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Air Conditioning Principles and Systems an Energy Approach 4th Edition

Air Conditioning Principles and Systems an Energy Approach 4th Edition

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AIR CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES . AND SYSTEMS

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A view of the concentrating and tracking solar collectors for the 100,000 square foot corporate headquarters of Honeywell, Inc., in Minneapolis. The collectors -serve a solar heating and cooling system that provides over 50% of the building's yearly heating requirements, more than 80% of the cooling, and all of the hot water. (Honeywell, Inc.)

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AIR CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES AND SYSTEMS
FOURTH EDITION

EDWARD G. PITA
Environmental Control Technology New York City Technical College The City University of New York

Prentice

Hall

~

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Pita, Edward G. Air conditioning principles and systems / Edward G. Pita.--4th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-13-092872-0 (hc : alk. paper) I. Air conditioning. 2. Buildings-Energy conservation. I. Title. TH7687.P446 2002 697.9'3-dc21 2001021390

Editor iu Chief: Stephen Helba Editor: Edward Francis Production Editor: Christine M. Buckendahl Production Coordinator: Carlisle Publishers Services Design Coordinator: Robin G. Chukes Cover Designer: Bryan Huber Cover art: Neal Moss Production Manager: Brian Fox Marketing Manager: Jamie Van Voorhis This book was set in Times Roman by Carlisle Communication Ltd., was printed and bound by R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company. The cover was printed by The Lehigh Press, Inc.

Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A., Mexico Prentice-Hall ofIndia Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Simon & Schuster Singapore Pte. Ltd. Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro

Copyright © 2002, 1998, 1989, 1981 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This pUblication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohJbited reproduction, storage in a retrievaJ system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to:. Rights and Permissions Department.

Prentice

. Hall

c=.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 0-13-092872-0

PREFACE

T

his fourth edition of Air Conditioning Principles and Systems has been significantly revised. Reflecting recent developments and concerns in the industry, substantial material has been added on indoor air quality, air pollution from combustion, and the new environmental requirements on refrigerants. Consistent with the overall philosophy of this text, the practical approach to these important issues will enable the reader to effectively address them in the workplace. Use of the Internet for air conditioning work is a major component of this fourth edition. Many Websites of equipment manufacturers are listed. Problems are assigned that make use of these Web sites for equipment performance, selection, and specifications, and to ask and receive answers to technical questions. Web sites of HVAC design software providers are also listed. These offer heating and cooling load calculations, duct and pipe sizing, psychrometrics, and energy analysis. Problems are also as~igned in these areas. Use of design software often entails a fee and restrictions, of course. The Web sites and software listed in the text are only a small sample of those available, and are not necessarily the only useful ones. A search will discover many more.

In addition to incorporating new material, many chapters have been considerably revised or amplified to enhance the learning process. This book is a fundamental text in heating, ventilation' and air conditioning (HVAC). It fills the need for a text that presents the fundamental principles and systems in a manner that is technically accurate, yet of practical use in the working world. Today's reality, which mandates time and cost effectiveness in HVAC work, dictates this practical approach. Students in air conditioning and refrigeration courses in college and technical institute programs, and consulting engineers, contractors, operating engineers, and service technicians will find this text useful in their studies or as a reference. The book is designed for a two-semester course. Supplemental work may be assigned if the instructor wishes to expand on the suggested projects. The text begins by developing the fundamental principles of air conditioning, followed by a description of equipment and systems. The text emphasizes the application of theory to both designing new systems and troubleshooting existing ones. This approach is enhanced by many. illustrative examples and problems dealing with real situations.

v

vi

PREFACE

An underlying theme throughout the book is energy utilization arid conservation. Energy codes and standards are described, and each topic is examined from an energy conservation viewpoint, an approach that is essential for all future work in the air conditioning field. A chapter is devoted to solar heating and cooling. Following an overview of the scope of air conditioning, the text reviews physical principles. Heating and cooling load calculations are explained in a thorough yet understandable manner. The latest methods (now required by most states) are used. The newly revised design weather data is included. Load calculation forms are furnished to aid the student. The subject of psychrometries is presented in considerable detail, recognizing that it is at the heart of understanding air conditioning processes. Air conditioning and refrigeration equipment and systems are covered thoroughly. Equipment construction and selection are described. Included in the discussion are reheat, dual duct, multizone, hydronic, and variable air volume systems. The

presentation of refrigeration includes an explanation of absorption systems, heat pumps. and the scroll compress. Instrumentation and balancing and the fundamentals of automatic controls are covered in separate chapters. Of special importance is the chapter devoted to energy utilization and conservation in design, installation, and operation of air conditioning systems. Two example projects in the design of a heating and cooling system are worked out in detail. Similar projects are suggested as hands-on learning experiences. These should be of value to those who are interested in installation, operation, and service as well as design, because they require the student to analyze how the system functions. The author sincerely hopes that this presentation, based on his more than 55 years of experience in the field working for manufacturers, as a consulting engineer, and as an educator. will contribute to your knowledge and success in the HVAC industry.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Edward G. Pita is Professor Emeritus and Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Control Technology Department at New York City Technical College of the City University of New York. He received a B.S. degree from Purdue University, an M.S. degree from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Maryland, all in mechanical engineering. He is a member of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and is a registered professional engineer.

In addition to his career as an educator. Dr. Pita was chief mechanical engineer for a large consulting engineering firm responsible for HVAC projects for the United Nations. the State City of the Vatican, the U.S. Capitol, and many other governmental and private clients. He has also worked in applications and systems engineering for the Carrier Corporation and the Worthington Corporation.

CONTENTS

An Air Conditioning Fable xv

Review Questions 15 Problems 15

1

THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 1 1.1 Scope of Air Conditioning 2 1.2 Components of Air Conditioning Systems 3 1.3 All-Water (Hydronic) Air Conditioning Systems 4 1.4 All-Air Air Conditioning Systems 5 1.5 Human Comfort 7 1.6 Comfort Standards 8 1.7 The HVAC System as Part of the Building Construction Field 10 1.8 Designing the HVAC System 10 1.9 Installing the HVAC System II 1.10 Operation, Maintenance, and Service of the HVAC System 12 1.11 Employment in the HVAC Industry 12 1.12 Description ofJob Responsibilities 13 1.13 Energy Conservation and Computers 14
vii

2

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 17 2.1 Units 18 2.2 Conversion of Units 18 2.3 U.S. and SI Units 19 2.4 Mass, Force, Weight, Density, and Specific Volume 19 2.5 Accuracy of Data 2! 2.6 Pressure 21 2.7 Pressure of a Liquid Column 23 2.8 Work, Power, and Energy 26 2.9 Heat and Temperature 27 2.10 Enthalpy 28 2.11 The Energy Equation (First Law of Thermodynamics) 29 2.12 Liquids, Vapors, and Change of State 30 2.13 Saturated Property Tables 36· 2.14 Refrigeration 36 2.15 Calculation of Sensible and Latent Heat Changes 37 2.16 Latent Heats of Fusion and Sublimation 40 2.17 The Ideal (Perfect) Gas Laws 40

Vlll

CONTENTS

2.1S

Energy Utilization (Second Law of Thennodynamics) 41 Review Questions 42 Problems 43

4.13

Energy Conservation 100 Review Questions 100 Problems 10 1 Computer Solution Problems 10 1

3

HEATING LOADS 46 3.1 The Heating Load 46 3.2 Heat Transfer 47 3.3 Rate of Heat Transfer 4S 3.4 Overall Thermal Resistance 51 3.5 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U), 51 3.6 Heat Transfer Losses: Basement Walls and Floors 53 3.7 Heat Transfer Losses: Floor on Ground and Floor over Crawl Space 54 3.S Infiltration and Ventilation Heat Loss 56 3.9 Design Conditions 59 3.10 Room Heat Loss and Room Heating Load 60 3.11 The Building Net Heating Load 61 3.12 System Heat Losses 62 3.13 Summary of Heating Load Calculation Procedures 63 3.14 Energy Conservation 66 Review Questions 66 Problems 67 FURNACES AND BOILERS 71 4.1 Warm Air Furnaces 71 4.2 Furnace Controls 74 4.3 Heating Boilers 75 4.4 Boiler Controls 79 4.5 Boiler and Furnace Draft SO 4.6 Fuels and Combustion S2 4.7 Gas and Oil Burners SS 4.8 Flame Safety Controls 92 4.9 Boiler Applications 92 4.10 Boiler Rating and Selection 94 4.11 Boiler Installation' 98 4.12 Energy Use and Efficiency in Boilers and Furnaces 98

5 HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND
TERMINAL UNITS 102

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.S 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14
5.15

5.16 5.17 5.IS 5.19 5.20

4

Piping Arrangements 102 Series Loop 102 One-Pipe Main 104 Two-Pipe Direct Return 104 Two-Pipe Reverse Return 105 Combination Arrangements 106 Three-Pipe System 106 Four-Pipe System 107 Hydronic Terminal Units 107 Radiators lOS Convectors lOS Baseboard 109 Fin-Tube 109 Radiant Panels I 10 Unit Heaters 110 Fan-Coil Units III Induction Units 112 System Water Temperatures and Flow Rates 113 Selection of Terminal Units 114 System Design Procedure 115 Review Questions lIS Problems liS Computer Solution Problems 119

6

COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 120 6.1 The Cooling Load 120_ 6.2 Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 120 6.3 Room Heat Gains 122 6.4 Conduction Through Exterior Structure 123 6.5 Conduction Through Interior Structure 130 Solar Radiation Through Glass 130 6.6 6.7 Design Conditions 137 6.8 Lighting 137

22 6.28 Cooling Load from Heat Gain Through Structure 152 Cooling Load from Heat Gain Through Windows 153 People and Appliances 154 Infiltration and Ventilation 154 Room.8 Latent Heat Change Process Calculations (Humidifying and Dehumidifying) 177 7.1 8.1 Properties of Air 164 7.12 7.11 6.20 7.21 People 139 Equipment and Appliances.26 6. Static.13 7.27 6.5 Condensation on Surfaces 172 Air Conditioning Processes 173 8.2 8.6 Pressure Loss from Friction in Piping and Ducts 207 8.5 Conversion of Velocity Pr>!ssure to Static Pressure (Static Regain) 206 8. and Velocity Pressure 204 8.3 7.13 6.23 6.25 6.18 6.19 6.21 Residential Cooling Loads 152 6.7 Friction Loss from Water Flow in Pipes 208 8.14 7.17 6.11 The Air Mixing Process 182 Psychrometric Analysis of the Air Conditioning System 184 7.20 6.15 6. Ratio 185 The RSHR or Condition Line 186 Coil Process Line 188 The Complete Psychrometric Analysis 189 The Contact Factor and Bypass Factor 191 The Effective Surface Temperature 191 Reheat 193 Part Load Operation and Control 194 Fan Heat Gains 195 Problems 195 Computer Solution Problems 198 8 FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 199 7 PSYCHROMETRICS 164 7.9 Combined Sensible and Latent Process Calculations 179 7.10 System Pipe Sizing 216 8.CONTENTS IX 6.2 Determining Air Properties 165 7.10 6.14 6.9 6.8 Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings 212 8. 140 Infiltration 140 Room Cooling Load 144 Room Peak Cooling Load 145 Building Peak Cooling Load 145 Cooling Coil Load 146 Ventilation 146 Heat Gain to Ducts 147 Fan and Pump Heat 148 Duct Air Leakage 149 Supply Air Conditions 149 Summary of Commercial Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 149 7.18 7.17 7.6 7.10 The Evaporative Cooliug Process and the Wet Bulb Temperature 181 7.11 Friction Loss from Air Flow in Ducts 218 .16 6.7 Process Lines on the Psychrometric Chart 173 Sensible Heat Change Process Calculations (Sensible Heating and Cooling) 174 The Continuity Equation 199 The Flow Energy Equation 20 I Pressure Loss in Closed and Open Systems 203 8. Building.9 Piping System Pressure Drop 213 8. and Air Conditioning Equipment Loads 156 Summary of Residential Cooling Load Calculation Procedures 158 Energy Conservation 160 Problems 160 Computer Solution Problems 162 Determining Supply Air Conditions 184 Sensible Heat.24 6.12 6.4 Total.3 The Psychrometric Chart 168 7.16 7.4 Locating the Air Condition on the Chart 168 7.15 7.19 7.

13 11.'5 Computer Solution Problems 286 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.14 10.2 10.20 Return Air Devices 282 10.7 10.9 Fan Laws 268 10.10 9.4 Reheat System 309 12.11 9.3 11.16 10.12 9.6 9.12 Energy Conservation 271 Types of Pumps 287 Principles of Operation 287 Pump Characteristics 288 Pump Selection 291 System Characteristics 293 System Characteristics and Pump Characteristics 293 Pump Similarity Laws 295 Pump Construction 295 Net Positive Suction Head 299 The Expansion Tank 299 System Pressure Control 300 Compression Tank Size 302 Air Control and Venting 303 Energy Conservation 304 Review Questions 304 Problems 305 Computer Solution Problems 305 12 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 306 12.13 Piping Materials and Specifications 243 Fittings and Joining Methods for Steel Pipe 246 Fittings and Joining Methods for Copper Tubing 247 Valves 247 Pressure Regulating and Relief Valves 248 Valve Construction 249 Valve Selection 251 Pipe Expansion and Anchoring 251 Vibration 252 Pipe Insulation 254 The Piping Installation 255 Duct Construction 255 Duct Insulation 256 Review Questions 257 Room Air Distribution 272 Air Patterns 272 Location 273 Types of Air Supply Devices 274 Applications 276 Selection 277 Accessories and Duct Connections 281 10. AND INSULATION 243 9.x CONTENTS 8.5 10.11 11.1 11.16 Duct Design Methods 235 Problems.9 11.3 Single Zone System 307 12.2 9. VALVES.11 Installation 270 10.22 Sound Control 283 Review Questions 285 Problems 28.7 9.4 11.15 10.21 Sound 282 10.14 10 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 258 10.2 Zones and Systems 307 12. 239 Computer Solution Problems 242 Air Distribution Devices 272 10.17 10.12 11.1 10.7 11.13 Pressure Loss in Duct Fittings 221 8.2 11.10 Construction and Arrangement 269 10.14 Pressure Loss at Fan Inlet and Outlet 232 8. DUCTS.18 10.19 9 PIPING.13 10.5 9.8 9.1 System Classifications 306 12. AND VENTING 287 11 11.9 9.4 9.8 11.8 Fan Types 258 Fan Performance Characteristics 259 Fan Selection 260 Fan Ratings 261 System Characteristics 265 Fan-System Interaction 266 System Effect 267 Selection of Optimum Fan Conditions 267 10.5 Multizone System 310 .3 9.5 11.4 10.1 9.10 11.3 10.15 Duct System Pressure Loss 233 8.6 11. EXPANSION TANKS.12 Aspect Ratio 220 8.6 10.

13 13.6 13.19 Packaged Refrigeration Equipment 342 Selection 342 Energy Efficiency 346 Installation of Refrigeration Chillers 348 Cooling Towers 348 Absorption Refrigeration System 350 13.13 12.6 Component Control Diagram 369 14.1 Understanding Automatic Controls 366 14.6 12.21 12.4 13.17 13.18 12.9 12.10 12.12 12.15 13.16 12.3 13.14 12.1 13.15 12.16 13.9 13.2 13.22 12.8 12.28 Selection of Heat PumpsThe Balance Point 357 13.35 Energy Conservation in Refrigeration 363 Review Questions 364 Problems 364 14 AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 365 14.11 12.20 13.20 12.31 Ozone Depletion 361 13.33 Global Warming Potential 363 13.3 The Control System 366 14.7 Types of Control Action 370 14.26 Principles 355 13.8 Controllers 373 .2 Purposes of Controls 366 14.18 13.23 12.34 Water Treatment 363 13.24 Dual Duct System 311 Variable Air Volume (VAV) System 313 All-Water Systems 315 Air-Water Systems 315 Unitary versus Central Systems 316 Room Units 316 Unitary Air Conditioners 317 Rooftop Units 318 Air Handling Units 318 Cooling and Heating Coils 319 Coil Selection 320 Air Cleaning Devices (Filters) 321 Methods of Dust Removal 321 Methods of Testing Filters 322 Types of Air Cleaners 323 Selection of Air Cleaners 324 Indoor Air Quality 325 Energy Requirements of Different Types of Air Conditioning Systems 326 Energy Conservation 330 Review Questions 330 Problems 330 13.4 Closed-Loop (Feedback) and OpenLoop Control Systems 368 14.7 13.5 Energy Sources 369 14.22 13.19 12.23 13.14 Principles 333 Equipment 334 Evaporators 334 Types of Compressors 335 Reciprocating Compressor 335 Rotary Compressor 336 Screw (Helical Rotary) Compressor 336 Scroll Compressor 337 Centrifugal Compressor 337 Capacity Control of Compressors 338 Prime Movers 338 Condensers 339 Flow Control Devices 340 Safety Controls 341 13.8 13.17 12.10 13.12 13.7 12.29 Solar Energy-Heat Pump Application 360 13.11 13.32 Refrigerant Venting and Reuse 362 13.5 13.CONTENTS xi 12.21 13.27 Energy Efficiency 355 13.24 13.30 Refrigerants 360 13 .25 Principles 350 Construction and Performance 352 Special Applications 353 Capacity Control 354 Crystallization 354 Installation 354 The Heat Pump 355 13 REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 332 Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 333 13.

16 15. AND BALANCING 420 15 15.16 16.Xll CONTENTS 14.14 Humidity Control 382 14.11 14.7 15.7 16.10 15.6 16.8 15.8 Procedures for Designing a Hydronic System 435 Calculating the Heating Load 437 Type and Location of Terminal Units 440 Piping System Arrangement 440 Flow Rates and Temperatures 440 Selection of Terminal Units 442 Pipe Sizing 443 Piping or Duct Layout 443 - .12 15.2 17.9 14.5 17.1 16.12 16.23 15.24 15.4 15.13 16.17 15.5 16.13 Controlled Devices 376 Choice of Control Systems 377 Control from Space Temperature 378 Control from Outdoor Air 379 Control from Heating/Cooling Medium 381 14.2 16.4 17.15 15.6 17.9 15.8 16.1 17.19 15.10 14.6 15.15 16.9 16.11 15.12 14.13 15.11 16.4 16.1 15.3 16.15 Complete Control Systems 382 Review Questions 385 Problems 385 ENERGY UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION 387 15.3 15.2 15.20 Energy Standards and Codes 388 Sources of Energy 391 Principles of Energy Utilization 392 Measuring Energy Utilization in Power-Producing Equipment (Efficiency) 393 Measuring Energy Conservation in Cooling Equipment-The COP and EER 395 Measuring Energy Conservation in the Heat Pump 397 Measuring Energy Conservation in Heating Equipment 397 Measuring Energy Conservation in Pumps and Fans 398 Measuring Energy Use in Existing Building HVAC Systems 399 Measuring Energy Use in New Building HVAC Systems 399 The Degree Day Method 400 Other Energy Measuring Methods 402 Air-to-Air Heat Recovery 403 Refrigeration Cycle Heat -Recovery 405 Thermal Storage 406 Light Heat Recovery 407 Total Energy Systems 407 Energy Conservation Methods 408 Building Construction 409 Design Criteria 409 16.17 Definitions 421 Instrumentation 421 Temperature 421 Pressure 423 Velocity 424 Flow Rates 426 Heat Flow 428 Humidity 428 Equipment Speed 429 Electrical Energy 429 Testing and Balancing 429 Preparation for Air System Balancing 429 The Air System Balancing Process 431 Preparation for Water System Balancing 431 The Water System Balancing Process 432 Energy Conservation 433 Sound Measurement 433 Review Questions 433 Problems 433 17 PLANNING AND DESIGNING THE HVAC SYSTEM 435 17.10 16.14 16.7 17.5 15.18 15.21 15.14 15.22 15.3 17. TESTING.25 System Design 410 Controls 410 Installation 411 Operation and Maintenance 411 Computers in HVAC Systems 412 Problems 413 16 INSTRUMENTATION.

20 17.6 Insolation Tables 465 18.I Abbreviations and Symbols 487 Table A.11 17.13 17.9 Sunshine Hours 472 18.3 Commercial Cooling Load Calculations Form 511 Figure A. Canada.13 Storage System Sizing 477 18.25 17.6 Psychrometric Chart.8 Orientation and Tilt Angles 471 18.S.15 Passive Solar Heating Systems 481 Problems 481 Table A. O:.11 Sizing the Collector 475 18.7 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U for Building Construction Components 498 Table A.14 17.12 Economic Analysis 476 18. SI Units 514 Index 515 .2 Unit Equivalents (Conversion Factors) 489 Table A.2 Building Heating Load Calculations Form 510 Figure A.5 Solar Radiation Energy 464 18.23 17.3 Types of Solar Heating Systems 462 18.I Room Heating Load Calculations Form 509 Figure A.4 Residential Cooling Load Calculations Form 512 Figure A.7 Clearness Factor 466 18.10 17.CONTENTS Xlll 17.21 17.22 17. and World Locations 50 I Figure A.6 Typical Building Roof and Wall Construction Cross-Sections and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 495 Table A.3 Properties of Saturated Steam and Saturated Water 490 Table A.19 17.4 Thermal Resistance R of Building and Insulating Materials 491 Table A. Units 513 Figure A.24 17.4 Solar Cooling Systems 463 18.26 Pump Selection 444 Boiler Selection 444 Compression Tank 446 Accessories 446 Controls 447 Plans and Specifications 447 Energy Use and Conservation 448 Procedures for Designing an All-Air System 448 Calculating the Cooling Load 448 Type of System 453 Equipment and Duct Locations 453 Duct Sizes 453 Air Distribution Devices 455 Equipment 455 Accessories 456 Automatic Control System 457 Plans and Specifications 457 Energy Conservation 458 Problems 458 Bibliography 485 Appendix 487 18 SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS 459 IS.2 Storage and Distribution Systems 461 18.14 Approximate System Design Data 480 18.5 Thermal Resistance R of Surface Air Films and Air Spaces 494 Table A.S Psychrometric Chart. I Solar Collectors 459 IS.12 17.9 17.9 Outdoor Heating and Cooling Design Conditions-United States.16 17.15 17.17 17.8 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U for Glass 500 Table A.10 Collector Performance 472 18.18 17.

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The building operating staff became frantic. Finally one person said. employees started to leave. the chief engineer agreed. muttered "hmm. The answer was "$2005. "$2005 for tapping a valve?" "The bill for tapping the valve is $5. Within minutes." Joe answered. so why don't we call him?" In desperation." xv . "The $2000 is for knowing which valve to tap. No one knew what to do. Computers broke down. there's a fellow named Joe Schlepper who knows an awful lot about air conditioning and refrigeration. Suddenly the air conditioning system in the gigantic Acme Towers office building stopped operating." "What l " the manager exclaimed. and looked at the complex installation capable of delivering 8000 tons of refrigeration. "Listen. The building did not have operable windows that could be opened to relieve the oppressive heat. temperatures in the offices reached 95 F. Immediately the whole plant started functioning and soon conditions in the building were comfortable again. Joe Schlepper entered the building machine room. and tapped a valve.'- . and tenants threatened lawsuits for damages. walked around.AN AIR CONDITIONING FABLE t was a typical record-breaking July heat wave and the humidity felt like a Turkish bath. The building manager thanked Joe and asked him what the bill was. I A few minutes later." took out a small hammer.

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5. OBJECTIVES A study of this chapter will enable you to: I. It is not surprising. Leonardo da Vinci designed a large evaporative cooler (Figure 1. In Europe. 3. List the environmental conditions that an air conditioning system may control. open fires were the primary means of warming their dwellings. The fireplaces in the castles of medieval Europe were hardly an improvement-they only heated the area immediately around them. Paintings from those times show that the kings and queens wore furs and gloves indoors in winter! There were a few exceptions to this lack of progress. Sketch the arrangement of the main components of an all-air air conditioning system. was begun scarcely 100 years ago. The ancient Romans had remarkably good radiant heating in some buildings. Central heating systems were developed in the nineteenth century. with approximately $20 billion in equipment sales. that providing a healthy. 2. 4. and air conditioning (HVAC). and summer air conditioning using mechanical refrigeration has grown into a major industry only in the last 60 years. people hung wet mats in front of open doorways and achieved a crude form of evaporative F air cooling. ventilating. HVAC systems in the United States had reached a total installed value of about $50 billion yearly. Describe the internal environmental conditions that provide adequate human comfort.1). comfortable indoor environment has become a major factor in our economy. In the dry climate of the Middle East. . The development of effective heating. No significant improvements in humankind's condition were made for millions of years.c H A p T E R The Scope and Uses ofAir Conditioning or prehistoric people. however. shade and cool water were probably their only relief from heat. therefore. Sketch the arrangement of the main components of a hydronic heating and cooling system. which was achieved by warming air and then circulating it in hollow floors or walls. Describe where air conditioning is used. Yet by 2000. A typical person in modern society may spend up to 90% of each day indoors.

. or by ventilation. so we will use the following definition instead: Air conditioning is the pracess of treating air ill an internal environment to establish and mailltain required standards of temperature. by the addition of a humidifier in the ducts. The great wheel. Valves opened and closed automatically. in contrast to heating. consisting of a boiler. Air temperature is controlled by heating or cooling * the air. However. including job opportunities. the addition of heat. and motion. cleanliness. this definition is neither sufficiently useful nor accurate.1 Ventilator and cooling unIT invented by Leonardo da Vinci in the fifteenth century. A warm air system. air conditioning simply means "the cooling of air. also controls air temperature in winter only. It is controlled by appropriate air distributing equipment. the Duke of Milan.) 6. The definition of air conditioning given here is not meant to imply that every HVAC system regulates all of the conditions described. apartment houses. Humidity. Some residences have combination air heating and air cooling equi pment that provides control of "Cooling technically means the rembml of heat. Temperature. Warm air systems are popular in residences. wife of da Vinci's patron. piping. and air outlet registers. Cleanliness. requiring additional sound attenuating (reducing) devices as part of the equipment. where it was washed and forced out through the hollow shaft and piped into the room. (Courtesy: IBM Corporation. and radiation devices (and perhaps a pump) only controls air temperature and only during the heating season. the water vapor content of the air. Air motion refers to air velocity and to where the air is distributed. Air humidity. 3. ducts. Motion. This air conditioning unit was for the boudoir of Beatrice d'Este. the introduction of outside air into the space which dilutes the concentration of contaminants. or air quality. Describe the business structure of the HVAC industry. These types of systems are common in many individual homes (residences). the removal of undesirable contaminants using filters or other devices.1 SCOPE OF AIR CONDITIONING To the average person. 7. Describe the organization of the building design team and the construction team." For our purposes. is controlled by adding or removing water vapor from the air (humidification or dehumidification). it may also control humidity in winter. consisting of a furnace. A hot water or steam heating system. Sound control can be considered an auxiliary function of an air conditioning system. Air cleanliness. Figure 1. stood outside the palace wall and was turned by water power-sometimes assisted by slaves. humidity. a full story high. 4. The air conditioning equipment may produce excessive noise. 2.2 CHAPTER I Let us investigate how each of these conditions is controlled: 1. even though the system itself may be the cause of the problem. is controlled by either filtration. 1. Often both filtration and ventilation are used in an installation. drawing air into the drum. and industrial buildings.

In winter.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 3 temperature and humidity in both winter and summer. we already know that air conditioning enhances our comfort. An air conditioning system may provide heating. as well as computer rooms and medical facilities. Devices (e. A heating source that adds heat to a tluid (air. . enough to air condition a city of 100. yet the basic principles are the same. In summer. The equipment that removes this heat is called a cooling system.000 tons of refrigeration. Its size and complexity may range from a single space heater or window unit for a small room to a huge system for a building complex. The equipment that furnishes the heat required is called a heating system. For example. water. or both. cleanliness. heat must be continually supplied to the air in the rooms. and sound and vibration reduction devices will be discussed in more detail in later chapters of the book. For this reason.2 COMPONENTS OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Heat always travels from a warmer to a cooler area (see Section 2. this excess heat must be continually removed from the room. printing. such as the World Trade Center (Figure 1. radiationlfor transferring heat between the fluid and the room We will start with a brief introduction to the function and arrangement of these major components. (Courtesy: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Air conditioning is also used to provide conditions that some processes require. valves. safety devices. Most heating and cooling systems have at a minimum the following basic components: 1. and photographic processing facilities. and motion are comfortable. From life experiences and feelings.000 people. Figure 1. require certain air temperatures and humidity for successful operation.2 View of Lower Manhattan skyline with the World Trade Center Twin Towers. Equipment (fans or pumps) for moying the air or water 5. These and other components including automatic controls. there is a continual heat loss from within a building to the outdoors. humidity. or steam) 2.:2 l. heat continually enters the building from the outside. insulation. Some degree of control of air quality and motion is provided in air-type heating and cooling systems. cooling source that removes heat from a tluid (air or water) 3. In order to maintain the room air at a comfortable temperature. others are not.. A distribution system (a network of ducts or piping) to carry the tluid to the rooms to be heated or cooled 4. Air conditioning systems used for newer commercial and institutional buildings and luxury apartment houses usually provide year-round control of most or all of the air conditions described. If the air in the building is to be maintained at a comfortable temperature. Applications Most air conditioning systems are used for either human comfort or for process contra/. cooling. dampers.9). textile. it is becoming increasingly popular to call complete HVAC systems environmental control systems. which have 49.) 1. Certain ranges of air temperature.g.

4) functions in a similar manner to a hydronic heating system. I _ _ To other rooms Room ""'"' . The room air is heated by bringing it into contact with the tenninal unit.3. A hydronic cooling system (Figure 1. The heated water is circulated by a pump (2) and travels to each room through piping (3) and enters a terminal unit (4).k" l--.. Heat ~PiPing f- o Terminal unit ~ Chilled water return (CHR) from other rooms . the components work in the same manner. Terminal unit ~ Hot water return (HWR) from other rooms Figure 1.4 Arrangement of basic components of a (hydronic) chilled water cooling system.. Water is cooled in refrigeration equipment called a water chiller (1)..3 ALL-WATER (HYDRONIC) AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A typical hydronic heating system is shown in Figure 1. Room .3 Arrangement of basic components of a (hydronic) hot water heating system. 1. Water is heated at the heat source (I). the pressure of the steam accomplishes this... when the steam cools at the terminal unit. it condenses into water and may require a condensate pump to return the water to the boiler.. Figure 1. A system which uses both air and water is called a combination or air-and-water system... it must return to the heat source to be reheated. with the exception that a pump is not necessary to move the steam.. ...he at gain Room 2 Pum p .. If steam is used in a heating system.4 CHAPTER 1 Air conditioning systems that use water as the heating or cooling fluid are called all-water or hydronic systems. '0"'" OO"~ Chilled water supply (C1S) .-"'he at loss ~PiPing o . However."". those that use air are called all-air systems... usually a hot water boiler. The chilled water is circulated by a pump (2) and travels to each room through piping (3) and enters a terminal unit (4). Since the water loses some of its heat to the rooms.T00th er rooms 1 Heat source (HW boiler) H01 water supply (H1S) Pump -"'" Heat T Room ..

hydronic sys· terns are popular for HVAC systems that require both heating and cooling.6 Arrangement of basic components of an ali-air heating and cooling system (many other arrangements are possible).. I I Heating source Cooling source unit H ~ HWR orCHR From other rooms Figure 1.= ~ :J '" ~ "" ~ 0 CI) 9 Fan'I 1 ~ Supply air duct 4). using each when needed. Outdoor air 7 : I ... it must return to the water chiller to be recooled.6. They may also have the added capability of controlling humidity and furnishing outdoor ventilation. A typical all-air heating and cooling system is shown in Figure 1.. 88®@ : C..--------r-----~ To other Air diffuser ro ~ "E :f 8 (5 . This is because it is pos· sible to use the same piping system for both by connecting a hot water boiler and water chiller in parallel (Figure \..5).THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING " . (It may also be a coil Figure 1.L.... 5 To other rooms Room HWS Pump or CHS 1-:0 1-:0 -c=JTermlna . which hydronic systems cannot do.~_L-_~ ~----i----------~-----+----_ rooms ... J.""+'~ Exhaust air 8 ~ r. Since the water is now warmed. The warmer room air loses its heat to the cold water in the terminal unit. such as a furnace. ___________________ ____ -J Room 6 Return air duct Return air fan (optional) From other J. As the reader may have guessed. Equipment may be packaged or separated r------------------------i Ie. Air is heated at the heat source (I)...~ lJ--i'-.4 ALL-AIR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS All-air systems use air to heat or cool rooms. 1.5 Arrangement of basic components of a hydronic heating and cooling system._.--~=~~-"1 V'" -=-~~ rooms g '6 ..

) . The air is then heated or cooled again. McQuay-Perfex. A humidifier (10) may also be included to maintain a comfortable room humidity in winter. When the cooled supply air enters the room. Similarly. Because a room's size is fixed. usually a coil of tubing containing a fluid cooled by refrigeration equipment (see Chapter 13). the same volume of air that enters the room must also exit. An example of packaged all-air system equipment is shown in Figure 1. or steam.8 /'-/'-/'. This arrangement is convenient for residential and light commercial air conditioning.7. Rooftop-type unitary air conditioning equipment. An outdoor air intake duct (7) may be provided for introducing fresh outdoor air for increased air quality. the room is heated. (Courtesy: McQuay Group.6 CHAPTER I circulating hot water. the room is cooled. The supply air enters the room through outlets called air diffusers or registers (4) that are designed to provide proper air distribution in the room. heated by a remote boiler. Provisions may be made for cleaning the air with air filters (9) and for humidifying the air (10). This is usually accomplished with return air ducts (6). In summer. the same volume of air must be exhausted (8). Figure 1. air is cooled when it flows over a cooling source (5). and recirculated. compressor Inlet air Figure 1.7 Arrangement of components of ali-year air conditioning equipment for a private residence (refrigeration condenser separate).) The heated air is circulated by afan (2) and travels to each room through supply air ducts (3). Inc./'-/'-/'Warm air furnace t Supply air t - Dampers 0 ~ 0_ Filter 8 t V Cooling coil Refrig. When the warmed supply air enters the room.

the system designer and operator should understand the factors that affect comfort. For example. This body heat is continually lost to its cooler surroundings. radiation. This subject will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 12. Inc. room air conditioner). Each piece of equipment is installed separately and connected on the job.g. rather than manufactured as a package. However.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 7 Combination Systems It is frequently desirable to combine water and air systems. the air immediately around the body receives heat from the body. heating sources that are warmer than the body can radiate heat toward the body. Some restaurants now have glass-enclosed sidewalk cafes with radiant heating panels that keep the customers comfortable . walls) which are at a lower temperature than the body.8.) 1. The processes by which the body loses heat to the surroundings are: convection. and evaporation. this is why one feels warm in front of a fire even on a cold day. creating a feeling of warmth even at a low surrounding air temperature.5 HUMAN COMFORT Since the purpose of most air conditioning systems is to provide a comfortable indoor environment. which is then circulated to heating or cooling coils in large all-air systems in other parts of the building or even to a number of buildings. Figure 1.9 shows a portion of the equipment of a central system.. cold is felt. is shown in Figure 1. even in a warm room. The warmed air continually moves away. a hydronic system in a central plant might generate hot or chilled water. Figure 1. a comfortable feeling ensues. When the rate of heat loss is within certain limits. by rising naturally through the cooler air around it. or by being blown away. Body Heat Loss The human body creates heat when it metabolizes (oxidizes) food. A central or built-up air conditioning system uses equipment centrally located in mechanical equipment rooms. Engineers. and is replaced by more air which in turn receiYes heat. An example of all-air unitary equipment mounted on a roof (a "rooftop" unit).. body heat is transmitted through space directly to nearby objects (e. this is why it can be uncomfortable to sit near a window or wall in cold weather.. if the rate is too low. In convection. Unitary and Central Air Conditioning Systems A unitary or package air conditioning system uses equipment where all or most of the basic components have been assembled in the factory (e.g . one feels hot. In radiation. (Courtesy: Syska & Hennessy. showing absorption refrigeration machines. The factor that determines whether one feels hot or cold is the rate ofbody heat loss.9 Mechanical equipment room of a large central station air conditioning system. such as those used in supermarkets. If the rate of heat loss is too great.

The comfort zones apply to air motion in the occupied zone not exceeding 30 feet per minute (FPM) in winter and 50 FPM in summer. Intensive research and amelioration efforts are being carried out in this branch of HVAC work.5 cIo). Humidity may be raised to decrease body heat loss (winter) and lowered to increase body heat loss (summer) by evaporation. The rate of body heat loss is affected by five conditions: 1. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Adsorbent chemicals may be used to remove unwanted gases. Air temperature Air humidity Air motion Temperature of surrounding objects Clothing troducing substantial quantities of outdoor air into the building. 5. Indoor air quality will be discussed in Chapter 12. and air motion. The level of air quality affects both comfort and health.:. Some of the results of these studies are shown in Figure 1. and they can even stay away from cold walls and windows to keep warmer in winter. Cleaning devices such as filters may be used to remove particles. they can use local fans to increase convection and evaporative heat loss.10 is valid only for the following conditions: I. 2.1 0 are called the comfort zones. The body is also cooled by evaporation: water on the skin (perspiration). The comfort zones apply only to sedentary or slightly active persons.9 cIo). How are they adjusted to improve comfort? The indoor air temperature may be raised to decrease body heat loss (winter) or lowered to increase body heat loss (summer) by convection.10. or equivalent (0. Note that there are separate zones for winter and summer. evaporates into the surrounding air. Evidence has grown that there are many possible indoor air contaminants which can and have caused serious health effects on occupants.. The system designer and operator can control comfort primarily by adjusting three of these conditions: temperature."* and winter clothing of heavy slacks. This procedure is called ventilation. The comfort zones apply only to summer clothing of light slacks and a short sleeve shirt. -. 1. and sweater or jacket. long sleeve shirt. Air quality is worsened by the presence of contaminants such as tobacco smoke and dust particles. published in ASHRAE* Standard 5S~ 1992. 2. 3. The shaded regions in Figure 1. and toxic gases. Occupants of the buildings. 3.. They show the regions of air temperature and relative humidity where at least 80'K of the occupants will find the environment comfortable. The use of Figure 1. The subject of indoor air quality (IAQ) has become of major concern and importance in recent years. biological microorganisms. Indoor air contaminants can also be diluted in concentration by in- Studies of the conditions that affect human comf011 have led to the development of recommended indoor air conditions for comfort.. taking the heat with it. or equivalent (0. Air motion may be raised to increase body heat loss (summer) and lowered to decrease body heat loss (winter) by convection. For instance. *"ASHRAE" stands for the American Society of Heating. air quality. they can control the amount of clothing that they wear. The phrases sick building syndrome and building-related illnesses have been coined to refer to these effects. 4.8 CHAPTER 1 in winter even though the cafe temperature is only about 50 F (10 C). with a slight overlap.6 COMFORT STANDARDS Indoor Air QualitY Another factor. refers to the degree of purity of the air. Therlllal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. have some personal control over their own comfort. A list of reference sources used in this text can be found in the Bibliography. which has absorbed heat from the body. . humidity. of course. **The clo is a numerical unit repres~nting a clothing ensemble's thermal insulation.

satisfactory indoor air quality is maintained by cleaning the air and by introducing outside air (ventilation).ratures listed are at the low end. therefore most of the occupants would feel comfortable. Applications In order to use Figure 1. The air temperature is technically called the dry bulb temperature (DB).10 Comfort zones of indoor air temperature and relative humidity. an individual receiving direct solar radiation through a window in summer might feel uncomfortably-warm even though the room air temperature and humidity are within the comfort zone. For example. The humidity is often expressed as the percent relative humidity (% RH). Recommended ventilation requirements are discussed in Chapter 6.1 0. it is necessary to know the room air temperature and humidity.10 to find whether a specific set of conditions is comfortable or not. Furthermore. There is negligible radiation of heat from the surroundings to the occupants. 60 70 80 90 F Air Temperature Figure 1. Would this be a comfortable indoor condition? Solution From Figure 1.1 The conditions in an office building in the summer are 77 F DB and 50% RH.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 9 conditions. this is not so. Although these restrictions may seem to reduce the usefulness of Figure 1. Indoor Design Conditions for Energy Conservation The comfort zones shown in Figure 1. in an effort to conserve energy. The procedures for making these corrections can be found in the ASHRAE Standard. Example 1.10 leave a wide range of choices for the air conditioning system designer and operator. Air movement in the rooms is about 30 FPM. These recommendations may not be a . (Adapted with permission from the 1993 ASH RAE Handbook-Fundamentals. The occupants are lightly clothed. In recent years. These zones apply to persons clothed in typical summer or winter clothing engaged in sedentary activity.10. of the comfort zone in winter and at the high end of the comfort zone in summer. the condition noted (the intersection of 77 F DB and 50% RH) is within the summer comfort zone. more specific conditions have been recommended (Table 1. the situations specified are very common (a typical office environment). See Chapter 7 for a complete definition of these terms.1). The comfort zones apply only under certain conditions of thermal radiation between the occupant and the surroundings. First. The tempe.) 4. the comfort zones can be adjusted to reflect these changes. for changes in Air Quality Standards As mentioned previously.

No textbook can substitute for this valuable learning experience. Take notes. (Exceptions may be granted for special situations. suburban mall. senior citizens.10 CHAPTER 1 RECOMMENDED ENERGY CONSERVING INDOOR AIR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR HUMAN COMFORT TABLE 1.. and plumbing systems are designed by consulting engineers specializing in their respective fields.) California Energy Standards require indoor design values of 70 F in winter and 78 F in summer. and operation. Watch out-the dynamism and excitement can be addictive! 1. and public buildings. to locate a proposed building and follow the HVAC system development through planning.8 DESIGNING THE HVAC SYSTEM The design of a large building project is an extremely complex task. Become a "sidewalk superintendent" for the construction of an urban building. At occupant level. Ask questions of your instructors. These are: I. 1. 3. on application. When buildings are unoccupied on nights. For example. The designof a private residence is much simpler and may involve as few as one or two people. Con-suiting engineers may also carry out other duties such as cast estimating and field supervision of construction. structural. holidays. or an industrial or commercial park. it is common practice to lower indoor air temperatures in winter ("set-back") and raise them in summer ("set-up") either manually or automatically with the control system.1 Air Temperature (DB) Relative Humidity (RH) % F Winter Maximum Air Velocity" FPM Clothing Insulation clo Summer . of which it is a part. Lower indoor temperatures in winter might be used in department stores when customers are heavily clothed. Service We will outline who is responsible for each step.5 matter of choice: most states now mandate energy conserving design conditions. The development of an HVAC system for a building consists of a number of steps. and weekends. and how the HVAC system relates to other building systems. Other special applications might have different design conditions. An organizational flowchart of this arrangement is shown in Figure l. 68-72 76-78 25-30 50-55 30 50 0. The values recommended in Table 1.9 0. but there are exceptions.1 apply to general applications such as offices. Installation . installation. who carry out the overall building planning and design. what their tasks are. The electrical. These and other energy-saving strategies will be discussed in appropriate places throughout the text. and the ill. It may take months or even years and involve scores of people. residences. The student is strongly advised. the New York State Energy Code requires a maximum winter indoor design temperature of 72 F and a minimum summer indoor design temperature of 78 F. if possible.ll. Design 2.7 THE HVAC SYSTEM AS PART OF THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FIELD The student wbo intends to work in the HVAC industry should have some understanding of how the industry is organized and how it relates to the building construction field. Each of these tasks is performed in cooperation With the architects. Higher indoor temperatures in winter may be desirable for smaIl children. The design of an HVAC system for large projects is the responsibility of the mechanical consulting engineers. Operation and regular maintenance 4.

THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 11 "Owner" l Architect I Electrical engineer I Mechanical engineer I ____I Structural engineer Other consultants (Consulting Engineers) Figure 1.12 Organizational flowchart of a building construction team. who include pipefitters. calculations of heating and cooling loads (requirements). The mechanical contractor takes the mechanical consulting engineer's drawings (called contract or engineering drawings) and then prepares shop drawings from these. and planning the locations of each piece of equipment in the building.11 Organizational flowchart to a building planning and design team. Figure 1. and so forth.12 shows a typical organizational flowchart. insulation workers. This information is shown on the building HVAC plans and specifications. An error in coordination can have disastrous results: The design of an HVAC system involves determining the type of system to use. more detailed drawings of the HVAC system which will be necessary for the workers. their employees first carry out a take-off. The general conFigure 1. The mechanical contractor also purchases all necessary HVAC equipment and materials. The mechanical contractor hires these people. which serve as instructions on how to install the system. The general contractor may hire subcontractors (mechanical. and so forth) to install each of the building's systems. or other prospective builder. electrical.) l Others J (Subcontractors) . selection of the type and size of equipment. To do this. and other skilled building trade workers. The mechanical or HVAC contractor is responsible for installing the HVAC system. public agency. This can be a . calculations of piping and duct sizes. Shop drawings are larger scale. The plans are drawings of the system. they list all the equipment and materials shown on the drawings and specifications. The subcontractors must coordinate their work to avoid any physical interference. that is. school system. Coordination of the work between the architects and engineers is an important and difficult task.9 INSTALLING THE HVACSYSTEM The overall construction of a building is the responsibility of the general contractor. This includes checking that the equipment and materials to be installed do not physically interfere with each other. General contractor I I ____I L Structural J l Plumbing J I Electrical I HVAC (mech. which may be a real estate company. sheet metal workers. equipment. Architect tractor is awarded a contract by the owner. 1. The specifications are written descriptions of materials.

Inside Representative. Purchasing Agent. and training are required.10 OPERATION. and quality is better because the architects and engineers have independent control over the performance of the contractors.12 CHAPTER 1 very involved task. AND SERVICE OF THE HVAC SYSTEM When the HVAC installation is complete and after start-up and TAB. They estimate costs. prepare drawings and specifications. A mechanical contractor is a company that installs the system. principles is required. but when more complicated work is required. or service. Computer Programmer. since one organization is responsible for everything. Both of the two approaches are in common use. Using instrumentation. there is no delay for contractor competitive bidding. better coordination is achieved. preparation of drawings. the mechanical contractor tests. Proper procedures. will aid the student in planning his or her career. Positions include: Sales Engineer. tion. One important basic fact is that a fundamental knowledge of air conditioning. and contractors claim that costs are kept down by competitive bidding. This includes cost estimates. and balances (TAB) the HVAC system (see Chapter 16). A service company repairs and maintains the HVAC system. Shop Technician. The Design-Build (Fast Tracking) Approach In contrast to the procedures described. This troubleshooting procedure leads to the cause of the problem. A description of the types of employers and their work. A mechanical consulting engineer is a company that designs the heating. Comracl Manager. faster construction. 1. MAINTENANCE. Positions include: Project Manager. operation. such as repairing or replacing equipment. this contractor measures the conditions and compares them with the HVAC system plans and specifications. The mechanical consulting engineer may check the installation as it proceeds and may also check the TAB work. and plumbing systems for buildings. and Energy Specialist.11 EMPLOYMENT IN THE HVAC INDUSTRY It is helpful for students intending to work in some part of the HVAC industry. It is often a branch of a mechanical . Estimator. and contracting. and to keep the system in proper working order. perform technical calculations. and determination of liability is easier. a mechanical service contractor is called in. Proponents of this approach claim that construction can start and continue as plans are developed for each stage-it is not necessary to wait for engineering plans and contractor drawings. and for those already working who wish to advance themselves. Inspector. in order to succeed in the HVAC field today. responsibilities. followed by a list of job titles and responsibilities.. to know what types of positions are available and what knowledge. air conditioning. adjusts. Overhead and labor costs must also be determined. and supervision of installation. are then carried out. maintaining comfortable conditions in the building while trying to minimize energy consump. Regular inspection and maintenance of the system is also part of the operating engineer's duties. Designel: Drafter. Some routine servicing may be performed by the building operating staff. consulting engineers. installation. Field Supervisor. The proponents claim that all of these factors result in lower costs. regardless of whether one is employed in design. 1. This is called the design-build approach. consulting engineering. and Field Service Technician. or adjusting its performance. and supervise installations. the building operating engineering staff takes over. there are companies that handle all of the design and construction functions as a package: architecture. proponents of construction projects using an independent architect. ventilating. However. When the installation is complete. and better quality. Their function is to operate the system. Drafter.

Inspector. Sells equipment and installation and service contracts.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING 13 contractor. Responsible for fabrication of equipment in factory. Field Supervisor. such as load calculations and energy studies. Uses plans and specifications to determine quantity of materials. specifications.g. Production Supervisor. Checks technical characteristics. A manufacturer's representative is a company that sells HVAC equipment manufactured by another company. and sales. Supervises the service installation and contract. studying varied alternatives. follows up delivery time. Drafter. Furnishes technical advice to customers. Positions include: Application Engineer. checks calculations and plans. Purchasing Agent. state. Estimator. marketing. Shop Technician. or federal government. Sales Manager. Their work involves sales and technical advice. Service Manager. and Field Supervisor. This involves production. research and development. school system. Prepares costs from this data. Service Manager. Supervises design of project for consulting engineer. Application Engineer. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Supervises contract. public authority. city. Processes work to be handled by computer. Checks comformity with drawings and specifications and resolves problems of conflict. In addition to HVAC operating personnel.. time schedule. Instructs designers and drafters. Inside Representative. Sales Manager. Contract Manager. A manufacturer is a company that makes HVAC equipment. Energy Specialist. A building owner may be a real estate company. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Checks performance after testing and balancing. Drafter. and Technician. Positions include Sales Engineer. Prepares drawings with supervision. Processes sales and orders by phone and correspondence. and Shop Technician. Service Manager. rication done in shop (e. Field Service Engineer and Technician. Inside Representative. Supervises technical work of employees. Responsible for assembly or fab-. inspection. Research and Development Engineer. sheet metal duct parts) or shop service and repair. Sales Engineer. supervises drafters. large property owners may have a permanent staff which checks and supervises the work of consUlting engineers and contractors that do work for them. Furnishes product information and prices. a business corporation. Inspects the system installation during construction to check conformity with plans and . and directs service work. May assist in design work. Sales Manager. plans layout of system and specifications.12 Description of Job Responsibilities Project Manager. Computer Programmer. Shop Technician. Production Supervisor. Positions include: Sales Engineer. Watch Engineer. Responsible for costs. 1. Inside Representative. Estimator. Positions include: Sales Engineer. and installation. Assists consulting engineer or contractor to provide technical information and aid in selection of proper equipment. Estimator. Computer Operator. Positions within operations include: Chief Engineer. Purchasing Agent. Drafter. labor. EstimatOl. Inside Representative. Orders and purchases materials and equipment. coordinates with other consultants and the architect. and Mechanic. obtains materials and equipment. and equipment for project. and quality. and Application Engineer. Designer. Perf()rms calculations. Supervises installation technically. Determines solutions to problems (troubleshooting). Supervises the sales and marketing of a line of products for a manufacturer. selects equipment. Prepares energy use analyses and conservation studies. and others. Application Engineer. Designer.

Information may be downloaded or one may order the software. at least a technical institute or community college program in air conditioning and refrigera- 1. virtually all large and many medium-sized new installations are operated through computers. Plan. and incinerators. specifications. A professional engineering (PE) license is required for those responsible for preparing the engineering design drawings. the provider's e-mail address can be used to obtain further information tion is required. and selection of their equipment (EC catalogs). These job descriptions do not mean that a separate individual always performs each task. developed for HVAC technicians. A combination of education. large air conditioning installations are n9w designed with the aid of computers usingCADD (computer-aided design and drafting) software. Watch Engineer. Computer Operator. parts ordering. Other sites have heating/cooling load calculation procedures. Chief Operating Engineer. Responsible for operations of computerized building systems. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for refrigerant handling. and installation procedures. particularly in small companies.and energy analysis. and accounting are now standard practices for most mechanical contractors. duct/pipe sizing. and reclaiming of refrigerants (see Chapter 13). boilers. and service of HVAC systems in the future. See page 16 for descriptions of actual job skills needed in todays HVAC market.S. Responsible for operation and maintenance of the building system under supervision. For instance.13 ENERGY CONSERVATION AND COMPUTERS Energy conservation and the use of computers have become such important aspects of the air conditioning industry that they merit a special emphasis at the beginning of our studies. Computerized inventory. The selection of the equipment is done by computer software. dimensions. preferably equivalent to two years of study. National certification standards have been. Internet Web Sites and Software At the end of appropriate chapters there will be some useful Internet Web site addresses. Often. A bachelor of engineering degree is needed for some of the categories and for improving opportunities for advancement. the recovery. Further on-thejob training is also extremely valuable. recycling. the office or tield engineer or technician can visually observe equipment parts. Undoubtedly interactive computer graphics and text and voice communication will result in still more efficient design. one person may be responsible for a number of jobs if there is not enough work to employ people in each category. and test new types of equipment. and examinations (usually supervised by each state) determines the granting of these licenses. For most of the categories. installation. plans maintenance routines. and directs work of operating personnel. that is. In addition. experience. Through application of computer graphics and networks. Supervises the operation and maintenance of the building system. The effort to conserve energy and reduce costs has revolutionized the design and operation of air conditioning systems and equipment. Determines method of operation for comfort and energy conservation. Computer usage in the industry has spread to such an extent that many. techniques. It is strongly recommended that the student visit some of these sites to become familiar with how they are used to carry out our HVAC work today. develop. a manufacturer's Web site may have information on performance.14 CHAPTER 1 Research and Development Engineer and Technician. National certification licensing is now required by the U. The amount of education and training required for each job varies both with the type of responsibility and how complex it is. Perhaps the biggest change has been in the use of computers. . Furthermore. if not most. their arrangement in equipment. Licensing Operating licenses are required by local laws for those responsible for operating many categories of refrigeration equipment.

1. and it may be necessary to conduct an Internet search to find desired information. troubleshooting. it is the resposibility of the potential user to be aware of all requirements.4 The conditions in an office are 70 F DB and 40% RH. What are the two primary situations in which air conditioning is needed? 2. Should the conditions remain as they are or should they be changed" Explain. although this does not always apply to manufacturers' software. There may be other restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to as well. In any case. if any? Explain. It should be noted that Web site names and their information often change rapidly.THE SCOPE AND USES OF AIR CONDITIONING IS on-line and to have technical questions answered.7 Select two HVAC careers that interest you.3 In a department store. and service of their equipment. When you have completed the book. if any? Explain. Bear in mind that sofware is proprietary and that providers charge fees for their usage. Review Questions I. Are these conditions acceptable" Explain. 1.2 As the operating engineer of an HVAC system in a large office building. 5. describe the building construction team's organization and responsibilities. 9. 3. Sketch a diagram that shows their arrangement. 1. which shou Id be the more comfortable summer condition: 80 F DB and 40% RH or 78 F DB and 70% RH? Explain.6 The conditions in an office in winter are 77 F DB and 10% RH. What two methods may be used to improve air quality? 4. the information is actually a short and practical educational course on the subject! Another useful feature often provided are drawings of their equipment that can be electronically transferred onto the building HVAC drawings being developed using Autocad or another computeraided design and drafting (CADD) program ("drag and drop"). What are the major components of a hydronic heating system and a hydronic cooling system" 6. Using a sketch. What do the terms design-build and fast tracking mean? Problems 1. What are the indoor environmental conditions that affect human comfort? . Would the occupants be comfortable in winter? Would they be comfortable in summer? Explain. Label all components.5 The conditions in an office in summer are 75 F DB and 50% RH. prepare a new list and compare it with this one. List the fonr major components of any air conditioning system. 1. 8. What changes should be made. there are assigned problems requiring use of the Internet to solve. List the four conditions that an air conditioning system may be required to control. but not cooling or humidity control. In some cases.1 Sketch an environmental control system that provides heating and ventilating. you have been instructed to raise the summer thermostat setting from 76 F to 80 F to conserve energy. Throughout the text. Using a sketch. 1. describe the building design team's organization and responsibilities. What changes should be made. List the subjects discussed in this chapter that you think are important to learn in training for these positions. There are also occasional references to Web sites that will expand on the information covered in the text. 1. 7. Prepare a list of suggestions you might give to the building's occupants on how to minimize their decrease in comfort. Manufactnrers often offer on-line information on maintenance. 10. Sketch a typical all-air air conditioning system and name each component.

REVIEW MECHANICAL DRAWINGS. ENTRY LEVEL KNOWLEDGE OF SOUND ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES. GRADUATE NO EXPERIENCE NEEDED FOR HEATING/COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS. MONITOR. the following are brief descriptions of some actual entry level job openings with a few major engineering firms. BONUSES. READ BLUEPRINTS. WILL START SPECIFYING TAKEOFF AND EQUIPMENT NEEDS FOR DUCTWORK.K. contractors. HVAC FIELD PROJECT MANAGER NEEDED IMMEDIATELY RECENT GRAD O.5. or manufacturers. ASSISTANT PROJECT ENGINEER. ARE LOOKING TO PROMOTE TO PROJECT MANAGER ASAP. DO ON-SITE WALK-THRUS. CALL MANUFACTURERS. ENTRY LEVEL ASSISTANT TO ESTIMATOR BUT CAPABLE PERSON FOR FAST-TRACK PROMOTION TO PROJECT MANAGER. HVAC DESIGNER. GOOD WRITING AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS. HVAC GRADUATE NEEDED. BUT A+. WORK WITH SALES ENGINEERS.DO COMMERCIAL TAKE-OFFS OF DUCTS AND PIPING FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS. EXPERIENCE NOT NEEDED. SALARY COMMENSURATE WITH EXPERIENCE. WILL TRAIN. GOOD BENEFITS.16 CHAPTER 1 JOB OPPORTUNITIES AND SKILLS To get an impression of the actual skills needed and the work done in today's HVAC job market.K. DETAIL ORIENTED. AUTOCADD RI2 OR RI3. SPECIFY EQUIPMENT. ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF. MUST HAVE GOOD COMMUNICATION AND PROBLEMSOLVING SKILLS. ETS. COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND PRESENTATION SKILLS IMPORTANT. EXPLORER. NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY. RECENT GRAD O. .COMMUNICATE WITH MANUFACTURERS. ENSURE PROPER MANUFACTURING OF EQUIPMENT. COORDINATE.). HYDRONIC PIPING/SYSTEM LAYOUT. SALARY. OFFICE 97. AND DO FIELD SUPERVISION OF HVAC TRADES. TECHNICAL SUPPORT. FIELDWORK. MUST HAVE COMPUTER SKILLS (MS WINDOWS 9.

Generally the definitions and concepts accepted today in physics will be used here. and vacuum pressure. . will be discussed in Chapter 8. even when they differ slightly in meaning. heat. and between stored energy and energy in transfer. OBJECTIVES A study of this chapter will enable you to: I. fluid flow. Describe and use the energy equation. and enthalpy and show the relationship between temperature scales. and among absolute. 6. in some instances other terms that are in practice in the HVAC industry will be used. however.) This presentation of applied physics is not intended to substitute for a course in physics. a background in that subject will be helpful as a preparation for this book. 2. Identify the changes that occur when a substance changes between its liquid and vapor states. Express the relationship between pressure and head. 17 5. Distinguish between energy and power. (One further subject in applied physics. Identify units and convert from one set of units to another. This approach will enable the student to communicate and work with others in the air conditioning field. In this chapter.c H A p T E R Physical Principles T he HVAC practitioner often encounters problems that cannot be solved without a knowledge of applied physics. Explain the differences among temperature. specific volume. 3. gage. Calculate density. 4. Make some general conclusions regarding energy conservation in HVAC. 8. 9. the physical principles that are useful in understanding air conditioning will be explained. Use the saturated property tables for water and the sensible and latent heat equations. and specific gravity. 7.

2). by dividing both sides of the equality by either term. by 33 in. require insulation. Physical characteristics are measured by standard quantities called units. 2 gives Ift 144in.000 ft2 . momentum. The equivalent between the known and required units is I ft 2 = 144 in 2 (Table A.. by canceling units that are the same in the numerator and denominator (units can be multiplied and divided in the same way as numbers).18 CHAPTER 2 2. mass. 2 x 144 in. In that case.1 Some solar heating collector panels measuring 28 in.tt2" 144 in.J. This enables us to change units. This ratio arrangement is used when it is desired to change a quantity expressed in one unit into a Only one can be correct. expressed in ft2. This result would be Area =924 in.30 meters (m) 3 I ft = 7. Table A. from Table A.~ . 2 ---0--= 1 1 ft2 This shows that mUltiplying by the ratio of equivalent units is the same as multiplying by 1. Suppose the other ratio had been used. X Table A.. The procedure is carried out in the following manner: 1. velocity. Here this is arranged as a ratio. For instance.42 ft 2 144~ =~=l ~ This is the amountef insulation required for each panel. The following example illustrates the procedure for converting units. 2 is I ft2 = 144 in. The insulation is to be ordered in square feet (ft2)... Arrange the equivalency (conversion factor) between the units as a ratio.2 pounds (lb) = I kilogram (kg) Example 2._ = 6. Examples of equivalents are: Characteristic Unit Equivalents (Conversion Factors) Length Volume Time Mass I ft = 12 inches (in. however.2. Dividing both sides by 144 in." 2. I lists abbreviations and symbols used in this book.) = 0. multiplied by the original quantity. 33 in. The result wiII be the correct value in the new units. Multiply the original quantity by the ratio. For each physical characteristic. there are many different units. dividing by I ft2 gives . temperature.. For instance. and time are called physical characteristics. 2 1 ft2 in.. it was either or 144 in.. 2. as is now explained. density. pressure. An important point to note in this example is that there are always two possible raiios that can be used in converting units. and with units canceled: I ft 2 Area = 924 ~ x . area. volume. choosing that ratio that wiII give the results in the desired units. 2 1 ft2 144 in? 1 ft 2 Or. How much insulation would you order for each panel? Solution The area of the insulation for each panel is Area = 28 in. These units have fixed numerical relationships to each other called equivalents or conversion factors. the relation between area expressed in ft2 and in. 2.2 CONVERSION OF UNITS The equivalence between any two units can also be written as a ratio.4 = 133. 2 2 The area is not in the units needed. = 924 in.1 UNITS different unit. Concepts snch as length.48 gall ons (gal) I minute (min) = 60 seconds (sec) 2.2 in the Appendix lists some useful unit equivalents. the foot (ft) is one of the standard units used to measure length.

However.S.S.mi1'l_. :. SI units are part of a broader system of units called the metric system. manufacturer ships some aIr filters to Venezuela.n c/ =3. I GPM = 500 Ib/hr (for water only. n x _1-. the standard SI unit of length is the meter. whereas SI units are used in most other countries.2 A U. The SI system of units uses only one unit of measurement for each physical characteristic. SI units will be introduced in two ways: (1) in some examples and tables. Imagine what your boss would have said if you had ordered 133. units will be converted between U. U. The inch-pound (I-P) system of units is generally used in the United States.-. There are two systems of units used in the HVAC industry." The contractor installing the filters wishes to inform the operating engineer what the maximum velocity is in meters per second (m/sec). unit of mass is the pound mass. What information should be given? Solution We must use the equivalency between feet and meters and that between minutes and seconds. the density of water is 62. WEIGHT.S.0' water = 500 x 62.4 MASS.1.0'_ hr 7.S. I _ga_1 =(I ffi!I'_ min X mill 60 .. and multiply and divide values and units: 2. the other is called the Sf or international system. as seen in the following example. at 60 F.2. and SI units. DENSITY.0sec Combined Conversion Factors In Example 2. those students who wish to become familiar with SI units may do so. For instance. AND SPECIFIC VOLUME. In this book.S.2 includes conversion factors for both U.. Table A. the problem involved converting velocity from units of ft/min to nllsec. or English system. U.2. The SI unit is the kilogram (kg). From Table A. occasionally we may use metric units that are not standard SI units.4 Ib/ft3 at 60 F. FORCE.c' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solution From Table 2.4 hr water Ib That is. Example 2. Arrange the ratios in the form that will give the correct units in the result. Find the equivalence for the flow rate of water measured in units of Iblhr and gal/min (GPM).3 -. because this is common practice in the HVAC industry in countries using the SI system. The following example shows how one is developed. It is convenient to use combined conversion factors such as this for calculations that are frequently repeated. Only certain units of the metric system are standard in the SI system. units will be emphasized. One is called the inch-pound. The procedure for changing units is the same when more than one unit is to be changed.48 gal = I ft3 Using these values for water. The U.~.3 U. However. at about 60 F).48 {«if Ib ) .S. In this way. 7.30 m I . The mass (m) of an object or body is the quantity of matter it contains. not the centimeter or kilometer. 2.000 ft 2 of insulation! The student should adopt the habit of always writing out the unit names when doing computations. .S.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 19 We know that this is incorrect.-. Example 2. with the note "Warning-maximum air velocity 600 ft/min. and SI units: and (2) some examples and problems will be done completely in SI units. because the units resulting are not ft2. AND SI UNITS Velocity = 600 - j{ pHn m x I mi1f 60 sec x 0.

0 1.1. The density of water at 39 P is 62.3) 0. at 39 F. Density varies with temperature and pressure. Densities and other properties for some substances are shown in Table 2.4 Ib/fe.0 0.1 ) Specific Gravity The specific gravity (s. III Density and Specific Volume Density (d) is the mass per unit of volume of a substance.20 CHAPTER2 A force is the push or pull that one body may exert on another. The weight (w) of a body is the force exerted ou it by the gravitational pull of the earth. The U. Ib/ft3 d u ' = density of water at 39 P.2 57. not mass. In any case the na~ure of a problem indicates whether mass or weight is being considered. The confusion also occurs because the word pound is used for both mass and force in U. unit of force is the pound force.4 3 = 14. units. Specific volume (v) is the reciprocal of density. so the specific gravity is s.000 Ib Ib ft x 225 fr3 volume volume III (2. Iblft3 Specific Heat.S.Q75 849. The tower basin is 15 ft by 10ft in plan and filled with water to a depth of 1.1.1 for in. The density of water is shown in Table 2. He must inform the structural engineer how much extra weight to allow for the water in the tower basin when designing the roof. they are often used as such. That is.g.24 At 32-60 F At 200 F Average for water vapor in air At 70 F and 14.) of a substance is defined as the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water.45 0.2 (Table A.::::::-=-d".1 Substance PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES Density. therefore no error should Occur in calculations.1. Volume = 15 ft x 10 ft x 1.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A contractor is going to install a cooling tower on a roof.7 psi a At 32 F . d d (2. weight is a force. the nnmerical value in pounds (Ib) for the mass and weight of an object is the same on earth.g. Solution The weight of water in the tank is found from Equation 2.4 Ib/ft3 v= (2. Unfortunately the word weight is often used for mass of a body.50 0.3) TABLE 2.S.5 ft. as both are measured in Ib/ft3 in U. units. 62. That is d= III = d x volume = 62. 62.0 l.2) Weight density is the weight per unit volume of a substance. after finding the volume of water.5 ft = 225 ft 3 Solving Equation 2. Although weight density and (mass) density are not the same.S. Example 2. However. The SI unit is the Newton (N). BTU/lb-F Note Water Water Ice Steam Air Mercury 62.4 where d = density of substance.4 60.

Expressed as an equation.e. the number of significant figures are reduced) to three or four places. The pressure is being exerted on an area 2 ft x 3 ft = 6 ft 2 The force acting on the bottom is the total weight of water. neither manufacturer's fan ratings or testing instruments can produce that accurate a value._ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hot water storage tank used in a solar heating system contains 3000 Ib of water.6 _ _ _ _-.3 are satisfactory.6 PRESSURE 2ft Pressure (P) is defined as force (F) exerted per unit area (A).5 Ib/ft3 What is its specific gravity? Solution Using Equation 2.2. because the value of the fifth digit from the left is known. this is . and then to balance the system to obtain this flow rate. The pressure is the force on each of the six 1 ft x I ft areas.3. The number might be used to select a fan.6. Data in HVAC work are usually rounded off (i.5 A fuel oil has a density of 58..4 62.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 21 The value of specific gravity will change slightly with temperature. units of pressure will be Iblin? The abbreviations psf for Ib/ft2 and psi for Ib/in 2 are commonly used. This procedure is called rounding off For example. What is the pressure exerted on the bottom of the tank.4) Example 2. However..4 . Equipment and instrument ratings are often only accurate to within 2-5% of listed values. and sometimes even two. Example 2. This number is said to have five significant figures.= = 500 Ib/ft2 A 6 ft2 The relation between force and pressure is illustrated in Figure 2.342 CFM for the required air supply rate to a building. decisions must be made as to the number of significant figures or places of accuracy to use in numerical values. the units of pressure will be sa =--=--=094 '0' 62.5 If force is measured in pounds and area in square inches (in 2 ).4 will be used to find the pressure. 2. therefore there is no point in calculating or measuring data to an excess number of significant figures. suppose the results of some calculations produced a value of 18. If the above value is rounded off to three places. A force of 3000 Ib is distributed over the 2 ft x 3 ft area. they should use the examples of this book as a guide. d 58. The tank is 2 ft long by 3 ft wide. 500 Ib/ft". If force is measured in pounds (Ib) and area in square feet (ft2).300 CFM.5 ACCURACY OF DATA In reporting results of measurements of calculations of data. Equation 2. Until students become familiar with good practice in rounding off values. but for most calculations the values from Equation 2. it would be reported as 18. Figure 2. force F p=--= area A (2. 3000 Ib water 2. in Ib/ft2? Solution A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 2. F 3000lb p= .1 Sketch for Example 2.1.

22

CHAPTER2

Total force = 3000 Ib Pressure = force on each square foot = 500 Ib

500lb

1 ft

1ft

1ft

Figure 2.2
Relation between force and pressure.

cause there is less weight of air above. For example, the atmospheric pressure in Denver, Colorado is about 12.23 psia). Pressure measuring instruments usually measure the difference between the pressure of a fluid and the pressure of the atmosphere. The pressure measured above atmospheric pressure is called gage pressure (pg). The relation among absolute, atmospheric, and gage pressures, shown in Figure 2.3, is
Pabs

= Patm + Pg

(2.5)

Pressures of liquids and gases are of great importance in HVAC work. Some examples are the steam pressure in a boiler, the air pressure developed by a fan, the water pressure exerted on a valve, and the pressure exerted by the atmosphere.

Using gage pressure is convenient because most pressure measuring instruments are calibrated to read 0 when they are subject to atmospheric pressure. Figure 2.4 (a) shows the dial face of a typical compression gage. (Pressure gages and similar instruments will be discussed in Chapter 16.)
Example 2.7 The pressure gage connected to the discharge of a cooling tower water pump in the Trailblazers Bus Terminal in San Francisco reads 18 psi. What is the absolute water pressure at the pump discharge? Solution The pressure gage reads gage pressure, 18 psig (above atmospheric). San Francisco is at sea level. so the atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.7 psia. Using Equation 2.5,
Pab, = Pg+Patm

Absolute, Gage, and Vacuum Pressure
A space that is completely evacuated of any gas or liquid (a complete vacuum) has zero pressure, because there is nothing to exert a pressure. The pressure exerted by a fluid above the zero pressure is called its absolute pressure (PabJ. This is illustrated in Figure 2.3. The atmospheric air above the Earth exerts a pressure (Patm) because of its weight. The pressure it exerts at sea level has been measured and found to be approximately 14.7 Ib/in? absolute (psia). (This pressure decreases at higher elevations beFigure 2.3
Relations of absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures.

= 18 psi + 14.7 psi = 32.7 psia

1--T
Pabs Pg

Pressure being measured

Atmospheric pressure

_-._+___-'-________-,___
Patm

_J t __ Pressure . being measured .

Pvac

Pabs Zero pressure _....1.._.....L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---'_ _ _ __

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

23

(/
psig

~o

/ 100

(a)

t

Atmospheric pressure

(b)

t

Atmospheric pressure

Figure 2.4
Pressure gages, (a) Compression gage reads gage pressure only. (b) Compound gage reads gage and vacuum pressure.

If a fluid exerts a pressure below atmospheric pressure, it is called a "partial" vacuum; its pressure value reading down from atmospheric pressure is called vacuum pressure (Pyac)' The relation among absolute, atmospheric, and vacuum pressures, shown in Figure 2.3, is
Pabs ::::; Patm - Pvac

60 psig, respectively. How much is the pressure increased by the compressor?
Solution Referring to Figure 2.5. the pressure increase is

pressure increase = 60 + 5 = 65 psi

(2.6)

Some gages are constructed to read both vacuum and gage pressure. This type is called a compound gage and is shown in Figure 2.4(b).
Example 2.8 The gages on the suction gas and discharge gas lines of a compressor read 5 psiv (Ib/in 2 vac) and

2.7 PRESSURE OF A LIQUID COLUMN
A liquid exerts a pressure because of its weight, and the weight depends on the height of the column of liquid. The relation between the pressure exerted and the height, as shown in Figure 2.6, is
p=dxH
(2.7)

Figure 2.5
Sketch for Example 2.8. - - - Discharge pressure of gas 60 psig 5 psiv Atmospheric pressure Suction pressure of gas Zero pressure

Suction gage 5 psiv

Discharge gage 60 psig

65 psi

~YJ.--jO

P

J _______ _

I

24

CHAPTER2

Solution The density of water is approximately 62.4 Ib/ft3 (Table 2. I). Using Equation 2.7,
Liquid of density d

p=dxH

Ib lb 1 ft 2 p = 62.4 fe x 300 ft = 18,720 ft2 x 144 in. 2
= 130 psig

Figure 2.6
Pressure exerted by a liquid column. Pressure may be expressed as "head" (height of liquid).

where
p = pressure exerted by a liquid, lb/ft" d = density of liquid, lb/ft' H =height of liquid, ft

The relation between pressure and height of a liquid is used by pressure measuring instruments that have a column of liquid. These are called manometers, an example of which is shown in Figure 2.7. In Figure 2.7(a); the pressure exerted on both legs of the manometer (atmospheric pressure) is the same, so the liquid is at the same level. In Figure 2.7(b), the pressure in the duct is above atmospheric. In Figure 2.7(c), the pressure in the duct is below atmospheric (vacuum pressure), so the liquid is higher in the leg connected to the ducl.
Example 2.10 A service technician wishes to measure the pressure of air in a duct. He connects one leg of a water manometer to the duct and the other leg is exposed to the atmosphere. The difference in height of the water columns is 8 in. w.g. (inches of water gage) as shown in Figure 2.8. What is the air pressure in the duct in psig?

Other units can be used in the equation. but these are often convenient.
Example 2.9 A 300-ft vertical pipe in a high-rise building is filled with chilled water. What is the pressure in Ib/in 2 gage (psig) that a valve in the bottom of the line will have to withstand?

Figure 2.7
Manometer reading pressures above and below atmospheric pressure. (a) Equal pressure on both legs. (b) Pressure in duct above atmospheric (gage pressure). (c) Pressure in duct below atmospheric (vacuum pressure).
Palm

Palm

t L l

Patm

Palm

Airflow

t
T H

Airflow

T
H

-.l
(a)

1

(b)

(c)

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

25

Airflow

Example 2.11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ How high would the mercury column in a barometer be, in both in. Hg and mm Hg, at a location where atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi and the temperature 32 F?
Solution Using Equation 2.7 with proper units, noting the density of mercury (Table 2.1) is d = 849 Ib/ft 3 at 32F, Changing units,
Palm

'Manometer

Figure 2.8 Sketch for Example 2.10.

= 14.7

-:---z
lfi.

lb

x

Ib =2116.8 - , ft-

Solution The difference in height is related to the pressure by Equation 2.7. Changing the units of H first.
H = 8 in. w.g. x - - = 0.667 ft w.g.

Using Equation 2.7,
H=

E=
d

2116.81b/ft2 = 2.49 ft x 12 in. 849 Ib/ft3 I ft

I ft

= 29.92 in. Hg 25.4mm H = 29.92 in. Hg x - - - - = 760 mm g I in.

12 in.

p=dxH

Ib = 62.4 ft3 x 0.667 ft Ib I ft2 . = 41.62: x 2 = 0.29 pSlg ft 144 in. The air pressure in the duct is 0.29 psi above atmospheric pressure. Water manometers are often used for measuring relatively small pressures, particularly when testing and balancing air systems. They are not convenient for high pressures because a very high liquid column would be needed. Manometers using mercury, a liquid with a much higher density than water, are often used for measuring higher pressures. The barometer (Figure 2.9) is a special manometer used for measuring atmospheric air pressure. Mercury (Hg) is the liquid used. The tube is evacuated of all gas so that no atmospheric pressure acts on the top of the mercury column. Because atmospheric pressure acts on the bottom of the mercury, the height to which the mercury column is lifted represents atmospheric pressure.

Head
It is often convenient to express pressure in units of head. Head is the equivalent of liquid column height (H) expressed in Equation 2.7. In Example

2.11, instead of stating that the pressure of the atmosphere was 14.7 psi, it could have been stated that it was 29.92 in. Hg or 760 mm Hg. In Example
Figure 2.9 Mercury barometer.
Vacuum

Height represents atmospheric pressurel

f

Mercury

26

CHAPTER2

2.10, the air pressure in the duct could also have been stated both ways, p = 0.29 psig = 8 in. w.g. That is, there does not actually have to be a column of liquid to express any pressure in head units. Equation 2.7 can be used to convert to or from units of pressure expressed as head. Some of the equivalents for pressure expressed as head, obtained from that equation, are listed in Table A.2. Example 2.12 A contractor requires a pump that will have a discharge pressure of 42 psi. He looks in a manufacturer's catalog to find a suitable pump, but finds that the pump ratings are listed as "head, feet of water." What pump head should he specify in his purchase order? Solution Using the conversion factor equality (Table A.2) of 2.3 ft w. = I psi
H = 42 psi x

Power is the time rate of doing work. It is expressed by the equation
work Power=-time (2.9)

Power is usually of more direct importance than work in industrial applications; the capacity of equipment is based on its power output or power consumption. If work is expressed in ft-Ib, some units of power that would result are ft-Ib/min and ft-Ib/sec. More convenient units for power are the horsepower (HP) and kilowatt (KW), because the numbers resulting are not as large. Example 2.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ If the cooling tower in Example 2.13 is lifted by a crane in 4 minutes, what is the minimum power (in HP) required? Solution Using Equation 2.9,

2.3 ft w.
I psi

97 ft w. Power =

1,800,000 ft-Ib 4 min

= 450,000 ft-Ib/min

2.8 WORK, POWER, AND ENERGY
Work is the effect created by a force when it
moves a body. It is expressed by the following equation: Work = force x distance (2.8)

From Table A.2, I HP = 33,000 ft-Ib/min. Conv'(rting to HP,
I HP 450,000 ft-Ib/min x --.:...:...~-- = 13.6 HP 33,000 ft-Ib/min

The actual size of the engine or motor selected to hoist the cooling tower would be greater than 13.6 HP, due to friction and other losses and to allow some excess capacity as a safety reserve. Although it is a somewhat ab~tract concept. energy is sometimes defined as the ability to do work. For example, we use the stored chemical energy in a fuel by burning it to create combustion gases at high pressure that drive the pistons of an engine and thus do work. Work is therefore one of the forms of energy. Energy can exist in a number of forms. It can be grouped into those forms of energy that are stored in bodies or those forms of energy in transfer or flow between bodies. Work is one of the forms of

Example 2.13 A cooling tower weighing 6000 Ib is hoisted from the street level to the roof of the Gusher Oil Co. building, 300 ft high. How much work is done in lifting it? Solution The force required is equal to the weight of the tower. Using Equation 2.8, Work = 6000 Ib x 300 ft = 1,800,000 ft -Ib

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
Stored energy Energy stored in body: Enthalpy Chemical energy Potential energy Kinetic energy other forms Energy in transfer Heat (a)

27

I-----.:..:=.:.:..:..!-~

Work (W)

} an~~her
body

Figure 2.10
Comparison of stored energy and energy in transfer.

energy in transfer between bodies. That is, one body does work on another when it moves it. Energy can be stored in matter in many forms. Figure 2.10 is a diagram showing some types of stored energy and energy ill transfa At this time we will turn our attention to a forn1 of energy in transfer or motion called heat. Some of the forms of stored energy will discussed in Section 2.10.

2.9 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
Heat has been described as a form of energy transfer.
Heat is the form of energy that transfers from ol1e body to anoth,er due to a temperature difference. In

Figure 2.11 graphically describes this definition. In Figure 2.11(a) heat (Q) flows from the high temFigure 2.11
J

perature body, hot water, in the heating unit to the lower temperature body, the air in the room. Figure 2.11 (b) shows that heat will flow from the higher temperature body, room air, to the lower temperature body, the air in the refrigerator interior, due to the temperature difference. Note that heat can only flow naturally from a higher to a lower temperature-"downhill," so to speak, as seen in Figure 2.12. Of course if there is no temperature difference, there is no heat flow. The most common unit used for heat in the United States is the BTU (British Thermal Unit). The BTU is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit (F) at 59 F. Temperature is a measure of the thermal acti\"ity in a body. This activity depends on the velocity of the molecules and other particles of which all matter is composed. It is not practical to measure temperature by measuring the velocity of molecules, however, so this definition is not of great importance in our work. Temperature is usually measured with thermometers. The most commonly used type relies on the fact that most liquids expand and contract when their temperature is raised or lowered. By creating an arbitrary scale of numbers. a temperature scale and units are developed. Some types of thermometers used in HVAC work will be discussed in Chapter 16. The unit scale most often used for measuring temperature in the United States is the degree

Examples of heat flow. (a) Heat flows from heating unit at higher temperature to room air at lower temperature. (b) Heat flows from room air at higher temperature to refrigerator air at lower temperature.

Room air = 70 F Room air = 70 F

~
a
~ ..

Heat(O)

_

Heat (a)

/
Air at

-+-- Heating unit

40 F-+ ~ Refrigerator

at 200 F
(a)

(b)

28

CHAPTER2

Q

I,

12
B

I, A

A
(a)

B
(b)

Figure 2.12

Heat can flow only from a higher to a lower temperature. (a) If I, is greater than 12 , heat flows from A to B. (b) If t, = 1 2 , no heat follows.

Fahrenheit (F), in which the boiling point of water is 212 F and the freezing point of water is 32 F at atmospheric pressure. In the SI system of units the degree Celsius (C) is used, in which the boiling point of water is 100 C and the freezing point is 0 C at atmospheric pressure. The relationship between these two units is therefore
F = 1.8 C + 32
F- 32 C=-..,.1.8
(2. lOa)
(2. lOb)

The relations among temperature scales are shown graphically in Figure 2.13.

2.10

ENTHALPY

Example 2.15 A room is supposed to be at a temperature of 78 F in an air-conditioned building. The building maintenance engineer checks the temperature with a thermometer that has a Celsius scale. What should be the reading on the thermometer? Solution Using Equation 2. lOb.

We have noted previously that energy can be classified into energy in transfer between bodies (heat and work) or stored energy in bodies. There are a number of types of stored energy, some of which we will briefly discuss here. (We will not always define these terms rigorously, when it will not serve our purposes.) Chemical energy is a form of stored energy in a body that is released frgm a body by combustion. When a fuel is burned, its stored chemical energy is released as heat. Kinetic energy is the stored energy in a body due to its motion, or velocity.
Figure 2.13

c = _F_-_3_2 =
1.8

Relations among temperature scales. 78 - 32 = 25.6 C 1.8 Fahrenheit Rankine
672 R

Celsius
100e

Kelvin
373 K

There are also two absolute temperature scales. These take the value 0 for the lowest temperature that can exist. They are called the Rankine (R) and Kelvin (K) temperature scales. The Rankine is used in the U.S. sysfem, with the difference in size between each degree the same as Fahrenheit. The Kelvin is used in the SI system with the difference between each degree equal to Celsius. The relationships are R=F+460 K=C+273
(2.lOc) (2.lOd)

212 F

32 F

492 R
460 R

OC

273 K

OF

Absolute zero
-460 F

O R - - 273 C

OK

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

29

Potential energy is the stored energy a body has due to its position, or elevation. There is a property a body has that is a combination of its energy due to temperature, pressure, and volume; it is called enthalpy. Enthalpy is a property of a body that measures its heat content. Specific enthalpy (h) is the enthalpy per unit mass of a substance. It is expressed in BTUllb in U.S. units. Although this definition of enthalpy is used extensively in the HVAC industry, it is scientifically imprecise. Its exact definition is best defined by a mathematical equation. For our purposes, the terms heat content and enthalpy are considered to have the same meaning and to be a property of a body. Heat, however, as defined in Section 2.9, means a form of (heat) energy in transfer or flow, not a property of a body. For this reason, it is preferable to use the word enthalpy, not heat content, so that heat is not used with two different meanings. It should also be understood that temperature and enthalpy (heat content) are not the same thing. The temperature of a body is a measure of its thermal level or thermal intensity, but by itself does not determine how much thermal energy it has. The amount of thermal energy of a body depends not only on its temperature but also on its mass and specific heat. The enthalpy of a body, however, is a property that does reflect its amount of thermal energy. For example, consider a thimbleful of molten steel at 2500 F as compared to a very large tank of hot water at 200 F. The hot water has a higher total enthalpy; it has more thermal energy available for space heating, despite its much lower temperature.

namics is a principle that may be stated in various ways, for instance, "energy can neither be created nor destroyed," or "there is conservation of energy in nature." This principle is used extensively in the HVAC industry, especially when stated as an energy balance: The change in total energy in a system equals the energy added to the system minus the energy removedfrom the system.

The word system refers to any closed body or group of bodies for which the flciw of energy in or out can be determined. It could be the air in a room (Figure 2.14), a boiler, a whole building, or a complete air conditioning system. This energy balance can be expressed as an equation, called the Energy Equation: (2.11 ) where
Ech

= change in stored energy in the system = energy added to (entering) the system Eout = energy removed from (leaving) the system
Ein

Example 2.16 illustrates the use of the energy equation.
Example 2.16 A hot water heating convector in Mr. Jones office is supplying 4000 BTUlhr of heat. Heat is being transferred from the room air to the outdoors at the rate of 6500 BTUlhr. What will happen in the
Figure 2.14 Sketch for Example 2.16.

2.11 THE ENERGY EQUATION (FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)
The subject we have been examining, called thermodynamics, is the branch of physics that deals with heat and work. The First Law of ThermodyQin = 4000 BTU/hr

30

CHAPTER2

room? What size electric heater should Mr. Jones temporarily use to solve the emergency?

Solution We apply the Energy Equation 2.11. Figure 2.14 shows the energy (heat) added and removed:

HP. All of the energy in the lighting and from the motors is converted into heat. What is the increase in enthalpy of the room air from these sources?

BTU BTU = 4000 - - - 6500 - hr hr BTU =-2500-hr The negative sign means the room air energy is decreasing. This loss in enthalpy (heat content) will cause the room air temperature to drop, making it uncomfortable. A solution is to install an electric heater that will make up the heat loss which the convector does not supply, 2500 BTUlhr. There will then be no net loss of heat from the room, and the temperature will not drop. The capacity of an electric heater is normally expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (KW) rather then BTUlhr. The heater should therefore have the following capacity. From Table A.2, 3410 BTUlhr= 1000 W 2500 BTUlhr x 1000W 3410 BTU/hr = 733 W

Solution The energy added to the room air will increase its enthalpy. Applying the Energy Equation 2.11 and converting all units to BTUIhr,

Ech

3.4IBTUlhr = 1000 W x - - - - lW
+1 O HP>.<

2545 BTUlhr 0 I HP

= 28,860 BTUlhr

2.12 LIQUIDS, VAPORS, AND CHANGE OF STATE
Substances can exist in three different states (also called phases)-solid, liquid, or vapor (gas). The state that a substance is actually in depends on its temperature and pressure. The meaning of this for liquids and vapors is best understood by describing the experiment (which the student could carry out at home to check the results) shown in Figure 2.15. Figure 2.15(a) shows a pot of water at room temperature. Being open, it is subject to atmospheric pressure, 14.7 psia at sea level. At (b) heat (Q) is being added to the water, and it is noted that its temperature continually rises as heat is added. At some point in time (e). however, it is noted that the temperature stops rising (at 212 F). Even though more heat is added after that (d),' the temperature does not increase for a while. What is observed now, however, is that the liquid water will gradually change into its gas or vapor state (steam). This process is called boiling or vapori~a­ tion. As heat is added, no further temperature increase occurs as long as some liquid remains. At (e), all the water is evaporated.

The nearest size larger heater manufactured would probably be 750 W. Example 2.16 illustrates the sign convention that will be used in the Energy Equation: An energy decrease in the system is negative; an energy increase is positive. The example also shows that any units used for energy are interchangeable, regardless of the form of energy, whether heat, work, or enthalpy. Example 2.17 will illustrate this, as well as a further application of the Energy Equation.

Example 2.17 A business equipment room has 1000 watts of lighting and some small motors with a total output of 10

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

31

If more heat is added, it will be noted that the temperature (of the steam) will begin to rise again, above 212 F, as seen in (j). (This part of the experiment would be difficult to carry out, because the steam will escape into the room.) The whole series of processes just described could also be carried out in reverse. Removal of heat (cooling) from the steam in Figure 2.15(j) lowers its temperature. When the cooling continues to (e), the temperature no longer drops, but the gas begins to condense to a liquid (d). After all of the steam is condensed (c), further removal of heat will result in a temperature drop of the liquid, (b) and (a). A useful summary of all of this information is shown in Figure 2.16, called the temperatureFigure 2.15

enthalpy diagram. When heat is added to the water between 32 F and 212 F, both its enthalpy and temperature increase. However, if more heat is added at 212 F, note that although its enthalpy continues iucreasing, the temperature remains constant. What does happen is that the water gradually boils until it all vaporizes to steam, still at 212 F, assuming enough heat is added. Once all the liquid is evaporated, if more heat is added, then and only then does the temperature start to increase again. (The enthalpy continues to increase as before.) The temperature and enthal py increase of the steam will then continue if further heat is provided.

Experiment showing change of state of water at atmospheric pressure (14.7 psia). (a) Initial condition (subcooled liquid). (b) Heat added, temperature increases {subcooled liquid). (c) Heat added, liquid reaches boiling point (saturated liquid). (d) Heat added, liquid changing to vapor, no temperature increase. (e) Heat added, all liquid vaporized (saturated vapor). (f) Heat added, temperature of vapor increases (superheated vapor). Note: Subcooled liquid is liquid below its boiling point. Saturated liquid and saturated vapor are the liquid and vapor at the boiling (condensing) point. Superheated vapor is vapor above the boiling point. 14.7psia 14.7 psi a 14.7 psia

(a) Subcooled liquid

Q (b) Subcooled liquid

Q (c) Saturated liquid

(d) Mi~ture of saturated

(e) Saturated vapor

(f) Superheated vapor

liquid and vapor

9 psia. the boiling process begins and the temperature remains constant until the liquid has completely evaporated. When the water reaches 212 F (e) and more heat is added. The conditions shown in Figure 2. however. we would find that when heat was added. If the same experiment were carried out with the surrounding pressure at 6 psia. Let us conduct the same experiment where the surrounding pressure is at a higher value.9 psia. the boiling process would begin at 170 F. 212 Superheated steam Saturated vapor lL. Along the line it can exist either as liquid. These facts show that the boilingicondensing temperature of water depends on its pressure. say 24.16 also shows the temperatureenthalpy changes that occur between the liquid and solid state.7 psia (atmospheric pressure at sea level). Figure 2. BTU/lb Figure 2. the boiling point is 240 F at 24.18 shows a line representing these temperature-pressure values for water. or as steam. it is called the boiling point curve or saturation vapor pressure curve. vapor. We will now examine what changes occur at different pressures.16 Temperature-enthalpy (heat content) change of water at 14.18 Will water exist in the liquid state.32 CHAPTER 2 Note: p = 14.7 psia. which will be discussed later. if its temperature is 225 F and its pressure is 25 psia? .16 are correct for water only when the surrounding pressure is 14. Figure 2. Water can exist at its boiling/condensing temperature and pressure only on this line. or cooling if done in reverse. E ~ Melting or Solid freezing 32 (r t Latent heat of fusion 144 Sensible heat of liquid (water) 180 Latent heat of vaporization 970 Sensible heat of vapor (steam) Heat content (enthalpy). This means that water cannot be made to boil at a temperature below 240 F if the pressure is 24.9 psia.7 psi a surrounding pressure. or as mixture of the liquid-vapor. Example 2. Dependence of Boiling Temperature on Pressure In the experiment just described the surrounding pressure was 14. but the temperature continues to rise. it does not boil. For water. This shows that the temperature at which the water boils changes with pressure.7 psia Saturated liquid Vaporizing or condensing . i 1ii Q) :0 Q. When the"temperature reaches 240 F (d). Figure 2.17 represents the same heating process. To the left of the line it can exist only as a liquid and to the right only as a vapor.

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 24.9 pSia Q (d) Saturated liquid (e) Saturated vapor (I) Superheated vapor Figure 2. The closer the molecules are to each other. Note that the higher the pressure on the wale I. (b) Heat added. Let us examine what causes this change in boil' ing point temperature.7 psia ammonia boils at -28 F. The molecules in a substance are constantly in motion.9 psia 33 (a) Subcooled liquid Q (b) Subcooled liquid Q (c) Subcooled liquid 24. (d) Heat added. (a) Initial condition (subcooled liquid). All matter is composed of particles called molecules. This same dependence of boiling/condensing temperature on pressure holds for all fluids.9 psia 24. temperature of vapor increases (superheated vapor). temperature increases (subcooled liquid). all liquid vaporized (saturated vapor). and the lower Ihe pressure. This same relation holds for other substances. the greater the attractive forces. the lower the temperature at which it will boil. For example. They are also attracted to each other by forces. except the p-t values are different. alcohol at 170 F. and copper at 4250J:<.9 psia 24. and . The water is in a liquid state. and therefore the attractive forces are greater. the higher the boiling temperature. Solution Locating the pressure-temperature (p-t) condition on Figure 2. (f) Heat added. Note that the water is not boiling at 212 F. liquid reaches boiling point. temperature increases (subcooled liquid). The Molecular (Kinetic) Theory of Liquids and Gases The process of boiling and the dependence of boiling point temperature on surrounding pressure can be explained by referring to the molecular (kinetic) theory of liquids and gases. the molecules are closer together than when it is in its gaseous state. it is found to be in the liquid region. Also molecules in the gaseous state move more rapidly than molecules in the liquid state. When a substance is in the liquid state. (e) Heat added. 240 F. at 14.17 Experiment showing change of state of water at 24.9 psia. (c) Heat added.18.

s. at a s. some slower. required to boil a liquid. leaves the remaining molecules.low evaporation from the surface. is.ure of the average velocity of its.e together. a meas. have velocities well above the average. why heat is. required to overcome the attractive forces. there will be very s. surrounded by air at 14.el of water at 70 F.~ '" 10 8 ~ ~ 0.ome are moving fas. relatively clos./ V 60 40 / / Subcooled liquid region 20 . 300 200 /' 100 80 /' . not all molecules move at the average velocity-s.ter.ia. The temperature of a s. Figure 2. The heat energy is. 10 / 50 100 150 200 Temperature.19 shows an open ves. If some of these molecules.18 Figure 2. molecules.~BOiling point curve / / .7 ps. J / 2 II o. That is. also called the saturation vapor pressure curve. holding the molecules. The higher the average velocity. the higher the temperature. This. F 250 300 350 400 .. However. is.o that they move further apart and change state to a gas.34 CHAPTER2 " " therefore they have more energy. they will escape. The water is therefore in a liquid s. This.lower average velocity and there- Boiling point pressure-temperature curve for water.ubstance is. are near the s. However. a small fraction of molecules. not great enough for them to escape rapidly.urface. The average velocity of the molecules.. s. "' '" "' 6 4 / 2 1 17 7 / Superheated vapor region - 8 6 4 -.tate.

That is.19 Slow evaporation of liquid. and the boiling point is technically known as the saturation temperature and saturation pressure. because the surrounding pressure is now less than the vapor pressure exerted by the liquid. then the enthalpy change in the . the liquid is called saturated liquid and the vapor is called saturated vapOl: Saturated vapor is vapor at the boiling telllperature. but no change in state. It is also of importance to note what happens if the pressure exerted by a gas above a liquid is reduced to a value below the vapor pressure exerted Figure 2. The molecules escaping from the surface of a liquid create vapor. if the temperature of the liquid is increased enough. the substance can exist as a liquid. This cools the remaining liquid. the liquid will suddenly boil. When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a change in state. Saturated. When the temperature of the vapor is above its saturation temperature (boiling point). In this case. the molecular velocity increases to a point at which the molecules break the bonds holding them together as a liquid and the liquid boils. Note that a substance can exist as a subcooled liquid or superheated vapor at many temperatures for a given pressure. and Superheated Conditions The pressure and temperature condition at which boiling occurs is called the saturated condition. That is why the temperature does not increase during boiling.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES Resisting surrounding pressure Vapor pressure of liquid 35 tttttttttttttt t tttt t t t t t tt t by the liquid. as will be seen in Section 2.14 and in Chapter 14. fore at a lower temperature. illustrates this. vapor. Figure 2. and they escape rapidly. That is. The pressure exerted by the vapor at the surface of the liquid is called the vapor pressure. When the temperature of the liquid is below its saturation temperature. It is not increasing the velocity of the molecules. We have all noticed this effect when alcohol is rubbed on the skin. Escape of some molecules through surface causes a vapor pressure. it is called a superheated vapor. then the liquid cannot rapidly evaporate (boil). A slight cooling effect of the liquid has occurred as a result of the evaporation.18. Boiling has been achieved by a lowering of pressure. a higher temperature increases the molecular velocity enough to cause boiling. At saturation. As seen from the experimental description. it is called a subcooled liquid. Subcooled. but it can exist as a saturated liquid or vapor at only one temperature for a given pressure. The energy of the molecules is now great enough to overcome the reduced resistance. a typical boiling point curve. and saturated liquid is liquid at the boiling temperature. the heat applied is breaking the molecular bonds that hold the molecules close together. It gradually evaporates and cools itself and the skin. This process is essential in refrigeration. the process is called a sensible heat change. the temperature of the liquid must be increased further to reach the boiling point. While the bOiling process is occurring. If the resisting pressure is higher. or mixture of liquid and vapor at the saturated condition. Sensible and Latent Heat When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a temperature change. However. because energy is removed. The vapor pressure of the liquid has been increased to a value greater than the surrounding resisting pressure. the liquid boils. If the pressure exerted by a surrounding gas is above the vapor pressure.

If the temperature is known. The actual temperature is less. corresponding pressures. This heat absorbed from the surroundings at the low temperature is refrigeration. This was explained by considering that all matter consists of particles (molecules) which are attracted to each other. If the knoll'n value is between two listed values. and the liquid suddenly boils. we read the saturation temperature (boiling point) at 10 psia to be about 193 F. On the other hand. The surrounding pressure is reduced below the saturation pressure.21 The operating engineer of a hot water heating system reads the temperature and pressure at the pump depends on the surrounding pressure. Examples 2. because there is steam. The enthalpy increase as it changes from a liquid to a vapor is called the latent heat of vaporization. and at some temperature (the boiling point) they will escape rapidly-the liquid will vaporize. Even boiling water can be used to achieve re~ frigeration. The pressure surrounding a liquid inhibits the escape of the molecules. however. if the pressure can be lowered enough. Example 2. the molecules will have enough energy to escape at a lower temperature. Table A. To what value should the surrounding pressure be lowered? .3. if the surrounding pressure is lowered enough (to the saturation point). the saturation (boiling) temperature at 150 psi a is about 358 F. liquids absorb heat when they boil (latent heat of vaporization).3. use the part of the table that lists temperatures first.22. saturation temperatures. but also have a considerable velocity energy. the molecules increase in velocity. It is equal to the latent heat of vaporization. Solution Using Table A.13 SATURATED PROPERTY TABLES For various substances. Because the actual temperature is higher (200 F). and other properties at saturation conditions may be found in tables designed for that purpose. therefore the water will be in a liquid state (subcooled liquid). Note that both parts of the table have the same information. not water. as seen in Example 2. interpolate to obtain the correct value. not as liquid. This is how refrigeration can be accomplished.19 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2. If the pressure is increased. use the part of the table that lists pressures first. The opposite effect. Example 2.3 is a saturated property table for water. If the liquid temperature increases. the saturation temperature at 10 psia is about 193 F. Example 2. the water will exist as steam. I 9-2. A liquid is used that boils at a low temperature for the reduced pressure that can be achieved.36 CHAPTER 2 substance is called a latent heat change. As also noted. It is commonly called the Saturated Steam Table. Example 2. suction to be 200 F and 10 psia. the molecules will have to reach a higher velocity-a higher temperature-to escape. the enthalpy decrease as it changes from a vapor to a liquid is called the latent heat of condensation.20 Use the steam tables to determine if water is in a liquid or gas state at 300 F and 150 psia. Therefore the operator should be very concerned.3.21 illustrate various uses of saturated property tables.14 REFRIGERATION It has been stated that the boiling point of a liquid At what temperature will water boil at a pressure of 10 psia? Solution From Table A. If the pressure is known.22 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--'-_ _ The boiling of water is to be used to accomplish refrigeration at 50 F. Should the engineer be concerned? Solution From Table A. 2. in the pump.

the water will boil.. The specific heat of liquid water is I BTU/lb-F at 60 F. the specific heat changes slightly with temperature.. = rate of sensible heat added to or removed from substance.tl = temperature change of substance. it can be assumed constant.000 .15 CALCULATION OF SENSIBLE AND LATENT HEAT CHANGES The processes that occur in HVAC systems usually involve the addition or removal of heat from air or water.23.500.500.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 37 Solution From Table A. This change is described quantitatively by the sensible heat equation: "'-"- Using Equation 2. For other conditions.178 psia.12) where Q.3. BTU/lb-F TC= t2 .1. in U.000. using the values shown in Table 2. F ~.55) F hr Ib-F . However. Heat will flow to the water from any surrounding body at a temperature higher than 50 F. except for processes with large temperature changes. but there is no change in state of the substance.x (43 .xl . BTUlhr m = weight rate flow of substance. thus cooling that body. = 55 F t2 = 43 F .12 to find the heat removed (refrigeration capacity). If the surrounding pressure is reduced below this value. The sensible heat equation can be used to calculate the heat added to or removed for most HVAC processes where there is a temperature change and no change of state. Refrigeration chiller Q (heat removed) (2.S. For air and water. appropriate values of specific heats can be found in handbooks. 5000 GPM I I.2l.25 illustrate uses of the sensible heat equation. units.23 There are 5000 GPM of chilled water being circulated from the refrigeration plant to the air conditioning systems of the buildings at the Interplanetary Spaceport. lblhr c = specific heat of substance. Examples 2. Boiling of water at a very low temperature to achieve refrigeration is accomplished in refrigeration equipment called absorption units (see Chapter 13). Values of specific heat for some other substances are shown in Table 2.23-2. The procedures for calculating the amount of heat involved will be explained in this section. change the units for the water flow rate from GPM to Iblhr (Table A.000 Ib/hr Sensible Heat Equation A sensible heat change was described as a process where the temperature of a substance changes when heat is added to or removed from it.000 BTUlhr Figure 2. and KW" Soilltion The capacity of the refrigeration chiller means the amount of heat it is removing from the water.20 Sketch for Example 2. Example 2. What is the cooling capacity of the refrigeration chiller in BTU/hr. the saturation pressure of water at 50 F is 0. The water is cooled from 55 F to 43 F (Figure 2.20). Specific Heat The specific heat (c) of a substance is defined as the amount of heat in BTUs required to change the temperature of lib of the substance by I F. = -30. Qs=mxcxTC Ib BTU = 2. First. tons of refrigeration. m = 5000 GPM x 2..1. This requires (latent) heat. 500lblhr I GPM (for water) = 2.

