pilot oil burner. which is the ratio of maximum to minimum fuel oil flow that the burner can handle. and modu{ation. which is often used with commercial boilers . thereby saving fuel. It is useful when there is the possibility of a shortage of one of the two . Small. Retention head gun burners have a head (outlet) that is designed to improve mixing and combustion. too.gun burners may operate only in an on-off mode. High/Low/Off.

because it ensures safe burner operation. However. The sensor can detect one of three possible effects of the flame: temperature (heat).8 FLAME SAFETY CONTROLS A safety control that deserves special consideration is the flame safety control. by control of fuel and airflow rates over the entire tum-down range. Flame failure will open the circuit causing the valve to close. this limits the boiler/furnace to full capacity operation only.18) is a light-sensitive device whose conductivity increases in the presence of strong light radiation. Because it rea. The flame rod is a suitable flame safety control for gas ignition systems. fuel characteristics.92 CHAPTER4 An On/Off control simply starts and stops the burner. Since a flame conducts electricity. 4.19) is a heat-sensitive device placed in the stack to sense gas temperature. full modulation of burner capacity. When deviations from the correct amount occur. or radiation (either visible light or infrared or ultraviolet radiation). (The photo cell is not used with a gas flame. or if the flame fails during operation. and equipment conditions. since it closes the gas valve quickly (1-3 seconds). If fuel were to continue to enter the furnace and not be burned. the programmed controller takes action to adjust the airfuel ratio. use of these control methods is common in smaller equipment because of their low cost and simplicity. It is pointed at the flame location and allows the burner to operate only when the cell conducts. a microprocessor-based combustion control system can be used that continually measures the percent oxygen in the combustion gases. The flame safety control consists of a flame sensing element and a means of relaying its signal to start or stop fuel flow. allowing the furnace/ boiler to be more closely matched to load variations. The thermocouple consists Of two wires of different metals that at a high temperature create a very small voltage. A common method for doing this is to interlock the fuel valve and air damper after the initial adjustments have been made to provide the most efficient air-fuel ratio. Fuel valves and air dampers are automatically modulated by the temperature or pressure controllers. It consists of two electrodes placed at the flame location. the thermocouple is not a satisfactory flame safety control for larger heating equipment nor for equipment that uses intermittent pilot or direct ignition. This control shuts off the fuel supply if the fuel does not ignite. the flame's presence completes a circuit opening the gas valve. an explosion may occur. humidity. Although considerable heat is wasted in starting up the heating equipment and when it is in the off cycle." The stack switch (Figure 4. . The flame rod is not used in oil-fired systems because the flame temperature is too high for the electrodes. The photo cell (Figure 4. the air-fuel ratio may change even for fixed relative positions of fuel valve and damper due to changes in temperature. If the flame fails. Gas-fired residential furnaces and boilers with a standing pilot use a heat sensing thermocouple for flame detection. The result is improved efficiency under all operating conditions.) The photo cell for small boilers and furnaces is often made of cadmium sulfide and is then given the name "cad cell. because the intensity of light from a gas flame is too low. The stack switch is often a bimetal type thermostat. To achieve maximum efficiency in larger uuits. A High/Low/Off (or High/ Mediurn/Low/Oft) control provides more flexibility in operatiug capacity. is standard. Oil-fired residential units use either a photo cell or a stack switch for flame detection. The thermocouple is placed in the pilot flame. a serious explosion hazard would quickly arise.ts slowly. the control circuit will be deenergized and the gas valve will close. Since it may take the main gas valve 30-40 seconds to close. To correct for this. flame electrical conductivity. enough gas will collect in the combustion chamber so that when the spark ignites the mixture on a call for heat.

and Ultraviolet cells. which is then used in a relay to start or stop fnel flow. Flame safety controls for larger commercial equipment must react more quickly because fuel enters at a greater rate. since they react very fast. permitting burner operation. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA). the type of radiation from the flame changes an electrical propet:ty of the detector. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).) The bimetal closes a circuit on high temperature. In each case. The photo cell has replaced the stack switch as flame safety control in newer equipment both because of its faster response and its direct sensing of flame presence.19 Stack switch flame safety control. The three types of radiation flame sensors used in commercial equipment are: photo. Radiation sensing safety controls are ideal. reaching an explosive concentration sooner.etirlO slots Bimetallic element Drive·shaft lever Ignition timing adjusting lever Recycle·timing adjustment lever Burner motor relay I. Figure 4.) Mounting bracket Velntil.FURNACES AND BOILERS 93 Figure 4.gnition transformer relay SafetY'switch reset lever .18 Photo-cell-type flame safety control sensor ("cad cell" element). infrared.

If necessary. and in the other flows the water to be heated. standards . such as increasing the draft loss. Upper zone Lower zone 1-_ _+_-+--jHot water i-L------' Steam boiler I I ___I convertor Figure 4. space cooling. but absorption refrigeration machines require heat to produce refrigeration (Chapter 13). They are confusing and sometimes misleading. and it is recommended that they be avoided. It may seem strange that hot water or steam can be used for cooling. Another solution is to put the boiler on the roof. The Hydronics. considering the additional expense and complication of the converter. For these and further reasons. steam from the boiler flows. It is possible to ob c tain small boilers with a service hot water heating coil furnished internally. 4. Figure 4./nstitute. The boiler used for space heating is often also used to heat service hot water. a separate heat exchanger is usually specified. called .9 BOILER APPLICATIONS Terminal units Hot water heating boilers generate hot water that is used directly in hydronic heating systems. Steam heating boilers generate steam that may be used directly in steam heating systems. fuel firing rates. An obvious question arises as to why a hot water boiler should not be used. It is also possible to produce increased 0titput by sacrificing other characteristics. boiler horsepower. In one circuit. from which the proper boiler can be selected for a given application. an independent industry organization. The answer is that low-pressure hot water boilers usually are designed for a maximum pressure of 30 psig.94 CHAPTER4 4. The use of these units is disappearing. Boilers are rated by their heat output in BTUlhr.20 Arrangement of steam boiler and hot water convertors in hydronic heating system for high-rise building. and equivalent direct radiation (EDR). Very high buildings may be split into zones to prevent excess pressure on equipment. It is also desirable to specify the temperature and flow rate of steam or hot water required. their conversion equalities can be found in tables. If a hot water boiler were installed in a basement or lower floor with more than 69 ft of height of water piping above it. or heating of service (domestic) hot water. The hot water or steam generated in boilers may be used for space heating. and draft loss.3 x 30 = 69 ft water. has established recommended standards for hot water boilers. it would be subject to an unsafe pressure. It is possible to produce increased capacity output from a boiler by firing it at very high fuel rates and by other variations in operating procedures. Two other units beside the BTUlhr have been used in specifying boiler capacity.10 BOILER RATING AND SELECTION - "--- Manufacturers present rating data in tables. have been adopted on procedures for testing and rating boilers. or the steam may be used to heat the hot water with a heat exchanger called a converter. furnace volume. These standards may also recommend characteristics such as required amount of heating surface. This corresponds to a head of 2. These practices may shorten the life of the boiler.20 shows this arrangement. With large boilers.

This is usually stated in the manufacturer's catalog.5 A building has a net space heating load of 370. It is suggested that the HVAC engineer check if a boiler has been tested and rated in accordance with I-B-R standards before selection. Experience has led to standard allowances for the piping and pickUp losses that are often ade- quate. because of two factors: I. some of which is not useful heating (piping in unheated areas). This is called the pickup loss. For buildings that are intermittently heated (e.FURNACES AND BOILERS 95 I-B-R ratings.g. That is Gross output = net output + piping loss + pickup loss (4. The piping and pickup losses are not the same for every building and often are not easy to determine accurately. but not eliminate. if nighttime temperature setback is practiced. the excess capacity can be used to cover large pickup requirements. In residential (and some small commercial) applications. pickup factOl.. For hot water boilers. The boiler net output is the gross output less the piping and pickup losses. Under normal conditions.2) The boiler net output can be considered as equal to the building heating load for a hot water or steam heating system (plus service hot water load on the boiler. Second. The American Gas Association (AGA) also recommends standards for gas-fired boilers. For instance. However. Typically. and equipment of the heating system itself must be heated. Piping and Pickup Loss The heat output of a boiler is used to deliver the building heating load. in the morning. (The standard allowance for steam boilers is different. They depend both on the building and heating system configuration.000 BTUlhr. a 40% piping and pickUp allowance is recommended for sizing the boiler. the capable operating engineer knows how to operate the heating system to ensure that. if any).000 BTUlhr and a service hot water load of 32. or pickup allowance. this is used to cover breakdown or maintenance of one boiler. a house of worship). First. Before the boiler can deliver heat to the building. standby (reserve) boiler capacity is usually provided by using two or more boilers. Example 4. the I-B-R standard allowance is 15% of the net output for the combined piping and pickup losses. this loss.allowance is needed if the building is to be brought up to a comfortable temperature within a sufficient time in the morning. Consult manufacturers' data for this information. The piping and pickup allowance is not usually necessary when sizing boilers for larger commercial installations. A piping allowance of 15% and pickup of 10% are required. Insulation will reduce. with 10 F night setback and one hour required pickup time. What should the gross output be? . as well as other factors. This is called the piping loss. There is a constant loss of heat through hot piping to surrounding areas. building operating procedures. a large pickup . all the piping.) The 15% allowance is recommended for commercial buildings that are continually heated and that do not have night setback of temperatures. the excess capacity is from 25-100% of design load. The building is heated intermittently. Techniques using computer managed automatic control systems aid in this. temperatures are brought to a comfortable level before {he building is occupied. water. Boiler Gross and Net Output The boiler gross output is the actual heat output of the boiler at its nozzle (exit). There are two reasons for this. 2. an additional 10% pickup loss is recommended by some authorities. The values of pickup losses suggested for intermittent heating and night setback also apply to furnaces. the actual output capacity of the boiler must be greater than the building heating load. There is an additional heat loss when starting up a cold system.

000 = 40. Ratings (and other data) for a group of small cast iron.E.000 BTUlhr = 0. such as operating efficiency.000 X Steady-State Efficiency The gross output of a boiler or furnace is less than the heat input due to unavoidable losses. determine the steady-state efficiency and ft 3 lhr (CFH) of natural gas consumed at full load. (We will use the term steady·state.3) The losses that occur in the heating equipment are the flue gas losses and heat lost from the hot surface of the unit to the surrounding space.' .. Example4. The heating load is 220. overall efficiency. Example 4. This information can be used in selecting a boiler and determining its steadystate efficiency. gas-fired hot water heating boilers are shown in Figure 4.000 .000 + 32. CAPACITY is the gross output of the boiler.' . ther· mal efficiency. Solution The net output (rating) of the boiler must be at least equal to the building heating load. The combustion efficiency is used in field testing of the heating unit to see if it is operating sa~isfactorily.) The steady-state efficiency is defined as Steady-state efficiency = " " .6 _ _ _ _ _ _. This may be expressed in an efficiency term.000 200. with a net I-B-R rating of 226.10 x 402. but nevertheless the unit should be well insulated. Occasionally the heat transferred to the surrounding space is useful.. 100=83.000 BTUlhr Setback should not be so excessive and rapid that it could cause thermal shock in a boiler.. Solution Using Equation 4.96 CHAPTER4 Solution From the definitions given in Equation 4. The column titled D.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ For a Model GG-200H boiler. because the combustion efficiency includes only the flue gas losses. or steady-state efficiency.15 x 402. which includes a 15% piping and pickup allowance. The steady-state efficiency is slightly less than the combustion efficiency defined in Section 4.. a Model GG-325 is the smallest boiler that will do the job. The heat loss from the jacket or casing of the heating unit is quite small compared to the flue gas"losses. which is given different names.21.x 100% gross heat output heat input (4.Select a gas-fired hot water boiler for the Moneybags Mansion.000 = 60.3.000 BTUlhr.. Note that the gross output is 260...1). The combustion efficiency and steady-state efficiency terms serve two different purposes.6. but this is unusual.. therefore the amount of gas required is BTU 1 ft 3 CFH of gas = 200..100 BTU/hr. Steady-state efficiency = gross heat output x 100% heat input = 167.21. This is a situation where extreme water temperature fluctuations cause stress damage to the boiler. The steady-state efficiency is used in the rating and selection of the boiler or furnace for a given application..000 BTU/hr. From the ratings in Figure 4.x .2.000 BTU/hr = 0.5% The heating value of natural gas is about 1000 BTUlft3 (Table 4.000 = 402.hr 1000 BTU =200CFH .. Boiler net output Piping allowance Pickup allowance = 370.000 BTUlhr Required boiler gross output = 502.O.

m and pressure reducing valve. pre-assembled insulated semi-extended jacket (extended as shown). automatic vent damper (except GG-3oo thru GG-375 and GXH-300).000 228.3 1322...6 840.A gross output rating (Btuh) NOTE: All boilers under 300.18% 82.200 161. Intermittent pilot ignition system.21 Capacity ratings for a group of small cast iron gas-fired hot water boilers.) .45% 83.6 57Y2 19'o/H.700 198.ns·· ratings MODEL NUMBERt GG-75H GG-100H GG-125H GG·150H GG·175H GG·200H GG·225H feet ® WATER (Sq. (Courtesy: The Slant/Fin Corporation.. PROPANE GAS RATINGS RATINGS FOR WATER A. INPUT CAPACITY (Btuh) (Btuh) 250..500 260. Slant/Fm should be consulted before selectmg a boiler for installation haVing unusual piping and pick-up requirements. D. 1h/1h 17 'hI'h 'hI'h 'hI1h 'hI1h 'hIYz 'hI% 1h1'h %/1h 1Yz 1v. D. PACKAGED WATER BOILER (SUFFIX P) includes all equipment listed for mOdel S. GG-75 130/'6 GG-100 13¥!6 53'.p/4 '" Crates for all models are 30" wide. of Energy (D.G.000 145.6 968.57% B Rollout ". combination gas valve. INPUT CAPACITY (Btuh) (Btuh) 75.0 1390 1510 1620 1740 NATURAL AND L.0 1078. Annual Fuel Utilization Effi~ ciency based on constant circulation.000 feet elevation and an additional 4% for every additional 1. Ft) 1211.3 597.4 GG~125 GG-150 GG-17S GG-200 GG-22S GG-250 169/'6 53'14 169/'6 53V~ GG~275 GG-300 GG~325 GG·350 30Yl6 66Ys GG~375 46% 5 6% 1'4 130/'6 5314 19'0/.3 742..000" NETI=B=R RATING WATER (Btuh) 181.'+-~-il' Safety Switch "Includes mterrmttent pilot and vent damper.000 150.100 145.700 72. altitude. pressure and temperature gauge. instead of hi limit control. gas burners. Ratings must be reduced by 4% at 2.600 108.000 167.000 100. depth 30" (GG-75 thru GG-225). Dept.98% 82. and automatic air vent. base.4 7 16 1'. 57Y2 6 13 1'14 6 13 1% 6 13 1% 6 13 1'.200 89.6 59% 8 230/16 59% 8 26 ' V'6 26'V'6 59% 8 17 30V'6 66Ys 59% 8 17 9 221h 9 221h 17 1 v. pressure relief valve (ASME).A. 38" high. 38" (GG-250 thru GG-375). hi limit control.000 t Add suffix US" for standard water boiler.000 186.000 64. draft hood.A.000 175.100 243. Combustible floor kit.000 125. draft hood spill switch.300 208.78% 82. combination gas valve inctuding manual shut-off.3 481.0 MODEL NUMBERt GG-250H GG·275H GG·300 GG·325 GG·35Q GG-375 Net ratmgs are based on a piping and pick-up a1!owance of 1. Air package consisting of diaphragm expansion tank.D. uP" for packaged water boiler.G. Type of gas: After model number.000 225. dimensions DHSpili Switch ~---24 '/2" ---+1 I GALAXY' DOE Seasonal Efficiency (AFUE) MODEL HED GG~100 HED GG~125 HED GG~150 HED GG~175 HED GG~200 HED GG~225 HED GG~75 GG~250HED GG~275HED 1'12" Supply tf2" Vent Power In Opening Return E Combination Limit and EFFICIENCY 84.O.lHE HYORONICS SPECIFICATIONS: GG SERIES Hot Water Model ~B ~ '""""" Cenified R.3.700 RATINGS FOR WATER A.700 126. .000 Btu input are tested and rated for capacity under the U.19% 82. pressure regulator.000 300." or "Propane.. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT: Room thermostat Mi!livolt (self energized) controls.700 226.000 240.40% 82.) Test Procedure for boilers.000 209.51% 83. %/% 1v..000 200.E.900 WATER (Sq.000 325.O.lPROP.000" 260. pilot adj.000 375.15 (hot water)." •• AG. circulator.000" 280.E.. combination limit controls and millivolt thennostat.000 275. drain cock.000 125.000 NETI=B=R RATING WATER (Btuh) 55. RIGHT SIDE HOT WATER BOILER MODELS A JACKET WIDTH B DRAFT HOOD HEIGHT C FLUE COLlAR DIAMETER 0 JACKET TOP TO DRAFT HOOD E CIRCULATOR RETURN FlANGE F GAS CONNECTION NAT. Ft) 371.J% 1v.39% 82. flue collector.P. specify gas by name "Natural.S. equipment BASIC WATER BOILERJ5UFFIX 5) includes pre-assembled heat exchanger with built-in air eliminator. *For GG-300 thru GG-375 and GXH-300 Figure 4.. rollout safety switch.E.000 103. %/% :y. plus 2-way combination control (hi limit and circulator relay).000 feet elevation over 2. and automatic pilot-thermocouple safety.4 7 16 1 Y4 230/. Add suffix "E" for intermittent pilot ignition system (available only with 24 volt gas valve).000 83.000 350.000" 300. gas orifices and manifold assembly.

Provide ample space on all sides of the boiler for maintenance. This is called direct \'ellting. 4. The heat exchangers that handle the lower temperature gases in the very high efficiency units are made of stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant materials because of the moisture present. Another group. resulting in the utilization of more of the heat released and a corresponding lower flue gas temperature. the boiler may be starved of sufficient air for combustion. the water vapor in the flue gas condenses. sometimes through a side wall instead of a chimney. consider a penthouse location for a gas-fired boiler. At this low temperature. 6. Because of the high resistance of gas flo\\' caused by the greater. The very high efficiency results from the additional sensible heat recovered. Follow fire and safety codes. 5. fuel combustion takes place continuously. reduce the combustion gas temperature to about 300 F. One group. medium-high efficiency boilers and furnaces. Install the breeching to the flue without offsets. Natural draft would not be adequate. 3. The combustion gases are vented directly to the outdoors through a plastic pipe. More recently. but will instead list some procedures that are generally useful. a sectional cast iron boiler may be the solution. very high efficiency units. In all of the furnaces and boilers discussed so far. resulting in an operating efficiency of about 85%. This is an extremely important point. high efficiency units usually are furnished with combustion air fans. Combustion air is drawn directly from outdoors to the combustion chamber through a sealed pipe. the best residential and small commercial boilers and furnaces could achieve an overall steady-state efficiency (when well maintained) of about 70-80% by recovering enough heat from the combustion gases to reduce flue gas temperatures to about 400500 F and using about 50-60% excess air. higher efficiency equipment has been made available.12 ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY IN BOILERS AND FURNACES Until the advent of "high efficiency" units. No draft hood is necessary. Allow adequate distance in front of the boiler for tube cleaning and removal. For the same reasons. Fix~d grilles in walls or doors are one method.22) that uses pulse combustion. a small cliarge of fuel and air are introduced into the combustion chamber and ignited. We will not attempt to repeat these detailed instructions. Some high efficiency units have a sealed COIl1bustion system. 1. On high-rise buildings. 4. Initially. If the openings are not adequate. The architect must be informed of the dimensions needed so that he or she can provide them. There is another high efficiency type of unit (Figure 4. Drainage of water collected is important both in the design and installation of these units. This eliminates the need for a flue running the whole height of the building. If an existing building that requires a new boiler does not have adequate openings for a tubular boiler. 2.98 CHAPTER4 4. more tortuous heat exchanger surface. Provide sufficient openings to the outdoors for both combustion air and ventilation air. This creates a pressure pulse that drives the . Allow ample size openings and passages into the boiler room for the boiler. Locate the boiler as close to the flue as possible. This provides more heat transfer surface and a longer path for the hot combustion gases. with an operating efficiency of about 90-95%. reduce the stack gas temperature to about 110 F. resulting in the production of toxic carbon monoxide. an intermittent form of burning. instead of being drawn from the equipment room.11 BOILER INSTALLATION Each manufacturer furnishes specific instructions for the installation of the boiler when it is shipped to the job. These units have a larger or a secondary heat exchanger. and from the heat of condensation of the water vapor given up. stack vents and drains must be made of plastic pipe or other noncon'osive materials.

Department of Energy. an automatic vent damper (Figure 4. One possible concern with pulse type equipment is that the pulsating noise created may be more disturbing than the continual noise of a steady burning unit. including how to minimize these losses..I~-Gas "'--"'+----Combustion : T .. or to heat service hot water.. . This damper is closed when the unit is not operating. .) combustion gases out. To prevent this loss. since they draw air directly from outdoors. Sealed combustion type units would not use a vent damper. an almost impossible task. as well as installed with new ones. Another small charge then enters and is ignited from the residual heat. This air will be replaced naturally by cold outside air entering the room. that is.S. The heat losses associated with the actual working conditions of the boiler or furnace such as the vent stack losses on shutdown and standing pilot need to be accounted for in determining the annual energy efficiency of the unit. Thus.Hot gases _ Supply water 2 Heat " ' + .FURNACES AND BOILERS 99 _Air :==. Large boilers have combustion control systems that enable them to use much less excess air than do residential boilers.exchanger . Also of major concern is the system efficiency over the full heating season.22 Pulse combustion type high efficiency hot water boiler. which can be defined as AFUE= annual heat output . we want to niinimize the annual fuel use. the damper opens. increasing system efficiency further._~. Intermittent ignition and automatic vent dampers are common practice with large systems. higher steady-state efficiency is achieved in this manner. There are heat losses associated with the equipment when it is not operating. when the boiler or furnace is in the off cycle. Automatic vent dampers can be retrofitted into existing systems. the natural draft effect will cause warm equipment room air to continuously vent up the stack. The features discussed until now concerning high efficiency boilers and furnaces improve the steady-state efficiency. annual heat input X 100% (4. Intermittent ignition systems solve this problem. It is approximated by tests specified by the U. In conventional flue and equipment arrangements. This heat exchanger might be used to preheat combustion air (this is called an economizer). This is approximated by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE). The AFUE of a conventional boiler or furnace with natural draft. This is continual energy loss when the unit is in the off cycle.Return water ~-I-:+---- Condensation 3 Figure 4. This represents a considerable infiltration heat loss into the building..4) The actual AFUE can really only be truly measured by taking continual measurements of heat output and heat input over th~ year. They are often required by local codes. Another factor reducing system efficiency is a standing pilot flame. When the boiler or furnace starts up. The heating equipment does not operate in a steadystate condition continuously. [nc. just as in operating conditions. (Courtesy: Hydrotherm.. . Some large units are equipped with a flue gas heat exchanger that extracts some of the waste heat. some of which we will now discuss.3) may be installed in the flue.

(Care must be taken that this 3. heat exchangers). installation. Useful Websites Information on boiler and/or furnance performance. Use temperature setback when feasible.com www. Describe a typical programming control sequence for the operation of a boiler. listing essential components.com or automatic vent dampers do not result in water vapor condensation. List the byproducis of the combustion of these fuels. How is draft usually controlled in small gas.13 ENERGY CONSERVATION Some methods of conserving energy with boilers and furnaces are as follows: I. 12."{ . Consider the use of high efficiency boilers or furnaces. II. which might cause corrosion. 5. ~ 15. Install an automatic vent damper in the flue. List and explain the purpose of common boiler accessories. 6. Use intermittent ignition.) 12.com www. 14.com www. Consult a specialist for advice. List the major components of a warm air furnace.21. 9. Describe the basic operating and safety controls for hot water and steam boilers. and maintenance can be found at the following Websites: www. Sketch a typical hot water boiler piping arrangement.dunkirk. boilers will then operate closer to full capacity.. For larger projects install multiple boilers. 8. 13. 6. Consider the use of heat exchange devices to use some of the waste heat in the hot flue gases. the AFUE can reach 80-95%. Clean all heat transfer surfaces regularly (boiler tubes. This type of burner uses less excess air and results in better heat transfer than other types." ~ ~ ~ . 7. 5. What are the two meanings of draft? Describe the different methods of achieving draft. Describe the basic operating and safety controls for a warm air furnace. What are piping loss and pickup loss? What are gross and net boiler output? What are the pressure and temperature ratings for low pressure boilers? Explain the difference between a firetube and watertube boiler. 8. Name four types of wimn air heating devices. Clean burner nozzles regularly.com www.slantfin. 9.100 CHAPTER 4 standing pilot. Install a flame retention type of oil burner in residential equipment. With energy-saving improvements noted here. 13.kewaneeboiler. Do not use unnecessarily oversized boilers or furnaces. . The AFUE is listed for the boilers shown in Figure 4. 3. This device closes when the combustion unit is not operating. Adjust the air-fuel ratio so that excess air is the minimum recommended for the equipment.and oil-fired equipment? How is draft controlled in larger boilers? List the m~or fuels used in heating plants and their relative advantages and disadvantages. Review Questions I. Use proper boiler water treatment methods. List four physical arrangements of warm air furnaces and where they would be located in a residence. 4. where efficiency is higher. Consider installation of a solar heating system for domestic hot water. 7. 2. Describe a typical programming control sequence for the operation of a warm air furnace. 10. selection and specifications. II. and no vent damper can be as low as 50-60%. 2. What pollutants may result from incomplete combustion of these fuels? 4. thereby reducing extra infiltration air that would go up the stack. List the major components of a hot water boiler and a steam boiler. At part loads. 4.weil-mcclain. rather than a standing pilot flame.. 10.burnhan.:i .

000 BTU/hr and a full load steady-state efficiency of 78%. a stack heat exchanger is installed. Find the DOE capacity. Determine the DOE capacity and input. How do these controls work? 20. Try the Website www. The piping heat loss is 25. Assume a standard piping and pickup allowance.13 What are the necessary clearances from combustible material for a commercial steam boiler? Use an appropriate Website.3 4. 4. What is the maximum heating load the boiler can handle? A boiler is using 1. 4. 4.3 GPM of No. 4. Determine the full load steady-state efficiency of the boiler.com. Try www. Use an appropirate Website. what would be the furnace combustion efficiency at design conditions (neglecting other losses)? 4. how much gas would be required at full load? A building has a net heating load of 175.11 Prepare a directive for proper heating boiler blowdown procedures.14 What are the proper inspecton maintenance and performance procedures for a residential boiler? Try www. input. Using a combustion gas analyzer. What is the meaning of AFUE? 22.15 Explain thermal shock and its preventive means.kewaneeboiler.12 Prepare instructions for cleaning a stearn boiler.slantfin.9 A building has a net heating load of 155. 19. Describe the basic types of gas and oil burners.4 4. Describe the methods of burner firing rate control.6 4. 4.com.000 BTUlhr. A hot water boiler has a design heat input of 800.000 BTUlhr.com. assuming a standard piping and pickup allowance.000 BTU/hr.000 BTUlhr. .10 Select a gas-fired hot water boiler of the Series 2 model from the Website www. Select a natural gas-fired hot water boiler for this application.7 A boiler uses No. 17. What is gross output and net output of the boiler? A furnace burning natural gas is designed to operate with 30% excess air. 4.2 fuel oil. Room temperature is 70 F. is 400 F. It is to be used in a building with a piping and pickup loss of 100.FURNACES AND BOILERS 10 1 16.2 fuel oil. If the boiler in Problem 4. List five possible ways of increasing heating equipment efficiency. List the types of flame safety controls. Select a natural gas-fired hot water boiler of the Galaxy model from the Website www. It has a steady-state efficiency of 72% and the piping and pickup loss is 22%. 18. Explain the terms theoretical air and excess air.000 BTUH. What is the approximate boiler combustion efficiency? 4.com. What percentage reading of CO 2 will indicate proper operation? If the difference between the flue gas temperature and room temperature Computer Solution Problems 4.2 4.cleaver-brooks. The building heating load is 200.lennox. What is the boiler combustion efficiency (neglecting other losses)? For the boiler refened to in Problem 4.000 BTUlhr and the pickup loss is 30. Produce a detailed dimension drawing and specifications. and AFUE. Assume a standard piping and pickup allowance.7.burnham.1 A residence has a net heating load of 120.8 Problems 4.com. Select a natural gas-fired not water boiler. What problem may arise if stack gas temperature is too low? 21.1 is operating at full load stead-state efficiency. What is the percent excess air? Flue gas temperature reads 520 F.000 BTUlhr. reducing flue gas temperature to 370 F. a technician measures 12% CO 2 in the stack gases.5 4.

I. It is so named because all of the units are in a series. we will examine types of hydronic plpll1g arrangements and terminal units. One-pipe main .1 PIPING ARRANGEMENTS The connections between the piping and the terminal units may be made in any of these four basic ways: 1. Identify the types of hydronic terminal units and describe theirfeatures. Layout a hydronic system and determine its water temperatures and flow rates. Two-pipe direct return 4. Note that the entire water supply flows through each terminal unit and then returns to the generator and pump. you wiII be able to: 1. Select baseboard radiation. Series loop A diagram of a series loop arrangement is shown in Figure 5. 3. and one loop is formed. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. In this chapter.2 SERIES LOOP 5. Identify the types of hydronic piping system arrangements and describe their features. 4. Two-pipe reverse return 5. 2. The terminal units are the heat exchangers that transfer the heat between the water and the spaces to be heated or cooled.c H A p T E R Hydronic Piping Systems and Terminal Units T he piping that is used to circulate hot or chilled water for air conditioning is called a hydronic piping system. 2. the series loop has several disadvantages: L The maintenance or repair of any terminal unit requires shutdown of the entire system. Because all of the water flows through each unit. Separate capacity control of each unit by changing its water flow rate or temperature is 102 2. 3. and the units cannot be isolated from each other.

The series loop arrangement is simple and inexpensive.) 3. It is limited to small. (a) Isometric. Figure 5. units. (b) Schematic.1 Series loop piping system. Since in heating systems the water temperature continually decreases as it gives up heat in each unit in series. These disadvantages can be partially remedied by arranging the piping in two or more split series loops. low-budget applications such as residences. as shown in Figure 5. Pump HWorCHW generator Terminal units Pump HWorCHW generator (a) (b) . (Control is possible by use of air dampers. (b) Schematic.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 103 Terminal---------r units \ ~ Pump Pump HWorCHW generator HW or CHW generator (a) (b) Terminal units Figure 5. This creates two or more zones which can be controlled separately. (a) Isometric. not possible.2. however. the water temperature in later units may be too low for adequate heating. The number of units is limited.2 Split series loop piping system.

but instead of being in series with this main. if the terminal unit is below the main. (b) Schematic.:=.:..104 CHAPTER 5 5.. (a) Isometric.. directing some of the water to the branch. Additionally.. a -f Figure 5. special diverting tees (Figure 5.4) are used at each supply branch takeoff.3 One-pipe main piping system..4 TWO-PIPE DIRECT RETURN To get the water temperature supplied to each terminal unit to be equal. each terminal unit is connected by a supply and a return branch pipe to the main. the water goiug to the later units may be too cool to heat the rooms adequately. special tee is also needed at the return branch to prevent backflow. HWorCHW generator HWorCHW (a) generator (b) ... there is one maiu pipe through which the water flows. As in the series loop. thus starving the terminal unit. By locating valves in the branch lines.3. 5. Terminal units Pump Terminal units . the two-pipe (also called Figure 5.. To overcome this problem.3 ONE-PIPE MAIN Branch A diagram of a one-pipe main arrangement is shown in Figure 5...4 l t d 1-·""" Diverting tee used in one-pipe main systems.. water circulating in the main tends to flow through the straight run of the tee fitting at each supply branch. Consequently. ~-"----. each unit can be separately controlled and serviced. As in the series loop.. if there are too many units.. Flowing water seeks the path of least resistance.

Although its cost is higher than one-pipe main and series loop arrangements.. as shown in Figure 5.--. the two-pipe system allows each terminal unit to be separately controlled and serviced. it can be used Figure 5.6.. according to the design.~~ HW or CHW generator plant L _______ L __ _ / / / / / / Terminal units . Supply 105 HWorCHW generator Figure 5. one for supply water and one for return.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS Terminal units r---.6 on any size installation. In this manner. All larger systems use twopipe arrangements.. Note that the path length for Two-pipe reverse return system. The total system flow rate (GPM) is split up among the terminal units. parallel piping) arrangement is used.5 that the path the water takes from the pump to the first units and back is shorter than that from the pump to the units further away. Figure 5. balancing valves can be installed in every branch. To overcome this problem. There are two mains. This is accomplished by piping the return main in a reverse return arrangement. However.5 TWO-PIPE REVERSE RETURN The balancing problem in the direct return arrangement would be overcome if the circuit length out to each terminal unit and back was made approximately the same. (b) Schematic. this creates a problem.5 is called direct return because the return main is routed to bring the water back to the source by the shortest path. The two-pipe arrangement in Figure 5. Terminal units (buildings) ~~71 . Since flowing water prefers the path with the least resistance. all units receive water directly from the source.5 Two-pipe direct return system. Note in Figure 5. The problem is largely solved with a reverse return. 5.5 shows a two-pipe direct return system. but the balancing process is difficult and requires considerable expense. (a) Isometric-twa-pipe reverse return to a number of buildings. there will be too much water going to the units nearest the pump and too little going to the units furthest from the pump. Supply HW or CHW generator /r--j ------~7'------/ / / /- (a) (b) . and because the supply water temperature to each unit is the same. a return branch carries the water back to the return main. Each terminal unit is fed by an individual supply branch.

it may not be difficult to balance a direct return system. The relative costs of the direct return and reverse return piping arrangements depend on the building shape and location of terminal units. heating is often required in some rooms and cooling in others at the same time. as was shown with the series loop arrangement. the reverse return piping may be more expensive. the planner must examine the layout before making a choice. however. if the system is connected to both a water chiller and hot water boiler.---i Terminal units r--. yet flow balance will be simple and costs reduced as compared with a complete reverse return.8). there may be little difference between the length of each path. In each case. It is possible to make the fluid resistance in each circuit approximately equal in a direct return system by using smaller diameter piping in the closer branches. the other hot water. This depends on the piping layout.6 COMBINATION ARRANGEMENTS It is sometimes useful to combine some of the four -basic piping arrangements. HWorCHW generator Figure 5. In some situations. but it may then cause other problems (see Chapter 9). The two-pipe and one-pipe main arrangements can be split into two or more systems (if this is useful). These are: 1. Three-way control valves in the branch to each terminal unit will determine whether the unit receives hot or chilled water. 3. Figure 5. This might be chosen for a high-rise building where separate control of each unit on a floor is not needed.7 shows an example The supply main in the two-pipe arrangements can be furnished with either chilled or hot water for cooling or heating. A very high resistance in the terminal units may make fluid flow through them approximately equal. Simultaneous heating or cooling can be made available by use of a three-pipe arrangement (Figure 5. one circulating chilled water.106 CHAPTER 5 the water is about the same regardless of which unit it passes through. t!le costs are not significantly different. If the terminals are all far from the pump and grouped near each other. In modern buildings.7 THREE-PIPE SYSTEM 5. With this arrangement. The return main receives the water . The water temperature to units far from the chiller would be too high for adequate cooling with series loop oLQne-pipe main arrangement. it is a relatively simple process to balance the flow rates.7 Combination reverse return (riser) and series loop system. only one can be used at any given time. of a combined two-pipe reverse return with a group of units on each floor in series. taking advantage of the best features of each. However. It may seem from the prior discussion on balancing that the two-pipe reverse return system would always be chosen over the direct return. in others. There are two supply mains. 5. 2. In some cases. Two-pipe arrangements are almost always used for chilled water distribution to terminal cooling units. An instance of this might occur on a cool day with solar radiation on one side of the building only. .

Figure S. and cold downdrafts are prevented. preferably. heat is supplied where the heat loss is greatest. Because the return main mixes hot and chilled water. and fin-tube are collectively called radiation. the three-pipe system can waste energy..8 FOUR-PIPE SYSTEM The jour-pipe system is actually two separate twopipe systems.9 Correct and incorrect location of radiation. the heating or cooling element of all hydronic terminal units is usually made of finned tubing. which results in extra heating and cooling in the boiler and chiller. The following will be discussed here: Terminal unit o Warm lJ Cold air downdraft Cool air ~ II . but it should be recognized. Generally. 4. 5. under all windO\\'s in the colder climates. and therefore no mixing occurs... Figure 5. 3. 2. from each unit. The connections to units can be made either by direct or by reverse return. Some energy codes prohibit three-pipe systems. This is a misleadin 0 name because they transfer some of the heat to b . The chilled water is warmed and the hot water is cooled in the mixing process. convectors. This problem can be minimized by careful design..9 shows good and poor locations of radiation. the type of units used for heating and cooling are different from each other. but of course it is expensive. Except for radiators and some convectors.. ' the room largely by natural convectIOn. 5. The fins increase the heat transfer.. Terminal units 3-way valve J j Radiators Convectors Baseboard Fin-tube Radiant panels (heating and cooling) Unit heaters ~CS CHW HW Cooling 1.9 HYDRONIC TERMINAL UNITS The terminal units are heat exchangers that transfer the heat between the room air and the circulating water. baseboard. creating a natural circulation. This is an ideal arrangement.8 t Three-pipe system. t FigureS. In this location..HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS To other units From other units 107 Heating 1. 5. one for chilled water and one for hot water.. Fan-coil units (heating and cooling) 2.. Induction units (heating and cooling) Radiators. The material may be steel pipes with steel fins or copper tube with either aluminum or copper fins. The air adjacent to the unit is warmed and rises naturally.. All types of radiation should be located along exposed walls and. El Poor \ f-- Terminal unit Good . 6.

10). Recessed units have the advantage of not taking up floor space. cost.11 CONVECTORS Figure 5.12 Recessed convector. Convectors have a finned tube or small cast iron heating element enclosed by a sheet metal cabinet (Figure 5.12). 5.11). Free-standing units rest on the floor whereas wall hung units are off the floor and are supported by the wall (Figure 5. . Figure 5. whereas recessed units are recessed into an opening provided in the wall (Figure 5. This type of radiation is constructed of hollow metal through which the hot water flows (Figure 5. The sloping top prevents placement of objects or people sitting on the cabinet. Wall hung units allow easier floor and carpet cleaning. Room'air enters through an opening in the bottom and leaves through an outlet grille at the top. O(~--- Inlet grille Figure 5. Convectors are used in rooms. Flush units are mounted against the wall.10 RADIATORS Convector (free-standing type)..13). at the top front.10) 2. They are available in a number of standard lengths and heights. vestibules. This type of radiation is available in three forms: 1. Flush-type units are available with the outlet grille on top. and appearance.14). Steel tubing in various assembly arrangements Large cast iron sectional radiators are less commonly used in new installations because of their bulkiness. or with a sloping top (Figure 5.108 CHAPTER 5 Outlet grille~ Cabinet front cover Heating element Cabinet .. and stairwells. Hollow sections made either of cast iron or fabricated steel sheet metal (Figure 5. Hollow metal panels 3. Convectors are available in varied arrangements to suit the architectural needs of the building.10 Cast iron sectional radiator.11 5.

Baseboard radiation is very popular in residences because it is inexpensive and unobtrusive. It consists of a finned tube heating element with a sheet metal cover open at the bottom and with a slotted opening in the top (Figure 5. even when the heating element is not required for the whole length.111o t II Damper o Free-standing Wall hung Figure 5.14 Outlet arrangements.12 BASEBOARD This type of radiation is located close to theftoor in front of the architectural baseboard strip.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 109 t -~ . Figure 5. The cover and fins are thin and therefore will not withstand heavy abuse.) 5.13 Free-standing and wall hung convector.13 FIN-TUBE This type of radiation is similar to baseboard radiation. Heating element I Figure 5. 5. (Figure 5. Tubing diameter is small. The heating element is usually made of larger tubing ('l'< to 2 in.15 Baseboard radiation.15).) and both the element and cover are heavier and stronger than that used for baseboard radiation.16). The cover is often installed along the whole length of the wall for a neater appearance. usually !6 or 'l'< in. t II o o Top outlet Sloping top outlet Top front outlet . (Courtesy: Slant/Fin Corporation.

Because the heating or cooling source is spread out.... Motor and fan 5. capacity does not increase proportionally with number of rows.) Fin-tube radiation is widely used in commercial and industrial applications where radiation is desired along exposed walls. Figure 5. and extending over all or a considerable p<!rt of the surface... Ceiling panels are used for cooling. (b) Vertical down-blow propeller unit heater.. Two kinds of unit heaters will be discussed here. and casing (Figure 5... The heating element is finned tubing. The capacity of fin-tube radiation is greater per foot of length than baseboard radiation because of larger fins and larger pipe.J '--- Vertical down-blow propellor unit heater (b) . Heating element Adjustable louvers -----. radiant panel systems produce uniform temperatures and comfortable air motion. or ceiling. As a result. motor. propeller fan.. (Courtesy: Vulcan Radiator Company.17 Horizontal and vertical propeller unit heaters...) Covers are available with flat or sloping tops and varied quality of appearance.. so that the cooled air drops and circulates through the room.14 RADIANT PANELS o Horizontal propel lor unit heater (a) A radiant panel system has tubing installed in walls. It has adjustable outlet Figure 5..16 Fin-tube radiation. but it can be very expensive. (a) Horizontal propeller unit heater. floors.. It is an ideal system.17)... L . Propeller Unit Heaters This type of unit heater is available in two versions ~horizontal or vertical discharge. -lr.110 CHAPTER 5 I i " 5.. The capacity of convectors and baseboard and fin-tube radiation can all be manually controlled by dampers located at the air outlet. Both heating and cooling systems are available. The horizontal blow heater is usually mounted at 7-10 ft elevations.. (However. Tubing may be stacked more than one row high to increase output. Fan and motor I I 0 Heating element o r . Each has a finned-tube coil heating element.15 UNIT HEATERS The unit heater differs from the previous types of tenninal units in having a fan that forces the air through the unit at a greater rate than would be achieved by natural convection. unit heaters have a high heating capacity for a given physical size.. arranged in coils to achieve a more compact arrangement..

In outward appearance. Air is directed toward work spaces or door openings. and an air filter (Figure 5.20). 5. some units have an electric strip heater instead of a hot water heating coil. an air filter.20 Fan-coil unit. ~ inlet . These units are often used in factories and warehouses.19 Cabinet unit heater-ceiling mounted. It can also be mounted flat against a ceiling when this is architecturally desirable. Cabinet unit heaters can be used in commercial applications because they have a pleasing appearance and are relatively quiet. Alternately.\9). The units are mounted at high elevations. fan-coil units can be mounted in various horizontal and vertical arrangements. garage doorswherever doors may be opened frequently and "spot" heating is needed. and a cabinet enclosure. it looks like a convector (Figure 5. Cabinet Unit Heaters This type has a finned-tube heating element arranged as a serpentine coil. / Heating element Fan and motor IlQoci:Xxzl~-Air filter Heating/ cooling coil Fan -~-t--+\ o Air filter ~bzci~~~ III t Outside air (optional) ~ -_--. small centrifugal fans with motors. Adjustable outlet diffusers are available so that the amount of floor area heated can be varied. It is often used at loading platforms. Figure 5.J :. because the outlet grilles will direct the air in the desired direction (Figure 5. vestibules. as required. As with cabinet unit heaters. Fan-coil units include a drain pan under the coil to collect the condensate created from dehumidifying Figure 5.18 Cabinet unit heater-floor mounted..l1____Ld--. as in vestibules. The cabinet unit heater is often used where a convector would be suitable but where the required heat output is larger. The vertical down-blow unit heater is suitable for heating spaces with high ceilings and large floor areas. It consists of a cabiuet enclosing one or two serpentine-shaped finnedtube coils. small centrifugal fans.18).16 FAN-COIL UNITS This type of hydronic terminal unit is suitable for both cooling and heating. Depending on system design. Ceiling Air Heating filter element Fan and motor Figure 5. it may have one coil for heating or cooling or separate heating and cooling coils.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS III dampers to control air direction. They are sometimes called fan-coil units. bulky. and noisy. but we will use this name for a unit quite similar in construction that is used for either heating or cooliug. Propeller fan unit heaters are generally limited to industrial applications or service areas of commercial buildings because they are unsightly.

conditions whether or not the drain pan must be piped to a central drain. a connection for primary air. Some fan-coil units include an opening and damper in the rear of the cabinet to connect directly through the wall for outdoor ventilation air. A more detailed explanation of the induction unit air conditioning system will be discussed in Chapter 12. There are problems associated with this. or warm as needed. The air is moved by an induction effect. too little will result in poor air quality. and filters must be cleaned of lint and dirt regularly and often. is usually more objectionable than the very low level air noise from the induction unit. not the often quite dirty outside air: For these reasons. 5. drain pans. In addition. the absence of a ul\it fan -as compared to the fan-coil unit means no lerminal unit motors to maintain (a large project may have hundreds of units). bringing ventilation directly into the fan-coil unit will often lead to unnecessary operating and maintenance problems. operating. but also the fans. since the resistance to airflow increases with higher efficiency. and air nozzles or jets (Figure 5. chilled water is delivered to the coil. This induces (draws) room (secondary) air into the unit across the coil. However. The induction unit does not require a fan to circulate room air across the coil. In the heating mode.21 Induction unil. These drains usually must be piped to a central building drain.) The filter is basically suitable for cleaning only recirculated room air. the fan noise. In the cooling mode. It is used in air-water type central HVAC systems. Instead. Considerable maintenance is a m~or aspect of a fan-coil system. It depends on the system design and. 111f--.21). The primary air can be delivered cold. Coils. The induction unit has a drain pan.Plenum chamber Figure 5. This air is forced out through small nozzles at a high velocity. the filter is of minimal efficiency.17 INDUCTION UNITS This type of terminal unit is suitable for both cooling and heating. The mixed air (primary and secondary) exits through the top grille. about on the level of the familiar window unit filter. This is because the induction effect can only overcome a very small air resistance. Too much air will waste energy. Capacity variation of a fan-coil unit can be achieved through room thermostat control of either fan speed or coil water flow. Primary air from a central air handling unit is delivered at high pressure to the plenum (chamber).. lint screen type filter. otherwise little room air is circulated and the heating or cooling is inadequate. . The lint screen filter is very thin and porous. with a minimal cleaning quality. neutral. The cabinet contains a cooling! heating coil. Frequent cleaning of the lint screen is often required to keep the induction effect going. Furthermore... (Higher filtering efficiency not only raises the cost of the filter. The changing wind effects can greatly affect the amount of outside air brought in. Maintenance of the large number of motors must also be compared to the few in an HVAC system with only central air handling units. ventilation air can be furnished from central air handling units with better filters. Central HVAC systems using fan-coil units are very popular due to their flexibility and often competitive total system costs. hot water is delivered to the coil. especially if the fan starts and stops. t Cooling/heating coil Lint screen filter ~ o ~~ Induced secondary ~ room air * t . because it has so many units.112 CHAPTER 5 Mixed air the air when operating in the cooling mode.

and pump energy consumption to be reduced.0 BTU/lb-F for (5. since the room heating loads are small. TC are as before and GPM = flow rate. much greater temperature drops are often chosen (up to 100 F) to reduce pipe sizes and power use. In theory. the lower water temperature lessens the severity of a burn from accidental contact. there are reasons for limiting the water temperature. These categories are important because different types of boilers and equipment are required for each. In addition. lower water temperature/pressures do not require the heavy and expensive equipment that higher water temperatures do. The usual practice in designing LTW systems is to select a supply water temperature between 180-240 F and a system temperature drop between 10-40 F. Consequently. In HTW systems. MTW (medium temperature hot water) -250-350F. For example. . a high supply water temperature is preferred because the terminal units may be made smaller. it may be used with insignificant error to 250 F. Manufacturers often suggest desirable temperature ranges for their heating and cooling equipment.2) Although the conversion factor of 1 GPM = 500 lblhr is correct only at cold water temperatures.18 SYSTEM WATER TEMPERATURES AND FLOW RATES Hydronic heating systems are classified into temperature categories as follows: LTW (low temperature hot water) -temperature below 250 F. The designer should consider supply temperatures up to 240 F and temperature drops up to 40 F for commercial applications. allowing smaller pumps and piping to be used. lblhr TC = t I - t2 =temperature change of water. The system temperature rise usually ranges from 5-15 F.12: Q=mxcxTC Because the specific heat c water. 5. . The relationship between water temperature. BTUlhr m = flow rate of water. For private residences.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 113 Water heating and cooling coils that are installed in central air handling units will be discussed in Chapter 12. high temperature rises should be considered when planning in order to reduce energy consumption. Here also. and heat gain or loss was shown previously by Equation 2. Hydronic cooling systems using chilled water (CHW) do not have temperature categories. HTW (high temperature hot water) -350-450 F. a greater possibility with children. this becomes Q=mxTC = 1. for instance. as the water temperature increases. HTW systems are used in very large projects.1 ) where Q = heat gain or loss of water. the equation becomes Q = 500 x GPM x TC where Q. Because (approximately) 1 GPM = 500 lblhr of water. As mentioned earlier. F A more convenient form of the equation is to express the flow rate in GPM. the boiler pressure must be increased to prevent the water from evaporating. supply water temperatures of 180-210 F and a temperature drop of 20 F or less are satisfactory. The supply temperature required in CHW systems depends on the dehumidification needed (Chapter 7) and usually ranges from 40-50 F. However. A high temperature drop is also desirable because less water is required. equipment of greater strength is required to handle the increased pressure. flow rate. gal/min (5.

-TC=54-9=45F Solution The flow rate is found by using Equation 5. TC = t1 .200) 5. The heating capacity is listed iu BTUlhr per foot of length.4 1. use 4 GPM ratings. From this.2 1. Table 5. is 8 in.2 2. such as that of the Hydronics Institute. 3 4 2 Y2 3 4 0. The capacity also depends on the entering Example 5.000 BTUlhr X ------ I ton = 360.t2 = Q 500 x GPM = 360. What is the temperature of the water leaving the chiller? Solution Changing units of cooling capacity. 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 660 640 650 670 680 680 700 710 720 710 730 740 750 750 770 780 790 770 790 800 810 820 840 850 870 840 860 870 890 880 900 920 930 . Standard testing procedures for measuring ratings have been established.8 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 .1 RATINGS FOR TYPICAL BASEBOARD RADIATION Hot Water Ratings.2. The building heating load is 8 million BTUlhr. The manufacturer's catalog ratings are used to select the terminal units required. BTu/hr per Foot Length at Following Average Water Temperatures.000 BTUlhr TABLE 5.4 3. A system water supply temperature of 240 F and return temperature of 200 F is chosen.6 4. 55 fins per fOOL Height of unit with enclosure air entering at 65 F. Type M tubing. t2 =t.114 CHAPTER 5 Example 5.000 500 x 80 =9F Solving for t2. Note that the capacity depends on both the flow rate and average water temperature in the unit.000.1 shows the ratings for a typical baseboard radiation. The designer and installer should check that any unit being considered has been tested according to a standard rating procedure.8 2. the required length of baseboard can be chosen.6 1. Ratings are based on . Q = 30 tons 12. For flow rates over 4 GPM.----:500xTC =400GPM 8.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hydronic heating system is to be installed in the Square Tire Company factory. 910 930 950 960 950 970 990 1000 970 990 1010 1030 1020 1040 1060 1080 Notes: Tubing is copper with 2YK x 2Y16 in. What is the required system flow rate in GPM? Using Equation 5.19 SELECTION OF TERMINAL UNITS The rating (capacity) of terminal units is measured and reported by manufacturers in their equipment catalogs. GPM Velocity FPS 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 2 Y. aluminum fins. F Nominal Tube Flow Rate Size in.2 A water chiller with a capacity of 30 tons of refrigeration cools 80 GPM of water entering at 54 F.:::.000 500 x (240 .2: Q GPM = -:c-:-.

:Q. The length required for a capacity of 12.6 2. no correction for the ratings at 65 F is usually necessary. To find this.2.3 5. FT/SEC. For a room maintained at 68-70 F.. and velocities below I ft/sec may not be enough to carry dirt particles through the unit. the rated capacity is listed as 840 BTUlhr per foot of length. The average water temperature in the unit must first be determined. Prepare a diagrammatic sketch of the piping system and the terminal units connected together. baseboard required for a room with a heat load of 12.9-5. TABLES. we discussed pipIng arrangements. Table 5.20 SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURE In the previous sections.--500 x GPM 12.. It is often. The following procedures should be helpful: I.1. water temperatures and flow rate's. What should the contractor do? Solution This flow rate results in a very high velocity. GPM Tube Diameter 1 2 4 6 8 ExampleS. 2. 3. and selection of terminal units. 1. Equation 5. This also provides a. a good guideline is to use flow rates between values that result in water velocities between 1 and 5 ft/sec.8). Generally.6 8.000 BTUlhr.12 = 206 F Average t= 218 + 206 2 = 212 F Using Table 5.2 WATER VELOCITIES. however.2. Velocities above 5 ft/sec in occupied areas may result in ob- . The unit has 2 GPM of water flowing through it at an entering temperature of218 F.19).0 5. Using Equation 5.000 BTUlhr is therefore Length = 12. IN TYPE L TUBING Flow Rate.5 4.3 ft (use IS ft) The contractor would order 15 ft of the radiation. TC = -. as seen in Table 5.000 500x2 = 12 F Example S. difficult for the student to put all this information together in planning a system.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A contractor is about to install a hydronic system and notes that the engineer's specifications call for !6 in.2 will be used.. ¥4in. Most ratings are listed for 65 F air entering the unit.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS I IS air temperature. and would probably be wry noisy..}ittle extra capacity.1-5. The contractor should call the engineer and discuss possible changes in the design..2 lists water velocities for different flow rates. Y2in. Choose the type of piping arrangement best suited for the application (Sections 5.000 BTUlhr 840 BTUlhr per ft 5. rather than deal with the fractional amount. The manufacturer should be consulted before using flow rates greatly outside the range shown in their tables.7 1.4 0.5 2. at a flow rate of 2 GPM and an average water temperature of 210 F (the next lowest temperature rating listed is used to be certain that the unit has adequate capacity).1 will be used to select the unit. Leaving t = 218 . = 14. Choose the types of terminal units best suited for the application (Sections 5.5 jectionable noise.3 Select the length of !6 in. diameter tubing with a flow rate of 7 GPM. Solution Table 5.

9.O. diameter baseboard radiation. Determine the water temperature entering and leaving each unit. A sketch of the piping system and units is shown in Figure 5. but cannot of course be greater than the total flow rate.4 = 216 F. of course.116 CHAPTER 5 4. A series loop hydronic heating 7 6 5 4 . The first unit has a required capacity of 9200 BTUlhr.gen.2 to find the resulting flow rate. For a one-pipe main system. It is helpful to record all flow rates and temperatures on the piping sketch. If the flow rate is not satisfactory according to this check. a designer can usually select an appropriate temperature change on the first or second trial. hased on the required capacity of each unit (Equation 5. 6.5 GPM 500x 30 This is a satisfactory flow rate.000 = 4. Table 5. The return temperature is then 220 .20). A supply temperature of 220 F is chosen. 2 3 HW . 4. The leaving temperature is 220 .21). ExampleS. Determine appropriate water temperatures. Choose a suitable system supply temperature (Section 5. Smith residence has a design heating load of 68. a new trial value of the system water temperature change is taken and a new flow rate calculated. (The results are noted in Table 5. Select the terminal units from the manufacturer's ca. Solution The system design procedure recommended will be followed.3 lists the required heating capacity of each unit. system will be used. the flow rates through each unit may be arbitrarily selected within recommended values. Using Equation 5. Try a temperature drop of 30 F.2). GPM = 68. 7.5 4F 8. the total system flow rate is distributed among all the units. Figure 5. For a two-pipe system. C.~log.) 1-3.000 500 x 10 13. For a series loop system. with % in. The temperature change is TC= 9200 500x4. 8. 6. Check to see if this is a satisfactory flow rate. B. a series loop baseboard system has been chosen. Try a system temperature drop of 10 F. After a little experience.20). For this small house.3. Prepare a table showing all the information collected.2).22 Sketch for Example 5.30 = 190 F. Calculate the water temperature change through each unit. The flow rate through each unit may he arbitrarily chosen within the manufacturer's recommended values. 5. and calculate the system water flow rate required to handle the building load (Equation 5. Two examples will illustrate this procedure. 7. A.2). the flow rate through every unit is the same. flow rates. Velocities through units should be within recommended values (Section 5.S The S. but of course the sum of the flow rates through each of the units must equal the total system flow rate.000 BTUlhr. GPM= Q 500 x TC = 68.5. and select the terminal heating units. Also check manufacturer's recommendations on flow rates.22.6GPM 5. This flow rate will result in a greatly excessive velocity (Table 5. Select a trial value of the system water temperature change (Section 5. The temperature entering the first unit is 220 F.

The terminal units are fan-coil units.600 11.5 4.5 4.3 ft will make up for selecting it at 220 F instead of 218 F. using the rating at 4 GPM and 220 F the heat output is 890 BTU per foot of length.5 F F F 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. The required length of baseboard is now determined.) If the radiation selected above is excessively long.200 12.4. Try a system temperature rise of 12 F. (The sum of the unit capacities is slightly greater than the building load.13. The building shape is such that there may be unbalanced flow if a direct return layout is used.700 9.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS TABLES.1.= 10.4.5 4. as explained in Chapter 3. The building is a small group of medical offices. After a study of the building plans and use. tim tout.5 4.800 220 216 211 207 203 200 194 216 211 207 203 200 194 189 218 213 209 205 201 197 191 11 16 11 13 9 20 18 The same procedure is used to find the remaining temperatures.3 RESULTS OF TERMINAL UNIT SELECTION FOR EXAMPLE 5. The results for the other units are shown in Table 5. Using Figure 5. The student should check these. Solution The design procedures recommended will be followed. with a cooling load of 220.600 6. .400 8. This results in a calculated return temperature slightly less than originally chosen which. values can be interpolated between listed temperatures.. The length required is therefore 1-3. For more accuracy. Capacities are listed in Table 5. 9.6. ft GPM 4. BTu/hr Flow Rate. The fan-coil units will fit nicely under the window in each office.000 BTU/hr. CHW gen. From Table 5. will not seriously affect the accuracy of the selection of the terminal units.3. 9200 Length = .5 4. Another solution is to use radiation that has a greater output per unit length.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Determine the chilled water temperatures and flow rates for the two-pipe system shown in Figure 5. it has been decided to use fan-coil units and a two-pipe reverse return system. taveJ Length.5 117 Unit Capacity. due to infiltration.3 ft (use 1\ ft) 890 The choice of 11 ft of radiation instead of 10.300 13. All results are listed in Table 5. the problem might be resolved by raising the water supply temperature.5 4. The average water temperature in the first unit is Average t = 220 + 216 2 = 218 F Example 5. however. 4.23 Sketch for Example 5.

6 TABLE 5. 5.dunham-bush:com www. Describe a suitable application for each. 4.3 44 44 44 44 44 58 55 59 57 51 (/ In selecting cooling units. The student should work out this solution as a learning exercise. the sensible and latent capacities must also be determined.slantfin. List the applications and the advantages and disadvantages of the four types of hydronic piping system arrangements. Each manufacturer has slightly different procedures. In the previous example. GPM tin' tout' F F 2 3 4 5 52. What are the basic parts of a unit heater? List the types of unit heaters and one application for each type. The system supply water temperature chosen depends on the selection of the refrigeration equipment and costs. 8. 9. The temperature leaving the first unit is then 44 + 14 = 58 F.000 53.2. Useful Websites The following sites have information for hydronic terminal unit performance.000 41.com www. The same procedure is carried out for each unit. What is the chiller's capacity in tons? . Referring to a manufacturer's catalog of fancoil units (not shown here). Problems 5. nominal diameter tubing. The temperature change for the other units is found in the same manner. entering at 52 F and leaving at 40 F. Sketch the arrangements for the four types of hydronic piping system arrangements.000 500 x 12 Review Questions I.2. 7. as will be seen in Chapter 6. These are not shown here.3 7. Furthermore. an alternate procedure could have been used-to assume that every unit has exactly the same water temperature rise and then to calculate the required flow rate.000 47. it is noted that their coil has a % in. The instruments show 240 GPM of water flowing through the chill~r. the velocity will be satisfactory.7/5 = 7. The temperature change for the first unit is TC= 52. What application do three.3 7.1 The operating engineer wants to check the capacity of a refrigeration water chiller.3 220.3 7. the terminal units can be selected from the manufacturer's catalog. which are described in their catalogs. BTU/hr Flow Rate.000 27. 5-6. 7. From the information above. and applications: www.3 GPM each.7GPM The flow rate is arbitrarily distributed equally among all five units.000 500 x 7.118 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 5. 3.4 Unit Total" Capacity.3 7. but remember that the flow rates found should be checked to see if they are within recommended values. 2. selection. We will not describe that process here.and four-pipe systems have? What undesirable feature does a three-pipe system have? List the types of hydronic terminal units used for heating and/or for cooling.sterlinghvac. the building load will not generally be as great as the sum of the room loads. From Table 5. the flow rate is GPM = ---=Q=---500xTC =36. Assume a CHW supply temperature of 44 F has been found satisfactory. List the four basic types of hydronic system piping arrangements.000 7. = 14 F 6. giving 36.com Equation 5. 8. This procedure is just as acceptable as those chosen.

5 In Figure 5.6.12 Using a system temperature rise of 10 F for Example 5.6 and equal flow rates to each unit. of the type shown in Table 5.000 BTUIhr.5 GPM.000 BTUIhr.24. Find the required length of % in. (Use the type of system and tenninal units as assigned by your instructor. Use the heating loads calculated previously. Use the heating loads calculated previously or those specified by the instructor. (Use the type of system and terminal units as assigned by your instructor.5 using a split series loop piping system and suitable temperatures and flow rates. a supply temperature of 230F.1.20. calculate the temperature rise in each unit and the flow rate in each section of pipe. If the water temperature rise in the unit is 14 F.10 Select baseboard radiation for the residence described in Example 5. 7200 BTUlhr.13 Assuming a system temperature rise of 14 F for Example 5. Figure 5. B.24 Sketch for Problem 5.25. baseboard radiation from the Website www. (3) .slantfin.14 Layout a hydronic piping system and terminal units for the house shown in Problem 3. a flow rate of I GPM.6 In Figure 5.700 BTUIhr. 5. respectively. Water enters the unit at 220 F and leaves at 208 F.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 119 5. (2). what is the flow rate in GPM? 5.17 A room has a heating load of 8300 BTUlhr.1. A hydronic heating system is used.com. baseboard. 5. 5. The flow rate through each unit is 3 GPM. Determine the water temperatures and flow rates at points (1).4 The flow rate through a convector is 4. 5.6 and the same temperature rise in each unit. Select the required 3/4 in.1I Find the flow rate in each section of pipe for the hydronic cooling system of Example 5. 5.5.9 Select the terminal units for the residence described in Example 5. or select your own. B 1 . What is the return water temperature? 5.16 5. and a temperature drop of 35 F. or those specified by the instructor. with a flow rate of2 GPM and an average water temperature of 200 F? 5.21. baseboard radiation of the type listed in Table 5. or select your own. using the Website www. Produce the appropriate detail and dimension drawing and a brief specification. Select the radiation needed for the units described in Problem 5. 5.25 Sketch for Problem 5. calculate the flow rate through each unit. Z! in. 5GPM • 225 F A 5. The water supply temperature is 200 F and flow rate is 2 GPM. Figure 5.com. terminal units A. and 12.8 A room has a heating load of 9600 BTUlhr.5.3 A fan-coil unit is to be used to cool a room with a cooling load of 12.) 5. baseboard radiation to heat the room. What is the water temperature leaving unit A and unit B? 5. with a supply temperature of 190 F. terminal unit A has a heat output of 9300 BTUlhr and unit B of 8100 BTUIhr.15 Layout a hydronic piping system and tenrunal units for the building shown in Problem 3.6. What is the heat output of the convector? 5. Produce the appropriate detail and dimension drawing and a brief specification. and (3).2 A building has a heating load of 630. if the baseboard is supplied with 3 GPM of water at 235 F. baseboard.) Computer Solution Problems 5. supplying 40 GPM of water at 240 F. and C have cooling capacities of 14.000 BTUlhr.sterlinghvac. using l-2 in.7 What is the heating capacity of a 7 ft length of l-2 in.5.

Perform a commercial cooling load analysis. The amount of heat that must be removed (the cooling load) is not always equal to the amount of heat received at a given time.2 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES In Chapter 3. Find required ventilation rates. 120 6.. The procedures described for calculating cooling needs are similar but involve additional items that make the subject more complicated.c H A p T E R Cooling Load Calculations T he objective of this chapter is to learn how to determine the amount of cooling required to keep the rooms in a building comfortable in summer. The cooling load must be determined because it is the basis for selection of the proper size air conditioning equipment and distribution system. we noted that the heat loss from a room at any instant was equal to the heating load at that time. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. moved. Calculate the heat gains to a space. 4. 2. 6. 6. this heat must be re- . Select appropriate design conditions for cooling. With cooling. you will be able to: I. The amount of heat that must be removed is called the cooling load. It is also used to analyze energy use and conservation. season.1 THE COOLING LOAD The air inside a building receives heat from a number of sources during the cooling. Perform a T~sidential cooling load analysis. 5. the situation is more complex. we learned how to calculate the winter heating requirements of a building. Determine peak load conditions. If the temperature and humidity of the air are to be maintained at a comfortable level. In Chapter 3. 3.

~ '" '-' c: heat gain o o '0 c: 'OJ '" 0> <il I '" Morning Afternoon Time of day ------ Evening . the other part (the radiation) heats the building mass-the roof.1 Heat flow diagram showing building heat gain. so the cooling load becornes greater than the tnstantaneous heat gain. floors. '0 . structure Convection (delayed in time) Heat gain :---+- Convection -- Cooling load Figure 6. the stored heat plus some of the new entering heat is released to the room air. the cooling load is less than the instantaneous heat gain. An example is shown in Figure 6.2. Only at a later time does the stored heat portion contribute to heating the room air.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 121 Radiation Heat stored in furnishings. This difference is a result of the heat storage and time lag effects. only a portion of it heats the room air immediately. heat storage. Later in the day. as shown in Figure 6. walls. This is the time lag effect. Note that during the time of day at which the instantaneous heat gain is the highest (the afternoon).1. and furnishings. Of the total amount of heat entering the building at any instant. Figure 6.2 The thermal storage effect and resulting time lag cause the cooling load to often be different iu value from the entering heat (called the instantaneous heat gain). and cooling load.Q 0> . Difference between instantaneous heat gain and cooling load as a result of heat storage effect. The room cooling load is the rate at which heat must be removed from the room air to maintain it at the design temperature and humidity. This is the heat storage effect. This is because some of this heat is stored in the building mass and is not heating the room air.

ceilings. nfiltration -Qwall Qf(eor . Qroof or ceiling I I Lights~ I I t . thus increasing humidity.-~ 122 CHAPTER 6 This effect is noticed in the huge southern European cathedrals built of massive. Conduction through interior partitions. Heat from infiltration of outside air through openmgs It is convenient to arrange these heat gains into two groups-those from external sources outside the room. very hot day the church interior remains quite cool. These methods . Figure 6. Even on a sunny. latent heat gains are due to addition of water vapor. and those internally generated. Lighting 5. One of its valuable features is that in learning it. In this extreme example of time delay. From the earlier description. though it is not air-conditioned. Equipment 7. thick stone walls. By the time the heat reaches the interior (time lag). Q. Sensible heat gains result in increasing the air temperature. it merely heats the walls (heat storage). ~ Qsolar (glas Qlights Q partition . and floors 3. acceptable procedures for calculating cooling loads that take into account the phenomena we have discussed. and items 4 through 6 are internal heat gains.often lead to use of smaller equipment and sometimes result in less energy use.-~ 'iE(Q-_.3): I. The software bibliography in the rear of this text lists some of the available computer software for cooling load calculations. It is also convenient to arrange the heat gains into a different set of two groups: sensible and latent heat gains. Solar radiation through glass 4. Conduction through exterior walls. The entering heat doesn't reach the interior. This procedure is relatively easy to understand and use. and glass 2. The cooling load calculation procedure that will be explained here is called the CLF/CLTDmethod. the building may even have a reverse heat flow at night-heat flows out from the hot walls to the cool outdoors. There are a few different. The CLF/CLTD method can be catTied out manually or by using a computer.3 Room heat gain components. it is seen that items I through 3 are external heat gains.3 ROOM HEAT GAINS The heat gain components that contribute to the room cooling load consist ofthe following (Figure 6. one may understand better the effects we have been discussing. roof. All of them are more accurate than past methods and are often required in state energy codes and standards. 6. / Qpeople I Equipment ! I I - ~ -Qglass Q. People 6. night has come. . Infiltration can be considered as a separate class.

Date is July 21st.1. or glass. Find the corrected CLTDc·from Equation6. Outdoor average temperature on the design day is 85 FDB. the CLTD must be corrected as follows: CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 . and item 6 can fall in either category Or both. is constructed of 4 in. fe CLTDc =corrected cooling load temperature difference. I and 6.2 are Solar Time. As will be noted in the study of psychrometries (Chapter 7). it is always advisable to confirm these values by calculation from individual R-values. roof is type No. . The inside temperature is 76 F. F The cooling load temperature difference (CLTD) is not the actual temperature difference between the outdoor and indoor air.2 or 6. CLTD = 29 F. Add one hour for Daylight Savings Time.4).tR) + (ta . The hours listed in Tables 6.5 LM = correction for latitude and month.1) where Q = cooling load for roof. (6. It is a modified value that accounts for the heat storage/time lag effects.2. F Both to and DR (the daily temperature range) are found in Table A.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 30 ft by 40 ft roof of a building in Washington. Tables 6. 3. it is necessary to separate the sensible and latent gains because the selection of cooling equipment depends on their relative values. from Table 6. F CLTD = temperature from Table 6. Items 5 and 7 are part sensible and part latent.1 and 6.1 and 6. Location is 400N latitude.85) (6. first finding each correction: A.3 include U-values for the roofs and walls described.2) Example 6. Indoor temperature is 78 F DB. as described in Chapter 3. The CLTD values in Tables 6. If the actual condition differs from any of the above. BTU/hr U = overall heat transfer coefficient for roof. However. At 2 PM (14 hrs).C. F DR = daily temperature range. or glass. depending on the type of equipment. This is approximately equal to Standard Time.(DRl2) (6.9 with suspended ceiling. The following two examples illustrate the procedure for finding the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through a roof and a wall. wall. 2.4 tR =room temperature. 4. D. 2. Solution I. and glass are each found from the following equation: Q=UxAxCLTD c The temperature ta can be found as follows: ta = to . where CLTDc = corrected value of CLTD.F 6.1. 6.3) where to = outside design dry bulb temperature. F ta = average outside temperature on a design day. BTU/hr-ft2-F A = area of roof. Tables 6. Correct for LM (Table 6. From Table 6. or glass. wall.9.2 list CLTD values for some roof and wall constructions.. walls. wall. heavy weight concrete with 1 in.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 123 Items 1 through 4 are solely sensible gains.4 CONDUCTION THROUGH EXTERIOR STRUCTURE The cooling loads caused by conduction heat gains through the exterior roof. insulation and a suspended ceiling.1 and 6. Find the roof cooling load at 2 PM Solar Time on July 21.2 are based on the follOWing conditions: 1.

.) insulation 2. 0.170 -2 -3 -3 -5 -3 -3 -3 6 -2 19 4 34 14 40 27 (11 71 52 n 62 79 70 77 74 70 74 59 70 45 62 30 51 l:-l 3S 12 28 20 14 9 14 16 -5 79 74 R4 77 76 8 18 6 o -[ 5 39 -3 -3 insulation 4-in.122) 0.124) 0.1 23 22 26 18 4() 29 26 31 21 46 36 31 36 24 50 41 36 40 . wood with 2-in.Differmum ence CLTD CLTD Without Suspended Ceiling Sleel sheet with I-in. (or 2-in) insulation 17 (18) .192 25 30 34 3] 22 26 31 28 36 18 23 28 25 33 15 19 25 12 16 22 20 28 9 S 10 16 15 22 8 9 14 14 20 10 14 9 lO 26 17 18 . (or 2-in.21:1 (0.106 (0. wood with I-in.109 0. ins. lightweight 0.TABLE 6. (or 2-in.117. wood with I-in.. 8·in.[06 0.213 9 o -2 -3 -3 9 20 32 44 55 64 70 73 71 66 57 45 34 25 18 13 16 73 concrete 4 2-in. heavyweight concrete with I-in. heavyweight concrete with I-in.) insuhlliun 13 14 18 13 16 17 20 19 13 14 46 22 30 22 17 45 43 m. lightweight concrete 7 2. ins...~3 53 49 44 45 36 52 51 45 45 39 48 50 46 44 41 43 47 45 42 43 38 43 43 40 43 34 39 40 37 42 30 35 37 34 40 18 19 53 51 45 13 19 17 25 13 15 18 16 46 40 43 32 43 3J J1 II 12 Roof terrace system 6-in. wood with 2-in.. (or 2·in. 7 (8) 0.IlO) 0.5·in. heavyweight c6ncrete with I-in. Ib/ft2 BTU No Construction h_tt2 . 52 (52) 13 J5 75 (75) 0.1 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING LOAD FROM FLAT ROOFS. F Hour of Maximum CLTD U-value.5-in.lightweight concrete 22 17 24 30 35 39 45 6J 50 47 13 J1 29 35 20 26 16 22 13 18 10 14 II 6 9 6 7 9 20 27 19 34 25 42 33 53 46 55 50 49 53 34 40 6 7 56 1:1 20 54 9 [0 4-in. wood with [·in.078) 38 28 13 4·ill.) insulation I-in.) insulation I-in.206 0. (or 2-in.130 0. 2. 22 16 27 I.093 0.126 12 o o -3 13 -I -I 11 5 20 30 '27 15 13 9 41 39 ~3 51 49 33 59 57 4~ 65 63 5I 66 66 62 54 45 37 57 54 54 36 26 50 29 22 II 17 16 16 18 19 -1 67 68 71 9 24 -4 9 -5 6 -7 -6 -3 16 7 64 58 48 39 62 62 57 64 48 62 56 53 18 42 44 49 7 28 -7 64 64 'i insulation 6 '6-in. Roof Description of Weight.200 ((J.oF 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 Solar Time 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Minimum CLTD Maxi.158 0. 29 (0.

Roof No Description of Construction Weight. ins\llilli!m 3D 0.in. ins II 12 Roof terrace system 6-in.1. 26 2/\ 28 30 29 32 31 33 . wood with 1"in. lightweight 0. henvywcight concrete with I-in. :~"'--.134 (()Jl92) 2 () -2 -J -4 -4 -I \} 23 :17 50 ()2 71 77 71\ 74 67 56 42 2X 111 12' R 15 25 2-1 -4 2 () 78 62 R2 2 I-in.125 (0.12 34 37 36 23 2i 37 Reprinted with permission from the /989 ASHRAE J-Illni/hook-FIIIJ(/amel1lals..109 0.096 D. F (Continued) Hour of Maxi2 .090) 30 35 29 .12 31 29 27 26 24 23 22 21 22 22 24 2'i 27 . ' ". 39 36 3 3 29 26 23 20 18 15 14 14 15 17 20 25 29 34 38 42 45 46 44 42 32 53 (54) 15 0.1 4"in.1.5-in. wood with 15 33 21 21 IS 14 44 46 29 J-in. ins.) ins.j!! 38 40 38 41 37 41 36 40 34 39 33 37 19 20 38 41 18 10 2.) insulation 77 77 (77) )0 29 29 21' 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 ~2 22 21 22 21 22 22 23 2~~ 23 2:\ 25 2(.) insulution 'i (10) 0.r TABLE 6.ll 20 19 15 14 II 10 4 2 () () 7 -I 13 10 21 I') )0 29 40 W 48 4R 55 56 60 62 62 65 61 6-1 58 61 51 5-1 44 -16 37 .~X 30 30 17 17 60 65 20 65 4 concrete wilh I-in. in~ to 26 25 20 [6 13 10 12 IX 25 :n 22 21 41 4S 53 57 57 56 52 46 40 34 29 57 52 47 tv U> 6 6-in.131 O. heavyweight concrete with I-in. wood with 2-in.~-jn.I.093 32 34 28 31 23 29 19 26 16 23 13 21 10 IK 16 7 I. (or 2-in. lightweight concrete 2·in. (or 2·in.lightweight concrete 4-in.'If) 32 34 33 34 33 34 .1:'i .O!D 2H 25 23 20 17 15 1) 13 14 16 20 25 3D 35 39 43 46 47 46 44 41 38 35 32 18 18 20 13 47 34 I-in. . wood with l·in.1 .082 21 22 20 18 22 2i 23 2-in.on 0.1!'ii\1~!'*"iI.14 . (ur 2. 10 4-in. Ibfft2 BTU h.~2 32 31 33 34 11 0.OM) . wood wilh n.!r: U-value.Differmum ence CLTO CLTO 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 CLTO With Suspended Ceiling Steci sheet Wilh I-in.~ 33 33 3(j 33 .') 8 15 II 16 16 IX 29 25 36 JD 42 34 48 ]8 52 41 54 43 54 44 54 44 47 42 42 40 37 37 7 54 concrete 2.115 O.128 (0.1 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (ClTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING lOAD FROM FLAT ROOFS..ft 2.088) " 16 1.) ln~lIll1tion 19 (20) O.OR2 (O. heavyweight 0. (or 2-in.-.. insulation 8 9 B-in.oF 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 Solar Time 12 13 14 mum 15 16 17 Minimum CLTO Maxi.'" '"'.13 27 ]0 26 2H 24 26 22 24 21 22 20 20 20 IX 21 IX 22 Hi 24 20 27 22 29 25 32 2B 34 32 36 35 38 .

7 31 36 -16 50 -1-1 27 24 27 30 32 43 59 56 37 24 20 29 30 22 24 24 25 52 67 55 22 IX 19 19 20 15 37 63 67 47 31 61 72 55 37 48 41 14 15 15 t. ..5 24 29 2S II II 12 12 l2 17 9 9 III 10 II) 7 7 8 8 8 10 II 10 S 5 6 6 5 8 8 l8 9 -I -) 26 39 55 51 to II -I -I -) 14 16 13 15 13 " 17 17 7 " o I o 46 63 47 63 72 55 71 55 ..2932J.). 30 3(l 2<) 3X -lO 31 2_.).).MaJ.J19 2] 21 15 17 18 14 24 22 16 24 ::!J 17 18 19 18 15 19 15 23 18 20 20 16 24 19 22 22 17 13 20 25 2.:' 9 17 ~~ 9 18 10 19 12 16 18 l4 . . 4 25 24 20 25 27 7 6 6 S 9 7 21 Group B Walls NE E IS 19 23 23 14 SE SW NW N W ::12 22 IS S 21 27 29 23 20 26 :!8 -'-' 14 17 21 21 19 25 27 21 13 16 20 20 18 24 26 20 12 15 18 11 14- 18 !7 22 24 19 !7 !7 15 21 23 IS II 13 16 16 14 19 21 17 JO 12 15 IS 13 18 9 12 15 14 9 !3 15 14II 15 17 1J 9 14 17 15 11 14 16 12 8 15 19 16 II 14 15 12 9 16 21 18 II 13 14I.. 29 38 41 32 Group E Walls 12 NE IJ 14 SE SW W E 10 II 12 8 9 J() 7 7 S S NW N 15 15 22 25 20 12 12 18 21 17 10 10 15 17 14 8 8 12 14 11 " 7 6 6 II 5 5 8 9 7 4 6 . 6 15 IS 7 24 33 2..3J 18 24 32 JS 43 14 20 27 36 . 12....3 2.7 3S -'I 32 :>'6 37 -1-0 3:!.5 (.:'1 21 19 27 29 23 18 25 27 21 17 17 16 22 25 20 III II l4 l4 9 !O 12 12 12 16 8 10 12 12 10 8 II 14 7 IJ 16 13 <) 7 15 19 16 8 !7 22 19 !O 19 25 ~~ 13 IS 00 16 12 9 9 II 12 10 15 16 13 l4 II " i4 13 12 13 10 11 12 !() 11 11 12 10 9 20 27 24 \. NE E 17 19 20 12 13 15 15 I(} SE SW NW N 11 13 13 S 19 28 31 W 25 15 22 24 19 13 19 21 17 9 III II II II 16 7 S 9 10 9 .2 Solar Time.4 20 16 13 15 4 5 5 17 19 20 20 5 6 22 26 38 37 34 45 49 " " 5 38 Group FWails NE E 8 9 6 7 7 SE SW NW N W S to to to 15 17 14 7 8 II 13 10 5 5 6 6 6 9 10 3 3 4 4 4 4 9 28 2 3 14 30 +t 36 13 8 8 8 17 HI 38 28 4 4 II 29 45 19 27 36 3 ) 41 8 6 7 6 5 5 4 I 2 ::w II II 10 ...:'0 12 13 14 II 19 15 24 21 14 14 14 12 25 23 15 15 15 12 II 19 26 24 \7 17 17 12 20 26 25 19 20 19 13 20 27 14 11 27 1421 26 15 21 26 15 15 24 20 25 25 22 20 242421 U 15 26 20 22 22 17 26 21 25 25 19 26 2. 9 25 36 31 II 25 3S _~5 7 7 " 6 4 I ) 5 6 5 6 7 6 13 9 .~5 17 22 27 17 21 26 27 25 33 26 24 32 35 16 20 24 24 22 31 22 20 17 to 10 23 30 29 26 IS 19 12 12 <) " IS 17 1'. 15 30 50 51 31 26 40 48 26 " " 18 39 12..5 9 12 -t 7 10 II .. 13 IJ II 10 12 22 21 29 26 !7 15 14 12 13 22 29 28 20 IS 16 30 29 22 22 20 30 29 24 26 24 IS 13 15 15 23 30 29 25 29 29 22 16 23 29 29 26 32 32 25 17 23 2S 28 25 33 .3 13 16 2() 26 32 21 ~3 20 ~l IX 2'i 3() 31 H 2X 2X 19 22 25 31 45 49 37 2'j 44 4-9 3X 26 26 23 23 16 17 20 20 2{) . 6 7 6 8 <) 6 10 6 1-117 IJ 6 17 22 17 to 20 27 22 9 8 <) ... 2t: ~S " y. Mini. . IQ 12 II 8 10 13 15 17 19 20 2(> 26 26 26 2(' 37 36 34 33 32 37 37 36 34 33 :!.)... ~6 :!. J! 5 8 5 8 11 [6 15 15 2.). 20 23 23 IS 24 25 19 14 20 25 24 20 25 26 20 14 20 25 24 20 25 26 21 10 22 22 22 14 20 23 24 I I 15 IS IS 14 17 IS l4 .. 32 4~ 1 5 12 5 . J5 55 49 .).:' 27 27 21 26 ~~ 211 29 ~~ 28 29 23 28 30 23 21 20 21 23 24 24 24 S 12 15 l4 II 15 21 27 26 22 <) l2 l2 II " l4 II 7 2S 30 15 16 23 9 Groupe WallS NE E 15 19 22 [4 17 13 16 19 19 12 14 II 13 15 15 15 20 22 IS SE SW NW N S 22 21 29 W 31 25 .. F Hrof Maxi.() 45 35 -10 3n 34 2x 36 32 14 15 17 17 17 26 29 :!...5 " 21 2 3 6 5 38 35 28 21 27 34 36 39 44 39 27 23 26 30 24 24 27 23 22 20 19 21 16 16 17 31 35 .126 CHAPTER 6 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING LOAD FROM SUNLIT WALLS." 00 22 22 22 27 35 27 :n II 33 35 27 27 26 12 10 "' Group 0 WallS 15 13 15 17 17 17 25 27 .. 20 24 24 24 34 3X 30 18 22 22 ~~ 31 3-1 27 17 19 21 21 22 " .J17 19 10 ::n 16 17 15 15 19 14 17 IS [4 ]0 !7 22 20 14 17 [8 14 10 18 [I ]8 II 18 12 19 25 12 19 25 J3 20 25 2. h 0100 0200 03000400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 10001100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 21002200 2300 2400 CLTD eLTD elTD elTD North Latitude WaH Facing Group A Walts NE N E SE SW NW N W S 14 19 24 24 20 25 27 21 14 19 24 23 20 25 27 21 14 19 23 23 19 25 26 21 13 18 23 22 19 24 26 20 13 17 22 21 13 17 21 20 12 12 18 24 25 20 18 2] 24 19 16 20 20 17 22 24 19 15 19 19 16 21 23 18 " 15 19 II 15 18 18 15 19 21 16 10 15 19 18 14 19 20 16 IS 16 20 22 10 15 19 18 14 18 19 [0 16 20 IS 1. 2 II 5 I 2 4 -I 5 6 5 NW 5 3 2 o I o o o o 27 31 If: 789 36 39 47 5.. 4 (. 3 5 5 20 26 19 .. 8 12 III 23 32 29 16 12 II 1() 12 23 33 31 20 16 14 12 8 7 10 II <) " i4 5 i4 15 I' 12 I) 6 9 II) 6 8 9 7 8 <) 13 24 33 32 24 21 10 7 7 8 " 14 IS 25 31 31 29 36 36 27 J<) 19 19 IX 16 21 2.Differmum mum mum enee TABLE 6.). 28 12 12 12 IS 21 18 12 13 16 39 53 60 18 19 19 46 NE 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 SE SW W E S o o o o o I 2 I -I -I -I -I . " 16 6 7 19 25 13 IS 33 32 .53 57 2S 31 24 25 26 13 13 15 15 II II 19 II 23 30 45 43 21 ~~ 52 60 46 Group G Walls " 25 25 27 27 06 45 54 43 37 -1-_' IS If: 2f: 15 23 27 22 J5 3-1.

~-- . common brick A Insulation or air space + 8-in.151-D. or 2-in.275 O.142-D. tile 4-in. ~lock + air space/insulation Clay tile + (finish) 83 90 90 88 130 130 94 97 143-190 62 62 70 73-89 89 71 71 71 96 96 97 63 63 63 109 110 110 156 156 29 29--37 47-51 41-57 39 39 39 40 63 63 63 5--{j 16 0. block C Air space or 1-in.112 0.301 0. concrete B 2-in.263 0. insulation + 8-in. to 3-in.161-D. tile C 8-io.294-DA02 0. tile + air space/I-in.231 0.119-D. insulation + 8-in.111 0. concrete C B 8-in. common brick C I-in. insulation _ 2-in.296 0. face brick D 4-in. insulation or air space + 4-in.081-D. block 4-io. common brick 4-io.275 0. block D 8-in.105-D. or more concrete 4-io.119 00490 0. tile 8-in. or 8-in. concrete B 12-in. insulation + 4-in. Face brick + (heavyweight concrete) C Air space + 2-io.to 3-in. Face brick + (brick) C Air space + 4-in. insulation + 4-io.097 0. insulation 2-in.149-D.I07 0.350 0. insulation + 4-in.221-D. concrete A Air space or insulation + 8-in.110 0. insulation + 8-1n.585 0. tile + I-in. tile With/without air space + 1.175 0. insulation + 6-io. block D 8-in.381 0.113 0. insulation 0.115 00421 0.303 0.281 0.174-D.302 0.096-D.099 F F E D D C B Metal curtain wall G Frame wall G 4-in. block + air space/insulation E 2-in.116 0.114 0. tile D Air space + 4-in.200 0.3 Group No. tile Heavyweight concrete wall + (finish) E 4-in.11O-D. Face brick + (clay tile) D 4-in. tile B Air space or I-in. concrete + I-in.173 -00419 0.358 00415 0. tile 8-in. insulation 2-in. tile A 2-in.230 0.187 0. concrete + insulation Light and heavyweight concrete block + (finish) F 4-in. block E 8-in. insulation A 2-in.169 0.319 0. concrete A 12-in.154-D.091-D. common brick B 2-in. insulation + 8-in. insulation + 8-in. or 2-in.153-D.243 0. tile + air space 4-in.li8 Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. concrete D 4-in. concrete + I-in.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6. WALL CONSTRUCTION GROUP DESCRIPTION Weight (Ib/tt") 127 Description of Construction U-Value (BTU/hoft"o'F) 4-in.115-D.246 0.274 0. block B 2-in. Face brick + (light or heavyweight concrete block) E 4-io. concrete C 8-in. insulation + 4-in. block D Air space or insulation + 4-io. insulation + 4-in. common brick B 8-in. insulation I-in.22I 0. tile C Insulation + 4-in.

.4 CLTD CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE AND MONTH APPLIED TO WALLS AND ROOFS.128 CHAPTER 6 . .j. . NORTH LATITUDES. ]I' TABLE 6. Month N NNE NNW NE NW ENE WNW E W ESE WSW SE SW SSE SSW 6 S HOR 0 Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec Jan/Nov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug -3 -3 -3 -3 5 10 12 -4 -5 -5 -2 0 4 -5 -4 -5 -4 -2 -1 -I 7 9 -6 -2 1 3 5 5 -6 -6 -2 -1 0 0 0 -6 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -4 -4 0 0 -1 -3 -5 -7 -7 0 0 -1 -2 -4 3 2 0 -3 -6 -8 -9 4 4 -1 -5 -8 -9 -10 8 6 9 7 0 -8 -8 -8 -8 12 10 4 -4 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -4 -5 -5 -4 8 -3 -3 -3 2 7 9 -4 -4 -5 -4 -s -2 2 5 6 -3 -1 2 4 4 -3 -1 0 0 0 -8 -7 -4 -5 -6 3 1 -2 -5 -7 -8 4 4 2 2 -3 -7 -9 -9 9 8 5 0 -5 -7 -8 9 3 7 2 -2 -7 -7 -7 13 -1 0 -1 -2 -2 -9 -7 -4 16 May/Jul Jun -3 -3 -1 4 6 -5 -4 -4 -6 -6 -5 -3 0 3 4 -7 -6 -5 -4 -8 -7 -5 -2 -I 3 4 -9 -8 -6 -2 -1 0 -10 -9 -6 -2 -1 -1 -I -I -1 -1 0 -1 -3 -4 -4 -3 -3 -I -I 0 -3 -5 -6 3 9 3 I -I 12 7 0 -6 -7 0 13 13 10 4 -3 -6 -6 12 9 II -1 0 0 -7 -13 -II 24 Dec Jan/Nov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun -7 -6 -3 -I -I -3 -2 I 3 -5 -5 -4 -1 2 3 -7 -7 -6 -4 -3 0 2 3 -10 -9 -7 -4 -3 -I 0 I -II -II 0 0 -8 -8 -4 -2 -3 -3 -5 -IS -7 -3 0 I I -\7 -3 -4 -5 -6 32 2 -4 4 9 2 -8 -4 -3 -2 1 I -2 I -1 I -2 0 -13 -12 -9 -6 2 -8 -7 -7 -5 -3 0 1 -8 -8 -7 -6 2 -10 -10 -8 -5 -2 0 I -II -II -2 0 0 0 -10 -9 -6 -2 -1 -I -I 3 0 -I 8 5 I 7 I 12 -10 -5 -1 I -3 -4 -3 -4 -2 -7 -6 -3 -I -2 0 1 3 4 2 0 0 -3 -I 2 -21 -19 -14 -8 -3 I 40 -6 -5 -5 -4 -2 0 I 48 -6 -6 -5 -4 -10 -6 -2 0 0 -14 -13 -11 -7 -3 0 I -3 0 0 1 -13 -II 0 0 0 -10 -8 -5 -1 0 7 8 8 7 3 0 -1 2 10 II -12 10 4 I -I 2 -25 -24 -18 -11 -5 0 2 6 -8 -4 -3 0 -3 -1 1 -3 0 2 -1 I 2 1 4 4 3 2 5 8 8 6 3 2 8 II 11 7 4 3 Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. F Lat.

S COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CONDUCTION THROUGH GLASS Solar Time.1 F Find fa.. Use Equation 6. 2. first finding to and DR from Table A.!R) + (ta . From Table 6. DR = 18 F. fa = 95 F DR=18F.17/2 = 86 F C. the wall is in Group B. Solution I. Pennsylvania.5.2 is used to correct the CLTD.tR) + (ta . except that there is no latitude and month (LM) correction.85) = 15-1 +(78-77)+(81-85) CLTDc= II F 6.C.85) CLTDc= 18 F . LM = 1 F B. The inside air temperature is 77 F.76) + (86 . CLTD = 15 F._- - . Using Equation 6.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 129 D.3 to find t a.2.116 BTUlhr-ft 2 -F 7. Using Equation 6. insulation + 4 in. without LM correction. Using Equation 6. has a net opaque area of 5600 ft2 The wall is constructed of 4 in. =0. LM = .85) CLTDc=33 F D.2. Roof surface is horizontal (the HOR column). Inside air temperature is 75 F and outdoor average temperature on a design day is 88 F. 3. CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 .3. CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 .1 to find the cooling load. Using Equation 6.tR) + (ta .85) = 12 + (78 .C. heavy weight concrete. 10 = 90 F.85) = 29 + I + (78 . For July. For Washington.. face brick + 2 in. 5. From Table 6. The following example illustrates the use of Table 6.18/2 = 81 F (rounded off). Using Equation 6. Use Equation 6.128x 1200x33 = 5070 BTUlhr Example 6.2.h CLTD OF 12 13 14 14 13 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 9 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 Reprinted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.75) + (88 . Find the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through the windows at 2 PM Daylight Savings Time.128 BTU/hr-ft2 -F E. Q=UxAxCLTD c TABLE6. Find the wall cooling load at 4 PM Solar Time on June 21. CLTD= 12F. From Table A.5 lists CLTD values for glass.2 Q= UxAxCLTD c =0.1. From Table 6.h CLTD OF 0 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 2 4 7 Solar Time. U = 0.5 (2 PM DST= I PMST= 13 hrs). Solution I.2. ta = 90 . From Table 6. CLTDc = CLTD + (78 . 2.1l6x5600x II = 7150 BTUlhr Table 4.1 to find the cooling load. Using Table 6. The roof area A = 30 ft x 40 ft = 1200 ft2 3. Example 6. A room has 130 ft2 of single glass windows with vinyl frames. D.9. Equation 6. is at 38'N latitude (use 40 0 N).3. to = 95 . From Table 6. U = 0.3 A south-facing wall of a building in Pittsburgh.

1. orientation.3. To account for heat gains with different fenestration arrangements. Spaces with heat sources. From Table A.4) CLTDc = CLTD + (78 .5) U = overall heat transfer coefficient for partition. ft2 TD = temperature difference between unconditioned and conditioned space. BTU/hr-ft2 A = area of glass. BTUlhr-ft2-F A = area of partition.90x BOx 18 = 2110 BTUlhr Example 6.5 CONDUCTION THROUGH INTERIOR STRUCTURE The heat that flows from interior unconditioned spaces to the conditioned space through partitions. or ceiling. shading.5: Q= UxAxTD where Q = heat gain (cooling load) through partition.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A room has 130 ft 2 of exterior single glass with If the temperature of the unconditioned space is not known. F The SHGF gives maximum heat gain values only for the type of glass noted and without any shading devices. such as boiler rooms. Determine the cooling load from conduction heat gain through the glass at 12 noon Solar Time msummer.1 to find the cooling load. COITecting this by Equation 6. or ceiling.04 BTU/hr-ft2-F.8. The solar cooling load can be found from the following equation: Q=SHGFxA x SC x CLF where Q = solar radiation cooling load for glass. 6. Q = U x A x CLTD = 1. and latitude. Its value varies with time.6 for the 21st day of each month. U = 0. (6.90. may be at a much higher temperature. . Q = UxA X CLTDc =0. SHGF= 218 BTUlhr-ft2 .130 CHAPTER 6 3.04 x 130 x 12 = 1620 BTU/hr SC = shading coefficient CLF = cooling load factor for glass The maximum solar heat gain factor (SHGF) is the maximum solar heat gain through single clear glass at a given month.5 What is the maximum solar heat gain factor through the windows on the southwest side of a building located at 32°N latitude on September 21 st? Solution From Table 6. Table 6. Solution From Table 6.5. ft 2 no interior shading. and storage effect. Using Equation 6. The inside design condition is 78 F and the outdoor daily average temperature is 88 F. the shading coefficient SC is introduced.6 SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH GLASS Radiant energy from the sun passes through transparent materials such as glass and becomes a heat gain to the room. 6. floors. fioor.6.7 lists some values of SC. BTUlhr (3. fioor. BTUlhr SHGF = maximum solar heat gain factor. floor. or ceiling. CLTD = 9 F. Example 6. U = 1. and ceilings can be found from Equation 3.8. Values are shown in Table 6. an approximation often used is to assume that it is at 5 F less than the outdoor temperature. Using Equation 6. orientation.t R ) + (to .85) =9+0+3= 12F From Table A.

Feb. May June July Aug. 20 24 29 34 37 48 38 35 30 25 20 18 N (Shade) 20 20 24 50 29 93 71 140 102 165 113 172 102 163 71 135 30 87 25 49 20 20 18 18 74 129 169 190 202 205 198 185 160 123 73 60 154 186 218 224 220 216 216 216 203 180 151 135 E! W 205 234 238 223 208 199 203 214 227 225 241 246 236 203 175 161 170 196 226 238 201 237 188 232 ESE! SE! WSW SW 252 244 216 170 133 116 129 165 209 236 248 249 SSE! SSW 254 ~. OCL Nov. Oct. Mar. Sep.. Oct.41 180 206 223 154 252 113 265 95 267 109 262 149 2-1-7 200 215 234 177 250 132 253 113 28 0 N. Dec. Scpo Oct. P 160 238 224 118 206 210 183 171 240 183 148 132 257 171 132 115 261 179 144 128 254 202 177 165 236 227 216 211 199 237 240 239 157 227 244 2-t8 109 217 240 2-t6 89 SSE! SSW 32° N. Feb. . May June July Aug. Mar. Apr. Dec. Apr. May June July Aug. Scpo Oct. May June July Aug. 156 42 119 31 79 27 42 26 29 NNE! NNW 128 165 195 209 214 214 210 203 185 159 126 112 190 220 234 228 218 212 213 220 222 211 187 180 Ei W 240 253 241 244 243 213 237 214 168 212 169 107 190 132 67 179 117 55 185 129 65 204 162 103 225 206 163 237 235 207 236 249 237 234 247 247 ESE! SEt SSE! WSW SW SSW 227 192 137 75 46 43 46 72 13-1- 187 224 237 214 249 275 283 282 279 278 277 266 244 213 199 Jan.6 MAXIMUM SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTOR (SHGF) BTU/HR • 20C N. 25 29 33 36 40 51 41 38 34 30 26 24 25 29 41 84 115 125 114 83 38 30 26 24 35 72 116 151 172 178 170 149 III 71 35 24 117 157 189 205 211 211 208 199 179 151 115 99 183 213 231 228 219 213 215 220 219 204 181 172 E! W 235 244 237 216 195 184 190 207 226 236 232 227 251 246 221 178 144 128 140 172 213 238 247 248 247 224 182 124 83 68 80 120 177 217 243 251 238 207 157 94 58 49 57 91 154 196 234 265 278 280 278 276 272 256 201 229 235 195 246 179 Nov. Lat HOR NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! WSW SW S HOR Jan. Scpo Oct. Mar.. Mar.lat NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW E! W ESE! SE! WSW SW SSE! SSW N NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW E! W ESE! 5E1 SSE! WSW SW SSW N S HOR (Shade) S HOR Jan. M. 40 37 33 28 24 22 79 35 28 24 22 29 65 107 146 170 176 167 141 103 63 29 22 105 149 183 200 208 208 204 195 173 143 103 84 175 205 227 227 220 214 215 219 215 195 173 162 229 242 237 219 199 189 194 210 227 234 225 218 249 250 248 232 227 195 187 141 155 99 139 83 150 96 181 136 218 189 239 225 245 246 246 252 246 221 176 115 74 60 72 111 171 215 243 252 176 217 252 271 277 276 273 265 244 213 175 158 Jan. Mar. Mar. Nov. 15 20 26 31 35 46 37 33 27 21 15 13 15 20 26 61 97 110 96 61 27 21 15 13 15 36 80 132 158 165 156 128 72 35 15 13 53 103 154 180 200 204 196 174 144 96 52 36 118 168 204 219 218 215 214 211 191 161 115 91 175 216 234 225 214 206 209 216 223 207 172 156 216 242 239 215 192 180 187 208 228 233 212 195 239 249 232 194 ·163 148 158 188 223 241 234 225 245 250 228 186 150 134 146 180 220 2-t2 240 233 85 138 188 226 247 252 244 223 182 136 85 65 Reprinted with pennission from the 1989 ASHRA£ Hmzdbook-Fundamentals. 29 31 34 38 47 59 48 40 36 32 29 27 29 31 49 92 123 135 124 91 46 32 29 27 NNE! NNW 48 88 132 166 184 189 182 162 127 87 48 35 138 173 200 213 217 216 213 206 191 167 136 122 201 226 237 228 217 210 212 220 225 217 197 187 E! W 243 244 236 208 184 173 179 200 225 236 239 238 253 233 238 201 206 152 158 91 124 54 108 45 119 53 152 88 199 148 231 196 249 229 254 241 214 174 115 58 42 42 43 57 114 170 211 226 232 263 284 287 283 279 278 280 275 258 230 217 Jan. Oct. Dec. Mar. Lat N NNE! NE! ENE! (Shade) NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! SSE! WSW SW SSW S 48° N. lat NE! ENE! NW WNW S 44 0 N. Apr.. Apr. Feb.. Sep. Lat E! W· 219 239 238 221 204 194 199 212 228 230 215 204 247 248 232 196 165 150 161 189 223 239 252 239 206 156 116 99 252 232 243 241 113 151 200 231 248 253 SSE! SSW 192 135 93 77 90 131 187 225 248 254 155 199 238 262 272 273 268 257 230 195 154 136 24° N. Sep. May June July Aug. Apr. Apr. Dec. Dec . 17 22 27 33 36 47 37 34 28 23 18 15 N (Shade) 17 22 27 66 96 108 96 66 28 23 18 15 17 43 87 136 162 169 159 132 80 42 18 15 64 117 162 185 201 205 198 180 152 III 64 49 138 178 211 221 219 215 215 214 198 171 135 115 E! W 189 227 236 224 211 203 206 215 226 217 186 175 232 248 252 109 246 248 2. Feb. Feb. Sep. 24 27 32 36 38 44 24 27 37 80 111 122 III Nov. Nov. May June July Aug.. Dec. Lat HOR Jan. 27 30 34 37 43 55 45 38 35 31 27 26 N (Shade) 27 41 30 80 45 124 88 159 117 178 127 184 116 176 87 . Feb. NORTH LATITUDES 36° N.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6. Nov.. NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW S HOR Jan. Feb. Scpo Oct. Dec. Dec. Nov. Feb. Nov. 22 26 30 35 38 47 39 36 31 27 22 20 N 22 26 33 76 107 118 107 75 31 27 22 20 24 57 99 144 168 175 165 138 95 56 24 20 90 166 139 195 176 223 196 225 204 220 205 215 201 216 190 218 167 210 133 187 87 163 69 151 40° N. Apr.. Lat N NE/ ENE! NW WNW ESE! SE! SSEI WSW SW SSW S HOR (Shade) NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! WSW SW S HOR 133 Jan. Apr. May June July Aug. May June July Aug. Lat 131 FT" FOR SUNLIT GLASS.

How much of the glass receives direct solar radiation at Solution I.8 _ _ _ _-:-_ _-:-~_:_-___: A building at 32°N latitude has a wall facing west with a 4 ft overhang. Example 6. Example 6.83 3'M? j t .8 is used without interior shading devices and with carpeting.62 0.30 0040 Note: Venetian blinds are assumed set at a 45° position.35 0.58 0.55 0.11 can be used to find the shading from overhead horizontal projections. = 26.7.39 0. single clear glass and mediumcolored inside venetian blinds? 4.30 0. SHGF = 196 2.0 132 CHAPTER 6 SHADING COEFFICIENTS FOR GLASS WITHOUT OR WITH INTERIOR SHADING DEVICES With Interior Shading Roller Shades Opaque Translucent Dark Light Light 'i' TABLE 6.22 0. The SHGF values for any shaded glass is the same as the N (north) side of the building.7 Venetian Blinds Nominal Thickness.9 is used without interior shading devices and no carpeting. 6.-. From Table 6.53 0.57 0.67 0. Find the solar cooling load in August at 3 PM Solar Time.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the value of SC to be applied to the solar heat gain for l4 in. From Table 6.7 A building wall facing southwest has a window area of 240 ft2. only an indirect radiation reaches the glass from the sky and ground.81 0045 0. Medium (M). Table 6.69 0.67 x 0. The values in the table are the vertical feet of shade for each foot of horizontal projection. External shading from building projections (or other objects) may shade all or part of the glass.6 are for direct solar radiation-when the sun shines on the glass.10.36 0. Example 6. the shaded area portion must first be found. The cooling load factor CLF accounts for the storage of part of the solar heat gain. In order to find the total radiation through partly shaded glass. and 6. in (Each light) ~ l ~ '" Type of Glazing Without Shading :~ 1 Medium Light Single glass Clear Heat absorbing Double glass Clear Heat absorbing VI VI VI VI The buildin00" is of medium construction and is located at 400N latitude.74 0..94 0.4.6. In these cases.160 BTUlhr External Shading Effect The values for the SHGF shown in Table 6.36 0040 0. single clear glass with light-colored interior venetian blinds. Q= SHGFxA x SC x CLF = 196 x 240 x 0.10. Note that there are separate listings for Light (L).44 0. SC = 0.39 0. CLF = 0. The glass is !4 in.74. SC = 0. Values of CLF to be applied to the solar load calculation are shown in Tables 6.11. and a 5 ft wide by 6 ft high window whose top is 1 ft below the overhang. Table 6. Adapted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.71 0. The following example illustrates the use of Table 6. and Heavy (H) construction. Table 6. Using Equation 6.10 is used with interior shading devices (in this case the carpeting has no storage effect).67 3. From Table 6.81 0. as described.83 Solution From Table 6. Table 6. which also receives only indirect radiation.

01 .02 .00 .52 .22 .02 .06 .88 .08 .09 .68 .02 . Dir.01 .68 .01 .53 .23 .73 .00 .30 .54 .04 .00 .02 .02 .04 .89 .09 .04 .02 .59 .71 .03 .41 .05 .01 .88 .63 .~~-~.81 .25 .14 .00 .19 .03 .15 .88 .10 .07 .00 .75 .34 .05 .88 .66 .20 .17 .41 . Group G wall.05 .23 .02 .82 .02 .04 .01 .00 .04 .92 .01 .30 .72 .78 .01 .59 .08 .93 .06 .10 .69 .05 .04 .71 .07 .11 .30 .16 .02 .54 .94 .01 .05 .95 .26 .03 .75 .04 . and 50% or less glass in exposed surface at listed orientation.83 .01 .27 .78 . with ceiling.01 .79 .38 .71 .01 .80 .01 .00 .79 .39 .29 .03 .79 .15 .77 .07 .12 .06 .43 .37 .21 .01 .06 .15 .27 .05 .04 .25 .18 .04 .49 .17 .38 .01 .09 .11 .09 .78 .37 .44 .14 .01 .35 .06 .39 .06 .00 .00 .12 .11 . L '" Lightweight construction. Group E wall.02 .00 .03 .02 .07 .21 .26 .88 .01 .73 .13 .16 .00 .00 .13 .55 .62 .00 .06 .04 .35 . Reprinted with pennission from the 19&9 ASHRAE Handbook.02 .10 .04 .24 .74 .25 .04 .07 .77 .23 .77 .8 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITHOUT INTERIOR SHADING.00 .05 .72 .03 .74 .02 .03 .16 .42 .03 .03 .51 .18 .01 .00 .22 .21 .16 .04 .07 S M H L SW M H L W NW M H L M H L Hor.24 .09 .88 .00 .03 .69 .94 .29 .75 .15 .79 .II .80 .00 .07 . M '" Mediumweight constnlclion.10 .28 .00 .64 .05 .04 .00 .56 .88 .32 .18 .03 .23 .91 .69 .02 .62 .06 .11 .43 .86 .02 .88 .13 .48 .08 .13 .24 . such as 2 to 4 in.78 .83 .00 .21 .78 .77 .11 .80 .00 .48 .17 .78 .76 .02 .01 .56 .26 .02 .17 .87 .02 .05 .22 .07 .00 .53 .3! .07 .03 .40 .04 .26 .20 .03 .80 .06 .91 .77 .07 .70 .87 .59 .01 .63 .62 .00 .79 .07 .00 . H '" Heavyweight conslruction.13 .00 .00 .17 .91 .09 .13 .22 .68 .16 .07 .14 .07 .94 . wood floor.00 .05 .13 .01 .01 .23 .24 .31 . concrete floor.04 .81 .15 .69 .00 .80 .20 .55 .60 .71 .50 .05 .02 .05 .94 .07 .22 .20 .24 . IN NORTH LATITUDE SPACES HAVING CARPETED FLOORS Solar Time -.10 L NE E M H L M SE w w - H L M H L .09 .00 .03 .86 .08 .03 .00 .75 .06 .19 .00 .47 .64 .58 .30 .00 .00 .64 .28 .04 .29 .00 .00 .01 .05 . Room Mass 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 L N M H .97 .64 .11 .51 .29 .64 .44 .00 .98 .67 .05 .03 .87 .84 .13 .28 .37 .14 .05 .92 .76 .01 .07 .11 .01 .25 .00 .00 .52 .19 .81 .55 .01 .09 .00 .00 .01 .26 .07 .01 .93 .05 .16 .86 .r I TABLE 6.28 .01 .08 .11 .92 .23 . M H .79 .10 .01 .05 .59 .78 .08 .69 .77 .12 .84 .79 .09 .00 .00 .93 .08 .05 .-Fundamel1tals.89 .20 .16 .00 .83 .91 .16 .10 .57 .05 .01 .14 .82 .00 .00 .01 .85 .25 .05 .14 .18 .00 .00 .00 .07 .83 .00 .00 .)1 .10 .76 .02 .13 .02 .08 Values for nominal 15 fI by 15 ft by 10 ft high space.60 .12 .24 .62 .22 .04 .03 .03 .32 .12 .39 .02 .78 .03 .18 .01 .04 .18 . such as I in.00 .18 .47 .45 .00 .03 .05 .51 .20 .22 .04 .15 .Q7 .14 .04 .59 .00 .16 .03 .15 .64 .13 .10 .26 .04 .01 .01 .93 .98 .02 .91 .03 .08 .19 .48 .07 .:.17 .69 .00 .19 .01 .00 .!O .14 .07 .14 .20 .04 .71 .04 .06 .95 .04 .00 .09 .00 .22 .44 .09 .33 .81 . Group C wall.10 .76 .08 .17 .22 .00 .06 .24 .87 .00 .27 .00 .19 .05 .00 .01 .04 .00 .00 .01 .74 .51 .02 .01 .01 .03 .76 .07 .00 .52 .00 .00 .16 . .21 .05 .28 .01 .09 .35 .02 .31 .28 .23 .01 .05 .88 .81 .21 .92 .09 .03 .94 .77 .13 .07 .21 .55 .18 .72 .82 .45 .38 .01 .21 .79 .90 .01 .79 .00 .16 .13 .02 .23 .97 .04 .38 .09 .00 .11 .24 .15 .00 .10 .14 .00 .02 . concrete noor.09 .19 .30 .27 .08 .such as 6 10 8 in.20 .17 .81 .08 .03 .04 .01 .56 .01 .55 .26 .23 .67 .69 .00 .

14 .03 .74 .16 .04 .04 .01 .55 .25 .17 .17 .12 043 042 .64 .20 .23 . ".14 .13 .32 .76 .19 .94 .10 .04 .83 AS 043 .41 . L "" Lightweight constmction. ".18 .7f1 .20 .()9 .21 .15 .51 .33 .15 .88 .44 .08 .66 .17 .37 .05 .20 .11 .13 .07 .09 .33 .02 .10 .14 .00 .94 .06 .00 .00 .21 . such as 6 to 8 in.23 .00 .32 .04 .72 .22 .18 .50 .54 .10 .08 .12 .32 .19 .28 .03 .13 .53 .70 .01 .63 049 .27 .17 .00 .04 .22 .23 .22 .91 .00 .00 .._cC :::'~.00 .00 .13 .18 .59 .81 .32 .19 .15 .00 .94 .08 .09 . such as 2 to 4 in.04 .61 .71 .07 .10 .24 .51 046 .23 .09 .05 .48 .06 .04 .18 .19 .93 .17 .21 .08 .00 .26 .09 .58 .04 .73 .el2 H L SE w S M H ·L M H L "'" SW W NW M H L M H L M H L Hor.13 .00 .31 .26 .00 .01 .00 .15 .00 .11 .15 .16 .19 .82 .24 .82 .08 .36 .28 .10 .62 .17 .45 .12 .12 .11 .14 .01 .00 .57 .92 .73 .55 . .00 .16 .00 .33 .12 .13 .33 .80 .12 .03 .61 047 .03 .69 .07 .44 .00 .15 .65 .03 .73 . M "" Mediumweight construction.II 'f t .06 .15 .21 .13 .71 .54 .27 .11 .19 .07 .01 .56 .el2 .20 .25 .02 .00 .00 .06 .19 .32 .00 .10 .00 .08 .73 .05 .33 Al .16 .63 .00 .14 .61 .13 .36 . Group C wall.00 .08 .14 .Q7 .14 .41 .18 .31 .36 .15 .13 .14 .22 .22 040 .23 .00 .24 .KS .03 .00 .62 040 .19 .58 AS .60 .TABLE 6. Group G wall.27 Al .16 .49 .26 .17 .16 .01 .05 .13 .02 .21 .10 .07 . Group E WillI.06 .28 .14 .74 .06 .23 .49 .26 .e.1$2 .15 .17 .17 .10 .02 .12 .24 .78 .00 .20 .27 .02 .15 .36 .79 .00 .00 .07 .54 .70 .11 .02 .10 .65 .10 .00 .9 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITHOUT INTERIOR SHADING.79 .19 .29 .04 .29 . IN NORTH LATITUDE SPACES HAVING UNCARPETED FLOORS Solar Time Room Orr.90 .12 .12 .08 .02 .09 .16 .31 .11 .43 .18 .24 .86 .00 .00 . L_____ . Mass 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 N L M H NE E L M H L M .18 .14 .Q7 .07 .05 .52 .~{"~::'!.92 .00 .56 .93 .12 .50 AS .33 . .25 .15 .72 .ttj~'t~~'~.71 .53 .94 .80 .09 .42 .00 .88 NJ .11 .:~'.39 .18 .18 .00 .33 .02 .06 .05 .14 .01 .00 .14 .38 .09 .59 .02 .59 .20 .04 .04 .78 .67 .37 .58 .01 .17 .23 .26 042 .06 .00 .21 .01 .12 .11 .88 .17 .00 .53 .55 .53 047 .07 .00 .64 040 .24 .33 043 .04 .06 .93 .5:1 .24 .57 .05 .07 .12 .24 .09 .03 .07 .73 .30 .07 .54 .45 .12 .03 .75 .28 046 .81 .91 .64 .64 .91 . .61 047 .29 .35 .35 .~pace.11 .85 .80 .13 .63 .73 .98 .01 .15 .59 .00 .24 .07 .26 .65 .33 .25 .33 .36 .10 .04 .57 049 .53 048 .24 .23 .04 .25 .24 .00 .07 .10 .00 .45 040 .00 .16 .02 .65 .11 .Q7 .80 .10 .51 .21 .55 .81 .56 .31 .39 .13 .13 .03 .12 .00 .00 .11 .13 .12 .01 .00 .09 .16 .00 .00 .05 .00 .27 .37 .00 .71 .62 .16 .13 .04 .09 .19 .13 .95 .09 .16 .81 048 AS .26 .51 .25 .77 .00 .27 .35 .JuIH JJ1.09 .69 .14 .09 .00 .14 .23 .07 .57 .03 .00 .22 .38 .47 .06 .06 . and 50% or less glass in exposed surface at listed orientation.12 .26 .64 .53 .09 .24 .18 Values for nominal 15 ft by 15 ft by J 0 ft high .29 .19 .08 .03 .98 .00 .50 .81 .72 .30 .10 . H = Heavyweight constmction.15 .25 .97 .71 .27 .30 .00 .09 .04 .06 .32 . such tIS I in.10 .26 .00 .14 . .03 .11 . ""_.24 .00 .00 .01 .30 .19 .02 .56 .18 .48 .19 .93 .61 .64 .16 .02 .52 Al .36 .55 .29 .33 .06 .16 .00 .04 .62 .09 . wood floor.05 .39 .08 .19 .05 .00 . Reprinted with permission from the 19t19 ASHRAE Handh(}()k-Fulldamentals.58 .00 .20 .16 .15 .52 . with ceiling.23 .18 .11 .02 .80 .66 .08 .97 . M H .56 .50 .32 .46 .10 .21 .78 .31 .39 .00 .18 .01 .13 .66 .10 .05 . concrete floor.14 .07 .14 .00 .26 .00 .81 .00 .23 .11 .17 .31 .32 .24 . concrete floor.

22 0.84 0.0) 0.22 0.04 0. h 01000200 0300 04000500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 220023002400 w V>.11 0.24 0.02 0. - N NNE NE ENE E ESE SE SSE S SSW SW WSW W WNW NW NNW HOR.61 0.62 0.11 0.44 0.37 0.13 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.49 0.05 0.37 0.10 0.03 0.44 0.07 0.08 0.16 0.04 0.02 0.54 0.58 0.79 0.89 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.54 0.08 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.22 0.31 0.06 0.89 0.06 0.08 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.28 0.12 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.32 0.11 0.22 0.03 0.12 0.r TABLE 6.02 0.03 0.03 0.10 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITH INTERIOR SHADING.06 0.81 0.68 0.34 0.22 0.27 0.19 0.30 0.67 0.25 0.05 0.04 0.17 0.04 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.42 0.03 0.43 0.05 0.30 0.57 0.04 0.19 0.08 0.26 0.03 0.23 0.07 0.02 0.27 0.05 0.80 0.23 0.34 0.69 0.12 0.27 0.84 0.09 0.08 0.35 0.03 0.16 0.10 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.25 0.20 0.08 0.06 R.19 0.86 0.eprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.37 0.27 0.84 0.12 0.05 0.78 0.46 0.06 0.14 0.59 0.45 0.Q7 0.04 0.85 0.03 0.07 0.52 0.04 0. 0.02 0.18 0.72 0.07 0.07 0.30 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.72 0.73 0.21 0.07 0.78 0.66 0.38 0.05 0.22 0.81 0.32 0.09 0.05 0.02 0.16 0.13 0.02 0.11 0.14 0.11 0.38 0.21 0.07 0.17 0.15 0.20 0.02 0.09 0.28 0.04 0.04 0.12 0.52 0.03 0.07 0.08 0.02 0.09 0.07 0.03 0.76 0.71 0.26 0.27 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.16 0.03 0. NORTH LATITUDES (ALL ROOM CONSTRUCTIONS) Fenes tration Facing w Solar Time.10 0.16 0.04 0.17 0.14 0.75 0.04 0.03 0.08 0.81 0.25 0.02 0.59 0.05 0.27 0.07 0.14 0.09 0.03 0.09 0.74 0.81 0.34 0.23 0.62 0.06 0.31 0.83 0.08 0.24 0.24 0.12 0.78 0.06 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.80 0.10 0.73 0.04 0.80 0.17 0.09 0.06 0.22 0.17 0.06 0.75 0.12 0.03 0.10 0.63 0.18 0.73 0.05 0.05 0.18 0.80 0.03 0.06 0.35 0.03 0.72 0.03 0.65 0.05 0.71 0.03 0.18 0.41 0.16 0.07 0.76 0.82 0.07 0.05 0.61 0.13 0.03 0.14 0.76 0.03 0.12 0.77 0.82 0.06 0.10 0.65 0.33 0.15 0.54 0.27 0.16 0.75 0.81 0.03 0.68 0.04 0.91 0.03 0.06 0.80 0.02 0.15 0.06 0.05 0.29 0.76 0.06 0.64 0.22 0.52 0.74 0.80 0.82 0.81 0.20 0.58 0.16 0.33 0.12 0.04 0.55 0.37 0.14 0.07 0.39 0.02 0.16 0.04 0. II 0.41 0.66 0.12 0.71 0.85 0.82 0.17 0.08 0.19 0.38 0.83 0.03 0.12 0.79 0.05 0.69 0.11 0.11 0.02 0.04 0.81 0.16 0.05 0.02 0.15 0.10 0.03 0.78 0.08 0.04 0.47 0.72 0.43 0.14 0.07 0.31 0.24 0.32 0.13 0.05 0.26 0.04 0.16 0.80 0.64 0.07 0.04 0.10 0.36 0.18 0.86 0.07 0.11 0.50 0.16 0.24 0.02 0.53 0.12 0.06 0.66 0.04 0.03 0.72 0.06 0.20 0.58 0.04 0.17 0.09 0.22 0.56 0. \' .05 0.42 0.02 0.03 0.

13 .9 .69 X 0.37 - 3. For the part receiving direct radiation.33 1. What is the solar cooling load? 0 Solution Equation 6.63 - 1.17 * - - * * .50 = 3730 BTUlhr 1' 2.89 1.00 3.69 X 3. Note: Values apply from April to September. The vertical proportion of shade.33 - .89 - - 3.35 - 1.S6 . from Table 6.11 latitude St'dTime 56' gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm -N. Q=SHGFxA x SC x CLF Q = 216 X 50 X 0.67 - . The unshaded area of window is A=3.S9 2. Q =48 X 30 X 0.4 shows the arrangement.4 will be used.1' 6' sun 0.03 *' * - * - - * I Reprinted with permission from the 1985 Fundamentals.59 1.63 2.1 ft.03 .33 - - .93 1.86 2.33 1.2.61 - - 2.7.9 A room with no carpeting and a wall facing east at 40 N latitude has a total window glass area of 80 ft2. however.9ft The height of shade on the window is 3. The externally shaded and unshaded portions of the glass must be handled separately.9 = 3.I = 2.136 CHAPTER 6 SHADING FROM OVERHEAD PROJECTIONS 24' 32' 40' 48' TABLE 6.00 I.33 LOS - 3.S5 - - - - .93 1. The building is of heavyweight (HJ construction.1 x5= 15.33 .55 4.11 is 0.33 I.33 1.58 - - - . using the SHGF for north orientation.63 - - - - .08 1.74 3.00 (Facing) - - .S9 - 3.67 - . ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory. *Shading not effective.93 4.97 2.00 - - - .S3 "* 3. because they receive different radiation.45 .97.NE E SE S SW W NW 1.57 4.74 - - 1.83 .55 - 2. and the unshaded height is 6 .73 1.19 1. The glass is ~ in.38 2.17 97 2.35 4.85 2. The total vertical distance the shade extends down is therefore L=0.61 1.83 - - - 1.9' shadow For the part receiving only diffuse radiation.4 Sketch for Example 6.13 1.45 - * * - .97x4=3. -Completely shaded. an adjacent building shades 30 ft 2 of the window. Solution Figure 6. single heat -absorbing glass with no interior shading device.61 .73 .50 = 500 BTUlhr The total solar cooling load is· Q = 3730 + 500 = 4230 BTUlhr .5 ft2 Figure 6. At 10 AM ST in June.9 ft. Example 6.

BF = ballast factor CLF = cooling load factor for lighting . they may be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Volume.12 lists appropriate values. Table 6. which if used. Temperature of the space is allowed to rise during nonoccupied hours (temperature swing) These conditions cover so many possible situations that it is suggested that heat storage effects for lighting should be used with extreme caution.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6. all of the lighting is on at all times. Table 1. The separate design WB column listed does not usually occur at the same time as the DB listed and therefore should not be used in load calculations.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 137 6. Table A.0. The table also lists latitudes and mean daily DB temperature ranges (DR). Energy conservation operating techniques may also result in one of the conditions discussed earlier. and therefore it is necessary to know the expected design conditions at those times. CLF = 1. The DB (dry bulb temperature) and coincidelll WB (wet bulb temperature) occurring at the same time are listed together and should be used as the corresponding design values. The outdoor summer design conditions~"are based on reasonable maximums.25 for fluorescent lighting. expressed in watts. The cooling system operates only during occupied hours. and BF = 1. The term W is the rated capacity of the lights in use. as well as the building construction. Previous weather data tables showed this value. the CLF tables for lighting are not presented here.0. however. and ventilation rate. The factor BF accounts for heat losses in the ballast in fluorescent lamps. No storage effect can be allowed for any of the following conditions: I. For those cases where they are applicable. The factor CLF accounts for storage of part of the lighting heat gain. type of lighting fixture.4x WxBFxCLF where Q = cooling load from lighting. The storage effect depends on how long the lights and cooling system are operating. What is the solar cooling load from the lighting? Solution A value of BF = 1.5) A room has eight 40 W fluorescent lighting fixtures in use. but if it is not. Definitions of DB and WB are given in Chapter 7. even though not planned for originally. Occasionally. A typical value of BF is 1.4 converts watts to BTUlhr.6 lists these conditions for some cities. The separate WB value may be needed. the actual amount should be used. Cooling system operates more than 16 hr 3. In many applications. BTUlhr W = lighting capacity. Cooling system operates only during occupied hours 2.8 LIGHTING The equation for determining cooling load due to heat gain from lighting is Q=3. Example 6. maximum cooling loads occur in other months due to solar radiation. Building use patterns often change and may be unpredictable.0 for the operating conditions. or other special losses. using weather records. would result in too large a design cooling load. The inside conditions are those that provide satisfactory comfort. watts (6. Otherwise use a value of CLF= 1.1 lists some suggested values.25 for the ballast heat will be assumed. For these reasons. These temperatures are exceeded on average 35 hours in a year. there is no extra loss. For incandescent lighting. The value 3. June to September can be used as months for summer outdoor design temperatures in the northern hemisphere.7 DESIGN CONDITIONS The cooling load calculations are usually based on inside and outdoor design conditions of temperature and humidity. in selecting a cooling tower or for special applications.

33 32 34 40 37 33 32 38 39 30 33 Boise.5%) DESIGN COINCIDENT WB (2. DE Jacksonville.138 CHAPTER 6 COOLING DESIGN DRY BULB AND MEAN COINCIDENT WET BULB LAT City LONG ELEV DESIGN DB (2. IN 41 Indianapolis. 108 630 206 265 217 4112 122 37 6170 78 67 76 68 61 60 72 72 . WY 44 34 40 44 59 22 56 44 49 40 25 22 34 59 0 44 32 46 4 II 32 39 37 45 41 38 35 42 36 46 40 41 36 42 45 40 43 36 33 31 33 37 44 13 59 39 18 53 20 7 14 48 8 4 3 45 5 46 55 36 II 86 45 114 36 92 14 124 6 118 22 118 23 117 10 104 42 75 36 81 39 81 58 116 13 87 54 85 12 86 16 93 39 99 58 84 40 85 44 93 9 90 15 70 19 85 14 93 15 90 I. ME 43 Battle Creek. NY Greensboro. TN Amarillo.12 Oeg.AZ Little Rock.57 65 60 42 47 60 68 62 41 41 48 52 50 64 58 65 56 49 56 55 44 60 69 65 48 56 58 59 55 52 59 61 73 72 55 55 52 68 57 60 47 49 46 46 58 59 43 57 58 61 52 54 57 49 61 50 56 60 46 55 44 61 60 56 55 52 49 60 55 60 57 54 41 55-43 43 41 60 54 61 55 45 53 54 40 51 67 63 43 49 51 53 48 45 53 57 68 69 47 49 43 63 52 53 41 43 41 42 46 58 38 52 51 53 49 53 51 43 54 47 52 54 42 Reprinted with permission from the 1979 ASHRAE Load Calculation Manual. NO Akron-Canton. MN Jackson. VT Blackstone. FL Augusta. AL Yuma. KY 39 Louisville.5%) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Oct Nov Dec TABLE 6. Deg. MI 42 Birmingham. KY 38 Lake Charles. AR Arcata. UT Burlington. MT North Platte. WA Charleston. CA Los Angeles. NE Albuquerque.OH Tulsa. VA Roanoke. NE Tonopah. KS 37 Covington. TX Wichita Falls. IA 41 Dodge City. LA 30 New Orleans. LA 29 Portland. Min. TX Cedar City. NC Bismarck. CA San Diego. TX Midland. OK Medford. 94 35 0' 93 -. GA Minneapolis. . MS Kansas City. OR Pittsburgh. CA Bishop. WI Cheyenne. NM Albany. SD Bristol. VA Everett.ID 43 Chicago-O'Hare. OR Portland.'0 37 37 47 38 38 44 23 36 30 34 30 14 56 59 42 28 4 19 54 22 25 29 8 100 117 106 73 79 100 81 83 95 122 122 80 96 82 101 102 98 113 73 77 42 8 37 48 57 43 26 48 54 52 36 13 44 43 41 9 79 122 81 82 88 89 104 21 46 12 31 6 9 58 58 17 36 27 8 20 49 24 182 2857 667 828 793 963 2592 888 488 32 20 61 939 838 332 750 1270 3583 2787 5422 5314 277 891 1660 1236 692 674 1329 24 1151 1422 1566 3700 2858 1039 5616 331 438 1174 596 989 565 699 866 6144 69 56 50 75 70 51 40 47 53 42 58 55 58 72 74 41 49 36 70 54 59 51 52 53 55 43 63 41 49 44 82 70 60 66 71 69 61 55 80 73 53 49 52 57 49 64 61 63 75 77 44 48 42 74 60 62 54 58 58 63 47 64 63 55 54 49 41 59 64 63 69 72 74 66 74 53 56 39 40 65 64 60 63 50 54 62 64 65 65 36 39 38 44 51 56 42 53 48 69 59 57 53 45 83 96 83 59 72 81 72 74 70 73 63 73 63 78 83 86 78 85 62 72 58 74 60 76 64 78 59 76 72 82 65 79 69 82 78 84 79 84 49 62 64 72 52 73 78 84 69 81 72 80 62 70 64 77 65 75 69 79 54 73 70 83 56 70 60 74 59 76 75 83 66 75 60 69 63 78 57 75 69 81 75 84 81 88 82 88 63 73 49 68 71 83 69 82 61 64 70 83 72 83 48 70 53 73 58 69 76 87 76 59 91 99 89 62 88 74 72 79 84 93 91 83 83 82 82 84 89 84 88 89 89 77 86 83 89 87 84 80 83 81 87 81 87 82 79 84 88 84 79 82 84 86 90 94 93 81 79 87 87 86 87 77 81 76 84 99 84 66 85 80 79 77 78 86 84 74 78 78 79 79 83 79 81 88 86 69 77 74 85 74 63 72 68 75 67 59 64 76 87 83 83 77 79 74 64 65 81 77 59 64 63 66 63 68 68 71 79 79 58 62 57 77 69 69 59 64 64 64 80 78 79 73 81 77 75 77 60 71 53 64 64 86 78 73 77 78 79 84 88 89 78 70 82 81 80 84 69 74 74 73 63 59 64 58 70 70 77 76 63 58 72 72 64 69 54 72 74 71 59 55 75 }1 48 50 53 55 52 59 58 61 74 74 48 49 43 70 58 59 52 54 55 56 49 63 43 54 52 63 53 54 55 47 60 65 71 67 54 46 65 62 53 64 62 54 63 53 43 54 53 39 48 66 62 44 45 47 52 39 46 53 56 67 69 33 50 34 64 71 58 61 60 63 42 44 54 49 54 41 42 40 42 42 57 37 48 42 37 48 50 46 37 54 46 53 56 41 38 59 54 47 55 58 36 37 37 63 64 67 71 69 57 58 61 63 66 61 64 67 72 71 54 53 54 57 58 45 48 52 57 55 55 55 61 61 63 56 56 60 60 64 43 43 47 52 50 52 54 64 70 69 68 68 69 73 74 63 66 68 73 71 46 49 53 62 55 47 52 63 68 66 50 53 62 68 63 54 57 64 68 65 44 49 62 69 64 49 51 58 64 60 56 55 64 70 64 57 59 66 72 67 68 69 70 75 74 70 70 72 74 75 43 44 53 64 60 45 57 59 66 64 39 45 58 65 62 65 67 70 73 72 51 55 65 71 67 54 59 65 70 66 44 47 52 59 56 45 49 56 63 57 43 45 49 54 52 45 47 51 56 55 45 49 59 67 65 56 59 65 70 68 39 46 53 62 57 50 53 63 67 62 46 53 63 69 63 58 60 66 73 69 50 53 58 64 60 51 51 56 63 59 50 53 63 68 64 41 48 58 65 60 55 58 64 70 66 50 51 56 61 59 54 55 59 65 63 58 61 66 71 67 44 46 50 55 53 38 44 56 66 61 56 61 67 72 70 52 56 63 69 66 49 49 55 61 58 55 56 63 67 66 56 60 66 70 69 39 44 . Min. MO Springfield. WI Madison. CA Colorado Springs Wilmington. IN 39 Des Moines. MO Billings. IL 41 Fort Wayne. PA Sioux Falls. WV Huntington. OH Toledo. WV Green Bay.

the total heat remains the same. very light work Moderately active office work Standing. bank Restaurant b Factory Dance hall Factory Bowling alley Factory Factory Gymnasium 390 390 450 475 550 550 490 800 900 1000 1500 1500 1600 2000 Adjusted MtF" 330 350 400 450 450 500 550 750 850 1000 1450 1450 1600 1800 Btuth 225 245 245 250 250 250 275 275 305 375 580 580 635 710 Bluth 105 105 155 200 200 250 275 475 545 625 870 870 965 1090 Notes I. light machine work Bowling Heavy work Heavy machine work. and the latent heat values increased accordingly. Adult Male Theater~matinee Theater-night Offices.5.13 lists values for some typical activities. hotels. includes 60 Btuth for food per individual (30 Btulh sensible and 30 Btulh latent) C Figure one person per alley actually bowling. Qs= qsx n xCLF Q[=q[xn (6.6) (6. but not the latent heat. Restaurant. women. Latent Heat. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. lifting Athletics C Sensible Heat. walking Walking. Tabulated values are based on 75°F room dry-bulb temperature.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 139 Using Equation 6. and children for the application listed. but the a sensible heat values should be decreased by approximately 20%. hotels. apartments Department store. Q/ = sensible and latent heat gains (loads) qs. For 80°F room dry-bulb. sensible heat and the latent heat resulting from perspiration. The rates are suitable for a RATES OF HEAT GAIN FROM OCCUPANTS OF CONDITIONED SPACES Total Heat Adults Degree of Activity Seated at theater Seated at theater. . standing Sedentary work Light bench work Moderate dancing Walking 3 mph.4 x WxBF x CLF = 3.7) Q = 3. night Seated. q[ = sensible and latent heat gains per person The heat gain from people is composed of two parts. The equations for cooling loads from sensible and latent heat gains from people are TABLE 6. light work. with the postulate that the gain from an adult female is 85% of that for an adult male.and all others as sitting (400 Btulh) or standing or walking slowly (550 Btulh). apartments Offices. b Adjusted total heat gain for Sedentary work. Table 6. retail store Drug store. Some of the sensible heat may be absorbed by the heat storage effect.0 = 1360 BTUfhr 6. and that the gain from a child is 75% of that for an adult male.13 n = number of people CLF = cooling load factor for people The rate of heat gain from people depends on their physical activity. .4 x 320 x 1. Adjusted heat gain is based on normal percentage of men.25 x 1.9 PEOPLE where Qs.

16 HP motor.7. eLF factors (not shown) apply if the system operates 24 hours.800 BTU/hr Q/ = 105 x 240 = 25. so using such factors should be approached with caution. Table 6. . without hoods: I coffee burner (2 burners) I coffee heater (I burner) 1 toaster (large) What are the sensible. Some values of heat output for typical appliances are shown in Table 6.12 Diane's Deli Diner has the following equipment operating in the air-conditioned area.6. Example 6. with allowance for intermittent use. However.16. latent.14 lists values of eLF for people.090 BTUlhr 3750 230 9590 --13.000 BTU/hr For any lighting and equipment that operates on a periodic intermittent basis. the heat gain (load) is Q = 1160 BTU/hr x 150 = 174. and eLF = 1. no storage should be included. = 245 x 240 x 1.140 CHAPTER 6 75 F DB room temperature. Qs Coffee burner Coffee heater Toaster Total heat gains (loads) QL 1910 110 8500 10:520 BTUlhr QT 5660 340 18. From Table 6. no storage effect is included in calculating the cooling load. it is often not possible to guarantee predicted operations.0. Because the air conditioning system of a theater is normally shut down overnight.16 lists heat outputs for each condition. and Table 6.0 = 58.13 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hotel with ISO rooms has a fan-coil air conditioning unit in each room. If the air conditioning system is shut down at night. however.200 BTU/hr Total Q = 84. (cooling loads) from this equipment? 6.10 EQUIPMENT AND APPLIANCES The heat gain from equipment may sometimes be found directly from the manufacturer or the nameplate data. 6. Table 6.15.000 BTU/hr The heat output from motors and the equipment driven by them results from the conversion of the electrical energy to heat. Solution Using values from Table 6. Example 6. and total heat gains. as noted. What is the heat gain (load) to the building from the units? Solution Both the motor and fan are in the conditioned spaces. Some equipment produces both sensible and latent heat. The proportion of heat generated that is gained by the air-conditioned space depends on whether the motor and driven load are both in the space or only one of them is. Values vary slightly at other temperatures.090 24.15 will be used. The heat storage effect factor eLF applies to the sensible heat gain from people.11 INFILTRATION Infiltration of air through cracks around windows or'doors results in both a sensible and latent heat gain to the rooms. Q.15. 6. Procedures and equations for .11 What is the heat gain from 240 people at night in a movie theater at 75 FOB? Solution Equations 6.570 BTUlhr Example 6. with a 0. the heat gains should be multiplied by the proportion of operating time.

03 0.23 0.17 0.49 0.84 0.14 0.79 0.89 0.04 0.67 0.94 0.28 0.02 0.38 0.04 0.90 0.89 0.09 0.15 0.13 0.21 0.72 0.11 0.85 0.85 0.11 0.20 0.26 0.97 eLF = 1.05 0.06 0.80 0.15 0.06 0.19 0.21 0.81 0.79 0.85 6 0.05 0.92 0.02 0.03 0.95 14 0.07 0.16 0.45 0.28 23 0.08 0.87 0.08 0.13 0.87 7 0.13 0.34 0.62 0.92 0.94 12 0.18 0.55 0.25 17 18 19 0.66 0.72 0.39 0.Q7 0.12 0.18 0.36 0.26 0.51 0.10 0.01 0.24 0.0 for systems shut down at night and for high occupant densities such as in theaters and auditoriums.91 0.90 0.60 0.50 20 0.71 0.34 0.02 0.16 0.89 8 9 10 11 0.59 0.01 0.96 16 0.20 0.70 0.17 0.06 0.87 0.11 0.89 0.75 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.16 0.07 0.84 0.03 0.06 om 0.01 0.76 0.96 0.13 13 0.08 0.90 0.82 5 0. 8 '.04 0.53 0.50 0.10 0.02 0.06 0.17 0.03 0.82 0.92 0.02 0.25 0.42 0.95 0.11 0.03 0.24 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0.08 0.69 0.83 0.88 0.72 0.05 0.02 0.79 0.93 0.83 0.62 0.9\ 0.03 0.95 0.66 0.66 0.30 0.04 IH17 0.40 21 0.38 0.03 0. Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.87 0.94 0.09 0.01 0.21 0.67 0.92 0.77 0.27 0.93 0.21 0.58 0.07 0.03 0.: c.33 22 0.75 0.97 0.74 0.30 0.21 0.93 0.10 0.01 0.94 0.20 0.06 0.76 0.97 0.80 0.12 0.02 0.61 0.47 0.08 0.49 0.85 0.33 0.64 0.01 0.06 0.04 0.r" TABLE 6.91 0.15 0.23 0.28 0.) ~ ~ t-< t-< o ~ " ~ a ::j ~ ~ "" ~ .11 0.49 0.31 0.74 0.10 0.15 0.77 0.14 SENSIBLE HEAT COOLING LOAD FACTORS FOR PEOPLE Hours Atter Each Entry Into Space Total hours In space 1 2 3 4 0.04 0.80 0.18 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.96 15 0.01 0.13 0.58 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.14 0..70 0.88 0.

i5 HEAT GAIN FROM EQUIPMENT Recommended Rate of Heat Gain.000 3500-15.700 1700-6600 460-1700 Cash register Cold food/beverage Coffeemaker Microwave oven 10 cup 1 ft3 8 gal/br sensible latent Paper shredder Water cooler 160 1960-3280 3580 1540 1360 680-8250 6000 Abridged with pennission from the 1993 ASHRAE Volume-Fundamentals. per warming burner 1 to 4 qt 12 cups/2 bmrs 1 to 2 brnrs 610 67 ft 3 2201b/day 0.400 300-1800 7500-15.7 ft 3 10 slice 1000 3750 230 62 7810 9320 8970 9590 520 1910 110 0 5430 0 0 8500 1520 5660 340 62 13. BTu/hr Without Hood Appliance Size With Hood Total Sensible Sensible Latent Restaurant. per ft3 of interior Hot plate (high-speed double burner) Ice maker (large) Microwave oven (heavy-duty commercial) Toaster (large pop-up) Appliance Computer Devices Communication/transmission Disk drives/mass storage Microcomputer/word processor Minicomputer Size Recommended Rate of Heat Gain. BTu/hr 16-640 kbytes 8 pages/min 5000 or more pages/min Printer (laser) Printer (line.240 9320 8970 18. .080 480 1810 110 0 6240 0 0 5800 Display case (refrigerated).142 CHAPTER 6 TABLE6.000 1000 1500-13.000 270-600 CopiersfTypesetters Blue print Copiers (large) Copiers Miscellaneous 30-67 copies/min 6-30 copies/min 3900-42. electric blender. high-speed) Tape drives Terminal 5600-9600 3400-22. per quart of capacity Coffee brewer Coffee heater.

700 114.900 63.125 0.500 22.25 0.300 37.000 130 200 320 .+00 6.33 0.000 353.600 15.000 509.600 76.000 699.700 19.05 0.se 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase "J-Phase 3·Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 1500 1500 1500 1500 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 35 35 35 35 54 56 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 360 580 900 1160 1180 1500 2120 2650 3390 4960 6440 9430 15.300 62.700 29.000 172.000 127.400 58.000 318.900 44.100 24. .200 50.700 18.500 38.000 153.+490 6210 7610 8680 9440 12.50 0.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Split Phase Split Phase Split Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Pha.16 HEAT GAIN FROM TYPICAL ELECTRIC MOTORS Location of Motor and Driven Equipment with Respect to Conditioned Space or Airstream A B Motor C Motor in.000 191.200 28.900 Reprinted with pennission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.500 72. Driven Equipment out Btu/h Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower Motor Type Nominal rpm Full Load Motor Efficiencyin Percent Motor in.000 569.000 212.000 240 380 590 760 540 660 850 740 850 1140 1350 1790 2790 3640 .08 0.000 255.000 382.+0 1270 1900 2550 3820 5090 76-+0 12. Driven Equipment in Btu/h out.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 143 TABLE 6.800 50. Driven Equipment in Btu/h 0.300 35.000 420.16 0.75 1 2 3 5 7.900 21.000 636.000 143.300 102.000 283.300 85.+0 8.

It can be used for individual rooms or for a small building. we might expect a south-facing room with a very large window area to have a peak load in early afternoon in the fall-not in the summer! If the room had a small glass area. 5. SHGF. Sometimes it is immediately apparent by inspecting the tables at what time the peak load occurs. and infiltration) ill the room. walls. BSCL.12 ROOM COOLING LOAD The room cooling load is the sum of each of the cooling load components (roof. Missouri. CLCL =coil total. in the Shelton Motel in St. Ventilation air is not a load on the room. When calculating cooling loads. sensible. latent cooling loads BTCL. For south-facing glass. RLCL = room total. but is a load on the central cooling equipment. a prepared form is useful. maximum load is in the summer in the afternoon or evening. 2. For west-facing glass. This results in a change in the total room cooling load. however. For roofs. The same procedure is used for calculating infiltration heat gains. Once the appropriate day and time are located. SCL. The following abbreviations will be used for convenience. Most summer air conditioning systems have mechanical ventilation using some outside air. equipmellt.14. 6. A load calculation form is shown in Figure 6. LCL = component total. Some general guidelines can be offered to simplify this task. sensible. solar. Because the air conditioning system must be sized to handle peak loads. RSCL. BLCL = building total. The room is at 78 F DB. Many modern buildings have fixed (sealed) windows and therefore have no infiltration loss. For southwest-facing glass. For walls. For east-facing glass. maximum solar load is in the fall or winter in early afternoon. sensible. From the CLTD.13 ROOM PEAK COOLING LOAD We have learned how to calculate the cooling loads. . maximum load is in 6. For instance. has a 60 ft2 window with an aluminum frame with a thermal break. except for entrances. latent cooling loads CTCL. SCSL. glass.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A room facing east. but not how to determine their peak (maximum) value. Find the time and value of room peak cooling load. the wall and glass heat conduction might dominate and the peak load time would be a summer afternoon. sensible. and CLF tables we can note the following: I. These generalizations can be used to localize approximate times of room peak loads. mid-summer in the afternoon.144 CHAPTER 6 calculating infiltration heat losses were explained in detail in Chapter 3.5 and in the Appendix. a few calculations will determine the exact time and value of the peak load. Building construction is lightweight. Light colored interior venetian blinds are used. people. single heat-absorbing glass. maximum solar load is in early or mid-summer in the morning. latent cooling loads 6. 3. maximum load is in the summer in the afternoon or evening. Example 6. 4. we must know how to find them. The window is \4 in. which reduces or eliminates infiltration by creating a positive air pressure within the building. latent cooling loads RTCL. but often calculations are required at a few different times. The wall is a metal curtain wall with a V-value of 0. maximum solar load is in the fall in the afternoon. Louis. The external heat gain components vary in intensity with time of day and time of year because of changing solar radiation as the orientation of the sun changes and because of outdoor temperature changes. TCL.

If peak cooling loads for each room were added. But the early morning outside temperature in April I L These suggestions must be -verified in each case because there are so many variations in building orientation and constrnction. From Table 6. the calculation should be made.14 BUILDING PEAK COOLING LOAD The building cooling load is the rate at which heat is removed from. the total would be greater than the peak cooling load required for the whole building.62 = 4180 Conduction. This case requires careful analysis.14 x 40 x 55 = 308 Total = 5710 BTUlhr at 10 AM Solar. glass Q = 1. Another point that needs comment here is the possibility of peak load in April. the peak time might be later. Each building must be analyzed in a similar way to determine time of room peak loads so that the proper room load is calculated. It appears as if 8. For buildings that are approximately squareshaped in plan with similar construction on all four walls. the peak load usually occurs in the afternoon in summer. the solar gain is large enough to dominate. However. the peak load may occur in the fall. and then calculate it. at 8 AM Solar. glass Q = 1. Therefore.14 x 40 x 56 = 314 Total = 4777 BTUlhr The peak load for this room is at 8 AM in August. For one-story buildings with very large roof areas. around mid-day. 2.53 x 0. Even though the conduction heat gain through the glass and wall increases later in the morning. so the total heat gain will be maximum in August. In August the SHGF = 216. and the CLTD for the wall is maximum at 10 AM. if the window were smaller.14x40x48= 269 Total = 5830 BTUlhr at9AM Solar. Proceeding to check the possibilities: 0 would result in a considerable conduction heat loss from the room.0 I x 60 x 3 = 182 Conduction.6 for 40 N latitude. If in doubt. all air-conditioned rooms in the building at the time the building cooling load is at its peak value. and the net gain would probably be less. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. Once the peak load . wall Q = 0.76 = 5220 Conduction. because these peaks do not occur at the same ti me. glass Q = 1.0 I x 60 x I = 61 Conduction. This is because the outside temperature is highest then. 6. there will be a large conduction heat loss through both glass and wall in the morning at that time of year. On the other hand. the CLF for the glass is maximum at 8 AM ST. wall Q = 0.2. mentioned earlier. wall Q=0. the peak SHGF is in April (224 BTU/hr-ft2). For buildings with a long south or southwest exposure having large glass areas. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. and there is no differential influence of solar radiation on one side of a building. the designer must also determine the time of year and time of day at which the building cooling load is at a peak. 9.80 = 5500 Conduction. the peak load is usually in late afternoon in summer. because radiation is highest then. or 10 AM are the possible peak times for the room cooling load.01 x 60 x 5 = 283 Conduction. the following guidelines emerge: I. however. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. We are assuming that the room is not on the top floor. otherwise the roof load might affect the peak time. From our previous discussion and a study of the tables. Referring to Tables 6. A reasoning and investigation similar to that carried out in finding room peak loads is used.53 x 0. 3.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 145 Solution The glass area in the room is large enough compared with the wall so that the solar load determines the peak load time. almost as large as in April.10 and 6.52 x 0.

if it is estimated that only 90% of the lighting is actually on at peak load time. (3. F Wo'. a complete time profile of loads for many hours can be developed in a few minutes. Heat gains to ducts 3. at the time of peak load. and latent heat of this air is usually greater than that of the room air. gr w. Heat produced by the air conditioning system fans and pumps 4. For example. the total building heat gains can be calculated. After the necessary data are entered. however. The coolillg coil load is the rate at which heat must be removed by the air conditioning equipment cooling coil(s).17. These gains may include: I. Ventilation (outside air) 2. The ventilation rates in Table 6.!lb d.90. so it is part of the cooling coil load but not the building load. The search for the time and value of peak room and building cooling loads is greatly simplified by using computer software programs. the cooling coil load is found. In some buildings. Undoubtedly new standards will j (3.lxCFMxTC Q/ = 0. + Q/. The new requirements ' "'' improve this situation. it requires 15 CFM per person in an office space. usage practice may be such that all of the people are not present and some of the lights and equipment are not operating.16 VENTILATION Some outside air is generally brought 'into a building for health and comfort reasons. In these cases. An earlier standard permitted a minimum of 5 CFM per person.there are heat gains to the air conditioning system itself. the calculated lighting load would be multiplied by a factor of 0. The cooling coil load will be greater than the building load because. W/ = outdoor and inside humidity ratio. This contributed to a deterioration in indoor air quality. Choosing proper diversity factors requires both experience and judgment about building use practices.a.i 7 do not make special. allowances for the amount of indoor air pollutantsi heing generated. 'j' -tThere are still further changes in ventilation re!' quirements that are being considered. In order to save energy. the actual building peak load may be less than the calculated value because of load diversity. ft3 [min TC = temperature change between outdoor and inside air. BTUlhr CFM = air ventilation rate.'l the values shown in Table 6. Recommended outdoor air ventilation rates for some applications are listed in Table 6. For instance.=l.15 COOLING COIL LOAD After the building cooling load is determined. many designers and operating personnel often provided only the minimum CFM required. This table has ventilation rates similar to many state codes and standards. The total heat Qt removed from the ventilation air is Qt = Q.11 ) 6.17 are often higher than the minimum listed in earlier standards. beginning in the 1970s. The equations for determining the sensible and latent cooling loads from ventilation air.10) Diversity On some projects. For instance.68 x CFM x (Wo' . are Q. At the same time. The excess heat is usually removed in the cooling equipment. a diversity factor or usage factor is sometimes estimated and applied to the calculated building peak load in order to reduce it.W/) where Q" Q/ = sensible and latent cooling loads from ventilation air. Air leakage from ducts 6. outside infiltration air was heing reduced by improved weatherfitting in both existing j and new buildings. so it becomes part of the cooling load. The sensible ~ . explained in Chapters 3 and 7.146 CHAPTER 6 time is determined.

11 will be used. IS being Qf = 9. reflect this and other information that found in this rapidly developing field.15 0. 1999. = 1.45 30 CFM/Guest Room 0. Table 6. cocktail lounges. QI = 0.240.50 0.584. Q..50 0. The applicable ventilation rate from the following list. Type of Use CFM per Square Foot of Conditioned Floor Area Auto repair workshops Barber shops Bars..0) = 7.17 HEAT GAIN TO DUCTS = 1.000 = 16. and outdoor design conditions 94 F DB and 74 F WB. times the conditioned floor area of the space.5: Q=UxAxTD (3.68x 15 x 40.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6.000 people..68 x CFM x (Wo' .W/) =0..0 and 95.18 lists this correction.240. Table 6.. 6.= 1382 tons 12. 15 CFM per person. California Energy Commission.15 Abridged from Energy Efficiency Standards.50 0.40 0.w.17 MINIMUM MECHANICAL VENTILATION REQUIREMENT RATES 147 Outdoor air shall be provided at a rate no less than the greater of either A. the heat gain results in a useful cooling effect. Example 6. times the expected occupancy rate. but for the ducts passing through unconditioned spaces it is a loss of sensible heat that must be added to the BSCL.17 lists 15 CFM of outside air per person. a correction must be made to the outdoor temperature used for calculating ventilation and infiltration loads. If the duct passes through conditioned spaces. The heat gain can be calculated from the heat transfer Equation 3.1 x 15 x 40.0 -77.20 1.000 + 7.000 x (95. The space design conditions are 80 F and 50% RH.0 gr.1 0 and 3. What is the cooling load due to ventilation? Solution Equations 3.a. (see Chapter 7).40 1.5) .000 BTUlhr The c·onditioned air flowing through ducts will gain heat from the surroundings.000 BTUlhr The humidity ratios at the inside and outdoor conditions are 77. "-. and casinos Beauty shops Coin-operated dry cleaning Commercial dry cleaning Hotel guest rooms (less than 500 sq ft) Hotel guest rooms (500 sq ft or greater) Retail stores Smoking lounges All others 1.344.30 0..344.15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Stellar Dome enclosed athletic stadium seats 40.000 BTU/hr If the peak load does not occur at the time of the day that the outdoor temperature is at a maximum.000 BTUlhr 1 ton x .1 x CFM x TC . B.llb d.000 x 14 = 9.

1 ft . duct. but it is only added to the CSCL.25 x 400 x (90 ..25). rather than going through elaborate calculations. Some designers find it reasonably accurate to add a percentage to the supply duct heat gain. it should also be calculated. and becomes part of the sensible heat gain that should be added to the load.60) = 3000 BTUlhr Some of the energy from the system fans and pumps is converted into heat through friction and other effects. by 12 in. depending on the extent of ductwork. . A= 2x36m.x--+2xI2m.18 FAN AND PUMP HEAT 12 in.25.5. the heat gains in the first sections of duct might be enough so that the air temperature at the last outlets is too high. 1 ft x. For a draw-through fan arrangement (fan downstream from the cooling coil). BTUlhr U = overall coefficient of heat transfer.) x 50 ft = 400 ft2 6. Although the heat gain to supply ducts in conditioned spaces is not wasted. not the BSCL.16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 36 in. In this case. F . 1-3% of the building sensible load (BSCL) is suggested. whereas for a blow-through arrangement (fan upstream from the coil) the heat gets . carrying air at 60 F. care should be taken that it does not affect the distribution of cooling. the heat is added to the BSCL.18 Daily Range.F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10 9 9 10 10 10 10 9 8 7 6 8 4 6 8 2 3 5 I 0 0 I I I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I 2 3 4 5 6 3 5 7 9 10 5 7 9 6 9 7 10 8 II 8 15 20 25 30 35 13 14 14 15 15 15 14 13 II 17 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 12 18 19 20 20 20 19 17 14 11 12 14 15 16 19 21 7' _0 22 23 24 25 25 25 23 21 18 14 10 6 1 12 15 17 14 17 20 26 28 29 30 30 30 28 25 21 17 12 7 30 33 34 35 35 35 33 29 25 20 14 8 1 1 25 7 12 16 20 24 27 29 Reprinted with permission from the 1979 ASHRAE Load Calculation Manual. For insulated supply ducts. What is the heat gain to the air in the duct? Solution The surface area of the duct is If there is significant heat gain to return air ducts. Q = UxA xTD =0. BTUlhr A = duct surface area. ( 12 in. Using Equation 3. F It is recommended that cold air ducts passing through unconditioned areas be insulated to at least an overall value of R-4 (U =0. runs through a space at 90 F. If there is a long run of duct with a number of outlets. 50 ft long. where Q = duct heat gain. ft2 TD = temperature difference between air in duct and surrounding air.148 CHAPTER 6 DECREASE FROM PEAK DESIGN OUTDOOR DB TEMPERATURE. TABLE 6. Example 6. it might be useful to insulate the duct even though it is in the conditioned area (see Chapter 10). The duct is insulated to an overall U = 0.

for each room. and draw-through supply fan heat gain (Section 6. 9. Calculate each room peak load. the required supply air conditions temperature.g.2. 6. The architect or building owner will furnish the data needed for the calculations.17) to the building heat gains. and pump heat gains. w. duct heat leakage (Section 6. many systems have unnecessarily high air leakage due to sloppy installation. 8. but the suggestions in Section 6. 6. Calculate areas of all these surfaces. 5. 4. 3. w. For central systems with remote chilled water cooling coils. if significant. if significant. For a direct expansion system. If there is infiltration. and humidity) necessary room conditions are determined.5% to BSCL For 2 in. 6. This leads to a new term. Use architectural plans to measure dimensions of all surfaces through which there will be external heat gains. If the air leaks into the conditioned space.13 should be helpful. Find the cooling coil and refrigeration load by adding the ventilation loag (Table 6. the effect of leakage must be added to the BSCL and BLCL.20 SUpPLY AIR CONDITIONS After the sensible and latent heat gains lated. the refrigeration load.g.19).COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 149 added to the CSCL load. Determine time of day and month of peak load for each room by calculating external heat gains at times that they are expected to be a maximum. I. If ducts are outside the conditioned space. Often calculations at a few different times will be required. pressure add 10% to BSCL The heat from the chilled water pump on small systems is generally small and may be neglected. The refrigeration load (RL) is the load the·refrigeration equipment. 6. This covered in Chapter 7. or calculate from individual R-values. Search Tables 6. but for large systems it may range from 1-2% of sensible load.14. Add supply duct heat gain (Section 6. and 6. Find the time of building peak load using a similar search process as in item 5 and the suggestions in Section 6. pressure add 2.I and A. lights. then it does useful cooling.g. but not the cooling coil. add blow-through fan. but care should be taken that it is not distributed to the wrong location. and equipment. 6. adding all external and internal gains and infiltration. the pump heat is a load on the refrigeration chiller. Select indoor and outdoor design conditions from Tables 1. pressure add 5% to BSCL For 4 in. return air fan. are calcu(flow rate. w.17). Unfortunately.18). a careful job should limit duct leakage to 5% or less of the total CFM. if any.21 SUMMARY OF COMMERCIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The steps in determining commercial cooling loads can be summarized as follows. Calculate the building load at peak 'time. Oil 6. For a chilled water system.19 DUCT AIR LEAKAGE Duct systems will leak air at joints.1. An approximate allowance for fan heat can be made as follows: For I in.9. this must be added to the room load. using the values for the external heat gains determined above and by calculating and adding the internal heat gains from people. 7. the refrigeration load is the cooling coil(s) load plus the chilled water pump heat. . the refrigeration load and cooling coil load are equal.6. Select heat transfer coefficient V-values for each element from appropriate tables.8 to find maximum values. However. to satisfy subject is 2.

The supply duct is exposed in the store. No storage effect for people or lighting is taken because the system is shut down when the store closes and does not operate until shortly before the store opens. No infiltration is included.. The basement is assumed to be halfway between inside and outside temperatures.17 . insulation. The building has only one room. Ohio. 5-7.5). therefore heat gain and leakage are useful cooling and do not add to the load. face brick. Therefore the peak load time is in July 5 PM. Roof is No. Areas are calculated and recorded on the form. Peak glass load is in both July and August. V = 0. 9. 8. Besides. gypsum board ceiling. Ventilation loads are calculated and shown on the form.17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Superb Supermarket. m""P'" 15. Ventilation air is assumed to prevent any significant infiltration because the doors are not used heavily.llb d. 2 in. 2.17. Peak CLF for the glass is at 5 PM. concrete slab. common brick. Construction and conditions are as follows: Roof is 4 in.18. Inside and outdoor humidity ratios are 66 and 10 1 gr w. 4.17 Store is open from 10 AM to 8 PM (9 AM to 7 PM Standard Time) Determine the required cooling load. and there is no pump. Indoor and outdoor design conditions are 76 F DB/50% RH and 90 F DB174 WB.. Students should see if they obtain the same values from the appropriate tables. is located in Columbus. Y2 in. V-values specified or found from tables are listed on the form. A draw-through unit will be used. concrete slab. The procedure for finding the supply air conditions will be explained in Chapter 7. Thi.a. SO/lltion The procedures recommended previously will be followed. The construction and orientation indicates that the roof and West glass will determine the peak load time. Example 6. gypsum wallboard. program (and shghtly dIfferent Input data). fluorescent fixtures Outdoor ventilation rate as per Table 6. Calculate required supply air conditions (Chapter 7).1 l The cooling load calculation results for the build'1" ing in Example ~. Conduction through the glass has not reduced appreciably. wall loads will be higher at 5 PM than at 4 PM. Peak CLTD for the roofis in July at 5 PM. It is a one-story building with a basement used for storage. and it is assumed the fan gain is 3%. usi~g a co~puter softwa~e·. aluminum frame. in. V = 0. 3. Computer Software Solution to Example 6. single clear glass. Individual heat gains items are calculated and recorded on the form. I.11 Front window is y. in.6. aluminum frame Receiving door is I Y2 in. steel with urethane core Occupancy is 60 people Construction is medium (M) weight Lighting is 3 watts per square foot of floor area. IS " "'ow. V = 0. not shaded Doors are y. 10 ft high.17 will illustrate these procedures.5 PM.35 Walls are 4 in. Daily temperature range is 19 F.150 CHAPTER 6 10. insulation. 4 in. Return air fan gain is negligible. Walls are in Group B. shown in Figure 6. 2 in. w. Latitude is " 39°N.9. Rgore 15.09 BTUlhr-ft'-F Floor is 4 in. which should be carefully studied in relation to the explanations in the example. Example 6. prog~ j . from 4 to. Dimensions are shown on the plan. 10. single heat absorbing glass. h. The data and results are tabulated on a Commercial Cooling Load Calculation form (Figure 6.

200 Lights People 250 200 Wx3. 40 N 0 Chk.01 0. W W E N S E W D D D D D Color U Gross Glass 1. B 1260 1260 Roof/ceiling E 27 Solar Glass Dir. F Table 13 13 13 11 17 26 17 36 Corr.01 1. "- " " ~ if) a: Lights 16.39 ClTD.35 0.120 Refrigeration Load Figure 6. no no no SHGF 216 216 216 A 830 42 42 SC 0.000 lCl BTU/hr 12.640 12.22 71.11 0.5 Commercial cooling load calculations form.COMMERCIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS Project Superb Supermarket Location Columbus OH Bldg'/Room Building (peak) Engrs.420 260.750 4950 1880 -r UHa: a: I J? a:x Uu a: ~IS :.94 ClF 0.600 BTU/hr 224.11 0.68x 900.94 0.290 15.0 BFx nx 1. 11 11 11 9 15 24 15 35 7 25 SCl BTU/hr 9220 470 470 830 1390 3100 640 ·17.2 BFx 1. Energy Associates DB F 90 76 WB F 74 RH % 50 A.230 410 Wall '" Floor Partition Door " e c. by EP 3/4/01 Daily Range _1_9 __ F Day July 21 lat.01 1.1 x 900 0. It' Net 830 42 42 840 840 1176 388 5400 5400 42 W' gr/lb 101 66 Calc.000 u Wx3.0 n ClF ClF ClF 66.000 I I Total CL SA duct leakage 0 0 SA fan gain (draw through) 3% Room/Building Cooling Load 6200 212.58 0.010 13.11 0.~F Time 5 PM (S1) Design Conditions Conduction I Outdoor I Room Dir.840 13..420 Cooling Coil Load 226. 151 .860 12.17).11 0.58 0.(Example 6.68 x SA duct gain 0 CFMx CFMx TC gr/lb Subtotal 206. RA duct gain 0 RA fan gain 0 Pump gain CFMx 14 CFMx 35 TC gr/lb 21.1 x 0.120 260.41 x SHGx 60 lHGx 60 Equipment Equipment Infiltration 1.840 SA fan gain (blow through) Ventilation 1. W W E Sh.700 33. by Vl 3/5/01 Ave.69 0.41 x 1.09 0.

roof. F The CLTD values are listed in Table 6. ceiling.. but are simplified somewhat. and part load operation.22 COOLING LOAD FROM HEAT GAIN THROUGH STRUCTURE The cooling loads from walls.. U = overall heat transfer coefficient. The procedures for determining cooling loads for residences are based on the same heat transfer principles. dustrial buildings.19...+ 1 ·I Figure 6. . and H (high) outdoor temperature ranges are listed in the footnotes to the table: these are found from Table A. These factors all lead to a simplification of load calculations. uses the same method used in this text (CLTD) method)" It is strongly recommended that the student also solve Example 6. Another cooling load calculation example will be carried out as part of Example Project II (Chapter 17). There are a number of reasons for this. The procedure does not require determination of peak time of load or of heat storage effect.17 using computer software as a learning experience. Residential air conditioning equipment and controls usually do not have refined provisions for zoning. humidity control. Approximations are used for people Q= UxA xCLTD where Q = sensible cooling load. An allowance is made for latent loads. Homes are often conditioned 24 hours a day. BTUfnr-ft 2-F A = area. BTUlllr . M (medium). The L (low). and floor are each calculated by use of the following equation: Residential Cooling Loads The procedures described previously are used for calculating cooling loads for commercial and in. and lighting loads are neglected.6 Sketch for Example 6" 17" and infiltration loads. ft2 CLTD '= cooling load temperature difference.6. this being included in the data. 6.152 CHAPTER 6 1+----------90'---------~"I --h ~C==========='="~t5 Receiving door Superb Supermarket o CD Doors: double 3' x 7' swinging Ceiling height 14'-0" N~ I( 8 3 ' . Only sensible loads are calculated...

over crawl space 9 9 4 4 12 12 9 9 4 4 14 14 12 12 9 9 14 14 12 12 14 14 19 19 Partitions Inside or shaded acooling load temperature differences (CLTDs) for single-family detached houses. Colors of all exposed surfaces are assumed dark.23 COOLING LOAD FROM HEAT GAIN THROUGH WINDOWS The sensible cooling load due to heat gains through glass (windOWS and doors) is found by using glass load factors (GLF).18 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A home has a roof area of 1600 ft2. bL denotes low daily range. The GLF values account for both solar radiation and conduction through glass. outdoor design condition is 90 F. Find the roof cooling load.09.f denotes medium daily range. over uriconditioned room. Solution Equation 6.8 will be used. Reprinted with pennission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. Range b L 90 95 H L 100 105 153 TABLE 6. The CLTD table is based on an indoor temperature of 75 F.19 110 M L M M H M H M H All walls and doors North NE and NW East and West SE and SW South Roofs and ceilings 8 14 18 16 II 3 9 13 11 6 37 13 19 23 21 16 47 8 14 18 16 11 42 3 9 13 11 6 37 18 24 28 26 21 51 13 19 23 21 16 47 8 14 18 16 II 18 24 28 26 21 51 13 19 23 21 16 47 18 24 28 26 21 51 23 29 33 31 26 56 Attic or flat built-up Floors and ceilings 42 42 Under conditioned space. .19. the CLTD should be corrected by I F for each 1 F temperature difference from 75 F. The combined roof-ceiling V-factor is 0.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS CLTD VALUES FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCESa Design Temperature. with both east and west exposed walls or only north and south exposed walls. and H denotes high daily range. correcting it for the inside design temperature of 78' F. For other indoor temperatures. Values should be interpolated between listed outdoor tempenittIres. The inside design condition iir78 F. CLTD =42 .09 x 1600 x 39 =5620 BTUlhr 6. greater than 25 oF.20. 16 to 25 OF.(78 -75) =39 F Q = 0. The outdoor daily temperature range is 20 F. of 85 Daily Temp.. The outdoor temperature range falls in the M class. These are listed in Table 6. oF. The CLTD will be found from Table 6. Example 6. The CLTD values should also be interpolated between the listed outdoor temperature values. duplexes. less than 16 OF: t-. or multifamily.