1.12. Step A.1. The oil is at 60 F in a storage tank.25 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An electric booster heater in an air conditioning duct (Figure 2.. The contractor measures the temperature before and after the heater as 80 F and 100 F. Is the spare preheater big enough? SO/lilian Q. However. m= Qs eX TC = 6820 BTUlhr 0.12. the refrigeration capacity is I ton 30.075 Ib = 316 ft3/ m in Figure 2. 2 KW electric heater gal 60 min I hr min x-- 8. The mechanical contractor is balancing the system and wants to find out how much air is flowing in the duct..24 BTUllb-F x 20F = 1420 Ibll1r Step C.0 Ib/gal and its specific heat is 0. so the refrigeration chiller capacity is reported as Qs = 30. 3410 BTUfhr = 6820 BTUlhr I KW Step B. First. the water is cooled.12 to find the temperature to which the oil would be heated by the spare preheater: m=IO--x Ib 1 hr I ftO CFM= 1420 ..21) has a capacity of 2 KW.25.000. that is.5 BTU/lb-F. =42F 12 = 42 + I. expressed in fe/min (CFM)" Solulion Converting units to tons ofrefrigeration.000 BTUlhr 4800 Iblh x 0.5 BTU/lb-F j I. Use Equation 2.24 The fuel oil preheater for a boiler has become damaged. = 42 + 60 = 102 F 100. The oil must be heated to 180 F in order to flow readily. A spare preheater with a capacity of 100.x x-:"'-'hr 60 min 0. How much air is flowing..000. solving for the mass flow rate of air. From Table 2.3410 BTUlhr A. = 2 KW x .24 BTU/lb-F. Example 2. The boiler requires 10 GPM of oil. Convert the heater capacity to BTU/hL B.21 Sketch for Example 2.000 BTU/hr x . TC = ~ mxc TC=12. not heated. using the density of air from Table 2. =8800 KW Example 2. It will not do the job.000 BTU/hr is available. it is common practice in the HVAC industry to drop the negative sign for heat removed.1.000 BTU/hr x . =80 F • n I I I I I I " J I I I I I I . The density of the oil is 8. and then use Equation 2.000. the specific heat of air c = 0.12. Convert the flow rate units from Iblhr to ft 3/min (CFM). convert GPM of oil to Iblhr..0 Ib gal = 4800·lblhr Rearranging and using Equation 2. C.38 CHAPTER2 Note: the negative sign resulting for Qs means that heat is removed.000 BTU/hr The preheater will heat the fuel oil to only 102 F.000 BTUlhr = 2500 tons The capacity in KW is IKW 30..

not its pressure.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 39 The Enthalpy Equation The heat added or removed in HVAC processes can also be fonnd from another equation called the enthalpy equation (Equation 2.000 BTU/hr -.4 BTU/lb The total heat required is The two equations give almost identical results.2 - 147.000 Ib/hr of water from 180 F to 220 F.12 is Ib BTU Q=mxcxTC= 10. The property tables list enthalpy data. BTUllb The latent heat of vaporization for water is shown in TableA. BTU x 1008.12 for the sensible heat change process. Ib/hr hf =enthalpy of saturated liquid. BTU/lb hg = enthalpy of saturated vapor. using enthalpy change instead of temperature change. When a heating or cooling process involves both a sensible and a latent heat change to the substance. found by applying the Enthalpy Equation 2.1 = 1008. The sensible change is to the boiling point.x40F .4 .000 Ib/hr (188.000 BTU/hr Example 2. if the enthalpy is known.3.hr Ib = 20.26 compares the two methods.000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 20 psia. hr Ib-F = 400. at 30 psia. BTU/hr m = weight flow rate.9) = 402.000 BTU/hr The result using Equation 2. Using Equation 2. Example 2.000 ..3 + 960.27 A steam boiler generates 20.26. The change in sensible heat content of the liquid is hj2 .1 BTU/lb The total enthalpy change per pound is the sensible plus latent heat: 48. How much heat is required? Solution The enthalpy increase of the water is the sum of the sensible and latent heat change.168. Note that it changes with temperature.147.9 = 48.26 A hot water boiler heats 10. From Table A. Either one is ac£eptable. the boiling temperature is 228 F at 20 psia. the results can be found by simply adding the two effects together.000 - lb.hI = specific enthalpy change of substance. Ib/hr h2 .13) Q = rate of heat added or removed from substance.13). Latent Heat Equation The change in enthalpy that occurs when a substance evaporates or condenses is determined from Q = 20.3. Q=m(h 2 -h l ) where (2.3.hfl) = 10. Note: As was done in Example 2. BTU/hr m = weight flow rate of substance. How much heat is added to the water? Solution The enthalpy of liquid water (hf ) is listed in Table A. the enthalpy of the subcooled liquid is always looked up in the table at its temperature. .1 .3 BTUllb The change in the latent heat content at 20 psia IS hfg = 960. BTU/lb This equation can be used instead of Equation 2.x 1 . Q = m(hf2 .13 at each temperature.hfl = 196. The water enters the boiler at 180 F.14) where Q = heat added to or removed from substance.13 to the change in state: (2. Example 2. the latent heat equation. BTU/lb hIg = latent heat of vaporization.

9) = 20. volume.hi) = 20. stored in a 10 ft3 tank at 150 psig.40 CHAPTER2 Equation 2.17) If the volume is constant.19) I ~ 2. and the substance will begin to change state to a liquid-it will melt.13 can be used to solve this example in one step instead of two. The air is used in the controls at 15 psig.28 Compressed air required for operating the pneumatic controls in an air conditioning system is.ilt a very low pressure.27 illustrate that the Enthalpy Equation 2. the pressure. The heat accompanying the melting or freezing process is called the latent heat of fusion.000 BTUlhr Note that Examples 2. removal of heat from a liquid.16 LATENT HEATS OF FUSION AND SUBLIMATION The change of state of a substance from liquid to gas involves gaining the latent heat of vaporization. Air at the tem- Example 2. peratures and pressures iu air conditioning work follow this equation. to prepare dried foods by first freezing them and then evaporating the ice in the food directly to vapor. its temperature will no longer increase when more heat is added. At very low pressure and temperature it is possible to change some substances directly from the solid to the gas state.13 can be used for both sensible and latent processes involving water if there are property tables available that list enthalpy values. The perfect gas equation can be expressed pV=mRT where I' (2. 2. It is used in the procedure called freezedrying. V2 VI (2. the following equation results: (2. If the reverse process is carried out. In Chapter 7. By rearranging the terms in the equation for two different conditions of the gas.3 . If only two of these three variables change. Ib R = a gas constant T = absolute temperature. but when a certain temperature is reached.16) The gas law is useful in finding changes in p. I and 2. and T for changed conditions. Ibfft2 absolute V = volume. with absolute pressures (Pab. = Pg + Palm).17 THE IDEAL (PERFECT) GAS LAWS Under certain conditions. degrees R We will use the equation in this form in Chapter 7. What volume of air is available for the controls? Solution Using Equation 2. A substance in a solid state will increase in temperature when heat is added to it (sensible heat). . For water the latent heat of fusion is 144 BTU/lb. If the temperature is constant. ft3 m = weight of gas. 1'2 PI VI V2 T2 TI T2 TI (2.168.147. its temperature will drop but eventually it will freeze into a solid. 1'2 PI ~ ~ (2. by using the initial and final enthalpy values of the whole process: Q = m(h2 . assuming the temperature remains constant. This process is called sublimatioll. V. the equation simplifies.26 and 2.18) 1 • ~ If the pressure is constant. IS) = pressure.000 (1156.17. and temperature of gases are related by an equation called the perfect or ideal gas law. we will use this equation for air conditioning processes.

However. as for example. in evaporators and condensers. Greater temperature differences cause greater losses. Throughout the book we will suggest energy conservation steps. if we are using an engine to drive a refrigeration compressor. These effects cannot b.7 psia Example 2. Friction causes loss of useful energy. 3. he knows that the proper amount of air is flowing. The maximum amount of energy that can be made available in a power-producing device such as an engine or turbine can be calculated. only 2. it tells us how much energy is used for a given task (the power of a pump. If it called for 5800 CFM. The temperature differellce for heat trails· fer. it tells us nothing about the answers to such . the engineering specifications call for measuring the volume flow rate leaving the coil. many based on these conclusions. even though he measured 5000 CFM.5 fe p] 29. Unfortunately. and leaving at 120 F.18 ENERGY UTILIZATION (SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS) We have seen how the First Law of Thermodynamics can be used.29 A technician testing and balancing a system measures 5000 ft 3/min (CFM) of air entering a heating coil at 40 F. Whenever heat energy is used to do work. utilization. Basically. because the same unit of time is involved. Included among them are: A. There are a number of physical effects that are called irreversible which cause a loss of available energy. and similar information).CFM] = x 5000 = 5800 CFM T] 500 The technician would now check the system-design specifications.e avoided. or to consider each aspect as it is brought up. The minimum amount of energy required to produce a given amount of refrigeration can be calculated. Some must be lost and unavailable for the job to be performed. to solve problems in HVAC work. Some of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Second Law are: 1.-ps_i_a x 10 ft3 = 55. In Chapter 15. fan. and this can be compared with the actual system. 2. The Second Law may be expressed as an equation but it is not simple to use in energy utilization analysis. the rest will be wasted. B. the capacity of a refrigeration machine. or refrigeration machine?" or "How do I reduce the energy consumption of an HVAC system?" An understanding and application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics will enable us to investi- gate problems of more efficient energy.. partly due to a lack of understanding of the Second Law. For instance. efforts in this area have sometimes been haphazard. That is.questions as "Can I use a smaller pump. it is CFM 2 = -=.7-. Therefore. and therefore should be minimized. what we will do here is state some conclusions derived from the Second Law. but should be reduced to a minimum. Temperatures must be in absolute uuits R=(F+ 460): and concern. and we will use it again. therefore temperature differences between fluids should be kept as small as practical. To 580 never all available for a useful purpose. 4. . these ideas will be gathered together and additional ones will be discussed.19 can be used. However.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 41 v] = _P2 V2 = _1_64_. What is the airflow leaving the coil? Solution Equation 2. Friction. with volume flow rate instead of volume. The reader may wish to treat the whole subject of energy conservation at that time. we can determine the best efficiency possible and compare it with an actual installation. Energy conservation has become of great necessity part of the energy in the fuel can be used. in the form of the Energy Equation.

Entropy is a physical property of substances related to energy utilization and conservation. explain gage pressure and absolute pressure. this definition is not useful here. What is a unit? What problems may arise when using units? What is a conversion factor? What are the advantages of the SI system of units? Explain what is meant by rounding off. Mixing processes are common in HVAC systems. Less energy will be used in the pump. or isentropic process. 10.42 CHAPTER2 For example. 6. Define density. weight. and specific gravity. With the aid of a sketch. Mixing fluids of different temperatures can result in a loss of useful energy. I Review Questions 1. force. Mixing. 14. A constant entropy process is an ideal reversible process that can never really occur. An example of possible wasted energy that results from this is the generation of high pressure steam and then expanding it in a "flash tank" to a low pressure before using it for heating. However. Dual duct systems and three pipe systems are two types of air conditioning systems using mixing that can result in energy waste. and sub- j I . 7. 2. 12. and less energy will be lost in pumping power. temperature. such as driving a refrigeration compressor. I 15. This is called a constant entropy. and pressure. Define the saturated. What is a compound gage') What is meant by stored energy and energy in transfer? Name types of energy in each category and give an example of each. friction). and 15. Although a reversible process is an ideal case that is impossible to achieve. and we try to minimize this increase. t I i. the entropy increases. specific volume.30 A mechanical contractor has a choice of using copper tubing or steel piping of the same diameter in a chilled water system. Fluid friction will be reduced. 6. 8. 4. What are the three common states in which matter may exist? cooled conditions. It is important to understand that entropy is a measure of the energy that is not available to do work. but should be minimized or even avoided when they cause a loss of available energy. Rapid expansion. It is defined as the ratio of the heat added to a substance to the temperature at which it is added. especially Chapters 3. 13. In a constant entropy process. D. They will be discussed in Chapter 12. 4. and enthalpy. Which would be the best choice to minimize energy consumption? Solution Copper tubing has a smoother surface and therefore less friction. 12. In any real process where work is required. Any process that occurs without any of these effects is called a reversible process. no heat is added -to or removed from the substance (adiabatic process) and there are no irreversible effects (e. Define heat. i 13. the least amount of work is required if the entropy of the fluid does not change. C. 3.g. 5. we always try to minimize irreversible effects in the interests of energy conservation. However. Define mass. For any process that requires work. What is the difference between work and power? State the energy balance as a sentence and as an equation. What is head? 11. according to the Second Law. Practical applications of the First and Second Laws are discussed in much greater detail in later chapters. regular cleaning of condenser water piping will reduce the roughness of the pipe wall.' studying it gives us a goal to aim for.. superheated. 9. Example 2.

685 C. List four conditions that should be sought in HVAC systems to minimize energy use. KW.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 43 16. 2. velocity. BTU.6 ft 2 to m2 B.7 ft w. B.4 Ib/ft3 to kg/m3 2.7 .8319 Change the following quantities to the units specified: A. 347. 629 fto/min (CFM) to m 3/sec C.4 Change the following quantities from the U.g. 12. Change the following quantities to the new units specified: A. 18. ft2.8 D. What is the absolute pressure in psi? What would the absolute pressure be if the boiler were in Denver" 2. unit for each of the following physical characteristics: power. and ft 3llb.11 The pressure gage on a boiler in Boston reads 28. in in. What is the pressure in ft w? 2. 17.1.7 psi.500 BTU/hr to tons of refrigeration D. What is the weight of water in the tank" What is the water pressure on the bottom of the tank." How many pounds must the crane be capable of lifting? Round off the following numbers to three significant figures: A.9\. 542 2. flow rate. pressure. 83.2 in.S.3 c. m1sec. Hg. 88 F to C B.0. made in Germany.9 E.793. HP. Hg. units to the SI units specified: A.1 List the physical characteristics measured by each of the following units: Ib/in 2 .6 psig.1.2. Hg? 2. 276 gal water to Ib B.17 A room receives 1200 BTUlhr of heat from solar radiation. 31 CtoR 2. -10 C to F D. = 0.5 2. 41. wide by 6 ft 6 in. energy. high. Explain what is meant by a sensible heat change and a latent heat change. = 0.000 BTUlhr to KW D.13 A vat 25 ft high is filled with Big Brew Beer that has a S.242 B.2 in.10 What is the density in Ib/fto of a fuel oil with a S. 76. Hg to Ib/in? E. 2760 Iblhr water to GPM C.91 HP to BTU/min 2.2 ft 3/sec to gal/min (GPM) 2. 0.. What is the pressure in psi on a val ve 3 ft above the bottom of the tank? 2. specific volume. A contractor wants to lift 100 sections of steel pipe each 20 ft long. in. What pressure would a \'acuum gage read at sea level.sstamped "100 kg/m. What would be the reading on a Hg manometer attached to the tank in inches. mass.g. The pipe. as suggested by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. and density. kg/m3. 120 Ib/in 2 to ft w.14 The discharge pressure of a pump is 32. 280 KtoC E..S.7 psia to Ib 2. and in mm? 2. loses 1450 BTUlhr through 2.6 Find the area in ft2 of a window that is 4 ft 3 in. GPM. in Ib/in 2 ? Problems 2.800 ft3 air at 70 F and 14.16 Change the following temperatures to the new units specified: A. It is fi lied to a depth of 6 ft. List the standard SI unit and a typical U. 62.2 2.93? 2. 630 Fto R C.12 The absolute pressure in the suction line to a compressor is 12.9 A hot water storage tank for a solar-energy system measures 18 ft long x 9 ft wide.15 The air pressure in a tank is 3.g.

29 A barometer reads 70S mm Hg. Hg vacuum? . 20 psia and 400 F D. What is the pressure exerted on the condenser in psi? 2. reading in. How much heat is the boiler supplying? 2.33. Hg E.26 What is the boiling point (saturation) temperature of water at pressures of 7.25 An air conditioning unit takes in 15. 2. 17 in.20 A hot water boiler heats 6400 lblhr of water from 180 F to 220 F. What is the pressure on the bottom of the pipe.700 CFM of outdoor air at 10 F and heats it to 120 F.44 CHAPTER2 heat transfer to the outdoors. what is the required volume of the tank? 2.0 psia? 2. 3 KW to BTU/hr D. 16 ft 2 to in? 2.1 psia and SO F 2. Express this capacity in tons of refrigeration and in KW. !:low many CFM of air are leaving the unit? 2.5 psia and 67. 230 F and 18 psig B. to psi E.2 KW of appliances operating. in psi? If the pressure in the suction line to a compressor at sea level is 5. A water supply pipe to a building is filled with water to a height of 280 ft.23 Water enters a steam boiler at 160 F and leaves as saturated steam at 30 psig.18 An electric heater is to be used to heat an enclosed porch that is losing 7900 BTUlhr to the outdoors.28 A 24 ft high pipe filled with water extends 2. 2.000 BTUlhr.9 BTU/lb-F and a density of 8.5 KW electric heater in a duct is heating 1300 Iblhr of air entering at 40 F. What size heater should be used? 2.22 A 2.30 A refrigeration unit has a cooling capacity of 327.8 psia.27 Is water liquid or vapor at 270 F and 50 psia? 2. what would the reading on a vacuum gage be. At what temperature does the water leave 'the chiller? 2. 23 ft w. What is the atmospheric pressure expressed in psi and in in.31 A water chiller with a capacity of ISO tons of refrigeration cools 320 GPM of water entering the chiller at 52 F. B.34 2. To what temperature is the air heated? 2. and has 2.33 Convert the following quantities to the ne'" units specified: A.35 2. 16 psi to ft w. What is the net heat gain or loss to the room? 2. 10 psi to Hg C. Name each of the physical characteristics in Problem 2. Hg to psi 2. 15 ft3 to gal. 2. 750 gal/min to ft 3 /hr C.21 How many tons of refrigeration are required to cool 46 GPM of milk from 80 F to SO F? The milk has a specific heat of 0. at a flow rate of 5300 Iblhr.32. B.24 If 520 ft3 of air at atmospheric pressure at sea level is to be compressed and stored in a tank at 75 psig.37 0.000 BTUlhr to KW Name each of the physical characteristics in Problem 2. 180 F and 5 psia C.1 Ib/gal.19 Determine the state of water at the following conditions: A. Hg? 2. How many BTUlhr of heat are required? Solve by the sensible heat equation and by using enthalpies in Table A.24 ft to in. 0. 10.36 from a condenser on the top floor of a building to a cooling tower on the floor above.32 Convert the following quantities to the new units specified: A.3.

The room loses 12. 2.000 BTUlhr through the walls.42 How many BTUlhr will a 12 KW electric heater supply? 2.91b/ft3 .000 BTU/hr through the roof and 19.38 If a fuel oil has a density of 58.41 What size electric heater (KW) must be used to supply 350. 2. Find the boiler heating capacity in BTUlhr. what is its specific gravity? 2.43 A room has a solar heat gain of 4200 BTUlhr and an internal heat gain of 6300 BTU/hr. Water enters the boiler at 140 F.000 BTUlhr? 2. Find the temperature of the water leaving the chiller.39 A steam boiler delivers 750 Iblhr of saturated steam at 230F.000 BTUlhr. The chiller has a capacity of 530.40 A water chiller cools 60 GPM of water entering the chiller at 54 F. What capacity (KW) electric heater must be used to keep the room from getting cooler? .PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES 4S 2.

you will be able to: I. windows. Find R. and leakage of cold air through openings in the building (il(fiitratioll). Determine. components.and U-values for building 2. This can be shown by applying the Energy Equation (Chapter 2) to the air in a room or building. room and building heating loads.1 ) . we obtain (3. 4. Substituting into Equation 2. Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design conditions.) is the heat loss (Q"u. The heat remo\'ed (E"u. and other parts of the building envelope. we know that if the heating system in a building stops functioning in winter. we will discuss methods for determining the amount of heat required to keep the spaces in a building comfortable in winter. I. OBJECTIVE After studying this chapter. 3. This 46 temperature decrease occurs for two reasons: heat transfer from the warm inside air to the cold outside air through walls.c H A p T E R Heating Loads I n this chapter. the indoor air temperature soon drops.1 THE HEATING LOAD From our own experiences. 3.)' The change in stored energy (Eeh ) is the change in the room air enthalpy (Heh ). Calculate room and building infiltration and ventilation losses. Calculate room and building heat transfer losses. heat must be continually added to the interior of the building in order to maintain a desired air temperature. The methods presented here will be those which are believed to be the most accurate and the most energy efficient. . The energy added to the room air (Ein) is the heat supplied by the heating system (Qin). To counteract these heat losses. 5.

we obtain (heat from heating system) Q'n ~ Qout Heh ~ a Teh ~ a -+-~Qout (heat loss to surroundings) Figure 3. then this information can be used to determine the required capacity of the heating equipment. There are three different ways that heat transfer can occur: conductio/!. room air temperature remains constant (Teh ~ 0). This is a valuable conclusion. It was noted previously that heat is transferred only when there is a temperature difference between two locations. convection. Conduction is the form of heat transfer through a body that occurs "'ithout any movement of the body. H eh =O. .2 tells us that if the room air enthalpy (and therefore temperature) is to be maintained at a constant desired value. In the past. This can result in unsatisfactory indoor air conditions and increased energy costs. Accurately determining the heating load is a fundamental step in planning a heating system. An explanation of these will now be presented. Conduction heat transfer can also occur through liquids and gases. the enthalpy does not change.HEATING LOADS 47 where Heh Room air Q'n~~~ Qin Qout = change in room air enthalpy = heat supplied by heating system =heat losses from room air to outside 'f I The room air temperature depends on its enthalpy. Siuce we want the room air to remain at a constant elevated temperature. when the metal body of a pot is heated on a stove. A familiar example of convection is the air in a room heated by a unit such as a hot water convector.1. The heating load must be determined because it is used in the selection of the heating equipment.2 HEAT TRANSFER Because building heat losses are partially a consequence of heat transfer. it is necessary to understand some basic features of this process. 3. and that the heat always travels from the location of higher temperature to the location of lower temperature. Another example of conduction is heat transfer througb a building wall or roof.) The heating load requirements for buildings result from two types of heat losses: heat transfer losses and infiltration/ventilation losses. Equation 3. the enthalpy must also remain constant. The amount of heat that must be supplied to keep the building or room air at the desired temperature is called the heating load.2) Figure 3. the heat flows through the handle and then to your hand. its temperature decreases.1 Heat exchanges between room air and surroundings. (Cooling load calculation methods will be discussed in Chapter 6.1 illustrates the heat flow into and out of a room. an additional form of heat transfer is more usual in fluids (convection). the heat supplied by the heating system must equal the heat losses from the room. That is. piping and duct sizing. however. and radiatio/!. many inaccurate methods have been used to find heating loads. If heat furnished to room (Oin) equals heat lost from room (Oout). it is a result of molecular or electron action. Substituting into Equation 3. Convection is the form of heat transfer that results from gross movement of liquids or gases. Conduction is most familiar in heat transfer through solids-for example. If the air enthalpy decreases. or (3. and in energy utilization studies. because the heat losses from a building can be easily calculated. States and_ agencies have established codes that now require accurate heating and cooling load calculation methods.

This warmed air then moves vertically upward because it is now less dense (lighter) than the surrounding cooler air.3 RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER The rate at which heat is conducted through any material depends on three factors: I. Ceiling Warm (air Window 8conve~or Hot water C~I air This can beexpressed by the following equation: Q= . Dark. called heat absorbing glass.3) . and therefore the resulting rate of heat transfer is relatively small. Thermal radiation is the form of heat transfer that occurs between two separated bodies as a result of a means called electromagnetic radiation. one body must be at a higher temperature than the other. sometimes called wave motion. The less dense part of the fluid rises and the more dense (heavier) fluid drops. Heat transfers between the two bodies even if there is a vacuum (an absence of all matter) between them. can prevent the transmission of a good part of the solar radiation. When radiation is received by a solid surface.2 Heat transfer by natural convection from a terminal unit (hot water convector) to room air. As with all forms of heat trausfer. increasing its temperature. Figure 3. The area of the surface through which heat is flowing 3. The rate of fluid motion and therefore the rate of heat transfer can be increased by using a fan for gases or a pump for liquids. This form of convection is called natural convection because the fluid moves by natural gravity forces created by density differences. So air continually moves throughout the space (Figure 3. heat still transfers by radiation but usually at a lesser rate. The thermal resistance (R) of the material to heat transfer Figure 3. When there is a gas between the bodies. some is absorbed.3 Heat transfer by radiation from the sun to objects in a room. and the heat received from the sun (Figure 3. however.xAxTD R I (3. heating the material. rough surfaces absorb more radiant heat than lighter-colored smooth surfaces. The proportion absorbed depends on the color and the roughness of the surface. the presence of an opaque solid object between the bodies will block radiation.48 CHAPTER3 Heat is transferred to the air adjacent to the metal surface. However. The temperature difference acioss which the heat flows 2. Color tinted glass. This is calledforced convection. 3. Most of the radiation received passes through transparent materials like clear glass. Familiar examples of radiation are the heat our body receives when standing in front of a fire. and some is reflected.3).2). The rate of fluid motion created by natural convection effects is generally quite low.

25 = 40 F Example 3. = 0.5. R = 0. just as solid materials do. common brick. Example 3. These films also have a thermal resistance. What is the heat loss through the wall? Solulion The resistance is the inside air film on a vertical surface (Figure 3. Building construction materials with a high R-value are desirable because they reduce heat losses. Using Equation 3. and on the outside surface the temperature is 25 F. A=80x 18= 1440ft2. Example3. F 20 It Wall 65 F 25 F Figure 3.5. TD=70-60= IOF .68.80 hr-ft2-FIBTU x 2200 ft2 x 40 F = 110. Q= lIRxAxTD = 110.1. From Table A.4 Sketch for Example 3. R = 0.80 hr-ft2-FIBTU Area of wall A = 110 ft x 20 ft = 2200 ft 2 TD = tH . For the indoor surface of any building element.5).} A 110ft long by 20 ft high wall is made of 4 in. hr-ft2-FIBTU A = snrface area through which heat flows. for example "R-6. Thermal Resistance The thermal resistance R of a material is its ability to resist the flow of heat through it. The thermal resistances of various building materials are listed in Table A. What is the rate of heat transfer through the wall? Solution Figure 3. or on a slope). and the inside surface of the wall is 60 F.2 A wall of a supermarket measures 80ft by 18 ft. building heat energy losses or gains. Since R is in the denominator.4 illustrates the conditions. For winter conditions (heating loads). ft2 TD = tH . The temperature of the air in the store is 70 F. Materials with high R-values will transfer heat at a low rate. and low R-values mean high heat transfer. BTUlhr R = thermal resistance of material. it is assumed that the air velocity outdoors is 15 MPH. that is.3.4." This means R = 6. From Tabie A.000 BTUlhr Thermal Resistance of Surface Air Films There is a very thin film of still air on each side of a solid building element such as a wall or roof. Table A.tL = 65 .2 illustrates the use of TableA. from higher temperature tH to lower temperature t L. On the other hand. x 4 in.HEATING LOADS 49 where 110 It -f-~Q Q = heat transfer rate. The resistance is often expressed by a symbol. horizontal. The resistance of an air film depends on the spatial orientation of the surface (vertical. high R-values mean low heat transfer (Q). and on the air velocity near the surface. still air is assumed.tL = temperature difference across which heat flows.5 lists thermal resistances of these air films. they are good thermal insulators.3 allows us to understand how the thermal resistance affects.20 hr-ft2-FIBTU per in. using a material with a low R-value (metal) for equipment such as a boiler is desirable because it helps to increase the rate of heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water. Equation 3. The temperature on the inside surface of the wall is 65 F.4.

thickness.S.4 Compare the thermal resistance R of an 8 in.4 that the insulation has about four times the thermal resistance of the concrete block. heat transfer will be low. thick.7 hr-ft2-F BTU = 21. it is 32 times more effective per inch of thickness as a thermal insulator! In the next section. = 0. BTUlhr-ft2 -F k =conductivity. and for a material with a low resistance. conductance and conductivity are terms which are used to describe a material's ability to transfer heat. Remember that for a material with high thermal resistance. of glass fiber insulation with a thermal conductivity k = 0.06 = 16. the opposite meaning of resistance. Solution Both R-values are found from Table A. thick insulating board made of glass fiber.4) C is measured in units of BTUlhr-ft2 -F in the U.II For the insulating board. What is the thermal resistance of the insulation? Solution From Equation 3. in. I R= C =- I x 1440 x 10 0. Its relationship to conductance is C= L k (3.68 Using Equation 3. The thennal conductivity (k) of a material is defined as its conductance per unit of thickness.50 CHAPTER3 70 F m~-60F Example 3. For the concrete block.24 BTUlhr-ft2 -F per in.4.24 =0.0 where C =conductance. The thermal conductance may be thought of as the ability of a material to transfer heat.200 BTUlhr Conductance and Conductivity Besides thermal resistance. solving for R. The units used for conductivity are usually BTUlhr-ft2 F per inch of thickness. C= ':.4.5. Q= IIR xA xTD = VO. That is. The concept of thermal resistance is the important one to understand. although it is only \ith as thick. The thermal conductance (C) of a material is the reciprocal of its resistance: It is not necessary to memorize the definitions just described.. system. of thickness L =thickness of material.3.06 BTU L 4 hr-ft2 -F Using Equation 3. we will learn how to determine the overall thermal resistance of a building' component. Note from Example 3. heat transfer will be high.3 A roof has 4 in. R = 4.5 Sketch for Example 3. three oval core concrete block (with sand and gravel aggregate) to that of I in. c= IIR (3. the conductance is Air film --l>~1 0-<4--Wall '--"<~ Figure 3. BTUlhr-ft2 -F per in. as it is being used in all new building standards and codes.2. . The thermal conductance ofthe air film adjacent to a surface is often called the film coefficient. R = l.5) Example 3.

sand and gravel aggregate concrete (not oven dried). The overall (total) thermal resistance of the combination can be found very simply by adding the individual thermal resistances as follows: Solution A section through the wall is illustrated in Figure 3. '. the designer can calculate the overall thermal resistance for each part of the building structure through which heat flows.6.94 The wall area is A=72ftx 16ft= ll52ft2 The temperature difference is TD = 70 . .(-10) = SO F Example 3.4 OVERALL THERMAL RESISTANCE The heat transfer through the walls.. The thermal resistances of the air films on the inside and outside surfaces must also be included. All of the resistances are found in Tables A.overall conductance. etc..5.' : Inside --.. through the solid materials. . and Y. .• - · . and other elements of a building is through the air film on one side. The overall thermal resistance Ro is found by adding the individual resistances (see Equation 3.. ____ Outside • \ Insulation air film Concrete. ·: . R-5 insulation.6)..6 Sketch for Example 3. .64 0.x ll52xSO 6..\ in.45 5. many tables do not list the results as overall resistance. However. = individual thermal resistance of each component.xAxTD Ro = .' · ' . ..17 6. roof..68 0. Wall Item R Ro = R I + R2 + R3 + etc. '..HEATING LOADS 51 3.. -10 F • 3. \ .08/in. Equation 3.5. where (3.4 and A.. floor. x 8 in.3 and the overall resistance Ro. These elements are usually made up of layers of different materials.5 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) For each application.different combinations of building materials.5 The exterior wall of a building is constructed of S in. but as . The indoor and outdoor temperatures are 70 F and -10 F.94 = 13..2S0 BTUlhr I I Figure 3. air film Gypsum board :. but fortunately. Inside air film Gypsum board Insulation Concrete (R = 0. as illustrated in Example 3. called the overall heat transfer coefficient . What is the heat transfer through the wall? Using Equation 3. gypsum board.3 can be used to find the heat transfer. R 2 .. including air films Once the overall resistance Ro is known. and then through the air film on the other side. •.0 0.' 70F.) Outside air film Overall resistance Ro = 0. the heat transfer loss is Q= . these calculations have already been made for many .5.6) Ro = overall (total) thermal resistance R J.'. The wall is 72 ft long by 16 ft high..

one having a degree day (DD) value of about 4000-6000. The V-values in Table A. BTUlhr V = overall heat transfer coefficient.8 and the V-value tables to calculate heat transfer through building components.6. From Example 3. ft2 TD = temperature difference.6 and 3. and A. as explained' previously. BTUlhr-ft2-F A = surface area through which heat flows.7. Note that there is a slight difference in V-values between winter and summer. Table 3. and 3.7. These should be examined so that the student learns how the construction assembly is actually arranged. 2.7.94. Examples 3.6 is also valuable because many of the assemblies listed meet V and Ro values required in energy codes.7 0.1 ENERGY CONSERVING Ra AND U-VALUES Min. Ro = 6.7 list V-values for roofs. (3. using Equations 3.8 are for glass windows and glass doors. with windows). and doors.5 MPH wind in summer. F Overall V-values for some combinations of building components are listed in Tables A. floors.14. Tables A. I I Ro 1 6. 1.8 show how to use Equation 3.8) Component Wall Roof Glass 18 20 1. The V-values also include the effect of the window or door frame (also called sash. The degree day concept and a more detailed explanation of energy standards are discussed in Chapter IS. it should be calculated by adding the individual resistances.7) In terms of V.1 is a simplified example of this type of regulation. BTUlhr-ft2-F. The values in Table 3. the heat transfer equation then becomes Q=VxAxTD where Q = heat transfer rate.7.6. 3. V =0.60 Note: This table is adapted from various state energy standards.94 . One way of doing this is to prescribe maximum allow-.06 0. A.5. Compare it with the value that would be found from Example 3. partitions.14 The results agree. Table A.6 Find the V-value for the wall described in Example 3. For an actual building.Ra (fe-hr-F/BTU) MaxU (BTu/hr-tt2-F) and Vis 1 V=- Ro (3. V=-=-=0. using Table A. This is because the R-values of the outside air film coefficients used in finding the V-values are based on a IS MPH wind in winter and 7.9. Using Equation 3.7. j Solution From TableA.5. Table A. but are similar to those prescribed in some states for a somewhat cold winter climate.52 CHAPTER3 (U). of course.5. The following comments should help the student use these tables correctly.05 0. Degree day values for localities are shown in Table A. Example 3. 3. The summer U:values are used in cooling load calculations (see Chapter 6).7.1 are not those from an actual state. walls. able V-values (and minimum Ro values). TABLE 3. The degree day is a number that reflects the length and severity of a heating season. When V-value tables do not include the appropriate construction. Either table may be used. the designers would refer to the applicable real energy code or standard.6 and A.6 also shows graphically the sections through each building component.8. The relationship between Ro U-values and Energy Standards State energy codes and standards attempt to limit the amount of energy used by HVAC systems. depending on which one matches the construction assembly in the case encountered.

single glass.09 x 82. alld inside finish Window: 3 ft by 4 ft 6 ill.8 and the areas are: Window U = 1.9). lightweight aggregate concrete.6 HEAT TRANSFER LOSSES: BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS Equation 3.8. of insulation with R -7 value.10 x 13.2 lists recommended Uvalues for below grade basement walls and floors. However. This is due to the effect of the surrounding ground on the thermal resistance and the heat flow path. the U-values and TO used in Equation 3.7 illustrates the wall. wood siding.09 BTUlhr-ft2 -F = 12 x 8 = 96 ft 2 Wall Net A = 96 . The inside and outside design air temperatures are also used to find the TO (see Section 3. = 0.09 BTUlhr-ft2-F.. What is the heat transfer loss through the roof? 8' 12' Solution From Table A.8 A frame wall of the bedroom of a house has the following specifications: Window Q = 1. the fact that the basement floor and part or all of the wall is underground (below grade) complicates the use of the equation.5 Wall Gross A = 13..5 ft 2 Wall U = 0. lVood sheathing. the outside winter design temperature is taken to be Solution Figure 3.8 is also used to calculate the heat losses through basement walls and floors .900 BTUlhr Example 3.13. There is heat transfer through the opaque part of the wall and through the window. the U-values from Table A.5 = 82.HEATING LOADS 53 Example 3.5 x 66 = 980 BTU/hr Wall: 12ft by 8 ft. U Equation 3. The inside temperature is 65 F and the outdoor temperature is 5 F. What is the heat transfer loss through the wall and window combined? total Q = 1470 BTUlhr 3.8.10 BTUlhr-ft2 -F A = 3 X 4.09 BTU hr-ft -F 2 X 4800 ft 2 X 60 F The heat transfer is: Wall Q = 0. However.7 Sketch for Example 3. If any part of the basement is above ground. with a finished ceiling. To find the TO for the below grade wall or floor.5 ft2 .8 will be different.7. aluminumframe The room temperature is 68 F and the outdoor temperature is 2 F. Q=UxAxTD = 0.5 x 66 = 490 BTUlhr = 25. for the part of the structure which is below grade.7 _ _ _ _~_~_ _ _ __ A building 120 ft long by 40 ft wide has a flat roof constructed of 8 in. Using Figure 3. Table 3. The U-values from Tables A.7 are used. 2 in.7 and A.6 or Table A.

2 OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT U FOR BASEMENT WALLS AND FLOORS. This situation exists when the furnace and ducts or boiler and piping are located in the basement.' .08 x 400 x 20 = 640 BTUfhr total Q = 820 BTUfhr Remember that if part of the basement wall is above ground and part is below. For any area that the heat source is in or substantial hot ducts or piping pass through. Iffhe basement is partitioned. The basement heat losses should be calculated using the basement inside design temperature.ttd ~i"g Eq""ioo 3. B.54 CHAPTER3 TABLE 3. The following guidelines are recommended: A.04 Notes: Values are for a 7 ft high below grade basement. uninsulated Wall. 2. (A temperature below this should not be permitted anyway. there will still be a heat loss from the floor above which should be added to the heat losses from those rooms. Example 3. I.wall heat loss. and TD values. the beat transfer losses from each part should be calculated separately. The separate heat losses should then be added to tind the tota1. R-4 insulation Floor 0. a separate calculation for each area is required. Basement heated by heat source equipment. What is the heat loss from the room? Soilltion Using recommended U-values from Table 3. Basement Inside Temperature A number of possible conditions may exist basement. using the appropriate U.I. sign temperature. because of the possibility of freezing water in piping.) Example 3. A.08 0. and calculate the resulting heat transfer loss. i.o prevent moisture condensation). Floor Q = 0. 3.2. and the ground temperature is 50 F. an estimated unheated basement temperature of 50 F should be used.. 3. Unheated basement.8. This temperature varies between about 40 F and 60 F in cold climates in the continental United States.16 0.~ be ~k"l. Insulation is full depth of wall. For other partitioned off areas. assume an unheated basement (as in item 2). 111 a Floor Over Crawl Space If the crawl space is vented during the heating season (t. In items 2 and 3b.1d . .04 x 220 x 20 = 180 BTU/hr Wall Q = 0.9 The recreation room of a basement has a floor area of 220 ft" and an insulated wall below ground of 400 ft2 area. An uninsulated wall is not recommended in cold climates.7 HEAT TRANSFER LOSSES: FLOOR ON GROUND AND FLOOR OVER CRAWL SPACE Special calculations also apply for the heat transfer which occurs through a concrete floor slab on grade and through a floor with a crawl space below. BTU/HR-FT2-F Component U Wall. Basemellt heated (with terminaillnits). the deep ground temperature value.9 illustrates a calculation of heat losses from a below grade basement. The room temperature is 70 F.h. BELOW GRADE. the ~rawl space air temperature will equal the outside mr de- I j' '. The heat loss through the flO~~.. assume the inside temperature is equal to that of the rest of the building. J~ . If the specitic basement conditions are not known. The temperature in an unheated basement (with no heat sources) will be between the design inside and design outside temperatures. No heat loss calculation from the basement should be made..

Degree days are 5400.) =0. ft TD = design temperature difference between inside and outside air. BTUlhr-F per ft of edge length L = total length of outside (exposed) edges of floor. F Table 3. block with face brick Metal stud with stucco 0. Q=EXLxTD Heat loss through floor of building without basement. where Q = heat transfer loss through floor on grade.12 0.53 2.93 0.8.62 0.54 1. Figure 3.47 1. The following equation is used instead: Q=ExLxTD None R-5 None R-5 Poured concrete. For buildings with large floor slab areas.68 0.9) Adapted from ASHRAE 1997 Handbook-Fundamentals. E = 0. E. E.73 0.90 Floor Slab on Grade When a floor is on the ground. The walls are 8 in. Equation 3. the heat loss calculation is more complicated.50x 160x61 = 4880 BTU/hr The edge loss method (Equation 3.49 l.72 0.84 0. both with and without edge insulation.HEATING LOADS 55 cold climates.10 A 60 ft by 30 ft (in plan) garage built with a concrete floor slab on grade is maintained at 65 F. block with face brick 4 in. rather than the area of the floor (Figure 3.50 for 5400 degree days Edge length L = 2(60 + 20) = 160 ft Using Equation 3. . The floor edge has R-5 insulation.3.72 0. For the interior areas. the heat loss is greatest near the outside edges (perimeter) of the building and is proportional to the length of these edges. Consult the ASHRAE Handbook or local energy codes. with the U and TD values for basements.80 0.51 l.3 lists values of E for various wall constructions. TD=65-4=61 F From Table 3. an overall R-20 value isa typical requirement in state energy codes. The last entry applies to a heated floor slab.20 0. which is recommended in more severe winter climates.64 5400 7400 8 in.8 Exalllp Ie 3.56 0. block with face brick. Insulation is usually required by energy codes. If the crawl space is used for the warm air heating ductwork. The outdoor air temperature is 4 F.50 0. and L. BTUlhr E = edge heat loss coefficient. FOR FLOOR SLAB ON GRADE (BTU/hr-F per It of edge) Wall Construction Edge Insulation None R-5 Degree Days 3000 0. the edge loss method is recommended only for perimeter rooms. What is the heat loss through the floor? Solution First find TD.48 0.8). (Actual insulation arrangement may differ.15 0.3 EDGE HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT.8 should be used. heated floor None R-5 (3.34 0.58 2. This is the only case where heat transfer is not calculated using Equation 3. the floor should be insulated.9.84 0.9) is recommended for buildings with small floor slab areas. TABLE 3.

Finding the Infiltration Rate There are two methods used to estimate the CFM of infiltration air: the crack method and' the air change method.12) where Qs = heat required to warm cold outdoor air to room temperature. due to wind pressure.lxCFM xTC To sum up. air flow rates in HVAC work are usually measured in f~/l1!in (CFM). The addition of this moisture requires heat (latent heat of vaporization of water). fe/min TC = temperature change between indoor and outdoor air. Wo ' = higher (indoor) and lower (outdoor) humidity ratio in grains water/lb dry air (gr wlIb d. the sensible heat equation' is (3.8 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION HEAT LOSS In addition to the heat required to offset heat transfer losses in winter.11 ) where Q/ = latent heat required for infiltration or ventilation air. the room air humidity may fall to an unacceptable level for comfort.56 CHAPTER3 3. The .11 are derived in Chapter 7. Equations 3. also introduced in Chapter 7. Q.. The sensible heat loss should always be calculated. F Latent Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air Since infiltration air is often less humid than the room air. If the room air humidity is to be maintained. If the units are converted.12 is expressed in Iblhr. BTU/lb-F TC = temperature change between indoor and outdoor air. If the lower room air humidity resulting from infiltration is acceptable. Therefore.' For the interested student. fe/min Wi. However. BTUlhr m = weight flow rate of outdoor air infiltration. using the appropriate specific heat of air. F The weight-flow rate of air (m) in Equation 2.) (2. and open doors.15).humidity ratios (W) for Equation 3. This is expressed by the following equation: Q/ = 0. This heat is in addition to the heat required to offset the heat transfer losses. The openings of most concern to us are cracks around window sashes and door edges. BTU/hr CFM = air infiltration or ventilation rate.68 x CFM x (W/ .a.11 are used to find the room air sensible and latent heat losses resulting from infiltration air. The resulting amounts of heat required are called the infiltration heating load and the ventilation heating load.11 can be read from the psychometric chart.=mxcxTC (3.Wo') Sensible Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air Infiltration occurs when outdoor air enters through building openings. water vapor must be added. Infiltration air entering a space in winter would lower the room air temperature. heat is also required to offset the effects from -any cold outdoor air that may enter a building. where Qs = sensible heat loss from infiltration or ventilation air. The two means by which cold air may enter the building are called infiltration and ventilation. Iblhr c = specific heat of air.10) Qs= l. BTUlhr CFM = air infiltration (or ventilation) flow rate.10 and 3. The amount of heat required to offset the sensible heat loss from infiltrating air can be determined from the sensible heat equation (Section 2. then the latent heat loss effect may b~ neglected. heat must be furnished to the room to overcome this effect.10 and 3. . Equations 3.

4 TYPICAL ALLOWABLE DESIGN AIR INFILTRATION RATES THROUGH EXTERIOR WINDOWS AND DOORS 3'W 4' H f==~==l1 Figure 3. the side that has the greater CFM should be used for the calculation. the new allowed infiltration rate is 0. double-hung type.11. If the wind comes obliquely (toward the corner). Example 3.5. .4.9 Sketch for Example 3. but the infiltration effects cannot be additive. Poorly fitted windows may have up to five times the sash leakage shown in Table 3. 2.11 illustrates use of the crack method. will be discussed in Section 3. The crack lengths and areas are determined from architectural plans or field measurements. (Note the allowance for the crack at the middle rail of a double-hung window. the infiltration sensible heat loss is Qs= 1.9. Table 3.37 CFM per ft of sash crack 0.1 x 6. The total infiltration rate for the window is CFM = 0. the overall effect is the same as if the wind came directly from one side only (using its actual crack lengths). Door Usage For buildings that have frequent door usage (e. the infiltration that results from door opening should be included. the projected crack lengths for each side are less.1 xCFMxTC = 1.) 3. since they occur at different times. we assume that infiltration air comes through cracks on one side only. of course. Using Equation 3. Some average infiltration rates are shown in Table 3. The windows are 3 ft W x 4 ft H. in order to find the total building infiltratiDn rate.4. Component Infiltration Rate Windows Residential doors Nonresidential doors 0.HEATING LOADS 57 Crack Method The crack method assumes that a reasonably accurate estimate of the rate of air infiltration per foot of crack opening can be measured or established. From the Table 3.10. Corner Room Infiltration When the infiltration rate is calculated for a room with two adjacent exposed walls (a corner room) with door or window openings on both sides. since the wind can only come from one direction at any given time.g.00 CFM per ft 2 of door area Note: This table is adapted from various state energy standards.37 CFM/ft X 17 ft = 6. The wind changes direction. based on a 25 MPH wind.11 The windows in a building are to be replaced to meet local infiltration energy standards. Indoor and outdoor design temperatures are 70 F and 10 F. The rate of door usage (number of people per minute) is first determined. TABLE 3.37 CFM per ft of sash crack.5 CFM per ft2 of door area l.3 x (70 -10) = 415 BTUlhr The quality of installation and the maintenance of windows and doors greatly affect the resultant crack infiltration. The total crack length L= 3(3) + 2(4) = 17 ft.4 lists typical allowable infiltration rates. with the advice of the architect or owner. If there are different types or sizes of openings on each side.3 CFM 4. Energy codes list maximum permissible infiltration rates for new construction or renovation upgrading. Example 3. department stores).11 . What will be the sensible heat loss due to infiltration? Solution I. The procedure for combining the infiltration rates of individual rooms on different walls. as shown in Figure 3..

5 INFILTRATION RATES FOR FREQUENT DOOR USAGE Type tt" per Person 900 550 60 Using the definition of an air change. ft3 Example 3. no vestibule Swinging door. . In high-rise buildings. Find the infiltration rate in CFM. vestibule Revolving door V CFM=ACHx60 where (3. The crack method is generally used in nonres.58 CHAPTER3 TABLE 3. special means may be used to try to offset infiltration. However. which direct a vertical warm air barrier across the opening. The room volume is V=20x IOx8= 1600ft' 2. Suggested values range from 0. Equation 3.. There are many excellent publications available from governmental agencies and utility companies on this subject. This occurs when the warmer inside air. CFM ACH = number of air changes per hour for room V = room VOlume. sealant coatings or other coverings may be applied to them. Unit heaters. Much publicity has been given to reducing infiltration in existing buildings by use of weatherstripping and the sealing of cracks around frames. CFM = air infiltration rate to room. and other openings. is replaced by colder outside air entering through cracks on lower floors.12. There is no unqualified answer. CFM=ACHx .lJge is defined as being equal to the room air volume. and air curtains. sillplates. Using Equation 3.7 x . which can blow warm air directly at the opening.12 A 20 ft by 10 ft by 8 ft high room in a house has 0. aile air cha. but there is no reason why the "rack method cannot be used if reliable data are available. but the following suggestions may be helpful: I.= 18. which rises through the building and exits out through cracks on upper stories. it is difficult to determine the effect on the bnilding heating load of these methods. Consult the ASHRAE Handbook for more information. Reliable data from window manufacturers and quality control of installation and maintenance may provide good estimates using this metQpd. are two such methods. It is often difficult to estimate leakage rates in older buildings because the condition of the Determination of the expected number of air changes is based on experience and testing.. If the walls have significant porosity.7CFM 60 60 V 1600 Crack Method versus Air Change Method The obvious question arises as to which of these methods should be used.12 can be used to find the air infiltration rate in CFM. idential construction.12) For doors that are left indefinitely open.7 air changes per hour due to infiltration. wall penetrations.=0. 2. Swinging door.12 shOUld help to clarify the meaning and use of the air change method. Air Challge Method This procedure for finding the infiltration rate is based on the number of air changes per hour (ACH) in a room caused by the infiltration. Additional air infiltration may occur through a porous wall.5 ACH for buildings ranging from "tight" to "loose" construction. Solution l. The air change method is used primarily in residential construction heating load estimates.5 ACH to 1. a themlal stack effect may increase infiltration through existing cracks. Example 3.

crack infiltration is limited to exterior doors only. but not part oflhe individual room heating loads. In this case. there is concern that there may be inadequate natural infiltration.10 and 3.11 are also used to find the ventilation heating load.6 and shown in Figure 1. with an outdoor temperature of -SF. Table A.10. the indoor design conditions listed in Table 1. These values have been obtained from weather records over a period of years. resulting in long-term health problems from indoor air pollutants. This will reduce or even prevent infiltration. so only the sensible heat of the ventilation air is calculated. This provides a reasonable design temperature without resulting in oversized heating equipment for a rare colder occasion. for 35 hours each year the outdoor air temperature has been less than the listed value. Infiltration generally provides adequate freshair. the ventilation air is heated (and humidified. as described in Section 1.1 are compatible both with comfort and responsible energy conservation. When it is felt that the building is relatively tight and pressurized.l xCFMxTC = l. only the outside air ventilation load is included. Outside ventilation air should be introduced in such cases. Using Equation 3. before it enters the room. Qs= l. A separate word of caution on pressurizing buildings: it is not uncommon to find that overpressurization results in doors that require great force to open or close.13 illustrates the calculation of ventilation loads.500 BTUlhr Ventilation (Outside Air) Load Some outside air is usually brought into nonresidential buildings through the mechanical ventilation equipment (air handling units) in order to maintain the indoor air quality.13 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A building with sealed windows is maintained at 72 F. Therefore.10. Outside winter heating design temperatures are based on weather records. Some nonresidential buildings have fixed windows (no openable part).HEATING LOADS 59 windows is not known.9 list recommended outdoor design conditions for winter for some localities in the United States and other countries. On the a\'erage. this should not be a problem. Air distributing systems in residences often use recirculated air only. in modem "tight" residences. of course. in this case there is no ventilation load component. Equations 3. if required) in the air conditioning equipment. The go\"erning state energy code must also be followed in choosing the design condition.l x 5000 x 77 =423. The mechanical ventilation system introduces 5000 CFM of outside air. More specifically. The outside ventilation air will be an additional part of the building heating load. no allowance for infiltration is made. it is part of the total building heating load. but since heating load calculations for existing buildings are usually being made when upgrading for energy conservation. The procedures for determining the appropriate quantity of outside ventilation air are explained in Chapter 6. What is the additional sensible heating requirement from this effect? Solution The inside humidity conditions are not specified as being fixed. The indoor design conditions are generally chosen within the area of the comfort zone. Example 3.9 DESIGN CONDITIONS The values of the indoor and outdoor air temperature and humidity that are used in heating (and cooling) load calculations are called the design conditions. Example 3. In any case foresightful operation of the heating system can still provide comfortable indoor conditions when the outdoor temperature is slightly lower. Mechanical ventilation systems for large buildings are usually designed and operated so that fans create a slightly positive air pressure in the building. However. State or local energy standards may . since the entering air is at the outdoor temperature and humidity. The outdoor air heating design temperature is shown for each location under the heating DB column. 3. However.

If an unheated space is totally surrounded by heated spaces. Examples of this calculation will be discussed later. Infiltration rate is 0.15. it can be assumed to be at indoor design conditions. Iowa. (A justification for this is that people generally keep their winter coats on while shopping.14 Plans are being prepared for the Big Bargain Department Store in Chicago. In this case. What outdoor and indoor winter temperatures should be used for designing the heating system? Solution From Table A.50CFM/ft Roof: fiat roof. Example 3. suspended ceiling Ceiling height: 9ft Unheated Space Temperature Unheated rooms or spaces between a heated room and the outdoors will have a temperature lower than the heated room. From Table 1. The heat loss from the heated room through the separating partition should be calculated. Example 3. The column entitled Degree Days expresses the severity of the heating season. Construction is as follows: Wall: 6 in. The column titled Lat. Figure 3. The room heating load is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the room to maintain it at the indoor design temperature.) If the building is to be humidified in the heating season. Illinois. !!.) 3. aluminum frame. (The abbreviation DB stands for dry bulb temperature. If the unheated space has a large exposed glass area.15 illustrates the procedure for finding the room heating load. the recommended outdoor heating design temperature for Chicago is -6 F. Some designers assume that the temperature of the unheated space is halfway between indoor and outdoor design conditions. This is the low end of the recommended values. Table A. In Section 3:1. the resulting latent heat energy required must be calculated. it is assumed that the outdoor air humidity design level is zero. ft). Use of these values will be discussed later.10 ROOM HEAT LOSS AND ROOM HEATING LOAD The room heat loss is the sum of each of the room heat transfer losses and infiltration heat losses.10 Floor plan for Example 3.1 an indoor air design condition of 68 F is chosen.10 is in a onestory building in Des Moines. Also remember that the values specified in the appropriate local Code would be those actually used.. The reason it is given this name is explained in Chapter 7 and need not concern us now. R-8 insulation. double glass. The building has a heated basement. Example 3. • 14 ft - • r Office plan view 12 ft 1 1 r 5ftHx4ftW . gypsum board finish Window: 5 ft H x 4 ft W pivoted type.60 CHAPTER3 mandate slightly different design conditions. in. so the heat transfer can be neglected. concrete (120 #/cu. it is better to assume the space is at outdoor temperature.9.9 also includes outdoor design data for summer cooling (see Chapter 6). R-8 insulation. which is the actual air temperature. is the number of degrees of latitude from the equator for the location. we explained that the room heating load is equal to the room heat loss.15 The office room shown in Figure 3. metal deck. Find the design room heating load.

and roof of the building. It is difficult to evaluate this. Indoor temperature is 71 F.10. The indoor and outdoor temperatures are 70 F and 10 F. there is no reason why they should not be considered in calculating net heat losses. 5. . however. Find one-half the infiltration rates for all sides of the building: Building infiltration CFM = 300 + 100 + 200 + 100 2 =350CFM ~. Air that infiltrates on the windward side of a building leaks out through openings on the other sides. measuring total building areas. the wind comes from only one direction at any given time.10 and A. The U values are found from Table A. and ventilation load. the biJilding heating load must also be determined. For buildings that have steady internal gains. 1.60 x 20 x Roof x 168 x 0. For a building that is not mechanically ventilated and that has reasonably free interior passages for air movement. but it is preferable to calculate it directly. 2. 3. as noted earlier. This is because. 3. The infiltration heat loss is found using Equation 3. A solar heat gain could not be guaranteed. outdoor temperature is -9 F. Example 3.6 and A.8. Solution u BTU/hr-tt"-F x A x TO F Q ft> BTu/hr ~ Wan x 106 x 0.) 1.11 THE BUILDING NET HEATING LOAD In addition to calculating the individual room heating loads. Mechanical ventilation will reduce and often prevent significant infiltration. usually no credit is taken for heat gains.50 CFM/ft x 18 ft 82 82 82 ~ ~ 870 980 1100 2950 810 3760 x 82 ~ Room heating load In calculating design heat losses.000 BTUlhr. it should be understood that infiltration air cannot enter through all sides at the same time. floor.9. of course. Infiltration rates are shown in Figure 3. Design temperatures are selected from Tables 1.1 x 0.8.. The building net heating load is the amount of heat required for the building at outdoor design conditions. 4. because it is affected by interior conditions such as partition arrangements. if any.HEATING LOADS 61 Solution Building Heat Transfer Loss This is the sum of the heat transfer losses to the outdoors through the exposed walls. The room heating load is the sum of all the losses. The building net heating load is the sum of the building heat transfer losses. windows. 6.11. Building Infiltration Loss Although the building generally has more than one side with openings.16 Find the infiltration heat loss and net heating load for the building shown in Figure 3. (It is also the sum of the room heat transfer losses.11. The building heat transfer loss is 170. The heat transfer losses are found using Equation 3. A table is arranged to organize the data.10 Window 0. doors.08 Total heat transfer loss Infiltration heat loss ~ 1. the following rule is suggested: The building air infiltration CFM is equal to one-half the sum of the infiltration CFM of every opening on all sides of the building: The following example illustrates the procedure for finding the building infiltration heat loss and the building net heating load. infiltration losses.

l x CFM x TC = l. This is called the pickup factor. and if the equipment capacity just equals the building load. there are often system heat losses. It is suggested that 2-5% of the building sensible heat loss be added to account for duct heat loss. ~=r--~~ ~~D---~==~ :2 o o o LL :2 o o o LL " Inf. and up to 40% for a 10 F night setback in residential equipment. in large buildings mUltiple boilers and excess standby' capacity are common. this loss is usually negligible. An allowance is sometimes made for heating the system itself.11 Sketch for Example 3.000 BTUlhr = 23.10): Q = l. It is explained in the following discussion. basements.62 CHAPTER3 Figure 3. this additional capacity is gained at a sacrifice to cost. In this situation. A minimum of R -4 insulation is recommended for ductwork in all cases. In large buildings.l x 350 x (70 . Furthermore.16. For instance. on start-up of the system. there may be heat lost from the hot piping. Since piping is relatively small and always should be insulated. Inf. This range of values depends on the length of ductwork. attics. depending on 3. Duct Heat Transfer Loss In a warm air heating system. The standard piping and pickup factor varies from 15-25%. insulation. if the ducts pass through unheated spaces (e.100 BTUlhr 3. however.. it may be desirable to allow a pickup loss in sizing the central heating equipment. Find the infiltration heat loss (Equation 3. there will be heat transfer from the air in the duct to the cooler surrounding spaces. an equipment siziug allowance for setback is not standard practice.100 Building net heating load = 193. the system may be started earlier. ~ 200 CFM C " Piping Losses In hot water or steam heating systems. This constitutes a heat loss when the air leaks into unconditioned spaces. depending on the quality of the sheet metal installation. shafts.g.12 SYSTEM HEAT LOSSES Besides the direct room and building heat losses (heat transfer and infiltration/ventilation). This factor combines the piping and pickup losses described earlier. Many other strategies are available for bringing the space temperature up to design in sufficient time. and surrounding temperatures. The loss is usually insignificant in private residences. such as heat loss from ducts and piping.100 BTUlhr Pickup Factor or Allowance When a building is intermittently heated. but can reach 510% of the load in larger buildings. ~ 300 CFM Duct Leakage There is usually some air leakage from supply ducts at seams. crawl splices). It is normal practice in the boiler industry to specify a combined piping and pickup factor (allowance) that can be used when sizing a heating boiler. the heating equipment may not be able to bring the rooms up to design temperature quickly enough. Some designers allow an extra 10% loss for intermittently heated buildings. Of course. or when regular nighttime temperature setback is practiced. 2.10) = 23. if the weather forecast is for cold weather. Find the building net heating load: Heat transfer loss Infiltration heat loss = 170. .

they should be calculated.17 illustrates this relationship. use the V-values from Table 3.9 and Table 3.3). Example 3. C. Net heating load Duct losses 0. The forms are suitable for both residential and commercial estimates.1 and A. 3. 5. B. pickup) are not part of the room loads. load of 350.2 and outdoor ground temperature. find areas of exposed windows. Example 3. Net and Gross Heating Load The net heating load is the amount of heat needed for all the building rooms. through which there will be heat transfer. For basement floors and walls below grade.000 = 140. This load should then be included when sizing the boiler. Remember if the building is pressurized by the mechanical ventilation system. B. The space temperature will be set back at night by 10 F. Select appropriate overall heat trausfer coefficients (V-values) from Tables 3. When they are added to the net load. It is estimated that the combined duct heat transfer loss and heat loss due to leakage is 10%.10 x 350.000) Furnace capacity (gross load) Room Heating Load I.000 BTUlhr Service (Domestic) Hot Water Heating The heat output of a boiler is sometimes used to heat service water (for kitchens.6-A. Total these to find the room heat transfer loss. and exterior rooms. . Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design temperatures (Tables 1.8).9). Find the room heating load. piping. The individual room data and results are recorded on a room heating load calculations form (Figure 3. baths. Find the room infiltration heat loss.HEATING LOADS 63 boiler type and size (see Chapter 4).8 or calculate from R-values if necessary (Tables AA and A. if there are doubts. Use only one wall for corner rooms. forth) as well as for space heating. and so . as suggested here. the sum is called the gross heating load. Use architectural plans to find window crack lengths and door areas. they are loads on the boiler or furnace. Obtain dimensions from architecture plans.13 SUMMARY OF HEATING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The following step-by-step instructions summarize how to calculate heating loads. What is the building gross heating load (the required furnace capacity)? Solution The system losses are added to the net load. infiltration can usually be considered negligible. The actual piping and pickup losses may be greater or less than these values.1. The system heating losses (ducts. 3.12). 6. if any.000 BTUlhr = 35.5). Use Table 3A (or the equivalent) to find the infiltration rate. Room heating load = r00111 heat transfer loss + room infiltration loss = 350.13 is a building heating load calculations form. Figure 3. use the edge loss (Equation 3. This is the heat output that the heating equipment must furnish. Procedures for determining hot water use loads may be found in the ASHRAE Handbooks. A.000 BTU/hr.000 = 525. 2.000 Pickup allowance (OAO x 350. Use Equation 3.17 A building has a building net heating . and so forth. For the crack method: A. Calculate the heat transfer losses through all exposed surfaces in the room (Equation 3. For floor slabs on grade. 4.10 to find the infiltration heat loss. For each room. walls. A.

Indoor DB _ _ _ F Outdoor DB _ _ F Location _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Calc.1 x 1. .1 (CFM) A x B x TC ~ I 1.1 1.1 .. _ _ _ of _ _ _ PP.Room Heating Load Calculations Project Engrs.1 x (CFM) A x B x TC (CFM) A x B x TC 1.1 1.12 Room heating load calculations form.1 Infiltration Heat Loss Room Heating Load Infiltration CFM Windows Doors ColumnA I I ColumnS I I I I CFM per ft Crack length. by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Chk.msfer Loss Infiltration Window J ~ J 1. Room Plan Size Heat Transfer Walls P.1 1.1 1.1 x 1.1 I ~ 1.~1 (CFM) A x B x TC ~ 1. Heat Transfer Loss Infiltration Window Door I ~ I 1.1 x 1.1 x 1. 1.1 1.1 Infiltration Heat Loss Room Heating Load Room Plan Size Heat Transfer Walls I I I I I I U x A x TO ~ BTU/hr U x A x TO ~ BTU/hr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr Windows Doors Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Heat Tr. ft2 CFM perft2 Figure 3..1 (CFM) A x B x TC (CFM) A x B x TC ~ Door ' 1. ft Area.1 x 1. by U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr U x A x TO ~ BTUlhr Windows- Doors Roof/ceiling Floor Partition .

There is an infiltration heat loss if the building does not have medianical ventilation that pressurizes the interior.10. Use the total exterior areas of the walls.13 Building heating load calculations form. Building Heating Load Calculations 2. To find this.gr/lb Project Location Engineers Heat Transfer Calc. Duct Heat Loss Duct Heat Leakage Piping and Pickup Allowance . Heat Transfer Subtotal Infiltration Os:::: 1. Building Net Load Ventilation Os = 1. Figure 3.68 x CFMx GFMx TC= grllb= % % % . roof. by Intdoor Outdoor Ditt. find the building infiltration heat loss. by Q1 U ~ A ~ TO 1 BTU/hr Roof Walls Windows Doors Floor . B. Do not use areas from each room-this leads to errors.1 x OL =0. A. Calculate the heat transfer losses through all exposed surfaces. DB. and so forth. F W'. and using Equation 3. 1. Service HW Load Boiler or Furnace Gross Load . find the infiltration CFM for all openings in the building. Using the crack method.HEATING LOADS 65 Building Heating Load The steps for finding the building heating load are as follows. Take one-half of this CFM.1 x CFMx TC= . Chk.

7.com www. Follow applicable energy conservation construction standards. 4. The practice of using temperatures as high as 75 F is often unnecessary. To find this. Be certain all windows and doors are weatherstripped. find the ventilation sensible heat load.66 CHAPTER3 3. Find the building gross heating load (this is the required furnacelboiler capacity): Gross heating load = net load + venti/arion loads + s)'Stem losses + sen'ice hot warer load An example of heating load calculations for a building may be found in Example Project I in Chapter 17. Find any system losses such as duct losses and piping and pickup allowances (Section 3. find the ventilation latent heat load from Equation 3. Heat losses shall be calculated using thorough. 5.wrightsoft.com www. if the boiler is to handle this.elitesoft. A.2 at this point for an account of some practical problems encountered in doing an actual estimate. If the building is to be humidified. and use either double glass or storm windows.com \vw\V. 3. Practice setback (lowering) of temperature during unoccupied periods. 6. 8. 4.14 ENERGY CONSERVATION Reducing the building heating load provides a major opportunity for energy conservation. correct procedures. use of glass. type of materials. Consider using 68 to 72 F. Building construction in the past has been scandalously wasteful of energy due to inadequate insulation. Use ample insulation throughout the building. 7. Use inside winter design temperatures that provide comfort but not excessive temperature. Web Sites The following Web sites provide heating load calculation software: www. The building architectural design (orientation. Using Equation 3. 5.carmelsoft. For instance. 9.hvacsoft. What is the heating load and what items make it up? What is the infiltration loss? What is the ventilation load? Define resistance and conductance.10.hvac-calc. except in mild climates. Some ways this can be achieved are as follows: 7. 6. Find the building net heating load: Building net hearing load = building hear transfer loss + infiltration loss 5. 6. 4. 2. Find the service hot water load. B. C.11).com www.1 l. 2.17. 3. If the building has mechanical ventilation that sufficiently pressures the interior. Determine the CFM of outside ventilation air from Table 6. The student is advised to read Sections 17. there is a ventilation heat load but no infiltration heat loss. . and so forth) should be consistent with reducing energy consumption.com l. an overall roofceiling resistance of R-20 to R-30 is recommended for residential buildings in colder climates. What is their relationship? What are the t\Vo methods for estimating infiltration? How is the infiltration for a corher room found when using the air change method? What is meant by the term setback? What outside temperature is used to find the heat transfer from below grade surfaces? Through what part of a'building is the heat transfer loss proportional to the perimeter? 3.1 and 17. Review Questions I.

R-5 insulation is used around the edge. the consultant measures a temperature of 66 F on the inside surface of the wall and 18 F on the outside surface. R-8 insulation. How many inches of the material should the contractor install if energy conservation specifications call for insulation with an R-12 value? 3.~+'71'. R-S. Compare the result with the value from Table A.2 An insulating material has a thermal conductivity of k = 0.1 1/2 in.S A state energy code requires a certain wall to have an overall R-1S value. Cal- 3.8 3. built on grade. Find the R-value of the roof in Problem 3. acoustical tile ceiling. respectively. is 100 ft by 40 ft in plan.3.S insulation. 3.6 Figure 3. The room temperature is 69 F and the outdoor temperature is -8 F.12 Find the sensible heat loss from infiltration through a casement window with a 3 ft wide by 4 ft high operable section if the infiltration rate is 0. sand and gravel aggregate (not dried) concrete R-5 insulation --t".HEATING LOADS 67 Problems 3.4 The wall in Problem 3. 3.9 3.11 A warehouse in Cleveland. What is the rate of heat loss through the wall? 3. wide by 3 ft high wood sash window with indoor and outdoor temperatures of 68 F and 3 F. with a suspended !6 in.10 What is the heat transfer loss through a 40 ft by 20 ft basement floor when the room is at 65 F and the ground temperature is 50 F? 3. and !6 in. more of glass fiber insulating board is added. vented attic.--. acoustical tile on furring ceiling. The wall has a thermal resistance of 0.1 A homeowner asks an energy consnltant to find the heat loss from his home. 6 in.8 CFMfft.3? A roof is constructed of built-up roofing on top of a metal deck.3 is 30 ft long by 12 ft high. Calculate the heat transfer loss through a 4 ft 6 in.14. The indoor temperature is 70 F.23 BTUlhr-ft2-F per inch.6 if 2 in. block with brick facing. The inside temperature is 68 F.3S ft 2 -F-hrIBTU. 3. What must be the R-value of insulation added to the wall in Problem 3. Calculate the heat transfer loss through a 2S ft by 30 ft roof-ceiling of a house with pitched asphalt shingle roof. measuring IS ft by 9 ft (without windows). What is the heat transfer loss through the wall on a day when the outdoor temperature is -S F? 3. On one wall. Inside and outside temperatures are 72 Fand-2 F. gypsum board -j~~-i7~ ..7 culate the R~value of the roof in winter. Ohio.3 Find the overall R value and U factor in winter for the wall with construction as shown in Figure 3. What is the heat loss through the floor? 3.14 Sketch for Problem 3. The wall construction is 4 in.6.

17 A corner room in a building in Pittsburgh. attic Doors: 10 in.6 CFM/ft. Use recommended energy conservation design values suggested in this chapter. 3. 3. wood sheathing. The building is constructed on grade. asphalt shingles. it has been decided to install double glass windows on the building in Problem 3. single glass Roof: pitched.14. 3. maintained at 71 F. double glass.20 Calculate the individual room heating loads and building heating load for the house shown in Figure 3. Wall: 8 in. gypsum wallboard.13 A room 15 ft by 20 ft by 10 ft has an air infiltration rate of 1. No basement 3. 30ft long by 15ft high Windows: (5) 4 ft wide by 4 ft high double glass. 0 in. building paper. calculate the design heat transfer loss through the windows. Wisconsin. aluminum frame. Use recommended energy conservation design values.8 in.15 on an intermediate floor in an office building in Toronto. Connecticut Walls: wood siding. Salt Lake City.21 Calculate the heating load for the building shown in Figure 3. The room is at 68 F. The room is at 72 F and the outdoor temperature is 1 F. gypSU/11 board interior Windows: double-hung. Using the recommended outdoor winter design temperature. Ontario. gypsum board ceiling.16 Find the total heat loss from heat transfer and infiltration through a single-glazed 5 ft wide by 4 ft high double-hung vinyl frame window in a building in Springfield. has two 3 ft wide by 4 ft high casement windows on one side with an infiltration rate of 0. l!in. has 2000 ft2 of single-glazed vinyl frame windows. The inside temperature is 72 F. as described: 16 ft Office j Wall: 4 in. 3.17. 7ft high Ceiling height: 9ft. wood sheathing. double-hung. Pennsylvania. 8 in.7 CFM/ft. The infiltration rate is 0.19 Find the design heat loss from the room shown in Figure 3. furred gypsum wallboard Windows: 4 ft wide by 5 ft high. Infiltration rate 0.2 CFM/ft. Location: Hartford. face brick.68 CHAPTER3 Figure 3. concrete. casement type. R-5 insulation. cinder block.5 air changes per honr.18 Find the total heat loss through the exterior wall and windows of a room at 72 F. Illinois. Find the design infiltration heat loss from the room.5 CFMljt Location.14 A building in Milwaukee.16. . 3.15 Floor plan for Problem 3. vinyl frame Ceiling height: 9ft 3. building paper. wood.19. What is the reduction in the design heat transfer loss? 3. wood sash. and a 7 ft by 3 ft door on the other side with an infiltration rate of 1. Utah 3. R-8 insulation. R-4 insulation. What is the heat loss from infiltration? 3.15 To save energy.

3. Utility room Kitchen Bath Bedroom NO. concrete block.20. furred gypsum board Windows~·aouble· glazed.19. Factory Walls: 8 in.3 I~ 17 N r Bedroom No. finished ceiling . lightweight concrete.com www.1 Bedroom No.21(continued) Location: Topeka. aluminum frame Computer Solution Problems 3. 3. wood Roof: 4 in.com Mechanical ventilation: 2500 CFM Doors: 1 in.2 Living room [ All windows 3' -6" H x 4' W Scale 1/8 in.22 Solve Problems 3.20.HEATING LOADS 69 Figure 3. Kansas.21 using heating load calculation software available from one of the following Web sites: www.16 Building plan for Problem 3.elitesoft.carmelsoft. lh il1. = 1 It-O in. and 3.

= l' -0" .21.17 Building plan for Problem 3.70 CHAPTER3 Figure 3. Factory building Heig ht: 12 ft Windows: 8 ft W x 6 ft H Doors: 8 ft H x 5 ftW Scale: 1/16 in.

Select a warm air furnace or heating boiler. 2. Describe the basic types of gas burners and oil burners. 6.1 WARM AIR FURNACES A warm air furnace heats by delivering warmed air to the spaces in a building. 4. Explain the functions of the basic operating and safety controls for furnaces and boilers. 7.c H A p T E R Furnaces and Boilers T his chapter will examine boilers and furnaces. Explain draft and how it is created and controlled. A third advantage of warm . OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. in very small buildings. 71 8. summer air conditioning may be easily added at a minimal cost. Solar heaters will be discussed in Chapter 18. products of combustion. warm air systems with ductwork are often less expensive than hydronic (hot water heating) systems. Warm air furnaces are popular in private residences and small commercial· installations. will be discussed in Chapter 13. but may also be used in cooling (see the discussion on absorption refrigeration in Chapter 13). by using a combined heating/cooling central unit or add-on cooling unit. The heat which is produced by this equipment is most often used for heating. if the ductwork is already installed. Explain the function of flame safety controls. 'pollutants. you will be able to: I. Describe the energy conservation methods that are associated with the use of furnaces and boilers. Describe the basic features of warm air furnaces and heating boilers. 4. Also. Describe commonly used fossil fuels. The heat pump. since. the most common heat source equipment used in air conditioning. and methods of pollution control. used for both heating and cooling. 3. 5.

The horizontal type is suitable for an attic. the Figure 4. wall and floor furnaces. oil. air blower (fan).1.) Types of Furnaces To fit in different spaces. resting on the floor. The low-boy type may be used if there is less headroom. except that commercial furnaces have larger capacities. as a heat source. Furnaces may have coal. and unit heaters. or in a crawl space. air passes over the outside of the heat exchanger. Figure 4. these are not designed to be connected with ductwork (except for duct heaters). furnaces are made in a variety of physical configurations. called unvented appliances. Oil and gas burners are discussed in Section 4. The basic components of a warm air furnace are shown in Figure 4. the combustion gas is exhausted through a vent to the outdoors. does have advantages in many applications (Chapter 5). Pushed by a blower. After its heat is transferred to the circulating air. full heat can be delivered to rooms faster in the morning. The furnace may also have a humidifier and an air filter. Some heating units. controls. duct heaters. when weatherized for outdoor service. Additional heating equipment that is usually grouped with furnaces includes space heaters. sheet metal stack.1 Components of a warm air furnace.2 shows some arrangements of residential type furnaces.1). it is popular for commercial rooftop installations. Space heaters are usually freestanding units. Duct heaters are mounted in a section of duct. Unlike warm air furnaces. are structurally stronger. or masonry chimney. gas. and may have more complex controls than residential furnaces. Unit heaters are generally Operation Circulating air enters the furnace through the return air inlet (Figure 4. Some space heaters have blowers. The wall furnace and floor furnace are designed to be recessed into a wall or floor. however. discharge combustion gases directly into the room where the heater is located. or electric heaters. The downflow type is practical when the supply air ductwork is under a floor or grade. The lIpflow or high-bo\' type is suitable for fullheight basement or utility room installations with overhead ductwork. but instead deliver air directly into the space to be heated. and insulated housing cabinet.72 CHAPTER4 air systems over hydronic systems is that when nighttime temperature setback is used. The vent may be a pipe. The heated air exits through the warm air outlet and travels through ducts to the rooms in the building. airflow in duct heaters is created by a separate blower-housed unit. or wood burners. fuel burner. The hydronic system.7. The hot combustion gas (also called flue gas) inside the heat exchanger is produced by the burning of fuel. Warm air outlet Flue connection Heat exchanger Burner and controls Filter air inlet . which has been warmed from the inside by hot combustion gas passing through it. Components The main parts of a warm air furnace are the heat exchanger. The construction of furnaces for residential or commercial use is similar. (Heating units in which the combustion gases are discharged to the outdoors are called vented appliances. others rely solely on the convected motion of the warm air.

-=:7IL-" air t----'-~--Ir-+----.I air l~:2J§~~~~~~~c. they must have ample room veutilation and special safety shut-off devices. . Flue pipe Relief air Circulatingplenum Heat exchanger Gas burner Circulating air Filter "'-_____ Vent pipe Circulatingair blower ! __ Circulatingair blower Filter .'. the CFM of air to be circulated and the duct system air static Figure 4.000 BTUlhr. they may be gas or oil fired. Because incomplete combustion may cause toxic pollutants.-~=-n. the use of unvented appliances is often restricted by legal codes.'o'mbustion air Gas-supply Gas burner manifold Horizontal type Circulatingair plenum Downflow type - Draft diverter Relief air Control compartment Combustion air Gas-supply manifold Heat exchanger Circulatingair plenum Circulating Filter Heat exchanger air • \ Flue pipe Circulatingair plenum Heat exchanger Gas burner Flue pipe [Jraft hood Relief air Control compartment ~. If '-Invented appliances are to be used. Commercial furnaces are available up to about 1 million BTUlhr..FURNACES AND BOILERS 73 hung from a ceiling. the heat is then radiated directly from the element to solid objects in the space. Capacity and Performance Manufacturers rate heating capacity in BTU/hr at the furnace outlet (bonnet).Combustion air Gas-supply .000 -175.2 Arrangements of residential warm air furnaces. rather than having warm air circulate.mllnifold Circulating air t Draft hood Relief air Control compartment Circulatingair blower ~::::::=J~~~~~~~combustion air Gas burner Basement type Gas-supply manifold Circulatingair blower Filter t Upflowtype . or may use heating coils (Chapter 5). In addition to the heating capacity.~~*. Another version is the gas-fired radiant heater which works by using the flame and hot combustion gases to heat an element to a very high temperature. Residential type furnaces are available in capacities from about 35. Allowances must be made for any duct or pickup losses (see Chapter 3). The system designer needs to know both the net heat available to heat the room or building and the gross furnace output at the bonnet.

4.12). Manual control of the fan is provided to allow continual air circulation in the summer.into the furnace control operations. the space thennostat closes the heating control circuit (only if all safety controls are also closed). A fan control thennostat located in the circulating air fan plenum (discharge) automatically starts the fan when the air has been warmed to a comfortable level and stops it . thus saving energy. Operating controls regulate the burner (Section 4. 2. 4. purge cycles are incorporated . In these more complex arrangements. except for so-called high-efficiency furnaces (Section 4. The pilot flame ignites the main gas. For instance. The following sequence outlines the operation of a typical residential gas-fired furnace: I. On a call for heat.8). when the air is too cooL An alternate arrangement. type offue1. 3. The air circulating fan starts. utilizing the "free" remaining heat left in the heat exchangers. The main gas valve opens and the spark ignition circuit is activated. When the furnace is not heating. and if airflow is proven. the valve will close. and air and gas flow. the quantity of gas-air mixture that remains in a large furnace after a shutdown is enough to be an explosion hazard. A typical programming control sequence for a larger gas-fired furnace might be: I. A pilot flame (pilot light) safety control checks for the standing (continuous) pilot flame. 5. A limit switch thermostat (high limit) will shut off the gas valve if the air temperature becomes dangerously high (about 200 F). The safety control will continually check for flame presence. 2. is used to save energy. Combustion gas flow is tested. and safety code regulations. If the flame is present. This arrangement. Fan shutdown can also be delayed until after the valve closes. a safety control that detects flame presence is also used (Section 4. therefore. The steady-state efficiency of warm air furnaces typically ranges from 75-80%. A timed prepurge cycle (typically 30-60 seconds) exhausts combustion gases which may remain in the furnace from the last operation. the pilot flame is off. On a call for heating. The combustion fan starts. A simple occurrence such as blocked airflow from dirty filters can cause this. The controls used in each application depend on the equipment.74 CHAPTER4 pressure loss requirements must be detennined (see Chapter 8). the sequence of events is often called a programming control sequence. because it consists of programmed steps. 6. Safety controls (also called limit controls) stop or prevent furnace operation if safe limits are exceeded. the main gas valve opens. 4. 3. is to use a timer to delay the fan's start until a short period after the air starts warming. called intennittent ignition.2 FURNACE CONTROLS The controls for a warm air furnace are of two types: operating controls and safety (limit) controls. which achieves the same result. a switch in the room thermostat closes. Combination heating!cooling units generally have two-speed fans to enable them to provide more airflow in the summer. Air circulation is tested by a pressure switch. the pilot gas itself may be ignited on a call for heating. if the flame fails later. 7. which may have efficiencies as high as 95%. and ifproven. except that the space thennostat starts the oil burner pump motor and activates the circuit providing an ignition spark. The operation of a residential oil-fired furnace is similar. Commercial furnaces need more complex control arrangements. Safety controls may sense air and combustion gas temperatures. Instead of a standing (continuous) pilot flame.7) and the air circulation fan during normal operation.

since this is more than adequate for the vapor pressure exerted by 250 F water. which is then delivered through pipes to space heating equipment. probably the boiler is where one should be most sensitive about safety to life.) 9.3 HEATING BOILERS Pressure and Temperature Ratings The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has developed standards for the construction and permissible operating pressure and temperature limits for low pressure heating boilers which are used in the United States. Of all the equipment used in HVAC systems. 4. How draft (airflow) is achieved The basic features of these groupings will be explained separately. the flame safety control continually checks the flame. Since it does not actually boil water. the main gas valve closes. Items 6 and 7. Hot water temperatures are limited to 250 F. also called a steam generatOl. a hot water boiler would be better named a hot water generator. This may affect the choice of low or high pressure Boilers produce hot water or steam. This tragic incident is mentioned to stress the importance of obtaining a thorough working knowledge of boilers. The ASME Code for Heating Boilers limits maximum working pressure to 15 psig for steam and 160 psig for water. will be discussed in relation to boilers and furnaces together. a heating boiler in a telephone company building exploded. because steam turbines require steam at a relatively high pressure. For higher temperatures and pressures. B. . A steam boiler.FURNACES AND BOILERS 75 8. When the thermostat is satisfied. If ignition does not occur (in about 4 seconds). If the flame fails or is unstable. controls. If the second ignition attempt fails. according to: 1. At this point. the ignition circuit is deactivated. Their materials of construction 4. a few words about safety should be said. Ignition is tested (with the flame safety control). This is because there is a tremendous amount of energy packed into a boiler. killing 21 and injuring 95. whereas high pressure boilers do. the system shuts down and "locks out" (a manual reset is necessary). A. Boilers may be classified in various ways. Power boilers. Both hot water and steam boilers. although so named because they are used to generate steam to be utilized in generating e1ec~ tric power. Another application for high pressure boilers in HVAC systems is to use them with steam turbine-driven centrifugal refrigeration machines. A timed postpurge cycle exhausts combustion gases from the furnace. Their specific application 2. and steps 6 aud 7 are repeated (prep urge cycle aud attempted ignition). the system shuts down. Their pressure and temperature ratings 3. burner. A hot water boiler heats water to a high temperature. heat exchanger. can be used in high temperature hot water (HTW) hydronic heating systems. (During operation. but does not boil it. 10. Whether water or combustion gas is inside the tubes (watertube or firetube) 5. having similar features. will be discussed together. The type of fuel used 7. any important differences will be noted. Hot water boilers are usually manufactured for 30 psig maximum working pressure. since they apply to both types of equipment. Low pressure heating boilers do not require the attendance of a licensed operating engineer in many locations. In New York City in 1962. Components The main parts of a boiler are the combustion chamber. heats water to the boiling point to make steam. the ASME Code for Power Boilers applies. and enclosure. Whether the boiler and accessories are assembled on the job site or at the factory 6. fuels and draft.

4). Firetube boilers are less expensive than watertube boilers but are less durable. as seen in Figures 4. Firetube boilers range from small capacities to about 20 million BTUlhr. locomotive. In watertube boilers. Note draft hood and automatic flue gas damper. The sections are assembled together similar to cast iron radiators. up to about 10 million BTUIhr. The differences among types offiretube boilers (e. horizontal return tube. the combustion gases flow inside the tubes and the water circulates outside.5) is the most popular for commercial heating service because of its compactness. low cost. In firetube boilers (Figure 4.3 Cutaway view of small gas-fired cast iron hot water package boiler. The Scotch marine type firetube boiler (Figures 4. Watertube boilers are not often used in HVAC installations. Firetube or Watertube Steel boilers can also be classified as either jiretube or watertube. The water flows inside these with the combustion gases outside.. They range from small to fairly large capacity.4 Steel firetube boiler arrangement. Watertube heating boilers range from medium size to about 100 million BTU/hr.4 and 4. and housing.4 and 4. (Courtesy: Burnham Corporation-Hydronics Division. The HVAC engmeer should always check that a boiler conforms to ASMEcodes. controls. Combustion gas Gas Burner[ Furnace ~TI~I---TI~I--TI~I- .3 shows a small cast iron boiler complete with burner. and Scotch marine type) are in their construction (a specialized subject. Figure 4. Steel boilers have a heat exchanger constructed of steel tubes arranged in a bundle. Their main application is for large steam power plants or for creating process steam to be used in industry. Materials of Construction Cast iron boilers have a heat exchanger constructed of hollow cast iron sections.76 CHAPTER4 boilers for an installation. and reliability. Boilers that have copper tube heat exchangers are also available. An advantage of this construction is that when the boiler is too large to fit through the building access opening.5. it can be shipped in parts and assembled on site. Figure 4. the water flows inside the tubes and the combustion gases outside. and not important for our purposes).g.) ~Automatic vent damper _Draft hood Figure 4.

this includes the combustion chamber. and decreases the contractor's field work. Some accessories are optional. Figure 4. maintenance.) . A package boiler is completely assembled and tested in the factory. (Courtesy: Cleaver-Brooks. and safety of boilers. Boiler Accessories Certain accessories are needed for the proper operation.FURNACES AND BOILERS 77 Built-Up and Package Boilers A built-up boiler is a boiler whose components are assembled at the job site. increases reliability by ensuring that components are properly matched. burner.5. are both package boilers. Inc. and accessories.3. others are required by codes or by law. and the Scotch marine type boiler shown in Figure 4. This procedure reduces cost. The small cast iron residential type boiler shown in Figure 4. heat exchanger.5 Package firetube boiler.

aids the operating engineer in checking performance. The ASME Code specifies the type of valve which is acceptable for a particular application. allows the operator to see the water level. mounted on or near the boiler outlet. Air control devices may be required in the· water circuit. A pressure gauge and thennometer. A typical piping arrangement with accessories for a hot water heating boiler is shown in Figure 4. it will stop burner operation if the water level falls below a safe level. these devices divert air in the system to the expansion tank.9) opens if boiler pressure is excessive. heating rooms even when no heat is called for. A water column with a gauge glass (Figure 4.6 Low water cut-off.7). This valve must be connected separately at the boiler. A make-up water connection allows for filling the system and replenishing water losses. An expansion tank provides space for the increased volume of water when it is heated (Chapter 11 ). (Courtesy: McDonnell & Miller ITT. one of the claims in the investigation was that the safety relief valve did not open and relieve the excessive pressure which had developed.8.78 CHAPTER4 Accessories Required for a Steam Boiler A low water cut-off (Figure 4. which is a piece of pipe from the boiler outlet extending down below the water line. In the New York explosion incident mentioned earlier. Accessories Required for Both Steam and Hot Water Boilers A safety relief valve (Figure 4.7 Water column and gage glass. prevents air that may be trapped in the top of the boiler from getting into the water supply line. A pressure reducing valve (PRV) prevents excess pressure from being exerted on the boiler from the water make-up source. Accessories Required for a Hot Water Boiler A dip tube. when mounted on the side of a steam boiler.) Figure 4. Without this valve. Water level . hot water would circulate by Figure 4.6) senses water level in a steam boiler. Afiow check valve closes when the pump stops. natural convection.

conveys combustion gas as it travels from the boiler to the chimney or flue. (In small systems. when applied around the boiler. Inc.9 Safety relief valve. reduces heat loss. called a vent on small boilers and a breeching on larger boilers.) Thermal insulation. (Courtesy: TACO. if heavy fuel oil is to be used. heats the oil to a temperature at which it will flow easily. the pump may be located in return line. 4. Figure 4.4 BOILER CONTROLS Boiler controls. are of two types. A preheater. In larger units. Figure 4.) A combustion gas connection. It may be field installed or applied in the factory.. and in . a controller sensing a condition in . RI. a room thermostat starts and stops the burner' in response to space conditions.7) during normal operation. the boiler regulates the burner operation: in steam boilers a pressure controller is used. Operating Controls Operating controls regulate the burner (Section 4. like furnace controls.8 Typical piping arrangement and accessories for a hot water boiler. operating controls and safety (limit) controls. In smaller units.FURNACES AND BOlLERS Flow check valve Pressure reducing valve 79 Return Expansion tank Air control device Relief Supply Check valve Make-up water \ (fililine)i--+-V1-W---tk:l--l I Dip tube Flow check valve ! To drain Hot water boiler To drain Note: Unions or equivalent for service not shown. Cranston.

High steam pressure (steam boilers) High hot water temperature (hot water boilers) High or low fuel oil/fuel gas pressure High or low fuel oil temperature Low water level Flame failure Programming Control Sequence Commercial boiler controls. 4. w. plus problems with aesthetics. On shutdown. it rises through the chimney. but as the equipment's size and complexity increases. the flame safety control continually checks the flame.04 in. safety (limit) controls prevent or stop an unsafe condition from occurring. Since the heated gas is lighter than the cool air outside. When the pilot flame lights. room thermostats may be used to control the flow of hot water to the terminal units in each room. a fan starts. 6.g. the overfire (combustion chamber) draft pressure reading in a typical residential furnace will be about -0. 2. the system shuts down. A small negative pressure (relative to the atmospheric pressure) exists in the furnace in a natural draft unit. the flame safety control shuts the pilot flame gas val ve. a temperature controller ("aquastat") is used. resulting in a need for more draft. w. heat exchanger. legal restrictions. must be created to force air and gas through the equipment and chimney. 3. A typical programming control sequence for a small commercial gas-fired boiler might be: I. If the pilot flame does not light. the main fuel valve closes. If the flame fails or is unstable. the flame safety control shuts down the burner. The pressure differential must be great enough to allow the flowing air and gas to overcome the resistance from friction in the combustion chamber.2). For instance. When operating correctly. During operation. 3. If the main flame does not light. purging any combustion gases that might remain in the boiler from the last operation. The pressure in the flue outlet will be slightly more negative.5 BOILER AND FURNACE DRAFT Since boilers and furnaces need a constant supply of fresh combustion air. and cost. the main gas valve opens. drawing cool air into the boiler through the openings at the bottom (the chimney flue effect). an ignition transformer is energized. 5.. itself. Safety Controls As discussed earlier. Draft can be created either naturally or mechanically. the pilot gas valve opens. It is important to keep in mind both meanings of draft when dealing with combustion problems: draft is both the pressure to move the air and gas. Natural draft results from the difference in densities between the hot gas in the combustion chamber and the surrounding cool air. 4. When controls sensing conditions in the boiler are used.02 in. but this approach has physical limits. Conditions that boiler safety controls may check for are 1. Note that this is an extremely small pressure. 5. secondary operating controls are often also used. Postpurging.g a taller chimney. The term draft is also used in an associated manner to refer to the air or gas flow itself caused by the pressure differential. the resistance to airflow also increases. and the pilot flame is lit. Natural draft provides enough combustion air for simpler equipment. and flue. this pressure prevents leakage of potentially toxic combustion gas into the equipment room.80 CHAPTER4 hot water boilers. The manufacturer will provide precise values. Prepurging. Natural draft can be increased by usin. 2. perhaps -0. . called draft. 4. After an automatically timed period (a few seconds). operate automatically in a specific programmed sequence. and the J10l!. like furnace controls (Section 4.g. Under normal circumstances. the fan continues to run for a short time after the burner stops to purge the remaining combustion gases. a pressure differential. When the thermostat is satisfied. On a call for heat. to allow for the pressure drop through the furnace heat exchanger.

if mechanical draft is to be used. mechanical draft fans provide closer control of draft (airflow quantity) than natural draft does.FURNACES AND BOILERS 81 When the natural draft would be insufficient.g. Draft hood / Room air "'- Gases from boiler or furnace t ~- . and the chimney flue effect handles the required stack draft. mechanical devices must be used. a draft fan may be used with a tall chimney. Too Iowa draft supplies insufficient air so that combustion' is incomplete. Because of. so that the two together develop the needed draft. the draft hood diverts the air into the surrounding space rather than into the combustion chamber.perature and outside air conditions (e. A forced draft fan.3 and 4. creating a dangerous situation. care must be taken in the equipment's design and maintenance to prevent combustion gas leakage into the room. In addition to being able to develop more pressure than natural draft. A draft hood (Figures 4. Changes in te)lJ. In this arrangement. The terms powered combustion.) As stack updraft increases or Figure 4. a means of maintaining constant draft is needed. Since the forced draft fan creates positive pressure in the boiler/furnace. as will be seen in the following discussion. located at the equipment's outlet. A momentary increase in updraft will draw more surrounding air from the room into the flue via the hood. or both. where it could blowout the pilot or main flame or cause poor combustion..10 Draft hood. these potential problems. For smaller units. is used to control draft in oil-fired equipment and some power gasfired units. An induced draft fan. located at the equipment's air inlet. Generally. adversely affecting the equipment's performarice. pulls combustion air through the equipment and discharges it into the stack. Either an induced draft fan or a forced draft fan may be used. excess draft results in too much air. thereby wasting fuel. and mechanical draft all refer to the use of fans to develop sufficient pressure to move the combustion gases through the boiler/furnace and flue.11). wind) can cause changes in the draft through the equipment. blows air through the furnace. this reduces the chimney draft to its previous leveL A momentary decrease in updraft will be canceled by an opposite reaction in the flue. t Flue Draft Control Draft (airflow) should remain constant for a given fuel firing rate. Note that the draft hood is a safety device as well as a means of maintaining approximately constant draft. (A power unit has a combustion air fan in the burner.10) is used on vented gas-fired equipment. a fan with adequate pressure is used to create both furnace and stack draft. reducing efficiency because the excess air is being heated and then thrown away. A sudden downdraft (gas flow down the chimney) due to outside disturbances can even blowout the flame. and only a short stack is needed. adequate draft control can usually be achieved using a draft hood (also called a draft diverter) or barometric damper. also called a barometric draft regulator (Figure 4. The barometric damper. the fan creates only the furnace draft. The greater volume of air in the flue increases the resistance to airflow. If a downdraft occurs. However. power burners.

The possible combustible substances in these fuels are carbon (C).). oil. However. Gases frarr: boiler or furnace t 4. !be chimney cools down for long periods and water vapor may condense on start-up. For example. a closed damper prevents the loss of warm air from the building. In the process. The fan also improves draft control. Newer higher efficiency residential units often use a mechanical draft combustion air fan and an automatic vent damper (Figure 4. Figure 4. they control stack draft better than controlling furnace draft. These gases are used to heat water or air or to generate steam. This device is regulated by a pressure sensor in the furnace and adjusts automatically to maintain the proper furnace draft. The three major fossil fuels used in boilers and furnaces are gas. S) or as COlllpounds of those elements. Coal is still extensively used in many large power plant boilers because of its lower cost.11 Barometric damper. water vapor (H2 0). Not all fuels contain all of the combustible elements or compounds. These may exist in the fuel in their element form (C. with burner draft fans) may use one of the draft regulating devices discussed or may rely only on the burner fan to control draft. (The vent damper can also be installed in existing systems. In larger equipment. Gas and oil have largely replaced coal as the fos. for . a highly toxic gas. Because the draft hood and barometric damper are located in the vent stack. the damper will open or close. eventually causing corrosion. producing a different product. if the boiler/furnace is in a heated space.82 CHAPTER4 t Flue -Damper Room air example. Fossil fuels may also contain small amounts of noncombustible substances. special chimney or vent materials may be required to prevent this occurrence. H 2 . but the inefficiency is too costly for larger units. the furnace draft may still vary too much to maintain an efficient air/fuel ratio. They are easier to handle and generally have less pollutant products. incomplete combustion of carbon produces carbon monoxide (CO). When combustion is complete.g boilers and furnaces. Consequently. and sulfur dioxide (SOl)' Combustion may be incomplete. decreases. stored energy is released as thermal energy (heat) in the products of combustion.e. Furnaces or boilers that have power burners (i.3). For instance. canceling the momentary change in draft in the same way that a draft hood does. This is the thermal energy that the boiler or furnace attempts to capture (as much of as is practical). sil fuels for space heatin. the possible products are carbon dioxide (CO. The products of combustion are mostly gases at a high temperature. a new problem arises. This may be acceptable with small equipment. and coal. When the vent damper closes.6 FUELS AND COMBUSTION Combustion is the rapid chemical combination of the combustible substances in a fuel with oxygen (in the air).) The fan is needed to overcome the greater resistance of the larger heat exchanger. the hydrocarbon methane (CH4 ) is a combustible compound often present in fuel. an automatically controlled outlet damper is often used instead of a barometric damper. This may reduce energy losses. The vent damper in the flue i's not modulated. but instead closes automatically to prevent airflow through the stack when the system is shut down. hydrogen (H2)' and sulfur (S)..