Georgia. If the number of occupants is not known in advance. their output should be individuallyevaluated.9. 6.9) Q = sensible cooling load due to heat gain through glass. the shade line factor is 5. The vertical length of shade is 2 x 5. using Equation 6. Q = 50 BTUlhr-ft2 x 80 ft2 = 4000 BTU/hr If the glass is shaded by permanent outside overhangs. The outdoor design temperature is 95 F.21.19 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A residence has 80 ft2 of regular single glass on the west side.0 ft. the extent of shading is determined.20. The bottom of the glass is 8 ft below the overhang.0 = 10. If the kitchen is open to an adjacent room. The house is in Savannah. Example 6. so the glass is completely Figure 6. it can be estimated as two times the number of bedrooms. north facing glass. BTUlhr-ff 6. it is usual to assume that the occupants are in living and dining areas for purposes of load distribution. If large special appliances are used. First. the GLF is 50 BTu/hr-ft>.24 PEOPLE AND APPLIANCES The sensible heat gain per person is assumed to be an average of 225 BTUlhr. and the window cooling load is.20 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A south wall has a 6 ft high picture window with a roof overhang as shown in Figure 6. the values from Table 6. A sensible heat gain allowance of 1200-1600 BTUlhr is typical for kitchen appliances. The shade extends vertically 1. are used. No shade line factors for northwest and northeast are shown. Three categories of construction tightness are shown.7. For that part of the glass which is shaded. weatherstripping. Solution From Table 6.11 : Q=A where X GLF (6. described as follows: Tight. with draperies. BTUlhr A shaded! Note how effective the overhang is. no fireplace Example 6.20.6 x 2 =3.154 CHAPTER 6 The glass sensible cooling load is detennined from Equation 6. This can be done with the aid of Table 6. Well-fitted windows and doors.25 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION Infiltration rates are listed in Table 6.22 in air changes per hour (ACH). How much of the glass area is shaded? Solution Savannah is at 32°N latitude. The orientation and design of the building can have a major effect on energy use! = area of glass. because it is not feasible to shade those orientations with overhangs. The shade line factors listed in the table are multiplied by the width of the overhang to find the vertical length of shading.7 Sketch for Example 6. Look what would happen if the wall faced southwest. From Table 6.21.2 ft. and barely covers one foot of glass.0. 2' T 6' ~ . the calculation is carried out differently. ft 2 GLF = glass load factor. 50% of this load should be assigned to that room.20. Find the cooling load through the glass. however. Because the maximum load usually occurs in late afternoon.

UtD t ) + UaD{. of 85 90 95 100 105 110 85 Regular Double Glass 90 95 100 105 110 Heat-Absorbing Double Glass 85 90 95 100 105 110 Clear Triple Glass 85 90 95 Na inside shading North NEandNW EandW SE and SWb South b Horizontal skylight 34 36 63 65 88 90 79 81 53 55 156 156 18 32 45 40 27 78 41 47 48 50 70 75 77 83 95 100 102 107 86 91 92 98 60 65 67 72 161 166 167 171 23 27 38 42 50 54 46 49 33 . To obtain GLF for other combinations of glass and/or inside shading: GLF" = (SC./SC. Use linear interpolation for latitude from 40 to 48° and from 40 to 32°. bCorrect by +30% for latitude of 48° and by -30% for latitude. .r' TABLES.)(GLFt . where f. .(DRI2).:=: to .20 WINDOW GLASS LOAD FACTORS (GLF) FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCEsa Regular Single Glass Design Temperature. ft2. duplexes. venetian blinds. respectively.. to is the outdoor design temperature and DR is the daily range. Btuth. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASH/ME Handhook-Fundamentals. 37 83 86 23 34 44 40 30 68 29 43 55 51 38 87 25 36 45 42 32 69 33 47 59 55 42 90 29 40 49 46 36 72 30 30 34 37 55 56 59 62 77 78 81 84 69 70 73 76 46 47 50 53 137 138 140 143 16 29 40 36 24 71 16 19 22 30 32 35 41 44 46 37 39 42 25 28 31 71 74 76 19 30 38 35 26 62 41 66 88 77 80 54 57 144 147 38 63 85 23 36 47 43 31 77 20 36 51 45 31 90 13 24 33 29 20 58 12 21 29 26 18 52 20 37 51 46 31 91 14 24 33 30 21 59 12 22 30 27 19 52 23 39 54 49 34 93 16 27 36 32 23 61 15 24 32 29 21 55 25 42 56 51 36 95 18 29 38 34 25 63 17 26 34 31 23 57 26 44 59 54 39 96 19 29 38 35 26 63 17 27 35 32 24 57 28 44 59 54 39 98 21 32 41 37 28 65 20 29 37 34 26 59 27 27 50 50 70 70 62 63 42 42 124 125 15 28 39 35 23 69 13 23 32 29 19 56 16 28 39 36 24 69 13 30 53 73 65 45 127 18 30 41 38 26 71 15 26 35 31 22 59 Draperies. SCI and U I are given in Table 5. D I ::::: ((. translucent roller shades fully drawn North NEandNW EandW SEand SWb South b Horizontal skylight U> U> 19 33 46 41 28 79 15 26 36 32 26 39 50 46 34 79 23 33 42 39 30 65 Opaque railer shades fully drawn North NEandNW EandW SE and SWb South b Horizontal skylight 14 25 34 31 21 60 20 31 40 36 22 27 61 64 13 14 17 23 24 27 32 33 36 29 30 33 20 20 23 57 57 60 20 30 39 36 27 63 23 32 29 20 57 aOlass load factors (GLFs) for single-family detached houses. where the subscripts a and t refer to the alternate and table values. with both east and west exposed walls or only north and south ex- posed walls. of 32°.75). or multifamily.

52 0.76 0.6 5.6 1.1 1.8 9.26 ROOM.8 0. 'with its sensible heat contribution evaluated from Equation 3. TABLE 6.3 0. V 60 (3.0 1.1 0.48 0.156 CHAPTER 6 TABLE 6. Reprinted with permission from the /997 ASHRAE Handbook-FllndamenTals.78 Values for 7. Medium.46 0.68 0.12 TC = temperature change between inside and outdoor air If the infiltration air is expected to be less than 0.8 1.9 0.21 SHADE LINE FACTORS (SLF) Latitude. . In this case.8 0.34 0.8 1.36 0.3 2.10) 6. The quantity of air infiltrating into the room is found from Equation 3.8 0.1 x CFM x TC (3.56 0.8 0. BUILDING. fireplace that can be closed off. Poorly fitted windows and doors.74 0. CFM ACH = number of air changes per hour (Table 6. ft3 The heat gain due to the infiltrating air is found from Equation 3.9 1.8 0. some outdoor air should be introduced through the air conditioning equipment.22) V = room volume.5 ACH.8 1.4 0.70 0. Loose.10: Q = 1.22 AIR CHANGE RATES AS A FUNCTION OF OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES Outdoor Design Temperature.6 0.8 1.1 2.8 1.4 1.2 1.10. fireplace without shut-off.38 0. Average fit windows and doors.5 mph wind and indoor temperature of 75°F. Degrees N 24 32 36 40 Direction Window Faces East SE South SW West 44 46 52 0. OF Class 85 90 95 100 105 110 Tight Medium Loose 0.54 0. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamelltals.8 1.8 Shadow length below the overhang equals the shade line factor times the overhang width. indoor air quality may be unsatisfactory. The sensible cooling load for each room (RSCL) is found by .12: CFM=ACHx- where Q = sensible cooling load due to infiltrating air CFM = from Equation 3.12) where CFM = air infiltration rate into room.8 1. AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT LOADS Room Sensible Cooling Load.8 0.0 0.8 0.35 0.72 0. Values are averages for the 5 h of greatest solar intensity on August 1.50 0.33 0.5 0.0 1.8 0.4 3.37 0.

Latent Cooling Load. Figure 6. BTUlhr LF = latent factor (Figure 6.2 u. Construction: ~ 1. This is the sum of the building sensible cooling load and the duct heat gains and leakage.8 is used to find the LF value.4 1.016 1.014 2.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 157 adding up each of the room's cooling load components described. An additional 5% is suggested to be added to the building sensible cooling load due to leakage of air from the ducts. using the outdoor design humidity ratio from the psychrometric chart (see Chapter 7). Figure 6. If the loads are such that this is suspected.1 troom = 75°F rh =50% 0. (6.8 Effect of infiltration on latent load factor. BTUlhr Qs = equipment sensible cooling load. Duct Heat Gains..J 1.. To do this. the duct heat gains and leakage and the latent heat gain must be accounted for. .10) where QT= equipment total cooling load.8) The air conditioning unit is then selected on the basis of the calculated equipment total cooling load.5% Design Humidity Ratio . It still remains to find the air conditioning equipment cooling load.012 0. but it is rare that the resulting room conditions are in an uncomfortable range. The equipment total cooling load is then found from the following equation: . Suggested values for heat gains to ducts are: Ducts in attics: add 10% to the building sensible cooling load Ducts in crawl space or basement: add 5% to the building sensible cooling load Duct Leakage. Instead the building sensible load is multiplied by an approximated latent factor (LF) to obtain the building total load. a more detailed analysis is necessary. Equipment Sensible Cooling Load. The building sensible cooling load (BSCL) is found by adding up the room sensible cooling loads for each room.010 0.) 1. (Reprinted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. The latent loads are not separately calculated when using the abbrevi- ated residential calculation procedure. Building Sensible Cooling Load.3 :r: 11 u.0 0. The unitary (packaged) equipment used in residential work may not have quite the sensible and latent heat proportion removal capacities desired.

and recorded in Figure 6. Use architectural plans to measure dimensions of all surfaces through which there will be external heat gain.9 and in the Appendix.7 and A. The student should go through each step independently to confirm agreement with the values shown in'Figure 6. 4. Add individual loads to find sensible load for each room and building. 8. Add duct heat gains and leakage to SCL of building. I. Solution The steps will be carried out as recommended in the summary.9. Heat transfer coefficients for the materials listed are found from Tables A. 11.) 9. two in the dining area at peak load times. for each room.. roof. From Table 6. 2-3.:t . Calculate heat gains through glass.21 Calculate the room and building cooling loads for the residence shown in Figure 6.158 CHAPTER 6 6. 7. 10.9. " . 6. in the M class.8.:. 5.20 for the windows on the south side.20 and 6. A residential cooling load calculation form is shown in Figure 6. adding to the load. Allow 59C for heat gain and 5% for leakage to add to the building sensible cooling load (BSCL).8 and recorded.27 SUMMARY OF RESIDENTIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The steps in determining residential cooling loads can be summarized as follows. Multiply the BSCL by the LF factor (Figure 6. 3.~ j. The indoor and outdoor design temperatures are 75 F and 96 F. and floors for each room using the CLTD values from Table 6. some outside air would have to be mechanically introduced. Infiltration is found from Table 6. Select the CLTD values from Table 6. The duct system is in the basement. Example 6.8) to find the total load. The individual gains are added to find the RSCL for each room and the building. The following example illustrates use of the calculation procedure. Assume a 1200 BTu/hr kitchen appliance load. The results of each step are shown in Figure 6.12.8). Select inside and outdoor design temperatures from Tables 1.10.25). 10. assume an occupancy of four: two in the living room. Other elements are calculated in the same way. Out' door temperature range is 22 F. 1. . The wall heat gains in each room are then calculated using Equation 6. The result is the air conditioning equipment total cooling load.22 and Equation 3. 4. 'iI . '~":'" -". 6. The hallway is included as part of the living room because there is no separating door. Calculate heat gains through walls. for each room.23).8. 11. The heat gains are calculated and recorded for this and all other windows.21.19. 9. 7.7 or A.1 and A. For a two-bedroom house. Determine occupancy and appliance load (Section 6. or calculate from individual R-values.9. the CLF for the type of glass and shading is 28 BTUlhr-fe at 95 F outdoors and 75 F indoors. Calculate areas of all these surfaces. Note that large closets in a room are included as part of the room. The dimensions are taken from the building plans and the gross and net areas of each element are calculated and recorded in Figure 6.9. Determine infiltration or ventilation load (Section 6. Select heat transfer coefficient U for each element from Tables A. (If air quality were poor from too little infiltration. 5. 8.19. using Tables 6.9. 2. Multiply the building sensible cooling load by the latent factor LF (Figure 6.

R.0_ _ % D.20 58 13 23 E . U 37 13 96 N . U A ClTD BTU/hr Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Door 90 N 1.20 128 192 23 304 S . Jones Residence Location Hometown. N 14 ClF 23 322 1 D. U A A ClTD BTU/hr A ClTO BTU/hr D.47 D. Single clear glass. except as noted. DB _9_6_ _ F Out. blinds.25 x BSCl = 21.20 66 23 82 47 1579 573 . 322 700 W S 14 14 ClF 50 28 D. ClF 1 D.20 47 423 .5.1 Bedroom No.10 47 423 . WB 77 F In.5_ _ F In. 700 392 W N 14 14 ClF 50 23 700 322 I Infiltration People Appliances 2 x 225 443 450 4672 Kitchen 9 x 10 2 x 275 119 550 2569 238 161 RSCl Room Name 2926 2288 Bathroom A Plan Size Wall D. MO Out.405 770 770 BSCl= 16.7". S 21 40 16 ClF 28 158 1120 Windows 1 D.20 74 13 589 E .181 BTUlhr Unit size = 2 tons Duct gain _5_ % = Duct leak _5_ % ::: Figure 6.20.10 A ClTO BTUlhr D. Uw =O.2".0". .10 180 47 846 . 34 13 88 42 47 197 U A ClTD BTU/hr D.20 74 23 151 W .5' W x 4' H.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS RESIDENTIAL COOLING lOAD CALCULATIONS Room Name Plan Size Wall 159 Project A. Windows 3.9 Residential cooling load calculations form. Sum RSCl = 15.10. U A ClTO BTU/hr D. U 340 S . N 21 14 13 ClF 23 128 322 D.47 D.10 122 90 S .:-_ F ACH --.945 BTCl = 1.2. Ud = 0. U ClTO BTU/hr D.20 16 262 N .20 .2 Dining Room 21 x12+21 x4 10x11 +3x4 9 x 10 14x12+3x4 D. Doors 3' x 7'.5". --.10 6x7 ClTO BTU/hr D.20 104 16 488 W .47. ClF Windows Infiltration People Appliances RSCl 119 1200 2288 Building Total 55 662 NOTES: Ceiling ht. DB --. U N . RH --.--_ Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Door Living Room Bedroom No.20 106 333 N . N E I t4 14 ClF 23 50 D. = 8'0'.10 336 47 . Ur =O..

has 2300 ft 2 of exterior single glass with no interior shading.28 ENERGY CONSERVATION Reducing the building cooling load provides a major opportunity for energy conservation. 6. has a roof constructed of I in. 9. Consider outside construction features that provide shading of glass. Consider use of heat-absorbing glass. Use high R-value insulation throughout the A more detailed discussion of energy conservation in HVAC system design will be presented in Chapter IS. 3. Use types of lighting that more efficiently convert electrical energy into light. 4. The inside design condition is 78 F. 6. II. Texas. gypsum wallboard.9 summer outdoor design DB temperature and coincident WB temperature. use proper calculation procedures that account for heat storage and time lag. Maryland. is 90 ft by 24 ft. building. Determine the net roof cooling load at A. Past practice of designing for 75 F or even lower is wasteful. Orient the building so that solar radiation in summer is minimum on sides with large glass areas. R-5 insulation and !!2 in. September 21 at noon B.1 A building with a 120 ft by 80 ft roof. 6. Above all. 8. Ohio. Provide effective interior shading devices. Time of peak wall heat gain" 6. Time of peak roof heat gain 6. Determine the cooling load through the wall at A. Minimize use of glass in building unless used on the south side for receiving solar heat in the winter.21. Avoid unnecessarily excessive lighting levels. Determine the net conduction heat gain through the glass at 2 PM in summer.160 CHAPTER 6 Bedrm 2 10'x11' Bath 6' x 7' Dining rm 9' x 10' N 1 Bedrm 1 14'x12' Living room 21'x12' 10'Wx9' H Scale 1116" = 1'-0" Basement Figure 6. located in Cincinnati.2 A southeast facing wall of a building located in Las Vegas. A building in Dallas.5 insulation and a suspended ceiling. PROBLEMS 6. Nevada. made of !4 in. 5.4 . These provide adequate comfort for most applications.3 A building in Baltimore. single 2. has 490 ft2 of windows facing west. The inside design condition is 78 F. The wall is constructed of 8 in. wood with R-5. The inside design condition is 77 F. 7. Use inside design DB temperatures of 78-80 F. Some ways this can be achieved are: 1. Use the Table A. 10.10 Plan for Example 6. concrete. June IS at II AM B.

with dark roller shades. Lights 4 IVlfr with ballast Floor-to-floor height: 10ft 6." 0 "0 Office N l t Office 20' " " 30' 6.11. Canada.7 6. 6.12 Plan for Problem 6. The window is iii in. The Squidgit factory.80'-----~~ -:1.12. It has 76 (male and female) employees doing light bench work. 50% RH Wall: U =0.11 Plan for Problem 6. wood Walls: U = 0.8 1--------. The cooling system is shut down during unoccupied hours. with medium color interior venetian blinds. California.6 Note: Lightweight construction Figure 6.28 BTU/hr-Jr-F. with the following conditions: Location: Sacramento. Ceiling height 13'·0" Doors: 7ft H x 3 ftw. What are the sensible and latent heat gains? "l Office r L . Find the maximum net solar cooling load through the windows. No windows. Group E Window: 20 Jt W X 6 ft H single clear glass. which is air conditioned 24 hours a day.11. The building is of light construction.18 BTUlhr-Ji2-F.9 Warehouse 50' 6. without a hood. What is the cooling load from the lighting? Find the sensible and latent load from 180 people dancing in the Get Down Disco. The temperature is 78 F. Inside conditions 78 F DB. Group C. single clear glass. Find the solar cooling load through the window at 12 noon on July 1. dark interior blinds Occupancy: 10 people.5 A room in a building in New York City has a 12 ft W by 6 ft H window facing south. has the following conditions: Figure 6. Light color . The buildirig is of mediumweight construction. What is the cooling load at I PM? The temperature is 78 F.10 Find the peak cooling load for the general office shown in Figure 6.11 The building shown in Figure 6. located in Ottawa.10.::======~' 6. A room has four 40 W fluorescent lighting fixtures and two 200 W incandescent fixtures in use. The Greasy Spoon Cafe has a 20 ft 2 steam table. 10 in. operates from 8 AM to 5 PM.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 161 clear glass. There is a 3 ft outside projection at the top of the window. In what month and hour is this? 6.

5W~ 6. Inside design conditions are 75 F and 50% RH. seats 2300 people.w. h.12 Repeat Problem 6. Determine the peak cooling load and the load at 11 AM June 30.14 The Beetle Concert Hall in London. finished ceiling Inside design conditions: 77 F. Room temperature = 78 F. 6.elitesoft.com 6. no shading Lightweight construction.21 BTUlhr-Jf2-F. 6. Conditions are as follows: Location: Your town Walls: U = 0.16 using cooling load calculation software available from one of the following Websites: www.10 through 6. 6. wood.13.5 insulation. R-2. has one exposed wall. facing east. and 90° clockwise. single heat-absorbing glass.15 Perform a complete cooling load calculation for the one-story office building shown in Figure 6. Calculate the ventilation loads in summer.162 CHAPTER 6 Roof: 4 in. Lighting is 2. R-5. to be located in your town. 55% RH Occupancy: 80 jf2lperson. light interior blinds Roof' 2. and located in or near your community.13 A room in a building in Memphis. and so on). with the following conditions: Wall: A = 68 fr.12 for the building turned 45° clockwise.8 insulation Orientation as assigned by instructor. Group C Glass: Single heat-absorbing glass. concrete.20. . Light construction.16 Perform a complete cooling load calculation for the residence described in Problem 3. Tennessee. People: I per 60 ft2. England. Make assumptions based on recommendations in the text on all other data (ventilation.20 BTUlhrfr-F. Glass: A = J30 jf2.carmelsoft.5 in. duct and fan heat gains. Find the peak cooling load. U GroupE = 0. Computer Solution Problems Solve Problems 6.com www.

163 ..I . '' .. '.15.~ COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS Figure 6. ..13 Plan for Problem 6.. I I D DD D D D ~ ~ I Window Lighting fixture '---- DD DD I I carridor fixtures 100 W/eaeh ceiling ht 10 ft AI I windows '15 ft2 S eale 1/8" = 1'·0" 0 ffiee fixtures 200 W/eaeh DD Equipment room DD II I ~ ~.. ~'-...c-· •.:...?:~... .•....

Some comprehension of psychrometrics is an absolute necessity. Wet Bulb Temperature ~). 5. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Because this gas mixture is conditioned in environmental control systems. it is necessary to understand how it behaves. Because the water vapor content in air can change. we will use the word air to refer to the air-water vapor mixture that is the atmosphere.1 PROPERTIES OF AIR The physical properties of atmospheric air are defined as follows: Dry Bulb Temperature (DB). Psychrometries is the name given to the study of air-water vapor mixtures. you will be able to: 1. as conventionally done. Determine mixed air conditions. The temperature sensed by a thermometer whose bulb is wrapped with a water-soaked wick. in order to become a competent air conditioning practitioner.c H A p T E R Psychrometries T he atmospheric air that surrounds us is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. The words temperature and dry bulb temperature will be used to mean the same thing with regard to air. in rapidly moving air. The temperature of the air. we will first learn how to determine the physical properties of air. Determine reheat requirements. Read values of properties from the psychrometric chart. Determine cooling coil performance specifications. however. . 4. In this chapter. called moist air. Hereafter. as sensed by a thermometer. Examples of these uses will be demonstrated as we proceed. A psychrometric analysis is required in selecting the proper air conditioning equipment for a job and in troubleshooting systems that are not performing properly. 6. Determine required supply air conditions. 164 7. 2. and then exam- ine how air is processed in air conditioning systems. these processes can be complex and their understanding may require a special effort by the student. Determine sensible and latent heat changes in air conditioning equipment. 3.

2) The dry bulb temperature is the temperature in the conventional meaning that we are all accustomed to using. Humidity Ratio (W). Pa = partial pressure of dry air in the mixture. Some of the relationships between properties will now be explained. Note that the specific properties.1 ) (7.3) P = total (atmospheric) pressure Pa = partial pressure of dry air Pw = partial pressure of water vapor Humidity Ratio The ideal gas laws and law of partial pressures can be used to find a relationship for determining the L . Ib Ra. taken above an arbitrary reference temperature at which the enthalpy is given a value of zero. In most data used in air conditioning. but each occupies the total volume. The volume of air per unit weight of dry air. at constant pressure. When the amount of water vapor is less than the maximum possible. although the air ordinarily is not dry. . The heat content (enthalpy) of air per unit weight. The weight unit of grains is often used in order to have more convenient numbers: 7000 gr= lib The specific enthalpy of air is the enthalpy of the dry air plus the water vapor. in BTUllb dry air. ft 3 T = temperature of mixture. the arbitrary zero value point is 0 F for the dry air portion and 32 F for the water vapor portion of the air. Rw = gas constants for air and water vapor. R The dry air and water vapor each exert only a part of the total pressure. This is a convention that is generally used. The maximum quantity of water vapor that air can hold depends on the air temperature. Specific Enthalpy (h). 7. Specific Volume (v). always refer to unit weight of dry air. Ideal Gas Laws Both the dry air and water vapor in atmospheric air behave as ideal gases. The meaning and use of wet bulb temperature will be explained when the process of evaporative cooling is described.PSYCHROMETRICS 165 Dew Point Temperature (DP). explained in Chapter 3.3 maT pwV=111wRwT=85.15 applies to each: Pa V = 111aRaT = 53. called Dalton's Law. It is expressed in percent. The term saturated air is used to describe the condition when air contains the maximum amount of water vapor that it can hold. Relative Humidity (RH). Ib/ft2 Pw = partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture.2 DETERMINING AIR PROPERTIES It is necessary to determine many of the physical properties of atmospheric air for air conditioning work. Ib Illw = weight of water vapor. ft Ib/lb R V = volume of mixture. is: the total pressure equals the sum of the partial pressures: P=Pa+Pw where (7. A useful principle that applies to the mixture. The temperature at which the water vapor in the air wonld begin to condense if the air were cooled. in fe lib dry air. in Ib/lb dry air. The weight of water vapor per pound of dry air. This is also called the 1110isture content. and therefore Equation 2. The ratio of the actual water vapor pressure in the air to the vapor pressure if the air were saturated at that dry bulb temperature. This use of the word saturated does not have the same meaning as the saturated state of a pure substance. or grains/lb dry air. those based on a unit weight. the condition is called unsaturated. Ib/ft2 ma = weight of dry air.7mwT where (7.

178 RH = .507 psi a at 50 F PH' = 0. Equation 7.2 gr w. where W' = 7000 gr x 0.5. the water vapor is in a saturated condition at the dew point.69 .178 = 14.20 Pa 14.52 psia W=0. Solution Example 7.49 psia Using Table A. W = 0. at 80 F PH'S = 0.622 Pw pa J .20 psia on a day when the barometric (atmospheric) pressure is 14. Therefore.7 psi.0. % (7.166 CHAPTER 7 humidity ratio.a. lb ma = weight of dry air. Pw V 85.507 Using Equation 7. Example 7.20 = 14. The dew point temperature was defined as the temperature at which the water vapor in the air would condense if the air were cooled at constant pressure.178 psia Using Equation 7.x 100 = . Using Equation 7.. Solution From the law of partial pressures.7 . lb water vaporllb dry air mw = weight of water vapor.69 psi.a.7T Pa V m=-a 53.3) at the dry bulb temperature.3T Dividing the first equation by the second results in a useful relationship for the humidity ratio: W= mw =0.5) Pa In this equation.x 100 = 35'7c PWS 0. Pa = P .622 Pw l71 a (7. In = . or Pw 0.0086 lb w.0086 lIb = 60. Pa = P .0. for both air and water vapor.4) where Relative Humidity and Dew Point The relative humidity is defined by the equation RH= Pw x 100 Pws where RH = relative humidity.3 to find the saturation pressure and partial pressure of the water vapor.3. Ib Pw = partial pressure of water vapor at dry bulb temperature PWS = saturation pressure of water vapor at dry Rearranging the ideal gas law as follows. and its partial pressure is equal to the saturation pressure at the dew point.622 Pw = 0.2 What is the relative humidity and humidity ratio of air at 80 F DB and 50 F DP? The barometric pressure is 14.llb d.6. The definition of humidity ratio expressed as an equation is (7.6) W = humidity ratio. Find the humidity ratio.Pw = 14.49 = 0. 2 illustrates this. Example 7.llb d.622 x 0.Pw = 14. Pa and Pw are in the same units.1 The partial pressure of the water vapor in the air is 0.5.w bulb temperature The saturation pressure of the water vapor is found from the Steam Tables (Table A.

2 could also be used. This includes the sensible heat of the dry air and the sensible and latent heat of the water vapor.a.0078(1061 + 0. the dry bulb temperature (DB) and dew point temperature (DP) were known. The atmospheric pressure is 14.52 X 144 = 13. This is partly because the apparatus for measuring the DP is cumbersome. F Example 7. Rearranging Equation 7. Enthalpy (Heat Content) The enthalpy of atmospheric air is the sum of the individual enthalpies of the dry air and water vapor. remembering thatpa must be in Ib/ft 2 . The value of Pw was found at the DP temperature.7 X 0. psia P' = saturation water vapor pressure at the wet bulb temperature. If the WB is known. psia = 13. V= 85.a.8 will be used to find Pw. the value of Pw can be calculated from the following equation. Carrier.622 x 0.l78 x 144 where Pw =partial pressure of water vapor at dry bulb temperature. however.8.7) h =enthalpy of moist air.70 psia.45 BTUllb-F.2. W = humidity ratio. which was developed by Dr. . the equation for the specific enthalpy of the mixture. t = dry bulb temperature of air.l.a.3 X 1 X (80 + 460) =27.a.llb d. psia DB = dry bulb temperature.7111w T Pw 85. it is the wet bulb (WB) temperature and not the DP that is measured.24t+ W(1061 + 0.45 x 80) Solution The ideal gas law will be used.2. whereas only a thermometer with a wetted wick is needed to measure the WB.0076 (7. Equation 7.6 to find the RH. a pioneer in the field of air conditioning: Pw = p' _ (p .' . =0. F The following example illustrates 'the use of Equation 7. BTUllb d.2. Using specific heats of air and water vapor of 0. What is the 'RH? Solution Equation 7.24 x 80 + 0.24t + W(1061 + 0.7 ft 311b d.3 maT V=---"Pa 53. F WB = wet bulb temperature. Willis H.·r .52 Example 7. 53.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the specific volume (per Ib dry air) of the air in Example 7. respectively..451) where (7. ~.a.WB) (2830 .00761b w. h = 0.p')(DB .178 14.• PSYCHROMETRICS 167 ~~' = 0. Note that the weight of water vapor per Ib dry air is the humidity ratio. Ib w.'I. is P = total air pressure.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the specific enthalpy of the air in Example 7.8 BTUllb d. Solution Using Equation 7.451) = 0. by definition. and a latent heat value of 1061 BTUllb for water. As the dry air and the water vapor both occupy the same volume. · .llb d. using TableA.1. Generally.3. per pound of dry air.7.24 and 0. In Example 7. h = 0.a.43 x WB) = 14.' c ~. then Equation 7.5 A measurement of the air DB and WB gives readings of 90 F and 70 F. Example 7.8) = X (80 + 460) 0.8 ft311b d.

p = O 36 3 .6 Draw a line of 78 F DB on the psychrometric chart. Their use will be the subject of the next section. The error in using the listed values.8. (See Section 7. = 0. Lines of constant enthalpy and constant wet bulb temperature.1. the above equations may be used to determine other unknown properties.8 Draw a line of 45'70 RH on the psychrometric chart.2. The location of the scales for each of the properties and the constant value lines for those properties are shown in Figure 7. a sharp drafting-type pencil and straight edge must always be used.1. This should be studied before using one.258 psi From Equation 7.5.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Draw a line of 76. RH =p".3. Example 7. after measuring the DB and WE or other conveniently measured properties.ipws x 100 =0. 7.3 THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART The properties of atmospheric air can be represented in tables or graphical form. interpolating between numbered values when necessary.698 psia From Equation 7. The graphical form is called the psychrometric chart. however. Construction ofthe Psychrometric Chart A psychrometric chart is shown in Figure 7.70 .25810. although actmilly not exactly parallel. Each figure is a sketch of the psychrometric charts. but not drawn to the actual scale: 7.36)(90 . Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7.6. When reading values or drawing lines. The condition can be .698 x 100 =37% As illustrated by the examples shown in this section. There are slight differences in the arrangement of charts furnished' by different organizations. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7.168 CHAPTER 7 From Table A. charts have been prepared from the most common values of the properties of air.363 psia at 90 F.4. To save repeated calculations.10 for a related discussion. is less than 2% when calculating enthalpy changes. Values should be read to the best accuracy possible. Pws = 0.0. can be considered parallel on the psychrometric chart used here. The curved. Example 7.1ines on the chart show the corrections to be made to the enthalpy for actual conditions when greater accuracy is necessary. Example 7. It is universally used because it presents a great deal of information very simply and because it is helpful III studying air conditioning processes.43 x 70) Study these sketches until you are familiar with the scales and the lines of constant values for each property.) The difference is because the enthalpy values shown on the chart are for saturated air instead of for the actual conditions.3.70) (2830 . Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7.5 F WB on the psychrometric chart.-'----------'-----'W' (14. and on the conservative side.4 LOCATING THE AIR CONDITION ON THE CHART Any condition of air is represented by a point 011 the psychrometric chart. at 70 f\ p' = 0.

.on 130H .... '''~"" '" .j. \ .... ..o\>ly. . ....00' <{>" " "'..007 COmfort zone conservation ~ 1-t\. ~ 1 J Psychrom·etric chart.""• ..oof-j: . " " " ... . . po.."'... .. NY..006 J >of-j: ". of moi...013 .01. 01 ".. .. '" " . Figure 7.... '" " '00 '''' -& -& .. " '" " ."0.011 . .023 ... \ " " ".• " '''' o tlo no ~ • ... J ! ."o~ .1 • • .. j ~o P.. Pound.w j g J i .....' pound of ." .Ole 110r:t .017 V" .hol py at '0..y ai.....~ .~ .. W.010 I--+- ~ 1 .y ai. pound 01 <1'1 a.'. .v •• por pound 01 d.. 2OU. • "'w .012 "K70 ..0 .... T _ a .•.." " .".". . (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation. !~{ -) (n...p.016 . ~Iu p. .ro..! ."".. _ ." '" 160L r . __ i'P...." 90 K ...t... .' . G.015 ...) $ .=\ 001 lOW' J ' ~ . .t_.-F . ..019 lIoR ..<0 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Normal Temperatures Reproduced by permission of Carrier Corporation... Syracuse.

(d) Lines of constant specific volume (v) on the psychrometric chart..0 ~ 0 0. --.. (a) Lines of constant dry bulb temperature (DB) on the psychrometric chart... ~ -7':. . showing lines of constant properly values. (b) Lines of constant humidity ratio fY'I) on the psychrometric chart. (c) Lines of constant relative humidity (RH) on the psychrometric chart.a.5 ft3 /1b d. (e) Lines of constant wet bulb temperature (WB) on the psychrometric chart.170 CHAPTER 7 / / / / / // LL / v = 13. (f) Lines of constant enthalpy (g) on the psychrometric chart.r:.~ '6 I C E ::l DB (e) DB (b) Saturation line (RH = 100%) ~ II = 27~ 27 BTU/lb d. 90 i .2 Construction of psychrometric chart."""'~ DB (c) DB (f) Figure 7..a.a.. F (a) oj -0 .~\ 0 // ~ 0) 0 '" " DB (d) 70 Dry bulb temp. W = 90 gr w.:.llb d.

Because each property is represented by a line. Example 7.2 F.PSYCHROMETRICS 171 DP = 60 F 78 F DB 60 80 DB.3 Solution to Example 7. the WB temperature is read as 71. 50% DB DB .2 BTU/lb d. F DB (g) Figure 7. 80 Solution to Example 7. located once two independent properties are known. Drawing a line of Figure 7.10 The air leaving a cooling coil is at 60 F DB and 55 F WB. What is the WB? Solution Using the psychrometric chart.2 Continued. Figure 7. (g) Lines of constant dew point temperature (DP) on the psychrometric chart./lb d. From the point.a. the condition is found by the point of intersection of the 60 F DB and 55 F WB lines (Figure 7.9 The weather report reads 90 F DB and 40% RH.5 Solution to Example 7. Figure 7.a.7.6.4 Soilltion On the chart. What is its humidity ratio and specific enthalpy? Example 7.6). constant WB from this point. read W = 57gr w. following a line of constant humidity ratio. the intersection of the two lines establishes the point representing the condition of the air.7). the condition of the air is at the point of intersection of the 90 F DB line and 40% RH line (Figure 7.B. Once the condition is located. any other properties can be read from the chart. Following a line of constant enthalpy from the point (parallel to WB lines) read h =23.

6 Solution to Example 7. Denver. Example 7. Example 7. If the outside temperature is 30 F. When properties are not independent. by interpolation. From the definition of dew point. When cooled further. the standard atmospheric pressure at sea leveL For pressures significantly different.8). because the thermal resistance of the glass is low. if available. F Figure 7. the inside glass surface is only slightly higher than the outside temperature. 40% --~--~'~----------- .7 Solution to Example 7. some property readings from the chart'will not be correct and it cannot be used. as a child. For example.9.92 in.12 A room with single-glazed windows is at 70 F DB. or corrections can be made to the values. The psychrometric chart of Figure 7. Air contacting the glass is cooled below its dew point. the air is saturated with water vapor when cooled to that temperature. What is its specific volume? Solution The condition is located at the intersection of the 80 F DB and 23% RH lines (Figure 7. even though it may not be apparent by their name or definition. Understanding this concept enables us to determine the maximum humidity that can be maintained in a room in winter without condensation occurring on the windows. this means that the property lines are parallel on the psychrometric chart. because this gives only one line. what is the maximum RH that should be maintained in the room to avoid condensation on the windows? Solution The inside temperature of the glass can be assumed to be at the outside temperature.11 Combustion air enters a furnace at 80 F DB and 23% RH.10.172 CHAPTER 7 WB = 71.5 CONDENSATION ON SURFACES Who. we could not establish a point. will require these corrections. The reader should verify this by studying the chart. Two solutions are possible-either a chart for the actual pressure can be used.. does not remember drawing pictures on a fogged windowpane in winter? Moisture on the glass is condensed from the room air when the glass temperature is lower than the room air dew point. they are measuring the same thing.a. Hg. Geographical locations at high altitudes (e.7 ft 3 /1b d. Mexico City). Example 7.atmospheric pressures.a. The specific volume is read as 13. which are at lower.2 BTU/lb d.: 57 90 DB. Figure 7.12 illustrates the use of the psychrometric chart in relation to-this problem. Practically. The only circumstances under which two properties will not suffice to locate the air condition is when they are not independent properties. Condensation should be avoided because the water will stain or damage surfaces. (The precise .2 F WB=55F h = 23. it can hold even less water vapor-some is condensed. F 60 DB. if we know the DP and humidity ratio of an air sample. These corrections can also be made directly by applying the property equations. For single-glazed windows. 7.1 shows the properties of air at a pressure of 29.g. :.

however. 23%RH DB. Most processes are represented by straight lines.) Room air contacting the glass surface will be cooled to 30 F. Therefore.7 ft 3/1b d. Showing these processes on the psychrometric chart is very helpful in selecting equipment and in analyzing problems. A vapor barrier co\'ering is necessary.6 PROCESS LINES ON THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART The purpose of air conditioning equipment is to change the condition of the entering air to a new condition. Sensible heating (process 1-2) results in an increase in DB and enthalpy.3~0C. where the water vapor would condense. results in a decrease in DB and enthalpy.':P~c:::'4. Processes are shown by drawing a line from the initial air condition to its final condition.10. This change is called a process.8 Solution to Example 7. Chilled water lines are usually insulated so that the outside surface is well above the air dew point.23% RH / 3 2 Sensible Sensible cooling. The direction of the process must therefore be along a line of constant humidity ratio. 7. Using the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. heating 70 F DB DB . Enthalpy decrease Enthalpy increase / / /L-. to prevent the migration of any water vapor through the insulation to the cold pipe surface. air with a 70 F DB and 30 F DP has an RH of 23%.9 Solution to Example 7. The air changes properties along this line.11 .12. Figure 7. This would be the maximum RH that should be maintained. F Figure 7. but there is no change in water vapor content. temperature can be calculated using the conduction heat transfer equation. Sensible Heat Changes The sensible heat change process is one where heat is added or removed from the air and the DB temperature changes as a result.PSYCHROMETRICS 173 Air Conditioning Processes v = 13. as shown in Figure 7. Sensible cooling process 1-3 (heat removal).9).10 Sensible heating and sensible cooling processes. The same problem occurs with bare cold water piping running through spaces.'F~D:. the dew point of the air must be less than 30 F to avoid condensation. Double glazing will of course increase the inside glass temperature and permissible RH.a. Figure 7.

. 3. Sensible heating and dehumidification (1-7) 7.12 Combined sensible and latent heat change Figure 7. may occur in air conditioning: I. process 1-5. This can be done by using the sensible and latent heat equations (Chapter 2) with the aid of the psychrometric chart. and the enthalpy decreases due to both sensible and latent heat removal. Sensible heating and humidification (1-6) 2. W.7 SENSIBLE HEAT CHANGE PROCESS CALCULATIONS (SENSIBLE HEATING AND COOLING) The sensible heat equation applied to moist air is Qs = 0. X TC (7. Sensible cooling and humidification (1-8) 4.12. results in an increase in humidity ratio and enthalpy. However. In humidification. and removal of water vapor from the air is called dehumidification. This is why it is called a latent heat change. in the cooling and dehumidification process 1-9.11 processes. both the DB and Ware decreased. Process 1-4. In dehumidification. Sensible cooling and dehumidification (1-9) Note that. generally. shown in Figure 7. These processes-pure humidification and dehumidification without a sensible heat change-do not occur often in practical air conditioning processes.174 CHAPTER 7 Latent Heat Changes (Humidification and Dehumidification) The process of adding water vapor to the air is called humidification. the concept is important to understand in analyzing conditions. DB. humidification.24m" x TC + 0. removal of water vapor results in a decrease in enthalpy.. For example. shown in Figure 7.45111. Humidification and dehumidification (latent heat change) processes.9) -~ Figure 7. Combination Sensible Heat and Latent Heat Change The following combined sensible and latent processes. Enthalpy 4----1 Cooling and humidifying Enthalpy decrease Humidification Dehumidification 5---1 DB Cooling and dehumidifying DB .11. the enthalpy of the air increases due to the enthalpy of the water vapor added. and enthalpy all change. It is important to determine the amount of heat and water vapor to be added or removed in the conditioning equipment and to determine the changes in properties.

10) Q.9 x 30 =39 BTUlhr Therefore.45 x 2. Solution First plot the initial condition. The error from neglecting the enthalpy of the water vapor was about 19C of the total.60) Example 7. from Equation 7.13. = 2880 BTUlhr Because the capacity of electrical equipment is expressed in kilowatts or watts rather than BTUlhr. Iblhr m" = O.3 = 7. What is the required capacity of the heater? Solution The electric energy in the resistance heater is converted into the required heat... Iblhr TC = 12 .3 BTUIlb = 2910 BTUlhr which is in close agreement with the previous result.45mw x TC = 0.45 for water vapor are used in Equation 7. as seen in Example 7. and . Example 7.13.a.0072lb w.6 .24ma x TC = 0.24 x 400(90 . mw = weight of water vapor. BTUlhr ma = weight of air. The sensible cooling process problem is handled in the same manner as sensible heating.a.9. and the sensible heat equation is written (7..1I = temperature change.hI) = 400 Iblhrx 7.3 BTUlIb d.) The first term in Equation 7.PSYCHROMETRIes 175 where Qs = sensible heat added to or removed from air. the humidity ratio is 0. units are changed as follows: I KW Capacity = 2880 BTUlhr x . =0. F (Specific heats of 0.llb d. x 400 Ib airlhr = 2. How much error was there in neglecting the term in the sensible heat equation that included the enthalpy change of the water vapor? Solution From the psychrometric chart.84KW and therefore.15.lhr The enthalpy change due to the water vapor is. Using Equation 7.13 has an RH of 65%.-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The air entering the heater in Example 7. Qs = 0.. using Equation 2.24 for air and 0. Example 7..22.13 An electric resistance heater is to be installed in a duct to heat 400 Iblhr of air from 60-90 F. The flow rate of air is usually expressed in ft 3 /min (CFM) rather than lblhr in air conditioning work. process line. the correct amount of heat added is 2880 + 39 = 2919 BTUlhr. because most instruments read CFM.9 expresses the enthalpy change of the dry air and the second term expresses the enthalpy change of the water vapor. The process and diagrammatic arrangement of the equipment are shown in Figure 7. the enthalpy increase of the total amount of air is Qs =ma(h2 .13. This will aid in understanding the system performance. and final condition on the chart.9. A sensible heating or cooling problem can also be solved using the enthalpy values from the psychrometric chart and the enthalpy Equation 2. The increase in enthalpy of each pound of air is h2 .3410 BTUlhr =0.hI = 29.9 Ib w. the second term is often small enough so that it can be neglected.14 ~.14 using the psychrometric chart.llb d.a. Always plot the process lines and sketch the equipment arrangement for every job. For approximate air conditioning calculations. Note how simple and convenient It is to use this method with the aid of the chart.0072 Ib w.15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solve Example 7.10.

13 Sketch for Example 7. using standard air conditions. as illustrated by Example 7. In many air conditioning applications. the range of temperatures is such that the specific volume is close enough to that of standard air so that no significant error occurs if the specific volume of standard air is used. However.7 psia. unless clearly specified.25 ft 21lb d.0 ft3 Ilb d.a. Standard air is defined as having a specific volume of 13.3 CFM 60 min cu ft = CFM . expressed in CFM? Solution From the psychrometric chart.. Of course the same quantity by weight of air is leaving the unit as is entering. the CFM leaving the duct heater in Example 7.5xCFM I Ib X ---'--. the specific volume of the entering air is 13.a. such as selection of the wrong size equipment. This condition applies at 68 F and 29.6 BTU~b d. as at high altitudes.3 60 F DB '----1----' 90 F DB 2 60 DB.16? Solution The specific volume leaving. coils.25m hr 60 min Ib =88.x---x 13.075 Ib/ft3 d. (a density of 0.11) .--. as noted in the Gas Laws in Chapter 2.hr min I hr =4. Converting units to CFM.x 14. I hr fr3 Ib CFMOU ( = 400 . Conversion between these units is therefore often necessary. Hg. =22.a.F 90 Figure 7. This variation in volume can lead to misunderstandings and error.16 will be different from that entering. Therefore. The relation between air flow rate expressed in Iblhr and air flow rate expressed as ft 3 /min. Example 7.3 ft3 lIl a (7.a.17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the CFM leaving the duct heater in Example7.176 CHAPTER 7 Electric resistance h2 = 29.x . For heating applications at high temperatures..3 ft31lb d. Therefore. 1 hr ft 3 lb CFM =400 ..0 hr 60 min Ib =93. Problems can be avoided by always indicating the temperature and pressure at which the CFM is specified..15. 65%RH heater h.). is Ib lila - Example 7. the CFM of the equipment is often expressed at standard air conditions.x -.- 13.16. from the chart. or where pressures are considerably different from 14. is 14.16 What is the flow rate of air entering the duct heater in Example 7. when rating the capacity of equipment such as fans. but the CFM is greater. the actual specific volumes should be used .92 in.. and air handling units.15.3 CFM The specific volume of a gas changes with temperature and pressure. manufacturers do not know the conditions of temperature and pressure that each user will apply. In order to avoid misunderstandings.a.

9) and also assuming a typical average moisture content of air of 0.a.1 x CFM xTC = 1.3(30) = 2914 BTUlhr 7.llb d.PSYCHROMETRICS 177 Substituting this in the sensible heat equation (7.18 Determine the capacity of the duct heater in Example 7. Solution Equation 7. dividing by 7000 gr/lb CFM(W. the temperature leaving.moisture content of the air from 30 to 60 gr w. Example 7. using Equation 7.000 BTUlhr while handling 2000 CFM of air entering at 80 F must be checked to see that it is performing properly.14) 1556 where W = humidity ratio. the leaving air temperature will be at least as low as that predicted by the sensible heat equation.8 LATENT HEAT CHANGE PROCESS CALCULATIONS (HUMIDIFYING AND DEHUMIDIFYING) The amount of water vapor added to or removed from air in a humidifying or dehumidifying process is Ill"..1 xCFM 50.lhr l11a = air fl ow rate. the reader should be careful not to make errors resulting from improper use of negative arithmetic signs. How much water must be supplied? .1 x 88.s_ 1. = water vapor added or removed. Qs = 1. lb w.11 in the above equation gives (7. it is usually acceptable to assume air at standard conditions. must be less than t" so 23 F is subtracted from 80 F. the result is Qs= 1.19.a.13) or. This convenient form of the sensible heat equation is commonly used for moist air calculations in air conditioning.1 xCFMx(f2-fI) (7. Psychrometries can be put to good use by the engineer or service technician in troubleshooting. Ib/hr W2 - WI = change in humidity ratio.12. if the humidity ratio is given in gr w. In Example 7.20 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A water humidifier in a warm air heating duct handling 3000 CFM increases the . gr w.llb d.12./lb d. Note: When using equations with temperature changes.000 x 2000 As with the sensible heating process. as well as by the system designer.a.19 will illustrate a case./lb d. substituting from Equation 7. . lb w. TC = _-=Q::. and the air flow rate is measured and found to be 2000 CFM.a.12 is used.1 Example 7. = 23 F 1. Example 7.01 Ib w. Thermometers at the air entrance and exit of the unit read 80 F and 62 F. Solving for the temperature change in Equation 7. If the air flow rate is expressed in CFM.12) and we see that the unit is not performing as rated. based on entering air CFM.16.a..llb d. f2.19 A cooling coil with a rated sensible cooling capacity of 50. Is the unit performing satisfactorily? Solution If the unit is cooling according to its rated capacity. = lila (W2 where I11w WI) The result agrees with that found by using the psychrometric chart.WI') (7. Example 7. for air conditioning processes.

5 x CFM =4.7 - 24. = 24. An inspection of the psychrometric chart shows that natural air conditions in the winter have a very low humidity.68 x 3000(30) m w = CFM(W2 ' - Wj') 3000(60 . In this case. BTU/hr W2 ' - WI' = humidity ratio change. the air would cool down.11. as seen in the following example.WI') Q/ = 1055 x mw = 1055 x --'---'''----'-'- 1556 Q/ = 0.15.20? Figure 7.30) 1556 = 61. that is. The latent heat of vaporization of water at typical air conditioning temperatures is approximately 1055 BTU/lb.14 Sketch for Example 7.14. Humidification is a desirable process in winter air conditioning.68 X CFM(W2 ' - WI ') (7.a. ma 90 =4. A quality environmental control system should include winter humidification.14.200 BTUlhr Note: If water were simply evaporated in the air without providing the required heat.0 '" Find the amount of heat required for the humidifier in Example 7. gr w. Using Equation 7. It is usually combined with sensible cooling or heating.178 CHAPTER 7 Solution The psychrometric process is shown in Figure 7. (This process will be described shortly.lhr Latent Heat Change As discussed previously.1 =4. Pure dehumidification is not a very commonly used process. CFM(W2' . to condense water vapor from it. by using the psychrometric chart. 30 DB Using Equation 7.1 2 60 "0 .14). The latent heat change problem can also be solved by using the enthalpy Equation 2.22.7 ". if the air is at 90 F. heat must be removed from the air to dehumidify it. and the need arises only in specialized industrial air conditioning. ~ 0> ~ Solution From the psychrometric chart (see FIgure 7. Dehumidification is the reverse of the process described earlier. Example 7.22 "2 = 28. Another method of humidifying is to generate steam in a separate source and to inject it into the air to be humidified.68 CFM(W2' - WI') = 0.6 BTU/lb d.21.llb d. h2 .21 How much heat is required in the evaporation process in the humidifier in Example 7. All of the equations for latent heat change hold true. Using Equation 7.5 x 3000 = 13. 1556 = 581b w. Q/ = 0. a condition which is unacceptable for good comfort.) Therefore.a. Solution Using Equation 7. the heating equipment must provide sufficient heat to prevent cooling of the air.13 and the psychrometric chart. Example 7.500 Iblhr .14.h j = 28. the evaporation of water requires heat.15) where Q/ = latent heat change.

.000 BTU/hr The total heat removed is Q.14. Example 7. The sensible heat removed and latent heat removed are found from Equations 7. The amount of moisture condensed during the process is.68 x CFM (W2 ' - WI ') = 0.15.amount of moisture condensed. 7. The sensible heat removed (Equation 7. Solution The flow diagram is shown in Figure 7.000 BTU/hrx I ton =41 tons 12.000 BTUlhr The total cooling capacity of the coil required for this job is 491. CFM(W2' - WI') 20. and total capacity of the cooling coil and the.23.000 (7) 1556 1556 =90 Iblhr Provision must be made for draining the water that is continually collecting in the air conditioning unit.12) is Qs= 1. The equations developed previously will provide the information. Q/ = rna (h2 .PSYCHROMETRICS 179 The latent heat required is therefore.23 can also be solved using Equation 2.6) = 62. is the total heat removed for the process. latent.000 (7) = 95.llb d. The sum.a.000 The Cooling and Dehumidification Process Air conditioning for human comfort usually requires a process where both sensible and latent heat are removed from air-that is. using Equation 7.000 BTUlhr .Cooling coil Q (4.13.000 (18) = 396.13 and the psychrometric chart. Figure 7. Find the sensible.hI) = 13.15.000 BTUlhr (41 tons) at the conditions specified.23 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An air conditioning unit has a cooling coil that cools and dehumidifies 20.000 + 95. using Equation 2.000 BTUlhr or 491. These changes may take place separately or may occur together.500 . = Qs + Q[.12 and 7. the air is cooled and dehumidified. respectively.75 = 7.9 COMBINED SENSIBLE AND LATENT PROCESS CALCULATIONS In many air conditioning system processes. In either case.21. From the psychrometric chart W2 ' - WI' = 82 . The problem in Example 7.100 BTUlhr The result agrees closely with that found previously in Example 7.1 xCFMxTC = 491.0 gr w.68 x 20. the procedures for analysis use the sensible and latent heat equations and the psychrometric chart.1 x 20.000 CFM of air from 82 F DB and 50% RH to 64 F DB and 61 F WB. Q/ = 0. = Qs + Q/ = 396.15 Sketch for Example 7. Although the sensible heat and latent heat are being removed simultaneously from the air in the = 1. Q. the air undergoes both sensible and latent heat changes.

the heating and dehumidification process has sensible heat added and latent heat removed.) heat added or removed. they should substantially agree.16 can be used for any air conditioning process represented 011 the psychrometric chart. BTUlhr CFM = volume flow rate of air being processed h2 . an error has been made. 32.000 = sensible. The flow rate in lblhr is ma = 4.22 and 7.23 using the psychrometric chart. The other processes are encountered less often.13 can be expressed in the following form: Solve Example 7. the latent heat removal portion is shown by I-a and the sensible heat removal is shown by a-2. (However. agreement does not ensure that there is not a possible error common to both methods.24. or total enthalpy change. even though these are not actual process lines.16.12 and 7.24.000 BTUlhr The latent heat removal is Equation 7.000 BTUlhr As shown indirectly in Examples 7. Example 7. If not. It is advisable to solve air conditioning process problems by both of the methods explained: 1.16 Sketch for Example 7. I I 64 82 DB . the process line representing the total heat removal is 1-2 (the actual line is slightly curved. Using Equations 7. latent.24 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ and the total heat removal is Q.31.000 BTUlhr heat and latent heat equations 2.a . .14.16) where Q = sensible (Qs).5 x 20. Heating and humidification are typical to winter air conditioning systems.16 with the psychrometric chart.7 2 ----------. BTUllb d. they can be shown separately on the chart.000 lblhr The sensible heat removal is Qs = ma(ha . or total (Q. However. Using Equation 7.) The solution of any of the other combined sensiblelatent processes is handled in the same manner as the cooling-dehumidification process. as explained later).h.6 - 27. the sensible QI = maCh. = Qs + QJ =495. Solution Referring to Figure 7. = 90. Figure 7.000 (32. = 4.1 . latent (Q/). applying it to the sensible heat and latent heat parts of the process When the results are compared. It should be noted that some combinations of processes may have sensible and latent heat changes opposite in direction. some industrial air conditioning applications may require them. For instance.7 .6) = 99.000 (31.5 x CFM (7.a.2) = 396.180 CHAPTER 7 conditioner. as seen in the following example.hal = 90. However.h 2 ) = 90. the enthalpy Equation 2.

it will be noted that the temperature leaving is lower than that entering. Some of the water evaporates. water is sprayed into the airstream. The important question here is: What caused this? The evaporation of the water required heat. Constant enthalpy and wet bulb RH 3: = 10% -- Recirculating water spray 62 DB 94 l . If the evaporative cooling process can produce air at temperatures low enough for sufficient cooling of spaces (at least as low as 60-65 F DB). If wet bulb thermometers were placed in the airstream entering and leaving the evaporative cooling unit. Referring to Figure 7. Look at the psychrometric chart at a typical summer outdoor air design condition. Thus we can note that the evaporative cooling process is therefore a constant wet bulb temperature process. they would have the same readings. increasing the water vapor content of the air. it is a line of constant enthalpy content. The sensible heat decreases and the latent heat increases by the same amount. A process in which there is no change in total heat content is called an adiabatic process. This results in a lower temperature reading of the wet bulb thermometer. However. even though no external cooling source is used. the evaporative cooling process is practical for air conditioning only in very dry climates. unlike the pure humidification process described earlier. lowering its temperature. and placed in the airstream-it is seen that evaporative cooling is the process occurring at the thermometer stem. including its operating costs.at added to or removed from the air-water vapor mIxture. There is simply an exchange of heat within the mixture. The air passing through the wick becomes completely saturated.17.PSYCHROMETRICS 181 7. Referring to the definition of wet bulb temperature-the temperature recorded by a thermometer whose stem is wrapped with a wetted wick. The next important fact to note about the evaporative cooling process is that it is a constant enthalpy process. Because there is no external heat source. as seen in Figure 7. We can now determine the process line on the psychrometric chart for the evaporative cooling process.17. in a humid Figure 7. If the (dry bulb) temperature of the air is measured entering and leaving the conditioning unit. it would mean that no refrigeration equipment would be needed.10 THE EVAPORATIVE COOLING PROCESS AND THE WET BULB TEMPERATURE One special cooling and humidification process called evaporative cooling requires a more detailed discussion. because there is no he.17 Evaporative cooling process. The unevaporated water is recirculated continuously. This indicates that sensible heat was given up by the air. This must be so. and no external heat is added to the process. this heat must be obtained from the air.

W.18 Air mixing process.. ( . rather than lblhr.20 are accurate enough if the specific volumes of the unmixed airstreams are within 0. the conditions after mixing can be found.18.' is one where two streams of air are mixed to form a third stream.. The use of cooling towers in refrigeration systems will be explained in Chapter 13. m..:.a. Not only would the DB not be low enough for sufficient cooling. According to the Conservation of Energy Principle.18 and 7. When considering using evaporative cooling type air conditioning units. of each other. the sensible heat content of the air before and after mixing is the same. the following approximately correct equation can often be used: (CFM I x WI) + (CFM 2 x W2 ) W . However._111-'. suitable for air conditioning. as in parts of the southwestern United States.11 THE AIR MIXING PROCESS The air mixing praces. DB.1_X_W-.18) The humidity ratio W3 of the mixed air is found in a similar manner.11.5 ft 3 /1b d.182 CHAPTER 7 climate. If we follow a constant wet bulb line.:12:.. evaporative cooling could produce supply air at about 62 F DB. but the high humidity of the supply air would result in extremely uncomfortable humidity conditions. That is As before. Referring to Figure 7.=2.I )_+_(. Even in some normally dry climates.= .. m3 X DB3 = (1111 X DB I) + (1112 X DB 2) Solving for DB 3. there may be some days where the humidity is high enough so that the effective evaporative cooling will not occur. in these cases the decision must be made as to whether the lack of adequate air conditioning is acceptable for those periods or whether the investment in mechanical refrigeration equipment is wiser.20) For determining mixed air conditions.-. without significant loss of accuracy: DB. the procedures for finding the DB and W will be explained. Equations 7. the water vapor content before and after mixing is the same: 1113 x W. This process occurs frequently in air conditioning. say 90 F DB and 74 F WB. and a small portion of the water evaporates.17) If the specific volumes of the unmixed streams are not widely different. = (1111 x WI) + (1112 x W2) Solving for W 3 .. 2 Figure 7. particularly in mixing outside air with return air from rooms. the equation can be written using flow rates in ft 3/min (CFM). This occurs under most outside air (OA) and return air (RA) design .. The water is sprayed into an airstream. typical of a desertlike climate. CFM. DB3=~~--~--~----=- (1111 x DB I ) + (1112 x DB 2) 1113 (7. The cooled water is then circulated to where it will be used. Cooling towers are equipment used to cool water. The heat necessary to evaporate the water is taken both from the air and from the water that does not evaporate. applying the principle of conservation of mass-that is.19) 7. (CFM I x DB I) + (CFM 2 x DB 2 ) CFM 3 (7.) W 3 =1113 (7.:. evaporative cooling could produce air at only 74 F DB. If the conditions of the two airstreams that are to be mixed are known.X __ W.-"--'------'':=:-------'=----=3CFM 3 (7. note that if the outdoor air were at 94 F DB and 10% RH (60 F WB). The evaporative cooling process also occurs in a cooling tower.. even with complete saturation.

Solution The mixing process line is' drawn between points I and 2. a RA condition of 78 F DB and 50% shows a specific volume of about 13. Using Equation 7.94 1000CFM 90 FOB.19 Sketch for Example 7. Point 3. An OA condition of 94 F DB and 75 F WB (Birmingham.20.18. The one-third distance from point 2 is 75 + !6 x 15 = 80 on the DB scale. Any proportional distance on the DB scale is the same as that on the mixing line. usmg the psychrometric chart.20. This requires determining the conditions of air to be supplied to the rooms. Locating the mixed air condition on the psychrometric chart.19 are mixed. (This is simply a graphical expression of Equations 7.8 ft3 /lb d. Find the mixed air DB aud WB.a.a.25 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Outside air and return air as shown in Figure 7. from the following two facts: Figure 7. The location of the mixed air condition on this mixing line will be inversely proportional to the quantities of the unmixed airstreams to the total. The construction is shown in Figure 7. Example 7. on the psychrometric chart. The mixing process can also be solved graphically on the psychrometric chart.llb d.25 graphically. 72 FWB 3 DB=? WB=? l -- All of the air processes usually encountered in air conditioning have now been described. l.a.25. 50% RH 2 WB 3 =66F l i .. The total distance on the DB scale is 90 ~ 75 = 15 spaces. 2000 CFM 75 FOB. It is usually convenient to use the DB scale to locate the mixed condition.) Example 7. The mixed air condition will lie along a straight line connecting the two conditions of the unmixed airstreams. we .a. is therefore located one-third of the total distance.20. for most applications.26 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solve Example 7. RA DB3 = 80 F.llb d.. Our next task will be to learn how to put this information together in designing an air conditioning system or in analyzing performance problems. Equations 7. This distance is projected vertically to the mixing line to locate point 3. Solution The conditions are close enough so that the approximate equations can be used. The proportion of each airstream to the total IS DB = (1000 x 90) + (2000 x 75) 3 3000 80 F --'-= CFM I 1000 3000 2000 3000 CFM 3 CFM 3 = I 3 From the psychrometric chart W. In studying this problem.PSYCHROMETRICS 183 conditions. Reading from point 3 on the p~ychrometric chart. For example. at 80 F DB and 72 gr w.llb d. 2.a.' = 89 and W2 ' 64 gr w.18 and 7. starting from point 2.20 would produce satisfactory answers for the mixed air condition. the WB=66F. the mixed air condition. W' _ (1000 x 89) + (2000 x 64) 3 3000 = CFM 2 2 3 = 72 gr w. Using Equation 7. Under these conditions.18 and 7. AL) shows a specific volume of about 14.3 ft'/ib d.

The rate at which heat must be extracted from a room to offset these heat gains was given the name room total cooling load (RTCL). will also learn some new concepts used in psychrometries-the sensible heat ratio and the coil process line. we will use the basic psychrometric processes to analyze a complete air conditioning system.21) (7. Some familiarity with types of air handling equipment and systems (Chapter 12) will aid in understanding the following material. W~ QL Room Return (room) air tAo tR' W'R W'R .20 Sketch for Example 7. The procedures for finding these heat gains were discussed in Chapter 6. BTU/hr Figure 7. the room sensible cooling load (RSCL) and room latent cooling load (RLCL).21 and are expressed by the sensible and latent heat equations: RSCL = 1.1 x CFMs (tR . and will also briefly consider some more advanced psychrometric concepts. is provided by supplying air to the room at a temperature and humidity low enough to absorb the heat gains.68 x CFMs (W/ .26.22) 7. two parts. or cooling effect.12 DETERMINING SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS The rooms in a building gain heat in the summer from a number of sources.ts) RLCL=O. These relationships are shown in Figure 7. Supply air Qs CFMs ts.21 Psychrometric Analysis of the Air Conditioning System In the following discussion. it is composed of Supplying conditioned air to absorb room heat gains. (7.Ws') where RSCL = room sensible cooling load.184 CHAPTER 7 89 ?---j-----+------164 75 DB 80 90 Figure 7. This heat extraction. BTUlhr RLCL = room latent cooling load.

and therefore W/ = 71 gr w. The supply air temperature is therefore Is = 78 - 25 = 53 F The required humidity ratio of the supply air is then found from Equation 7.27 Supply Air Condition CFM DB. In applying Equation 7.2:!) to determine the supply air humidity ratio W s'. From the psychrometric chart d.4 55 60 62. Reading from the chart. Example 7. and furthermore. a surprising fact is noted: All of the points lie on a straight line../lb W/...13 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO If we recalculate the supply air conditions required in Example 7.-.21.0. 0.... This still leaves two unknowns. If 2000 CFM of supply air is furnished. the conditions found would of course be different. R. 55.68 x CFMs ~ 1 DB -.21) first to determine the supply air CFMs and Is. W s' = 71 .-::-::-::. TABLE 7..27 for other CFM quantities.22: I W' R - RLCL W'-----S .1 shows the results for two other assumed values of CFM. Table 7. as shown in Figure 7.68 x 2000 22.21.a.16 = 55 gr w.1 x 2000 Figure 7. and then apply the RLCL equation (7.= 25 F 1.a. 7. It is usual practice to apply the RSCL equation (7. Equations 7. the RSCL is known from the cooling load calculations (Chapter 6). as well as the results already found.22 Satisfactory supply air conditions fali along a straight line..000 BTUlhr.22. CFMs and ts.. One of these is chosen according to "good practice" (such as costs and job conditions).1 SATISFACTORY SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS FOR EXAMPLE 7.6 Example 7. WBs = 52 F.a.llb d.27 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-:-:-_ The Unisex Hair Salon Shop has a sensible cooling load of 55.27 illustrates the calculation of the supply air conditions.ll b d. solving it for the supply air temperature change If all three satisfactory supply air conditions are plotted on the psychrometric chart.000 BTU/hr and latent cooling load of 22. F gr/lb d. and tR and W R' are selected in the comfort zone (Chapter I).PSYCHROMETRICS 185 CFMs IR'!S = CFM of supply air = temperature of room and supply air. F W' gr w.22 are used to find the required conditions of the supply air to offset the sensible and latent loads for each room. Ws' = humidity ratios of room and supply air.21 and 7.= 16 gr w.000 l ...000 -----.llb d. determine the required supply air DB and WB.----. a. and the remaining unknown is then calculated from the equation.. thIS line also passes through the room air condition. IA IE 2000 2500 3200 53 58 62. Solution Applying Equation 7.a. The room conditions are to be maintained at 78 F DB and 50% RH.

.1 h. can also be shown by geometry to be equal to h/h t • To sum up this idea: Ax AR = 7. This is not a coincidence. The shop is maintained at 77 F DB and 45% RH. the ratio of sensible to total heat removal. The following steps are carried out: I.23 ) RSHR= RSCL RTCL =--~--- 45. (It is also called the room scmi· bie heat facto!.7 /"''I<:' R x DB DB . A scale for sensible heat ratio slopes is shown on most psychrometric charts to make it easier to draw lines with this slope. Any supply air condition that will satisfactorily remove the proper proportion of room sensible and latent heat gains will be on this line. will be used to explain this important fact.. Calculate the RSHR (Equation 7.000 + 15.28 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Big Boy Hamburger Shop has a sensible cooling load of 45. 30. which is defined as the ratio AxfAR. . Following that. locate the 0. The following example will illustrate how to plot the RSHR line. Draw the RSHR line. RSHR. is the same for both. If we were to assume still other air supply rates and then calculate the required supply air conditions. any supply air condition that is not on this line will not be satisfactory. = 0.24.1. in addition.75 2.000 BTUlhr and a latent cooling load of 15. its importance will be explained. Example 7. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7.lh.000 0. We note from this figure that for air supply at either A or B.23 Sensible and latent heat removal for two different supply air conditions.71 ~'" cV" A R . On the SHR scale on the psychrometric chart. The slope of line RA. There is also a guide point for the SHR scale.186 CHAPTER 7 This line has considerable significance.23): 11. Figure 7. h/ht.000 BTUlhr.000 45. RSHF) That is RSHR= RSCL RTCL (7. we would find that every one would lie on this same line. encircled on the chart Figure 7.23.75 slope.1 30. using the data from Table 7.14 THE RSHR OR CONDITION LINE The RSHR line is defined as the line drawn through the room conditions with the room sensible heat ratio slope RSCURTCL. B ' ----------------tx 24. ht = RSCL RTCL The ratio RSCLIRTCL is called the room sensible heat ratio. It will also be true for any other point on line RA (this can be proven by the geometry of similar triangles).

the RSHR is calculated. (located at 80 F and 50% RH). troubleshooter.74 3. let us look at an example of applying the RSHR line concept in troubleshooting a service problem.25 Sketch for Example 7. They are 61 F DB and 59 FWB.000 203. 4. The RSHR line is plotted on the psychrometric chart. This procedure will be <iiscussed later.29 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Mrs. because it has the RSHR slope.29. Using Equation 7. The actual supply air conditions are first mea- s: 77 Figure 7. The RSHR line is the same line that was developed from Table 7. the usual practice is to plot the RSHR line and then choose a supply air condition on this line. Soon all of the wealthy jet set customers leave. it will remove the correct proportion of the RSHG and RTHG. Therefore.1 by plotting a number of possible supply air conditions. if the supply air condition is on the line. ooma" condition thermostat. The actual supply air condition is located on the chart.75 'R . which are RSCL = 150. Finally she stalks out.000 BTU/hr RLCL = 53. IT: Supply air 61 F DB 59FWB I (fJ ~air RSHR line DB --. (Two drafting triangles will aid in drawing an exact parallel.24 Plotting the RSHR line (Example 7." The manager turns down the sured. The reason for this is that it has the slope representing the correct proportion of sensible and latent heat removal.28). Draw a line parallel to the guide line through the room condition point. Fixum. Van Astor. Example 7. 1.74 78 F DB 50%RH ( .PSYCHROMETRICS 187 i-----L-----Guideline 45% RSHR line DB Guide point IT: I (fJ 0. and it is seen that it does not lie on the RSHR line. The manager calls 1. Fixum looks up the air conditioning system design data.23. This is the RSHR line. 2. 3.000 BTUlhr Room design conditions = 78 F DB. turning down the thermostat lowered the supply air dry bulb Figure 7. and passes through the room condition.--- 0. First. Van Astor gets so cold she puts on her mink stole.) The importance of the RSHR line is that it is the line on which any satisfactory supply air condition must lie. Mrs. In selecting air conditioning equipment.75 through the guide point. RSHR= RSCL RTCL = 150. complains on one July day that it feels very "sticky.25. Draw a gnide line from SHR = 0. a regular patron of the swank Francais Restaurant. 50% RH Design supply air = 62 F DB Solution The solution is shown graphically in Figure 7. This is the line with the slope equal to the value of the RSHR (0. The SHR scale on the chart enables us to plot the RSHR line in a much easier manner than was done there.74) that passes through the room air point. Therefore the proper room design conditions will not be maintained.000 0. In the preceding example. using instruments.

h2 ) = 4.27) from entering condition I to leaving condition 2.000 BTUlhr Q. Actual coil process line . Solution The coil process line is drawn on the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. .8 .5 X 23. Turning down the thermostat even further probably would still not solve the problem.000 (30.000 = 1.h2 ) 7.16) Qs = 4. We will call this the coil process line anyway.000 CFM of air entering at 86 F DB and 73 F WB. air velocity. The sensible. However.5 x 24. can be determined from the coil process line. )----t ~-Leaving air t s: Entering arr Coil process line DB Figure 7. it is possible to locate a straight line on the chart that. and total heat content change per Ib d. Perhaps the refrigerant temperature was not low enough.30 _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ __ A cooling coil handles 24. Determine the coil capacity. The direction of this line depends on the coil configuration.15 COIL PROCESS LINE A line can be drawn on the psychrometric chart representing the changes in conditions of the air as it passes over the cooling and dehumidifying coil. Fixum knows that the air conditioning unit was not removing enough latent heat (uot dehumidifying enough) because the supply air condition is above the RSHR line.a. - hJ = 4. = 4.30. . These matters should become clearer as we continue our analysis of air conditioning processes with the powerful graphical aid of the psychrometric chart.404. The required coil capacity.000-hr.6) = 670. as illustrated in Example 7.8 .000 BTUlhr = ll7 tons The total capacity could also have been found directly: Q.8) BTU =1.000 (36.6 = 734.26 Coil process line. This is called the coil process line.000 + 670.23. Perhaps an improper cooling coil was being used. will enable us to select a coil or check the performance of a coil.5 x 24. The capacity of a coil is defined as the sensible. Yet this did not sufficiently reduce the room humidity level. . .404. The coil capacity is therefore (Equation 7. It is a curved line and is difficult to locate. as shown in Figure 7. The coil process line may then be defined as the straight line drawn between the air conditions entering and leaving the coi/. latent. or perhaps the amount of outside air used was more than that designed for.5 x 24. are as shown.5 x CFM(hx . called the cooling coil load. and total heat that it removes from the air it is conditioning. = 4. latent. The air leaves the coil at 59 F DB and 56 F WB.000 (36. There could be a number of common causes for the uncomfortable conditions existing in the example cited.5 X CFM(h. although it is not the true coil process line. Example 7.188 CHAPTER 7 temperature to an approximately satisfactory valne (61 F) compared to the design value (62 F).26.8) CFM(h. and refrigerant temperature. = 734.000 BTUlhr Q/ = 4.30.

50% RH Outside air required is 6730 CFM Supply air temperature difference is 20 F DETERMINE DB Figure 7.006 0.000 BTUlhr Outside design conditions-94 F DB. RSCL CFM3 = . 4. A. Room sensible and latent heat gains. Outside and inside design conditions.31 will illustrate a complete psychrometric analysis. Using Equation 7.31 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The following design data has been established for the High Life Insurance Company office building: 2 .1 x 20 Supply air temperature values are usually chosen so that the temperature difference between room and supply air is between 15-30 F.8 189 ~.~ ~\" Example 7. and the remaining air is returned (RA) to the air conditioning unit. Factors such as the type and location of air supply outlets will affect the temperature difference selected (see Chapter 10). RLCL = 150. and total load Solution Each part of the problem will be solved in order. both must be in a range that is considered satisfactory for "good practice. latent. based on the following known information (Chapter 6): 1.1.000 1. plot the RSHR line.640CFM DB3 = 78 .28.t3) 740. One of these is selected and the other is then determined from the sensible heat equation.27 Sketch for Example 7. Coil process line 23. Cooling coil sensible. It is advisable to sketch a diagrammatic arrangement of the system and also each process on the psychrometric chart.... The slope is RSHR = Qs Q. to prevent discomfort from staleness or drafts. = RSCL RTCL 740.1(1.8 Example 7. Ventilation (outside) air requirements. Supply air CFM 7.000 BTUIhr. 2. The supply air CFM must neither be too little nor too great.30. Conditions entering cooling coil D.000 890. Supply air conditions C.20 = 58 F To find the remaining supply air conditions.PSYCHROMETRIes 36. Fortunately this is usually not a problem if the supply air temperature and ventilation air quantity are selected within acceptable values. A. 75 F WB 56 FWB 59 86 Inside design conditions-78 F DB. 3.21. the same amount of air leaving the space must be exhausted (EA). as shown in Figure 7. . Either CFM or DB temperature of the supply air." B.16 THE COMPLETE PSYCHROMETRIC ANALYSIS We are now prepared to determine all of the required supply air conditions and the cooling coil capacity for proper conditioning of the space. Note that as some outside air (OA) is introduced. = 33. ---------- RSCL =740.83 . However.

29.910(78) = 81. = 4.150. duct arrangement.0 x 3 6730 CFM EA -l1-1f--"-":.1) CFM(h2 .. This is because the coil.5 = 4. must remove the excess heat from the outside air.1_+_C_F_M--.h3) e.8) Draw the mixing line 1-7 on the chart._--4.7 .500 BTUlhr Using Equation 7. CFM 2(DB 2 .640(31.7 6730 CFM OA 1 ----.. = 1.7 .5 x CFM(h. It is useful at this time for the students to study Figure 7. .= 1.68 X CFM 2 (W/ . Identify these and relate each point to the equipment and. The intersection of this line with the 81. Read WB 2 = 67.900 BTUlhr Q.2 = 858.:::::.DB 3 ) 58) = 1..c.-7_x_D--. The results should be checked by using Equation 7. Note that in the preceding example the coil loads are greater than the room loads.16 and the psychrometric chart Qs =4.24. D. Using Equation 7.6."::=:":"':::"':'::+<-i RSHR line DB Figure 7.-I_x_D_B::.1 X = 287.000 BTUlhr = 95.0) The total cooling coil load (refrigeration load) is .5 x 33.1 x 33. Draw the coil process line 2-3.190 CHAPTER 7 Mixing Coil process line 2'" line 1 $: "".640(31.5 =286.640(81. The heat removed from the outside air is called the outside air load. We have drawn the RSHR line..5 x 33.h.28 Sketch for Example 7 .:::. as well as r~move the room heat gains. the coil latent load is Q.12.. the mixing line.640(29.145.2 F.B.640 x 33. =4.1) = 1.8 = 862.4 tons E..2 F DB line will locate point 2.640(77. Using Equation 7.7 DB 2 = CFM 2 = 6730(94) = 4.h3) =4.68 x 33.15. Q.:.2 F 33. = Qs + Q.28 closely.. the condition entering the coil. and the coil process line.18.3 F.600 BTU/hr Q.:. _ C_F_M--.W3') =0. The condition entering the cooling coil will be the mixed air condition of outside air and return air.000 BTUlhr 65.5 X 24. the coil sensible load is Q. = 0.000 BTU/hr = 95.31.------. The intersection of the RSHR line and 58 F DB line determines the remaining supply air condition WB3 = 56.4 tons which agrees quite well with the results from part D.15.) + 26.5 X CFM(h 2 .

hs ) = 4. because some air through the unit must bypass the surface. hr The cooling coil load (i.ured for a coil at each face velocity.32 the outside air load includes only removing the heat necessary to bring the outside air to room conditions-the excess heat in the outside air. Note in Example 7. a greater understanding of how a coil performs can be achieved from some further concepts that will now be explained. which checks with the previous results.6 . From this definition. However. we can predict the performance of the coil. we can think of an average coil surface temperature that will be called the effective swface temperature (EST). It will vary due to a number of factors. However. based on the following fact: 7.31.147. air face velocity.5 x CFMOA (hI . Of course it is not possible for a coil to have a CF = I.32 Calculate the outside air load for Example 7. the air would leave at a temperature equal to the EST. the air leaving the coil can never be saturated.30. because moisture is being removed.. which need not be discussed here. The CF and BF factors can be mea!.18 THE EFFECTIVE SURFACE TEMPERATURE The temperature of the outside surface of a cooling coil is not the same at all places along the coil tubing. The bypass air is untreated-it leaves the coil at the same conditions as it entered. It can be assumed that only the air that contacts the cooling surface (contact air) is cooled and dehumidified. This would be expected because there is a spacing between tubes. Determine the cooling coil load and compare the result with that found previously. latent. the total load on the coil) must be the heat necessary to remove the outside air plus the room loads. entering and leaving conditions.) From the definition.400 BTU/hr. The Bypass Factor (BF) is defined as the proportion of air that does not touch the surface (bypass air). or RSCL = 740. The psychrometric analysis explained previously provides information on the coil requirements-the coil sensible. Solution Using Equation 7.17 THE CONTACT FACTOR AND BYPASS FACTOR When air passes across the outside surface of a coil. and CFM. The Contact Factor (CF) is defined as the proportion of air passing through the coil that touches the cooling surface (contact air) and is thus cooled. 7. This data will enable the system designer to select the proper coil from the manufacturer's tables.29 shows this process. and total loads. Qr (OA) = 4. it follows that if all the air passing over the coil contacted the surface (CF = I). This air would be saturated when the EST is below the air dew point. it follows that CF+BF= 1 The next section will explain the use of the contact factor and bypass factor. These ideas are useful in troubleshooting as well as in selecting new equipment.400 Coil load = 1. Once this is known.000 BTUlhr RLCL = 150. Therefore. and number and arrangement of rows. Figure 7.5 x 6730(38.1) =257400 BTU . face and is cooled.PSYCHROMETRICS 191 Example 7.e. The amount of air that bypasses the surface depends on tube size and spacing. only part of the air actually contacts the sur- . This can be considered as the temperature to which the air that contacts the surface is cooled.16 and the psychrometric chart to find the total outside air load (we could also use the sensible and latent heat equations). and is therefore not cooled. (It is also called the apparatus dew point.000 QrCOA) = 257.

3. F The following example illustrates the use of the contact factor and effective surface temperature concepts. .24) Example 7. 85-56 =0. The contact factor is calculated from Equation 7. contact factor (CF). The contact factor is CF=b/a. The CF for a coil is the ratio of the length of the coil process line to the total length of that line extended to the effective surface temperature along the saturation line. the proper coil can be selected from the tables.24. Solution I. F DB2 = dry bulb temperature of air leaving the cooling coil. and bypass factor (BF) for a cooling coil that is to cool air from 85 F DB and 69 F WB to 56 F DB and 54 F WB. (7.33 Find the required effective surface temperature (EST).29 and 7.83=0. Figure 7. The process line is extended to the saturation line to obtain the effective surface temperature. The cooling coil process line is drawn on the psychrometric chart (Figure 7.30 that the coil effective surface temperature is the intersection of the coil process line with the psychrometric chart saturation line.17 Cooling coil selection tables showing CF.83 85-50 Therefore the bypass factor is BF= I-CF= \-0.3\) from point I (entering air) to point 2 (leaving air). The contact factor can also be determined graphically on the psychrometric chart by using the temperatures of the air entering and leaving the cooling coil and the effective surface temperature. B F. DBI-EST where DB I = dry bulb temperature of air entering the cooling coil.29 Coil process line for a cooling coil with CF = 1.DB2 DB.30 Determining CF for a cooling coil. After finding the required values of these terms by the procedures just shown.192 CHAPTER 7 CF = b/a = DB. I Leaving air I I I 2 DB Figure 7.-----"""1 air Leaving air (saturated) DB : Coil process li~e . . and EST values for each coil are used by some manufacturers. the contact factor is equal to the following temperature difference ratio CF= ~ DBI -DB2 a .30 illustrates this. Note from both Figures 7. Coil selection will be discussed in Chapter 12. As seen in Figure 7. F EST = effective surface temperature of coil. Figure 7. Note from the psychrometric chart that a steep coil process line may not intersect the saturation .-EST "(:: a EST ~~~~ring b .30. 2. EST = 50 F.

after the warm air is cooled by the cooling coil. Commercial cooling 7. or a large proportion is_ outside air. this air is at a high humidity level.32 Sketch for Example 7. The desired cooling coil process line is l-3-A.33. The air entering the cooling coil is either all outside air.34 What might be a solution to the problem that was shown to exist in Example 7. The required supply air condition is point 3. Sometimes reheat is used because it is difficult to achieve the desired design supply air conditions by a one-step cooling coil process. we note that the supply air temperature was not on the RSHR line. The room latent cooling load (RLCL) is a high proportion of the room total cooling load (RTCL). Assume the coil process line 1-2-A is as shown in Figure 7. We will discuss ways of resolving this problem shortly... The coil entering conditions could be measured and the coil process line drawn.PSYCHROMETRICS 193 EST~50F~ ---2 t Coil process line ESTB 2ESTAJ __ 2' Old coil process line t 1 ~Newcoil ~ J. 62 F DB line at all.. 2. Note that this coil process line does not intersect the saturation line. where the space humidity was too high? Solution Referring to the psychrometric chart in that example.33 illustrates the psychrometrics of the situation.. and that the air leaving the coil is far from being saturated.) Figure 7. Lowering the coil refrigerant temperature results in a new coil process line l-B and new EST B that might result in a satisfactory supply air condition 2'. The most common conditions that may cause this problem are: 1.33 shows the air handling unit arrangement using a reheat coil. The reheat process may be accomplished with a reheat coil or by using return air or mixed air. Note this results in a steep RSHR line on the psychrometric chart. passing through the required supply air condition.:::::::'--f--RR process line RSHR line 56 DB 85 Figure 7. and if the coil CF was satisfactory. it is par- . (The service engineer would have to check further to see if the refrigeration equipment would allow the lower refrigerant temperature and. and furthermore. on the RSHR line. tially reheated before being supplied to the airconditioned space. greater load.31 Sketch for Example 7.29. Figure 7.34. This indicates that the ESTA is too high. Example 7. This means that this required coil process cannot be achieved by any actual coil.'. Figure 7.19 REHEAT The term reheat refers to the process where..32.

The objections to this solution are the increased capital cost of the reheat coil and especially the increased energy costs. because of their heat transfer characteristics. In smaller commercial equipment. and perhaps freeze-up if a chilled water coil is used. An example is when the latent heat gain is a very high proportion of the total. a change in the indoor design conditions might avoid the need for reheat. It is approximately safe to say that the air leaving a cooling coil will not have an RH of less than about 85-90% under typical conditions. The decreased cooling capacity can be achieved by partially reheating the cold air off tbe coil to the new required supply air temperature. .20 PART LOAD OPERATION AND CONTROL When the cooling load is lower than the design value. the closest line we could draw to it that does intersect the saturation line might have a very low EST. Of course the conditions must remain in the comfort zone. however.194 CHAPTER 7 Desired cooling process line Real cooling coil process line . This is called part load operation.33 Reheat coil used to provide satisfactory supply air condition. Is some cases. be checked graphically on the psychrometric chart. 7. coils will not process air in this manner. we will see that reheat is sometimes used when the air conditioning system is operating at part load. followed by a reheat coil whose process line is 2-3. . / / / ~RA R ~ / -OA /. The coil has an EST B = 49 F. so that a feasible cooling coil can be selected. the air conditioning equipment must supply less cooling capacity. / / « ::. A solution to the dilemma is to provide an actual cooling coil whose process line is 1-2. This would require increased refrigeration power costs. A reheat coil can also be used for this purpose. It can be further seen from Figure 7. the excess use of energy is even more objectionable since there are many other less wasteful ways of providing part load capacity. such as a dance club.33. applications where reheat may be required at full load design conditions do not occur often. C C / R H C --- SA coil line DB Figure 7. First. part load capacity is sometimes accomplished by using . otherwise the space will be overcooled. The psychrometric processes are the same as shown previously in Figure 7. In the next section. and then there is a heating load 2-3. which are two-fold. Fortunately. Now. possible frosting on the air side of the coil. This should ..33 that even though the line 1-3-A does not have a real effective surface temperature. note that the cooling load is increased (1-2 instead ofl-3).

In these cases.34. however. is at a higher DB than the condition leaving the cooling coil. 7.21 FAN HEAT GAINS The heat gains from the supply and return air fans have not been included in the psychrometric analysis we have explained. 1. the fan heat gain is imposed on the coil load but does not increase the supply air temperature. If these heat gains are a small proportion of the total.wrightsoft. Useful Websites Psychrometric charts and analysis can be found at the following Websites: www.com www. Often the space humidity increase is small. A further discussion of the psychrometrics of the air conditioning processes involved in part load operation is best deferred to Chapter 12. Part load capacity can also be achieved by reducing the volume flow rate of air to the space. when there is a more in-depth coverage of the equipment involved. Note that the supply air condition. Therefore. rather than increasing the supply air temperature. The greater the fan pressure. If supply or return duct heat gains are significant. 4 Mixing line Room 2 7 t 1 Supply air fan heat DB . We will find then that there are less energy-wasteful methods of operating at part loads than by using reheat. their effect can be neglected. Therefore. the space humidity may rise at part loads. the cooling coil load is greater and the psychrometric analysis should include this. It is best to calcu- late the gain in each case and then decide if it is significant. If the air handling unit has a blow-through fan arrangement.com Figure 7. Heat gains that raise the air temperature one or more degrees F should usually be included in the analysis. Procedures for calculating this effect have been explained in Chapter 6.com www.carmelsoft. the greater the heat gain.PSYCHROMETRICS 195 bypassed return air or mixed air for reheating.elitesoft. these will also affect the process line locations on the psychrometric chart. for small systems with short duct runs the effect can often be neglected. for a draw-through type air handling unit (the fan is downstream from the coil). The system design project in Chapter 17 will provide an opportunity for seeing some of these effects.34 Effect of draw-through supply air fan heat gain. 7. because the reheating air is adding humidity. The psychrometric processes with the supply air fan heat gains included are shown in Figure 7. however. There is no precise rule for determining when they should be considered. so comfortable conditions are maintained.

2 Using the psychrometric chart for conditions (a) to (e). and total load on the coil and the OPH of moisture removed. RLCL. Determine the supply air DB and WB. 7. Determine the RSHR. (a) (b) (e) (d) (e) 80 75 60 40 65 50 50 40 70 70 7. 7. and RH of the air leaving the heater. Draw the process line on the psychrometric chart and find graphically the sensible. enthalpy.91. Supply air is delivered at 58 F.a. WB.4 7. and 1000 CFM of ventilation air are furnished. tt'llb d.% W. Sketch the apparatus arrangement and show conditions at all locations. The room design conditions are 77 F DB and 50% RH.000 BTUIhr and a RLCL = 9000 BTUlhr. Determine the coil CF.4. A space to be maintained at 75 F DB and 50% RH has a RSCL = 112. and required coil CF. list the properties not shown. Determine the mixed air DB. solve Problem 7.6 7.14 A room has design conditions of78 F DB and 50% RH and a RSCL = 18.196 CHAPTER 7 DB. 59 F DB.. An air handling unit mixes 1000 CFM of outside air at 92 F DB and 75 F WB with 4000 CFM of return air at 78 F DB and 45% RH. The outside air conditions are 95 F DB and 74 F WB. Determine the sensible.000 BTUIhr.5 7.000BTUlhrand a RLCL = 88. and effective surface temperature. supply air". RTCL. latent. Determine the following: RSCL.16 The following results have been found from a cooling load calculation for a building in Chicago.000 BTUlhr. WB. Find the DP.a.000 BTUlhr and a RLCL = 2 I .3 7. and humidity ratio. What is the supply air WE? 7.a. and total heat removed per pound of dry air. 7. latent. A cooling coil cools 5000 CFM of air from 80 F DB and 70% RH to 58 F DB and 56.8 7. Will the unit maintain the room design DB and WB? What are the approximate conditions maintained in the room? 7. Design the air system: :~ Problems 7.10 A room has a RSCL = 20. An air supply of 5000 CFM is provided.000 BTUlhr and RLCL = 8000 BTUlhr. A space has a RSCL = 83. 7. 50% RH.F DP. space design conditions = 77 F DB.000 BTUlhr.0000 BTUlhr. At what RH in the room will moisture condense on the pipe? Air initially at 90 F DB and 70 FWB is cooled and dehumidified to 56 F DB and 54 F WB.7 7.F RH. Draw the process line on the psychrometric chart. A cold water pipe with a surface temperature of 52 F passes through a room that is at 75 F DB. BF. Detennine the required supply air flow rate in CFM. Determine the DB and WB of the air leaving the coil.000 BTUlhr and a RLCL =3 I . Using equations.5 F WB.9 . Conditioned air is supplied at 56 F DB and 54 F WE. outside air load. ventilation air = 6000 CFM. The effective coil surface temperature is 55 F.000 BTUIhr is to be maintained at 76 F DB and 50% RH.12 Air at 82 F DB and 67 F WB passes through a coil with a CF of 0. I 7. Determine the wasted energy consumed if a reheat coil is used to maintain design conditions.15 A space with a RSCL = 172.F WB.11 Air enters a cooling coil at 80 F DB and 66 F WB and leaves at 60 F DB and 57 F WE. BTUllbd. 7. Air at 40 F DB and 60% RH is heated by an electric heater to 80 F. An air conditioning unit supplies 900 CFM of air to the room at 58 F DB and 56 F WB. RLCL = 235. Illinois: RSCL = 812. gr lib d.13 An air conditioning unit is supplying 4000 CFM of air at 55 F DB and 53 FWB to a room maintained at 75 F DB and 55% RH.

22 An air-conditioned space has a room sensible cooling load of 200. Using equations. Determine the required coil CF and BF The latent cooling load for the room is 9000 BTUlhr. latent. which is at the design conditions of 95 F DB and 76 F WB. a room has a sensible cooling load of 20. find the wet bulb temperature. Compare the result with that found using the psychrometric chart.000 BTUlhr and a room latent cooling load of 50. Sketch apparatus arrangement B.21 On a hot September day. Determine the required size of the refrigeration equipment required to condition this room. It is known that 260 CFM of outside air is required for ventilation in this room. find the specific enthalpy of air in Problem 7.) F. A.18. Sketch the equipment and duct arrangement.19 Using equations.18 Using equations. For the above supply air. Cooling done by the unit in BTUlhr and tons D. A. find the relative humidity. or through a spill (exhaust) air opening. Latent load on the unit in BTUlhr and tons E.68 psi. Determine the coil sensible. . 7. Calculate the room sensible heat ratio (RSHR). 7. Give the answer in BTUlhr and percent. 7. and total load E.17 On a day when the barometric pressure is 14. and moisture content ingr/lb and Ib/lb. determine the dry bulb temperature. It is mixed with return air from the room before it enters the air conditioning unit. Determine the savings in equipment capacity if the outside ventilation air requirement is reduced to 130 CFM. humidity ratio. This means that the outdoor air flow rate is 1200 CFM. Determine the A. 7. Sensible load on the unit in BTUlhr and tons D. showing known information. and specific \'olume of air at 70 F DB and 60 F DP. in BTUlhr and tons. Determine supply air CFM and WB C. Dew point of the air leaving the air conditioning unit F. Determine the outside air sensible. walls. (Include ventilation cooling load. The room design conditions are 76 F DB and 50% RH. Sketch all psychrometric processes and label all points 7. B. find the humidity ratio. For the mixed air. the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air is 0. The outdoor air. Air leaving the unit is at 57 F DB and 90% RH.000 BTUlhr. E. relative humidity. wet bulb temperature. G. latent. C.17 psia. when the barometric pressure is 14.7 psi. The outside air is at 94 F DB and 76 F WB. It is maintained at 76 F DB and 64 F WB. Rate that water is removed from the air in Iblhr C. Determine the required air flow rate into the room in CFM. and moisture content in gr/lb and Ibllb entering the unit. Supply air will enter the room at 58 F DB. lights. B.300 BTUlhr from occupants. There is 1200 CFM of air vented through cracks and hoods in the space.PSYCHROMETRICS 197 A. Determine mixed air conditions D. windows.000 CFM at 80 F DB and 60% RH entering an air conditioning unit. arid so on.20 There is 20. showing known information. Effective surface temperature (apparatus dew point) 7. enthalpy. is mixed with return air before it enters the air conditioning unit. Sketch the equipment and duct arrangement. enthalpy. and total load F. Compare the results with those found from the psychrometric chart. B.

What is the load on the chiller due to the coil in the air conditioning unit? Give the answer in BTUlhr and tons. Determine the cooling load of the outside air in BTU/hr and tons.198 CHAPTER 7 C. B. Mixed air DB.20. enthalpy.7. enthalpy.carmelsoft.13.25. and moisture content D. latent. Calculate the total cooling load in BTUlhr 7. The unit takes in 3000 CFM of outdoor air at 95 F DB and 76 F WB. and 7. 7. WB. Supply air WB. Conditioned air leaves the cooling coil in the air conditioning unit at 52 F DB and 90% RH.21.7. E. and moisture content· C. Determine A. Find the required supply air flow rate in CFM for a supply air temperature of 60 F DB. D.7.000 CFM of return air at 78 F DB and 50% RH. F. A. The required air flow rate in CFM B. and total load 7.5 F DB with electric heaters.16.7.This outdoor air mixes with 20. WE. Supply air WB.7. Determine A. latent.25 The supply air for Problem 6.com solve Problems 7. The required air flow rate B.23 A refrigeration chiller supplies chiIled water to an air conditioning unit. enthalpy. What is the operating cost per hour of these heaters if power costs 10 cents per kilowatt hour? Computer Solution Problems Using the psychrometries software program from www. 7. RH. RH. Mixed air DB.22.12 is at 58 F DB. and total load and tons.24 The supply air for Problem 6. enthalpy. and moisture content D. and moisture content C.2-+. Assume the conditioned air is reheated to 58.4. Coil sensible. Coil sensible. What is the coil CF and BF? 7.7. What is the effective surface temperature (apparatus dew point)? G.16 is at 60 F. .

For example. 2. To see this more clearly. it is often necessary to determine pump and fan pressure requirements and piping or duct pressure losses. Find velocity from total and static pressure. there cannot be more flow at section 2 than at section 1 because there was only 10 GPM available initially. When the density remains constant. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. ask. there must also be 10 GPM flowing past section 2. Use the energy equation to find pump and fan pressures. the density of the air or water flowing generally does not change significantly. the flow is called incompressible. if less than 10 GPM were flowing past section 2. suppose the flo\\' rate of water past section 1 were 10 GPM (gallons per minute). Steady flow is a special case of a general principle called either the conservation of mass principle . you will be able to: 1. Steady flow means that the flow rate of fluid at any point in a section of pipe or duct is equal to that at any other point in the same pipe or duct. in Figure 8. These and related problems can be solved by an application of some principles of fluid flo\\' which apply to the flow of wate. 4. Similarly.1. 8~1 THE CONTINUITY EQUATION The flow of water through piping and air through ducts in HVAC systems is usually under conditions called steady flow. Determine pipe and duct sizes. Use the continuity equation to find flow rate. what happened to the remaining 6 GPM that left section t? It cannot disappear or be lost (unless there is a hole in the pipe!). and air in air conditioning systems. the same quantity oOfliid is passing through every section ar a given moment. If there is steady flow. That is. 3. regardless of the pipe or duct's shape or 199 cross section.c H A p T E R Fluid Flow in Piping and Ducts I n planning or servicing an HVAC system. In HVAC systems. say 4 GPM.

la and 8. What is the water flow rate through the pipe in GPM (gaVmin)? Solution Using Equation 8.48 gal I ft3 = 8980GPM Area and Velocity Change The continuity equation may be used to demonstrate how velocity is affected by changes in the pipe or duct size. The duct . so Equations 8. with constant density (d). (Analysis of this situation is beyond the scope of this book.1 c) That is.2. With steady flow. the velocity decreases. Occasionally unsteady flow exists. the continuity equation is VFR = constant =AI where VFR = volume flow rate of fluid A I.lb) where MFR = mass flow rate d = density of fluid Most flows in HVAC work are incompressible steady flow. A2 = cross-sectional area of pipe or duct at any points I and 2 X ft3 60 sec x VFR = 20 sec I min X ----'0.la.- 7. VFR =AI X VI = 2 ft2 X 10 ftlsec = 20 ft 3 /sec Converting from ft 3 /sec to GPM or the continuity principle. Do not confuse flow rate with velocity. (8. Since VFR = constant =A I VI =A 2 V2 Solving for VI (or V2 ). (8.1 illustrates Equation 8. mass equals density times volume. This engineer measures a water velocity of lO ftlsec. The velocity (speed). VFR ~ A.1 illustrates uses of the continuity equation. which is called the continuity equation. the velocity changes inversely with the cross-sectional area. This is shown in Figure 8. The continuity principle can be expressed as an equation. ~ A2 X V2 ~ constant Figure 8. X V.200 CHAPTER 8 2 VFR_). however.1 The continuity equation for steady flow of air through a duct or water through a pipe.) The continuity equation can also be expressed using mass flow rate (MFR) rather than VFR.) Example 8. If the pipe or duct size increases. The cross-sectional area of pipe is 2 ft2.la.3) duct at a rate of 1200 CFM (ft 3 /min). at any given condition. From Equation 2.-+- VFR Example 8. if the size decreases. For incompressible steady flow.lb can be used. the flow rate of the fluid (quantity flowing) does not change.1a) V" V2 = velocity of fluid at any points I and 2 (Figure 8.1 a) VI =A 2 X V2 (8.3 illustrate uses of the continuityequation. Then. MFR = constant =dxVFR=dxA I =dxA 2 x V2 X VI (8. Example 8.2 Air is flowing through a I ft x 2 ft (Figure 8. will inevitably change with pipe or duct size.2 and 8.1.1 A service engineer wishes to check if the proper flow rate is circulating in the chilled water piping on a job. the velocity increases. regardless of any change in pipe or duct size. Examples 8.

What is the air velocity in the second section of duct? VI 2400 . VFR ----. a temperature change). The energy lost is due to friction. decreases size to 0.= Al A duct that has this cross-sectional area would be substituted (say II in.11) is applied to flow in a pipe or duct. but they are usually small and may be neglected. 2 A 2 = . solving for A 2 . 2 Solution Using Equation 8.xA I = .. VI = Ae X V 2. = tlmm 2ft X 3 As the flow rate is constant. There may be other energy changes (e.x48 In. This high velocity results in a disturbing noise.4).20--- 1200 ft /min 600 f . pressure. velocity (kinetic energy). V velocity increases 2 =~ V A2 x I Figure 8. .3 Sketch for Example 8.2 X 600 ftlmin - A2 0. and elevation (potential energy). The HVAC contractor wants to reduce the velocity to 1300 ftlmin. it may be stated as follows: between any two points 1 and 2 (Figure 8.. .5 ft = 2400 ftlmin Example 8.=2ft2 19 O.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 20[ Area increases..2 Change of velocity with change in cross-sectional area of duct or pipe..5ft 2 The energy of the fluid at any point consists of . A I Solving for V2 .5 ft X 1 ft. =88 V2 l300 In.2. 8. X 8 in. Al 2 ft 2 Vo = X VI = .1.). The energy added may be that of a pump or fan. What size duct should be substituted? Solution Using Equation 8. or where E" E2 = energy stored in fluid at points 1 and 2 Eadd = energy added to fluid between points and 2 1 Figure 8.1a to find V" VI = .3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Air is flowing in a duct of 48 in? cross-sectional area at a velocity of 2400 ftlmin.A2 I Area decreases. E lo >( = energy lost from fluid between points 1 and 2 1200CFM'2'( A.. V .2 THE FLOW ENERGY EQUATION When the energy balance principle (Section 2.g.S' )-1200CFM l' A2 = 0.~ x V velocity decreases 2 .

(V2 2 . fUsec g V2 = velocity pressure.H. as in Figure 8.-z .V12) H" = (R. ft Expressed in the form of Equation 8.2a) -=----'. ft Hs2 .2) .202 CHAPTER 8 Figure 8.2 ft/sec 2 V = velocity. H" = (Hs2 . it becomes where H" = pump or fan pressure.(vl.2a is called the fiowenergy equation or generalized Bernoulli equation. IO ftlsec. ft H" = pressure added by pump or fan..= change in velocity pressure. ft Hf =pressure lost in piping or duct from friction. valves.Hs') + "':""'=---"'-'2g + (He2 .V. ft = pressure lost in piping or duct from friction.2b. ft 2g He2 . 20 He2 +Hf .4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The piping system shown in Figure 8. Equation S.. 32.2a can be arranged in a useful form by solving for the term H" and grouping other terms as follows. The velocity at the pump suction is 2 ftlsec and at the piping exit is.2 I I I V?2 + = change in static pressure.5 is to deli\"er water from the basement to the roof storage tank.. 180 ft above. ft Equation 8.) + 2g + (He2 .4 The flow energy equation applied to flow in a duct or pipe. and fittings is 12ft w. ft = gravitational constant. ft E10s t I (8. = change in pressure due to elevation change. 2g +He' + HI' =H"2+---+ . The friction loss in the piping.Hell + Hf (S. the energy equation is used to find the required pump or fan pressure for a system. = static pressure of fluid (pressure at rest).4.2b. in the Abraham Lincoln Apartments. If the energy balance is expressed as an equation using units of head pressure (ft of fluid). + Eadd= E2 I H" + - I V. Example 8. The water enters the pump a~ a gage pressure of 10ft and is delivered at atmospheric pressure (all values are gage pressure).H" E.v2 .He' Hf V2 2 .2b) Solution Using Equation S...He') + Hf . What is the required pump pressure? 2g He = elevation. It is used often to determine the pressure requirements of pumps and fans and in testing and balancing systems. ft where H.

2a.4 was small. is sometimes significant. What is the pump head required? Solution This is a closed system.4 (He2 - = 1. Air pressure values in ducts are usually measured in inches of water gage (in.5 shows that the pump head in a closed hydronic system is equal to the pressure loss due to friction around the complete circuit. however. A hydronic system is a closed system..g. The velocity change term.3 PRESSURE LOSS IN CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS An open piping or duct system is one that is open to the atmosphere at some point.the flow energy equation.Hel ) is either zero (the duct layout is horizontal) or is usually small enough to be negligible. and therefore the change in He is 0 in .S The pressure loss due to friction in the hydronic system shown in Figure 8.2a or 8. Example 8.).5 Sketch for Example 8.Hel Vl2. it is small enough to be neglected..5.4 is an open syste\ll. point 1. cannot be neglected.2b. In some cases in piping systems. L ___ ~ V .5 ft (change in velocity pressure) Hed = 180 ft (change in elevation) Hf = 12 ft (friction pressure loss) = 184 ft w. and if so.V l 2 2g 64. Example 8.g.6 is 24 ft w. however.. Air duct systems are almost always open systems.V?) (10)2 . = 2 ft/sec I Figure 8. Hel . Starting at the pump discharge.6 Sketch for Example 8.g. Note' that any elevation change is included in -determining the pump head. (Hs2 -Hsl )=0-1O = -10 ft (change in static pressure) (V22 .w. Figure 8.5+ 180+ 12 = 0 (no net change in elevation) =0 The additional pressure required because of the velocity pressure change in Example 8. the term expressing the change in pressure due to elevation change (Hel . 8.4. A condenser-cooling tower water system is also open. A closed system is one where the water is recirculated continuously and there is no gap Or opening in the pipin. When using the energy Equation 8.(2)2 ExampleS. and going around the complete loop back to 1. and since all the above terms =0. there is no net change in elevation of the water around the whole circuit. . In a closed system. Hp=-IO+ 1. Hp=Hf =24 ft w.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 2 I 203 r------180' V2 = 10 ft/sec . Hsl -H" =0 Using Equation 8.

0.d +H +\ vl\ ) 8. w. The friction loss from point 1 to 2 is 0. The velocity pressure is defined as = 500 fUmin x .2a to solve for H s2 .He2 =0 (insignificant elevation change) iV122g The static pressure is therefore f H.2 =li. This occurrence is of importauce in airflo\\' in ducts. 8000 ft 3/min where = 2000 fUmin x .6. If the static pressure at 1 is 1. The velocity pressure concept is useful in measuring velocities and flow rates in piping and ducts.(8.90 in.204 CHAPTER 8 Example 8.). 16. 1 in.0.43 + 0. 64. STATIC.g. it was found that the pressure decreased from point 1 to 2 because of the pressure loss due to friction.1. In Example 8. but there was a partial increase in pressure because of the velocity decrease (0.2 ft air x Hs2 The duct shown in Figure 8.4 for V: V=Y2gH v (8.60 sec = 33. fUsec 2 Hv = velocity head.7 has 8000 CFM flowing through it.4 Thus the total pressure energy that a fluid has at any point can be considered to consist of two parts. ft of fluid .. as will be explained in the next sections.60 sec I min V2 H =v 2g (8.23 + 0 = 0.6 ft air 0. = 1..5) where 8000 CFM A2 = 16 ft2 V = velocity.33 fUsec Therefore VI 2 2g Figure 8.23 in. its static pressure energy and its velocity pressure energy. w.2 ft air (33.10 in w.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Converting units to in. = total pressure Hs = static pressure H. w.10 + 0 . w. w.33)2 .3) Finding VI and V2 from Equation 8.H e2 ) = 0 (because there is no fan between 1 and 2) Hel . V2 2 ...43 in.23 in._-'-_-'----'_ = 16.4 TOTAL.4) =8.7 Sketch for Example 8. w.6. Hs2 Hp = Hsi + Hp - Hf + ( V 1 2 ~V 2 2 ) + (Hel . ftlsec g = gravitational constant. AND VELOCITY PRESSURE The total pressure (HI) of a flowing fluid is defined as (8.33 fUsec 1 min H. If the velocity pressure can be measured.g.> = velocity pressure The static pressure is the pressure the fluid has at rest. the velocity can be found by solving Equation 8.33)2 . 69. what is the static pressure at 2? Solution Writing Equation 8.

The opening facing the airstream measures the total pressure and the concentric holes are exposed to static pressure. x 16 in.8 Manometer arrangement to read static. a manometer reads total pressure because in addition to being exposed to the static pressure.3 and 8. they become oncoming airstream. In Figure 8. duct. and velocity pressure. respectively.2 ft/sec 2 x 1.5.5 .7 ft = 10. in. total. A number of readings are usually taken across the duct to get an average velocity. w. Hv = H t .8 shows an example.8(b).7. Figure 8.7 ft w.8(a). Many testing and balancing instruments for measuring flow utilize the relationships among total. and therefore receives the velocity pressure energy as well. using in. Hv = (4:00)" V =4000VH. V = V2gHv = \12 x 32.S A contractor wishes to check the air flow rate in a 28 in.7) ExampleS.11 ft" and the flow rate from Equation S.5. What is the velocity in the line? Solution Using Equations 8. a manometer is connected to the duct to read static pressure.8 = 3580 ft/min where V = air velocity.: (8. so the velocity pressure is read directly. the air velocity is V =4000VD.5 ft/sec When measuring airflow. -±Air f l o w _ (a) Static pressure (b) Total pressure (e) Velocity pressure . static.6) (8.8(c).11 ft2 x 3580 ft/min = 11.8 in.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 205 Example S.I is VFR =A x V = 3. and 64.. x 1 ft" 0 144 in. The contractor takes a set of readings with a pitot tube. w. ft/min H v = velocity pressure. the impact tube at the end of the manometer faces the The duct cross-sectional area is A=28in.64. if the appropriate conversion units are substituted in Equations 8.8 = 1. and velocity pressure. w.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The total pressure and static pressure are measured as 66.5 ft w.x 16 in. The pitot tube (Figure 8. What is the air flow rate in the duct? Solution From Equation 8.9) is another air flow measuring device that works in the same manner. averaging 0.100CFM Figure 8.8 ft w. In Figure 8.4 and 8. By connecting the two manometers as shown in Figure 8. as the unit of pressure and velocity in ft/min. the difference between total and static pressure-the velocity pressure-is read directly.- 3.Hs = 66. in the condenser water pipe line from a refrigeration machine. The probe that is inserted in the duct has two concentric tubes.

10.9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _~---_ Find the increase in static pressure (regain) from point I to 2 in the duct system shown in Figure 8.8) Equation 8. called the recoven' factor R.9 Pilot tube used for measuring velocity pressure.13 in. Consider the diverging air duct section in Figure 8. Example 8. depends on the shape of the transition that changes velocity. if the recovery factor is 0.9 can be achieved with reasonably gradual transitions.7.8. Pitot tube Hs1 V2 Hs2 Figure 8.4000 If we now apply the flow energy Equation 8. V. This is caused by a conyersion of velocity energy to static energy.B. assuming there is no friction loss Hf and the change in elevation is negligible. w.2a. Because there is always some friction loss. called sraric regain.7 to 0.7[(:~~~r -(:oo~on =0. The actual static pressure regain (SPR) is therefore SPR-R Figure 8.5 CONVERSION OF VELOCITY PRESSURE TO STATIC PRESSURE (STATIC REGAIN) One of the remarkable things that can occur in flow in a duct or pipe is that the static pressure can increase in the direction of flow if the velocity decreases.206 CHAPTER 8 Airflow. Using Equation 8.9 with R = 0. (8. thereby keeping friction losses low.9) Recovery factors of 0. .10 Sketch for Equation B. we feel the pressure that is a result of reducing the velocity energy and converting it to pressure. Velocity energy has been converted to pressure energy.6.8 shows that ifrhe velocity decreases in the direction of jfOlt' (because the pipe or duct size has increased) tizen the staric pressure increases. The proportion of static regain that can be recowred. 8. Solution Using Equation 8. This effect is called static pressure regain. the difference in velocity between points 1 and 2 is H V ]2 [V? ]2) ([4000 4000 _1__ -_ (8.11. Hs2 -Hsi VI)2 (V2)2 vl -H v2 = (4000 . the actual static pressure regain is never as high as that shown in Equation 8.7. It is a phenomenon that we have all experienced. then =0. If we hold a hand in front of the stream of water from a hose.

11 Sketch lor Example 8.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 207 2 For the type of flow usually existing in HVAC systems. Actually we must be able to calculate it. (b) Converging transition-velocity increases.9. resulting in a decrease in static pressure (Figure 8. In previous examples. static pressure decreases.10) where Figure 8. charts that are much easier to use and show the same information have been developed for water flow and air flow. The other terms in the equation also indicate useful information.12 Conversion between velocity pressure and static pressure. where the velocity increases. called turbulent flow. Hf = pressure loss (drop) from friction in straight pipe or duct f = a friction factor L = length of pipe or duct D = diameter of pipe or duct V = velocity of fluid The friction factor f depends on the roughness of the pipe or duct wall. The opposite event to a static pressure regain. the pressure loss or drop due to friction can be found from the following equation (called the Darcy-Weisbach relation): L V2 Hf=fD V. we have assumed values of friction pressure loss. Figure 8. friction decreases and less energy is used. a conversion of static pressure to velocity pressure.12). although the pipe or duct cost then increases. will occur in a converging transition.10. This means that by using and maintaining smooth surfaces. Lower velocities and larger diameters reduce H( and therefore result in lower energy consumption. Although Hf could be calculated each time from Equation 8. (a) Diverging transition-velocity decreases. 8. static pressure increases. 1 (a) (b) . = 1800 Itlmin V2 = 600 It/min 2g (8. Rougher surfaces will cause increased frictional resistance. This effect occurs in a nozzle. Friction is a resistance to flow resulting from fluid viscosity and from the walls of the pipe or duct.6 PRESSURE LOSS FROM FRICTION IN PIPING AND DUCTS We have seen from the flow energy equation that one of the effects the pump or fan must overcome is the pressure loss due to friction.

In such systems.0 ft w.13. Figure 8. = 3.13 is suitable when the pipe wall is in a clean condition.2 ft w. the pipe wall is usually rougher than in closed systems. therefore. Three of such charts are presented in this book. The Type K.15 is suitable for both closed and open systems.. Copper tube wall will usually not roughen significantly with age in open systems. diameter is used.14 are suitable for water at 60 F flowing in steel Schedule 40 pipe.17. Hfper 100 ft = 3. 8.14 accounts for this. per 100 ft pipe.15 may be used without correction. The intersection point of 30 GPM and 3 ft w. 100ft x 500 ft = 16. systems open to the atmosphere at some point. the pressure drop will be greater than 3 ft w. is supposed to circulate 200 GPM in a chilled water system. resulting in a higher friction loss. Type K or L copper tubing is widely used for water under pressure in HVAC installations. The solution is shown in Figure 8. The water piping system between a refrigeration condenser and cooling tower is an example of an open system. I./IOO ft at 30 GPM. Figures 8. a service troubleshooter. Note that the chart lists friction loss per 100 ft of pipe. so this is unacceptable. For hot water systems with temperatures in the vicinity of 200 F. If a 1!6 in.13 (closed systems). and M lines on the chart refer to different tube wall thicknesses. The solution is D = 2 in. At 40 GPM and D = 2 in. What is the smallest size tubing that can be used? Solution Figure 8.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in 500 ft of 2 in. The system is to be designed to have a friction pressure drop no greater than 3 ft w. This is a result of the change in viscosity and density with temperature. Figures 8.15 is suitable for water at 60 F flowing in copper tubing.7 FRICTION LOSS FROM WATER FLOW IN PIPES The pressure loss or drop caused by friction with water flow in straight pipe has been put in a convenient chart format for commonly used materials and conditions. Figure 8. If a 2 in./100 ft pipe lies between a 2 in.12 A 3 in. and 1!6 in. Schedule 40.9 Example S. diameter. Schedule 40 steel piping through which 40 GPM of water at 60 F is flowing in a closed system? Solution The information can be found from Figure 8. This is generally true in a closed hydronic heating and cooling system that is reaSonably well maintained. For chilled water temperature ranges (40-50 F) and condensing water temperature ranges (80-100 F). Schedule 40 pipe is widely used for water under pressnre in HVAC installations (see Chapter 9). is asked to check if the .16.14 is suitable for open piping systems -that is. Example S.. therefore Hf = 3. Figure 8. Hf = 2.14. Pressure drop charts for other piping materials and liquids can be found in appropriate handbooks..0 ft w. L.2 ft w. The Schedule number refers to the pipe wall thickness. and 8.Il A copper tubing system is to be used to circulate 30 GPM of water at 60 F. the pressure drop will be less than the maximum allowed.15 will be used. the pressure loss due to friction is about 10% less than shown and should be corrected. diameter is used. Figure 8. The velocity at the intersection point is V fUsec. Note that the actual rather than the allowed pressure drop should be recorded. this is the correct solution.208 CHAPTER 8 8. The following example will illustrate use of the friction loss charts. at the point of intersection of a 40 GPM flow rate and D = 2 in. which is then converted to the loss in the actual length of pipe. steel pipe. Fixit.13 and 8. Figure 8./IOO ft Example S. The solution is indicated in Figure 8.

./ / . V / V '<0 \ / .. NY. ~-'o'~ /' / k"'" V . V ~ V ~ ./ ~ " 15000 IDOOO 8000 8000 6000 5000 I\./ V K / ./' V V .. V / ''I.V \ V / ".' V " V 30 20 15 .V\ ./ \ / VV ~ V 1\ /' 2../ X / ~ ./ // / )( >I ~ \ \ i\ -... \ " '?-~ \.6 . X ./ ' \...~ ~'l.. V \. / 1\ \ .. ~ 1\ 1\ ~ .~ P\ / 1\V X )(." .5 1./ ./ y 8 10 ) 15 .:> V ./' /"( \ ~ /\ f 800 / . \ . \.?-O 4000 3000 2000 1500 / V\ \ / P\ / V K IX' -.3 2 1\ >.5 V ./\ .1--' 5 6 20 25 30 40 60 4 80 100 FRICTION LOSS (FEET OF WATER PER 100 FTl Figure 8./ V / \ 1/ / V 6000 5000 I). 0 4000 3000 2000 1500 1000 V .0 1\ .\/' X \ \ / \v \ ~ ./ \ S. V V ). " .'0" X ~ ...) ./ 200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1.-v \.4 /1"'" K . '" .8 1..../ V 2 \ v' "" 1./ / K' V '\ 600 500 400 300 V V V I\./ \..5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 80 100 1\ ~ \ 10000 \ 1\ )../ \ I\. / .. 0./' .I 20000 15000 15 20 25 3 4.../ \ '\ K \ V " i\ \.\. ~ K: . / \ '0 ~ V / ). 0 " .../ / 1/\ / 1\ / \ V \ \ [\ \ \".J \ .." \ .. Syracuse.. ~ . 6 5 4 V V VVK \ V ~ /' 1.>. \ \V 200 150 1\ V V \ \ / / V 100 80 60 50 40 / '\ / /\ .13 Friction loss for water in Schedule 40 steel pipe-closed system.I ..0 f->< J5.. V V' \ / / ..' \~I " vl\ .0 V '" 0 ~ .. /'\ 1\ / "PI \ \ \ i/ ~ l\.'\ .-P."..5 1. (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation.). \ \'} P\ ~'k ./\ / 1\ V i<'". '" ~ ~ ~ Il<" ./ / / 1\ . / 1\ . \ ./ / .." / ) """ V 1\ ./ X 10DO / / V \. V V / \ . . V \ .5. \ \./ ~ / / / / .~ <' " ~" . / "- K I(" V / \ f( \ \ / . \ / 800 600 500 400 300 :=. / \"./ \. ~ s~ 1./ K V-'I >(\ '" V I\."KfA'./ \ / I' 'Y./ /' V\ ".. K /" \j. .5 3 V . ).5 6 8 1.. "./ 20000 .0 I5 2 2.. / Y V~" / ~ S- I .../ V .25.. ~'/ .' / ./ 1'\' V ~ \ 1\ V ./" ~ . \v-\ "/' i\ i. 10 8 / \"'«. 1 '{~ 6' _ .2 .' 'I-<t.

......4 ... ~ .. """\ lX r\ .....5 ~ f\ 3 4 ./\ ~ ~ ~ / . ..- '\ / !-""..........2 ..14 Friction loss for water in Schedule 40 steel pipe-open system. ..- 60 40 30 V p( \ \ \ \ ....V V . 600 500 400 200 150 V ...3....... I( ".-' V ..5.... ~i'_ /i\ I... "" V 300 200 1\ "...- K . ...--"" / ..5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 eo I 0 2 0000 1\ r\ \ \ \ \ f\ \ .. "..5 ~ . !-" ". vK 5 ) V .... V \ 10000 8000 ...... . ........./ 0/:\ \ ...25... \ / ).........- 2 1.. K ~ ( • ....K ..........\ ~ ...... ... ..... ... ... • I~ .: ~~ ...... .x .-'\ / \..... "\-...x / ...... V \ V ". 1\ K / \ / \ ....... !-" "... . \ / \ .. NY..........: V' l>( 2000 1500 1000 rs . V / 1\ .....-.. 10 8 . /1\ / .4....- ....15......- \-< \ .. ....... K ...-/' . (!) V ~ ....-..) ...--"" 20 15 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 V L ...0 ~ V 1../ \ / / ~ ..6. 1\.5 .......\ V 1\ i V 1--"'\ ~ 1\ ".... ..- r\......... / . 5000 4000 3000 . ... \ V IV .. I ' / .. 1 ...../ V""\ .. \ ->c:. ~/ V / .... IV ....... .. ~ ...15 .I ...... ~ 6(1-- V \........ \ i\ ... 2000 \ V \ ....'1 ..... \... \ . Syracuse.......... v ....I V ... ~ \ /'\ X...... 150 100 \..\V '\ . V"'\ \ ...5 2 \ \ \ V 6 8 10 \ V 1\ 15 \ . . \ K \ r\ V~ r\ \ 1\ 1\ . "" ..6 .. [k !-" / V / ".. ..\ 20 15 ) . V i\ I.-K l... ......- l.0 1. .--"" Dc .. 80 100 FRICTION LOSS (FEET OF WATER PER 100 FTl Figure 8...........2 1..'\ ..... I 5000 I0000 8000 6000 .. V 6000 5000 4000 3000 1\ \ . 1\ 50 40 30 ....\" f\ ..5 2.........0 2.... .... V / \ 1\ ....8 . \ . \ \ 1\ V \ .8 1..... .: 1/ .... .........->I \ ...........-/ ..3 ........ V \ 1\ 40 20 25 ~O V 4 3 / ......-............ \ '\ ~ .....1\ 60 2 1.... (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation...-"\ ~ g "- 100 80 60 50 V ./ ....- I 500 I 000 800 800 600 500 400 300 ~ Q... Vo· V\ V X ..... V' \ .. l)/ \ / ..../ • \ 1\ ... V ......20000 15000 ... ~ 80 . ." \ V '2:" "'" ... 1\ / V V ~ ~ Ill: LI V \.\ l.. !-"V ... !-" \. ..1 >( / \ .... 1\ 7 6 5 .. :y \ . \ I)'!-" V V ~ It-' / t.

5 Figure 8. '" "~ 0 . (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation.J 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1.0. ~~ FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 211 4000 3000 2000 1500 1000 800 600 500 400 300 200 150 100 80 . Syracuse.) . NY. I 150 a.'~ ~f.15 Friction loss for water in copper tUbing-open or closed system.

5 ft w.0 ft w. the second. the correction of 10% less pressure drop should be made. 100ft x 800 ft = 36. Perhaps a valve is throttled closed too much.0 Friction loss (feet of water per 100 tt) Figure 8.17 Sketch for Example 8.15. 200 ft Hf = 4. 200 ft apart.13. Is the system delivering the proper flow rate of water? How much is being circulated? Solution The actual pressure drop (equal to the friction loss) IS Example 8.9 x 5 = 4. .11. Fixit puts two pressure gages on a horizontal run of the straight line. HJ1 00 f tplpe= x 100ft=4ftw. These are called dynamic losses. 8.212 CHAPTER 8 ~ Il. there will be pressure losses from turbulence and change of direction through fittings and valves. Reading from Figure 8.0 4. at a friction loss of 4 ft w. 32 ft w. far less than nQrmal. pipe. The first gage reads 40 ft w. the pressure drop for cold water is HJ100 ft = 5 ft w.10..) Note: For hot water systems.5 ft w. per 200 ft pipe or HJ100 ft = 0. For 800 ft. copper tubing through which 50 GPM of water is flowing in a hydronic heating system? Solution From Figure 8.Hs2 = Hf =40 - 32 correcting this for hot water = 8 ft w. Otherwise oversized equipment or wasteful energy losses will result.2 Friction loss (feet of water per 100 tt) 2. in a 3 in. Figure 8. the pressure drop is · 8 ft w.16 Sketch for Example 8. Best possible SOIU~ 30~----~--__~----~---7~ ~ ~ 40~----~--------~~ ~ u: 3: o u: 3: o Desired solution 3. flow rate is actually 200 GPM. or perhaps a pump is not performing properly. Hsi . the actual flow rate is l30 GPM. (Fixit now must look for the cause of the problem.8 PRESSURE LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS In addition to the pressure loss in straight pipe.13 What would be the friction pressure drop in 800 ft of 2 in.

Using Figure 8. H/100 ft = 5.9 PIPING SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP A common problem is to determine the pressure loss from friction in a closed system in order to determine the required pump head.1.) of straight pipe that would have the same pressure drop as that fitting.0 8.6 1.8 43 . 100 ft x 11.6 0 90 Elbow long 1. Cw or K) for the fitting is determined from an appropriate table listing C-values.6 8 14 1. including piping.0 220 . there is another procedure called the loss coefficient method.0 1. 18 9 16 4.0 134 28 50 13.5 2.4 0.6 13.3 2.0 Gate valvlOl open 0.0 22.1.0 26.5 110 22 40 .0 6 8 10 13.2 3.5 3.7 1.0 4. The system pressure drop is simply the sum of the losses through each item in one of the paths or circuits from pump discharge to pump suction.6ftw.L.3 10 11 60 4 11 2.L. A loss coefficient (called C.L) standard elbow in a chilled water system though which 300 GPM of water is flowing.5 11.8 5.0 ft=0.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 213 These pressure losses are shown in Table 8.3 2.3 1.3 2.3 13 12 63 5 13 3. 0 In addition to the equivalent length method of determining pressure drop through pipe fittings.0 11.8 90 0 Elbow standard 1.0 27 12 5 10 2.0 14.4 6.0 6 20 27 2 7 1 1% 1% 2 2. It will be used for duct fittings (see Section 8.0 lOA 7.0 42 3 9 14 83 7 17 14 104 8 14 125 13 126 IS .0 5.0 9.5 4. The loss coefficient method will not be used for pipe fittings here.7 Globe valve open l7 Angle valve 7 Tee-side flow 3 Swing check valve 6 Tee-straight through flow· 1. 11.0 7.9 2. The pressure drop through the fitting is TABLE 8.0 8.3 6.8 67 14 25 6.L. the appropriate friction loss chart is used to find the actual pressure drop through the fitting. After finding the E.~ 45° Elbow 0.0 268 56 100 26.0 164 34 60 16.8 12.13).2 82 l7 30 8.0 16. The listings for a particular fitting of a given size show the equivalent length (E.5 36 15 7 14 3.0 16. 90 cast iron (C.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the pressure drop through a -+ in. Solution From Table 8. The pressure losses are expressed in this table in a way that is called the equivalent length.13.2 ft w.5 4. from Table 8.3 55 24 12 20 5.2 2.0 8.6 Radiator angle valve 3 Diverting tee Flow check valve Air eliminator Boiler (typical) 5 1.44 80 22. find the equivalent length of the fitting E.2 4.5 2% 3 4 5 6.2 ft w. Hf = 5. = 11.7 3.1 EQUIVALENT FEET OF PIPE FOR FITIINGS AND VALVES Nominal Pipe Size (inches) % % 0.9 22 9 4 8 2.7 1. Example 8.1.0 ft 8.0 5.

bearing in mind the following: A. Table 8. What happens in most hydronic systems is that valves are used to "balance the system". the pressure drop through the longer circuit ABD is the same as that through ACD. the valve might be throttled considerably. B A D c . Therefore. and equipment.19. List all of the features related to the task in this table. however.214 CHAPTER 8 fittings.18 illustrates this. This idea is quite similar to that in electric circuits. Information on pressure drops through equipmeut is obtained from the manufacturer. that in this case the pressure drop ABD would be greater than that through A CD. regardless of path length. the pressure losses through only one circuit are considered. This certainly is not possible. equipment). To determine the system pressure loss. where the voltage loss through parallel electric circuits is the same. each valve is throttled to a position that results in the correct flow rate in that valve's circuit. Prepare a table listing each section and item in that circuit (and only that circuit) chosen for the calculation.15 For the steel piping systems shown in Figure 8.15 illustrate the procedure.19. Having decided on the basis of this investigation which circuit has the greatest TEL. Examine the piping layout to determine which of the parallel connected circuits has the longest total equivalent length. It would seem. Therefore. It would seem. It usually does not work out that way. from this explanation. Example 8. to find the total system pressure drop in a multi circuited system.18 For this reason.2. The pressure drop from A to D is indicated by the difference in readings on the two pressure gages located at A and D. Therefore. valves. Usually. an additional pressure drop in that circuit is created. Most piping systems are designed to have equal friction loss per foot of length. as well as indicating all flow rates. Figure 8. using the procedures we have explained. By throttling (partially closing) the valve. because each pressure gage has one fixed reading. This is because the pressure losses are the same through every circuit. 2. and equipment that makes this circuit the one with the longest total equivalent length (TEL). proceed as follows: 1. this is the circuit that has the longest straight pipe length. therefore. Figure 8. valves. and pipe sizes in each section. Occasionally it is a shOlter circuit that has such an exceptionally large number offittings. using our example above. Pressure drop from points A to D is always the same. and Example 8. that it would not matter which circuit one chooses for actually calculating the system pressure drop. It will be helpful to draw a sketch of the piping system. determine the required pump head. In circuit ACD. Figure 8. calculate the pressure drop through this circuit and only this circuit. ignoring all others.1 and other measured results are valid only for fully open valves. B. lengths. it is customary to select the longest circuit in a system to calculate the pressure drop and to assume that the valves in this circuit are full-open. Pressure drops in Table 8. labeling each point (intersections. the pressure loss through a partially open valve in an actual installation cannot be determined.

(It is possible in unTABLE 8.1 Pump head = Total Hf .) Using Figure 8.0 9 1 x '4. the longest circuit.1 '0----. Such cases must be checked.. This information is presented in an organized form in Table 8.5 110 11 11 1 2 5. only the circuit with the greatest pressure drop is chosen.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 215 F L A I D .r 200' 21/2" D = 4" E 3" D 31/2" _t 1..1 Figure 8. ~ .7 = 5.13 and Table 8.8 67 6.4" B C 21/2" l' Gate Pump Globe valve valve 300 GPM 200 GPM 70 GPM Globe valve :.8 4..8 = 25.3 Pipe Tee 3!h 200 7. This is ABCCDEF..71100 4.L. ft 800 4 300 7.300 ' . But to find this. Section EFAB EFAB EFAB EFAB B Subtotal BC C Subtotal Item Pipe Gate valve Globe valve 90° std ell Tee D.2/100 4. Solution From the energy equation. Circuits ABEF and ACDF are ignored.8 = 49.5 6.in.15 Friction Loss Hf ft w..2 85.1.2 CD C' CD D Subtotal DE E Subtotal Pipe Globe valve 90° std ell Tee 2Y2 70 4. Review PIPING PRESSURE DROP CALCULATONS FOR EXAMPLE 8. GPM V FPS E.4 3V2 Tee 200 7.2 5 110 22 11 948 100 9 109 600 67 13 7 687 100 9 109 x 5. the required pump head rise F -A is equal to the pressure drop due to friction from A-F through the system. of Items Total Length.19 Sketch for Example 8. ft No.15.1 0 0 ' + 2 0 0 ' .0 9 x 4. Total 100 ft ft w. the friction pressure loss for each item in circuitABCCDEF is found and summed up.8/100 3.5 1 2 1 x 3.2.+ 1 + .2 usual cases that one of these two shorter paths may have a greater pressure drop if it has items with great resistance.8/100 = = 5.

llOO ft are commonly used in most applications. A quick estimate method sometimes used for detennining the system pressure drop is to multiply the straight pipe friction loss (in the longest circuit) by 1. Often the friction loss rate chosen will result in a selection between two standard sizes. based on its flow rate. C. it may differ slightly from that originally designed. the flow increases in each section. or 8-10 FPS in large systems. 2. In this case. This problem is more common in small branch lines. These friction loss rates will again not be identical. since some of the water branches off at each unit: in the return main. to see if you arrive at the same results. Values from 1.10 SYSTEM PIPE SIZING An important task in designing a hydronic piping system is to determine the appropriate size (diameter) of each section of pipe.216 CHAPTER 8 each entry carefully. Continue selecting the size of each section of supply main pipe.5 FPS. The friction loss rate should be between approximately I to 5 ft w. Choose a value of friction loss rate to be used for the system piping. Within these limits.llOO ft pipe. 3. dirt or air may be trapped in the line. If there is a violation. including each terminal unit. because the choice of anadjacent standard pipe size is always necessary. The reverse procedure is used for the return main sections. and piping costs are very substantial in large projects. The simplest way to do this is to start from the last terminal unit supplied and progressively add the flow rates to each preceding section of the supply main. 6. Prepare a diagrammatic sketch of the piping system. except for preliminary studies. In a two-pipe system. Judgment is needed here. values in the higher end are usually used for larger systems. This is why the procedure is called the equal friction method. select a pipe size for the supply main leaving the pump. Be sure to record the actual friction loss rates in . 4. affected largely by expected system piping costs as well as the guidelines cited. The steps in this procedure are as follows: 1. as explained in Chapter 5. comparing it with the piping diagram and the pressure drop charts. The velocity in any pipe passing through occupied areas should not exceed 4 FPS.5-3. Find the flow rate through each section of pipe. use one of the two adjacent pipe sizes. The author does not recommend this rule of thumb. The most common procedure for doing this is called the equal friction method. The value of the new friction loss rate chosen is then used as a desired standard to select the pipe sizes for the rest of the system. The velocity in any pipe section should not be below about 1. change the friction loss rate used so that the velocity is in conformity with the standards.5 to allow for fittings and valves.5 ft w. This is usually satisfactory. the flow progressively decreases in each supply main section downstream from the pump. usually that which is closest to the originally designed friction loss rate. Check the velocity limit guidelines before selecting the desired friction loss rate. 5. as before. based on its flow rate. each with a friction loss rate as close as possible to the desired standard value. based on all of the following recommendations: A. 8. Based on the friction loss guidelines. since this reduces pipe sizes. blocking water flow. The velocity in the largest mains should not exceed 4-6 FPS in small systems. B. Note that a new friction loss rate results from the necessity of selecting a standard pipe size. At lower velocities. regardless of system size. since excessive noise may result. Determine the flow rate (GPi'vll through each unit.

------------~I I 80' I 40' HI I I I t. Each terminal unit takes 10 GPM..JE . 8.16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Select the pipe sizes for the chilled water piping system shown in Figure 8. until the flow rate change becomes great enough. The pipe size selected for branches is 1 in. which in this case will have some circuits much shorter than others... Lengths of mains are shown on the sketch.. or 2 in. The friction loss is 3. B.. you may find that the minimum velocity requirement determines the pipe size.15.. pipe size will be selected to minimize initial costs. The piping sketch is first drawn as in Figure 8. within limits of available pipe sizes. this unbalance can be improved somewhat. Main AB has 40 GPM. The branch pipe size is sometimes chosen to equal the fitting connection size at the terminal unit. Example procedures. 8. 1. Using Figure 8. Note that not every successive pipe section will change size. 5. Figure 8./IOO ft. 7. r . 3.20 Sketch for Example 8. The flow rate in each section is found by adding the flow rates from each unit.. By increasing the pressure drop in the branches. In two-pipe direct return systems. size will result in the friction loss rate between 1-5 ft w. ABCDEFGHIJ is clearly the longest circuit... the circuit with the greatest total length is determined. This makes balancing of flow easier. this can reduce installation costs... Note that the pipe size is decreased gradually as flow rate decreases. starving the last units. Type L copper tubing is used. 80' 30 GPM c 20 GPM : 60' 100' r ./IOO ft. It is decided that the 2 in. ____ J : 20GPMI 10 GPMI 100' I 60' I D ~I...... When all the piping in the system has been sized. 4.20. Example 8..16..20. The branches to each terminal unit are a total of lOft long.3 ft w. as described previously.. The pressure drop in this circuit is then calculated. but there are potential exceptions: A. The water flow will tend to short-circuit through ABIJ and other short loops.3. A check should be made that the velocities are not excessive. C. 2. 7. The tabulation of pipe sizes selected for each remaining section in the longest circuit is shown in Table 8. the branch piping in those circuits with short total lengths is sometimes deliberately undersized to reduce the tendency to excess flow in those circuits. rather than 1!4 in. When using the selection charts.16 will illustrate pipe sizing Solution The stepwise procedure explained previously will be used to size the pipe. Branch piping mnout sizes to units may also be selected using the equal friction method. The piping system shown is a direct return arrangement. starting with the last as shown. 6.. to maintain a friction loss reasonably close to the initial friction loss.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 217 each case.. either a 2 \6 in. ~---------J 10GPM G ______________ 80' F~--..

3 4. 100ft x 250 ft = 0. What is the friction loss per 100 ft? Solution Referring first to Figure 8. L.7 2. .22: HJIOO ft = 0. and with air at standard conditions. w.17 in.20 in.18 A 30 in. It Friction. To find the friction loss in rectangular section ducts. 8. This chart shows equivalent round duct sizes.0 " BRANCHES BI CH DG I I in order to accomplish this. FPS 1 . It can be used for the g~l1eral range of HVAC temperatures and for altitudes up to 2000 ft. .17 _ _~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 12 in.0 4.3 PIPE SIZING PROCEDURES FOR EXAMPLE S. by 19 in.3 2. V= 1300FPM 8.15.7 2. as shown previously: Example 8.l100 It V. Figure 8.5 3. Hf = 0.20 in. 1\4 1\14 IV. 2 2 80 60 100 60 80 100 40 80 20 20 20 3.7 2. w. as seen in the sketch in Figure 8.0 4. Example 8. This is still probably not enough to solve the problem completely.50 in.16 Section GPM O. In reality. The pressure drop in the longest circuit can now be calculated by the same procedures as used in Example 8.3 7.24.3 3.2 4.0 4. This is left as a problem for the student.0 7. It w. The equivalent round duct is defined as the round duct that would have the same friction loss as a rectangular duct found in the chart.21 can now be us~d to find the friction loss in the rectangular duct. Solution The solution is found from Figure 8.7 3. as seen in the sketch in Figure 8. ::: 3 AB BC CD DE FG GH HI IJ 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 10 10 10 2 2 IV.~. the equivalent round diameter to a 30 in. Figure 8.23.7 3. w. by 19 in.7 2.21.2 3.11 FRICTION LOSS FROM AIR FLOW IN DUCTS Pressure loss from friction for air flow in straight round ducts is shown in charts in a manner similar to water flow in piping. rectangular duct is delivering 7000 CFM of air.0 3.21 shows this infornlation. Figure 8.0 3. a reverse return system would be a better choice of piping arrangements than the one shown.218 CHAPTER 8 TABLES. This chart is suitable for clean galvanized steel round ducts with about 40 joints per 100 ft.5 2. diameter round galvanized duct 250 ft long has 100 CFM of air flowing through it. What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in the duct? HJIOO ft = 0. duct is D=26 in.0 7. w. and balancing valves would be required.23 must first be used.in.

6.04 .3.2 .21 Friction loss for air flow in galvanized steel round ducts.01 .1 . per 100 It 2 3 4 6 8 10 Figure 8.0 Friction Loss.4 .08. in.8 1.06 . 219 .. w.02 .03 .









0 30




0 -.J


D = 26 in.


HI' in. w'/1 00 It duct

19 Short side of duct, in.

Figure 8.22
Sketch for Example 8.17.

Figure 8.24
Sketch for Example 8.18.

Figure 8.23
Equivalent round duct sizes.







1 ' \

' \





_ v'\
3 I





i'r--.I I , ' ' ' ' I I If..., "" 6 7 8 9 10 15 20


,,~,J~': ~ ~l'-... ~



At first consideration, it might seem that the equivalent round duct would have the same crosssectional area as a rectangular duct for the same friction loss. This is not quite true. A rectangular duct with the same friction loss will have a greater area than a round duct. This is because the rectangular shape, with a greater ratio of surface to cross section, causes more friction. This problem becomes worse as the aspect ratio increases. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the dimensions of the two adjacent sides of a rectangular duct. As a general rule, the aspect ratios of rectangular ducts should be as low as possible to keep friction losses reasonably low and thereby avoid excess energy consumption. A high. aspect ratio will also mean more sheet metal and therefore a more expensive system. Unfortunately, the height available for horizontal ducts is often limited by the clearance above hung ceilings, resulting in high aspect ratios.
Example 8.19 Ace Sheet Metal, a contractor, wants to install a duct handling 3000 CFM in a hung ceiling that has 12 in. of vertical clear space available for the duct.



Side of rectangular duct, in.



The velocity in the duct is not to exceed 1600 FPM to avoid excessive noise. What size duct should Ace install?

H 1100 ft = 0.12 in. w. x 100 ft = 0.24 in. w. f 50 ft

From Figure 8.21, at this friction loss, Flow rate = 2400 CFM Of course this check is accurate only if the installation is similar to the one on which the friction charts are based, as described previously.

Solution Ace wants to keep the aspect ratio as low as possible to reduce friction loss and also to save money on sheet metal cost, so they will try to use as much of the 12 in. as possible. Let us say that Ace is going to put 1 in. of insulation on the duct; therefore, the maximum duct depth can be 10 in. From Figure 8.21, with 3000 CFM at 1600 FPM, a 19 in. round duct is found. From Figure 8.23, for a round duct of 19 in., the equivalent rectangular duct with one side 10 in. is 33 in. by 10 in. This is a reasonably good solution. because the as.. pect ratio is 3¥Io = 3.3. The frinion loss charts can be used for testing and troubleshooting as well as design and installation, as illustrated in Example 8.20.
Example 8.20 A 20 in. by 11 in. duct is Supposed to be handling 3000 CFM. The engineer from Top Testing Co. is assigned to check the performance. The engineer takes pressure readings on manometers 50 ft. apart in the duct and reads 1.75 in. w. and 1.63 in. w. Is the system handling the proper air flow? If not, what is the flow?

In addition to the pressure loss in straight lengths of duct, there is a pressure loss when the air flo\\'s through duct fittings (elbows, tees, transitions). These pressure losses, called dynamic losses. are due to the turbulence and change in direction. They can be expressed in either of two ways. One is the equivalent lel1g1h method, exphlined :(! ScctlC'!1 :3.8. where it was used for pipe fittings. Another procedure is called the loss coefficient method. With this method, the pressure lc'ss through a duct (or pipe) fitting is expressed as follows:
Hf=CxH,.= Cx

(~)2 4000

(8.11 )

Solution From Figure 8.23, the equivalent round duct diameter to a 20 in. by 11 in. rectangular duct is 16 in. Using Figure 8.21, the friction loss for this duct at 3000CFM is
H/100 ft =0.37 in. w.


HI = total pressure loss through fitting, in. w.

C = a loss coefficient
Hv = velocity pressure at fitting, in. w.
V = velocity, ft/min Some values of C for various duct fittings are shown in Tables 8.4-8.8. Example 8.21 A 900 smooth radius elbow without vanes has the dimensions shown in Figure·8.25. It has 1500 CFM flowing through it. Find the pressure loss through the fitting.

and for 50 ft is

". 0 37
HI = - '- x50=0.19 in. w. 100
The friction loss is actually
Hf = 1.75 - 1.63 = 0.12 in. w.

and therefore the riu", is supplyin~ less than 3000 CFM. The actual conditions are




LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ELBOWS Use the velocity pressure (H") of the upstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x H"

A. Elbow, Smooth Radius (Die Stamped), Round

Coefficients for 90 Elbows' (See Note)


! ! I \


0.5 0.71

0.75 0.33

1.0 0.22





1.5 0.15

2.0 0.13

I 2.5

~.~ ( ,'.....l:\



Note: For angles other than 90" multiply by the following factur:;:


180 0 0.45 0.60


B. Elbow, Round, 3 to 5 pc - 90 0

Coefficient C




0.75 0.46


1.5 0.24 0.27 0.34

2.0 0.19 0.24 0.33

5 4



I I(





Elbow, Round, Mitered

Coefficient C



D. Elbow, Rectangular, Mitered
Coefficient C

20° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90°


2.0 0.G7 0.15 0.31 0.49 0.73 . l.l

0.25 0.08 0.18

0.5 0.08 0.17 0.37 0.59 0.87

0.75 0.08 0.17 0.36 0.57 0.84

1.0 0.07 0.16

1.5 0.Q7 0.15 0.33 0.52 0.77 l.l

4.0 0.06 0.13

5.0 0.05

6.0 0.05


0.06 0.13 0.28 0.46 0.67 0.98


0.26 0041 0.61 0.89


0.60 0.89 1.3

0.55 0.81




0.58 0.85


TABLE 8.4 (Continued)


E. Elbow, Rectangular, Smooth Radius without Vanes
Coefficients for 90° elbows' (See Note) R!W 0.25


0.5 1.4 0.52 0.25 0.20 0.18


1.0 1.2 0.44 0.21 0.17 0.15


2.0 1.0 0.39

3.0 1.0 0.39 0.18 0.14 0.13


5.0 1.1 0.42 0.20 0.16 0.14

6.0 1.2 0.43 0.27 0.17 0.15

8.0 1.2 0.44 0.21 0.17 0.15

0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0

1.5 0.57 0.27 0.22 0.20

0.48 0.23 0.19 0.16

0.40 0.19 0.15 0.14



0.40 0.19 0.15 0.14


0.14 0.13

F. Elbow, Rectangular, Mitered with Turning Vanes

·'.ow.~ ~[i1
. R
Trailing edge


Dimensions. inches *No. Coeff.

2.0 4.5 4.5

1.5 2.25 3.25

0.12 0.15 0.18

2 3




*Numbers are for reference only.



-i-When extension of trailing edge is not provided for this vane. losses are approximately unchanged for single elbows. but increase considerably for elbows in serio;;'s.

Coefficient C *No. 1 2 3 4 Dimensions. in.
Velocity (V), fpm

Remarks 4000 0.17 0.23 0.24 0.16
Embossed Vane Runner

2.0 2.0 2.0 4.5

1.5 1.5 2.13 3.25

1000 0.27 0.33 0.38 0.26

2000 0.22 0.29 0.31 0.21

3000 0.19 0.26 0.27 0.18

Push-On Vane Runner
Embossed Vane Runner

Embossed Vane Runner

*Numbers are for reference only.

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.





TABLE 8.5 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, TRANSITIONS (DIVERGING FLOW) Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (Ht) = C x Hv

A. Transition, Round, Conical
Coefficient C (See Note)

0.5 x HJ'


16" 2 4 6 10

2()" 0.19


45" 0.33 0.61 0.66



120" 0.31 0.63 0.73



0.32 0.46 0.48 0.59
0.60 0.23 0.36 0.44 0.43 0.52 0.12 0.38 0.46 052 0.56

0.33 0.68
0.77 0.80 0.88 0.27 0.59 0.70 0.80 0.87 0.27 0.56 0.69

0.64 0.74 0.83 0.88 0.27 0.59 0.71 0.81 0.87 0.27 0.58 0.71 0.83

0.62 0.72 0.83


0.33 0.38 0.38 0.12 0.18 0.28 0.24 0.28 0.07 0.24 0.29

0.31 0.07 0.15 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.05 0.17 0.16 0.21 0.21

0.84 0.28


:2 x 105

0.26 0.57 0.69 0.81 0.87 0.27 0.57 0.70 0.83

2 4 6 10

0.58 0.71 0.81 0.87

0.90 0.76 0.76 0.27 0.51 0.60 0.60 0.72

When: Re= 8.56 DV where:

e = 180


;::6 x lOS

2 4 6 10


0.70 0.84

D = Upstream diameter (inches) V = Upstream velocity (fpm)

0.33 0.34

0.76 0.79



B. Transition, Rectangular, Pyramidal

Coefficient C (See Note I)

16" 2 4 6

0.22 0.43 0.47 0.49 3()" 0.25 45" 6()" 0.31 0.61 0.72 0.80 90" 12()" n.33 0.63 180" 0.30

0.18 0.36 0.42

0.56 0.68 0.70

0.63 0.76 0.87

0.50 0.58 0.59


0.76 0.85


Note: A = Area (Entering airstream), A I = Area (Leaving airstream)



180 0

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems ---..,. Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.



LOSS COEFFICIENTS, TRANSITIONS (CONVERGING FLOW) Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv

A. Contraction, Round and Rectangular, Gradual to Abrupt
Coefficient C (See Note)


10" 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

15"-40" 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05

50"·60" 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08

90" O.lZ 0.17 0.18 0.19

120" 0.18 0.27 0.Z8 0.Z9

150" 0.Z4 0.35 0.36 0.37


2 4 6

0.26 0.41 0.42 0.43


When: 0 = 180 0
Note: A = Area (Entering airstream), A I = Area (Leaving airstream)

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

Solution The loss coefficient is found in Table 8.4e. Referring to Figure 8.25
H 12 R 16 - = - = 1.5' - = - = 2.0 W 8 'w 8

The duct cross-sectional area and velocity are I ft 2 A = 12 in. x 8 in. x ----== 0.667 ft2 144 in. z ft3 I V = 1500 -.- x - - - - 0 = 2250 ftlmin mm 0.667 ftUsing Equation 8.11, the pressure loss is

From Table 8.4e C=0.14

2250)Z HI = 0.14 ( 4000 = 0.04 in. w.

Figure 8.25
Sketch for Example 8.21.




R=16 in.

The pressure loss in transition pieces is calculated in the same manner. With converging transitions, the downstream velocity is used, and with diverging transitions, the upstream velocity is used.



TABLE 8.7 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, CONVERGING JUNCTIONS Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv

A. Converging Tee, Round Branch to Rectangular Main
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

< 1200fpm > 1200 [pm

0.1 -.63 -.49 0.2 -.55 -.21 0.3 0.13 0.23 0.4 0.23 0.60 0.5 0.78 1.27 0.6 1.30 2.06 0.7 1.93 2.75 0.8 3.10 3.70 0.9 4.88 4.93 1.0 5.60 5.95





I A,/Ao I 1.0


B. Converging Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch

Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

< 1200 fpm

0.1 -.75 -.69 0.2 -.53 -.21 0.3 -.03 0.23 0.4 0.33 0.67 0.5 1.03 1.17 0.6 1.10 1.66 0.7 2.15 2.67 0.8 2.93 3.36 0.9 4.18 3.93 1.0 ·1.78

> 1200 fpm






Note: A

=Area (sq. in.), Q =Air flow (cfm), V =Velocity (fpm)

C. Converging Tee, 45° Entry Branch to Rectangular Main
When: At!As





Branch Coefficient C (See NOle)


0.1 -.83 -.72 0.2 -.68 -.52 0.3 -.30 -.23 0.4 0.28 0.34 0.5 0.55 0.76 0.6 1.03 1.14 0.7 1.50 1.83 0.8 1.93 2.01 0.9 2.50 2.90 1.0 3.03 3.63

< 1200 {pm > 1200 {pm

,.------; -



TABLE 8.7 (Continued)
D. Converging Wye, Rectangular

R W =1.0

Branch, Coefficient (See Note)



0.1 -.50 -1.2 -.50 -1.0 -2.2 -.60 -1.2 -2.1

0.2 0 -.40 -.20 -.60 -1.5 -.30 -.80 -1.4

0.3 0.50 0.40 0 -.20 -.95 -.10 -.40 -.90

0.4 1.2 1.6 0.25 0.10 -.50 -.04 -.20 -.50

0.5 2.2 3.0 0.45 0.30 0 0.13 0 -.20

0.6 3.7 4.8 0.70 0.60 0.40 0.21 0.16

0.7 5.8 6.8 1.0 1.0 0.80 0.29 0.24 0.20

0.8 8.4 8.9


0.25 0.33 05 0.67 1.0 1.0 1.33 2.0

0.25 0.25' 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

2.0 2.0 1.9 0.42 0.38 0.30


0.36 0.32

Main, Coefficient C (See Note)




0.1 0.30 0.17 0.27 1.2 0.18 0.75 0.80

0.2 0.30 0.16 0.35

0.3 0.20 0.10 0.32 0.90 0.27 0.38 0.80

0.4 -.10 0 0.25 0.65 0.26 0.35 0.68

0.5 -.45 -0.08 0.12 0.35 0.23 0.27 0.55


0.7 -1.5 -.27 -.23 -.40 0.10 0.05 0.25

0.8 -2.0 -.37

0.9 -2.6 -..l6 -.58

0.75 1.0 0.75 0.5 1.0 0.75 0.5

0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0


0 0.18 0.18 0.40

-.80 0 -.08 0.08


0.24 0.36 0.87

-.22 -.10

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

Example 8.22 The diverging transition piece in Figure 8.26 is handling 12,000 CFM. Find the pressure loss through the fitting. Solution From Table 8.5b;·with AliA Using Equation 8.11,
Figure 8.26 Sketch for Example 8.22.

= 2.0, read C = 0.25.

ft3 1 V= 12,000 x - - 2 = 1500ftlmin min 8 ft
Hf = 0.25(1500)2 = 0.04 in. w.



TABLE 8.8 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, DIVERGING JUNCTIONS Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv
A. Tee, 45° Entry, Rectangular Main and Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.91 0.81 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.90 1.19 1.35 1.44 0.79 0.72 0.73 0.98 1.11 1.22 1.42 1.50 0.70 0.69 0.85 1.16 1.26 1.55 1.75 0.2 0.3

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.66 0.79 1.23 1.29 1.59 1.74 0.74 1.03 1.54 1.63 1.72 0.86 1.25 1.50 2.24 0.92 1.31 1.63 1.09 1.40

B. Tee, 45° Entry, Rectangular Main and Branch with Damper
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

0.1 0.61 0.46 0.43 0.39 0.34 0.37 0.57 0.89 1.33 0.61 0.50 0.43 0.57 0.64 0.71 1.08 1.34 0.54 0.62 0.77 0.85 1.04 1.28 2.04 0.53 0.73 0.98 1.16 1.30 1.78 0.68 1.07 1.54 1.69 1.90 0.83 1.36 2.09 2.40 1.18 1.81 2.77 1.47 2.23 1.9: 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

Note: A = Area (sq. in.), Q = Air flow (cfm), V = Velocity (fpm)

C. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

0.1 1.03 1.04 1.11 1.16 1.38 1.52 1.79 2.07 2.32 1.01 1.03 1.21 1.40 1.61 2.01 2.28 . 2.54 1.05 1.17 1.30 1.68 1.90 2.13 2.64 1.12 1.36 1.91 2.31 2.71 3.09 1.27 1.47 2.28 2.99 3.72 1.66 2.20 2.81 3.48 1.95 2.09 2.21 2.20 2.29 2.57 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7











D. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch with Damper
Branch. Coefficient C (See Note)

0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.58 0.67 0.78 0.88 l.l2 1.49 2.10 2.72 3.42 0.64 0.76 0.98 1.05 1.48 2.21 3.30 4.58 0.75 0.81 1.08 1.40
1.25 :2.84 3.65

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

LOI 1.18 I.51 2.29 3.09 3.92 1.29 1.70 2.32 3.30 4.20 1.91 2.48 3.19 4.15

3.29 4.14

3.16 4.10

E. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch with Extractor
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

0.1 0.60 0.62 0.74 0.99 1.48 1.91 2.47 3.17 3.85 0.69 0.80 1.10 l.l2 1.33 1.67 2.40 3.37 0.82 0.95 1.41 1.43 1.70
2.33 2.89









0.90 1.24 1.52 2.04 2.53 3.23

1.21 1.55 1.86 2.31 3.09 1.64 1.98 2.51 3.03

3.13 3.30




Main Coefficient C (See Note)


0.2 0.03

0.4 0.04

0.6 0.07

0.8 0.12

1.0 0.13

1.2 0.14


1.6 0.30


F. Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

0.1 1.00 1.01 l.l4 l.l8 1.30 1.46 1.70 1.93 2.06 1.07 l.l0 1.31 1.38 1.58 1.82 2.06 2.17 1.08 1.12 1.20 1.45 1.65 2.00 2.20 l.l3 1.23 I.31 . 1.51 1.85 2.13 1.26 1.39 1.56 1.70 2.06 1.48 1.64 1.76 1.98 1.71 1.80 1.99 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7




1.88 2.00 2.07


40 0.0 1.0 5.13 Qt/Q.25 0.38 0.09 0.50 0.08 030 038 030 lL20 0.1 0. .3~ 0.25 0. Wye.08 O.04 0.33 0.1 H.30 0.5 1.02 0.5 0.3 0.0 At/A.2 0.01 0.D lief Design manual.62 0.W O.60 0. 0.4 0.0 1.01 -.06 - 0.06 -.38 0.26 037 0.92 0.3 1.01 0.10 Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC System.0 90' Branch 0.35 0.3 3.05 O.80 0. L"' 0.5 0.0 1.60 0..48 -.35 0.. 0.1 2.21 ~ =1.33 2.2-10.48 O.48 0. IffJ ) .20 0.25 0. Rectangular (15) Branch Coefficient C (See Note) At/A.230 CHAPTER 8 (Continued) TABLE 8.7 0.44 0..10 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.80 0.03 0.28 0.5 0.01 0.5 0.15 1. 0.4 0.0 1.04 0.29 0.27 0.62 0.03 0 -.29 0.33 2.5 1.0 -.0 1.5 1. Second Edition.9 OA6 O.04 0.04 0 0.67 1.8 0.72 -.03 0.75 0.42 0.01 0 -.06 -.52 0.0 0.5 0.6 Qb 1.51 0.32 0.60 0.0 Qt/Q.0 1.33 0.40 0.03 0.08 -.06 -. Coefficient C (See Note) v.30 0.40 0.21 0.52 0.02 0.50 0.23 11.5 1.1 0.10 0.7 3.8 G.02 0.17 Main Coefficient C (See Note) At/A.8 0.90 1. C 0.38 0.83 0.3 -.19 0.05 0.9 6.60 0. 0.05 -.23 0.5 1.46 0.1 8 0.68 0.02 -.0 At/A.29 0.55 0.37 0.38 0. 1981.0 031 0.25 0.2-1- 0.70 0.W O.03 0.0 1.26 0.0 1.16 0.2 0.43 0.62 0.6 1.05 -.13 0.8 4.q 0.2 -.t 0.40 0.8 0.85 0.6 0.8 2.4 0.01 0.67 0.4 1.3.29 0.17 0.13 -.5 0.I~ 0. 1.35 0.50 0.0 1.12 0.67 1.~ 1.22 0.01 -.52 0.25 0.0 1.78 0.37 0. 0.33 0. 0.v.30 0.41 0.55 0.92 1.1 1.44 0.28 -. Tee Rectangular Main to Conical Branch (2) Branch.

70 0. and the branch pressure loss can be calculated as an elbow.10 R is the recovery factor. the static pressure at point I is Hsl = H'I - Hvl = 2. Example 8.3. 1 2 Hv ----- To put this another way. the total pressure would remain the same.HI = 2. velocity pressure (Hv). The actual regain was SPR = Hs2 . The pressure loss due to friction (HI)' however.21 = 0. 70% of the preSSure loss in the fitting is recovered. the pressure loss through the branch may be considerable.23. In order to reduce the fabrication cost of fittings.32 in. This results in a lower fan power to overcome these losses and a resultant savings in energy: Often however. the higher the recovery factor will be.22 to be HI = 0. Using Equation 8.32 . Find the static pressure at point I and the total and static pressure at point 2.).27. If it is important to minimize losses.28 - 2.07 + 0. w. the pressure loss· through the straight run can usually be neglected.Hsl = 2. Where there is a combined transition and branch in a duct system. If there had been no frictional pressure loss.22 is 2.23 The total pressure at point I for the fitting in Example 8.35 - 0. The frictional pressure loss was found in Example 8.03 in. causes a decrease in total pressure. resulting in an increase in static pressure. w. If there was no frictional pressure. particularly at high velocities. w.35 - ( 1500)2 4000 = 2.( 4000 )2 2. this more gradual fitting will be more expensive to fabricate. and the value of each depends on the shape.21 in.g. as defined in Section 8. Also.35 in. The following example illustrates this. w. we discussed total pressure (H. the theoretical SPR would be SPR = 0. The proportion of actual to theoretical SPR is 0. The more gradual a transition or change in direction in a fitting.07 R=-=.5.4 and 8.29. that is. Figure 8. In this case. which shows the results of the calculations following.g. and static pressure (Hs).g.23 illustrates a case of static pressure regain (SPR). as well as a profile of the pressure changes in the fitting.28. = . there will be less of a frictional loss. velocity pressure is converted to static pressure. the decrease in velocity pressure would exactly equal the increase in static pressure. In this case. they are often made as shown in Figure 8. The net result of the two effects (conversion of pressure and the frictional pressure loss) on the static pressure is found by algebraically summing them up.10 in.03 = 0. The total pressure at point 2 is therefore H/2 = HII .07 in.27 Sketch for Example 8. Solution Refer to Figure 8. the pressure loss in the straight main run and in the branch are separate. It was noted that for flow through a diverging transition.5. the shape should be as shown in Figure 8.28 in.03 = 2. Example 8.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 231 In Sections 8. 750 The static pressure at point 2 is Hs2 = H/2 = Hv2 = 2.g. w. w. w.

9.9. is Poor Hf 2000)2 . 1981. Figure 8.25 for the poor and good connection.28 Branch with low pressure loss.11.30(a) instead of as shown in Figure 8. .30(b).< Figure 8.0 2. An inspection of the types of connections in Table 8. What is the pressure loss inlet to the fan in each case') Solution From Table 8.2 and C = 0. This is called the system effect.= 0. A list of system effects can be found in the Air Moving and Conditioning Association (AMCA) Manuals. of duct inlet loss coefficient C length of Inlet in Diameters RJO 0. The pressure loss for each.6 1.232 CHAPTER 8 ..75 1. Note the greatly increased pressure loss with the poor connection. The fan inlet velocity is 2000 ftlmin. = 1. Second Edition.25 0.14 PRESSURE LOSS AT FAN INLET AND OUTLET There will also be a pressure loss at the fan inlet and outlet. Some values of the resulting loss coefficient C are shown in Table 8. w. resulting in wasted energy.7 0. TABLE 8.4 OA 0.0 3.9 will show the importance of considering the system effect and of installing fans with good connections. 4000 ?000)2 Good Hj = 0.24 A contractor installs the inlet connection to a fan as shown in Figure 8. ( 4000 .2 0. lOSS COEFFICIENTS (C) FOR STRAIGHT ROUND DUCT FAN INLET CONNECTIONS Length..25 . A further discussion of recommended duct fitting construction can be found in Chapter 9.20 Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC System-Duct Design manual.7 0. the value of which depends on the shape of the fan-duct connection.= 0.3 0. using Equation 8.8 0. w. we read the values of C = 1.9 Example 8. 8.29 Branch with high pressure loss.0 0 20 50 1.3 1.2 (.5 0.30 tn.06 in.

1 in. This path is often the longest one. . the losses are summed up for each section of straight duct and each fitting in the path chosen. (b) Long straight inlet duct.. w..31.70' ----+-1 (4000 CFM) 9 x 13 30" t G t H t FT 10' . (1000) (1000) (1000) I A I. filters. 8.-. To find the system total pressure loss. w.31 Sketch for Example 8.-.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 233 Fan Fan (a) (b) Figure 8. ' .. (3000) 24x13 x 13" B t 20' C 9x 13 J (2000) 17x13 9 x 13 D -.---. The pressure losses for the straight ducts and fittings are read from the appropriate tables.. The system total pressure loss is defined as the total pressure loss through the duct path that has the largest pressure losses. and the outlet loss is 0.20 in.. check equipment performance..-.. T~ 50' . The results Figure 8.. but it may be a shorter path that contains an unusual number of fittings or devices with large pressure losses.25 For the duct system shown in Figure 8.90' .--. diffusers) must be included.L 13 x 13 E 1 Note: All elbows have R/W ~ 1. This gives a better understanding of the total pressure available at any point in case problems exist.08 in. determine the system total pressure loss and fan requirements.I~.. (a) No straight inlet duct. Pressure losses through any equipment (coils.. but it has been found that the system effect inlet loss is 0. It is also the path with the greatest pressure loss. It is better to work with total pressure loss rather than static pressure loss when analyzing duct pressure losses..g. The manufacturer will furnish this data.30 Sketch for Example 8. The total pressure required at each air outlet for proper distribution is 0.15 DUCT SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSS The duct pressure losses must be found in order to determine fan capacity.50' --~.... path XABCDEF is the longest.. Example 8. because none of the shorter paths have unusual pressure losses. The fan inlet and outlet connections are not shown.5 (1000) Typical branch take-off t . Solution From inspection of the duct layout.24.25. w. . jl-< <--. and balance air quantities..

as shown in Example 8. The fan selected for the system would be specified for a total pressure of 0. The method used in Example 8.15 0 ~ ( 11 . C Velocity Pressure loss.79 are listed in Table 8.19 Elbow Hf = 0.10 it is XAB Hf The pressure loss from B to G is now found.43 in. quired (0.09 80 .48 = 0. w. in.25 is also valuable in solving balancing problems. in. There is a complaint about drafts near outlet G. Equivalent Round. in. because the total pressure can be found anywhere in the duct.18 50 0 . If RIW = 1. What is the trouble? Solution We will find the total pressure at outlet G and check it against the value (0. C=0. in. BC 3000 24 x 13 19 0.g.g.g.17 .. From Table 8. the total pressure in the duct at outlet Gis· H'G = 0. Section X A AB B Item Fan inlet Fan outlet Duct Diverging transitions Duct Diverging transitions Duct Diverging transitions Duct Elbow Outlet FPM Friction Loss/100 ft.1 in. For the transition elbow at B. = 0.5.2 in.10.03 in.26 The system in Example 8. The pressure loss XAB has already been found. = 0. w.15 =' 0.25 is installed in Governor Jawbone's offices.02 The fan total pressure is 0. .g.79 in.) required at the air outlet. w. in. ft Loss Coeff.43 + 0. w. Each item should be checked by the student.w.. w.26. if one had been installed.48 in.25 Flow Rate.~> '-" .w.0. = 0.20 .09 1000 13 x 13 14 852 0. w. w.26 might be handled by partially closing a damper in the branch duct.) and will result in excess air at uncomfortable velocities being delivered through outlet G.234 CHAPTERS TABLES. w.31 in.03 + 0. w. Press.17 50 0 . The pressure loss is calculated now through path XABG. Example 8.79 .09 C CD D DEF E F 2000 17 x 13 16 0.w.1 in.08 .7. 4000 For duct BG H/100 ft Duct HI 100 = 0.02 in. Length. This pressure is much greater than the pressure re. The solution to the excess pressure at the outlet in Example 8.10 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 8.g.08 + 0. 4000 30x 13 21 1477 1477 1385 1385 1303 1303 0.2 x (~) = 0.01 . V. Therefore. The total pressure loss in this path is therefore XABG Hf = 0. HIW = 0.17 90 0.10 Total system pressure loss = 0.79 in. w.20 + 0. The diverging transitions have a negligible pressure loss due to the gradual transformation and relatively low velocities. CFM Duct Size.19(1700)2 = 0.07 .