Values are approximate. In smaller quantities.1 IS. There are already a number of installations tapping biogas from large garbage landfills in the United States. oil storage tanks are buried underground or placed outdoors. oil may be stored indoors. gas is cheaper. Heating values for various fuels are shown in Table 4. cost. Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) is the name given to both of the hydrocarbon gaseous fuels propane and butane. Biogas is a fuel gas (largely methane) that results from decomposing garbage.1 FUEL COMBUSTION DATA Percent CO2 in Combustion Gas Quantity of Air Supplied Fuel Theoretical Air/Fuel Ratio Theoretical 20% Excess 40% Excess Heating Value Natural gas No.2 fuel oil No. This limits their usage to larger installations with auxiliary heating equipment. oil costs less. and legislated price controls. unlike both oil and coal. Waste-fired boilers. This eliminates deliveries and storage needs. depending on the source. as the composition of fuels varies. The amount of heat released by complete combustion of natural gas (called the heating value) is about 1000 BTU/fe. The products of complete combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor.3 13. 5.9 12. 4. It also contains virtually no pollutants.5 oils require preheating before they become fluid enough to be used.5 11. because they are liquified and bottled for use. as required with oil and coal. it is less convenient than natural gas.6 IS. the popular choices are No.FURNACES AND BOILERS 83 Gas Natural gas is the most commonly used gaseous fuel. Fuel oil is composed largely of hydrocarbons and a small amount of sulfur. Fuel Choice The system designer should consider availability.6 12. A few cities are already successfully using large waste-fired boilers. The cost of each varies with location.2 oil. convenience.4 10. The exact composition varies. In some cases. No. 1 8. and 6). in others. Its greatest convenience is that it is delivered directly from the gas wells through pipelines to the consumer. The lower number grades are lighter in density and have a lower viscosity and slightly lower heating values. Oil Fuel oils are available in different grades (numbers I. for larger installations. Their advantage is that they cost less than No.2 9. Use of No.2 oil is generally used in residential and small commercial furnaces and boilers.6 ft 3/ft3 1410 ft 3/gal IS20 ft3/ga l 940 ft 3/lb 12. particularly in those areas where wood is abundant. They are convenient where piped natural gas is not available.000 BTU/gal 13.000 BTU/lb Notes: Air/fuel ratios based on air densjty of 0. For residences.1. No. market conditions. Since oil must be stored in tanks.000 BTU/gal IS3.O 16. (kerosene) is limited to small space heaters. and pollution effects of the various fuels.6 and No.9 1000 BTUlft3 140. Wood-fired units are growing in use.6 fuel oil Bituminous coal 9. 2.075 Ib/ft3 are by volume. Natural gas is composed of a number of hydrocarbons. :2 heating oil and natural gas. which use garbage.S 18. primarily methane (CH4 ) and lesser amounts of ethane (C2 H6 ). save depletable fuel resources and aid in garbage disposal problems. . I oil Combustion The chemical reaction In which a fuel combines with oxygen in the air and releases heat is called TABLE 4.

.12 used.. 8 7 6 5 ....... ~ . However.. and may vary from 5-50% above 100% theoretical air........ Because it is not practical or economical to construct equipment to mix air and fuel perfectly..... because the excess air is being heated and then thrown away.) 18 17 16 15 14 N ~ Effect of excess air on CO 2 for typical oil and gas fuels 0 0 13 12 11 10 9 C Q) Q) e CL '" "" "'" '" ... I'-... or more commonly. excess air (air above the theoretical quantity) is always furnished....- '" ~ ..r--__ Jail ..... r-- I"--... and fuel heating values. (Courtesy: Dunham Bush/Iron Fireman. . Generally... Ijeil~ l.... ing device and controls..... To prevent this problem... In practice. --. r-... . Manufacturers furnish data on recommended air/fuel ratios for their equipment.. I"-..12 show theoretical airlfuel ratios.. r-. The minimum amount of excess air actually needed for complete combustion to occur depends on the type of fuel and the construction of the heat... r---. r--......... ~ r--... combustion will not be complete... ... The amount of air required for complete combustion is called the theoretical air quantity and the resulting ratio of air to fuel is called the theoretical air(fUel ratio... The result is unburned fuel and a waste of energy. :--f-...... "'""''" ~ 'r-... ~ r----... resulting in a tremendous energy waste. r-. incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide (CO)....ighl . the efficiency of a boiler/furnace is maximized by using the minimum excess air needed for complete combustion... a highly toxic pollutant. r--.. Effect of excess air on CO 2 percentage in flue gas.. ........ "- ~ ..84 CHAPTER4 combustion.I"--- -............ many installations are operated with huge oversupplies of excess air.. .... CO 2 content in the combustion gases for different excess air quantities...1 and Figure 4................. r----.... larger units need less excess air....r--- - t-- II.. efficiency is unnecessarily reduced. Furthermore...... Table 4..Pg~s -- t-- r-- N~ 60 o 10 20 30 40 50 r 70 80 90 100 Percent excess air .. burning.. If too much excess air is Figure 4.. if a boiler or furnace is furnished with the exact theoretical air quantity.. I'--......

Combustion Efficiency Some of the heat in the combustion gases is not transferred to the boiler water or furnace warm air.1.1) .2 gal hr 60 min =423 CFM Example 4.x 1..12.) Example 4.. The flue gas analyzer reads 10% CO2 .2 times the theoretical (20% excess). and noting that the actual air quantity should be 1. Both the chimney/flue and heat exchanger must be constrncted of corrosionresistant material. The amount of excess air is represented by the CO2 percentage in the flue gas. The lower the temperature. defined as: Combustion efficiency = --~-~~---xIOO% There are two sources of the flue gas loss.3 In carrying out an energy study.2 shows the effect of flue gas. Example 4. due to physical and economic limitations on the size of the heat exchanger. The answer is a loud NO! A great deal of excess hot gas is going up the stack. (Note: Table 4. In units that are operating well.2 oil are taken. Excess air The excess air beyond the theoretical amount needed for complete combustion is air that is heated in the furnance and then wasted up the flue. as seen in Figure 4. Flue gas temperature The hot flue gas going up the stack means that some of its heat has not been used. This testing should be performed regularly. This lost heat is called the flue gas loss. percent CO 2 and temperature on the percent of heat input from the fuel that is lost to the flue gas. Is the air/fuel ratio satisfactory? Solution From Figure 4. resulting in corrosion of the chimney and the heating unit. the heating specialist can determine the combustion efficiency of the equipment from Table 4.1 A boiler firing IS gallhr of No. Some newer. the more the heat input has been utilized. After the results are compared to the manufacturer's data. adjustments may be performed to improve the unit's efficiency. it is not advisable to cool the gas much below 300 F because the water vapor in the gas might condense. "high efficiency" heating equipment is intentionally designed with larger heat exchangers. in accordance with the manufacturer's data. 45% excess air is being used.The quantity of excess air therefore should be kept at the minimum that still results in complete fuel combustion. ft3 gal I hr CFM= 1410 x 15 . enough heat is transferred from the combustion gases so that the flue gas temperature is as low as 110 F.2.flue gas loss heat input (4. How many CFM of combustion air should be supplied? Solution Using the air/fuel ratio data from Table 4. the flue gas is discharged from about 300-600 F.2 A technician measures 8 % CO 2 in the combustion gas of a natural gas-fired boiler that requires 15% excess air for complete combustion.1 and 4. the technician may adjust the air/fuel ratio if the air is excessive.x . readings on a boiler burning No.2 oil requires 20% excess air for complete combustion.2 uses the difference between the temperatures of the stack gas and of the boiler room.2 illustrate how the heating specialist can use measurement of percentage of CO 2 in the stack gas to detennine the necessary amount of combustion air and the percent excess air used. Note that the higher the percent COlo the less excess air.12. Table 4. The measure of the effectiveness of using the available heat imput from the fuel is the combustion efficiency. Using measurements of the stack gas temperature and percent CO2 in the flue gas (see chapter 16). However. After such a test. The stack gas temperature is heat input .FURNACES AND BOILERS 85 Examples 4.

0 5.3 21.8 41.5 35.4 34.7 41.3 30.1 46.1 31.5 S.9 18.0 26.5 13.7 36.0 13.1 16.4 19.6 22.8 21.4 29.0 6.9 18.4 15.7 20.9 36.0 22.6 18.2 16.1 37.5 15.2 20.1 30.3 27.6 33.3 33.8 39.3 21.1 I NO.5 5.8 26.9 28.3 29.5 13.1 29.4 13.7 15.5 21.0 18.5 29.8 33.5 25.8 22.5 6.2 23.0 29.2 27.7 21.1 27.5 27.2 16.0 23.8 40.8 31.9 20.5 146 .4 23.2 19.1 17.3 20.2 31.4 13.9 23.4 34.0 5.6 21.4 21.0 18.5 30.0 12.1 13.8 34.4 20.0 7.8 22.2 22.9 13.3 26.7 20.2 EFFECT OF FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AND CO2 ON HEAT LOSS (%) TO FLUE GAS % CO 2 Difference Between Flue Gas and Room Temperature in Degrees F 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 NATURAL GAS Fuel Analysis 1120 BTu/cu It % by Volume CH 4 79.9 16.2 FUEL OIL Fuel Analysis BTU 19.1 28.9 35.5 32.5 18.5 10.750/1b % by Weight C 86.5 10.0 2S.2 40.0 29.7 27.2 28.1 23.7 26.0 38.6 23.8 3S.1 23.2 31.5 27.4 20.1 28.5 8.9 36.3 22.6 36.3 N2 2.4 30.9 24.6 0 0.6 18.7 25.1 19.8 32.4 28.0 5.3 28.4 23.3 18.7 38.7 NO.2 24.6 38.3 29.S 26.2 23.9 30.0 5.3 29.2 31.8 30.1 22.2 21.0 9.4 25.5 47.5 40.9 31.1 26.2 18.3 16.7 23.3 40.4 21.0 19.4 21.3 16.O 8.3 25.0 25.5 21.0 16.0 15.8 22.9 C2H6 17.1 23.8 34.6 16.7 14.4 44.2 36.9 31.0 26.5 7.9 17.6 28.1 24. I 17.0 35.0 20.7 40.8 18.6 49.7 20.9 23.6 17.4 31.0 25.2 N 0.9 28.2 22.5 26.7 33.4 23.4 28.5 43.6 19.6 18.5 30.5 7.4 18.7 27.3 30.9 27.4 19.0 25.4 23.2 30.8 27.3 21.4 28.36 H 9.3 20.8 25.90 N 0.2 14.8 21.2 32.9 35.2 25.6 15.6 22.) .6 IS.8 24.8 28.3 14.3 26.0 14.6 23.5 21.1 45.1 22.9 29.2 24.5 27.8 19.5 8.3 18.4 19.4 17.5 30.0 7.4 23.8 39.0 13.2 24.3 IS.4 21.1 26.4 21.2 20.0 22.0 17.5 25.4 35.5 7.4 17.5 23.0 9.6 21.1 32.3 33.6 22.8 36.0 41.4 28.6 32.1 H 13.4 21.1 29.6 33.5 14.0 18.6 27.2 23.9 25.0 11.0 18.5 29.0 22.9 29.8 25.5 33.7 19.9 22.0 24.4 22.0 6.6 17.8 22.3 24.6 28.3 22.9 27.5 19.4 31.6 17.9 29.5 9.0 27.6 FUEL OIL Fuel Analysis BTU 18.6 17.0 25.9 19.8 15.0 5.4 20.8 25.0 30.8 23.5 38.9 17.0 34.1 28.3 25.6 31.2 26.7 21.7 26.4 20.3 20.8 28.5 16.3 21.4 28.8 32.9 35.3 32.9 25.3 20.5 20.6 26.2 48.8 18.5 IS.2 26.3 34.5 26.3 15.3 CO2 0.9 30.4 26.3 32.7 41.0 14.4 15.8 29.1 30.1 25.9 24.19 Ash 0.8 27.7 24.6 37.3 21.7 37.1 27.8 35.8 24.2 19.4 20.0 22.6 30.5 25.2 32.0 11.1 30.8 15.2 50.1 18.0 6.1 20.3 35.2 43.7 33.1 42.3 35.5 34.9 19.5 19.6 28.6 30.2 29.9 20.3 17.0 S.8 25.9 23.7 15.9 32.4 27.5 43.1 35.8 35.0 14.4 19.0 8.6 18.0 15.2 47.8 23.1 53.0 42.5 4.0 11.4 21.5 30.9 50.1 26.4 35.2 32.0 40.8 22.5 38.5 17.2 25.2 17.0 19.0 31.7 24.4 33.4 22.3 22.5 20.4 32.5 12.8 42.0 33.1 20.0 12.1 43.0 39.6 14.8 15.9 21.7 17.5 16.0 26.7 28.0 9.7 20.0 28.3 37.0 24.1 25.8 43.8 14.6 26.5 19.8 25.0 4.0 7.TABLE 4.3 33.30 S 0.1 16.1 28.9 2S.7 24.0 36.5 19.2 20.9 25.2 23.9 34.0 22.2 31.8 23.7 25.8 26.5 21.5 9.3 20.3 20.2 19.9 27.5 19.9 16.0 22.9 16.0 19.8 41.8 17.2 24.2 36.5 9.4 27.4 24.0 23.3 26.8 27.8 33.2 23.1 14.8 22.1 17.0 17.150/1b % by Weight C 89.6 20.7 25.8 12.0 37.6 16.0 31.8 40.5 24.3 39.6 36.2 37.8 44.1 17.6 27.0 30.0 29.7 35.7 22.7 26.8 44.4 24.0 29.7 25.05 (Courtesy: Dunham Bushnron Fireman.4 31.5 23.3 24.5 34.1 22.9 24.5 26.20 0 0.3 33.4 32.9 16.1 46.0 38.5 6.1 44.3 11.8 25.2 24.2 24.5 10.1 22.8 47.9 37.5 6.

. This is a card with four sections numbered from 1 to 4.3. Premature chilling of a partially burned mixture 4.0 . representing the opacity or density of smoke. The combustion efficiency is 100. Smoke darker than # 1 but less than #2 shall not be given off for more than 2 minutes in anyone-hour period. Smoke as dark or darker than #2 density shall not be allowed at aiL B. From Table 4.0%. Smoke is very small particles from the combustion process formed by 1. Another method of control is to remove the S02 gas in the stack with appropriate .4 A soot blower is used to clean off the heating surfaces of the boiler in Example 4.0 . the New York City Air Pollution Code sets the following smoke limits. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an extremely toxic gas resulting from incomplete combustion of carbon or hydrocarbons. Soot is carbon-ash particles. When present. Smoke is easily measured by the Ringlemann Chart. for No. For instance. Burning with too much air . A. The HVAC specialist needs to be aware of what these pollutants are and how they can be controlled. Using Table 4.70 = 400 F. Fuel oil is generally more of a problem than natural gas.1 = 81.2. Proper maintenance and adjus·tment of burners and draft will prevent its formation. Insufficient oxygen (that is. Some of the pollutants contribute to respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis.0 = 79. agricultural crops. Nitrous oxides result from high flame temperatures.1 %. What is the combustion efficiency of the boiler? Solution The difference between the stack gas and room temperatures is 570 . at 500 F and 10% CO 2. Although it is formed primarily from coal combustion. carbon monoxide (CO). sulfur trioxide (S03). sulfur dioxide (S02). due to insufficient excess air. Sulfur dioxide (S02) results from the combustion of sulfur present in fuel oil and coaL Fuel oil with very low sulfur content is required in many urban areas. No. Pollution codes limit the density number. ExampZe4. They react with other substances in the atmosphere to form smog. Control methods are the same as for smoke and ash. it may result from fuel oil combustion. Nitrous oxide control methods include using natural gas instead of oil and maintaining low excess air and low flame temperatures.70 = 500 F. Proper adjustment of the air~fuel ratio and maintenance of burners and combustion controls are necessary to prevent smoke. Sulfur trioxide (S03) can be removed by neutralizing it with an additive compound. soot.9%.18. For instance.FURNACES AND BOILERS 87 570 F and the boiler room temperature is 70 F. Ash consists of particles of noncombustible solids produced after combustion. The combustion efficiency is 100. it can be removed by filters or similar means. emphysema. They can also result in damage to forests. ranging from light to dark.2. and lung cancer. . the heat loss to the flue gas is 21. Poor mixing of fuel and air (even with sufficient air) 3. and nitrogen oxides (NOJ. The stack gas temperature now reads 470 F. larger in size than smoke. Combustion and Air Pollution The combustion of fossil fuels can unfortunately produce air pollutants.2 oil. devices. What is the combustion efficiency? Solution The difference between the stack gas and room temperatures is now 470 .0%. ash. The pollutants include smoke.2 fuel oil used in New York City cannot contain more than 0. A significant fuel savings (about 3%) has been accomplished.2% sulfur. which has serious respiratory effects. less than the theoretical air) 2. the heat loss is 18.21. and the quality of lakes.

only on a call for heating. Another version has a narrow slot (ribbon). Ins/lOt burners have ports located to deliver the gas horizontally. and when fuel oil is used. and the pilot piping.88 CHAPTER4 4. The burner may have one or more ports in a pipe. In the atmospheric burner (Figure 4. the pilot flame ignites it.2 and 4. since some of the air and gas mix before entering the burner ports. or direct spark igllition.) In some burners. a gas pressure regulator. Burner head is upshot type. The pilot flame then lights the main fuel. A standing pilot is a continuously burning small gas flame.15) serves the functions of gas . When the main gas fuel enters the combustion chamber. the fuel gas is fed into the combustion chamber and a spark ignites the gas directly. each designed to match the furnace characteristics and size. multiple pipes can be arranged in parallel. Various burner head anangements are available. Although not usually legally required. relying on natural induced draft for the stack. burner. Gas Burners Atmospheric gas burners and power gas burners differ in how the air and fuel gas are delivered to the combustion chamber. intermittent pilot ignition rnay be used. the flow of fuel through a Venturi (a nozzle-shaped tube) draws part of the combustion air (called primary air) through an opening. A ring -burner has the ports arranged around a ring-shaped pipe (like a kitchen stove). Power gas burners use fans to deliver the air. breaks up the liquid oil into a spray of small droplets.7 GAS AND OIL BURNERS The fuel burner is a device for delivering the fuel and part or all of the combustion air to the furnacel boiler. air) is drawn by natural draft directly into the combustion chamber around the burner head ports (openings). To save energy.13) deliver the gas vertically upward. mixing of the fuel gas and primary air is enhanced by vanes or other devices. There is no pilot. It also helps to mix the fuel and air. Since the pilot flame remains burning when the burner is off. into the gas stream. Intermittent pilot ignition is also useful on rooftop equipment. the air/gas mixture then goes into the combustion chamber. and sensor. The fan may be designed for complete forced draft (to overcome furnace and stack draft loss) or only to overcome furnace draft loss. On a call for heating. the electrically controlled main valve. The amount of primary air may be varied by using adjustable shutters or dampers at the opening. there is a perpetual waste of heat up the stack. Descriptions of typical ignition procedures were given in Sections 4. a pilot safety coritrol. Gas Burner Ignition Fuel ignition in a gas burner may be achieved by a standing pilot. Some gas fuel equipment uses direct spark ignition. The pilot is lit by a spark. The fan creates turbulence to promote air and gas mixing. (This arrangement is also called a premix type burlleJ. The remainder of the combustion air (called secolldal). Figure 4. upshot burners (Figure 4.13 Atmospheric gas burner. The pilot and main gas are both shut off when the heating requirement is satisfied. Many states have banned standing pilots on new gas-fired equipment as an energy conservation measure. where a standing pilot may be blown out by wind.4.13). existing equipment may often be easily converted to intermittent pilot ignition. an intermittent pilot. Typical gas manifold connections to a burner with a pilot flame (Figure 4. a single combination valve (Figure 4.14) include a manual shut-off valve or cock. On newer residential equipment.

Except for one type.14 Gas manifold valves and burner arrangements. Home Study Institute Division. aided by the turbulence and heat from the combustion gas. all oil burners have the additional function of mechanically assisting in vaporizing the fuel oiL Vaporizing the oil is necessary since oil will not burn in its liquid state. it is . (Courtesy: North American Heating & Air Conditioning Wholesalers Association. Home Study Institute Division.15 Combination gas valve. (Courtesy: North American Heating & Air Conditioning Wholesalers Association.FURNACES AND BOILERS Pressure regulator Safety shut-off Automatic Venturi & 89 orifice I Gas supply • Pilot burner Cock Pilot filter generator Figure 4. Oil Burners An oil burner mixes fuel oil and combustion air and delivers the mixture to the combustion chamber. The oil at the surface vaporizes naturally due to its vapor pressure. the vaporizing pot burner.) cock. Because the vaporization is slow and difficult to control. pilot safety control. pressuni"regulator. and main gas valve.) Generator Lighting dial External vent connection Pilot Gas Connection Figure 4. The vaporizing pot burner is basically a bowl filled with fuel oil.

Deflector vanes at the burner outlet (head) cause mixing and proper distribution of the oil-air mixture.Iql~~ Oil flows through stationary fuel tube Primary air damper Worm drive for oil pumps Magnetic oil valve . causing it to vaporize faster.. is used in both resi- Figure 4. a combustion air fan. increases the oil's surface area. Each burner type has an oil pump. and an ignition system... called atomizing. both in the means of atomizing the oil and introducing it into the combustion chamber.17).90 CHAPTER4 used mainly in space heaters burning No..16) has a rotating cup which throws the oil into the air stream. which vaporizes more rapidly than heavier oils.16 Rotary oil cup burner. The gun burner. which usually uses No.¢¢""""""~~ Atomizer cup/b~~. atomizes oil by pumping it under high pressure through a small diameter nozzle. 1 oil. turbulence. The horizontal rotary cup burner (Figure 4. or mechanical pressure atomizing burner (Figure 4. They differ considerably from each other. and atomizing.. The other types of oil burners help vaporize oil by breaking it up into very small droplets. The gun burner. causing atomization. Steam atomizing or air atomizing burners use steam or air under pressure to create fuel and air mixing.2 oil. these types of burners are used with larger commercial equipment and are suitable for both heavy and light oils. Side sectional view Standard motor Primary --ff--tl~ I~ air fan Air nozzle \. This process. A combustion air fan introduces air through a tube surrounding the nozzle.

Other controls are available. resulting in higher combustion efficiency. Gas and Oil Burner Firing Rate Control Burner capacity (firing rate) may be controlled by a space thermostat. which is used with warm air furnaces and residential boilers. High/Low/Off.) dential and smaller commercial oil-fired boilers and furnaces. thereby saving fuel. or by a steam pressure or water temperature controller.FURNACES AND BOILERS Ignition electrode Air-adjusting collar Ignition Electrode bracket 91 Electric motor Strainer Oil line from tank Nozzle tube Nozzle ad'. fuels. Essentially it has the components of both burner types in the burner housing. and modu{ation.gun burners may operate only in an on-off mode. Ignition of rotary cup and steam or air atomizing burners is usually done with a gas pilot flame or a spark ignited pilot oil burner. Oil Burner Ignition Ignition of the oil-air mixture in gun burners is done with a high voltage electric spark. Small. which limits their ability to operate at part capacity. The methods of burner capacity control are: On/Off. which is the ratio of maximum to minimum fuel oil flow that the burner can handle. Gun burners have a relatively low turn-down ratio. or where prices may change so that the relative costs of the fuels reverse. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).17 High pressure atomizing ("gun type") burner. which is often used with commercial boilers .. too. Retention head gun burners have a head (outlet) that is designed to improve mixing and combustion.pt'3' Ignition transformer Cut-off valve Nozzle strainer Fuel pump Pressure-relief valve Figure 4. It is useful when there is the possibility of a shortage of one of the two . Steam or air atomizing burners and rotary cup burners have a relatively high turn-down ratio. Combination Burners A combination burner can burn both oil and gas. A high turn-down ratio is desirable because the boiler/furnace can operate at a low capacity when necessary.

enough gas will collect in the combustion chamber so that when the spark ignites the mixture on a call for heat. The flame safety control consists of a flame sensing element and a means of relaying its signal to start or stop fuel flow. Fuel valves and air dampers are automatically modulated by the temperature or pressure controllers. It consists of two electrodes placed at the flame location. When deviations from the correct amount occur. It is pointed at the flame location and allows the burner to operate only when the cell conducts. The flame rod is not used in oil-fired systems because the flame temperature is too high for the electrodes. Oil-fired residential units use either a photo cell or a stack switch for flame detection." The stack switch (Figure 4. the control circuit will be deenergized and the gas valve will close. this limits the boiler/furnace to full capacity operation only. The photo cell (Figure 4. the air-fuel ratio may change even for fixed relative positions of fuel valve and damper due to changes in temperature. humidity. a microprocessor-based combustion control system can be used that continually measures the percent oxygen in the combustion gases.) The photo cell for small boilers and furnaces is often made of cadmium sulfide and is then given the name "cad cell. If fuel were to continue to enter the furnace and not be burned. the flame's presence completes a circuit opening the gas valve.18) is a light-sensitive device whose conductivity increases in the presence of strong light radiation. Although considerable heat is wasted in starting up the heating equipment and when it is in the off cycle. To correct for this. allowing the furnace/ boiler to be more closely matched to load variations. 4. A High/Low/Off (or High/ Mediurn/Low/Oft) control provides more flexibility in operatiug capacity. or radiation (either visible light or infrared or ultraviolet radiation). full modulation of burner capacity. because the intensity of light from a gas flame is too low. If the flame fails. by control of fuel and airflow rates over the entire tum-down range. Since it may take the main gas valve 30-40 seconds to close. because it ensures safe burner operation. Since a flame conducts electricity. This control shuts off the fuel supply if the fuel does not ignite.19) is a heat-sensitive device placed in the stack to sense gas temperature.92 CHAPTER4 An On/Off control simply starts and stops the burner. the thermocouple is not a satisfactory flame safety control for larger heating equipment nor for equipment that uses intermittent pilot or direct ignition. flame electrical conductivity. since it closes the gas valve quickly (1-3 seconds). The thermocouple is placed in the pilot flame.8 FLAME SAFETY CONTROLS A safety control that deserves special consideration is the flame safety control. To achieve maximum efficiency in larger uuits. use of these control methods is common in smaller equipment because of their low cost and simplicity. Flame failure will open the circuit causing the valve to close. fuel characteristics. is standard. Gas-fired residential furnaces and boilers with a standing pilot use a heat sensing thermocouple for flame detection. A common method for doing this is to interlock the fuel valve and air damper after the initial adjustments have been made to provide the most efficient air-fuel ratio. the programmed controller takes action to adjust the airfuel ratio. and equipment conditions. The sensor can detect one of three possible effects of the flame: temperature (heat). However. or if the flame fails during operation. . The stack switch is often a bimetal type thermostat.ts slowly. The thermocouple consists Of two wires of different metals that at a high temperature create a very small voltage. a serious explosion hazard would quickly arise. The result is improved efficiency under all operating conditions. The flame rod is a suitable flame safety control for gas ignition systems. Because it rea. (The photo cell is not used with a gas flame. an explosion may occur.

the type of radiation from the flame changes an electrical propet:ty of the detector.19 Stack switch flame safety control. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA). Radiation sensing safety controls are ideal. permitting burner operation.) Mounting bracket Velntil. and Ultraviolet cells. (Courtesy: Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).FURNACES AND BOILERS 93 Figure 4. since they react very fast. reaching an explosive concentration sooner. The three types of radiation flame sensors used in commercial equipment are: photo. Figure 4. Flame safety controls for larger commercial equipment must react more quickly because fuel enters at a greater rate.) The bimetal closes a circuit on high temperature. which is then used in a relay to start or stop fnel flow. The photo cell has replaced the stack switch as flame safety control in newer equipment both because of its faster response and its direct sensing of flame presence.18 Photo-cell-type flame safety control sensor ("cad cell" element).etirlO slots Bimetallic element Drive·shaft lever Ignition timing adjusting lever Recycle·timing adjustment lever Burner motor relay I.gnition transformer relay SafetY'switch reset lever . In each case. infrared.

/nstitute. or the steam may be used to heat the hot water with a heat exchanger called a converter. These practices may shorten the life of the boiler. If necessary. considering the additional expense and complication of the converter. The hot water or steam generated in boilers may be used for space heating. Very high buildings may be split into zones to prevent excess pressure on equipment. an independent industry organization. 4. With large boilers. fuel firing rates.20 Arrangement of steam boiler and hot water convertors in hydronic heating system for high-rise building. The use of these units is disappearing. For these and further reasons. such as increasing the draft loss. The answer is that low-pressure hot water boilers usually are designed for a maximum pressure of 30 psig. The Hydronics. They are confusing and sometimes misleading. Steam heating boilers generate steam that may be used directly in steam heating systems. It may seem strange that hot water or steam can be used for cooling. It is also desirable to specify the temperature and flow rate of steam or hot water required. standards . their conversion equalities can be found in tables.9 BOILER APPLICATIONS Terminal units Hot water heating boilers generate hot water that is used directly in hydronic heating systems. The boiler used for space heating is often also used to heat service hot water. called .20 shows this arrangement. Figure 4. In one circuit. Upper zone Lower zone 1-_ _+_-+--jHot water i-L------' Steam boiler I I ___I convertor Figure 4. and in the other flows the water to be heated. It is also possible to produce increased 0titput by sacrificing other characteristics. a separate heat exchanger is usually specified. steam from the boiler flows. It is possible to ob c tain small boilers with a service hot water heating coil furnished internally. furnace volume. space cooling. and equivalent direct radiation (EDR). Boilers are rated by their heat output in BTUlhr.10 BOILER RATING AND SELECTION - "--- Manufacturers present rating data in tables. It is possible to produce increased capacity output from a boiler by firing it at very high fuel rates and by other variations in operating procedures. and draft loss. it would be subject to an unsafe pressure. boiler horsepower. from which the proper boiler can be selected for a given application. These standards may also recommend characteristics such as required amount of heating surface. have been adopted on procedures for testing and rating boilers. but absorption refrigeration machines require heat to produce refrigeration (Chapter 13).94 CHAPTER4 4. or heating of service (domestic) hot water. Another solution is to put the boiler on the roof. This corresponds to a head of 2. Two other units beside the BTUlhr have been used in specifying boiler capacity.3 x 30 = 69 ft water. and it is recommended that they be avoided. An obvious question arises as to why a hot water boiler should not be used. If a hot water boiler were installed in a basement or lower floor with more than 69 ft of height of water piping above it. has established recommended standards for hot water boilers.

This is called the pickup loss. Boiler Gross and Net Output The boiler gross output is the actual heat output of the boiler at its nozzle (exit). First. Insulation will reduce. There is an additional heat loss when starting up a cold system. or pickup allowance. because of two factors: I. as well as other factors. a 40% piping and pickUp allowance is recommended for sizing the boiler. some of which is not useful heating (piping in unheated areas). (The standard allowance for steam boilers is different. a house of worship). Before the boiler can deliver heat to the building. but not eliminate. Piping and Pickup Loss The heat output of a boiler is used to deliver the building heating load. For instance. The American Gas Association (AGA) also recommends standards for gas-fired boilers. if any). the excess capacity can be used to cover large pickup requirements. with 10 F night setback and one hour required pickup time. Techniques using computer managed automatic control systems aid in this. For hot water boilers. Experience has led to standard allowances for the piping and pickUp losses that are often ade- quate.) The 15% allowance is recommended for commercial buildings that are continually heated and that do not have night setback of temperatures. and equipment of the heating system itself must be heated. Under normal conditions. The building is heated intermittently. this loss. The values of pickup losses suggested for intermittent heating and night setback also apply to furnaces. In residential (and some small commercial) applications. It is suggested that the HVAC engineer check if a boiler has been tested and rated in accordance with I-B-R standards before selection. There is a constant loss of heat through hot piping to surrounding areas.000 BTUlhr and a service hot water load of 32. in the morning. This is usually stated in the manufacturer's catalog. this is used to cover breakdown or maintenance of one boiler. an additional 10% pickup loss is recommended by some authorities. temperatures are brought to a comfortable level before {he building is occupied.5 A building has a net space heating load of 370.g. the capable operating engineer knows how to operate the heating system to ensure that.FURNACES AND BOILERS 95 I-B-R ratings. Second. Example 4.allowance is needed if the building is to be brought up to a comfortable temperature within a sufficient time in the morning. standby (reserve) boiler capacity is usually provided by using two or more boilers. This is called the piping loss. The boiler net output is the gross output less the piping and pickup losses. 2. the actual output capacity of the boiler must be greater than the building heating load. the I-B-R standard allowance is 15% of the net output for the combined piping and pickup losses. The piping and pickup allowance is not usually necessary when sizing boilers for larger commercial installations. water. There are two reasons for this. The piping and pickup losses are not the same for every building and often are not easy to determine accurately. all the piping. Consult manufacturers' data for this information. building operating procedures.000 BTUlhr.2) The boiler net output can be considered as equal to the building heating load for a hot water or steam heating system (plus service hot water load on the boiler. That is Gross output = net output + piping loss + pickup loss (4. For buildings that are intermittently heated (e. pickup factOl. the excess capacity is from 25-100% of design load. a large pickup . What should the gross output be? .. if nighttime temperature setback is practiced. Typically. A piping allowance of 15% and pickup of 10% are required. They depend both on the building and heating system configuration. However.

The heating load is 220. Occasionally the heat transferred to the surrounding space is useful. The combustion efficiency and steady-state efficiency terms serve two different purposes. The column titled D.000 = 40..100 BTU/hr.x . Ratings (and other data) for a group of small cast iron. From the ratings in Figure 4.000 + 32. but nevertheless the unit should be well insulated.000 BTUlhr = 0.) The steady-state efficiency is defined as Steady-state efficiency = " " .000 BTUlhr Setback should not be so excessive and rapid that it could cause thermal shock in a boiler..Select a gas-fired hot water boiler for the Moneybags Mansion.2.. which is given different names. The steady-state efficiency is slightly less than the combustion efficiency defined in Section 4.6 _ _ _ _ _ _. This information can be used in selecting a boiler and determining its steadystate efficiency. with a net I-B-R rating of 226.96 CHAPTER4 Solution From the definitions given in Equation 4.' ..000 200. Note that the gross output is 260. Example 4.000 BTUlhr.000 .000 BTU/hr.hr 1000 BTU =200CFH . or steady-state efficiency. ther· mal efficiency..21.10 x 402.000 X Steady-State Efficiency The gross output of a boiler or furnace is less than the heat input due to unavoidable losses. such as operating efficiency.000 = 60.. The combustion efficiency is used in field testing of the heating unit to see if it is operating sa~isfactorily. a Model GG-325 is the smallest boiler that will do the job. determine the steady-state efficiency and ft 3 lhr (CFH) of natural gas consumed at full load. but this is unusual..' .21.15 x 402. The heat loss from the jacket or casing of the heating unit is quite small compared to the flue gas"losses.6. overall efficiency. Steady-state efficiency = gross heat output x 100% heat input = 167.5% The heating value of natural gas is about 1000 BTUlft3 (Table 4. The steady-state efficiency is used in the rating and selection of the boiler or furnace for a given application. Boiler net output Piping allowance Pickup allowance = 370.3. This may be expressed in an efficiency term.1). (We will use the term steady·state..O. therefore the amount of gas required is BTU 1 ft 3 CFH of gas = 200. Solution Using Equation 4.x 100% gross heat output heat input (4. This is a situation where extreme water temperature fluctuations cause stress damage to the boiler.000 BTU/hr = 0. CAPACITY is the gross output of the boiler.. 100=83. gas-fired hot water heating boilers are shown in Figure 4..000 BTUlhr Required boiler gross output = 502.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ For a Model GG-200H boiler. because the combustion efficiency includes only the flue gas losses..E.000 = 402.3) The losses that occur in the heating equipment are the flue gas losses and heat lost from the hot surface of the unit to the surrounding space. Solution The net output (rating) of the boiler must be at least equal to the building heating load. which includes a 15% piping and pickup allowance. Example4.

p/4 '" Crates for all models are 30" wide. plus 2-way combination control (hi limit and circulator relay). draft hood spill switch.700 RATINGS FOR WATER A. D. base. and automatic air vent.000 Btu input are tested and rated for capacity under the U.000 200.6 59% 8 230/16 59% 8 26 ' V'6 26'V'6 59% 8 17 30V'6 66Ys 59% 8 17 9 221h 9 221h 17 1 v.600 108. (Courtesy: The Slant/Fin Corporation. INPUT CAPACITY (Btuh) (Btuh) 250.3 597. PACKAGED WATER BOILER (SUFFIX P) includes all equipment listed for mOdel S. uP" for packaged water boiler.200 89.000 feet elevation and an additional 4% for every additional 1.000 325.0 1078.200 161.000 83.700 126. hi limit control. altitude.) .4 7 16 1 Y4 230/.000 186.lHE HYORONICS SPECIFICATIONS: GG SERIES Hot Water Model ~B ~ '""""" Cenified R.000 175." •• AG..S..3 742. Slant/Fm should be consulted before selectmg a boiler for installation haVing unusual piping and pick-up requirements.000 t Add suffix US" for standard water boiler. RIGHT SIDE HOT WATER BOILER MODELS A JACKET WIDTH B DRAFT HOOD HEIGHT C FLUE COLlAR DIAMETER 0 JACKET TOP TO DRAFT HOOD E CIRCULATOR RETURN FlANGE F GAS CONNECTION NAT.4 7 16 1'. rollout safety switch. PROPANE GAS RATINGS RATINGS FOR WATER A.700 72. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT: Room thermostat Mi!livolt (self energized) controls.000 145.100 243. combination limit controls and millivolt thennostat. INPUT CAPACITY (Btuh) (Btuh) 75. *For GG-300 thru GG-375 and GXH-300 Figure 4.4 GG~125 GG-150 GG-17S GG-200 GG-22S GG-250 169/'6 53'14 169/'6 53V~ GG~275 GG-300 GG~325 GG·350 30Yl6 66Ys GG~375 46% 5 6% 1'4 130/'6 5314 19'0/. pressure and temperature gauge. Annual Fuel Utilization Effi~ ciency based on constant circulation.000 225. Ft) 371. .000 275.. 38" high. dimensions DHSpili Switch ~---24 '/2" ---+1 I GALAXY' DOE Seasonal Efficiency (AFUE) MODEL HED GG~100 HED GG~125 HED GG~150 HED GG~175 HED GG~200 HED GG~225 HED GG~75 GG~250HED GG~275HED 1'12" Supply tf2" Vent Power In Opening Return E Combination Limit and EFFICIENCY 84.6 840.O.39% 82.J% 1v.O.000 228.E.100 145.E..A gross output rating (Btuh) NOTE: All boilers under 300.6 57Y2 19'o/H. drain cock.700 198. circulator.000 NETI=B=R RATING WATER (Btuh) 55. Add suffix "E" for intermittent pilot ignition system (available only with 24 volt gas valve)..15 (hot water).000 64. 57Y2 6 13 1'14 6 13 1% 6 13 1% 6 13 1'. Intermittent pilot ignition system. Dept. %/% 1v. instead of hi limit control. specify gas by name "Natural.40% 82.. combination gas valve inctuding manual shut-off. gas orifices and manifold assembly.P. combination gas valve.E. GG-75 130/'6 GG-100 13¥!6 53'.. 38" (GG-250 thru GG-375).000 240.0 MODEL NUMBERt GG-250H GG·275H GG·300 GG·325 GG·35Q GG-375 Net ratmgs are based on a piping and pick-up a1!owance of 1." or "Propane.000 300.19% 82. pilot adj. equipment BASIC WATER BOILERJ5UFFIX 5) includes pre-assembled heat exchanger with built-in air eliminator. gas burners.000 125. Ft) 1211.ns·· ratings MODEL NUMBERt GG-75H GG-100H GG-125H GG·150H GG·175H GG·200H GG·225H feet ® WATER (Sq. Air package consisting of diaphragm expansion tank.G.500 260.000" 300.'+-~-il' Safety Switch "Includes mterrmttent pilot and vent damper. pre-assembled insulated semi-extended jacket (extended as shown). 1h/1h 17 'hI'h 'hI'h 'hI1h 'hI1h 'hIYz 'hI% 1h1'h %/1h 1Yz 1v.21 Capacity ratings for a group of small cast iron gas-fired hot water boilers. pressure regulator.300 208.98% 82. Ratings must be reduced by 4% at 2.000 150. Type of gas: After model number.18% 82.000 350.000 375. pressure relief valve (ASME).000" NETI=B=R RATING WATER (Btuh) 181.3 481.A.000" 260.57% B Rollout ". flue collector.000 125.0 1390 1510 1620 1740 NATURAL AND L.51% 83. %/% :y. depth 30" (GG-75 thru GG-225).lPROP. draft hood.000" 280.000 103.G.900 WATER (Sq. D.A.000 feet elevation over 2. automatic vent damper (except GG-3oo thru GG-375 and GXH-300)..000 209.000 100. of Energy (D.6 968.700 226. m and pressure reducing valve.) Test Procedure for boilers.3 1322.D.3.. Combustible floor kit. and automatic pilot-thermocouple safety.000 167.45% 83.78% 82.

For the same reasons. Natural draft would not be adequate. Drainage of water collected is important both in the design and installation of these units. There is another high efficiency type of unit (Figure 4. This creates a pressure pulse that drives the . instead of being drawn from the equipment room. an intermittent form of burning. 6. high efficiency units usually are furnished with combustion air fans. the boiler may be starved of sufficient air for combustion. resulting in an operating efficiency of about 85%. Provide sufficient openings to the outdoors for both combustion air and ventilation air. Locate the boiler as close to the flue as possible. This provides more heat transfer surface and a longer path for the hot combustion gases. More recently. This is an extremely important point.12 ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY IN BOILERS AND FURNACES Until the advent of "high efficiency" units. consider a penthouse location for a gas-fired boiler. Provide ample space on all sides of the boiler for maintenance. Initially. Because of the high resistance of gas flo\\' caused by the greater.98 CHAPTER4 4. Follow fire and safety codes. Install the breeching to the flue without offsets. The combustion gases are vented directly to the outdoors through a plastic pipe. Allow ample size openings and passages into the boiler room for the boiler. with an operating efficiency of about 90-95%. sometimes through a side wall instead of a chimney. We will not attempt to repeat these detailed instructions. the water vapor in the flue gas condenses. higher efficiency equipment has been made available. These units have a larger or a secondary heat exchanger. Some high efficiency units have a sealed COIl1bustion system. If the openings are not adequate. Combustion air is drawn directly from outdoors to the combustion chamber through a sealed pipe. reduce the combustion gas temperature to about 300 F. 2. The heat exchangers that handle the lower temperature gases in the very high efficiency units are made of stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant materials because of the moisture present. One group. 4.11 BOILER INSTALLATION Each manufacturer furnishes specific instructions for the installation of the boiler when it is shipped to the job. reduce the stack gas temperature to about 110 F. 1. On high-rise buildings. Another group. a sectional cast iron boiler may be the solution. The very high efficiency results from the additional sensible heat recovered. very high efficiency units. Allow adequate distance in front of the boiler for tube cleaning and removal. a small cliarge of fuel and air are introduced into the combustion chamber and ignited. 4. No draft hood is necessary. the best residential and small commercial boilers and furnaces could achieve an overall steady-state efficiency (when well maintained) of about 70-80% by recovering enough heat from the combustion gases to reduce flue gas temperatures to about 400500 F and using about 50-60% excess air. 5. more tortuous heat exchanger surface. resulting in the utilization of more of the heat released and a corresponding lower flue gas temperature. stack vents and drains must be made of plastic pipe or other noncon'osive materials.22) that uses pulse combustion. If an existing building that requires a new boiler does not have adequate openings for a tubular boiler. At this low temperature. This is called direct \'ellting. In all of the furnaces and boilers discussed so far. Fix~d grilles in walls or doors are one method. but will instead list some procedures that are generally useful. This eliminates the need for a flue running the whole height of the building. fuel combustion takes place continuously. medium-high efficiency boilers and furnaces. 3. The architect must be informed of the dimensions needed so that he or she can provide them. and from the heat of condensation of the water vapor given up. resulting in the production of toxic carbon monoxide.

the damper opens. Department of Energy..22 Pulse combustion type high efficiency hot water boiler. the natural draft effect will cause warm equipment room air to continuously vent up the stack. as well as installed with new ones. which can be defined as AFUE= annual heat output .exchanger . The features discussed until now concerning high efficiency boilers and furnaces improve the steady-state efficiency. They are often required by local codes.3) may be installed in the flue. This damper is closed when the unit is not operating. There are heat losses associated with the equipment when it is not operating. that is. (Courtesy: Hydrotherm. It is approximated by tests specified by the U.S. One possible concern with pulse type equipment is that the pulsating noise created may be more disturbing than the continual noise of a steady burning unit. when the boiler or furnace is in the off cycle..FURNACES AND BOILERS 99 _Air :==. ._~. or to heat service hot water. The AFUE of a conventional boiler or furnace with natural draft.4) The actual AFUE can really only be truly measured by taking continual measurements of heat output and heat input over th~ year. Large boilers have combustion control systems that enable them to use much less excess air than do residential boilers. [nc. When the boiler or furnace starts up. Sealed combustion type units would not use a vent damper.. including how to minimize these losses. annual heat input X 100% (4. Another factor reducing system efficiency is a standing pilot flame. an automatic vent damper (Figure 4. Intermittent ignition and automatic vent dampers are common practice with large systems.I~-Gas "'--"'+----Combustion : T . This represents a considerable infiltration heat loss into the building. This is continual energy loss when the unit is in the off cycle. Also of major concern is the system efficiency over the full heating season. To prevent this loss.) combustion gases out. some of which we will now discuss. Another small charge then enters and is ignited from the residual heat.Return water ~-I-:+---- Condensation 3 Figure 4. higher steady-state efficiency is achieved in this manner.Hot gases _ Supply water 2 Heat " ' + . The heating equipment does not operate in a steadystate condition continuously. The heat losses associated with the actual working conditions of the boiler or furnace such as the vent stack losses on shutdown and standing pilot need to be accounted for in determining the annual energy efficiency of the unit. increasing system efficiency further. Some large units are equipped with a flue gas heat exchanger that extracts some of the waste heat.. Automatic vent dampers can be retrofitted into existing systems. Thus.. . In conventional flue and equipment arrangements. This air will be replaced naturally by cold outside air entering the room. we want to niinimize the annual fuel use. an almost impossible task. Intermittent ignition systems solve this problem. . This is approximated by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE). This heat exchanger might be used to preheat combustion air (this is called an economizer). since they draw air directly from outdoors. just as in operating conditions.

List the major components of a hot water boiler and a steam boiler. 5. 12. thereby reducing extra infiltration air that would go up the stack. (Care must be taken that this 3.weil-mcclain. 9.100 CHAPTER 4 standing pilot. listing essential components. and no vent damper can be as low as 50-60%. Consider installation of a solar heating system for domestic hot water.. List the major components of a warm air furnace. List and explain the purpose of common boiler accessories. Name four types of wimn air heating devices. 5." ~ ~ ~ . At part loads. rather than a standing pilot flame. For larger projects install multiple boilers. 8.) 12. Clean burner nozzles regularly.. 9.com www. installation. II. 10. selection and specifications. Useful Websites Information on boiler and/or furnance performance. 2.21. What are piping loss and pickup loss? What are gross and net boiler output? What are the pressure and temperature ratings for low pressure boilers? Explain the difference between a firetube and watertube boiler. 4. The AFUE is listed for the boilers shown in Figure 4.slantfin. where efficiency is higher. the AFUE can reach 80-95%.com www.and oil-fired equipment? How is draft controlled in larger boilers? List the m~or fuels used in heating plants and their relative advantages and disadvantages.burnhan.kewaneeboiler. Do not use unnecessarily oversized boilers or furnaces.13 ENERGY CONSERVATION Some methods of conserving energy with boilers and furnaces are as follows: I. Use temperature setback when feasible. Describe the basic operating and safety controls for a warm air furnace. What are the two meanings of draft? Describe the different methods of achieving draft. ~ 15."{ .dunkirk. Review Questions I. List the byproducis of the combustion of these fuels. 13. 2. 7. Describe the basic operating and safety controls for hot water and steam boilers. How is draft usually controlled in small gas. 3. Sketch a typical hot water boiler piping arrangement. boilers will then operate closer to full capacity. 4.:i . Adjust the air-fuel ratio so that excess air is the minimum recommended for the equipment. Consider the use of heat exchange devices to use some of the waste heat in the hot flue gases. 14. and maintenance can be found at the following Websites: www. 10. With energy-saving improvements noted here. 7. Clean all heat transfer surfaces regularly (boiler tubes. This type of burner uses less excess air and results in better heat transfer than other types. Use proper boiler water treatment methods. . heat exchangers). which might cause corrosion.com or automatic vent dampers do not result in water vapor condensation. Describe a typical programming control sequence for the operation of a boiler. Consider the use of high efficiency boilers or furnaces.com www. List four physical arrangements of warm air furnaces and where they would be located in a residence. This device closes when the combustion unit is not operating. Describe a typical programming control sequence for the operation of a warm air furnace. What pollutants may result from incomplete combustion of these fuels? 4. Use intermittent ignition. 6.com www. Install a flame retention type of oil burner in residential equipment. II. 8. 13. 6. Install an automatic vent damper in the flue. Consult a specialist for advice.

Find the DOE capacity.FURNACES AND BOILERS 10 1 16. Select a natural gas-fired hot water boiler for this application.7.10 Select a gas-fired hot water boiler of the Series 2 model from the Website www. 18. 4. Try www.15 Explain thermal shock and its preventive means. What is gross output and net output of the boiler? A furnace burning natural gas is designed to operate with 30% excess air. assuming a standard piping and pickup allowance. It is to be used in a building with a piping and pickup loss of 100. Determine the full load steady-state efficiency of the boiler. Assume a standard piping and pickup allowance. What is the approximate boiler combustion efficiency? 4.000 BTUlhr. What percentage reading of CO 2 will indicate proper operation? If the difference between the flue gas temperature and room temperature Computer Solution Problems 4. Determine the DOE capacity and input. Select a natural gas-fired not water boiler.com.8 Problems 4. List the types of flame safety controls.com. Explain the terms theoretical air and excess air.000 BTU/hr and a full load steady-state efficiency of 78%. List five possible ways of increasing heating equipment efficiency. how much gas would be required at full load? A building has a net heating load of 175. Using a combustion gas analyzer.000 BTUlhr.12 Prepare instructions for cleaning a stearn boiler. It has a steady-state efficiency of 72% and the piping and pickup loss is 22%. Assume a standard piping and pickup allowance. 4. Select a natural gas-fired hot water boiler of the Galaxy model from the Website www. What is the maximum heating load the boiler can handle? A boiler is using 1. What is the percent excess air? Flue gas temperature reads 520 F.2 fuel oil. 4.5 4.000 BTUlhr. input. What is the meaning of AFUE? 22. If the boiler in Problem 4.2 fuel oil.2 4.3 GPM of No. The piping heat loss is 25.cleaver-brooks.slantfin.6 4.lennox.14 What are the proper inspecton maintenance and performance procedures for a residential boiler? Try www. is 400 F. 19.000 BTUH. Describe the methods of burner firing rate control.7 A boiler uses No. How do these controls work? 20.000 BTUlhr and the pickup loss is 30. what would be the furnace combustion efficiency at design conditions (neglecting other losses)? 4.13 What are the necessary clearances from combustible material for a commercial steam boiler? Use an appropriate Website. 17.9 A building has a net heating load of 155. 4. A hot water boiler has a design heat input of 800. .1 A residence has a net heating load of 120.com. What is the boiler combustion efficiency (neglecting other losses)? For the boiler refened to in Problem 4.com.000 BTU/hr.burnham. The building heating load is 200. Produce a detailed dimension drawing and specifications. a stack heat exchanger is installed. 4. What problem may arise if stack gas temperature is too low? 21. a technician measures 12% CO 2 in the stack gases.11 Prepare a directive for proper heating boiler blowdown procedures. 4.kewaneeboiler.com. Describe the basic types of gas and oil burners. Room temperature is 70 F.4 4.1 is operating at full load stead-state efficiency. Try the Website www. and AFUE. Use an appropirate Website.000 BTUlhr.3 4. reducing flue gas temperature to 370 F.

and one loop is formed. The terminal units are the heat exchangers that transfer the heat between the water and the spaces to be heated or cooled. Note that the entire water supply flows through each terminal unit and then returns to the generator and pump. Series loop A diagram of a series loop arrangement is shown in Figure 5.1 PIPING ARRANGEMENTS The connections between the piping and the terminal units may be made in any of these four basic ways: 1. One-pipe main . Two-pipe reverse return 5. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Identify the types of hydronic piping system arrangements and describe their features. 3. 2. and the units cannot be isolated from each other.2 SERIES LOOP 5. Select baseboard radiation. we will examine types of hydronic plpll1g arrangements and terminal units. 4. you wiII be able to: 1. It is so named because all of the units are in a series.c H A p T E R Hydronic Piping Systems and Terminal Units T he piping that is used to circulate hot or chilled water for air conditioning is called a hydronic piping system. Because all of the water flows through each unit. the series loop has several disadvantages: L The maintenance or repair of any terminal unit requires shutdown of the entire system. In this chapter. Identify the types of hydronic terminal units and describe theirfeatures. Layout a hydronic system and determine its water temperatures and flow rates. 3. 2. Separate capacity control of each unit by changing its water flow rate or temperature is 102 2. Two-pipe direct return 4. I.

2.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 103 Terminal---------r units \ ~ Pump Pump HWorCHW generator HW or CHW generator (a) (b) Terminal units Figure 5. The number of units is limited. These disadvantages can be partially remedied by arranging the piping in two or more split series loops. (b) Schematic. the water temperature in later units may be too low for adequate heating. Pump HWorCHW generator Terminal units Pump HWorCHW generator (a) (b) . This creates two or more zones which can be controlled separately. however. Since in heating systems the water temperature continually decreases as it gives up heat in each unit in series. Figure 5.2 Split series loop piping system. (b) Schematic. not possible. It is limited to small. (a) Isometric.1 Series loop piping system. as shown in Figure 5. units. (Control is possible by use of air dampers. (a) Isometric. low-budget applications such as residences.) 3. The series loop arrangement is simple and inexpensive.

. the two-pipe (also called Figure 5. Additionally. a -f Figure 5. By locating valves in the branch lines. To overcome this problem... As in the series loop. Consequently.:. ~-"----. Flowing water seeks the path of least resistance..4 TWO-PIPE DIRECT RETURN To get the water temperature supplied to each terminal unit to be equal.3 One-pipe main piping system.. each unit can be separately controlled and serviced... 5.. thus starving the terminal unit.:=.. if the terminal unit is below the main.. Terminal units Pump Terminal units . special tee is also needed at the return branch to prevent backflow.. each terminal unit is connected by a supply and a return branch pipe to the main. special diverting tees (Figure 5. (b) Schematic. but instead of being in series with this main. directing some of the water to the branch. As in the series loop. HWorCHW generator HWorCHW (a) generator (b) . water circulating in the main tends to flow through the straight run of the tee fitting at each supply branch.. (a) Isometric. the water goiug to the later units may be too cool to heat the rooms adequately. if there are too many units. there is one maiu pipe through which the water flows.4) are used at each supply branch takeoff.4 l t d 1-·""" Diverting tee used in one-pipe main systems.3.104 CHAPTER 5 5..3 ONE-PIPE MAIN Branch A diagram of a one-pipe main arrangement is shown in Figure 5.

there will be too much water going to the units nearest the pump and too little going to the units furthest from the pump.6.5 TWO-PIPE REVERSE RETURN The balancing problem in the direct return arrangement would be overcome if the circuit length out to each terminal unit and back was made approximately the same.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS Terminal units r---. Each terminal unit is fed by an individual supply branch. but the balancing process is difficult and requires considerable expense. The total system flow rate (GPM) is split up among the terminal units.5 shows a two-pipe direct return system.5 is called direct return because the return main is routed to bring the water back to the source by the shortest path. this creates a problem. Since flowing water prefers the path with the least resistance. parallel piping) arrangement is used.~~ HW or CHW generator plant L _______ L __ _ / / / / / / Terminal units .. The two-pipe arrangement in Figure 5. Terminal units (buildings) ~~71 . All larger systems use twopipe arrangements.. balancing valves can be installed in every branch. Although its cost is higher than one-pipe main and series loop arrangements. (b) Schematic. This is accomplished by piping the return main in a reverse return arrangement.--. it can be used Figure 5. 5. the two-pipe system allows each terminal unit to be separately controlled and serviced.5 that the path the water takes from the pump to the first units and back is shorter than that from the pump to the units further away.5 Two-pipe direct return system. a return branch carries the water back to the return main. Figure 5. The problem is largely solved with a reverse return. Supply 105 HWorCHW generator Figure 5. as shown in Figure 5..6 on any size installation. one for supply water and one for return. and because the supply water temperature to each unit is the same. There are two mains. In this manner. Note in Figure 5. (a) Isometric-twa-pipe reverse return to a number of buildings. To overcome this problem. all units receive water directly from the source. Note that the path length for Two-pipe reverse return system. Supply HW or CHW generator /r--j ------~7'------/ / / /- (a) (b) . according to the design. However.

8). In modern buildings. An instance of this might occur on a cool day with solar radiation on one side of the building only. In some situations.7 THREE-PIPE SYSTEM 5. heating is often required in some rooms and cooling in others at the same time. there may be little difference between the length of each path. it may not be difficult to balance a direct return system. The relative costs of the direct return and reverse return piping arrangements depend on the building shape and location of terminal units. in others. A very high resistance in the terminal units may make fluid flow through them approximately equal. This might be chosen for a high-rise building where separate control of each unit on a floor is not needed. . Figure 5. In each case. the reverse return piping may be more expensive. If the terminals are all far from the pump and grouped near each other.106 CHAPTER 5 the water is about the same regardless of which unit it passes through. one circulating chilled water. In some cases. 3. the planner must examine the layout before making a choice. The water temperature to units far from the chiller would be too high for adequate cooling with series loop oLQne-pipe main arrangement. but it may then cause other problems (see Chapter 9). yet flow balance will be simple and costs reduced as compared with a complete reverse return. only one can be used at any given time. taking advantage of the best features of each. These are: 1. Three-way control valves in the branch to each terminal unit will determine whether the unit receives hot or chilled water. Simultaneous heating or cooling can be made available by use of a three-pipe arrangement (Figure 5. 2. With this arrangement. HWorCHW generator Figure 5. It is possible to make the fluid resistance in each circuit approximately equal in a direct return system by using smaller diameter piping in the closer branches. the other hot water. 5.7 Combination reverse return (riser) and series loop system.7 shows an example The supply main in the two-pipe arrangements can be furnished with either chilled or hot water for cooling or heating. t!le costs are not significantly different. It may seem from the prior discussion on balancing that the two-pipe reverse return system would always be chosen over the direct return. There are two supply mains.6 COMBINATION ARRANGEMENTS It is sometimes useful to combine some of the four -basic piping arrangements.---i Terminal units r--. as was shown with the series loop arrangement. Two-pipe arrangements are almost always used for chilled water distribution to terminal cooling units. This depends on the piping layout. The two-pipe and one-pipe main arrangements can be split into two or more systems (if this is useful). however. The return main receives the water . However. it is a relatively simple process to balance the flow rates. if the system is connected to both a water chiller and hot water boiler. of a combined two-pipe reverse return with a group of units on each floor in series.

6. convectors. one for chilled water and one for hot water. Terminal units 3-way valve J j Radiators Convectors Baseboard Fin-tube Radiant panels (heating and cooling) Unit heaters ~CS CHW HW Cooling 1. preferably. and fin-tube are collectively called radiation. creating a natural circulation. but it should be recognized.. but of course it is expensive. In this location. under all windO\\'s in the colder climates. heat is supplied where the heat loss is greatest. Figure S.9 shows good and poor locations of radiation. Figure 5.8 FOUR-PIPE SYSTEM The jour-pipe system is actually two separate twopipe systems. the three-pipe system can waste energy.. which results in extra heating and cooling in the boiler and chiller. ' the room largely by natural convectIOn. Induction units (heating and cooling) Radiators. Generally. 5. The chilled water is warmed and the hot water is cooled in the mixing process. This problem can be minimized by careful design. Because the return main mixes hot and chilled water. This is a misleadin 0 name because they transfer some of the heat to b .. 2. 5. the type of units used for heating and cooling are different from each other. The air adjacent to the unit is warmed and rises naturally.. 4. baseboard.. 3. and cold downdrafts are prevented.8 t Three-pipe system.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS To other units From other units 107 Heating 1... Except for radiators and some convectors. This is an ideal arrangement. The connections to units can be made either by direct or by reverse return. 5. Some energy codes prohibit three-pipe systems... t FigureS.9 HYDRONIC TERMINAL UNITS The terminal units are heat exchangers that transfer the heat between the room air and the circulating water.. El Poor \ f-- Terminal unit Good . from each unit. and therefore no mixing occurs. The fins increase the heat transfer. All types of radiation should be located along exposed walls and. The material may be steel pipes with steel fins or copper tube with either aluminum or copper fins. Fan-coil units (heating and cooling) 2. the heating or cooling element of all hydronic terminal units is usually made of finned tubing.9 Correct and incorrect location of radiation. The following will be discussed here: Terminal unit o Warm lJ Cold air downdraft Cool air ~ II .

10 RADIATORS Convector (free-standing type). Convectors are available in varied arrangements to suit the architectural needs of the building.12).14).13). Steel tubing in various assembly arrangements Large cast iron sectional radiators are less commonly used in new installations because of their bulkiness.108 CHAPTER 5 Outlet grille~ Cabinet front cover Heating element Cabinet .11 5. at the top front. . or with a sloping top (Figure 5.10 Cast iron sectional radiator.12 Recessed convector. They are available in a number of standard lengths and heights. Hollow sections made either of cast iron or fabricated steel sheet metal (Figure 5.11). vestibules. whereas recessed units are recessed into an opening provided in the wall (Figure 5.10). Wall hung units allow easier floor and carpet cleaning. Free-standing units rest on the floor whereas wall hung units are off the floor and are supported by the wall (Figure 5. cost. Convectors have a finned tube or small cast iron heating element enclosed by a sheet metal cabinet (Figure 5. This type of radiation is constructed of hollow metal through which the hot water flows (Figure 5.. Flush-type units are available with the outlet grille on top. This type of radiation is available in three forms: 1. Convectors are used in rooms.11 CONVECTORS Figure 5.. Flush units are mounted against the wall. and stairwells. Recessed units have the advantage of not taking up floor space. O(~--- Inlet grille Figure 5. Hollow metal panels 3. Figure 5. 5.10) 2. and appearance. Room'air enters through an opening in the bottom and leaves through an outlet grille at the top. The sloping top prevents placement of objects or people sitting on the cabinet.

111o t II Damper o Free-standing Wall hung Figure 5.16). It consists of a finned tube heating element with a sheet metal cover open at the bottom and with a slotted opening in the top (Figure 5. The cover and fins are thin and therefore will not withstand heavy abuse.15). usually !6 or 'l'< in.13 FIN-TUBE This type of radiation is similar to baseboard radiation. Figure 5.15 Baseboard radiation. The cover is often installed along the whole length of the wall for a neater appearance.12 BASEBOARD This type of radiation is located close to theftoor in front of the architectural baseboard strip. Tubing diameter is small. (Courtesy: Slant/Fin Corporation. The heating element is usually made of larger tubing ('l'< to 2 in. (Figure 5. even when the heating element is not required for the whole length.) and both the element and cover are heavier and stronger than that used for baseboard radiation. Heating element I Figure 5. Baseboard radiation is very popular in residences because it is inexpensive and unobtrusive. t II o o Top outlet Sloping top outlet Top front outlet .HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 109 t -~ .14 Outlet arrangements.13 Free-standing and wall hung convector.) 5. 5.

-lr.16 Fin-tube radiation... and extending over all or a considerable p<!rt of the surface.17 Horizontal and vertical propeller unit heaters.J '--- Vertical down-blow propellor unit heater (b) . Because the heating or cooling source is spread out.14 RADIANT PANELS o Horizontal propel lor unit heater (a) A radiant panel system has tubing installed in walls... and casing (Figure 5..) Covers are available with flat or sloping tops and varied quality of appearance. Propeller Unit Heaters This type of unit heater is available in two versions ~horizontal or vertical discharge. It has adjustable outlet Figure 5. Both heating and cooling systems are available... The capacity of convectors and baseboard and fin-tube radiation can all be manually controlled by dampers located at the air outlet. floors.. motor. Two kinds of unit heaters will be discussed here.. Fan and motor I I 0 Heating element o r ... propeller fan. Each has a finned-tube coil heating element.. Motor and fan 5. capacity does not increase proportionally with number of rows. (Courtesy: Vulcan Radiator Company.. (However..110 CHAPTER 5 I i " 5.15 UNIT HEATERS The unit heater differs from the previous types of tenninal units in having a fan that forces the air through the unit at a greater rate than would be achieved by natural convection. arranged in coils to achieve a more compact arrangement. The capacity of fin-tube radiation is greater per foot of length than baseboard radiation because of larger fins and larger pipe.. The heating element is finned tubing.17). or ceiling. Heating element Adjustable louvers -----. L .. Figure 5..) Fin-tube radiation is widely used in commercial and industrial applications where radiation is desired along exposed walls. Ceiling panels are used for cooling.. (a) Horizontal propeller unit heater. (b) Vertical down-blow propeller unit heater. It is an ideal system.. but it can be very expensive. As a result. Tubing may be stacked more than one row high to increase output. radiant panel systems produce uniform temperatures and comfortable air motion. The horizontal blow heater is usually mounted at 7-10 ft elevations.. so that the cooled air drops and circulates through the room. unit heaters have a high heating capacity for a given physical size.

it may have one coil for heating or cooling or separate heating and cooling coils. as in vestibules. some units have an electric strip heater instead of a hot water heating coil. it looks like a convector (Figure 5.20 Fan-coil unit.18 Cabinet unit heater-floor mounted. The vertical down-blow unit heater is suitable for heating spaces with high ceilings and large floor areas. Ceiling Air Heating filter element Fan and motor Figure 5.\9). and noisy.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS III dampers to control air direction.20). Adjustable outlet diffusers are available so that the amount of floor area heated can be varied. and a cabinet enclosure. because the outlet grilles will direct the air in the desired direction (Figure 5. Figure 5. It consists of a cabiuet enclosing one or two serpentine-shaped finnedtube coils. In outward appearance. Air is directed toward work spaces or door openings. 5. and an air filter (Figure 5.J :. / Heating element Fan and motor IlQoci:Xxzl~-Air filter Heating/ cooling coil Fan -~-t--+\ o Air filter ~bzci~~~ III t Outside air (optional) ~ -_--. small centrifugal fans.16 FAN-COIL UNITS This type of hydronic terminal unit is suitable for both cooling and heating. bulky. vestibules. Cabinet Unit Heaters This type has a finned-tube heating element arranged as a serpentine coil. As with cabinet unit heaters. ~ inlet . The units are mounted at high elevations.18). It is often used at loading platforms. but we will use this name for a unit quite similar in construction that is used for either heating or cooliug. Cabinet unit heaters can be used in commercial applications because they have a pleasing appearance and are relatively quiet. small centrifugal fans with motors. an air filter. as required.19 Cabinet unit heater-ceiling mounted. These units are often used in factories and warehouses. The cabinet unit heater is often used where a convector would be suitable but where the required heat output is larger. Propeller fan unit heaters are generally limited to industrial applications or service areas of commercial buildings because they are unsightly. They are sometimes called fan-coil units. garage doorswherever doors may be opened frequently and "spot" heating is needed.. Depending on system design. It can also be mounted flat against a ceiling when this is architecturally desirable.l1____Ld--. Alternately. Fan-coil units include a drain pan under the coil to collect the condensate created from dehumidifying Figure 5. fan-coil units can be mounted in various horizontal and vertical arrangements.

is usually more objectionable than the very low level air noise from the induction unit. neutral. The induction unit has a drain pan. lint screen type filter. The changing wind effects can greatly affect the amount of outside air brought in. operating. since the resistance to airflow increases with higher efficiency. The mixed air (primary and secondary) exits through the top grille. about on the level of the familiar window unit filter. not the often quite dirty outside air: For these reasons. In the heating mode.17 INDUCTION UNITS This type of terminal unit is suitable for both cooling and heating. This air is forced out through small nozzles at a high velocity. The cabinet contains a cooling! heating coil. Too much air will waste energy. Instead. 5. Some fan-coil units include an opening and damper in the rear of the cabinet to connect directly through the wall for outdoor ventilation air.112 CHAPTER 5 Mixed air the air when operating in the cooling mode. However. because it has so many units.21). otherwise little room air is circulated and the heating or cooling is inadequate. The lint screen filter is very thin and porous. Frequent cleaning of the lint screen is often required to keep the induction effect going. drain pans. Considerable maintenance is a m~or aspect of a fan-coil system. Capacity variation of a fan-coil unit can be achieved through room thermostat control of either fan speed or coil water flow. and filters must be cleaned of lint and dirt regularly and often. This is because the induction effect can only overcome a very small air resistance. . t Cooling/heating coil Lint screen filter ~ o ~~ Induced secondary ~ room air * t . 111f--. ventilation air can be furnished from central air handling units with better filters. There are problems associated with this. the filter is of minimal efficiency. too little will result in poor air quality.) The filter is basically suitable for cleaning only recirculated room air. bringing ventilation directly into the fan-coil unit will often lead to unnecessary operating and maintenance problems. the absence of a ul\it fan -as compared to the fan-coil unit means no lerminal unit motors to maintain (a large project may have hundreds of units). The primary air can be delivered cold. conditions whether or not the drain pan must be piped to a central drain. especially if the fan starts and stops. The induction unit does not require a fan to circulate room air across the coil. with a minimal cleaning quality. Maintenance of the large number of motors must also be compared to the few in an HVAC system with only central air handling units.. a connection for primary air. but also the fans. The air is moved by an induction effect. Coils.21 Induction unil. In addition. (Higher filtering efficiency not only raises the cost of the filter.Plenum chamber Figure 5. Central HVAC systems using fan-coil units are very popular due to their flexibility and often competitive total system costs. Furthermore. or warm as needed. chilled water is delivered to the coil. These drains usually must be piped to a central building drain. and air nozzles or jets (Figure 5. A more detailed explanation of the induction unit air conditioning system will be discussed in Chapter 12. In the cooling mode... hot water is delivered to the coil. It is used in air-water type central HVAC systems. the fan noise. It depends on the system design and. Primary air from a central air handling unit is delivered at high pressure to the plenum (chamber). This induces (draws) room (secondary) air into the unit across the coil.

For private residences. gal/min (5. Hydronic cooling systems using chilled water (CHW) do not have temperature categories. In HTW systems. The usual practice in designing LTW systems is to select a supply water temperature between 180-240 F and a system temperature drop between 10-40 F. as the water temperature increases. flow rate.18 SYSTEM WATER TEMPERATURES AND FLOW RATES Hydronic heating systems are classified into temperature categories as follows: LTW (low temperature hot water) -temperature below 250 F. F A more convenient form of the equation is to express the flow rate in GPM. However. Manufacturers often suggest desirable temperature ranges for their heating and cooling equipment. equipment of greater strength is required to handle the increased pressure.2) Although the conversion factor of 1 GPM = 500 lblhr is correct only at cold water temperatures. a greater possibility with children. The relationship between water temperature. and pump energy consumption to be reduced. In theory. The supply temperature required in CHW systems depends on the dehumidification needed (Chapter 7) and usually ranges from 40-50 F. The designer should consider supply temperatures up to 240 F and temperature drops up to 40 F for commercial applications. this becomes Q=mxTC = 1. Here also. there are reasons for limiting the water temperature. TC are as before and GPM = flow rate. . allowing smaller pumps and piping to be used. BTUlhr m = flow rate of water. supply water temperatures of 180-210 F and a temperature drop of 20 F or less are satisfactory. HTW systems are used in very large projects. MTW (medium temperature hot water) -250-350F.1 ) where Q = heat gain or loss of water. 5.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 113 Water heating and cooling coils that are installed in central air handling units will be discussed in Chapter 12. In addition. much greater temperature drops are often chosen (up to 100 F) to reduce pipe sizes and power use. since the room heating loads are small. . The system temperature rise usually ranges from 5-15 F. lblhr TC = t I - t2 =temperature change of water.12: Q=mxcxTC Because the specific heat c water. it may be used with insignificant error to 250 F. HTW (high temperature hot water) -350-450 F. and heat gain or loss was shown previously by Equation 2. high temperature rises should be considered when planning in order to reduce energy consumption. the lower water temperature lessens the severity of a burn from accidental contact. For example. A high temperature drop is also desirable because less water is required. As mentioned earlier.0 BTU/lb-F for (5. a high supply water temperature is preferred because the terminal units may be made smaller. Because (approximately) 1 GPM = 500 lblhr of water. lower water temperature/pressures do not require the heavy and expensive equipment that higher water temperatures do. the boiler pressure must be increased to prevent the water from evaporating. Consequently. for instance. These categories are important because different types of boilers and equipment are required for each. the equation becomes Q = 500 x GPM x TC where Q.

1 RATINGS FOR TYPICAL BASEBOARD RADIATION Hot Water Ratings. 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 660 640 650 670 680 680 700 710 720 710 730 740 750 750 770 780 790 770 790 800 810 820 840 850 870 840 860 870 890 880 900 920 930 . Table 5.2 A water chiller with a capacity of 30 tons of refrigeration cools 80 GPM of water entering at 54 F. What is the required system flow rate in GPM? Using Equation 5. 3 4 2 Y2 3 4 0.000 500 x (240 . use 4 GPM ratings. GPM Velocity FPS 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 2 Y.----:500xTC =400GPM 8.19 SELECTION OF TERMINAL UNITS The rating (capacity) of terminal units is measured and reported by manufacturers in their equipment catalogs. A system water supply temperature of 240 F and return temperature of 200 F is chosen. The heating capacity is listed iu BTUlhr per foot of length.2 2. t2 =t.000 BTUlhr X ------ I ton = 360.000. Note that the capacity depends on both the flow rate and average water temperature in the unit. From this. Ratings are based on . such as that of the Hydronics Institute. the required length of baseboard can be chosen. For flow rates over 4 GPM.6 4.2: Q GPM = -:c-:-.4 3. F Nominal Tube Flow Rate Size in. What is the temperature of the water leaving the chiller? Solution Changing units of cooling capacity. is 8 in. BTu/hr per Foot Length at Following Average Water Temperatures. TC = t1 . 910 930 950 960 950 970 990 1000 970 990 1010 1030 1020 1040 1060 1080 Notes: Tubing is copper with 2YK x 2Y16 in. The manufacturer's catalog ratings are used to select the terminal units required. Standard testing procedures for measuring ratings have been established. 55 fins per fOOL Height of unit with enclosure air entering at 65 F.114 CHAPTER 5 Example 5. The building heating load is 8 million BTUlhr. The capacity also depends on the entering Example 5.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hydronic heating system is to be installed in the Square Tire Company factory. The designer and installer should check that any unit being considered has been tested according to a standard rating procedure.t2 = Q 500 x GPM = 360.000 BTUlhr TABLE 5.200) 5.8 2. aluminum fins.1 shows the ratings for a typical baseboard radiation.-TC=54-9=45F Solution The flow rate is found by using Equation 5.2. Type M tubing.6 1.:::.2 1. Q = 30 tons 12.4 1.8 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 .000 500 x 80 =9F Solving for t2.

This also provides a.0 5.2.5 4.2. The length required for a capacity of 12.. Using Equation 5. The unit has 2 GPM of water flowing through it at an entering temperature of218 F. and would probably be wry noisy. water temperatures and flow rate's.1-5. The contractor should call the engineer and discuss possible changes in the design.000 BTUlhr is therefore Length = 12.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A contractor is about to install a hydronic system and notes that the engineer's specifications call for !6 in. The manufacturer should be consulted before using flow rates greatly outside the range shown in their tables.5 2.6 2. a good guideline is to use flow rates between values that result in water velocities between 1 and 5 ft/sec.6 8.000 BTUlhr 840 BTUlhr per ft 5. diameter tubing with a flow rate of 7 GPM. TC = -. rather than deal with the fractional amount. Velocities above 5 ft/sec in occupied areas may result in ob- .:Q.1..7 1. as seen in Table 5.000 500x2 = 12 F Example S.12 = 206 F Average t= 218 + 206 2 = 212 F Using Table 5.3 Select the length of !6 in. For a room maintained at 68-70 F. the rated capacity is listed as 840 BTUlhr per foot of length.2 will be used. To find this. ¥4in. TABLES. The following procedures should be helpful: I.--500 x GPM 12. Equation 5. no correction for the ratings at 65 F is usually necessary. 3. Generally.8). 1.}ittle extra capacity. Choose the type of piping arrangement best suited for the application (Sections 5. we discussed pipIng arrangements. difficult for the student to put all this information together in planning a system. Leaving t = 218 . however. IN TYPE L TUBING Flow Rate. = 14. Choose the types of terminal units best suited for the application (Sections 5. It is often.. baseboard required for a room with a heat load of 12.19).9-5..4 0. Most ratings are listed for 65 F air entering the unit.2 WATER VELOCITIES.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS I IS air temperature. The average water temperature in the unit must first be determined.2 lists water velocities for different flow rates. 2..5 jectionable noise.20 SYSTEM DESIGN PROCEDURE In the previous sections. Y2in. and selection of terminal units. What should the contractor do? Solution This flow rate results in a very high velocity. at a flow rate of 2 GPM and an average water temperature of 210 F (the next lowest temperature rating listed is used to be certain that the unit has adequate capacity). and velocities below I ft/sec may not be enough to carry dirt particles through the unit. GPM Tube Diameter 1 2 4 6 8 ExampleS. Prepare a diagrammatic sketch of the piping system and the terminal units connected together.000 BTUlhr. FT/SEC.1 will be used to select the unit.3 ft (use IS ft) The contractor would order 15 ft of the radiation. Table 5. Solution Table 5.3 5.

It is helpful to record all flow rates and temperatures on the piping sketch.3 lists the required heating capacity of each unit.20). and select the terminal heating units. 6.000 = 4.5 GPM 500x 30 This is a satisfactory flow rate.2). Using Equation 5. a designer can usually select an appropriate temperature change on the first or second trial. A sketch of the piping system and units is shown in Figure 5. 7. This flow rate will result in a greatly excessive velocity (Table 5.S The S. Prepare a table showing all the information collected. The temperature change is TC= 9200 500x4. but cannot of course be greater than the total flow rate. (The results are noted in Table 5. flow rates. The return temperature is then 220 . a new trial value of the system water temperature change is taken and a new flow rate calculated.~log. 2 3 HW . hased on the required capacity of each unit (Equation 5.6GPM 5. 6.20).4 = 216 F. The temperature entering the first unit is 220 F. Determine appropriate water temperatures. 4. Choose a suitable system supply temperature (Section 5. C. Two examples will illustrate this procedure. Solution The system design procedure recommended will be followed. the flow rates through each unit may be arbitrarily selected within recommended values. Determine the water temperature entering and leaving each unit. 7. If the flow rate is not satisfactory according to this check.22. The first unit has a required capacity of 9200 BTUlhr. 9.000 500 x 10 13. Smith residence has a design heating load of 68. For a series loop system. Figure 5. Table 5. the flow rate through every unit is the same. The flow rate through each unit may he arbitrarily chosen within the manufacturer's recommended values.21). GPM= Q 500 x TC = 68. B. Try a temperature drop of 30 F. After a little experience.) 1-3. with % in.22 Sketch for Example 5. but of course the sum of the flow rates through each of the units must equal the total system flow rate. For a one-pipe main system. ExampleS. 5. the total system flow rate is distributed among all the units. A supply temperature of 220 F is chosen.5 4F 8. Check to see if this is a satisfactory flow rate.000 BTUlhr. 8. Also check manufacturer's recommendations on flow rates.2). Select the terminal units from the manufacturer's ca.O.30 = 190 F. A. The leaving temperature is 220 . GPM = 68. diameter baseboard radiation. For this small house. a series loop baseboard system has been chosen.116 CHAPTER 5 4. Try a system temperature drop of 10 F. and calculate the system water flow rate required to handle the building load (Equation 5. For a two-pipe system.3.gen. Calculate the water temperature change through each unit.5. A series loop hydronic heating 7 6 5 4 . of course. system will be used.2 to find the resulting flow rate. Select a trial value of the system water temperature change (Section 5. Velocities through units should be within recommended values (Section 5.2).

The building is a small group of medical offices. the problem might be resolved by raising the water supply temperature.13.5 4. tim tout. The fan-coil units will fit nicely under the window in each office.000 BTU/hr. will not seriously affect the accuracy of the selection of the terminal units.5 4.5 F F F 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. with a cooling load of 220.1.400 8. Capacities are listed in Table 5.4.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Determine the chilled water temperatures and flow rates for the two-pipe system shown in Figure 5.700 9. values can be interpolated between listed temperatures. Try a system temperature rise of 12 F.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS TABLES. using the rating at 4 GPM and 220 F the heat output is 890 BTU per foot of length. From Table 5.3. .= 10. This results in a calculated return temperature slightly less than originally chosen which.4. 4.300 13.600 11. ft GPM 4..3 ft will make up for selecting it at 220 F instead of 218 F. however. All results are listed in Table 5. The required length of baseboard is now determined.3 RESULTS OF TERMINAL UNIT SELECTION FOR EXAMPLE 5. due to infiltration. taveJ Length. The terminal units are fan-coil units.) If the radiation selected above is excessively long. it has been decided to use fan-coil units and a two-pipe reverse return system.5 4.600 6. 9200 Length = .5 117 Unit Capacity. 9. Solution The design procedures recommended will be followed. The average water temperature in the first unit is Average t = 220 + 216 2 = 218 F Example 5. as explained in Chapter 3.5 4. CHW gen. The length required is therefore 1-3. BTu/hr Flow Rate. The results for the other units are shown in Table 5. (The sum of the unit capacities is slightly greater than the building load.5 4. For more accuracy.3 ft (use 1\ ft) 890 The choice of 11 ft of radiation instead of 10. Another solution is to use radiation that has a greater output per unit length.200 12.23 Sketch for Example 5. After a study of the building plans and use. The student should check these.800 220 216 211 207 203 200 194 216 211 207 203 200 194 189 218 213 209 205 201 197 191 11 16 11 13 9 20 18 The same procedure is used to find the remaining temperatures.6. Using Figure 5.5 4. The building shape is such that there may be unbalanced flow if a direct return layout is used.

7. The student should work out this solution as a learning exercise.3 7. Furthermore. the velocity will be satisfactory. The same procedure is carried out for each unit. What application do three.118 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 5.000 53. entering at 52 F and leaving at 40 F. which are described in their catalogs.4 Unit Total" Capacity.3 GPM each. List the applications and the advantages and disadvantages of the four types of hydronic piping system arrangements. selection. 8. 8. Assume a CHW supply temperature of 44 F has been found satisfactory. and applications: www.com Equation 5. nominal diameter tubing. Useful Websites The following sites have information for hydronic terminal unit performance.000 500 x 12 Review Questions I. 7. it is noted that their coil has a % in. GPM tin' tout' F F 2 3 4 5 52.2.1 The operating engineer wants to check the capacity of a refrigeration water chiller. The instruments show 240 GPM of water flowing through the chill~r. From Table 5.000 27.7GPM The flow rate is arbitrarily distributed equally among all five units. 9. = 14 F 6. 2. The system supply water temperature chosen depends on the selection of the refrigeration equipment and costs.3 7. BTU/hr Flow Rate.dunham-bush:com www.3 44 44 44 44 44 58 55 59 57 51 (/ In selecting cooling units.slantfin.3 7.3 220. 5-6.000 7. 3. 5. What are the basic parts of a unit heater? List the types of unit heaters and one application for each type. Describe a suitable application for each. an alternate procedure could have been used-to assume that every unit has exactly the same water temperature rise and then to calculate the required flow rate. The temperature change for the other units is found in the same manner. List the four basic types of hydronic system piping arrangements.000 47. the terminal units can be selected from the manufacturer's catalog.sterlinghvac.2. These are not shown here. From the information above. Each manufacturer has slightly different procedures. 4.7/5 = 7. as will be seen in Chapter 6.and four-pipe systems have? What undesirable feature does a three-pipe system have? List the types of hydronic terminal units used for heating and/or for cooling. the sensible and latent capacities must also be determined.3 7. What is the chiller's capacity in tons? .000 500 x 7. We will not describe that process here. This procedure is just as acceptable as those chosen.6 TABLE 5.000 41. The temperature leaving the first unit is then 44 + 14 = 58 F. the building load will not generally be as great as the sum of the room loads. In the previous example. the flow rate is GPM = ---=Q=---500xTC =36. Problems 5. Sketch the arrangements for the four types of hydronic piping system arrangements. The temperature change for the first unit is TC= 52. Referring to a manufacturer's catalog of fancoil units (not shown here). giving 36.com www. but remember that the flow rates found should be checked to see if they are within recommended values.

Z! in.17 A room has a heating load of 8300 BTUlhr. What is the heat output of the convector? 5.6 and the same temperature rise in each unit. a flow rate of I GPM. (2). if the baseboard is supplied with 3 GPM of water at 235 F. respectively. calculate the flow rate through each unit.12 Using a system temperature rise of 10 F for Example 5. using the Website www. supplying 40 GPM of water at 240 F.5 GPM. or select your own. or those specified by the instructor.6 and equal flow rates to each unit.14 Layout a hydronic piping system and terminal units for the house shown in Problem 3. The water supply temperature is 200 F and flow rate is 2 GPM.16 5.slantfin. or select your own.10 Select baseboard radiation for the residence described in Example 5. Use the heating loads calculated previously or those specified by the instructor.25 Sketch for Problem 5.21.24 Sketch for Problem 5.5 using a split series loop piping system and suitable temperatures and flow rates. 5. a supply temperature of 230F.25. of the type shown in Table 5. Produce the appropriate detail and dimension drawing and a brief specification. baseboard radiation from the Website www. using l-2 in. The flow rate through each unit is 3 GPM. If the water temperature rise in the unit is 14 F. B.000 BTUIhr.5. terminal unit A has a heat output of 9300 BTUlhr and unit B of 8100 BTUIhr. What is the return water temperature? 5. baseboard.) Computer Solution Problems 5.20. What is the water temperature leaving unit A and unit B? 5. with a supply temperature of 190 F.6 In Figure 5. Select the required 3/4 in.8 A room has a heating load of 9600 BTUlhr.15 Layout a hydronic piping system and tenrunal units for the building shown in Problem 3.) 5.5.HYDRONIC PIPING SYSTEMS AND TERMINAL UNITS 119 5.13 Assuming a system temperature rise of 14 F for Example 5.1I Find the flow rate in each section of pipe for the hydronic cooling system of Example 5.com. 7200 BTUlhr.1. Produce the appropriate detail and dimension drawing and a brief specification.2 A building has a heating load of 630. Use the heating loads calculated previously. 5. with a flow rate of2 GPM and an average water temperature of 200 F? 5. and (3). 5.3 A fan-coil unit is to be used to cool a room with a cooling load of 12.5 In Figure 5. terminal units A.5. A hydronic heating system is used.sterlinghvac. baseboard radiation of the type listed in Table 5. baseboard.24. Water enters the unit at 220 F and leaves at 208 F. and a temperature drop of 35 F. 5GPM • 225 F A 5.7 What is the heating capacity of a 7 ft length of l-2 in. Determine the water temperatures and flow rates at points (1).com. Select the radiation needed for the units described in Problem 5. calculate the temperature rise in each unit and the flow rate in each section of pipe. (Use the type of system and terminal units as assigned by your instructor. (Use the type of system and tenninal units as assigned by your instructor.4 The flow rate through a convector is 4. and C have cooling capacities of 14.6. 5. 5. (3) .000 BTUIhr. Find the required length of % in.700 BTUIhr. what is the flow rate in GPM? 5.6. 5. and 12.000 BTUlhr. baseboard radiation to heat the room. Figure 5.1.9 Select the terminal units for the residence described in Example 5. B 1 . Figure 5.

With cooling.c H A p T E R Cooling Load Calculations T he objective of this chapter is to learn how to determine the amount of cooling required to keep the rooms in a building comfortable in summer. Determine peak load conditions. In Chapter 3. The amount of heat that must be removed (the cooling load) is not always equal to the amount of heat received at a given time. this heat must be re- . you will be able to: I. The procedures described for calculating cooling needs are similar but involve additional items that make the subject more complicated. The amount of heat that must be removed is called the cooling load. The cooling load must be determined because it is the basis for selection of the proper size air conditioning equipment and distribution system. Select appropriate design conditions for cooling. moved.2 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES In Chapter 3. If the temperature and humidity of the air are to be maintained at a comfortable level. 5. the situation is more complex. 6. 6. Perform a T~sidential cooling load analysis. Calculate the heat gains to a space. we noted that the heat loss from a room at any instant was equal to the heating load at that time. we learned how to calculate the winter heating requirements of a building. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Find required ventilation rates. 2. It is also used to analyze energy use and conservation. 3. 120 6.1 THE COOLING LOAD The air inside a building receives heat from a number of sources during the cooling.. season. 4. Perform a commercial cooling load analysis.

Of the total amount of heat entering the building at any instant. An example is shown in Figure 6. This is the heat storage effect.Q 0> . Difference between instantaneous heat gain and cooling load as a result of heat storage effect. only a portion of it heats the room air immediately.2 The thermal storage effect and resulting time lag cause the cooling load to often be different iu value from the entering heat (called the instantaneous heat gain). the cooling load is less than the instantaneous heat gain. heat storage. This is because some of this heat is stored in the building mass and is not heating the room air. This is the time lag effect. '0 .1. Note that during the time of day at which the instantaneous heat gain is the highest (the afternoon). walls.2.1 Heat flow diagram showing building heat gain. Only at a later time does the stored heat portion contribute to heating the room air. as shown in Figure 6. and cooling load.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 121 Radiation Heat stored in furnishings. structure Convection (delayed in time) Heat gain :---+- Convection -- Cooling load Figure 6. the stored heat plus some of the new entering heat is released to the room air. so the cooling load becornes greater than the tnstantaneous heat gain. floors. The room cooling load is the rate at which heat must be removed from the room air to maintain it at the design temperature and humidity.~ '" '-' c: heat gain o o '0 c: 'OJ '" 0> <il I '" Morning Afternoon Time of day ------ Evening . Figure 6. and furnishings. This difference is a result of the heat storage and time lag effects. the other part (the radiation) heats the building mass-the roof. Later in the day.

Infiltration can be considered as a separate class. The CLF/CLTD method can be catTied out manually or by using a computer. Solar radiation through glass 4. one may understand better the effects we have been discussing. Figure 6. From the earlier description. and those internally generated. ~ Qsolar (glas Qlights Q partition . and glass 2. There are a few different. and floors 3. Conduction through interior partitions. Equipment 7. Even on a sunny. and items 4 through 6 are internal heat gains. ceilings. Qroof or ceiling I I Lights~ I I t .3 ROOM HEAT GAINS The heat gain components that contribute to the room cooling load consist ofthe following (Figure 6.3): I. the building may even have a reverse heat flow at night-heat flows out from the hot walls to the cool outdoors.-~ 'iE(Q-_. 6. This procedure is relatively easy to understand and use. it is seen that items I through 3 are external heat gains. it merely heats the walls (heat storage).3 Room heat gain components. The cooling load calculation procedure that will be explained here is called the CLF/CLTDmethod. nfiltration -Qwall Qf(eor . These methods . Conduction through exterior walls. Sensible heat gains result in increasing the air temperature.often lead to use of smaller equipment and sometimes result in less energy use. thick stone walls. People 6. It is also convenient to arrange the heat gains into a different set of two groups: sensible and latent heat gains. thus increasing humidity.-~ 122 CHAPTER 6 This effect is noticed in the huge southern European cathedrals built of massive. Heat from infiltration of outside air through openmgs It is convenient to arrange these heat gains into two groups-those from external sources outside the room. One of its valuable features is that in learning it. acceptable procedures for calculating cooling loads that take into account the phenomena we have discussed. night has come. though it is not air-conditioned. Lighting 5. / Qpeople I Equipment ! I I - ~ -Qglass Q. Q. All of them are more accurate than past methods and are often required in state energy codes and standards. latent heat gains are due to addition of water vapor. The software bibliography in the rear of this text lists some of the available computer software for cooling load calculations. In this extreme example of time delay. The entering heat doesn't reach the interior. very hot day the church interior remains quite cool. By the time the heat reaches the interior (time lag). . roof.

(6. F The cooling load temperature difference (CLTD) is not the actual temperature difference between the outdoor and indoor air. The hours listed in Tables 6.1 and 6. However. fe CLTDc =corrected cooling load temperature difference. wall. or glass. 2. F DR = daily temperature range. D.3) where to = outside design dry bulb temperature.1 and 6.9. from Table 6.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 123 Items 1 through 4 are solely sensible gains. depending on the type of equipment. Find the corrected CLTDc·from Equation6. first finding each correction: A. and glass are each found from the following equation: Q=UxAxCLTD c The temperature ta can be found as follows: ta = to . the CLTD must be corrected as follows: CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 . F ta = average outside temperature on a design day. Date is July 21st. or glass. Indoor temperature is 78 F DB. CLTD = 29 F.3 include U-values for the roofs and walls described. and item 6 can fall in either category Or both.2.2 or 6. . Tables 6. wall. As will be noted in the study of psychrometries (Chapter 7). Location is 400N latitude. The CLTD values in Tables 6.2 are based on the follOWing conditions: 1.1. 3.1 and 6. walls. it is necessary to separate the sensible and latent gains because the selection of cooling equipment depends on their relative values. Solution I.1) where Q = cooling load for roof. F CLTD = temperature from Table 6. or glass. Items 5 and 7 are part sensible and part latent. If the actual condition differs from any of the above. From Table 6. it is always advisable to confirm these values by calculation from individual R-values.5 LM = correction for latitude and month.C.(DRl2) (6. I and 6.2 list CLTD values for some roof and wall constructions. BTU/hr U = overall heat transfer coefficient for roof.2) Example 6. F Both to and DR (the daily temperature range) are found in Table A. as described in Chapter 3.tR) + (ta . The following two examples illustrate the procedure for finding the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through a roof and a wall. This is approximately equal to Standard Time.4 tR =room temperature. Add one hour for Daylight Savings Time. 6. BTU/hr-ft2-F A = area of roof. 4. Find the roof cooling load at 2 PM Solar Time on July 21.F 6. Correct for LM (Table 6.9 with suspended ceiling.. Outdoor average temperature on the design day is 85 FDB. Tables 6. The inside temperature is 76 F.4 CONDUCTION THROUGH EXTERIOR STRUCTURE The cooling loads caused by conduction heat gains through the exterior roof.1.4). roof is type No. heavy weight concrete with 1 in.85) (6. At 2 PM (14 hrs). where CLTDc = corrected value of CLTD.2 are Solar Time.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 30 ft by 40 ft roof of a building in Washington. is constructed of 4 in. 2. insulation and a suspended ceiling. It is a modified value that accounts for the heat storage/time lag effects. wall.

) insulation I-in. heavyweight concrete with I-in. wood with I-in.. (or 2-in. (or 2-in. (or 2·in.~3 53 49 44 45 36 52 51 45 45 39 48 50 46 44 41 43 47 45 42 43 38 43 43 40 43 34 39 40 37 42 30 35 37 34 40 18 19 53 51 45 13 19 17 25 13 15 18 16 46 40 43 32 43 3J J1 II 12 Roof terrace system 6-in. 8·in. wood with I-in.1 23 22 26 18 4() 29 26 31 21 46 36 31 36 24 50 41 36 40 . wood with [·in.oF 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 Solar Time 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Minimum CLTD Maxi.1 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING LOAD FROM FLAT ROOFS.106 (0..206 0. 7 (8) 0. ins. 2. lightweight 0.122) 0.) insulation 2.IlO) 0. . Ib/ft2 BTU No Construction h_tt2 . wood with 2-in..lightweight concrete 22 17 24 30 35 39 45 6J 50 47 13 J1 29 35 20 26 16 22 13 18 10 14 II 6 9 6 7 9 20 27 19 34 25 42 33 53 46 55 50 49 53 34 40 6 7 56 1:1 20 54 9 [0 4-in.117.170 -2 -3 -3 -5 -3 -3 -3 6 -2 19 4 34 14 40 27 (11 71 52 n 62 79 70 77 74 70 74 59 70 45 62 30 51 l:-l 3S 12 28 20 14 9 14 16 -5 79 74 R4 77 76 8 18 6 o -[ 5 39 -3 -3 insulation 4-in. heavyweight concrete with I-in. 22 16 27 I.126 12 o o -3 13 -I -I 11 5 20 30 '27 15 13 9 41 39 ~3 51 49 33 59 57 4~ 65 63 5I 66 66 62 54 45 37 57 54 54 36 26 50 29 22 II 17 16 16 18 19 -1 67 68 71 9 24 -4 9 -5 6 -7 -6 -3 16 7 64 58 48 39 62 62 57 64 48 62 56 53 18 42 44 49 7 28 -7 64 64 'i insulation 6 '6-in. lightweight concrete 7 2.5·in.078) 38 28 13 4·ill.5-in. 29 (0.124) 0.213 9 o -2 -3 -3 9 20 32 44 55 64 70 73 71 66 57 45 34 25 18 13 16 73 concrete 4 2-in.200 ((J. heavyweight c6ncrete with I-in.109 0.21:1 (0.) insulation I-in.Differmum ence CLTD CLTD Without Suspended Ceiling Sleel sheet with I-in.192 25 30 34 3] 22 26 31 28 36 18 23 28 25 33 15 19 25 12 16 22 20 28 9 S 10 16 15 22 8 9 14 14 20 10 14 9 lO 26 17 18 .[06 0. 0. 52 (52) 13 J5 75 (75) 0. (or 2-in. (or 2-in) insulation 17 (18) .. Roof Description of Weight. wood with 2-in. ins.130 0.TABLE 6. F Hour of Maximum CLTD U-value.158 0.) insuhlliun 13 14 18 13 16 17 20 19 13 14 46 22 30 22 17 45 43 m.093 0.

12 34 37 36 23 2i 37 Reprinted with permission from the /989 ASHRAE J-Illni/hook-FIIIJ(/amel1lals.109 0. (or 2-in.ft 2. heavyweight concrete with I-in.~X 30 30 17 17 60 65 20 65 4 concrete wilh I-in. :~"'--.') 8 15 II 16 16 IX 29 25 36 JD 42 34 48 ]8 52 41 54 43 54 44 54 44 47 42 42 40 37 37 7 54 concrete 2.'" '"'.~2 32 31 33 34 11 0. ins II 12 Roof terrace system 6-in.12 31 29 27 26 24 23 22 21 22 22 24 2'i 27 .1:'i . wood with l·in.-.Differmum ence CLTO CLTO 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 CLTO With Suspended Ceiling Steci sheet Wilh I-in. henvywcight concrete with I-in. . heavyweight 0.'If) 32 34 33 34 33 34 .13 27 ]0 26 2H 24 26 22 24 21 22 20 20 20 IX 21 IX 22 Hi 24 20 27 22 29 25 32 2B 34 32 36 35 38 .1 . ' ". 39 36 3 3 29 26 23 20 18 15 14 14 15 17 20 25 29 34 38 42 45 46 44 42 32 53 (54) 15 0.128 (0.ll 20 19 15 14 II 10 4 2 () () 7 -I 13 10 21 I') )0 29 40 W 48 4R 55 56 60 62 62 65 61 6-1 58 61 51 5-1 44 -16 37 . wood with 2-in.. (ur 2. 10 4-in.) ins. (or 2-in. ins.115 O.090) 30 35 29 .~-jn. wood with 1"in.OM) .in..OR2 (O.O!D 2H 25 23 20 17 15 1) 13 14 16 20 25 3D 35 39 43 46 47 46 44 41 38 35 32 18 18 20 13 47 34 I-in.1 4"in.lightweight concrete 4-in.~ 33 33 3(j 33 . Ibfft2 BTU h.14 .I. F (Continued) Hour of Maxi2 .) insulution 'i (10) 0. lightweight 0.088) " 16 1. insulation 8 9 B-in. wood with 15 33 21 21 IS 14 44 46 29 J-in.on 0.134 (()Jl92) 2 () -2 -J -4 -4 -I \} 23 :17 50 ()2 71 77 71\ 74 67 56 42 2X 111 12' R 15 25 2-1 -4 2 () 78 62 R2 2 I-in.oF 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 Solar Time 12 13 14 mum 15 16 17 Minimum CLTO Maxi.1 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (ClTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING lOAD FROM FLAT ROOFS.125 (0.093 32 34 28 31 23 29 19 26 16 23 13 21 10 IK 16 7 I.j!! 38 40 38 41 37 41 36 40 34 39 33 37 19 20 38 41 18 10 2..!r: U-value. Roof No Description of Construction Weight.1. lightweight concrete 2·in.r TABLE 6.082 21 22 20 18 22 2i 23 2-in. wood wilh n.5-in.096 D. 26 2/\ 28 30 29 32 31 33 .1!'ii\1~!'*"iI. ins\llilli!m 3D 0.) insulation 77 77 (77) )0 29 29 21' 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 23 ~2 22 21 22 21 22 22 23 2~~ 23 2:\ 25 2(.131 O. in~ to 26 25 20 [6 13 10 12 IX 25 :n 22 21 41 4S 53 57 57 56 52 46 40 34 29 57 52 47 tv U> 6 6-in. (or 2·in.1.) ln~lIll1tion 19 (20) O.