6 in. however. TABLE 8. the same value friction loss rate per length of duct is used to size each section of duct in the system. In many large installations. in shafts) make it impossible to use the larger ducts resulting from low velocity systems. FPM Schools. Procedures for doing this will be explained shortly.llOO ft of duct. Duct systems for HVAC installations may be loosely classified into low velocity and high veloc- ity groups. Theaters. we explained how to find the pressure losses in ducts after their sizes were known. Equal Friction Method With this method. w. although these are not strictly separate categories. w. High velocity duct systems are designed with initial velocities from about 2500 FPM to as high as about 4000 FPM. The higher pressures result in certain special features of these systems. Reprinted with permission from the 1967 Systems and Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory. The friction loss rate is chosen to result in an economical balance between duct cost and energy cost. Typical ranges of design equal friction loss rates used for low velocity systems are from 0.11 SUGGESTED VELOCITIES IN LOW VELOCITY AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Recommended Velocities. A better solution would be to design the duct system so that excess pressures are dissipated in duct friction losses.16 DUCT DESIGN METHODS In the previous section. The corresponding friction loss rates may be as high as 0. not the net free area.08 to 0. other velocities are for net free area. space limitations (above hung ceilings.11). High velocity duct systems are primarily used to reduce overall duct sizes.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 235 This might create noise problems. the duct sizes must be determined first. 8. The noise produced at the high velocities requires special sound attenuation. Public Buildings Designation Outside air intakesll Residences Industrial Buildings Residences Industrial Buildings Filters" Heating coils" Air washers -Suction connections Fan outlets Main ducts Branch ducts Branch risers II -~- 500 250 450 500 700 1000-1600 700-900 600 500 500 300 500 500 800 1300-2000 1000-1300 600-900 600-700 500 350 600 500 1000 1600-2400 1200-1800 ·800-1000 800 800 300 500 500 900 1700 800-1200 700-1000 650-800 900 350 600 500 1000 1500-2200 1100-1600 800-1300 800-1200 1200 350 700 500 1400 1700-2800 1300-2200 1000-1800 1000-1600 These velocities are for total face area. however. FPM Schools. The ducts and fans must be constructed to· withstand the higher pressures. Maximum velocities in the main duct at the fan outlet are limited where noise generation is a problem (see Table 8. the equal friction method and the static regain method.15 in. A higher friction loss results in smaller ducts but higher fan operating costs. Theaters. Two methods of sizing ducts will be explained here.ll00 ft. sound attenuation devices and duct sound lining can be used if needed. The following example illustrates duct sizing by the equal friction method. In designing a new system. Public Buildings Maximum Velocities. However. .

but some branches are chosen at a higher friction loss rate thus using up the excess pressure. Select a design velocity for the main from the fan. To reduce extreme pressure differences throughout the system.32 Sketch for Example 8. which should be reasonably quiet for the application. A velocity of 1400 ftlmin. the available pressure to overcome the friction loss is limited to the external pressure that the fan in the unit can develop.5 in. those near the fan will be over-pressured. the appropriate procedure would be to find the total equivalent length of the system.21. In reality. The equal friction method of designing ducts is quite simple and is probably the most popular one used.236 CHAPTER 8 Example 8. The longest run is sized by the design friction loss rate. The equivalent round duct diameter is read as 20. If the outlets closest to the fan are on long separate branches. the duct proportions chosen would depend on space available. Sum up the CFMs backward from the last outlet. 500 500 400 500 CFM With systems that use package air conditioning units. since package units are mostly used with systems of relatively short duct length. in the range of 2500-4000 FPM. to find the CFM in each duct section.21 at the intersection of the design friction loss rate (0. the velocities in each successive section of duct in the main run 70' r:--:":::"":B 80' G 60' H 60' J 400 300 500 . C 60' D E F Static Regain Method The static regain method of sizing ducts is most. Return air ducts are usually in the low velocity category. 5. especially in large installations. The pressure loss in the system can be calculated as shown previously.!100 ft. If there are long distances between the outlets at the beginning and the end of the system. will be chosen. In this case. Return air ducts can be sized by the equal friction method in the same manner as supply air units. This was demonstrated in Example 8. Figure 8. The equivalent round duct diameter for each duct section is read from Figure 8.13 in. w. The system serves a public building. however. an initial velocity in the main duct leaving the fan is selected. From Figure 8.32.27 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the size of each duct section for the system shown in Figure 8. this problem may be overcome by modifying the equal friction design method.26. using the equal friction design method. w. 2. The results are shown in Table 8. Use rectangular ducts. using Table 8. 4. After the initial velocity is chosen. The result may cause difficulties in balancing the flow rates and possibly excess noise.27.!100 ft) and the CFM for the section.13 in. it works quite satisfactorily. 3. For systems that do not have great distances between the first and the last outlets. The rectangular duct sizes are read from Figure 8. this limitation seldom occurs. Dividing the external fan pressure by the length will establish the maximum friction loss that can be used. even if the supply ducts are of the hig~ velocity type. Solution 1. With this method. the static regain method of duct design may also be used. often used for high velocity systems with long duct runs. In the actual installation. the friction loss rate for the main section AB is read as 0.

56 x 5MOO = 0.33 Sketch for ExampleB. The velocity must be reduced in Section BC so that the static pressure gain will be equal to the friction loss in Be. in. and therefore the friction loss in the section is 0. ftlmin Eq. We will assume a 75% regain factor for the fittings.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS TABLE 8.27 Friction Loss. The following example illustrates how to size ducts by this method.13 0.2B. From Figure 8.50'-+1-40'-+1-30'-+1-35'--+ 4 diffusers 2000 CFM D E ~~--~Q~--~O~--~O~--~Q .in.28 in. 1 AB BC CD DE EF BG GH HI 3100 1900 1400 900 500 1200 800 500 1240 1140 1050 900 889 1029 914 889 0.13 0.5 17 15 12. A trial-and-error procedure is necessary to balance the regain against the friction loss. so balancing is simplified.21. w. 3. due to dynamic losses in the transition at B. in section Be.33. w. per 100 ft Rect.28 Determine the duct sizes for the system shown in Figure 8.32 in. w. each .5 10 14 12 10 24x 15 20x 12 16 x 12 16 x9 9x9 14x 12 14 x9 9x9 are reduced so that the resulting static pressure gain is enough to overcome the frictional losses in the next duct section.13 0. so the noise level will not determine the maximum velocity. 237 Section CFM V. the duct size and static pressure loss due to friction in section AB is determined.56 in. The steps are as follows: I. using the static regain method. ABC t.13.D. there generally will not be extreme differences in the pressures among the branch outlets. (This system is a high velocity system. A velocity in the initial section is selected. . 100 ft x 40 ft =0. w. in. Let us try a velocity of 2400 ftlmin. Example 8. The friction loss is Loss in BC = 0.) An initial velocity of 3200 ftlmin will be chosen. Because of this.13 0. Round duct will be used.13 20.12 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE B. Solution The results of the work are summarized in Table 8.13 0. 2. Sound attenuating devices must be used. The friction loss per 100 ft is 0. There will not be a complete regain. Duct Size. Figure 8.13 0. The result is that the static pressure is the same at each junction in the main run.13 0.13 in. w.

. 0. One disadvantage of the static regain method of duct design is that it usually results in a system with some of the duct sections larger than those found by the equal friction method. if the equal friction method had been used. in. in.. 0.. D..carmelsoft. :'.40 0..75 [(2600)2 4000 . causing air outlet balancing problems. w. D. The results are Loss m CD = . '.. w.. w. These programs can save con· siderable time.13 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 8.75 [(4000 4000 = 0.(2200)2] 4000 =0. w.33 0.wrightsoft. Assuming that these outlets all required the same static pressure for proper air distribution.16 in. On the other hand... ft Static Pressure Regain.trane. LossmB = x40ft 100 ft = 0...09 0.10 . the static regain procedure provided duct sizes that will reduce air balanc· ing difficulties. For systems at high velocities. Velocity Pressure. C.56 0.10 in.. No further trial is needed. The result of this method is that the static pressure in the duct at outlets B.16 .28 Friction Loss.09········ The static pressure regain available to overcome this loss.. however. w." . 4.16 in.. especially if the static regain method is used..w. using Equation 8. Continue the same procedure at transition e Let us try a velocity of 2200 ft/min..75 . in CD. AB B BC C CD D DE 8000 6000 4000 2000 3200 2600 2200 1700 22 21 18 15 0.. in.28 in.... The reader should check this. 0.64 0.com www.30 0. This first guess is satisfactory.· 238 CHAPTER 8 ".43 0.. .elitesoft. -(2600)2] -= 0.21 in. ··'·'··1'·'. . this method is recommended.. 'i TABLE 8.9. Regain at C= 0. The regain at B is precisely enough to overcome the loss in section Be The duct size of BC is 21 in. the static pressure at B would be considerably higher than at E...carrier. The trial-and-error process at D results in a duct size of 15 in. [( 4000 4000 5.-(2400)2] -Regain at B = 0. w.w.40 in. and E will be the same.·. C 0.!100 ft Friction Length.~ Section CFM V..26 50 40 30 35 0 16 0.fVmin Eq. x 30 ft 100 ft = 0. This trial is satisfactory. 0 09 0. The duct size is 18 in. .com www. is 3200)2 .com 3200)2 Regain at B = 0. loss... the equal friction duct sizing method is generally used. Computer software is available for all popular duct sizing methods..com www. for section DE. w. For return air duct systems..18 0.33 in. w. Try a velocity of 2600 ft/min.com www. . w.09 in.. . Useful Websites The following sites have soft· ware programs that calculate pipe or duct pressure drops and sizes: www.. in. This is too large a regain.

section? A 42 in. The water leaves the condenser at atmospheric pressure and flows back to the river by gravity.34.3 8.36. What is the volume flow rate of air in the duct in CFM? A pipe with a cross-sectional area of 8. determine the required pump head. the friction loss between points 1 and 2 is 18 ft w. wide by 20 in.8 8. The pressure gage at point 1 reads 23 psig.. The depth of the duct is to be lOin. and condenser is 31 ft w.=100psig t___ _ FigureB. The velocity of the water 8.>---1_ .2 8. The pump discharge pressure is 83 ft w. It Figure B.9 8. What is the water velocity in ft/sec? A duct is to be installed that will carry 3600 CFM of air. To avoid excess noise the maximum velocity of air allowed in the duct is 1750 ft/min. For the piping system shown in Figure 8. valves. P2 =63 psig 2 52 It 1 ----.5 8. 100 It --+-~----~--------------------- )]-+-----Jl -r 70 It 2 ~ .10 A hydronic cooling system has a pressure drop due to friction of 41 ft w. in psig? 8.36 Sketch for Problem 8. What should be the width of the new section? Cooling water is pumped from a river to a refrigeration machine condenser 80 ft above the pump intake.7. What is the velocity in the 3 in. The friction loss is 27 ft w. What would be the reading on a pressure gage at the pump suction." ' ___________________ P.35 Sketch for Problem B. deep duct has a flow rate of 18. The diameter is increased to 3 in. What would be the reading of the pressure gage at point 2? 8. What is the minimum width of the duct? A 2 in.B. For the piping system shown in Figure 8. The condenser requires 920 GPM.1 The average velocity of air flowing in a 24 by 18 in.4 in? has 12 GPM of water flowing through it. determine the pressure drop due to friction between points 1 and 2. The depth of the duct is fixed.7 entering and leaving the system is the same.4 8. if the pressure gages read as shown.34 Sketch to Problem B.g. fittings._-------------FLUID FWW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 239 Problems 8. It is desired to reduce the velocity to 1800 ft/min.6 Figure B.35.9. What is the required pump head? For the piping system shown in Figure 8. The friction loss through all of the piping.000 CFM of air. pipe has water flowing through it at 4 FPM. duct is 1300 ftlmin.

Schedule 40 steel pipe.16.20 Find the pressure drop through the cold water piping system shown in Figure 8. ~ . .13.15 What would be the pressure loss in the piping in Problem 8. Schedule 40 steel pipe at a velocity of 4 fUsec.g. 8.38 Sketch for Problem 8. 1 Figure 8.5 ft w.16. composed of 8 in.14 if it were in a hydronic heating system? 8. through which 1100 GPM is flowing.++--'---+--+ ~ = = V. composed of Type L copper tubing.300' -----+.38 has a recovery factor of 0. Type L copper tubing.20. -"_l'l --~ 8.37 Sketch for Problem 8.40.8. per 100 ft. 8.37. CD (2) 1100 It/min V2 2300 It/min Figure 8. w. between the points? 8...1 in. w. per 100 ft.23 For the piping arrangement shown in Example 8.5 in. Determine the static pressure regain.16 Determine the friction loss per 100 ft of pipe for 10 GPM flowing through 1!4 in. if the friction loss is 2.11.19 Determine the pressure dropthrough a 1!6 in. Determine the flow rate inCFM. duct is 0. 8.22 For the piping arrangement shown in Example 8. what is the pressure change from point 1 to 2. using a value of about 1.18 A Schedule 40 steel pipe is to be used to deliver 150 GPM to a cooling tower. .240 CHAPTER 8 '-1: -. = 2000 It/min V2 = 1200 It/min '""'( I f . cast iron globe valve through which 40 GPM is flowing in a hydronic heating system.21 Find the pressure drop through the condenser-cooling tower water system shown in Figure 8...12 The average velocity pressure in a 48 by 18 in.14 Find the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in a 250 ft straight section of 4 in. 8. with each unit circulating 6 GPM. Schedule 40 steel pipe in a hydronic cooling system through which 200 GPM of water is flowing.. 8.... .+-1.39. What is the flow rate and friction loss per 100 ft? 30GPM -'v1 Gate ':' Check t t 2" t t *""Gate ~18GPM t 1'/2" Globe ~2" -1 100' 1+-11f2" ~--------------~------------' V.200' -----1·--11 Figure 8. size the piping by the constant friction loss method.'I ---w-+--.13 The duct transition shown in Figure 8. 8. 8.11 In the duct system shown in Figure 8. 8.39 Sketch for Problem 8. 8.17 Water flows through a clean 3 in. It shall have a friction pressure loss no greater than 4 ft w. What is the minimum pipe size that can be used? What is the actual friction loss? 8." ~" '.

If the elbow is carrying 5000 CFM. without vanes... All ducts shall be lOin.43 by both the equal friction method and by the static region method.. The boiler has a pressure drop of 3 ft w.-:::~~:.24 Determine the pressure drop in the piping system in Problem 8.FLUIDFWWINPIPINGANDDUCTS Figure 8. per 100 ft.g. and 1. by 12 in. 8. . duct has a flow rate of 4000 CFM.33 Size the rectangular ducts in the system shown in Figure 8.40 Sketch for Problem 8..\ 1 Figure 8. 8. w. w.+rF'-::':""'+rt-'=-~-=-.75. Determine if the duct is supplying the proper air quantity. What is the total pressure at this location? 8. 8. deep.. 8. 8.28 Find the loss coefficient of a 30 in.30 A 24 by 12 in.. at a Be DE 48" x 12" Fan f+.. at 4 ft w. 8.------ 3 outlets 2500 CFM each certain location. 90° duct elbow with a mean radius of 12 in.21. 8. using 'lYpe L copper tubing.-...41 Sketch for Problem 8.42 Sketch for Problem 8.g. The static pressure is 3 in. Assume a typical set of valves and auxiliaries. w..6 in.32 Find the total pressure loss in the duct system shown in Figure 8.. 241 Figure 8. The friction loss in the duct must be limited to 1. Find the friction loss per 100 ft and the velocity.23." ..26 A 28 by 14 in. Cooling tower I I I11III-I T 20 ft EL= 40 ft Condenser H~t---t><:t--( Check )]--1'4--1)<1--- I_ Globe Strainer 300 ft . w.29. What is the smallest round duct size that could be used? 8.32.g.27 A straight length of duct 420 ft long has a flow rate of 2000 CFM of air.10 in. galvanized duct is supposed to be delivering 5000 CFM. The length of each branch is 12 ft.20 in.. 50' ~---¥.42 from the fan outlet at A to F and also to C.90 in. by 12 in. assuming a recovery factor of 0.g. Test readings on static pressure manometers 80 ft apart in a straight section of the duct read 2. wh:u'is the pressure drop? 8.29 Find the static pressure change from A to B in the duct shown in Figure 8. by 14 in.25 Find the equivalent round diameter of a 36 in. w.4 I.. galvanized steel duct has a flow rate of 5000 CFM of air. The pressure loss through each air outlet is 0. A f A 12"x 8" B 12" x 6" 1000 CFM 1000 CFM size the piping system. rectangular duct.3 I A 24 in.

8.carmelsoft. .com. starting with the same initial velocity.27 by the static regain method.32 and 8. Computer Solution Problems 8.43 Sketch for Problem B.com. 8. w.21 and 5. Assume reasonable shapes of transitions and elbows.27 using the duct sizing software program of www. 8.15. Use both the equal friction and static regain methods.38 Solve Problems 8.37 Determine the pipe sizes and system pres- sure drop for the building in Problems 3. 8.33 using the duct sizing software program of www.39 Solve Example 8.20 and 5. Compare the duct sizes and pressure drop found by the two methods. 8.33.242 CHAPTER 8 ~A an • V=1800ft/min B C D 60' I 60' I 60' I 1500 CFM 1500CFM 1800 CFM Figure 8.36 Determine the pipe sizes and system pressure drop for the house in Problems 3.35 Size the ducts in Example 8. i 0 in.27.carmelsoft.14.34 Find the pressure drop in the duct system in Example 8. Outlets have a pressure loss of O.

2. the proper method of installation should be understood.. Physical specifications of steel pipe and copper tubing are standardized by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). Use correct practices for pipe installations. but this actually refers to . and insulation for a particular HVAC system is an important task.~~~ ______ . It is the responsibility of the HVAC specialist to be aware of the codes that apply to each installation before selecting materials.. Properties of the ft uid being carried Temperature Pressure Exposure to oxidation or corrosion 9. Determine the need for pipe expansion and vibration treatment. For severe problems of oxidation or corrosion. and vibrations. Use correctIJractices for duct installations. c H A p T E R Piping. and values for an HVAC piping installation. 3.1 PIPING MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATIONS \-.. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter."'-"'>'.. and Insulation T he selection of the correct types of piping. In addition. Valves. Finally.____ ~_p . 2.. cost and availability also affect choice of materials. supporting. and the proper choice depends on the service for which the piping is intended... codes and regulations usually limit the choice of materials for a given use..~ Piping is made of many possible materials. 4. 3... anchoring. Specify the appropriate materials. 2"""'. considering such problems as expansion. The service includes: 243 In addition.. ~"' ~""o_"""'_ . you will be able to: 1._____ _____ ~ ~~_. Specify the appropriate materials for HVAC duct installations. 4. The term black steel pipe is used in the trade. valves.. hanging. other materials may be necessary. 1."'27. 5. fittings.. Ducts. low carbon ("black") steel pipe or copper tube. ducts. The piping material most commonly used in hydronic systems is either .

Hard temper as opposed to soft temper tubing has greater rigidity and will not sag as much as soft tubing when hung horizontally.067 2. extra strong. Copper is more expensive than steel. For the interested reader.140 0.974 7.400 0.717 3.0449 0.258 0.625 10.203 0.065 7. The outside diameter (OD) is the same for any size for all three types.548 4.469 3.375 2.226 0. however. Some specifications for black steel pipe are shown in Table 9.106 0. such as 20. 40. and DWV.280 0.272 2.0276 0.244 CHAPTER 9 ".790 7.050 1.375 0.090 13. or 80. Type K. Ibs/ft Volume.2.563 6. Therefore.652 5.l30 1.875 3.970 28. These numbers supersede a previous wall thickness description called standard.1 ness over a period of years.315 1.000 4.550 40. The wall thickness is referred to by a Schedule number.0158 0.570 9.020 12.365 0.500 5. Type DWV is used for drainage. and double extra strong. the chemical composition of those materials can be found in the ASTM publications.250 15. where Schedule 30 or 20 is sometimes used.678 2.500 4.026 5.250 0.850 1.824 1.098 5.620 18.790 14. The allowable pressure is only part of the story.174 0.660 1. gal/ft Y2 Y4 I V4 I V2 2 2Y2 3 3Y2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 0.622 0.840 1.506 . selecting piping with a substantial wall thickness may mean a longer life system.154 0.0774 0. In hydronic systems at pressures commonly encountered.330 0. the inside diameter (ID) changes.1.216 0.600 62.610 2.383 0.000 0. The engineer should always specify the pipe intended by the ASTM number. L.000 16. The allowable pressures can be calculated from formulas established in the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping.15 confirms this. 30. The engineer should recognize that corrosion and erosion may reduce the pipe wall thickTABLE 9. Type M is used for low pressure plumbing. M. Figure 8.109 0. but in smaller sizes the labor cost for copper is often less.248 0.660 1. SPECIFICATIONS OF STEEL PIPE Outside Diameter Onches) Inside Diameter (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Pipe Size (inches) Schedule Weight.981 10.322 0.039 1. except in very large diameters..380 1.750 14.375 0. ASTMA-120 or ASTMA-53 low carbon steel. The decision to choose between steel piping or copper tubing for an installation is based primarily on cost.133 0.625 8. The specifications for Type L tubing are shown in Table 9. Schedule 40 pipe is usually specified.047 6. The pressure drop will therefore be greatest for Type K.900 2.049 1.237 0. The choice of the correct Schedule number of piping depends on the pressure and temperature service.068 3.513 0.750 12.597 4.480 43.110 10.501 2.113 0.145 0. Type K has the thickest wall and is used with high pressures and refrigerants.168 9. The wall thickness of copper tubing is specified by a lettering system.800 54. Type L has an intermediate thickness wall. It is usually adequate for hydronic system piping.

0181 0.480 3.198 0.300 30.0655 0. which does not always COfrespond exactly to either the inside diameter or outside diameter. DUCTS.380 7. Galvanized steel pipe is sometimes used in these applications.00753 0.4780 0. IV.035 0. a plastic bushing should be used to separate the copper and steel.04 gal/ft x 8.2470 0. Example 9.! 'Yo ~ "% 14. 1'" 1% 2~s 2:"'8 3 l -8 _'.785 1.655 0. and much more costly wrought iron or cast iron pipe is used. l:~!l s 0.s 1< 41. Solution The weight includes the pipe and the water it carries.265 1.330 4. 4 5 6 8 10 12 Y.290 5.125 0.080 0. such as piping to a cooling tower.2 SPECIFICATIONS OF COPPER TUBING (TYPE L) Nominal Size (inches) Outside Diameter (inches) Inside Diameter (inches) 245 Wall Thickness Weight.610 10. Second.280 0.1.0250 0.6 + 8. resulting in the possibility of smaller pumps and less power consumption. Sometimes the larger piping is made of steel and smaller branches to units are copper. The specification tables contain much useful information. oxidation may occur if black steel is used. In very severe corrosion applications.750 2.0925 0.6230 0.140 1.PIPING. steel is a stronger material and therefore does not damage as easily. it is not subject to oxidation and scaling to the same extent as steel. Schedule 40 chilled water steel pipe is to be hung horizontally from a floor slab above.465 2.9710 1. Copper tubing has two advantages that should be noted.! 'Yo :y.070 0.050 0.455 0.4500 It is common to see larger installations in steel and smaller ones in copper.090 0.7900 5.400 0.430 0. Using Table 9. because otherwise corrosion may occur at the joint due to electrolytic action.945 3.0442 0. Pipe weight = 14. galvanized piping is not adequate.045 0.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. When this is done.725 9.1610 0.875 5. In open piping systems.3540 0. On the other hand. VALVES. 1 IV.565 0. Ibsfft Volume.884 1.985 2.100 0. Note that pipe and tubing diameters are specified by a nominal size.6lb/ft Water weight = 1. 3 3V.545 0.4300 3.060 0.505 1. the frictional resistance is less than for steel.905 4.200 19.-8 5Ls 6t s SlS 10[.040 0.845 7.055 0.025 1.A 60 ft long.6lb/ft Total weight = (14. This is black steel pipe that has a coating of a tin alloy which resists oxidation.0121 0.250 0. First. as shown in Example 9. AND INSULATION TABLE 9.042 0.425 3. 5 in.660 0.100 40.3 Ib/gal =8. galfft l:i ¥S Y.110 0.285 0. The structural engineer asks the HVAC contractor to determine how much extra weight the flOOf will have to carry. 2 2V.3900 2.200 0.362 0.140 0.1.6) Ib/ft x 60 ft = 1392lb .625 11.

tight spaces require standard ells. (il A 90° elbow. threaded. the system Figure 9. used for changing direction. (t) Union. Specifications for fittings are established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for both steel pipe and copper tube. Screwed fittings for steel piping are generally made of cast or malleable iron. unions should be used so that the connection may be disconnected for service. however. flanged. are available in 30°. 45°. threaded. . (g) A 90° elbow. threaded. and thus have a lower pressure drop. (Courtesy: Grinnell Corporation. Sometimes. and 90° turns.2 FITTINGS AND JOINING . however. With welded fittings.1. welding. mating welding flanges on Steel pipe fittings. joining of steel pipe is usually done with either screwed. METHODS FOR STEEL PIPE In hydronic systems.1 pressure should be checked. (d) Bushing. (e) Coupling. Typical pipe fittings are shown in Figure 9. When joining to equipment. and couplings are used to join straight lengths of threaded pipe. RI) (a) (b) (e) (e) (d) (t) (g) (h) (i) . Long radius ells have a more gradual turn than standard ells. threaded.246 CHAPTER 9 9. (a) A 90° elbow. Elbows (ells). welding. (e) Nipple. If in doubt. For typical hydronic systems. Providence. welded. or flanged fittings. Tees are used for branching. fittings with a 125 psi pressure rating are usually adequate. (h) Tee. (b) Tee.

DUCTS. When the joints must withstand high temperatures and pressures or severe vibrations. We will discuss mainly general service valves.S. (a) A 90 copper elbow. The strainer is cleaned at regular intervals. 9. it is more difficult to make pressure-tight threaded joints in very large sizes. Typical solder fittings are shown in Figure 9.5) are used for this purpose. Flared fittings are expensive but are removable. Note that a gate valve has a straight through flow passage.4 VALVES There are many types and uses of valves. locations. except that a different soldering material is used which melts at a higher temperature (above 1000 F) and makes a stronger joint. Strainers are usually installed at the suction side of pumps and before large automatic control valves. (b) Copper tee. it forms a pressure-tight joint between the two parts to be joined. Furthermore. Soldering is a process where a metal alloy called solder is melted (between 400 and 1000 F) and when it solidifies. and therefore should be used when access to equipment is required for service or maintenance. Strainers are used to remove solid particles from the circulating system. the Y-type is generally used. Welding is a process where the two metal ends to be joined are melted and then fused together with a metal welding rod that also liquifies and fuses. The water passes through a perforated plate or wire mesh in which the particles are trapped. Bushings are used when connecting from a pipe of one size to a piece of equipment that has a different size opening. resulting in a low pressure loss. VALVES. Gate valves (Figure 9. yet allowing the rest of the system to operate. and welded joints are used for larger sizes.2. .3 FITTINGS AND JOINING METHODS FOR COPPER TUBING Copper tubing joints in hydronic systems are made either by soldering (also called sweating) or by flaring. Stopping Flow Valves in this group are used only to shut off flo\\.PIPING. Flared joints are made by flaring out the end of the copper tubing and using a flare fitting union that will make a pressure-tight seal when tightened against the flare (Figure 9. and in large sizes. This generally results in the lowest cost of labor plus materials in most U. a basket type is used (Figure 9. Welding makes a very strong joint. In hydronic installations. Valves for controlling flow may be grouped into three classes according to their function. This procedure is useful in isolating equipment for service or in isolating sections of a system so that it may be serviced.2 Copper tube solder fittings. Straight lengths of pipe may be butt welded directly together without couplings. 9. screwed steel pipe joints are commonly used up to about 2-3 in.4). Surfaces must be clean of all oxidation.. A chemical coating called flux is then used to prevent further oxidation. (a) 0 (b) Figure 9. Welding fittings similar to screwed fittings are available.3). Solder fittings are made to slip over the tubing with enough clearance for the solder to flow in the annular space between the fitting and the tube. a soldering process called brazing is used. In small pipe sizes. Automatic control valves will be discussed in Chapter 14.. Basically it is no different from lower temperature soldering. AND INSUlATION 247 the pipe and equipment serve the same purpose as unions. The heat may come from either a gas torch or an electric arc. types that are used widely in piping systems.

Globe valves (Figure 9. and butterfly valves can be used to regulate flow. . Check valves are usually installed at a pump and other critical points in a system. Figure 9. a pressure regulating valve (PRV) is used. Their internal construction is not suitable for throttling flow. particularly if there is a static head of water. angle valves. :.6)... This is desirable in setting proper fl ow rates through equipment and different circuits in a system. In water circulating systems.7 shows some types of check valves. 9.. 1.. most flow regulation valves can be used to stop flow.) Limiting Flow Direction Valves that allow flow in only one direction are called check valves. (e) Tee with nuts assembled.a .: .248 CHAPTER 9 (a) (b) (e) Figure 9..- .5 PRESSURE REGULATING AND RELIEF VALVES Where water pressure may exceed safe limits for equipment.""i-. (b) Nut. Reverse flow may damage equipment or empty out a line· or equipment unintentionally. This valve limits the discharge pressure to a preset value. The swing check can be installed only in horizontal lines. ". . These valves are often used in the make-up water supply line to a system where the make-up is from a city water supply at high pressures. as the system must then be balanced again. J' . A vertical lift check or spring-loaded check. needle valves.4 V-type strainer. wiredrawing (erosion of the valve seat) may occur.. However. This should only be done in an emergency. can be used in vertical lines. (a) Tee. Gate valves should not be used to regulate flow. Providence. and they must be closed or left completely open._____""""'"i .3 Copper tube flaring fittings. ball valves. . Regulating Flow Rate Valves in this group are used to adjust flow rate manually. . (Courtesy: Grinnell Corporation. plug valves. If partially closed. RI. reverse flow could occur when the system is not operating.. Figure 9.

Lock washer Identification plate wheel I.Bonnet u ..... Refer to Figures 9....Bonnet f C c ......Union bonnet ring ~----- One-piece wedge ___.....D i s c locknut ...ra----.... Figure 9.. ....Disc The construction of gate and globe vajves will be discussed in more detail here........6 to see what each part looks like and how it is assembled.Identification plate .......5 Gate valves. (b) Union bonnet...:lk!:t=---. DUCTS..Lock washer ~.c ...... ..PIPING...Lock washer ~:..Hand wheel ~-----------Stem 1.Stem ~--------. (a) Screwed bonnet......... Knowledge of valve construction will enable you to select the correct valve for each application and to understand how to service it......Stuffing nut 9.Stuffing box \::o!Ec----------..... Disc or Wedge .5 and 9... rising stem. Relief valves are used as safety devices to relieve excess pressure in boilers and other equipment (Chapter 4)....Gland r .......Wheel nut .......One-piece wedge ~------- Seat ring Body .Stuffing nut '~~--------Gland il+E-----------Packing ~---------Packing ' .6 Globe valve... AND INSULATION 249 ..Gland '~~---------Packing \ : o o f .............Bonnet .Stuffing nut K ... VALVES... nonrising stem........6 VALVE CONSTRUCTION rrrt----------.....J The part that closes off flow is called the disc or wedge.... A relief valve opens when the valve inlet pressure exceeds a preset value..~---------Body ~------- (a) (b) Figure 9....W h e e l nut ...E .W h e e l nut ---===------. A solid wedge is simplest and is often used in ... .. ____ Hand wheel ~-------------Stem t-r_-------...Identification plate ~ Pressure reliefvalves are not the 'same as a PRY. r ..

. but they have the advantage of being replaceable without removing the valve. Screwed bonnets. For many applications. A screwed union type bonnet is used when frequent disassembly is expected. With the inside Bonnet The bonnet connects the nut to the body of the valve. . however.. In the rising stem type (Figure 9. The valve may be constructed with a rising or nonrisillg stem.::-----. • Figure 9.7 Check valves. The valve may be constructed so that the stem has an inside screw or outside screw and yoke (OS& Y). Valves are available with screwed. Bevel and plug discs can usually be reground in place when they wear. There is therefore no visual indication of whether the valve is open or closed. Stem The stem lifts and lowers the disc or wedge. In the inside screw arrangement...Disc hinge nut _ _ _-'-__ Disc nut split pin . because the valve stem does not travel.----------~~~----------~ 250 CHAPTER 9 .Hinge '-f<'f----. This is accomplished with the stuffing or packing. the threads are outside the valve body and are held by a yoke. or welded ends. -J Valve Materials For hydronic service. and the stem stays in one position.Cap Cap cap ring Disc holder Disc Body Disc retaining nut (a) (b) ?-. (a) Swing check. particularly if the service is one where an incorrect position of the valve might result in immediate harm to some process or even danger to people.. usually made of a soft material impregnated with graphite. The packing is held in place and compressed against the stem by tightening the packing nut..... which screw directly to the valve body (Figure 9. The length of exposed stem therefore provides a quick visual indication of whether the valve is open or closed. the stem threads are inside the valve body.. In the nonrising stem type. . Flat composition discs are not recommended for close throttling. Bolted bonnets are used on larger valves.. the disc travels on the stem. Globe valve discs made in bevel or plug shapes are best for throttling service. the threads are exposed to the system fluid.Hinge pin ' + . gate valves. At extremely high pressures. The OS&Y arrangement might be used when corrosive fluids or extreme temperatures'-and pressures exist to prevent damage to the threads. valves with a 125 psi pressure rating are suitable..6).. the disc and stem rise together. In the OS& Y type (Figure 9. steel valves may be required. This arrangement takes up less space.6).r--------Disc 1 . either all bronze valves or iron body with bronze parts are generally used. (b) Horizontal lift check. This is advantageous to the operating engineer. Packing Nut and Stuffing The val ve must have a means of sealing around the stem to prevent the fluid from leaking out under high pressure.8)... A two-piece split wedge is less subject to sticking and is often used at high temperatures and pressures. arrangement. flanged. but this should be checked before selection. are common in small valves.

9) allows the pipe to bend at the loop or offset.Lock nut Yoke nUl-_ _ __.+ j Packing Gasket --->-F-?=~ ~_Body --Disc Seat ring . Loop ")~(-----':=--... Figure 9..-~~-:.- Figure9. because cast iron is brittle and may crack. Cast iron fittings should not be used in expansion loops. Each system layout is unique and must be analyzed to determine the correct solution. which could rupture it. "~"'" .. Some guidelines will be suggested here. DUCTS. they should not be used where extremely tight shut-off or very close regulation is required.r'-)~(- Guide L . Often a run of piping will have enough natural offsets to accommodate expansion. Use these valves in any section. it is usual to provide for some expansion. specific recommendations on choosing the proper valve for an application will be discussed here. Therefore.S OS&Y globe valve.:. y'W • . material. or unit where flow needs to be manually adjusted or balanced.Offset 1: :. For large diameters. AND INSUlATION 251 Hand wheel --~~~~!)~. This fact must be accounted for in the piping design and installation. Of course.)fi-. branch.8 PIPE EXPANSION AND ANCHORING Most materials (unless constrained) will change their length when their temperature is changed. However.7 VALVE SELECTION Although the types of valves were described previously. and temperature change. Gate valves should be used only for stopping flow. butterfly valves have become popular in hydronic systems because they cost considerably less than globe valves. Failure to do so may result in broken piping and damaged equipment. or butterfly valves.9 Expansion loop an"d offset. 9.. Use them for isolating equipment and sections of a system. needle.J ~----Stem 9. Regulating or throttling flo\\" can be accomplished with globe. )( \ Anchor \ I L5----==---"' ~l=--f. plug. If pipe expansion is completely prevented.. The engineer provides for expansion where desirable and for proper anchoring of piping where expansion is undesirable . considerable forces and stresses may result in the piping. not for throttling. VALVES. Gland Bonnet . angle. Pipe lines in hydronic heating systems will therefore tend to expand from their initial lengths when brought up to system temperature. This may be done by the following methods: 1. " l .. the bending itself results in stresses on the pipe. particularly in small installations. so the size of the loop or offset must be adequate and depends on the length." . !' 'p- PIPING..\' . size. Using expansion loops or offsets (Figure 9. thus accommodating the expansion.....

The effect that expansion of a long run has on branchpiping must be provided for. Pumps and compressors usually are the source of vibrations. but does not exclude the need to provide proper anchoring methods. hanger inserts are installed before the concrete is poured. which are manufactured items. and no further consideration is necessafy. use offsets or flexible connections. When vibration transmitted to the structure requires treatment' it may be reduced by use of heavy concrete foundations and by suitable machinery locations. j . and where equipment connections are located. but to prevent sag. depending on the length of the run. j . or only in the middle. The provisions for expansion described above will result in. Expansion joints.10). Expansion joints are subject to wear and leakage and mnst be periodically inspected and maintained. Both of these problems must be examined. Access doors must be provided if they are located in shafts or otherwise closed in. where expansion loops are provided. Pipe supports are necessary to carry the weight of the piping and water. Horizontal piping is supported by hangers. however. Therefore.1 I. Where considerable movement occurs. ~ I2'ZZZ?J ~Swingjoint Pipe movement • Figure 9. Branch connections must be provided with sufficient flexibility so as not to break. the intensity of vibration produced by machinery may not be great enough to result in significant transmission to the piping or structure. the equipment is mounted on J .252 CHAPTER 9 2. or at one or more points along the height. Do not allow rigid connections to equipment where expansion occurs. There is a slip type where the pipe slides inside the joint. or at a number of points. may be used. There are various types of cradles.10 Swing joint.9 VIBRATION Consideration must be given to possible vibrations occurring in the piping system. Location of anchoring points can be determined only by studying the particular installation. Equipment should not be used as anchoring points. Movement at the offset then prevents a break. Supports must be provided at frequent enough intervals not only to carry the weight. If extra hangers are needed after the construction is completed. This requires careful planning and coordination between the HVAC and structural engineers. Vibrations may be transmitted to the building structure or to piping. as shown in Figure 9. 9. It may be best to anchor at both ends. This type of offset is called a swing joint (Figure 9. and there is a bellows type where the joint is a movable bellows. In some cases. inserts can be driven into the concrete slab with a gunlike tool. Anchoring connections must be made so that any force is transmitted to a part of the building structure adequate to take the force. The supports also mayor may not serve as anchors. There are cases. The hanger usually consists of a rod and a cradle. roll-type hangers should be used. An example is where machinery is located on a lightweight penthouse floor above office spaces.reduced forces at points where the piping is anchored. This is done by offsets--changing directions at a branch connection. they should not be installed in inaccessible locations. Reciprocating machinery generally creates more vibrations than rotating machinery. It is sometimes necessary to solve this problem with the aid of the structural engineer. where prevention of any transmission of vibration to the building structure is critical. In this case. If hung from the concrete floor slab above. Vertical piping may be supported at the.bottom.

(a) Rubber pad.-----~------'---- PIPING. Using an isolation material (cork. Use of isolation hangers. spring hangers can be used. However. felt) between the cradle and pipe may sometimes be adequate. and the HVAC engineer should not hesitate to call on such help when necessary. Isolating supports may be made of cork. rubber. (b) Spring. (Courtesy: Vibration Mountings and Controls. vibration isolators. Figure 9. DUCTS. flexible connections tend to become inflexible at high pressures.. 2. Inc. (a) Clevis support and hanger.. Difficult vibration problems may require the aid of a specialist in these fields.. AND INSULATION 253 o o (a) Figure 9.11 Pipe supports.. For a more serious problem.-. or steel springs (Figure 9._----- -----~.12). (b) Roller support and hanger.- (b) . _-_.) (a) . One or more of the following procedures may be used when vibrations are transmitted to the piping: l.. Use of flexible pipe connections to the troublesome machinery. VALVES.12 Vil>ration isolation mountings.

2. the surface of insulation is often provided with a canvas cover. 4. which have an extremely low thermal conductivity and other excellent properties. The greater the thickness.254 CHAPTER 9 9. and thus operating costs are reduced. because the particles can cause a form of lung cancer. whether insulated or not. Vapor barriers are made from treated paper or aluminum foil. The installer must take special care not to cover operating parts of valves or removable flanges when applying the insulation. 3. cork. Use is now generally prohibited. felt. it is also necessary to prevent condensation of moisture from the air on the outside of the cold piping. Fittings and valves are also insulated. Uninsulated piping may result in the water being at an unsatisfactory temperature when it reaches the conditioned spaces. thus resulting in low labor costs. painted with a material which makes the surface smooth and stiff. The surface is then sized. which could both damage the insulation and drip onto surrounding surfaces. Pipe insulation may be furnished in blanket form or premolded to the size of the pipe to be covered. Therefore. however. rock. 2. When exposed. The question of what thickness of insulation to use is an important one. the less the energy losses. Usually the manufacturer furnishes it already wrapped on the insulation (Figure 9. To reduce incorrect distribution of heat. Figure 9. On both hot and chilled water systems. or glass fi bers.10 PIPE INSULATION Thermal insulation should be used on all cold or hot hydronic system pipiug. It is impervious to the flow of the water vapor in the air. the correct insulation thickness is generally that which provides the minimum owning and operating cost. This is usually done by trowelling on an insulating cement mixture. For existing systems that have asbestos insulation. The prevention of condensation is achieved by covering the insulation with a material that serves as a vapor barrier. It is very easy to cut and install. shaped insulation is also available for some typical fittings. Premolded. There are a great many materials from which pipe insulation may be made. special techniques are required to safely remove it. However. that is.) Low thermal conductivity Noncombustible Not subject to deterioration or rot Adequate strength Pipe insulation may be made from natural materials such as wool. A good insulation should have the following characteristics: 1. the insulation costs increase with thickness.13). The rubber serves as both a thermal insulation and vapor barrier. and rubber. . Asbestos was formerly used as a pipe insulation because of its excellent insulating properties and inflammability. The latter is preferable because it requires less labor and will have a neater appearance. In recent years. thermal insulation serves two purposes: 1. synthetic materials such as polyurethane have been developed. Molded sponge rubber insulation is very popular on small diameter chilled water lines. In chilled water systems. is usually painted when the installation . Exposed piping and equipment. (Courtesy: Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation.13 Pipe insulation with vapor barrier covering. To reduce energy waste and possible increased size of heating or refrigerating equipment.

An obvious example is running piping across a door opening. 2.12 DUCT CONSTRUCTION 9. Where this is unavoidable. The piping location must not affect the building function. The installation should provide simple access to and maintenance of equipment.• 1 lC l . VALVES. although heavy gage rectangular duct is also used. Provide air vent devices at all high points (see Chapter 11). and a key list is made identifying them by crossreferencing. molded glass fiber ducts have also come into use. This must be checked with the plans of ducts. The standards depend on the air pressure in the duct. AND INSULATION ~<""'-'< 255 is completed. Both for this reason and because round duct is lighter in gage. static pressure). 9. the structural engineer must be consulted. nor safety and code requirements. that is.urn PIPING. Direction changes should be minimized to reduce the number of fittings. SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association) . Exhausts from kitchens and chemical laboratories are examples where special materials would be required. The most commonly used material for general HVAC ducts is galvanized steel sheet metal. 4. Provide a short pipe connection and gate valve at all low points in order to drain the system. These standards specify the sheet metal thickness (gage). The piping must not interfere with installations of other trades. lines should be stenciled with their proper names and direction of flow at reasonable intervals. such as stainless steel. copper. DUCTS. 8. Rectangular duct fittings are very expensive because of the labor cost involved and should be as simple as possible.1 4 shows a transition and branch fitting for minimum pressure loss. unless minimum pressure loss is important. This list should be mounted in a highly visible place. When lines carrying different fluids exist.g. These are usually numbered.16). or aluminum. Piping should generally be parallel to building walls. When changing duct shapes. w. more corrosion-resistant materials are used. 7.has established standards for construction of ductwork. Figure 9. the transition should preferably have a slope of 7: I and should not be less than 4: I to minimize pressure loss (Figure 9. Rectangular-shaped sheet metal duct is most commonly used in lower pressure HVAC applications (up to 3 in. . Install horizontal piping with a slight pitch and take all branch connections from the top so that any entrapped air will flow to high points. 9. Round duct is fabricated by machinery in standard diameters. This list does not include special features peculiar to each project.:.11 THE PIPING INSTALLATION Some good general practices for installing the piping system will be listed here. the piping is often color-coded. it is less expenc sive than rectangular duct for high pressure systems. 1. high pressure systems. both for appearance and protection. The details of recommended duct construction can be found in SMACNA publications. because this permits the contractor to make small adjustments in the location of the diffuser. In any case. Piping should avoid penetration of beams or other structural members. High pressure systems require stronger construction. Brass name tags should always be furnished and attached to valves. In recent years. When the air being carried is corrosive. and methods of joining sections. such as the operating engineer's office. Figure 9. Round flexible duct is often used to make final connections to air diffusers. 5. each system is painted a different color. to make operation and maintenance easier. do not run piping in front of a control panel. 6. lighting. but it will have a greater branch pressure loss. Glass fiber ducts are recommended only for low pressure systems. 3. and so on. For example. Rectangular duct is usually made to order for each job. methods of bracing and reinforcing the duct to prevent collapse or sagging. I 5 shows a simpler lower cost fitting. Machine-made round sheet metal duct is popular in high velocity.

Small horizontal ductwork is supported by sheet metal straps.17 Square elbow with turning vane.19). If short radius or square elbows are necessary to save space. care must be taken that the glass fibers do not flake off in the air stream and get delivered to the occupied space. When changing direction. Ducts for residential use are simpler in construction and will not be described here. Slope b:a of 7:1 preferred Slope b:a of 4:1 minimum recommended .17).14 Branch connection with low pressure loss. Figure 9. 9. In this case. the acoustical lining often also serves as thermal insulation. using a sealant if necessary. Insulation comes in either rigid board or blanket form (Figure 9. Heavier ducts require angle iron support cradles suspended from rods (Figure 9. the insulation is covered with a vapor barrier to prevent condensation of water on cold ducts.18). The ductwork standards described here apply to commercial applications. Figure 9. The rigid board costs considerably more and is used only when the duct is exposed and appearance is important or abuse is likely. turning vanes should be installed in the elbow (Figure 9. However. round elbows with a wide sweep radius should be used to keep pressure loss low. Glass fiber or similar material with a high thermal resistance is used for insulation. It is not unusual to find installations losing 10% or more of the design air flow due to poor installation. There is concern that inhaled glass fibers may cause serious lung disease.13 DUCT INSULATION Ducts carrying hot or cold air are covered with thermal insulation to reduce heat loss.256 CHAPTER 9 Figure 9. For further information. The vapor barrier is usually aluminum foil. Duct connections to fans and air distribution devices will be discussed in Chapter 10. In addition. Ducts are frequently lined internally with acoustical insulation to absorb sound.15 Branch connection with high pressure loss. see the ASHRAE Systems Volume. Duct joints should be made as tight as possible to reduce air leakage.16 Recommended slope for duct transition. Figure 9.

4. AND INSULATION 257 k---Rods---I . Describe the systems for specifying wall thicknesses of both steel pipe and copper tubing. Review Questions 1. DUCTS. List the pipe fittings described in this chapter and explain their uses. 6. What are the two forms of duct insulation? What is a vapor barrier? 9. (b) Rigid board. VALVES. (a) Blanket. List the types of materials used for HVAC ducts and their applications.18 Duct hangers. Discuss the features and uses of rectangular and round ducts. 3.PIPING. 2. (Courtesy: Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation. (b) Trapeze hanger. straps Screws Angle iron Nuts (a) (b) Figure 9.19 Duct insulation. 5.-_Metal_-. (a) Strap hanger. List the major types of valves and their uses. 7. Figure 9. List recommended good practices for pipe installation. S.) (a) (b) . List the good practices for duct design and installation. Describe the joining methods used for copper tubing and steel pipe.

6. Select an air distribution device.2). air is pulled along the fan shaft and then blown radially away from the shaft. Use the fan laws to determine the effect of changed conditions. In addition. and construction. radial. F and some installation and energy conservation recommendations. In an axial flow fan. Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal fans may be subclassified into forward curved. we will study types of fans and their perfonnance. and backward inclined types. direction of air flow through the fan. In a centrifugal fan. Select a fan. backward curved blades with a double-thickness blade are called aiifoil blades. tubeaxial. air is pulled along the fan shaft and then blown along in the same direction (Figure 10.3). After that.1). centrifugal fans and axialflolV fans. application. 5. Analyze the sound conditions in an air distribution system. we will discuss air distribution devices and their selection and sound control in air distribution systems. 3. you will be able to: I. 10. Distinguish the types of fans and their characteristics. The air is usually collected by a scroll casing and concentrated in one direction (Figure 10.c H A p T E R Fans andAir Distribution Devices ans are necessary to distribute air through equipment and through ductwork to spaces that are to be air conditioned. Distinguish the types of air distribution devices and their applications. which differ in the . and vaneaxial types. The propeller fan 258 Fans may be classified into two main types.1 FAN TYPES Axial Fans Axial fans may be subclassified into propeller. 2. In the first part of this chapter. 4. backward curved. selection. which differ in the shape of their impeller blades (Figure 10. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.

The tubeaxial fan shown in Figure IO.cr.1 Centrifugal fan. caused by friction. .. Other performance characteristics of importance are efficiency and brake horsepower (BHP).• . Figure 10. ~C@)~ Radial blade Backward inclined Airfoil 10. we noted that there is a resistance. i. (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company.: ••.. resulting in both flow of the air and an increase in its pressure. (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company. except that it also has guide vanes behind the fan blades which improve the direction of air flow through the fan. FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 259 .) shown in Figure 10.2 is similar to the tubeaxial type.2 Vaneaxial fan. energy in the form of pressure must be sup- cw~~ Radial tip Backward curved Forward curved . to the flow of air through ducts. .. plied to the air. The volume flow rate of air delivered and the pressure created by the fan are called performance characteristics.4(b) has a vaned wheel mounted in a cylinder.. (~.. ·. This is accomplished by the rotating fan impeller.) Figure 10. airfoil blade type.4(c) and 10. Figure 10. ~.i·..2 FAN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS In the general discussion on fluid flow (Chapter 8).3 Types of centrifugal fan impeller blades. consists of a propeller-type wheel mounted on a ring or plate. which exerts a force on the air.• tOO 2? " .4(a). To overcome this resistance. The vaneaxial fan in Figures IO.

A higher maximum efficiency can often be achieved with a backward curved blade fan.: ::J C 0 Q) pressure o:~o "''''0. (b) Tubeaxial. w. = total pressure.. CFM .g. CFM = volume flow rate. the BHP increases only gradually. The following symbols and definitions will be used in discussing fan performance.6 are typical performance curves for forward and Figure 10.260 CHAPTER 10 Stationary vanes (a) (b) (e) Figure 10.Q f/) ---'--~ Mechanical efficiency Brake .. The BHP required for the forward curved blade fan increases sharply with flow.. .g. CFM . BHP = brake horsepower input N = speed. then the pressure drops off as flow increases. 3. Efficiency is highest in the middle ranges of flow. but with the backward curved blade fan.3 FAN SELECTION The choice of the best type of fan to be used for a given application depends on the fan performance Figure 10. (e) Vaneaxial.g.t:= Brake horsepower Flow rate. (a) Propeller.5 and 10.) Hv = velocity pressure. Q5 ~ 0 . 10... ft 3/min backward curved bladed centrifugal fans. Ib/ft 3 ME = mechanical efficiency = air horsepower outputIBHP input Ht -{ Fan performance is best understood when presented in the form of curves. in.. the pressure developed has a slight peak in the middle range of flow. 4. w.6 Typical performance characteristics of a backward curved blade centrifugal fan. and then falls off. 2. Mechanical efficiency Flow rate. Hs = static pressure. Some important features seen are: I. in.4 Types of axial flow fans. inches of water gage (in. 00·Q).5 Typical performance characteristics of a forward curved blade centrifugal fan. \V. Figures 10. revolutions per min (RPM) d = air density.. peaks at a maximum. For both forward curved and backward curved blade centrifugal fans. Knowledge of the fan performance is useful for correct fan selection and proper operating and troubleshooting procedures.--~~ Static <l> >.

however. To select a fan..4 FAN RATINGS .. Airfoil bladed fans have the highest efficiency of any type. g (fJ '" '" 0).• n· YYAY »< TUYS FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 261 . Performance curves at different air conditions may be available from the manufacturer.. For this reason. Forward curved blade centrifugal fans are usually lower in initial cost than backward blade types for the same performance. Tubeaxial and vaneaxial fans can be used in ducted systems. Propeller fans cannot create a high pressure and are thus used where there is little or no ductwork. characteristics and other features that will be discussed. Curves and tables each have their good and bad features.S -. Tables list fan performance at different speeds. However. 4 a.1) for each fan size. and therefore replace a large number of curves. but for now we will focus on the fan selection. These fans are often used in packaged air conditioning units because of low cost.' . tables are used more often than curves for fan selection. Their compact physical construction is useful when space is limited. Note that each fan curve represents the performance at a specific fan speed and air den. The rising BHP characteristic curve could result in overloading the motor if operated at a condition beyond the selected CFM. the operating condition of maximum efficiency is not apparent when using tables. Backward (curved or inclined) blade centrifugal fans are generally more expensive than forward curved types. The limiting horsepower characteristic reduces the possibility of overloading the motor or electrical distribution system if the fan is delivering more air than it was designed for.. k-M~ / 80 ~ 0 After the best type of fan is selected for an application. BHP. and efficiency easily. Vaneaxial fans are suitable for ducted air conditioning systems.or window-installed exhaust fans. The air distribution from tubeaxial fans is uneven. the next task is to determine the proper size to be used.7 Performance curves of a 33 in.. the duct system static pressure resistance (duct Hs) is first calculated using the procedures explained in Chapter 8.. diameter backward inclined blade centrifugal fan at 1440 RPM. Manufacturer's data are then used to select a fan that will produce the required CFM against the system static pressure resistance.075 Ib/ft3 at 70 F and 29.7) or tables (Table 10. 2 / II 0 / I-- B~P ""'" H-"" s I" 1"- '\ 60 w ::?: "0 1\ '\ 40 c: 20 co I !L '" \ 1\ 10 20 CFM.. Centrifugal fans are the most commonly used type in ducted air conditioning systems. (We will discuss the fan-system interaction in more detail shortly. but if not.6 / ::. Performance curves enable the engineer to visualize changes in static pressure. They are low in cost. the fan must develop a static pressure (fan Hs) and CFM equal to the system requirements. Hg. due to lower efficiency.S 0) '". Manufacturer's fan ratings are presented as either performance curves (Figure 10.92 in.) Figure 10.i 8 . but usually have lower operating costs due to high efficiency. They usually produce a higher noise level than centrifugal fans and therefore may require greater sound reduction treatment. . Operating near maximum efficiency generally results in the lowest noise output by a fan. C> 10. sity. Fans are usually rated with air at standard conditions: a density of 0. The operating cost will often be higher. they may be predicted from the fan laws to be described in a later section.. and typical applications are as wall..1000's 30 :l§ 0 0 40 .. In effect. thus making them undesirable for air conditioning systems. Some manufacturers resolve this by noting the point of maximum efficiency on their tables (usually in boldface).

45 6.7. . .26 4.4-sp RPM 292 316 344 373 403 434 466 499 533 566 601 636 671 707 741 777 812 848 884 921 956 992 1028 BHP .02 5.40 1.78 ..29 .. ...14 1.94 8.39 7.69 .75 5.28 1100 518 .4-SP 1-SP 1 "i..22 ...13 1.53 9.26 3.31 . 2. 1.75 5.. .36 4.19 900 447 ..22 .. .11 6.44 3000 1264 3.51 .84 4..46 ILl 1 11.56 4.. ..18 1.. . .97 6........99 1900 823 1.28 2100 903 1. .59 1.42 735 1.05 5.19 .96 3...37 3. 1..45 2200 942 1.35 3500 1466 5.....94 5..38 4. ...42 4.86 7.63 4:98 5..S-SP 3.29 3..40 1300 592 .23 1.33 2600 1102 2.99 9..42 ..05 5.71 1.98 1.78 3100 1304 4.38 4.74 5. .' .79 2..87 4..86 750 2.92 6.10 600 351 ..07 5.. .19 5.13 2900 1223 3.49 .66 2..08 4.48 2.. 613 629 650 676 703 733 765 796 828 861 895 930 965 1000 1036 1073 I I 10 1147 1184 1222 1259 1297 1335 1373 1412 1450 1490 1529 .34 AI . 482 ...49 4.16 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 356 379 405 433 463 492 524 556 589 6.40 5.09 1..91 4....44 2.54 8. ..67 5..21 .44 5.35 6. ..42 156 1'l4-SP 2"SP RPM BHP RPM BHP ..40 BHP RPM .11 2...72 1135 6..83 5..05 2..53 3.88 3.56 5.62 L78 1.81 .55 5.88 1..89 .6+ 3.53 2. 551 566 585 608 633 660 688 716 745 775 806 837 869 ..29 .67 6.02 8..05 4.. .95 7.55 1263 8.2~ 2085 j ! j j j j .54 1. LN 1. .16 .76 .. .51 3.13 2000 863 1.11 1. . ..262 CHAPTER 10 TABLE 10..36 2.69 6.2 .34 ...24 1.""' .88 3.89 1.37 924 3.36 .81 10.67 1..45 3.95 7.42 815 2.61 ..56 1.37 .13 ..50 .40 4.20 3.04 3..65 952 H4 981 4..95 2.85 4. . 394 412 435 461 489 518 548 578 609 &.4-sP I· %-sp RPM BHP RPM BHP 376 395 421 450 481 514 547 582 618 654 691 728 765 804 842 881 920 960 998 1037 1077 1117 II 56 1196 1237 1277 1316 1356 1396 1437 1477 .20 5.. .64 1.4-SP 2"SP BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP ...23 1000 ..16 4.95 7.235 1271 1308 1344 1381 1419 1456 1494 1531 1569 1.15 4.47 3.16 800 414 .33 .. 686 702 723 748 775 804 834 866 897 930 963 997 1031 1066 . " .45 3.33 1103 5.54 4.82 2. .14 5..50 8. .23 1. 669 678 693 712 734 758 783 810 839 867 896 925 955 986 1017 1049 1080 IIl2 1144 1177 1210 1243 1277 1311 1345 1379 1413 LID 1..41 5.02 4.35 .. ... ..94 8.35 .4-SP 1-SP 1"kSP BHP BHP . ' ' .45 1.16 4...26 3.-G 2.63 6..35 5.03 2.79 1102 1137 1173 1210 1247 1284 1321 1359 1397 1434 1472 1510 1549 1..52 7..74 7..50 2.13 234 2.74 3.42 3.l3 1.89 1.74 1.42 .64 2..l3 627 658 689 7" 755 789 82~ I.99 .79 6.. .85 2800 1183 3.15 3.94 3.26 6_75 7.12 5.....18 .85 5..00 2. ..60 6..20 133 1.25 lAO 1..()<) 1.80 2.58 6....45 3..48 3.02 6.% 8.31 7.95 6.46 5... . .28 3.80 .92 2.54 . ..28 5.29 1..52 ..83 10..79-· 2. ..23 1..88 6.91 7.67 .87 3.75 3.35 5:72 6.54 CFM 2575 3090 3605 4120 4635 5150 5665 6180 6695 7210 7725 8240 8755 9270 9785 10300 10815 11330 11845 12360 12875 13390 13905 14420 14935 15450 15965 16480 16995 17510 18025 OV "i.67 2.94 2.15 .32 ..59 1.77 3..69 5..34 1200 555 .54 5.26 7..69 .93.05 3.00 1.12 895 3.37 1.5 I 1.16 3.74 1.47 1400 629 ..82 .99 1.14 3200 1345 4...50 S-B 87R 9U 9-48 983 1018 1053 1088 1124 1160 1196 1232 1268 1304 1340 '" 2.00 7.53 3..60 7.68 2..09 1. ..63 3.08 1297 8....72 4..94 1.87 2...08 6.87 1. .. . . ..79 .41 6.61 8.91 ..76 6.60 2.72 2.28 .21 4..24 2.78 .23 2. .54 3...44 6. .12 674 707 741 774 808 RPM 478 49-' 514 538 565 592 620 650 680 710 742 774 807 839 872 906 939 973 1007 IO·B 1077 1112 1147 1182 1218 1253 1288 1323 U5B BHP RPM BHP RPM .S1 2.. .40 2.47 2.10 6.44 1._ 1..65 1600 707 .44 6.81 2..58 .72 1..26 1011 4.59 .....47 5.54 3..91 3.16 RPM BHP 339 11trSP RPM BHP RPM . ' 445 465 488 5[4 542 570 600 630 661 693 715 758 791 824 857 891 926 961 996 1030 1066 1101 1136 1171 1206 1242 1278 1313 1349 BHP RPM ..72 4.23 1.79 . BHP RPM .49 1.14 8.98 6.24 2.&.66 7.25 4.21 2...01 3. wheel diameter) CFM OV 1.21 3.45 .642..15 1167 6.96 3. .76 3.16 2.45 BHP RPM ..71 .43 7.73 1. " .71 5.80 1397 10.31 2.47 8. 863. ..84 2..28 . .....38 3.07 6.26 .12 3.52 3300 1385 4.59 3.03 2.61 .. ..58 2...81 5.69 1.30 .... ..97 L09 1.00 2..92 4.08 1. . f'J.61 860 896 933 969 1006 IO·B 1080 1119 1158 1196 1236 1174 1313 1353 1392 1430 1469 1509 .55 2.35 .75 1.41 7...09 2500 1062 2. .96 I..09 3. . .. .00 3. .43 6.88 2...81 3.98 .47 5..66 .46 7.20 5.24 6....57 .64 1330 9.. -.4"7 .69 4.1 .08 1.02 2.79 1...22 3.53 ..... "'.61 1198 7.46 .07 2...42 .87 1800 785 . .2 9..87 6.60 1041 ·4.00 4...01 3. .82 4.3.28 2..00 1...47 . .79 5.51 1..39 1...75 1.97 1. .89 1.63 2. .00 598 .78 .87 .62 1.00 Ll2 1..17 3.92 3400 1426 5. .13 2.18 9.38 .79 ..4-sP 3...39 1..76 1700 745 .02 770 2.33 4.32 2.91 900 933 966 999 1032 1066 1100 1134 1168 1202 1236 1271 1306 1341 1377 1065 1101 1138 1174 1211 1247 1284 1320 4.19 3.5"J 1.....94 2.01 2.76 .S-SP 11.74 4.92 6.31 2..55 1.rSP 5.31 3. .39 1...73 .12 7.47 1. '-' ...63 841 2.70 .22 655 689 723 758 793 828 864 899 934 969 1005 1041 1077 1113 1149 1185 1221 1257 1294 1330 .45 7.13 700 382 .38 .04 5. . .55 9.49 ...01 7.19 ..57 . .49 6. 1..43 .25 4...15 .47 1.18 .15 3...044. j 2502 2919 3336 3753 4170 4587 5004 5421 5838 6255 6672 7089 7506 7923 8340 8757 9174 9591 10008 10425 10842 11259 11676 12093 12510 12927 13344 13761 14178 14595 500 325 .27 tAJ 1. 744 753 770 791 815 842 870 900 932 963 995 1028 1061 10951130 1165 1200 1..62 5.90 5.24 .20 6.20 2.05 4.65 5...69 5. ..11 777 789 805 825 847 871 896 923 951 979 1007 1036 1065 1095 1126 1157 1188 1220 1251 1283 1315 1348 1382 1415 1448 2.z-SP RPM BHP .' 13.41 1.96 1072 5.87 868 3.86 2300 2400 1023 2...00 2..07 12-sp RPM 438 458 484 513 543 575 609 642 677 714 749 786 823 860 898 936 975 1014 1053 1092 1131 1170 1209 1"49 1289 1328 1368 1408 1449 1489 %-sp RPM 481 495 516 542 571 602 634 667 700 734 770 806 842 878 915 952 990 1028 1068 1106 1145 1184 1223 P62 1301 1340 1379 1419 1459 1499 3.30 2.58 1.. .76 4.68 4. ..62 . .40 1.05 3..24 5.45 725 1. .40.06 1231 7.65 982 1.54 6.64 1. . .68 .27 .00 1.14 5.93 4.49 4. 1...92 2.. 805 816 834 855 880 906 934 964 995 1027 1058 1090 1123 1157 1191 1226 1261 1296 1331 1367 1403 1440 1477 1514 1552 1590 .96 8.32 4.09 4. ..26 4.1. .24 .16 2.86 .20 1.57 3.07 1..57 1.60 5..23 2.44 7.. .02 5.56 1...40 2.40 2.OI 3. " ....87 2.58 9..59 2700 1142 2.. .59 7.96 3.38 3.14 . .63 6..73 2.06 6.1 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL AIRFOIL BLADE CENTRIFUGAL FANS (27 in.92 7.84 433 BHP .99 7. .52 . ...29 1.. 532 548 572 .36 3.11 2.9S -4..66 . .75 3.39 1.70 .37 . . .21 5.85 .. 876 895 917 941 967 996 1025 1056 1088 1119 1151 1184 1217 1251 1285 1320 1355 1390 1425 1461 1498 1535 1571 1608 2.46 5.61 1. . ..81 3.63 . -.94 .' 617 631 651 673 697 723 751 779 807 837 867 897 928 960 992 1023 1056 1089 1122 1156 1190 1224 1257 1291 1325 1360 1394 1...80 8.81 .56 1500 668 ..89 3.75 4.76 1.73 J.41 1.43 4. .26 1.75 .16 6.10 1. .96 2.43 1431 11.43 2.21 792 2.40 2..95 8..55 .66 9.32 2.00 5.76 4.53 2.07 4.. ..86 3..2..58 .62 6.55 2. .16 9..45 8.21 1363 9. . .34 1..60 2.32 6.92 7.82 6.84 4. .79 4.. .

48 1043 10.02 527 1. . .39 ..31 553 10642 11268 :I:==I~::~~I:~=I::::::~:~:~.26 337 ... ~:~~ :~~ ::!~ 20032 3200 20658 3300 ~~~ I ~ ZIYlU I I 1I I .8711193 19. .51 <w :..96 8.22 1.00 4.06 9. .74 8. . .. .21 11. . 3756 600 282 .14 337 3..96 12..80 ~=:~:~~~=~=~~~:~=~~~::~ 2200 756 2.89 : 1022 1051 1081 735 7..66 615 645 676 1.23 287 . .90 430 . .79 10.36 II !~~ lUI 1204 11. .. .. ...03 928 959 991 939 4. .59 11.42 1.3 7. . ~.87 508 1...60 534 1.30 6.12 I~?: ~.37 954 7..22 7.69 819: 3.52 2.84 6..16 3.. ...12 782 4.02 1064 10.41 397 .34 663 691 720 2..86 1. ....94 3.. . ... .97 1154 1184 1214 1245 9.42 1.05 6..91 796 3.. .0 12..11 647 ~~~ /00 1.51 3. .30 1072 10.42 349 .29 725 3.61 668 2.46 833 3.09 460 1.08 2.52 1084 13...23 . ..28 2.85 5. .05 598 231 625 2..47 16.96 1. .54 1129 7.61 397 .61 746 5. .35 798 4.23 CFM 3830 4596 5362 6128 6894 7660 8426 9192 9958 10724 11490 12256 13022 13785 14554 15320 16086 16852 17618 18384 19150 19916 20682 21448 22214 22980 23746 24512 25278 26044 26810 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 1.51 4. .27 1 I::: . .46 746 772 799 3.88 1087 11. .63 610 3.94 558 2.35 326 325 .43 . wheel diameter) 'A-sp %-sp 'a-SP !iscSP.18 924 8.80 .32 640 259 655 2..19 692 3.....60 9. . 5008 800 332 ...78 6. . ..46 12.55 1169 to. .. .4-SP RPM BHP 442 467 -192 518 1.06 839 539 859 5.47 4.:~: :. . . ..YI I OUZo 5.. ..58 638 2...~~ J.70 8.82 559 2.90 5.82 4.34 2.51 846 7.25 7.99 857 4. 360 .96 1.04 598 2.96 10.00 1061 8.77 403 .61 741.52 11.16 3.40 4.95 1097 7.. ..13 862 892 4. ~~m~_~410~~aW~_~_'~=I_ .00 I ~~I.88 747 4.79 2.28 305 .27 255 .62 374 . .59 .64 1263 13...01 3..45 1<'. . .44 9. . . ....72 .74 11...78 4. .28 12.24 484 1.69 1057 12.03 872 7..~~~ ~i: :g.86 1099 I: I 11. ..6311262 ~:~~ :!~ ~:~~ i: :~.61 .33 3.88 6S0 3.39 770 2..65 1180 937 1211 10.1089 9.46 599 1.66 1050 10049 1078 11.59 651 2.. ..22 Y.75 925 7.98 2..11 2.34 10.54 359 ...19 652 3.54 2.28 8..59 1.63 12...52 924 6..13 7.79 8.39 590 2.64 5..86 . . .38 388 . ..s-Sp RPM BHP RPM BHP 235 .48 587 612 1.89 2.84 3..64 9...~:i~ I:~~1 ~:!~ I :~6! ~~! I:: 1107 1139 1171 1203 7.35 14.18 7.. .95 814 845 3..58 440 .~ .75 .69 4. .01 720 746 773 2. .10 1.80 10.68 4.~~: 960 1078 IllI 1144 1177 6.89 11. .42 .51 373 .75 1300 1400 476 506 . .95 764 4..08 1136 1169 1201 1231 '..75 583 592 605 620 637 657 677 698 720 743 767 791 815 840 865 890 916 942 968 994 1020 1047 1074 1101 1127 1153 2. ..50 426 .26 849 5.4-SP 112-SP 2-SP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP .~ 11..53 9..15 1004 11.23 722 4.90 5. ."uu OV 4.97 :.63 5..45 1.69 7.68 .. .25 1.67 859 6.sp I RPM I BHP ffiI"..1 CFM OV 263 (Continued) (33 in.55 7.78 1.36 5.41 1.50 880 4. .. .21 485 1.65 377 . ..55 350 .87 698 437 4.77 584 2..55 6.31 2.. .76 7.16 562 11. .50 .04 SA3 5. ..56 556 1. .04 2300 2400 787 2.! 7512 8138 8764 =I~=~~:~~=~:I::::~=~~~~~~~ 1200 446 . "M-sp 1-'.35 385 .83 414 . .. ..74 3.. 625 636 649 665 682 701 722 743 765 787 811 835 859 884 909 934 959 985 1011 1037 1063 1089 1116 1142 1169 3.32 1. 13.38 8.2-sP RPM BHP Sz-SP RPM BHP "M-sp RPM BHP ..32 2.73 886 914 4.92 696 3.. ..03 3. .59 538 1. . . .FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES TABLE 10.58 692 719 747 2. .57 5. .16 564 1.55 2..40 703 2.69 IIUU 5.~~~: 1700 ~~~ 579 1.. ....32 367 . ..67 1.77 8.. ..93 6.38 906 6.. . 11.81 621 644 1.99 516 544 1.~~ I . . .34 4..63 11.47 799 4...59 541 1.59 867 5.. 317 .19 1161 8... .12 1.80 569 1.34 348 .28 3. . . ....~~ ~!~ Z.50 10. ..71 803 5.87 634 6. .71 2.59 898 8.41 5. ...00 821 6.43 491 509 524 541 562 582 604 627 651 675 699 724 749 775 801 827 853 880 906 933 959 986 1014 1043 1071 1098 1126 ..23 1034 9..87 3. ...86 449 1...03 611 230 626 2.84 444 1.... ..69 1001 9.51 ·796 6.70 14.15 653 675 2.48 2....53 719 3...32 908 936 5..lo 11118 &...30 4.43. ..66 351 674 4.04 771 5.87 0'0 957 5. .26 1.78 9. . .18 273 .....96 430 4.. ...40 12.07 4..01 1. .84 7.42 508 1.03 228 2.51 3.80 878 6...:~ ~g~ :~~..94 436 1..85 838 868 3.60 1..77 7.15 535 1. .21 3..15 . 13.71 393 ..50 11.16 896 653 916 6..54 964 8. .. .88 8... ••.62 6.37 129314.68 12..07 ~... I BHP I RPM I BHP 3130 500 261 .10 9...8~ 544 571 2.72 11~~1 12..23 4.12 822 4.48 414 .05 457 1.13 ..17 502 1.99 8.26 6.04 770 4.15 7. 317 332 350 371 394 417 1-SP RPM BHP .34 456 471 489 510 531 553 577 601 625 651 676 701 727 753 780 807 834 860 886 915 944 971 998 1027 1057 1086 1114 1.17 946 7..23 1198 10..51 LI27..53 13.40 950 977 6..34 529 1.02 984 8.42 1088 1122 1154 1186 6.64 3.46 16040 17. .15 831 5..96 8.79 4....55 15.83 8.Lj o>w 13772 14398 15024 598 630 661 1.94 887 6.11 9. .07 10.10 6. . .89 957 1117 7..~I::~ ~9~1~7 cc'" I 3.28 9. .46 300 .42 1030 10..16 7. .21 2046 2. .51 1032 7..22 .31 5.13 4..36 7.77 10.23 3.02 801 833 16902 2700 17528 I :~~ 18154 I z'uu =I=:~=I~=!~=~=~:~:~=~I.89 2.88 13.69 753 4.51 15.39 513 1. .57 810 4.. .05 585 231 612 2.76 6...50 6.44 •••..16 573 2.60 14.07 2..80 821 5.56 736 3.88 5...01 1002 6.76 634 2.73 1014 9.48 3. .07 1.90 1230 11.29 775 4...36 3. .56 7.57 8..90 631 3...96 .. .24 1141 15. .61 1.. . .69 491 ..80 975 8...% 935 7.17 808 3.62 1.37 980 1012 1044 6..74 950 971 5. .32 277 .14 1059 10....4-sP 3.70 .64 783 2.93 . . ..81 2.97 973 8. .17 992 8.11 708 3.62 9..73 3.-3.23 712 3. .76 13.88 631 661 691 1..74 488 .38 792 4.36 .31 1. ...66 5. ..28 .16 4.47 1.08 ~I 2. . . .04 1061 6. 1..4. . 351 . .51 977 10. .•.21 887 6.57 3~ 772 ?97 822 3.00 475 1. 385 398 414 433 454 477 500 524 548 574 599 625 651 678 704 731 758 785 813 841 868 897 925 953 981 1010 1038 1067 1095 ..89 1021 9.58 .91 830 5..89 1031 11..98 1148 8.6S 1.89 8..95 2.~3 .32 5.. I~:..83 4.84 7.06 5..46 1335 1112 14.24 10.86 1234 12. 9.84 951 9. . .92 684 2..P 1'A-SP I RPM I BHP I RPM ~ I RPM I BHP IRPM BHP I RPM BHP I RPM BHP 302 .27 1.50 1005 8..44 846 ..2t 5.. :j~ :~:i~ 10."/j) ~..~8: 1002 '5.19 4382 700 306 .59 468 .87 665 3.73 916 730 944 7.98 ~: 5.::~:I'~~ 1~ cSP 2-SP BHP IRP. ..58 826 857 3. 546 2. . :...73 423 .82 496 526 ..

. ... ..4-sp TABLE 10.65 813 9..76 3.47 301 .47 771 8.34 737 6.53 443 1. .31 15.27 688 5. it is sometimes more accurate to use total pressure (see Chapter 8)...36 2.09 10. ..22 6..59 911 12. wheel diameter) 1.44 18.28 16.95 761 7..93 15..58 12...73 . 532 537 547 561 577 594 611 630 648 667 687 707 728 749 771 793 815 838 860 883 907 931 955 979 1003 1027 7. .43 517 2. w...05 3.24 17.26 4.. .70 2.. .62 11.61 10..23 16. .99 6..17 497 2... Other fan pe1formance curves could be studied to determine these possibilities.04 558 3.09 7.99 4.34 702 5.. .28 412 1.25 13.91 475 2...17 624 4.g... .72 1.86 861 10. static pressure. .88 9.08 555 3..54 12.92 373 1. Examples 10.83 5.....57 693 6.74 .01 375 1.89 4.07 836 9..85 9.75 4..19 12.23 11.44 511 2..18 2.87 1. . Solution The selection will be made from Table 10.32 5.83 8. .63 5.7 develop at a delivery of 20.20 1.70 985 .99 13.9:37 10.78 354 ..47 591 3.65 7.34 . .36 869 11.13 2.18 497 2. .37 11..28 5..91 484 2..68 453 1. 452 461 475 490 507 525 544 563 583 603 624 645 667 689 712 735 758 782 806 830 854 878 902 926 950 974 999 .94 14..45 438 1.99 7...71 8. .37 2..36 6.... .60 786 8.27 15. . Example 10. w.74 533 3. 709 731 753 776 798 821 845 869 893 917 941 965 989 1013 .75 350 .25 722 6.17 489 2..11 4A-3 4. .52 3.000 CFM and the Hs curve.18 7.39 288 ..30 3.67 460 1.34 17..38 838 10. .31 18.97 373 1. as Example 10. . it is simpler to use fan tables for selection.46 532 2.81 3.11 796 8..43 2.54 3. ... .94 479 2. ..1 What static pres~ure (Hs) will the fan whose performance curves are shown in Figure 10.72 537 3.31 8.92 468 2.14 14...15 861 10.23 894 12. .68 650 5.50 6. static pressure. At this CFM.81 677 5..94 2.02 6...81 4..22 .84 11...17 508 2.69 935 13.75 602 4...61 325 .62 3.92 11..70 448 1...17 413 1.35 14. Hs = 6 in..42 .27 15.26 .61 647 5......71 . or if the emphasis is on initial cost.50 7.42 12..09 717 6.000 CFM? What will be the brake horsepower (BHP) and mechanical efficiency (ME) at this condition? Solution Using Figure 10.03 404 1.87 615 4....77 911 12. 3..41 13. .57 936 13.n 11.58 9.. w.. In our examples. Assume that energy conservation is important.41 14.:!:! 5.07 394 1.66 .38 1.13 3.29 765 7.68 886 11.13 944 14..40 IS.... a smaller fan might be found. The system static pressure resistance is often called the external static pressure and is frequently abbreviated SP or ESP in manufacturers' literature (as in Table 10.96 The fan may also be selected on the basis of total pressure rather than static pressure.51 604 3..94 5.56 9.40 4.08 670 5.2 illustrates...10 4.69 .50 428 1...67 5.13 7. 3.11 568 3.21 8. The . .91 8.56 7..12 392 1. 1.. .2 Select an airfoil blade centrifugal fan to supply 8400 CFM at I \2 in..35 427 1.30 7.31 811 9. static pressure will be used.28 .7..trSp "k-sp 1-SP 'iirsP "kSP 11<4-SP 11J.43 2.81 6. ... 7:! 12.g.25 416 1.92 886 11.50 .51 248 259 276 293 313 333 354 376 399 422 446 470 494 519 543 567 592 616 641 666 691 716 742 768 793 819 845 870 896 921 947 ..59 11.40 1...83 10.81 5.g... . we also note BHP=27 HP ME=80% This example does not indicate if there are better choices of fans to deliver 20. . 1. .40 3.61 .09 9.37 580 3.95 789 8.56 317 .16 6..67 335 . . . .47 520 2...40 9.48 6.. ..70 20.43 4.46 .. .24 16. .52 318 ..47 432 1..264 CHAPTER 10 (Continued) (40 1/4 in. .89 5.34 653 4...63 1.39 13. Either basis is satisfactory for low velocity systems.57 8. at the intersection of 20.96 ..70 7.2 illustrate the use of fan manufacturers' curves and tables.32 409 1.84 355 .08 12.69 698 6.90 9.26 4.56 845 10..56 19.54 1.83 602 4. However. .31 639 4..91 .:SP 1~SP Z"SP BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP 22344 23275 24206 25137 26068 26999 27930 28861 29792 30723 31654 32585 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 ... .16 674 5.29 3. .5~ 10. ..76 6. . .14 17.. . . ...22 3.. .09 3..72 460 1.59 96? ..16 919 13..87 360 1..35 8.52 6.91 lO.58 3.30 17.06 8.. For high velocity systems..24 626 4..19 10.09 15..1).78 544 3. 492 496 505 519 535 552 569 588 606 626 646 666 687..62 2..69 6.~ ~~ ~~ j . .78 713 6..05 5.19 9.1 CFM 4655 5586 6517 7448 8379 9310 10241 11172 12103 13034 13965 14896 15827 16758 17689 18620 19551 20482 21413 OV RPM 213 230 248 268 289 312 335 358 382 406 431 455 480 504 529 554 579 605 630 656 682 707 733 758 784 809 835 861 887 913 939 3.1.. I and 10. Perhaps a more efficient choice exists..56 13.03 1.12 12.16 392 1.72 339 .13 580 3.44 579 3.74 8.95 4.09 6.51 19...94 7.08 5.78 555 3.07 16.66 960 14.99 3.39 10.33 . 2. .92 3....32 14.87 2. 570 577 587 602 617 634 652 670 688 707 727 747 767 788 810 832 854 876 899 921 944 968 992 1016 1040 .90 629 4..77 664 5. .91 727 6.51 8.0412.98 751 776 802 827 852 878 903 929 955 .000 CFM at 6 in.12 969 .52 5.94 2.91 4.48 4.54 12..66 741 7. .80 8'0 9..13 2. 1. . Example 10.58 2...07 8.69 10.85 747 7.

4 OJ H = H) CFM2)2 f2 .g.4 CFM 0 2500 4000 5000 6000 7000 Wheel Size.CFM. (10.1.0 2."p 7 ~5?7 pr? FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 265 following possible selections are noted from the data in the table.3 The ductwork in a certain ventilating system has a pressure loss of 2 in. thousands . w. if the pressure loss is known at some other flow rate. Solution Using Equation 10. fan uses I 0% more energy.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Plot the system CFM versus Hf curve for the duct system of Example 10. It will be noisier. By plotting a few of such Hfversus CFM points. fan.2 RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 10. we can examine the duct systelll characteristics of CFM versus pressure loss (HI)' The pressure loss due to frictional resistance in a given duct system varies as the CFM changes.3. .6 2.4 2. a system characteristic curve can be determined.) CFM @1'hin. Example 10. with 5000 CFM of air flowing.2 and plotted in Figure 10.9 3. Hf . fan.3 2. in.8 Sketch for Example 10.3 2. the results are shown in Table 10.1 to plot a few points. 0 0. Example 10. The 30 in. in.9 m.g. as follows: Figure 10. Note that the pressure loss rises sharply with CFM for any duct system.4 (system characteristic curve). 7000)2 .g.5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS In a manner similar to considering fan performance characteristics of CFM versus pressure developed. w. BHP 27 30 33 36\2 40!4 8400 8400 8400 8400 8400 3. (Interpolation between listed values is carried out where necessary. The saving on energy use is negligible with the 36 V. it might be selected.8. What would be the pressure loss if the air flow were 7000 CFM? Solution Using Equation 10. because it is less efficient.9 10. in. w.5 1. however. Hf2 = 2 ( 5000 =3.0 2. as shown in Example lOA. TABLE 10.i .1 can be used to find the changed pressure loss in a duct system for a changed CFM flow. I) cO 3 U> U> Equation 10.4 The best selection is probably a 33 in. but if initial cost were the most important consideration. o a 2 3 CFM.

5 _. aids in analyzing changed conditions and in finding causes of operating difficulties.10. ~ " ~ '" ~ Point of -------. but Figure 10.5.0 in.3 in. The fan BHP = 35. 3. An occupant may readjust damper positions. System pressure en ~ 8 Fan static pressure Point of ~ I 80 60 I I ..9 Fan and system curves plotted togetherintersection is point of operation..1O? Solution The intersection point of the fan and system pressure characteristic curves is the operating condition.g. An examination of the fan and system curves will aid in analyzing these situations.:--------I : ~operation Q. w.11. System I I I I I I Fan I I CFM Example 10.000 CFM and a static pressure of 5.I 266 CHAPTER 10 10. Some reasons this may happen are: I.g. The system design performance curve A. as a "safety factor" in calculating the pressure loss. A common occurrenee in air conditioning systems is that the actual system resistance for a design CFM is different from that calculated by the designer.. The result of this type of condition is . An error in calculating pressure loss. and the system can only perform at conditions on the system curve. is also shown.6 FAN-SYSTEM INTERACTION By plotting both the fan and system characteristic pressure versus flow curves together. Assuming that there is no real extra pressure loss.s 6 . w. Allowance of an extra resistance as a "safety factor" by the designer. The design operate ing condition is therefore point I. what will be the operating conditions when used with the duct system whose characteristic curve is also shown in Figure 10. 2.10 Fan and system curves for Example 10. 25. we can find the condition of operation of the fan and system (Figure 10... • "m 00 ~ 0 ~ w 4 2 a: w Mechanical effiCiency 40 <.1.9).6 For the fan whose performance is shown in Figure 10. the system-required CFM is 5000 and calculated pressure loss is 4. :I: 20 0 °0L-~--L--L--L-~-~-~-~ 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 CFM. the following important principle is always true: The point of intersection of the system andfan curves is the operating condition of the system.that the duct system has a different characteristic than planned.g. Filters may have a greater than expected resistance due to excess dirt. The contractor installs the ductwork in a manner different from that planned.. Because the fan can only perform at conditions on the fan curve. w.4 in. Example 10. J\lE = 60% at this condition. calculated from Equation 10.-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ For the fan whose performances characteristics are shown in Figure 10. Examining the fan and system curves is not only useful for selecting the operating condition. 5. what will the actual operating conditions be'~ . The system designer has allowed an extra 1.. thousands Figure 10. 4.

but the operating cost will be high.0 instead of 5.4 .0 = 3. I 2). therefore the next step in selecting fans is to decide what further criteria should be used in selecting the "best" choice. particularly with high energy costs.. thousands facturer's fan rating curves or tables are used to find a suitable fan. I. 1/ I ~ y''------\-----=16 ~ o :r: ~ CFM. Another solution might be to change the fan speed. 2.g. At this point. The real system pressure curve can be plotted (curve B). the actual flow rate could be throttled by using dampers. . The result will be that there are additional pressure losses at the fan inlet and fan outlet. 10. the flow rate is 5500 CFM.. t~ 3 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 267 5 . a pressure at least equal to the duct system pressure loss. This temptation is great. . Fans should be chosen for close to maximum efficiency. because it may mean a smaller fan and therefore lower initial cost.-® . ®--: . . at the design CFM. connections should be made to minimize losses.6. Avoid the temptation of selecting a fan far out on the CFM curve.. Because every fan installation is unique. Of course. These are called system effects.--_ '~O- n . . . '" '" ~ 2 ::> (0/) /1. which we have shown how to determinejn Chapter 8. as described later. w. For fans that are part of a packaged unit. At these conditions. 10.11 Sketch for Example 10.. Solution The actual system pressure loss is 4. Fans should not be selected to the left of the peak pressure on the fan curve (Figure 10.8 SELECTION OF OPTIMUM FAN CONDITIONS Often a number of fans of different sizes. This is a considerable waste of energy and money. near maximum delivery. the fan ratings are based on testing the fans in a manner prescribed by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA). as would have occurred with the design condition. . 10 C. Also note that the BHP = 6. I. However. . This will fall in the middle ranges of the pressure-CFM curve. 8 . The precise loss at fan inlet and outlet depends on the shape. will satisfy the pressure and CFM requirements. . ."" "WN 2 . In any case. and direction of the connections to the fan.. at 5000 CFM (point 2).5. Figure 10. The system will be delivering too much air to the spaces. which must be added to the systenl pressure loss before selecting the required fan pressure. the system operation may be unstable-there may be pressure fluctuations and excess noise generated. The manu- . .1.4 in. The actual operating condition is the intersection of the fan and real system pressure curves (point 3).7 SYSTEM EFFECT The fan that is chosen for a given application must develop.. Some of these factors will now be examined. or ope rat ing at different speeds. the manufacturer usually has allowed for the system effect pressure loss for the unit.i I I 'I I I I c ~ 3 a. each arrangement of inlet and outlet connections to the fan will probably differ from that of the laboratory arrangement in which the fan was tested. size.-" -. 4 / I.

12 Unstable operating condition.4) (10.5) ExampklO. or for different size fans of similar construction. these are called fan laws. a fan with a steep curve is desirable. N2 = CFM2 CFM 1 xN 1 There are a number of relationships among fan performance characteristics for a given fan operating at changed conditions.2 to find the new speed. When using forward curved blade centrifugal fans.3) 3.7 _________________________ A ventilating fan is delivering 8000 CFM while running at a speed of 900 RPM and requiring 6. where the CFM varies considerably. 4. Allow for system effect according to the duct inlet and outlet connections as explained previously. (10. CFM Figure 10. the motor horsepower required will increase. Fans may have pressure curves of varying steepness (Figure 10. We will present some of these relationships and their possible uses: = (9000) x 900 = 1010 RPM 8000 . For variable air volume (VAV) systems (Chapter 12). If it is expected that there will be considerable changes in system resistance.268 CHAPTER 10 System Unacceptable operating point \ Flat fan curve-large CFM change with small pressure change . check the system to see if it might operate at significantly greater than design CFM.---Fan Steep fan curvesmall CFM change with large pressure change CFM Figure 10.13). 5.9 FAN LAWS Solution Using Equation 10.5 BHP.13 Steep and flat fan pressure curves. but constant CFM is required. The operating engineer wants to increase the air supply to 9000 CFM. and a larger motor may be necessary. These relationships are useful for predicting performance if conditions are changed. (10. At what speed should the fan be operated? What must be checked first before making such a change? 10.2) (10. If so. a flat curve type is desirable.

Outlet velocity.5 HP motor. and yet not to overdesign the fan. FPM Figure 10. centrifugal fans are classified into groups of different allowable maximum pressures (Figure 10. Class III / / / / ~ I ~ <> 5 c~.£ :::l <J) <J) '" 3i 10 ~ I I Q.10 CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT The AMCA has established standards of centrifugal fan construction and arrangement that are generally followed in the United States. Arrange- -SWSI .2. and the fan capability itself should be checked with the manufacturer.. Discharge. ments 1. the motor would now be overloaded. so this must be checked: BHP2 = .. Inc.5 = 9.14 Fan construction classes for allowable pressures. double width double inlet (DWDI) fans have air inlets on both sides (Figure 10. 15 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1010)3 ( . resulting in unnecessary cost. (Courtesy: Air Movement & Control Association.I------j DWDI ./ I Class II / / / / 1~~0~O------~3~OO~O~----~5~O~OO~----~7~OOO 10.15 Single width single inlet and double width double inlet fans.. A different pressure classification has been established for fans mounted in cabinets (see AMCA standards).x 6. DWDI fans would thus be suitably installed in a plenum-type cabinet.2 HP 900 This is a considerable increase in power. If the fan had a 7. as might the wiring. Arrangement Centrifugal fans are available in nine different arrangements of bearings and air inlets. par1icularly Arrangement 3.16) are often used in HVAC applications because of lower cost and convenience..14).. and 3 (Figure 10.5 HP. Figure 10.15). t X N FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 269 Equation lOA shows that the horsepower will increase. backward inclined type. which would be likely because it originally required only 6. Rotation. The motor would have to be changed. and Motor Position Direction of rotation is described when viewed from the opposite side of an inlet and is referred to Inlet Single width single inlet (SWSI) fans have the air inlet on one side. [AMCA]) Pressure Rating In order to construct fans of sufficient strength to withstand air pressures to which they will be subjected. The engineer should select and specify fans in the pressure class required for the job.

--. (Note: Rotation direction determined from drive side of fan. Spring and rubber type isolators are available.17.16 Examples of bearing arrangements commonly used in HVAC system fans. to reduce vibration transmission. there are other general installation procedures that should be followed: 1. rotation.- I D Arr. SWSI Arr. 10. Adjustable pulleys are available so that a limited speed adjustment can be made on the job.--------~~-~t. Centrifugal fans are usually belt driven. 1.2..11 INSTALLATION The above specifications of fan construction. Different size pulleys make it possible to change speeds. 270 CHAPTER 10 Bearings "~ . Connection between the inlet and discharge duct and fan should be made with canvas. Some good and ppor examples are shown in Figure 10. SWSI Figure 10. Several discharge arrangements are available.) Clockwise down blast Clockwise up blast Clockwise top angular down Clockwise top horizontal Counterclockwise bottom horizontal Counterclockwise . In addition. SWSI D Arr.19. installation.18. bottom angular up Counterclockwise down blast Counterclockwise top angular up . Inlet and discharge connections to the fan should be made to create air flow with minimum pressure loss and equal velocity across the duct section. The standard motor positions available are shown in Figure 10.-----. Fans should be mounted or hung on vibration isolators. The manufacturer should be consulted about correct choice of isolator. as clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW).3.17 Examples of discharge arrangements. 2. discharge. as shown in Figure 10. and motor position must be decided upon when planning the HVAC system Figure 10.

straight. uneven flow Better Turning vanes straighten flow .12 ENERGY CONSERVATION ~ar Motor w Drive t ]j~ t Figure 10. 4. Reducing fan speed to· reduce flow is the most efficient method for reduced power consumption.18 Motor positions. Select fans in the mid-range of total flow.. Do not allow extra pressure loss as a "safety factor" in the duct system.19 1..w .t.Better Turning vanes straighten flow ~ Good Long. .to each room must be distributed throughout the space in a Examples of good and poor inlet and discharge connections. Access openings should be provided if needed for inspection and service of bearings..20) are preferable to outlet dampers. from drive side. Figure 10. Inlet and discharge connections should be arranged to provide minimum pressure loss. Adequate clearance for inspection and removal should be provided on all sides of the fan.':-~ ~. Fan Fan & Fan~ . ' . If volume control of the fan is to be used.> ~!}-' . inlet guide vane dampers (Figure 10. multispeed fan drives are expensive. However. L '" .. . less power will be used when the volume flow rate is reduced. 3. ~. 4. fullsized inlet Poor Sharp inlet turn. 2. Air Distribution Devices The conditioned air that is being supplied..... 15' maximum spread Poor Sharp discharge turn. (Note: Specify motor position by letter. 6. 5. A belt guard with a mesh front should be provided so that the belts can be seen without removing the guard...-" FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 271 n Fan 10.- \-¥: Good Long straight discharge. uneven flow . Allow space for the motor installation.•.~- !~\. Airfoil blade centrifugal fans have the highest efficiency and therefore use the least power.. where efficiency is highest.) 3.-. 5..

and yet often the' occupants are quite uncomfortable. This is because the air is not distributed properly in the room. Temperatures throughout the occupied zone of the room within ± 2 F (1 C) of the design temperature. uncomfortable conditions will result. and selection. their features. Air velocities throughout the occupied zone (called residual velocities) between 25-35 FPM for applications where people are seated.·The occupied zone of most spaces is considered to be from the floor to an elevation of 6 ft. as in department stores. 10. 3.20 Inlet guide vanes for volume control. 2. In applications where people are moving around and occupancy is for a short period. Temperature fluctuations greater than this will usually result in discomfort. We will consider the types available. We . greater temperature fluctuations are permissible. Air at the proper flow rate and conditions may be supplied.) 10.13 ROOM AIR DISTRIBUTION Good room air distribution requires the following characteristics for comfort: 1. Above this height. I. (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company. and then will look at some of the devices (terminal units) that are used to provide proper air distribution. higher air velocities are acceptable (50-70 FPM). it will drop. 2. This is an aspect of the environmental control system that is often neglected because it seems simple. When air is supplied parallel to and near a ceiling. Lower velocities also result in discomfort.272 CHAPTER 10 will investigate some of the principles of air distribution. When air higher in temperature than room air is supplied (as in winter).14 AIR PATTERNS There are a few facts about how an air supply to a room will behave which are important to understand in order to select and locate air supply devices properly and to balance and adjust the devices. When air lower in temperature than room air is supplied (as in summer). Higher velocities (drafts) cause discomfort. if it is not. it will tend to "hug" the ceiling for certain manner. it will rise. Figure 10. usually a feeling of stuffiness or staleness.

This is called the ceiling or sUrface effect. called the terminal velocity.15 LOCATION The location of air distribution devices in the room is an important consideration in achieving good air distribution.~------Throw-------. resulting in residual velocities of 20-70 FPM. Separate heating (under the window) should be used in this case. 4. because the cold air will tend to remain near the floor. forcing the cold air to rise and circulate: Beams and ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures create a problem for ceiling or high wall air outlets. and then bounces off the obstruction.. There are certain other terms used in studying air distribution that need to be defined.24). J. Figure 10. High wall (Figure 10.21 Description of terms used in air distribution. a ceiling outlet should be mounted below the obstruction. The throw from a supply air device is the distance that the supply air travels before reaching a relatively low velocity. The supply air to the room (called the primary air) when distributed from an air supply device. thus rapidly mixing the supply air and the room air.l'I ~:. It is not a very good location for heating because the warm air will rise. It is not a good location for heating. Ceiling (Figure 10.. In this case.. The drop is the vertical distance the (cold) supply air drops by the end of its throw. leaving a stagnant zone in the occupied area.21 illustrates these terms. but is not desirable for cooling. This is an excellent location for cooling because the cold air will drop naturally.:. 4.22). The primary air hugs the ceiling due to the ceiling effect. because the warm air will rise. Low wall. This is a good location for heating because the warm air will rise naturally.FANS AND AIR DlSTRIBUTIONDEVICES 273 some distance. 3.25).23). will induce room air (called secondary air) into the airstream. the air should be directed to clear the obstruction. d It) Occuple zone (6 -I t .. Terminal velocities of 75-200 FPM are recommended. The temperature differential is the temperature difference between the supply air and the room air. This is an excellent location for heating if located under windows. 1. Floor or sill (Figure 10. The spread is the horizontal divergence of the airstream.1. This is a good loca- tion for cooling because the cold air will drop naturally and adequate air circulation through- Figure 10. because it counteracts the cold air downdraft that would otherwise result near the glass. For a high wall outlet. out the occupied zone will occur. 10. unless forced down at a high velocity. sending a cold draft down to the occupied zone (Figure 10.l:~f~~&d~f Induced secondary air Residual velocities here are 20-70 FPM Terminal velocity here is 75-200 FPM . It can also be used for cooling if an adequate outlet velocity is achieved. 2.

4. When locating floor or sill outlets.--.. saving energy.. Grilles witb volume control dampers mounted behind the grille are called registers.26).22 High wall outlet location.-. Grilles and registers Ceiling diffusers Slot diffusers Plenum ceilings Figure 10. They may be round. -----t~ ' '.. Grilles with two sets of bars at right angles to each other are available and are called double deflection grilles (Figure 10.ble. For very high ceilings. They enable control of the air distribution in both directions.23 Ceiling outlet location for cooling provides good distribution.16 TYPES OF AIR SUPPLY DEVICES There are four types of air supply devices used for creating proper air distribution in the conditioned space: 1. and if the bars are adjustable. or rectangular in shape.. 274 CHAPTER 10 Stagnant zone may not get heated Cooling-good air distribution Heating-poor air distribution Figure 10. cooling of unused space near tbe ceiling is reduced..24 Floor or sill location under window for heating provides good air distribution. which may be eitber fixed or adjustil. to adjust tbe throw and spread of air. it is usually better to install ceiling and high wall outlets below or at the level of lighting. . In this way.. square.--. 2. Figure 10. Grilles and Registers These devices consist of a frame and parallel bars.. if needed.27). 3. The bars serve to deflect the supply air in the direction tbe bars are set. care must be taken not to let drapes or furniture block the air flow. In addition to those that distribute air equally in all directions. Ceiling Diffusers These devices usually consist of a series of separate concentric rings or louvers with acollar or neck to connect to the duct (Figure 10. 10.

25 Effect of obstruction at ceiling. Figure 10. (Courtesy: Figure 10.27 Ceiling diffusers. Division of Interpace Corporation. FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 275 \ Figure 10.W' . (Courtesy: Tuttle & Bailey®.) . double deflection type.26 Supply register.) Tuttle & Bailey®. Division of Inteipace Corporation.

the discharge air velocity must be adequate to overcome the gravity effect of the denser air. which can serve as supply air outlets.) The fluorescent tubes are. It is also called a linear or strip diffuser. the mixed air temperature will not be unacceptably lower than room temperature before it drops to the occupied zone. vertical spread. caution is urged. Ceiling diffusers are also available in the fonn of perforated panels. the high sidewall outlet may result in stratification of the wann air. However. This type is sometimes used because it blends architecturally with the appearance of a suspended panel ceiling. and . The air is discharged horizontally when used for cooling. resulting in more light output per unit of power input. mixing well with induced secondary air. offsetting cold downdrafts. Slot Diffusers This is a long strip-shaped outlet with one or more narrow openings. When used for cooling.) When used for cooling. depending on the number of bars or vanes (Figure 10. 10. In this Figure 10.28 Slot diffuser. It usually results in low installation costs in this application because the ductwork in the basement below is relatively simple. The air can be directed slightly arched upward. therefore cooled somewhat. however. This location is popular}n residential installations. When used for warm air heating. Grilles and registers can also be used at ceilings with results similar to high sidewall locations. air can be distributed evenly throughout the whole space to be conditioned. a perimeter location under windows discharging vertically upward from the Hoor is ideal in cold climates. providing a significant energy savings. and return air locations could make the installation satisfactory in mild winter climates. because their appearance is not considered aesthetically pleasing in a ceiling. The design and balancing of plenum ceiling systems is a specialized procedure and will not be discussed further here. They are not installed in ceilings as often. (The slot openings are at the long edges of the fixture.17 Grilles APPLICATIONS Plenum Ceilings Suspended (hung) ceilings are available with slots or perforations throughout most or all of the ceiling. In this way. In any case. as well as the supply diffuser. it then will follow the ceiling due to the ceiling effect.28). Another version also has the return air openings in the fixture. Ceiling Diffusers These are usually located at the ceiling. Division of Interpace Corporation. The space above the ceiling is used as a large plenum through which the supply air is delivered. Adjustable deflection vanes are used to set proper air direction.276 CHAPTER 10 they can be designed to distribute air in any desired direction. but blankets the glass with warm air. This not only provides good mixing of primary and secondary air. a high sidewall location is one of the preferred locations. (Courtesy: Tuttle & Bailey®. way. a careful selection of outlet throw. A combination fluorescent lighting fixture and slot diffuser is also available. For warm air heating. Manufacturers of these ceilings will aid the interested designer or contractor.

therefore lessening this problem when large temperature differential is needed. cost. In this case. 3. For large cooling temperature differentials (TD) between supply and room air. the diffuser may have to be located below the beam line. this will increase the cost ofthe installation.29). ceilings. Warm air supply outlets are preferably located at the perimeter discharging vertically upward. Generally.29 Use of 1-. The structural engineer must be consulted on this.. and architectural requirements. In addition. Some types of ceiling diffusers can be used for heating by adjusting the air pattern to discharge vertically downward at a high velocity. which may guide the type used and their location. In this case. Grilles are generally limited to 25 FTD. 2-. and floors may restrict the location of ductwork and thus the air outlets. in a large space. Some types can be used up to 35 F TD. This choice depends on a number of factors-air quantity. the danger of unacceptable air temperatures entering the occupied zone increases. A part of the outlet can be blanked off with a piece of sheet metal to get directional air patterns. Round and square diffusers that have equal openings all around are used to cover a square floor area. Often more than one supply outlet is located in a room. 4. supply outlets may be located at the ceiling or high on sidewalls. or 3way blow to cover rectangular-shaped room areas (Figure 10. The building structure behind walls. (This is called the reflected ceiling plan. Quantity. They are also often installed in the bottom of horizontal ductwork below the ceiling when a suspended ceiling is not used.18 SELECTION The air outlets chosen for a project depend on the following: Figure 10.. the return air location becomes important-it should be located in the interior of the room. Slot Diffusers These are available in arrangements enabling them to be used either at ceilings or sidewalls. However. they are popular in perimeter applications discharging vertically up from the floor under sills. n = FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 277 follows the ceiling for some distance due to the ceiling effect. better air distribution is achieved by using a number of diffusers. This popularity is due to the use of low sills and long expanses of glass in many modern buildings. If there are exposed beams. diffusers are available with 1-. or 3-way blow diffusers. Architectural requirements. preferably at a low elevation to avoid short circuiting. Structural requirements. The architect will also set certain requirements. and will want the ceiling to have a certain appearance in regard to location of diffusers. 2-. Temperature differentials. However. Ceiling diffusers generally have a high induction ratio of room air. they may deflect the air down to the occupied zone. 5.) If there is a likelihood of rearranging partitions l . I I §I I I I I I t I t t ~ ~~ t I I t ~~~ I Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling LJ Sidewall Ceiling I Ceiling 1. 10. When distributing cold air. Location. 2. This is more common in industrial applications. An alternate location for cold air supply is a perimeter location discharging vertically upward from below the windowsill. The architect usually wishes the space to have a certain appearance.

9 Determine suitable diffuser locations and throws for a room with a 60 ft by 30 ft floor pran if two diffusers are to be used.3. The engineer must balance these needs according to the applications.1 X 25 = 650 CFM The maximum radius of diffusion permitted is 10ft (from the center of the room to the wall). The diffusers will be located in the center of each square. The supply air temperature differential is 25 F. The NC level suggested for a small store is from 40 to 50 (Table 10. This information is. The maximum throw allowable is the distance to a wall or to the edge of the zone of the next diffuser. and show corrections for other heights. the proper sizes of outlets can be chosen. The variable performance characteristics of ceiling diffusers that are of major importance are CFM. NC-39 sound level This is a satisfactory selection. a smaller diffuser will mean a higher sound level. needed when balancing the air flow. 7 . Size. 6. This is done with the aid of manufacturers' rating tables. The maximum throw therefore is 15 ft.. Solution The required CFM must first be determined. When the above decisions regarding selection have been made. throw. A selection should never be made with a throw greater than the maximum.8 Select a single round ceiling diffuser for Betina's Boutique (Figure 10. Therefore.3). for a given required CFM. Figure 10. Acceptable throws are from 12-15 ft when the diffuser size is selected. This is a weighted perceived sound level. Most manufacturers give ratings acceptable for a mounting height between 8 and 10ft. From Table 10. The sound level produced by a diffuser depends on the air velocity.16 ft radius of diffusion. mounting height. f+1'--20'--~'I T 20' 1 0.31 shows the floor plan divided into squares. The throw of radius of diffusion is the horizontal distance that the diffuser projects the air.. for this will result in drafts bouncing off walls. The RSHG is 18. Solution The diffusers will have equal throws in all directions.000 1. Using the sensible heat equation (3. . Example 10. Note that the pressure requirements are also given. but a lower cost. of maximum). Recommended NC levels are shown in Table 10. Ratings for one type of round ceiling diffuser are shown in Table 10.30). Air diffuser Plan view Example 10. and sound level.C) "-1 278 CHAPTER 10 in the future. "-.B. Figure 10.4.000 BTUlhr.30 Sketch for Example 10.7). a Size 10 diffuser has the following listed rating: 650 CFM. CFM = 18. diffuser location and quantity may be chosen to allow changes without having to move ducts and diffusers. The minimum throw for adequate circulation is recommended by the manufacturer (usually :y.4. The CFM is the quantity previously determined as required to condition the space. The diffuser manufacturer usually lists sound ratings of the diffusers by NC (noise criteria) levels.

Type of Area Range of Levels. gymnasiums Swimming pools TRANSPORTATION (RAIL. wards Laboratories. museums.mate theaters. banquet rooms Halls and corridors. PLANE) Concert and opera halls Studios for sound reproduction Legiti. Reprinted with pennission from the 1976 ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory. CAFETERIAS. . TV audience studios Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls. lobbies Garages Kitchens and laundries HOSPITALS AND CLINICS PUBLIC BUILDINGS Public libraries. reception room General open offices. . NC Criteria Oecibels Curves ) .3 RANGES OF INDOOR DESIGN GOALS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM SOUND CONTROL Range of A-Sound Range of A-Sound Range of Levels. 2. RETAIL 40-50 -f5-55 25-35 30-40 35-45 35-50 40-50 40-55 -f5-65 Boardroom Conference rooms Executive office Supervisor office. drafting rooms Halls and corridors Tabulation and computation AUDITORIUMS AND MUSIC HALLS Clothing stores Department stores (upper floors) Department stores (main floor) Small retail stores Supermarkets SPORTS ACTIVITIES. INDOOR 40-50 45-55 45-55 35-45 40-50 45-60 35-45 40-55 <90_ <97 35-45 40-50 40-50 30-40 35-45 40-55 30-40 35-50 Coliseums Bowling alleys.35-45 40-50 45-55 40-50 40-55 40-50 45-55 35-45 35-50 35-50 40-50 30-40 35-45 40-50 35-45 35-50 35-45 40-50 Individual rooms or suites Ballrooms. NC Criteria Decibels Curves Type of Area RESIDENCES CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS (Con'L) Private homes (rural and suburban) Private homes (urban) Apartment houses. planetarium Lobbies CHURCHESANDS~HOOLS 20-30 30-35 35-l5 15-25 25-30 30-35 35-45 20-30 30-40 30-40 Ticket sales offices Lounges and waiting rooms EQUIPMENT ROOMS 40-50 25-35 35-45 35-45 8 hrlday exposure 3 hrlday exposure (or per OSHA requirement) Sanctuaries Libraries Schools and classrooms I Note: These are for unoccupied spaces with all systems operating . multipurpose halls Movie theaters. general banking areas. courtrooms Post offices.and 3-family units HOTELS 25-35 30-40 35-45 35-45 35-45 40-50 45-55 45-55 30-40 35---45 20-30 25-35 30-40 30-40 30-40 35-45 40-50 40-50 25-35 30-40 35-45 40-50 20-30 25-35 30-40 30-45 35-45 35-50 40--60 Laboratories Recreation halls Corridors and halls Kitchens .FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 279 TABLE 10. 40-50 40-55 40-55 45-55 . halls and corridors Lobbies and waiting rooms Washrooms and toilets OFFICES Nightclubs Cafeterias STORES. lobbies Washrooms and toilets RESTAURANTS. BUS. LOUNGES Restaurants Cocktail lounges Private rooms Operating rooms.

ft..085 140 2-4-6 20 245 3-5-8 21 380 4-6-9 22 550 5-7-11 23 745 5-8-13 24 980 6-9-15 25 1240 7-11-17 26 1530 8-12-19 26 2200 9-14-23 27 3430 12-18-28 27 4930 14-21-34 28 800 .. multiply radii of diffusion shown by 0. 53 78-10 27-40-65 54 1960 7-10-16 NC 36" Flow Rate.I3 38 655 7-10-16 39 940 8-12-19 40 1270 9-14-22 41 1680 11-16-26 41 2120 12-18-29 42 2610 13-19-32 43 3770 16-24-39 44 5880 20-30-49 45 8450 24-36-58 46 1400 . If diffuser is moumed on exposed duct.063 120 2-3-5 15 210 3-4-7 16 330 3-5-8 17 470 4-6-10 18 635 5-7-11 19 840 5-8-13 19 1060 6-9-15 20 1310 7-10-16 21 1880 8-12-19 22 2940 10-15-24 23 4230 12-18-29 24 I i j Press Vertical Flow Rate.109 160 3-4-7 24 280 4-5-9 26 435 4-7-11 27 630 5-8-13 27 850 6-9-15 28 1120 7-11-17 29 1420 8-12-20 30 1750 9-14-22 30 2510 11-16-26 31 3920 13-20·32 900 . and maximumo to 50 [pm. 885 5-8-l2 15 875 4-7-11 - llOO 6-9-14 NC 24" Flow Rate. ft. ft. . cCrn Radius of Diff. Minimum radii of diffusion are to a temlinal velocity of ISO [pm.12 watts.048 . Re 10.246 235 4-6-10 36 420 5-8. cCrn Radius of Diff. ft.437 Size Neck Velocity.084 .090 . cfrn Radius of DitT.023 . Reprinted with pennission from Environmental Elements Corporation. cfrn Radius of Diff. ft....021 .03-1 600 . cfrn Radius of Diff.016 . cCrn 6" Radius of Diff.122 .040 . 1260 8-12-20 32 1590 9-14-22 33 1970 10-15-24 34 2820 12-18-29 35 4410 15-23-36 36 6340 18-27-44 37 710 4-6-10 - NC 20" Flow Rate.346 .027 80 1-2-3 - 500 . I 270 3~-7 NC 12" - 220 2-3-5 315 3-4-7 - 48 Flow ~te. The NC values are based on a room absorption of 18 dB. 175 2-3-5 315 6-8-11 45 560 7-11-17 47 870 9-13-~2 I 140 2-3-4 - NC Flow Rate. 15 1570 7-10-16 16 2~50 1260 5-8-13 - NC 30" Flow Rate.065 ..139 180 3-5-7 27 315 4-6-10 29 490 5-8-12 30 70S 6-9-15 31 955 7-11-17 32 30 1000 . cfrn Radius of DitT. cfrn Radius of Diff. 530 4-6-9 L3 700 5-7-11 14 560 4-5-9 - NC 18" Flow Rate. Baltimore.333 275 5-7-11 41 490 6-9-15 43 765 8-12:19 44 1100 9-14-23 45 1490 11-16-26 46 1960 13-19-30 46 2480 14-21-34 47 3060 16-24-38 48 4400 19-28-45 49 6860 24-35-57 50 9850 28-42-68 51 1600 .O. add I dB for a vertical pattern. ft. Re 10.063 .189 . NC 16" Flow Rate. Maryland. ft.4 PERFORMANCE DATA FOR 1YPICAL ROUND CEILING DIFFUSERS NC 20 700 .160 .13 watts or 8dB. . Values shown are for a horizontal pattern. ft.031 . ft.172 200 4-5-8 31 350 5-7-11 32 545 6-8-14 33 40 1200 . ft.280 CHAPTER 10 TABLE 10..256 . rpm Vel. Press.70...0-1-1 100 2-3--1 NC Flow Rate. middle to 100 fpm.2820 8-13-::!O 17 ·3520 32 5630 16-24-39 33 8-12-20 1O-IS-2-t 18 ** NC - 1l. in W. cfrn Radius of Diff. cfrn 8" Radius of Ditr.107 .260 32-48-78 55 Note: I. . 390 3-5-8 - NC 14" 425 3-5-8 - 785 7-10-16 34 1060 8-\2-19 35 1400 9-14-22 36 1770 10-15-24 36 2190 11-17-27 37 3140 14-20-32 38 4900 17-25-41 39 7040 20-30-49 40 1255 11-16-26 50 1695 13-19-30 60 22-10 14-22-35 51 2830 16-2-1-39 52 3500 J8-27-B 52 5020 22-32-5:! Flow Rate.051 . Total Horizontal 400 ..132 . cfrn 10" Radius of Diff~" ft. 2.010 .

This would greatly increase the cost.9.· FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 281 ~I . The dampers can usmilly be adjusted from the face of the outlet with a special key. Selection procedures for supply grilles and slot diffusers are similar. Opposed blade dampers are preferable to those that rotate in the same direction. each 15 ft square. can be used to equalize the air flow pattern to the outlet.~~:. Splitter Dampers These are sometimes used to direct air into the outlet and to control volume. Figure 10.32 Use of equalizing grid in duct collar. ~:Figure 10.· .•• "f_ - x :-. A ring that surrounds the diffuser is available which will reduce this problem. (a) Poor air distribution in duct collar. but they can cause both uneven flow and additional noise (Figure 10.32(a). resulting in poor room air distribution. 10. as shown in Figure 1O. the air may flow unevenly from the outlet.32(b). • (a) (b) . Anti-Smudge Rings A strip of dirt on the ceiling surrounding a ceiling diffuser is a common sight. The interested student can refer to manufacturers' catalogs.----60'----+1·1 Air .34). because they will not result in uneven flow. Control Damper These are used to adjust the volume rates of flow to the desired quantity (Figure 10. ." >.33).31 Sketch for Example 10. and eight diffusers could be used. il.' ·~. 15'--+ ifdiffTers * 1 5 k--15' I I I 1 30' T Equalizing Grids When an air outlet is connected to a duct as shown in Figure IO. An equalizing grid installed in the duct collar. (b) Equalizing grid evens flow.t.~'.19 ACCESSORIES AND DUCT CONNECTIONS There are a number of accessories that are used with air supply devices to control or improve air distribution. m • .. Of course the space could also have been divided into eight areas.

near seats Door or wall louvers Door undercuts 800 600-800 400-600 200-300 200-300 . When air is being returned to corridors or adjacent spaces. exhausting 1500 CFM..9 ft2 (use 2 ft2) 10. this results in more even air distribution to the outlet. We will examine only a small part of this complex subject. to check the possibility of short-circuiting.5. but will present enough information so that the student will have an understanding of the problems that occur and how they may be resolved. What should be the grille face area? Above occupied zone Within occupied zone.21 SOUND All of the devices used for air supply are suitable for return air. minimum). if this is not possible.r V ~~~~~~ \ I \ I Figure 10.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Air conditioning systems generate sound. however. The actual velocity is higher because of the grille bars. The location of return air devices is not as critical as supply devices because the air will not short-circuit in most cases. It is therefore the responsibility of the designer and contractor to provide adequate sound control when necessary. with a 6-in. Example 10.. transfer grilles or louvers may be located in partitions or doors. it is advisable to extend . We are interested TABLE 10. )_ t ). Recommended face inlet velocities that generally provide acceptable noise levels are shown in Table 10.282 CHAPTER 10 1 Splitter damper I -:- / Turning /vanes 1. The selection of return air devices is usually quite simple. or the door may be undercut...the duct beyond the outlet neck (about one-half the take-off diameter. and. Solution Referring to Table 10. because of their lower cost. FPM A return air grille is to be located high on a sidewall in a room. which may be objectionable in some cases. The required face area istherefore Area = _1_5_0_0_ft_/_m_i_n 800 ft/min 3 = 1... a velocity of 800 FPM is acceptable.5.20 RETURN AIR DEVICES 10.5 RECOMMENDED RETURN AIR INLET FACE VELOCITIES Location Velocity. Sound power is the sound level generated by a noise source. The magnitude of sound is measured in a unit called the decibel (dB)... It is nevertheless a wise rule to locate return air inlets far from outlets. Cushioned Head For a diffuser that is at the end of a duct. t. Grilles are the most commonly used. .33 Splitter damper to control flow-poor air distribution.34 Control damper. The face velocity refers to the velocity calcuhlted by using the overall dimensions of the grille.11 ""'1'1'1 tI -" \ Figure 10. not near seats Within occupied zone..

sound also has frequency. Balance the system so that throttling of dampers is minimized.12 The sound power level in a duct approaching an air diffuser is 52 dB.. Avoid obstructions in the ductwork. This would be a suitable sound level in a hotel room. Example 10. TABLE 10. In addition to magnitude.6. Make duct connection transitions as gradual as possible.6. 5. In studying an actual sound problem. Difference = 52 -49 = 3 dB dB to be added to higher level = 2 dB Combined sound power level = 52 + 2 = 54 dB 10. The sound power level of the diffuser is 49 dB. Most sound generated has a range of frequencies. That is. This provides a simple means of measuring effective surrounding sound levels. the recommended range of dB-A is 35-45 and of NC is 30-40.3. For our purposes. Sound level measuring meters are available that read dB-A levels. a higher pitch sound of the same dB level as a lower one seems louder to the individual. A weighted average is used to account for the change in sensitivity ofthe ear to different frequencies. particularly by humans. The weighted average that corresponds well to human response to sound is called the A-scale ne(work (dB-A). 6.000 Hz (cycles per second).6 EFFECT OF COMBINING TWO SOUND LEVELS Difference between Levels. dB 0-1 2-4 5-9 10 or more dB addition to highest level to obtain combined level 3 2 1 0 Solution Using Table 10. Avoid abrupt changes in direction in ducts. Table 10. the system design and installation should be carried out to minimize sound problems. Both are used in setting standards. This is called sound pressure. 4. We are particularly interested in frequency because the human ear has less sensitivity to lower frequencies (low pitch) than to higher pitch sounds. However. 2. In any case. we do not need to be overly coucerned with distinctions between these terms. Isolate fans from their supports by using vibration isolators and from the ductwork by using flexible connections.3 lists recommended dB-A levels as well as NC-Ievels.. Example 10. When two sources produce sound. Select fans near their most efficient operating point. 7. : 7 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 283 _'1 in the sound transmitted and received. Some general recommendations are: I..22 SOUND CONTROL The main sources of sound generation in an air conditioning system are the fan and the noise generated by air in the ductwork.. the sound levels at each frequency sometimes need to be analyzed. Often the resultant sound levels in the rooms are satisfactory and no special treatment is necessary.11 What are the average recommended dB-A and NC sound levels for a hotel room? Solution From Table 10.. however. . What is the sound power exiting into the room? . Use wide radius elbows or turning vanes. an average of the levels at each frequency is often sufficient to work with. the combined level is f~und from Table 10. The average dB-A is 40 and NC is 35. n ¥tnaxft . Use duct velocities recommended for quietness.. The audible range is from about 2020. 3. Install dampers only when required. Some of the wasted energy is otherwise converted into noise.

particularly in high velocity systems where considerable noise is generated. Determine the sound level generated by the fan. In many applications. using tables. Values range from 0 up to 20 or 25 dB. 7. the attenuation is Duct 0. which depend on the size and sound-absorbing qualities of the surfaces and furnishings. Select air outlets at sound levels as recommended by the manufacturer. in. Rooms also have sound-absorbing characteristics.7. a series of calculations are made. They are not precise. Tables listing this information can be found in the ASHRAE Systems Volume. Ductwork. 6. Subtract item 2 (natural sound attenuation) from item I (sound generated). branches. 5. then the difference between them is the amount of additional sound attenuation that must be added.i 284 CHAPTER 10 J 8. TABLE 10.05 dBlft x 500 ft = 2.: 9. Combine the sound power level in the duct (item 3) to that of the outlet (Table 10. As an exercise in understanding the procedure. This will be the sound level in the ducts to the air outlet.5 dB . Determine the recommended dB and NC level for the type of room.35 36" x 24" 1 Sketch for Example 10. The following procedure can be used for predicting sound levels and required sound treatment: I. This will be the room sound level if no special sound treatment is used. 4.7 NATURAL DUCT ATTENUATION Ducts Radius Elbow Size.% dB attenuation 5 10 10 20 30 50 13 753 Example 10. Determine the amount of natural sound attenuation from ducts and fittings.13. Determine the sound level of the air outlet from the manufacturer.10 0.6).j G Figure 10. dB 2 3 0. This will be the sound generated at the outlet exit to the room. If item 7 is greater. we will assume some figures in the following example. Subtract item 6 from item 5. no treatment is required. This involves first determining the sound level generated at each frequency and then the amount of sound attenuation (reduction) required to meet the sound level required in the room. 8.7). and the attenuation varies with the sound frequency. Tables that list average attenuation for all frequencies are also available (Table 10. in. }-oj (f-----50·----~. and elbows provide some natural sound attenuation. using tables. 3. special· sound treatment must be carried out. but are suitable for noncritical applications. This information is usually available from the manufacturer. 2.35. Determine the room effect from tables. which would be taken from the tables recommended. In a thorough sound analysis.) 24 x 24 (large) 72 x 72 dBlft Size. Tables for determining this effect are also available. Solution From Table 10. (small) 6 X 6 (med. If item 7 is less than item 8 (the desired room sound level).5 dB Elbow=3 Natural attenuation = 5.13 Determine the natural attenuation in the duct system shown in Figure 10.05 om !Ox 10 20x20 over 20 Branches Ratio of branch to main CFM. This is the sound absorption from room materials.

Describe the effect of changing fan speed on the CFM. 13. and total pressure. Sound power level from diffuser. with the following data: Solution I. = 7 dB 8. Manufactured sound traps can also be used. and ME of the fan whose performance curves are shown in Figure 10. Required additional sound attenuation Review Questions I. List the types of centrifugal fans and sketch their blade positions. It is also very effective to internally line the air handling unit casing. BHP.14 Find the additional average sound attenuation required (if any) for an air conditioning system for a private office. ceiling effect. Describe the use of equalizing grids. These devices have special internal configurations of sound-absorbing materials and perforated plates. Often a combination of these sound attenuation methods is used on a system. 9. Diffuser sound power level 5. anti-smudge rings. It can be accomplished by lining ducts internally with a sound-absorbing material. This subject is discussed in Chapter 9. Room effect attenuation 7. terminal velocity. and cushion heads.7. There are a few methods for achieving sound attenuation. 12.6. 4. For more accurate results. Vibrations from fans. Room sound level (item 5 less 6) 8. control dampers. residual velocity. I I. splitter dampers. What criteria should be used in selecting a fan? 6. and compressors can also transmit sound if not isolated. . They are quite effective and are used frequently in high velocity systems. at a flow of 25. and primary and secondary air. Fan sound power level 2.acmefan. List the types of air supply devices and their applications. Recommended room sound leyel (executive office) 9. =72dB = 17 dB =55 dB =51 dB =57 dB = 10 dB =47 dB =40dB 3. 7. Sketch the three performance curve shapes for a backward and forward curved blade centrifugal fan. Useful Websites Information on selection and specification of fans can be found at the following Websites: www. spread. using Table 10. the above analysis would be carried out at each sound frequency in order to determine how much additional sound attenuation is needed. How is the point of operation of a duct system determined? C 5. List the recommended procedures to minimize sound generated by a duct system. Attenuation in ducts 3 Sound power to diffuser (item I less 2) 4. is 55 + 2 6.1 Find the static pressure developed. What are the main features of centrifugal fan construction? What good practices should be followed when installing fans? What energy conservation practices should be considered with fans? Describe what is meant by the terms throw. pumps. List the considerations in choosing the location of air supply devices. drop. 10.com www.com Problems 10.nyb. 14. BHP.000 CFM. What is the difference between a vaneaxial and a tubeaxial fan? 2.FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 285 Example 10.

then four diffusers. Use 1. At what speed should the TAB technician set it? What would be the expected motor BHP? 10. What is the recommended louver area? 10.com B.8 is 8 dB. B.12. Use www.S. Use the results of your solution t6 Problem 7. 10.1 CFM/ft2. Use www.286 CHAPTER 10 ~I (---I.11.hartandcooley. 10. A.9 If the room attenuation in Problem 10.titus-hvac. Use 1. 10. First select two. B.2 A 30 in. :1 -J • I. 10.1 is specified to deliver 10.10 Select air diffusers for the warehouse shown in Figure 6. 10. Determine the duct attenuation and sound level exiting from the diffuser.8 The sound lower level of the fan shown in .1 0. A. Locate and select three ceiling diffusers.4 Select a ceiling diffuser to deliver 2000 CFM in a 30 ft by 30 ft classroom.5.3 B HP. 10.5 A 100 ft by 50 ft pharmacy requires 8000 CFM of air.36 J 20" x 1S" 1- t Sketch for Problem 10. centrifugal fan of the type shown in Table 10. Figure 10. 10. and 10. SP (static pressure).4. The fan speed is changed to 700 RPM.25. Select two.36 is 44 dB and 40 dB for the diffuser. Find the new CFM.13.7 What are the recommended NC-Ievel and dB-A level for a classroom? 10.3 A fan is deiivering 8100 CFM at I )2 in. SP. SP while running at a speed of 650 RPM and using 2.11 Select air diffusers for the office building shown in Figure 6.com .6 A louver is to be installed in a door to return 400 CFM of air to a corridor. 10. Use the results of your solution to Problem 7.000 CFM at 1 in. Computer Solution Problems 10.5 CFM/ft2.! 20' a Figure 10. and BHP.24. what additional attenuation would be required for a conference room? 10.---SO·-----+l. A. then four diffusers.12 Use the Internet to select the round diffusers in Problems 10.

including use of the expansion tank. The centrifugal pump is the type most widely used in circulating water in HVAC systems. 4. in- stallation. Determinehow to locate and size expansion . In this chapter. In the first group are included reciprocating. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. screw. Expansion Tanks. and rotary pumps. and Venting A pump is a device that circulates liquids through piping systems. Pumps can be classified into two groups according to . 287 11. construction.2 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION The centrifugal pump increases the pressure of the water by first increasing its velocity. gear. Use pump similarity laws to find the effect of changing speed. selection. you will be able to: 1. the way they develop this pressure-either by positive displacement or centrifugal force. The subject of controlling and venting air from the circulating water system will also be discussed. because this subject is closely related to how the pump is used. Figure 11.H A p T E R Centrifugal Pumps. vane. 3. 2. rugged. and efficient. Use pump characteristic curves for rating and selecting a pump. It is very reliable. tanks.1 shows the operating elements of a centrifugal pump. and then converting that velocity energy to pressure energy. The centrifugal pump is generally used in both hydronic ·and cooling tower water systems. They are used only in specialized cases in HVAC work and will not be discussed further here. 11. and maintenance of centrifugal pumps. we will discuss the principles of operation.1 TYPES OF PUMPS A pump provides the pressure necessary to overcome the resistance to flow of a liquid in a piping system. Identify the basic parts and construction of a centrifugal pump.

The characteristics are usually presented in the form of curves or tables. Analyzing these curves is often quite useful in troubleshooting operating problems. The general shape of the curves is similar for all centrifugal pumps. These are called the pump characteristics. _--'c..¥. The water is forced in a centrifugal direction (radially outward) by the motion of the impeller vanes. 11.1 Operating elements of a centrifugal pump. This is accomplished by increasing the flow area in the volute and diffuser section of the pump casing. The action of the impeller has increased the velocity of the water.Impeller Volute \-. the flow rate it will deliver. Refer to Chapter 8 where this principle is explained.. Flow rate versus efficiency Figure 11. and its efficiency. Three curves are usually presented: I. The pump casing contains and guides the water toward the discharge opening. driven by a motor or other prime mover.. but not its pressure. the horsepower required to drive the pump.4-.. The velocity of the water is increased considerably by this action.288 CHAPTER 11 The impeller is the part that transmits energy to the water.3 PUMP CHARACTERISTICS The items of major importance in the performance of a pump are the pressure (head) it will develop. water enters the opening in the center of the impeller called the eye.-L'-/~. Flowing from the pump suction line..Impeller ik-¥J. these are used to select the correct pump for an application. Flow rate versus head 2. The impeller rotates.~ Vanes ~~=z:2~.Shroud Vanes Eye Discharge Impeller t Diffuser 1. The velocity energy is converted into pressure energy by decreasing its velocity.p4----CaSing Longitudinal section . Flow rate versus brake horsepower 3.

ft of liquid Figure 11. The condition of no flow is called shut-off.2. The flow ratelBHP curve indicates that the BHP increases with flow rate for a centrifugal pump.x 100=3.x 100= . a larger nominal size motor might be used to prevent possible overloading of the motor. then it rises to a maximum..2. The pump performance characteristics. The ratings of the pump in Figure I 1.82 . also called ratings.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.2 also shows the flow versus rate efficiency curve for the same centrifugal pump.performance depends on the speed at which the pump is operated. Note that at shut-off efficiency is zero because there is no flow. The efficiency (E) of a pump is defined as: E= This would be the minimum power needed for a motor. EXPANSION TANKS.2) This efficiency is sometimes call the mechanical efficiency (ME).2 Typical performance characteristic curves for a centrifugal pump. especially for reasons that will be discussed shortly. 3960 where WHP = water horsepower (output).. What is the minimum size motor . and then decreases again at the pump's maximum flow rate.wer output. = I for water) The power input to a pump is always greater than the power output because of friction and other unavoidable losses. In reality.3. Notice that the flowlhead curve indicates that a centrifugal pump develops less head at greater flow. (1l. x I = 1. Using Equation ILl to find the po. HP GPM = flow rate. (s. at which the head is at or close to a maximum. given by the following equation: WHP= GPMxHxs.. GPM H = total pump head. = specific gravity of liquid.3 are for a power output WHP x 100 = . ijJ :r: OJ :r: £Il <L Flow rate Flow rate Flow rate .82 HP Using Equation 11. BHP=-. The . Figure 11. are shown for a particular pump in Figure 11. The manufacturer " lists the pump efficiency as 60% 'at this condition. Example ILl A chilled water pump for the air conditioning system in the Five Aces Casino is delivering 200 GPM at a total head of 36 ft of water. They are determined by the manufacturer by testing the pump. The power required to drive the pump is called the brake horsepower (BHP). WHP 1. The power output is the power transmitted to the water.x 100 power input BHP (11.0HP E 60 s.g.g.g. that should be used to drive the pump? • Solution We must find the required power input (BHP). The BHP is the power input to a pump.I) WHP = 200 x 36 3960 . AND VENTING 289 The curves for a typical centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 11.

the flowlhead curves are shown for a few pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in. BHP. (In countries that use 50 Hz current.0 . To conserve data space. Example 11. 1450 RPM and 2900 RPM would be the usual speeds. BHP and efficiency are not indicated. c: '0 50 ~ '" ~ 'c 20r_------------~_b~------------~------_r--------r_----__11 40 'o " ::. ~_ _ _ _ _ _+-. as Example 11. BHP= 1.5 is operating at 1750 RPM. what BHP is it using. at 120 GPM. all using the same casing.2 illustrates.3 Performance curves for a 616 in.JHead 70 40~-------------+~~--------~~----~--~--~----~ 60 ~ o . Instead of BHP and efficiency curves..) This speed and 3500 RPM are the most commonly used in the United States because they are the natural speeds resulting from direct connection to a 60 Hz motor. How much water is the pump circulating..5 ft w. Figure 11. in diameter. Suction and discharge gages at the pump read 30 psig and 45 psig. and efficiency curves. find the head it is developing. Each pump is furnished with a motor large enough to handle the maximum BHP..3.3 A 6 in.6 HP E=64% Example 11.290 CHAPTER 11 Data: 61/2" impeller diameter 5o.3. '" . In this case. is delivering 120 GPM. and its efficiency. GPM Figure 11. respectively. (Its performance would be different at other speeds. Another form of presenting pump curves is shown in Figure 11. the BHP it uses.5. H= 35.t:: 10~--------------~--------------~--------------~~----~0 30 o 50 - 100 150 Flow rate. lines of constant BHP and constant efficiency are shown. Solution Using Figure 11. proceed vertically up to the intersection with the head.---------~----r_------------_.----------~17~5~0~R~PTM~----. a manufacturer may show the performance curves for a number of different size pumps together.2 If the pump whose ratings are shown in Figure 11. Reading horizontally across. pump of the type shown in Figure 11.. and what is its efficiency? j .4 is a set of flowlhead curves for a number of small pumps. speed of 1750 RPM. pump at 1750 RPM.) The performance of a given pump is found from its curves. operating at 1750 RPM.

The power output is the power transmitted to the water. (s.g. WHP 1.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. are shown for a particular pump in Figure 11.2 also shows the flow versus rate efficiency curve for the same centrifugal pump. GPM H = total pump head.82) BHP=-.2 Typical performance characteristic curves for a centrifugal pump. = specific gravity of liquid. What is the minimum size motot that should be used to drive the pump? { Solution . "0 (]) C1l a.x 100= x 100=3. The power required to drive the pump is called the brake horsepower (BHP). The ratings of the pump in Figure 11. at which the head is at or close to a maximum. and then decreases again at the pump's maximum flow rate. The flow ratelBHP curve indicates that the BHP increases with flow rate for a centrifugal pump.82 HP Using Equation I 1. l (ILl) WHP = 200x36 3960 : x 1 = 1. especially for reasons that will be discussed shortly..2. In reality. Using Equation I Ll to find the poter output. The efficiency (E) of a pump is defined as: E= power output WHP x 100= . I (]) I Flow rate Flow rate Flow rate .2) This efficiency is sometimes call the mechanical efficiency (ME). Note that at shut-off efficiency is zero because there is no flow. Notice that the flowlhead curve indicates that a centrifugal pump develops less head at greater flow. EXPANSION TANKS. ft of liquid s.3 are for a The power input to a pump is always greater than the power output because of friction and other unavoidable losses.2. also called ratings.3. a larger nominal size motor might be used to prevent possible overloading of the motor.0HP E 60 This would be the minimum power needed for a motor.1 A chilled water pump for the air conditioning system in the Five Aces Casino is delivering 200 GPM at a total head of 36 ft of water. 3960 where WHP = water horsepower (output). The BHP is the power input to a pump. Example 11. They are determined by the manufacturer by testing the pump.g. The condition of no flow is called shut-off. AND VENTING 289 The curves for a typical centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 11.· given by the following equation: WHP= GPMxHxs. Figure 11. HP GPM = flow rate. then it rises to a maXimum.g. We must find the required power input (BHP). The manufacturer lists the pump efficiency as 60% a\ this condition. The performance depends on the speed at which the pump is operated. = 1 for water) Figure 11.x 100 power input BHP (I 1. The pump performance characteristics.

Instead of BHP and efficiency curves. Another form of presenting pump curves is shown in Figure U. in diameter. Reading horizontally across.6 HP E=64% Example 11. How much water is the pump circulating.5 is operating at 1750 RPM. proceed vertically up to the intersection with the head.-----~17~5~0~R~PTM~----~ f-______-I-.J Head 70 40 .c 30 2I 0. and its effieiency.3. BHP= 1.0 (I) . In this case. To conserve data space. the flowlhead curves are shown for a few pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in.) This speed and 3500 RPM are the most commonly used in the United States because they are the natural speeds resulting from direct connection to a 60 Hz motor.) The performance of a given pump is found from its curves._------------_. (In countries that use 50 Hz current.i .c ::. all using the same casing. lines of constant BHP and constant efficiency are shown. pump of the type shown in Figure 11.3. Example 11. a manufacturer may show the performance curves for a number of different size pumps together.2 0 ~ c: III . respectively.. GPM ~ ~ . at 120 GPM. as Example 11.: 20 1 40 (I) 10L-______________ ______________ ______________ o 50 100 150 Flow rate.290 CHAPTER 11 Data: 61/2" impeller diameter 5or---------~----. and efficiency curves. Solution Using Figure 11. <D 50 ~ III .S. Each pump is furnished with a motor large enough to handle the maximum BHP. what BHP is it using.2 If the pump whose ratings are shown in Figure 11....4 is a set of flowlhead curves for a number of small pumps. pump at 1750 RPM. the BHP it uses. BHP and efficiency are not indicated.. H=35. operating at 1750 RPM.3 Performance curves for a 6* in. BHP. 1450 RPM and 2900 RPM would be the usual speeds. (Its performance would be different at other speeds. Figure 11.5 ft w." 60 ~ 0 . speed of 1750 RPM. and what is its efficiency? j i ._~------J0 30 Figure 11. c: m '" '" ~ .3 A 6 in. Suction and discharge gages at the pump read 30 psig and 45 psig. find the head it is developing.2 ill ustrates._--. is delivering 120 GPM.

which one would be the best choice. .4 For the group of pumps shown in Figure 11. '" " "" '" "" "'" "'" "" 25 ~ ~ " 35 . and the head it develops is 11. however.g.. . which is more than enough. o o 5 Figure 11. based on size. :--..4 PUMP SELECTION In the previous section. we read the BHP and efficiency. Converting this to ft of water. there are a number of factors that should be considered in selecting the most appropriate pump. the flow rate is 78 GPM. A pump that is operating near the point of maximum efficiency should be selected. 8 6 4 2 -:r--. . These two system characteristics are the primary ones in selecting a pump... Usually.. This gener- ally falls in the mid-range of pump flow capacity... I. 100 (1. At this flow. we learned how to determine the performance of a pump from its curves. at a pump head of 34. H = (45 . = 34.5.12 HP) '"~ "" ~ ~ ~ 20 15 Flow.. .N 1750 RPM ~/4HP) 6HP ) t. --K 10 1b1 (118 . at the required flow rate we see that the smallest pump that will provide the required head is a size 103. and the larger size 104 develops much more than required. . AND VENTING 16 i-- 291 14 l.. . interpolating if necessary. GPM ~ ~ ~ t'-. That pump might be used by throttling flow rate.30) psig x 2. .4.0HP E=67% 11.~ 30 Solution The pump head is the difference between the suction and discharge pressures.:.5 ft w. The size 102 pump does not develop adequate head at the required flow rate.. Using the f10wlhead curve for the 6 in. for a system with a required flow rate of IS GPM and 10 ft water pressure loss? Soilition Locating the system point A in the figure. EXPANSION TANKS. 10 3: --.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.3 ft water . Another situation is the need to select a pump for a system.4.j 1~) -= os Q) I .4 Performance curves for a group of small in-line pumps. but it would be unnecessarily expensive-and would use more energy. pump from Figure 11.5 ft water. This is useful for the operator or TAB engineer in testing an existing pump. there was only one suitable pump for the application. I pSI Example 11. In Example 11.--12 '--.5 ft of water. as BHP= 1. The pump must have a capacity equal to the system flow rate and a head equal to the system pressure loss.

.45% '3 HP V\I ~ :> ~P V 2 HP 1'1 1/2 ~P Figure 11... The steepness of the flowlhead curves varies among centrifugal pumps. 6] 40 30 5" 20 10 ~ .b<V \. It is recommended that pumps with flat head characteristic curves be used for hydronic systems. Steep Flow . A cooling tower circuit might be an example. gallons per minute ~~HP -~ K><:: )< . . ~ L ~ > .? X '>< .. .. Select a pump in the vicinity of 50-75% of maximum flow.55% /-: ~ I. ~ ~ ~ "i"-. .: K V l" " r-I"f ~L Rr-.) 2.md steep head curve pump.. At 3500 RPM." ". Z. ./ .'>~ '''' '-I I ~. there will be a corresponding small change in pump head. (Courtesy: IlT Fluid Handling Division.S. increasing frictional resistance. the pump will not have the extra needed capacity. 1/2 HP 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100110120130140150160170180190200 Capacity in U. 4.5 Performance curves for a group of pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in. For hydronic systems. . This makes balancing and controlling flow rates easier. where the pipe will roughen with age.. . It is not advisable to select a pump operating near its maximum capacity. at 1750 RPM. . 5~%60% I I .. 3. ~ . . A steep head. figure 11.6 Flat versus steep pump head characteristics. If there is a large change in flow rate. and therefore also increasing the required pump head. r-.6 shows examples of afiat head curve . Figure 11.. depending on their design. / II' 6r 50 2 "0 6 1/2'" . If the system flow rate actually required is greater than designed for. "'K% 6~% 6 % 60% )'. but the higher speed results in higher noise levels that may be disturbing in occupied areas.. / . k ". ~ " o i"-r-.. yet where it is desired to maintain reasonably constant flow rate.c (ii 13 f" 51). . even though a smaller pump results from this choice." / rr A".17--.292 CHAPTER 11 4J% 60 7" Q. a smaller pump can be used. it is preferable to select a pump operating at 1750 RPM rather than 3500 RPM. curve pump might be used in a system where the system pressure resistance is expected to gradually increase with time.

8). If the flow rate were GPM. Pump ~ l---------::::::~~=__ Operating point -g Q) I System Flow . one must be careful not to become locked into using only that manufacturer's product.7). then to find the total system resistance. if there is any. Note that the system frictional resistance rises very sharply with increased flow rate.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. GPM2> GPM) = flow rates at conditions 2 and I. This characteristic curve includes frictional pressure loss only. Hf2 = Hf ) ( GPM GPM) 2)2 = 30(80)2 = 53 ft w. using Equation 11. Therefore.3. Although System and pump head characteristic curves indicating point of operation. not any static head. Some manufacturers offer computer software to the system designer for pump selection. it can be found at any other flow rate. EXPANSION TANKS.3) Flow. The pressure loss-flow rate relationship is called the system characteristic. If the pressure loss is calculated at one flow rate.8 Solution Using the system characteristic Equation 11. which can be determined from the following equation: H f2 Hf ) = (GPM2)2 GPM) (11. the static head would be added to account for the net height the water is lifted. what would be the pressure loss due to friction? 80 11. Example 11. this may be a significant convenience. it applies to a closed circuit only (see Chapter 8).6 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND PUMP CHARACTERISTICS The system and pump characteristic curves can both be plotted together (Figure I \. This is very useful in analyzing operating problems. 60 A system characteristic curve can be plotted for any piping system by calculating the pressure loss at a few different conditions (Figure 11.7 tion at conditions 2 and I.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A piping system has a pressure loss due to friction of 30 ft water when the flow rate is 60 GPM. GPM where Hf 2> Hf ) = pressure loss in piping due to fric- Figure 11.3. Figure 11. AND VENTING 293 11. Typical system characteristic curve.5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS The pressure loss in a piping system changes with the flow rate through the system. If the circuit is open.

3. through point 2.'-'----"'~~~ ----------------" / ® G)?--.® Flow Excess power BHP In I n. Therefore. I DeSign operating condition Actual operating condition lE I . Point I therefore represents the expected point of operation. Then what is the operating condition? To find it. consider the situation where the actual system pressure loss is less than the design pressure loss (Figure 11. For instance. but many types of problems encountered in balancing and operating systems can be understood by studying the curves together. The only point where this is true is where the system and pump head curves intersect. that the actual system pressure loss at the design GPM was only that indicated by point 2. Furthermore.. Instead of the safety factor. Curve A. . and there are many variables that might cause operation at higher than design flow.~ 1 ." ' 0' t B \G). The real operating condition must be where this curve intersects the pump curve. if the excess and unnecessary pressure loss had not been allowed for originally. using less power. This is a waste of energy.294 CHAPTER 11 The head developed by the pump must be exactly equal to the system pressure loss. a smaller pump might have been chosen (at point 2). However. the real curve B. Even though it is proper to select a pump with head close to the actual system pressure loss. using Equation 11. It is not usually necessary to plot both curves to make a pump selection. Suppose. and if the motor has not been oversized. The extra motor cost is a nominal part of the total cost. and the pump will thus use more power than expected.// A~' .9). 1: 11# I ~ . This may overcool or overheat the building. The pump is actually delivering more flow than is desired. the following important statement always holds true: The point of intersection of the system characteristic and pump characteristic jlow/head curves is always the actual operating condition for the system/pump combination.9 Illustration of excess power use and incorrect operation condition by use of "safety factor. Point 2 of course cannot be the system operating point because it is not a point of intersection with the pump curve.!. could also be plotted. however." Pump head '0 f------------. A pump is selected to develop this head. we plot a new system characteristic curve. But notice what has happened.~. . the expected system characteristic curve.. the condition may be less safe! The problem could be resolved after installation by adding resistance in the circuit. point 3. say by throttling a balancing valve. 1 .. /. it is often advisable to select a motor for nonoverloading conditions. Figure 11. This would bring us back to point I. with a capacity greater than the BHP at maximum flow. we may have a burned out motor. The system design pressure loss and flow rate is given by point I. This might occur because the system designer allowed for a "safety factor" in calculating the piping friction loss. we know that the real operating point is farther out on the pump curve than expected.

sometimes called booster pumps or circulators. 0ftX .7 PUMP SIMILARITY LAWS There are a number of relations concerning flow rate.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. ships a centrifugal pump to Argentina. A few of these are: (11. each having different applications. power. The pump and motor are mounted integrally. In-line pumps. however.) 1450)2 ( 1750 1450)3 BHP2 =6BHPx . Using the similarity laws. and the pump suction and discharge connections are in a straight line (inline).1 0) is used for small. It is advisable.6) where H = pump head. speed. using 6 BHP. the pump can be supported directly by the piping and is inexpensive and simple to install. Because of this amingement and the relatively light weight. The pump is rated at 380 GPM and 40 ft head.10 In-line type pump. are popular for small hydronic heating systems.= 315 GPM 1750 H2=4 . 2 = any two operating conditions Example 11.4) Note that the centrifugal pump similarity laws are identical to those for a centrifugal fan (see Chapter 10).8 PUMP CONSTRUCTION (11. The close-coupled pump (Figure 11. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. The in-line pump (Figure 11. EXPANSION TANKS. 1450 GPM2 = 380 GPM x .4HP ( 1750 There are also pump similarity laws for determining the effect of a change in impeller diameter.11) has the impeller mounted on and supported by the motor Figure 11. where 50 Hz electric current is used.=27. to consult the manufacturer if a change in impellers is being considered. 11. low head applications. ----- Centrifugal pumps are available in varied arrangements and features of construction.=3.6 The Pumpernickel Pump Co.5) (11. What will be the pump's rating in Argentina? Solution The pump will operate at 1450 RPM on the 50 Hz current.5ftw. AND VENTING 295 11.. ft w. RPM BHP = brake horsepower I. at a speed of 1750 RPM.. N = pump speed. .. and head for any given centrifugal pump that are sometimes useful to the HVAC engineer.

Another arrangement uses cotton waste packing that is impregnated with oil.12 Close·coupled pump. The horizontal split case is used on very large pumps so that the very heavy upper part of the casing can be lifted vertically by a mechanical hoist.296 CHAPTER J J Figure 11. Ball bearings are lubricated with grease. The motor has a mounting flange for supporting the motor/pump combination from a suitable base. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. In addition to the in-line and close-coupled pump and motor combinations.and ball-type bearings are both used. The pump and motor shafts are connected by a flexible coupling. Sleeve bearings are lubricated with oil.or double-suction construction. The flexible coupling aids in alignment of the two shafts and helps to reduce vibrations. if it has shrouds on one side. it is called a closed impeller. split case construction are used. The bronze·fitted pump is generally the combination of materials used for hydronic systems. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. such as sewage. it is called an open impeller. Large pumps may have an oil pump for forcing the oil to the bearings. With larger pumps the contractor mounts the pump and motor and connects them together through the coupling. CentrifugaLpumps can have either single. Open-type impellers are not generally used in HVAC applications because their purpose is to permit handling of liquids containing solids. The close coupled pump is relatively inexpensive and is available from small to medium capacities and heads. Both horizontal split case and vertical. One arrangement has a reservoir of oil and an oil ring that flings the oil around as it rotates. The pump has an end suction connection. the pump. pumps are also furnished as separate items. .13).) shaft. Larger pumps are constructed with double-suction inlets. The pump casing can be one cast piece or can be split-manufactured in two halves that are bolted together. and motor may be preassembled by the manufacturer on a common base plate (Figure 11. it is called semi-open. If the impeller has walls (called shrouds) on both sides.12) for convenience of installation. The casing is cast iron and the impeller is bronze or brass. Some motor ball bearings are sealed and cannot be lubri· cated in the field (Figure 11. Sleeve.) Pump and motor connected by flexible coupling and mounted on common base plate. in which water enters either through one or both sides of the pump. In the medium size range. coupling. The pump can be opened on the job for ac· cess to bearings or other internal parts. if it has no shrouds. The split casing makes repairs more convenient.11 Figure 11.

14).yWaste Motor shaft "----n-'--lr==tl A'HHJ:::r--" Drain plug Oil return port Oil reservoir Oil ring lubrication (a) Waste packed lubrication Outer bearing face Bearing housing I Ball bearing Inner bearing face (b) Figure 11. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. Mechanical seals have two hard. The packing will wear and must be inspected and replaced at intervals.13 Sleeve and ball bearings.) Ball bearings are generally used on smaller pumps. one that is stationary and one that rotates..:A!iQ77. A small leakage is expected and normal. Packed seals use a soft material that presses against the shaft with an ad- justable tightness. and a dri p pan and drain lines should be provided to handle this. They cannot be used where there are any solid particles in the system because the surfaces .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. Either packing or mechanical seals are used (Figure 11. (b) Ball bearings. (a) Sleeve bearings. AND VENTING 297 Oil cup Sleeve bearing Oil ring . EXPANSION TANKS. Seals are required to prevent leakage of water under pressure. Properly applied. Larger "pumps may have either sleeve or ball bearings. very smooth mating surfaces. Sleeve bearings are quieter and are therefore recommended for hydronic service with larger pumps. they will prevent any significant leakage.

14 (a) Packed seal... (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division) .+ I ' Pump shaft . (b) Mechanical seal.+ 1 Stuffing box -----t77j-~~~~~~ Packing rings (a) • Impeller Liquid side Atmosphere • Rubber bellows Pump body wall Fastener ring Insert gasket (b) Figure 11.298 CHAPTER 11 • Atmosphere Swing Liquid side • Packing gland ..

H..5 psia (Table A. The available NPSH must be greater than the pump requires. It results when the water pressure at the pump suction is too low.2 ft w. AND VENTING 299 will become scored and the seal will be lost. If it is too low.3 ft w.. the piping arrangement must be changed. a minimum pressure must be maintained at the pump suction.3). The required NPSH for a pump can be obtained from the manufacturer. and possible damage to the pump.7) where 11.2 ft w. the vapor pressure of the water in the pump may fall below its corresponding saturation temperature (Chapter 2) and the water will flash into steam. The available NPSH can be determined from the following equation: (11. It can be a problem in cooling tower systems if the pump is elevated to a location requiring a high suction lift. SO/lIIion The vapor pressure of water at 180 F is 7.7. Changing all units to ft w.. the pump or tower may have to be relocated. 11.3 = 6. The possibility of cavitation is usually of concern in an open system where there is suction lift to the pump and where the temperature is high. if open) H: Hf = elevation of the liquid suction above (+) or below (-) the centerline of the impeller =friction and velocity head loss in the suction plpmg H. a phenomenon called cavitation may occur in the pump suction.7 are in feet of water.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS...31 ft w. an allowance must be made for this. EXPANSION TANKS. The placement of the compression tank is an important factor relating to this. The water will rush into these cavities at great force.1 psi Ha= l4.Hf . Determine the available NPSH. Hn = H" ± Hz . To avoid this.31 =34ftw.8 .5 ft w. unless it is restricted. 17. noise. causing operating problems and possible damage to the pump.9 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD Under certain conditions in circulating water systems.5 psi x . Hv=7. = 34 . Boiler condensate return systems are also subject to cavitation if they are not designed and installed in accordance with the NPSH requirements.7 A pump takes water at 180 F from an open tank that is 8 ft below the pump centerline.7x2.10 THE EXPANSION TANK Water expands when its temperature increases. The problem is not usually encountered in hydronic systems because the static head in a closed system acts on the suction. called net positive suction head (NPSH). Atmospheric pressure is 14. If this occurs. 2.5 . = absolute vapor pressure of water corresponding to the temperature The units in Equation 11. and temperature. They are very popular in hydronic systems because no maintenance is required and they can last many years. The available NPSH is calculated from examining the suction system arrangement of pressure loss. causing erratic operation. In a hydronic system. momentarily leaving pockets or cavities.2. The pump used must have a required NPSH less than 6. H" = available NPSH Ha = absolute pressure at surface of liquid where pump takes suction (atmospheric pressure. If this happens. lift. If the piping system . Friction and velocity head loss in the piping is 2.17. however. Substituting in Equation 11.7 psi. and will be explained later. Example 11. The steam bubbles formed may collapse in the pump.

The pressure at any location must not be lower than the saturation pressure of the water. This is a subject that is often not understood correctly.15 Expansion. the effect being a rise in the water level in the tank. this may occur particularly at the pump suction. the system has some of the defects of open hydronic systems. for example. it partially fills the tank. the water will boil and the steam created will cause operating problems.11 SYSTEM PRESSURE CONTROL The pressure in a hydronic system must be controlled within certain maximum and minimum limits. compression tanks have largely replaced open expansion tanks in hydronic systems. Figure 11. As mentioned previously. If this happens. The minimum pressure requirement is based on two factors: 1.15(a) shows that as the water temperature increases. however. compressing the gas. Figure 11. For this reason. An open expansion tank can be provided at the highest point in the system to solve this problem. The maximum allowable pressures are usually based on the permissible equipment pressures. A much better solution is to use a closed expansion tank containing a gas (air or nitrogen). When the water expands. leading to operating difficulties and possible equipment damage. which would therefore be the maximum allowable pressure at the boiler.15(b) is usually called a compression tank. the piping or equipment might break. In a low temperature hydronic heating system. For these reasons. i l I f .and compression-type tanks. the closed expansion tank such as the one shown in Figure l1. the boiler relief valve is often set at 30 psig. Particularly undesirable is the continual exposure to air and its possible corrosive effects.300 CHAPTER 11 is completely filled and there is no space for the water to expand. Vent Water level (hot) Gage glass Overflow Water level (hot) (cold) Water level (cold) To system below Open expansion tank (a) Compression (closed) tank (b) . 11. Because the tank is open to the atmosphere. The compression tank serves an additional purpose beyond that of providing for the water expansion-it aids in controlling system pressure. the total volume of water in the system increases.

the pressure at the tank location remains at 25 psia.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.16(b) shows what happens to the pressures when the pump runs. Control of maximum and minimum pressures to ensure that none of these problems occur is achieved by proper sizing and location of the compression tank and by correctly pressurizing the system when fiiling. we can see what effect the tank's location has on controlling system pressure. air may enter the system. the pressure at the pump suction might not fall below atmospheric even if the tank is located at the pump discharge. (b) Tank at pump discharge. we must understand how the compression tank functions. The pressure at any location should not be lower than atmospheric pressure. as seen in Figure 11. Effect of compression tank location at pump discharge. Air would undoubtedly leak into the system at the pump suction. The pressure at the pump suction must therefore be 20 psi less than this value. the total volume of water in the system remains constant.l7(a). By assuming two different tank locations and utilizing the above principle. . the pressure at the pump discharge must be 45 psia (30 psig). If this happens. except for small residential systems. as before. To know how to accomplish this. Cavitation in the pump might also occur in a heating system. Let us see what happens if the tank is located at the suction side of the pump. because the pump adds 20 psi. However. Assume the pump has a head of 20 psi. which is far below atmospheric pressure. pump not operating.16 . Figure II. The pressure at the tank must be the point of no pressure change. this arrangement is usually still not advisable. or 5 psia. not at the pump discharge. pump operating. The pressure throughout the system is well above atmospheric. because the boiling point of water at 5 psia is only 160 F. the pressure at this point is still 25 psia. This holds true regardless of where the tank is located and whether or not the pump is operating. Figure 11. Assume that the pressure throughout the system initially is 10 psig (25 psia) without the pump running as seen in Figure II. If the pump head is low and there is a static head of water above the pump and tank elevation.17(b).. As the pump adds 20 psi. This example shows that the compression tank should be connected to the system at the pump suction. AND VENTING 301 2. The value of this pressure will depend on how much the gas in the tank is compressed. The water in the tank will be at the same pressure as the gas in the tank. All of the piping is on the same level. (a) Tank at pump discharge. Once the system is filled with water and the water is heated to operating temperature. so when the pump runs. EXPANSION TANKS. But 5 psia is -10 psig.16.16(a). In Figure 11. When the pump runs. The volume of gas in the tank therefore also remains constant and its pressure does not change. The compression tank acts similarly to a spring or an air cushion. (a) (b) . the initial pressure is at 25 psia throughout the system. The following statement summarizes this fact: The point at which the compression tank is connected to the system is the point of no pressure change. Consider first the compression tank located 'at the discharge side of the pump for the system shown in Figure 11.

3. This is the pressure due to the height of water above any point. 2. As explained earlier.I Boiler T-():rPump Ie. If the tank is connected at the pump 11. In this case. when the temperature is raised in. the pump should be located to discharge away from the boiler. the pressure at the highest point in the system would be atmospheric. the pressure will increase further due to expansion of the water compressing air in the tank. (The recommended arrangement of pump.J . and compression tank is shown in Figure 11. Accessories are not shown. the contractor should fill the system under pressure.) sure of 4-5 psig at the top of the system is adequate for hydronic systems. or a steam boiler and hot water heat exchanger might be used (Chapter 5). Pump pressure. which is often at the bottom Of·the system. In order to provide a safety margin to . Initial fill pressure. Usually the critical point is the boiler. prevent the pressure from going below atmospheric and thus leaking air in. this depends on where the compression tank is located. a hydronic heating system.18.17 Effect of compression tank location at pump suction.18 Sketch for Example 11 . if it is in the basement. might be above the maximum pressure. j . (b) Tank at pump suction.12 COMPRESSION TANK SIZE The size of the compression tank for a system must be adequate to receive the increased volume of water from expansion and also to keep the pressures within minimum and maximum limits.302 CHAPTER 11 (a) (b) Figure 11. pump operating. To keep the pressure exerted on the boiler as low as possible. the static head at the boiler. so that the boiler is not subject to the pump discharge pressure. the boiler could be located in a penthouse.. If the system were initially filled without pressure. (a) Tank at pump suction. When the pump is operated. . 4. On a high-rise building. After the system is filled with cold water and pressurized. Static pressure. A pres- Figure 11.8. Pressure/temperature increase. the pressures change in the system by the value of the pump head. 25 It I Tank I . pump not operating. The size depends on the following sources of pressure: I. boiler.

0_4_6-. absolute pressure plus static pressure at tank. = required volume of compression tank. + 34 = 72 ft w.O_. v.:6)_V. = minimum pressure at tank.3 ft w.g. Fill pressure is 5 psig. These factors have been combined in the following formula developed by the ASME for determining tank size: ( . . The flexing of the diaphragm allows for the expansion and contraction.3 + 25 = 38 ft w. gallons A compression-type expansion tank of approxi- V5 = volume of system.8 will be used.0466]600 . if connected at the suction side of the pump. Dissolved air is in the fi II water and the compressed air is in fhe tank.00041 (200) .7 psi x 2. If the tank is connected at the pump discharge.19). The pump head is 20 ft of water:The pressure relief valve on the boiler is set at 30 psig.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. Eventually. a convenient flexible diaphragm-type compression tank is often used (Figure 11. AND VENTING 303 suction. If the tank is connected to the discharge side of the pump.13 AIR CONTROL AND VENTING When the system is initially filled. absolute Substituting in the equation HalH. From the previous information. = 72 + 20 = 92 ft w.0. ft water absolute H.S) 1=200F Vs = 600 gallons Ha = 14. The system volume is determined from the pipe sizes and from equipment volumes.=(I I. That is. ft water absolute The required tank size in this case becomes Ho = maximum pressure at tank.lS. gallons t = design average water temperature._00_0_4_11_-_0_. air unavoidably enters the system./I psi = 34 ft w. the head is added at every point. The high point is 25 ft above the boiler. Example 11. For small systems. Solution Equation 11 . The system volume is 600 gal. pressure loss from friction is usually neglected. equal to the fill mately 150 gal capacity would be used on this system.S will illustrate how the compression tank is sized.8 Determine the required size of the closed expansion tank for the hydronic heating system shown in Figure Il. = 21.of the system water. F Ha = atmospheric pressure. H. ft water absolute The term in the parentheses in the equation represents the expansion of water. Tables are available from manufacturers that list the appropriate tank size according to the building heating load.HalHo v_ where [0. Example II. information that can be obtained from manufacturers. In using the fonnula. absolute Ho = 30 psig = 45 psia x 2.3 = 104 ft w. further air will enter even a carefully designed and . it is usually not necessary to calculate the size of the compression tank. = 5 x 2. the minimum pressure at the tank must be increased by the amount of pump head. EXPANSION TANKS. For residential and other small hydronic heating systems. H. the terms in the equation are 11. The design average water temperature is 200 F..-5 V. the pump head is subtracted from the pressure at every point.34172 _ 34/104 146 gal v. The tank is located atthe boiler elevation..2 34/92 _ 3411 04 493 gal Note that the tank size must be increased greatly because of its location.

" 3. but if they stick in an open position.20 Automatic air venting valve for terminal units. but often there are many rises and drops in piping. but will find its way to other high points in the piping system. However. Provide for venting air from the system in design. which is usually in the range of 50-70% of their maximum capacity. they could cause considerable water damage to a building. Inc. 11. Ideally. List the basic parts of a centrifugal pump and their functions. This air must be vented from the system or it will block flow through terminal units. therefore it will indirectly reduce efficiency. which are small valves. This prevents the trapping of air at the top of the fitting.com www.20). .com Review Questions I. Much of this air will find its way to the compression tank. through makeup water and when the system is opened for maintenance and repair. and maintenance. dissolved air is released from the water as air bubbles. some air probablY will not be collected in the tank.14 ENERGY CONSERVATION I.19 Diaphragm-type compression tank. each resulting in a high point. must be provided at all high points in the system. 2. Air vents. Sometimes an air separator device (Figure IUS) is located at the tank connection to divert air to the tank. and the air and water together may promote corrosion. the contractor opens each vent and bleeds air until none are left. After the system is filled and put into operation. Automatic air vents are convenient. installation. When the water in the system is first heated to operating temperature.304 CHAPTER 11 Flexible diaphragm Figure 11. Do not allow an extra pressure loss in the piping as a "safety factor. Air will block flow and prevent proper operation. installed system. a system should have only one high point. (Courtesy: Taco. Select pumps in their range of greatest efficiency.taconet. which Figure 11. Control of air in the system is necessary for two reasons: The presence of air will block the flow of water.armstrongpumps. An eccentric type reducing fitting (Chapter 9) is recommended when changing pipe size. It is helpful to pitch horizontal piping slightly up toward high points when installing it. It is also advisable to install a vent at-each terminal unit.) often occurs at the pump connections. Useful Websites Information can be found at the following Websites for pump selection and specifications: www. Vent valves may be manual or automatic (Figure 11.

Produce the pump curve and specifications. I A pump for a hydronic solar heating system is circulating 60 GPM of an antifreeze solution that has a specific gravity of 1.. EXPANSION TANKS. 11.7 11. The pump head is 30 ft w. 6. I I. show the typical centrifugal pump characteristics curves. the engineer calculates the pressure loss at 37 ft w. Pump 103 (Figure 11. What factors should be considered in selecting a pump for a hydronic system? What is the relationship between the pump and system characteristics? Explain the following terms: ill-line. The high point is 20 ft above the boiler.4 for this application. w. and closed or open impeller. It requires 2 BHP at these conditions. (b) pump discharge.9 Problems I I. what will be its expected rating and required BHP? A hydronic heating system has a design average water temperature of 220 F.4) is used. 10.4 A hydronic system requires 20 GPM of water. 12. 9.and (c) high point of the system. Computer Solution Problems I I. closecoupled.6 I 1. List the methods of bearing lubrication and the types of bearings to which they apply. 5. The system is filled under a pressure of 4 psig. .I I Select an in-line pump for a head of 30 ft w. The pressure relief valve on the boiler is set at 30 psig.2 The pump whose characteristic curves are shown in Figure I 1. What is the importance of NPSH? What are the functions of a compression tank" What considerations are important for minimum and maximum pressure control? Where should air vents be installed? How should the piping be installed to improve air venting? 11. A centrifugal pump has a rating of 120 GPM and 36 ft w. Produce the pump curve and specifications.3 is circulating 100 GPM. when the flow rate is 15 GPM. WiII pump 103 be satisfactory? For a system requiring 110 GPM. Produce the pump curve and specifications.3 Pump 6!h (Figure I 1.taconet. 3. Try the provider at www.5 The pressure loss due to friction in a hy- dronic system is 10 ft w.3. and 18 GPM flow rate. The actual pressure drop is only 25 ft w. What is the head. List the two types of pump seals and their features. I I. AND VENTING 305 2.I 0 Select an in-line pump for a head of 8 ft w. at this flow rate.6 how could the proper flow rate be achieved? Determine the BHP and head at this condition. Try the provider at www. Find the GPM it is circulating. The pump efficiency is 55%. The system volume is 290 gal.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. and its efficiency. selecting the pump in Figure 11. Name the two types of pump bearings for hydronic systems and their features. 12 Select a horizontal split case pump for a flow rate of 300 GPM and a 125 ft. and a flow rate of 100 GPM. It is decided to increase the flow rate to 18 GPM. The system pressure loss is 6 ft w.8 11. On one sketch. total head at a speed of 1150 RPM. or double-suction. What is the minimum size motor required to drive the pump? I 1.taconet. 8. against a total head of 23 ft w. 11. Find the required compression tank volume if it is located at the (a) pump suction.1 4. For Problem I 1. and efficiency? I 1.5) is operating with a total head of 38 ft w. Try the provider at www. Select a pump from Figure 11. If its speed is increased to 1450 RPM. I 1.com. single-.com.taconet.com. 4. head at 1750 RPM. Determine the actual operating conditions of GPM and BHP if no changes are made in the system. the power it is using. 13. BHP. 7.