J5 55 49 . 8 12 III 23 32 29 16 12 II 1() 12 23 33 31 20 16 14 12 8 7 10 II <) " i4 5 i4 15 I' 12 I) 6 9 II) 6 8 9 7 8 <) 13 24 33 32 24 21 10 7 7 8 " 14 IS 25 31 31 29 36 36 27 J<) 19 19 IX 16 21 2.. h 0100 0200 03000400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 10001100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 21002200 2300 2400 CLTD eLTD elTD elTD North Latitude WaH Facing Group A Walts NE N E SE SW NW N W S 14 19 24 24 20 25 27 21 14 19 24 23 20 25 27 21 14 19 23 23 19 25 26 21 13 18 23 22 19 24 26 20 13 17 22 21 13 17 21 20 12 12 18 24 25 20 18 2] 24 19 16 20 20 17 22 24 19 15 19 19 16 21 23 18 " 15 19 II 15 18 18 15 19 21 16 10 15 19 18 14 19 20 16 IS 16 20 22 10 15 19 18 14 18 19 [0 16 20 IS 1.126 CHAPTER 6 COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CALCULATING COOLING LOAD FROM SUNLIT WALLS...4 20 16 13 15 4 5 5 17 19 20 20 5 6 22 26 38 37 34 45 49 " " 5 38 Group FWails NE E 8 9 6 7 7 SE SW NW N W S to to to 15 17 14 7 8 II 13 10 5 5 6 6 6 9 10 3 3 4 4 4 4 9 28 2 3 14 30 +t 36 13 8 8 8 17 HI 38 28 4 4 II 29 45 19 27 36 3 ) 41 8 6 7 6 5 5 4 I 2 ::w II II 10 . ... 2 II 5 I 2 4 -I 5 6 5 NW 5 3 2 o I o o o o 27 31 If: 789 36 39 47 5.). 29 38 41 32 Group E Walls 12 NE IJ 14 SE SW W E 10 II 12 8 9 J() 7 7 S S NW N 15 15 22 25 20 12 12 18 21 17 10 10 15 17 14 8 8 12 14 11 " 7 6 6 II 5 5 8 9 7 4 6 .).. ~6 :!.). 6 15 IS 7 24 33 2.. 32 4~ 1 5 12 5 .J17 19 10 ::n 16 17 15 15 19 14 17 IS [4 ]0 !7 22 20 14 17 [8 14 10 18 [I ]8 II 18 12 19 25 12 19 25 J3 20 25 2. 4 (.:'0 12 13 14 II 19 15 24 21 14 14 14 12 25 23 15 15 15 12 II 19 26 24 \7 17 17 12 20 26 25 19 20 19 13 20 27 14 11 27 1421 26 15 21 26 15 15 24 20 25 25 22 20 242421 U 15 26 20 22 22 17 26 21 25 25 19 26 2.... 12.:' 9 17 ~~ 9 18 10 19 12 16 18 l4 . Mini.Differmum mum mum enee TABLE 6..:' 27 27 21 26 ~~ 211 29 ~~ 28 29 23 28 30 23 21 20 21 23 24 24 24 S 12 15 l4 II 15 21 27 26 22 <) l2 l2 II " l4 II 7 2S 30 15 16 23 9 Groupe WallS NE E 15 19 22 [4 17 13 16 19 19 12 14 II 13 15 15 15 20 22 IS SE SW NW N S 22 21 29 W 31 25 . 13 IJ II 10 12 22 21 29 26 !7 15 14 12 13 22 29 28 20 IS 16 30 29 22 22 20 30 29 24 26 24 IS 13 15 15 23 30 29 25 29 29 22 16 23 29 29 26 32 32 25 17 23 2S 28 25 33 ..J19 2] 21 15 17 18 14 24 22 16 24 ::!J 17 18 19 18 15 19 15 23 18 20 20 16 24 19 22 22 17 13 20 25 2. 3 5 5 20 26 19 . NE E 17 19 20 12 13 15 15 I(} SE SW NW N 11 13 13 S 19 28 31 W 25 15 22 24 19 13 19 21 17 9 III II II II 16 7 S 9 10 9 . 20 24 24 24 34 3X 30 18 22 22 ~~ 31 3-1 27 17 19 21 21 22 " .)..3J 18 24 32 JS 43 14 20 27 36 . " 16 6 7 19 25 13 IS 33 32 . J! 5 8 5 8 11 [6 15 15 2.2932J.3 13 16 2() 26 32 21 ~3 20 ~l IX 2'i 3() 31 H 2X 2X 19 22 25 31 45 49 37 2'j 44 4-9 3X 26 26 23 23 16 17 20 20 2{) .5 (. 15 30 50 51 31 26 40 48 26 " " 18 39 12.7 3S -'I 32 :>'6 37 -1-0 3:!.5 " 21 2 3 6 5 38 35 28 21 27 34 36 39 44 39 27 23 26 30 24 24 27 23 22 20 19 21 16 16 17 31 35 ..3 2.7 31 36 -16 50 -1-1 27 24 27 30 32 43 59 56 37 24 20 29 30 22 24 24 25 52 67 55 22 IX 19 19 20 15 37 63 67 47 31 61 72 55 37 48 41 14 15 15 t.~5 17 22 27 17 21 26 27 25 33 26 24 32 35 16 20 24 24 22 31 22 20 17 to 10 23 30 29 26 IS 19 12 12 <) " IS 17 1'.2 Solar Time.5 9 12 -t 7 10 II .. 28 12 12 12 IS 21 18 12 13 16 39 53 60 18 19 19 46 NE 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 SE SW W E S o o o o o I 2 I -I -I -I -I .53 57 2S 31 24 25 26 13 13 15 15 II II 19 II 23 30 45 43 21 ~~ 52 60 46 Group G Walls " 25 25 27 27 06 45 54 43 37 -1-_' IS If: 2f: 15 23 27 22 J5 3-1..). 2t: ~S " y. 9 25 36 31 II 25 3S _~5 7 7 " 6 4 I ) 5 6 5 6 7 6 13 9 . . ... IQ 12 II 8 10 13 15 17 19 20 2(> 26 26 26 2(' 37 36 34 33 32 37 37 36 34 33 :!.." 00 22 22 22 27 35 27 :n II 33 35 27 27 26 12 10 "' Group 0 WallS 15 13 15 17 17 17 25 27 .). 6 7 6 8 <) 6 10 6 1-117 IJ 6 17 22 17 to 20 27 22 9 8 <) . F Hrof Maxi. 4 25 24 20 25 27 7 6 6 S 9 7 21 Group B Walls NE E IS 19 23 23 14 SE SW NW N W ::12 22 IS S 21 27 29 23 20 26 :!8 -'-' 14 17 21 21 19 25 27 21 13 16 20 20 18 24 26 20 12 15 18 11 14- 18 !7 22 24 19 !7 !7 15 21 23 IS II 13 16 16 14 19 21 17 JO 12 15 IS 13 18 9 12 15 14 9 !3 15 14II 15 17 1J 9 14 17 15 11 14 16 12 8 15 19 16 II 14 15 12 9 16 21 18 II 13 14I..5 24 29 2S II II 12 12 l2 17 9 9 III 10 II) 7 7 8 8 8 10 II 10 S 5 6 6 5 8 8 l8 9 -I -) 26 39 55 51 to II -I -I -) 14 16 13 15 13 " 17 17 7 " o I o 46 63 47 63 72 55 71 55 .:'1 21 19 27 29 23 18 25 27 21 17 17 16 22 25 20 III II l4 l4 9 !O 12 12 12 16 8 10 12 12 10 8 II 14 7 IJ 16 13 <) 7 15 19 16 8 !7 22 19 !O 19 25 ~~ 13 IS 00 16 12 9 9 II 12 10 15 16 13 l4 II " i4 13 12 13 10 11 12 !() 11 11 12 10 9 20 27 24 \. 30 3(l 2<) 3X -lO 31 2_..MaJ. 20 23 23 IS 24 25 19 14 20 25 24 20 25 26 20 14 20 25 24 20 25 26 21 10 22 22 22 14 20 23 24 I I 15 IS IS 14 17 IS l4 .).() 45 35 -10 3n 34 2x 36 32 14 15 17 17 17 26 29 :!..

081-D. insulation 0.22I 0.230 0.585 0.175 0. to 3-in.303 0. ~-- .243 0. tile With/without air space + 1.114 0. insulation + 8-in. concrete + I-in. Face brick + (heavyweight concrete) C Air space + 2-io.294-DA02 0. Face brick + (brick) C Air space + 4-in. insulation + 8-1n.161-D. tile D Air space + 4-in.to 3-in. insulation 2-in.319 0. tile C 8-io. insulation + 8-in.169 0.097 0. concrete D 4-in.I07 0.187 0.110 0. tile Heavyweight concrete wall + (finish) E 4-in.153-D.149-D.358 00415 0. concrete + insulation Light and heavyweight concrete block + (finish) F 4-in.174-D. or more concrete 4-io.105-D. ~lock + air space/insulation Clay tile + (finish) 83 90 90 88 130 130 94 97 143-190 62 62 70 73-89 89 71 71 71 96 96 97 63 63 63 109 110 110 156 156 29 29--37 47-51 41-57 39 39 39 40 63 63 63 5--{j 16 0. tile + air space 4-in. tile 8-in.112 0. tile 8-in.302 0. tile 4-in. concrete B 2-in. insulation I-in. concrete A 12-in. concrete B 12-in.151-D. Face brick + (light or heavyweight concrete block) E 4-io.113 0.091-D. block D 8-in. face brick D 4-in.246 0. common brick A Insulation or air space + 8-in.119 00490 0. insulation + 4-in. tile C Insulation + 4-in. insulation or air space + 4-in.115 00421 0.154-D. tile B Air space or I-in. block 4-io. block + air space/insulation E 2-in. common brick B 8-in.li8 Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. concrete C B 8-in.111 0.142-D.200 0.096-D. WALL CONSTRUCTION GROUP DESCRIPTION Weight (Ib/tt") 127 Description of Construction U-Value (BTU/hoft"o'F) 4-in.119-D.275 O. insulation + 4-io.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6. concrete + I-in. concrete C 8-in. insulation 2-in. tile + air space/I-in. or 2-in.173 -00419 0. insulation + 4-in.263 0.350 0. block D Air space or insulation + 4-io. block D 8-in. common brick 4-io.221-D. tile + I-in. common brick B 2-in. Face brick + (clay tile) D 4-in. insulation A 2-in. insulation + 4-in.231 0. tile A 2-in. block C Air space or 1-in. or 2-in. insulation + 4-in.301 0. insulation + 6-io.11O-D. block B 2-in.275 0. common brick C I-in.296 0. insulation + 8-in. or 8-in. insulation + 8-in.099 F F E D D C B Metal curtain wall G Frame wall G 4-in. block E 8-in.3 Group No.281 0.381 0. concrete A Air space or insulation + 8-in.116 0.274 0.115-D. insulation _ 2-in.

. . NORTH LATITUDES. F Lat. Month N NNE NNW NE NW ENE WNW E W ESE WSW SE SW SSE SSW 6 S HOR 0 Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec Jan/Nov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug -3 -3 -3 -3 5 10 12 -4 -5 -5 -2 0 4 -5 -4 -5 -4 -2 -1 -I 7 9 -6 -2 1 3 5 5 -6 -6 -2 -1 0 0 0 -6 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -4 -4 0 0 -1 -3 -5 -7 -7 0 0 -1 -2 -4 3 2 0 -3 -6 -8 -9 4 4 -1 -5 -8 -9 -10 8 6 9 7 0 -8 -8 -8 -8 12 10 4 -4 -1 -1 0 0 -2 -4 -5 -5 -4 8 -3 -3 -3 2 7 9 -4 -4 -5 -4 -s -2 2 5 6 -3 -1 2 4 4 -3 -1 0 0 0 -8 -7 -4 -5 -6 3 1 -2 -5 -7 -8 4 4 2 2 -3 -7 -9 -9 9 8 5 0 -5 -7 -8 9 3 7 2 -2 -7 -7 -7 13 -1 0 -1 -2 -2 -9 -7 -4 16 May/Jul Jun -3 -3 -1 4 6 -5 -4 -4 -6 -6 -5 -3 0 3 4 -7 -6 -5 -4 -8 -7 -5 -2 -I 3 4 -9 -8 -6 -2 -1 0 -10 -9 -6 -2 -1 -1 -I -I -1 -1 0 -1 -3 -4 -4 -3 -3 -I -I 0 -3 -5 -6 3 9 3 I -I 12 7 0 -6 -7 0 13 13 10 4 -3 -6 -6 12 9 II -1 0 0 -7 -13 -II 24 Dec Jan/Nov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun Dec JanINov Feb/Oct Mar/Sept Apr/Aug May/Jul Jun -7 -6 -3 -I -I -3 -2 I 3 -5 -5 -4 -1 2 3 -7 -7 -6 -4 -3 0 2 3 -10 -9 -7 -4 -3 -I 0 I -II -II 0 0 -8 -8 -4 -2 -3 -3 -5 -IS -7 -3 0 I I -\7 -3 -4 -5 -6 32 2 -4 4 9 2 -8 -4 -3 -2 1 I -2 I -1 I -2 0 -13 -12 -9 -6 2 -8 -7 -7 -5 -3 0 1 -8 -8 -7 -6 2 -10 -10 -8 -5 -2 0 I -II -II -2 0 0 0 -10 -9 -6 -2 -1 -I -I 3 0 -I 8 5 I 7 I 12 -10 -5 -1 I -3 -4 -3 -4 -2 -7 -6 -3 -I -2 0 1 3 4 2 0 0 -3 -I 2 -21 -19 -14 -8 -3 I 40 -6 -5 -5 -4 -2 0 I 48 -6 -6 -5 -4 -10 -6 -2 0 0 -14 -13 -11 -7 -3 0 I -3 0 0 1 -13 -II 0 0 0 -10 -8 -5 -1 0 7 8 8 7 3 0 -1 2 10 II -12 10 4 I -I 2 -25 -24 -18 -11 -5 0 2 6 -8 -4 -3 0 -3 -1 1 -3 0 2 -1 I 2 1 4 4 3 2 5 8 8 6 3 2 8 II 11 7 4 3 Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. ]I' TABLE 6.j.128 CHAPTER 6 . .4 CLTD CORRECTION FOR LATITUDE AND MONTH APPLIED TO WALLS AND ROOFS.

CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 . 2.3 to find t a. to = 95 . 3.2. Pennsylvania. DR = 18 F.1 F Find fa. CLTD = 15 F. Inside air temperature is 75 F and outdoor average temperature on a design day is 88 F.17/2 = 86 F C.2 is used to correct the CLTD. Using Equation 6. Use Equation 6. The inside air temperature is 77 F. From Table 6. Find the wall cooling load at 4 PM Solar Time on June 21.128 BTU/hr-ft2 -F E.116 BTUlhr-ft 2 -F 7. LM = . 2.9.C. fa = 95 F DR=18F. Using Equation 6. is at 38'N latitude (use 40 0 N).128x 1200x33 = 5070 BTUlhr Example 6.1l6x5600x II = 7150 BTUlhr Table 6.85) = 29 + I + (78 . Using Equation 6.3.18/2 = 81 F (rounded off). Equation 6. Solution I.2. insulation + 4 in.1 to find the cooling load. CLTDc = CLTD + LM + (78 . From Table A. except that there is no latitude and month (LM) correction.h CLTD OF 0 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 2 4 7 Solar Time.5.!R) + (ta . Using Equation 6. U = 0. heavy weight concrete. From Table 6. Find the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through the windows at 2 PM Daylight Savings Time.5 lists CLTD values for glass. Using Table 6. From Table 6.2.3.tR) + (ta . Solution I. U = 0.85) = 12 + (78 .h CLTD OF 12 13 14 14 13 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 9 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 Reprinted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. From Table 6. A room has 130 ft2 of single glass windows with vinyl frames.1. CLTD= 12F. For Washington.3 A south-facing wall of a building in Pittsburgh. The following example illustrates the use of Table 6. 4.5 (2 PM DST= I PMST= 13 hrs). LM = 1 F B.S COOLING LOAD TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES (CLTD) FOR CONDUCTION THROUGH GLASS Solar Time..85) CLTDc= 18 F ._- - . D. Roof surface is horizontal (the HOR column). ta = 90 . 5. has a net opaque area of 5600 ft2 The wall is constructed of 4 in.76) + (86 . Q=UxAxCLTD c TABLE6.85) CLTDc=33 F D.75) + (88 . 10 = 90 F.tR) + (ta . From Table 6.4. =0. Use Equation 6.2. The roof area A = 30 ft x 40 ft = 1200 ft2 3. the wall is in Group B. CLTDc = CLTD + (78 .COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 129 D.1 to find the cooling load. face brick + 2 in.2.C. without LM correction. For July.2 Q= UxAxCLTD c =0..9.85) = 15-1 +(78-77)+(81-85) CLTDc= II F 6. Using Equation 6. Example 6. first finding to and DR from Table A.

fioor. U = 1.5: Q= UxAxTD where Q = heat gain (cooling load) through partition. fioor. or ceiling. The solar cooling load can be found from the following equation: Q=SHGFxA x SC x CLF where Q = solar radiation cooling load for glass. Spaces with heat sources. ft2 TD = temperature difference between unconditioned and conditioned space. Example 6. and ceilings can be found from Equation 3. 6. and latitude.04 BTU/hr-ft2-F. floors. Its value varies with time. From Table A.90.1. shading. CLTD = 9 F. Using Equation 6. Table 6. Values are shown in Table 6.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A room has 130 ft 2 of exterior single glass with If the temperature of the unconditioned space is not known.8.8. or ceiling. Determine the cooling load from conduction heat gain through the glass at 12 noon Solar Time msummer. BTUlhr-ft2-F A = area of partition. or ceiling.5 CONDUCTION THROUGH INTERIOR STRUCTURE The heat that flows from interior unconditioned spaces to the conditioned space through partitions. 6. To account for heat gains with different fenestration arrangements.t R ) + (to .3. F The SHGF gives maximum heat gain values only for the type of glass noted and without any shading devices. U = 0. Q = U x A x CLTD = 1.5) U = overall heat transfer coefficient for partition. and storage effect.5. BTUlhr SHGF = maximum solar heat gain factor.90x BOx 18 = 2110 BTUlhr Example 6. (6. COITecting this by Equation 6.130 CHAPTER 6 3.4) CLTDc = CLTD + (78 .04 x 130 x 12 = 1620 BTU/hr SC = shading coefficient CLF = cooling load factor for glass The maximum solar heat gain factor (SHGF) is the maximum solar heat gain through single clear glass at a given month. ft 2 no interior shading. may be at a much higher temperature.85) =9+0+3= 12F From Table A. BTUlhr (3.6 SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH GLASS Radiant energy from the sun passes through transparent materials such as glass and becomes a heat gain to the room.7 lists some values of SC. .5 What is the maximum solar heat gain factor through the windows on the southwest side of a building located at 32°N latitude on September 21 st? Solution From Table 6. the shading coefficient SC is introduced.1 to find the cooling load. floor. Using Equation 6. BTU/hr-ft2 A = area of glass. The inside design condition is 78 F and the outdoor daily average temperature is 88 F. an approximation often used is to assume that it is at 5 F less than the outdoor temperature. Q = UxA X CLTDc =0. such as boiler rooms.6. SHGF= 218 BTUlhr-ft2 . Solution From Table 6. orientation. orientation.6 for the 21st day of each month.

lat NE! ENE! NW WNW S 44 0 N. 40 37 33 28 24 22 79 35 28 24 22 29 65 107 146 170 176 167 141 103 63 29 22 105 149 183 200 208 208 204 195 173 143 103 84 175 205 227 227 220 214 215 219 215 195 173 162 229 242 237 219 199 189 194 210 227 234 225 218 249 250 248 232 227 195 187 141 155 99 139 83 150 96 181 136 218 189 239 225 245 246 246 252 246 221 176 115 74 60 72 111 171 215 243 252 176 217 252 271 277 276 273 265 244 213 175 158 Jan. Dec. 25 29 33 36 40 51 41 38 34 30 26 24 25 29 41 84 115 125 114 83 38 30 26 24 35 72 116 151 172 178 170 149 III 71 35 24 117 157 189 205 211 211 208 199 179 151 115 99 183 213 231 228 219 213 215 220 219 204 181 172 E! W 235 244 237 216 195 184 190 207 226 236 232 227 251 246 221 178 144 128 140 172 213 238 247 248 247 224 182 124 83 68 80 120 177 217 243 251 238 207 157 94 58 49 57 91 154 196 234 265 278 280 278 276 272 256 201 229 235 195 246 179 Nov. Apr. Lat HOR Jan. Dec. Mar. . Feb. P 160 238 224 118 206 210 183 171 240 183 148 132 257 171 132 115 261 179 144 128 254 202 177 165 236 227 216 211 199 237 240 239 157 227 244 2-t8 109 217 240 2-t6 89 SSE! SSW 32° N. Sep. Apr. NORTH LATITUDES 36° N.. Oct. Lat 131 FT" FOR SUNLIT GLASS. Nov. Feb.6 MAXIMUM SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTOR (SHGF) BTU/HR • 20C N. Mar. Lat N NNE! NE! ENE! (Shade) NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! SSE! WSW SW SSW S 48° N. Feb. Nov. 27 30 34 37 43 55 45 38 35 31 27 26 N (Shade) 27 41 30 80 45 124 88 159 117 178 127 184 116 176 87 . Mar. May June July Aug. 24 27 32 36 38 44 24 27 37 80 111 122 III Nov. Nov. 17 22 27 33 36 47 37 34 28 23 18 15 N (Shade) 17 22 27 66 96 108 96 66 28 23 18 15 17 43 87 136 162 169 159 132 80 42 18 15 64 117 162 185 201 205 198 180 152 III 64 49 138 178 211 221 219 215 215 214 198 171 135 115 E! W 189 227 236 224 211 203 206 215 226 217 186 175 232 248 252 109 246 248 2. Dec. Mar. Nov.. 22 26 30 35 38 47 39 36 31 27 22 20 N 22 26 33 76 107 118 107 75 31 27 22 20 24 57 99 144 168 175 165 138 95 56 24 20 90 166 139 195 176 223 196 225 204 220 205 215 201 216 190 218 167 210 133 187 87 163 69 151 40° N. Oct. Apr. Lat E! W· 219 239 238 221 204 194 199 212 228 230 215 204 247 248 232 196 165 150 161 189 223 239 252 239 206 156 116 99 252 232 243 241 113 151 200 231 248 253 SSE! SSW 192 135 93 77 90 131 187 225 248 254 155 199 238 262 272 273 268 257 230 195 154 136 24° N. Dec. May June July Aug. 20 24 29 34 37 48 38 35 30 25 20 18 N (Shade) 20 20 24 50 29 93 71 140 102 165 113 172 102 163 71 135 30 87 25 49 20 20 18 18 74 129 169 190 202 205 198 185 160 123 73 60 154 186 218 224 220 216 216 216 203 180 151 135 E! W 205 234 238 223 208 199 203 214 227 225 241 246 236 203 175 161 170 196 226 238 201 237 188 232 ESE! SE! WSW SW 252 244 216 170 133 116 129 165 209 236 248 249 SSE! SSW 254 ~.. Dec. Apr. Scpo Oct. Feb.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6. Feb. 15 20 26 31 35 46 37 33 27 21 15 13 15 20 26 61 97 110 96 61 27 21 15 13 15 36 80 132 158 165 156 128 72 35 15 13 53 103 154 180 200 204 196 174 144 96 52 36 118 168 204 219 218 215 214 211 191 161 115 91 175 216 234 225 214 206 209 216 223 207 172 156 216 242 239 215 192 180 187 208 228 233 212 195 239 249 232 194 ·163 148 158 188 223 241 234 225 245 250 228 186 150 134 146 180 220 2-t2 240 233 85 138 188 226 247 252 244 223 182 136 85 65 Reprinted with pennission from the 1989 ASHRA£ Hmzdbook-Fundamentals.41 180 206 223 154 252 113 265 95 267 109 262 149 2-1-7 200 215 234 177 250 132 253 113 28 0 N. Mar. Mar. May June July Aug. M. Feb. OCL Nov. Mar. Nov. Feb. Sep. May June July Aug. May June July Aug. Sep.lat NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW E! W ESE! SE! WSW SW SSE! SSW N NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW E! W ESE! 5E1 SSE! WSW SW SSW N S HOR (Shade) S HOR Jan. May June July Aug. Lat N NE/ ENE! NW WNW ESE! SE! SSEI WSW SW SSW S HOR (Shade) NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! WSW SW S HOR 133 Jan. May June July Aug. Dec. May June July Aug... 156 42 119 31 79 27 42 26 29 NNE! NNW 128 165 195 209 214 214 210 203 185 159 126 112 190 220 234 228 218 212 213 220 222 211 187 180 Ei W 240 253 241 244 243 213 237 214 168 212 169 107 190 132 67 179 117 55 185 129 65 204 162 103 225 206 163 237 235 207 236 249 237 234 247 247 ESE! SEt SSE! WSW SW SSW 227 192 137 75 46 43 46 72 13-1- 187 224 237 214 249 275 283 282 279 278 277 266 244 213 199 Jan. Scpo Oct. Dec. Dec . Feb. Apr. 29 31 34 38 47 59 48 40 36 32 29 27 29 31 49 92 123 135 124 91 46 32 29 27 NNE! NNW 48 88 132 166 184 189 182 162 127 87 48 35 138 173 200 213 217 216 213 206 191 167 136 122 201 226 237 228 217 210 212 220 225 217 197 187 E! W 243 244 236 208 184 173 179 200 225 236 239 238 253 233 238 201 206 152 158 91 124 54 108 45 119 53 152 88 199 148 231 196 249 229 254 241 214 174 115 58 42 42 43 57 114 170 211 226 232 263 284 287 283 279 278 280 275 258 230 217 Jan. Scpo Oct. Apr.. Scpo Oct. Apr. Lat HOR NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW ESE! SE! WSW SW S HOR Jan. NNE! NE! ENE! NNW NW WNW S HOR Jan. Apr.. Sep. Oct.

Example 6. External shading from building projections (or other objects) may shade all or part of the glass.10. single clear glass and mediumcolored inside venetian blinds? 4. Medium (M). single clear glass with light-colored interior venetian blinds.35 0. From Table 6.94 0. The values in the table are the vertical feet of shade for each foot of horizontal projection.11. Q= SHGFxA x SC x CLF = 196 x 240 x 0.10 is used with interior shading devices (in this case the carpeting has no storage effect).39 0.55 0. From Table 6. in (Each light) ~ l ~ '" Type of Glazing Without Shading :~ 1 Medium Light Single glass Clear Heat absorbing Double glass Clear Heat absorbing VI VI VI VI 0.81 0045 0.83 Solution From Table 6. the shaded area portion must first be found. The SHGF values for any shaded glass is the same as the N (north) side of the building. SHGF = 196 2.-. Table 6.6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the value of SC to be applied to the solar heat gain for l4 in.57 0.67 x 0.30 0040 Note: Venetian blinds are assumed set at a 45° position.67 3.39 0.8 _ _ _ _-:-_ _-:-~_:_-___: A building at 32°N latitude has a wall facing west with a 4 ft overhang.160 BTUlhr External Shading Effect The values for the SHGF shown in Table 6. Using Equation 6.9 is used without interior shading devices and no carpeting.36 0.74. The following example illustrates the use of Table 6. The glass is !4 in. Table 6. In order to find the total radiation through partly shaded glass. Find the solar cooling load in August at 3 PM Solar Time.83 3'M? j t .7. and a 5 ft wide by 6 ft high window whose top is 1 ft below the overhang. Example 6.0 132 CHAPTER 6 SHADING COEFFICIENTS FOR GLASS WITHOUT OR WITH INTERIOR SHADING DEVICES With Interior Shading Roller Shades Opaque Translucent Dark Light Light 'i' TABLE 6.58 0.71 0.67 0.81 0. = 26. and 6. Table 6.10.9. as described.7 Venetian Blinds Nominal Thickness.8. The cooling load factor CLF accounts for the storage of part of the solar heat gain.53 0.11 can be used to find the shading from overhead horizontal projections.22 0. Adapted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. SC = 0. The buildin00" is of medium construction and is located at 400N latitude.74 0.4. From Table 6. 6.6. and Heavy (H) construction.36 0040 0. only an indirect radiation reaches the glass from the sky and ground. SC = 0. Example 6. In these cases. How much of the glass receives direct solar radiation at Solution I.. Note that there are separate listings for Light (L). Table 6. which also receives only indirect radiation.7 A building wall facing southwest has a window area of 240 ft2.62 0. CLF = 0. Values of CLF to be applied to the solar load calculation are shown in Tables 6.7.69 0.30 0.44 0.6 are for direct solar radiation-when the sun shines on the glass.8 is used without interior shading devices and with carpeting.

04 .03 .06 .01 .04 .64 .23 .25 .06 .00 .10 .14 .48 .01 . M H .25 .01 .78 .02 .89 .04 .19 .23 .07 .01 .86 .38 . Group C wall.64 .04 .16 .00 .15 .24 .23 .13 .08 .20 .74 .00 .8 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITHOUT INTERIOR SHADING.04 .00 .14 .69 .64 .01 .82 .06 .04 .02 .00 .02 .22 .58 .00 .73 .28 .03 .24 .08 .14 . Room Mass 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 L N M H .83 .00 .60 .04 .09 .35 . Group E wall.09 .93 .01 .00 .51 .45 .00 .00 .16 .00 .16 .10 .17 .04 .02 .20 .00 .30 .00 .17 .07 .18 .07 .31 .03 .87 .13 .00 .II .16 .83 .19 .80 .24 .91 .79 .01 .87 .57 .04 .12 .29 .09 .62 .52 .47 .62 .00 .88 .09 .94 .01 .28 .03 .79 .00 .00 .23 .15 .22 .52 . and 50% or less glass in exposed surface at listed orientation.03 .13 .22 .07 .55 .82 .00 .00 .13 .79 .00 .93 .59 .64 .69 .3! .23 .01 .10 L NE E M H L M SE w w - H L M H L .39 .00 .09 .00 .93 .20 .88 .24 .~~-~.87 .33 .05 .06 .20 .30 .09 .11 .13 .20 .07 S M H L SW M H L W NW M H L M H L Hor.05 .00 .01 .00 .05 .90 .00 .15 .23 .44 .01 .06 .22 .23 .92 .32 .03 .03 .25 .25 .03 .39 .00 .37 .08 .03 .00 .11 .01 .04 . IN NORTH LATITUDE SPACES HAVING CARPETED FLOORS Solar Time -.22 .03 .02 .85 .14 .04 .22 .02 .18 .16 .01 .76 .26 .19 .00 .04 .02 .01 .13 .87 .94 .07 .19 .88 .67 .10 .42 .72 .71 .02 .03 .55 .29 .08 .56 .05 .04 .91 .79 .35 .04 .02 .07 .01 .76 .04 .00 .75 .69 .07 .00 .07 .02 .40 .00 .11 .12 .29 .02 .01 .41 .07 .98 .04 .30 . concrete noor.81 .05 .05 .78 .98 .53 .00 .91 .01 .69 .01 .78 .15 .09 .04 .01 .01 .05 .28 .00 .)1 .01 .00 .88 .05 .10 .00 .00 .50 .81 .84 .01 .23 .88 .01 .05 .02 .80 . .15 .19 .81 .04 .24 .25 .81 .13 .04 .77 .47 .83 .26 .00 .01 .02 .78 .04 .00 .56 .08 .10 .00 . Group G wall.09 .06 .88 .06 .27 .27 .09 .!O .14 .15 .21 .03 .76 .14 .27 .18 .63 .03 .71 .04 .14 .01 .r I TABLE 6.10 .05 .59 .04 .10 .75 .11 .03 .01 . such as 2 to 4 in.Q7 .15 .01 .00 .92 .00 .06 .34 .43 .15 .01 .21 .95 .10 .04 .27 .02 .23 .66 .05 .00 .00 .39 .01 .83 .28 .13 .79 .01 .21 . concrete floor.14 .02 .00 .01 .00 .75 . M '" Mediumweight constnlclion.06 .08 .63 .30 .69 .26 .13 .05 .01 .01 .07 .00 .17 .01 .91 .71 .20 .68 .05 .73 .07 .16 .16 .74 .26 .07 .95 .00 .00 .00 .00 .62 .00 .01 .86 .04 .51 .75 .10 .31 .76 .28 . such as I in.45 .71 .21 .01 .84 .08 Values for nominal 15 fI by 15 ft by 10 ft high space.03 .09 .17 .26 .80 .89 .17 .76 .18 .02 .24 .09 .62 .06 .21 .55 .14 .48 .03 .05 . L '" Lightweight construction.18 .07 .02 .80 .43 .79 .32 .02 . wood floor.06 .08 .19 .21 .04 .05 .21 .10 .72 .00 .59 .11 . with ceiling.03 .67 .01 .12 .03 .80 .78 .02 .07 .20 .77 .60 .94 .78 .71 .69 .-Fundamel1tals.04 .16 .07 .05 .37 .05 .00 .06 .38 .26 .11 .12 .79 .72 .79 .07 .02 .00 . Dir.08 .77 .77 .59 .09 .56 .28 .08 .03 .01 .05 .02 .53 .29 .37 .04 .04 .82 .24 .00 .13 .88 .00 .22 .20 .00 .70 .44 .17 .11 .01 .77 .93 .07 .78 .18 .14 .68 .05 .05 .41 .01 .03 .16 .00 .00 .24 .22 .97 .09 .18 .11 .05 .16 .03 .55 .54 .51 .05 .88 .03 .02 .00 .30 .05 .00 .38 .17 .03 .49 .54 .02 .52 .77 .00 .05 .02 .07 .00 .94 .51 .16 .11 .81 .74 .:.97 .01 .21 .86 .79 .00 .22 .03 .13 .09 .08 .07 .92 .55 .02 .09 .38 .48 .00 .26 .92 .00 . H '" Heavyweight conslruction.18 .94 .00 .91 .07 .19 .35 .01 .17 .08 .64 .69 .77 . Reprinted with pennission from the 19&9 ASHRAE Handbook.02 .01 .88 .81 .59 .00 .01 .64 .03 .00 .68 .such as 6 10 8 in.00 .00 .44 .78 .13 .01 .12 .02 .

02 .58 .10 .Q7 .17 .37 .63 049 .22 . . M H .5:1 .00 .74 .16 .64 . wood floor.94 .65 .09 . .04 .02 . IN NORTH LATITUDE SPACES HAVING UNCARPETED FLOORS Solar Time Room Orr.53 047 .18 .05 .64 .74 .05 .04 .00 .26 042 .14 . ".09 .15 .15 .29 .73 .01 .17 .07 .03 .05 .94 .14 .71 .69 .18 .01 .57 049 .46 .67 .80 .06 .27 .JuIH JJ1.23 .10 .32 .24 .03 .16 .21 .52 .23 .14 .19 .00 .00 .70 .02 .00 .12 .35 .18 .26 .19 .72 .16 .06 .26 .29 .53 .()9 .17 .04 .03 .00 .03 .58 .10 .02 .07 .00 .11 .36 .01 .14 .63 .50 .17 .33 Al .18 .41 .56 .33 .29 .04 .10 .04 .53 .08 .36 .11 .11 .66 .12 .50 AS .52 .07 .35 .72 .15 .00 .12 . .16 .93 .10 .00 ..00 .15 .73 .09 .22 .16 .32 .25 .61 047 .00 .08 .13 .31 .32 .19 .00 .00 .02 .01 .24 .10 .78 .00 .00 .09 .08 .19 .18 .73 .18 .04 .11 .15 .43 .22 .88 .64 040 .03 .12 .10 .62 .22 040 .07 .21 .04 .38 .10 .64 .03 .00 .71 .56 .02 .~{"~::'!.12 .03 .70 .16 .27 .04 .11 .53 048 . ".10 .00 .10 .20 .88 NJ .81 .23 .33 .13 .54 .03 .06 .e.23 .16 .17 .09 .00 .01 .24 .15 .64 .24 .04 .41 .91 .14 .03 .81 .11 .28 046 .16 .93 .el2 .45 040 .04 .30 .13 .14 .05 .44 .10 .20 .24 .33 .48 .28 .00 .31 .17 .00 .09 .02 .35 .50 .33 043 .00 .00 .09 .12 .15 .32 .05 . Group E WillI. Reprinted with permission from the 19t19 ASHRAE Handh(}()k-Fulldamentals.29 .31 . ""_.00 .80 .24 .26 .28 .00 .23 .11 .71 .51 046 .07 .Q7 .36 .05 .19 .19 .93 .13 .29 .23 .30 .00 .24 .07 .66 .10 .25 .00 .07 .14 .37 .08 . such as 2 to 4 in.13 .72 .21 .25 .03 .33 .17 .16 .00 .10 .36 .14 .27 .42 . concrete floor.07 .04 .21 .26 .20 .17 .16 .06 .12 .23 .05 .09 .49 .09 .13 .03 .32 .Q7 .27 .02 .54 .07 .82 .57 .47 .79 .30 .33 .09 .78 .11 .14 .31 .11 .00 .14 .00 .15 .08 .49 .08 .00 .25 .00 .04 .24 .61 .76 .78 .52 Al .13 .11 .91 .00 .82 .14 .18 .16 .12 .15 .02 .61 .59 .39 .26 . H = Heavyweight constmction.11 . .19 .10 .54 .98 .04 .14 .01 .92 .02 .09 .9 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITHOUT INTERIOR SHADING.77 .17 .00 .65 .00 .00 .83 AS 043 .05 .37 .24 .62 040 .17 .00 .23 .09 ._cC :::'~. concrete floor.12 .56 .TABLE 6.95 .00 .45 .00 .01 .07 .00 .57 .86 .21 .17 .73 .10 .08 .56 .02 .00 .57 .15 .12 .94 .19 .06 .25 .13 .32 .~pace.32 .93 .22 .18 .00 .48 .61 .00 .19 .04 .14 .53 .18 .09 .03 .25 .18 .24 . with ceiling.13 .24 .55 .11 .00 .23 .06 .:~'.45 .75 .11 .17 .14 .13 .06 .20 .06 .71 .71 .90 .02 .07 .63 .65 .59 .58 AS .ttj~'t~~'~.00 .44 .33 .II 'f t .16 .55 .14 .26 .11 .36 .02 .13 .69 .13 .06 .18 .10 .50 .24 .92 .32 .79 .55 .21 .06 .13 .27 .00 .27 Al .00 .00 .94 .19 .51 .09 .05 .39 . Group C wall.10 .97 .01 .08 .00 .13 .26 .73 .00 .38 .16 .7f1 .07 .19 .18 .31 .00 .51 .05 .12 .54 .00 .00 .21 .97 .58 .01 .00 .80 .88 .80 .22 .01 .14 .15 .19 .80 .01 .12 .26 .00 .19 .00 .62 .59 .19 .14 .12 .21 .66 .06 .00 .08 .20 .00 .64 .13 .el2 H L SE w S M H ·L M H L "'" SW W NW M H L M H L M H L Hor. such as 6 to 8 in.18 Values for nominal 15 ft by 15 ft by J 0 ft high .53 .33 .28 .00 . L_____ .27 .26 .13 .00 .81 .60 . M "" Mediumweight construction.31 .16 .07 .20 .23 .00 .39 . and 50% or less glass in exposed surface at listed orientation.25 .85 .05 .61 047 .81 .24 .07 .08 .36 .04 .30 .33 .06 .06 .81 048 AS .24 .81 .91 .39 .00 .00 .07 .55 .12 .13 .08 .56 . Mass 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 N L M H NE E L M H L M .73 .00 .33 .09 . L "" Lightweight constmction.98 .62 .15 .00 . Group G wall.01 .65 .23 .00 .15 .51 .04 .KS . such tIS I in.12 .20 .15 .1$2 .12 043 042 .04 .59 .00 .55 .01 .09 .

72 0.27 0.58 0.31 0.19 0.27 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.0) 0.09 0.04 0.16 0.06 0.26 0. \' .08 0.66 0.31 0.64 0.27 0.58 0.37 0.81 0.86 0.12 0.06 0.12 0.79 0.03 0.30 0.14 0.89 0.04 0.09 0.77 0.76 0.07 0.Q7 0.03 0.07 0.78 0.27 0.03 0.02 0.72 0.76 0.05 0.02 0.07 0.06 0.80 0.22 0.14 0.18 0.28 0.02 0.06 0.12 0.12 0.03 0.67 0.13 0.43 0.03 0.11 0.08 0.22 0.27 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.53 0.05 0.37 0.16 0.52 0.86 0.02 0.54 0.19 0.16 0.34 0.30 0.69 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.16 0.eprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.76 0.14 0.26 0.02 0.03 0.14 0.81 0.12 0.41 0.04 0.34 0.02 0.71 0.14 0.09 0.38 0.11 0.05 0.64 0.13 0.09 0.13 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.44 0.04 0.65 0.20 0.82 0.42 0.82 0.80 0.03 0.22 0.85 0.38 0.17 0.21 0.10 0.04 0.05 0.32 0.22 0.81 0.17 0.08 0.04 0.03 0. h 01000200 0300 04000500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 220023002400 w V>.06 0.61 0.16 0.03 0.18 0.83 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.11 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.16 0.17 0.11 0.13 0.02 0.59 0.03 0.07 0.21 0.17 0.84 0.07 0.04 0.04 0.43 0.72 0.22 0.04 0.52 0.12 0.05 0.04 0.75 0.16 0.59 0.07 0.71 0.06 0.02 0.16 0.07 0.41 0.03 0.20 0.02 0.14 0.17 0.02 0.08 0.37 0.08 0.07 0.84 0.72 0.06 0.38 0.03 0.69 0.80 0.05 0.66 0.24 0.23 0.10 COOLING LOAD FACTORS (ClF) FOR GLASS WITH INTERIOR SHADING.16 0.05 0.74 0.08 0.19 0.10 0.39 0.15 0.23 0.33 0.44 0.26 0.10 0.19 0.11 0.05 0.16 0.06 0.81 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.12 0.91 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.49 0.50 0.07 0.73 0.03 0.23 0.10 0.34 0.24 0.65 0.12 0.78 0.06 0. 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.79 0.16 0.25 0.02 0.10 0.04 0.32 0.03 0.68 0.12 0.07 0.02 0.78 0.42 0.31 0.03 0.15 0. - N NNE NE ENE E ESE SE SSE S SSW SW WSW W WNW NW NNW HOR.22 0.06 R.10 0.r TABLE 6.66 0.04 0.75 0.03 0.80 0.05 0.18 0.03 0.35 0.07 0.81 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.03 0. NORTH LATITUDES (ALL ROOM CONSTRUCTIONS) Fenes tration Facing w Solar Time.46 0.81 0.02 0.18 0.09 0.80 0.15 0.05 0.55 0.08 0.03 0.62 0.04 0.30 0.24 0.05 0.25 0.12 0.35 0.28 0.82 0.02 0.16 0.32 0.03 0.10 0. II 0.11 0.04 0.85 0.06 0.72 0.03 0.73 0.81 0.09 0.27 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.08 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.20 0.02 0.76 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.54 0.02 0.78 0.02 0.03 0.61 0.73 0.04 0.27 0.03 0.24 0.56 0.07 0.15 0.33 0.62 0.80 0.12 0.02 0.24 0.04 0.04 0.82 0.29 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.80 0.17 0.03 0.58 0.04 0.74 0.04 0.22 0.04 0.54 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.52 0.47 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.71 0.57 0.89 0.68 0.17 0.09 0.05 0.25 0.14 0.36 0.06 0.63 0.84 0.09 0.22 0.75 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.22 0.08 0.17 0.37 0.10 0.20 0.45 0.05 0.83 0.

9 A room with no carpeting and a wall facing east at 40 N latitude has a total window glass area of 80 ft2. ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory. The unshaded area of window is A=3. The glass is ~ in.S5 - - - - .83 - - - 1.74 3.NE E SE S SW W NW 1.33 LOS - 3.33 - . The building is of heavyweight (HJ construction.93 1.58 - - - .00 3. Example 6.S6 .S3 "* 3.08 1.50 = 500 BTUlhr The total solar cooling load is· Q = 3730 + 500 = 4230 BTUlhr .93 4. *Shading not effective.33 1.9 = 3. What is the solar cooling load? 0 Solution Equation 6.85 2.S9 2. however.13 . Solution Figure 6.63 - 1.69 X 0. single heat -absorbing glass with no interior shading device.33 - - .19 1.4 shows the arrangement.11 is 0.45 - * * - .61 .9 ft.00 - - - .63 - - - - .33 1.1 ft.73 .59 1.45 .33 .00 I. At 10 AM ST in June.1' 6' sun 0.55 - 2.1 x5= 15.03 *' * - * - - * I Reprinted with permission from the 1985 Fundamentals. using the SHGF for north orientation.83 . and the unshaded height is 6 .4 will be used.9' shadow For the part receiving only diffuse radiation.61 - - 2.7.89 - - 3.37 - 3.38 2.5 ft2 Figure 6.55 4.33 I. because they receive different radiation.136 CHAPTER 6 SHADING FROM OVERHEAD PROJECTIONS 24' 32' 40' 48' TABLE 6.97 2.69 X 3.S9 - 3.11 latitude St'dTime 56' gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm gam Noon 3pm 6pm -N.13 1. For the part receiving direct radiation. Q =48 X 30 X 0. The total vertical distance the shade extends down is therefore L=0.17 97 2.61 1. an adjacent building shades 30 ft 2 of the window.74 - - 1.2.17 * - - * * .9ft The height of shade on the window is 3.97. Q=SHGFxA x SC x CLF Q = 216 X 50 X 0.35 - 1.67 - .35 4.86 2. The vertical proportion of shade. -Completely shaded.89 1.I = 2.73 1.63 2.03 .33 1. Note: Values apply from April to September.97x4=3.57 4.00 (Facing) - - .67 - .9 .4 Sketch for Example 6.50 = 3730 BTUlhr 1' 2. The externally shaded and unshaded portions of the glass must be handled separately.93 1. from Table 6.

4x WxBFxCLF where Q = cooling load from lighting. all of the lighting is on at all times. CLF = 1. maximum cooling loads occur in other months due to solar radiation.7 DESIGN CONDITIONS The cooling load calculations are usually based on inside and outdoor design conditions of temperature and humidity. June to September can be used as months for summer outdoor design temperatures in the northern hemisphere. The cooling system operates only during occupied hours. The value 3. BTUlhr W = lighting capacity. there is no extra loss.0. Occasionally.25 for the ballast heat will be assumed. but if it is not. Table 6. The outdoor summer design conditions~"are based on reasonable maximums. For incandescent lighting. using weather records. For these reasons. Temperature of the space is allowed to rise during nonoccupied hours (temperature swing) These conditions cover so many possible situations that it is suggested that heat storage effects for lighting should be used with extreme caution.5) A room has eight 40 W fluorescent lighting fixtures in use.0 for the operating conditions. The separate WB value may be needed. The factor BF accounts for heat losses in the ballast in fluorescent lamps. A typical value of BF is 1. These temperatures are exceeded on average 35 hours in a year. expressed in watts. the CLF tables for lighting are not presented here.25 for fluorescent lighting. which if used. For those cases where they are applicable. In many applications.12 lists appropriate values. Table A. they may be found in the ASHRAE Fundamentals Volume. What is the solar cooling load from the lighting? Solution A value of BF = 1. Building use patterns often change and may be unpredictable. in selecting a cooling tower or for special applications. even though not planned for originally. The storage effect depends on how long the lights and cooling system are operating.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 137 6. Energy conservation operating techniques may also result in one of the conditions discussed earlier. and therefore it is necessary to know the expected design conditions at those times. however. and ventilation rate. and BF = 1.6 lists these conditions for some cities. would result in too large a design cooling load. The table also lists latitudes and mean daily DB temperature ranges (DR). Otherwise use a value of CLF= 1. Cooling system operates more than 16 hr 3. Cooling system operates only during occupied hours 2. Example 6. The term W is the rated capacity of the lights in use. Previous weather data tables showed this value.8 LIGHTING The equation for determining cooling load due to heat gain from lighting is Q=3. BF = ballast factor CLF = cooling load factor for lighting .10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6. type of lighting fixture. The factor CLF accounts for storage of part of the lighting heat gain.4 converts watts to BTUlhr. the actual amount should be used. The DB (dry bulb temperature) and coincidelll WB (wet bulb temperature) occurring at the same time are listed together and should be used as the corresponding design values. or other special losses.1 lists some suggested values. as well as the building construction. The inside conditions are those that provide satisfactory comfort. Definitions of DB and WB are given in Chapter 7.0. watts (6. Table 1. The separate design WB column listed does not usually occur at the same time as the DB listed and therefore should not be used in load calculations. No storage effect can be allowed for any of the following conditions: I.

OR Portland.138 CHAPTER 6 COOLING DESIGN DRY BULB AND MEAN COINCIDENT WET BULB LAT City LONG ELEV DESIGN DB (2. MN Jackson. LA 29 Portland. WV Green Bay. Min. MT North Platte. NE Albuquerque. LA 30 New Orleans. SD Bristol. PA Sioux Falls. TX Cedar City. CA Bishop. TX Midland. . WI Madison.5%) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Oct Nov Dec TABLE 6. MO Springfield. WI Cheyenne. IL 41 Fort Wayne. CA San Diego. Deg. KS 37 Covington. MO Billings. OH Toledo.OH Tulsa. WY 44 34 40 44 59 22 56 44 49 40 25 22 34 59 0 44 32 46 4 II 32 39 37 45 41 38 35 42 36 46 40 41 36 42 45 40 43 36 33 31 33 37 44 13 59 39 18 53 20 7 14 48 8 4 3 45 5 46 55 36 II 86 45 114 36 92 14 124 6 118 22 118 23 117 10 104 42 75 36 81 39 81 58 116 13 87 54 85 12 86 16 93 39 99 58 84 40 85 44 93 9 90 15 70 19 85 14 93 15 90 I. 108 630 206 265 217 4112 122 37 6170 78 67 76 68 61 60 72 72 . MI 42 Birmingham. VA Roanoke.AZ Little Rock. UT Burlington. IN 39 Des Moines. TX Wichita Falls. WA Charleston. VA Everett. VT Blackstone.12 Oeg. MS Kansas City. ME 43 Battle Creek.57 65 60 42 47 60 68 62 41 41 48 52 50 64 58 65 56 49 56 55 44 60 69 65 48 56 58 59 55 52 59 61 73 72 55 55 52 68 57 60 47 49 46 46 58 59 43 57 58 61 52 54 57 49 61 50 56 60 46 55 44 61 60 56 55 52 49 60 55 60 57 54 41 55-43 43 41 60 54 61 55 45 53 54 40 51 67 63 43 49 51 53 48 45 53 57 68 69 47 49 43 63 52 53 41 43 41 42 46 58 38 52 51 53 49 53 51 43 54 47 52 54 42 Reprinted with permission from the 1979 ASHRAE Load Calculation Manual. OK Medford. IN 41 Indianapolis. OR Pittsburgh. CA Colorado Springs Wilmington. NY Greensboro. FL Augusta. TN Amarillo. AR Arcata. 33 32 34 40 37 33 32 38 39 30 33 Boise. NE Tonopah. WV Huntington. AL Yuma. Min. NC Bismarck. NO Akron-Canton. 94 35 0' 93 -. KY 39 Louisville.5%) DESIGN COINCIDENT WB (2. NM Albany.'0 37 37 47 38 38 44 23 36 30 34 30 14 56 59 42 28 4 19 54 22 25 29 8 100 117 106 73 79 100 81 83 95 122 122 80 96 82 101 102 98 113 73 77 42 8 37 48 57 43 26 48 54 52 36 13 44 43 41 9 79 122 81 82 88 89 104 21 46 12 31 6 9 58 58 17 36 27 8 20 49 24 182 2857 667 828 793 963 2592 888 488 32 20 61 939 838 332 750 1270 3583 2787 5422 5314 277 891 1660 1236 692 674 1329 24 1151 1422 1566 3700 2858 1039 5616 331 438 1174 596 989 565 699 866 6144 69 56 50 75 70 51 40 47 53 42 58 55 58 72 74 41 49 36 70 54 59 51 52 53 55 43 63 41 49 44 82 70 60 66 71 69 61 55 80 73 53 49 52 57 49 64 61 63 75 77 44 48 42 74 60 62 54 58 58 63 47 64 63 55 54 49 41 59 64 63 69 72 74 66 74 53 56 39 40 65 64 60 63 50 54 62 64 65 65 36 39 38 44 51 56 42 53 48 69 59 57 53 45 83 96 83 59 72 81 72 74 70 73 63 73 63 78 83 86 78 85 62 72 58 74 60 76 64 78 59 76 72 82 65 79 69 82 78 84 79 84 49 62 64 72 52 73 78 84 69 81 72 80 62 70 64 77 65 75 69 79 54 73 70 83 56 70 60 74 59 76 75 83 66 75 60 69 63 78 57 75 69 81 75 84 81 88 82 88 63 73 49 68 71 83 69 82 61 64 70 83 72 83 48 70 53 73 58 69 76 87 76 59 91 99 89 62 88 74 72 79 84 93 91 83 83 82 82 84 89 84 88 89 89 77 86 83 89 87 84 80 83 81 87 81 87 82 79 84 88 84 79 82 84 86 90 94 93 81 79 87 87 86 87 77 81 76 84 99 84 66 85 80 79 77 78 86 84 74 78 78 79 79 83 79 81 88 86 69 77 74 85 74 63 72 68 75 67 59 64 76 87 83 83 77 79 74 64 65 81 77 59 64 63 66 63 68 68 71 79 79 58 62 57 77 69 69 59 64 64 64 80 78 79 73 81 77 75 77 60 71 53 64 64 86 78 73 77 78 79 84 88 89 78 70 82 81 80 84 69 74 74 73 63 59 64 58 70 70 77 76 63 58 72 72 64 69 54 72 74 71 59 55 75 }1 48 50 53 55 52 59 58 61 74 74 48 49 43 70 58 59 52 54 55 56 49 63 43 54 52 63 53 54 55 47 60 65 71 67 54 46 65 62 53 64 62 54 63 53 43 54 53 39 48 66 62 44 45 47 52 39 46 53 56 67 69 33 50 34 64 71 58 61 60 63 42 44 54 49 54 41 42 40 42 42 57 37 48 42 37 48 50 46 37 54 46 53 56 41 38 59 54 47 55 58 36 37 37 63 64 67 71 69 57 58 61 63 66 61 64 67 72 71 54 53 54 57 58 45 48 52 57 55 55 55 61 61 63 56 56 60 60 64 43 43 47 52 50 52 54 64 70 69 68 68 69 73 74 63 66 68 73 71 46 49 53 62 55 47 52 63 68 66 50 53 62 68 63 54 57 64 68 65 44 49 62 69 64 49 51 58 64 60 56 55 64 70 64 57 59 66 72 67 68 69 70 75 74 70 70 72 74 75 43 44 53 64 60 45 57 59 66 64 39 45 58 65 62 65 67 70 73 72 51 55 65 71 67 54 59 65 70 66 44 47 52 59 56 45 49 56 63 57 43 45 49 54 52 45 47 51 56 55 45 49 59 67 65 56 59 65 70 68 39 46 53 62 57 50 53 63 67 62 46 53 63 69 63 58 60 66 73 69 50 53 58 64 60 51 51 56 63 59 50 53 63 68 64 41 48 58 65 60 55 58 64 70 66 50 51 56 61 59 54 55 59 65 63 58 61 66 71 67 44 46 50 55 53 38 44 56 66 61 56 61 67 72 70 52 56 63 69 66 49 49 55 61 58 55 56 63 67 66 56 60 66 70 69 39 44 .ID 43 Chicago-O'Hare. CA Los Angeles. IA 41 Dodge City. DE Jacksonville. KY 38 Lake Charles. GA Minneapolis.

light machine work Bowling Heavy work Heavy machine work. but not the latent heat.7) Q = 3.5. b Adjusted total heat gain for Sedentary work. very light work Moderately active office work Standing. hotels. apartments Offices. Some of the sensible heat may be absorbed by the heat storage effect.6) (6. Tabulated values are based on 75°F room dry-bulb temperature. lifting Athletics C Sensible Heat. walking Walking.13 lists values for some typical activities.4 x WxBF x CLF = 3. Restaurant. The rates are suitable for a RATES OF HEAT GAIN FROM OCCUPANTS OF CONDITIONED SPACES Total Heat Adults Degree of Activity Seated at theater Seated at theater. Qs= qsx n xCLF Q[=q[xn (6. standing Sedentary work Light bench work Moderate dancing Walking 3 mph. but the a sensible heat values should be decreased by approximately 20%. Latent Heat. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. and that the gain from a child is 75% of that for an adult male. The equations for cooling loads from sensible and latent heat gains from people are TABLE 6. and children for the application listed.13 n = number of people CLF = cooling load factor for people The rate of heat gain from people depends on their physical activity. For 80°F room dry-bulb. night Seated. hotels. the total heat remains the same. apartments Department store. . includes 60 Btuth for food per individual (30 Btulh sensible and 30 Btulh latent) C Figure one person per alley actually bowling. bank Restaurant b Factory Dance hall Factory Bowling alley Factory Factory Gymnasium 390 390 450 475 550 550 490 800 900 1000 1500 1500 1600 2000 Adjusted MtF" 330 350 400 450 450 500 550 750 850 1000 1450 1450 1600 1800 Btuth 225 245 245 250 250 250 275 275 305 375 580 580 635 710 Bluth 105 105 155 200 200 250 275 475 545 625 870 870 965 1090 Notes I. and the latent heat values increased accordingly. light work. . Adjusted heat gain is based on normal percentage of men. sensible heat and the latent heat resulting from perspiration.25 x 1. with the postulate that the gain from an adult female is 85% of that for an adult male.9 PEOPLE where Qs.and all others as sitting (400 Btulh) or standing or walking slowly (550 Btulh). Q/ = sensible and latent heat gains (loads) qs. Adult Male Theater~matinee Theater-night Offices.4 x 320 x 1.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 139 Using Equation 6. Table 6.0 = 1360 BTUfhr 6. retail store Drug store. q[ = sensible and latent heat gains per person The heat gain from people is composed of two parts. women.

10 EQUIPMENT AND APPLIANCES The heat gain from equipment may sometimes be found directly from the manufacturer or the nameplate data.200 BTU/hr Total Q = 84.090 BTUlhr 3750 230 9590 --13.15. and Table 6. The proportion of heat generated that is gained by the air-conditioned space depends on whether the motor and driven load are both in the space or only one of them is.11 INFILTRATION Infiltration of air through cracks around windows or'doors results in both a sensible and latent heat gain to the rooms. so using such factors should be approached with caution.6. Because the air conditioning system of a theater is normally shut down overnight. Some values of heat output for typical appliances are shown in Table 6. latent.000 BTU/hr For any lighting and equipment that operates on a periodic intermittent basis. Procedures and equations for .0.140 CHAPTER 6 75 F DB room temperature.16 lists heat outputs for each condition. Example 6.11 What is the heat gain from 240 people at night in a movie theater at 75 FOB? Solution Equations 6. Values vary slightly at other temperatures. 6.15 will be used. Q. Table 6. no storage should be included.000 BTU/hr The heat output from motors and the equipment driven by them results from the conversion of the electrical energy to heat. with allowance for intermittent use.570 BTUlhr Example 6. Example 6. the heat gains should be multiplied by the proportion of operating time. The heat storage effect factor eLF applies to the sensible heat gain from people. What is the heat gain (load) to the building from the units? Solution Both the motor and fan are in the conditioned spaces.0 = 58. = 245 x 240 x 1. and total heat gains.13 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A hotel with ISO rooms has a fan-coil air conditioning unit in each room.090 24. as noted. without hoods: I coffee burner (2 burners) I coffee heater (I burner) 1 toaster (large) What are the sensible. with a 0. From Table 6. Some equipment produces both sensible and latent heat. the heat gain (load) is Q = 1160 BTU/hr x 150 = 174. Table 6. If the air conditioning system is shut down at night.15.14 lists values of eLF for people. 6. however.12 Diane's Deli Diner has the following equipment operating in the air-conditioned area. Qs Coffee burner Coffee heater Toaster Total heat gains (loads) QL 1910 110 8500 10:520 BTUlhr QT 5660 340 18. no storage effect is included in calculating the cooling load. and eLF = 1. it is often not possible to guarantee predicted operations.800 BTU/hr Q/ = 105 x 240 = 25. However.7. eLF factors (not shown) apply if the system operates 24 hours. (cooling loads) from this equipment? 6.16. Solution Using values from Table 6.16 HP motor. .

89 0.03 0.90 0.79 0.45 0.09 0.11 0.81 0.16 0.05 0.18 0.Q7 0.: c.10 0.89 8 9 10 11 0.06 om 0.80 0.05 0.08 0.26 0.17 0.05 0.18 0.86 0.15 0.13 0.82 5 0.02 0.10 0.14 0.01 0.06 0.15 0.96 16 0.31 0.93 0.30 0.06 0.06 0.85 0.03 0.21 0.74 0.05 0.11 0.95 0.89 0.04 0.85 6 0.87 7 0.79 0.88 0.11 0.03 0.02 0.50 20 0.40 21 0.30 0.27 0.71 0.02 0.9\ 0.74 0.09 0.21 0.47 0.02 0.01 0.50 0.49 0.34 0.80 0.90 0.90 0.38 0.64 0.93 0.79 0.13 0.92 0.12 0.06 0.94 0.59 0.75 0.04 0.53 0.42 0.77 0.87 0.83 0.72 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.89 0.08 0.03 0.96 0.18 0.66 0.96 15 0.94 0.62 0.75 0.69 0.38 0.55 0.85 0.04 0.23 0.92 0.67 0.03 0.95 0.04 IH17 0.80 0.) ~ ~ t-< t-< o ~ " ~ a ::j ~ ~ "" ~ .11 0.21 0.20 0.r" TABLE 6.04 0.92 0..01 0.15 0.67 0.97 0.07 0.03 0.84 0.58 0.14 SENSIBLE HEAT COOLING LOAD FACTORS FOR PEOPLE Hours Atter Each Entry Into Space Total hours In space 1 2 3 4 0.15 0.88 0.83 0.60 0.95 14 0. 8 '.87 0.25 17 18 19 0.20 0.02 0.28 0.94 12 0.21 0.49 0.39 0.85 0.33 22 0.13 0.02 0.28 0.70 0.97 eLF = 1.49 0.76 0.23 0.82 0.08 0.93 0.13 13 0.82 0. Reprinted with permission from the 1989 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.84 0.72 0.76 0.02 0.17 0.19 0.77 0.01 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.16 0.04 0.51 0.03 0.0 for systems shut down at night and for high occupant densities such as in theaters and auditoriums.79 0.04 0.91 0.13 0.07 0.70 0.24 0.34 0.26 0.08 0.03 0.33 0.01 0.21 0.12 0.01 0.10 0.94 0.97 0.92 0.24 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0.58 0.87 0.62 0.03 0.28 23 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.66 0.25 0.72 0.16 0.36 0.01 0.61 0.91 0.14 0.08 0.20 0.66 0.

142 CHAPTER 6 TABLE6.240 9320 8970 18.i5 HEAT GAIN FROM EQUIPMENT Recommended Rate of Heat Gain.400 300-1800 7500-15. .7 ft 3 10 slice 1000 3750 230 62 7810 9320 8970 9590 520 1910 110 0 5430 0 0 8500 1520 5660 340 62 13. BTu/hr 16-640 kbytes 8 pages/min 5000 or more pages/min Printer (laser) Printer (line. per quart of capacity Coffee brewer Coffee heater. per ft3 of interior Hot plate (high-speed double burner) Ice maker (large) Microwave oven (heavy-duty commercial) Toaster (large pop-up) Appliance Computer Devices Communication/transmission Disk drives/mass storage Microcomputer/word processor Minicomputer Size Recommended Rate of Heat Gain.000 270-600 CopiersfTypesetters Blue print Copiers (large) Copiers Miscellaneous 30-67 copies/min 6-30 copies/min 3900-42.080 480 1810 110 0 6240 0 0 5800 Display case (refrigerated).700 1700-6600 460-1700 Cash register Cold food/beverage Coffeemaker Microwave oven 10 cup 1 ft3 8 gal/br sensible latent Paper shredder Water cooler 160 1960-3280 3580 1540 1360 680-8250 6000 Abridged with pennission from the 1993 ASHRAE Volume-Fundamentals. per warming burner 1 to 4 qt 12 cups/2 bmrs 1 to 2 brnrs 610 67 ft 3 2201b/day 0. high-speed) Tape drives Terminal 5600-9600 3400-22. BTu/hr Without Hood Appliance Size With Hood Total Sensible Sensible Latent Restaurant.000 3500-15. electric blender.000 1000 1500-13.

000 143.300 102.000 191.300 37. Driven Equipment in Btu/h 0.+00 6.000 283.300 35.08 0. .900 63.16 0. Driven Equipment in Btu/h out.200 50.000 699.000 255.+0 8.000 353.400 58.000 130 200 320 .000 240 380 590 760 540 660 850 740 850 1140 1350 1790 2790 3640 .25 0.000 172. Driven Equipment out Btu/h Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower Motor Type Nominal rpm Full Load Motor Efficiencyin Percent Motor in.05 0.000 212.500 38.50 0.000 509.000 318.900 21.16 HEAT GAIN FROM TYPICAL ELECTRIC MOTORS Location of Motor and Driven Equipment with Respect to Conditioned Space or Airstream A B Motor C Motor in.000 127.75 1 2 3 5 7.900 Reprinted with pennission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.se 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase "J-Phase 3·Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 1500 1500 1500 1500 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 1750 35 35 35 35 54 56 60 72 75 77 79 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 91 91 360 580 900 1160 1180 1500 2120 2650 3390 4960 6440 9430 15.000 569.000 382.000 636.700 19.+490 6210 7610 8680 9440 12.+0 1270 1900 2550 3820 5090 76-+0 12.125 0.900 44.600 76.500 22.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Shaded Pole Split Phase Split Phase Split Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Phase 3-Pha.700 29.300 85.500 72.600 15.000 153.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 143 TABLE 6.000 420.300 62.200 28.700 18.700 114.800 50.100 24.33 0.

Building construction is lightweight. we must know how to find them. These generalizations can be used to localize approximate times of room peak loads. Some general guidelines can be offered to simplify this task. but often calculations are required at a few different times. For roofs. The window is \4 in. sensible. latent cooling loads CTCL. single heat-absorbing glass. RSCL. in the Shelton Motel in St. 6. Louis. we might expect a south-facing room with a very large window area to have a peak load in early afternoon in the fall-not in the summer! If the room had a small glass area. glass. This results in a change in the total room cooling load.13 ROOM PEAK COOLING LOAD We have learned how to calculate the cooling loads. For southwest-facing glass. From the CLTD. maximum solar load is in early or mid-summer in the morning. solar. has a 60 ft2 window with an aluminum frame with a thermal break. latent cooling loads BTCL.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A room facing east. RLCL = room total. a prepared form is useful. but not how to determine their peak (maximum) value.5 and in the Appendix. The same procedure is used for calculating infiltration heat gains. BSCL. sensible. however. 4. A load calculation form is shown in Figure 6. For east-facing glass. walls. SCL. sensible. Once the appropriate day and time are located. 5. and CLF tables we can note the following: I. Find the time and value of room peak cooling load. mid-summer in the afternoon. except for entrances. equipmellt. Ventilation air is not a load on the room. the wall and glass heat conduction might dominate and the peak load time would be a summer afternoon. and infiltration) ill the room. Sometimes it is immediately apparent by inspecting the tables at what time the peak load occurs.12 ROOM COOLING LOAD The room cooling load is the sum of each of the cooling load components (roof. Light colored interior venetian blinds are used. The room is at 78 F DB. latent cooling loads RTCL. but is a load on the central cooling equipment. TCL.14.144 CHAPTER 6 calculating infiltration heat losses were explained in detail in Chapter 3. It can be used for individual rooms or for a small building. SHGF. The following abbreviations will be used for convenience. Because the air conditioning system must be sized to handle peak loads. Most summer air conditioning systems have mechanical ventilation using some outside air. When calculating cooling loads. For west-facing glass. CLCL =coil total. The wall is a metal curtain wall with a V-value of 0. For south-facing glass. maximum load is in 6. latent cooling loads 6. maximum solar load is in the fall in the afternoon. which reduces or eliminates infiltration by creating a positive air pressure within the building. BLCL = building total. Example 6. people. SCSL. maximum load is in the summer in the afternoon or evening. maximum load is in the summer in the afternoon or evening. Missouri. Many modern buildings have fixed (sealed) windows and therefore have no infiltration loss. a few calculations will determine the exact time and value of the peak load. 2. maximum solar load is in the fall or winter in early afternoon. 3. The external heat gain components vary in intensity with time of day and time of year because of changing solar radiation as the orientation of the sun changes and because of outdoor temperature changes. For walls. sensible. LCL = component total. . For instance.

10 and 6. glass Q = 1. or 10 AM are the possible peak times for the room cooling load.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 145 Solution The glass area in the room is large enough compared with the wall so that the solar load determines the peak load time. Proceeding to check the possibilities: 0 would result in a considerable conduction heat loss from the room. If in doubt. wall Q = 0. It appears as if 8. 6. and the CLTD for the wall is maximum at 10 AM. the designer must also determine the time of year and time of day at which the building cooling load is at a peak. there will be a large conduction heat loss through both glass and wall in the morning at that time of year. almost as large as in April. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. From our previous discussion and a study of the tables.14 x 40 x 55 = 308 Total = 5710 BTUlhr at 10 AM Solar. A reasoning and investigation similar to that carried out in finding room peak loads is used. glass Q = 1. and there is no differential influence of solar radiation on one side of a building. around mid-day.62 = 4180 Conduction. mentioned earlier. because these peaks do not occur at the same ti me.14 x 40 x 56 = 314 Total = 4777 BTUlhr The peak load for this room is at 8 AM in August. the calculation should be made. and then calculate it. however. the CLF for the glass is maximum at 8 AM ST. Referring to Tables 6. Therefore. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. However. If peak cooling loads for each room were added. wall Q=0. the following guidelines emerge: I. the peak load is usually in late afternoon in summer. 3. For buildings that are approximately squareshaped in plan with similar construction on all four walls. if the window were smaller. the peak load usually occurs in the afternoon in summer.76 = 5220 Conduction. 9.01 x 60 x 5 = 283 Conduction.6 for 40 N latitude.53 x 0.14x40x48= 269 Total = 5830 BTUlhr at9AM Solar. We are assuming that the room is not on the top floor. and the net gain would probably be less. all air-conditioned rooms in the building at the time the building cooling load is at its peak value. at 8 AM Solar. From Table 6. the solar gain is large enough to dominate. Once the peak load . In August the SHGF = 216. For buildings with a long south or southwest exposure having large glass areas.80 = 5500 Conduction. This is because the outside temperature is highest then. because radiation is highest then. otherwise the roof load might affect the peak time.52 x 0. For one-story buildings with very large roof areas. 2. the total would be greater than the peak cooling load required for the whole building. the peak time might be later. the peak load may occur in the fall. Each building must be analyzed in a similar way to determine time of room peak loads so that the proper room load is calculated. But the early morning outside temperature in April I L These suggestions must be -verified in each case because there are so many variations in building orientation and constrnction.0 I x 60 x 3 = 182 Conduction. so the total heat gain will be maximum in August. On the other hand. Even though the conduction heat gain through the glass and wall increases later in the morning. glass Q = 1. glass Q = 216 x 60 x 0. the peak SHGF is in April (224 BTU/hr-ft2).53 x 0. Another point that needs comment here is the possibility of peak load in April. This case requires careful analysis.0 I x 60 x I = 61 Conduction. wall Q = 0.14 BUILDING PEAK COOLING LOAD The building cooling load is the rate at which heat is removed from.2.

The new requirements ' "'' improve this situation.146 CHAPTER 6 time is determined.there are heat gains to the air conditioning system itself. many designers and operating personnel often provided only the minimum CFM required. This table has ventilation rates similar to many state codes and standards. At the same time. if it is estimated that only 90% of the lighting is actually on at peak load time. outside infiltration air was heing reduced by improved weatherfitting in both existing j and new buildings. The ventilation rates in Table 6. explained in Chapters 3 and 7. The equations for determining the sensible and latent cooling loads from ventilation air. so it is part of the cooling coil load but not the building load. Choosing proper diversity factors requires both experience and judgment about building use practices. F Wo'.10) Diversity On some projects. ft3 [min TC = temperature change between outdoor and inside air.!lb d. These gains may include: I. W/ = outdoor and inside humidity ratio. the actual building peak load may be less than the calculated value because of load diversity.16 VENTILATION Some outside air is generally brought 'into a building for health and comfort reasons. After the necessary data are entered.68 x CFM x (Wo' .15 COOLING COIL LOAD After the building cooling load is determined.i 7 do not make special. beginning in the 1970s.=l. The sensible ~ .'l the values shown in Table 6. In some buildings. Heat gains to ducts 3. Heat produced by the air conditioning system fans and pumps 4. the total building heat gains can be calculated. so it becomes part of the cooling load. 'j' -tThere are still further changes in ventilation re!' quirements that are being considered. allowances for the amount of indoor air pollutantsi heing generated. a complete time profile of loads for many hours can be developed in a few minutes. + Q/. (3. In order to save energy.11 ) 6.17. For example. and latent heat of this air is usually greater than that of the room air. For instance. usage practice may be such that all of the people are not present and some of the lights and equipment are not operating. the cooling coil load is found.W/) where Q" Q/ = sensible and latent cooling loads from ventilation air. BTUlhr CFM = air ventilation rate. the calculated lighting load would be multiplied by a factor of 0. a diversity factor or usage factor is sometimes estimated and applied to the calculated building peak load in order to reduce it. however. This contributed to a deterioration in indoor air quality. at the time of peak load. Undoubtedly new standards will j (3. The coolillg coil load is the rate at which heat must be removed by the air conditioning equipment cooling coil(s).lxCFMxTC Q/ = 0.a. gr w. The excess heat is usually removed in the cooling equipment. Recommended outdoor air ventilation rates for some applications are listed in Table 6. are Q. For instance.17 are often higher than the minimum listed in earlier standards. The search for the time and value of peak room and building cooling loads is greatly simplified by using computer software programs. An earlier standard permitted a minimum of 5 CFM per person. The cooling coil load will be greater than the building load because. The total heat Qt removed from the ventilation air is Qt = Q. Ventilation (outside air) 2. In these cases. Air leakage from ducts 6. it requires 15 CFM per person in an office space.90.

68 x CFM x (Wo' .5) .W/) =0. a correction must be made to the outdoor temperature used for calculating ventilation and infiltration loads.17 lists 15 CFM of outside air per person.15 0.000 BTUlhr The humidity ratios at the inside and outdoor conditions are 77.344.50 0. "-.30 0. times the expected occupancy rate.1 x 15 x 40.50 0. 15 CFM per person. The heat gain can be calculated from the heat transfer Equation 3.40 0. QI = 0.344.= 1382 tons 12.17 MINIMUM MECHANICAL VENTILATION REQUIREMENT RATES 147 Outdoor air shall be provided at a rate no less than the greater of either A. Q.000 people. times the conditioned floor area of the space.17 HEAT GAIN TO DUCTS = 1.40 1. Example 6. What is the cooling load due to ventilation? Solution Equations 3...240.1 0 and 3. = 1. IS being Qf = 9. (see Chapter 7).68x 15 x 40.llb d.240..000 = 16.000 + 7. the heat gain results in a useful cooling effect. and outdoor design conditions 94 F DB and 74 F WB...000 BTUlhr 1 ton x .15 Abridged from Energy Efficiency Standards.000 BTU/hr If the peak load does not occur at the time of the day that the outdoor temperature is at a maximum. California Energy Commission.50 0.45 30 CFM/Guest Room 0.11 will be used. and casinos Beauty shops Coin-operated dry cleaning Commercial dry cleaning Hotel guest rooms (less than 500 sq ft) Hotel guest rooms (500 sq ft or greater) Retail stores Smoking lounges All others 1.0 -77.15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Stellar Dome enclosed athletic stadium seats 40. The space design conditions are 80 F and 50% RH.000 x (95. Type of Use CFM per Square Foot of Conditioned Floor Area Auto repair workshops Barber shops Bars.w.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS TABLE 6.a. Table 6.0 gr. reflect this and other information that found in this rapidly developing field.000 BTUlhr The c·onditioned air flowing through ducts will gain heat from the surroundings. 1999. Table 6. cocktail lounges.20 1.1 x CFM x TC .0 and 95. The applicable ventilation rate from the following list. but for the ducts passing through unconditioned spaces it is a loss of sensible heat that must be added to the BSCL. If the duct passes through conditioned spaces.584.0) = 7. B. 6.18 lists this correction.000 x 14 = 9..5: Q=UxAxTD (3.

What is the heat gain to the air in the duct? Solution The surface area of the duct is If there is significant heat gain to return air ducts. ft2 TD = temperature difference between air in duct and surrounding air. . Although the heat gain to supply ducts in conditioned spaces is not wasted. For a draw-through fan arrangement (fan downstream from the cooling coil). Some designers find it reasonably accurate to add a percentage to the supply duct heat gain. F It is recommended that cold air ducts passing through unconditioned areas be insulated to at least an overall value of R-4 (U =0. whereas for a blow-through arrangement (fan upstream from the coil) the heat gets . For insulated supply ducts.25 x 400 x (90 .. where Q = duct heat gain. F . Using Equation 3. care should be taken that it does not affect the distribution of cooling. 50 ft long. not the BSCL. the heat is added to the BSCL. 1 ft . ( 12 in. Example 6. 1-3% of the building sensible load (BSCL) is suggested. 1 ft x. depending on the extent of ductwork. In this case. Q = UxA xTD =0. If there is a long run of duct with a number of outlets.18 Daily Range.18 FAN AND PUMP HEAT 12 in.25.) x 50 ft = 400 ft2 6.16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 36 in. duct.x--+2xI2m. A= 2x36m. rather than going through elaborate calculations. BTUlhr A = duct surface area. TABLE 6. but it is only added to the CSCL.F 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 hour 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10 9 9 10 10 10 10 9 8 7 6 8 4 6 8 2 3 5 I 0 0 I I I I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I 2 3 4 5 6 3 5 7 9 10 5 7 9 6 9 7 10 8 II 8 15 20 25 30 35 13 14 14 15 15 15 14 13 II 17 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 4 12 18 19 20 20 20 19 17 14 11 12 14 15 16 19 21 7' _0 22 23 24 25 25 25 23 21 18 14 10 6 1 12 15 17 14 17 20 26 28 29 30 30 30 28 25 21 17 12 7 30 33 34 35 35 35 33 29 25 20 14 8 1 1 25 7 12 16 20 24 27 29 Reprinted with permission from the 1979 ASHRAE Load Calculation Manual.5. it might be useful to insulate the duct even though it is in the conditioned area (see Chapter 10).25). runs through a space at 90 F. The duct is insulated to an overall U = 0. the heat gains in the first sections of duct might be enough so that the air temperature at the last outlets is too high. carrying air at 60 F. BTUlhr U = overall coefficient of heat transfer.60) = 3000 BTUlhr Some of the energy from the system fans and pumps is converted into heat through friction and other effects. and becomes part of the sensible heat gain that should be added to the load. it should also be calculated. by 12 in.148 CHAPTER 6 DECREASE FROM PEAK DESIGN OUTDOOR DB TEMPERATURE.

this must be added to the room load. However. 6.I and A. Calculate each room peak load. but not the cooling coil. but the suggestions in Section 6. but for large systems it may range from 1-2% of sensible load. pressure add 2. to satisfy subject is 2. Select indoor and outdoor design conditions from Tables 1.18). Determine time of day and month of peak load for each room by calculating external heat gains at times that they are expected to be a maximum. duct heat leakage (Section 6. for each room. but care should be taken that it is not distributed to the wrong location. add blow-through fan.g.9.5% to BSCL For 2 in. and 6.6. 6. This leads to a new term.21 SUMMARY OF COMMERCIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The steps in determining commercial cooling loads can be summarized as follows. and humidity) necessary room conditions are determined. the required supply air conditions temperature. w.14. if significant. Calculate areas of all these surfaces. Find the time of building peak load using a similar search process as in item 5 and the suggestions in Section 6.19 DUCT AIR LEAKAGE Duct systems will leak air at joints. the refrigeration load and cooling coil load are equal. many systems have unnecessarily high air leakage due to sloppy installation. 6.2. Find the cooling coil and refrigeration load by adding the ventilation loag (Table 6. pressure add 5% to BSCL For 4 in. or calculate from individual R-values. are calcu(flow rate. Oil 6. using the values for the external heat gains determined above and by calculating and adding the internal heat gains from people. w. if significant. Calculate the building load at peak 'time. a careful job should limit duct leakage to 5% or less of the total CFM. If there is infiltration. the pump heat is a load on the refrigeration chiller. return air fan. then it does useful cooling. For a chilled water system. I. the effect of leakage must be added to the BSCL and BLCL. 7. pressure add 10% to BSCL The heat from the chilled water pump on small systems is generally small and may be neglected. and equipment. For central systems with remote chilled water cooling coils. 8.17) to the building heat gains. For a direct expansion system. If the air leaks into the conditioned space. . Unfortunately. An approximate allowance for fan heat can be made as follows: For I in. Use architectural plans to measure dimensions of all surfaces through which there will be external heat gains. w. the refrigeration load is the cooling coil(s) load plus the chilled water pump heat. Select heat transfer coefficient V-values for each element from appropriate tables.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 149 added to the CSCL load. Search Tables 6. the refrigeration load. and pump heat gains. 4. Often calculations at a few different times will be required. If ducts are outside the conditioned space. and draw-through supply fan heat gain (Section 6. 5.g. The refrigeration load (RL) is the load the·refrigeration equipment. if any. 6. 9. lights.19). adding all external and internal gains and infiltration.1.13 should be helpful. Add supply duct heat gain (Section 6. 6. The architect or building owner will furnish the data needed for the calculations. 3.20 SUpPLY AIR CONDITIONS After the sensible and latent heat gains lated.8 to find maximum values.17). This covered in Chapter 7.g.

17 will illustrate these procedures. program (and shghtly dIfferent Input data). from 4 to. Ventilation loads are calculated and shown on the form. wall loads will be higher at 5 PM than at 4 PM. concrete slab.1 l The cooling load calculation results for the build'1" ing in Example ~. therefore heat gain and leakage are useful cooling and do not add to the load. 10.150 CHAPTER 6 10. fluorescent fixtures Outdoor ventilation rate as per Table 6. It is a one-story building with a basement used for storage. Latitude is " 39°N. Walls are in Group B. Besides. 4 in. V = 0. h. The data and results are tabulated on a Commercial Cooling Load Calculation form (Figure 6. single clear glass. Return air fan gain is negligible. Ohio. 8. insulation.35 Walls are 4 in. gypsum wallboard. 3. Areas are calculated and recorded on the form. steel with urethane core Occupancy is 60 people Construction is medium (M) weight Lighting is 3 watts per square foot of floor area. Thi. shown in Figure 6. 2 in. Students should see if they obtain the same values from the appropriate tables. gypsum board ceiling. aluminum frame.09 BTUlhr-ft'-F Floor is 4 in. No storage effect for people or lighting is taken because the system is shut down when the store closes and does not operate until shortly before the store opens. V-values specified or found from tables are listed on the form. w. and there is no pump. m""P'" 15. face brick. Example 6. Construction and conditions are as follows: Roof is 4 in. single heat absorbing glass.. and it is assumed the fan gain is 3%.17 . A draw-through unit will be used. is located in Columbus.11 Front window is y.llb d. insulation. The procedure for finding the supply air conditions will be explained in Chapter 7.a. Computer Software Solution to Example 6.17. Daily temperature range is 19 F. Dimensions are shown on the plan.5 PM.17 Store is open from 10 AM to 8 PM (9 AM to 7 PM Standard Time) Determine the required cooling load. aluminum frame Receiving door is I Y2 in. 10 ft high. common brick. V = 0. Example 6. 2. No infiltration is included.17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Superb Supermarket. Individual heat gains items are calculated and recorded on the form. The construction and orientation indicates that the roof and West glass will determine the peak load time.9.18. Rgore 15.. Calculate required supply air conditions (Chapter 7). which should be carefully studied in relation to the explanations in the example. Conduction through the glass has not reduced appreciably. Inside and outdoor humidity ratios are 66 and 10 1 gr w. 5-7. IS " "'ow. 4. concrete slab. SO/lltion The procedures recommended previously will be followed. prog~ j . in. 2 in. 9. The basement is assumed to be halfway between inside and outside temperatures. not shaded Doors are y. Roof is No. The building has only one room. Y2 in.6. V = 0. Indoor and outdoor design conditions are 76 F DB/50% RH and 90 F DB174 WB. Therefore the peak load time is in July 5 PM. Ventilation air is assumed to prevent any significant infiltration because the doors are not used heavily. Peak CLTD for the roofis in July at 5 PM. The supply duct is exposed in the store. usi~g a co~puter softwa~e·. Peak CLF for the glass is at 5 PM. Peak glass load is in both July and August. in. I.5).

010 13.~F Time 5 PM (S1) Design Conditions Conduction I Outdoor I Room Dir.11 0.5 Commercial cooling load calculations form. B 1260 1260 Roof/ceiling E 27 Solar Glass Dir.01 0.41 x SHGx 60 lHGx 60 Equipment Equipment Infiltration 1.COMMERCIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS Project Superb Supermarket Location Columbus OH Bldg'/Room Building (peak) Engrs. "- " " ~ if) a: Lights 16.0 n ClF ClF ClF 66.000 lCl BTU/hr 12. 151 .17). Energy Associates DB F 90 76 WB F 74 RH % 50 A. W W E Sh.420 Cooling Coil Load 226.11 0.120 Refrigeration Load Figure 6.290 15.22 71. It' Net 830 42 42 840 840 1176 388 5400 5400 42 W' gr/lb 101 66 Calc.11 0. 11 11 11 9 15 24 15 35 7 25 SCl BTU/hr 9220 470 470 830 1390 3100 640 ·17. by EP 3/4/01 Daily Range _1_9 __ F Day July 21 lat.(Example 6.01 1.640 12.860 12.120 260.11 0..1 x 900 0.840 13.35 0. 40 N 0 Chk.09 0.68x 900. by Vl 3/5/01 Ave.000 I I Total CL SA duct leakage 0 0 SA fan gain (draw through) 3% Room/Building Cooling Load 6200 212.230 410 Wall '" Floor Partition Door " e c. F Table 13 13 13 11 17 26 17 36 Corr.420 260. no no no SHGF 216 216 216 A 830 42 42 SC 0.68 x SA duct gain 0 CFMx CFMx TC gr/lb Subtotal 206.58 0.41 x 1.200 Lights People 250 200 Wx3.01 1.2 BFx 1. W W E N S E W D D D D D Color U Gross Glass 1.600 BTU/hr 224.000 u Wx3. RA duct gain 0 RA fan gain 0 Pump gain CFMx 14 CFMx 35 TC gr/lb 21.1 x 0.94 ClF 0.58 0.750 4950 1880 -r UHa: a: I J? a:x Uu a: ~IS :.700 33.69 0.94 0.39 ClTD.840 SA fan gain (blow through) Ventilation 1.0 BFx nx 1.

and H (high) outdoor temperature ranges are listed in the footnotes to the table: these are found from Table A. dustrial buildings.. ft2 CLTD '= cooling load temperature difference. F The CLTD values are listed in Table 6. and floor are each calculated by use of the following equation: Residential Cooling Loads The procedures described previously are used for calculating cooling loads for commercial and in. roof. The procedures for determining cooling loads for residences are based on the same heat transfer principles. but are simplified somewhat. and part load operation.. Homes are often conditioned 24 hours a day. There are a number of reasons for this.. ceiling. Residential air conditioning equipment and controls usually do not have refined provisions for zoning.+ 1 ·I Figure 6.22 COOLING LOAD FROM HEAT GAIN THROUGH STRUCTURE The cooling loads from walls.. this being included in the data. U = overall heat transfer coefficient. humidity control.6 Sketch for Example 6" 17" and infiltration loads. M (medium). 6. Approximations are used for people Q= UxA xCLTD where Q = sensible cooling load. and lighting loads are neglected... BTUlllr . Only sensible loads are calculated. .17 using computer software as a learning experience. uses the same method used in this text (CLTD) method)" It is strongly recommended that the student also solve Example 6.19. The L (low). The procedure does not require determination of peak time of load or of heat storage effect. Another cooling load calculation example will be carried out as part of Example Project II (Chapter 17). An allowance is made for latent loads.152 CHAPTER 6 1+----------90'---------~"I --h ~C==========='="~t5 Receiving door Superb Supermarket o CD Doors: double 3' x 7' swinging Ceiling height 14'-0" N~ I( 8 3 ' . These factors all lead to a simplification of load calculations. BTUfnr-ft 2-F A = area.6.

The CLTD will be found from Table 6. CLTD =42 . Example 6. Colors of all exposed surfaces are assumed dark. oF. with both east and west exposed walls or only north and south exposed walls. The CLTD values should also be interpolated between the listed outdoor temperature values. the CLTD should be corrected by I F for each 1 F temperature difference from 75 F. The GLF values account for both solar radiation and conduction through glass. of 85 Daily Temp. For other indoor temperatures.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS CLTD VALUES FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCESa Design Temperature.f denotes medium daily range. The CLTD table is based on an indoor temperature of 75 F. and H denotes high daily range. outdoor design condition is 90 F. Values should be interpolated between listed outdoor tempenittIres. Reprinted with pennission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. Find the roof cooling load.23 COOLING LOAD FROM HEAT GAIN THROUGH WINDOWS The sensible cooling load due to heat gains through glass (windOWS and doors) is found by using glass load factors (GLF). The outdoor daily temperature range is 20 F.09 x 1600 x 39 =5620 BTUlhr 6. Range b L 90 95 H L 100 105 153 TABLE 6. The outdoor temperature range falls in the M class.19. bL denotes low daily range.20.(78 -75) =39 F Q = 0. less than 16 OF: t-.8 will be used. 16 to 25 OF. over uriconditioned room.. .18 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A home has a roof area of 1600 ft2.09. or multifamily. correcting it for the inside design temperature of 78' F. greater than 25 oF. Solution Equation 6. over crawl space 9 9 4 4 12 12 9 9 4 4 14 14 12 12 9 9 14 14 12 12 14 14 19 19 Partitions Inside or shaded acooling load temperature differences (CLTDs) for single-family detached houses.19 110 M L M M H M H M H All walls and doors North NE and NW East and West SE and SW South Roofs and ceilings 8 14 18 16 II 3 9 13 11 6 37 13 19 23 21 16 47 8 14 18 16 11 42 3 9 13 11 6 37 18 24 28 26 21 51 13 19 23 21 16 47 8 14 18 16 II 18 24 28 26 21 51 13 19 23 21 16 47 18 24 28 26 21 51 23 29 33 31 26 56 Attic or flat built-up Floors and ceilings 42 42 Under conditioned space. The combined roof-ceiling V-factor is 0. These are listed in Table 6. duplexes. The inside design condition iir78 F.

with draperies. ft 2 GLF = glass load factor. using Equation 6.0 = 10. and the window cooling load is. From Table 6. the extent of shading is determined. because it is not feasible to shade those orientations with overhangs. are used. and barely covers one foot of glass. If large special appliances are used.21.24 PEOPLE AND APPLIANCES The sensible heat gain per person is assumed to be an average of 225 BTUlhr.7.9. If the kitchen is open to an adjacent room. The orientation and design of the building can have a major effect on energy use! = area of glass. 2' T 6' ~ . their output should be individuallyevaluated. Because the maximum load usually occurs in late afternoon.20. so the glass is completely Figure 6.25 INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION Infiltration rates are listed in Table 6.11 : Q=A where X GLF (6.2 ft. it is usual to assume that the occupants are in living and dining areas for purposes of load distribution. however. No shade line factors for northwest and northeast are shown. 6. Example 6. weatherstripping.22 in air changes per hour (ACH). Three categories of construction tightness are shown. The vertical length of shade is 2 x 5. The outdoor design temperature is 95 F. The bottom of the glass is 8 ft below the overhang. A sensible heat gain allowance of 1200-1600 BTUlhr is typical for kitchen appliances.0. 50% of this load should be assigned to that room. the calculation is carried out differently.9) Q = sensible cooling load due to heat gain through glass.20 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A south wall has a 6 ft high picture window with a roof overhang as shown in Figure 6.6 x 2 =3. How much of the glass area is shaded? Solution Savannah is at 32°N latitude. no fireplace Example 6. Q = 50 BTUlhr-ft2 x 80 ft2 = 4000 BTU/hr If the glass is shaded by permanent outside overhangs. Well-fitted windows and doors. Solution From Table 6. it can be estimated as two times the number of bedrooms.19 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A residence has 80 ft2 of regular single glass on the west side. Find the cooling load through the glass. Georgia. the values from Table 6. BTUlhr A shaded! Note how effective the overhang is.7 Sketch for Example 6.0 ft. First. the shade line factor is 5. If the number of occupants is not known in advance.154 CHAPTER 6 The glass sensible cooling load is detennined from Equation 6.21. For that part of the glass which is shaded. BTUlhr-ff 6. This can be done with the aid of Table 6.20. described as follows: Tight. Look what would happen if the wall faced southwest. the GLF is 50 BTu/hr-ft>. The shade line factors listed in the table are multiplied by the width of the overhang to find the vertical length of shading. The house is in Savannah. The shade extends vertically 1. north facing glass.20.

Use linear interpolation for latitude from 40 to 48° and from 40 to 32°.(DRI2). D I ::::: ((.r' TABLES. To obtain GLF for other combinations of glass and/or inside shading: GLF" = (SC. respectively. bCorrect by +30% for latitude of 48° and by -30% for latitude. . of 85 90 95 100 105 110 85 Regular Double Glass 90 95 100 105 110 Heat-Absorbing Double Glass 85 90 95 100 105 110 Clear Triple Glass 85 90 95 Na inside shading North NEandNW EandW SE and SWb South b Horizontal skylight 34 36 63 65 88 90 79 81 53 55 156 156 18 32 45 40 27 78 41 47 48 50 70 75 77 83 95 100 102 107 86 91 92 98 60 65 67 72 161 166 167 171 23 27 38 42 50 54 46 49 33 ./SC. translucent roller shades fully drawn North NEandNW EandW SEand SWb South b Horizontal skylight U> U> 19 33 46 41 28 79 15 26 36 32 26 39 50 46 34 79 23 33 42 39 30 65 Opaque railer shades fully drawn North NEandNW EandW SE and SWb South b Horizontal skylight 14 25 34 31 21 60 20 31 40 36 22 27 61 64 13 14 17 23 24 27 32 33 36 29 30 33 20 20 23 57 57 60 20 30 39 36 27 63 23 32 29 20 57 aOlass load factors (GLFs) for single-family detached houses.)(GLFt . duplexes.:=: to . with both east and west exposed walls or only north and south ex- posed walls. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASH/ME Handhook-Fundamentals. . where the subscripts a and t refer to the alternate and table values..UtD t ) + UaD{. 37 83 86 23 34 44 40 30 68 29 43 55 51 38 87 25 36 45 42 32 69 33 47 59 55 42 90 29 40 49 46 36 72 30 30 34 37 55 56 59 62 77 78 81 84 69 70 73 76 46 47 50 53 137 138 140 143 16 29 40 36 24 71 16 19 22 30 32 35 41 44 46 37 39 42 25 28 31 71 74 76 19 30 38 35 26 62 41 66 88 77 80 54 57 144 147 38 63 85 23 36 47 43 31 77 20 36 51 45 31 90 13 24 33 29 20 58 12 21 29 26 18 52 20 37 51 46 31 91 14 24 33 30 21 59 12 22 30 27 19 52 23 39 54 49 34 93 16 27 36 32 23 61 15 24 32 29 21 55 25 42 56 51 36 95 18 29 38 34 25 63 17 26 34 31 23 57 26 44 59 54 39 96 19 29 38 35 26 63 17 27 35 32 24 57 28 44 59 54 39 98 21 32 41 37 28 65 20 29 37 34 26 59 27 27 50 50 70 70 62 63 42 42 124 125 15 28 39 35 23 69 13 23 32 29 19 56 16 28 39 36 24 69 13 30 53 73 65 45 127 18 30 41 38 26 71 15 26 35 31 22 59 Draperies. of 32°. ft2. or multifamily.20 WINDOW GLASS LOAD FACTORS (GLF) FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DETACHED RESIDENCEsa Regular Single Glass Design Temperature.75). SCI and U I are given in Table 5. where f. to is the outdoor design temperature and DR is the daily range. Btuth. venetian blinds.

52 0.1 0. 'with its sensible heat contribution evaluated from Equation 3.0 1. In this case.8 0. AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT LOADS Room Sensible Cooling Load.10) 6.70 0.54 0.6 0. V 60 (3.5 mph wind and indoor temperature of 75°F.9 0. indoor air quality may be unsatisfactory. OF Class 85 90 95 100 105 110 Tight Medium Loose 0. CFM ACH = number of air changes per hour (Table 6.22 AIR CHANGE RATES AS A FUNCTION OF OUTDOOR DESIGN TEMPERATURES Outdoor Design Temperature. Degrees N 24 32 36 40 Direction Window Faces East SE South SW West 44 46 52 0.1 1.8 1.8 Shadow length below the overhang equals the shade line factor times the overhang width.1 x CFM x TC (3. .4 0.8 0.0 0.38 0.0 1.8 1.33 0.3 2.48 0. BUILDING.36 0.8 1.37 0.46 0. Loose.78 Values for 7.8 0.10.74 0.4 3. Poorly fitted windows and doors.8 0.12 TC = temperature change between inside and outdoor air If the infiltration air is expected to be less than 0.8 0.22) V = room volume.156 CHAPTER 6 TABLE 6.4 1.8 1. The quantity of air infiltrating into the room is found from Equation 3.6 5.8 1.34 0.26 ROOM.1 2. Medium. Average fit windows and doors. ft3 The heat gain due to the infiltrating air is found from Equation 3.8 0.8 1.8 1.2 1.6 1.50 0.35 0.10: Q = 1. Values are averages for the 5 h of greatest solar intensity on August 1.3 0. Reprinted with permission from the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamelltals.56 0.72 0. some outdoor air should be introduced through the air conditioning equipment.12: CFM=ACHx- where Q = sensible cooling load due to infiltrating air CFM = from Equation 3.9 1. TABLE 6.8 9.12) where CFM = air infiltration rate into room.8 0. The sensible cooling load for each room (RSCL) is found by . fireplace without shut-off.5 ACH.8 0.76 0.5 0.21 SHADE LINE FACTORS (SLF) Latitude.68 0. fireplace that can be closed off. Reprinted with permission from the /997 ASHRAE Handbook-FllndamenTals.

but it is rare that the resulting room conditions are in an uncomfortable range. Suggested values for heat gains to ducts are: Ducts in attics: add 10% to the building sensible cooling load Ducts in crawl space or basement: add 5% to the building sensible cooling load Duct Leakage. If the loads are such that this is suspected. It still remains to find the air conditioning equipment cooling load.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 157 adding up each of the room's cooling load components described. (6. Equipment Sensible Cooling Load. Building Sensible Cooling Load. . (Reprinted with permission from the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. using the outdoor design humidity ratio from the psychrometric chart (see Chapter 7). Construction: ~ 1.) 1. The unitary (packaged) equipment used in residential work may not have quite the sensible and latent heat proportion removal capacities desired. Latent Cooling Load.010 0. the duct heat gains and leakage and the latent heat gain must be accounted for.1 troom = 75°F rh =50% 0. Figure 6.8) The air conditioning unit is then selected on the basis of the calculated equipment total cooling load. An additional 5% is suggested to be added to the building sensible cooling load due to leakage of air from the ducts. The equipment total cooling load is then found from the following equation: . BTUlhr Qs = equipment sensible cooling load.014 2. To do this.8 Effect of infiltration on latent load factor.10) where QT= equipment total cooling load. This is the sum of the building sensible cooling load and the duct heat gains and leakage.3 :r: 11 u. Instead the building sensible load is multiplied by an approximated latent factor (LF) to obtain the building total load. a more detailed analysis is necessary.016 1.8 is used to find the LF value.J 1.. Figure 6.4 1.2 u.0 0. The latent loads are not separately calculated when using the abbrevi- ated residential calculation procedure.. BTUlhr LF = latent factor (Figure 6. Duct Heat Gains. The building sensible cooling load (BSCL) is found by adding up the room sensible cooling loads for each room.012 0.5% Design Humidity Ratio .