5. and costs are some of the variables that determine which type of system is to be used. All-water (hydronic) systems. Identify the types of zoned air conditioning systems and their features. 7. Identify the types and performance characteristics of air cleaners. the planner must consider the features of each type of system and decide which is the best choice. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. space available. Identify the components of single zone central system air conditioning equipment and their functions.c H A p T E R Air Conditioning Systems and Equipment T here are a large number of variations in the types of air conditioning systems and the ways they can be used to control the environment in a building. These systems use only air for cooling or heating. 3. such as A. 306 12. 2. The cooling/heating fluid that is used There are three possible groups iii regard to the fluid used: I. 3. 2. Air-water combination systems.····· 4. 6. Select a cooling coil. All-air systems. These systems use both water and air for cooling and heating. Load changes. In every application. you will be able to: I. Describe the causes of and solutions to poor indoor air quality. . These systems use only water for cooling or heating.1 SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONS Air conditioning systems can be classified in a number of ways. Describe the features of all-water and air-water systems. Describe the features of the different types of unitary equipment. zoning requirements.

This presents a serious problem if there are other rooms or spaces that do not have the same load change behavior as the rOom where the thermostat is located. and internal loads. The cooling coil cools and dehumidifies the air in summer. a single zone air conditioning system is unsatisfactory. solar radiation. It will satisfy only one or a group of zones whose heat gains vary in unison. ductwork. But suppose room B still needs full cooling. cools or heats air that is then distributed to one or a group of rooms that constitute a single zone.1 provides a complete year-round air conditioning system to control both temperature and humidity. One solution to this problem is to use a separate air conditioning unit for each differently behaving zone.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 307 B. The solar heat gain may increase in rooms on one side and decrease in those on another side. This situation occurs in any building where the load changes behave differently among rooms. A multiple zone system can satisfactorily air condition a number of different zones. A window air conditioner is an example of a single zone air conditioning unit. temperature but not humidity can be controlled in summer (see Chapter 7). as shown in Figure 12. if the equipment is cooling too much. however. Internal loads also are frequently not uniform in their changes. all-air single zone system. if not all. of the system components (fans. Our focus in this section. refrigeration equipment) are furnished as an assembled package from the manufacturer. Now it will get insufficient cooling and the room temperature will rise. Unitary or central systems A unitary system uses packaged equipment. The supply air fan is necessary to distribute air through the unit. The equipment shown in Figure 12. Not all of the components are used in all circumstances. thus maintaining the desired room temperature. This load is continually changing because of the variations in outside air temperature. Often.1. thus providing humidity control in summer. Consider rooms on different exposures. People change locations. That is. most. Lights may be switched off in one space and not another. the thermostat either stops the unit or reduces its cooling output. C. an air conditioning system of the multiple zone type is used. When these situations exist. 12. The various ways that this can be accomplished will be part of our discussion. creating discomfort. The room thermostat controls the air conditioning equipment so that it responds properly to the changing load. For example. called an air handling unit (AHU). the cooling output of the unit is reduced and the room temperature remains approximately constant. For instance. This . A central or built-up system is one where the components are furnished separately and installed and assembled by the contractor. coils. If no reheat coil is used. and air distribution devices to the rooms. The central unit. will be on a central type.2 ZONES AND SYSTEMS The amount of heating or cooling that the air conditioning equipment delivers to a space must always match the space load or requirements. however. 12. It receives chilled water or refrigerant from a remote refrigeration unit. where the cooling load decreases. An air conditioning zone is a room or group of rooms in which comfortable conditions can be maintained by a single controlling device.3 SINGLE ZONE SYSTEM A single zone air conditioning system has one thermostat automatically controlling one heating or cooling unit to maintain the proper temperature in a single room or a group of rooms constituting a zone. The reheat coil partially reheats the cooled air when the room heat gain is less than maximum. if the thermostat is in room A. Single zone or multiple zone systems A single zone system can satisfactorily air condition only one zone in a building.

-+/ /" / '-------------.1 Arrangement of single zone central system air conditioning equipment./ .. .rooms Room 1 Return air (RA) Exhaust air (EA) Room 2 }-_--+_ _ _ _ _ _'---_ _ _ _ _ _ _-'-_ _ _ _ _-'-_ _ _ _.. t Dampers -Return air /" .------.. capable of handling the winter heating needs.2 rooms... the rest being return air (RA) recirculated from the Figure 12......' Exhaust air . ( outside air . The ductwork is generally arranged so that the system takes in some outside ventilation air (OA)..-SU~)Dlv air (SA) To other f--------'-.. Provisions are often made in the arrangement of dampers (Figure 12. '< / Maximum "outside air~ / Minimum.308 CHAPTER 12 Preheat coil Cooling (optional) Mixed air (MA) Outside air (OA) Air filter . This would be Arrangement of ducts and dampers to vary proportion of outside and return duct air.----+.._From other rooms Return air fan (optional) Figure 12. Mixed air ~ tounit .2) so that 100% outside air can be drawn in and exhausted... The equivalent amount of outside air must then be exhausted (EA) from the building... coil may alternately be a full capacity heating coil..

Examples might be operating rooms or laboratories where contaminated exhaust air often cannot be recirculated.4. Reheat system Multizone system Dual duct system Variable air volume (VAV) system In the reheat system.4 REHEAT SYSTEM 1. however. The reheat. separate single ducts from the air handling unit are distributed to each zone or room that is to be controlled separately (Figure 12. The variable air volume (VAV) varies the quantity of air delivered to the rooms. The preheat coil may be located either in the outside air or the mixed airstream.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 309 done in intermediate season cool weather to obtain cooling if needed without operating refrigeration machinery. a room humidistat is used. it is very wasteful of energy because the air must always be completely cooled to C and then often reheated (to SJ as shown for zone J)-a double waste of energy.4). 12. individual single zone units can be used for each zone. The basic air handling unit is the same as with a single zone system. The preheat coil is required in cold climates (below freezing) to temper air so that chilled water cooling coils cannot freeze up. A reheat coil is used in each of these ducts. The interaction of these controls is explained in Chapter 14. 4. That is. The reheat system provides good . Room thermostats located in each zone control their respective reheat coils to maintain the space set point temperature. Each of these types of systems will now be explained.3 Arrangement of face and bypass dampers to provide reheat for humidity control. the return air fan is not required because the supply fan can be used to draw in the return air.'--~- Bypass damper "'>- -Face damper Supply . The use of the basic zone reheat system as described is often restricted by local energy codes. If control of room humidity is required. When the system is used for winter heating. However. but does not give as good a humidity control in the space as with a reheat coil. even though this increases the refrigeration load considerably. A room thermostat will control the cooling coil capacity to maintain the desired room temperature. The return air fan takes the air from the rooms and distributes it through return air ducts back to the air conditioning unit or to the outdoors. . Four basic types of mUltiple zone all-air units and systems are available: . and dual duct systems are all constant air volume (CAV) type systems.3) provides another method of controlling humidity (see Chapter 7). Bypassing air around the cooling coil (Figure 12. "Automatic Controls. Some systems use 100% outside air and no return air at all times. 3. aIC Figure 12. the air quantity delivered to the rooms does not vary. This may unacceptably increase costs and maintenance. In this way. It is optional in milder climates and when OX (dry expansion) cooling coils are used. 2. there are a number of schemes that require only one air handling unit to serve a number of zones." To achieve satisfactory temperature and humidity control in different zones. except perhaps the main reheat coil can be eliminated. The filters are required to clean the air. multizone. In small systems with little or no return air ducts. separate control of both temperature and humidity can be achieved in each zone. both the preheat and reheat coils can be utilized. As seen in Figure 12.control of each zone.

coils. fan) c 1--. because of its inherently inefficient use of energy. described in the next section. Zone dampers are provided in the unit across the hot and cold deck at the outlet of the unit. but because mixed air is bypassed around the dehumidifying coil. Separate ducts are run from each set of dampers to each zone (Figure 12. The psychrometric processes for the multi zone system are the same as that for the dual duct system. The multizone system can provide good zone temperature control.310 CHAPTER 12 Reheat coils S1 To zone 21 Outside air to M Air handling unit (filter. humidity control may not be satisfactory in applications with high proportions of outside air.5). (a) Equipment arrangement.4 Reheat system with individual reheat coils.6). (b) Psychrometric processes for reheat system.To zone 24 o M 21 c t S1 Reheat energy DB (b) Figure 12.5 MULTIZONE SYSTEM The multiZOlle system uses an air handling unit that has a heating coil (hot deck) and cooling coil (cold deck) in parallel (Figure 12. except for special applications. 12. Cold and hot air are mixed in varying proportions by the dampers according to zone requirements. Because of the limit on the size of units available. each air handling unit is limited to about 12-14 zones. It is a relatively .To zone 22 1--_ To zone 23 Return air (a) 1-.

Mixed air at M is heated to H from the fan heat. The psychrometric processes for summer cooling zone control are shown in Figure 12. In most applications.6 DUAL DUCT SYSTEM In the dual duct system arrangement.and medium-size applications where a few separate zones are desired and humidity conditions are not criticaL The energy use features of the multizone system are similar to those of the dual duct system. Note that the room humidity is higher than the average.2 1}TO each zone /)1f-'-+--+7""'./)!-"-+--+-. f+---Hot deck . Z2 is an example of a room condition with a higher sensible and lower latent load. Figure 12. Chilled air leaves the cooling coil at C. Mixing boxes (Figure 12. Dampers in the mixing box respond to a room thermostat to mix the proper proportion of hot and cold air delivered to the zone.7).4 Multizone unit . the humidity increase is not great enough to be uncomfortable.5 Multizone unit. to be discussed in the next section. 12.8) are provided in each zone. separate hot and cold main ducts are run from heating and cooling coils in the air handling unit (Figure 12. Line Zl-S I is an actual room line for a zone ZI.3 /)Ol--'--+-. RSHR line RS is an average condition for all zones.6 Duct arrangement for multizone system. inexpensive system for small. Warm air and cold air are supplied in the correct proportion from the zone mixing box to provide zone supply air SI. with a less-than-peak sensible cooling load and high latent load. tapping air from the hot and cold ducts. not an actual room line. Ccdld deck Figure 12.7. This air mixes with air from the hot duct to produce supply air at S.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 311 Heating Heating coil Filters Fan Mixing Hot deck f+-_.

(b) Psychrometric processes. the hot duct temperature control should be set at the minimum re- quired to provide comfort. . . This is one of tbe instances where extra energy may be used. In any case. duct and return air fan heat gains are not shown in the psychrometric processes that have been described. As the outside air temperature falls. so tbat humidity does not rise too high. it may be necessary for the reheat coil to operate to maintain an adequate hot duct temperature.312 CHAPTER 12 Heating coil Outside air o M to To other Z3 zones Return air R (a) Mixing line 0 \ RSHR line Z1 for zone 21 . . (a) Equipment arrangement.7 Dual duct system arrangement. In order to simplify the explanation. 51/:"'/' __ R c Z2 Average RSHR line DB (b) Figure 12.//// H S2 _lS_?_~_:::_=-_-_-:::_::-::_~. e \. . Many installations have been designed or operated witb hot duct temperatures tbat result in considerable excess energy use.

The air downstream from the mixing box is run at conventional low velocities.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 313 12. they are prohibited in new installations. The average rOom conditions are point R. but even if' Figure 12. This minimizes the excess energy expended from the reheating or recooling.7 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME CVAV) SYSTEM The types of air conditioning systems we have already discussed are all constant air volume (CAV) systems. This might be partially offset by providing some means of increasing the proportion of outside air. there must be controls that reset the hot deck (duct) temperature at the lowest value needed for heating at all times. Maryland. Branch ducts are run from this main through VAV boxes to each zone. To maintain the design room DB temperature. However. Examples of installations where there. The installed cost of the dual duct system is usually quite high. may be a problem are conference rooms and auditoriums. they must have controls that reset the cold deck (duct) temperature at the highest value needed for cooling at all times. this increase in room humidity conditions at part load is not enough to cause discomfort. Room thennostats located in each zone control the dampers in their respective zone VAV boxes to maintain the desired room set point temperature. Notice.9(b) for summer cooling. and then apply reheat for further cooling load reduction. a solution is to limit throttling in the VAV box. A single main duct is run from the air handling unit. the use of constant volume multizone and dual duct systems is restricted. (Courtesy: Environmental Elements Corporation. The availability of cold and warm air at all times in any proportion gives the dual duct system great flexibility in handling many zones with widely varying loads. . for applications that do not have high latent loads. the quantity of outside air would also be reduced. since. The psychrometric processes for a VAV system are shown in Figure 12. The air quantity delivered from the air handling unit to each zone remains constant. Similarly. a double waste of energy. Baltimore. as desired. As with reheat systems. The variable air volume or VAV system varies the air quantity rather than temperature to each zone to maintain the appropriate room temperature. the air flow rate to zone 21 is throttled. as shown. but its latent load has not. There are other potential problems that may occur with VAV systems. The basic VAV system arrangement is shown in Figure 12. In some situations. during part load cooling for a zone. Zone 21 is shown at part load. The mixing boxes therefore have a sound attenuating section built into them. when its sensible load has decreased. Its RSHR line is therefore steeper. and the room DB in zone 21 is the same as R.) Dual duct systems are usually designed as highvelocity air systems in order to reduce duct sizes. Where these systems are allowed. The VAV box has an adjustable damper or valve so that the air quantity delivered to the space can be varied. Both the dual duct and multizone systems are inherently energy wasteful. The temperature of this air supply is changed to maintain the appropriate room temperature. overcooled air is reheated by mixing warm air with it.8 Mixing box for dual duct system. and fan horsepower requirements are high because large volumes of air are moved at high pressure. In such cases. Since the total supply air quantity is reduced at low loads.9(a). however. that the humidity in zone 21 is higher (point 21) than desired.

A control limits the minimum air quantity.. (a) Equipment arrangement..1 . Air supply diffusers are generally selected to give good coverage at maximum design air quantity. below which there would be inadequate outside air... There are a few ways this problem may be solved. If the air flow rate decreases too much.-L .314 CHAPTER 12 VAV units o M Air handling unit (filter..-:. This type of VAV box also can be used to handle the problem with high latent loads.. the air circulation in the room will not be satisfactory. described previously.-----.-----c Average RSHR line I 1 I l I i DB (b) Figure 12. fan) c R L-~______~22~______~Z3~... and uncomfortable conditions will result.. Air to (a) e~ch zone o RSHR line for zone 21 Mixing line ~/.. coils. (b) Psychrometric processes. such an arrangement were practical. When air .9 Variable air volume NAY) system arrangement. If the cooling load continues to decrease.-''''---.. the reheat coil is activated... Another potential problem at low loads and resulting low air flow rates is poor air distribution in the air conditioning spaces. there often is still some limit of minimum air flow rate. One solution to this problem is to· use a reheat VAV box. which has a built-in reheat coil. One is to use the reheat VAV box.

Terminal units in each room cool or heat the room. thus maintaining a high total air flow rate through the diffuser. the reheat coil takes over. Often the air quantities distributed are only enough for ventilation. this fan draws in and recirculates some room air. the air is usually carried at high velocities. all result in the fact that hydronic systems are often less expensive initially than all-air systems for large jobs. This energy-saving characteristic is partially that cited previously-it does not mix hot and cold air and does not reheat (except as noted). the opening narrows. One type of air-water system uses jan-coil units as the room terminal units. No air is distributed from the central plant. This type of VAV box has a small fan. This is because of the significant energy savings as compared to the other (CAV) multiple zone central systems. In spite of these potential problems and their special solutions. In addition to the supply air quantity. Since a typical air conditioning system operates at part load up to 95% of the time. particularly space in shafts and ceilings. An important example is installation of air conditioning systems in existing large buildings that were not originally designed to include air conditioning. which is a feature of VAV systems. particularly in high-rise buildings. Control of humidity is limited. The multiplicity of fan-coil units means a great deal of maintenance work and costs. However. The lack of need for ductwork and central air handling equipment. This means that considerably less volume of water needs to be circulated for the same amount of heat transfer. The result is that the cross-sectional area of piping is Combination air-water systems distribute both chilled and/or hot water and conditioned air from a central system to the individual rooms. The central . Control of ventilation air quantities is not precise with the small fans in the units. 12.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 315 quantity is reduced to the minimum for good air distribution. the total shaft and ceiling space required is small. Whenever there is a part load. These diffusers have a variable sized opening. they are still very popular. this saving is considerable. resulting in better air distribution. was introduced in Chapter 5. these were described in Chapter 5. the air supply quantity is reduced. Ventilation air is distributed separately from an air handling unit to each room. It receives chilled or hot water from the central plant. Ventilation air can be brought through the outside wall and the terminal unit. In addition. all-water systems have certain disadvantages. On the other hand. and the saving on using much valuable building space. A hydronic cooling system is therefore useful when space is extremely limited. As the air flow rate decreases. Therefore. hydronic systems.9 AIR-WATER SYSTEMS 12. as we1I as the ventilation air from a central air handling' unit. much smaller than the ductwork would be for the same job. All-water systems for commercial use can be considerably less expensive and take up much less space than all-air systems (this is not necessarily true for residential use). Hydronic systems distribute hot or chilled water from the central plant to each space. Another possible solution is to use variable diffusers. Chilled or hot water is distributed to them from the central plant. that is. Hydronic terminal units such as fan-coil units heat or cool the room air. There is also another significant energy saving. A further solution is to use jan-powered VAV boxes. and there is a saving of fan power.8 ALL-WATER SYSTEMS The basic concept of all-water systems. further material will be discussed here. Most of the energy is carried in the water. Water has a much higher specific heat and density than air. All-water systems are popular for use as low-cost central systems in multiroom high-rise applications. Air-water systems utilize the best features of all-air systems and all-water systems. Another type of air-water system uses room terminal units called induction units.

Through-the-wall units are often used in new apartment houses where low cost is primary. it induces room air (secondary air) through the unit and across the water coil. filters. electrical services may have to be increased to take the added electrical load. of course. Compressor. Room units 2. to be conditioned. Dampers can be adjusted so that only room air is used. depending on the desirability. three tons of refrigeration capacity.10 UNITARY VERSUS CENTRAL SYSTEMS As stated previously. or air-water systems. The window unit fits in the sash opening of an existing window. unitary systems are generally all-air systems and limited largely to the more simple types such as single zone units with or without reheat or"multizone units. it is often not adequate for outside air cooling in mild or even cold weather. nected by the contractor. and controls. Window units are particularly applicable to existing buildings. and controls are assembled in the unit casing. coils. Each is selected by the designer and installed and con. Therefore. In some cases. Their advantages are low cost and simplicity of installation and operation. this energy inefficient situation may be improved by utilizing another source of chilled water. For example. As it flows through the unit at high velocity. 12. The induction unit air-water system is very popular in high-rise office buildings and similar applications. Because of this. usually under the windowsill.316 CHAPTER 12 air delivered to each unit is called primary air. In existing buildings.10) are available in two types: window units and through-the-wall units. but how the equipment is arranged. Unitary equipment is usually located in or close to the space. or so that some outside ventilation air can be brought through the conditioner. evaporator cooling coil. unitary conditioners are also called self-contained units or packaged units. Its initial costs are relatively high. The through-thewall unit fits in an outside wall opening. The primary air quantity in the induction system may be only about 25% or less than the total of the air volume rate of a conventional all-air system. This includes refrigeration equipment. Central equipment is usually remote from Room units (Figure 12. reducing maintenance greatly. chilled water must be supplied to the room unit coils. such as an outside air heat exchanger (see Chapter 15). but practically. This is because they are factory assembled on a volume basis. all-water. Unitary or central systems can both in theory be all-air. dampers. Unitary conditioners 3. This is particularly true on southern exposures. three-. fan. At these times.11 ROOM UNITS 12. A central or remote system is one where the components are all separate. This classification is not according to how the system functions. Room units have no flexibility in handling high latent heat gains or changed sensible heat ra- I i j . air conditioning systems can also be classified into either unitary or central systems. filter. resting on the sill. no fans or motors are required in this type of unit. Unitary systems and equipment can be divided into the following groups: 1. condenser. and four-pipe hydronic system arrangements described in Chapter 5 can be applied to air-water systems. Room units are available up to about.. and each of the components mayor may not be remote from each other. The factors in choosing a particular arrangement are discussed in that chapter. A unitary system is one where the refrigeration and air conditioning components are factory selected-and assembled in a package. There are buildings with air-water induction systems requiring refrigeration at outdoor temperatures as low as 30 F. Any of the two-. fan. motors. the space. Rooftop units These names are not standardized in the industry.

Another common arrangement is called a split system. These units are inherently energy wasteful in multiple use because they cannot modulate capacity. 12. Air cleaning quality is minimal because the filters remove only large particles. This is a popular arrangement in private residential and small commercial applications. tios. The compressor-condenser package is located outdoors where its noise is less objectionable and it is more accessible for maintenance. multiple compressors are used. The split system arrangement has distinct advantages in many applications. located outdoors.12 UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS This type of unit is designed to be installed in or near the conditioned space (Figure 12.10 f+---+-Evaporator blower (fan) coil J t \ Room air Room air conditioner equipment arrangement. Although they often discharge air directly into the space.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 317 Outdoor air Condenser discharge air Condenser coil Condenser fan Compressor --1-+1 Outside Inside Motor lJ~-I-~_'~. Units are available that have all components packaged except the condenser. Sound levels are higher than with remote equipment.~. The components are contained in the unit. When used in multiroom buildings. there is no problem of finding a suitable and adequate space in the building. maintenance of the large number of units can be very burdensome and expensive.11). Furthermore. coil. Unitary conditioners have the same advantages and disadvantages as room units. The condenser and compressor are in one package. . Units are available in sizes up to about 50 tons. ... in order that the resistance to air flow be low. In one arrangement. and therefore do not give good humidity control. a limited amount of ductwork can be connected if air distribution with outlets is desired. Heating components are sometimes included. In larger units. Unitary conditioners are available in vertical or horizontal arrangements. according to the space available for the equipment. and fan package is located in an attic or basement. These units are popular in small commercial applications.:~~~t=Evaporator Air filter Cooled air Figure 12. and the fan and cooling coil are another package located indoors. the condenser is located outdoors and compressor.

mixing box. The water may then be carried as droplets into the moving airstream.13). air handling units are factory made in sections-fan section.13 ROOFTOP UNITS ['his type of unitary equipment (Figure 12.14 AIR HANDLING UNITS The central system air handling unit (AHU) consists of the coolinglheating coils. This consists of vertical Z-shaped baffles that trap the droplets. fan. and 12. In small. and the asing and any other exposed parts must be corroon protected. When cooling and dehumidifying.318 CHAPTER 12 The advantages of rooftop units are that they do not use valuable building space and they are relatively low in cost. elimi-· nators are provided downstream from the coil. The pipe should have a deep seal trap so that a water seal always exists (Figure 12. 'ooling. There are basically two arrangements: single zone units and multizone units. 12. lights should be provided inside each section. one-story building applications. filters. For large systems. thereby offering zone controls. Rooftop systems are extremely popular in low-cost. and a piping drain connection must be provided. 12.12) is iesigned to be located outdoors and is generally nstalled on roofs.13). filter section-in numerous sizes. Casings are usually made of galvanized sheet metal. Heating quipment may also be incorporated in the unit. all in a casing (Figures 12. although the ompressor and condenser may be remote. separate coils. . air mixing section. To prevent this water from circulating into the air conditioning ductwork. and dampers. Usually. all of the refrigeration. Units are available with multizone arrangement. The dehumidification effect of the cooling coil frequently results in water collecting.5.and medium-capacity systems. . which is run to a waste drain. Those parts that are required are selected by the user.II electrical parts must be moistureproof. which then fall into the condensate pan. They should be located on both sides of coils and filters. The distinction between these has been discussed in Sections 12. 12. and casings are fabricated by the contractor to suit the equipment. filters. and fans are selected by the engineer. In large equipment. such as supermarkets and suburban commercial buildings.1.5. but humidity control is limited.3 and 12. on the coil. Access doors should be provided to permit maintenance. They must have weatherproofing feaIres not required with equipment located indoors.11 Jnitary air conditioner. The casing should be insulated to prevent energy losses. and air handling equipment comes in secions that are assembled together. =igure 12. Rooftop units may be used with ductwork and ir outlets. drain pans must be included under the coil to collect condensed moisture. coil sections.

" . Draw-through is preferable because the air will flow more uniformly across the coil section when drawn through by the fan.12 Rooftop unit. the unit is called a draw-through type. To aid in distributing the air more evenly across the heating and cooling coil in blow-through units.0 t::_ iIi :~ t:: Access door 1ij . McQuay-Perfex.) When the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil. Inc. When the fan is upstream of the coils. a perforated Figure 12.y. Multizone units are blow-through types..~:: 1 -z". The latter are called dry expansion CDX) coils.c Q) 0: Q) Fan -- I-"- 7 .13 Maintenance accessories in large air handling unit. 12. it is called a blow-through type. :~: r Ligts :.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 319 Figure 12. Condensate pan l Waste line with trap .~: 0 . (Courtesy: McQuay Group. plate is sometimes located between the fan and coils.15 COOLING AND HEATING COILS Cooling coils may use either chilled water or evaporating refrigerant._ Access door « ~ -= ~ !!? 0> !!? 1ij 0 '0 () Access door = g "0 () 0 .

in a number of rows. Velocities in the midrange of about 3-4 FPS are recommended. so that any entrapped air is carried through more easily. Conditions of air entering and leaving. 2.16 COIL SELECTION Coil selections are made from manufacturers' tables or charts based on the required performance. The fins increase the effective surface area of tubing. However. In addition. an air vent should be located at the outlet on top. For this reason. Warm air ~ Cold air out -- CHWout CHWin Figure 12. The water inlet connection should be made at the bottom of the coil and the outlet at top. In this way. the coldest water is cooling the coldest air. The amount of sensible and latent heat that Figure 12. The performance of a cooling coil depends on the following factors: I. must be transferred from the air. 4. the condensed water will . Water (or refrigerant) velocity. called counterflow (Figure 12. Air face velocity. The face velocity is the air flow rate in CFM divided by the projected (face) area of the coil. The coils are arranged in a serpentine shape.14 Cooling coil (chilled water type).15 Counterflow arrangement of air and water flow for cooling coil. The form in which manufacturers present their coil rating data varies greatly one from another. be carried off the coil into the airstream above 500-550 FPM face velocity. High water velocity increases heat transfer but also results in high pressure drop and therefore requires a larger pump and increased energy consumption. When cooling coils have a number of rows. DB andWB. and eliminator baffies must be used to catch the water droplets.320 CHAPTER 12 Cooling coils are usually made of copper tubing with aluminum fins. they are usually connected so that the fl ow of water and air are opposite to each other. we will not . but copper fins are sometimes used. and the chilled water temperature can be higher. The coil may be constructed either with tubes in series or in parallel to reduce water pressure drop. Water velocities from 1-8 FPS are used. 3. thus increasing the heat transfer for a given length of tube.15). number of rows. depending on the need (Figure 12.14). High air velocities also result in better heat transfer and also more CFM handled. 12. fewer rows may be needed to bring the air to a chosen temperature than if parallel flow were used. Coil construction-number and size of fins size and spacing of tubing. Using these ratings does not give much insight into how a coil performs. if the coil is dehumidifying. 5.

81 0.90 0.1. 14 fins!in.32. FPM 8 fins!in. Occasionally gases that have objectionable odors are also removed from the air. The dust particles are larger than the space between adjacent fibers and therefore do not continue with the airstream.57 0. the procedures described in Chapter 7 give all the basic data necessary to select a coil.75 0. 4.1 1YPICAL CONTACT FACTORS FOR HELICAL FINNED COOLING COILS Face Velocity.80 0.69 0. for that type of coil.92 0. and therefore the particles are attracted to the media.73 0. as worked out in Example 7. Proper air cleaning is necessary for the following reasons: I.17 AIR CLEANING DEVICES (FILTERS) Air conditioning systems that circulate air generally have provisions for removing some of the objectionable air contaminants.97 12. The need for proper air cleaning is often treated casually when designing and operating an air conditioning system. Indeed. With this type of table. :2.96 2 3 4 6 8 0.98 0.82 0.84 0.94 0.65 0. This is a serious neglect. which result largely from industrial pollution.98 0. 3. lint collecting on coils will increase the coil resistance to heat transfer.1 A cooling coil has 3200 CFM of air flowing across it at a face velocity of 400 FPM. Impingement.71 0.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 321 present any rating data.88 0. The dust particles are given an electric charge.93 0. 2. Protection of the air conditioning machinery. The incorrect type of filter may be chosen. Some equipment will not operate properly or will wear out faster without adequate clean air. Some manufacturing processes are particularly sensitive. that procedure has the advantage of being suitable for any manufacturer's coils.16 shows each of the methods. dust or dirt. .83.82 0.58 0.60 0. This will be discussed when specific types of filters are described.86 0. For example. No. Most systems have devices that remove particles commonly called I. Protection of equipment. Example 12. Table 12. Maintaining cleanliness of room swfaces and furnishings.1 lists typical contact factors (CF) for finned cooling coils. Solution The required CF is 0.93 0. given the opposite charge. The dust particles in the airstream strike the filter media and are therefore stopped. Air enters the coil at 85 F DB and 69 F WB and leaves at 56 F DB and 54 F WE. 3. a fourrow coil will do the job. the number of rows of coil needed for given entering and leaving air conditions can be directly determined.73 0.96 0. From Table 12. Protection of human health and comfort. Straining. The filter media is . or the filters may not be maintained properly.1. Figure 12. However. because we are dealing with a question of air pollution and human health. Dust particles are related to serious respiratory ailments (emphysema and asthma). The face area needed is 3200 CFM/400 FPM = 8 frl TABLE 12. A filter may remove particles by one or more of the above methods. Electrostatic precipitation. of Rows 400 500 600 400 500 600 12. coil.97 0.18 METHODS OF DUST REMOVAL Air cleaners can remove dust in three major ways: 0. Determine the required number of rows and face area of an 8 fin/in. as seen in Example 12.

(b) - ~ . air is first passed through the air cleaning device and then a white filter paper. The following tests are generally accepted and recommended in the industry: I. Only in recent years have standard test methods developed.19 METHODS OF TESTING FILTERS Understanding how air filter performance is evaluated is important because only in this way can a proper filter be selected. This varies greatly from one location to another and at different times. What they do not measure is how much the filter air resistance will increase with dust accumulation. This test is important because these particles cause soiling of room surfaces. A cloud of DOP particles in an airstream is passed through the air cleaner... In this way. ---.. j j . This test is useful in comparing ability to remove larger particles. and cigarette smoke particles from 0. the filter's effectiveness in removing very small particles is tested. 4. (b) Straining. In this test.. The concentration of particles not removed is measured downstream of the cleaner by using a light-scattering technique.. (a) Impingement.. The weight of dust captured by the air filter is measured. bacteria range from about 0. This test is used to measure the ability of air cleaners to remove extremely small particles. The degree to which the filter paper is discolored is an indicator of the amount of smaller dust particles not removed by the air cleaner. The dust holding capacity test compares weight of dust collected with increase in air resistance through the filter. " 12. Dust holding capacity. A cloud of particles of a substance called DOP is chemically generated. ---0 - ----+ (c) Figure 12. (c) Electrostatic precipitation. A standard dust of fixed concentration and particle sizes is used. The size of these particles is 0. Dust spotdiscoloration.- ~ V". The DOP test is used only on air cleaners that are designed to have a high efficiency in removing very small particles. A filter that will hold a" considerable amount of dust before resistance increases considerably is preferable to one that has a lesser capacity before buildup up to a given resistance. Weight. It does not indicate ability to remove small particles. As an example. The above three tests all measure efficiency of an air cI~aner in removing particles. Without standard procedures.' . filters cannot be compared with each other.'.322 CHAPTER 12 Charging Particle Attracting plates ~~ Air~ (a) par~ ~ grid + -==-+ .3 microns in diameter (one micron is about 1125. 2. because the small particles comprise such a small proportion of the total weight of atmospheric dust. 3.16 Methods of removing particles from air..000th of one inch).3-30 microns in diameter. DO? penetration. The problem is complicated because filter performance depends on the concentration and sizes of dust particles in the air.01-1 micron.

17).) .5 in.g. or are also available with medium or high efficiency for removing very small particles. The pressure drop when clean is low.0 in. By varying density. Glass fibers and paper are two commonly used materials. dry-type air filters are available that have good efficiency only on larger particles.g. it is the only type of filter that will effectively remove viruses as small as 0.000th of an inch!). Louisville. Permanent or Disposable Air filters may be designed so that they are discarded (disposable type) when filled with dust or are cleaned and reused. They are quite expensive.18). about 50 FPM. before servicing. screens. Kentucky.20 TYPES OF AIR CLEANERS Air cleaners can be classified in a number of ways. The media in air filters can be arranged in the form of random fiber mats.g. This type of filter will remove larger dust particles satisfactorily but not small particles. Glass fibers and metal screens are two commonly used media materials. For example. Type of Media The viscous impingement air filter has a media of coarse fibers that are coated with a viscous adhesive. Louisville.) Viscous impingement disposable filter. w.1 in. Kentucky. Air face velocities through HEPA filters are very low.18 High efficiency dry-type (HEPA) filter...05 micron (1ISOO.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 323 12. or corrugated sinuous strips. It is low in cost (Figure 12. The media can be constructed of either coarse fibers loosely packed or fine fibers densely packed. as with the viscous impingement type. The HEPA filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is a very high efficiency dry-type filter for removing extremely small particles (Figure 12. and resistance rises to about 2. Air velocities range from 300-600 FPM.17 can Air Filter Co. around 0. Permanent types have Figure 12. the filter should be serviced when the resistance reaches 0. w.. The dry-type air filter uses uncoated fiber mats. (Courtesy: AmeriFigure 12. w. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co.

Another choice might be electronic air cleaners. particularly where smoking is heavy. The media is wound on a take-up spool. Often electronic cleaners are used in conjunction with a prefilter. This arrangement is. such as viruses. Stationary or Renewable Stationary air filters are manufactured in rectangular panels that are placed alongside each other and stacked. there is no fibrous media to entrap dust (Figure 12.) Electronic Air Cleaners In this type. A private residence or apartment house might be an example. The movement of the media is often controlled by a pressure switch which senses the pressure drop across the media. the particles are attracted to the plates. Renewable-type air filters consist of a roll mounted on a spool that moves across the airstream (Figure 12. When the resistance increases to a set value because of the dirt collected. a coarse visc?us impingement cleanable filter that removes the large particles first. These are also usually backed up with a coarse prefilter to remove large particles. As the dust-laden airstream passes between the plates. inexpensive viscous impingement type disposable air filters would be used. Dust particles are given a high voltage charge by an electric grid. exposing clean media. After an interval of time the air cleaner must be removed from service in order to clean the plates and remove the dirt. . Either fibrous materials or metal screens are used as media.20). but maintenance costs are greatly Figure 12.19). but they cost more than disposable types. so that they do not cause quick build-up of dirt on the electronic air cleaner.' l _- j 't 'l- 11 ·r f. but are very efficient for removing both large and very small particles. HEPA filters are used. Kentucky. the motor moves the curtain. or radioactive particles.21 SELECTION OF AIR CLEANERS The selection of the proper air cleaner depends on the degree of contamination of the air to be cleaned and the cleanliness requirements. The plates may be coated with a viscous material to hold the dust. Louisville.. Where removal of extremely small particles is critical. driven by a motor. bacteria. For applications that require only minimum cleanliness and low cost. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co. decreased. For applications that require a greater degree of cleanliness. popular in large commercial buildings. The panels are removed and either replaced or cleaned when dirty. ElectroniC air cleaners are expensive. 12. perhaps intermediate efficiency dry-type filters would be used. Renewable air filters are considerably more expensive than the stationary types. according to the size needed. activated carbon (charcoal) filters are I \ . . For removing gases with objectionable odors from the air.19 Automatic renewable filter. A series of parallel plates are given the opposite electric charge. and where contamination is greater.324 CHAPTER 12 metal media that will withstand repeated washings.

molds. and throat irritation. carpets. Air contaminants from sources inside buildings are the main cause of poor IAQ. 12. and fungi. . Louisville. Health Effects Short-term effects from indoor air pollutants may include eye. sometimes in contributing to the problem and as a part of the potential solution. paints. Radon This is a radioactive gas emitted by soil. air fresheners. breathed in by occupants. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co.. These filters are sometimes used in restaurants to remove· odorous gases resulting from cooking. irritability. It is more commonly a problem in private residences than in commercial buildings. nose." this is the mixture of substances emitted from burning tobac~o.22 INDOOR AIR QUALITY . The carbon absorbs the gas molecules. heart disease. Kentucky.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 325 The emphasis in this discussion will be on IAQ problems in the commercial working environment. plywood. mites. Indoor Pollutants Figure 12.20 Electronic air cleaner. It has become evident that the poor quality of air inside some buildings is contributing to health problems. and pesticides. nausea. viruses. Glassfibers Materials made of glass fibers are used as thermal and sound insulation in HVAC systems. and acoustic material and fireproofing in buildings. It may enter a building through underground walls or floors. Symptoms of diseases such as asthma may be increased. sumps.) used. particle board. but outdoor air pollutants that enter a building can also contribute to the problem. adhesives. The HVAC system is connected with Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Humidifier fever is a respiratory illness caused by exposure to microorganisms found in humidifiers and air conditioners. Asbestos This is a mineral substance used in a fibrous form for insulation. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a respiratory illness caused by the inhalation of organic dusts. and drains. and fatigue. copying machines. Fonnaldehyde is the best known and most common ofVOC pollutants. Since many people spend up to 90% of their time indoors. Biological Contaminants These include bacteria. rather than private residences. this subject is of major concern. headaches. cleaning materials. and cancer. tiles. pollens. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Also called "passive smoking. although many of the problems and solutions are similar. The term sick building syndrome (SBS) refers to a set of symptoms that may affect occupants only during the time they are in the building and cannot be traced to a specific pollutant. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) These are organic substances emitted as gases from building materials. Long-term effects that may show up after a period of years are respiratory diseases.

23 ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A comparative energy use analysis of some of the major types of air conditioning systems will be made in this section. This will illustrate the opportunities for energy conservation by the proper choice of a system for a given application. Solutions There are three general approaches to improving air quality in buildings. such as cooling towers. care should be taken that drain pans in HVAC equipment drain freely. The concentration of indoor air pollutants can be decreased by supplying a substantial amount of outside ventilation air from the HVAC systems. where dirt may accumulate. . space temperatures and humidity should also be within the range recommended in Section 1.6. coils. D. 2. Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) A natural constituent of atmospheric air. Appropriate application of biocidal cleaners to areas where biological growths are expected. It may be found that more efficient filters than used previously are required. For instance. The relative humidity (RH) should be maintained below 60% to discourage growth of molds and fungi.17 lists ventilation requirements typical of present state codes. such as cooling towers. Elimination or reduction of moist areas. In addition. This invoh'es avoidance of the use of pollutant source materials or chemicals. and activated carbon filters may be desirable. This is often an area of serious neglect. Cleaning and replacement of air filters.. If the outside air is sufficiently contaminated. and drain pans. The level of indoor air contaminants can be reduced by both air cleaning and good housekeeping. OA filters may be necessary. Outdoor concentrations of CO 2 are about 300 ppm (parts per million). Source control. In efforts to conserve energy use. C. For a discussion of the toxic pollutant carbon monoxide. in some cases HEPA filters. There is a difference of opinion on this question. Air filters in the HVAC system should be of the proper type and efficiency to reduce the in- 12. In indoor spaces that are not well ventilated and that are densely occupied. Table 6. the CO 2 concentration will increase considerably. Vacuum cleaning of areas. humidifiers. I. Cleaning. Care must be taken that the cleaning agents themselves are not pollutants that may enter the occupied spaces. Among the items to be considered are A. Regular and good housekeeping maintenance is an important part of ensuring a satisfactory indoor air quality. door pollutant level as needed. see Chapter 4. A serious illness called Legionnaire's disease sometimes has its origins in building HVAC systems. Ventilation.326 CHAPTER 12 These fibers sometimes peel off and are carned into the occupied spaces. the fiber lining itself can serve as a breeding place for molds and fungi. since they are kept in the building longer and in greater concentrations. I . If they are already in place. For good indoor air quality. electronic cleaners. The ASHRAE Standard recommends a threshold level of 1000 ppm above which the CO 2 level indicates possibly poor indoor air quality. air infiltration has been decreased by reducing or sealing crack openings in both existing buildings and in the design of new ones. removal or containment may be done. 3. however-further information and research is needed. An example is the ductwork system. This coupled with using minimum outside ventilation rates in HVAC systems has amplified the effect of indoor air pollutants. this gas is not toxic but is sometimes used as a measure of adequate ventilation. B.

000 = 752 tons The reheat system must furnish heat from the heating coil for all zones except those at peak loads.000 300. BTU/he. 2.000 Fan heat 250.000 300.000 1. w.000 1. W zones are 25.000 fr area.000 1.760.390.000 1. BTUlhr = 9.000 = 250 000 . The following are the design specifications: I.000 840.g. Lights and pOll'er are 12 BTU fro Occupants 3300.000 300.000 Totals 540. The heating required at design conditions is 5.000 300.000 90. Interior zone is 100. RSHR is 0. N. and variable air volume systems. Building peak load is in Jllly at 4 PM.000 350. Of course. S.000 590.200.88. dual duct. A further comparison will be made with an air-water system such as the induction or fan-coil type.000 90. Duct and return fan heat gains are neglected.000 = 870.000 1.000 BTUlhr BUILDING PEAK SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS 450.0) = 1. in an actual energy study.510.000 People 90.4.000 90.000 90. every factor would be included.000 x 45(377 . Supply air temperature is 58 F if the air off the cooling coil is 54 F DB.000 1. CFM= 5.000 Refrigeration load.000 90.29.000 300. A typical office building will be specified. Inside 78 F DB.000 fr each.000 300.000.000 1.000 .000 Totals 540.510.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 327 A comparison will be made of energy requirements for constant volume reheat.100.000 CFM. Constant volume reheat system.000 N E S W Solar + trans.690.510.000 Sum = 5.000 180.000 People latent = 660. Fan static pressure is 6 in.000 x l. The air supply rate must satisfy the sum of each zone peak.390. 150. N E S W Solar + trans.000 People 90.58) The refrigeration capacity of the reheat system must satisfy the sum of the zone peaks: Sum of zone sensible peaks.000 BTUlhr Office building 01200.000 1.000 I? Outside condition is 97 F DB.190.000 . 150. 45% RH Ventilation air is 45. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in Figure 12.000 800.000.550. E. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in PEAK SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS FOR EACH ZONE.550. Supply fan temperature rise is 4 F.000 570.030.200.000 BTUlhr 200.l x 4 = 1. Some simplifications will be made to avoid unnecessary details that would detract from following the analysis.510.000 Outside air 45.000 Lights 300.640. LI x (78 . 74 F WE.000 1. Dual duct system.000 Lights 300. BTUlhr = 5.000 350.000 Sum = 4.000 90. Air off cooling coils is at 54 F DE.4.

05 _ 0.000 = 211. and noting that tw = 85. I .640. however. 54 F. The cooling coil still cools all the air to set temperature. Furthermore.000 xl.23 670 603 223.72 670 603 211.640.480 860 Although the dual duct system must supply an air rate to satisfy each zone peak. hot and cold ducts tr = average roon1 temperature Ie Reheat Dual duct Tons of refrigeration Refrigeration KW = cold air supply temperature at mixing dampers = warm air supply temperature at mixing dampers I.r = fraction of air leakage through closed mixing damper CFM FanKW Heating BTUlhr Total KW Extra cost $/hr 752 677 250.g. (We will neglect the slight difference in fan heat.7.000 178 781 0.08/KWH.9 KW/ton.000 1.3 . the yearly extra cost would be Reheat Dual duct $19. outside air.000 = 1. We will make a rough analysis of this situation. w. The outside air '. If we were to assume this energy difference for a full load equivalent of 1200 hours a year.000 877 16.3 F DB (Figure 12. Reheat system..760..58) The refrigeration capacity must satisfy only the building peak.00/106 BTU.I(tr. The equation for finding total CFM is CFM. additional air is required because of leakage through closed dampers in the zone mixing box.5.7). = sum of zone peaks I.05[85.) The difference in the energy requirements of the three systems at full load is summarized as follows: VAV where CFM.000 BTUlhr = 660.- I 1-0.I x 4 Refrigeration load = 4. CFM.1(78 .510. The maximum air supply rate must satisfy only the building peaks: CFM = 4.000 1.000 169 772 0 Using a leakage rate of 5%. the refrigeration capacity must only satisfy the building peak: Building sensjble peak People latent Outside air Fan heat 223.- .040. were used.000 BTUlhr = = 670 tons This is still not the actual situation.n x-------c~---. Note the huge extra expense and energy waste from using the reheat system.000 1 In the above estimates. 670 tons. $O.000 = 8..328 CHAPTER 12 Figure 12.54 J =223.000 980. figures of 0. and 0.te) 3. Assume a mild day with no solar. 1. The energy consumption differences are: even much greater at part load for two reasons: the VAV system throttles air flow with load reduction and the reheat system must add even more heat. 5. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in Figure 12.9.8 KW/1000 CFM at 6 in.000 200 870. The total air supply rate must satisfy the sum of each zone peak load. or transmission loads. $9. = total air supply rate.1 (78 .78 \ 78 . Variable air volume system. .

20 The part load condition selected does not necessarily represent the average of an actual installation. However.1. With fan heat.760.1 x 20 Assuming an operating period of 2000 hours a season with this part load condition as an average.000 BTU/hr 2. Many buildings have a separate radiation heating system for perimeter zones. We have not made a comparative analysis of the energy use of an air-water system. If the systems analyzed were used for winter heating.50 396 356 223. Other factors such as diversity or operation of reheat coils in the dual duct and YAY systems have not been included.000 BTUlhr = 606 tons The actual building part load is Peak design load 8.750. however. design load .000 178 534 5.000 200 745 2. the yearly extra energy costs would be Reheat Dual duct $85.000 Building part load 4. of course. To carry out an accurate yearly energy use. The total air supply rate is CFM= room sensible heat 1.040.000 BTUlhr Outside air design load .000 =--1. however. At full load this system has about the same energy requirements as the YAY system.270.000 BTUlhr = 396 tons The reheat system must provide external heat source for all of the difference between the building peak and sum of zone peaks at part load: 7. At lower outdoor temperatures.4. VAV system. The refrigeration capacity required is the building peak part load (396 tons) since the cold air is throttled as needed in each zone.000 = 2. We have not attempted to show variations in energy use due to types of controls selected. where otherwise fans would have to be operated continually.000 Reheat system part load 7.270.030.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 329 load is the only one not required. For the air-water system. the primary air supply temperature is 44 F.1 x 20 = 141.000 113 469 0 Tons of refrigeration Refrigeration KW CFM FanKW Total KW Heating BTUlhr Extra cost $lhr 606 545 250. the situation may change significantly. and chilled water must be used.1. because the air supply rate is throttled as required.400 3. which reduces the penalty of excessive use of air heating.000 The differences in energy requirements at the part load condition are summarized as follows: Reheat Dual duct VAV 396 356 141.520. the primary air quantity is not adequate to cool zones with large heat gains.1. The additional pump energy is usually less than that of the greater air quantity. The refrigeration capacity required is 396 tons.270. The refrigeration load is therefore Full load for reheat system 9. further sharp differences in energy consumption would appear for similar reasons. Dual duct system. The peak refrigeration load is . All-air systems of course have as much air for cooling as needed in cold weather. hourly weather and equipment performance data are needed. because the room units handle only the load for their zones. This is particularly true during unoccupied hours. There may be a small advantage in auxiliary energy use for the air-water system because only the primary (ventilation) air is moved.000 .110.000 10.760. Consider the south side of the building on a sunny November day with an outdoor temperature of 40 F.000 .000 BTUlhr Outside air design load .750.530. 3.000 Solar + trans.42. however. the general conclusions from our analysis hold true.

Explain the following terms related to air cleaners: A. Sketch and label all elements of a multizone system arrangement and air handling unit. Split system 12. List four purposes of air cleaning devices. Electrostatic precipitation 10.200. the primary air may be warm while at the same time chilled water is being distributed to the induction units.24 ENERGY CONSERVATION I. 2. 3. 3. Sketch and label all elements of a VAV duct system arrangement and air handling unit. 6. multizone. What is a HEPA air filter? What are its applications? What type of air cleaner is used to remove undesired gases? Problems 12. although they can be designed to minimize the loss. Prepare a list of advantages and disadvantages of reheat. For example. B. and unitary systems. 2. Straining C.000 Transmission losses = -255. Chilled water and condenser water pumps will also have to be operated. in an induction system.330 CHAPTER 12 Solar gain = 1. thereby avoiding excessive fan power. Reheating is unavoidably wasteful and should be avoided except for special applications.000 BTUlhr 98 tons This is a heavy penalty to pay for using this type of system without heat recovery. List and explain the four methods of testing and rating air cleaners. Review Questions I. Draw-through unit C. 5. Sketch and label all elements of a reheat system arrangement and air handling unit. This should be avoided where possible by proper design and operation. Explain the following terms: A. Sketch and label all elements of a dual duct system arrangement and air handling unit. or multizone) or water (three pipe) may result in energy waste.000 CFM of air from 82 F DB and 70 F I t f . II. Clean coils regularly. When using air-water systems. Blow-through unit 8. 5.170. Impingement B.000 BTUlhr People-sensible = 90. 4. Systems should be designed and operated to use all outside air for cooling when it is adequate (see Chapter 15).000 Refrigeration load = 1. thereby maintaining maximum heat transfer. cooling coil to cool 12. dual duct. 4. Systems that mix hot and cold air (dual duct 7. unless the reheating would come from otherwise wasted energy (see Chapter 15). VAV. Replace or clean filters on a regular schedule to limit pressure losses to those recommended.000 Lighting = 300. care should be taken that they are not producing opposite effects and therefore wasting energy. 9. 6. Sketch and label all elements of a single zone air handling unit and a typical duct arrangement.1 Select a 14 fin/in. because there will be many hours in the heating season when refrigeration is needed.1 x 5000 x 30 = -165. 12.000 Primary air 1.

8 fin/in.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 331 WB to 55 F DB and 54 F WB. 12. Air enters at 87 F DB and 72 F WB and leaves at 59 F DB. coil for the same requirements as described in Problem 12. cooling coil is handling air at a face velocity of 600 FPM. What is the leaving air WB? 12.2 Select an 8 fin/in. 12.3 is reduced to 400 FPM.1.4 If the air velocity for the coil in Problem 12.3 A four-row. assuming the same leaving DB. what is the leaving air WB? . The coil face velocity is 600 FPM.

Other refrigeration methods. evaporative cooling of air may reduce both the water and air temperature low enough so that either can be used for cooling (Chapter 7). 332 . Vapor compression and absorption refrigeration systems are both used widely for producing refrigeration required for air conditioning. and some equipment selection procedures. and steam jet refrigeration are not widely used in commercial air conditioning and will not be discussed. Furthermore. Well water or evaporative cooling should be considered for refrigeration when available. however. which is too high to accomplish adequate dehumidification. Occasionally a natural low temperature fluid is available. Refrigeration produces this low temperature fluid. Usually there is no natural heat sink at a temperature lower than the desired space temperature when cooling is required. Our purpose here will be to relate the refrigeration equipment to the complete air conditioning system. We will not discuss the calculations related to the thermodynamic cycle or to compressor performance. the types of equipment used. well water temperatures are often 50-60 F. Because heat flows only from a higher to a lower temperature. to which the excess room heat can be transferred. we will explain how each system functions. Cold well water has often been used in modem air conditioning systems. In this case. The ancient Roman rulers had slaves transport snow from the high mountains to cool their food and beverages. Textbooks on refrigeration should be consulted. a fluid with a temperature lower than the room design temperature must be made available. However. In climates where the humidity is extremely low. Another natural heat sink that is used occasionally for cooling water is atmospheric air. because of the depleted supply. In this chapter.c H A p T E R Refrigeration Systems and Equipment Slc£~~IIIfi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _• A n environmental control system that includes cooling and dehumidification will require a means of removing heat from the conditioned spaces. such as the author's text Refrigeration Principles and Systems: An Energy Approach. thermoelectric cooling. such as the air cycle. a further understanding of refrigeration theory is necessary for the well-trained air conditioning practitioner. refrigeration systems that require machinery are used to provide a cold fluid for cooling or dehumidification. Many communities now restrict the use of well water for air conditioning.

it must gain heat (which it takes from that portion of the refrigerant that did not vaporize)... The refrigerant circulates in one. 5. This heat exchanger has two circuits. At point (I). the fluid to be cooled (usually air or water) flows. The refrigerant flows through a heat exchanger called the evaporator. The pressure at (2) is so low that a small portion of the refrigerantjlashes (vaporizes) into a gas. the refrigerant is in the liquid state at a relatively high pressure and high temperature. Identify the types of compressors. and in the other.. Describe environmental effects of refrigerants. Condenser Compressor =~.2. 130 F gas 48 F gas 90 F 50 F Cooling fluid _-h. Select packaged refrigeration equipment. Refrigerant PROCESS 1-2.>. condensers. you will be able to: I.. evaporators. therefore heat is transferred from it to the Figure 13. To aid in understanding it. Describe and sketch the vapor compression refrigeration system. called thejlow control device or expansion device. 2. and flow control devices. PROCESS 2-3.1 The vapor compression refrigeration system. It flows to (2) through a restriction.. thus cooling the mixture and resulting in a low temperature at (2). But in order to vaporize.1.:. The fluid to be cooled is at a slightly higher temperature than the refrigerant.1 PRINCIPLES A schematic flow diagram showing the basic components of the vapor compression refrigeration system is shown in Figure l3.. 6. 3. Describe and sketch the absorption refrigeration system. some typical temperatures for air conditioning applications are indicated.. The refrigerant loses pressure going through the restriction..+-- Cooled fluid Liquid Flow control device Liquid & gas . There are four processes (changes in the condition of the fluid) that occur as it flows through the system: Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 13. 4. fluid circulates through the piping and equipment in the direction shown.jFc. Describe and sketch the heat pump system.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 333 OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.

producing the cooling effect desired. The shell can be made in one piece or can be constructed with bolted removable ends.. heat must be removed from it.2 13. In the latter case. 13. and flow control device. Of course the processes are actually continuous as the refrigerant circulates through the system. These may be classified into two types for air conditioning service-dry expansion (DX) evaporators or flooded evaporators. The complete refrigeration plant has many other additional components (e. valves.3). and there is no liquid storage of refrigerant in the evaporator. refrigerant flows through tubing. a bundle of straight tubes is enclosed in a cylindrical shell. The refrigerant leaves the compressor as a gas at high temperature and pressure. Heat therefore transfers from the refrigerant to the cooling fluid. a liquid pool of refrigerant is maintained.2). Figure 13. controls. Cooling coils are used for cooling air and chillers for cooling water or other liquids. with the reverse arrangement (Figure 13. In the flooded type of evaporator. In order to change it to a liquid. The chiller may be either the flooded type. In the dry expansion type.334 CHAPTER 13 refrigerant.2 EQUIPMENT Flooded chiller.""". ~I . This construction is more expensive. Leaving the evaporator. The refrigerant flows through one circuit in the condenser. with water circulating through the tubes and refrigerant through the shell (Figure 13. PROCESS 4-1. mechanical cleaning and replacement of individual tubes is possible. Water head Copper tubes '. Dry expansion (DX) evaporators exist in two types-DX cooling coils or DX chillers. I . called heads. dry expansion (DX) cooling coils are used. In order to be able to use it again to achieve the refrigerating effect continuously. The refrigerant has returned to its initial state and is now ready to repeat the cycle. (Reprinted with permission from the 1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Products Directory. it must be brought back to the conditions at (l)-a liquid at a high pressure. By the time it leaves the evaporator (4). In the other circuit. Cooling coils are discussed in more detail in Chapter 12. the refrigerant condenses to a liquid (I). The first step in this process is to increase the pressure of the refrigerant gas by using a compressor. Compressing the gas also results in increasing its temperature. The tubing is arranged in a serpentine coil form and is finned to produce more heat transfer from a given length. When cooling air. condenser. evaporator.3 EVAPORATORS PROCESS 3-4. the major equipment components are the compressor. it is completely vaporized. however. This is accomplished in a heat exchanger called the condenser. Evaporators for cooling water or other liquids are called chillers. and as a result.) As noted in the explanation of how the vapor compression refrigeration system functions. The refrigerant boils because of the heat it receives in the evaporator. The air flows across the coils. In the shell and tube type. the refrigerant is a gas at a low temperature and low pressure. some types of which will now be described. Flooded chillers are generally used on the larger systems. or dry expansion. a cooling fluid flows (air or water) at a temperature lower than the refrigerant. piping) that will not be discussed in detail here.g.

Water Baffles


Tube sheet Shell

ment types. Centrifugal compressors function by increasing the kinetic energy (velocity) of the gas, which is then converted to an increased pressure by reducing the velocity.

Water inlet


This is the most widely used type, available in sizes from fractional horsepower and tonnage up to a few hundred tons. Construction is similar to the reciprocating engine of a vehicle, with pistons. cylinders, valves, connecting rods, and crankshaft (Figure 13.4). The suction and discharge valves are usually a thin plate or reed that will open and close easily and quickly. Open compressors have an exposed shaft to which the electric motor or other driver is attached externally. Hermetic compressors are manufactured with both compressor and motor sealed in a

Figure 13.3

Dry expansion chiller. (Reprinted with permission from the
1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Products Directory.)

Positive displacement compressors function by reducing the volume of gas in the confined space, thereby raising its pressure. Reciprocating, rotary, scroll, and screw compressors are positive displaceFigure 13.4

Reciprocating compressor construction. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.) Wrist Oil cooler Suction shut-off valve

Oil pressure relief valve Oil pressure gage connection Main bearing


Oil sight gI8.5s,---'



check valve


336 CHAPTER 13
"'1.'.······ ..

Figure 13.5 Cutaway view of hermetic reciprocating compressor. (Courtesy: Dunham·Bush, Inc.)

casing (Figure 13.5). In this way, there is no possibility of refrigerant loss from leaking around the shaft. The motor is cooled by refrigerant in a hermetic compressor. Most modern open compressors use mechanical seals, rather than packing seals, to reduce refrigerant leakage. These seals are similar to those used in pumps, as discussed in Chapter II.

creases toward the discharge end. This type of compressor has become popular in recent years due to its reliability, efficiency, and cost. It is generally used in the larger size ranges of positive displacement compressors, in capacities up to about 1000 tons of air conditioning. A screw compressor is shown in Figure 13.7.
Figure 13.6 Sectional view of rotary compressor. (Reprinted with pennission from the 1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook
& Products Directory.)



This type has a rotor eccentric to the casing; as the rotor turns it reduces the gas volume and increases its pressure (Figure 13.6). Advantages of this compressor are that it has few parts, is of simple construction, and can be relatively quiet and vibration-free. Small rotary compressors are often used in household refrigerators and-window air conditioners.

Discharge side

Two meshing helical shaped screws rotate and compress the gas as the volume between the screws de-

Suction side iI:i!






Figure 13.7

Cutaway view of screw compressor. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)



One scroll rotates and the other is stationary. The refrigerant suction gas is drawn in from the perimeter. The volume decreases as the gas moves to the center, increasing its pressure, and the gas is then discharged. The movement of the gas through the compressor is illustrated in Figure 13.8. The scroll compressor has a number of beneficial features. It has few moving parts. It has no suction or discharge valves. Its motion is rotary, reducing vibration. It has a high efficiency and low noise level. It is available as a hermetic compressor, in small and medium sizes.

This type of compressor has two spiral-shaped scrolls, one set inside the other. (These are each shaped somewhat like a pinwheel toy or a spinning spiral firework.)

This type of compressor has vaned impellers rotating inside a casing, similar to a centrifugal pump.

Scroll Gas Flow

Compression in the scroll is created by the interaction of an orbiting spiral and a stationary spiral. Gas enters an outer opening as one of the spirals orbits. The open passage is sealed off as gas is drawn into the spiral.

As the spiral continues to orbit, the gas is. compressed into an increasingly smaller pocket.
Figure 13.8

By the time the gas arrives at the center port, discharge pressure has been reached.

Actually, during operation, all six gas passages are in various stages of compression at all times, resulting in nearly continuous suction and discharge.

Refrigerant gas flow through the scroll compressor.



Figure 13.9 Hermetic centrifugal refrigeration water chiller.
(Courtesy: Machinery & Systems Division, Carrier Corp_,

Syracuse, NY.)

The impellers increase the velocity of the gas, which is then converted into a pressure increase by decreasing the velocity. The nature of the centrifugal compressor makes it suitable for very large capacities, up to 10,000 tons. The impellers can be rotated at speeds up to 20,000 RPM, enabling the compressor to handle large quantities of refrigerant. Hermetic centrifugal compressors as well as open compressors are available. Figure 13.9 shows a complete hermetic centrifugal refrigeration water chiller, with compressor, condenser, and evaporator.

The capacity of a compressor must be regulated to meet the load demand. Control is usually from a signal received from a thermostat or pressurestat' (see Chapter 14). In a small reciprocating compressor, capacity is often changed simply by starting and stopping the compressor. In larger multicylinder compressors, a number of steps of capacity can

be achieved. In one method, the refrigerant gas is bypassed around the compressor when less capacity is called for. This method requires a relatively high power input for low capacity. A more efficient load reduction method is accomplished by holding the suction valve open when a reduction in capacity is called for. The cylinder is then simply idling, and a significant reduction in power input results. Mechanical devices called un loaders, automatically controlled from a load signal, are used to open the suction valves. A reliable method of reducing centrifugal compressor capacity is to use inlet guide vanes. This is a set of adjustable vanes in the compressor suction that are gradually closed to reduce the volume of refrigerant gas compressed, thus reducing the capacity. The use of inlet guide vanes lessens a problem of centrifugal compressor operation called surging. Ifthe gas flow rate is reduced by throttling with a butterfly-type discharge damper, a point will be reached where instability occurs in which the gas is constantly surging back and forth through the compressor. This is a very serious event that could damage the machine. Inlet guide vanes avoid this by curving the flow direction of the gas in an efficient manner that permits capacity reduction down to about 15% of full load without surging. For centrifugal compressors that are driven by variable speed prime movers, speed reduction is a convenient method of capacity reduction. Both inlet guide vane and speed control are relatively efficient methods of capacity control, the power input decreasing considerably with capacity. Below about 50% capacity, however, the efficiency falls off rapidly. This is one reason why it is desirable to use mUltiple centrifugal machines in an installation, if practicaL



Compressors can be driven by electric motors, reciprocating engines, or by steam or gas turbines. Electric motors are most commonly used because of the convenience and simplicity. However, on very large installations, particularly with centrifugal compressors, steam or gas turbines are often used. The high




rotating speed of the turbine often matches that of the compressor, whereas expensive speed-increasing gears may be needed when motors are used. The relative energy costs of electricity, steam, or gas often determine which prime mover will be used. In the Middle East, natural gas from the well (which might otherwise be wasted) is often used in gas turbines that drive large centrifugal machines.
Figure 13.10
Air-cooled condenser. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)



The condenser rejects from the system the energy gained in the evaporator and the compressor. Atmospheric air or water are the two most convenient heat sinks to which the heat can be rejected. In the air-cooled condenser (Figure 13.10), the refrigerant circulates through a coil and air flows across the outside of the tubing. The air motion may be caused by natural convection effects when the air is heated, or the condenser can include a fan to increase the air flow rate, resulting ·in greater capacity. Air-cooled condensers are normally installed outdoors. They are available in.sizes up to about 50 tons. Water-cooled condensers are usually of shell and tube construction, similar to shell and tube evaporators. Water from lakes, rivers, or wells is sometimes used when available. Usually, however, natural sources of water are not sufficient, and the water must be recirculated through a cooling tower to recool it. Evaporative condensers (Figure 13.ll) reject heat to the atmosphere as do air cooled condensers,

Hot gas ___ in

Moist air Eliminator baffles

r----+-i-r-7:-;r-7l\--::;::l-- Spray nozzles
Condenser coil Liquid ___!-_________J out


Figure 13.11
Evaporative condenser.



but by sprayiug water on the coils some heat is transferred to the water as well as the air, increasing the capacity of the condenser. A pump, piping, spray nozzles, and collection sump are required for the water circulating system. Fans are used to force the air through the unit. Evaporative condensers can be installed indoors as well as outdoors by using ductwork to discharge the exhaust air outside. The capacity of condensers must be controlled to maintain the condensing pressure within certain limits. Higher condensing pressures result in more power use, and extremely high pressures can damage the equipment. On the other hand, if the pressure is too low, the flow control device will not operate satisfactorily. An automatic valve regulating water flow rate is a convenient way of controlling capacity of water-cooled condensers. Air-cooled condensers are often controlled by reducing air flow across the coils, through use of dampers or cycling the fan. The control is usually in response to a change in condensing pressure. Proper water treatment is important for maintaining the capacity of water-cooled condensers. Manufacturers rate water-cooled condenser and chiller capacity on the basis of a water fouling factor-a number that represents the thermal resistance of the water film on the tubes. A value of 0.0005 is considered clean water, and ratings are often based on this value. The water treatment should prevent formation of scale that will increase the thermal resistance, resulting in a decrease in refrigeration capacity and an increase in energy required.

The capillary tube is a very small diameter tube of considerable length, which thus causes the required pressure drop. It is used often in small units (e.g., domestic refrigerators and window air conditioners) because of its low cost and simplicity. The thennostatic expansion valve (TEV), shown in Figure 13.12, is widely used in dry expansion systems. The small opening between the valve seat and disc results in the required pressure drop. It also does an excellent job of regulating flow according to the need. The operation of a TEV is shown in Figure 13.13.A bulb filled with a fluid is strapped to the suction line and thus senses the suction gas temperature. This bulb is connected to the valve by a tube in a manner so that the pressure ofthe fluid in the bulb tends to open the valve more, against a closing spring pressure. If the load in the system inFigure 13.12
Cutaway view of thermostatic expansion valve, internally equalized type. (Courtesy: Sporlan Valve Co.)
Dia,oh,'aolCf1 case

Pin carrier

The restrictingdevice that causes the pressure drop of the refrigerant also regulates the refrigerant flow according to the load. Some of the devices available are the capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve, and the low side float valve. The first two are used with dry expansion evaporators; the low side float valve is used in flooded chiller evaporators.
Inlet strainer

Spring guide

l~'I-_AdjUsting '::l stem
packing Adjusting ""---- stem



Tube Spring--ioH Equalizer port

Liquid line


Eva orator

Remote bulb


J line to compressor

Figure 13.13
Operation of internally equalized thermostatic expansion valve.

creases, the refrigerant in the evaporator picks up more heat and the suction gas temperature rises. The pressure of the fluid in the bulb increases as its temperature rises, and it opens the valve more. This increases the refrigerant flow needed to handle the increased load. The reverse of all these events occurs when the refrigeration load decreases. It is important that the refrigerant vapor leaving the evaporator be a few degrees above the saturation temperature (called superheat) to ensure that no liquid enters the compressor, which might result in its damage. This is achieved by adjusting the spring pressure to a value that prevents the bulb pressure from opening the valve more unless the gas leaving the evaporator is superheated. The internally equalized TEV has a port connecting the underside of the diaphragm chamber to the valve outlet (Figures 13.12 and 13.13). This neutralizes the effect of any change in evaporator pressure on the balance between spring and bulb pressure. If there. is a larger pressure drop in the evaporator, however, this would result in a reduction in superheat. This problem is solved by using an externally equalized valve which has a connection to the evaporator outlet rather than the inlet. A low side float valve is a flow control device that is used with flooded chillers. If too much liquid refrigerant accumulates because flow is not ad-

equate, the float rises and a connecting linkage opens the valve, allowing more flow.



All refrigeration systems include a number of safety control devises to protect the equipment. The devices required for each system must be determined in each case according to the need. A brief listing of some of the available safety control devices follows. A high pressure cut-out stops the compressor when the refrigerant discharge pressure exceeds a safe limit. A low pressure cut-out stops the compressor when the refrigerant suction pressure is below a safe limit. Usually this is intended as a temperature safety device. The pressure setting on the device corresponds to a temperature at which water freeze-up might occur. A low temperature cut-out senses refrigerant temperature on the low side directly and serves to protect against freeze-up. A low oil pressure cut-out stops the compressor when lubricating oil pressure is inadequate. A flow switch will stop the compressor when chilled water (or condenser water) flow is inadequate.



When the compressor stops in response to a thermostat, refrigerant may continue to flow to the evaporator due to a vapor pressure difference between the condenser and evaporator. It is not desirable to have the evaporator filled with liquid refrigerant during shutdown because this increases the likelihood of liquid entering the compressor. It also increases the amount of refrigerant absorbed in the crank case oil, thus reducing the lubricating effectiveness of the oil. The problem is solved by using pump down control. Instead of having a thermostat control the compressor operation, it controls a solenoid valve in the Iiquid line. This cuts off flow to the compressor. The compressor continues to operate for a time, pumping out the refrigerant from the evaporator. The compressor stops when its low pressure cut-out setting is reached.

Compressors, condensers, evaporators, and accessories are each available separately from manufacturers for selection, purchase, and installation. However, these components may also be available already assembled (packaged) in the factory. There are a number of advantages of using packaged equipment. The components are selected and matched in capacity by the manufacturer, so that they will perform properly together. Installation costs are reduced, as each component does not have to be installed and aligned separately. Controls and interconnecting piping are factory installed, further reducing field costs. The assembled equipment is usually factory tested, reducing the likelihood of operating problems that would have to be corrected on the job. Packaged equipment is available in various combinations, some of which are mentioned below.

Figure 13.14 Water-cooled condensing unit.
(Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

condensing unit is located outdoors and the air handling unit and evaporator coil are located indoors. the air conditioning system is called a split system. This arrangement is popular for residential" air conditioning systems.

Compressor-Chiller Unit
This unit consists of compressor, water chiller, interconnecting piping, and controls. It is often used with a remote air-cooled condenser.

Packaged Chiller
This unit, shown in Figure 13.15, contains the complete refrigeration package: compressor, condenser, water chiller, piping, and controls, ready to operate when put in place and when external connections are made.

Condensing Units
The package of compressor and condenser with interconnecting piping and controls is called a condensing unit (Figure 13.14). Both water- and aircooled condensing units are available. Air-cooled units are installed outdoors. When the air-cooled



Refrigeration equipment is selected from manufacturers' ratings after performance requirements are determined. Although the compressor, condenser, and evaporator can be chosen separately, one of the



Packaged chiller. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

Solution A unit will be selected from Table 13. L Required capacity = 12 tons. Ambient temperature = 98 F (Table A.6). Allow a friction loss in the suction line equivalent to 2 F. Therefore, the saturated suction temperature = 42 - 2 = 40 F. From Table 13.1, the unit selected is a Model RCU-O 155SS air-cooled condensing unit. Capacity = 12.4 tons at saturated suction temperature = 40 F. ambient temperature = 100 F. Power input = 14.6 KW. (The capacity at 98 F will be slightly higher than at 100 F ambient, as noted from the table.)

Packaged Water Chiller
packaged combinations is often used, so we will limit our explanation to these. In any case, selection of individual components is a similar process. The following data are needed for selection of a packaged water chiller: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Refrigeration load Condenser water temperature leaving unit Condenser water temperature rise Chilled water temperature leaving unit Chilled water temperature drop Fouling factor

Air-Cooled Condensing Unit
The following data are needed for selection of an air-cooled condensing unit: L Refrigeration capacity required (load) 2. Condenser ambient temperature 3. Saturated suction gas temperature The load is a result of the cooling load calculations. The condenser ambient temperature is usually the outdoor design temperature in summer. Sometimes the condenser is located where the ambient temperature may be even greater than design temperature, and this should be considered. The compressor saturated suction temperature will be equal to the evaporator temperature minus an allowance. This allowance accounts for the pressure drop in the suction line, expressed as an "equivalent temperature drop," usually 2 F. Table 13.1 is an example of aircooled condensing unit ratings.

Example 13.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The refrigeration load for the air conditioning system of a branch of the Big Bank in San Antonio, Texas, is 12 tons. The system uses refrigerant R-22, evaporating at 42 F. Select an air-cooled condensing unit.

The load is determined from cooling load calculations. Condenser water leaving temperature is usually about 5-15 F above ambient wet bulb temperature if a cooling tower is used. The water temperature rise is usually selected between 8-15 F. The leaving chilled water temperature will depend on the cooling coil selection for the air handling equipment. Chilled water temperature ranges of 8-12 F are common. No exact figures on temperature changes are given because many choices are possihle. The designer must frequently try different combinations of values, selecting the equipment each time, to find which will result in the best choice. Computer programs for equipment selection provided by the manufacturer are very useful for this task. Table 13.2 is an example of packaged water chiller ratings.

Example 13.2 A package water chiller is required for the air conditioning system of the Royal Arms Apartments.


AIR-COOLED CONDENSING UNIT RATINGS Capacity Data' (60 Hz.)" Condensing Units-R22 Ambient Temperature of
Suction Temp of

TABLE 13.1

90°F Tons K.W.

95°F Tons K.W.

100°F Tons K.W.

105°F Tons K.W.


EER @ARI Base 110°F 115°F Rating Tons K.W. Tons K.W. Condo

30 RCU-008S 35 40 45 30 RCU-008SSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-OIOSSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-OIOT 35 40 45

5.8 6.6 7.4 8.0 6.4 7.0 7.7 8.4 7.7 8.5 9.2 10.0 8.5 9.4 10.3 11.3

7.4 7.8 8.2

5.6 6.5 7.0 7.9 6.2 6.8 7.5 8.0 7.5 8.3 9.0 9.8

7.5 8.0 8.4 8.9 7.1 7.6 7.9 8.4 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.1

5.3 6.1 6.8 7.6 5.8 6.6 7.0 7.8 7.3 8.0 8.8 9.6

7.6 8.1 8.6 9.1 7.2 7.8 8.1 8.6 8.7 9.2 9.8 10.3

5.1 5.7 6.6 7.4 5.6 6.4 6.9 7.6 6.9 7.8 8.6 9.4

7.7 8.2 8.7 9.3 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.5

4.7 5.5 6.3 7.0 5.5 6.2 6.7 7.4 6.7 7.5 8.3 9.0

7.8 8.3 8.9 9.6 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.1 9.6 10.2 10.8

4.6 5.3 5.9 6.7 5.2 5.8 6.5 7.0 6.4 7.3 8.0 8.8

7.9 8.5 9.2 9.8 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.1


7.0 7.4 7.7


8.4 8.9 9.3



11.0 12.2 13.2 14.1 15.1 9.7

Il.5 12.4 13.2 14.0

8.211.7 9.1 10.0 10.9 12.6 13.4 14.2

7.911.9 8.7 9.6 10.5 12.8 13.6 14.6

7.512. 8.4 9.3 10.2 13.0 13.8 14.7 8.0 8.9 9.9 13.1 13.9 14.8 7.8 8.6 9.5

The load is 27 tons. Chilled water is cooled from 55 F to 45 F. Condenser water enters at 85 F and leaves at 95 F. The condenser and chilled water fouling factors" are 0.0005. Select a suitable unit.
Solution A unit will be selected from Table 13.2. The fouling factor is a number that describes the c1eanli-' ness of the water. The size of the condenser required will depend on this. Table 13.2 is based on a water fouling factor of 0.0005, as noted, so .

no correction for this will be necessary. If the fouling factor is different, tables from the manufacturer show corrections to the selection. The required conditions are: Capacity = 27 tons Leaving chiIled water temperature = 45 F Chilled water temperature drop = 10 F Entering condenser water temperature = 85 F Condenser water temperature rise = 10 F

8 14.5 17.S 13.8 18.6 15.5 11.5 11. resulting in a .0 14.0 20.8 Notes: ARI base rating conditions 90° ambient.4 16.4 12.2 20.8 24.7 17.0 22.9 19.9 23.7 17.9 12.1 17.2 17.4 23. multiply the ratings of 90°F ambient by 1.5 16.1 15.3 13. * For capacity ratings at 85°P ambient temperature.9 9.1 20.9 18.5 16.4 19. Tons 12.1 tons at required conditions.1 15.1 K.0 K.0 21.85 multiplier.7 11.0 15. Tons 13.1 17.7 11.8 10.7 22.8 12.5 15.6 18.001.4 15.2 19.9 13.0 15.1 16.03 x Tons and .3 22.0 20.4 13.0 13.W.1 EER @ARI Base 110°F 115'F Rating Tons K. Inc.8 17.4 10.W. derate above table by .4 20.4 13.2 15.2 16.5 14.2 24.7 14.4 14. if the fouling factor of the condenser increases to 0.5 18.4 14.8 15.7 17.6 K.5 21.6 13.9 12.7 16.8 15.8 17.) The unit chosen for these requirements is a Model pew 030T water chiller.5 21.1 11.2 indicates both a reduction in refrigeration capacity and an increase in power required.5 20. Tons 12.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TABLE 13.4 15.0 16.4 10.6 16.6 13.1 19.1 KW.4 13.3 9.1 14.5 20.5 10. There is a loss of 2 % in refrigeration and an increase of 3% in power.3 17. These are indicated by boldface type.5 15.0 IS.1 13.2 11.2 18.3 14.S 10.0 15.8 14. Tons K.0 1 1.9 14. (Courtesy of Dunham-Bush.6 16.4 19.2 21.2 14.W.5 19.0 19.4 23.S 17.W.9 16.7 14.1 12.0 21.4 12.)-Condensing Units-R22 Ambient Temperature of Suction Temp OF 90°F Tons 95'F 100°F 105°F 345 Model K.8 18.6 20.2 15.2 15.0 15.W.6 15.8 13.6 14.0 13.W. Note that Table 13.6 19.7 9.4 16.4 22.0 20.S 11.(50 Hz.4 17.97 x KW.7 18.7 25. ** For 50 hertz capacity ratings.8 13.4 16.4 14.9 21.7 19.0 21.1 18.5 10.8 14.9 18. which has a capacity of 28.8 14.2 10.5 15.3 14.6 16.6 11.8 10.4 17.7 11.5 19.4 21.5 8. 45° suction temperature.1 12.0 16. Condo 30 RCU-015SSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-0l5T 35 40 45 30 RCU-020T 35 40 45 30 RCU-020SSt 35 40 45 10.9 22.9 16.3 15.8 17.7 19.1 11.4 19.5 9.9 17.3 17.0 14.1 18.3 19. 13.6 19.5 9.5 20.3 11.4 14.3 21.3 12.5 13.8 18.3 12.6 10.4 17. Power input is 25.1 13.2 12.2 18.5 14.9 13.9 19.8 11.2 14.9 14.1 (Continued) Capacity Data.9 19.8 12.9 20.2 11.8 14. t All models with the suffix 'SS' denote single DIB-metric accessible Hermetic compressors.9 16.

9 17.4 30.2 lO.6 51.6 14. This can be found in the manufacturer's catalog.2 17.4 44.0 17.4 17.8 34. This can be measured by a performance .3 22.7 16.3 16.5 43.6 33.5 45.S 5S.2 13.4 13.6 9.0 19.8 46.S 14.6 54.0 18.2 9.2 47.5 9.6 28.7 17.8 11.1 13.I 10.3 9.7 43.1 34.3 53.7 10.0 30.1 16.5 32.0 14.5 4Ll 42. of 75° Cap.3 20.2 16.3 9.2 19. The most desirable choice is the unit that would produce the most refrigeration with the lowest power input.9 11.8 46.1 16.6 13.3 10.5 14.4 29.S 16.9 31. The fouling factor number reflects the effect of dirt on the heattransfer surface.S 57.6 19.0 43.3 8.7 17.1 IS.6 10.6 19.2 58.7 14.9 55.6 29.3 14.7 51.3 17.9 54.6 47.3 18. GPM Tons Condo Cap.9 9. GPM Tons KW KW 42 44 PCWOIOT 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCWOl5T 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCW020T 45 46 4S 50 10.9 29.6 17.5 14.3 16.6 8.2 14.8 52.3 8.7 20.5 50.6 15.2 net increase of 5% in energy use for a given capacity.6 13.9 ILl 11.5 13.7 17.6 16.4 44.5 31.1 44.2 14.5 57.7 9.8 17.0 20. 13.8 9.7 18.6 41.7 14.7 17.3 20.7 19.4 29.0 10. usually required.0 30.0 15.9 15.1 56.0 IS.0 33.0 31.4 15.4 20.9 16.8 14.9 20.6 39.5 15.3 14.6 8.0 9.2 lO.4 58.2 14.3 15.3 47.3 17.5 17.7 14.3 30.7 ILl 11.9 29. Tons 80" 850 80" Condo Cap.6 9.1 14.S 16.6 53.7 8.0 49.9 8.3 13.S 16.5 17.9 56.8 31. GPM Tons KW Condo Cap.7 15.0 41.5 10.3 lO.1 14.5 18.3 42.6 14.1 15.7 15. such as dimensions and weight and water pressure drop through the chiller and condenser.6 46.0 9.4 9.7 8.9 16.7 30.8 9.6 15.0 18.4 10.7 16.4 17.9 10.9 lO.7 9.17 ENERGY EFFICIENCY When selecting refrigeration equipment.8 45.6 21.7 13.7 45. Additional information about the equipment is .7 19.9 10.7 53.1 10.9 18.7 40.0 13.7 30.S 17.6 43.0 20.2 8. it is useful to know which will give the "best" performance.5 8.3 16.1 17.2 15.7 49. In this case.1 56.5 lO.8 4S.2 Lvg.1 9.3 15.6 52.4 13.0 16.0 9.9 40.2 18.7 21.6 18.8 32.5 16.6 32.9 29.4 30. Chilled Water Temp.1 16.9 10.3 9.1 17.7 31.7 54.0 45.0 44.3 8. it will often be found that more than one unit will have the capacity needed.8 9.0 9.346 CHAPTER 13 PACKAGED WATER CHILLER RATINGS TABLE 13.0 32. This points up the importance of maintaining a clean condenser to conserve energy.8 16.4 30.I 52.0 42.4 44.4 13.5 8.0 13.3 19.3 18.7 10.3 9.5 11.9 15.9 56.8 50.3 11. Condenser Entering Water Temp.5 14.6 19.4 18.8 32.0 16.5 44.3 56.4 9.3 4S.3 31.6 54.2 14.0 14.7 10.5 15.8 15.4 15.0 8. GPM Tons 95° Condo KW GPM Model of KW Condo Cap.2 51.9 13.9 52.4 IS.4 16.0 15.0 14.

4 23.8 21.6 108.2 121.8 75.001 condenser fouling factor.6 27.4 38.9 24.2 68.6 42. of 347 75° Cap.1 79. multiply capaciry shown in ratings by . Tons Condo Cap.5 4U 118.98 and kW by 1.9 27.6 37.0 36.4 85.9 22.4 21.6 43.1 71.2 39.1 68.1 67.0 39.4 24.2 20.0 23.5 22.3 26.2 32.2 85.1 40.2 24.3 112.8 43.4 45.7 29.4 38.9 26.8 20.7 40.5 83.1 26.8 23. For .1 26.8 21.9 23.1 119.03.7 36.5 70.7 37. Ratings are applicable for 6° to 14° range.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TABLE 13.6 84.9 47.8 122.2 79.8 30.8 81.1 26.7 36.8 77. Chilled Water Temp.7 42.0 85.5 29.4 117.1 23. 4.9 26. Ratings are based on .1 41.4 118.0 EO 61.0 83.1 127.1 44.3 39.6 25.5 25.7 64.8 117.0 25.5 26.6 22.0 36.7 25.0 37.7 30.9 123. Do not extrapolate.3 24.9 65.6 PCW040T 45 46 48 50 Note: *Boldface type indicates ARI rating condition.7 27.9 70.0 29.5 87.6 73.8 27.2 88.0 20.8 28.7 25.1 70.0 26.8 28.2 35. consult factory.9 90.6 75.4 23.4 23.0 38.5 71.1 25. GPM Tons Condo Cap.5 75.1 41.7 44.7 24.6 120.3 27.2 116.6 39.6 38.6 37.9 20.5 28. GPM Tons 95° Condo KW GPM Model OF 42 44 KW KW KW KW 24.8 19.6 28.4 43.5 25.1 37.0005 fouling factor in the chiller and condenser.0 26.2 26.0 4004 114.2 87.2 21.6 22.8 24.0 24.3 25.2 22.8 128.9 39. Inc.6 30.0 131. Condenser water flow rate data are based on tower water with a 10° rise.1 28.0 20.5 20.3 27.9 69.1 109.2 40.5 36.5 78.1 36.2 (Continued) Lvg.5 25.7 116.0 39.5 126.0 2604 PCW025T 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCW030T 45 46 48 50 42 44 26. Ratings are based on 10°F chilled water temperature range.2 '112.3 70.4 41.8 115.3 19.4 22.9 38. Notes: I.7 21.9 22. Direct interpolation for conditions between ratings is permissible.3 88.2 23.6 83.6 65.0 39.2 26.5 26.7 71.3 29.3 86.4 21.6 85.4 66.2 69.3 20.1 78. For other fouling factor ratings.0 41.3 44.8 63.1 118.3 12.0 35.3 lIS.8 25. GPM Tons Condo Cap.8 120.1 24.8 42.5 21.1 23.4 72.0 79.6 26.7 23.1 66.1 124. units are fuJI capacity except PCW040T which is 5/6 capacity.2 25. Condenser Entering Water Temp. 5.6 82.1 25.7 19.0 25.1 85. 50 hz.8 37.8 38.3 40.7 73.6 20.4 40.7 27.6 115.1 123.4 22.0 67.5 25.1 77.4 29.6 46.5 69.2 113.9 38.8 79.6 26.9 81.6 88.9 27.9 66.9 43.6 23.3 12.5 31.4 35.0 43.3 23.8 II I.0 122.2 86.) .4 40.9 23.3 29.9 26.9 24.8 72.0 21.9 24. GPM Tons Condo Cap.5 28.5 39.8 25.6 80. (Courtesy of Dunham-Bush.7 21.9 21.7 20. 3.0 24.9 21.8 25.3 31.1 24.5 84.4 41.5 24.2 82.2 37. 2.2 40.9 40.