The results of each step are shown in Figure 6. Use architectural plans to measure dimensions of all surfaces through which there will be external heat gain. using Tables 6.8.9. For a two-bedroom house. The heat gains are calculated and recorded for this and all other windows. '~":'" -". roof.9.21.9 and in the Appendix. Add individual loads to find sensible load for each room and building.7 or A. 11. Determine infiltration or ventilation load (Section 6. Multiply the BSCL by the LF factor (Figure 6. 9. A residential cooling load calculation form is shown in Figure 6. Out' door temperature range is 22 F.9. assume an occupancy of four: two in the living room.27 SUMMARY OF RESIDENTIAL COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURES The steps in determining residential cooling loads can be summarized as follows. 3. for each room. Select inside and outdoor design temperatures from Tables 1. Determine occupancy and appliance load (Section 6.) 9. Note that large closets in a room are included as part of the room. 5. 2. Assume a 1200 BTu/hr kitchen appliance load.19.:.:t . 10.12.25). " . 2-3.~ j. in the M class. two in the dining area at peak load times.158 CHAPTER 6 6.20 and 6. Add duct heat gains and leakage to SCL of building. Select heat transfer coefficient U for each element from Tables A. 10.8.9. 'iI .8 and recorded. Calculate heat gains through walls. and recorded in Figure 6. or calculate from individual R-values. The wall heat gains in each room are then calculated using Equation 6.1 and A. 8.8) to find the total load. 6. 6. Heat transfer coefficients for the materials listed are found from Tables A. 4. . Solution The steps will be carried out as recommended in the summary.9. Example 6. Infiltration is found from Table 6. Calculate heat gains through glass.19. the CLF for the type of glass and shading is 28 BTUlhr-fe at 95 F outdoors and 75 F indoors. Multiply the building sensible cooling load by the latent factor LF (Figure 6. 7. The indoor and outdoor design temperatures are 75 F and 96 F. Other elements are calculated in the same way. (If air quality were poor from too little infiltration. The hallway is included as part of the living room because there is no separating door. and floors for each room using the CLTD values from Table 6. The following example illustrates use of the calculation procedure.23).7 and A..8). adding to the load. Select the CLTD values from Table 6. The student should go through each step independently to confirm agreement with the values shown in'Figure 6. The individual gains are added to find the RSCL for each room and the building. 8. From Table 6. for each room. 7. 11. 1. The result is the air conditioning equipment total cooling load.21 Calculate the room and building cooling loads for the residence shown in Figure 6. 5.10. The dimensions are taken from the building plans and the gross and net areas of each element are calculated and recorded in Figure 6. Calculate areas of all these surfaces. 4. some outside air would have to be mechanically introduced. Allow 59C for heat gain and 5% for leakage to add to the building sensible cooling load (BSCL).20 for the windows on the south side.22 and Equation 3. I. The duct system is in the basement.

2".2.5". U A ClTD BTU/hr Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Door 90 N 1. 34 13 88 42 47 197 U A ClTD BTU/hr D. WB 77 F In. U ClTO BTU/hr D.10 6x7 ClTO BTU/hr D. ClF Windows Infiltration People Appliances RSCl 119 1200 2288 Building Total 55 662 NOTES: Ceiling ht.2 Dining Room 21 x12+21 x4 10x11 +3x4 9 x 10 14x12+3x4 D.47 D.181 BTUlhr Unit size = 2 tons Duct gain _5_ % = Duct leak _5_ % ::: Figure 6.:-_ F ACH --. N 21 14 13 ClF 23 128 322 D. Ud = 0.20 74 23 151 W .20 74 13 589 E . U A ClTO BTU/hr D.20 47 423 .5' W x 4' H.10 122 90 S . U 340 S .20 58 13 23 E .945 BTCl = 1. ClF 1 D.--_ Roof/ceiling Floor Partition Door Living Room Bedroom No.47. Jones Residence Location Hometown. Uw =O. --. U A A ClTD BTU/hr A ClTO BTU/hr D. N 14 ClF 23 322 1 D.0_ _ % D. U N . .10 336 47 .20 104 16 488 W .405 770 770 BSCl= 16.10 A ClTO BTUlhr D.7". Windows 3.0".20 16 262 N . Single clear glass. Doors 3' x 7'.20 66 23 82 47 1579 573 . DB _9_6_ _ F Out. Sum RSCl = 15.1 Bedroom No.20 106 333 N .. except as noted.47 D.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS RESIDENTIAL COOLING lOAD CALCULATIONS Room Name Plan Size Wall 159 Project A.25 x BSCl = 21. Ur =O. N E I t4 14 ClF 23 50 D.10.5_ _ F In. 700 392 W N 14 14 ClF 50 23 700 322 I Infiltration People Appliances 2 x 225 443 450 4672 Kitchen 9 x 10 2 x 275 119 550 2569 238 161 RSCl Room Name 2926 2288 Bathroom A Plan Size Wall D. DB --. = 8'0'.R. RH --.20 .9 Residential cooling load calculations form. blinds.20 128 192 23 304 S .20.10 180 47 846 .10 47 423 . 322 700 W S 14 14 ClF 50 28 D.5. U 37 13 96 N . MO Out. S 21 40 16 ClF 28 158 1120 Windows 1 D.

10 Plan for Example 6. 8. Determine the net conduction heat gain through the glass at 2 PM in summer. Provide effective interior shading devices. is 90 ft by 24 ft.1 A building with a 120 ft by 80 ft roof. Maryland. PROBLEMS 6. Time of peak roof heat gain 6. single 2. Past practice of designing for 75 F or even lower is wasteful. 6. 6.28 ENERGY CONSERVATION Reducing the building cooling load provides a major opportunity for energy conservation. Ohio. The inside design condition is 77 F. Texas. Minimize use of glass in building unless used on the south side for receiving solar heat in the winter. The inside design condition is 78 F. has 490 ft2 of windows facing west. The wall is constructed of 8 in. R-5 insulation and !!2 in. II. Some ways this can be achieved are: 1. 6. June IS at II AM B.4 .2 A southeast facing wall of a building located in Las Vegas. Consider use of heat-absorbing glass. Time of peak wall heat gain" 6. Determine the cooling load through the wall at A. 5. wood with R-5. Use high R-value insulation throughout the A more detailed discussion of energy conservation in HVAC system design will be presented in Chapter IS. Use types of lighting that more efficiently convert electrical energy into light. has a roof constructed of I in. A building in Dallas. 9.160 CHAPTER 6 Bedrm 2 10'x11' Bath 6' x 7' Dining rm 9' x 10' N 1 Bedrm 1 14'x12' Living room 21'x12' 10'Wx9' H Scale 1116" = 1'-0" Basement Figure 6. has 2300 ft 2 of exterior single glass with no interior shading. gypsum wallboard. 4.3 A building in Baltimore.21. Determine the net roof cooling load at A. Orient the building so that solar radiation in summer is minimum on sides with large glass areas. use proper calculation procedures that account for heat storage and time lag. made of !4 in. Use inside design DB temperatures of 78-80 F. concrete.9 summer outdoor design DB temperature and coincident WB temperature. These provide adequate comfort for most applications. Above all. Nevada. Avoid unnecessarily excessive lighting levels. 10. Consider outside construction features that provide shading of glass. The inside design condition is 78 F.5 insulation and a suspended ceiling. 3. 7. building. Use the Table A. September 21 at noon B. located in Cincinnati.

The buildirig is of mediumweight construction. The Squidgit factory.::======~' 6. wood Walls: U = 0.9 Warehouse 50' 6.12 Plan for Problem 6. which is air conditioned 24 hours a day. Inside conditions 78 F DB. No windows. It has 76 (male and female) employees doing light bench work. Group C.11. Group E Window: 20 Jt W X 6 ft H single clear glass. with medium color interior venetian blinds. single clear glass. The window is iii in.10." 0 "0 Office N l t Office 20' " " 30' 6. Light color .11 Plan for Problem 6. 10 in.8 1--------. has the following conditions: Figure 6.80'-----~~ -:1. What are the sensible and latent heat gains? "l Office r L . California. 50% RH Wall: U =0. What is the cooling load at I PM? The temperature is 78 F. What is the cooling load from the lighting? Find the sensible and latent load from 180 people dancing in the Get Down Disco.11 The building shown in Figure 6.COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS 161 clear glass. located in Ottawa. The Greasy Spoon Cafe has a 20 ft 2 steam table. with dark roller shades. In what month and hour is this? 6. The temperature is 78 F. Find the maximum net solar cooling load through the windows. Canada. The cooling system is shut down during unoccupied hours.6 Note: Lightweight construction Figure 6.11.5 A room in a building in New York City has a 12 ft W by 6 ft H window facing south. Lights 4 IVlfr with ballast Floor-to-floor height: 10ft 6. Ceiling height 13'·0" Doors: 7ft H x 3 ftw.7 6. with the following conditions: Location: Sacramento. The building is of light construction. dark interior blinds Occupancy: 10 people.28 BTU/hr-Jr-F. A room has four 40 W fluorescent lighting fixtures and two 200 W incandescent fixtures in use. without a hood.18 BTUlhr-Ji2-F. There is a 3 ft outside projection at the top of the window.12. 6.10 Find the peak cooling load for the general office shown in Figure 6. operates from 8 AM to 5 PM. Find the solar cooling load through the window at 12 noon on July 1.

12 Repeat Problem 6. duct and fan heat gains.21 BTUlhr-Jf2-F.carmelsoft. Tennessee.13.elitesoft.16 using cooling load calculation software available from one of the following Websites: www. Conditions are as follows: Location: Your town Walls: U = 0. has one exposed wall. Inside design conditions are 75 F and 50% RH.5 insulation. and so on). with the following conditions: Wall: A = 68 fr.com www. Glass: A = J30 jf2. U GroupE = 0. wood. and located in or near your community.162 CHAPTER 6 Roof: 4 in.12 for the building turned 45° clockwise.16 Perform a complete cooling load calculation for the residence described in Problem 3.8 insulation Orientation as assigned by instructor. to be located in your town. Room temperature = 78 F. Lighting is 2. finished ceiling Inside design conditions: 77 F. R-5.20. Determine the peak cooling load and the load at 11 AM June 30. Make assumptions based on recommendations in the text on all other data (ventilation. England. facing east.5W~ 6.14 The Beetle Concert Hall in London. . and 90° clockwise. Find the peak cooling load. Group C Glass: Single heat-absorbing glass.w. Calculate the ventilation loads in summer. single heat-absorbing glass. People: I per 60 ft2. R-2.10 through 6. 6. 6.15 Perform a complete cooling load calculation for the one-story office building shown in Figure 6. concrete.com 6.5 in.20 BTUlhrfr-F.13 A room in a building in Memphis. Computer Solution Problems Solve Problems 6. no shading Lightweight construction. seats 2300 people. Light construction. 55% RH Occupancy: 80 jf2lperson. h. 6. light interior blinds Roof' 2.

..•..I ...c-· •.15... 163 .?:~.... .:.. '. '' . I I D DD D D D ~ ~ I Window Lighting fixture '---- DD DD I I carridor fixtures 100 W/eaeh ceiling ht 10 ft AI I windows '15 ft2 S eale 1/8" = 1'·0" 0 ffiee fixtures 200 W/eaeh DD Equipment room DD II I ~ ~.~ COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS Figure 6. ~'-. ..13 Plan for Problem 6...

Because this gas mixture is conditioned in environmental control systems. as conventionally done. as sensed by a thermometer. 3. in order to become a competent air conditioning practitioner. we will first learn how to determine the physical properties of air.c H A p T E R Psychrometries T he atmospheric air that surrounds us is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. Some comprehension of psychrometrics is an absolute necessity. Determine reheat requirements. Wet Bulb Temperature ~). 2. Determine mixed air conditions. 164 7. it is necessary to understand how it behaves. 4. however. 6. we will use the word air to refer to the air-water vapor mixture that is the atmosphere. Because the water vapor content in air can change. Determine required supply air conditions. 5. Examples of these uses will be demonstrated as we proceed. called moist air. in rapidly moving air. . The words temperature and dry bulb temperature will be used to mean the same thing with regard to air. you will be able to: 1. Hereafter. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.1 PROPERTIES OF AIR The physical properties of atmospheric air are defined as follows: Dry Bulb Temperature (DB). The temperature of the air. The temperature sensed by a thermometer whose bulb is wrapped with a water-soaked wick. Determine sensible and latent heat changes in air conditioning equipment. A psychrometric analysis is required in selecting the proper air conditioning equipment for a job and in troubleshooting systems that are not performing properly. In this chapter. Determine cooling coil performance specifications. Read values of properties from the psychrometric chart. and then exam- ine how air is processed in air conditioning systems. Psychrometries is the name given to the study of air-water vapor mixtures. these processes can be complex and their understanding may require a special effort by the student.

or grains/lb dry air. in Ib/lb dry air. but each occupies the total volume. in fe lib dry air.7mwT where (7. the condition is called unsaturated.2 DETERMINING AIR PROPERTIES It is necessary to determine many of the physical properties of atmospheric air for air conditioning work. Pa = partial pressure of dry air in the mixture. called Dalton's Law. Note that the specific properties. The term saturated air is used to describe the condition when air contains the maximum amount of water vapor that it can hold. . R The dry air and water vapor each exert only a part of the total pressure. This is also called the 1110isture content.PSYCHROMETRICS 165 Dew Point Temperature (DP). ft 3 T = temperature of mixture.2) The dry bulb temperature is the temperature in the conventional meaning that we are all accustomed to using. explained in Chapter 3. Specific Enthalpy (h). Specific Volume (v). The heat content (enthalpy) of air per unit weight. The ratio of the actual water vapor pressure in the air to the vapor pressure if the air were saturated at that dry bulb temperature. It is expressed in percent. The weight of water vapor per pound of dry air. In most data used in air conditioning. This use of the word saturated does not have the same meaning as the saturated state of a pure substance. When the amount of water vapor is less than the maximum possible. This is a convention that is generally used. Relative Humidity (RH). in BTUllb dry air. The weight unit of grains is often used in order to have more convenient numbers: 7000 gr= lib The specific enthalpy of air is the enthalpy of the dry air plus the water vapor.15 applies to each: Pa V = 111aRaT = 53. The volume of air per unit weight of dry air. Ib Illw = weight of water vapor. the arbitrary zero value point is 0 F for the dry air portion and 32 F for the water vapor portion of the air.1 ) (7. Ib/ft2 ma = weight of dry air. The temperature at which the water vapor in the air wonld begin to condense if the air were cooled. Some of the relationships between properties will now be explained. Ib/ft2 Pw = partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture. The maximum quantity of water vapor that air can hold depends on the air temperature. taken above an arbitrary reference temperature at which the enthalpy is given a value of zero. 7. and therefore Equation 2. always refer to unit weight of dry air. is: the total pressure equals the sum of the partial pressures: P=Pa+Pw where (7. Humidity Ratio (W).3) P = total (atmospheric) pressure Pa = partial pressure of dry air Pw = partial pressure of water vapor Humidity Ratio The ideal gas laws and law of partial pressures can be used to find a relationship for determining the L . Ideal Gas Laws Both the dry air and water vapor in atmospheric air behave as ideal gases. A useful principle that applies to the mixture.3 maT pwV=111wRwT=85. Rw = gas constants for air and water vapor. although the air ordinarily is not dry. ft Ib/lb R V = volume of mixture. those based on a unit weight. at constant pressure. The meaning and use of wet bulb temperature will be explained when the process of evaporative cooling is described. Ib Ra.

49 = 0.4) where Relative Humidity and Dew Point The relative humidity is defined by the equation RH= Pw x 100 Pws where RH = relative humidity. for both air and water vapor.0. at 80 F PH'S = 0. Pa = P .1 The partial pressure of the water vapor in the air is 0. where W' = 7000 gr x 0.178 = 14.5.507 Using Equation 7.7T Pa V m=-a 53.a. lb ma = weight of dry air. The dew point temperature was defined as the temperature at which the water vapor in the air would condense if the air were cooled at constant pressure.7 psi. Pw V 85.178 psia Using Equation 7.622 Pw pa J .69 psi.7 .20 Pa 14.6.0086 lIb = 60.3T Dividing the first equation by the second results in a useful relationship for the humidity ratio: W= mw =0.3) at the dry bulb temperature.622 Pw = 0.Pw = 14.166 CHAPTER 7 humidity ratio. lb water vaporllb dry air mw = weight of water vapor.llb d. and its partial pressure is equal to the saturation pressure at the dew point.0. Solution Example 7.3.0086 lb w. In = . Solution From the law of partial pressures.507 psi a at 50 F PH' = 0..622 Pw l71 a (7.20 = 14.52 psia W=0.x 100 = .49 psia Using Table A. or Pw 0. Example 7.2 What is the relative humidity and humidity ratio of air at 80 F DB and 50 F DP? The barometric pressure is 14. W = 0.2 gr w.5.20 psia on a day when the barometric (atmospheric) pressure is 14. Find the humidity ratio.622 x 0.x 100 = 35'7c PWS 0.69 .llb d.Pw = 14. Pa = P .3 to find the saturation pressure and partial pressure of the water vapor. 2 illustrates this. The definition of humidity ratio expressed as an equation is (7. the water vapor is in a saturated condition at the dew point. Therefore. Ib Pw = partial pressure of water vapor at dry bulb temperature PWS = saturation pressure of water vapor at dry Rearranging the ideal gas law as follows.w bulb temperature The saturation pressure of the water vapor is found from the Steam Tables (Table A.a.5) Pa In this equation. Using Equation 7. Example 7. Pa and Pw are in the same units. Equation 7. % (7.178 RH = .6) W = humidity ratio.

Note that the weight of water vapor per Ib dry air is the humidity ratio. . Generally. W = humidity ratio.llb d.• PSYCHROMETRICS 167 ~~' = 0.8.2 could also be used.45 x 80) Solution The ideal gas law will be used. This is partly because the apparatus for measuring the DP is cumbersome. the equation for the specific enthalpy of the mixture.3 maT V=---"Pa 53.5 A measurement of the air DB and WB gives readings of 90 F and 70 F.·r .2. remembering thatpa must be in Ib/ft 2 . whereas only a thermometer with a wetted wick is needed to measure the WB. per pound of dry air.llb d.2.8) = X (80 + 460) 0.p')(DB .451) = 0. the value of Pw can be calculated from the following equation. respectively.a.45 BTUllb-F. h = 0.178 14. is P = total air pressure. ~. Using specific heats of air and water vapor of 0. =0. Solution Using Equation 7. psia P' = saturation water vapor pressure at the wet bulb temperature. and a latent heat value of 1061 BTUllb for water.7) h =enthalpy of moist air. using TableA.8 will be used to find Pw. the dry bulb temperature (DB) and dew point temperature (DP) were known.' .3.52 X 144 = 13.0078(1061 + 0. a pioneer in the field of air conditioning: Pw = p' _ (p . The atmospheric pressure is 14.8 BTUllb d.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the specific enthalpy of the air in Example 7.WB) (2830 .. t = dry bulb temperature of air. As the dry air and the water vapor both occupy the same volume.a.7 ft 311b d. Equation 7.24 x 80 + 0. Example 7.3 X 1 X (80 + 460) =27. by definition.52 Example 7. Enthalpy (Heat Content) The enthalpy of atmospheric air is the sum of the individual enthalpies of the dry air and water vapor.2. psia = 13. which was developed by Dr.'I. · .a.24t+ W(1061 + 0.l.8 ft311b d. What is the 'RH? Solution Equation 7.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the specific volume (per Ib dry air) of the air in Example 7.1.7 X 0. psia DB = dry bulb temperature. BTUllb d.l78 x 144 where Pw =partial pressure of water vapor at dry bulb temperature.451) where (7. however. 53. If the WB is known. Willis H. it is the wet bulb (WB) temperature and not the DP that is measured. h = 0.70 psia.24t + W(1061 + 0. Rearranging Equation 7.7. Carrier.00761b w.6 to find the RH. F WB = wet bulb temperature. Ib w.a.' c ~. The value of Pw was found at the DP temperature. V= 85. This includes the sensible heat of the dry air and the sensible and latent heat of the water vapor.0076 (7.622 x 0. In Example 7. then Equation 7.a.7111w T Pw 85.43 x WB) = 14.a.24 and 0. F The following example illustrates 'the use of Equation 7. F Example 7.

can be considered parallel on the psychrometric chart used here. (See Section 7. however.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Draw a line of 76. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7. Example 7.258 psi From Equation 7.5 F WB on the psychrometric chart. Pws = 0.70) (2830 . although actmilly not exactly parallel.3. a sharp drafting-type pencil and straight edge must always be used.363 psia at 90 F. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7. The graphical form is called the psychrometric chart.) The difference is because the enthalpy values shown on the chart are for saturated air instead of for the actual conditions.2.5. The curved.ipws x 100 =0.3 THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART The properties of atmospheric air can be represented in tables or graphical form. but not drawn to the actual scale: 7.10 for a related discussion. = 0. Lines of constant enthalpy and constant wet bulb temperature.70 .-'----------'-----'W' (14. the above equations may be used to determine other unknown properties. Example 7. The condition can be . The error in using the listed values. at 70 f\ p' = 0.1.36)(90 . This should be studied before using one.698 x 100 =37% As illustrated by the examples shown in this section. RH =p".8 Draw a line of 45'70 RH on the psychrometric chart. There are slight differences in the arrangement of charts furnished' by different organizations. Values should be read to the best accuracy possible. charts have been prepared from the most common values of the properties of air.8. It is universally used because it presents a great deal of information very simply and because it is helpful III studying air conditioning processes. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7.6 Draw a line of 78 F DB on the psychrometric chart.25810.6. is less than 2% when calculating enthalpy changes. after measuring the DB and WE or other conveniently measured properties.1ines on the chart show the corrections to be made to the enthalpy for actual conditions when greater accuracy is necessary. Example 7. 7.43 x 70) Study these sketches until you are familiar with the scales and the lines of constant values for each property. p = O 36 3 . When reading values or drawing lines.1. To save repeated calculations.3.168 CHAPTER 7 From Table A.4 LOCATING THE AIR CONDITION ON THE CHART Any condition of air is represented by a point 011 the psychrometric chart. The location of the scales for each of the properties and the constant value lines for those properties are shown in Figure 7. interpolating between numbered values when necessary.4.0. Each figure is a sketch of the psychrometric charts. and on the conservative side.698 psia From Equation 7. Construction ofthe Psychrometric Chart A psychrometric chart is shown in Figure 7. Their use will be the subject of the next section.

.. Pound.." 90 K ...ro.' pound of .. .017 V" . . .on 130H . " '" " .o\>ly. '" " ... G.-F .0 . _ .." " .... .. '" " '00 '''' -& -& ..) $ . 01 "." ..."0."'."... .. \ " " "..011 ..~ ..00' <{>" " "'. !~{ -) (n.w j g J i .• " '''' o tlo no ~ • . \ . NY.t..oof-j: .. Syracuse. po.007 COmfort zone conservation ~ 1-t\.. ..1 • • . Figure 7. T _ a .' . .. W.... __ i'P..'. ... j ~o P... 2OU.006 J >of-j: "..~ . (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation.y ai........! .y ai.. " " " ..•.. • "'w . .. pound 01 <1'1 a.<0 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Normal Temperatures Reproduced by permission of Carrier Corporation. of moi.. ...j.019 lIoR . . .015 ..""..p.. .01.010 I--+- ~ 1 . ~Iu p."o~ ....=\ 001 lOW' J ' ~ .""• .. '''~"" '" .012 "K70 ...t_. J ! ..v •• por pound 01 d.016 . .."...023 .Ole 110r:t ..hol py at '0...." '" 160L r .013 . ~ 1 J Psychrom·etric chart.

~ -7':.2 Construction of psychrometric chart. W = 90 gr w. F (a) oj -0 ."""'~ DB (c) DB (f) Figure 7. (c) Lines of constant relative humidity (RH) on the psychrometric chart.~\ 0 // ~ 0) 0 '" " DB (d) 70 Dry bulb temp. --..~ '6 I C E ::l DB (e) DB (b) Saturation line (RH = 100%) ~ II = 27~ 27 BTU/lb d. (f) Lines of constant enthalpy (g) on the psychrometric chart..r:. (b) Lines of constant humidity ratio fY'I) on the psychrometric chart..5 ft3 /1b d. 90 i .a. (a) Lines of constant dry bulb temperature (DB) on the psychrometric chart.:..a. .llb d. showing lines of constant properly values.a. (d) Lines of constant specific volume (v) on the psychrometric chart.. (e) Lines of constant wet bulb temperature (WB) on the psychrometric chart.0 ~ 0 0..170 CHAPTER 7 / / / / / // LL / v = 13.

4 Soilltion On the chart. 50% DB DB . (g) Lines of constant dew point temperature (DP) on the psychrometric chart. Once the condition is located.PSYCHROMETRICS 171 DP = 60 F 78 F DB 60 80 DB. Figure 7.5 Solution to Example 7. Drawing a line of Figure 7. following a line of constant humidity ratio. Figure 7.2 Continued.7).7.a./lb d.2 F. the condition is found by the point of intersection of the 60 F DB and 55 F WB lines (Figure 7. the intersection of the two lines establishes the point representing the condition of the air.B. the condition of the air is at the point of intersection of the 90 F DB line and 40% RH line (Figure 7.a.9 The weather report reads 90 F DB and 40% RH. What is the WB? Solution Using the psychrometric chart. located once two independent properties are known.2 BTU/lb d. From the point. Because each property is represented by a line. F DB (g) Figure 7.3 Solution to Example 7.6. the WB temperature is read as 71. any other properties can be read from the chart. 80 Solution to Example 7. read W = 57gr w.10 The air leaving a cooling coil is at 60 F DB and 55 F WB. Example 7. Following a line of constant enthalpy from the point (parallel to WB lines) read h =23.6). What is its humidity ratio and specific enthalpy? Example 7. constant WB from this point.

even though it may not be apparent by their name or definition.: 57 90 DB. For single-glazed windows. F Figure 7. Two solutions are possible-either a chart for the actual pressure can be used. will require these corrections. From the definition of dew point. this means that the property lines are parallel on the psychrometric chart. :. Example 7. the air is saturated with water vapor when cooled to that temperature. F 60 DB. Mexico City). what is the maximum RH that should be maintained in the room to avoid condensation on the windows? Solution The inside temperature of the glass can be assumed to be at the outside temperature. they are measuring the same thing.1 shows the properties of air at a pressure of 29. Example 7. The specific volume is read as 13.7 ft 3 /1b d. (The precise .9. the standard atmospheric pressure at sea leveL For pressures significantly different. or corrections can be made to the values. 40% --~--~'~----------- . When cooled further. Understanding this concept enables us to determine the maximum humidity that can be maintained in a room in winter without condensation occurring on the windows.2 BTU/lb d. which are at lower. if we know the DP and humidity ratio of an air sample.5 CONDENSATION ON SURFACES Who.12 A room with single-glazed windows is at 70 F DB. because the thermal resistance of the glass is low.8).11 Combustion air enters a furnace at 80 F DB and 23% RH. we could not establish a point.7 Solution to Example 7. The psychrometric chart of Figure 7. Practically.a. For example. does not remember drawing pictures on a fogged windowpane in winter? Moisture on the glass is condensed from the room air when the glass temperature is lower than the room air dew point. Condensation should be avoided because the water will stain or damage surfaces.6 Solution to Example 7. Denver. Geographical locations at high altitudes (e.atmospheric pressures. These corrections can also be made directly by applying the property equations. If the outside temperature is 30 F.g. The only circumstances under which two properties will not suffice to locate the air condition is when they are not independent properties.2 F WB=55F h = 23.10. by interpolation.172 CHAPTER 7 WB = 71. The reader should verify this by studying the chart. When properties are not independent. it can hold even less water vapor-some is condensed. if available. 7.a. Figure 7. Air contacting the glass is cooled below its dew point..92 in. Hg. because this gives only one line. as a child. Example 7.12 illustrates the use of the psychrometric chart in relation to-this problem. some property readings from the chart'will not be correct and it cannot be used. What is its specific volume? Solution The condition is located at the intersection of the 80 F DB and 23% RH lines (Figure 7. the inside glass surface is only slightly higher than the outside temperature.

Sensible heating (process 1-2) results in an increase in DB and enthalpy. The direction of the process must therefore be along a line of constant humidity ratio.PSYCHROMETRICS 173 Air Conditioning Processes v = 13. Processes are shown by drawing a line from the initial air condition to its final condition. the dew point of the air must be less than 30 F to avoid condensation. as shown in Figure 7. F Figure 7. temperature can be calculated using the conduction heat transfer equation.12. results in a decrease in DB and enthalpy.a. Enthalpy decrease Enthalpy increase / / /L-.10.3~0C.'F~D:. to prevent the migration of any water vapor through the insulation to the cold pipe surface. Showing these processes on the psychrometric chart is very helpful in selecting equipment and in analyzing problems. but there is no change in water vapor content. The same problem occurs with bare cold water piping running through spaces. Using the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. however.9).':P~c:::'4.6 PROCESS LINES ON THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART The purpose of air conditioning equipment is to change the condition of the entering air to a new condition. This change is called a process. Therefore. Most processes are represented by straight lines.10 Sensible heating and sensible cooling processes. air with a 70 F DB and 30 F DP has an RH of 23%. Sensible cooling process 1-3 (heat removal). Figure 7. Sensible Heat Changes The sensible heat change process is one where heat is added or removed from the air and the DB temperature changes as a result. Chilled water lines are usually insulated so that the outside surface is well above the air dew point.11 . heating 70 F DB DB . where the water vapor would condense.23% RH / 3 2 Sensible Sensible cooling.9 Solution to Example 7. 7. 23%RH DB.8 Solution to Example 7.7 ft 3/1b d. Figure 7. A vapor barrier co\'ering is necessary. This would be the maximum RH that should be maintained. Double glazing will of course increase the inside glass temperature and permissible RH.) Room air contacting the glass surface will be cooled to 30 F. The air changes properties along this line.

shown in Figure 7. process 1-5. Enthalpy 4----1 Cooling and humidifying Enthalpy decrease Humidification Dehumidification 5---1 DB Cooling and dehumidifying DB . W. It is important to determine the amount of heat and water vapor to be added or removed in the conditioning equipment and to determine the changes in properties. These processes-pure humidification and dehumidification without a sensible heat change-do not occur often in practical air conditioning processes. may occur in air conditioning: I.11.12. For example. and removal of water vapor from the air is called dehumidification.12 Combined sensible and latent heat change Figure 7. humidification. However. This can be done by using the sensible and latent heat equations (Chapter 2) with the aid of the psychrometric chart. both the DB and Ware decreased.7 SENSIBLE HEAT CHANGE PROCESS CALCULATIONS (SENSIBLE HEATING AND COOLING) The sensible heat equation applied to moist air is Qs = 0. Sensible cooling and humidification (1-8) 4. removal of water vapor results in a decrease in enthalpy. shown in Figure 7. Sensible heating and humidification (1-6) 2. and the enthalpy decreases due to both sensible and latent heat removal.9) -~ Figure 7. Sensible heating and dehumidification (1-7) 7. the concept is important to understand in analyzing conditions. Process 1-4.174 CHAPTER 7 Latent Heat Changes (Humidification and Dehumidification) The process of adding water vapor to the air is called humidification. and enthalpy all change.11 processes.. in the cooling and dehumidification process 1-9. Sensible cooling and dehumidification (1-9) Note that. In dehumidification. X TC (7.45111.24m" x TC + 0. DB. In humidification. 3. Humidification and dehumidification (latent heat change) processes. results in an increase in humidity ratio and enthalpy. Combination Sensible Heat and Latent Heat Change The following combined sensible and latent processes. the enthalpy of the air increases due to the enthalpy of the water vapor added. This is why it is called a latent heat change.. generally.

The process and diagrammatic arrangement of the equipment are shown in Figure 7. The flow rate of air is usually expressed in ft 3 /min (CFM) rather than lblhr in air conditioning work.3 = 7.hI = 29.9 x 30 =39 BTUlhr Therefore.3410 BTUlhr =0. using Equation 2.-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The air entering the heater in Example 7.a. mw = weight of water vapor. Example 7.15 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solve Example 7.llb d. A sensible heating or cooling problem can also be solved using the enthalpy values from the psychrometric chart and the enthalpy Equation 2.. What is the required capacity of the heater? Solution The electric energy in the resistance heater is converted into the required heat. BTUlhr ma = weight of air. The sensible cooling process problem is handled in the same manner as sensible heating.14 ~..lhr The enthalpy change due to the water vapor is.3 BTUlIb d. and final condition on the chart.84KW and therefore. =0. because most instruments read CFM.10. The increase in enthalpy of each pound of air is h2 .60) Example 7.3 BTUIlb = 2910 BTUlhr which is in close agreement with the previous result.14 using the psychrometric chart.13 An electric resistance heater is to be installed in a duct to heat 400 Iblhr of air from 60-90 F.0072 Ib w.) The first term in Equation 7.1I = temperature change. Note how simple and convenient It is to use this method with the aid of the chart.a. Qs = 0. the humidity ratio is 0. Always plot the process lines and sketch the equipment arrangement for every job.a.. Solution First plot the initial condition.. the enthalpy increase of the total amount of air is Qs =ma(h2 . units are changed as follows: I KW Capacity = 2880 BTUlhr x . The error from neglecting the enthalpy of the water vapor was about 19C of the total. How much error was there in neglecting the term in the sensible heat equation that included the enthalpy change of the water vapor? Solution From the psychrometric chart. the second term is often small enough so that it can be neglected.0072lb w.22.. This will aid in understanding the system performance. = 2880 BTUlhr Because the capacity of electrical equipment is expressed in kilowatts or watts rather than BTUlhr.13.45 for water vapor are used in Equation 7.6 . For approximate air conditioning calculations.45mw x TC = 0. and .24ma x TC = 0. F (Specific heats of 0.9. Iblhr TC = 12 .PSYCHROMETRIes 175 where Qs = sensible heat added to or removed from air. from Equation 7.9 expresses the enthalpy change of the dry air and the second term expresses the enthalpy change of the water vapor.llb d.13 has an RH of 65%.13.9 Ib w. Example 7. the correct amount of heat added is 2880 + 39 = 2919 BTUlhr.45 x 2. Iblhr m" = O.10) Q. Using Equation 7.15. process line.24 x 400(90 . and the sensible heat equation is written (7.13.9.hI) = 400 Iblhrx 7. x 400 Ib airlhr = 2.24 for air and 0. as seen in Example 7.

Hg.F 90 Figure 7.).. Example 7.7 psia. Therefore. is 14. manufacturers do not know the conditions of temperature and pressure that each user will apply. and air handling units.--. the actual specific volumes should be used .25m hr 60 min Ib =88. 1 hr ft 3 lb CFM =400 .5xCFM I Ib X ---'--. Converting units to CFM.15.16? Solution The specific volume leaving.075 Ib/ft3 d.176 CHAPTER 7 Electric resistance h2 = 29..- 13.a.x 14.. Therefore.13 Sketch for Example 7.25 ft 21lb d.x .16. For heating applications at high temperatures. the CFM of the equipment is often expressed at standard air conditions. from the chart.92 in. the specific volume of the entering air is 13.0 hr 60 min Ib =93. In many air conditioning applications. expressed in CFM? Solution From the psychrometric chart.3 ft31lb d. =22. Of course the same quantity by weight of air is leaving the unit as is entering. or where pressures are considerably different from 14. Problems can be avoided by always indicating the temperature and pressure at which the CFM is specified.11) .15.0 ft3 Ilb d. 65%RH heater h.3 ft3 lIl a (7.x---x 13. the range of temperatures is such that the specific volume is close enough to that of standard air so that no significant error occurs if the specific volume of standard air is used. as at high altitudes.hr min I hr =4. as illustrated by Example 7.17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the CFM leaving the duct heater in Example7. The relation between air flow rate expressed in Iblhr and air flow rate expressed as ft 3 /min. This variation in volume can lead to misunderstandings and error.6 BTU~b d.3 CFM The specific volume of a gas changes with temperature and pressure.a. the CFM leaving the duct heater in Example 7. when rating the capacity of equipment such as fans. unless clearly specified. (a density of 0.16 will be different from that entering.. In order to avoid misunderstandings. as noted in the Gas Laws in Chapter 2. I hr fr3 Ib CFMOU ( = 400 . This condition applies at 68 F and 29.16 What is the flow rate of air entering the duct heater in Example 7. However. Conversion between these units is therefore often necessary.a.x -. such as selection of the wrong size equipment..a. using standard air conditions.a.3 60 F DB '----1----' 90 F DB 2 60 DB. coils.3 CFM 60 min cu ft = CFM . is Ib lila - Example 7. but the CFM is greater. Standard air is defined as having a specific volume of 13.

gr w.a.19 will illustrate a case.WI') (7.8 LATENT HEAT CHANGE PROCESS CALCULATIONS (HUMIDIFYING AND DEHUMIDIFYING) The amount of water vapor added to or removed from air in a humidifying or dehumidifying process is Ill".llb d.12 is used.1 x CFM xTC = 1. as well as by the system designer.PSYCHROMETRICS 177 Substituting this in the sensible heat equation (7./lb d.19 A cooling coil with a rated sensible cooling capacity of 50. f2.000 x 2000 As with the sensible heating process.12. = water vapor added or removed.. Example 7. dividing by 7000 gr/lb CFM(W. lb w. In Example 7.1 x 88.16. for air conditioning processes. lb w. Psychrometries can be put to good use by the engineer or service technician in troubleshooting.11 in the above equation gives (7.a. must be less than t" so 23 F is subtracted from 80 F.9) and also assuming a typical average moisture content of air of 0.llb d.18 Determine the capacity of the duct heater in Example 7. it is usually acceptable to assume air at standard conditions. the temperature leaving. = 23 F 1. Example 7. Solution Equation 7. based on entering air CFM. This convenient form of the sensible heat equation is commonly used for moist air calculations in air conditioning. Example 7.moisture content of the air from 30 to 60 gr w. using Equation 7.a.lhr l11a = air fl ow rate. = lila (W2 where I11w WI) The result agrees with that found by using the psychrometric chart.12.01 Ib w.1 xCFM 50.1 xCFMx(f2-fI) (7. substituting from Equation 7. TC = _-=Q::.a. How much water must be supplied? . the result is Qs= 1.llb d. Qs = 1..12) and we see that the unit is not performing as rated.19. the leaving air temperature will be at least as low as that predicted by the sensible heat equation. Note: When using equations with temperature changes.000 BTUlhr while handling 2000 CFM of air entering at 80 F must be checked to see that it is performing properly. and the air flow rate is measured and found to be 2000 CFM.s_ 1.20 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A water humidifier in a warm air heating duct handling 3000 CFM increases the .14) 1556 where W = humidity ratio.a. Solving for the temperature change in Equation 7.13) or. If the air flow rate is expressed in CFM. the reader should be careful not to make errors resulting from improper use of negative arithmetic signs. Ib/hr W2 - WI = change in humidity ratio. Thermometers at the air entrance and exit of the unit read 80 F and 62 F. Is the unit performing satisfactorily? Solution If the unit is cooling according to its rated capacity.3(30) = 2914 BTUlhr 7. .1 Example 7./lb d. if the humidity ratio is given in gr w.

15.5 x 3000 = 13.) Therefore. CFM(W2' .1 =4. It is usually combined with sensible cooling or heating. the evaporation of water requires heat.h j = 28.0 '" Find the amount of heat required for the humidifier in Example 7. The latent heat of vaporization of water at typical air conditioning temperatures is approximately 1055 BTU/lb.15) where Q/ = latent heat change.13 and the psychrometric chart. In this case.30) 1556 = 61. a condition which is unacceptable for good comfort. Example 7. the heating equipment must provide sufficient heat to prevent cooling of the air. 1556 = 581b w. Another method of humidifying is to generate steam in a separate source and to inject it into the air to be humidified. and the need arises only in specialized industrial air conditioning. The latent heat change problem can also be solved by using the enthalpy Equation 2. to condense water vapor from it.14).11. that is. 30 DB Using Equation 7.14. Using Equation 7. ma 90 =4. Example 7.22 "2 = 28.7 - 24.lhr Latent Heat Change As discussed previously.7 ".14.21.22. gr w.a. Pure dehumidification is not a very commonly used process.178 CHAPTER 7 Solution The psychrometric process is shown in Figure 7.68 x 3000(30) m w = CFM(W2 ' - Wj') 3000(60 . BTU/hr W2 ' - WI' = humidity ratio change.1 2 60 "0 .6 BTU/lb d. heat must be removed from the air to dehumidify it. as seen in the following example.200 BTUlhr Note: If water were simply evaporated in the air without providing the required heat. h2 . (This process will be described shortly. An inspection of the psychrometric chart shows that natural air conditions in the winter have a very low humidity. by using the psychrometric chart.llb d. Q/ = 0. All of the equations for latent heat change hold true.5 x CFM =4.68 CFM(W2' - WI') = 0. Dehumidification is the reverse of the process described earlier. ~ 0> ~ Solution From the psychrometric chart (see FIgure 7.a. = 24.68 X CFM(W2 ' - WI ') (7. Solution Using Equation 7.14 Sketch for Example 7.500 Iblhr .14. Using Equation 7. if the air is at 90 F. the air would cool down.WI') Q/ = 1055 x mw = 1055 x --'---'''----'-'- 1556 Q/ = 0.20? Figure 7. Humidification is a desirable process in winter air conditioning. A quality environmental control system should include winter humidification.21 How much heat is required in the evaporation process in the humidifier in Example 7.

1 xCFMxTC = 491. = Qs + Q/ = 396.23 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ An air conditioning unit has a cooling coil that cools and dehumidifies 20. The sensible heat removed and latent heat removed are found from Equations 7. is the total heat removed for the process. the air is cooled and dehumidified.75 = 7. In either case.000 (7) = 95.000 BTUlhr The total cooling capacity of the coil required for this job is 491. using Equation 2.000 (7) 1556 1556 =90 Iblhr Provision must be made for draining the water that is continually collecting in the air conditioning unit. The problem in Example 7.21. the procedures for analysis use the sensible and latent heat equations and the psychrometric chart. From the psychrometric chart W2 ' - WI' = 82 . These changes may take place separately or may occur together.100 BTUlhr The result agrees closely with that found previously in Example 7.llb d.68 x 20. latent.500 . The amount of moisture condensed during the process is.000 BTU/hrx I ton =41 tons 12.12) is Qs= 1.a.0 gr w.15.000 BTUlhr . 7. = Qs + Q[. Q/ = rna (h2 . Q/ = 0.000 BTUlhr (41 tons) at the conditions specified.hI) = 13.amount of moisture condensed.000 + 95. the air undergoes both sensible and latent heat changes. respectively. The sum.. and total capacity of the cooling coil and the.Cooling coil Q (4.23.000 BTU/hr The total heat removed is Q.1 x 20.23 can also be solved using Equation 2.14.15 Sketch for Example 7. Q. Example 7. Figure 7. Solution The flow diagram is shown in Figure 7.13. Find the sensible.13 and the psychrometric chart.12 and 7. The equations developed previously will provide the information. using Equation 7.9 COMBINED SENSIBLE AND LATENT PROCESS CALCULATIONS In many air conditioning system processes.68 x CFM (W2 ' - WI ') = 0.000 (18) = 396.000 BTUlhr or 491. The sensible heat removed (Equation 7.15. Although the sensible heat and latent heat are being removed simultaneously from the air in the = 1.6) = 62.PSYCHROMETRICS 179 The latent heat required is therefore.000 The Cooling and Dehumidification Process Air conditioning for human comfort usually requires a process where both sensible and latent heat are removed from air-that is.000 CFM of air from 82 F DB and 50% RH to 64 F DB and 61 F WB. CFM(W2' - WI') 20.

(However. It is advisable to solve air conditioning process problems by both of the methods explained: 1. BTUllb d. Example 7.16 can be used for any air conditioning process represented 011 the psychrometric chart. I I 64 82 DB .6 - 27.a .24.000 (31.23 using the psychrometric chart. It should be noted that some combinations of processes may have sensible and latent heat changes opposite in direction. The other processes are encountered less often.22 and 7.h. For instance. applying it to the sensible heat and latent heat parts of the process When the results are compared. they should substantially agree. However.hal = 90. the process line representing the total heat removal is 1-2 (the actual line is slightly curved. an error has been made.16 with the psychrometric chart.24 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ and the total heat removal is Q. 32.16. the latent heat removal portion is shown by I-a and the sensible heat removal is shown by a-2.) heat added or removed.31.13 can be expressed in the following form: Solve Example 7. Using Equations 7. If not.180 CHAPTER 7 conditioner. as seen in the following example.000 BTUlhr The latent heat removal is Equation 7.1 .16) where Q = sensible (Qs).6) = 99. BTUlhr CFM = volume flow rate of air being processed h2 . = Qs + QJ =495.7 2 ----------.16 Sketch for Example 7. . = 4. However.12 and 7. latent (Q/).a. Heating and humidification are typical to winter air conditioning systems.000 BTUlhr As shown indirectly in Examples 7.) The solution of any of the other combined sensiblelatent processes is handled in the same manner as the cooling-dehumidification process. = 90. some industrial air conditioning applications may require them. agreement does not ensure that there is not a possible error common to both methods. or total enthalpy change. Using Equation 7.14. the sensible QI = maCh.000 BTUlhr heat and latent heat equations 2.5 x 20. they can be shown separately on the chart. as explained later).000 = sensible. the heating and dehumidification process has sensible heat added and latent heat removed.000 (32. The flow rate in lblhr is ma = 4.h 2 ) = 90. Solution Referring to Figure 7.2) = 396.7 .24. Figure 7. even though these are not actual process lines.000 lblhr The sensible heat removal is Qs = ma(ha . or total (Q.5 x CFM (7. latent. the enthalpy Equation 2.

they would have the same readings. If the evaporative cooling process can produce air at temperatures low enough for sufficient cooling of spaces (at least as low as 60-65 F DB). unlike the pure humidification process described earlier. because there is no he. Referring to the definition of wet bulb temperature-the temperature recorded by a thermometer whose stem is wrapped with a wetted wick. If wet bulb thermometers were placed in the airstream entering and leaving the evaporative cooling unit. it will be noted that the temperature leaving is lower than that entering. This must be so. it is a line of constant enthalpy content. Referring to Figure 7. This results in a lower temperature reading of the wet bulb thermometer. The next important fact to note about the evaporative cooling process is that it is a constant enthalpy process. this heat must be obtained from the air. The air passing through the wick becomes completely saturated.17 Evaporative cooling process. in a humid Figure 7. Because there is no external heat source.17. This indicates that sensible heat was given up by the air. Look at the psychrometric chart at a typical summer outdoor air design condition.17.PSYCHROMETRICS 181 7. The important question here is: What caused this? The evaporation of the water required heat. lowering its temperature. as seen in Figure 7. There is simply an exchange of heat within the mixture. water is sprayed into the airstream.at added to or removed from the air-water vapor mIxture. The unevaporated water is recirculated continuously.10 THE EVAPORATIVE COOLING PROCESS AND THE WET BULB TEMPERATURE One special cooling and humidification process called evaporative cooling requires a more detailed discussion. increasing the water vapor content of the air. including its operating costs. Constant enthalpy and wet bulb RH 3: = 10% -- Recirculating water spray 62 DB 94 l . If the (dry bulb) temperature of the air is measured entering and leaving the conditioning unit. and no external heat is added to the process. it would mean that no refrigeration equipment would be needed. However. A process in which there is no change in total heat content is called an adiabatic process. even though no external cooling source is used. and placed in the airstream-it is seen that evaporative cooling is the process occurring at the thermometer stem. Thus we can note that the evaporative cooling process is therefore a constant wet bulb temperature process. We can now determine the process line on the psychrometric chart for the evaporative cooling process. Some of the water evaporates. The sensible heat decreases and the latent heat increases by the same amount. the evaporative cooling process is practical for air conditioning only in very dry climates.

applying the principle of conservation of mass-that is.I )_+_(..:. The evaporative cooling process also occurs in a cooling tower. the conditions after mixing can be found.17) If the specific volumes of the unmixed streams are not widely different.. Even in some normally dry climates. evaporative cooling could produce supply air at about 62 F DB. Cooling towers are equipment used to cool water.18 and 7. = (1111 x WI) + (1112 x W2) Solving for W 3 . If we follow a constant wet bulb line. of each other. even with complete saturation. However._111-'. This occurs under most outside air (OA) and return air (RA) design . particularly in mixing outside air with return air from rooms. That is As before. the procedures for finding the DB and W will be explained.182 CHAPTER 7 climate. and a small portion of the water evaporates. The heat necessary to evaporate the water is taken both from the air and from the water that does not evaporate. the sensible heat content of the air before and after mixing is the same. say 90 F DB and 74 F WB. m.X __ W.=2. The use of cooling towers in refrigeration systems will be explained in Chapter 13. Not only would the DB not be low enough for sufficient cooling. Equations 7. typical of a desertlike climate. The cooled water is then circulated to where it will be used. 2 Figure 7.' is one where two streams of air are mixed to form a third stream. When considering using evaporative cooling type air conditioning units. the water vapor content before and after mixing is the same: 1113 x W. (CFM I x DB I) + (CFM 2 x DB 2 ) CFM 3 (7. without significant loss of accuracy: DB. the equation can be written using flow rates in ft 3/min (CFM). in these cases the decision must be made as to whether the lack of adequate air conditioning is acceptable for those periods or whether the investment in mechanical refrigeration equipment is wiser.:.18. as in parts of the southwestern United States. m3 X DB3 = (1111 X DB I) + (1112 X DB 2) Solving for DB 3..1_X_W-.20 are accurate enough if the specific volumes of the unmixed airstreams are within 0. the following approximately correct equation can often be used: (CFM I x WI) + (CFM 2 x W2 ) W .. suitable for air conditioning. According to the Conservation of Energy Principle. Referring to Figure 7.20) For determining mixed air conditions.18) The humidity ratio W3 of the mixed air is found in a similar manner. DB. CFM.a..19) 7.:12:. DB3=~~--~--~----=- (1111 x DB I ) + (1112 x DB 2) 1113 (7.18 Air mixing process.= . ( .. The water is sprayed into an airstream.11 THE AIR MIXING PROCESS The air mixing praces. If the conditions of the two airstreams that are to be mixed are known. note that if the outdoor air were at 94 F DB and 10% RH (60 F WB). evaporative cooling could produce air at only 74 F DB. This process occurs frequently in air conditioning.11.-. rather than lblhr.5 ft 3 /1b d...) W 3 =1113 (7. but the high humidity of the supply air would result in extremely uncomfortable humidity conditions. there may be some days where the humidity is high enough so that the effective evaporative cooling will not occur.-"--'------'':=:-------'=----=3CFM 3 (7. W.

Equations 7. For example. The construction is shown in Figure 7.. Any proportional distance on the DB scale is the same as that on the mixing line.19 Sketch for Example 7. Find the mixed air DB aud WB. Using Equation 7.a. the mixed air condition.a.20. Under these conditions.a. the WB=66F.20. Locating the mixed air condition on the psychrometric chart. a RA condition of 78 F DB and 50% shows a specific volume of about 13.18. The one-third distance from point 2 is 75 + !6 x 15 = 80 on the DB scale..25 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Outside air and return air as shown in Figure 7. Solution The conditions are close enough so that the approximate equations can be used.25.19 are mixed. An OA condition of 94 F DB and 75 F WB (Birmingham.a. we . from the following two facts: Figure 7.94 1000CFM 90 FOB. Reading from point 3 on the p~ychrometric chart.18 and 7. 72 FWB 3 DB=? WB=? l -- All of the air processes usually encountered in air conditioning have now been described. Our next task will be to learn how to put this information together in designing an air conditioning system or in analyzing performance problems. 2000 CFM 75 FOB.' = 89 and W2 ' 64 gr w. usmg the psychrometric chart.25 graphically. for most applications. (This is simply a graphical expression of Equations 7.llb d.PSYCHROMETRICS 183 conditions. The location of the mixed air condition on this mixing line will be inversely proportional to the quantities of the unmixed airstreams to the total. The proportion of each airstream to the total IS DB = (1000 x 90) + (2000 x 75) 3 3000 80 F --'-= CFM I 1000 3000 2000 3000 CFM 3 CFM 3 = I 3 From the psychrometric chart W. is therefore located one-third of the total distance. Solution The mixing process line is' drawn between points I and 2. 50% RH 2 WB 3 =66F l i . W' _ (1000 x 89) + (2000 x 64) 3 3000 = CFM 2 2 3 = 72 gr w. RA DB3 = 80 F.26 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Solve Example 7.llb d. at 80 F DB and 72 gr w.llb d. l. This requires determining the conditions of air to be supplied to the rooms.a.20 would produce satisfactory answers for the mixed air condition. 2. starting from point 2.) Example 7. In studying this problem. It is usually convenient to use the DB scale to locate the mixed condition.18 and 7. The mixed air condition will lie along a straight line connecting the two conditions of the unmixed airstreams. Example 7.3 ft'/ib d. Using Equation 7. AL) shows a specific volume of about 14.8 ft3 /lb d. The total distance on the DB scale is 90 ~ 75 = 15 spaces. The mixing process can also be solved graphically on the psychrometric chart. Point 3.20. This distance is projected vertically to the mixing line to locate point 3. on the psychrometric chart.

Some familiarity with types of air handling equipment and systems (Chapter 12) will aid in understanding the following material.21) (7.1 x CFMs (tR . These relationships are shown in Figure 7. will also learn some new concepts used in psychrometries-the sensible heat ratio and the coil process line. BTU/hr Figure 7.Ws') where RSCL = room sensible cooling load.68 x CFMs (W/ . BTUlhr RLCL = room latent cooling load. we will use the basic psychrometric processes to analyze a complete air conditioning system.12 DETERMINING SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS The rooms in a building gain heat in the summer from a number of sources. (7. and will also briefly consider some more advanced psychrometric concepts. is provided by supplying air to the room at a temperature and humidity low enough to absorb the heat gains. The procedures for finding these heat gains were discussed in Chapter 6.22) 7.ts) RLCL=O. The rate at which heat must be extracted from a room to offset these heat gains was given the name room total cooling load (RTCL). W~ QL Room Return (room) air tAo tR' W'R W'R .184 CHAPTER 7 89 ?---j-----+------164 75 DB 80 90 Figure 7.21 and are expressed by the sensible and latent heat equations: RSCL = 1. it is composed of Supplying conditioned air to absorb room heat gains. Supply air Qs CFMs ts.21 Psychrometric Analysis of the Air Conditioning System In the following discussion. or cooling effect. This heat extraction. the room sensible cooling load (RSCL) and room latent cooling load (RLCL).26. two parts.20 Sketch for Example 7.

and then apply the RLCL equation (7. This still leaves two unknowns.16 = 55 gr w.22 are used to find the required conditions of the supply air to offset the sensible and latent loads for each room. F gr/lb d.a. 55..21.21.PSYCHROMETRICS 185 CFMs IR'!S = CFM of supply air = temperature of room and supply air.22: I W' R - RLCL W'-----S .27 illustrates the calculation of the supply air conditions.1 x 2000 Figure 7.1 SATISFACTORY SUPPLY AIR CONDITIONS FOR EXAMPLE 7. solving it for the supply air temperature change If all three satisfactory supply air conditions are plotted on the psychrometric chart.000 BTU/hr and latent cooling load of 22.. If 2000 CFM of supply air is furnished.llb d. as well as the results already found.21) first to determine the supply air CFMs and Is.2:!) to determine the supply air humidity ratio W s'. The supply air temperature is therefore Is = 78 - 25 = 53 F The required humidity ratio of the supply air is then found from Equation 7. IA IE 2000 2500 3200 53 58 62. a surprising fact is noted: All of the points lie on a straight line./lb W/. 7. as shown in Figure 7.4 55 60 62.ll b d.13 SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO If we recalculate the supply air conditions required in Example 7.a.-::-::-::.000 -----. Ws' = humidity ratios of room and supply air. In applying Equation 7. and the remaining unknown is then calculated from the equation.22. CFMs and ts.68 x CFMs ~ 1 DB -.. R.llb d.. the conditions found would of course be different.. and therefore W/ = 71 gr w. thIS line also passes through the room air condition.... F W' gr w.-. It is usual practice to apply the RSCL equation (7. 0.= 16 gr w. the RSCL is known from the cooling load calculations (Chapter 6). Equations 7. a. The room conditions are to be maintained at 78 F DB and 50% RH. Example 7. Table 7. determine the required supply air DB and WB.000 BTUlhr. TABLE 7.27 for other CFM quantities.0.1 shows the results for two other assumed values of CFM. WBs = 52 F. Solution Applying Equation 7. and tR and W R' are selected in the comfort zone (Chapter I). W s' = 71 .000 l .a. Reading from the chart.27 Supply Air Condition CFM DB..----. One of these is chosen according to "good practice" (such as costs and job conditions).27 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-:-:-_ The Unisex Hair Salon Shop has a sensible cooling load of 55..a. and furthermore.21 and 7.68 x 2000 22.22 Satisfactory supply air conditions fali along a straight line.6 Example 7.= 25 F 1. From the psychrometric chart d...

75 slope.000 BTUlhr. is the same for both. Any supply air condition that will satisfactorily remove the proper proportion of room sensible and latent heat gains will be on this line. RSHR. Example 7.71 ~'" cV" A R . encircled on the chart Figure 7. The following example will illustrate how to plot the RSHR line. .lh.000 45. the ratio of sensible to total heat removal.23): 11. Calculate the RSHR (Equation 7. = 0.24. which is defined as the ratio AxfAR. Draw the RSHR line. will be used to explain this important fact.186 CHAPTER 7 This line has considerable significance. . RSHF) That is RSHR= RSCL RTCL (7. h/ht. This is not a coincidence. It will also be true for any other point on line RA (this can be proven by the geometry of similar triangles). The shop is maintained at 77 F DB and 45% RH. Figure 7.000 BTUlhr and a latent cooling load of 15.000 0.1 30.28 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Big Boy Hamburger Shop has a sensible cooling load of 45. A scale for sensible heat ratio slopes is shown on most psychrometric charts to make it easier to draw lines with this slope. can also be shown by geometry to be equal to h/h t • To sum up this idea: Ax AR = 7.7 /"''I<:' R x DB DB .1 h.000 + 15. 30. in addition. B ' ----------------tx 24. locate the 0.1. The slope of line RA. We note from this figure that for air supply at either A or B.23 Sensible and latent heat removal for two different supply air conditions. The following steps are carried out: I.14 THE RSHR OR CONDITION LINE The RSHR line is defined as the line drawn through the room conditions with the room sensible heat ratio slope RSCURTCL.. any supply air condition that is not on this line will not be satisfactory. ht = RSCL RTCL The ratio RSCLIRTCL is called the room sensible heat ratio. On the SHR scale on the psychrometric chart. using the data from Table 7. Solution The solution is shown in Figure 7. its importance will be explained.75 2.23 ) RSHR= RSCL RTCL =--~--- 45. (It is also called the room scmi· bie heat facto!. There is also a guide point for the SHR scale. If we were to assume still other air supply rates and then calculate the required supply air conditions.23. Following that. we would find that every one would lie on this same line.

RSHR= RSCL RTCL = 150. Therefore the proper room design conditions will not be maintained. Therefore. The manager calls 1. Draw a line parallel to the guide line through the room condition point. the RSHR is calculated. 50% RH Design supply air = 62 F DB Solution The solution is shown graphically in Figure 7. using instruments.29 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Mrs. Van Astor. They are 61 F DB and 59 FWB. (Two drafting triangles will aid in drawing an exact parallel.000 203.000 0.74 3. 3. In the preceding example. if the supply air condition is on the line.000 BTUlhr Room design conditions = 78 F DB. First. (located at 80 F and 50% RH). troubleshooter. which are RSCL = 150. ooma" condition thermostat.75 through the guide point.74 78 F DB 50%RH ( . Finally she stalks out. Example 7. Draw a gnide line from SHR = 0.1 by plotting a number of possible supply air conditions. The RSHR line is plotted on the psychrometric chart. This procedure will be <iiscussed later.000 BTU/hr RLCL = 53.75 'R . 2. it will remove the correct proportion of the RSHG and RTHG.28). Van Astor gets so cold she puts on her mink stole. the usual practice is to plot the RSHR line and then choose a supply air condition on this line. Soon all of the wealthy jet set customers leave. 4. a regular patron of the swank Francais Restaurant. The actual supply air condition is located on the chart." The manager turns down the sured. The actual supply air conditions are first mea- s: 77 Figure 7. IT: Supply air 61 F DB 59FWB I (fJ ~air RSHR line DB --. and it is seen that it does not lie on the RSHR line. The RSHR line is the same line that was developed from Table 7. because it has the RSHR slope.24 Plotting the RSHR line (Example 7. The SHR scale on the chart enables us to plot the RSHR line in a much easier manner than was done there. In selecting air conditioning equipment. This is the RSHR line. turning down the thermostat lowered the supply air dry bulb Figure 7.) The importance of the RSHR line is that it is the line on which any satisfactory supply air condition must lie.25.29. The reason for this is that it has the slope representing the correct proportion of sensible and latent heat removal.74) that passes through the room air point. 1. This is the line with the slope equal to the value of the RSHR (0.PSYCHROMETRICS 187 i-----L-----Guideline 45% RSHR line DB Guide point IT: I (fJ 0. let us look at an example of applying the RSHR line concept in troubleshooting a service problem.23. Fixum looks up the air conditioning system design data. Mrs.25 Sketch for Example 7. Fixum.--- 0. and passes through the room condition. complains on one July day that it feels very "sticky. Using Equation 7.

h2 ) = 4. Turning down the thermostat even further probably would still not solve the problem.000 (36. latent. = 734. latent. It is a curved line and is difficult to locate.8) BTU =1.188 CHAPTER 7 temperature to an approximately satisfactory valne (61 F) compared to the design value (62 F).30. Perhaps an improper cooling coil was being used.5 X CFM(h. The coil process line may then be defined as the straight line drawn between the air conditions entering and leaving the coi/.5 x 24.000 (30. The coil capacity is therefore (Equation 7.h2 ) 7.000 + 670.5 x 24.8 .000 (36.8) CFM(h. .000 BTUlhr Q/ = 4. The direction of this line depends on the coil configuration.5 X 23.000 = 1. although it is not the true coil process line.16) Qs = 4. called the cooling coil load. These matters should become clearer as we continue our analysis of air conditioning processes with the powerful graphical aid of the psychrometric chart. We will call this the coil process line anyway. Actual coil process line .26. . or perhaps the amount of outside air used was more than that designed for. air velocity. However. The air leaves the coil at 59 F DB and 56 F WB. and total heat that it removes from the air it is conditioning.404. - hJ = 4. it is possible to locate a straight line on the chart that.5 x CFM(hx . Fixum knows that the air conditioning unit was not removing enough latent heat (uot dehumidifying enough) because the supply air condition is above the RSHR line.30. and refrigerant temperature.26 Coil process line. The sensible. There could be a number of common causes for the uncomfortable conditions existing in the example cited.404.000-hr.27) from entering condition I to leaving condition 2.30 _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ __ A cooling coil handles 24. will enable us to select a coil or check the performance of a coil. are as shown.000 BTUlhr Q. Perhaps the refrigerant temperature was not low enough. as illustrated in Example 7.15 COIL PROCESS LINE A line can be drawn on the psychrometric chart representing the changes in conditions of the air as it passes over the cooling and dehumidifying coil. )----t ~-Leaving air t s: Entering arr Coil process line DB Figure 7.5 x 24. This is called the coil process line. can be determined from the coil process line.8 . Yet this did not sufficiently reduce the room humidity level. = 4. = 4. Example 7. . Determine the coil capacity. The required coil capacity. and total heat content change per Ib d. Solution The coil process line is drawn on the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. .6) = 670.a.6 = 734. as shown in Figure 7.000 BTUlhr = ll7 tons The total capacity could also have been found directly: Q.000 CFM of air entering at 86 F DB and 73 F WB. The capacity of a coil is defined as the sensible.23.

4. based on the following known information (Chapter 6): 1. 75 F WB 56 FWB 59 86 Inside design conditions-78 F DB.000 890. Cooling coil sensible. to prevent discomfort from staleness or drafts. Factors such as the type and location of air supply outlets will affect the temperature difference selected (see Chapter 10).27 Sketch for Example 7. Either CFM or DB temperature of the supply air. 3. RLCL = 150.1 x 20 Supply air temperature values are usually chosen so that the temperature difference between room and supply air is between 15-30 F.1(1. It is advisable to sketch a diagrammatic arrangement of the system and also each process on the psychrometric chart. = RSCL RTCL 740.000 1. 2. latent.." B. the same amount of air leaving the space must be exhausted (EA). However. Room sensible and latent heat gains. Using Equation 7. as shown in Figure 7.006 0. both must be in a range that is considered satisfactory for "good practice. ---------- RSCL =740.000 BTUIhr. plot the RSHR line.640CFM DB3 = 78 .PSYCHROMETRIes 36.8 Example 7.30.1. Fortunately this is usually not a problem if the supply air temperature and ventilation air quantity are selected within acceptable values. Supply air CFM 7.28.31 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The following design data has been established for the High Life Insurance Company office building: 2 . and the remaining air is returned (RA) to the air conditioning unit. One of these is selected and the other is then determined from the sensible heat equation. Supply air conditions C.21.83 .8 189 ~. Outside and inside design conditions. = 33. A. A. Ventilation (outside) air requirements. and total load Solution Each part of the problem will be solved in order. .31 will illustrate a complete psychrometric analysis.000 BTUlhr Outside design conditions-94 F DB. 50% RH Outside air required is 6730 CFM Supply air temperature difference is 20 F DETERMINE DB Figure 7. RSCL CFM3 = . Note that as some outside air (OA) is introduced.t3) 740. The slope is RSHR = Qs Q..~ ~\" Example 7. Coil process line 23.16 THE COMPLETE PSYCHROMETRIC ANALYSIS We are now prepared to determine all of the required supply air conditions and the cooling coil capacity for proper conditioning of the space.. The supply air CFM must neither be too little nor too great.20 = 58 F To find the remaining supply air conditions. Conditions entering cooling coil D.

000 BTUlhr = 95.28 Sketch for Example 7 .5 x 33.0 x 3 6730 CFM EA -l1-1f--"-":.1 X = 287._--4.910(78) = 81.. Q.1) = 1. must remove the excess heat from the outside air.640(31.0) The total cooling coil load (refrigeration load) is ..W3') =0.190 CHAPTER 7 Mixing Coil process line 2'" line 1 $: "".16 and the psychrometric chart Qs =4.2 = 858. Using Equation 7.. We have drawn the RSHR line.640(77.8) Draw the mixing line 1-7 on the chart.2 F 33. CFM 2(DB 2 .------.5 =286. Using Equation 7.3 F. = 0."::=:":"':::"':'::+<-i RSHR line DB Figure 7.7 6730 CFM OA 1 ----.15.5 = 4.:.5 X CFM(h 2 .-I_x_D_B::. = 4.7 DB 2 = CFM 2 = 6730(94) = 4.31.640(29.h. = 1.15. It is useful at this time for the students to study Figure 7.8 = 862.28 closely. This is because the coil.h3) =4.6.-7_x_D--. The intersection of this line with the 81.:::::.:::. D. the coil sensible load is Q. the condition entering the coil.150.24. Read WB 2 = 67.29. = Qs + Q. The intersection of the RSHR line and 58 F DB line determines the remaining supply air condition WB3 = 56.B.5 X 24.1) CFM(h2 . duct arrangement.640 x 33.c.1 x 33.:.900 BTUlhr Q. and the coil process line.68 X CFM 2 (W/ ..7 . The results should be checked by using Equation 7.640(31.2 F DB line will locate point 2. _ C_F_M--.. Draw the coil process line 2-3.000 BTU/hr = 95. The condition entering the cooling coil will be the mixed air condition of outside air and return air.640(81. The heat removed from the outside air is called the outside air load. as well as r~move the room heat gains.000 BTUlhr 65. the mixing line. =4.600 BTU/hr Q.500 BTUlhr Using Equation 7.1_+_C_F_M--.12.18.= 1.. .2 F.5 x 33.5 x CFM(h.h3) e.4 tons E. Identify these and relate each point to the equipment and.7 ..DB 3 ) 58) = 1. the coil latent load is Q. Note that in the preceding example the coil loads are greater than the room loads.68 x 33.4 tons which agrees quite well with the results from part D.145.) + 26.

the air would leave at a temperature equal to the EST. Qr (OA) = 4.17 THE CONTACT FACTOR AND BYPASS FACTOR When air passes across the outside surface of a coil.400 Coil load = 1. it follows that if all the air passing over the coil contacted the surface (CF = I). entering and leaving conditions. However.5 x 6730(38. Solution Using Equation 7. hr The cooling coil load (i.6 . This would be expected because there is a spacing between tubes.31. and is therefore not cooled. Of course it is not possible for a coil to have a CF = I. only part of the air actually contacts the sur- .) From the definition.29 shows this process. latent. From this definition.PSYCHROMETRICS 191 Example 7. This air would be saturated when the EST is below the air dew point. The CF and BF factors can be mea!..32 the outside air load includes only removing the heat necessary to bring the outside air to room conditions-the excess heat in the outside air.147. which need not be discussed here. because moisture is being removed.400 BTU/hr. it follows that CF+BF= 1 The next section will explain the use of the contact factor and bypass factor. and CFM. and number and arrangement of rows. Therefore.30.32 Calculate the outside air load for Example 7. Once this is known. The Bypass Factor (BF) is defined as the proportion of air that does not touch the surface (bypass air). we can think of an average coil surface temperature that will be called the effective swface temperature (EST).000 BTUlhr RLCL = 150. Determine the cooling coil load and compare the result with that found previously. 7. This can be considered as the temperature to which the air that contacts the surface is cooled. a greater understanding of how a coil performs can be achieved from some further concepts that will now be explained.18 THE EFFECTIVE SURFACE TEMPERATURE The temperature of the outside surface of a cooling coil is not the same at all places along the coil tubing. This data will enable the system designer to select the proper coil from the manufacturer's tables. or RSCL = 740. face and is cooled. These ideas are useful in troubleshooting as well as in selecting new equipment. The Contact Factor (CF) is defined as the proportion of air passing through the coil that touches the cooling surface (contact air) and is thus cooled. and total loads. The bypass air is untreated-it leaves the coil at the same conditions as it entered. It will vary due to a number of factors. the air leaving the coil can never be saturated. It can be assumed that only the air that contacts the cooling surface (contact air) is cooled and dehumidified. which checks with the previous results. because some air through the unit must bypass the surface. The amount of air that bypasses the surface depends on tube size and spacing.5 x CFMOA (hI .e. Figure 7. air face velocity.1) =257400 BTU .hs ) = 4. The psychrometric analysis explained previously provides information on the coil requirements-the coil sensible. Note in Example 7.000 QrCOA) = 257. (It is also called the apparatus dew point. we can predict the performance of the coil. However. the total load on the coil) must be the heat necessary to remove the outside air plus the room loads.ured for a coil at each face velocity. based on the following fact: 7.16 and the psychrometric chart to find the total outside air load (we could also use the sensible and latent heat equations).

F EST = effective surface temperature of coil. DBI-EST where DB I = dry bulb temperature of air entering the cooling coil.29 Coil process line for a cooling coil with CF = 1.83 85-50 Therefore the bypass factor is BF= I-CF= \-0. F The following example illustrates the use of the contact factor and effective surface temperature concepts.30. Figure 7. Solution I. 3. the contact factor is equal to the following temperature difference ratio CF= ~ DBI -DB2 a . EST = 50 F. and bypass factor (BF) for a cooling coil that is to cool air from 85 F DB and 69 F WB to 56 F DB and 54 F WB. As seen in Figure 7. . The contact factor is calculated from Equation 7. After finding the required values of these terms by the procedures just shown. Note from the psychrometric chart that a steep coil process line may not intersect the saturation .30 that the coil effective surface temperature is the intersection of the coil process line with the psychrometric chart saturation line. 2.DB2 DB.-----"""1 air Leaving air (saturated) DB : Coil process li~e .3\) from point I (entering air) to point 2 (leaving air).24) Example 7. Coil selection will be discussed in Chapter 12. Figure 7. B F.-EST "(:: a EST ~~~~ring b . F DB2 = dry bulb temperature of air leaving the cooling coil. contact factor (CF).17 Cooling coil selection tables showing CF.192 CHAPTER 7 CF = b/a = DB. . and EST values for each coil are used by some manufacturers. (7.30 illustrates this.33 Find the required effective surface temperature (EST). The contact factor is CF=b/a. The cooling coil process line is drawn on the psychrometric chart (Figure 7. The CF for a coil is the ratio of the length of the coil process line to the total length of that line extended to the effective surface temperature along the saturation line. I Leaving air I I I 2 DB Figure 7.30 Determining CF for a cooling coil. Note from both Figures 7. the proper coil can be selected from the tables.29 and 7. The process line is extended to the saturation line to obtain the effective surface temperature. 85-56 =0.83=0.24. The contact factor can also be determined graphically on the psychrometric chart by using the temperatures of the air entering and leaving the cooling coil and the effective surface temperature.

we note that the supply air temperature was not on the RSHR line. The most common conditions that may cause this problem are: 1. on the RSHR line.34.. This means that this required coil process cannot be achieved by any actual coil. 62 F DB line at all.'.32 Sketch for Example 7.) Figure 7.32. The desired cooling coil process line is l-3-A. We will discuss ways of resolving this problem shortly. The room latent cooling load (RLCL) is a high proportion of the room total cooling load (RTCL). (The service engineer would have to check further to see if the refrigeration equipment would allow the lower refrigerant temperature and. Lowering the coil refrigerant temperature results in a new coil process line l-B and new EST B that might result in a satisfactory supply air condition 2'.. The required supply air condition is point 3. greater load..31 Sketch for Example 7. or a large proportion is_ outside air.. The coil entering conditions could be measured and the coil process line drawn.:::::::'--f--RR process line RSHR line 56 DB 85 Figure 7.33. and furthermore. Note this results in a steep RSHR line on the psychrometric chart. and that the air leaving the coil is far from being saturated. Sometimes reheat is used because it is difficult to achieve the desired design supply air conditions by a one-step cooling coil process.. Figure 7. Example 7.19 REHEAT The term reheat refers to the process where.33 shows the air handling unit arrangement using a reheat coil. where the space humidity was too high? Solution Referring to the psychrometric chart in that example.34 What might be a solution to the problem that was shown to exist in Example 7.29. Commercial cooling 7. it is par- . after the warm air is cooled by the cooling coil.33 illustrates the psychrometrics of the situation. tially reheated before being supplied to the airconditioned space. passing through the required supply air condition. Assume the coil process line 1-2-A is as shown in Figure 7. Note that this coil process line does not intersect the saturation line. The reheat process may be accomplished with a reheat coil or by using return air or mixed air. 2. and if the coil CF was satisfactory. Figure 7. this air is at a high humidity level. The air entering the cooling coil is either all outside air.PSYCHROMETRICS 193 EST~50F~ ---2 t Coil process line ESTB 2ESTAJ __ 2' Old coil process line t 1 ~Newcoil ~ J. This indicates that the ESTA is too high.

It is approximately safe to say that the air leaving a cooling coil will not have an RH of less than about 85-90% under typical conditions. It can be further seen from Figure 7. First. / / / ~RA R ~ / -OA /. In smaller commercial equipment. Fortunately. Now. possible frosting on the air side of the coil. and then there is a heating load 2-3.33 that even though the line 1-3-A does not have a real effective surface temperature. followed by a reheat coil whose process line is 2-3. part load capacity is sometimes accomplished by using . such as a dance club.33. because of their heat transfer characteristics. the air conditioning equipment must supply less cooling capacity. we will see that reheat is sometimes used when the air conditioning system is operating at part load. however. and perhaps freeze-up if a chilled water coil is used. applications where reheat may be required at full load design conditions do not occur often. / / « ::. An example is when the latent heat gain is a very high proportion of the total. Is some cases. the excess use of energy is even more objectionable since there are many other less wasteful ways of providing part load capacity.33 Reheat coil used to provide satisfactory supply air condition. a change in the indoor design conditions might avoid the need for reheat. . A solution to the dilemma is to provide an actual cooling coil whose process line is 1-2. C C / R H C --- SA coil line DB Figure 7. The decreased cooling capacity can be achieved by partially reheating the cold air off tbe coil to the new required supply air temperature. which are two-fold.194 CHAPTER 7 Desired cooling process line Real cooling coil process line .20 PART LOAD OPERATION AND CONTROL When the cooling load is lower than the design value.. the closest line we could draw to it that does intersect the saturation line might have a very low EST. A reheat coil can also be used for this purpose. The objections to this solution are the increased capital cost of the reheat coil and especially the increased energy costs. In the next section. The coil has an EST B = 49 F. 7. be checked graphically on the psychrometric chart. This is called part load operation. so that a feasible cooling coil can be selected. otherwise the space will be overcooled. This should . The psychrometric processes are the same as shown previously in Figure 7. . coils will not process air in this manner. Of course the conditions must remain in the comfort zone. note that the cooling load is increased (1-2 instead ofl-3). This would require increased refrigeration power costs.

for a draw-through type air handling unit (the fan is downstream from the coil). Heat gains that raise the air temperature one or more degrees F should usually be included in the analysis. the cooling coil load is greater and the psychrometric analysis should include this.wrightsoft. We will find then that there are less energy-wasteful methods of operating at part loads than by using reheat. A further discussion of the psychrometrics of the air conditioning processes involved in part load operation is best deferred to Chapter 12. If these heat gains are a small proportion of the total. 7.34.21 FAN HEAT GAINS The heat gains from the supply and return air fans have not been included in the psychrometric analysis we have explained. Therefore. 1.com www. because the reheating air is adding humidity.carmelsoft. Part load capacity can also be achieved by reducing the volume flow rate of air to the space. The greater the fan pressure. the space humidity may rise at part loads. rather than increasing the supply air temperature.34 Effect of draw-through supply air fan heat gain. The psychrometric processes with the supply air fan heat gains included are shown in Figure 7. Note that the supply air condition. Procedures for calculating this effect have been explained in Chapter 6. The system design project in Chapter 17 will provide an opportunity for seeing some of these effects. so comfortable conditions are maintained. Often the space humidity increase is small. their effect can be neglected. Useful Websites Psychrometric charts and analysis can be found at the following Websites: www. the fan heat gain is imposed on the coil load but does not increase the supply air temperature.com Figure 7. There is no precise rule for determining when they should be considered.elitesoft.PSYCHROMETRICS 195 bypassed return air or mixed air for reheating. is at a higher DB than the condition leaving the cooling coil. when there is a more in-depth coverage of the equipment involved. however. If supply or return duct heat gains are significant. 7. the greater the heat gain. In these cases. Therefore. these will also affect the process line locations on the psychrometric chart. for small systems with short duct runs the effect can often be neglected.com www. 4 Mixing line Room 2 7 t 1 Supply air fan heat DB . however. It is best to calcu- late the gain in each case and then decide if it is significant. If the air handling unit has a blow-through fan arrangement.

Conditioned air is supplied at 56 F DB and 54 F WE. and total load on the coil and the OPH of moisture removed.3 7.5 F WB.8 7. RLCL.6 7.000 BTUlhr and a RLCL =3 I .9 . and RH of the air leaving the heater. Determine the mixed air DB. tt'llb d. and humidity ratio.7 7.a. The outside air conditions are 95 F DB and 74 F WB. RTCL. Draw the process line on the psychrometric chart.11 Air enters a cooling coil at 80 F DB and 66 F WB and leaves at 60 F DB and 57 F WE. Determine the supply air DB and WB. A space to be maintained at 75 F DB and 50% RH has a RSCL = 112. space design conditions = 77 F DB. An air conditioning unit supplies 900 CFM of air to the room at 58 F DB and 56 F WB. Will the unit maintain the room design DB and WB? What are the approximate conditions maintained in the room? 7. solve Problem 7. What is the supply air WE? 7. Find the DP. 7. The effective coil surface temperature is 55 F. A cold water pipe with a surface temperature of 52 F passes through a room that is at 75 F DB.a. Detennine the required supply air flow rate in CFM. 7. enthalpy. The room design conditions are 77 F DB and 50% RH. latent. Illinois: RSCL = 812.F RH. Determine the RSHR. ventilation air = 6000 CFM. Draw the process line on the psychrometric chart and find graphically the sensible.5 7. An air handling unit mixes 1000 CFM of outside air at 92 F DB and 75 F WB with 4000 CFM of return air at 78 F DB and 45% RH.000 BTUIhr.13 An air conditioning unit is supplying 4000 CFM of air at 55 F DB and 53 FWB to a room maintained at 75 F DB and 55% RH. A cooling coil cools 5000 CFM of air from 80 F DB and 70% RH to 58 F DB and 56.000 BTUlhr and RLCL = 8000 BTUlhr. 7. Air at 40 F DB and 60% RH is heated by an electric heater to 80 F.0000 BTUlhr. Determine the DB and WB of the air leaving the coil. outside air load.10 A room has a RSCL = 20.14 A room has design conditions of78 F DB and 50% RH and a RSCL = 18. Determine the wasted energy consumed if a reheat coil is used to maintain design conditions. and total heat removed per pound of dry air. At what RH in the room will moisture condense on the pipe? Air initially at 90 F DB and 70 FWB is cooled and dehumidified to 56 F DB and 54 F WB. Design the air system: :~ Problems 7.000 BTUlhr. BTUllbd. Using equations. supply air". Supply air is delivered at 58 F.16 The following results have been found from a cooling load calculation for a building in Chicago. 50% RH.a.% W. An air supply of 5000 CFM is provided.15 A space with a RSCL = 172. WB..196 CHAPTER 7 DB.91. 7. and effective surface temperature. Determine the coil CF. (a) (b) (e) (d) (e) 80 75 60 40 65 50 50 40 70 70 7. 59 F DB. WB. BF. and required coil CF.4 7.000 BTUIhr and a RLCL = 9000 BTUlhr. latent. I 7. A space has a RSCL = 83.000 BTUIhr is to be maintained at 76 F DB and 50% RH.4.F DP. 7.000 BTUlhr and a RLCL = 2 I .000BTUlhrand a RLCL = 88. Determine the following: RSCL. gr lib d. list the properties not shown.F WB. RLCL = 235. Determine the sensible.000 BTUlhr. Sketch the apparatus arrangement and show conditions at all locations.12 Air at 82 F DB and 67 F WB passes through a coil with a CF of 0. and 1000 CFM of ventilation air are furnished.2 Using the psychrometric chart for conditions (a) to (e).

in BTUlhr and tons.000 BTUlhr. Determine the coil sensible. enthalpy.21 On a hot September day.18. is mixed with return air before it enters the air conditioning unit.17 On a day when the barometric pressure is 14. Sketch the equipment and duct arrangement. Compare the result with that found using the psychrometric chart. find the specific enthalpy of air in Problem 7. Rate that water is removed from the air in Iblhr C. Cooling done by the unit in BTUlhr and tons D. wet bulb temperature. 7.68 psi. find the humidity ratio. find the wet bulb temperature. arid so on. It is known that 260 CFM of outside air is required for ventilation in this room.PSYCHROMETRICS 197 A. (Include ventilation cooling load. latent. Sketch apparatus arrangement B. 7. For the mixed air. C.000 CFM at 80 F DB and 60% RH entering an air conditioning unit. Sketch the equipment and duct arrangement.20 There is 20. Determine the required air flow rate into the room in CFM. 7. Dew point of the air leaving the air conditioning unit F. latent. showing known information. The room design conditions are 76 F DB and 50% RH. a room has a sensible cooling load of 20. For the above supply air. Supply air will enter the room at 58 F DB. Air leaving the unit is at 57 F DB and 90% RH. Determine the required coil CF and BF The latent cooling load for the room is 9000 BTUlhr. Calculate the room sensible heat ratio (RSHR).19 Using equations. relative humidity. B. Compare the results with those found from the psychrometric chart. 7. the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air is 0. The outdoor air. Determine the required size of the refrigeration equipment required to condition this room.000 BTUlhr and a room latent cooling load of 50. A. Determine supply air CFM and WB C. walls. G. or through a spill (exhaust) air opening. Using equations. Determine the A. . E. This means that the outdoor air flow rate is 1200 CFM. Sensible load on the unit in BTUlhr and tons D. Sketch all psychrometric processes and label all points 7. Determine the outside air sensible. enthalpy. when the barometric pressure is 14. It is mixed with return air from the room before it enters the air conditioning unit. B. The outside air is at 94 F DB and 76 F WB. Latent load on the unit in BTUlhr and tons E.300 BTUlhr from occupants. B. and specific \'olume of air at 70 F DB and 60 F DP. A. There is 1200 CFM of air vented through cracks and hoods in the space. and total load E. and moisture content in gr/lb and Ibllb entering the unit. lights. Effective surface temperature (apparatus dew point) 7.) F.7 psi.18 Using equations. determine the dry bulb temperature. windows. and total load F. and moisture content ingr/lb and Ib/lb. humidity ratio. Determine the savings in equipment capacity if the outside ventilation air requirement is reduced to 130 CFM. which is at the design conditions of 95 F DB and 76 F WB.22 An air-conditioned space has a room sensible cooling load of 200. It is maintained at 76 F DB and 64 F WB. Determine mixed air conditions D. Give the answer in BTUlhr and percent. find the relative humidity. showing known information.17 psia.

B.com solve Problems 7. Mixed air DB.7. E.198 CHAPTER 7 C. 7. What is the operating cost per hour of these heaters if power costs 10 cents per kilowatt hour? Computer Solution Problems Using the psychrometries software program from www. Find the required supply air flow rate in CFM for a supply air temperature of 60 F DB.23 A refrigeration chiller supplies chiIled water to an air conditioning unit. What is the load on the chiller due to the coil in the air conditioning unit? Give the answer in BTUlhr and tons.7. Supply air WB. Determine A.25. Determine the cooling load of the outside air in BTU/hr and tons.13. latent.21. Coil sensible. 7.4. F. enthalpy. Supply air WB. Calculate the total cooling load in BTUlhr 7.16. latent. D. WE. What is the coil CF and BF? 7. enthalpy.5 F DB with electric heaters. Assume the conditioned air is reheated to 58. Coil sensible. and 7. and moisture content· C.2-+.000 CFM of return air at 78 F DB and 50% RH. WB.7. and moisture content C. and total load and tons.7. enthalpy. and moisture content D. . and total load 7.16 is at 60 F. Conditioned air leaves the cooling coil in the air conditioning unit at 52 F DB and 90% RH.7. Mixed air DB. The required air flow rate in CFM B.carmelsoft. RH. and moisture content D.22.This outdoor air mixes with 20. The required air flow rate B.20.25 The supply air for Problem 6. What is the effective surface temperature (apparatus dew point)? G. A.12 is at 58 F DB. enthalpy. RH. Determine A.7. The unit takes in 3000 CFM of outdoor air at 95 F DB and 76 F WB.24 The supply air for Problem 6.

Find velocity from total and static pressure. and air in air conditioning systems. Determine pipe and duct sizes. in Figure 8. That is. If there is steady flow. the density of the air or water flowing generally does not change significantly. ask. the same quantity oOfliid is passing through every section ar a given moment. there must also be 10 GPM flowing past section 2. Steady flow is a special case of a general principle called either the conservation of mass principle . 8~1 THE CONTINUITY EQUATION The flow of water through piping and air through ducts in HVAC systems is usually under conditions called steady flow. When the density remains constant.c H A p T E R Fluid Flow in Piping and Ducts I n planning or servicing an HVAC system. Similarly. say 4 GPM. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Steady flow means that the flow rate of fluid at any point in a section of pipe or duct is equal to that at any other point in the same pipe or duct. what happened to the remaining 6 GPM that left section t? It cannot disappear or be lost (unless there is a hole in the pipe!). you will be able to: 1. regardless of the pipe or duct's shape or 199 cross section. 2. For example. the flow is called incompressible. suppose the flo\\' rate of water past section 1 were 10 GPM (gallons per minute).1. To see this more clearly. 3. Use the energy equation to find pump and fan pressures. 4. In HVAC systems. there cannot be more flow at section 2 than at section 1 because there was only 10 GPM available initially. These and related problems can be solved by an application of some principles of fluid flo\\' which apply to the flow of wate. if less than 10 GPM were flowing past section 2. Use the continuity equation to find flow rate. it is often necessary to determine pump and fan pressure requirements and piping or duct pressure losses.

1.) The continuity equation can also be expressed using mass flow rate (MFR) rather than VFR. From Equation 2. Then.) Example 8. The duct . MFR = constant =dxVFR=dxA I =dxA 2 x V2 X VI (8.1 illustrates Equation 8.1 The continuity equation for steady flow of air through a duct or water through a pipe. ~ A2 X V2 ~ constant Figure 8. with constant density (d). Example 8. For incompressible steady flow.1a) V" V2 = velocity of fluid at any points I and 2 (Figure 8. The velocity (speed). regardless of any change in pipe or duct size. X V.3 illustrate uses of the continuityequation. however. the continuity equation is VFR = constant =AI where VFR = volume flow rate of fluid A I. Do not confuse flow rate with velocity. Since VFR = constant =A I VI =A 2 V2 Solving for VI (or V2 ). If the pipe or duct size increases. the velocity changes inversely with the cross-sectional area. With steady flow.200 CHAPTER 8 2 VFR_).2. This engineer measures a water velocity of lO ftlsec. will inevitably change with pipe or duct size.lb) where MFR = mass flow rate d = density of fluid Most flows in HVAC work are incompressible steady flow. This is shown in Figure 8.3) duct at a rate of 1200 CFM (ft 3 /min).la. What is the water flow rate through the pipe in GPM (gaVmin)? Solution Using Equation 8.2 Air is flowing through a I ft x 2 ft (Figure 8. the velocity decreases.1 c) That is.-+- VFR Example 8. (8.lb can be used. The continuity principle can be expressed as an equation. the velocity increases.- 7.2 and 8. which is called the continuity equation.la and 8. (8. (Analysis of this situation is beyond the scope of this book. Examples 8. the flow rate of the fluid (quantity flowing) does not change. Occasionally unsteady flow exists. VFR =AI X VI = 2 ft2 X 10 ftlsec = 20 ft 3 /sec Converting from ft 3 /sec to GPM or the continuity principle. so Equations 8. at any given condition.48 gal I ft3 = 8980GPM Area and Velocity Change The continuity equation may be used to demonstrate how velocity is affected by changes in the pipe or duct size. A2 = cross-sectional area of pipe or duct at any points I and 2 X ft3 60 sec x VFR = 20 sec I min X ----'0.1 illustrates uses of the continuity equation. The cross-sectional area of pipe is 2 ft2. mass equals density times volume. if the size decreases.1 a) VI =A 2 X V2 (8.la.1 A service engineer wishes to check if the proper flow rate is circulating in the chilled water piping on a job. VFR ~ A.

g. it may be stated as follows: between any two points 1 and 2 (Figure 8.5 ft = 2400 ftlmin Example 8. There may be other energy changes (e. The HVAC contractor wants to reduce the velocity to 1300 ftlmin.5 ft X 1 ft. The energy added may be that of a pump or fan.2. .4).1. 2 A 2 = .. solving for A 2 . V velocity increases 2 =~ V A2 x I Figure 8. pressure. decreases size to 0. but they are usually small and may be neglected. 8.x48 In.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Air is flowing in a duct of 48 in? cross-sectional area at a velocity of 2400 ftlmin. The energy lost is due to friction.A2 I Area decreases.2 X 600 ftlmin - A2 0... or where E" E2 = energy stored in fluid at points 1 and 2 Eadd = energy added to fluid between points and 2 1 Figure 8.. VI = Ae X V 2.2 Change of velocity with change in cross-sectional area of duct or pipe. X 8 in. velocity (kinetic energy).S' )-1200CFM l' A2 = 0.~ x V velocity decreases 2 . VFR ----.1a to find V" VI = .2 THE FLOW ENERGY EQUATION When the energy balance principle (Section 2. a temperature change).3 Sketch for Example 8.= Al A duct that has this cross-sectional area would be substituted (say II in. 2 Solution Using Equation 8. V . and elevation (potential energy). = tlmm 2ft X 3 As the flow rate is constant. This high velocity results in a disturbing noise.20--- 1200 ft /min 600 f .). A I Solving for V2 .xA I = . =88 V2 l300 In.11) is applied to flow in a pipe or duct. What size duct should be substituted? Solution Using Equation 8.5ft 2 The energy of the fluid at any point consists of . .=2ft2 19 O.. What is the air velocity in the second section of duct? VI 2400 . E lo >( = energy lost from fluid between points 1 and 2 1200CFM'2'( A.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 20[ Area increases. Al 2 ft 2 Vo = X VI = .

fUsec g V2 = velocity pressure. The water enters the pump a~ a gage pressure of 10ft and is delivered at atmospheric pressure (all values are gage pressure). (V2 2 .Hs') + "':""'=---"'-'2g + (He2 .2a) -=----'... ft H" = pressure added by pump or fan.H.2b. ft Equation 8.202 CHAPTER 8 Figure 8. ft Expressed in the form of Equation 8.= change in velocity pressure.2a can be arranged in a useful form by solving for the term H" and grouping other terms as follows. and fittings is 12ft w..5 is to deli\"er water from the basement to the roof storage tank. 180 ft above. Example 8.2b) Solution Using Equation S. It is used often to determine the pressure requirements of pumps and fans and in testing and balancing systems. as in Figure 8.He') + Hf . H" = (Hs2 .V.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The piping system shown in Figure 8.v2 . the energy equation is used to find the required pump or fan pressure for a system.. If the energy balance is expressed as an equation using units of head pressure (ft of fluid). it becomes where H" = pump or fan pressure. = static pressure of fluid (pressure at rest). ft = pressure lost in piping or duct from friction.2 I I I V?2 + = change in static pressure. What is the required pump pressure? 2g He = elevation.(vl.4 The flow energy equation applied to flow in a duct or pipe.He' Hf V2 2 .) + 2g + (He2 .. + Eadd= E2 I H" + - I V. in the Abraham Lincoln Apartments. 2g +He' + HI' =H"2+---+ .Hell + Hf (S.4. The velocity at the pump suction is 2 ftlsec and at the piping exit is.2) . The friction loss in the piping.-z .2 ft/sec 2 V = velocity.H" E. Equation S.V12) H" = (R. 32. IO ftlsec.2b. 20 He2 +Hf . ft Hs2 . ft = gravitational constant. = change in pressure due to elevation change. ft where H. ft Hf =pressure lost in piping or duct from friction. valves. ft 2g He2 . ft E10s t I (8.2a is called the fiowenergy equation or generalized Bernoulli equation.

Hel .Hel Vl2. Hsl -H" =0 Using Equation 8.2b.5 Sketch for Example 8.).6 Sketch for Example 8.3 PRESSURE LOSS IN CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS An open piping or duct system is one that is open to the atmosphere at some point.5+ 180+ 12 = 0 (no net change in elevation) =0 The additional pressure required because of the velocity pressure change in Example 8.2a.V l 2 2g 64. In a closed system. Hp=Hf =24 ft w.w. Hp=-IO+ 1. In some cases in piping systems. Air pressure values in ducts are usually measured in inches of water gage (in.. however.5 ft (change in velocity pressure) Hed = 180 ft (change in elevation) Hf = 12 ft (friction pressure loss) = 184 ft w.g.. 8. is sometimes significant.S The pressure loss due to friction in the hydronic system shown in Figure 8. Example 8. and going around the complete loop back to 1.5 shows that the pump head in a closed hydronic system is equal to the pressure loss due to friction around the complete circuit.2a or 8. Starting at the pump discharge. the term expressing the change in pressure due to elevation change (Hel . and therefore the change in He is 0 in .4 is an open syste\ll. and since all the above terms =0. A hydronic system is a closed system. = 2 ft/sec I Figure 8..FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 2 I 203 r------180' V2 = 10 ft/sec . Figure 8. there is no net change in elevation of the water around the whole circuit.V?) (10)2 . L ___ ~ V .g. When using the energy Equation 8. Example 8.6 is 24 ft w. .the flow energy equation. Note' that any elevation change is included in -determining the pump head.4 (He2 - = 1.5.(2)2 ExampleS. it is small enough to be neglected. and if so. cannot be neglected. What is the pump head required? Solution This is a closed system. A closed system is one where the water is recirculated continuously and there is no gap Or opening in the pipin. (Hs2 -Hsl )=0-1O = -10 ft (change in static pressure) (V22 . Air duct systems are almost always open systems. point 1. The velocity change term. A condenser-cooling tower water system is also open. however.4.4 was small.g.Hel ) is either zero (the duct layout is horizontal) or is usually small enough to be negligible.

33 fUsec Therefore VI 2 2g Figure 8. 64. ft of fluid .0. If the velocity pressure can be measured. If the static pressure at 1 is 1. its static pressure energy and its velocity pressure energy.4 for V: V=Y2gH v (8. as will be explained in the next sections.33)2 .(8.10 in w.2 ft air x Hs2 The duct shown in Figure 8.g.0. the velocity can be found by solving Equation 8.2 =li.43 in. The velocity pressure concept is useful in measuring velocities and flow rates in piping and ducts.23 + 0 = 0.4 Thus the total pressure energy that a fluid has at any point can be considered to consist of two parts. V2 2 . but there was a partial increase in pressure because of the velocity decrease (0.g.3) Finding VI and V2 from Equation 8... it was found that the pressure decreased from point 1 to 2 because of the pressure loss due to friction. 1 in. ftlsec g = gravitational constant. w. = 1.4 TOTAL.60 sec = 33. STATIC.4) =8. The friction loss from point 1 to 2 is 0.6. 16. = total pressure Hs = static pressure H. 8000 ft 3/min where = 2000 fUmin x .6. w..H e2 ) = 0 (because there is no fan between 1 and 2) Hel . w.d +H +\ vl\ ) 8. 69. The velocity pressure is defined as = 500 fUmin x .7 has 8000 CFM flowing through it.23 in.5) where 8000 CFM A2 = 16 ft2 V = velocity.43 + 0. w.33 fUsec 1 min H. fUsec 2 Hv = velocity head. This occurrence is of importauce in airflo\\' in ducts.6 ft air 0.2 ft air (33.23 in.7 Sketch for Example 8. what is the static pressure at 2? Solution Writing Equation 8.He2 =0 (insignificant elevation change) iV122g The static pressure is therefore f H..90 in.10 + 0 . Hs2 Hp = Hsi + Hp - Hf + ( V 1 2 ~V 2 2 ) + (Hel .6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Converting units to in.2a to solve for H s2 . w.60 sec I min V2 H =v 2g (8. In Example 8.> = velocity pressure The static pressure is the pressure the fluid has at rest.).1. w.204 CHAPTER 8 Example 8. AND VELOCITY PRESSURE The total pressure (HI) of a flowing fluid is defined as (8.33)2 ._-'-_-'----'_ = 16.

64. Many testing and balancing instruments for measuring flow utilize the relationships among total. Hv = (4:00)" V =4000VH.5.2 ft/sec 2 x 1. as the unit of pressure and velocity in ft/min.100CFM Figure 8..7. static.Hs = 66.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 205 Example S. and velocity pressure.6) (8. A number of readings are usually taken across the duct to get an average velocity. What is the velocity in the line? Solution Using Equations 8. Figure 8.x 16 in.8 shows an example. in the condenser water pipe line from a refrigeration machine. in. Hv = H t . The probe that is inserted in the duct has two concentric tubes. By connecting the two manometers as shown in Figure 8. a manometer reads total pressure because in addition to being exposed to the static pressure. the difference between total and static pressure-the velocity pressure-is read directly. V = V2gHv = \12 x 32.7) ExampleS. and velocity pressure.11 ft" and the flow rate from Equation S.8 Manometer arrangement to read static.3 and 8.S A contractor wishes to check the air flow rate in a 28 in.8 = 1.5 ft w. the air velocity is V =4000VD.9) is another air flow measuring device that works in the same manner.8(a). x 1 ft" 0 144 in.I is VFR =A x V = 3. respectively.7 ft w. w. and therefore receives the velocity pressure energy as well. using in. the impact tube at the end of the manometer faces the The duct cross-sectional area is A=28in. a manometer is connected to the duct to read static pressure.8(b). In Figure 8. The contractor takes a set of readings with a pitot tube. duct.- 3.11 ft2 x 3580 ft/min = 11.8 = 3580 ft/min where V = air velocity.8 ft w. x 16 in. -±Air f l o w _ (a) Static pressure (b) Total pressure (e) Velocity pressure .5 ft/sec When measuring airflow. ft/min H v = velocity pressure. total. w.5 . so the velocity pressure is read directly.7 ft = 10. averaging 0. The pitot tube (Figure 8.8 in.8(c).5. The opening facing the airstream measures the total pressure and the concentric holes are exposed to static pressure. In Figure 8.: (8. if the appropriate conversion units are substituted in Equations 8.7 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The total pressure and static pressure are measured as 66. w. and 64. What is the air flow rate in the duct? Solution From Equation 8.4 and 8. they become oncoming airstream.

we feel the pressure that is a result of reducing the velocity energy and converting it to pressure. V. thereby keeping friction losses low. (8.10.206 CHAPTER 8 Airflow.13 in.7 to 0. It is a phenomenon that we have all experienced. called sraric regain. If we hold a hand in front of the stream of water from a hose. Solution Using Equation 8.4000 If we now apply the flow energy Equation 8.7.5 CONVERSION OF VELOCITY PRESSURE TO STATIC PRESSURE (STATIC REGAIN) One of the remarkable things that can occur in flow in a duct or pipe is that the static pressure can increase in the direction of flow if the velocity decreases. called the recoven' factor R. Consider the diverging air duct section in Figure 8. Velocity energy has been converted to pressure energy. assuming there is no friction loss Hf and the change in elevation is negligible.6. This effect is called static pressure regain.10 Sketch for Equation B.9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _~---_ Find the increase in static pressure (regain) from point I to 2 in the duct system shown in Figure 8. Pitot tube Hs1 V2 Hs2 Figure 8. depends on the shape of the transition that changes velocity.2a.9 Pilot tube used for measuring velocity pressure.8 shows that ifrhe velocity decreases in the direction of jfOlt' (because the pipe or duct size has increased) tizen the staric pressure increases.8) Equation 8.8. The actual static pressure regain (SPR) is therefore SPR-R Figure 8.9 with R = 0. then =0. Because there is always some friction loss. Using Equation 8. Example 8. This is caused by a conyersion of velocity energy to static energy. the actual static pressure regain is never as high as that shown in Equation 8.7[(:~~~r -(:oo~on =0. 8.9 can be achieved with reasonably gradual transitions. Hs2 -Hsi VI)2 (V2)2 vl -H v2 = (4000 . . The proportion of static regain that can be recowred. if the recovery factor is 0. the difference in velocity between points 1 and 2 is H V ]2 [V? ]2) ([4000 4000 _1__ -_ (8.11. w.B.7.9) Recovery factors of 0.

This means that by using and maintaining smooth surfaces. (b) Converging transition-velocity increases. Lower velocities and larger diameters reduce H( and therefore result in lower energy consumption. The opposite event to a static pressure regain. Rougher surfaces will cause increased frictional resistance. = 1800 Itlmin V2 = 600 It/min 2g (8. static pressure decreases. Hf = pressure loss (drop) from friction in straight pipe or duct f = a friction factor L = length of pipe or duct D = diameter of pipe or duct V = velocity of fluid The friction factor f depends on the roughness of the pipe or duct wall.10. This effect occurs in a nozzle. charts that are much easier to use and show the same information have been developed for water flow and air flow.6 PRESSURE LOSS FROM FRICTION IN PIPING AND DUCTS We have seen from the flow energy equation that one of the effects the pump or fan must overcome is the pressure loss due to friction. will occur in a converging transition.11 Sketch lor Example 8. static pressure increases. The other terms in the equation also indicate useful information. (a) Diverging transition-velocity decreases. we have assumed values of friction pressure loss. Friction is a resistance to flow resulting from fluid viscosity and from the walls of the pipe or duct.9. Actually we must be able to calculate it. Although Hf could be calculated each time from Equation 8. where the velocity increases. the pressure loss or drop due to friction can be found from the following equation (called the Darcy-Weisbach relation): L V2 Hf=fD V. resulting in a decrease in static pressure (Figure 8. called turbulent flow. although the pipe or duct cost then increases.12).FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 207 2 For the type of flow usually existing in HVAC systems.12 Conversion between velocity pressure and static pressure. friction decreases and less energy is used. a conversion of static pressure to velocity pressure. Figure 8. 8. In previous examples.10) where Figure 8. 1 (a) (b) .

14 is suitable for open piping systems -that is. The solution is D = 2 in.16. Figure 8. The velocity at the intersection point is V fUsec./IOO ft at 30 GPM. At 40 GPM and D = 2 in. diameter is used.15 is suitable for both closed and open systems.13 (closed systems). Note that the chart lists friction loss per 100 ft of pipe.. at the point of intersection of a 40 GPM flow rate and D = 2 in.14 are suitable for water at 60 F flowing in steel Schedule 40 pipe. therefore Hf = 3. If a 2 in. is asked to check if the . Schedule 40.208 CHAPTER 8 8. and 8. the pressure loss due to friction is about 10% less than shown and should be corrected. This is generally true in a closed hydronic heating and cooling system that is reaSonably well maintained. The Schedule number refers to the pipe wall thickness. per 100 ft pipe.17.14 accounts for this. the pressure drop will be less than the maximum allowed. The solution is shown in Figure 8. Copper tube wall will usually not roughen significantly with age in open systems. Figures 8.9 Example S. This is a result of the change in viscosity and density with temperature./IOO ft Example S. a service troubleshooter.13 is suitable when the pipe wall is in a clean condition. The Type K. and 1!6 in. the pressure drop will be greater than 3 ft w.13 and 8.15 is suitable for water at 60 F flowing in copper tubing.12 A 3 in. which is then converted to the loss in the actual length of pipe. In such systems. resulting in a higher friction loss. For chilled water temperature ranges (40-50 F) and condensing water temperature ranges (80-100 F).15 will be used. The water piping system between a refrigeration condenser and cooling tower is an example of an open system.0 ft w.Il A copper tubing system is to be used to circulate 30 GPM of water at 60 F. therefore. Figure 8. I. the pipe wall is usually rougher than in closed systems. this is the correct solution. systems open to the atmosphere at some point. Pressure drop charts for other piping materials and liquids can be found in appropriate handbooks. The solution is indicated in Figure 8. and M lines on the chart refer to different tube wall thicknesses. What is the smallest size tubing that can be used? Solution Figure 8. Example S. Figure 8.. If a 1!6 in. For hot water systems with temperatures in the vicinity of 200 F. The intersection point of 30 GPM and 3 ft w.14. Note that the actual rather than the allowed pressure drop should be recorded. L. so this is unacceptable. diameter. Hf = 2. Figure 8.0 ft w.2 ft w. Schedule 40 steel piping through which 40 GPM of water at 60 F is flowing in a closed system? Solution The information can be found from Figure 8. Schedule 40 pipe is widely used for water under pressnre in HVAC installations (see Chapter 9)./100 ft pipe lies between a 2 in. = 3. is supposed to circulate 200 GPM in a chilled water system.2 ft w. The following example will illustrate use of the friction loss charts.7 FRICTION LOSS FROM WATER FLOW IN PIPES The pressure loss or drop caused by friction with water flow in straight pipe has been put in a convenient chart format for commonly used materials and conditions.13. Figures 8. Three of such charts are presented in this book. Hfper 100 ft = 3. Fixit.15 may be used without correction. 100ft x 500 ft = 16.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in 500 ft of 2 in.. Type K or L copper tubing is widely used for water under pressure in HVAC installations. diameter is used. The system is to be designed to have a friction pressure drop no greater than 3 ft w. Figure 8. steel pipe. 8.

I . V V ).).'\ .1--' 5 6 20 25 30 40 60 4 80 100 FRICTION LOSS (FEET OF WATER PER 100 FTl Figure 8.>..5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 80 100 1\ ~ \ 10000 \ 1\ ).13 Friction loss for water in Schedule 40 steel pipe-closed system. \ " '?-~ \. \ \'} P\ ~'k ./ /' V\ ". ~ ./ y 8 10 ) 15 .0 V '" 0 ~ .'0" X ~ . 6 5 4 V V VVK \ V ~ /' 1... ~ s~ 1./ V ./ / . ~'/ . / 1\ ./ X 10DO / / V \. V \ .."KfA'./ / 1/\ / 1\ / \ V \ \ [\ \ \"..' V " V 30 20 15 ../ // / )( >I ~ \ \ i\ -.. ~ 1\ 1\ ~ ../ \ / VV ~ V 1\ /' 2.".. / "- K I(" V / \ f( \ \ / ./" ~ ./ \ / I' 'Y./' /"( \ ~ /\ f 800 / .4 /1"'" K . / Y V~" / ~ S- I ../ 1'\' V ~ \ 1\ V .\/' X \ \ / \v \ ~ ..' \~I " vl\ .' / ./ \./ ' \. V / V '<0 \ / . \ \./ \ '\ K \ V " i\ \./ \ I\. V \./\ . '" ./' . ~-'o'~ /' / k"'" V . V V' \ / / .~ ~'l. V / ''I.. 0../ \./ ~ " 15000 IDOOO 8000 8000 6000 5000 I\.-v \.../' V V .." \ ./ 20000 ..0 1\ . X ..I 20000 15000 15 20 25 3 4. V ~ V ~ .:> V .. Syracuse./\ / 1\ V i<'". / \ '0 ~ V / ).5.-P./ . \v-\ "/' i\ i.5 1./ 200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1.." ./ / K' V '\ 600 500 400 300 V V V I\.J \ .. 0 4000 3000 2000 1500 1000 V . /'\ 1\ / "PI \ \ \ i/ ~ l\.0 f->< J5. ".8 1. NY.' 'I-<t. .6 .V \ V / ".../ ~ / / / / .. ~ K: ./ \ S. . " .25. / \".. / ..~ P\ / 1\V X )(../ / / 1\ .. / 1\ \ . K /" \j. '" ~ ~ ~ Il<" .0 I5 2 2./ K V-'I >(\ '" V I\. \.5 1. ). .5 V ..\.. \ .5 3 V . \ / 800 600 500 400 300 :=.~ <' " ~" . (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation..5 6 8 1..V\ .2 ../ / ." / ) """ V 1\ .. 1 '{~ 6' _ ./ X / ~ .3 2 1\ >. V V / \ ./ V / \ 1/ / V 6000 5000 I).. 0 " .) . 10 8 / \"'«./ V 2 \ v' "" 1.. \ . \ \V 200 150 1\ V V \ \ / / V 100 80 60 50 40 / '\ / /\ .?-O 4000 3000 2000 1500 / V\ \ / P\ / V K IX' -./ V K / .

. 600 500 400 200 150 V ..\ l.: V' l>( 2000 1500 1000 rs .2 .......... ....- K ... . \ / )....6.....->I \ .... .. V 6000 5000 4000 3000 1\ \ . \ \ 1\ V \ . 1\ 50 40 30 .....-....... .: ~~ . ~ .5 2. /1\ / ....I V .....- r\...-. • I~ .......... ....-/' ............--"" 20 15 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 V L ......0 1............/\ ~ ~ ~ / ./ \ / / ~ ..15.... V"'\ \ ...\ V 1\ i V 1--"'\ ~ 1\ "..... ..6 .- \-< \ ...\ ~ . 1\ 7 6 5 .. \ ->c:. \ '\ ~ ..... vK 5 ) V . .8 1.. K . !-" ".. "" V 300 200 1\ ". "..- '\ / !-""....... 1\ / V V ~ ~ Ill: LI V \...--"" / .. (!) V ~ .....- 60 40 30 V p( \ \ \ \ .-.... ~ \ /'\ X..../ ...8 . Vo· V\ V X ....: 1/ ...... .- 2 1.... / .. !-" "........ !-" \...5 .-K l.. .....\V '\ .....5 2 \ \ \ V 6 8 10 \ V 1\ 15 \ .I . ~ 6(1-- V \.... V' \ .. V \ 1\ 40 20 25 ~O V 4 3 / .. (Courtesy: Carrier Corporation..5 ~ f\ 3 4 .. I( ".3. \ ....-' V . ........ . 1 .-"\ ~ g "- 100 80 60 50 V .....4 . ..4..... l)/ \ / ..... IV ...................\ 20 15 ) ............ V \ 10000 8000 ..... ............3 . !-"V ..../ • \ 1\ ..... :y \ . ..-'\ / \.../ 0/:\ \ .) . \ / \ .. 1\ K / \ / \ ..." \ V '2:" "'" ......5 ~ ....5.... \ ... . V i\ I...- I 500 I 000 800 800 600 500 400 300 ~ Q. v .. ..2 1.. 150 100 \...5 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 eo I 0 2 0000 1\ r\ \ \ \ \ f\ \ ...... ....--"" Dc ... \ i\ . .... \ V IV .........0 ~ V 1... 80 100 FRICTION LOSS (FEET OF WATER PER 100 FTl Figure 8...........\" f\ ..14 Friction loss for water in Schedule 40 steel pipe-open system.... ~ 80 . ...... I ' / ......V V ... """\ lX r\ ..1 >( / \ ....../ V""\ .'1 . 5000 4000 3000 ..... 1\....- l. V \ V ".. "\-. \ I)'!-" V V ~ It-' / t......... V .1\ 60 2 1.x . Syracuse..25...0 2.15 ...20000 15000 . 10 8 . .... \.... ~i'_ /i\ I.. . V / 1\ ...... NY..... .... ~ . ...'\ ..x / ........... \ K \ r\ V~ r\ \ 1\ 1\ ... I 5000 I0000 8000 6000 ... ~/ V / ......... V / \ 1\ .K .... "" .. ..-/ .. [k !-" / V / "... 2000 \ V \ ... K ~ ( • ...- ..

(Courtesy: Carrier Corporation. Syracuse.) .'~ ~f. NY.5 Figure 8. '" "~ 0 .J 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1. I 150 a.15 Friction loss for water in copper tUbing-open or closed system. ~~ FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 211 4000 3000 2000 1500 1000 800 600 500 400 300 200 150 100 80 .0.

17 Sketch for Example 8.0 Friction loss (feet of water per 100 tt) Figure 8. Is the system delivering the proper flow rate of water? How much is being circulated? Solution The actual pressure drop (equal to the friction loss) IS Example 8. 32 ft w. the second.. For 800 ft.13.5 ft w. there will be pressure losses from turbulence and change of direction through fittings and valves. Reading from Figure 8.5 ft w.9 x 5 = 4. copper tubing through which 50 GPM of water is flowing in a hydronic heating system? Solution From Figure 8. Hsi .) Note: For hot water systems. pipe. HJ1 00 f tplpe= x 100ft=4ftw. .10. at a friction loss of 4 ft w. flow rate is actually 200 GPM. 8.0 4. Best possible SOIU~ 30~----~--__~----~---7~ ~ ~ 40~----~--------~~ ~ u: 3: o u: 3: o Desired solution 3. 100ft x 800 ft = 36.13 What would be the friction pressure drop in 800 ft of 2 in.11. or perhaps a pump is not performing properly. These are called dynamic losses.212 CHAPTER 8 ~ Il. The first gage reads 40 ft w.15.16 Sketch for Example 8.8 PRESSURE LOSS IN PIPE FITTINGS In addition to the pressure loss in straight pipe. Perhaps a valve is throttled closed too much. 200 ft Hf = 4. far less than nQrmal. the actual flow rate is l30 GPM. the pressure drop is · 8 ft w.2 Friction loss (feet of water per 100 tt) 2. the pressure drop for cold water is HJ100 ft = 5 ft w. per 200 ft pipe or HJ100 ft = 0.Hs2 = Hf =40 - 32 correcting this for hot water = 8 ft w. the correction of 10% less pressure drop should be made. in a 3 in. Otherwise oversized equipment or wasteful energy losses will result.0 ft w. (Fixit now must look for the cause of the problem. Fixit puts two pressure gages on a horizontal run of the straight line. Figure 8. 200 ft apart.

5 3.5 110 22 40 . Example 8.0 134 28 50 13.0 26. the appropriate friction loss chart is used to find the actual pressure drop through the fitting.3 6.0 11.3 13 12 63 5 13 3.5 4. Using Figure 8.2 82 l7 30 8.0 5.4 0.0 14.0 4.0 7.44 80 22.9 22 9 4 8 2.3 2.2 ft w.8 43 .1 EQUIVALENT FEET OF PIPE FOR FITIINGS AND VALVES Nominal Pipe Size (inches) % % 0.1.2 4.0 8. = 11.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 213 These pressure losses are shown in Table 8.0 Gate valvlOl open 0.) of straight pipe that would have the same pressure drop as that fitting. The loss coefficient method will not be used for pipe fittings here.8 5.5 11.0 6 20 27 2 7 1 1% 1% 2 2. Solution From Table 8.4 6.0 1. 90 cast iron (C.~ 45° Elbow 0.6 13.7 1.8 12.7 1.3 2.0 22. A loss coefficient (called C.0 16.1. find the equivalent length of the fitting E. 11.5 36 15 7 14 3.5 2% 3 4 5 6.5 2.3 55 24 12 20 5.0 lOA 7. Hf = 5.0 8.7 Globe valve open l7 Angle valve 7 Tee-side flow 3 Swing check valve 6 Tee-straight through flow· 1.L.0 268 56 100 26.6 0 90 Elbow long 1. 100 ft x 11.9 PIPING SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP A common problem is to determine the pressure loss from friction in a closed system in order to determine the required pump head.0 ft=0.0 220 . The listings for a particular fitting of a given size show the equivalent length (E.9 2.6 Radiator angle valve 3 Diverting tee Flow check valve Air eliminator Boiler (typical) 5 1.6ftw. The system pressure drop is simply the sum of the losses through each item in one of the paths or circuits from pump discharge to pump suction.L.2 ft w.0 164 34 60 16.6 8 14 1.7 3.0 5.L.0 42 3 9 14 83 7 17 14 104 8 14 125 13 126 IS .13).0 ft 8.1. The pressure drop through the fitting is TABLE 8. 18 9 16 4.2 3.14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the pressure drop through a -+ in.2 2.8 67 14 25 6.0 6 8 10 13. Cw or K) for the fitting is determined from an appropriate table listing C-values. The pressure losses are expressed in this table in a way that is called the equivalent length. It will be used for duct fittings (see Section 8.0 16.3 1.0 27 12 5 10 2.6 1.3 10 11 60 4 11 2. including piping. H/100 ft = 5. from Table 8.13.3 2.0 9. After finding the E. 0 In addition to the equivalent length method of determining pressure drop through pipe fittings.L) standard elbow in a chilled water system though which 300 GPM of water is flowing.0 8.8 90 0 Elbow standard 1. there is another procedure called the loss coefficient method.5 4.

equipment). It will be helpful to draw a sketch of the piping system. regardless of path length. It would seem. the pressure losses through only one circuit are considered. To determine the system pressure loss.19. as well as indicating all flow rates. Table 8. Pressure drop from points A to D is always the same.19. an additional pressure drop in that circuit is created. valves. B. and pipe sizes in each section. Occasionally it is a shOlter circuit that has such an exceptionally large number offittings. Therefore. the pressure drop through the longer circuit ABD is the same as that through ACD. it is customary to select the longest circuit in a system to calculate the pressure drop and to assume that the valves in this circuit are full-open. the pressure loss through a partially open valve in an actual installation cannot be determined. What happens in most hydronic systems is that valves are used to "balance the system".1 and other measured results are valid only for fully open valves. This is because the pressure losses are the same through every circuit. It would seem. calculate the pressure drop through this circuit and only this circuit. to find the total system pressure drop in a multi circuited system.2.15 illustrate the procedure. however. Figure 8. therefore. determine the required pump head. and equipment. using our example above.18 illustrates this.15 For the steel piping systems shown in Figure 8. In circuit ACD. that it would not matter which circuit one chooses for actually calculating the system pressure drop. using the procedures we have explained. because each pressure gage has one fixed reading. Examine the piping layout to determine which of the parallel connected circuits has the longest total equivalent length. this is the circuit that has the longest straight pipe length. that in this case the pressure drop ABD would be greater than that through A CD. valves. lengths. The pressure drop from A to D is indicated by the difference in readings on the two pressure gages located at A and D. 2.18 For this reason. Figure 8. bearing in mind the following: A. Most piping systems are designed to have equal friction loss per foot of length. and equipment that makes this circuit the one with the longest total equivalent length (TEL). It usually does not work out that way. from this explanation. This certainly is not possible. Therefore. where the voltage loss through parallel electric circuits is the same. Usually.214 CHAPTER 8 fittings. the valve might be throttled considerably. Example 8. Having decided on the basis of this investigation which circuit has the greatest TEL. Information on pressure drops through equipmeut is obtained from the manufacturer. List all of the features related to the task in this table. ignoring all others. and Example 8. each valve is throttled to a position that results in the correct flow rate in that valve's circuit. This idea is quite similar to that in electric circuits. proceed as follows: 1. Prepare a table listing each section and item in that circuit (and only that circuit) chosen for the calculation. Figure 8. By throttling (partially closing) the valve. labeling each point (intersections. B A D c . Therefore. Pressure drops in Table 8.

+ 1 + .5 110 11 11 1 2 5.in..1 0 0 ' + 2 0 0 ' . GPM V FPS E.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 215 F L A I D . Such cases must be checked.19 Sketch for Example 8. the longest circuit.2/100 4.15. the required pump head rise F -A is equal to the pressure drop due to friction from A-F through the system. Solution From the energy equation.2 85.3 Pipe Tee 3!h 200 7.0 9 x 4. This is ABCCDEF.300 ' .2.8 = 25..8 4.1 Pump head = Total Hf . ft 800 4 300 7. ft No. Total 100 ft ft w.L.0 9 1 x '4.4 3V2 Tee 200 7.) Using Figure 8. (It is possible in unTABLE 8.15 Friction Loss Hf ft w.8 = 49.r 200' 21/2" D = 4" E 3" D 31/2" _t 1. only the circuit with the greatest pressure drop is chosen.13 and Table 8.2 usual cases that one of these two shorter paths may have a greater pressure drop if it has items with great resistance.2 5 110 22 11 948 100 9 109 600 67 13 7 687 100 9 109 x 5.1 Figure 8.5 6.1. the friction pressure loss for each item in circuitABCCDEF is found and summed up. Circuits ABEF and ACDF are ignored...71100 4.5 1 2 1 x 3.7 = 5.. ~ .1 '0----. of Items Total Length. Section EFAB EFAB EFAB EFAB B Subtotal BC C Subtotal Item Pipe Gate valve Globe valve 90° std ell Tee D.4" B C 21/2" l' Gate Pump Globe valve valve 300 GPM 200 GPM 70 GPM Globe valve :. This information is presented in an organized form in Table 8. But to find this.8/100 = = 5.2 CD C' CD D Subtotal DE E Subtotal Pipe Globe valve 90° std ell Tee 2Y2 70 4.8/100 3.8 67 6. Review PIPING PRESSURE DROP CALCULATONS FOR EXAMPLE 8.

llOO ft pipe.5 FPS. Determine the flow rate (GPi'vll through each unit. Be sure to record the actual friction loss rates in . select a pipe size for the supply main leaving the pump.5-3. Within these limits. blocking water flow.10 SYSTEM PIPE SIZING An important task in designing a hydronic piping system is to determine the appropriate size (diameter) of each section of pipe. C. the flow progressively decreases in each supply main section downstream from the pump. based on its flow rate. affected largely by expected system piping costs as well as the guidelines cited. except for preliminary studies. The most common procedure for doing this is called the equal friction method. The velocity in any pipe section should not be below about 1. A quick estimate method sometimes used for detennining the system pressure drop is to multiply the straight pipe friction loss (in the longest circuit) by 1. since some of the water branches off at each unit: in the return main. Often the friction loss rate chosen will result in a selection between two standard sizes. The simplest way to do this is to start from the last terminal unit supplied and progressively add the flow rates to each preceding section of the supply main. This problem is more common in small branch lines. The author does not recommend this rule of thumb. based on its flow rate. based on all of the following recommendations: A. as explained in Chapter 5. including each terminal unit.llOO ft are commonly used in most applications. The steps in this procedure are as follows: 1. change the friction loss rate used so that the velocity is in conformity with the standards. values in the higher end are usually used for larger systems. In this case. 8. 5. regardless of system size. Based on the friction loss guidelines. Note that a new friction loss rate results from the necessity of selecting a standard pipe size. use one of the two adjacent pipe sizes. 6. 3. and piping costs are very substantial in large projects. The friction loss rate should be between approximately I to 5 ft w. At lower velocities. Choose a value of friction loss rate to be used for the system piping. it may differ slightly from that originally designed.5 to allow for fittings and valves. Prepare a diagrammatic sketch of the piping system. If there is a violation. This is usually satisfactory. since excessive noise may result.5 ft w. This is why the procedure is called the equal friction method. The velocity in any pipe passing through occupied areas should not exceed 4 FPS. The velocity in the largest mains should not exceed 4-6 FPS in small systems. to see if you arrive at the same results. comparing it with the piping diagram and the pressure drop charts. or 8-10 FPS in large systems. The reverse procedure is used for the return main sections. Check the velocity limit guidelines before selecting the desired friction loss rate. These friction loss rates will again not be identical. as before. Values from 1. since this reduces pipe sizes. Continue selecting the size of each section of supply main pipe. the flow increases in each section. dirt or air may be trapped in the line. 4. usually that which is closest to the originally designed friction loss rate. 2. B. because the choice of anadjacent standard pipe size is always necessary. In a two-pipe system. The value of the new friction loss rate chosen is then used as a desired standard to select the pipe sizes for the rest of the system. Find the flow rate through each section of pipe. each with a friction loss rate as close as possible to the desired standard value. Judgment is needed here.216 CHAPTER 8 each entry carefully.

7. to maintain a friction loss reasonably close to the initial friction loss. Type L copper tubing is used... either a 2 \6 in. 4. By increasing the pressure drop in the branches.16 will illustrate pipe sizing Solution The stepwise procedure explained previously will be used to size the pipe. The pipe size selected for branches is 1 in. 3. B. Main AB has 40 GPM.. this unbalance can be improved somewhat... or 2 in. 1.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 217 each case./IOO ft. It is decided that the 2 in. size will result in the friction loss rate between 1-5 ft w. Note that the pipe size is decreased gradually as flow rate decreases. the branch piping in those circuits with short total lengths is sometimes deliberately undersized to reduce the tendency to excess flow in those circuits. starving the last units. 6.20 Sketch for Example 8... When using the selection charts. The branches to each terminal unit are a total of lOft long.3. This makes balancing of flow easier. The branch pipe size is sometimes chosen to equal the fitting connection size at the terminal unit... The tabulation of pipe sizes selected for each remaining section in the longest circuit is shown in Table 8.. 7../IOO ft. ABCDEFGHIJ is clearly the longest circuit. this can reduce installation costs. the circuit with the greatest total length is determined. Note that not every successive pipe section will change size.. Example procedures. 2.3 ft w. starting with the last as shown. C. 5. which in this case will have some circuits much shorter than others. but there are potential exceptions: A. 8.15. 8.. ____ J : 20GPMI 10 GPMI 100' I 60' I D ~I. within limits of available pipe sizes. until the flow rate change becomes great enough. Using Figure 8. you may find that the minimum velocity requirement determines the pipe size. The flow rate in each section is found by adding the flow rates from each unit..20. as described previously. In two-pipe direct return systems.16. Lengths of mains are shown on the sketch. The pressure drop in this circuit is then calculated.. The piping system shown is a direct return arrangement.JE .. Example 8..16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Select the pipe sizes for the chilled water piping system shown in Figure 8.. A check should be made that the velocities are not excessive. Branch piping mnout sizes to units may also be selected using the equal friction method. r .. Each terminal unit takes 10 GPM. rather than 1!4 in. The water flow will tend to short-circuit through ABIJ and other short loops. The friction loss is 3. When all the piping in the system has been sized... pipe size will be selected to minimize initial costs. Figure 8. The piping sketch is first drawn as in Figure 8. ~---------J 10GPM G ______________ 80' F~--.20.. ------------~I I 80' I 40' HI I I I t. 80' 30 GPM c 20 GPM : 60' 100' r .

This is still probably not enough to solve the problem completely.3 3.7 3.16 Section GPM O.20 in.15.0 " BRANCHES BI CH DG I I in order to accomplish this. It Friction. Hf = 0. w.0 3. FPS 1 .22: HJIOO ft = 0.21.0 4. Figure 8. 8. rectangular duct is delivering 7000 CFM of air.in. as seen in the sketch in Figure 8. Solution The solution is found from Figure 8.7 2. Example 8. diameter round galvanized duct 250 ft long has 100 CFM of air flowing through it.7 2. It can be used for the g~l1eral range of HVAC temperatures and for altitudes up to 2000 ft. ::: 3 AB BC CD DE FG GH HI IJ 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 10 10 10 2 2 IV. by 19 in.0 3.2 4.24.0 4. To find the friction loss in rectangular section ducts. 2 2 80 60 100 60 80 100 40 80 20 20 20 3.0 4.3 2.20 in. 100ft x 250 ft = 0. V= 1300FPM 8. The equivalent round duct is defined as the round duct that would have the same friction loss as a rectangular duct found in the chart. duct is D=26 in. This chart is suitable for clean galvanized steel round ducts with about 40 joints per 100 ft. Figure 8. the equivalent round diameter to a 30 in. and with air at standard conditions.218 CHAPTER 8 TABLES. and balancing valves would be required.21 can now be us~d to find the friction loss in the rectangular duct. . w. as seen in the sketch in Figure 8.50 in.7 2.0 7.2 3.7 3. What is the friction loss per 100 ft? Solution Referring first to Figure 8. This is left as a problem for the student.3 PIPE SIZING PROCEDURES FOR EXAMPLE S.~. a reverse return system would be a better choice of piping arrangements than the one shown. What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in the duct? HJIOO ft = 0. In reality. It w.0 7. 1\4 1\14 IV. L. w.17 _ _~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A 12 in. The pressure drop in the longest circuit can now be calculated by the same procedures as used in Example 8.3 4. Figure 8.17 in.7 2.l100 It V.11 FRICTION LOSS FROM AIR FLOW IN DUCTS Pressure loss from friction for air flow in straight round ducts is shown in charts in a manner similar to water flow in piping.3 7.21 shows this infornlation. This chart shows equivalent round duct sizes.5 2.18 A 30 in.5 3.23. . w.23 must first be used. as shown previously: Example 8. by 19 in.

3. per 100 It 2 3 4 6 8 10 Figure 8.8 1. w. 219 . in.03 ..04 .21 Friction loss for air flow in galvanized steel round ducts.4 .02 .1 .6.01 .0 Friction Loss.06 .2 .08.

220

CHAPTER 8

c

D=12in.
1000~--------~~~
LL

U

'D

"
CD

2

0 30

U

'w
Ol

'D

0 -.J

c

D = 26 in.

0.2

HI' in. w'/1 00 It duct

19 Short side of duct, in.

Figure 8.22
Sketch for Example 8.17.

Figure 8.24
Sketch for Example 8.18.

Figure 8.23
Equivalent round duct sizes.

8.12

ASPECT RATIO

c

5
4

'\

'"

1 ' \

' \

""-..

c-

."

"'","

_ v'\
3 I

3

4

~

'"
5

i'r--.I I , ' ' ' ' I I If..., "" 6 7 8 9 10 15 20

I""

,,~,J~': ~ ~l'-... ~

~

:---.....

At first consideration, it might seem that the equivalent round duct would have the same crosssectional area as a rectangular duct for the same friction loss. This is not quite true. A rectangular duct with the same friction loss will have a greater area than a round duct. This is because the rectangular shape, with a greater ratio of surface to cross section, causes more friction. This problem becomes worse as the aspect ratio increases. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the dimensions of the two adjacent sides of a rectangular duct. As a general rule, the aspect ratios of rectangular ducts should be as low as possible to keep friction losses reasonably low and thereby avoid excess energy consumption. A high. aspect ratio will also mean more sheet metal and therefore a more expensive system. Unfortunately, the height available for horizontal ducts is often limited by the clearance above hung ceilings, resulting in high aspect ratios.
Example 8.19 Ace Sheet Metal, a contractor, wants to install a duct handling 3000 CFM in a hung ceiling that has 12 in. of vertical clear space available for the duct.

",,~
25

30

Side of rectangular duct, in.

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS

221

The velocity in the duct is not to exceed 1600 FPM to avoid excessive noise. What size duct should Ace install?

H 1100 ft = 0.12 in. w. x 100 ft = 0.24 in. w. f 50 ft

From Figure 8.21, at this friction loss, Flow rate = 2400 CFM Of course this check is accurate only if the installation is similar to the one on which the friction charts are based, as described previously.

Solution Ace wants to keep the aspect ratio as low as possible to reduce friction loss and also to save money on sheet metal cost, so they will try to use as much of the 12 in. as possible. Let us say that Ace is going to put 1 in. of insulation on the duct; therefore, the maximum duct depth can be 10 in. From Figure 8.21, with 3000 CFM at 1600 FPM, a 19 in. round duct is found. From Figure 8.23, for a round duct of 19 in., the equivalent rectangular duct with one side 10 in. is 33 in. by 10 in. This is a reasonably good solution. because the as.. pect ratio is 3¥Io = 3.3. The frinion loss charts can be used for testing and troubleshooting as well as design and installation, as illustrated in Example 8.20.
Example 8.20 A 20 in. by 11 in. duct is Supposed to be handling 3000 CFM. The engineer from Top Testing Co. is assigned to check the performance. The engineer takes pressure readings on manometers 50 ft. apart in the duct and reads 1.75 in. w. and 1.63 in. w. Is the system handling the proper air flow? If not, what is the flow?

8.13 PRESSURE LOSS IN DUCT FITTINGS
In addition to the pressure loss in straight lengths of duct, there is a pressure loss when the air flo\\'s through duct fittings (elbows, tees, transitions). These pressure losses, called dynamic losses. are due to the turbulence and change in direction. They can be expressed in either of two ways. One is the equivalent lel1g1h method, exphlined :(! ScctlC'!1 :3.8. where it was used for pipe fittings. Another procedure is called the loss coefficient method. With this method, the pressure lc'ss through a duct (or pipe) fitting is expressed as follows:
Hf=CxH,.= Cx

(~)2 4000

(8.11 )

Solution From Figure 8.23, the equivalent round duct diameter to a 20 in. by 11 in. rectangular duct is 16 in. Using Figure 8.21, the friction loss for this duct at 3000CFM is
H/100 ft =0.37 in. w.

where

HI = total pressure loss through fitting, in. w.

C = a loss coefficient
Hv = velocity pressure at fitting, in. w.
V = velocity, ft/min Some values of C for various duct fittings are shown in Tables 8.4-8.8. Example 8.21 A 900 smooth radius elbow without vanes has the dimensions shown in Figure·8.25. It has 1500 CFM flowing through it. Find the pressure loss through the fitting.

and for 50 ft is

". 0 37
HI = - '- x50=0.19 in. w. 100
The friction loss is actually
Hf = 1.75 - 1.63 = 0.12 in. w.

and therefore the riu", is supplyin~ less than 3000 CFM. The actual conditions are

222

CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8.4

LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ELBOWS Use the velocity pressure (H") of the upstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x H"

A. Elbow, Smooth Radius (Die Stamped), Round

Coefficients for 90 Elbows' (See Note)

0

RID
! ! I \

1

0.5 0.71

0.75 0.33

1.0 0.22

C
.

1

I

1

1.5 0.15

2.0 0.13

I 2.5
I
0.12

~.~ ( ,'.....l:\
o

I

R

Note: For angles other than 90" multiply by the following factur:;:

e
K

180 0 0.45 0.60
lAO

-....::..

B. Elbow, Round, 3 to 5 pc - 90 0

Coefficient C

No.
of

RID
0.5

Pieces

0.75 0.46
0.50

1.0
0.33

1.5 0.24 0.27 0.34

2.0 0.19 0.24 0.33

5 4

-

0.37
0.42

I I(
c.

3

0.98

0.54

o

Elbow, Round, Mitered

Coefficient C

90°

1.2

D. Elbow, Rectangular, Mitered
Coefficient C

e
20° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90°

H/W

2.0 0.G7 0.15 0.31 0.49 0.73 . l.l
3.0

0.25 0.08 0.18
0.38

0.5 0.08 0.17 0.37 0.59 0.87
1.3

0.75 0.08 0.17 0.36 0.57 0.84

1.0 0.07 0.16
0.34

1.5 0.Q7 0.15 0.33 0.52 0.77 l.l

4.0 0.06 0.13
0.27

5.0 0.05
0.12

6.0 0.05
0.12

8.0
0.05

0.06 0.13 0.28 0.46 0.67 0.98

0.11
0.24

0.26 0041 0.61 0.89

0.25
0.39

0.60 0.89 1.3

0.55 0.81
1.2

0043

0.38
0.57
0.83

0.63
0.92

0.58 0.85

1.2

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS
TABLE 8.4 (Continued)

223

E. Elbow, Rectangular, Smooth Radius without Vanes
Coefficients for 90° elbows' (See Note) R!W 0.25
/

HIW

0.5 1.4 0.52 0.25 0.20 0.18

0.75

1.0 1.2 0.44 0.21 0.17 0.15

1.5
1.I

2.0 1.0 0.39

3.0 1.0 0.39 0.18 0.14 0.13

4.0

5.0 1.1 0.42 0.20 0.16 0.14

6.0 1.2 0.43 0.27 0.17 0.15

8.0 1.2 0.44 0.21 0.17 0.15

0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0

1.5 0.57 0.27 0.22 0.20

1.3
0.48 0.23 0.19 0.16

1.1
0.40 0.19 0.15 0.14

/

I

0.40 0.19 0.15 0.14

~R

O.IS
0.14 0.13

F. Elbow, Rectangular, Mitered with Turning Vanes

·'.ow.~ ~[i1
. R
Trailing edge

1

SINGLE THICKNESS VANES
Dimensions. inches *No. Coeff.
L

R
2.0 4.5 4.5

S
1.5 2.25 3.25

C
0.12 0.15 0.18

It
2 3

0.75

0
1.60

H~

*Numbers are for reference only.

I

~I

-i-When extension of trailing edge is not provided for this vane. losses are approximately unchanged for single elbows. but increase considerably for elbows in serio;;'s.

DOUBLE THICKNESS VANES
Coefficient C *No. 1 2 3 4 Dimensions. in.
Velocity (V), fpm

Remarks 4000 0.17 0.23 0.24 0.16
Embossed Vane Runner

R
2.0 2.0 2.0 4.5

S
1.5 1.5 2.13 3.25

1000 0.27 0.33 0.38 0.26

2000 0.22 0.29 0.31 0.21

3000 0.19 0.26 0.27 0.18

Push-On Vane Runner
Embossed Vane Runner

Embossed Vane Runner

*Numbers are for reference only.

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

~

....

224

CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8.5 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, TRANSITIONS (DIVERGING FLOW) Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (Ht) = C x Hv

A. Transition, Round, Conical
V
Coefficient C (See Note)

R"
0.5 x HJ'

8
AlIA

16" 2 4 6 10
~16

2()" 0.19

3()"

45" 0.33 0.61 0.66

6()"

9()"

120" 0.31 0.63 0.73

18()"

0.14

0.32 0.46 0.48 0.59
0.60 0.23 0.36 0.44 0.43 0.52 0.12 0.38 0.46 052 0.56

0.33 0.68
0.77 0.80 0.88 0.27 0.59 0.70 0.80 0.87 0.27 0.56 0.69

0.32
0.64 0.74 0.83 0.88 0.27 0.59 0.71 0.81 0.87 0.27 0.58 0.71 0.83

0.30
0.62 0.72 0.83

0.23
0.27

0.30
0.33 0.38 0.38 0.12 0.18 0.28 0.24 0.28 0.07 0.24 0.29

0.29
0.31 0.07 0.15 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.05 0.17 0.16 0.21 0.21

0.76
0.84 0.28

0.84
0.88

A
:2 x 105

0.88
0.26 0.57 0.69 0.81 0.87 0.27 0.57 0.70 0.83

2 4 6 10
2::16

0.27
0.58 0.71 0.81 0.87

0.55
0.90 0.76 0.76 0.27 0.51 0.60 0.60 0.72

When: Re= 8.56 DV where:

e = 180

0

;::6 x lOS

2 4 6 10
2::16

0.27
0.58

0.70 0.84
0.87

D = Upstream diameter (inches) V = Upstream velocity (fpm)

0.33 0.34

0.76 0.79

0.85

0.89

B. Transition, Rectangular, Pyramidal

Coefficient C (See Note I)

AlIA
16" 2 4 6
2:10

8
20"
0.22 0.43 0.47 0.49 3()" 0.25 45" 6()" 0.31 0.61 0.72 0.80 90" 12()" n.33 0.63 180" 0.30

0.18 0.36 0.42

0.29
0.56 0.68 0.70

0.32
0.63 0.76 0.87

0.50 0.58 0.59

0.63
0.75
0.86

0.76 0.85

0.42

i
Note: A = Area (Entering airstream), A I = Area (Leaving airstream)
.j

When:

e''';

180 0

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems ---..,. Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS
TABLE 8.6

225

LOSS COEFFICIENTS, TRANSITIONS (CONVERGING FLOW) Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv

A. Contraction, Round and Rectangular, Gradual to Abrupt
Coefficient C (See Note)

e
AlIA

10" 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

15"-40" 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05

50"·60" 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08

90" O.lZ 0.17 0.18 0.19

120" 0.18 0.27 0.Z8 0.Z9

150" 0.Z4 0.35 0.36 0.37

1800

2 4 6
10

0.26 0.41 0.42 0.43

A

When: 0 = 180 0
Note: A = Area (Entering airstream), A I = Area (Leaving airstream)

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

Solution The loss coefficient is found in Table 8.4e. Referring to Figure 8.25
H 12 R 16 - = - = 1.5' - = - = 2.0 W 8 'w 8

The duct cross-sectional area and velocity are I ft 2 A = 12 in. x 8 in. x ----== 0.667 ft2 144 in. z ft3 I V = 1500 -.- x - - - - 0 = 2250 ftlmin mm 0.667 ftUsing Equation 8.11, the pressure loss is

From Table 8.4e C=0.14

2250)Z HI = 0.14 ( 4000 = 0.04 in. w.

Figure 8.25
Sketch for Example 8.21.

,

-/"----~
/

Dr=8in.

R=16 in.

The pressure loss in transition pieces is calculated in the same manner. With converging transitions, the downstream velocity is used, and with diverging transitions, the upstream velocity is used.

226

CHAPTER 8

TABLE 8.7 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, CONVERGING JUNCTIONS Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv

A. Converging Tee, Round Branch to Rectangular Main
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

Vo
< 1200fpm > 1200 [pm

QJQo
0.1 -.63 -.49 0.2 -.55 -.21 0.3 0.13 0.23 0.4 0.23 0.60 0.5 0.78 1.27 0.6 1.30 2.06 0.7 1.93 2.75 0.8 3.10 3.70 0.9 4.88 4.93 1.0 5.60 5.95

I

When:

.i

AJA,
0.5

I A,/Ao I 1.0

AJAo
0.5

B. Converging Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch

Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

V,
< 1200 fpm

QJQ,
0.1 -.75 -.69 0.2 -.53 -.21 0.3 -.03 0.23 0.4 0.33 0.67 0.5 1.03 1.17 0.6 1.10 1.66 0.7 2.15 2.67 0.8 2.93 3.36 0.9 4.18 3.93 1.0 ·1.78
5.13

> 1200 fpm

When:

AJA,
0.5

A,/A,

AJAo
0.5

1.0

Note: A

=Area (sq. in.), Q =Air flow (cfm), V =Velocity (fpm)

C. Converging Tee, 45° Entry Branch to Rectangular Main
When: At!As

AiAc
1.0

AllAc

0.5

0.5

Branch Coefficient C (See NOle)

Yo

QJQo
0.1 -.83 -.72 0.2 -.68 -.52 0.3 -.30 -.23 0.4 0.28 0.34 0.5 0.55 0.76 0.6 1.03 1.14 0.7 1.50 1.83 0.8 1.93 2.01 0.9 2.50 2.90 1.0 3.03 3.63

< 1200 {pm > 1200 {pm

,.------; -

FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS

227

TABLE 8.7 (Continued)
D. Converging Wye, Rectangular

R W =1.0
A"IA,

Branch, Coefficient (See Note)

At/A<;;

Q"IQ<

0.1 -.50 -1.2 -.50 -1.0 -2.2 -.60 -1.2 -2.1

0.2 0 -.40 -.20 -.60 -1.5 -.30 -.80 -1.4

0.3 0.50 0.40 0 -.20 -.95 -.10 -.40 -.90

0.4 1.2 1.6 0.25 0.10 -.50 -.04 -.20 -.50

0.5 2.2 3.0 0.45 0.30 0 0.13 0 -.20

0.6 3.7 4.8 0.70 0.60 0.40 0.21 0.16
J)

0.7 5.8 6.8 1.0 1.0 0.80 0.29 0.24 0.20

0.8 8.4 8.9
1.5

0.9
II II

0.25 0.33 05 0.67 1.0 1.0 1.33 2.0

0.25 0.25' 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

2.0 2.0 1.9 0.42 0.38 0.30

1.5
1.3

0.36 0.32
0.25

Main, Coefficient C (See Note)

AJA c

Q"IQ<

At/Ac

0.1 0.30 0.17 0.27 1.2 0.18 0.75 0.80

0.2 0.30 0.16 0.35
1.1

0.3 0.20 0.10 0.32 0.90 0.27 0.38 0.80

0.4 -.10 0 0.25 0.65 0.26 0.35 0.68

0.5 -.45 -0.08 0.12 0.35 0.23 0.27 0.55

0.6

0.7 -1.5 -.27 -.23 -.40 0.10 0.05 0.25

0.8 -2.0 -.37
-.42

0.9 -2.6 -..l6 -.58

0.75 1.0 0.75 0.5 1.0 0.75 0.5

0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

-.92
-.18
-.03

0 0.18 0.18 0.40

-.80 0 -.08 0.08

-1.3
-.12

0.24 0.36 0.87

-.22 -.10

Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC Systems - Duct Design manual. Second Edition, 1981.

Example 8.22 The diverging transition piece in Figure 8.26 is handling 12,000 CFM. Find the pressure loss through the fitting. Solution From Table 8.5b;·with AliA Using Equation 8.11,
Figure 8.26 Sketch for Example 8.22.

= 2.0, read C = 0.25.

ft3 1 V= 12,000 x - - 2 = 1500ftlmin min 8 ft
Hf = 0.25(1500)2 = 0.04 in. w.

4000

.

TABLE 8.8 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, DIVERGING JUNCTIONS Use the velocity pressure (Hv) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (H,) = C x Hv
A. Tee, 45° Entry, Rectangular Main and Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

V.,IV,
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.91 0.81 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.90 1.19 1.35 1.44 0.79 0.72 0.73 0.98 1.11 1.22 1.42 1.50 0.70 0.69 0.85 1.16 1.26 1.55 1.75 0.2 0.3

Q.,IQ,
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.66 0.79 1.23 1.29 1.59 1.74 0.74 1.03 1.54 1.63 1.72 0.86 1.25 1.50 2.24 0.92 1.31 1.63 1.09 1.40
1.17

B. Tee, 45° Entry, Rectangular Main and Branch with Damper
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

VtlVc
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q.,IQ,
0.1 0.61 0.46 0.43 0.39 0.34 0.37 0.57 0.89 1.33 0.61 0.50 0.43 0.57 0.64 0.71 1.08 1.34 0.54 0.62 0.77 0.85 1.04 1.28 2.04 0.53 0.73 0.98 1.16 1.30 1.78 0.68 1.07 1.54 1.69 1.90 0.83 1.36 2.09 2.40 1.18 1.81 2.77 1.47 2.23 1.9: 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0.9

Note: A = Area (sq. in.), Q = Air flow (cfm), V = Velocity (fpm)

C. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

V.,IV,
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q.,IQ,
0.1 1.03 1.04 1.11 1.16 1.38 1.52 1.79 2.07 2.32 1.01 1.03 1.21 1.40 1.61 2.01 2.28 . 2.54 1.05 1.17 1.30 1.68 1.90 2.13 2.64 1.12 1.36 1.91 2.31 2.71 3.09 1.27 1.47 2.28 2.99 3.72 1.66 2.20 2.81 3.48 1.95 2.09 2.21 2.20 2.29 2.57 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

.

0.8

0.9

i

!
j

228

-:;

,

TABLE 8.8

(Continued)

D. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch with Damper
Branch. Coefficient C (See Note)

Vt/V,
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0.58 0.67 0.78 0.88 l.l2 1.49 2.10 2.72 3.42 0.64 0.76 0.98 1.05 1.48 2.21 3.30 4.58 0.75 0.81 1.08 1.40
1.25 :2.84 3.65

Q,IQ,
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

LOI 1.18 I.51 2.29 3.09 3.92 1.29 1.70 2.32 3.30 4.20 1.91 2.48 3.19 4.15
2.53

3.29 4.14

3.16 4.10
4.05

E. Tee, Rectangular Main and Branch with Extractor
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

Vt/V,
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q,IQ,
0.1 0.60 0.62 0.74 0.99 1.48 1.91 2.47 3.17 3.85 0.69 0.80 1.10 l.l2 1.33 1.67 2.40 3.37 0.82 0.95 1.41 1.43 1.70
2.33 2.89

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.90 1.24 1.52 2.04 2.53 3.23
.

1.21 1.55 1.86 2.31 3.09 1.64 1.98 2.51 3.03
2.47

3.13 3.30

3.25

3.7-1

4.11

Main Coefficient C (See Note)

Vt/V,
C

0.2 0.03

0.4 0.04

0.6 0.07

0.8 0.12

1.0 0.13

1.2 0.14

1.4
0.27

1.6 0.30

1.8
0.25

F. Tee, Rectangular Main to Round Branch
Branch Coefficient C (See Note)

vtlVc
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

Q,IQ,
0.1 1.00 1.01 l.l4 l.l8 1.30 1.46 1.70 1.93 2.06 1.07 l.l0 1.31 1.38 1.58 1.82 2.06 2.17 1.08 1.12 1.20 1.45 1.65 2.00 2.20 l.l3 1.23 I.31 . 1.51 1.85 2.13 1.26 1.39 1.56 1.70 2.06 1.48 1.64 1.76 1.98 1.71 1.80 1.99 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

-

0.8

0.9

1.88 2.00 2.07

229

10 Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC System.25 0. Tee Rectangular Main to Conical Branch (2) Branch.2 0.02 -.60 0.38 0.1 0.92 1.5 0.62 0.2 -.2-10.03 0 -.05 0.2 0.0 031 0.5 1. 1.28 0.16 0.6 Qb 1.72 -.04 0.4 0.3 3.32 0.35 0.01 0. Second Edition.05 -.0 1.t 0.1 0.22 0.13 -.28 -.5 0.25 0.0 Qt/Q.33 0.40 0.70 0.3 1. Rectangular (15) Branch Coefficient C (See Note) At/A.230 CHAPTER 8 (Continued) TABLE 8.46 0.78 0.50 0.5 0.01 0.44 0.67 0.05 -.01 0.1 8 0.33 2.0 1.1 2.13 0.5 0.29 0. 0.26 0.44 0.7 0.85 0.60 0. 0.8 G.25 0.90 1.15 1.2-1- 0.9 6.05 O. L"' 0.30 0.62 0.03 0.8 4.02 0.4 0.0 1.04 0.v.48 -.21 ~ =1.06 -.3~ 0.17 Main Coefficient C (See Note) At/A.48 O.08 O.83 0.0 1.0 1.51 0. 0.92 0.23 11.5 1.8 2.52 0. Wye.33 0.27 0.25 0.3.6 1..5 0.21 0.0 1.10 0.33 0.08 -.1 H.8 0.17 0.33 2.02 0.0 1.52 0.12 0.01 0..25 0.50 0.01 -.0 1.0 1.8 0.04 0.60 0.06 -.01 0 -.29 0.50 0.55 0.I~ 0.09 0. 0.8 0..03 0. 1981.W O.41 0.6 0.q 0.9 OA6 O.29 0.W O.19 0.80 0.30 0.52 0.D lief Design manual. Coefficient C (See Note) v.35 0.37 0.06 -.55 0.13 Qt/Q.23 0.38 0.08 030 038 030 lL20 0.67 1.25 0.35 0.5 0.38 0.43 0.40 0. 0.30 0.7 3.4 1.04 0 0.29 0.0 1.5 1.~ 1. . IffJ ) .0 90' Branch 0.03 0.67 1.62 0.68 0.5 0.60 0.0 At/A.01 -.37 0.02 0.3 0.0 -.40 0.03 0.42 0.06 - 0.80 0.0 0.10 0.5 1.5 1.26 037 0.75 0.1 0.4 0.48 0. 0.20 0.40 0.38 0. C 0.3 -.1 1.0 5.0 At/A.

32 . Solution Refer to Figure 8. w. they are often made as shown in Figure 8.03 = 2.27. velocity pressure (Hv). the shape should be as shown in Figure 8. and the branch pressure loss can be calculated as an elbow.07 + 0. The more gradual a transition or change in direction in a fitting. The actual regain was SPR = Hs2 . 1 2 Hv ----- To put this another way.HI = 2. w.28 in. the total pressure would remain the same.35 in. w. This results in a lower fan power to overcome these losses and a resultant savings in energy: Often however.23 illustrates a case of static pressure regain (SPR).27 Sketch for Example 8. w.10 R is the recovery factor.28 - 2.32 in.22 is 2. In this case.35 - 0.23. Figure 8. The proportion of actual to theoretical SPR is 0.03 in. The pressure loss due to friction (HI)' however. and static pressure (Hs). w.5.Hsl = 2. the pressure loss through the branch may be considerable. and the value of each depends on the shape. the static pressure at point I is Hsl = H'I - Hvl = 2. The total pressure at point 2 is therefore H/2 = HII . Also. there will be less of a frictional loss. = .29. we discussed total pressure (H. 750 The static pressure at point 2 is Hs2 = H/2 = Hv2 = 2. If there had been no frictional pressure loss. the higher the recovery factor will be.03 = 0. particularly at high velocities. the pressure loss in the straight main run and in the branch are separate.( 4000 )2 2. which shows the results of the calculations following. w.07 in. It was noted that for flow through a diverging transition. that is.g.07 R=-=. The net result of the two effects (conversion of pressure and the frictional pressure loss) on the static pressure is found by algebraically summing them up.4 and 8.28. the pressure loss· through the straight run can usually be neglected. Example 8. Example 8. If there was no frictional pressure. the decrease in velocity pressure would exactly equal the increase in static pressure.).FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 231 In Sections 8.g. Find the static pressure at point I and the total and static pressure at point 2. Using Equation 8. In order to reduce the fabrication cost of fittings. w. In this case.g.23 The total pressure at point I for the fitting in Example 8.70 0.3.21 in. The following example illustrates this.g. the theoretical SPR would be SPR = 0. velocity pressure is converted to static pressure. If it is important to minimize losses. 70% of the preSSure loss in the fitting is recovered. this more gradual fitting will be more expensive to fabricate. causes a decrease in total pressure. Where there is a combined transition and branch in a duct system.35 - ( 1500)2 4000 = 2.21 = 0.10 in. resulting in an increase in static pressure.22 to be HI = 0. as defined in Section 8. as well as a profile of the pressure changes in the fitting.5. The frictional pressure loss was found in Example 8.

25 ..4 OA 0.9 Example 8. ( 4000 .7 0. w. The pressure loss for each..= 0. = 1.5 0.9.3 0.75 1.9.6 1. 1981.11.30 tn. This is called the system effect.232 CHAPTER 8 .20 Reprinted with permission from the SMACNA HVAC System-Duct Design manual.= 0.29 Branch with high pressure loss.0 3.28 Branch with low pressure loss. Figure 8. An inspection of the types of connections in Table 8. lOSS COEFFICIENTS (C) FOR STRAIGHT ROUND DUCT FAN INLET CONNECTIONS Length.3 1.30(a) instead of as shown in Figure 8. resulting in wasted energy. of duct inlet loss coefficient C length of Inlet in Diameters RJO 0. TABLE 8.2 0. using Equation 8. Second Edition. 8.8 0. we read the values of C = 1.25 for the poor and good connection.14 PRESSURE LOSS AT FAN INLET AND OUTLET There will also be a pressure loss at the fan inlet and outlet.7 0.30(b). A further discussion of recommended duct fitting construction can be found in Chapter 9.25 0.06 in. w. What is the pressure loss inlet to the fan in each case') Solution From Table 8. the value of which depends on the shape of the fan-duct connection.0 0 20 50 1. 4000 ?000)2 Good Hj = 0.24 A contractor installs the inlet connection to a fan as shown in Figure 8. is Poor Hf 2000)2 .< Figure 8.2 and C = 0.2 (. A list of system effects can be found in the Air Moving and Conditioning Association (AMCA) Manuals.0 2.9 will show the importance of considering the system effect and of installing fans with good connections. The fan inlet velocity is 2000 ftlmin. . Note the greatly increased pressure loss with the poor connection. Some values of the resulting loss coefficient C are shown in Table 8.

.---.-.-.. (1000) (1000) (1000) I A I.30 Sketch for Example 8. but it may be a shorter path that contains an unusual number of fittings or devices with large pressure losses.50' --~. .L 13 x 13 E 1 Note: All elbows have R/W ~ 1. w.90' . Example 8..25 For the duct system shown in Figure 8... Pressure losses through any equipment (coils.31..5 (1000) Typical branch take-off t ..31 Sketch for Example 8.15 DUCT SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSS The duct pressure losses must be found in order to determine fan capacity.24. 8. This path is often the longest one. T~ 50' . check equipment performance.25. It is also the path with the greatest pressure loss. The pressure losses for the straight ducts and fittings are read from the appropriate tables. path XABCDEF is the longest. It is better to work with total pressure loss rather than static pressure loss when analyzing duct pressure losses. jl-< <--.-.70' ----+-1 (4000 CFM) 9 x 13 30" t G t H t FT 10' . Solution From inspection of the duct layout.. The system total pressure loss is defined as the total pressure loss through the duct path that has the largest pressure losses. because none of the shorter paths have unusual pressure losses.. but it has been found that the system effect inlet loss is 0. ...--.. The fan inlet and outlet connections are not shown. The results Figure 8. The manufacturer will furnish this data. (a) No straight inlet duct. and the outlet loss is 0.. (b) Long straight inlet duct.20 in.08 in. diffusers) must be included. filters.. To find the system total pressure loss. the losses are summed up for each section of straight duct and each fitting in the path chosen. ' . (3000) 24x13 x 13" B t 20' C 9x 13 J (2000) 17x13 9 x 13 D -.g.1 in. determine the system total pressure loss and fan requirements.I~. The total pressure required at each air outlet for proper distribution is 0. and balance air quantities.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 233 Fan Fan (a) (b) Figure 8. This gives a better understanding of the total pressure available at any point in case problems exist. w. w...

08 .15 0 ~ ( 11 . w.02 in. 4000 30x 13 21 1477 1477 1385 1385 1303 1303 0.19(1700)2 = 0. w.0.17 .g. w.g.26 The system in Example 8. CFM Duct Size.~> '-" . = 0. w. The diverging transitions have a negligible pressure loss due to the gradual transformation and relatively low velocities.79 . .43 + 0. This pressure is much greater than the pressure re. C=0.1 in.48 = 0. w.234 CHAPTERS TABLES. the total pressure in the duct at outlet Gis· H'G = 0.26.) required at the air outlet.25 Flow Rate. The pressure loss is calculated now through path XABG. because the total pressure can be found anywhere in the duct.) and will result in excess air at uncomfortable velocities being delivered through outlet G.01 . in. in. BC 3000 24 x 13 19 0. What is the trouble? Solution We will find the total pressure at outlet G and check it against the value (0.43 in. in.g. There is a complaint about drafts near outlet G. Therefore. 4000 For duct BG H/100 ft Duct HI 100 = 0.48 in.w. in. if one had been installed.31 in. w.10 Total system pressure loss = 0.. Equivalent Round.07 . For the transition elbow at B.g.w.w.08 + 0.26 might be handled by partially closing a damper in the branch duct.10 it is XAB Hf The pressure loss from B to G is now found.18 50 0 . as shown in Example 8. If RIW = 1.09 80 .79 in.15 =' 0.03 in.17 90 0.25 is installed in Governor Jawbone's offices. The fan selected for the system would be specified for a total pressure of 0.10 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 8. ft Loss Coeff. HIW = 0. w.10. Each item should be checked by the student. w.1 in.79 are listed in Table 8. in.20 + 0. The method used in Example 8.20 .17 50 0 . Section X A AB B Item Fan inlet Fan outlet Duct Diverging transitions Duct Diverging transitions Duct Diverging transitions Duct Elbow Outlet FPM Friction Loss/100 ft. w. Length. Example 8. C Velocity Pressure loss. Press.09 C CD D DEF E F 2000 17 x 13 16 0.79 in.2 in. The total pressure loss in this path is therefore XABG Hf = 0.5.03 + 0.09 1000 13 x 13 14 852 0.. = 0. The solution to the excess pressure at the outlet in Example 8. = 0.g.7.25 is also valuable in solving balancing problems. The pressure loss XAB has already been found.2 x (~) = 0. w. V.02 The fan total pressure is 0. From Table 8.19 Elbow Hf = 0. quired (0.

however.11 SUGGESTED VELOCITIES IN LOW VELOCITY AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Recommended Velocities. the duct sizes must be determined first. sound attenuation devices and duct sound lining can be used if needed. TABLE 8. although these are not strictly separate categories. A higher friction loss results in smaller ducts but higher fan operating costs.16 DUCT DESIGN METHODS In the previous section.15 in. space limitations (above hung ceilings. Equal Friction Method With this method.08 to 0.6 in. Procedures for doing this will be explained shortly. 8. The friction loss rate is chosen to result in an economical balance between duct cost and energy cost. . other velocities are for net free area. High velocity duct systems are primarily used to reduce overall duct sizes. Theaters.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 235 This might create noise problems. Public Buildings Designation Outside air intakesll Residences Industrial Buildings Residences Industrial Buildings Filters" Heating coils" Air washers -Suction connections Fan outlets Main ducts Branch ducts Branch risers II -~- 500 250 450 500 700 1000-1600 700-900 600 500 500 300 500 500 800 1300-2000 1000-1300 600-900 600-700 500 350 600 500 1000 1600-2400 1200-1800 ·800-1000 800 800 300 500 500 900 1700 800-1200 700-1000 650-800 900 350 600 500 1000 1500-2200 1100-1600 800-1300 800-1200 1200 350 700 500 1400 1700-2800 1300-2200 1000-1800 1000-1600 These velocities are for total face area. The noise produced at the high velocities requires special sound attenuation. however. A better solution would be to design the duct system so that excess pressures are dissipated in duct friction losses. FPM Schools. High velocity duct systems are designed with initial velocities from about 2500 FPM to as high as about 4000 FPM.11). not the net free area. FPM Schools. Duct systems for HVAC installations may be loosely classified into low velocity and high veloc- ity groups. The following example illustrates duct sizing by the equal friction method. in shafts) make it impossible to use the larger ducts resulting from low velocity systems. the equal friction method and the static regain method. Reprinted with permission from the 1967 Systems and Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory. Theaters. the same value friction loss rate per length of duct is used to size each section of duct in the system. w. In designing a new system. In many large installations. Typical ranges of design equal friction loss rates used for low velocity systems are from 0. Two methods of sizing ducts will be explained here. The corresponding friction loss rates may be as high as 0. However. The higher pressures result in certain special features of these systems. Public Buildings Maximum Velocities.ll00 ft.llOO ft of duct. Maximum velocities in the main duct at the fan outlet are limited where noise generation is a problem (see Table 8. The ducts and fans must be constructed to· withstand the higher pressures. w. we explained how to find the pressure losses in ducts after their sizes were known.

the friction loss rate for the main section AB is read as 0. this limitation seldom occurs. The equivalent round duct diameter is read as 20.236 CHAPTER 8 Example 8. Use rectangular ducts.11. those near the fan will be over-pressured. 6. If there are long distances between the outlets at the beginning and the end of the system. an initial velocity in the main duct leaving the fan is selected. will be chosen.23. w. For systems that do not have great distances between the first and the last outlets.!100 ft. With this method. often used for high velocity systems with long duct runs. To reduce extreme pressure differences throughout the system. The pressure loss in the system can be calculated as shown previously. the velocities in each successive section of duct in the main run 70' r:--:":::"":B 80' G 60' H 60' J 400 300 500 . Sum up the CFMs backward from the last outlet. which should be reasonably quiet for the application. the appropriate procedure would be to find the total equivalent length of the system. even if the supply ducts are of the hig~ velocity type. Dividing the external fan pressure by the length will establish the maximum friction loss that can be used. The equivalent round duct diameter for each duct section is read from Figure 8. From Figure 8. 2. since package units are mostly used with systems of relatively short duct length. If the outlets closest to the fan are on long separate branches. The equal friction method of designing ducts is quite simple and is probably the most popular one used.5 in. in the range of 2500-4000 FPM. this problem may be overcome by modifying the equal friction design method. using the equal friction design method. In this case. 5. w. 4.32 Sketch for Example 8.12. 500 500 400 500 CFM With systems that use package air conditioning units. it works quite satisfactorily. the duct proportions chosen would depend on space available. After the initial velocity is chosen.13 in. C 60' D E F Static Regain Method The static regain method of sizing ducts is most. The results are shown in Table 8. Select a design velocity for the main from the fan. Solution 1. The longest run is sized by the design friction loss rate.26.21. but some branches are chosen at a higher friction loss rate thus using up the excess pressure. 3. A velocity of 1400 ftlmin. especially in large installations.32.27. the static regain method of duct design may also be used. This was demonstrated in Example 8. to find the CFM in each duct section.27 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Find the size of each duct section for the system shown in Figure 8. Figure 8.!100 ft) and the CFM for the section.13 in. the available pressure to overcome the friction loss is limited to the external pressure that the fan in the unit can develop. In reality. Return air ducts can be sized by the equal friction method in the same manner as supply air units. In the actual installation. using Table 8.21 at the intersection of the design friction loss rate (0. however. The system serves a public building. The result may cause difficulties in balancing the flow rates and possibly excess noise. The rectangular duct sizes are read from Figure 8. Return air ducts are usually in the low velocity category.

2. (This system is a high velocity system.13 20.28 in. w.21. and therefore the friction loss in the section is 0.56 in. w. The friction loss is Loss in BC = 0.32 in.13 0. so balancing is simplified.50'-+1-40'-+1-30'-+1-35'--+ 4 diffusers 2000 CFM D E ~~--~Q~--~O~--~O~--~Q . 100 ft x 40 ft =0. A trial-and-error procedure is necessary to balance the regain against the friction loss. using the static regain method. per 100 ft Rect. The following example illustrates how to size ducts by this method.56 x 5MOO = 0.33 Sketch for ExampleB. w.5 10 14 12 10 24x 15 20x 12 16 x 12 16 x9 9x9 14x 12 14 x9 9x9 are reduced so that the resulting static pressure gain is enough to overcome the frictional losses in the next duct section. Duct Size. the duct size and static pressure loss due to friction in section AB is determined. 1 AB BC CD DE EF BG GH HI 3100 1900 1400 900 500 1200 800 500 1240 1140 1050 900 889 1029 914 889 0. Example 8. ftlmin Eq. Solution The results of the work are summarized in Table 8.13 in.2B.33. ABC t. 3. Round duct will be used.13 0. The friction loss per 100 ft is 0. due to dynamic losses in the transition at B.28 Determine the duct sizes for the system shown in Figure 8. each . Sound attenuating devices must be used.FLUID FLOW IN PIPING AND DUCTS TABLE 8. Let us try a velocity of 2400 ftlmin.13.13 0.D. so the noise level will not determine the maximum velocity. From Figure 8. in.5 17 15 12.in. The velocity must be reduced in Section BC so that the static pressure gain will be equal to the friction loss in Be. 237 Section CFM V. The result is that the static pressure is the same at each junction in the main run.) An initial velocity of 3200 ftlmin will be chosen.12 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE B. w.13 0. Because of this. there generally will not be extreme differences in the pressures among the branch outlets. A velocity in the initial section is selected. in section Be.27 Friction Loss. There will not be a complete regain. Figure 8.13 0. w.13 0. We will assume a 75% regain factor for the fittings. . The steps are as follows: I.13 0. in.

30 0. and E will be the same. loss.28 Friction Loss. Useful Websites The following sites have soft· ware programs that calculate pipe or duct pressure drops and sizes: www. 0. D. The regain at B is precisely enough to overcome the loss in section Be The duct size of BC is 21 in.~ Section CFM V..18 0.com www. using Equation 8. The duct size is 18 in.. . C 0.." ..09 0. w.com www.43 0.09········ The static pressure regain available to overcome this loss. this method is recommended.!100 ft Friction Length.13 SUMMARY OF RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 8.fVmin Eq. .w. 0 09 0. 0.carmelsoft. . ··'·'··1'·'. Computer software is available for all popular duct sizing methods. x 30 ft 100 ft = 0.elitesoft.16 . On the other hand. w.33 in.. w.w. the static pressure at B would be considerably higher than at E. The trial-and-error process at D results in a duct size of 15 in.. w.carrier.(2200)2] 4000 =0.9. C. w. the equal friction duct sizing method is generally used. Regain at C= 0. in. . Assuming that these outlets all required the same static pressure for proper air distribution.. is 3200)2 . w.75 [(2600)2 4000 .40 0...com www.. No further trial is needed. D. if the equal friction method had been used. This is too large a regain. -(2600)2] -= 0. ft Static Pressure Regain. The result of this method is that the static pressure in the duct at outlets B. This trial is satisfactory..trane.. :'.75 .com www.. 'i TABLE 8.. in. Continue the same procedure at transition e Let us try a velocity of 2200 ft/min... w. the static regain procedure provided duct sizes that will reduce air balanc· ing difficulties. Try a velocity of 2600 ft/min. in..·.10 in. w.16 in. '. for section DE. The reader should check this. causing air outlet balancing problems. especially if the static regain method is used. AB B BC C CD D DE 8000 6000 4000 2000 3200 2600 2200 1700 22 21 18 15 0. This first guess is satisfactory.. 4.21 in.33 0. These programs can save con· siderable time..com 3200)2 Regain at B = 0. [( 4000 4000 5.16 in..10 .64 0.40 in.56 0. in CD. For return air duct systems. For systems at high velocities.wrightsoft..26 50 40 30 35 0 16 0. LossmB = x40ft 100 ft = 0. in.... One disadvantage of the static regain method of duct design is that it usually results in a system with some of the duct sections larger than those found by the equal friction method.. however.. The results are Loss m CD = .. w. .. Velocity Pressure. 0..09 in...-(2400)2] -Regain at B = 0.75 [(4000 4000 = 0.· 238 CHAPTER 8 ".28 in.

2 8.34 Sketch to Problem B.=100psig t___ _ FigureB. section? A 42 in. What would be the reading of the pressure gage at point 2? 8. wide by 20 in.9 8. The velocity of the water 8. The condenser requires 920 GPM. What should be the width of the new section? Cooling water is pumped from a river to a refrigeration machine condenser 80 ft above the pump intake. What is the required pump head? For the piping system shown in Figure 8. The depth of the duct is to be lOin.g. valves." ' ___________________ P. fittings. The friction loss is 27 ft w.>---1_ .3 8. It Figure B.36 Sketch for Problem 8. determine the required pump head.7.4 in? has 12 GPM of water flowing through it._-------------FLUID FWW IN PIPING AND DUCTS 239 Problems 8. duct is 1300 ftlmin. determine the pressure drop due to friction between points 1 and 2.8 8. It is desired to reduce the velocity to 1800 ft/min.9. The friction loss through all of the piping. To avoid excess noise the maximum velocity of air allowed in the duct is 1750 ft/min. in psig? 8. What would be the reading on a pressure gage at the pump suction. For the piping system shown in Figure 8.35. For the piping system shown in Figure 8. P2 =63 psig 2 52 It 1 ----. What is the velocity in the 3 in.B.1 The average velocity of air flowing in a 24 by 18 in. and condenser is 31 ft w.4 8. 100 It --+-~----~--------------------- )]-+-----Jl -r 70 It 2 ~ . The water leaves the condenser at atmospheric pressure and flows back to the river by gravity.36.34. if the pressure gages read as shown. The diameter is increased to 3 in. The pump discharge pressure is 83 ft w.7 entering and leaving the system is the same. pipe has water flowing through it at 4 FPM.000 CFM of air.10 A hydronic cooling system has a pressure drop due to friction of 41 ft w. The pressure gage at point 1 reads 23 psig. the friction loss between points 1 and 2 is 18 ft w. What is the minimum width of the duct? A 2 in. What is the volume flow rate of air in the duct in CFM? A pipe with a cross-sectional area of 8.35 Sketch for Problem B.5 8. The depth of the duct is fixed.6 Figure B. What is the water velocity in ft/sec? A duct is to be installed that will carry 3600 CFM of air. deep duct has a flow rate of 18..

CD (2) 1100 It/min V2 2300 It/min Figure 8.14 if it were in a hydronic heating system? 8.+-1. 8.1 in. cast iron globe valve through which 40 GPM is flowing in a hydronic heating system.13 The duct transition shown in Figure 8. Schedule 40 steel pipe at a velocity of 4 fUsec.21 Find the pressure drop through the condenser-cooling tower water system shown in Figure 8.8.240 CHAPTER 8 '-1: -. w.13.5 ft w. What is the minimum pipe size that can be used? What is the actual friction loss? 8.16 Determine the friction loss per 100 ft of pipe for 10 GPM flowing through 1!4 in.. using a value of about 1.'I ---w-+--. Type L copper tubing..38 has a recovery factor of 0. What is the flow rate and friction loss per 100 ft? 30GPM -'v1 Gate ':' Check t t 2" t t *""Gate ~18GPM t 1'/2" Globe ~2" -1 100' 1+-11f2" ~--------------~------------' V.19 Determine the pressure dropthrough a 1!6 in.300' -----+. -"_l'l --~ 8.16.. It shall have a friction pressure loss no greater than 4 ft w. with each unit circulating 6 GPM.12 The average velocity pressure in a 48 by 18 in." ~" '.37 Sketch for Problem 8. Schedule 40 steel pipe. 8. composed of 8 in. .20.200' -----1·--11 Figure 8.5 in. duct is 0.18 A Schedule 40 steel pipe is to be used to deliver 150 GPM to a cooling tower..16. Determine the flow rate inCFM. w. ~ . 1 Figure 8. . if the friction loss is 2.11. between the points? 8.15 What would be the pressure loss in the piping in Problem 8. = 2000 It/min V2 = 1200 It/min '""'( I f . what is the pressure change from point 1 to 2.38 Sketch for Problem 8. 8.++--'---+--+ ~ = = V.20 Find the pressure drop through the cold water piping system shown in Figure 8. . 8. 8.39.40.37. Determine the static pressure regain.. 8. per 100 ft. Schedule 40 steel pipe in a hydronic cooling system through which 200 GPM of water is flowing...23 For the piping arrangement shown in Example 8.39 Sketch for Problem 8.g.. 8. through which 1100 GPM is flowing. composed of Type L copper tubing.11 In the duct system shown in Figure 8.22 For the piping arrangement shown in Example 8. size the piping by the constant friction loss method. per 100 ft.14 Find the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in a 250 ft straight section of 4 in.17 Water flows through a clean 3 in. 8. 8.

duct has a flow rate of 4000 CFM. 90° duct elbow with a mean radius of 12 in. 8. The length of each branch is 12 ft.+rF'-::':""'+rt-'=-~-=-. All ducts shall be lOin.25 Find the equivalent round diameter of a 36 in..26 A 28 by 14 in.10 in.28 Find the loss coefficient of a 30 in. galvanized duct is supposed to be delivering 5000 CFM. 8. at a Be DE 48" x 12" Fan f+.33 Size the rectangular ducts in the system shown in Figure 8. 8.23. Test readings on static pressure manometers 80 ft apart in a straight section of the duct read 2.6 in. ...42 Sketch for Problem 8.3 I A 24 in.32. assuming a recovery factor of 0..\ 1 Figure 8. and 1.29.4 I..40 Sketch for Problem 8.g. at 4 ft w.-:::~~:. using 'lYpe L copper tubing. w. by 14 in...20 in. Find the friction loss per 100 ft and the velocity. The pressure loss through each air outlet is 0.29 Find the static pressure change from A to B in the duct shown in Figure 8.41 Sketch for Problem 8.g." . by 12 in.. wh:u'is the pressure drop? 8.FLUIDFWWINPIPINGANDDUCTS Figure 8. w. The static pressure is 3 in.90 in.21. 8.42 from the fan outlet at A to F and also to C. by 12 in. w.43 by both the equal friction method and by the static region method.------ 3 outlets 2500 CFM each certain location. deep..g.-. What is the total pressure at this location? 8.75. The friction loss in the duct must be limited to 1.g. galvanized steel duct has a flow rate of 5000 CFM of air. w. 8.27 A straight length of duct 420 ft long has a flow rate of 2000 CFM of air. 50' ~---¥. per 100 ft. 8. A f A 12"x 8" B 12" x 6" 1000 CFM 1000 CFM size the piping system. What is the smallest round duct size that could be used? 8. The boiler has a pressure drop of 3 ft w... Cooling tower I I I11III-I T 20 ft EL= 40 ft Condenser H~t---t><:t--( Check )]--1'4--1)<1--- I_ Globe Strainer 300 ft ..24 Determine the pressure drop in the piping system in Problem 8. without vanes.. 8.32 Find the total pressure loss in the duct system shown in Figure 8. w. If the elbow is carrying 5000 CFM. Determine if the duct is supplying the proper air quantity.30 A 24 by 12 in. rectangular duct. 241 Figure 8.. Assume a typical set of valves and auxiliaries.

34 Find the pressure drop in the duct system in Example 8.com.39 Solve Example 8.27 using the duct sizing software program of www.27 by the static regain method. 8.20 and 5.14.38 Solve Problems 8. . Compare the duct sizes and pressure drop found by the two methods. Use both the equal friction and static regain methods.15. starting with the same initial velocity.21 and 5.35 Size the ducts in Example 8. 8.27.37 Determine the pipe sizes and system pres- sure drop for the building in Problems 3.com.242 CHAPTER 8 ~A an • V=1800ft/min B C D 60' I 60' I 60' I 1500 CFM 1500CFM 1800 CFM Figure 8. Assume reasonable shapes of transitions and elbows.43 Sketch for Problem B.36 Determine the pipe sizes and system pressure drop for the house in Problems 3. 8. Outlets have a pressure loss of O. 8. Computer Solution Problems 8. w.33.carmelsoft.32 and 8.33 using the duct sizing software program of www. i 0 in. 8.carmelsoft.

..~~~ ______ . For severe problems of oxidation or corrosion.~ Piping is made of many possible materials. low carbon ("black") steel pipe or copper tube. 2. anchoring. and vibrations. valves.. 1.. Properties of the ft uid being carried Temperature Pressure Exposure to oxidation or corrosion 9. fittings. c H A p T E R Piping."'27. 4. Determine the need for pipe expansion and vibration treatment. and the proper choice depends on the service for which the piping is intended.____ ~_p .. The service includes: 243 In addition.. 3.. hanging. supporting. Ducts. Finally. It is the responsibility of the HVAC specialist to be aware of the codes that apply to each installation before selecting materials. Use correctIJractices for duct installations. and Insulation T he selection of the correct types of piping. but this actually refers to .. the proper method of installation should be understood.._____ _____ ~ ~~_.. cost and availability also affect choice of materials. 2. considering such problems as expansion. and values for an HVAC piping installation. 5. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Specify the appropriate materials for HVAC duct installations. codes and regulations usually limit the choice of materials for a given use. Physical specifications of steel pipe and copper tubing are standardized by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). other materials may be necessary.. you will be able to: 1. and insulation for a particular HVAC system is an important task. ~"' ~""o_"""'_ . 4. Use correct practices for pipe installations. 2"""'. Valves.1 PIPING MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATIONS \-.. Specify the appropriate materials. In addition.. ducts. The term black steel pipe is used in the trade. The piping material most commonly used in hydronic systems is either ."'-"'>'. 3.

050 1.067 2. The wall thickness of copper tubing is specified by a lettering system. Hard temper as opposed to soft temper tubing has greater rigidity and will not sag as much as soft tubing when hung horizontally.900 2.237 0.790 7.174 0. and double extra strong.315 1.365 0. except in very large diameters. Type DWV is used for drainage.. Type M is used for low pressure plumbing.375 2.840 1. L.750 14.113 0.501 2.0158 0.226 0.280 0. The choice of the correct Schedule number of piping depends on the pressure and temperature service. however.375 0.110 10.168 9.140 0. M. such as 20. The allowable pressures can be calculated from formulas established in the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping.272 2.0276 0. In hydronic systems at pressures commonly encountered.506 .500 5. where Schedule 30 or 20 is sometimes used.500 4.660 1. The allowable pressure is only part of the story.660 1.250 0. Copper is more expensive than steel.548 4. the chemical composition of those materials can be found in the ASTM publications.750 12. but in smaller sizes the labor cost for copper is often less. The engineer should recognize that corrosion and erosion may reduce the pipe wall thickTABLE 9. Ibs/ft Volume.020 12.068 3.513 0.090 13. Figure 8.1 ness over a period of years.216 0.380 1. It is usually adequate for hydronic system piping.15 confirms this.026 5.570 9.597 4.039 1.550 40. For the interested reader. or 80.970 28. 40. Type K has the thickest wall and is used with high pressures and refrigerants. The outside diameter (OD) is the same for any size for all three types. selecting piping with a substantial wall thickness may mean a longer life system.0449 0. Schedule 40 pipe is usually specified. The engineer should always specify the pipe intended by the ASTM number.625 8. The wall thickness is referred to by a Schedule number.375 0.400 0.652 5. Some specifications for black steel pipe are shown in Table 9.981 10.065 7.974 7.322 0. Therefore.383 0.610 2. The pressure drop will therefore be greatest for Type K.800 54.109 0.717 3. The specifications for Type L tubing are shown in Table 9. These numbers supersede a previous wall thickness description called standard. SPECIFICATIONS OF STEEL PIPE Outside Diameter Onches) Inside Diameter (inches) Wall Thickness (inches) Pipe Size (inches) Schedule Weight. ASTMA-120 or ASTMA-53 low carbon steel. and DWV.258 0. Type K.145 0.1.l30 1.0774 0.244 CHAPTER 9 ".106 0.625 10.824 1.790 14.047 6.000 16.600 62. extra strong.248 0.875 3. gal/ft Y2 Y4 I V4 I V2 2 2Y2 3 3Y2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 0. the inside diameter (ID) changes.563 6.049 1.480 43. 30.678 2.850 1. The decision to choose between steel piping or copper tubing for an installation is based primarily on cost.203 0.154 0. Type L has an intermediate thickness wall.000 4.250 15.000 0.133 0.620 18.098 5.469 3.330 0.2.622 0.

100 40.0121 0.1610 0.090 0. Solution The weight includes the pipe and the water it carries.040 0.6lb/ft Total weight = (14. which does not always COfrespond exactly to either the inside diameter or outside diameter.100 0. and much more costly wrought iron or cast iron pipe is used.070 0.480 3.060 0.380 7.A 60 ft long.140 0.050 0.6lb/ft Water weight = 1. Second. Schedule 40 chilled water steel pipe is to be hung horizontally from a floor slab above.s 1< 41.2 SPECIFICATIONS OF COPPER TUBING (TYPE L) Nominal Size (inches) Outside Diameter (inches) Inside Diameter (inches) 245 Wall Thickness Weight.198 0. l:~!l s 0.00753 0. 2 2V.0181 0.455 0. When this is done. Example 9. DUCTS. the frictional resistance is less than for steel.6) Ib/ft x 60 ft = 1392lb . In open piping systems. First.845 7.0442 0. galvanized piping is not adequate.4780 0. a plastic bushing should be used to separate the copper and steel.6230 0.265 1.045 0.110 0.-8 5Ls 6t s SlS 10[. 4 5 6 8 10 12 Y. Copper tubing has two advantages that should be noted.0925 0. AND INSULATION TABLE 9. IV. oxidation may occur if black steel is used.330 4. resulting in the possibility of smaller pumps and less power consumption.905 4.280 0.290 5.3 Ib/gal =8. The structural engineer asks the HVAC contractor to determine how much extra weight the flOOf will have to carry. This is black steel pipe that has a coating of a tin alloy which resists oxidation.0250 0.725 9.200 0.1. 3 3V.660 0. Sometimes the larger piping is made of steel and smaller branches to units are copper.1.04 gal/ft x 8. VALVES. Pipe weight = 14.430 0. because otherwise corrosion may occur at the joint due to electrolytic action. as shown in Example 9.465 2.362 0. 5 in.875 5.4500 It is common to see larger installations in steel and smaller ones in copper. On the other hand.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.285 0.945 3.200 19.884 1.3540 0.250 0.055 0.985 2.035 0.080 0.425 3.! 'Yo :y.655 0.9710 1. 1'" 1% 2~s 2:"'8 3 l -8 _'.545 0. In very severe corrosion applications.042 0.3900 2. galfft l:i ¥S Y. it is not subject to oxidation and scaling to the same extent as steel.565 0.PIPING. Galvanized steel pipe is sometimes used in these applications.625 11.785 1.! 'Yo ~ "% 14. Note that pipe and tubing diameters are specified by a nominal size.6 + 8.4300 3.300 30.2470 0.0655 0.610 10.125 0. steel is a stronger material and therefore does not damage as easily. Ibsfft Volume.025 1. The specification tables contain much useful information.400 0.505 1. 1 IV. Using Table 9.7900 5.750 2. such as piping to a cooling tower.140 1.

and thus have a lower pressure drop. (b) Tee. (t) Union. threaded. and couplings are used to join straight lengths of threaded pipe. (d) Bushing. 45°. When joining to equipment.246 CHAPTER 9 9. (Courtesy: Grinnell Corporation. welding.2 FITTINGS AND JOINING . joining of steel pipe is usually done with either screwed. (il A 90° elbow. threaded. Typical pipe fittings are shown in Figure 9. welded. Providence. threaded. and 90° turns. or flanged fittings. Long radius ells have a more gradual turn than standard ells. Tees are used for branching. For typical hydronic systems. the system Figure 9. welding. however. (g) A 90° elbow. With welded fittings. (a) A 90° elbow. Sometimes. Elbows (ells). Screwed fittings for steel piping are generally made of cast or malleable iron. flanged. RI) (a) (b) (e) (e) (d) (t) (g) (h) (i) . (e) Coupling. METHODS FOR STEEL PIPE In hydronic systems. however. fittings with a 125 psi pressure rating are usually adequate. If in doubt. threaded. unions should be used so that the connection may be disconnected for service. tight spaces require standard ells. mating welding flanges on Steel pipe fittings. (h) Tee. used for changing direction. (e) Nipple.1 pressure should be checked.1. Specifications for fittings are established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for both steel pipe and copper tube. . are available in 30°.

S. the Y-type is generally used. it forms a pressure-tight joint between the two parts to be joined. and welded joints are used for larger sizes. Automatic control valves will be discussed in Chapter 14. Solder fittings are made to slip over the tubing with enough clearance for the solder to flow in the annular space between the fitting and the tube. Strainers are usually installed at the suction side of pumps and before large automatic control valves. (b) Copper tee. screwed steel pipe joints are commonly used up to about 2-3 in. yet allowing the rest of the system to operate. A chemical coating called flux is then used to prevent further oxidation. DUCTS. The water passes through a perforated plate or wire mesh in which the particles are trapped.3). 9. The heat may come from either a gas torch or an electric arc. Basically it is no different from lower temperature soldering. resulting in a low pressure loss. Furthermore. Flared fittings are expensive but are removable. a soldering process called brazing is used. .PIPING.3 FITTINGS AND JOINING METHODS FOR COPPER TUBING Copper tubing joints in hydronic systems are made either by soldering (also called sweating) or by flaring.5) are used for this purpose. Stopping Flow Valves in this group are used only to shut off flo\\. Soldering is a process where a metal alloy called solder is melted (between 400 and 1000 F) and when it solidifies. This generally results in the lowest cost of labor plus materials in most U.2 Copper tube solder fittings. Strainers are used to remove solid particles from the circulating system. AND INSUlATION 247 the pipe and equipment serve the same purpose as unions. 9. This procedure is useful in isolating equipment for service or in isolating sections of a system so that it may be serviced. types that are used widely in piping systems. it is more difficult to make pressure-tight threaded joints in very large sizes. Straight lengths of pipe may be butt welded directly together without couplings. and therefore should be used when access to equipment is required for service or maintenance. The strainer is cleaned at regular intervals. In small pipe sizes.4).. VALVES. locations.. Gate valves (Figure 9. When the joints must withstand high temperatures and pressures or severe vibrations. Note that a gate valve has a straight through flow passage. Valves for controlling flow may be grouped into three classes according to their function. In hydronic installations. Typical solder fittings are shown in Figure 9. except that a different soldering material is used which melts at a higher temperature (above 1000 F) and makes a stronger joint. (a) A 90 copper elbow.2. Welding makes a very strong joint. Welding fittings similar to screwed fittings are available. Welding is a process where the two metal ends to be joined are melted and then fused together with a metal welding rod that also liquifies and fuses. and in large sizes. We will discuss mainly general service valves. Bushings are used when connecting from a pipe of one size to a piece of equipment that has a different size opening. (a) 0 (b) Figure 9. Surfaces must be clean of all oxidation. a basket type is used (Figure 9.4 VALVES There are many types and uses of valves. Flared joints are made by flaring out the end of the copper tubing and using a flare fitting union that will make a pressure-tight seal when tightened against the flare (Figure 9.

(a) Tee. In water circulating systems. Check valves are usually installed at a pump and other critical points in a system. wiredrawing (erosion of the valve seat) may occur. plug valves.3 Copper tube flaring fittings. . and they must be closed or left completely open.5 PRESSURE REGULATING AND RELIEF VALVES Where water pressure may exceed safe limits for equipment. J' . RI.. can be used in vertical lines. (e) Tee with nuts assembled. ball valves.. . .248 CHAPTER 9 (a) (b) (e) Figure 9.a . Regulating Flow Rate Valves in this group are used to adjust flow rate manually.. a pressure regulating valve (PRV) is used. as the system must then be balanced again. Providence. :. reverse flow could occur when the system is not operating. This should only be done in an emergency. Their internal construction is not suitable for throttling flow. A vertical lift check or spring-loaded check. Figure 9.6).. 1. Globe valves (Figure 9.. 9. The swing check can be installed only in horizontal lines. particularly if there is a static head of water. This valve limits the discharge pressure to a preset value. angle valves..7 shows some types of check valves. (Courtesy: Grinnell Corporation. and butterfly valves can be used to regulate flow. most flow regulation valves can be used to stop flow. This is desirable in setting proper fl ow rates through equipment and different circuits in a system. Figure 9. However. . (b) Nut.) Limiting Flow Direction Valves that allow flow in only one direction are called check valves.""i-. These valves are often used in the make-up water supply line to a system where the make-up is from a city water supply at high pressures..4 V-type strainer. needle valves. If partially closed. Reverse flow may damage equipment or empty out a line· or equipment unintentionally.: .- ._____""""'"i . Gate valves should not be used to regulate flow. ".

.....Identification plate ......Bonnet ......Stuffing nut 9.5 Gate valves........ Figure 9.... VALVES.J The part that closes off flow is called the disc or wedge...... Disc or Wedge ... ____ Hand wheel ~-------------Stem t-r_-------.5 and 9.....Lock washer Identification plate wheel I. Refer to Figures 9...Lock washer ~............E ..Bonnet u .. rising stem. ..... A solid wedge is simplest and is often used in .. .. (b) Union bonnet.. (a) Screwed bonnet.~---------Body ~------- (a) (b) Figure 9..6 Globe valve. Knowledge of valve construction will enable you to select the correct valve for each application and to understand how to service it........D i s c locknut ... r ...Bonnet f C c ..W h e e l nut . DUCTS....Disc The construction of gate and globe vajves will be discussed in more detail here....Stuffing box \::o!Ec----------. AND INSULATION 249 ...6 VALVE CONSTRUCTION rrrt----------.. nonrising stem........... Relief valves are used as safety devices to relieve excess pressure in boilers and other equipment (Chapter 4).......Gland '~~---------Packing \ : o o f ......Stem ~--------.. .Stuffing nut '~~--------Gland il+E-----------Packing ~---------Packing ' .Lock washer ~:.. A relief valve opens when the valve inlet pressure exceeds a preset value..ra----.:lk!:t=---........Union bonnet ring ~----- One-piece wedge ___.....Wheel nut ..Gland r .c ....One-piece wedge ~------- Seat ring Body ...W h e e l nut ---===------.......Hand wheel ~-----------Stem 1..PIPING.Identification plate ~ Pressure reliefvalves are not the 'same as a PRY.Stuffing nut K .6 to see what each part looks like and how it is assembled..

the disc and stem rise together.. (b) Horizontal lift check. For many applications. which screw directly to the valve body (Figure 9. the threads are outside the valve body and are held by a yoke. Valves are available with screwed.Hinge '-f<'f----... steel valves may be required.Disc hinge nut _ _ _-'-__ Disc nut split pin .Hinge pin ' + . Packing Nut and Stuffing The val ve must have a means of sealing around the stem to prevent the fluid from leaking out under high pressure. .. or welded ends..6). the stem threads are inside the valve body. At extremely high pressures. but this should be checked before selection. In the OS& Y type (Figure 9. but they have the advantage of being replaceable without removing the valve.r--------Disc 1 . This is accomplished with the stuffing or packing. Bevel and plug discs can usually be reground in place when they wear.. are common in small valves. flanged. In the rising stem type (Figure 9. The OS&Y arrangement might be used when corrosive fluids or extreme temperatures'-and pressures exist to prevent damage to the threads. either all bronze valves or iron body with bronze parts are generally used. valves with a 125 psi pressure rating are suitable.6). because the valve stem does not travel. (a) Swing check. gate valves. Globe valve discs made in bevel or plug shapes are best for throttling service. .. -J Valve Materials For hydronic service.. The packing is held in place and compressed against the stem by tightening the packing nut... usually made of a soft material impregnated with graphite. and the stem stays in one position. With the inside Bonnet The bonnet connects the nut to the body of the valve.. The valve may be constructed so that the stem has an inside screw or outside screw and yoke (OS& Y). • Figure 9. particularly if the service is one where an incorrect position of the valve might result in immediate harm to some process or even danger to people. Bolted bonnets are used on larger valves.. There is therefore no visual indication of whether the valve is open or closed.. The length of exposed stem therefore provides a quick visual indication of whether the valve is open or closed. In the nonrising stem type. A two-piece split wedge is less subject to sticking and is often used at high temperatures and pressures. the threads are exposed to the system fluid. A screwed union type bonnet is used when frequent disassembly is expected. arrangement.. the disc travels on the stem.::-----. Flat composition discs are not recommended for close throttling. Screwed bonnets. The valve may be constructed with a rising or nonrisillg stem. however. In the inside screw arrangement. This is advantageous to the operating engineer.8).----------~~~----------~ 250 CHAPTER 9 . Stem The stem lifts and lowers the disc or wedge.Cap Cap cap ring Disc holder Disc Body Disc retaining nut (a) (b) ?-.7 Check valves. This arrangement takes up less space. .

"~"'" . Some guidelines will be suggested here.. Each system layout is unique and must be analyzed to determine the correct solution.8 PIPE EXPANSION AND ANCHORING Most materials (unless constrained) will change their length when their temperature is changed. AND INSUlATION 251 Hand wheel --~~~~!)~.-~~-:.. plug. thus accommodating the expansion. Cast iron fittings should not be used in expansion loops.7 VALVE SELECTION Although the types of valves were described previously.9 Expansion loop an"d offset.9) allows the pipe to bend at the loop or offset. because cast iron is brittle and may crack. or butterfly valves. it is usual to provide for some expansion. VALVES. the bending itself results in stresses on the pipe. so the size of the loop or offset must be adequate and depends on the length. specific recommendations on choosing the proper valve for an application will be discussed here. which could rupture it.. material. Using expansion loops or offsets (Figure 9.. 9.J ~----Stem 9. Figure 9. If pipe expansion is completely prevented. size..- Figure9. not for throttling. Often a run of piping will have enough natural offsets to accommodate expansion. For large diameters.Lock nut Yoke nUl-_ _ __. butterfly valves have become popular in hydronic systems because they cost considerably less than globe valves.+ j Packing Gasket --->-F-?=~ ~_Body --Disc Seat ring . considerable forces and stresses may result in the piping. branch. Therefore..S OS&Y globe valve.r'-)~(- Guide L . This may be done by the following methods: 1.)fi-. DUCTS. Pipe lines in hydronic heating systems will therefore tend to expand from their initial lengths when brought up to system temperature. !' 'p- PIPING... Regulating or throttling flo\\" can be accomplished with globe.. y'W • . or unit where flow needs to be manually adjusted or balanced.. Of course. Loop ")~(-----':=--.:. Gland Bonnet . Failure to do so may result in broken piping and damaged equipment. However.. and temperature change. Use them for isolating equipment and sections of a system.\' .. angle. Use these valves in any section. This fact must be accounted for in the piping design and installation. particularly in small installations. The engineer provides for expansion where desirable and for proper anchoring of piping where expansion is undesirable . )( \ Anchor \ I L5----==---"' ~l=--f. needle. they should not be used where extremely tight shut-off or very close regulation is required." . Gate valves should be used only for stopping flow. " l .Offset 1: :.

the equipment is mounted on J . and where equipment connections are located. The hanger usually consists of a rod and a cradle. An example is where machinery is located on a lightweight penthouse floor above office spaces. Anchoring connections must be made so that any force is transmitted to a part of the building structure adequate to take the force. Vibrations may be transmitted to the building structure or to piping. or at one or more points along the height. and no further consideration is necessafy.1 I. Vertical piping may be supported at the. which are manufactured items. If extra hangers are needed after the construction is completed. The supports also mayor may not serve as anchors. however. they should not be installed in inaccessible locations. Branch connections must be provided with sufficient flexibility so as not to break.252 CHAPTER 9 2. It is sometimes necessary to solve this problem with the aid of the structural engineer. Reciprocating machinery generally creates more vibrations than rotating machinery. where expansion loops are provided. Location of anchoring points can be determined only by studying the particular installation. or at a number of points. hanger inserts are installed before the concrete is poured. The effect that expansion of a long run has on branchpiping must be provided for. In this case. ~ I2'ZZZ?J ~Swingjoint Pipe movement • Figure 9. If hung from the concrete floor slab above. There is a slip type where the pipe slides inside the joint. It may be best to anchor at both ends. 9. and there is a bellows type where the joint is a movable bellows. Pipe supports are necessary to carry the weight of the piping and water. but does not exclude the need to provide proper anchoring methods.10 Swing joint. depending on the length of the run. may be used. Both of these problems must be examined. Horizontal piping is supported by hangers. inserts can be driven into the concrete slab with a gunlike tool. where prevention of any transmission of vibration to the building structure is critical. as shown in Figure 9. This is done by offsets--changing directions at a branch connection. When vibration transmitted to the structure requires treatment' it may be reduced by use of heavy concrete foundations and by suitable machinery locations. or only in the middle. Equipment should not be used as anchoring points. Expansion joints are subject to wear and leakage and mnst be periodically inspected and maintained. but to prevent sag. Do not allow rigid connections to equipment where expansion occurs. j . Expansion joints. This type of offset is called a swing joint (Figure 9. There are cases. Supports must be provided at frequent enough intervals not only to carry the weight. the intensity of vibration produced by machinery may not be great enough to result in significant transmission to the piping or structure.bottom.9 VIBRATION Consideration must be given to possible vibrations occurring in the piping system. The provisions for expansion described above will result in. In some cases. Where considerable movement occurs.10). There are various types of cradles. use offsets or flexible connections. This requires careful planning and coordination between the HVAC and structural engineers. roll-type hangers should be used. Pumps and compressors usually are the source of vibrations.reduced forces at points where the piping is anchored. Movement at the offset then prevents a break. j . Access doors must be provided if they are located in shafts or otherwise closed in. Therefore.

. Use of flexible pipe connections to the troublesome machinery.12 Vil>ration isolation mountings. Use of isolation hangers. DUCTS. rubber. or steel springs (Figure 9.._----- -----~. Using an isolation material (cork.. spring hangers can be used. AND INSULATION 253 o o (a) Figure 9. felt) between the cradle and pipe may sometimes be adequate. (Courtesy: Vibration Mountings and Controls. flexible connections tend to become inflexible at high pressures.-----~------'---- PIPING. However. Isolating supports may be made of cork..12). vibration isolators. Figure 9.- (b) . One or more of the following procedures may be used when vibrations are transmitted to the piping: l. and the HVAC engineer should not hesitate to call on such help when necessary.-. For a more serious problem. VALVES. (b) Roller support and hanger. (a) Rubber pad.11 Pipe supports. Inc. (b) Spring..) (a) . _-_. Difficult vibration problems may require the aid of a specialist in these fields. 2. (a) Clevis support and hanger.

rock. Exposed piping and equipment. The question of what thickness of insulation to use is an important one. To reduce incorrect distribution of heat. In chilled water systems. that is. Pipe insulation may be furnished in blanket form or premolded to the size of the pipe to be covered. painted with a material which makes the surface smooth and stiff. whether insulated or not. This is usually done by trowelling on an insulating cement mixture. Use is now generally prohibited. the correct insulation thickness is generally that which provides the minimum owning and operating cost. (Courtesy: Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation. or glass fi bers. thermal insulation serves two purposes: 1. is usually painted when the installation . the less the energy losses. Vapor barriers are made from treated paper or aluminum foil.) Low thermal conductivity Noncombustible Not subject to deterioration or rot Adequate strength Pipe insulation may be made from natural materials such as wool. the insulation costs increase with thickness.13 Pipe insulation with vapor barrier covering. To reduce energy waste and possible increased size of heating or refrigerating equipment. The rubber serves as both a thermal insulation and vapor barrier.254 CHAPTER 9 9. Asbestos was formerly used as a pipe insulation because of its excellent insulating properties and inflammability. The prevention of condensation is achieved by covering the insulation with a material that serves as a vapor barrier. shaped insulation is also available for some typical fittings.10 PIPE INSULATION Thermal insulation should be used on all cold or hot hydronic system pipiug. There are a great many materials from which pipe insulation may be made. When exposed. . which have an extremely low thermal conductivity and other excellent properties. cork. On both hot and chilled water systems. A good insulation should have the following characteristics: 1. Uninsulated piping may result in the water being at an unsatisfactory temperature when it reaches the conditioned spaces. 4. 3. Therefore. it is also necessary to prevent condensation of moisture from the air on the outside of the cold piping. synthetic materials such as polyurethane have been developed. however.13). and thus operating costs are reduced. It is impervious to the flow of the water vapor in the air. The installer must take special care not to cover operating parts of valves or removable flanges when applying the insulation. Molded sponge rubber insulation is very popular on small diameter chilled water lines. The surface is then sized. the surface of insulation is often provided with a canvas cover. Usually the manufacturer furnishes it already wrapped on the insulation (Figure 9. 2. special techniques are required to safely remove it. thus resulting in low labor costs. which could both damage the insulation and drip onto surrounding surfaces. and rubber. felt. The latter is preferable because it requires less labor and will have a neater appearance. 2. because the particles can cause a form of lung cancer. However. In recent years. Figure 9. Fittings and valves are also insulated. The greater the thickness. It is very easy to cut and install. For existing systems that have asbestos insulation. Premolded.