Make water.200 BTU/hr . Example 13.348 CHAPTER 13 factor called the coefficient of perfonnance (COP). 7. Therefore. and springs are some types available.r_i"-ge_r_a_t_io_n_c_a-'-p_a_c_ity"-_ __ equivalent power input to compressor The higher the COP of a refrigeration unit. they would soon be forgotten by the student who does not regularly carry out these procedures. Each manufacturer and each piece of equipment has individual features that require detailed installation instructions.000 ...fits. we will discuss here some general points of installation practice that apply to most situations.1 KW x 3410 --::-:-KW = 85. not the intent here to either repeat or supersede such instructions. In this case. If there is any doubt about whether the floor is adequately strong for the machine or whether a special base is needed. It transfers heat from the condenser 13. together with another efficiency measure called the energy efficiency ratio (EER). The cooling tower is the equipment that accom c pIishes this. and then return it to the condenser. It is .94 The COP found could be compared with values obtained for other possible selections.590 BTU/hr Using the equation for the COP. 6. natural sources of water are usually limited. Allow adequate clearance in front of control panels for operation and good visibility.ton = 337. BTU/hr Power Input = 25._efi::. to see if an improved performance is possible without sacrificing other bem.3 Determine the coefficient of performance for the package chiller of Example 13. Solution BTU/hr Capacity = 28. COP = refrigeration capacity equivalent power input 337. This will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 15. we must arrange to cool the heated water after it passes through the condenser. 2. cork. 4. For reasons already explained. If they were repeated here.200 BTU/hr 85. These instructions are often very lengthy. 5. Check machine for damage or refrigerant leaks (leak detecting devices and their use are described in refrigeration service manuals). and control connections so as not to block access to the machine..1tons x 12. electrical. 1. a steady supply of cooling water must be made available.2. Consult the manufacturer for the proper choice. The COP is thus a useful figure in comparing equipment to minimize energy consumption.18 INSTALLATION OF REFRIGERATION CHILLERS The procedures for installing specific refrigeration equipment are furnished by the manufacturer. 13.19 COOLING TOWERS Operation When water cooled condensers are used in the refrigerationplant. The COP is defined as: COP = ____r. Provide vibration isolation supports under compressors and prime movers. the less power is required for a given refrigeration requirement. Locate chillers and condensers with removable tubes to provide adequate clearance on one end to allow removal of the tube bundle and on the other for removal of water box heads. 3. a structural engineer must be consulted. Install anchor bolts in floor or base and anchor machine. Rubber.590 BTU/hr =3. Allow clearance on all sides of equipment for comfortable maintenance (3 or 4 ft minimum).

Air-'*--' . which break up the water into finer droplets when the water splashes onto the fill. When the air and water move in opposite directions. This is done by providing a makeup water supply to the basin. The cooled water collects in a basin and is then recirculated to the condenser. The induced draft fan type has the fan located at the tower outlet. . This improves the heat transfer. (Courtesy: The Marley Cooling Tower Co. The losses require provision for makeup water. the tower is called a counterflow type. tower and thereby rising from natural convection. Airflow (a) Forced draft fan Airflow Induced draft fan . and atmospheric towers are not often used today. Lower height may be preferable when installed on a roof.18 shows this difference.) water to the atmospheric air (Figure 13. There is not necessarily an operating advantage in practice of one type over another. The tower has internal baffles called fill.17 Forced and induced draft fan arrangements for cooling tower. When the air and water move at right angles to each other. whereas the forced draft fan type blows the air through (Figure 13.16). the tower is called a crossflow type. controlled by a float valve level. This must be done at regular intervals in order to prevent a continual accumulation of minerals that would otherwise occur from the evaporation and drift losses. Figure 13.17). The amount of air that will circulate from this effect is quite limited. However.16 Induced draft cooling tower. Most of the heat transfer is accomplished by the evaporation of a small percentage of the condensing water into the atmosphere. Mechanical draft towers use fans to create a high air flow rate. v (b) ~ g Air Types and Construction The atmospheric tower is a type of tower where the air circulation results from air being warmed in the Figure 13. sometimes a crossflow tower will be lower in height (although bigger in length or width) than a counterflow tower for the same capacity. Water from the condenser is pumped to the top of the cooling tower and sprayed down into the tower. Blowdown loss results from draining off and discarding a small portion of the water from the basin. thus cooling it.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 349 Figure 13. Drift loss results from wind carrying water away with the air. In addition to the water lost due to the evaporative cooling. The heat required for evaporation is taken from the bulk of condenser water. there are two other causes of water loss.

4 The pressure maintained in the evaporator of a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration machine is 0..1 13.20 PRINCIPLES [he absorption system uses the principle that some . noise.18 Counterflow versus crossflow of air and water in cooling tower. t t 1 1 1 1 Y .'apor. and is thereby chilled.¥i. The tower siding may be wood. Because of the low pressure. Another combination is lithium bromide (LiBr) and water. Example 13. Consider a tank partially filled with a concentrated liquid solution of lithium bromide (concentrated means that it contains very little water) as shown in Figure 13.19. galvanized steel. The structural framework may be wood or steel. A coil circulating water is located under the evaporating sprays. This water furnishes the heat needed for the evaporating spray. What is the refrigerant evaporating temperature? . or plastic. The capacity of a cooling tower depends on the rate of water evaporation. [here are many pairs of substances that have this . affinity for one another.350 CHAPTER 13 Air 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Water /1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Air 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Water 1 A' 1 Y 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t ~ t t I 1 1 1 1 Ir t I 1 1 1 1 ~ ~illl. some of the water will evaporate. Therefore. We are all aware of how table salt absorbs water vapor from the air. thus making it difficult to pour. leaving a very low pressure. we will refer to them in our explanation. the less the capacity of the tower. metal. Water is then sprayed into the tank. The temperature at which the spray water evaporates will depend on the pressure in the tank. The space above the liquid is evacuated of any gas. The absence of a compressor usually has the advantages of less vibration. Because this pair is used in many absorption systems. according to the saturation pressure-temperature relations of water. A row of baffles called eliminators are provided near the tower outlet to catch and prevent excessive loss of water droplets.ases will be absorbed by certain other substances. lithium bromide will absorb large quantities of water . This rate decreases with higher water vapor content (humidity) in the ambient air. requiring heat to do so. as much as possible.wa~? Counterflow Crossflow Figure 13. or plastic. the higher the ambient wet bulb temperature. Absorption Refrigeration System Absorption refrigeration machines are often used for large air conditioning systems. Redwood is ideal because water will not cause its deterioration.147 psia.flcnd weight than with a vapor compression machine. if} j . The fill may be wood.

147 psi a is 45 F. Spray water (the refrigerant) evaporates in a tank where the pressure is very low. require explanation... which has a lower boiling point than the lithium bromide. The absorption process generates heat that would raise the temperature of the absorbing solution. A concentrated solution is stored in a tank called the absorber. From Table A. . thus extracting heat from water circulating in a coiL The water that is chilled in thecoil is distributed to air conditioning equipment as required. Solution Water is the refrigerant.. To prevent the pressure from building up in the evaporator. Here it is heated to a temperature that will evaporate some of the water..20.19 Diagram illustrating refrigeration by absorption.20. The solution from the absorber is preheated by hot solution returning from the concentrator. Two refinements to this cycle. which improve the system's efficiency and are shown in Figure 13. completing the cycle. diluted solution is pumped to the concentrator (also called generator) by a concellfrator pump.3. the evaporating (saturation) temperature of water at 0. where it is condensed to a liquid by giving up heat to water from a cooling tower or natural body of water. so the liquid water is recirculated by the refrigerani pump. raising its pressure. and a low pressure is maintained there. hot water. as shown.. The lithium bromide absorbs and draws water vapor from the evaporator space. and no longer is effective... To solve this problem. However. The water vapor from the concentrator flows to the condenser.==. however. the water vapor must be absorbed by lithium bromide.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Evaporating water at 40 F. thereby saving some of the heat needed in the concentrator. 0. The same coolina water is then used in the condenser..Water chilled to 44 F Figure 13. We will now explain how the actual system functions. the solution gradually becomes too diluted to absorb enough water.12 psia water in 351 Refrigerant_-+<==!====.. The water vapor quantity will build up in the tank. the diluted solution of lithium bromide must be reconcentrated and used again. water . The lithium bromide eventually absorbs all of the water it can hold. which is circuc lated through a coil in the absorber. The evaporator operation is as described previously. The condensed water is then returned to the evaporator.=::::. as shown in Figure 13. The spray water does not all evaporate. In this case. The reconcentrated solution is then returned to the absorber. .-:-----f---. The heat is removed by cooling water. Steam.. Lithium bromide L. making it less effective. '" The second refinement to the cycle is the inclusion of a heat exchanger between the absorber and concentrator..::= water Water ___ chilling coil ---t+{======::-t-. Another pair of fluids often used in absorption systems is ammonia and water. or a aas flame is used as a source of heat in the '" concentrator. The lithium bromide absorbs the water as both solutions make contact. and therefore increasing its evaporating temperature above useful refrigeration temperatures. In order to have a practical absorption refrigeration system that will operate continuously. This solution is sprayed into the absorber and recirculated by the absorber pump. Typical operating temperatures and pressures are indicated on the diagram.

and solution pumps. Another disadvantage of this system is that it operates at much higher pressures in the generator (about 300 psia).21 CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE '\bsorption refrigeration machines are not actually .I 9 Ib of steam per ton of refrigeration is typical at this temperature. Because of its volatility. concentrator. Heat source temperatures. The pumps are hermetic to prevent any leaks into the system.. is the absorbent and ammonia is the refrigerant. as shown in Figure 13. This requires additional equipment (a rectifier) to separate the ammonia from the water. compared with about 30 psia for the LiEr system. absorbel. including evaporator. the four parts are built into two or even one shell. They are popular in areas where natural gas is plentiful and inexpensive.2 I.::::.hown in Figure 13. The machine is carefully evacuated in the factory of air down to an extremely low pressure.onstructed with four separate vessels as was . and condensing water temperatures are the factors required to select the proper machine from manufacturers' tables.:. and electric controls.::::. To economize on construction costs. Refrigerant 115 F Absorber Evaporator 55 F } Chilled water ~:. '1 f I L c j .. interconnecting piping.::::.352 CHAPTER 13 Refrigerant vapor ~------'r--~Cooling water 103 F Steam or hot water -:=f===:::::~ Ctig (]) ro I-£ 1ij Q.:::.20 Flow diagram of lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration system. some water boils off with the ammonia in the generator of the aqua-ammonia absorption system. Concentrator temperatures'around 240 F result in peak efficiency. condensel. The heat required in the concentrator is furnished either by low pressure steam.:/-_ out 45 F Dilute solution Cooling water 85 F Refrigerant 40 F Absorber pump Refrigerant pump Concentrator pump Figure 13. SmalI capacity lithium bromide-water absorption units (3-25 tons) with direct-fired generators are also available. (The sketch was made that 'lay for clarity)..20. load. Selection procedures for an absorption chiIIer are similar to those for reciprocating or centrifugal chillers and therefore wiII not be discussed in further detail. or a gas flame. The machine is completely factory assembled. chiIIed water.:. 13. A steam use rate of 18. hot water.

65 is typical for large absorption equipment. Heat from the vapor coming from the first generator is used to provide further vaporization of liquid from the absorber. NY.0... The energy used to drive the compressor is usually electricity generated by a thermal electric utility. This corresponds to a heat input rate of about 18. The COP of the absorption system may be improved considerably if a two-stage generator (concentrator) is used. Only about onethird of the heat from the fuel in the power plant is converted to electric energy (this is a limitation imposed by the second law of thermodynamics. the energy use advantage of the compression refrigeration system is greatly reduced. That is. A large compressor-driven water chiller may have a COP of 3. but the COP does not show the whole situation. U-tube design Insulated suJiaces "-----Solution pump Figure 13. hot water is heated by solar collection panels and then used in the concentrator as the heat source.t. In this arrangement.. as a heat source... A two-stage machine available from Japan raises the COP to about 1.. The energy input rate required is high at the water temperatures solar heaters usually can produce (170-200 F).. Syracuse..) The coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption machines is much lower than systems using mechanical compression refrigeration. A COP of 0.000 BTUlhr per ton of refrigeration. 13.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 353 r. This would seem to be an unacceptable waste of energy.21 Absorption refrigeration machine. it uses only one-fifth of the energy of an absorption machine. Further factors make the absorption machine desirable under certain circumstances.22 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS The absorption machine has considerable promise for refrigeration in conjunction with solar energy .. (Courtesy: Machinery & Systems Division. The total energy balance between the absorption or compression machine may then be equal or may even be in favor of the former. The low pressure steam used for the energy source is frequently otherwise wasted heat from a process or from a utility company. Carrier Corp... a 50% improvement in energy efficiency. this is not important. ~- .) Thus. but because solar energy is cost-free and not depletable.5 or higher. explained in Chapter 15..

This is a serious problem in absorption systems. it will crystallize (solidify). Automatic methods of doing this can be provided by the manufacturer. and the low pressure exhaust steam from the turbine is then used as a heat source in an absorption machine. If the boiler is also located in the same space. which affects the machine capacity. 13. The light weight and lack of serious noise and vibration make this a feasible alternative to a basement. 2. 3. the crystallized LiEr blocks the piping and the machine stops working. In this arrangement. If floor or penthouse. as opposed to vapor compression machines. which is a function of relative fuel costs. Some general procedures will be discussed here. Safety controls are provided with" the machine and will not be discussed.25 INSTALLATION 13. Power failure 1 . With heat source control.23 CAPACITY CONTROL Two modern methods of modulating refrigeration capacity to meet load demands are used with absorption machines. especially by the operating engineer. Information can be found in manufacturers' manuals. both are major cost items in high-rise buildings. Provide rubber isolation pads under the machine. Air leakage into the system We will not explain here how each can cause this effect. Investigate possible installation on an upper 13. about 13 lb/ton. Allow ample clearance for tube removal and for service access as needed on all sides. the lithium bromide solution becomes too concentrated. thereby changing the machine capacity. 1 . it changes from a liquid to a solid (crystal) form. a high pressure steam turbine is used to drive a centrifugal refrigeration machine. Install external piping (to boiler.. due to the larger quantity of heat that must be rejected from the absorber and condenser combined. Since the absorption machine does not use ozone-depleting refrigerants. I.354 CHAPTER 13 A popular and efficient combination of refrigeration sources for air conditioning is the centrifugalabsorption combination. . 4. if a solution is already near its maximum concentration and if its temperature is then lowered. There are three factors that can result in a drop in temperature of the solution: I.24 CRYSTALLIZATION This is an important phenomenon that needs to be Jnderstood. because if it occurs. this eliminates the need for a boiler stack and much of the piping. Solution modulation control uses a controller that mixes the absorber solution to vary its concentration. If crystallization occurs.. it is necessary to heat the piping where the blockage has occurred. Condensing water temperature too low 3. It should be noted that the cooling tower required for an absorption machine will be considerably larger than that needed for a vapor compression cycle machine. The choice of whether to use an absorption or vapor compression machine (or combination) for an installation is largely a matter of economics. this is an additional attractive feature. Detailed instructions for installation of absorption refrigeration machines are provided by each manufacturer. Both of them use a controller that senses and maintains a constant leaving chilled water temperature. 2. as compared with 16 lb/ton for the turbine-driven machine alone. The overall steam rate per ton by using the steam twice can be very attractive. condenser) and electrical and control connections so as not to block access to the machine. the controller will operate a valve that controls the steam or hot water flow to the concentrator. The maximum concentration possible decreases as the solution temperature decreases. Therefore.

The heat pump now acts as a heating unit. The reversal Of refrigerant flow to switch between heating and cooling is accomplished with a reversing valve. However." The refrigeration effect. In winter. There is no reason why this heat could not be used to satisfy a heating load. passing over the condenser coil. The heat pump is usually a vapor compression refrigeration machine. The heat pump is sometimes called a "reverse cycle" air conditioner. The cycle is the vapor compression re- frigeration cycle. with all the components assembled as a package by the manufacturer.26 PRINCIPLES The heat pump is a refrigeration system that can be used for both cooling and heating. This has four ports. this means that it would have a lower first cost than using separate heating and cooling equipment.) Normally the purpose of a refrigeration machine is to absorb heat (in the evaporator) from a cooling load. is to reverse air flow.22 shows how a heat pump performs in both summer and winter. the duct arrangement is made so that room air is circulated to the evaporator coil in summer and to the condenser in winter. This is a misleading name. in winter the room air.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 355 The Heat Pump 13. only the refrigerant flow direction and function of the coils are reversed. without any great modifications. the heat pump appears to be a mysterious device that operates on some unusual principle. so that the room coil serves as the condenser and the outdoor coil as the evaporator. Another advantage that is not apparent without further investigation is that it may have a lower operating cost than separate conventional heating and cooling systems. Heat pumps are often supplied as unitary equipment. In the explanation given. Referring to Figure 13. but of course it serves no useful purpose in this case. In summer. which is basically no different in operation or components from that described previously. the machine is a heat ·'pump. Although this has always caused considerable interest in the heat pump. is heated. To those not familiar with refrigeration cycles. the direction of refrigerant flow is reversed after leaving the compressor. One clear advantage of a heat pump is that it can provide heating or cooling from one machine. two of which are open at anyone time to allow flow in the direction chosen. high energy costs and shortages have created even more intense interest. Therefore. The opposite is done for outside air. depending on need. When this is done. 13. mayor may not be utilized.27 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Consideration of how the energy balance principle (Chapter 3) applies to the heat pump will show how it may provide heating with a relatively small expenditure of energy. but this is unusual. used more on larger equipment. In many cases. The evaporator and condenser coils function the same in winter and summer. without reversing refrigerant flow. the total energy into the system equals the total energy out: where Qc = heat rejected from condenser Qe = heat absorbed in evaporator Qp = heat equivalent of compressor power input . especially when electric resistance heating would be otherwise used. The heat that is rejected in the condenser is thrown away to the atmosphere or a body of water. with the refrigerant flowing in the direction shown. Another arrangement. it is not. the room coil serves as the evaporator and the room air is cooled to produce summer cooling. Figure 13. which is still occurring. including the air handling unit.23. (An absorption machine can also be used as a heat pump. The heat absorbed in the outdoor coil is the refrigeration effect. The room air passing over the room coil therefore receives the heat rejected in the condenser.

95 F 105 F Outdoor coil (condenser) Compressor t 80 F --'I---"".22 fhe heat pump cycle.356 CHAPTER 13 Reversing valve Air ~.. .N~"'. (b) Winter cycle (heating). (a) Summer cycle (cooling).~ Air 60 F Room coil --"" (evaporator) Flow control device (a) Air 35 F 45 F 70 F Outdoor coil (evaporator) Compressor t Air 100 F Room coil --"" (condenser) Flow control device (b) Figure 13.

Contrast this with any direct heating system.28 SELECTION OF HEAT PUMPSTHE BALANCE POINT As the evaporating temperature decreases. The heat pump COP" is useful in illustrating the advantage of heating by using electrical energy to drive a heat pump compressor rather than using the electricity directly in resisiimce heaters. This lowers the value of the COP slightly. the heating capacity (the heat rejected from condenser) of a heat pump also decreases. because less heat is absorbed in the evaporator. supplementary heating must be furnished. Since the evaporator is the outdoor coil. the energy expended is at least equal to the useful heating. This is called the balance poim. a drop in outdoor temperature causes a decrease in the heating capacity. As the outdoor temperature decreases. Figure 13. since both the load is increasing and the heat pump capacity is decreasing. an outside temperature of about 30 F is a typical temperature at which the heating capacity of the unit will just match the load. of course. of course.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 357 Condenser Compressor Evaporator Q. The significance of this equation is that the useful heating Qc is greater than the energy needed to drive the compressor Qp by the amount Qe> which does not require any energy expenditure. For typical heating -cooling load requirements. defined as COP = Qc 13.23 Energy use in the heat pump. Controls are arranged to activate the resistance heaters in steps as the outdoor temperature drops. For residential applications. either electrical or by burning a fuel to generate steam or hot water. At temperatures below the balance point. its heating capacity will be inadequate below outdoor temperatures often encountered in many climates. if the heat pump is sized to handle the maximum cooling load. the amount of supplementary heat required increases. For packaged heat pumps that include evaporator and condenser fans. . A relative measure of the performance of the heat pump is the heating coefficient of performance. " Qp =------~--~------------- heat rejected from condenser heat equivalent of compressor power Note that the coefficient of performance of a heat pump does not have the same meaning as when the unit is used for refrigeration. This is often accomplished by using one or more electric resistance heaters. the COP is often defined to include these auxiliary power inputs. In these cases.

800 3.000 59.000 61. 10 0 41. 100 5.000 45..200 7.000 15.000 21.000 42. 000 20.100 6.800 6.000 39.100 79 76 73 68 64 380 350 310 270 230 5.900 6.100 8.[50 79 76 73 68 64 4" 375 335 295 250 62 52 47 42 33 25 18 12 .000 35.000 45.000 21. PSIG Pressures Cool 4.tXlO 3.000 42.500 S.400 31.300 7.t .- 51 -45 42 34 25 18 10 60 51 CFH060D8A CFB060A2 liS lOS *95 85 75 48.600 3.000 34.000 32.400 4.000 ·000 4 . conditIOn!'.650 8.000 18.000 42.900 .100 5.' In!'.400 30.R.500 17.000 26.000 51.3()() 29.000 20 .000 37.600 9.200 79 76 73 68 64 400 360 322 284 240 45 42 34 25 18 F db: 67 0 F wb (coohng).000 34.000 18500 1·1.200 27.900 34.750 3.000 3.650 6. • A.7(Xl 4.000 31.900 35.800 5.500 10.000 1..200 6. CFB024A2 Outside Temp.J. CFH024A3 Evap..000 22 .000 32. 14500 BTUthr.650 5.500 79 76 73 68 64 390 348 310 270 230 60 .000 25.5lX) 3.900 5.000 66.500 7.200 21.6tXJ 7. Temp dboF Heat 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 Capacity Total Watts Heat 4.lde temp.250 5.000 16.600 8.000 5.220 81 78 75 71 66 370 335 330 265 225 302 260 250 238 116 2(){1 182 170 318 29(} 280 262 140 220 210 204 318 290 280 262 140 220 210 204 358 320 300 282 250 225 204 188 358 320 300 CFH048DJA CFB048A2 115 105 *95 85 75 39.300 5.400 5.1-.()(Xl 38.H!D8A CFB048A2 [ 15 105 '95 85 75 39.5 67 387 350 312 274 234 74 60 53 46 37 30 24 20 380 320 287 260 220 189 170 159 UPFlOW CFH036D7A CFB036A2 115 lOS *95 85 75 30.900 5.:!00 4500 3.500 3.000 28.650 4.900 42.(){)() 42.000 S7.500 25 .150 2.450 7..000 36.000 225 200 165 135 CFH030A3 " II CFB036A2 115 105 '95 85 75 24..600 5.000 10.600 5.000 27.500 5.lX)() 24 .750 6. Ie!'. Matching Flex. Heat Pump Model No.6tXl 3.000 34.700 4300 3.300 3.100 62 52 47 42 33 25 18 12 CFH060DJA CFH060A2 lIS 105 *95 85 75 48.000 32.200 4.000 13.00(l 49.5 65 388 351 313 276 235 68 59 52 50 40 31.500 6.300 29.000 27 . 000 21.000 51.lXlO 2.750 82 79 76 71.000 3. Select performance requirements and matched components below.000 18.000 3550 80 77 74 69..320 6'{)00 5.000 24.. dboF 115 105 '95 85 75 Capacities BTUlhr. Total PSIG Outside Watts Pressures Suction Dischg.tKlO 29.000 30.100 39.000 21.5 16. 750 26.000 4.500 37.300 4.l){){) 47. Blower Model No..900 7. 000 20.000 12.000 18.700 6.500 32./.TABLE 13.000 26..000 19500 Suction Dischg.000 26.000 48..000 56.950 2.fXXl 4.450 4.000 27.300 42.000 6.lXlO 52.100 3.000 31.700 8..000 66.850 5.lXlO 35.500 ·'-300 7. 80 3500 10 282 250 225 204 188 358 .000 19.000 44.100 3.000 20.500 32.800 4.000 34..300 7.000 27.000 23..950 7.300 3.500 3..800 38.2(){} 6.950 2.000 41.500 23.000' 23.100 7.800 Cool 20.000 47.800 32.000 31..000 45..000 48.150 4.3 RESIDENTIAL-TYPE PACKAGED HEAT PUMP RATINGS performance data Fedders Flexhermetic Heat Pump Condensing Units are matched to Fedders Evaporator Blower Package Units for complete split system applications.1.) 0 . 70~ F db (heating).:!00 6.100 39.100 4.100 4.500 37.000 27 .300 5. Corp.700 9.200 41.000 42.620 6.000 53.150 2.600 3.750 7.000 48.000 57.800 5 •.500 5.000 12500 9.100 6.000 59.400 31.500 5.lXlO 45.000 52.000 31. (Reprinted with the permission of Fedder...000 62.000 41.000 Sens.800 Heat 31. 310 280 263 250 15.700 8.000 +1-.000 53..800 4.:!.000 49..9lXl 4.5(Xl 63 54 50 45 37 28 20 10 65 55 50 45 37 30 22 17 409 367 350 330 295 260 225 185 CFHO·f2D7A CFB048A2 115 105 *95 85 75 36.700 76 73 70 66 62 400 360 320 285 240 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 .200 3. 000 -'1.000 25.900 3 . uoo CFH{).IXlO 27300 29.000 56..900 7.100 41. 900 3.000 27.300 42.3lXl 5.000 24.000 61.000 46/){){) 25.800 4.

67 F WB for cooling. The inside design temperatures are 70 F in winter and 80 F in summer.5 illustrates the selection of a heat pump and the determination of the balance point. At the design temperature of 18 F.1 KW It is possible to reduce or eliminate.0 '0 oj '0 "" oj Q. The ratings in the table are based on a space temperature of 70 F for heating and 80 F DB. The intersection of these two lines is the balance point. Using Table 13.000 BTUlhr and 18 F. heat pumps should always be sized for the cooling load. Alabama. The supplementary heating is then sized to provide the extra heating capacity below the balance point.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 359 The supplementary heater should always be located downstream of the indoor coil in the ductwork so that the heat does not affect the condensing temperature. and a line is drawn showing these heating capacities.000 60.BTUlhr 14.000 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Outdoor temperature. Another line is drawn showing the building heating load at different outdoor temperatures (this is a straight line). Ratings of some small split system packaged heat pumps suitable for residential or similar applications are shown in Table 13. oj ~ Design heating load Model CFH048 Heating capacity Balance point Building heating load - ~ I " c <D OJ This is the balance point. Refer to Figure 13. What is the balance point? What is the size of the required supplementary resistance heaters? Solution Using Table A. at 41. Supplementary heaters are required below 28 F.24 Determination of heat pump balance point for Example 13.000 BTU/hr. The intersection of these two lines is about 28 F. if any is required. Figure 13.5. more heating. F 80 Suppl. the summer and winter outdoor design temperatures are 94 F and 18 F. When selecting a heat pump. as can be seen in Table 13.000 BTU/hr and the design heating load is 41.000 BTUlhr.000 BTUlhr.2 OJ :g c c '" . however.000 . The larger unit will also provide .000 = 14.000 BTUlhr x IKW 3410 BTUlhr = 4. The design cooling load is 44.3. to 0 BTU/hr (no load) and 70 F.heating capacity = 41. The capacity at 94 F is just over 45. The heat pump heating capacity just matches the required building load at an outdoor temperature of 28 F. This is usually undesirable. the supplementary heat required is Supplementary heat = hearing load . 1:: (IJ ::J f- ~ 80.3. a standard ARI test condition.000 10. The heating capacity of the unit is then plotted at different outdoor temperatures.24. rather than the heating load. The heat pump heating capacity at the balance point is 33.000 20. .000 BTUlhr.000 30. The oversized unit will cycle too often in the cooling cycle. a Model CFH048 unit is selected based on the design cooling load. A straight line is drawn from the design heating load point.000 50.supplementary heating by oversizing the heat pump in the cooling cycle.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Select a heat pump for a residence in Birmingham.27.9. Example 13.000 40. This line represents the building heating load at different outdoor temperatures. Using the columns of heating capacity versus outside heating temperatures. a curve is drawn through these points.3. Example 13. resulting in uncomfortable conditions and a shortened life for the compressor and controls. standard practice is to select a unit that will satisfy the design cooling load.000 . heating '0 oj . The design heating load is 44.000 70. For these reasons.

at 30 F the heat pump requires about one-half the power input that electrical resistance heating does to produce the same' heat output.11). when used for heating. resist. pressure. specific heat. \"". We do wish to discuss.30 REFRIGERANTS Heat pump COP" Elect.5-3. At higher outdoor temperatures.3.99 1. If electrical resistance heating is used. The relationship of the two COP"s is 13. important .26) = 1. say 75. and inexpensive. Example 13.0. at lower outdoor temperatures.5000 = 4970 W. the heating capacity of the Model CFH048 heat pump at 30 F is 34. this temperature is lower than ambient air temperature.0. stable. COP" --~2:1 1. however. described in Chapter 18.100 E This moderate temperature can be achieved with a relatively inexpensive collector and will result in a low heat pump energy use. That is.99 5000 W x 3. They have good physical properties for performance-temperatures. it will not perfonn as well. (This applies to unitary air-to-air heat pumps when operating at an outside air temperature of 47 E) This means that the heat pump is producing 1. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump decreases with a decrease in evaporator temperature (see Chapter 15).000 BTUlhr. The COP" for the heat pump at 30 F is (see Section 13. However.6 For the heat pump used in Example 13. What is the heating COP of the heat pump at this temperature.41 BTUlhr =9970W The savings is 9970 . which results in a low COP in winter. They are nontoxic. Typical actual heat pump COP h values.000 BTU/hr IW x----3. range from 1. However. heat transfer. the equivalent to 34.29 SOLAR ENERGY-HEAT PUMP APPLICATION An effective use of the heat pump is in combination with solar energy.41 BTUlhr lW The COP of electric resistance heating = 1. It is not our intention here to investigate those matters in great detail. Ii! I I ~ .000 BTUlhr 13.5. a solar energy collector can be used to supply water at a much higher temperature than normally available in winter for the evaporator.6 illustrates the savings in energy and operating cost by using a heat pump instead of electric resistance heating. These refrigerants have been used since the 1930s because of their excellent characteristics. oil mixing feature. With the conventional application of the heat pump. compare the amount of power saved at an outdoor temperature of 30 F by using a heat pump instead of electrical resistance heating. compared to resistance heaters? Solution From Table 13.000 BTU/hr is Resistance heating = 34.0 To express this in words.360 CHAPTER 13 Example 13.0 times more heat output for the same energy input than by using electrical resistance heating.5-3. This arrangement is called the solar assisted heat pump. the heat pump will perfonn even better (be more energy efficient). 34. etc. The refrigerants that are most widely used in compressors are in a chemical group called either fluorinated hydrocarbons or halocarbolls. That is more properly left to refrigeration texts and manuals. the amount of heat output is the same as the amount of electric energy input (see Equation 15. requiring 5000 W of power for the compressor.

The production and importation of all CFCs in the United States has ceased as of December 3 I. an HCFCICFC mixture. and HFCs do not cause any ozone depletion (ODP = 0).REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 361 issues about them that affect the practice of work in the HVAC industry. and carbon atoms.) 2. the major industrialized nations have agreed to control the use and manufacture of CFCs and HCFCs.74 . Some in this group are CFC-II. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). according to their constituents. For instance. Ozone (0 3 ) is an oxygen (0 2 ) molecule with an added oxygen atom. Some other countries have scheduled an earlier elimination. These are composed of hydrogen. All CFC use after this date must come from recovery operations. and CFC-114.000 ozone molecules. especially in operating and servicing procedures. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). and the United States may revise its schedule.0 0.31 OZONE DEPLETION Refrigerants ODP Despite their excellent properties for use as refrigerants. all parts of the mixture evaporate and condense at the same conditions. An increase in cataracts 3. I. There are also mixtures of the above substances that are used as refrigerants. All of the halocarbon refrigerants can be divided into three subgroups. Table 13. and R-502. R-12. The ozone layer has been progressively depleting. and marine life The relative ability of a substance to deplete the ozone layer is called its ozone depletion potential (ODP). For instance.8 1.0. fl uorine. This can complicate their use. chlorine. a CFC/HFC mixture. Harmful effects on crops. Some in this group are HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFC-125 (R-125). A gradual reduction of production and use of HCFCs is scheduled to result in their phase-out by the year 2030 in the United States. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The ozone layer . These fall into two classes: azeotropes and blends (zeotropes). Zeotropes or blends are mixtures that do not always behave as a single substance.0 0. they may not evaporate or condense at a constant temperature (called temperature glide). An increase in skin cancer (melanoma). especially the CFCs.05 0.4 OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (ODP) OF REFRIGERANTS 13. fluorine. and carbon atoms. is one of the most deadly forms of cancer 2.0 1. Azeotropes are mixtures that behave as a single substance. ODP = 1. 3.blocks out much of the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation CFC-ll CFC-12 HCFC-22 CFC-1l3 CFC-1l4 HCFC-123 HFC-134A R-500 1. fluorine. One chlorine atom can destroy 100. and carbon atoms. CFC-12. Some in this group are HCFC-22 (R-22) and HCFC-123 (R-123). It has been found that they cause depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. As a response to this problem. Note that HCFCs have a relatively low ODP. an extremely serious environmental problem exists with those halocarbons that contain chlorine. This posed of chlorine. 1995.D2 0. timber. CFC-II and CFC-12 have the highest (worst) value.4 lists some of the refrigerants and their ODP values. These are composed of hydrogen. TABLE 13. 4. (The more familiar identification is R-II.0 0. These are com- from the sun. Reduction in immunity against disease. and R-II4. Two frequently used refrigerants in this group are R-500. Effects of a decreased ozone layer over Earth include I.

These restraints have led to various solutions. and pressures may be unsatisfactory. and other CFCs. Apparently it is not yet being seriously considered in the United States. B. R-22. 13. carbon dioxide. especially in medium to large air conditioning systems that would otherwise use centrifugal refrigeration compressors with CFC-ll or HCFC-22. Research is undergoing on numerous other new refrigerants. Other than the vapor compression system. The specific regulations have been developed by and are enforced by the U. Alternate Halocarbon Refrigerants The search for and selection of alternate nonozone-depleting halocarbon refrigerants (HFCs) involve some difficult choices. An interim substitute is HCFC-123. CFC-12 (R-12). Ammonia can be toxic and flammable. different elastic materials must be used. and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration. This refrigerant is used in centrifugal compressors. such as ammonia. HCFC-22 (R-22). That is. HFC-134a is an alternative. Its use will continue for some time.S. 5.S. There are generally no "drop-in" substitutes. Other Existing Refrigerants New consideration is being given to previously used refrigerants. 3. Refrigeration compressor capacity. for instance. HFC-134a is a permanent substitute (ODI = 0). 4. Refrigerants may not knowingly be vented (released) to the atmosphere. residential air conditioning.362 CHAPTER 13 These mandated changes have led to a search for viable temporary and permanent solutions. Expansion valves and desiccants may not function properly. 1. and propane. Research is underway for a permanent HFC replacement. 2. Requirements for recovery. polyol ester and alkylbenzene oils may be satisfactory substitutes.32 REFRIGERANT VENTING AND REUSE The same concern about ozone depletion has led to regulations in the use of both CFCs and HCFCs. the lithium bromide absorption system is a realistic substitute in some cases. CFC-lJ (R-lJ). In large centrifugal and screw compressors. because of possible safety problems. Propane is already being used in some new household refrigerators in Europe. 2. Al tern ate refrigerants. This refrigerant is widely used in window units. 2. and reclaiming refrigerants during service opera- . which include I. Conservation of existing refrigerants in use. C. decreasing gradually. however. Some new refrigerants may be less safemore toxic and more flammable. This refrigerant is presently used largely in automotive air conditioners and household refrigerators. covered under amendments to the U. 3. some of which are summarized here: A. However. Clean Air Act. until this group is phased out. the alternate refrigerant cannot simply be placed in existing compressors. Some new refrigerants may cause deterioration of rubber seals and hoses. R-12. but each has well known undesirable characteristics. Mineral-oil-based lubricants (presently used with CFCs) cannot be used with some new refrigerants. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Of course initial and operating costs would also playa factor in making a decision. power requirements. recycling. Use of refrigeration systems other than vapor compression. These do not cause ozone depletion. Possible substitutes are the HFC mixtures R-407c and R-4 lOa. They apply to R-II. A brief description of some major features of the regulations follows. In such cases. Toxicity can be a concern with HCFC-123. The problems may include: 1. Manufacturers are now offering compressors that use this refrigerant. and HCFCs in use now.

ing is measured by the Global Warming Potential (GWP).REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 363 tions or when disposing of equipment are established. CO2 is a product of all fuel combustion. Refrigeration technicians that service or dispose of equipment must be certified. This entails taking an EPA approved certification test. Venting of refrigerants and other violations is punishable by fines up to $25. For CO 2 . because those systems are closed. 2. For this reason. and particulates. this would involve use of speed control or inlet guide vanes. this would involve use of cylinder unloaders or speed control. but it should not be neglected. Water treatment in chilled water systems is usually a minor problem. where the water is exposed to the atmosphere.35 ENERGY CONSERVATION IN REFRIGERATION Some methods to consider for conserving energy with refrigeration systems are: I. The greatest global warming effect is from carbon dioxide (C0 2 ). and passing the refrigerant through filter dryers to reduce moisture. Large land areas near sea level may flood. there is concern about these refrigerants." a bacteria that apparently has been traced in some cases to stagnant water in cooling tower basins. Select and operate equipment with highest evaporating (or chilled water) temperature and lowest condensing temperature consistent with . 13.34 WATER TREATMENT Water used in condensers. noncondensable gases. Global warming may cause serious changes in the environment. For HCFC-22. halocarbon refrigerants have a global warming effect. acidity. Recycling. Recycling is the cleaning of the refrigerant by removing oil. and Reclaiming (RRR) There are regulations concerning the procedures and equipment involved in these practices. At the time of this writing. These gases trap solar heat. 13. 4.0. A firm that specializes in water treatment should be called in to set up a treatment plan when planning a large air conditioning system. For reciprocating compressors. Use refrigeration compressors that reduce power requirements as load decreases. Minerals that exist naturally in water can precipitate as solids and form scale that deposits on surfaces.33 GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL In addition to the ozone depletion effect on the environment. The water can have an acidic character that will cause corrosion of metals. 3. the GWP = 100. All refrigerant must be recovered before opening the system. The most bizarre example of contamination is "Legionnaires' disease. The regulations also specify the equipment and procedures involved. and agriculture will be affected. Recovery is the removal of refrigerant from a system and storage in a container. The refrigerant must be tested to meet this standard. There are a number of publications available with this information for the interested student. Recovery. Reclaiming is a complex cleaning process that restores the refrigerant to its original factory purity. This is a common problem in cooling towers. water chillers. and boilers requires proper chemical treatment. restrictions on emissions are still being considered by the industrialized nations.000 per violation day. Some halocarbon refrigerants have a very high GWP. reducing heat transfer. the GWP = 1. Biological growths can occur that may cause deterioration of wood or coat surfaces and reduce heat transfer. For centrifugal compressors. because of the amount produced. Earth's atmosphere is apparently being warmed due to the increase of certain gases that are products' of industrial activities. The ability of a substance to contribute to global warm- 13. Which of the three "Rs" is acceptable in each situation depends on a number of factors that are explained in the EPA regulations.

Chilled water is cooled from 5S to 44 F. What are the four types of positive displacement compressors? Explain the difference between an open and hermetic compressor. 13. Use condenser heat for heating needs by recovering heat (Chapter 15). South Carolina.000 BTUlhr and design heating load of 42. What are the three types of condensers and their features? Describe three types of refrigerant flow devices. Use some form of total energy system (such as combined steam turbine centrifugal-absorption machines).com www. 10. 13. Determine the heating COP. 3. for a design cooling load of 46. Describe with a sketch the lithium bromide -water absorption refrigeration system.rheem. What size electric booster heater. is required in winter? Useful Websites Information on selection and specification of refrigeration chillers and heat pumps can be found at the following Websites: www. Problems 13.2 Select a package water chiller for a load of 21 tons. Explain what is meant by the term balance point of a heat pump.001. The design heating load is 32. Virginia.1 Select an air-cooled condensing unit to handle a load of 15 tons of refrigeration for a bowling alley in Richmond. 11. 13.mcquay.3 Find the capacity. 7. Find the COP of the unit.dunham-bush. Describe with a sketch the air-to-air heat pump. What are the causes of water loss in a cooling tower? 5. Describe a heat pump defrost cycle. . Use multiple equipment on larger projects so that each operates close to full load more often.2 if the condenser fouling factor is 0.com Review Questions I. 5.0005.5 Determine the design cooling capacity and COP of the heat pump selected in Problem 13. 4. 8. 13. 9.6 A heat pump is to be selected for summer and winter air conditioning of a home in Charleston. Chiller and condenser fouling factors are 0.000 BTUlhr.000 BTUlhr and the design cooling load is 40. and COP of the unit selected in Problem 13. Describe two methods of controlling capacity of reciprocating compressors and of centrifugal compressors. Condenser water enters at 90 F and leaves at 100 F.4 Select a heat pump for a home in Los Angeles. 3. Describe with a sketch the vapor compression refrigeration system. California. 4. if any. 6. Determine the COP of the unit.000 BTUlhr. 13. Evaporating temperature is 45 F. Select a heat pump adequate to handle the summer load.364 CHAPTER 13 maintaining satisfactory space conditions and satisfactory equipment performance.com www. KW required. 2.4.

The HVAC controls must be designed and installed to fit the system and must function properly.and open-loop controls. contractors. Without these. DDC. and service people would list the automatic control system.c H A p T E R Automatic Controls T he automatic controls for an HVAC system can be compared in importance and function with the brain and nervous system of a human. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. This by itself often will not enable the service technician to 365 . 4. 5. Identify and describe the elements of control systems with the aid of a diagram. Sketch control diagrams and describe the oPeration of some basic control systems. regardless of how physically healthy it is.1 UNDERSTANDING AUTOMATIC CONTROLS If asked to name the part of the HVAC system that they found most difficult to understand and work with. is that they do not understand the basic principles and how to apply them. would be a lifeless mass. probably most designers. If not. 7. however. 14. and pneumatic controls function. the body. Explain c1osed. 3. electronic. the air conditioning system will not produce satisfactory conditions. It is true that modem controls are often somewhat involved and that some of the devices used are complex. Describe how-electric. Explain the purposes of automatic controls. The major reason few people know how to deal with controls. This is because most information focuses on hardware and how it is connected. Explain the types of valve flow characteristics and damper arrangements. you will be able to: I. Explain the types of control action. 2. 6.

This is a device that senses a signal from a change in the controlled variable and then transmits an action to a controlled device to correct the changed condition. electronic. 14. Although hardware will be discussed. they serve other functions. It usually functions as a limiting device. to limit the values of temperature. The load varies mainly from changes in outdoor temperature. rather than have operating personnel do this manually. For example. pressure. Minimize Energy Use and Costs Controls minimize energy use and costs. humidity. or similar variables in the equipment. Often the same controls are providing all of these functions. we will not "lose sight of the woods for the trees. A controlled variable. and are part of the overall automatic control system. the controls may automatically change the . DOC. reducing labor. Nor will it enable the designer to plan the controls to suit the type of HVAC system. Acontroller. the spaces will be overheated or overcooled. Many of the energy conserving control applications are discussed in Chapter IS. a better approach is to recognize that every control system has similar elements. In this chapter. These principles can be applied to electric. Safety controls are of the utmost importance. thus reducing labor costs and the chances of errors. or pneumatic controls with equal ease. Controls that serve the purposes already described -maintaining space conditions. humidity) in the space. Although controlling and maintaining conditions in the space are the primary function of the automatic controls. This is a condition that is to be controlled. we will emphasize the principles of control systems. Every control system has 'the following elements: I. however. and from lights being switched on and off. thus preventing damage to property or injury to people. such as temperature. our emphasis will be on the operating controls. the controls may be designed to open an outside air damper to provide fresh air. If it produces its full output. or pressure. Whenever the load (heat gain or loss) is less than the design value. or whether it is pneumatic. or electronic.2 PURPOSES OF CONTROLS The controls can serve four different functions: amount of outside air introduced to the building so that free cooling is obtained from this air when suitable. as follows. Some controls serve a different purpose. Safety controls have been discussed to some extent as part of the coverage of equipment in other chapters. or conserving energy-are called operating controls. For example. This is true regardless of how large and complex the system is. One of the most important considerations in planning and operating a control system is based on its ability to minimize the use of energy at all times. The controls must regulate the heating or cooling output of the system to match that of the load. but some of these features will be discussed here. electric. This type of control is called a safety control." 14. the system capacity is too large.366 CHAPTER 14 determine the cause of a malfunctioning system. Maintain Design Conditions Controls maintain design conditions (temperature. This' leads to little understanding. solar radiation. One way to study a control system is to see it as a collection of many control devices. Keep Equipment Operation at Safe Levels Controls keep operation 'of equipment at safe levels.3 THE CONTROL SYSTEM Reduce Human Labor Needed Controls reduce the amount of human labor needed to operate and maintain the system. 2. The heating and cooling capacity of the HVAC system is selected at the design load conditions. occupancy. Although some further references to them will be made here.

oil burner. 2.3. The energy source for transmitting the action is the human muscle power. humidistats. 4.1 and 14. Solution The block control diagram is shown in Figure 14. A change (drop) in this temperature results from the sudden increase in heat loss to the outdoors. The control agent (medium) is the hot water. and explain the sequence of control action.1 Functional block diagram for a closed-loop (feedback) control system. This is the medium regulated by the controlled device. when receiving the action from the controller. identify the elements. The process plant is the convector. Examples are a cooling or heating coil. thus completing the desired action. The sequence of action for any control can be shown by afunctional block control diagram (Figures 14. An example of a simple control system will help identify these terms and how the control sequence functions.I :/# '- ___ L_ . I. damper. Opening the valve increases water flow rate through it. Examples of controlled devices are a valve. fan. His body senses the change in the controlled variable. Action I I I Controlled device . Note that a controller has two functions-to sense a signal and to transmit an action based on the signal. The controlled device is the manual valve. The regulation of the control agent changes the output or operation of equipment called the process plant. 6. 6.. The outdoor temperature drops very suddenly. A controlled device. Increased water flow rate results in more heat output from the convector to the room. The change in performance of the process plant changes the condition of the controlled variable... Examples are water flowing through a valve. regulates the flow or other effect of a control agent. or refrigeration compressor. Power source I I Controller Input Signal I ~I ~ JJ I 0 <%) I&. Sketch a functional block control system diagram. 5. and pressure-stats are examples of controllers. or compressor. or the motor driving an oil burner. The controlled variable'is the room air temperature. A control agent. Two examples are compressed air (pneumatic) and electrical power sources. 4.2). Thermostats. Control agent Process plant Change in controlled variable Feedback signal . pump. fan. A process plant. I~ !-. Example 14. This provides the power to transmit the action from the controller to the controlled device. causing a correction in the controlled variable conditionthe room air temperature rises. pump. or the electric current of a motor. This is a device which. Figure 14. The temperature controller (thermostat) is the student.. 3. A source of power. air through a damper. 5. He then transmits an action-turns the valve handle.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 367 3.1 A student is studying in a room that has a hot water heating convector with a manual valve.

which leads to an important concept in controls. which is usually not very reliable or accurate. the controller (student) sensed the results of the corrective action (the rise in room temperature) and when this went beyond a satisfactory condition. Muscle (Power) I ! i I I Air temperature (Input signal) Student (Controller) Adjust valve I ____ L __ J (Control Valve agent) . always correcting the value of the controlled variable.4 CLOSED-LOOP (FEEDBACK) AND OPENLOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS In Example 14. : 'J? I!!:! I I~ ~ t f---.2 Functional block diagram for an open-loop (feed forward) control system. closing an electric circuit. if the outdoor temperature increases. This is an example of feedback. It might happen quickly if the valve is opened too much. or gradually. Feedback is the transmission of information about the results of an action back to the sensor. electrically operated valve on the convector. The functional control diagram for a real closed-loop system would be as shown in Figure 14. However. Students could resolve this by closing the valve. This is the essence of most automatic controls. Note that the system will respond continuously to the feedback signal.1 was of a manual control system. The same events occur in an automatic control system. The sensor in the thermostat reacts to any change in the room temperature 14. this problem is resolved. (Controlled Hot water device) Convector (Process plant) (Controlled variabl e) Air temperature Feedback (student sensing) t:l ~I I . For example. a thermostat senses the changed room air temperature and transmits an action. they might have little time left for studying. Control agent Process plant Change in controlled variable Figure 14.-- t I Transmitte action d Controlled device .1.3 Functional block control diagram for Example 14.368 CHAPTER 14 Power source I Controller Input signal <%5 J I I I '- a. This is an example of a closed-loop control system. In the manual control system described. An electric power source then opens an automatic.1 for the example of a room thermostat controlling the convector. The result of the information being fed back is that the room air temperature changes were continually being corrected by the student. for instance.1. Example 14. the student took an opposite corrective action. The room temperature might rise to an uncomfortably high level. no mention was made of what might occur after the valve was opened. We will now discuss how Figure 14.

and safety. where a valve to a convector is controlled by a room thermostat. Self-powered controls are practical in certain applications. Open-loop controls are used in automatic control systems in certain instances. In the example of the student who acted as a controller. Pneumatic systems are popular because the controlled devices easily lend themselves to modulating action (Section 14. The component control diagram is drawn the same regardless of type of energy source. Combinations of electric. electronic. The power is always transmitted electrically. this simplifies reading and understanding the diagram.6 COMPONENT CONTROL DIAGRAM Although the functional block control diagram is helpful in understanding the operation of the control loop. pneumatic.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 369 (increase or decrease) and sets in motion the corrective action. 14.4 is an example of the simple control system described earlier. however. The controller regulates the amount of energy transmitted to the controlled device. Low voltage control systems transform the power supply to low voltages (usually 24 volts) for control use. This is the only basic difference between electric and electronic control systems. Line voltage control systems use electricity at the voltage from the power supply. convenience. The student does not know whether he is opening the valve a proper amount and does not provide any corrective action unless he returns to using his sensory feeling (feedback). Otherwise the system is called electric. The choice depends on cost. Self-Powered No external source of energy is used. which may come from one of a number of energy sources. A dashed line is used to represent the control action. and they are simple. however. A common example is the thermal expansion valve (TEV) refrigerant flow control. the system is called electric/electronic. because there is no feedback causing the action. simple. lates the air pressure transmitted to the controlled device. Fluid in a bulb changes pressure in response to the temperature it senses. or electronic for convenience. and self-powered controls may be used in one control system when desirable. The controller regu- . The weakness of this type of control is apparent. as will be explained later. not because he felt cold. A control system without feedback and its effect is called an open-loop (or feed forward) control system (Figure 14.2). Fig" ure 14.5 ENERGY SOURCES Automatic control systems can be classified according to the source of energy they use. Air compressors are required. and copper or plastic tubing is used to transmit the air. Pneumatic control systems are often used in large installations. as follows. This is usually accomplished by an enclosed fluid that will change pressure in response to a temperature change. and easy to install. An actual diagram showing all the wiring for an electric system would look much more complicated. 14. Electric/Electronic Electric energy is used to actuate the controlled devices. If the controller has sensing and transmitting elements that are electronic. it is also useful to prepare a component control diagram showing the connections between components of the control system and HVAC system. but are generally not used for the whole control system. usually 110 volts. The pressure actuates the valve (Chapter 13). this would be a case of an open loop. Although it is necessary Pneumatic Compressed air is used as the source of energy to actuate the controlled devices.7). Power to actuate the controlled devices comes from the medium being controlled. Electric control systems are often used on small installations because they are inexpensive. if he had decided to open the valve because he expected colder weather.

In effect. The thermostat has a 2 F differential setting.4 able. it may be started or stopped (on-oft) by the two-position controller. This differential will often be greater than the controller differential setting because there is a lag in response of the controlled device and medium. For example. 14. This can be reduced by building anticipation into the controller. Two-Position Action This is also commonly called "on-off' action. Component control diagram. make it more difficult. It refers to the range of controlled variable values at which action takes place. classified as follows. If the controller differential is set too small. to have detailed diagrams for each installation. As soon as there is'a signal calling for heating.5 illustrates the solution. A control valve that moves only to a fully open or closed position is another example of two-position action. if a thermostat is set to move to one position at 70 F and the other position at 72 F.69 = 4 F. but on the contrary. Example 14. Similarly. however. a small heater may be contained in the thermostat. the room temperature will fall to 70 . they do not aid in understanding. For that reason. i I. the operating differential has been reduced.:the thermostat reaches its high setting earlier than it would otherwise. For instance. With a lag of 1 F. the convector keeps heating the room for a short time due to the hot water still in the unit. the room temperature will rise to 72 + I = 73 F. the controlled device is still operated by a two-position type controller.. we will use component control diagrams instead of detailed wiring or compressed air piping diagrams in our explanations.370 CHAPTER 14 I---------~ I I I Room thermostat ---+----DG~~---[~c~o~nv~e~ct~o~r]---~ Control'. there are two differentials: Timed Two-Position Control If the operating differential is too great. As a resulr. For example. The controlled device is constructed so that it moves i Jl I . it is said to have a differential of 2 F. For example. Between what values does the room temperature vary? What is the operating differential? Solution Figure 14. the heater warms the tnermostat faster than the room air would. In the system.7 TYPES OF CONTROL ACTION There are different types of action that the controller can impart to the controlled device. shutting off the controlled device sooner and reducing overheating.1 = 69 F. a situation called cycling or hunting. Controlliif'differential is the range set on the control device of the variable values at which it transmits action to the controlled device.alve Figure 14. The thermostat high position (oft) setting is 70 + 2 = 72 F. The response lag is I F in either direction. 2. Differential is a term of importance in twoposition control action.2 A heating thermostat is set to start an oil burner on a furnace at a room temperature of 70 F. the heating or cooling equipment may cycle on and off too rapidly. The operating differential is therefore 73 . when a thermostat causes a hot water heating valve to close. it may cause uncomfortable conditions. if the controlled device is a motor. Operating differential is the range that actually occurs in the value of the controlled vari- Floating Action In floating action. Room thermostat controls position of valve.

a pneumatic Figure 14. Proportional Action In proportional action. Proportional-type controllers and control devices are both required.2. Throttling range is the amount of change in the controlled variable required to move the controlled device from one extreme limit of travel to the other (full open to full closed).6 Proportional action control. The controlled device in tum moves proportionally to the signal strength. The term proportional band of a controller also means its throttling range.~i~ (2 F) differential (4 F) o c O- -----69F Figure 14. because the response is proportional to the needs.5 Two-position control action.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 371 Q) :15_ -~ ~ <1l -o~ " >1ii Q) Q) - "o E . For example. a modulating hot water valve would partially open or close at a position corresponding to the strength of a signal calling for increased or decreased heating. Offset is the difference between the set point and the control point.-. The sensitivity of a controller is the relationship between changes in value of the control energy and the controlled variable. the strength of the signal from the controller varies in proportion to the amount of change in the controlled variable. There are some important terms used in proportional control that need to be defined.!=Q) --~-~~~~:~~!~~---I-~~::::gF ____________________l~a~ ___________ Time ___________________ d~~~e. The relationships among these terms are shown graphically in Figure 14. leaving the controlled device "floating" in an intermediate position until a new signal is received. taking a fixed intermediate position at a point relative to the change in the variable. It is also called drift or deviation. The set point is the desired value of the controlled variable at which the controller is set to maintain. not an all-or-nothing response.~ Q) Control point t ~ e C Time Throttling range 8~------------------------------L-- . For example. ~~--------~~--------------------.6. gradually between full open and closed. as in Example 14. The signal from the power source moves the operating part of the controlled device in one direction. This type of action can provide much finer response to load changes than the two position types described previously. The control point is the actual value of the controlled variable which the controller is maintaining at any given time. There is a neutral zone (also called dead zone) in which no signal is transmitted.

Generally speaking. However.g. the desirability of control action proportional to the load changes is achieved without the disadvantage of large offset. Shortening the amount of time of offset can reduce the amount of overheating or overcooling. but a small offset could cause hunting. With proportional plus reset control. because this results in good control of space temperature and humidity. The controlled variable will swing widely in value and the control system will become unstable. Unfortunately. thus savmg energy. reset may cause instability. The reset is accomplished by using floating action with proportional action. PI control is not desirable in HVAC systems where the controlled variable changes rapidly. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PI D) Action This type of control has the same features as PI action plus one more feature. continual opening and closing of outside doors with a thermostat located in the room). This is definitely not so.7 Proportional plus reset action (PI) control. The sensitivity of most controllers can be adjusted in the field to provide best control. Figure 14. it should be compared with the previous diagrams. Therefore. it may not be able to respond quickly enough. The effect of this is that the time during which there is offset is shortened. if PI control action is used. This means that a change of I F in the controlled variable will change the transmitted supply pressure to the controlled device by 1 psi. Furthermore. the sensitivity should be set to the maximum possible that does not cause hunting-large and continuous changes in the controlled variable. a twoposition control is the only suitable one.~ Control paint -------- -----------s~~~~----f-Throttling range ~ 8 --___________________________t__ Time e _______ '-_-" _--l .7 shows how the controlled variable behaves with proportional plus reset.372 CHAPTER 14 controller might have a sensitivity of 1 psi per degree F. The speed of response of a reset-type device is usually not very fast. Stability and Hunting It may seem from the discussions that PI or PID control action is always the most desirable. _ An example of a good application of PI control action is the chilled water temperature controller on a large water chiller. control point is moved back to the set point is part of the control action. Under certain conditions. The rate at which the Figure 14. the proper type of control action depends on the job to be accomplished. An important feature of a control system is its ability to maintain the control variable at a reasonably steady value. First.. the large mass of chilled water also reduces the rate of Proportional Plus Reset (PI) Action This type of control combines proportional action with a reset feature. the control point is changed automatically back toward the set point. the amount of offset is reduced. the air conditioning load usually changes slowly in a large building. " :g . For instance. due to its type of construction. When an offset occurs. This is called stability. PID control is sometimes used in room thermostats. reset action is desirable. These wide and rapid swings are called hunting. That is. perhaps due to sudden and frequent load changes (e. The controller will be signaling rapidly for control action. for starting or stopping equipment. Consider what happens when the controlled variable is changing very rapidly. Close control of chilled water temperature (small offset) is desirable. Proportional plus reset action is also called proportional-integral (PI) action. as will be explained now.

9 Remote thermostat with fluid-filled bulb-type sensor. Changes in temperature cause the fluid pressure to change. humidity.11).8 Bimetal temperature sensor-bends with temperature change. The bimetallic sensing element is used often in room thermostats. Therefore. When a long capillary tube connects the senFigure 14. accessible place than might otherwise be possible. The variables most often requiring control in HVAC systems are temperature. (Courtesy: Honeywell. pressure. and this pressure acts to move a diaphragm or bellows. This is a thin wire whose electrical resistance changes with temperature. Temperature controllers are also called thermostats. Pressure controllers are also called pressurestats. Inc.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 373 change of water temperature. forcing a bending of the element (Figure 14.8 CONTROLLERS As mentioned previously. This sensor is usually inserted in a duct or pipe. Another type of sensor uses a bulb filled with a fluid (Figure 14.9).8). proportional plus reset action can be used without causing instability. thus bending or moving. It is applicable to both room type and remote thermostats. The sensing element is often an open tube connected directly to the fluid where pressure is to . One type of humidity sensing element uses two different materials attached together that absorb water vapor at different rates.) sor to the control element. Figure 14. This allows location of the control in a more convenient. much like a bimetal temperature sensor. When the sensing bulb is attached directly to the control element. it is called a remote ther· mostat. Another type of temperature sensor is called a resistance element. Humidity controllers are also called hl/midistats. the controller serves two functions: to sense the controlled variable signal and to transmit an action to the controlled device as a result of the signal. it is called an immersion thermostat. and flow. A bimetal element sensor is made of two attached strips of different metals. 14. The metals change lengths at different rates when their temperature changes. The bimetal strip may be straight or arranged in other shapes (see Figure 14. Numerous types of sensing elements for thermostats are available.

An electric transmitter may consist simply of two electric contacts that are connected to the controlled device.10. This type of device is suitable for proportional controL .11). r-- Wire leads .Bimetal element Bimetal elements usually move slowly. . Flow controllers often use pressure as a sensing signaL The velocity of the fluid where flow is to be controlled is converted to a static pressure by a sensing element such as pitot tube. When the bimetal element bends from temperature change. which is an electric circuit arranged to deliver a voltage proportional to the signaL This voltage is very small and is therefore amplified afterward. The transmitting element is called a bridge. 1 \ t \ Close I and open 1 1 1 Figure 14. electronic. Figure 14. A coil in the low voltage circuit acts as a magnet when electrically energized. A relay is an auxiliary device that is often used with controllers and in other parts of a control circuit. since the circuit opens and closes many more times than normaL This problem is resolved by causing snap actiol! of the contacts.374 CHAPTER 14 Bimetal spiral be controlled. One type of electric/electronic controller uses a resistance sensing element. and this signal is used to control flow. Often the signal is also amplified in order to be strong enough to operate the controlled device.. it must be transmitted by another part of the controller. This may cause pitting of the contacts.. An electrical relay is a device that closes or opens one electrical circuit when a signal is received from another electric circuit. or pneumatic. One type of relay uses a solenoid (Figure 14. The sensing mechanism tips the tube so that the mercury either completes or breaks the electrical circuit through the electrodes. as shown in the thermostat in Figure 14.11 Thermostat with closed electric contacts in mercuryfilled tube-sensor is spiral-shaped bimetal element. it closes or opens an electrical circuit that operates the controlled device. An enclosed mercury switch is often used instead of open electric contacts. not transmitted properly. where the contacts open and close quickly. The mercury switch has the advantage over open contacts of being enclosed. A mercury switch also acts relatively fast and is therefore considered snap action.. The fluid pressure may act on a diaphragm or bellows. ~_ Contacts + .. or moisture. A glass tube filled with liquid mercury has two electrodes inserted in it (Figure 14. The transmitting element may be electric. resulting in a slow closing and opening of the electrical contacts.. dust. One way is to use a magnet that pulls the contacts quickly. It may be used with controllers when the signal circuit is at a low voltage and the controlled device is to be operated with a high voltage. It may also result IU bounce or chatter of the contacts. I . or a mechanical-type linkage. which could increase the resistance of the electrical contacts. There are various means of achieving this. and therefore is not subject to dirt.10 Thermostat with open electric contacts to transmit signal. After the signal is sensed by the controller sensing element.12). which may result in damage to electrical equipment in the circuit. incr electrical resistance so that the signal is creasin b .

This arrangement is called a bleed-type controller. and rapid action. The obvious use of this is to conserve energy. This control function is called reset control (see Section 14. A master-submaster thermostat arrangement is where one (master) thermostat controls and changes the set point of another (sub master) thermostat. Figure 14. It has the advantage of not using as much compressed air. Bleed nozzle Bimetal flapper / Control air supply ~ =-=::=====A=d=ju='(J=m]:. A summer-winter thermostat is a dualtemperature thermostat like a day-night type. with two different set points. closing contacts in the high voltage circuit. A day-night thermostat is actually two thermostats in one.13 Operation of pneumatic thermostat (bleed-type). With pneumatic controls. Pneumatic controllers have the desirable feature of being inherently proportional-type devices. For example. the control temperature is set back to conserve energy. Solenoid-type electrical relay. The opposite happens when the signal moves the flap toward the opening. That Figure 14. The amount of air pressure. At night or on weekends. it will still control at 74 F. A nonbleed-type arrangement is also often used. causing a changed action. They have the advantages of no moving parts. As the flapper moves away from the opening. If the occupant sets the control temperature at 80 F.12 Special Purpose Thermostats A limiting thermostat has a built-in maximum or minimum setting of the set point.controlled device . This might be used to have an outdoor thermostat reset the control point of a thermostat controlling the hot water temperature in a heating system.12). It is usually controlled by a time clock. compactness. increased reliability.13). which varies with the flapper position. varies the position of the controlled device.. The magnetized iron core pulls a contact armature. the signal from the sensor moves a flapper that covers the opening to a branch of the tube carrying the control air (Figure 14. This reduces the pressure transmitted to the controlled device. Solid state relays use semiconductors to transmit the signal from the control circuit to the operating circuit.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 375 Spring High voltage ~ CIrcUIt ~ #( Motion of contactor Ill! Low voltage circuit is. It may be controlled manually or by the outdoor temperature. Solid state devices have become very popular for many applications in control systems. some of the control air is bled off from the control circuit. some air bleeds out and the pressure in the main line decreases."~~ ~ ~ Air to . a pneumatic transmitting element adjusts the air pressure that is supplied to the controlled device. In one type. it may be constructed so that the maximum heating set point is 74 F.

since considerable throttling of the water flow rate is required to reduce capacity. linear.16).17. Mixing and diverting valves can also be used to control capacity by varying water temperature instead of quantity (Figure 14. L v a l v e .15 Use of three-way valves to control flow rate.15. The equal percentage valve is usually best for automatic control of water flow rate in coils because more variation in flow rate can be achieved for a g1\'en movement of valve stroke than can be achie\'ed with the other types. This may result in significant energy savings in some applications. while still maintaining the same total flow rate. a linear flow valve is adequate. For this reason. The difference in performance is shown in Figure 14.g. with an outside air preheat coil.14 Three-way valves. Two-way valves are used to vary flow rate to the heating or cooling equipment by throttling. Three-way valves are either of the mixing or diverting type (Figure 14. and thus is often used on room lerminal units. 8-10 F) within which the thermostat does not call for heating or cooling. the valve should open wide to prevent freezing of the steam in the coil. When a smaller range of throtding capacity is required. bellow5. for example. This results in better modulation of heating or cooling capacity. However. Mixing and diverting valves can also be used to vary flow rates through the unit.376 CHAPTER 14 • Mixing valve • Diverting valve Figure 14.18). flow rate control with a two-way valve is usually less expensive. Two-position electrically operated valves U5e a solenoid to move the valve stem to an open or closed position in response to the signal (Figure 14. supply water from the boiler and return water are mixed to provide water at the desired temperature. water temperature control is often preferred.. and motors are examples of controlled devices in HVAC systems. or -~ j (~'-::-::-COil-J Mixing valve Cf--- ~ _ C O i l = D + i : e J ~ ) j . Modulating electric valves use a motor as a valve operator that moves the valve stem gradually in response to the signal.or three-way devices. Control valves may be either two. Val\'es are classified into three groups: quick opening. A diverting valve has one inlet and two outlets. The capacity of a heating or cooling coil can be changed either by varying the water flow rate or the Figure 14. Valves have three different characteristics concerning how the flow varies with valve stroke: this depends on the shape of the valve opening. A quick opening valve is used when almost full flow must occur even with a small change in the controlled variable. l c . dampers. When heat is called for. The operator for pneumatic valves is either a diaphragm. . A dead band thermostat has a wide differential band (e. A mixing valve has two inlets and one outlet. and equal percentage.9 CONTROLLED DEVICES Valves. 14. the output does not change as much with flow rate variation as it does with water temperature. temperature. It is used. In this application. as shown in Figure 14. relays.14). On the other hand.

----~----~~~~ - a: "e '>='" =:s :> '" '" '0 ~ -a. but instead has focused on principles. This is why our approach in this chapter up until now has not been merely to describe control systems. Electric motors are used for modulating dampers in electric control systems. Control can be provided at the heating/cooling source. Except for very small sizes. they are of multiblade construction.------. mixing air. We will now look at some examples of how controls are used. the purpose is usually to vary heating or cooling capacity of the equipment. 14.LLc_ Percent of full valve stroke ~ ~ J .17 Flow characteristics of control valves. Parallel blade dampers should be used only for two-position (open-closed) control.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 377 Mixing valve I HW I HW boiler Diverting valve boiler Figure 14. Automatic dampers are used as controlled devices for varying air flow..20). Two arrangements are available. or terminal units. There are other auxiliary devices used in control systems that will not be discussed here. " o ~ Two-position solenoid electric valve.10 CHOICE OF CONTROL SYSTEMS There are countless choices and arrangements of controls for HVAC systems. the pump or fan. The opposed blade arrangement will give better modulation of air flow rate. 25 _.18 0.16 Use of three-way valves to control supply water temperature. "'" u " '" moo 0"0 75 50 Figure 14. There is a choice of from where to control the HVAC system.19). a description of them will not add to our understanding of control principles. parallel or opposed blade (Figure 14. As with valves. or for bypassing (diverting) air. / solenoid Wire leads ~valve ~ . the burner or compressor Figure 14. piston that responds to pressure and moves the valve stem (Figure 14. Although they are of practical importance. 100. For example. and pistons or diaphragms are used as damper operators in pneumatic systems.

) can be started-stopped or modulated. CD I Compressor I L----r{] t l ~ t cl . In a gas-fired boiler. It is the desire to provide better control and to conserve energy that often determines the choices made. On many systems. Not shown. Figure 14. and it would therefore seem obvious that control should be here.22. . Of course. In addition to selecting which part of the HVAC system is to be controlled. there are choices as to what controlled variable to use for control-the space. a combination of these is used. a room thermostat T starts and stops a refrigeration compressor motor M of an air conditioning unit.11 CONTROL FROM SPACE TEMPERATURE Control of Burner or Compressor A simple control arrangement is to have a room thermostat control an oil or gas burner or a refrigeration compressor. In Figure 14.378 CHAPTER 14 ~ ~ xt 0 Parallel ''"" '" Opposed Figure 14. the medium. with the room thermostat mounted on the unit. The student should note that 5ystems have safety controls that are not fully dis~ussed here. Safety controls are also required and are part of· the control system. Larger systems usually have more complex controls to provide better control and to conserve energy. The room thermostat T starts and stops the oil burner motor in response to room air temperature. Examples will be described later.20 '" '" / Multiblade damper arrangements. or outdoor air. using a room thermostat.21.19 Modulating pneumatic valve. however. On many systems.21 Space control of refrigeration compressor motor. the thermostat opens or closes a valve in the gas supply line. ) I t • ~ f . (Courtesy: Honeywell. A similar arrangement for a hot water boiler is shown in Figure 14. Figure 14. Control can also be provided by varying air or water flow rates using dampers or val ves. additional control is provided from thermostats sensing outdoor air or the cooling! heating fluid medium. the space air is the final temperature being controlled. Inc. This is the type of control used on a window unit. but always required. 14. a safety control that shuts off the burner when the water rises above a set temperature. is a high-limit thermostat.

23) using automatic valves.26). Space control of HW boiler burner motor or gas valve. as explained previously. A warm air furnace would use a similar control.22 Control of Face and Bypass Dampers The quantity of air flowing over the cooling coil or bypassed around the coil is varied by the opposing motion of the two dampers (Figure 14.23 Space control of water flow rate through terminal unit or coil in duct.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 379 Control of Mixing Dampers A room thermostat varies the proportions of hot and cold air from two ducts (Figure 14.12 CONTROL FROM OUTDOOR AIR Although the outdoor air temperature rather than space temperature could be used to control space temperature. because it does not provide feedback. HW boiler Oil burner motor orgas valve Figure 14. chilled water. from a minimum fresh air requirement to all outside air. Two sets of dampers move together so that one closes as the other opens on call from the thermostat. or refrigerant to a terminal unit or coil in a duct (Figure 14.24. However. this is seldom done. thus varying the heating or cooling output. This arrangement is used in both dual duct and multizone systems (Chapter 12). as seen in Figure 14.25). This control is used in variable air volume (VAV) systems. Control of Flow Rate Through Valves A room thermostat may be used to vary the flow of hot water. This is done so that the outside air can be used for cooling when suitable. Figure 14. it is used in combination for certain purposes that will be explained. 2·way valve -r : ~-----0 Terminal unit I Coil • • ~ -- . Control of Outside and Return Air Proportions Controls on larger systems are often used to vary amounts of outside air. Control may be provided from a mixed air Control of Volume Dampers The room thermostat varies the supply air quantity by controlling a modulating damper D. 14. 0----.

is lower than that of the return air. Heating coil <. ~ ... Figure 14.24 -- Space control of air flow rate through damper. (a) Multizone unit.. An immersion thermostat T2 controls the boiler water temperature at its set point through the burner motor. Thermostat Tl operates through a highlimit thermostat T2 . Controlling these dampers saves operating the refrigeration equipment and also prevents the introduction of excess outside air at high temperatures. When the outdoor air temperature rises to a level at which it has no cooling effect (near room temperature).380 CHAPTER 14 . For example.27. As the outdoor temperature rises. Outdoor Temperature Reset A control arrangement that is sometimes included as part of the control system is to have an outdoor thermostat reset (change) the temperature at which a variable is controlled. The minimum outside air damper is open during the coldest weather. thermostat that adjusts the outside and return air dampers to provide cool outside air when required. An arrangement that will offer even better energy conservation uses an enthalpy controller (Figure 14. as seen in Figure 14.29). There are days when the humidity. :b) Dual duct and mixing box. not its temperature.•. For these reasons. of the outside air may be low enough so that it is useful for cooling.25 Space control of mixing dampers for multizone and dual duct systems.28). it may reset the water temperature in a boiler (Figure 14. even though its temperature does not indicate this. When outdoor air temperature rises. thermostat T2 takes over and closes the maximum outside air damper. Whether using temperature or enthalpy sensing. D /Damper / " / Figure 14. this system is called ecol!omi~er control.!j----l ~ o C C o / To zone " Mixing dampers To zone Cooling coil (a) (b) I I I " I~. both conserving energy. and therefore enthalpy. The controller senses wet bulb tem- perature and therefore enthalpy of the outside and· return airstreams and sets the air proportion so that outside air is used for cooling whenever its enthalpy.1 (i)-_m~:m'" moO. mixed air thermostat Tl gradually opens maximum outside air dampers and closes return air dampers to provide outside air in the range of 50-60 F. the outside air (OA) and return air (RA) dampers are modulated to provide cooling from the outside air whenever it is suitable.

30 operates in a similar manner. In this application. Another example is shown in Figure 14. Min. In these examples. The methods by which compressor capacity is modulated are discussed in Chapter 13. controls the air supply temperature to the space through the automatic valve. Another reason for medium control is that faster response may be achieved by controlling the supply air or water temperature.. T.13 CONTROL FROM HEATING/COOLING MEDIUM It is often advantageous to control equipment from controllers sensing the conditions in the heating or cooling medium.31.26 Space control of face and bypass dampers. The thermostat modulates the compressor capacity to maintain a constant chilled water temperature. "/' "/' ""/' L---==r"------Mixed air T. and overheating in mild weather is reduced. outdoor thermostat T. _____ j£J" /" / . - . the hot water supply temperature is inversely proportional to the outside temperature. resets the control point of T2 to reduce overheat- Figure 14.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 381 ®/ V /' 1------0 1 Bypass damper ing. resets the control point of T2 lower. Duct thermostat T. is the master thermostat and T2 is the submaster thermostat. The duct heating system in Figure 14. ""- /' 0 C "/' - 14. the immersion and duct thermostats are controlled from water and sllPply air temperatures. In this way. Outdoor thermostat T. This of course also results in energy conservation. In the examples described previously. This is often done on large chilled water HVAC systems. A water chiller has a refrigeration compressor whose capacity is controlled by an immersion thermostat in the chilled water supply line. Further space control might be furnished through variable volume or other means./ ------- T2 0 /' ----I 1 Outside air - Max. Return air .-------- ! . medium control is useful because it is desirable to keep the chilled water temperature at a constant value in order to ensure proper dehumidification.27 Outdoor temperature control of outside and return air dampers for energy conservation. Face damper Figure 14. such as water flow rate. The system usually also includes additional control from space temperature. with separate space control of water flow rate.

: By reducing water supply temperature on mild.34. The controls operate as follows: I.33. overheating of rooms is avoided. The cooling coils are often used for both cooling and dehumidifying in a cooling system. Steam or water spray humidifiers located in the ductwork are used. 4. This control system provides good temperature control and also conserves energy. combinations of space. but no humidity control. The immersion (medium) thermostat T J controls the hot water supply temperature through the burner operation.28 Enthalpy control of outside and return air dampers for energy conservation. the humidistat takes control of the cooling coil.15 COMPLETE CONTROL SYSTEMS One of the individual temperature control arrangements described previously may serve as the complete control system in a simple heating or cooling· system. providing greater comfort and less energy use. The outdoor thermostat T2 resets the control point of thennostat T J as the outdoor temperature varies. The cooling coil is controlled by the room thermostat as long as room humidity is below the humidistat setting. -- "L "/' -- Figure 14. A hot water heating control system with individually controlled rooms or zones is shown in Figure 14. some form of reheating after cooling is used. the thermostat operates the reheat coil.32. "and ventilation are all required. The outdoor thermostat shuts off the pump when the outdoor temperature rises to a value that requires no building heating. Min. Often.J 14. further energy is conserved. outdoor. HW boiler Mixed air Figure 14. however.14 HUMIDITY CONTROL For humidification in heating systems. An example of a control system for a single zone year-round air conditioning system is shown in Figure 14. 3. 2.--1 :0 \ / \ / \ / 0 ""/' /' Outside air -Max. 14. One arrangement is shown in Figure 14. or to provide closer control. Two examples of possible control system arrangements will be described.382 CHAPTER 14 Return air Enthalpy controller l -. When the humidity rises above the control point. winter days.This may be done because controls of temperature. If the room temperature becomes too low. and medium control are used. calling for cooling.29 Outdoor reset of water temperature. In this case. The HVAC system provides summer and winter space temperature control and ventilation. It may also be done to conserYe energy. . By stopping the pump automatically when no heating is needed. a space humidistat controls a humidifier. The psychrometrics of this process are explained in Chapter 7. It operates as follows: . Room thermostats T3 control the terminal unit valves to maintain desired space temperatures. humidity.

.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 383 1-----------------Heating coil I I I I ~~ _____ J I I I Fan T2 H C I Figure 14. H C .32 Space temperature and humidity control of cooling and heating coils.30 Outdoor reset of supply air temperature.'j'. minimum outside air is used. I I I Compressor : I I Chiller Chilled f----<Figure 14. During the heating season. 2. Figure 14. - J . l-------------r-----------r---I : ~ V g v : @ 0 - V C C .'j'. The air discharge thermostat T J controls the cooling coil (summer) or heating coil (winter) to regulate discharge air temperature.31 Control of chilled water temperature. The enthalpy controller (or a temperature controller) positions the return air and maximum outside air dampers so that maximum free cooling is achieved during the cooling season. 1-------------------. } water I..

The room thennostat T2 acts as a master controller to the submaster T]. In response to a change in room temperature. In each case. Direct Digital Control (DOC) As we have learned.384 CHAPTER 14 ~ I r--~ Ter~inal '(. 3.---@ I I I ---T-----------~ I I I I I I I boiler Figure 14. Using the room thermostat to control the discharge thermostat provides faster response of the .---@ I I . These examples are given to illustrate how concols can be combined. The use of :nthalpy control to conserve energy has been exllained previously. they are com- posed of the basic elements and. A sensor igure 14. avoiding the complex tenninology and structure of DOC systems. [!]~ \ / \ / "/ lEJr_r4/ ""- ~ ~ Fin t- v C C ~--~ ~ I I t I Q H C 2- S- f U . the room thermostat resets the control point of the discharge thermostat.34 ear-round air conditioning control system example. The use of digital microcomputers in HVAC control systems has changed this control sequence. the conventional control arrangement is to have each controller sense a signal and then send an action directly to a controlled device. with a little patience. conventional controllers are not used. A summer-winter room thernostat might be used to control at two different oom temperatures. I I - - ----T---.Y umts . The scheme using computers is called direct digital control (DOC). the student can analyze their operations.33 Hot water heating control system example. We will outline the basic operation and a few advantages of DOC. There are hundreds of other rrangements. . however.---------I . .ystem to changes in room temperature. In DOC.

13. 12. Explain what a dead band thermostat is. 10.2 A three-way mixing valve on a water chiller is controlled by an immersion thermostat to .1 A warm air heating system has a room thermostat that controls the furnace oil burner motor. 14. What are the proper applications of each type? With the aid of a sketch. 4. describe the control of a multizone unit mixing dampers from space temperature. Review Questions I. With the aid of a sketch. 15.. 16. Explain controller differential and operating differential and why they are different.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 385 transmits the sensed signal (e. Explain the term snap action. With the aid of a sketch. but achieves some important advantages. 7. 19. temperature) to the computer. Sketch the piping connections of a mixing valve and a diverting valve to control flow rate through a coiL 17. rather than relying on many pieces of hardware and their connections that can get out of calibration and break down. describe proportional plus reset control action. Explain the purposes of automatic controL Sketch a functional block control diagram for an open-loop and for a closed-loop system.. and two ways of accomplishing it. Control changes (e. 3. This sequence is complex even in our simplified explanation. 8. What are the applications of each type? With the aid of a' sketch. a valve) as needed. describe twoposition control action. Problems 14. describe space temperature and humidity control of a cooling and heating coiL With the aid of a sketch. describe the three types of flow characteristics of control valves. 6. describe temperature economizer control of outside and return air dampers. describe outdoor rest control of HW boiler supply temperature. describe a yearround single zone air conditioning system that controls space temperature with economizer control for energy conservation.. (The signal from the sensor is usually conditioned by intermediate devices so that it is in a form that the computer can understand.g. set points) can be made at one central point (the computer) instead of having to be done at each controller. describe a mixing valve and a diverting valve. What is its purpose? II. Energy conservation strategies are easily handled in the computer program. With the aid of a sketch. control point. With the aid of a sketch. describe proportional control action. 2. With the aid of a sketch. its purpose. describe the control of a boiler burner from space temperature.) The computer then sends out a signal to operate the controlled device (e. 5. With the aid of a sketch. What are the two most common energy sources for control systems? With the aid of a sketch. Label and describe basic elements. and throttling range. describe a hot water heating system control with individual room temperature control and outdoor reset of supply water temperature. 20. With the aid of a sketch. 18.g. 14. Draw a functional block control diagram and identify the elements. Describe tnree types of thermostat sensors. Explain the terms set point. With the aid of a sketch. offset. de