The standards depend on the air pressure in the duct. 5. the transition should preferably have a slope of 7: I and should not be less than 4: I to minimize pressure loss (Figure 9. 2. This must be checked with the plans of ducts. 3. Piping should avoid penetration of beams or other structural members. In recent years. w. and methods of joining sections.1 4 shows a transition and branch fitting for minimum pressure loss. such as the operating engineer's office. Direction changes should be minimized to reduce the number of fittings. lines should be stenciled with their proper names and direction of flow at reasonable intervals. 9. Rectangular-shaped sheet metal duct is most commonly used in lower pressure HVAC applications (up to 3 in. Provide a short pipe connection and gate valve at all low points in order to drain the system. but it will have a greater branch pressure loss. Provide air vent devices at all high points (see Chapter 11). 7. nor safety and code requirements. that is.urn PIPING.has established standards for construction of ductwork. These are usually numbered. it is less expenc sive than rectangular duct for high pressure systems. and so on. 6. For example. Figure 9. The most commonly used material for general HVAC ducts is galvanized steel sheet metal. Machine-made round sheet metal duct is popular in high velocity. such as stainless steel. The installation should provide simple access to and maintenance of equipment. 1. VALVES. High pressure systems require stronger construction. DUCTS. AND INSULATION ~<""'-'< 255 is completed.12 DUCT CONSTRUCTION 9. Glass fiber ducts are recommended only for low pressure systems. 8.11 THE PIPING INSTALLATION Some good general practices for installing the piping system will be listed here. SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association) . methods of bracing and reinforcing the duct to prevent collapse or sagging. Piping should generally be parallel to building walls. Exhausts from kitchens and chemical laboratories are examples where special materials would be required. and a key list is made identifying them by crossreferencing. The piping location must not affect the building function. Round flexible duct is often used to make final connections to air diffusers. the structural engineer must be consulted. to make operation and maintenance easier. . These standards specify the sheet metal thickness (gage). 9. the piping is often color-coded. lighting. Where this is unavoidable. more corrosion-resistant materials are used. unless minimum pressure loss is important. each system is painted a different color. Rectangular duct is usually made to order for each job.:. When the air being carried is corrosive. Brass name tags should always be furnished and attached to valves. do not run piping in front of a control panel. In any case. I 5 shows a simpler lower cost fitting. The piping must not interfere with installations of other trades. static pressure). molded glass fiber ducts have also come into use.• 1 lC l . although heavy gage rectangular duct is also used. This list does not include special features peculiar to each project. Both for this reason and because round duct is lighter in gage. An obvious example is running piping across a door opening. Round duct is fabricated by machinery in standard diameters. both for appearance and protection. copper.g. When lines carrying different fluids exist. because this permits the contractor to make small adjustments in the location of the diffuser.16). Figure 9. Rectangular duct fittings are very expensive because of the labor cost involved and should be as simple as possible. or aluminum. When changing duct shapes. 4. high pressure systems. Install horizontal piping with a slight pitch and take all branch connections from the top so that any entrapped air will flow to high points. The details of recommended duct construction can be found in SMACNA publications. This list should be mounted in a highly visible place.

It is not unusual to find installations losing 10% or more of the design air flow due to poor installation.17). Slope b:a of 7:1 preferred Slope b:a of 4:1 minimum recommended . When changing direction. see the ASHRAE Systems Volume. For further information. Insulation comes in either rigid board or blanket form (Figure 9. Ducts are frequently lined internally with acoustical insulation to absorb sound. However. If short radius or square elbows are necessary to save space. round elbows with a wide sweep radius should be used to keep pressure loss low. The vapor barrier is usually aluminum foil. Glass fiber or similar material with a high thermal resistance is used for insulation. Figure 9. the insulation is covered with a vapor barrier to prevent condensation of water on cold ducts.19). turning vanes should be installed in the elbow (Figure 9. The ductwork standards described here apply to commercial applications. In addition.17 Square elbow with turning vane.18). Heavier ducts require angle iron support cradles suspended from rods (Figure 9. Small horizontal ductwork is supported by sheet metal straps. care must be taken that the glass fibers do not flake off in the air stream and get delivered to the occupied space. Figure 9. Duct connections to fans and air distribution devices will be discussed in Chapter 10. The rigid board costs considerably more and is used only when the duct is exposed and appearance is important or abuse is likely. There is concern that inhaled glass fibers may cause serious lung disease. Duct joints should be made as tight as possible to reduce air leakage.15 Branch connection with high pressure loss. 9. Ducts for residential use are simpler in construction and will not be described here.256 CHAPTER 9 Figure 9. using a sealant if necessary.16 Recommended slope for duct transition.13 DUCT INSULATION Ducts carrying hot or cold air are covered with thermal insulation to reduce heat loss. the acoustical lining often also serves as thermal insulation. In this case.14 Branch connection with low pressure loss. Figure 9.

List the pipe fittings described in this chapter and explain their uses.) (a) (b) . AND INSULATION 257 k---Rods---I . 5. (b) Trapeze hanger.-_Metal_-. 7. DUCTS. (a) Blanket.PIPING. 2. List the good practices for duct design and installation. Discuss the features and uses of rectangular and round ducts. VALVES. List recommended good practices for pipe installation. straps Screws Angle iron Nuts (a) (b) Figure 9.18 Duct hangers.19 Duct insulation. Describe the joining methods used for copper tubing and steel pipe. S. Review Questions 1. 3. List the major types of valves and their uses. What are the two forms of duct insulation? What is a vapor barrier? 9. 4. 6. (b) Rigid board. List the types of materials used for HVAC ducts and their applications. Figure 9. Describe the systems for specifying wall thicknesses of both steel pipe and copper tubing. (a) Strap hanger. (Courtesy: Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation.

and backward inclined types. and vaneaxial types. we will discuss air distribution devices and their selection and sound control in air distribution systems. which differ in the . The air is usually collected by a scroll casing and concentrated in one direction (Figure 10. 6.1).2). In addition. radial. In an axial flow fan. direction of air flow through the fan. 2. Use the fan laws to determine the effect of changed conditions. Analyze the sound conditions in an air distribution system. centrifugal fans and axialflolV fans. F and some installation and energy conservation recommendations. Distinguish the types of fans and their characteristics. 10. 4. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal fans may be subclassified into forward curved. 5. Select a fan. After that.c H A p T E R Fans andAir Distribution Devices ans are necessary to distribute air through equipment and through ductwork to spaces that are to be air conditioned. tubeaxial. which differ in the shape of their impeller blades (Figure 10. backward curved blades with a double-thickness blade are called aiifoil blades. 3.1 FAN TYPES Axial Fans Axial fans may be subclassified into propeller. Select an air distribution device. you will be able to: I.3). In the first part of this chapter. we will study types of fans and their perfonnance. and construction. air is pulled along the fan shaft and then blown radially away from the shaft. air is pulled along the fan shaft and then blown along in the same direction (Figure 10. The propeller fan 258 Fans may be classified into two main types. Distinguish the types of air distribution devices and their applications. In a centrifugal fan. application. selection. backward curved.

3 Types of centrifugal fan impeller blades. To overcome this resistance..2 FAN PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS In the general discussion on fluid flow (Chapter 8).. ~C@)~ Radial blade Backward inclined Airfoil 10. Other performance characteristics of importance are efficiency and brake horsepower (BHP). caused by friction..) shown in Figure 10. The volume flow rate of air delivered and the pressure created by the fan are called performance characteristics. The tubeaxial fan shown in Figure IO..• tOO 2? " . Figure 10.4(b) has a vaned wheel mounted in a cylinder. i. .4(c) and 10. plied to the air. (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company.1 Centrifugal fan. energy in the form of pressure must be sup- cw~~ Radial tip Backward curved Forward curved . The vaneaxial fan in Figures IO. airfoil blade type.. This is accomplished by the rotating fan impeller. . (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company.4(a).2 Vaneaxial fan.cr.• . ~. which exerts a force on the air. Figure 10.: ••.) Figure 10. except that it also has guide vanes behind the fan blades which improve the direction of air flow through the fan. to the flow of air through ducts. ·.i·. FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 259 . we noted that there is a resistance.. resulting in both flow of the air and an increase in its pressure.2 is similar to the tubeaxial type. consists of a propeller-type wheel mounted on a ring or plate. (~.

Figures 10.. Mechanical efficiency Flow rate. The BHP required for the forward curved blade fan increases sharply with flow. but with the backward curved blade fan. and then falls off. CFM .g. 4..6 are typical performance curves for forward and Figure 10.. Q5 ~ 0 . Ib/ft 3 ME = mechanical efficiency = air horsepower outputIBHP input Ht -{ Fan performance is best understood when presented in the form of curves.6 Typical performance characteristics of a backward curved blade centrifugal fan.g. Hs = static pressure. \V. w. BHP = brake horsepower input N = speed. 2. then the pressure drops off as flow increases.260 CHAPTER 10 Stationary vanes (a) (b) (e) Figure 10. w. A higher maximum efficiency can often be achieved with a backward curved blade fan.t:= Brake horsepower Flow rate. = total pressure.5 Typical performance characteristics of a forward curved blade centrifugal fan. inches of water gage (in.Q f/) ---'--~ Mechanical efficiency Brake ..3 FAN SELECTION The choice of the best type of fan to be used for a given application depends on the fan performance Figure 10.4 Types of axial flow fans. revolutions per min (RPM) d = air density.--~~ Static <l> >. CFM = volume flow rate.5 and 10. 00·Q). the BHP increases only gradually. For both forward curved and backward curved blade centrifugal fans.. in. (e) Vaneaxial. peaks at a maximum.g... Some important features seen are: I. 10. (a) Propeller. ft 3/min backward curved bladed centrifugal fans. 3. (b) Tubeaxial. in. the pressure developed has a slight peak in the middle range of flow.: ::J C 0 Q) pressure o:~o "''''0. Efficiency is highest in the middle ranges of flow. The following symbols and definitions will be used in discussing fan performance. Knowledge of the fan performance is useful for correct fan selection and proper operating and troubleshooting procedures. . CFM .) Hv = velocity pressure.

tables are used more often than curves for fan selection. Manufacturer's fan ratings are presented as either performance curves (Figure 10... but usually have lower operating costs due to high efficiency.S -. In effect. but if not.7) or tables (Table 10. (We will discuss the fan-system interaction in more detail shortly. The operating cost will often be higher. They usually produce a higher noise level than centrifugal fans and therefore may require greater sound reduction treatment. Performance curves at different air conditions may be available from the manufacturer. . and therefore replace a large number of curves. g (fJ '" '" 0). The limiting horsepower characteristic reduces the possibility of overloading the motor or electrical distribution system if the fan is delivering more air than it was designed for. However. Backward (curved or inclined) blade centrifugal fans are generally more expensive than forward curved types. Centrifugal fans are the most commonly used type in ducted air conditioning systems.075 Ib/ft3 at 70 F and 29. the duct system static pressure resistance (duct Hs) is first calculated using the procedures explained in Chapter 8. they may be predicted from the fan laws to be described in a later section.92 in. the fan must develop a static pressure (fan Hs) and CFM equal to the system requirements. Fans are usually rated with air at standard conditions: a density of 0. the next task is to determine the proper size to be used.. Propeller fans cannot create a high pressure and are thus used where there is little or no ductwork. 4 a. Performance curves enable the engineer to visualize changes in static pressure. diameter backward inclined blade centrifugal fan at 1440 RPM.4 FAN RATINGS . thus making them undesirable for air conditioning systems.or window-installed exhaust fans.. Operating near maximum efficiency generally results in the lowest noise output by a fan. These fans are often used in packaged air conditioning units because of low cost. They are low in cost. the operating condition of maximum efficiency is not apparent when using tables. however.) Figure 10. Manufacturer's data are then used to select a fan that will produce the required CFM against the system static pressure resistance.. and efficiency easily.S 0) '". Note that each fan curve represents the performance at a specific fan speed and air den. Curves and tables each have their good and bad features. For this reason. but for now we will focus on the fan selection.7 Performance curves of a 33 in. Airfoil bladed fans have the highest efficiency of any type.1000's 30 :l§ 0 0 40 . The rising BHP characteristic curve could result in overloading the motor if operated at a condition beyond the selected CFM. C> 10. Vaneaxial fans are suitable for ducted air conditioning systems. due to lower efficiency. and typical applications are as wall...6 / ::. Tables list fan performance at different speeds.1) for each fan size. The air distribution from tubeaxial fans is uneven.• n· YYAY »< TUYS FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 261 .. Some manufacturers resolve this by noting the point of maximum efficiency on their tables (usually in boldface). Hg.. 2 / II 0 / I-- B~P ""'" H-"" s I" 1"- '\ 60 w ::?: "0 1\ '\ 40 c: 20 co I !L '" \ 1\ 10 20 CFM. sity. k-M~ / 80 ~ 0 After the best type of fan is selected for an application. Tubeaxial and vaneaxial fans can be used in ducted systems.i 8 .. To select a fan. BHP. Their compact physical construction is useful when space is limited.' . Forward curved blade centrifugal fans are usually lower in initial cost than backward blade types for the same performance. characteristics and other features that will be discussed.

47 8.63 4:98 5.... . .29 1.49 4..89 1..87 2.... .96 2.46 ILl 1 11.91 7.41 7.57 ..22 .93.28 . BHP RPM .55 2. 551 566 585 608 633 660 688 716 745 775 806 837 869 .09 3..55 5.39 1.40 2..62 6.92 7.26 4. LN 1.24 5.4-sP I· %-sp RPM BHP RPM BHP 376 395 421 450 481 514 547 582 618 654 691 728 765 804 842 881 920 960 998 1037 1077 1117 II 56 1196 1237 1277 1316 1356 1396 1437 1477 .03 2..47 1400 629 .88 2. .65 982 1.66 .""' ..69 1.67 5.45 3..75 4.05 3...76 4.46 5..94 1.94 2. .54 3... ...45 3.20 5.76 1.79 4...13 2000 863 1..80 2.40 2.55 . ..59 .16 2.15 .88 6.20 2..63 . .% 8..59 2700 1142 2..23 1000 ..38 4..044..69 4..47 2.07 1.67 ..47 3.00 5.42 4.02 4.. .94 8..60 2..00 1..96 I.04 3.42 156 1'l4-SP 2"SP RPM BHP RPM BHP .31 . .51 3..28 5.72 4. ' ' .84 4.81 3.09 4.11 2.37 .89 ..92 2...24 6.29 ..92 2..88 3. .49 4..4-SP 2"SP BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP . 744 753 770 791 815 842 870 900 932 963 995 1028 1061 10951130 1165 1200 1...34 .82 2..... .19 3. .23 2.35 5:72 6.07 5.32 6.16 ..38 . ..4-SP 1-SP 1 "i. .28 2.30 2.. 2.79 1.56 4.4"7 ..73 2. . .85 . .. -..24 1..16 4.62 .33 1103 5. ' 445 465 488 5[4 542 570 600 630 661 693 715 758 791 824 857 891 926 961 996 1030 1066 1101 1136 1171 1206 1242 1278 1313 1349 BHP RPM .4-SP 1-SP 1"kSP BHP BHP .81 2..31 2. .49 .92 3400 1426 5. 1..87 3.58 1.642.23 2..38 4. .08 6.54 .29 1..05 2. ..60 7..47 1..02 6..85 2800 1183 3.18 9...72 1135 6.82 .29 .. ...43 .75 5.41 5.62 5.20 133 1....67 2. 482 . ..74 5.44 3000 1264 3.41 1...23 1.58 2. .45 2200 942 1..16 4.79 .72 1.35 .40 1300 592 .20 3..45 BHP RPM . ....23 1......99 7......80 1397 10.86 2300 2400 1023 2. 876 895 917 941 967 996 1025 1056 1088 1119 1151 1184 1217 1251 1285 1320 1355 1390 1425 1461 1498 1535 1571 1608 2..95 8.54 1.63 3.32 2. .25 4. .68 4.79 .73 .262 CHAPTER 10 TABLE 10.52 7.2 9.87 4.55 1263 8. .75 .45 1.38 .2 .72 2.53 3..40.69 6..79 2..79 .35 3500 1466 5.96 1072 5.01 3.55 1. .11 777 789 805 825 847 871 896 923 951 979 1007 1036 1065 1095 1126 1157 1188 1220 1251 1283 1315 1348 1382 1415 1448 2.53 9.91 4.76 ..11 2. 805 816 834 855 880 906 934 964 995 1027 1058 1090 1123 1157 1191 1226 1261 1296 1331 1367 1403 1440 1477 1514 1552 1590 .5"J 1.01 3.57 1. .00 4.65 5.98 .66 7..85 5.22 3..15 .63 841 2.71 1..42 815 2...15 4.00 2..99 ..70 .26 1011 4.31 7. .89 3.83 5.54 5....32 .94 2.83 10.40 4. 1.84 2.9S -4.26 4..39 1..18 .27 ..96 3.41 1. .94 ..28 .61 .60 5..' . .54 3.22 655 689 723 758 793 828 864 899 934 969 1005 1041 1077 1113 1149 1185 1221 1257 1294 1330 .3...38 3.15 3.75 3.97 1.18 1..76 3.74 1..00 2.87 1800 785 . . ..30 .09 1. . . .7.53 2.4-sp RPM 292 316 344 373 403 434 466 499 533 566 601 636 671 707 741 777 812 848 884 921 956 992 1028 BHP .26 1.S-SP 11. . " ..12 3..26 3..21 2..87 2.14 3200 1345 4.04 5. . .00 Ll2 1...26 3.21 792 2.75 3..65 1600 707 . .. .55 2.85 4.12 7.58 .61 8.93 4.75 1..51 1.44 6.96 8..82 4..60 1041 ·4.74 4. ...21 5.56 1500 668 .12 895 3..46 7.97 L09 1.92 7. ... .00 3.94 8.52 .53 .45 8...43 6.40 1.35 5. j 2502 2919 3336 3753 4170 4587 5004 5421 5838 6255 6672 7089 7506 7923 8340 8757 9174 9591 10008 10425 10842 11259 11676 12093 12510 12927 13344 13761 14178 14595 500 325 . . 613 629 650 676 703 733 765 796 828 861 895 930 965 1000 1036 1073 I I 10 1147 1184 1222 1259 1297 1335 1373 1412 1450 1490 1529 . .78 .19 5. -.. .... .16 6.02 5.40 BHP RPM ..92 6.33 ...37 3.01 7.54 CFM 2575 3090 3605 4120 4635 5150 5665 6180 6695 7210 7725 8240 8755 9270 9785 10300 10815 11330 11845 12360 12875 13390 13905 14420 14935 15450 15965 16480 16995 17510 18025 OV "i..52 .51 ..10 6.08 1.24 2.. .35 ..99 1.24 ..37 924 3....86 7.82 6.90 5. ..43 4.02 8.81 5....40 2..&. . " . .62 1.94 5.19 .99 1900 823 1.80 .53 2.98 1..81 .76 4.' 617 631 651 673 697 723 751 779 807 837 867 897 928 960 992 1023 1056 1089 1122 1156 1190 1224 1257 1291 1325 1360 1394 1.79 5.87 1.97 6.16 800 414 .73 J..26 7.19 .86 .07 2. .05 5.74 7.64 1.14 8...55 9.87 868 3.11 6.. .16 3..54 6..61 860 896 933 969 1006 IO·B 1080 1119 1158 1196 1236 1174 1313 1353 1392 1430 1469 1509 ..50 S-B 87R 9U 9-48 983 1018 1053 1088 1124 1160 1196 1232 1268 1304 1340 '" 2.08 1..63 6...46 5.56 5.91 3..13 .61 1198 7..44 7.OI 3. .68 .05 4..13 2. 686 702 723 748 775 804 834 866 897 930 963 997 1031 1066 .71 .13 2900 1223 3..75 1.39 7..31 3.78 .1 .35 . 1.58 9.37 ... . ...88 1.89 1.. . .16 2.42 735 1... .40 2. 1....28 2100 903 1. .. .35 6.92 6.86 750 2.42 ..02 2.79-· 2..48 2. 532 548 572 ...16 RPM BHP 339 11trSP RPM BHP RPM .43 1431 11.20 1.39 1.28 1100 518 .38 3.50 8.42 ..1...235 1271 1308 1344 1381 1419 1456 1494 1531 1569 1..z-SP RPM BHP .57 .49 1.45 7. .91 . .36 4. . 394 412 435 461 489 518 548 578 609 &.2.08 1297 8.43 7.67 6.56 1.21 .73 1.09 1.10 1. "'.42 3.96 3.50 2....08 4..18 .60 2.rSP 5.. " .07 4.54 4.13 1.47 5. .45 725 1.l3 1.S1 2.36 3.87 6.()<) 1..95 2.15 3.32 4.67 1...64 1.47 ...29 3.20 6. 863.07 6.56 1.03 2.16 9.16 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 356 379 405 433 463 492 524 556 589 6.58 6.26 6_75 7.44 2.24 .98 6.28 3..5 I 1.34 1200 555 .52 3300 1385 4.63 6.68 2...76 1700 745 . .33 2600 1102 2.69 .66 9..81 .86 3. .42 ...50 ..21 3.02 5.. f'J.11 1. .66 .71 5.74 3.14 .39 1.05 3.59 7..44 6..79 6.88 3.l3 627 658 689 7" 755 789 82~ I.59 3..33 4.40 1..00 7. .45 3.49 6. .99 9. . wheel diameter) CFM OV 1.43 2.20 5.19 900 447 ..34 AI .95 6..02 770 2.59 1..76 .01 2..80 8.59 1.53 3.62 L78 1. .34 1.89 1.72 4. .95 7..70 .15 1167 6.21 4..49 .06 6.10 600 351 .00 2. 669 678 693 712 734 758 783 810 839 867 896 925 955 986 1017 1049 1080 IIl2 1144 1177 1210 1243 1277 1311 1345 1379 1413 LID 1.75 5. .00 1.00 1. ..22 . .14 5..... .78 .36 2.' 13.64 2..2~ 2085 j ! j j j j ..6+ 3.46 .66 2..13 700 382 .41 6..45 .79 1102 1137 1173 1210 1247 1284 1321 1359 1397 1434 1472 1510 1549 1.....87 .25 4.61 1. ..81 10.57 3..05 5.74 1. '-' ..95 7..84 4.32 2.84 433 BHP .14 1.61 .94 3..69 .81 3.92 4.-G 2. .23 1.44 5.05 4.21 1363 9..00 598 ..17 3.31 2..13 234 2..63 2.37 1.95 7.78 3100 1304 4....91 900 933 966 999 1032 1066 1100 1134 1168 1202 1236 1271 1306 1341 1377 1065 1101 1138 1174 1211 1247 1284 1320 4.44 1.23 1.24 2..07 12-sp RPM 438 458 484 513 543 575 609 642 677 714 749 786 823 860 898 936 975 1014 1053 1092 1131 1170 1209 1"49 1289 1328 1368 1408 1449 1489 %-sp RPM 481 495 516 542 571 602 634 667 700 734 770 806 842 878 915 952 990 1028 1068 1106 1145 1184 1223 P62 1301 1340 1379 1419 1459 1499 3.09 2500 1062 2.45 6.77 3.69 5.27 tAJ 1.47 5.76 6..36 .48 3..96 3..26 .47 1...60 6.. . .54 8.4-sP 3.06 1231 7.58 ..40 5.69 5.1 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL AIRFOIL BLADE CENTRIFUGAL FANS (27 in.12 674 707 741 774 808 RPM 478 49-' 514 538 565 592 620 650 680 710 742 774 807 839 872 906 939 973 1007 IO·B 1077 1112 1147 1182 1218 1253 1288 1323 U5B BHP RPM BHP RPM .64 1330 9.65 952 H4 981 4.25 lAO 1.S-SP 3..14 5. .. . .12 5.._ 1.

..45 1. ...50 6. .~~~: 1700 ~~~ 579 1.81 621 644 1.66 1050 10049 1078 11. ..04 1061 6..41 397 .11 9.. .19 692 3.73 916 730 944 7.51 977 10..69 819: 3.78 1.59 .79 2. .59 898 8..96 10. .70 14.97 1154 1184 1214 1245 9. ...65 1180 937 1211 10.15 535 1.51 3. . .08 2.. .26 1..05 585 231 612 2.01 1002 6...74 11.86 1099 I: I 11.97 973 8.. .58 826 857 3..52 11.00 821 6.8711193 19..54 964 8.87 665 3..95 814 845 3.68 4.15 831 5.28 12.69 753 4.77 584 2.. ••..01 3.02 1064 10.•.36 .80 .80 821 5..~ .23 722 4.74 3.42 1. .85 5..47 4.lo 11118 &.72 . . .. ..24 484 1.74 488 .39 590 2. .16 4.39 .69 491 .51 15. . 317 ..51 LI27.08 ~I 2.76 6.15 653 675 2.57 8..98 ~: 5. .40 950 977 6. .43. . 625 636 649 665 682 701 722 743 765 787 811 835 859 884 909 934 959 985 1011 1037 1063 1089 1116 1142 1169 3.51 373 . 351 ..90 631 3.... ~~m~_~410~~aW~_~_'~=I_ .99 857 4. .42 1... ..27 1..77 403 .07 1.84 7..46 599 1.05 598 231 625 2.73 886 914 4..64 3.92 684 2.16 3..96 8..42 349 .51 1032 7.59 1. ..46 746 772 799 3. .19 1161 8..46 833 3.15 1004 11.81 2.73 423 .82 496 526 .75 925 7.44 9.13 ..52 1084 13..37 954 7..80 10.04 SA3 5..% 935 7.09 460 1.39 513 1. .80 ~=:~:~~~=~=~~~:~=~~~::~ 2200 756 2.. .. .40 703 2....54 2.12 822 4.~~ ~!~ Z.55 7. ...47 1.62 1.23 .23 287 .55 6.88 6S0 3.. ..."uu OV 4..FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES TABLE 10.48 587 612 1. .03 928 959 991 939 4....85 838 868 3..~3 ..51 <w :.02 801 833 16902 2700 17528 I :~~ 18154 I z'uu =I=:~=I~=!~=~=~:~:~=~I. ...03 3. .68 ..03 611 230 626 2..79 10.69 IIUU 5. .12 I~?: ~.61 .71 2.29 775 4.2t 5.59 11.90 1230 11.55 1169 to.82 559 2.00 475 1. 385 398 414 433 454 477 500 524 548 574 599 625 651 678 704 731 758 785 813 841 868 897 925 953 981 1010 1038 1067 1095 . .4-sP 3.35 14.36 3. ."/j) ~.84 7.89 957 1117 7.2-sP RPM BHP Sz-SP RPM BHP "M-sp RPM BHP .06 839 539 859 5.37 129314.48 3. ..01 1..23 1034 9.27 1 I::: .28 305 .19 652 3.03 872 7..55 350 .14 1059 10..06 5. 13.! 7512 8138 8764 =I~=~~:~~=~:I::::~=~~~~~~~ 1200 446 . .. . ....44 •••.56 556 1.05 457 1.35 326 325 ..26 337 . .11 708 3.88 1087 11. . ....13 862 892 4..84 951 9.51 4.61 668 2.. .89 1021 9.88 8. ..61 1..69 1001 9.16 564 1.. ..38 906 6.76 634 2.23 1198 10.. . .77 7.89 2.58 440 . .04 771 5.94 3.6311262 ~:~~ :!~ ~:~~ i: :~.::~:I'~~ 1~ cSP 2-SP BHP IRP...24 10.66 351 674 4..86 .04 770 4. ... .17 992 8....13 4..96 8..26 849 5.s-Sp RPM BHP RPM BHP 235 ...82 4.58 .39 770 2.69 4.08 1136 1169 1201 1231 '.59 651 2.62 374 .34 529 1. .96 1..73 3.91 830 5.21 887 6..96 1..17 946 7.95 2..75 .90 5. .... :j~ :~:i~ 10.. ..46 12.~8: 1002 '5.62 9.04 598 2...~~: 960 1078 IllI 1144 1177 6.22 .53 13.48 2. ...97 :. .18 924 8. .64 5.63 12. .87 0'0 957 5.96 12.69 1057 12. .88 5.50 ..34 456 471 489 510 531 553 577 601 625 651 676 701 727 753 780 807 834 860 886 915 944 971 998 1027 1057 1086 1114 1.43 .43 491 509 524 541 562 582 604 627 651 675 699 724 749 775 801 827 853 880 906 933 959 986 1014 1043 1071 1098 1126 .23 CFM 3830 4596 5362 6128 6894 7660 8426 9192 9958 10724 11490 12256 13022 13785 14554 15320 16086 16852 17618 18384 19150 19916 20682 21448 22214 22980 23746 24512 25278 26044 26810 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 1.60 14.60 534 1.26 6. .~I::~ ~9~1~7 cc'" I 3. .75 1300 1400 476 506 .4.45 1<'.64 1263 13.. ....77 8. . ... .56 736 3.32 367 .92 696 3..64 783 2.31 2.67 859 6. .31 553 10642 11268 :I:==I~::~~I:~=I::::::~:~:~.59 468 . I~:.16 573 2.41 1.25 7.:~: :.66 615 645 676 1...11 2..89 1031 11...1089 9.16 896 653 916 6.53 9...79 8.07 2.38 388 ..72 11~~1 12.17 502 1..51 846 7.18 273 . .~~ I .76 13.51 ·796 6.. .48 1043 10..46 1335 1112 14.80 878 6...15 .28 9.... ... .34 10.64 9.23 712 3... .50 880 4.78 9.71 393 . ..30 1072 10. . . . .21 11..66 5.:~ ~g~ :~~.52 924 6..27 255 . . 317 332 350 371 394 417 1-SP RPM BHP .67 1.83 8.84 3.84 444 1.42 1030 10. .12 1.23 3.16 3.88 747 4..25 1..60 1..95 1097 7.44 846 .. 3756 600 282 .59 541 1.21 485 1.10 6. . .31 1.02 984 8.50 10..63 11.04 2300 2400 787 2.54 1129 7. .02 527 1.58 638 2.07 4.~ 11. .3 7.. . 9.34 663 691 720 2..32 2.83 4.. .42 508 1.~~~ ~i: :g. .32 908 936 5.84 6.. wheel diameter) 'A-sp %-sp 'a-SP !iscSP.~~ J. . ..4-SP 112-SP 2-SP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP .18 7.57 5.95 764 4.65 377 .Lj o>w 13772 14398 15024 598 630 661 1.00 1061 8.. ..8~ 544 571 2.75 583 592 605 620 637 657 677 698 720 743 767 791 815 840 865 890 916 942 968 994 1020 1047 1074 1101 1127 1153 2.78 6. ..98 1148 8. ..89 2..94 436 1.71 803 5...46 16040 17. .87 508 1.34 2. ... . 546 2. 13.. .89 11. .sp I RPM I BHP ffiI". .32 640 259 655 2....~:i~ I:~~1 ~:!~ I :~6! ~~! I:: 1107 1139 1171 1203 7.31 5..91 796 3.. .. .P 1'A-SP I RPM I BHP I RPM ~ I RPM I BHP IRPM BHP I RPM BHP I RPM BHP 302 .47 799 4. . ~:~~ :~~ ::!~ 20032 3200 20658 3300 ~~~ I ~ ZIYlU I I 1I I .28 2. I BHP I RPM I BHP 3130 500 261 ...11 647 ~~~ /00 1... 360 .16 562 11.42 1088 1122 1154 1186 6.21 2046 2.86 1.50 426 .63 5.99 516 544 1...60 9. .. "M-sp 1-'. . ..69 7...99 8.34 4..87 634 6.90 430 ..40 12.6S 1...76 7.. ~....57 810 4..38 8. .1 CFM OV 263 (Continued) (33 in..22 7.48 414 .30 4.46 300 ..28 8..53 719 3.36 II !~~ lUI 1204 11. ..17 808 3.35 798 4.62 6.14 337 3.21 3.70 .63 610 3.28 3.30 6.22 1.29 725 3.83 414 . .06 9. .. . . ..90 5.61 397 .74 8.96 .58 692 719 747 2. ...35 385 .24 1141 15.19 4382 700 306 .87 698 437 4.55 15..16 7.36 5.42 .10 9... .03 228 2.61 741.56 7.51 3.37 980 1012 1044 6. :.28 .33 3.52 2. 1.70 8..86 1234 12.22 Y.74 950 971 5.80 975 8.59 867 5..54 359 .94 887 6.. .-3.86 449 1.89 : 1022 1051 1081 735 7.88 631 661 691 1..47 16.57 3~ 772 ?97 822 3.89 8.78 4. .07 10. . ..01 720 746 773 2.93 6. .79 4.36 7.0 12.41 5. .34 348 ...59 538 1. . .05 6.13 7.00 I ~~I.40 4. ...87 3. . 11. . .68 12.32 5.38 792 4.80 569 1. 5008 800 332 .4-SP RPM BHP 442 467 -192 518 1.... ....32 1.88 13.12 782 4. . .. .. .96 430 4.93 .61 746 5.77 10.32 277 .00 4.23 4. .10 1.. .73 1014 9.50 1005 8.YI I OUZo 5.94 558 2.98 2.50 11. ..55 2.07 ~.. .15 7..

76 3...91 475 2...17 413 1. .94 7.40 4..71 8... .40 9... .75 4..52 318 . as Example 10.72 460 1..07 8.81 6.. .17 508 2..87 1.51 604 3.13 944 14..66 .. .74 8.47 301 ..07 836 9.51 8.:SP 1~SP Z"SP BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP 22344 23275 24206 25137 26068 26999 27930 28861 29792 30723 31654 32585 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 .68 886 11.1.19 12.07 16.41 13.78 544 3. The .65 7..7 develop at a delivery of 20. . 7:! 12.13 7.43 2.27 15.09 6...47 432 1.08 670 5..29 3.90 629 4.95 789 8...39 10..95 761 7.63 1.67 460 1.19 9.61 10.21 8.56 845 10. . Hs = 6 in. .91 727 6. Perhaps a more efficient choice exists. at the intersection of 20.54 12.g..15 861 10.. .. Either basis is satisfactory for low velocity systems. Example 10.08 555 3. ...59 96? .43 4.40 1. ..68 453 1..85 9.. ... w..56 13...36 869 11.11 796 8.56 19..28 16.9:37 10.94 14.88 9.34 702 5.48 6.. In our examples.45 438 1. w.52 5.61 .30 3.72 1. .57 936 13. .77 911 12.09 10.75 602 4.04 558 3.84 11.07 394 1.:!:! 5.47 591 3. ..51 19. However. ...02 6.25 722 6.92 11.76 6.34 17. wheel diameter) 1.000 CFM? What will be the brake horsepower (BHP) and mechanical efficiency (ME) at this condition? Solution Using Figure 10.44 511 2.12 392 1.g. .39 288 . ...36 6. . .trSp "k-sp 1-SP 'iirsP "kSP 11<4-SP 11J. .09 717 6.66 741 7. a smaller fan might be found.. .26 .35 14.31 15.96 . .93 15.72 339 .46 .19 10.87 2.12 12.75 350 . . .91 8.99 6.97 373 1.60 786 8.68 650 5.28 5.92 3.58 2.16 392 1..47 520 2. I and 10.92 373 1..81 5..37 580 3.. .. .38 1.06 8..47 771 8.09 15. it is simpler to use fan tables for selection.40 3.87 615 4. ..0412.264 CHAPTER 10 (Continued) (40 1/4 in.81 677 5.61 647 5. .50 7.14 17...59 11. 1.38 838 10.13 2.67 335 ..10 4.72 537 3.58 9.69 6.37 11.22 3.~ ~~ ~~ j . static pressure.16 919 13.52 3.51 248 259 276 293 313 333 354 376 399 422 446 470 494 519 543 567 592 616 641 666 691 716 742 768 793 819 845 870 896 921 947 .. w.48 4.83 10...05 3.36 2. ... .. Assume that energy conservation is important.. we also note BHP=27 HP ME=80% This example does not indicate if there are better choices of fans to deliver 20.90 9..35 427 1.g.2 illustrate the use of fan manufacturers' curves and tables.77 664 5.. it is sometimes more accurate to use total pressure (see Chapter 8)..57 8.62 3..16 674 5.13 2.59 911 12.52 6.. ..73 ..67 5..70 2...85 747 7.28 412 1.14 14.23 894 12..57 693 6.1 What static pres~ure (Hs) will the fan whose performance curves are shown in Figure 10..92 468 2.78 555 3. . ..98 751 776 802 827 852 878 903 929 955 .22 6.08 5...53 443 1.25 13.99 7..24 17.56 9.35 8..86 861 10.94 5...17 624 4. For high velocity systems. 1. .89 4...31 18.44 18. .n 11.... .99 13..08 12.7.32 5.63 5.. .13 580 3. 492 496 505 519 535 552 569 588 606 626 646 666 687.78 713 6..92 886 11. .83 8.03 1.34 737 6. The system static pressure resistance is often called the external static pressure and is frequently abbreviated SP or ESP in manufacturers' literature (as in Table 10.95 4.26 4. 452 461 475 490 507 525 544 563 583 603 624 645 667 689 712 735 758 782 806 830 854 878 902 926 950 974 999 .44 579 3. 1.65 813 9..56 317 .17 497 2.22 .84 355 ..1).18 497 2.29 765 7. .80 8'0 9.94 479 2.... 570 577 587 602 617 634 652 670 688 707 727 747 767 788 810 832 854 876 899 921 944 968 992 1016 1040 ..26 4. .20 1.91 lO..96 The fan may also be selected on the basis of total pressure rather than static pressure. . .70 985 .70 20...69 10.74 . Other fan pe1formance curves could be studied to determine these possibilities.. static pressure.89 5..12 969 ..18 2. Example 10. .28 .99 3...09 7.32 14.69 698 6..18 7. or if the emphasis is on initial cost.61 325 ..30 17. 709 731 753 776 798 821 845 869 893 917 941 965 989 1013 .31 8...... .70 448 1.54 3. ...24 16.27 15.03 404 1..99 4.71 .31 811 9. 2.94 2.4-sp TABLE 10. 532 537 547 561 577 594 611 630 648 667 687 707 728 749 771 793 815 838 860 883 907 931 955 979 1003 1027 7.43 2.91 .23 16. ...62 11. .2 illustrates..69 .31 639 4.39 13.87 360 1.83 5.62 2..09 9.54 1.25 416 1.50 6.54 12.91 4.58 12.58 3.11 4A-3 4. .81 3...32 409 1. .46 532 2.. .94 2.34 .69 935 13.74 533 3. Solution The selection will be made from Table 10. ..83 602 4.27 688 5.50 428 1. ..33 .50 .34 653 4...05 5.000 CFM at 6 in.42 12.78 354 .37 2....56 7. static pressure will be used.000 CFM and the Hs curve.13 3..1 CFM 4655 5586 6517 7448 8379 9310 10241 11172 12103 13034 13965 14896 15827 16758 17689 18620 19551 20482 21413 OV RPM 213 230 248 268 289 312 335 358 382 406 431 455 480 504 529 554 579 605 630 656 682 707 733 758 784 809 835 861 887 913 939 3. ..30 7.42 .2 Select an airfoil blade centrifugal fan to supply 8400 CFM at I \2 in.81 4..66 960 14.17 489 2... 3..70 7... Examples 10..16 6.01 375 1..09 3. 3.5~ 10.91 484 2..43 517 2.24 626 4.41 14.11 568 3.40 IS.. .23 11... At this CFM.

"p 7 ~5?7 pr? FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 265 following possible selections are noted from the data in the table.) CFM @1'hin. w.4 2.1 can be used to find the changed pressure loss in a duct system for a changed CFM flow. BHP 27 30 33 36\2 40!4 8400 8400 8400 8400 8400 3. w.4 The best selection is probably a 33 in.3 2. Note that the pressure loss rises sharply with CFM for any duct system. (10.8. w. By plotting a few of such Hfversus CFM points. o a 2 3 CFM. Hf . The 30 in.4 CFM 0 2500 4000 5000 6000 7000 Wheel Size.4 (system characteristic curve).2 and plotted in Figure 10. the results are shown in Table 10. we can examine the duct systelll characteristics of CFM versus pressure loss (HI)' The pressure loss due to frictional resistance in a given duct system varies as the CFM changes. fan uses I 0% more energy. 0 0. .5 1. thousands . fan. Hf2 = 2 ( 5000 =3.1.0 2. but if initial cost were the most important consideration. as follows: Figure 10.0 2. I) cO 3 U> U> Equation 10.5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS In a manner similar to considering fan performance characteristics of CFM versus pressure developed. in. The saving on energy use is negligible with the 36 V. Solution Using Equation 10. however.2 RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE 10. a system characteristic curve can be determined. with 5000 CFM of air flowing.g.1 to plot a few points.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Plot the system CFM versus Hf curve for the duct system of Example 10.i . It will be noisier. Example 10.CFM. 4 OJ H = H) CFM2)2 f2 .3.6 2. fan. Example 10. What would be the pressure loss if the air flow were 7000 CFM? Solution Using Equation 10. as shown in Example lOA.9 3. TABLE 10. in. 7000)2 . (Interpolation between listed values is carried out where necessary. it might be selected. because it is less efficient.9 m.3 2.g.g.8 Sketch for Example 10. if the pressure loss is known at some other flow rate. in.9 10.3 The ductwork in a certain ventilating system has a pressure loss of 2 in.

6 For the fan whose performance is shown in Figure 10. An occupant may readjust damper positions. :I: 20 0 °0L-~--L--L--L-~-~-~-~ 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 CFM.000 CFM and a static pressure of 5. 3.g.g. A common occurrenee in air conditioning systems is that the actual system resistance for a design CFM is different from that calculated by the designer. The contractor installs the ductwork in a manner different from that planned. is also shown. The system designer has allowed an extra 1. we can find the condition of operation of the fan and system (Figure 10..11. Filters may have a greater than expected resistance due to excess dirt. the system-required CFM is 5000 and calculated pressure loss is 4.. w.. the following important principle is always true: The point of intersection of the system andfan curves is the operating condition of the system. Allowance of an extra resistance as a "safety factor" by the designer. An examination of the fan and system curves will aid in analyzing these situations.9).that the duct system has a different characteristic than planned.5 _. ~ " ~ '" ~ Point of -------.s 6 . what will be the operating conditions when used with the duct system whose characteristic curve is also shown in Figure 10. 4.10 Fan and system curves for Example 10.9 Fan and system curves plotted togetherintersection is point of operation.. Assuming that there is no real extra pressure loss. An error in calculating pressure loss. aids in analyzing changed conditions and in finding causes of operating difficulties. but Figure 10. and the system can only perform at conditions on the system curve. 5.4 in.. what will the actual operating conditions be'~ . The result of this type of condition is . The system design performance curve A. w. Examining the fan and system curves is not only useful for selecting the operating condition.10..g. as a "safety factor" in calculating the pressure loss..:--------I : ~operation Q.3 in. System pressure en ~ 8 Fan static pressure Point of ~ I 80 60 I I . J\lE = 60% at this condition. w. Some reasons this may happen are: I. calculated from Equation 10.5. thousands Figure 10. The design operate ing condition is therefore point I.I 266 CHAPTER 10 10. • "m 00 ~ 0 ~ w 4 2 a: w Mechanical effiCiency 40 <. System I I I I I I Fan I I CFM Example 10. Example 10.1O? Solution The intersection point of the fan and system pressure characteristic curves is the operating condition. 2.-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ For the fan whose performances characteristics are shown in Figure 10.0 in. The fan BHP = 35. Because the fan can only perform at conditions on the fan curve.6 FAN-SYSTEM INTERACTION By plotting both the fan and system characteristic pressure versus flow curves together.1. 25.

Of course. the manufacturer usually has allowed for the system effect pressure loss for the unit. thousands facturer's fan rating curves or tables are used to find a suitable fan.. .11 Sketch for Example 10. Figure 10. I 2). The actual operating condition is the intersection of the fan and real system pressure curves (point 3)..1. at 5000 CFM (point 2). t~ 3 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 267 5 . In any case. . Also note that the BHP = 6. but the operating cost will be high. This temptation is great. 1/ I ~ y''------\-----=16 ~ o :r: ~ CFM. as would have occurred with the design condition.-" -.. At this point.i I I 'I I I I c ~ 3 a. .0 = 3. The manu- . as described later. . The precise loss at fan inlet and outlet depends on the shape. I. and direction of the connections to the fan. size. Avoid the temptation of selecting a fan far out on the CFM curve. connections should be made to minimize losses. Because every fan installation is unique. particularly with high energy costs. w. 4 / I. a pressure at least equal to the duct system pressure loss.. which must be added to the systenl pressure loss before selecting the required fan pressure. At these conditions. I.-® . the flow rate is 5500 CFM. The result will be that there are additional pressure losses at the fan inlet and fan outlet. . at the design CFM. Fans should not be selected to the left of the peak pressure on the fan curve (Figure 10. However. or ope rat ing at different speeds. These are called system effects.4 . This is a considerable waste of energy and money. '" '" ~ 2 ::> (0/) /1. the fan ratings are based on testing the fans in a manner prescribed by the Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA). 8 . 2. .--_ '~O- n . ®--: . 10. This will fall in the middle ranges of the pressure-CFM curve..4 in. because it may mean a smaller fan and therefore lower initial cost. will satisfy the pressure and CFM requirements. . For fans that are part of a packaged unit. Fans should be chosen for close to maximum efficiency.0 instead of 5. . which we have shown how to determinejn Chapter 8. near maximum delivery. Some of these factors will now be examined.6. 10. therefore the next step in selecting fans is to decide what further criteria should be used in selecting the "best" choice.8 SELECTION OF OPTIMUM FAN CONDITIONS Often a number of fans of different sizes. 10 C.g."" "WN 2 . .7 SYSTEM EFFECT The fan that is chosen for a given application must develop. Another solution might be to change the fan speed. each arrangement of inlet and outlet connections to the fan will probably differ from that of the laboratory arrangement in which the fan was tested. the actual flow rate could be throttled by using dampers. The real system pressure curve can be plotted (curve B). The system will be delivering too much air to the spaces. Solution The actual system pressure loss is 4.5. . the system operation may be unstable-there may be pressure fluctuations and excess noise generated..

The operating engineer wants to increase the air supply to 9000 CFM. Fans may have pressure curves of varying steepness (Figure 10. a fan with a steep curve is desirable.2 to find the new speed.7 _________________________ A ventilating fan is delivering 8000 CFM while running at a speed of 900 RPM and requiring 6. These relationships are useful for predicting performance if conditions are changed. 4. or for different size fans of similar construction. If so. the motor horsepower required will increase. these are called fan laws. (10.13). When using forward curved blade centrifugal fans. For variable air volume (VAV) systems (Chapter 12).9 FAN LAWS Solution Using Equation 10. and a larger motor may be necessary.5) ExampklO. a flat curve type is desirable. N2 = CFM2 CFM 1 xN 1 There are a number of relationships among fan performance characteristics for a given fan operating at changed conditions.268 CHAPTER 10 System Unacceptable operating point \ Flat fan curve-large CFM change with small pressure change . but constant CFM is required. check the system to see if it might operate at significantly greater than design CFM. At what speed should the fan be operated? What must be checked first before making such a change? 10. (10. If it is expected that there will be considerable changes in system resistance. Allow for system effect according to the duct inlet and outlet connections as explained previously.3) 3.13 Steep and flat fan pressure curves. We will present some of these relationships and their possible uses: = (9000) x 900 = 1010 RPM 8000 .12 Unstable operating condition.---Fan Steep fan curvesmall CFM change with large pressure change CFM Figure 10. 5.2) (10. where the CFM varies considerably.4) (10.5 BHP. CFM Figure 10.

5 HP.£ :::l <J) <J) '" 3i 10 ~ I I Q. (Courtesy: Air Movement & Control Association.16) are often used in HVAC applications because of lower cost and convenience. resulting in unnecessary cost. If the fan had a 7. 15 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1010)3 ( . FPM Figure 10. The motor would have to be changed.15). Arrangement Centrifugal fans are available in nine different arrangements of bearings and air inlets. and Motor Position Direction of rotation is described when viewed from the opposite side of an inlet and is referred to Inlet Single width single inlet (SWSI) fans have the air inlet on one side. which would be likely because it originally required only 6. The engineer should select and specify fans in the pressure class required for the job.5 HP motor.. Discharge. the motor would now be overloaded. DWDI fans would thus be suitably installed in a plenum-type cabinet.10 CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT The AMCA has established standards of centrifugal fan construction and arrangement that are generally followed in the United States. Arrange- -SWSI .x 6. Class III / / / / ~ I ~ <> 5 c~. ments 1.14 Fan construction classes for allowable pressures. Inc..14). A different pressure classification has been established for fans mounted in cabinets (see AMCA standards). Rotation. double width double inlet (DWDI) fans have air inlets on both sides (Figure 10.15 Single width single inlet and double width double inlet fans.5 = 9. centrifugal fans are classified into groups of different allowable maximum pressures (Figure 10. [AMCA]) Pressure Rating In order to construct fans of sufficient strength to withstand air pressures to which they will be subjected. t X N FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 269 Equation lOA shows that the horsepower will increase.2 HP 900 This is a considerable increase in power. Figure 10. and the fan capability itself should be checked with the manufacturer. and yet not to overdesign the fan.. so this must be checked: BHP2 = ./ I Class II / / / / 1~~0~O------~3~OO~O~----~5~O~OO~----~7~OOO 10.2. par1icularly Arrangement 3.. and 3 (Figure 10. Outlet velocity. as might the wiring..I------j DWDI . backward inclined type.

17 Examples of discharge arrangements.16 Examples of bearing arrangements commonly used in HVAC system fans.--------~~-~t. SWSI Arr. The standard motor positions available are shown in Figure 10. 10. and motor position must be decided upon when planning the HVAC system Figure 10. Inlet and discharge connections to the fan should be made to create air flow with minimum pressure loss and equal velocity across the duct section. (Note: Rotation direction determined from drive side of fan. discharge. 2. to reduce vibration transmission.2. The manufacturer should be consulted about correct choice of isolator. 270 CHAPTER 10 Bearings "~ .18. Fans should be mounted or hung on vibration isolators. as shown in Figure 10. Different size pulleys make it possible to change speeds. rotation.. Some good and ppor examples are shown in Figure 10. --. Spring and rubber type isolators are available.-----. bottom angular up Counterclockwise down blast Counterclockwise top angular up . Adjustable pulleys are available so that a limited speed adjustment can be made on the job.3. as clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW).- I D Arr. In addition. Connection between the inlet and discharge duct and fan should be made with canvas.11 INSTALLATION The above specifications of fan construction. 1. Centrifugal fans are usually belt driven.) Clockwise down blast Clockwise up blast Clockwise top angular down Clockwise top horizontal Counterclockwise bottom horizontal Counterclockwise . installation. SWSI D Arr. SWSI Figure 10. Several discharge arrangements are available.17.19. there are other general installation procedures that should be followed: 1.

. Reducing fan speed to· reduce flow is the most efficient method for reduced power consumption.19 1.. Select fans in the mid-range of total flow. uneven flow .) 3. L '" .- \-¥: Good Long straight discharge....~- !~\.. A belt guard with a mesh front should be provided so that the belts can be seen without removing the guard.. 15' maximum spread Poor Sharp discharge turn.-. less power will be used when the volume flow rate is reduced. 2. Air Distribution Devices The conditioned air that is being supplied. Do not allow extra pressure loss as a "safety factor" in the duct system.18 Motor positions. 5. ~.•.12 ENERGY CONSERVATION ~ar Motor w Drive t ]j~ t Figure 10. 4.w .. If volume control of the fan is to be used. (Note: Specify motor position by letter. 6. Inlet and discharge connections should be arranged to provide minimum pressure loss. 4. 3.t. from drive side.20) are preferable to outlet dampers. Airfoil blade centrifugal fans have the highest efficiency and therefore use the least power. Fan Fan & Fan~ .. where efficiency is highest.to each room must be distributed throughout the space in a Examples of good and poor inlet and discharge connections. Allow space for the motor installation. straight. multispeed fan drives are expensive.Better Turning vanes straighten flow ~ Good Long.> ~!}-' . Access openings should be provided if needed for inspection and service of bearings. Figure 10. However.-" FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 271 n Fan 10..':-~ ~.. .. fullsized inlet Poor Sharp inlet turn.. inlet guide vane dampers (Figure 10. uneven flow Better Turning vanes straighten flow . ' . 5. Adequate clearance for inspection and removal should be provided on all sides of the fan.

) 10. When air is supplied parallel to and near a ceiling. it will tend to "hug" the ceiling for certain manner.13 ROOM AIR DISTRIBUTION Good room air distribution requires the following characteristics for comfort: 1. and then will look at some of the devices (terminal units) that are used to provide proper air distribution. When air lower in temperature than room air is supplied (as in summer). (Courtesy: Buffalo Forge Company. We will consider the types available. This is because the air is not distributed properly in the room. Temperatures throughout the occupied zone of the room within ± 2 F (1 C) of the design temperature. Air velocities throughout the occupied zone (called residual velocities) between 25-35 FPM for applications where people are seated. This is an aspect of the environmental control system that is often neglected because it seems simple. Air at the proper flow rate and conditions may be supplied. We . In applications where people are moving around and occupancy is for a short period. and yet often the' occupants are quite uncomfortable. Temperature fluctuations greater than this will usually result in discomfort. I. 2. if it is not. higher air velocities are acceptable (50-70 FPM). greater temperature fluctuations are permissible. as in department stores. 3. their features. 10. uncomfortable conditions will result. it will rise. Figure 10. 2.272 CHAPTER 10 will investigate some of the principles of air distribution. usually a feeling of stuffiness or staleness.·The occupied zone of most spaces is considered to be from the floor to an elevation of 6 ft. it will drop.20 Inlet guide vanes for volume control. Higher velocities (drafts) cause discomfort. When air higher in temperature than room air is supplied (as in winter). Above this height. and selection. Lower velocities also result in discomfort.14 AIR PATTERNS There are a few facts about how an air supply to a room will behave which are important to understand in order to select and locate air supply devices properly and to balance and adjust the devices.

It can also be used for cooling if an adequate outlet velocity is achieved. because it counteracts the cold air downdraft that would otherwise result near the glass. forcing the cold air to rise and circulate: Beams and ceiling-mounted lighting fixtures create a problem for ceiling or high wall air outlets. 1. The throw from a supply air device is the distance that the supply air travels before reaching a relatively low velocity. The temperature differential is the temperature difference between the supply air and the room air. Low wall. Ceiling (Figure 10.24).l'I ~:.~------Throw-------. but is not desirable for cooling.FANS AND AIR DlSTRIBUTIONDEVICES 273 some distance.. 4. It is not a very good location for heating because the warm air will rise. Floor or sill (Figure 10. sending a cold draft down to the occupied zone (Figure 10. 3. Terminal velocities of 75-200 FPM are recommended. because the warm air will rise. The drop is the vertical distance the (cold) supply air drops by the end of its throw. This is an excellent location for heating if located under windows. High wall (Figure 10.. the air should be directed to clear the obstruction.25). There are certain other terms used in studying air distribution that need to be defined. Separate heating (under the window) should be used in this case.. It is not a good location for heating. thus rapidly mixing the supply air and the room air. This is an excellent location for cooling because the cold air will drop naturally. This is a good loca- tion for cooling because the cold air will drop naturally and adequate air circulation through- Figure 10.:. This is a good location for heating because the warm air will rise naturally. d It) Occuple zone (6 -I t . Figure 10. The primary air hugs the ceiling due to the ceiling effect. For a high wall outlet. This is called the ceiling or sUrface effect. leaving a stagnant zone in the occupied area. 10. The supply air to the room (called the primary air) when distributed from an air supply device. J. resulting in residual velocities of 20-70 FPM. 2. because the cold air will tend to remain near the floor. and then bounces off the obstruction. called the terminal velocity. The spread is the horizontal divergence of the airstream.23). a ceiling outlet should be mounted below the obstruction..15 LOCATION The location of air distribution devices in the room is an important consideration in achieving good air distribution. out the occupied zone will occur.21 illustrates these terms.22).21 Description of terms used in air distribution. unless forced down at a high velocity. In this case.1.l:~f~~&d~f Induced secondary air Residual velocities here are 20-70 FPM Terminal velocity here is 75-200 FPM . will induce room air (called secondary air) into the airstream. 4.

-. saving energy.. if needed. When locating floor or sill outlets. Grilles and Registers These devices consist of a frame and parallel bars. 10. Grilles with two sets of bars at right angles to each other are available and are called double deflection grilles (Figure 10.23 Ceiling outlet location for cooling provides good distribution. 4. care must be taken not to let drapes or furniture block the air flow. Grilles and registers Ceiling diffusers Slot diffusers Plenum ceilings Figure 10. and if the bars are adjustable.22 High wall outlet location.24 Floor or sill location under window for heating provides good air distribution.--. The bars serve to deflect the supply air in the direction tbe bars are set.26). to adjust tbe throw and spread of air. 3.. In addition to those that distribute air equally in all directions. square.. They enable control of the air distribution in both directions. 2. which may be eitber fixed or adjustil. cooling of unused space near tbe ceiling is reduced.--. or rectangular in shape.. They may be round. For very high ceilings.. .ble. it is usually better to install ceiling and high wall outlets below or at the level of lighting..16 TYPES OF AIR SUPPLY DEVICES There are four types of air supply devices used for creating proper air distribution in the conditioned space: 1.27). Figure 10. 274 CHAPTER 10 Stagnant zone may not get heated Cooling-good air distribution Heating-poor air distribution Figure 10. Ceiling Diffusers These devices usually consist of a series of separate concentric rings or louvers with acollar or neck to connect to the duct (Figure 10.. Grilles witb volume control dampers mounted behind the grille are called registers. In this way. -----t~ ' '.

25 Effect of obstruction at ceiling.W' . Division of Inteipace Corporation. FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 275 \ Figure 10.27 Ceiling diffusers. Division of Interpace Corporation.) .26 Supply register.) Tuttle & Bailey®. Figure 10. (Courtesy: Tuttle & Bailey®. (Courtesy: Figure 10. double deflection type.

This type is sometimes used because it blends architecturally with the appearance of a suspended panel ceiling. it then will follow the ceiling due to the ceiling effect. offsetting cold downdrafts. caution is urged. depending on the number of bars or vanes (Figure 10. Ceiling diffusers are also available in the fonn of perforated panels. therefore cooled somewhat. the mixed air temperature will not be unacceptably lower than room temperature before it drops to the occupied zone. a perimeter location under windows discharging vertically upward from the Hoor is ideal in cold climates. but blankets the glass with warm air.28). When used for cooling. Division of Interpace Corporation. vertical spread. a careful selection of outlet throw. way. Slot Diffusers This is a long strip-shaped outlet with one or more narrow openings. Grilles and registers can also be used at ceilings with results similar to high sidewall locations. The design and balancing of plenum ceiling systems is a specialized procedure and will not be discussed further here. a high sidewall location is one of the preferred locations. When used for warm air heating. Manufacturers of these ceilings will aid the interested designer or contractor. The space above the ceiling is used as a large plenum through which the supply air is delivered. (Courtesy: Tuttle & Bailey®. and return air locations could make the installation satisfactory in mild winter climates. 10. and .) When used for cooling.276 CHAPTER 10 they can be designed to distribute air in any desired direction. They are not installed in ceilings as often. mixing well with induced secondary air. Another version also has the return air openings in the fixture. The air is discharged horizontally when used for cooling. Ceiling Diffusers These are usually located at the ceiling.28 Slot diffuser. Adjustable deflection vanes are used to set proper air direction. In any case. resulting in more light output per unit of power input.17 Grilles APPLICATIONS Plenum Ceilings Suspended (hung) ceilings are available with slots or perforations throughout most or all of the ceiling. air can be distributed evenly throughout the whole space to be conditioned. however. It is also called a linear or strip diffuser. which can serve as supply air outlets.) The fluorescent tubes are. the high sidewall outlet may result in stratification of the wann air. In this Figure 10. providing a significant energy savings. In this way. as well as the supply diffuser. This location is popular}n residential installations. The air can be directed slightly arched upward. For warm air heating. However. (The slot openings are at the long edges of the fixture. It usually results in low installation costs in this application because the ductwork in the basement below is relatively simple. A combination fluorescent lighting fixture and slot diffuser is also available. This not only provides good mixing of primary and secondary air. because their appearance is not considered aesthetically pleasing in a ceiling. the discharge air velocity must be adequate to overcome the gravity effect of the denser air.

The architect will also set certain requirements. This popularity is due to the use of low sills and long expanses of glass in many modern buildings. they may deflect the air down to the occupied zone. 10. diffusers are available with 1-. They are also often installed in the bottom of horizontal ductwork below the ceiling when a suspended ceiling is not used. and architectural requirements. 5. In this case.29). or 3way blow to cover rectangular-shaped room areas (Figure 10. Structural requirements. In this case. Some types of ceiling diffusers can be used for heating by adjusting the air pattern to discharge vertically downward at a high velocity. However. 4. 3. the return air location becomes important-it should be located in the interior of the room. this will increase the cost ofthe installation. Location. The architect usually wishes the space to have a certain appearance. Warm air supply outlets are preferably located at the perimeter discharging vertically upward. Generally. Round and square diffusers that have equal openings all around are used to cover a square floor area. in a large space. Often more than one supply outlet is located in a room. 2.18 SELECTION The air outlets chosen for a project depend on the following: Figure 10. This is more common in industrial applications. However. and will want the ceiling to have a certain appearance in regard to location of diffusers. In addition. 2-. When distributing cold air. Ceiling diffusers generally have a high induction ratio of room air. For large cooling temperature differentials (TD) between supply and room air. the diffuser may have to be located below the beam line.. A part of the outlet can be blanked off with a piece of sheet metal to get directional air patterns. or 3-way blow diffusers.29 Use of 1-.) If there is a likelihood of rearranging partitions l . The structural engineer must be consulted on this. therefore lessening this problem when large temperature differential is needed. which may guide the type used and their location. ceilings. If there are exposed beams. cost. 2-. and floors may restrict the location of ductwork and thus the air outlets. supply outlets may be located at the ceiling or high on sidewalls. better air distribution is achieved by using a number of diffusers. Slot Diffusers These are available in arrangements enabling them to be used either at ceilings or sidewalls. preferably at a low elevation to avoid short circuiting. the danger of unacceptable air temperatures entering the occupied zone increases. Some types can be used up to 35 F TD. This choice depends on a number of factors-air quantity. Architectural requirements. n = FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 277 follows the ceiling for some distance due to the ceiling effect. The building structure behind walls. An alternate location for cold air supply is a perimeter location discharging vertically upward from below the windowsill. Grilles are generally limited to 25 FTD. Temperature differentials. (This is called the reflected ceiling plan. Quantity.. they are popular in perimeter applications discharging vertically up from the floor under sills. I I §I I I I I I t I t t ~ ~~ t I I t ~~~ I Ceiling Ceiling Ceiling LJ Sidewall Ceiling I Ceiling 1.

throw. Example 10. a smaller diffuser will mean a higher sound level.4. The diffusers will be located in the center of each square. 6. and show corrections for other heights. f+1'--20'--~'I T 20' 1 0.1 X 25 = 650 CFM The maximum radius of diffusion permitted is 10ft (from the center of the room to the wall). for a given required CFM. but a lower cost.30 Sketch for Example 10. The variable performance characteristics of ceiling diffusers that are of major importance are CFM. . Air diffuser Plan view Example 10.3. From Table 10. Solution The diffusers will have equal throws in all directions. and sound level.8 Select a single round ceiling diffuser for Betina's Boutique (Figure 10. The maximum throw therefore is 15 ft. This information is. Most manufacturers give ratings acceptable for a mounting height between 8 and 10ft. When the above decisions regarding selection have been made. The throw of radius of diffusion is the horizontal distance that the diffuser projects the air. Recommended NC levels are shown in Table 10. Therefore.30). The supply air temperature differential is 25 F. The sound level produced by a diffuser depends on the air velocity. diffuser location and quantity may be chosen to allow changes without having to move ducts and diffusers. a Size 10 diffuser has the following listed rating: 650 CFM.4. This is a weighted perceived sound level.B. Figure 10.000 1. The NC level suggested for a small store is from 40 to 50 (Table 10. The minimum throw for adequate circulation is recommended by the manufacturer (usually :y. needed when balancing the air flow.31 shows the floor plan divided into squares. for this will result in drafts bouncing off walls. The engineer must balance these needs according to the applications.C) "-1 278 CHAPTER 10 in the future.9 Determine suitable diffuser locations and throws for a room with a 60 ft by 30 ft floor pran if two diffusers are to be used.7). Note that the pressure requirements are also given. This is done with the aid of manufacturers' rating tables. Figure 10.. Using the sensible heat equation (3.. The CFM is the quantity previously determined as required to condition the space. Acceptable throws are from 12-15 ft when the diffuser size is selected. Solution The required CFM must first be determined. The maximum throw allowable is the distance to a wall or to the edge of the zone of the next diffuser. Ratings for one type of round ceiling diffuser are shown in Table 10. The RSHG is 18.3). of maximum). The diffuser manufacturer usually lists sound ratings of the diffusers by NC (noise criteria) levels.16 ft radius of diffusion. A selection should never be made with a throw greater than the maximum.000 BTUlhr. the proper sizes of outlets can be chosen. 7 . CFM = 18. mounting height. "-. Size. NC-39 sound level This is a satisfactory selection.

gymnasiums Swimming pools TRANSPORTATION (RAIL. 40-50 40-55 40-55 45-55 . PLANE) Concert and opera halls Studios for sound reproduction Legiti. museums.and 3-family units HOTELS 25-35 30-40 35-45 35-45 35-45 40-50 45-55 45-55 30-40 35---45 20-30 25-35 30-40 30-40 30-40 35-45 40-50 40-50 25-35 30-40 35-45 40-50 20-30 25-35 30-40 30-45 35-45 35-50 40--60 Laboratories Recreation halls Corridors and halls Kitchens . LOUNGES Restaurants Cocktail lounges Private rooms Operating rooms. reception room General open offices. Type of Area Range of Levels. halls and corridors Lobbies and waiting rooms Washrooms and toilets OFFICES Nightclubs Cafeterias STORES.FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 279 TABLE 10. drafting rooms Halls and corridors Tabulation and computation AUDITORIUMS AND MUSIC HALLS Clothing stores Department stores (upper floors) Department stores (main floor) Small retail stores Supermarkets SPORTS ACTIVITIES. CAFETERIAS.3 RANGES OF INDOOR DESIGN GOALS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM SOUND CONTROL Range of A-Sound Range of A-Sound Range of Levels. 2.35-45 40-50 45-55 40-50 40-55 40-50 45-55 35-45 35-50 35-50 40-50 30-40 35-45 40-50 35-45 35-50 35-45 40-50 Individual rooms or suites Ballrooms. RETAIL 40-50 -f5-55 25-35 30-40 35-45 35-50 40-50 40-55 -f5-65 Boardroom Conference rooms Executive office Supervisor office. planetarium Lobbies CHURCHESANDS~HOOLS 20-30 30-35 35-l5 15-25 25-30 30-35 35-45 20-30 30-40 30-40 Ticket sales offices Lounges and waiting rooms EQUIPMENT ROOMS 40-50 25-35 35-45 35-45 8 hrlday exposure 3 hrlday exposure (or per OSHA requirement) Sanctuaries Libraries Schools and classrooms I Note: These are for unoccupied spaces with all systems operating . lobbies Garages Kitchens and laundries HOSPITALS AND CLINICS PUBLIC BUILDINGS Public libraries. Reprinted with pennission from the 1976 ASHRAE Handbook & Product Directory. courtrooms Post offices. . TV audience studios Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls. NC Criteria Oecibels Curves ) . BUS. multipurpose halls Movie theaters. . INDOOR 40-50 45-55 45-55 35-45 40-50 45-60 35-45 40-55 <90_ <97 35-45 40-50 40-50 30-40 35-45 40-55 30-40 35-50 Coliseums Bowling alleys. wards Laboratories.mate theaters. general banking areas. lobbies Washrooms and toilets RESTAURANTS. banquet rooms Halls and corridors. NC Criteria Decibels Curves Type of Area RESIDENCES CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS (Con'L) Private homes (rural and suburban) Private homes (urban) Apartment houses.

. 175 2-3-5 315 6-8-11 45 560 7-11-17 47 870 9-13-~2 I 140 2-3-4 - NC Flow Rate. middle to 100 fpm. . Baltimore. ft. ft. 885 5-8-l2 15 875 4-7-11 - llOO 6-9-14 NC 24" Flow Rate. 390 3-5-8 - NC 14" 425 3-5-8 - 785 7-10-16 34 1060 8-\2-19 35 1400 9-14-22 36 1770 10-15-24 36 2190 11-17-27 37 3140 14-20-32 38 4900 17-25-41 39 7040 20-30-49 40 1255 11-16-26 50 1695 13-19-30 60 22-10 14-22-35 51 2830 16-2-1-39 52 3500 J8-27-B 52 5020 22-32-5:! Flow Rate. ft.13 watts or 8dB.2820 8-13-::!O 17 ·3520 32 5630 16-24-39 33 8-12-20 1O-IS-2-t 18 ** NC - 1l.021 ....040 .085 140 2-4-6 20 245 3-5-8 21 380 4-6-9 22 550 5-7-11 23 745 5-8-13 24 980 6-9-15 25 1240 7-11-17 26 1530 8-12-19 26 2200 9-14-23 27 3430 12-18-28 27 4930 14-21-34 28 800 .. ft.051 ..063 120 2-3-5 15 210 3-4-7 16 330 3-5-8 17 470 4-6-10 18 635 5-7-11 19 840 5-8-13 19 1060 6-9-15 20 1310 7-10-16 21 1880 8-12-19 22 2940 10-15-24 23 4230 12-18-29 24 I i j Press Vertical Flow Rate. add I dB for a vertical pattern.027 80 1-2-3 - 500 .122 . . Minimum radii of diffusion are to a temlinal velocity of ISO [pm.048 . ft. cfrn 10" Radius of Diff~" ft. 2.109 160 3-4-7 24 280 4-5-9 26 435 4-7-11 27 630 5-8-13 27 850 6-9-15 28 1120 7-11-17 29 1420 8-12-20 30 1750 9-14-22 30 2510 11-16-26 31 3920 13-20·32 900 . in W. ft..084 .280 CHAPTER 10 TABLE 10. Re 10. Total Horizontal 400 . cfrn 8" Radius of Ditr. cCrn Radius of Diff. Reprinted with pennission from Environmental Elements Corporation. 53 78-10 27-40-65 54 1960 7-10-16 NC 36" Flow Rate.172 200 4-5-8 31 350 5-7-11 32 545 6-8-14 33 40 1200 ..346 .132 .256 .010 . cfrn Radius of Diff. The NC values are based on a room absorption of 18 dB. ft.I3 38 655 7-10-16 39 940 8-12-19 40 1270 9-14-22 41 1680 11-16-26 41 2120 12-18-29 42 2610 13-19-32 43 3770 16-24-39 44 5880 20-30-49 45 8450 24-36-58 46 1400 . Press. Values shown are for a horizontal pattern. Re 10.139 180 3-5-7 27 315 4-6-10 29 490 5-8-12 30 70S 6-9-15 31 955 7-11-17 32 30 1000 . NC 16" Flow Rate. ft.4 PERFORMANCE DATA FOR 1YPICAL ROUND CEILING DIFFUSERS NC 20 700 . rpm Vel.. I 270 3~-7 NC 12" - 220 2-3-5 315 3-4-7 - 48 Flow ~te. cfrn Radius of Diff. cCrn Radius of Diff.023 . and maximumo to 50 [pm.70. If diffuser is moumed on exposed duct. cCrn 6" Radius of Diff.260 32-48-78 55 Note: I. multiply radii of diffusion shown by 0.189 .333 275 5-7-11 41 490 6-9-15 43 765 8-12:19 44 1100 9-14-23 45 1490 11-16-26 46 1960 13-19-30 46 2480 14-21-34 47 3060 16-24-38 48 4400 19-28-45 49 6860 24-35-57 50 9850 28-42-68 51 1600 . cfrn Radius of Diff.. 1260 8-12-20 32 1590 9-14-22 33 1970 10-15-24 34 2820 12-18-29 35 4410 15-23-36 36 6340 18-27-44 37 710 4-6-10 - NC 20" Flow Rate.12 watts. .03-1 600 .246 235 4-6-10 36 420 5-8.160 . ft. Maryland. 530 4-6-9 L3 700 5-7-11 14 560 4-5-9 - NC 18" Flow Rate.090 .0-1-1 100 2-3--1 NC Flow Rate. cfrn Radius of DitT.437 Size Neck Velocity. ft.031 .107 .065 . cfrn Radius of Diff. cfrn Radius of DitT.016 .063 .O. 15 1570 7-10-16 16 2~50 1260 5-8-13 - NC 30" Flow Rate.

each 15 ft square. Anti-Smudge Rings A strip of dirt on the ceiling surrounding a ceiling diffuser is a common sight.31 Sketch for Example 10.· FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 281 ~I . A ring that surrounds the diffuser is available which will reduce this problem. The interested student can refer to manufacturers' catalogs. and eight diffusers could be used. Figure 10. (a) Poor air distribution in duct collar. Selection procedures for supply grilles and slot diffusers are similar.32(a).' ·~. Opposed blade dampers are preferable to those that rotate in the same direction. resulting in poor room air distribution." >. Control Damper These are used to adjust the volume rates of flow to the desired quantity (Figure 10. but they can cause both uneven flow and additional noise (Figure 10. • (a) (b) . (b) Equalizing grid evens flow.34). can be used to equalize the air flow pattern to the outlet. An equalizing grid installed in the duct collar. as shown in Figure 1O. 10. m • .~~:. Splitter Dampers These are sometimes used to direct air into the outlet and to control volume.33).----60'----+1·1 Air .32(b). il.· . The dampers can usmilly be adjusted from the face of the outlet with a special key.9. the air may flow unevenly from the outlet.t.~'.32 Use of equalizing grid in duct collar. . because they will not result in uneven flow. Of course the space could also have been divided into eight areas. 15'--+ ifdiffTers * 1 5 k--15' I I I 1 30' T Equalizing Grids When an air outlet is connected to a duct as shown in Figure IO.. This would greatly increase the cost.19 ACCESSORIES AND DUCT CONNECTIONS There are a number of accessories that are used with air supply devices to control or improve air distribution. ~:Figure 10.•• "f_ - x :-.

it is advisable to extend . What should be the grille face area? Above occupied zone Within occupied zone.10 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Air conditioning systems generate sound. The selection of return air devices is usually quite simple. The actual velocity is higher because of the grille bars.34 Control damper. The location of return air devices is not as critical as supply devices because the air will not short-circuit in most cases. however. near seats Door or wall louvers Door undercuts 800 600-800 400-600 200-300 200-300 . with a 6-in. and.5 RECOMMENDED RETURN AIR INLET FACE VELOCITIES Location Velocity. but will present enough information so that the student will have an understanding of the problems that occur and how they may be resolved..the duct beyond the outlet neck (about one-half the take-off diameter. if this is not possible.5.21 SOUND All of the devices used for air supply are suitable for return air. The magnitude of sound is measured in a unit called the decibel (dB)..11 ""'1'1'1 tI -" \ Figure 10. transfer grilles or louvers may be located in partitions or doors. which may be objectionable in some cases. to check the possibility of short-circuiting. not near seats Within occupied zone..5. Grilles are the most commonly used. .. We will examine only a small part of this complex subject. minimum). Example 10.33 Splitter damper to control flow-poor air distribution.. Sound power is the sound level generated by a noise source.9 ft2 (use 2 ft2) 10. When air is being returned to corridors or adjacent spaces.. exhausting 1500 CFM.282 CHAPTER 10 1 Splitter damper I -:- / Turning /vanes 1. FPM A return air grille is to be located high on a sidewall in a room. Solution Referring to Table 10. this results in more even air distribution to the outlet. a velocity of 800 FPM is acceptable. The required face area istherefore Area = _1_5_0_0_ft_/_m_i_n 800 ft/min 3 = 1. It is therefore the responsibility of the designer and contractor to provide adequate sound control when necessary. The face velocity refers to the velocity calcuhlted by using the overall dimensions of the grille.r V ~~~~~~ \ I \ I Figure 10.20 RETURN AIR DEVICES 10.. t. or the door may be undercut. because of their lower cost. )_ t ). It is nevertheless a wise rule to locate return air inlets far from outlets. Cushioned Head For a diffuser that is at the end of a duct.. Recommended face inlet velocities that generally provide acceptable noise levels are shown in Table 10.. We are interested TABLE 10.

4. This would be a suitable sound level in a hotel room. The weighted average that corresponds well to human response to sound is called the A-scale ne(work (dB-A)..22 SOUND CONTROL The main sources of sound generation in an air conditioning system are the fan and the noise generated by air in the ductwork. 5. Avoid abrupt changes in direction in ducts. This provides a simple means of measuring effective surrounding sound levels. Use duct velocities recommended for quietness. : 7 FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 283 _'1 in the sound transmitted and received. the combined level is f~und from Table 10. the sound levels at each frequency sometimes need to be analyzed. In addition to magnitude.12 The sound power level in a duct approaching an air diffuser is 52 dB. Use wide radius elbows or turning vanes. Example 10.6. 6. Example 10.. n ¥tnaxft . Select fans near their most efficient operating point.3 lists recommended dB-A levels as well as NC-Ievels. TABLE 10. Avoid obstructions in the ductwork. Isolate fans from their supports by using vibration isolators and from the ductwork by using flexible connections. Install dampers only when required. an average of the levels at each frequency is often sufficient to work with.000 Hz (cycles per second). dB 0-1 2-4 5-9 10 or more dB addition to highest level to obtain combined level 3 2 1 0 Solution Using Table 10. When two sources produce sound. That is. This is called sound pressure. sound also has frequency. The audible range is from about 2020. .... For our purposes. The sound power level of the diffuser is 49 dB. Both are used in setting standards. In studying an actual sound problem. however. Make duct connection transitions as gradual as possible.11 What are the average recommended dB-A and NC sound levels for a hotel room? Solution From Table 10. However.6. The average dB-A is 40 and NC is 35. particularly by humans. Difference = 52 -49 = 3 dB dB to be added to higher level = 2 dB Combined sound power level = 52 + 2 = 54 dB 10. Sound level measuring meters are available that read dB-A levels. In any case. We are particularly interested in frequency because the human ear has less sensitivity to lower frequencies (low pitch) than to higher pitch sounds. Table 10.6 EFFECT OF COMBINING TWO SOUND LEVELS Difference between Levels.3. the system design and installation should be carried out to minimize sound problems. the recommended range of dB-A is 35-45 and of NC is 30-40. Some general recommendations are: I. 2. Balance the system so that throttling of dampers is minimized. Most sound generated has a range of frequencies. Some of the wasted energy is otherwise converted into noise. 3. we do not need to be overly coucerned with distinctions between these terms. 7. Often the resultant sound levels in the rooms are satisfactory and no special treatment is necessary.. What is the sound power exiting into the room? . A weighted average is used to account for the change in sensitivity ofthe ear to different frequencies. a higher pitch sound of the same dB level as a lower one seems louder to the individual.

then the difference between them is the amount of additional sound attenuation that must be added. Subtract item 6 from item 5. and elbows provide some natural sound attenuation. 6. If item 7 is greater.: 9. (small) 6 X 6 (med. If item 7 is less than item 8 (the desired room sound level). branches. Determine the recommended dB and NC level for the type of room. we will assume some figures in the following example. This will be the room sound level if no special sound treatment is used. Rooms also have sound-absorbing characteristics. They are not precise. using tables. The following procedure can be used for predicting sound levels and required sound treatment: I. in. Combine the sound power level in the duct (item 3) to that of the outlet (Table 10. Determine the sound level generated by the fan. particularly in high velocity systems where considerable noise is generated.7 NATURAL DUCT ATTENUATION Ducts Radius Elbow Size. dB 2 3 0. Determine the room effect from tables.13 Determine the natural attenuation in the duct system shown in Figure 10. no treatment is required. Solution From Table 10.5 dB .5 dB Elbow=3 Natural attenuation = 5. which would be taken from the tables recommended.) 24 x 24 (large) 72 x 72 dBlft Size. This involves first determining the sound level generated at each frequency and then the amount of sound attenuation (reduction) required to meet the sound level required in the room. 3. a series of calculations are made. Ductwork. Select air outlets at sound levels as recommended by the manufacturer. but are suitable for noncritical applications.7. Tables listing this information can be found in the ASHRAE Systems Volume. 7.j G Figure 10. Tables that list average attenuation for all frequencies are also available (Table 10. In a thorough sound analysis. 2. using tables. Subtract item 2 (natural sound attenuation) from item I (sound generated). This is the sound absorption from room materials. Tables for determining this effect are also available.% dB attenuation 5 10 10 20 30 50 13 753 Example 10.10 0. This will be the sound generated at the outlet exit to the room. In many applications.35 36" x 24" 1 Sketch for Example 10. special· sound treatment must be carried out. in. Determine the sound level of the air outlet from the manufacturer.i 284 CHAPTER 10 J 8.05 dBlft x 500 ft = 2.7).35. and the attenuation varies with the sound frequency. Determine the amount of natural sound attenuation from ducts and fittings. 4. 5. which depend on the size and sound-absorbing qualities of the surfaces and furnishings.13. TABLE 10. As an exercise in understanding the procedure.6). This will be the sound level in the ducts to the air outlet. Values range from 0 up to 20 or 25 dB. }-oj (f-----50·----~.05 om !Ox 10 20x20 over 20 Branches Ratio of branch to main CFM. This information is usually available from the manufacturer. the attenuation is Duct 0. 8.

= 7 dB 8. Vibrations from fans. Sketch the three performance curve shapes for a backward and forward curved blade centrifugal fan. What is the difference between a vaneaxial and a tubeaxial fan? 2. Required additional sound attenuation Review Questions I.com www. They are quite effective and are used frequently in high velocity systems. These devices have special internal configurations of sound-absorbing materials and perforated plates. How is the point of operation of a duct system determined? C 5. List the recommended procedures to minimize sound generated by a duct system. and ME of the fan whose performance curves are shown in Figure 10.000 CFM. Describe the use of equalizing grids. 9. ceiling effect. and primary and secondary air. 13. Room effect attenuation 7. with the following data: Solution I. is 55 + 2 6.1 Find the static pressure developed.6. BHP. =72dB = 17 dB =55 dB =51 dB =57 dB = 10 dB =47 dB =40dB 3. What criteria should be used in selecting a fan? 6. terminal velocity. This subject is discussed in Chapter 9. pumps. Fan sound power level 2. I I. List the types of air supply devices and their applications. What are the main features of centrifugal fan construction? What good practices should be followed when installing fans? What energy conservation practices should be considered with fans? Describe what is meant by the terms throw. using Table 10. List the types of centrifugal fans and sketch their blade positions. 7. Diffuser sound power level 5. Describe the effect of changing fan speed on the CFM. 10. Recommended room sound leyel (executive office) 9. 4. and cushion heads. Useful Websites Information on selection and specification of fans can be found at the following Websites: www. For more accurate results.7. Sound power level from diffuser. control dampers.com Problems 10. Manufactured sound traps can also be used. residual velocity. and total pressure. Attenuation in ducts 3 Sound power to diffuser (item I less 2) 4. spread. It can be accomplished by lining ducts internally with a sound-absorbing material. List the considerations in choosing the location of air supply devices.acmefan. drop. at a flow of 25. 14. . anti-smudge rings.nyb. There are a few methods for achieving sound attenuation. and compressors can also transmit sound if not isolated. Often a combination of these sound attenuation methods is used on a system. the above analysis would be carried out at each sound frequency in order to determine how much additional sound attenuation is needed. BHP. Room sound level (item 5 less 6) 8.14 Find the additional average sound attenuation required (if any) for an air conditioning system for a private office.FANS AND AIR DISTRIBUTION DEVICES 285 Example 10. It is also very effective to internally line the air handling unit casing. splitter dampers. 12.

Use www.36 J 20" x 1S" 1- t Sketch for Problem 10.6 A louver is to be installed in a door to return 400 CFM of air to a corridor. At what speed should the TAB technician set it? What would be the expected motor BHP? 10. 10. Locate and select three ceiling diffusers.---SO·-----+l.11 Select air diffusers for the office building shown in Figure 6. Use 1.12 Use the Internet to select the round diffusers in Problems 10.1 CFM/ft2.8 The sound lower level of the fan shown in . what additional attenuation would be required for a conference room? 10.titus-hvac.286 CHAPTER 10 ~I (---I.1 0. What is the recommended louver area? 10. Computer Solution Problems 10.10 Select air diffusers for the warehouse shown in Figure 6. First select two.13. :1 -J • I.4 Select a ceiling diffuser to deliver 2000 CFM in a 30 ft by 30 ft classroom.3 B HP.1 is specified to deliver 10. then four diffusers. 10.4.5 CFM/ft2.24.5. Determine the duct attenuation and sound level exiting from the diffuser. B. then four diffusers.com B.11.7 What are the recommended NC-Ievel and dB-A level for a classroom? 10. Figure 10.hartandcooley. A. 10. 10.2 A 30 in. The fan speed is changed to 700 RPM. SP (static pressure).12. Use www. 10. Use the results of your solution to Problem 7. A.3 A fan is deiivering 8100 CFM at I )2 in.8 is 8 dB. Find the new CFM. Use 1. SP while running at a speed of 650 RPM and using 2. 10. Use the results of your solution t6 Problem 7.S. SP. centrifugal fan of the type shown in Table 10. and 10.36 is 44 dB and 40 dB for the diffuser.9 If the room attenuation in Problem 10. Select two.com . 10.5 A 100 ft by 50 ft pharmacy requires 8000 CFM of air.! 20' a Figure 10. A. 10. and BHP.25.000 CFM at 1 in. B.

They are used only in specialized cases in HVAC work and will not be discussed further here.2 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION The centrifugal pump increases the pressure of the water by first increasing its velocity. and efficient. because this subject is closely related to how the pump is used. tanks. The centrifugal pump is generally used in both hydronic ·and cooling tower water systems. Use pump similarity laws to find the effect of changing speed. and then converting that velocity energy to pressure energy. It is very reliable.1 TYPES OF PUMPS A pump provides the pressure necessary to overcome the resistance to flow of a liquid in a piping system.1 shows the operating elements of a centrifugal pump. gear. In this chapter. we will discuss the principles of operation. and Venting A pump is a device that circulates liquids through piping systems. you will be able to: 1.H A p T E R Centrifugal Pumps. Identify the basic parts and construction of a centrifugal pump. screw. The subject of controlling and venting air from the circulating water system will also be discussed. The centrifugal pump is the type most widely used in circulating water in HVAC systems. In the first group are included reciprocating. 3. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Figure 11. construction. and maintenance of centrifugal pumps. in- stallation. and rotary pumps. rugged. vane. selection. 287 11. 4. Determinehow to locate and size expansion . Expansion Tanks. 2. Use pump characteristic curves for rating and selecting a pump. the way they develop this pressure-either by positive displacement or centrifugal force. Pumps can be classified into two groups according to . including use of the expansion tank. 11.

. Flow rate versus head 2.4-.3 PUMP CHARACTERISTICS The items of major importance in the performance of a pump are the pressure (head) it will develop. Refer to Chapter 8 where this principle is explained.~ Vanes ~~=z:2~. The action of the impeller has increased the velocity of the water. Flowing from the pump suction line.Impeller ik-¥J.Impeller Volute \-. water enters the opening in the center of the impeller called the eye. The general shape of the curves is similar for all centrifugal pumps. the horsepower required to drive the pump. 11. The impeller rotates. The characteristics are usually presented in the form of curves or tables. Three curves are usually presented: I. This is accomplished by increasing the flow area in the volute and diffuser section of the pump casing.p4----CaSing Longitudinal section .Shroud Vanes Eye Discharge Impeller t Diffuser 1. Flow rate versus efficiency Figure 11.. The pump casing contains and guides the water toward the discharge opening. The velocity of the water is increased considerably by this action.288 CHAPTER 11 The impeller is the part that transmits energy to the water.-L'-/~.. driven by a motor or other prime mover. _--'c. The velocity energy is converted into pressure energy by decreasing its velocity..¥. these are used to select the correct pump for an application. but not its pressure.1 Operating elements of a centrifugal pump. Flow rate versus brake horsepower 3. The water is forced in a centrifugal direction (radially outward) by the motion of the impeller vanes. Analyzing these curves is often quite useful in troubleshooting operating problems. These are called the pump characteristics. the flow rate it will deliver.. and its efficiency.

3. Example ILl A chilled water pump for the air conditioning system in the Five Aces Casino is delivering 200 GPM at a total head of 36 ft of water. that should be used to drive the pump? • Solution We must find the required power input (BHP). The power required to drive the pump is called the brake horsepower (BHP). The ratings of the pump in Figure I 1. The manufacturer " lists the pump efficiency as 60% 'at this condition. Figure 11. ijJ :r: OJ :r: £Il <L Flow rate Flow rate Flow rate .3 are for a power output WHP x 100 = . (s. ft of liquid Figure 11.. EXPANSION TANKS. WHP 1. The power output is the power transmitted to the water. and then decreases again at the pump's maximum flow rate.performance depends on the speed at which the pump is operated.wer output. especially for reasons that will be discussed shortly. Note that at shut-off efficiency is zero because there is no flow. HP GPM = flow rate. Notice that the flowlhead curve indicates that a centrifugal pump develops less head at greater flow. What is the minimum size motor .2. AND VENTING 289 The curves for a typical centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 11.82 HP Using Equation 11.. given by the following equation: WHP= GPMxHxs.x 100 power input BHP (11. GPM H = total pump head. In reality.82 . then it rises to a maximum. They are determined by the manufacturer by testing the pump. = I for water) The power input to a pump is always greater than the power output because of friction and other unavoidable losses.I) WHP = 200 x 36 3960 .x 100= . The condition of no flow is called shut-off..2 Typical performance characteristic curves for a centrifugal pump. a larger nominal size motor might be used to prevent possible overloading of the motor. The . also called ratings.2. x I = 1.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS.x 100=3.2) This efficiency is sometimes call the mechanical efficiency (ME).g. The pump performance characteristics. The flow ratelBHP curve indicates that the BHP increases with flow rate for a centrifugal pump. (1l.g. 3960 where WHP = water horsepower (output). The efficiency (E) of a pump is defined as: E= This would be the minimum power needed for a motor. BHP=-.2 also shows the flow versus rate efficiency curve for the same centrifugal pump. = specific gravity of liquid. at which the head is at or close to a maximum. are shown for a particular pump in Figure 11. Using Equation ILl to find the po.g.0HP E 60 s. The BHP is the power input to a pump.

the flowlhead curves are shown for a few pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in. How much water is the pump circulating.JHead 70 40~-------------+~~--------~~----~--~--~----~ 60 ~ o .---------~----r_------------_.5 ft w. pump of the type shown in Figure 11.t:: 10~--------------~--------------~--------------~~----~0 30 o 50 - 100 150 Flow rate.) This speed and 3500 RPM are the most commonly used in the United States because they are the natural speeds resulting from direct connection to a 60 Hz motor. GPM Figure 11.3 Performance curves for a 616 in.2 illustrates. find the head it is developing. Another form of presenting pump curves is shown in Figure 11.3. In this case. and efficiency curves. what BHP is it using. Figure 11..290 CHAPTER 11 Data: 61/2" impeller diameter 5o. pump at 1750 RPM. '" .) The performance of a given pump is found from its curves. BHP and efficiency are not indicated.. a manufacturer may show the performance curves for a number of different size pumps together.3 A 6 in.5 is operating at 1750 RPM.3. To conserve data space.0 . BHP= 1.. speed of 1750 RPM. (Its performance would be different at other speeds.5. H= 35. Reading horizontally across. Solution Using Figure 11. is delivering 120 GPM. respectively. Example 11. Suction and discharge gages at the pump read 30 psig and 45 psig. c: '0 50 ~ '" ~ 'c 20r_------------~_b~------------~------_r--------r_----__11 40 'o " ::.2 If the pump whose ratings are shown in Figure 11. Each pump is furnished with a motor large enough to handle the maximum BHP.6 HP E=64% Example 11. ~_ _ _ _ _ _+-. proceed vertically up to the intersection with the head. operating at 1750 RPM. 1450 RPM and 2900 RPM would be the usual speeds.4 is a set of flowlhead curves for a number of small pumps. as Example 11. BHP. and what is its efficiency? j . and its efficiency.----------~17~5~0~R~PTM~----. (In countries that use 50 Hz current. in diameter. the BHP it uses.. lines of constant BHP and constant efficiency are shown. at 120 GPM. all using the same casing. Instead of BHP and efficiency curves.

3 are for a The power input to a pump is always greater than the power output because of friction and other unavoidable losses. EXPANSION TANKS. ft of liquid s.x 100 power input BHP (I 1.2. What is the minimum size motot that should be used to drive the pump? { Solution . Note that at shut-off efficiency is zero because there is no flow. especially for reasons that will be discussed shortly. then it rises to a maXimum.x 100= x 100=3.2 also shows the flow versus rate efficiency curve for the same centrifugal pump. Notice that the flowlhead curve indicates that a centrifugal pump develops less head at greater flow. = specific gravity of liquid. They are determined by the manufacturer by testing the pump.1 A chilled water pump for the air conditioning system in the Five Aces Casino is delivering 200 GPM at a total head of 36 ft of water.· given by the following equation: WHP= GPMxHxs.g.2) This efficiency is sometimes call the mechanical efficiency (ME).82) BHP=-.g. GPM H = total pump head. The performance depends on the speed at which the pump is operated. We must find the required power input (BHP).. Figure 11. The flow ratelBHP curve indicates that the BHP increases with flow rate for a centrifugal pump.2 Typical performance characteristic curves for a centrifugal pump.2.0HP E 60 This would be the minimum power needed for a motor. The power required to drive the pump is called the brake horsepower (BHP). "0 (]) C1l a. Example 11.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. HP GPM = flow rate. The manufacturer lists the pump efficiency as 60% a\ this condition. also called ratings. The pump performance characteristics. The BHP is the power input to a pump. WHP 1. I (]) I Flow rate Flow rate Flow rate . 3960 where WHP = water horsepower (output). The power output is the power transmitted to the water.82 HP Using Equation I 1.3. (s. AND VENTING 289 The curves for a typical centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 11. l (ILl) WHP = 200x36 3960 : x 1 = 1.g. In reality. and then decreases again at the pump's maximum flow rate. Using Equation I Ll to find the poter output. at which the head is at or close to a maximum. The ratings of the pump in Figure 11. The efficiency (E) of a pump is defined as: E= power output WHP x 100= . are shown for a particular pump in Figure 11. The condition of no flow is called shut-off. a larger nominal size motor might be used to prevent possible overloading of the motor. = 1 for water) Figure 11.

) The performance of a given pump is found from its curves. In this case. c: m '" '" ~ . (In countries that use 50 Hz current.. respectively..c ::._~------J0 30 Figure 11.. How much water is the pump circulating. BHP= 1. Figure 11. Another form of presenting pump curves is shown in Figure U.3._------------_.3 A 6 in. (Its performance would be different at other speeds.J Head 70 40 .. and its effieiency. 1450 RPM and 2900 RPM would be the usual speeds. To conserve data space.3 Performance curves for a 6* in. in diameter. a manufacturer may show the performance curves for a number of different size pumps together. and what is its efficiency? j i . the BHP it uses. BHP. operating at 1750 RPM.i .0 (I) . <D 50 ~ III . at 120 GPM. GPM ~ ~ .. Example 11.-----~17~5~0~R~PTM~----~ f-______-I-. Each pump is furnished with a motor large enough to handle the maximum BHP. Solution Using Figure 11. proceed vertically up to the intersection with the head. the flowlhead curves are shown for a few pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in. find the head it is developing.2 If the pump whose ratings are shown in Figure 11.) This speed and 3500 RPM are the most commonly used in the United States because they are the natural speeds resulting from direct connection to a 60 Hz motor.2 0 ~ c: III . all using the same casing. pump at 1750 RPM.4 is a set of flowlhead curves for a number of small pumps. Instead of BHP and efficiency curves. H=35. lines of constant BHP and constant efficiency are shown. BHP and efficiency are not indicated. what BHP is it using.c 30 2I 0. and efficiency curves." 60 ~ 0 .5 ft w. Suction and discharge gages at the pump read 30 psig and 45 psig.2 ill ustrates. speed of 1750 RPM._--. is delivering 120 GPM.290 CHAPTER 11 Data: 61/2" impeller diameter 5or---------~----. pump of the type shown in Figure 11.3. as Example 11. Reading horizontally across.S.5 is operating at 1750 RPM.6 HP E=64% Example 11.: 20 1 40 (I) 10L-______________ ______________ ______________ o 50 100 150 Flow rate.

H = (45 .4 Performance curves for a group of small in-line pumps. At this flow. . based on size. we read the BHP and efficiency. o o 5 Figure 11. I pSI Example 11. AND VENTING 16 i-- 291 14 l. In Example 11. .g.. there was only one suitable pump for the application. A pump that is operating near the point of maximum efficiency should be selected.. the flow rate is 78 GPM.. but it would be unnecessarily expensive-and would use more energy. That pump might be used by throttling flow rate. . . --K 10 1b1 (118 . EXPANSION TANKS.5 ft w.30) psig x 2.. .. interpolating if necessary. .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. however. and the larger size 104 develops much more than required. Usually. :--. we learned how to determine the performance of a pump from its curves. Converting this to ft of water. The pump must have a capacity equal to the system flow rate and a head equal to the system pressure loss. at a pump head of 34.4 For the group of pumps shown in Figure 11. 10 3: --.~ 30 Solution The pump head is the difference between the suction and discharge pressures.j 1~) -= os Q) I . .4. This gener- ally falls in the mid-range of pump flow capacity. there are a number of factors that should be considered in selecting the most appropriate pump. for a system with a required flow rate of IS GPM and 10 ft water pressure loss? Soilition Locating the system point A in the figure.--12 '--.3 ft water . which is more than enough. The size 102 pump does not develop adequate head at the required flow rate. Using the f10wlhead curve for the 6 in.N 1750 RPM ~/4HP) 6HP ) t. as BHP= 1.5 ft of water. = 34. GPM ~ ~ ~ t'-... I. These two system characteristics are the primary ones in selecting a pump.0HP E=67% 11.4. at the required flow rate we see that the smallest pump that will provide the required head is a size 103. and the head it develops is 11.5.5 ft water.. 8 6 4 2 -:r--.. This is useful for the operator or TAB engineer in testing an existing pump. '" " "" '" "" "'" "'" "" 25 ~ ~ " 35 . 100 (1. which one would be the best choice. pump from Figure 11..12 HP) '"~ "" ~ ~ ~ 20 15 Flow. Another situation is the need to select a pump for a system.:.4 PUMP SELECTION In the previous section.

"'K% 6~% 6 % 60% )'. A cooling tower circuit might be an example.. It is recommended that pumps with flat head characteristic curves be used for hydronic systems. At 3500 RPM.6 shows examples of afiat head curve . yet where it is desired to maintain reasonably constant flow rate. a smaller pump can be used.S. Figure 11. curve pump might be used in a system where the system pressure resistance is expected to gradually increase with time. where the pipe will roughen with age.. If there is a large change in flow rate. (Courtesy: IlT Fluid Handling Division. . The steepness of the flowlhead curves varies among centrifugal pumps. 5~%60% I I . If the system flow rate actually required is greater than designed for..: K V l" " r-I"f ~L Rr-. Select a pump in the vicinity of 50-75% of maximum flow.. 4. there will be a corresponding small change in pump head. at 1750 RPM. For hydronic systems.) 2. 1/2 HP 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100110120130140150160170180190200 Capacity in U.. it is preferable to select a pump operating at 1750 RPM rather than 3500 RPM." ". ~ " o i"-r-.'>~ '''' '-I I ~.5 Performance curves for a group of pumps with impeller sizes ranging from 5-7 in.17--.292 CHAPTER 11 4J% 60 7" Q. increasing frictional resistance. Steep Flow . k ".6 Flat versus steep pump head characteristics. but the higher speed results in higher noise levels that may be disturbing in occupied areas. 6] 40 30 5" 20 10 ~ . ~ L ~ > . . . ~ ~ ~ "i"-. . and therefore also increasing the required pump head.md steep head curve pump. / . the pump will not have the extra needed capacity. . gallons per minute ~~HP -~ K><:: )< ." / rr A". .55% /-: ~ I. A steep head./ . Z... / II' 6r 50 2 "0 6 1/2'" .? X '>< .b<V \. depending on their design. ~ .45% '3 HP V\I ~ :> ~P V 2 HP 1'1 1/2 ~P Figure 11. figure 11.. This makes balancing and controlling flow rates easier. even though a smaller pump results from this choice. . ... r-..c (ii 13 f" 51). It is not advisable to select a pump operating near its maximum capacity. . 3.

Figure 11. GPM2> GPM) = flow rates at conditions 2 and I. the static head would be added to account for the net height the water is lifted. what would be the pressure loss due to friction? 80 11. this may be a significant convenience. which can be determined from the following equation: H f2 Hf ) = (GPM2)2 GPM) (11. Pump ~ l---------::::::~~=__ Operating point -g Q) I System Flow . using Equation 11. Example 11. This characteristic curve includes frictional pressure loss only.7 tion at conditions 2 and I.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. then to find the total system resistance. Although System and pump head characteristic curves indicating point of operation.7). Note that the system frictional resistance rises very sharply with increased flow rate. one must be careful not to become locked into using only that manufacturer's product.5 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS The pressure loss in a piping system changes with the flow rate through the system. Some manufacturers offer computer software to the system designer for pump selection.8).3. it can be found at any other flow rate. If the flow rate were GPM. not any static head. Hf2 = Hf ) ( GPM GPM) 2)2 = 30(80)2 = 53 ft w. AND VENTING 293 11. The pressure loss-flow rate relationship is called the system characteristic. If the pressure loss is calculated at one flow rate. Typical system characteristic curve. it applies to a closed circuit only (see Chapter 8). EXPANSION TANKS.8 Solution Using the system characteristic Equation 11. If the circuit is open.6 SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND PUMP CHARACTERISTICS The system and pump characteristic curves can both be plotted together (Figure I \.3) Flow.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A piping system has a pressure loss due to friction of 30 ft water when the flow rate is 60 GPM. GPM where Hf 2> Hf ) = pressure loss in piping due to fric- Figure 11.3. This is very useful in analyzing operating problems. if there is any. 60 A system characteristic curve can be plotted for any piping system by calculating the pressure loss at a few different conditions (Figure 11. Therefore.

but many types of problems encountered in balancing and operating systems can be understood by studying the curves together. and the pump will thus use more power than expected.~. Suppose. The real operating condition must be where this curve intersects the pump curve. 1 . The system design pressure loss and flow rate is given by point I. This is a waste of energy.. Point I therefore represents the expected point of operation.'-'----"'~~~ ----------------" / ® G)?--. say by throttling a balancing valve. The pump is actually delivering more flow than is desired.3. and there are many variables that might cause operation at higher than design flow. a smaller pump might have been chosen (at point 2). using Equation 11." ' 0' t B \G). This would bring us back to point I. Then what is the operating condition? To find it. Even though it is proper to select a pump with head close to the actual system pressure loss. However. Furthermore. the real curve B. For instance. point 3.® Flow Excess power BHP In I n. Curve A.9). the following important statement always holds true: The point of intersection of the system characteristic and pump characteristic jlow/head curves is always the actual operating condition for the system/pump combination. Figure 11. could also be plotted. and if the motor has not been oversized.~ 1 . The extra motor cost is a nominal part of the total cost. we know that the real operating point is farther out on the pump curve than expected. Therefore.!.. It is not usually necessary to plot both curves to make a pump selection. This may overcool or overheat the building. using less power. But notice what has happened. through point 2. with a capacity greater than the BHP at maximum flow.294 CHAPTER 11 The head developed by the pump must be exactly equal to the system pressure loss. Point 2 of course cannot be the system operating point because it is not a point of intersection with the pump curve.9 Illustration of excess power use and incorrect operation condition by use of "safety factor. I DeSign operating condition Actual operating condition lE I . the expected system characteristic curve.// A~' . The only point where this is true is where the system and pump head curves intersect. the condition may be less safe! The problem could be resolved after installation by adding resistance in the circuit.. if the excess and unnecessary pressure loss had not been allowed for originally. This might occur because the system designer allowed for a "safety factor" in calculating the piping friction loss. we plot a new system characteristic curve. we may have a burned out motor. /. A pump is selected to develop this head. that the actual system pressure loss at the design GPM was only that indicated by point 2. 1: 11# I ~ . . however. consider the situation where the actual system pressure loss is less than the design pressure loss (Figure 11. . Instead of the safety factor. it is often advisable to select a motor for nonoverloading conditions." Pump head '0 f------------.

The in-line pump (Figure 11. AND VENTING 295 11. sometimes called booster pumps or circulators. using 6 BHP. Because of this amingement and the relatively light weight. at a speed of 1750 RPM. are popular for small hydronic heating systems. . N = pump speed.= 315 GPM 1750 H2=4 . power.10 In-line type pump.6 The Pumpernickel Pump Co..11) has the impeller mounted on and supported by the motor Figure 11. the pump can be supported directly by the piping and is inexpensive and simple to install. ----- Centrifugal pumps are available in varied arrangements and features of construction. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. ft w.) 1450)2 ( 1750 1450)3 BHP2 =6BHPx . where 50 Hz electric current is used. 1450 GPM2 = 380 GPM x . to consult the manufacturer if a change in impellers is being considered. and head for any given centrifugal pump that are sometimes useful to the HVAC engineer. ships a centrifugal pump to Argentina.5ftw.. low head applications. 2 = any two operating conditions Example 11.4) Note that the centrifugal pump similarity laws are identical to those for a centrifugal fan (see Chapter 10). 0ftX .7 PUMP SIMILARITY LAWS There are a number of relations concerning flow rate. however.1 0) is used for small. speed.. What will be the pump's rating in Argentina? Solution The pump will operate at 1450 RPM on the 50 Hz current. In-line pumps.4HP ( 1750 There are also pump similarity laws for determining the effect of a change in impeller diameter. each having different applications.=3. Using the similarity laws. 11. The pump and motor are mounted integrally. The pump is rated at 380 GPM and 40 ft head.=27. and the pump suction and discharge connections are in a straight line (inline). The close-coupled pump (Figure 11.5) (11.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. RPM BHP = brake horsepower I.8 PUMP CONSTRUCTION (11. EXPANSION TANKS. It is advisable. A few of these are: (11.6) where H = pump head.

or double-suction construction. Larger pumps are constructed with double-suction inlets. in which water enters either through one or both sides of the pump. The split casing makes repairs more convenient.12 Close·coupled pump. In the medium size range. Sleeve bearings are lubricated with oil.13). Sleeve. The pump has an end suction connection. Ball bearings are lubricated with grease. The motor has a mounting flange for supporting the motor/pump combination from a suitable base. The close coupled pump is relatively inexpensive and is available from small to medium capacities and heads.) Pump and motor connected by flexible coupling and mounted on common base plate. split case construction are used. Open-type impellers are not generally used in HVAC applications because their purpose is to permit handling of liquids containing solids. The horizontal split case is used on very large pumps so that the very heavy upper part of the casing can be lifted vertically by a mechanical hoist. . it is called a closed impeller. The bronze·fitted pump is generally the combination of materials used for hydronic systems. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. With larger pumps the contractor mounts the pump and motor and connects them together through the coupling.11 Figure 11. and motor may be preassembled by the manufacturer on a common base plate (Figure 11. The pump casing can be one cast piece or can be split-manufactured in two halves that are bolted together.and ball-type bearings are both used.) shaft. One arrangement has a reservoir of oil and an oil ring that flings the oil around as it rotates. if it has shrouds on one side. pumps are also furnished as separate items. Another arrangement uses cotton waste packing that is impregnated with oil. The flexible coupling aids in alignment of the two shafts and helps to reduce vibrations. In addition to the in-line and close-coupled pump and motor combinations. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division. if it has no shrouds. Both horizontal split case and vertical. such as sewage. it is called semi-open. it is called an open impeller. coupling.296 CHAPTER J J Figure 11. If the impeller has walls (called shrouds) on both sides. Some motor ball bearings are sealed and cannot be lubri· cated in the field (Figure 11. The casing is cast iron and the impeller is bronze or brass. the pump. The pump and motor shafts are connected by a flexible coupling. Large pumps may have an oil pump for forcing the oil to the bearings. CentrifugaLpumps can have either single.12) for convenience of installation. The pump can be opened on the job for ac· cess to bearings or other internal parts.

very smooth mating surfaces.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. The packing will wear and must be inspected and replaced at intervals.14). (a) Sleeve bearings. Mechanical seals have two hard. Packed seals use a soft material that presses against the shaft with an ad- justable tightness.yWaste Motor shaft "----n-'--lr==tl A'HHJ:::r--" Drain plug Oil return port Oil reservoir Oil ring lubrication (a) Waste packed lubrication Outer bearing face Bearing housing I Ball bearing Inner bearing face (b) Figure 11.) Ball bearings are generally used on smaller pumps. EXPANSION TANKS. They cannot be used where there are any solid particles in the system because the surfaces . Either packing or mechanical seals are used (Figure 11..:A!iQ77. one that is stationary and one that rotates. AND VENTING 297 Oil cup Sleeve bearing Oil ring . and a dri p pan and drain lines should be provided to handle this. they will prevent any significant leakage. Seals are required to prevent leakage of water under pressure. (b) Ball bearings. A small leakage is expected and normal. Sleeve bearings are quieter and are therefore recommended for hydronic service with larger pumps. Larger "pumps may have either sleeve or ball bearings. Properly applied.13 Sleeve and ball bearings. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division.

+ I ' Pump shaft .. (b) Mechanical seal.14 (a) Packed seal..+ 1 Stuffing box -----t77j-~~~~~~ Packing rings (a) • Impeller Liquid side Atmosphere • Rubber bellows Pump body wall Fastener ring Insert gasket (b) Figure 11.298 CHAPTER 11 • Atmosphere Swing Liquid side • Packing gland .. (Courtesy: ITT Fluid Handling Division) .

3).5 psia (Table A.7 are in feet of water. It can be a problem in cooling tower systems if the pump is elevated to a location requiring a high suction lift. Example 11. 17. causing operating problems and possible damage to the pump. The steam bubbles formed may collapse in the pump. The available NPSH is calculated from examining the suction system arrangement of pressure loss. = 34 . The required NPSH for a pump can be obtained from the manufacturer. The placement of the compression tank is an important factor relating to this. and possible damage to the pump.5 psi x .7 A pump takes water at 180 F from an open tank that is 8 ft below the pump centerline. To avoid this.7) where 11. causing erratic operation. If this happens. The water will rush into these cavities at great force. however. In a hydronic system. The available NPSH must be greater than the pump requires. Boiler condensate return systems are also subject to cavitation if they are not designed and installed in accordance with the NPSH requirements. noise.8 . Hv=7. If this occurs. 11. an allowance must be made for this. The pump used must have a required NPSH less than 6... Substituting in Equation 11. AND VENTING 299 will become scored and the seal will be lost.. It results when the water pressure at the pump suction is too low. Atmospheric pressure is 14. momentarily leaving pockets or cavities.31 =34ftw. unless it is restricted. if open) H: Hf = elevation of the liquid suction above (+) or below (-) the centerline of the impeller =friction and velocity head loss in the suction plpmg H. and will be explained later. The possibility of cavitation is usually of concern in an open system where there is suction lift to the pump and where the temperature is high.2. H" = available NPSH Ha = absolute pressure at surface of liquid where pump takes suction (atmospheric pressure.7 psi. = absolute vapor pressure of water corresponding to the temperature The units in Equation 11.31 ft w. SO/lIIion The vapor pressure of water at 180 F is 7. a minimum pressure must be maintained at the pump suction.5 . If the piping system . Determine the available NPSH. Friction and velocity head loss in the piping is 2. They are very popular in hydronic systems because no maintenance is required and they can last many years. lift.1 psi Ha= l4. 2. Changing all units to ft w. Hn = H" ± Hz . EXPANSION TANKS.7.9 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD Under certain conditions in circulating water systems.5 ft w. a phenomenon called cavitation may occur in the pump suction..H.7x2. called net positive suction head (NPSH).17.3 ft w. The available NPSH can be determined from the following equation: (11. If it is too low. The problem is not usually encountered in hydronic systems because the static head in a closed system acts on the suction..10 THE EXPANSION TANK Water expands when its temperature increases. the vapor pressure of the water in the pump may fall below its corresponding saturation temperature (Chapter 2) and the water will flash into steam.3 = 6. and temperature.Hf .2 ft w.2 ft w. the pump or tower may have to be relocated.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. the piping arrangement must be changed.

which would therefore be the maximum allowable pressure at the boiler. Figure 11. the closed expansion tank such as the one shown in Figure l1. A much better solution is to use a closed expansion tank containing a gas (air or nitrogen). When the water expands. however. The pressure at any location must not be lower than the saturation pressure of the water. the total volume of water in the system increases. If this happens. the system has some of the defects of open hydronic systems.15(a) shows that as the water temperature increases.15 Expansion. this may occur particularly at the pump suction. 11.11 SYSTEM PRESSURE CONTROL The pressure in a hydronic system must be controlled within certain maximum and minimum limits. Particularly undesirable is the continual exposure to air and its possible corrosive effects. the boiler relief valve is often set at 30 psig.300 CHAPTER 11 is completely filled and there is no space for the water to expand. Vent Water level (hot) Gage glass Overflow Water level (hot) (cold) Water level (cold) To system below Open expansion tank (a) Compression (closed) tank (b) . it partially fills the tank. i l I f . As mentioned previously.15(b) is usually called a compression tank. for example. This is a subject that is often not understood correctly. In a low temperature hydronic heating system. leading to operating difficulties and possible equipment damage. Because the tank is open to the atmosphere.and compression-type tanks. For this reason. the water will boil and the steam created will cause operating problems. The compression tank serves an additional purpose beyond that of providing for the water expansion-it aids in controlling system pressure. For these reasons. The maximum allowable pressures are usually based on the permissible equipment pressures. compression tanks have largely replaced open expansion tanks in hydronic systems. compressing the gas. An open expansion tank can be provided at the highest point in the system to solve this problem. the piping or equipment might break. the effect being a rise in the water level in the tank. The minimum pressure requirement is based on two factors: 1. Figure 11.

This example shows that the compression tank should be connected to the system at the pump suction. The water in the tank will be at the same pressure as the gas in the tank. (a) Tank at pump discharge. (a) (b) . which is far below atmospheric pressure. Assume that the pressure throughout the system initially is 10 psig (25 psia) without the pump running as seen in Figure II. pump operating. we must understand how the compression tank functions. because the boiling point of water at 5 psia is only 160 F. This holds true regardless of where the tank is located and whether or not the pump is operating. we can see what effect the tank's location has on controlling system pressure.16(a).CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. the pressure at the tank location remains at 25 psia. But 5 psia is -10 psig. because the pump adds 20 psi. except for small residential systems. Cavitation in the pump might also occur in a heating system. Control of maximum and minimum pressures to ensure that none of these problems occur is achieved by proper sizing and location of the compression tank and by correctly pressurizing the system when fiiling. this arrangement is usually still not advisable. EXPANSION TANKS. Assume the pump has a head of 20 psi. In Figure 11.17(b). (b) Tank at pump discharge. If the pump head is low and there is a static head of water above the pump and tank elevation. air may enter the system. Once the system is filled with water and the water is heated to operating temperature. The compression tank acts similarly to a spring or an air cushion. When the pump runs.16 . All of the piping is on the same level. However.16. If this happens. Air would undoubtedly leak into the system at the pump suction. so when the pump runs. The volume of gas in the tank therefore also remains constant and its pressure does not change. To know how to accomplish this. Effect of compression tank location at pump discharge. The pressure at any location should not be lower than atmospheric pressure. not at the pump discharge.16(b) shows what happens to the pressures when the pump runs. Consider first the compression tank located 'at the discharge side of the pump for the system shown in Figure 11. as seen in Figure 11. Let us see what happens if the tank is located at the suction side of the pump. the initial pressure is at 25 psia throughout the system. the pressure at the pump suction might not fall below atmospheric even if the tank is located at the pump discharge.. The pressure at the pump suction must therefore be 20 psi less than this value. pump not operating. By assuming two different tank locations and utilizing the above principle. the pressure at the pump discharge must be 45 psia (30 psig). The pressure at the tank must be the point of no pressure change. the total volume of water in the system remains constant. the pressure at this point is still 25 psia. The pressure throughout the system is well above atmospheric. or 5 psia. AND VENTING 301 2. The following statement summarizes this fact: The point at which the compression tank is connected to the system is the point of no pressure change. as before. Figure 11. . As the pump adds 20 psi. The value of this pressure will depend on how much the gas in the tank is compressed.l7(a). Figure II.

18 Sketch for Example 11 . (a) Tank at pump suction. a hydronic heating system.8. 25 It I Tank I . the boiler could be located in a penthouse.J .18. the pressure will increase further due to expansion of the water compressing air in the tank. 2. Static pressure. The size depends on the following sources of pressure: I. This is the pressure due to the height of water above any point. and compression tank is shown in Figure 11. boiler. so that the boiler is not subject to the pump discharge pressure. On a high-rise building. 4. the static head at the boiler. A pres- Figure 11.I Boiler T-():rPump Ie.) sure of 4-5 psig at the top of the system is adequate for hydronic systems.. pump not operating. (b) Tank at pump suction. the contractor should fill the system under pressure. (The recommended arrangement of pump. After the system is filled with cold water and pressurized. the pressure at the highest point in the system would be atmospheric. . which is often at the bottom Of·the system. j . In this case. Usually the critical point is the boiler. To keep the pressure exerted on the boiler as low as possible.302 CHAPTER 11 (a) (b) Figure 11. pump operating. the pressures change in the system by the value of the pump head. or a steam boiler and hot water heat exchanger might be used (Chapter 5). If the tank is connected at the pump 11. Accessories are not shown. Pump pressure. might be above the maximum pressure. Initial fill pressure. In order to provide a safety margin to . 3. the pump should be located to discharge away from the boiler. Pressure/temperature increase. If the system were initially filled without pressure. prevent the pressure from going below atmospheric and thus leaking air in. When the pump is operated.17 Effect of compression tank location at pump suction.12 COMPRESSION TANK SIZE The size of the compression tank for a system must be adequate to receive the increased volume of water from expansion and also to keep the pressures within minimum and maximum limits. when the temperature is raised in. As explained earlier. this depends on where the compression tank is located. if it is in the basement.

0_4_6-.S) 1=200F Vs = 600 gallons Ha = 14. it is usually not necessary to calculate the size of the compression tank. ft water absolute H. gallons A compression-type expansion tank of approxi- V5 = volume of system. absolute Ho = 30 psig = 45 psia x 2. The pump head is 20 ft of water:The pressure relief valve on the boiler is set at 30 psig. If the tank is connected to the discharge side of the pump.. ft water absolute The term in the parentheses in the equation represents the expansion of water.3 + 25 = 38 ft w./I psi = 34 ft w. = 21. = minimum pressure at tank. F Ha = atmospheric pressure. Fill pressure is 5 psig. In using the fonnula. The design average water temperature is 200 F.=(I I. absolute pressure plus static pressure at tank. Example 11. For residential and other small hydronic heating systems. H.00041 (200) . equal to the fill mately 150 gal capacity would be used on this system. further air will enter even a carefully designed and ._00_0_4_11_-_0_.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. absolute Substituting in the equation HalH.0466]600 . The flexing of the diaphragm allows for the expansion and contraction.:6)_V. v. the pump head is subtracted from the pressure at every point.of the system water.2 34/92 _ 3411 04 493 gal Note that the tank size must be increased greatly because of its location.HalHo v_ where [0. Example II. gallons t = design average water temperature. = 72 + 20 = 92 ft w.8 Determine the required size of the closed expansion tank for the hydronic heating system shown in Figure Il.19).S will illustrate how the compression tank is sized.3 ft w. AND VENTING 303 suction. Dissolved air is in the fi II water and the compressed air is in fhe tank. The system volume is 600 gal.8 will be used. the minimum pressure at the tank must be increased by the amount of pump head. If the tank is connected at the pump discharge. = 5 x 2. The high point is 25 ft above the boiler. For small systems. Tables are available from manufacturers that list the appropriate tank size according to the building heating load. ft water absolute The required tank size in this case becomes Ho = maximum pressure at tank. . EXPANSION TANKS.g. Solution Equation 11 . + 34 = 72 ft w. the head is added at every point.O_. The tank is located atthe boiler elevation. Eventually. air unavoidably enters the system.. the terms in the equation are 11.3 = 104 ft w. pressure loss from friction is usually neglected. = required volume of compression tank. The system volume is determined from the pipe sizes and from equipment volumes.7 psi x 2. if connected at the suction side of the pump. These factors have been combined in the following formula developed by the ASME for determining tank size: ( . information that can be obtained from manufacturers.34172 _ 34/104 146 gal v.lS.13 AIR CONTROL AND VENTING When the system is initially filled. From the previous information. a convenient flexible diaphragm-type compression tank is often used (Figure 11.0.-5 V. That is. H.

An eccentric type reducing fitting (Chapter 9) is recommended when changing pipe size. (Courtesy: Taco. 11. which is usually in the range of 50-70% of their maximum capacity.304 CHAPTER 11 Flexible diaphragm Figure 11. and the air and water together may promote corrosion. must be provided at all high points in the system. Useful Websites Information can be found at the following Websites for pump selection and specifications: www. It is also advisable to install a vent at-each terminal unit.com www. dissolved air is released from the water as air bubbles. and maintenance. they could cause considerable water damage to a building. Ideally.20 Automatic air venting valve for terminal units. Control of air in the system is necessary for two reasons: The presence of air will block the flow of water. each resulting in a high point. which Figure 11.) often occurs at the pump connections. Vent valves may be manual or automatic (Figure 11. Inc. Select pumps in their range of greatest efficiency. After the system is filled and put into operation. This prevents the trapping of air at the top of the fitting. but will find its way to other high points in the piping system. some air probablY will not be collected in the tank.armstrongpumps. a system should have only one high point. Do not allow an extra pressure loss in the piping as a "safety factor. It is helpful to pitch horizontal piping slightly up toward high points when installing it. .20). List the basic parts of a centrifugal pump and their functions." 3.19 Diaphragm-type compression tank. Provide for venting air from the system in design.com Review Questions I. which are small valves. Automatic air vents are convenient. but often there are many rises and drops in piping. Sometimes an air separator device (Figure IUS) is located at the tank connection to divert air to the tank. This air must be vented from the system or it will block flow through terminal units. the contractor opens each vent and bleeds air until none are left. but if they stick in an open position.taconet. When the water in the system is first heated to operating temperature. installed system. through makeup water and when the system is opened for maintenance and repair. Air vents. Air will block flow and prevent proper operation.14 ENERGY CONSERVATION I. 2. Much of this air will find its way to the compression tank. installation. therefore it will indirectly reduce efficiency. However.

when the flow rate is 15 GPM.4 A hydronic system requires 20 GPM of water. 8. 7. The system volume is 290 gal. 9. I 1. w. at this flow rate. the engineer calculates the pressure loss at 37 ft w.3.3 is circulating 100 GPM. Try the provider at www. AND VENTING 305 2. A centrifugal pump has a rating of 120 GPM and 36 ft w. Produce the pump curve and specifications.I I Select an in-line pump for a head of 30 ft w.5 The pressure loss due to friction in a hy- dronic system is 10 ft w. 12.I 0 Select an in-line pump for a head of 8 ft w. Pump 103 (Figure 11. Try the provider at www. Produce the pump curve and specifications. The system is filled under a pressure of 4 psig. 13. Try the provider at www.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. 3.taconet. If its speed is increased to 1450 RPM. I I.1 4.6 I 1. The high point is 20 ft above the boiler. The pump efficiency is 55%. It is decided to increase the flow rate to 18 GPM.9 Problems I I.8 11. or double-suction. For Problem I 1.com. (b) pump discharge.2 The pump whose characteristic curves are shown in Figure I 1. What is the importance of NPSH? What are the functions of a compression tank" What considerations are important for minimum and maximum pressure control? Where should air vents be installed? How should the piping be installed to improve air venting? 11. 5. show the typical centrifugal pump characteristics curves. and 18 GPM flow rate. what will be its expected rating and required BHP? A hydronic heating system has a design average water temperature of 220 F.. selecting the pump in Figure 11. List the methods of bearing lubrication and the types of bearings to which they apply. List the two types of pump seals and their features. 10. It requires 2 BHP at these conditions. and its efficiency. .com. 6. The pressure relief valve on the boiler is set at 30 psig. against a total head of 23 ft w. Name the two types of pump bearings for hydronic systems and their features. The pump head is 30 ft w. total head at a speed of 1150 RPM.taconet.5) is operating with a total head of 38 ft w. Computer Solution Problems I I. and a flow rate of 100 GPM.7 11.3 Pump 6!h (Figure I 1. Select a pump from Figure 11. and efficiency? I 1. WiII pump 103 be satisfactory? For a system requiring 110 GPM.4 for this application.and (c) high point of the system. Find the required compression tank volume if it is located at the (a) pump suction. What is the head. The system pressure loss is 6 ft w. What factors should be considered in selecting a pump for a hydronic system? What is the relationship between the pump and system characteristics? Explain the following terms: ill-line. 12 Select a horizontal split case pump for a flow rate of 300 GPM and a 125 ft.6 how could the proper flow rate be achieved? Determine the BHP and head at this condition. The actual pressure drop is only 25 ft w. closecoupled. Produce the pump curve and specifications. Find the GPM it is circulating. What is the minimum size motor required to drive the pump? I 1. single-. BHP. and closed or open impeller.4) is used. head at 1750 RPM. 11. 11. the power it is using. On one sketch. Determine the actual operating conditions of GPM and BHP if no changes are made in the system.taconet. I I. EXPANSION TANKS. I A pump for a hydronic solar heating system is circulating 60 GPM of an antifreeze solution that has a specific gravity of 1. 4.com.

space available. . and costs are some of the variables that determine which type of system is to be used.1 SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONS Air conditioning systems can be classified in a number of ways.····· 4. Describe the features of all-water and air-water systems. 306 12.c H A p T E R Air Conditioning Systems and Equipment T here are a large number of variations in the types of air conditioning systems and the ways they can be used to control the environment in a building. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. 6. 3. such as A. Describe the causes of and solutions to poor indoor air quality. the planner must consider the features of each type of system and decide which is the best choice. These systems use only air for cooling or heating. Describe the features of the different types of unitary equipment. 2. These systems use both water and air for cooling and heating. you will be able to: I. All-water (hydronic) systems. Select a cooling coil. Identify the types and performance characteristics of air cleaners. zoning requirements. 2. 3. All-air systems. 7. These systems use only water for cooling or heating. Load changes. Identify the types of zoned air conditioning systems and their features. In every application. Identify the components of single zone central system air conditioning equipment and their functions. The cooling/heating fluid that is used There are three possible groups iii regard to the fluid used: I. 5. Air-water combination systems.

of the system components (fans. temperature but not humidity can be controlled in summer (see Chapter 7). thus providing humidity control in summer. coils. ductwork. if the equipment is cooling too much. The solar heat gain may increase in rooms on one side and decrease in those on another side. refrigeration equipment) are furnished as an assembled package from the manufacturer. cools or heats air that is then distributed to one or a group of rooms that constitute a single zone. People change locations. For instance. Consider rooms on different exposures. Now it will get insufficient cooling and the room temperature will rise. This load is continually changing because of the variations in outside air temperature. most. That is. The room thermostat controls the air conditioning equipment so that it responds properly to the changing load. The equipment shown in Figure 12. Not all of the components are used in all circumstances. This situation occurs in any building where the load changes behave differently among rooms. Our focus in this section. This . a single zone air conditioning system is unsatisfactory. all-air single zone system. The central unit. Unitary or central systems A unitary system uses packaged equipment. where the cooling load decreases.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 307 B. The supply air fan is necessary to distribute air through the unit. called an air handling unit (AHU). But suppose room B still needs full cooling.1 provides a complete year-round air conditioning system to control both temperature and humidity. however. and internal loads. the thermostat either stops the unit or reduces its cooling output. For example. It will satisfy only one or a group of zones whose heat gains vary in unison.3 SINGLE ZONE SYSTEM A single zone air conditioning system has one thermostat automatically controlling one heating or cooling unit to maintain the proper temperature in a single room or a group of rooms constituting a zone. will be on a central type. creating discomfort. The cooling coil cools and dehumidifies the air in summer.2 ZONES AND SYSTEMS The amount of heating or cooling that the air conditioning equipment delivers to a space must always match the space load or requirements. if not all. An air conditioning zone is a room or group of rooms in which comfortable conditions can be maintained by a single controlling device.1. an air conditioning system of the multiple zone type is used. Often. C. Internal loads also are frequently not uniform in their changes. When these situations exist. This presents a serious problem if there are other rooms or spaces that do not have the same load change behavior as the rOom where the thermostat is located. 12. The various ways that this can be accomplished will be part of our discussion. thus maintaining the desired room temperature. 12. A central or built-up system is one where the components are furnished separately and installed and assembled by the contractor. if the thermostat is in room A. A multiple zone system can satisfactorily air condition a number of different zones. the cooling output of the unit is reduced and the room temperature remains approximately constant. solar radiation. and air distribution devices to the rooms. Lights may be switched off in one space and not another. Single zone or multiple zone systems A single zone system can satisfactorily air condition only one zone in a building. however. It receives chilled water or refrigerant from a remote refrigeration unit. as shown in Figure 12. One solution to this problem is to use a separate air conditioning unit for each differently behaving zone. The reheat coil partially reheats the cooled air when the room heat gain is less than maximum. A window air conditioner is an example of a single zone air conditioning unit. If no reheat coil is used.

. The ductwork is generally arranged so that the system takes in some outside ventilation air (OA).' Exhaust air .------.----+..-SU~)Dlv air (SA) To other f--------'-./ . The equivalent amount of outside air must then be exhausted (EA) from the building.. ( outside air ..308 CHAPTER 12 Preheat coil Cooling (optional) Mixed air (MA) Outside air (OA) Air filter ..2) so that 100% outside air can be drawn in and exhausted. capable of handling the winter heating needs... coil may alternately be a full capacity heating coil. ..-+/ /" / '-------------. This would be Arrangement of ducts and dampers to vary proportion of outside and return duct air. Mixed air ~ tounit . Provisions are often made in the arrangement of dampers (Figure 12. '< / Maximum "outside air~ / Minimum..rooms Room 1 Return air (RA) Exhaust air (EA) Room 2 }-_--+_ _ _ _ _ _'---_ _ _ _ _ _ _-'-_ _ _ _ _-'-_ _ _ _.1 Arrangement of single zone central system air conditioning equipment.. t Dampers -Return air /" . the rest being return air (RA) recirculated from the Figure 12.......2 rooms.._From other rooms Return air fan (optional) Figure 12..

As seen in Figure 12. The return air fan takes the air from the rooms and distributes it through return air ducts back to the air conditioning unit or to the outdoors. Each of these types of systems will now be explained. A reheat coil is used in each of these ducts. but does not give as good a humidity control in the space as with a reheat coil.4. However. The use of the basic zone reheat system as described is often restricted by local energy codes. The preheat coil is required in cold climates (below freezing) to temper air so that chilled water cooling coils cannot freeze up. separate control of both temperature and humidity can be achieved in each zone. In small systems with little or no return air ducts. 12. It is optional in milder climates and when OX (dry expansion) cooling coils are used.4). Reheat system Multizone system Dual duct system Variable air volume (VAV) system In the reheat system.4 REHEAT SYSTEM 1.3) provides another method of controlling humidity (see Chapter 7). In this way.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 309 done in intermediate season cool weather to obtain cooling if needed without operating refrigeration machinery. the air quantity delivered to the rooms does not vary. the return air fan is not required because the supply fan can be used to draw in the return air. both the preheat and reheat coils can be utilized. A room thermostat will control the cooling coil capacity to maintain the desired room temperature. The reheat system provides good . however. 2. When the system is used for winter heating. Some systems use 100% outside air and no return air at all times. If control of room humidity is required. aIC Figure 12. Bypassing air around the cooling coil (Figure 12.control of each zone. Room thermostats located in each zone control their respective reheat coils to maintain the space set point temperature. The reheat. it is very wasteful of energy because the air must always be completely cooled to C and then often reheated (to SJ as shown for zone J)-a double waste of energy.3 Arrangement of face and bypass dampers to provide reheat for humidity control. The variable air volume (VAV) varies the quantity of air delivered to the rooms. separate single ducts from the air handling unit are distributed to each zone or room that is to be controlled separately (Figure 12. and dual duct systems are all constant air volume (CAV) type systems.'--~- Bypass damper "'>- -Face damper Supply . 4. 3. "Automatic Controls. individual single zone units can be used for each zone. The interaction of these controls is explained in Chapter 14." To achieve satisfactory temperature and humidity control in different zones. even though this increases the refrigeration load considerably. The filters are required to clean the air. The preheat coil may be located either in the outside air or the mixed airstream. The basic air handling unit is the same as with a single zone system. Four basic types of mUltiple zone all-air units and systems are available: . This may unacceptably increase costs and maintenance. a room humidistat is used. Examples might be operating rooms or laboratories where contaminated exhaust air often cannot be recirculated. there are a number of schemes that require only one air handling unit to serve a number of zones. multizone. . except perhaps the main reheat coil can be eliminated. That is.

310 CHAPTER 12 Reheat coils S1 To zone 21 Outside air to M Air handling unit (filter.5). coils.5 MULTIZONE SYSTEM The multiZOlle system uses an air handling unit that has a heating coil (hot deck) and cooling coil (cold deck) in parallel (Figure 12.4 Reheat system with individual reheat coils.6). The multizone system can provide good zone temperature control. The psychrometric processes for the multi zone system are the same as that for the dual duct system. described in the next section.To zone 22 1--_ To zone 23 Return air (a) 1-. fan) c 1--. except for special applications. 12. Separate ducts are run from each set of dampers to each zone (Figure 12. (b) Psychrometric processes for reheat system. It is a relatively . but because mixed air is bypassed around the dehumidifying coil. Zone dampers are provided in the unit across the hot and cold deck at the outlet of the unit. humidity control may not be satisfactory in applications with high proportions of outside air. because of its inherently inefficient use of energy. Because of the limit on the size of units available.To zone 24 o M 21 c t S1 Reheat energy DB (b) Figure 12. Cold and hot air are mixed in varying proportions by the dampers according to zone requirements. each air handling unit is limited to about 12-14 zones. (a) Equipment arrangement.

Line Zl-S I is an actual room line for a zone ZI.3 /)Ol--'--+-. Dampers in the mixing box respond to a room thermostat to mix the proper proportion of hot and cold air delivered to the zone. not an actual room line. RSHR line RS is an average condition for all zones. This air mixes with air from the hot duct to produce supply air at S.7. separate hot and cold main ducts are run from heating and cooling coils in the air handling unit (Figure 12. f+---Hot deck . Note that the room humidity is higher than the average. 12. with a less-than-peak sensible cooling load and high latent load.4 Multizone unit .6 Duct arrangement for multizone system.6 DUAL DUCT SYSTEM In the dual duct system arrangement. The psychrometric processes for summer cooling zone control are shown in Figure 12.7).2 1}TO each zone /)1f-'-+--+7""'. Chilled air leaves the cooling coil at C. Ccdld deck Figure 12. to be discussed in the next section. In most applications.5 Multizone unit. the humidity increase is not great enough to be uncomfortable. inexpensive system for small. Mixed air at M is heated to H from the fan heat.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 311 Heating Heating coil Filters Fan Mixing Hot deck f+-_./)!-"-+--+-. tapping air from the hot and cold ducts. Mixing boxes (Figure 12. Warm air and cold air are supplied in the correct proportion from the zone mixing box to provide zone supply air SI. Z2 is an example of a room condition with a higher sensible and lower latent load. Figure 12.8) are provided in each zone.and medium-size applications where a few separate zones are desired and humidity conditions are not criticaL The energy use features of the multizone system are similar to those of the dual duct system.

.7 Dual duct system arrangement. . so tbat humidity does not rise too high. (a) Equipment arrangement. In any case. As the outside air temperature falls. 51/:"'/' __ R c Z2 Average RSHR line DB (b) Figure 12. (b) Psychrometric processes. it may be necessary for the reheat coil to operate to maintain an adequate hot duct temperature. . e \. Many installations have been designed or operated witb hot duct temperatures tbat result in considerable excess energy use. the hot duct temperature control should be set at the minimum re- quired to provide comfort. duct and return air fan heat gains are not shown in the psychrometric processes that have been described. This is one of tbe instances where extra energy may be used. .//// H S2 _lS_?_~_:::_=-_-_-:::_::-::_~.312 CHAPTER 12 Heating coil Outside air o M to To other Z3 zones Return air R (a) Mixing line 0 \ RSHR line Z1 for zone 21 . In order to simplify the explanation.

. The VAV box has an adjustable damper or valve so that the air quantity delivered to the space can be varied. The air quantity delivered from the air handling unit to each zone remains constant. Baltimore. The temperature of this air supply is changed to maintain the appropriate room temperature. The air downstream from the mixing box is run at conventional low velocities. Since the total supply air quantity is reduced at low loads. Its RSHR line is therefore steeper. for applications that do not have high latent loads. The availability of cold and warm air at all times in any proportion gives the dual duct system great flexibility in handling many zones with widely varying loads. However. however. Similarly. The basic VAV system arrangement is shown in Figure 12. but its latent load has not. but even if' Figure 12. a solution is to limit throttling in the VAV box. the air flow rate to zone 21 is throttled. they are prohibited in new installations. this increase in room humidity conditions at part load is not enough to cause discomfort. overcooled air is reheated by mixing warm air with it. Examples of installations where there. the quantity of outside air would also be reduced. This minimizes the excess energy expended from the reheating or recooling. and then apply reheat for further cooling load reduction. as shown. In such cases. Notice. when its sensible load has decreased. since. The mixing boxes therefore have a sound attenuating section built into them. as desired. A single main duct is run from the air handling unit. Branch ducts are run from this main through VAV boxes to each zone. The installed cost of the dual duct system is usually quite high. a double waste of energy. they must have controls that reset the cold deck (duct) temperature at the highest value needed for cooling at all times.7 VARIABLE AIR VOLUME CVAV) SYSTEM The types of air conditioning systems we have already discussed are all constant air volume (CAV) systems. This might be partially offset by providing some means of increasing the proportion of outside air.9(a). Maryland. and the room DB in zone 21 is the same as R. In some situations. To maintain the design room DB temperature. may be a problem are conference rooms and auditoriums. Zone 21 is shown at part load. that the humidity in zone 21 is higher (point 21) than desired. The variable air volume or VAV system varies the air quantity rather than temperature to each zone to maintain the appropriate room temperature. There are other potential problems that may occur with VAV systems. As with reheat systems. The average rOom conditions are point R. the use of constant volume multizone and dual duct systems is restricted. there must be controls that reset the hot deck (duct) temperature at the lowest value needed for heating at all times.8 Mixing box for dual duct system.9(b) for summer cooling. Room thennostats located in each zone control the dampers in their respective zone VAV boxes to maintain the desired room set point temperature. Where these systems are allowed.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 313 12. during part load cooling for a zone. Both the dual duct and multizone systems are inherently energy wasteful. and fan horsepower requirements are high because large volumes of air are moved at high pressure.) Dual duct systems are usually designed as highvelocity air systems in order to reduce duct sizes. The psychrometric processes for a VAV system are shown in Figure 12. (Courtesy: Environmental Elements Corporation.

(a) Equipment arrangement. There are a few ways this problem may be solved.-:. described previously.. If the air flow rate decreases too much.1 . (b) Psychrometric processes. fan) c R L-~______~22~______~Z3~.. Air to (a) e~ch zone o RSHR line for zone 21 Mixing line ~/. If the cooling load continues to decrease.9 Variable air volume NAY) system arrangement. below which there would be inadequate outside air. One solution to this problem is to· use a reheat VAV box. Air supply diffusers are generally selected to give good coverage at maximum design air quantity. such an arrangement were practical.-''''---. and uncomfortable conditions will result. there often is still some limit of minimum air flow rate. One is to use the reheat VAV box.-----c Average RSHR line I 1 I l I i DB (b) Figure 12.. the reheat coil is activated.. This type of VAV box also can be used to handle the problem with high latent loads.. A control limits the minimum air quantity..-L . the air circulation in the room will not be satisfactory. coils......-----.. Another potential problem at low loads and resulting low air flow rates is poor air distribution in the air conditioning spaces.314 CHAPTER 12 VAV units o M Air handling unit (filter.. When air . which has a built-in reheat coil.

This energy-saving characteristic is partially that cited previously-it does not mix hot and cold air and does not reheat (except as noted). the reheat coil takes over. This is because of the significant energy savings as compared to the other (CAV) multiple zone central systems. further material will be discussed here. Chilled or hot water is distributed to them from the central plant. As the air flow rate decreases. On the other hand. Ventilation air is distributed separately from an air handling unit to each room. Control of humidity is limited. all-water systems have certain disadvantages. the air is usually carried at high velocities. Air-water systems utilize the best features of all-air systems and all-water systems. However.9 AIR-WATER SYSTEMS 12. Another possible solution is to use variable diffusers. This type of VAV box has a small fan. thus maintaining a high total air flow rate through the diffuser. particularly space in shafts and ceilings. All-water systems for commercial use can be considerably less expensive and take up much less space than all-air systems (this is not necessarily true for residential use). Whenever there is a part load. Another type of air-water system uses room terminal units called induction units. There is also another significant energy saving. An important example is installation of air conditioning systems in existing large buildings that were not originally designed to include air conditioning. In addition. that is. was introduced in Chapter 5. A further solution is to use jan-powered VAV boxes. The central . It receives chilled or hot water from the central plant. Hydronic systems distribute hot or chilled water from the central plant to each space.8 ALL-WATER SYSTEMS The basic concept of all-water systems. In spite of these potential problems and their special solutions. All-water systems are popular for use as low-cost central systems in multiroom high-rise applications. and there is a saving of fan power. Often the air quantities distributed are only enough for ventilation. hydronic systems. these were described in Chapter 5. resulting in better air distribution. In addition to the supply air quantity. The lack of need for ductwork and central air handling equipment. No air is distributed from the central plant. A hydronic cooling system is therefore useful when space is extremely limited. Most of the energy is carried in the water. this fan draws in and recirculates some room air. the air supply quantity is reduced. Ventilation air can be brought through the outside wall and the terminal unit. Terminal units in each room cool or heat the room. all result in the fact that hydronic systems are often less expensive initially than all-air systems for large jobs. particularly in high-rise buildings. the opening narrows. These diffusers have a variable sized opening. Control of ventilation air quantities is not precise with the small fans in the units. much smaller than the ductwork would be for the same job.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 315 quantity is reduced to the minimum for good air distribution. Hydronic terminal units such as fan-coil units heat or cool the room air. this saving is considerable. This means that considerably less volume of water needs to be circulated for the same amount of heat transfer. One type of air-water system uses jan-coil units as the room terminal units. which is a feature of VAV systems. 12. Since a typical air conditioning system operates at part load up to 95% of the time. Therefore. and the saving on using much valuable building space. The multiplicity of fan-coil units means a great deal of maintenance work and costs. The result is that the cross-sectional area of piping is Combination air-water systems distribute both chilled and/or hot water and conditioned air from a central system to the individual rooms. Water has a much higher specific heat and density than air. they are still very popular. as we1I as the ventilation air from a central air handling' unit. the total shaft and ceiling space required is small.

In some cases. and controls are assembled in the unit casing. three tons of refrigeration capacity. but practically. dampers. The factors in choosing a particular arrangement are discussed in that chapter. but how the equipment is arranged. no fans or motors are required in this type of unit. Its initial costs are relatively high. filters. This is particularly true on southern exposures. Room units are available up to about. Compressor. chilled water must be supplied to the room unit coils. In existing buildings. Through-the-wall units are often used in new apartment houses where low cost is primary. to be conditioned. condenser. all-water. such as an outside air heat exchanger (see Chapter 15). usually under the windowsill. Room units 2. this energy inefficient situation may be improved by utilizing another source of chilled water. the space. The induction unit air-water system is very popular in high-rise office buildings and similar applications. Central equipment is usually remote from Room units (Figure 12. Unitary conditioners 3. The primary air quantity in the induction system may be only about 25% or less than the total of the air volume rate of a conventional all-air system. electrical services may have to be increased to take the added electrical load. Unitary equipment is usually located in or close to the space. A central or remote system is one where the components are all separate. fan. The window unit fits in the sash opening of an existing window. or air-water systems. unitary conditioners are also called self-contained units or packaged units. This is because they are factory assembled on a volume basis. air conditioning systems can also be classified into either unitary or central systems. of course. Any of the two-. Window units are particularly applicable to existing buildings. depending on the desirability..10) are available in two types: window units and through-the-wall units. For example. Therefore. This includes refrigeration equipment.316 CHAPTER 12 air delivered to each unit is called primary air. As it flows through the unit at high velocity. 12. three-. Each is selected by the designer and installed and con. fan. Unitary systems and equipment can be divided into the following groups: 1. nected by the contractor. At these times. Rooftop units These names are not standardized in the industry. and controls. Dampers can be adjusted so that only room air is used. reducing maintenance greatly. A unitary system is one where the refrigeration and air conditioning components are factory selected-and assembled in a package. filter. and four-pipe hydronic system arrangements described in Chapter 5 can be applied to air-water systems. or so that some outside ventilation air can be brought through the conditioner. Room units have no flexibility in handling high latent heat gains or changed sensible heat ra- I i j . it induces room air (secondary air) through the unit and across the water coil. it is often not adequate for outside air cooling in mild or even cold weather. This classification is not according to how the system functions. Their advantages are low cost and simplicity of installation and operation. coils. Because of this. Unitary or central systems can both in theory be all-air. unitary systems are generally all-air systems and limited largely to the more simple types such as single zone units with or without reheat or"multizone units. evaporator cooling coil. resting on the sill. motors. There are buildings with air-water induction systems requiring refrigeration at outdoor temperatures as low as 30 F. and each of the components mayor may not be remote from each other.10 UNITARY VERSUS CENTRAL SYSTEMS As stated previously.11 ROOM UNITS 12. The through-thewall unit fits in an outside wall opening.

In one arrangement. and the fan and cooling coil are another package located indoors.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 317 Outdoor air Condenser discharge air Condenser coil Condenser fan Compressor --1-+1 Outside Inside Motor lJ~-I-~_'~. This is a popular arrangement in private residential and small commercial applications. . 12. Units are available in sizes up to about 50 tons. The components are contained in the unit.. Unitary conditioners have the same advantages and disadvantages as room units.11). Units are available that have all components packaged except the condenser. The split system arrangement has distinct advantages in many applications. located outdoors.10 f+---+-Evaporator blower (fan) coil J t \ Room air Room air conditioner equipment arrangement. maintenance of the large number of units can be very burdensome and expensive.:~~~t=Evaporator Air filter Cooled air Figure 12. and fan package is located in an attic or basement.. coil. Air cleaning quality is minimal because the filters remove only large particles. When used in multiroom buildings. Heating components are sometimes included. These units are inherently energy wasteful in multiple use because they cannot modulate capacity. . Sound levels are higher than with remote equipment. there is no problem of finding a suitable and adequate space in the building. in order that the resistance to air flow be low. according to the space available for the equipment. and therefore do not give good humidity control. These units are popular in small commercial applications.~. In larger units. The compressor-condenser package is located outdoors where its noise is less objectionable and it is more accessible for maintenance. Unitary conditioners are available in vertical or horizontal arrangements. tios. Furthermore. multiple compressors are used. Although they often discharge air directly into the space. a limited amount of ductwork can be connected if air distribution with outlets is desired. The condenser and compressor are in one package.12 UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS This type of unit is designed to be installed in or near the conditioned space (Figure 12. Another common arrangement is called a split system. the condenser is located outdoors and compressor.

Access doors should be provided to permit maintenance. Rooftop units may be used with ductwork and ir outlets. which is run to a waste drain. Those parts that are required are selected by the user. 'ooling. 12. 12. all of the refrigeration. on the coil.3 and 12. The dehumidification effect of the cooling coil frequently results in water collecting. The water may then be carried as droplets into the moving airstream.11 Jnitary air conditioner. 12. This consists of vertical Z-shaped baffles that trap the droplets. and dampers. Units are available with multizone arrangement. Heating quipment may also be incorporated in the unit. filters.13). fan. and 12.13). elimi-· nators are provided downstream from the coil. For large systems. lights should be provided inside each section.13 ROOFTOP UNITS ['his type of unitary equipment (Figure 12. When cooling and dehumidifying.II electrical parts must be moistureproof.5. although the ompressor and condenser may be remote. They must have weatherproofing feaIres not required with equipment located indoors. air mixing section. There are basically two arrangements: single zone units and multizone units. Casings are usually made of galvanized sheet metal. thereby offering zone controls. filters. filter section-in numerous sizes. . air handling units are factory made in sections-fan section.5.12) is iesigned to be located outdoors and is generally nstalled on roofs. Rooftop systems are extremely popular in low-cost. and casings are fabricated by the contractor to suit the equipment. and air handling equipment comes in secions that are assembled together. and the asing and any other exposed parts must be corroon protected. They should be located on both sides of coils and filters. one-story building applications. .1. In small. all in a casing (Figures 12. which then fall into the condensate pan. To prevent this water from circulating into the air conditioning ductwork. drain pans must be included under the coil to collect condensed moisture. and a piping drain connection must be provided. In large equipment.and medium-capacity systems.14 AIR HANDLING UNITS The central system air handling unit (AHU) consists of the coolinglheating coils.318 CHAPTER 12 The advantages of rooftop units are that they do not use valuable building space and they are relatively low in cost. mixing box. but humidity control is limited. The casing should be insulated to prevent energy losses. The distinction between these has been discussed in Sections 12. Usually. and fans are selected by the engineer. separate coils. such as supermarkets and suburban commercial buildings. The pipe should have a deep seal trap so that a water seal always exists (Figure 12. coil sections. =igure 12.

y.~:: 1 -z".AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 319 Figure 12. Inc. McQuay-Perfex. Multizone units are blow-through types.c Q) 0: Q) Fan -- I-"- 7 . Draw-through is preferable because the air will flow more uniformly across the coil section when drawn through by the fan. The latter are called dry expansion CDX) coils.) When the fan is located downstream of the cooling coil. the unit is called a draw-through type._ Access door « ~ -= ~ !!? 0> !!? 1ij 0 '0 () Access door = g "0 () 0 . When the fan is upstream of the coils. :~: r Ligts :. " ..~: 0 .12 Rooftop unit.15 COOLING AND HEATING COILS Cooling coils may use either chilled water or evaporating refrigerant. Condensate pan l Waste line with trap . a perforated Figure 12.13 Maintenance accessories in large air handling unit. 12. plate is sometimes located between the fan and coils. it is called a blow-through type.0 t::_ iIi :~ t:: Access door 1ij . (Courtesy: McQuay Group. To aid in distributing the air more evenly across the heating and cooling coil in blow-through units.

in a number of rows. the condensed water will . The form in which manufacturers present their coil rating data varies greatly one from another. The water inlet connection should be made at the bottom of the coil and the outlet at top. 12. but copper fins are sometimes used. so that any entrapped air is carried through more easily. number of rows. 2. we will not . if the coil is dehumidifying.16 COIL SELECTION Coil selections are made from manufacturers' tables or charts based on the required performance. Coil construction-number and size of fins size and spacing of tubing. The performance of a cooling coil depends on the following factors: I. Air face velocity. For this reason.14).320 CHAPTER 12 Cooling coils are usually made of copper tubing with aluminum fins. However. thus increasing the heat transfer for a given length of tube. must be transferred from the air. The fins increase the effective surface area of tubing. depending on the need (Figure 12. The coil may be constructed either with tubes in series or in parallel to reduce water pressure drop. 5. The amount of sensible and latent heat that Figure 12. Water velocities from 1-8 FPS are used. 3. The coils are arranged in a serpentine shape.14 Cooling coil (chilled water type). be carried off the coil into the airstream above 500-550 FPM face velocity. and the chilled water temperature can be higher. Conditions of air entering and leaving. they are usually connected so that the fl ow of water and air are opposite to each other. fewer rows may be needed to bring the air to a chosen temperature than if parallel flow were used. Velocities in the midrange of about 3-4 FPS are recommended. High water velocity increases heat transfer but also results in high pressure drop and therefore requires a larger pump and increased energy consumption. In this way. the coldest water is cooling the coldest air. When cooling coils have a number of rows. and eliminator baffies must be used to catch the water droplets. an air vent should be located at the outlet on top. called counterflow (Figure 12.15). High air velocities also result in better heat transfer and also more CFM handled. In addition. DB andWB. Using these ratings does not give much insight into how a coil performs. Warm air ~ Cold air out -- CHWout CHWin Figure 12. The face velocity is the air flow rate in CFM divided by the projected (face) area of the coil.15 Counterflow arrangement of air and water flow for cooling coil. Water (or refrigerant) velocity. 4.

A filter may remove particles by one or more of the above methods.98 0. Example 12.17 AIR CLEANING DEVICES (FILTERS) Air conditioning systems that circulate air generally have provisions for removing some of the objectionable air contaminants. Dust particles are related to serious respiratory ailments (emphysema and asthma). The incorrect type of filter may be chosen.98 0.82 0. From Table 12. Protection of equipment.18 METHODS OF DUST REMOVAL Air cleaners can remove dust in three major ways: 0.94 0.73 0. . Indeed.1. FPM 8 fins!in.75 0. 4. Occasionally gases that have objectionable odors are also removed from the air.93 0. coil.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 321 present any rating data. The dust particles are larger than the space between adjacent fibers and therefore do not continue with the airstream. No. The dust particles are given an electric charge. Some manufacturing processes are particularly sensitive. the number of rows of coil needed for given entering and leaving air conditions can be directly determined. Proper air cleaning is necessary for the following reasons: I. Electrostatic precipitation.90 0. Straining. Table 12. :2.82 0.84 0. Maintaining cleanliness of room swfaces and furnishings. Most systems have devices that remove particles commonly called I. 3. given the opposite charge.16 shows each of the methods.57 0. as seen in Example 12.93 0. and therefore the particles are attracted to the media. Solution The required CF is 0. The need for proper air cleaning is often treated casually when designing and operating an air conditioning system.60 0. The face area needed is 3200 CFM/400 FPM = 8 frl TABLE 12. because we are dealing with a question of air pollution and human health. of Rows 400 500 600 400 500 600 12. The dust particles in the airstream strike the filter media and are therefore stopped.32.58 0.97 0.80 0. 14 fins!in. or the filters may not be maintained properly. Figure 12. Protection of human health and comfort. However.96 2 3 4 6 8 0.71 0. 2.81 0. lint collecting on coils will increase the coil resistance to heat transfer.1. For example. that procedure has the advantage of being suitable for any manufacturer's coils.1 lists typical contact factors (CF) for finned cooling coils.97 12. This will be discussed when specific types of filters are described. for that type of coil.65 0. the procedures described in Chapter 7 give all the basic data necessary to select a coil. With this type of table. The filter media is . Determine the required number of rows and face area of an 8 fin/in.86 0. 3.1 A cooling coil has 3200 CFM of air flowing across it at a face velocity of 400 FPM.96 0. which result largely from industrial pollution. Protection of the air conditioning machinery.69 0. dust or dirt. Air enters the coil at 85 F DB and 69 F WB and leaves at 56 F DB and 54 F WE.73 0.88 0. This is a serious neglect. Some equipment will not operate properly or will wear out faster without adequate clean air. as worked out in Example 7.83. Impingement.1 1YPICAL CONTACT FACTORS FOR HELICAL FINNED COOLING COILS Face Velocity. a fourrow coil will do the job.92 0.

Weight.. The problem is complicated because filter performance depends on the concentration and sizes of dust particles in the air. A standard dust of fixed concentration and particle sizes is used.'. A cloud of particles of a substance called DOP is chemically generated. the filter's effectiveness in removing very small particles is tested. 4.. Only in recent years have standard test methods developed. A cloud of DOP particles in an airstream is passed through the air cleaner.000th of one inch). (a) Impingement.16 Methods of removing particles from air. Dust spotdiscoloration. As an example. 2.3-30 microns in diameter. because the small particles comprise such a small proportion of the total weight of atmospheric dust. This test is used to measure the ability of air cleaners to remove extremely small particles.' . filters cannot be compared with each other. This varies greatly from one location to another and at different times. j j . 3. air is first passed through the air cleaning device and then a white filter paper. The weight of dust captured by the air filter is measured. ---.01-1 micron. The degree to which the filter paper is discolored is an indicator of the amount of smaller dust particles not removed by the air cleaner. (c) Electrostatic precipitation.. Dust holding capacity. (b) Straining. (b) - ~ . The dust holding capacity test compares weight of dust collected with increase in air resistance through the filter. The DOP test is used only on air cleaners that are designed to have a high efficiency in removing very small particles.3 microns in diameter (one micron is about 1125.- ~ V". This test is important because these particles cause soiling of room surfaces. This test is useful in comparing ability to remove larger particles. DO? penetration.19 METHODS OF TESTING FILTERS Understanding how air filter performance is evaluated is important because only in this way can a proper filter be selected. Without standard procedures. and cigarette smoke particles from 0. The concentration of particles not removed is measured downstream of the cleaner by using a light-scattering technique. The above three tests all measure efficiency of an air cI~aner in removing particles.... A filter that will hold a" considerable amount of dust before resistance increases considerably is preferable to one that has a lesser capacity before buildup up to a given resistance. It does not indicate ability to remove small particles. What they do not measure is how much the filter air resistance will increase with dust accumulation. In this test. " 12. In this way.. bacteria range from about 0. ---0 - ----+ (c) Figure 12.322 CHAPTER 12 Charging Particle Attracting plates ~~ Air~ (a) par~ ~ grid + -==-+ . The size of these particles is 0. The following tests are generally accepted and recommended in the industry: I.

This type of filter will remove larger dust particles satisfactorily but not small particles.18 High efficiency dry-type (HEPA) filter.) . Louisville. Air face velocities through HEPA filters are very low. (Courtesy: AmeriFigure 12.. The media can be constructed of either coarse fibers loosely packed or fine fibers densely packed. and resistance rises to about 2. it is the only type of filter that will effectively remove viruses as small as 0. w. Glass fibers and metal screens are two commonly used media materials.000th of an inch!). Permanent or Disposable Air filters may be designed so that they are discarded (disposable type) when filled with dust or are cleaned and reused.g. The media in air filters can be arranged in the form of random fiber mats. the filter should be serviced when the resistance reaches 0. dry-type air filters are available that have good efficiency only on larger particles. around 0.1 in. as with the viscous impingement type.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 323 12.17).g. The dry-type air filter uses uncoated fiber mats. or are also available with medium or high efficiency for removing very small particles. Glass fibers and paper are two commonly used materials. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co. screens. Permanent types have Figure 12. They are quite expensive. about 50 FPM. Air velocities range from 300-600 FPM. Louisville.20 TYPES OF AIR CLEANERS Air cleaners can be classified in a number of ways. Kentucky. or corrugated sinuous strips..17 can Air Filter Co.g. It is low in cost (Figure 12. w. Kentucky.) Viscous impingement disposable filter. By varying density. before servicing..0 in. Type of Media The viscous impingement air filter has a media of coarse fibers that are coated with a viscous adhesive.5 in. The pressure drop when clean is low.18). The HEPA filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is a very high efficiency dry-type filter for removing extremely small particles (Figure 12. For example.05 micron (1ISOO. w.

a coarse visc?us impingement cleanable filter that removes the large particles first. but they cost more than disposable types. These are also usually backed up with a coarse prefilter to remove large particles. so that they do not cause quick build-up of dirt on the electronic air cleaner. Stationary or Renewable Stationary air filters are manufactured in rectangular panels that are placed alongside each other and stacked.. For applications that require a greater degree of cleanliness. Renewable air filters are considerably more expensive than the stationary types. 12. For applications that require only minimum cleanliness and low cost. but are very efficient for removing both large and very small particles. After an interval of time the air cleaner must be removed from service in order to clean the plates and remove the dirt. Louisville. The media is wound on a take-up spool.21 SELECTION OF AIR CLEANERS The selection of the proper air cleaner depends on the degree of contamination of the air to be cleaned and the cleanliness requirements. driven by a motor. A private residence or apartment house might be an example. according to the size needed. the particles are attracted to the plates. particularly where smoking is heavy. This arrangement is. HEPA filters are used. and where contamination is greater.' l _- j 't 'l- 11 ·r f. When the resistance increases to a set value because of the dirt collected. decreased. exposing clean media. inexpensive viscous impingement type disposable air filters would be used. but maintenance costs are greatly Figure 12.20). such as viruses. bacteria. or radioactive particles. Dust particles are given a high voltage charge by an electric grid. As the dust-laden airstream passes between the plates. . . Where removal of extremely small particles is critical. The panels are removed and either replaced or cleaned when dirty. activated carbon (charcoal) filters are I \ . Either fibrous materials or metal screens are used as media. The movement of the media is often controlled by a pressure switch which senses the pressure drop across the media. The plates may be coated with a viscous material to hold the dust. the motor moves the curtain. perhaps intermediate efficiency dry-type filters would be used.) Electronic Air Cleaners In this type. Renewable-type air filters consist of a roll mounted on a spool that moves across the airstream (Figure 12. Often electronic cleaners are used in conjunction with a prefilter. ElectroniC air cleaners are expensive.19). A series of parallel plates are given the opposite electric charge. popular in large commercial buildings. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co.324 CHAPTER 12 metal media that will withstand repeated washings. Kentucky. Another choice might be electronic air cleaners.19 Automatic renewable filter. there is no fibrous media to entrap dust (Figure 12. For removing gases with objectionable odors from the air.

Health Effects Short-term effects from indoor air pollutants may include eye. cleaning materials. The carbon absorbs the gas molecules. It has become evident that the poor quality of air inside some buildings is contributing to health problems. air fresheners. Long-term effects that may show up after a period of years are respiratory diseases. 12. breathed in by occupants. Fonnaldehyde is the best known and most common ofVOC pollutants. but outdoor air pollutants that enter a building can also contribute to the problem. and acoustic material and fireproofing in buildings. although many of the problems and solutions are similar. adhesives. It may enter a building through underground walls or floors.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 325 The emphasis in this discussion will be on IAQ problems in the commercial working environment. copying machines. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) These are organic substances emitted as gases from building materials. Louisville. These filters are sometimes used in restaurants to remove· odorous gases resulting from cooking. viruses. rather than private residences. molds. Glassfibers Materials made of glass fibers are used as thermal and sound insulation in HVAC systems. Biological Contaminants These include bacteria.22 INDOOR AIR QUALITY . and pesticides. Air contaminants from sources inside buildings are the main cause of poor IAQ.20 Electronic air cleaner. The HVAC system is connected with Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Kentucky. Humidifier fever is a respiratory illness caused by exposure to microorganisms found in humidifiers and air conditioners. (Courtesy: American Air Filter Co. Since many people spend up to 90% of their time indoors. carpets. headaches. and fatigue.) used. irritability. particle board. nose. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a respiratory illness caused by the inhalation of organic dusts.. paints. sumps. pollens. and throat irritation. plywood. nausea. Symptoms of diseases such as asthma may be increased." this is the mixture of substances emitted from burning tobac~o. Radon This is a radioactive gas emitted by soil. sometimes in contributing to the problem and as a part of the potential solution. It is more commonly a problem in private residences than in commercial buildings. heart disease. . Indoor Pollutants Figure 12. this subject is of major concern. Asbestos This is a mineral substance used in a fibrous form for insulation. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Also called "passive smoking. mites. tiles. and fungi. and cancer. and drains. The term sick building syndrome (SBS) refers to a set of symptoms that may affect occupants only during the time they are in the building and cannot be traced to a specific pollutant.

electronic cleaners. OA filters may be necessary. coils. C. Appropriate application of biocidal cleaners to areas where biological growths are expected. since they are kept in the building longer and in greater concentrations.6. such as cooling towers. however-further information and research is needed. care should be taken that drain pans in HVAC equipment drain freely. For instance. 3. Air filters in the HVAC system should be of the proper type and efficiency to reduce the in- 12. This invoh'es avoidance of the use of pollutant source materials or chemicals. and drain pans. The concentration of indoor air pollutants can be decreased by supplying a substantial amount of outside ventilation air from the HVAC systems. For good indoor air quality. such as cooling towers. Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) A natural constituent of atmospheric air. For a discussion of the toxic pollutant carbon monoxide.326 CHAPTER 12 These fibers sometimes peel off and are carned into the occupied spaces. The relative humidity (RH) should be maintained below 60% to discourage growth of molds and fungi. Ventilation. This will illustrate the opportunities for energy conservation by the proper choice of a system for a given application. this gas is not toxic but is sometimes used as a measure of adequate ventilation. If the outside air is sufficiently contaminated. In addition.23 ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS A comparative energy use analysis of some of the major types of air conditioning systems will be made in this section. 2. Outdoor concentrations of CO 2 are about 300 ppm (parts per million). This is often an area of serious neglect. Care must be taken that the cleaning agents themselves are not pollutants that may enter the occupied spaces. air infiltration has been decreased by reducing or sealing crack openings in both existing buildings and in the design of new ones. D. removal or containment may be done. space temperatures and humidity should also be within the range recommended in Section 1. If they are already in place. This coupled with using minimum outside ventilation rates in HVAC systems has amplified the effect of indoor air pollutants. Cleaning. Cleaning and replacement of air filters. Source control. The level of indoor air contaminants can be reduced by both air cleaning and good housekeeping. Table 6. and activated carbon filters may be desirable. In efforts to conserve energy use. Vacuum cleaning of areas. It may be found that more efficient filters than used previously are required. A serious illness called Legionnaire's disease sometimes has its origins in building HVAC systems. I .17 lists ventilation requirements typical of present state codes. B. the CO 2 concentration will increase considerably. I. humidifiers. In indoor spaces that are not well ventilated and that are densely occupied. see Chapter 4. An example is the ductwork system. door pollutant level as needed. Solutions There are three general approaches to improving air quality in buildings. There is a difference of opinion on this question. in some cases HEPA filters.. . the fiber lining itself can serve as a breeding place for molds and fungi. The ASHRAE Standard recommends a threshold level of 1000 ppm above which the CO 2 level indicates possibly poor indoor air quality. Regular and good housekeeping maintenance is an important part of ensuring a satisfactory indoor air quality. Elimination or reduction of moist areas. where dirt may accumulate. Among the items to be considered are A.

000 90.l x 4 = 1.000 1. every factor would be included.510.030.000 = 752 tons The reheat system must furnish heat from the heating coil for all zones except those at peak loads. S.000 Totals 540.000 840. Dual duct system. CFM= 5.510. w.510. 74 F WE.000 BTUlhr 200.000 People 90.000 350.g. BTU/he.000 90.000 BTUlhr Office building 01200.000 300.000 1.000 300.000 800. Some simplifications will be made to avoid unnecessary details that would detract from following the analysis. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in PEAK SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS FOR EACH ZONE.000 90. The air supply rate must satisfy the sum of each zone peak.000 fr area.000 Sum = 4.88.000 Lights 300.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 327 A comparison will be made of energy requirements for constant volume reheat.690. Constant volume reheat system. Inside 78 F DB.000 570. Supply fan temperature rise is 4 F.0) = 1. The heating required at design conditions is 5. 150. Of course.000 1.000 1. Fan static pressure is 6 in. Interior zone is 100.000 1.000 = 870.000 I? Outside condition is 97 F DB.000 Fan heat 250.550.4. The following are the design specifications: I. BTUlhr = 5. LI x (78 .000 90. in an actual energy study. E.000 People latent = 660.000.000 300. N E S W Solar + trans.000 N E S W Solar + trans.000 590.200.000 90.000 CFM. and variable air volume systems.000 180.200.000 Totals 540. Duct and return fan heat gains are neglected. RSHR is 0.4.000 Refrigeration load.000 = 250 000 . 45% RH Ventilation air is 45. Building peak load is in Jllly at 4 PM.000 x l.000 BTUlhr BUILDING PEAK SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS 450.760.000 x 45(377 . Supply air temperature is 58 F if the air off the cooling coil is 54 F DB. A further comparison will be made with an air-water system such as the induction or fan-coil type. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in Figure 12.000 1.000 fr each.000 .550.58) The refrigeration capacity of the reheat system must satisfy the sum of the zone peaks: Sum of zone sensible peaks.390.000 1.510. Air off cooling coils is at 54 F DE.000 Sum = 5.640.000 .000 300. W zones are 25.29.100.000 350.000 People 90. A typical office building will be specified.000.390.000 1.000 1. Lights and pOll'er are 12 BTU fro Occupants 3300. dual duct. 2. BTUlhr = 9.000 90.000 Outside air 45.000 300.000 Lights 300. N.190. 150.000 300.

000 = 8. = sum of zone peaks I.- I 1-0. or transmission loads.- .640.000 1.000 877 16.000 1.I(tr. The equation for finding total CFM is CFM. 1. $O.510. Note the huge extra expense and energy waste from using the reheat system.000 1 In the above estimates. 54 F.n x-------c~---. $9.r = fraction of air leakage through closed mixing damper CFM FanKW Heating BTUlhr Total KW Extra cost $/hr 752 677 250. the refrigeration capacity must only satisfy the building peak: Building sensjble peak People latent Outside air Fan heat 223. 5.7). and 0.5.000 BTUlhr = 660.05[85.7.000 169 772 0 Using a leakage rate of 5%.640. I .000 = 1.328 CHAPTER 12 Figure 12..te) 3. = total air supply rate.. Furthermore. .05 _ 0.3 F DB (Figure 12. (We will neglect the slight difference in fan heat. Variable air volume system. figures of 0. were used. The cooling coil still cools all the air to set temperature. however.000 980.000 BTUlhr = = 670 tons This is still not the actual situation. additional air is required because of leakage through closed dampers in the zone mixing box.1 (78 . outside air. We will make a rough analysis of this situation. Assume a mild day with no solar.) The difference in the energy requirements of the three systems at full load is summarized as follows: VAV where CFM. the yearly extra cost would be Reheat Dual duct $19.23 670 603 223. The outside air '.480 860 Although the dual duct system must supply an air rate to satisfy each zone peak. If we were to assume this energy difference for a full load equivalent of 1200 hours a year.58) The refrigeration capacity must satisfy only the building peak.760. and noting that tw = 85.000 178 781 0.1(78 . Reheat system.72 670 603 211.000 xl. CFM.000 = 211.9.I x 4 Refrigeration load = 4. The total air supply rate must satisfy the sum of each zone peak load. The air handling unit psychrometric processes are shown in Figure 12.040. The energy consumption differences are: even much greater at part load for two reasons: the VAV system throttles air flow with load reduction and the reheat system must add even more heat.9 KW/ton. w.78 \ 78 .g. 670 tons.08/KWH..54 J =223.8 KW/1000 CFM at 6 in. hot and cold ducts tr = average roon1 temperature Ie Reheat Dual duct Tons of refrigeration Refrigeration KW = cold air supply temperature at mixing dampers = warm air supply temperature at mixing dampers I.000 200 870. The maximum air supply rate must satisfy only the building peaks: CFM = 4.3 .00/106 BTU.

1.000 BTU/hr 2.000 BTUlhr Outside air design load . Consider the south side of the building on a sunny November day with an outdoor temperature of 40 F. There may be a small advantage in auxiliary energy use for the air-water system because only the primary (ventilation) air is moved.520.000 BTUlhr = 606 tons The actual building part load is Peak design load 8.000 = 2. which reduces the penalty of excessive use of air heating. To carry out an accurate yearly energy use.1. of course.000 =--1.040. where otherwise fans would have to be operated continually.530.1 x 20 Assuming an operating period of 2000 hours a season with this part load condition as an average. however.000 Solar + trans. however. We have not attempted to show variations in energy use due to types of controls selected. because the air supply rate is throttled as required.000 .760. The refrigeration capacity required is 396 tons. The additional pump energy is usually less than that of the greater air quantity.000 BTUlhr Outside air design load .000 BTUlhr = 396 tons The reheat system must provide external heat source for all of the difference between the building peak and sum of zone peaks at part load: 7. With fan heat.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 329 load is the only one not required.110. the primary air supply temperature is 44 F. We have not made a comparative analysis of the energy use of an air-water system.750.270.400 3. hourly weather and equipment performance data are needed. For the air-water system. The peak refrigeration load is .000 Reheat system part load 7. 3.000 . At full load this system has about the same energy requirements as the YAY system.1. All-air systems of course have as much air for cooling as needed in cold weather. design load .000 178 534 5. and chilled water must be used. The refrigeration capacity required is the building peak part load (396 tons) since the cold air is throttled as needed in each zone. Other factors such as diversity or operation of reheat coils in the dual duct and YAY systems have not been included.000 113 469 0 Tons of refrigeration Refrigeration KW CFM FanKW Total KW Heating BTUlhr Extra cost $lhr 606 545 250.760.000 200 745 2. the primary air quantity is not adequate to cool zones with large heat gains. The total air supply rate is CFM= room sensible heat 1.000 The differences in energy requirements at the part load condition are summarized as follows: Reheat Dual duct VAV 396 356 141. the situation may change significantly. however. If the systems analyzed were used for winter heating.030. VAV system. However. At lower outdoor temperatures. Dual duct system.000 Building part load 4.750. the yearly extra energy costs would be Reheat Dual duct $85. Many buildings have a separate radiation heating system for perimeter zones. further sharp differences in energy consumption would appear for similar reasons. The refrigeration load is therefore Full load for reheat system 9. This is particularly true during unoccupied hours.1 x 20 = 141. because the room units handle only the load for their zones.42.270.20 The part load condition selected does not necessarily represent the average of an actual installation.50 396 356 223.270.000 10.4. the general conclusions from our analysis hold true.

200. 4. 3. Reheating is unavoidably wasteful and should be avoided except for special applications. 3. List and explain the four methods of testing and rating air cleaners. Impingement B.000 Transmission losses = -255. 2. Review Questions I. Split system 12. Clean coils regularly. When using air-water systems. in an induction system. Systems should be designed and operated to use all outside air for cooling when it is adequate (see Chapter 15). 2.000 Primary air 1. 9. What is a HEPA air filter? What are its applications? What type of air cleaner is used to remove undesired gases? Problems 12. Straining C. Sketch and label all elements of a VAV duct system arrangement and air handling unit. Sketch and label all elements of a multizone system arrangement and air handling unit. II. 12. 6. Sketch and label all elements of a reheat system arrangement and air handling unit. VAV. cooling coil to cool 12. Sketch and label all elements of a single zone air handling unit and a typical duct arrangement. Explain the following terms related to air cleaners: A.000 CFM of air from 82 F DB and 70 F I t f . although they can be designed to minimize the loss. 5. B. Blow-through unit 8. Explain the following terms: A. 6.1 Select a 14 fin/in. This should be avoided where possible by proper design and operation. For example. and unitary systems.24 ENERGY CONSERVATION I. 5.330 CHAPTER 12 Solar gain = 1. thereby maintaining maximum heat transfer.170. the primary air may be warm while at the same time chilled water is being distributed to the induction units. List four purposes of air cleaning devices. Replace or clean filters on a regular schedule to limit pressure losses to those recommended. or multizone) or water (three pipe) may result in energy waste. because there will be many hours in the heating season when refrigeration is needed.000 Refrigeration load = 1. Draw-through unit C. dual duct.000 BTUlhr 98 tons This is a heavy penalty to pay for using this type of system without heat recovery. unless the reheating would come from otherwise wasted energy (see Chapter 15). 4.1 x 5000 x 30 = -165.000 Lighting = 300.000 BTUlhr People-sensible = 90. Sketch and label all elements of a dual duct system arrangement and air handling unit. thereby avoiding excessive fan power. Prepare a list of advantages and disadvantages of reheat. Chilled water and condenser water pumps will also have to be operated. care should be taken that they are not producing opposite effects and therefore wasting energy. Systems that mix hot and cold air (dual duct 7. Electrostatic precipitation 10. multizone.

8 fin/in. assuming the same leaving DB.3 is reduced to 400 FPM.1. what is the leaving air WB? . cooling coil is handling air at a face velocity of 600 FPM. The coil face velocity is 600 FPM. 12.3 A four-row.4 If the air velocity for the coil in Problem 12.2 Select an 8 fin/in. coil for the same requirements as described in Problem 12. Air enters at 87 F DB and 72 F WB and leaves at 59 F DB. 12. What is the leaving air WB? 12.AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 331 WB to 55 F DB and 54 F WB.

However. well water temperatures are often 50-60 F. In this case. Many communities now restrict the use of well water for air conditioning. Other refrigeration methods. In this chapter. Cold well water has often been used in modem air conditioning systems. 332 . because of the depleted supply. such as the author's text Refrigeration Principles and Systems: An Energy Approach. In climates where the humidity is extremely low. Textbooks on refrigeration should be consulted. Vapor compression and absorption refrigeration systems are both used widely for producing refrigeration required for air conditioning. refrigeration systems that require machinery are used to provide a cold fluid for cooling or dehumidification. thermoelectric cooling. a fluid with a temperature lower than the room design temperature must be made available. The ancient Roman rulers had slaves transport snow from the high mountains to cool their food and beverages. evaporative cooling of air may reduce both the water and air temperature low enough so that either can be used for cooling (Chapter 7). a further understanding of refrigeration theory is necessary for the well-trained air conditioning practitioner. to which the excess room heat can be transferred. Furthermore. such as the air cycle. Occasionally a natural low temperature fluid is available. and some equipment selection procedures. and steam jet refrigeration are not widely used in commercial air conditioning and will not be discussed. Well water or evaporative cooling should be considered for refrigeration when available.c H A p T E R Refrigeration Systems and Equipment Slc£~~IIIfi _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _• A n environmental control system that includes cooling and dehumidification will require a means of removing heat from the conditioned spaces. the types of equipment used. however. Our purpose here will be to relate the refrigeration equipment to the complete air conditioning system. Refrigeration produces this low temperature fluid. Usually there is no natural heat sink at a temperature lower than the desired space temperature when cooling is required. We will not discuss the calculations related to the thermodynamic cycle or to compressor performance. Another natural heat sink that is used occasionally for cooling water is atmospheric air. Because heat flows only from a higher to a lower temperature. which is too high to accomplish adequate dehumidification. we will explain how each system functions.

and in the other. Condenser Compressor =~... some typical temperatures for air conditioning applications are indicated.1 The vapor compression refrigeration system. called thejlow control device or expansion device.+-- Cooled fluid Liquid Flow control device Liquid & gas .. The fluid to be cooled is at a slightly higher temperature than the refrigerant.. At point (I). the fluid to be cooled (usually air or water) flows.>. the refrigerant is in the liquid state at a relatively high pressure and high temperature. The pressure at (2) is so low that a small portion of the refrigerantjlashes (vaporizes) into a gas.. and flow control devices. Refrigerant PROCESS 1-2. Describe and sketch the vapor compression refrigeration system. 2.. thus cooling the mixture and resulting in a low temperature at (2). Describe and sketch the absorption refrigeration system. Identify the types of compressors.:. 6. it must gain heat (which it takes from that portion of the refrigerant that did not vaporize). 5.1. Select packaged refrigeration equipment. evaporators. 3. therefore heat is transferred from it to the Figure 13. The refrigerant flows through a heat exchanger called the evaporator. The refrigerant circulates in one. 4. There are four processes (changes in the condition of the fluid) that occur as it flows through the system: Vapor Compression Refrigeration System 13.jFc.. condensers. you will be able to: I. It flows to (2) through a restriction. To aid in understanding it.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 333 OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. 130 F gas 48 F gas 90 F 50 F Cooling fluid _-h. But in order to vaporize. fluid circulates through the piping and equipment in the direction shown. The refrigerant loses pressure going through the restriction. PROCESS 2-3. Describe and sketch the heat pump system. Describe environmental effects of refrigerants.2.1 PRINCIPLES A schematic flow diagram showing the basic components of the vapor compression refrigeration system is shown in Figure l3. This heat exchanger has two circuits..

Dry expansion (DX) evaporators exist in two types-DX cooling coils or DX chillers. piping) that will not be discussed in detail here. Cooling coils are used for cooling air and chillers for cooling water or other liquids. it is completely vaporized.2 13. the refrigerant condenses to a liquid (I). The refrigerant flows through one circuit in the condenser.2 EQUIPMENT Flooded chiller.2). The chiller may be either the flooded type. Cooling coils are discussed in more detail in Chapter 12. Flooded chillers are generally used on the larger systems. Compressing the gas also results in increasing its temperature. a bundle of straight tubes is enclosed in a cylindrical shell. The complete refrigeration plant has many other additional components (e. Of course the processes are actually continuous as the refrigerant circulates through the system. In the dry expansion type. The tubing is arranged in a serpentine coil form and is finned to produce more heat transfer from a given length. it must be brought back to the conditions at (l)-a liquid at a high pressure. condenser. These may be classified into two types for air conditioning service-dry expansion (DX) evaporators or flooded evaporators. The shell can be made in one piece or can be constructed with bolted removable ends.""". controls. heat must be removed from it. This construction is more expensive. In the flooded type of evaporator. some types of which will now be described. Evaporators for cooling water or other liquids are called chillers. producing the cooling effect desired.334 CHAPTER 13 refrigerant. valves.) As noted in the explanation of how the vapor compression refrigeration system functions. ~I . a liquid pool of refrigerant is maintained. The refrigerant has returned to its initial state and is now ready to repeat the cycle. The air flows across the coils. however. evaporator. the major equipment components are the compressor. This is accomplished in a heat exchanger called the condenser. The first step in this process is to increase the pressure of the refrigerant gas by using a compressor. Heat therefore transfers from the refrigerant to the cooling fluid.3 EVAPORATORS PROCESS 3-4. and flow control device. When cooling air. (Reprinted with permission from the 1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Products Directory. called heads. Figure 13. PROCESS 4-1. The refrigerant leaves the compressor as a gas at high temperature and pressure. with water circulating through the tubes and refrigerant through the shell (Figure 13. 13. a cooling fluid flows (air or water) at a temperature lower than the refrigerant. The refrigerant boils because of the heat it receives in the evaporator. In order to change it to a liquid. dry expansion (DX) cooling coils are used. By the time it leaves the evaporator (4). I .3). and there is no liquid storage of refrigerant in the evaporator. refrigerant flows through tubing. Leaving the evaporator. In the other circuit. mechanical cleaning and replacement of individual tubes is possible. Water head Copper tubes '.. with the reverse arrangement (Figure 13. or dry expansion. In the latter case. the refrigerant is a gas at a low temperature and low pressure.g. In the shell and tube type. and as a result. In order to be able to use it again to achieve the refrigerating effect continuously.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
Water Baffles

335

Tube sheet Shell

ment types. Centrifugal compressors function by increasing the kinetic energy (velocity) of the gas, which is then converted to an increased pressure by reducing the velocity.

Water inlet

U-tubes

13.5 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
This is the most widely used type, available in sizes from fractional horsepower and tonnage up to a few hundred tons. Construction is similar to the reciprocating engine of a vehicle, with pistons. cylinders, valves, connecting rods, and crankshaft (Figure 13.4). The suction and discharge valves are usually a thin plate or reed that will open and close easily and quickly. Open compressors have an exposed shaft to which the electric motor or other driver is attached externally. Hermetic compressors are manufactured with both compressor and motor sealed in a

Figure 13.3

Dry expansion chiller. (Reprinted with permission from the
1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook & Products Directory.)

13.4 TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
Positive displacement compressors function by reducing the volume of gas in the confined space, thereby raising its pressure. Reciprocating, rotary, scroll, and screw compressors are positive displaceFigure 13.4

Reciprocating compressor construction. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.) Wrist Oil cooler Suction shut-off valve

Oil pressure relief valve Oil pressure gage connection Main bearing

seal

Oil sight gI8.5s,---'
;:'UIOIIU'II

filter

I

check valve

"'-.

,
336 CHAPTER 13
"'1.'.······ ..
0.

Figure 13.5 Cutaway view of hermetic reciprocating compressor. (Courtesy: Dunham·Bush, Inc.)

casing (Figure 13.5). In this way, there is no possibility of refrigerant loss from leaking around the shaft. The motor is cooled by refrigerant in a hermetic compressor. Most modern open compressors use mechanical seals, rather than packing seals, to reduce refrigerant leakage. These seals are similar to those used in pumps, as discussed in Chapter II.

creases toward the discharge end. This type of compressor has become popular in recent years due to its reliability, efficiency, and cost. It is generally used in the larger size ranges of positive displacement compressors, in capacities up to about 1000 tons of air conditioning. A screw compressor is shown in Figure 13.7.
Figure 13.6 Sectional view of rotary compressor. (Reprinted with pennission from the 1979 Equipment ASHRAE Handbook
& Products Directory.)

13.6

ROTARY COMPRESSOR

This type has a rotor eccentric to the casing; as the rotor turns it reduces the gas volume and increases its pressure (Figure 13.6). Advantages of this compressor are that it has few parts, is of simple construction, and can be relatively quiet and vibration-free. Small rotary compressors are often used in household refrigerators and-window air conditioners.

Discharge side

13.7 SCREW (HELICAL ROTARy) COMPRESSOR
Two meshing helical shaped screws rotate and compress the gas as the volume between the screws de-

Suction side iI:i!

Iji;;

I

I

l

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 337

Figure 13.7

Cutaway view of screw compressor. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

13.8

SCROLL COMPRESSOR

One scroll rotates and the other is stationary. The refrigerant suction gas is drawn in from the perimeter. The volume decreases as the gas moves to the center, increasing its pressure, and the gas is then discharged. The movement of the gas through the compressor is illustrated in Figure 13.8. The scroll compressor has a number of beneficial features. It has few moving parts. It has no suction or discharge valves. Its motion is rotary, reducing vibration. It has a high efficiency and low noise level. It is available as a hermetic compressor, in small and medium sizes.

This type of compressor has two spiral-shaped scrolls, one set inside the other. (These are each shaped somewhat like a pinwheel toy or a spinning spiral firework.)

13.9 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
This type of compressor has vaned impellers rotating inside a casing, similar to a centrifugal pump.

Scroll Gas Flow

Compression in the scroll is created by the interaction of an orbiting spiral and a stationary spiral. Gas enters an outer opening as one of the spirals orbits. The open passage is sealed off as gas is drawn into the spiral.

As the spiral continues to orbit, the gas is. compressed into an increasingly smaller pocket.
Figure 13.8

By the time the gas arrives at the center port, discharge pressure has been reached.

Actually, during operation, all six gas passages are in various stages of compression at all times, resulting in nearly continuous suction and discharge.

Refrigerant gas flow through the scroll compressor.

338

CHAPTER 13

Figure 13.9 Hermetic centrifugal refrigeration water chiller.
(Courtesy: Machinery & Systems Division, Carrier Corp_,

Syracuse, NY.)

The impellers increase the velocity of the gas, which is then converted into a pressure increase by decreasing the velocity. The nature of the centrifugal compressor makes it suitable for very large capacities, up to 10,000 tons. The impellers can be rotated at speeds up to 20,000 RPM, enabling the compressor to handle large quantities of refrigerant. Hermetic centrifugal compressors as well as open compressors are available. Figure 13.9 shows a complete hermetic centrifugal refrigeration water chiller, with compressor, condenser, and evaporator.

13.10 CAPACITY CONTROL OF COMPRESSORS
The capacity of a compressor must be regulated to meet the load demand. Control is usually from a signal received from a thermostat or pressurestat' (see Chapter 14). In a small reciprocating compressor, capacity is often changed simply by starting and stopping the compressor. In larger multicylinder compressors, a number of steps of capacity can

be achieved. In one method, the refrigerant gas is bypassed around the compressor when less capacity is called for. This method requires a relatively high power input for low capacity. A more efficient load reduction method is accomplished by holding the suction valve open when a reduction in capacity is called for. The cylinder is then simply idling, and a significant reduction in power input results. Mechanical devices called un loaders, automatically controlled from a load signal, are used to open the suction valves. A reliable method of reducing centrifugal compressor capacity is to use inlet guide vanes. This is a set of adjustable vanes in the compressor suction that are gradually closed to reduce the volume of refrigerant gas compressed, thus reducing the capacity. The use of inlet guide vanes lessens a problem of centrifugal compressor operation called surging. Ifthe gas flow rate is reduced by throttling with a butterfly-type discharge damper, a point will be reached where instability occurs in which the gas is constantly surging back and forth through the compressor. This is a very serious event that could damage the machine. Inlet guide vanes avoid this by curving the flow direction of the gas in an efficient manner that permits capacity reduction down to about 15% of full load without surging. For centrifugal compressors that are driven by variable speed prime movers, speed reduction is a convenient method of capacity reduction. Both inlet guide vane and speed control are relatively efficient methods of capacity control, the power input decreasing considerably with capacity. Below about 50% capacity, however, the efficiency falls off rapidly. This is one reason why it is desirable to use mUltiple centrifugal machines in an installation, if practicaL

13.11

PRIME MOVERS

Compressors can be driven by electric motors, reciprocating engines, or by steam or gas turbines. Electric motors are most commonly used because of the convenience and simplicity. However, on very large installations, particularly with centrifugal compressors, steam or gas turbines are often used. The high
..

t.
~

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

339

rotating speed of the turbine often matches that of the compressor, whereas expensive speed-increasing gears may be needed when motors are used. The relative energy costs of electricity, steam, or gas often determine which prime mover will be used. In the Middle East, natural gas from the well (which might otherwise be wasted) is often used in gas turbines that drive large centrifugal machines.
Figure 13.10
Air-cooled condenser. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

13.12

CONDENSERS

The condenser rejects from the system the energy gained in the evaporator and the compressor. Atmospheric air or water are the two most convenient heat sinks to which the heat can be rejected. In the air-cooled condenser (Figure 13.10), the refrigerant circulates through a coil and air flows across the outside of the tubing. The air motion may be caused by natural convection effects when the air is heated, or the condenser can include a fan to increase the air flow rate, resulting ·in greater capacity. Air-cooled condensers are normally installed outdoors. They are available in.sizes up to about 50 tons. Water-cooled condensers are usually of shell and tube construction, similar to shell and tube evaporators. Water from lakes, rivers, or wells is sometimes used when available. Usually, however, natural sources of water are not sufficient, and the water must be recirculated through a cooling tower to recool it. Evaporative condensers (Figure 13.ll) reject heat to the atmosphere as do air cooled condensers,

t
Hot gas ___ in

Moist air Eliminator baffles

r----+-i-r-7:-;r-7l\--::;::l-- Spray nozzles
+-------------..
Condenser coil Liquid ___!-_________J out

o
Pump

Figure 13.11
Evaporative condenser.

340

CHAPTER 13

but by sprayiug water on the coils some heat is transferred to the water as well as the air, increasing the capacity of the condenser. A pump, piping, spray nozzles, and collection sump are required for the water circulating system. Fans are used to force the air through the unit. Evaporative condensers can be installed indoors as well as outdoors by using ductwork to discharge the exhaust air outside. The capacity of condensers must be controlled to maintain the condensing pressure within certain limits. Higher condensing pressures result in more power use, and extremely high pressures can damage the equipment. On the other hand, if the pressure is too low, the flow control device will not operate satisfactorily. An automatic valve regulating water flow rate is a convenient way of controlling capacity of water-cooled condensers. Air-cooled condensers are often controlled by reducing air flow across the coils, through use of dampers or cycling the fan. The control is usually in response to a change in condensing pressure. Proper water treatment is important for maintaining the capacity of water-cooled condensers. Manufacturers rate water-cooled condenser and chiller capacity on the basis of a water fouling factor-a number that represents the thermal resistance of the water film on the tubes. A value of 0.0005 is considered clean water, and ratings are often based on this value. The water treatment should prevent formation of scale that will increase the thermal resistance, resulting in a decrease in refrigeration capacity and an increase in energy required.

The capillary tube is a very small diameter tube of considerable length, which thus causes the required pressure drop. It is used often in small units (e.g., domestic refrigerators and window air conditioners) because of its low cost and simplicity. The thennostatic expansion valve (TEV), shown in Figure 13.12, is widely used in dry expansion systems. The small opening between the valve seat and disc results in the required pressure drop. It also does an excellent job of regulating flow according to the need. The operation of a TEV is shown in Figure 13.13.A bulb filled with a fluid is strapped to the suction line and thus senses the suction gas temperature. This bulb is connected to the valve by a tube in a manner so that the pressure ofthe fluid in the bulb tends to open the valve more, against a closing spring pressure. If the load in the system inFigure 13.12
Cutaway view of thermostatic expansion valve, internally equalized type. (Courtesy: Sporlan Valve Co.)
Dia,oh,'aolCf1 case

Pin carrier

13.13 FLOW CONTROL DEVICES
The restrictingdevice that causes the pressure drop of the refrigerant also regulates the refrigerant flow according to the load. Some of the devices available are the capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve, and the low side float valve. The first two are used with dry expansion evaporators; the low side float valve is used in flooded chiller evaporators.
Inlet strainer

Spring guide

l~'I-_AdjUsting '::l stem
packing Adjusting ""---- stem

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

341

Tube Spring--ioH Equalizer port

Liquid line

------s
'-.

Eva orator
Coil

~===:2=====-~
Remote bulb

Suction

J line to compressor

Figure 13.13
Operation of internally equalized thermostatic expansion valve.

creases, the refrigerant in the evaporator picks up more heat and the suction gas temperature rises. The pressure of the fluid in the bulb increases as its temperature rises, and it opens the valve more. This increases the refrigerant flow needed to handle the increased load. The reverse of all these events occurs when the refrigeration load decreases. It is important that the refrigerant vapor leaving the evaporator be a few degrees above the saturation temperature (called superheat) to ensure that no liquid enters the compressor, which might result in its damage. This is achieved by adjusting the spring pressure to a value that prevents the bulb pressure from opening the valve more unless the gas leaving the evaporator is superheated. The internally equalized TEV has a port connecting the underside of the diaphragm chamber to the valve outlet (Figures 13.12 and 13.13). This neutralizes the effect of any change in evaporator pressure on the balance between spring and bulb pressure. If there. is a larger pressure drop in the evaporator, however, this would result in a reduction in superheat. This problem is solved by using an externally equalized valve which has a connection to the evaporator outlet rather than the inlet. A low side float valve is a flow control device that is used with flooded chillers. If too much liquid refrigerant accumulates because flow is not ad-

equate, the float rises and a connecting linkage opens the valve, allowing more flow.

13.14

SAFETY CONTROLS

All refrigeration systems include a number of safety control devises to protect the equipment. The devices required for each system must be determined in each case according to the need. A brief listing of some of the available safety control devices follows. A high pressure cut-out stops the compressor when the refrigerant discharge pressure exceeds a safe limit. A low pressure cut-out stops the compressor when the refrigerant suction pressure is below a safe limit. Usually this is intended as a temperature safety device. The pressure setting on the device corresponds to a temperature at which water freeze-up might occur. A low temperature cut-out senses refrigerant temperature on the low side directly and serves to protect against freeze-up. A low oil pressure cut-out stops the compressor when lubricating oil pressure is inadequate. A flow switch will stop the compressor when chilled water (or condenser water) flow is inadequate.

342

CHAPTER 13

When the compressor stops in response to a thermostat, refrigerant may continue to flow to the evaporator due to a vapor pressure difference between the condenser and evaporator. It is not desirable to have the evaporator filled with liquid refrigerant during shutdown because this increases the likelihood of liquid entering the compressor. It also increases the amount of refrigerant absorbed in the crank case oil, thus reducing the lubricating effectiveness of the oil. The problem is solved by using pump down control. Instead of having a thermostat control the compressor operation, it controls a solenoid valve in the Iiquid line. This cuts off flow to the compressor. The compressor continues to operate for a time, pumping out the refrigerant from the evaporator. The compressor stops when its low pressure cut-out setting is reached.

13.15 PACKAGED REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT
Compressors, condensers, evaporators, and accessories are each available separately from manufacturers for selection, purchase, and installation. However, these components may also be available already assembled (packaged) in the factory. There are a number of advantages of using packaged equipment. The components are selected and matched in capacity by the manufacturer, so that they will perform properly together. Installation costs are reduced, as each component does not have to be installed and aligned separately. Controls and interconnecting piping are factory installed, further reducing field costs. The assembled equipment is usually factory tested, reducing the likelihood of operating problems that would have to be corrected on the job. Packaged equipment is available in various combinations, some of which are mentioned below.

Figure 13.14 Water-cooled condensing unit.
(Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

condensing unit is located outdoors and the air handling unit and evaporator coil are located indoors. the air conditioning system is called a split system. This arrangement is popular for residential" air conditioning systems.

Compressor-Chiller Unit
This unit consists of compressor, water chiller, interconnecting piping, and controls. It is often used with a remote air-cooled condenser.

Packaged Chiller
This unit, shown in Figure 13.15, contains the complete refrigeration package: compressor, condenser, water chiller, piping, and controls, ready to operate when put in place and when external connections are made.

Condensing Units
The package of compressor and condenser with interconnecting piping and controls is called a condensing unit (Figure 13.14). Both water- and aircooled condensing units are available. Air-cooled units are installed outdoors. When the air-cooled

13.16

SELECTION

Refrigeration equipment is selected from manufacturers' ratings after performance requirements are determined. Although the compressor, condenser, and evaporator can be chosen separately, one of the

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Figure 13.15

343

Packaged chiller. (Courtesy: Dunham-Bush, Inc.)

Solution A unit will be selected from Table 13. L Required capacity = 12 tons. Ambient temperature = 98 F (Table A.6). Allow a friction loss in the suction line equivalent to 2 F. Therefore, the saturated suction temperature = 42 - 2 = 40 F. From Table 13.1, the unit selected is a Model RCU-O 155SS air-cooled condensing unit. Capacity = 12.4 tons at saturated suction temperature = 40 F. ambient temperature = 100 F. Power input = 14.6 KW. (The capacity at 98 F will be slightly higher than at 100 F ambient, as noted from the table.)

Packaged Water Chiller
packaged combinations is often used, so we will limit our explanation to these. In any case, selection of individual components is a similar process. The following data are needed for selection of a packaged water chiller: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Refrigeration load Condenser water temperature leaving unit Condenser water temperature rise Chilled water temperature leaving unit Chilled water temperature drop Fouling factor

Air-Cooled Condensing Unit
The following data are needed for selection of an air-cooled condensing unit: L Refrigeration capacity required (load) 2. Condenser ambient temperature 3. Saturated suction gas temperature The load is a result of the cooling load calculations. The condenser ambient temperature is usually the outdoor design temperature in summer. Sometimes the condenser is located where the ambient temperature may be even greater than design temperature, and this should be considered. The compressor saturated suction temperature will be equal to the evaporator temperature minus an allowance. This allowance accounts for the pressure drop in the suction line, expressed as an "equivalent temperature drop," usually 2 F. Table 13.1 is an example of aircooled condensing unit ratings.

Example 13.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The refrigeration load for the air conditioning system of a branch of the Big Bank in San Antonio, Texas, is 12 tons. The system uses refrigerant R-22, evaporating at 42 F. Select an air-cooled condensing unit.

The load is determined from cooling load calculations. Condenser water leaving temperature is usually about 5-15 F above ambient wet bulb temperature if a cooling tower is used. The water temperature rise is usually selected between 8-15 F. The leaving chilled water temperature will depend on the cooling coil selection for the air handling equipment. Chilled water temperature ranges of 8-12 F are common. No exact figures on temperature changes are given because many choices are possihle. The designer must frequently try different combinations of values, selecting the equipment each time, to find which will result in the best choice. Computer programs for equipment selection provided by the manufacturer are very useful for this task. Table 13.2 is an example of packaged water chiller ratings.

Example 13.2 A package water chiller is required for the air conditioning system of the Royal Arms Apartments.

344

CHAPTER 13
AIR-COOLED CONDENSING UNIT RATINGS Capacity Data' (60 Hz.)" Condensing Units-R22 Ambient Temperature of
Suction Temp of

TABLE 13.1

90°F Tons K.W.

95°F Tons K.W.

100°F Tons K.W.

105°F Tons K.W.

Model

EER @ARI Base 110°F 115°F Rating Tons K.W. Tons K.W. Condo

30 RCU-008S 35 40 45 30 RCU-008SSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-OIOSSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-OIOT 35 40 45

5.8 6.6 7.4 8.0 6.4 7.0 7.7 8.4 7.7 8.5 9.2 10.0 8.5 9.4 10.3 11.3

7.4 7.8 8.2
8.6

5.6 6.5 7.0 7.9 6.2 6.8 7.5 8.0 7.5 8.3 9.0 9.8

7.5 8.0 8.4 8.9 7.1 7.6 7.9 8.4 8.6 9.1 9.5 10.1

5.3 6.1 6.8 7.6 5.8 6.6 7.0 7.8 7.3 8.0 8.8 9.6

7.6 8.1 8.6 9.1 7.2 7.8 8.1 8.6 8.7 9.2 9.8 10.3

5.1 5.7 6.6 7.4 5.6 6.4 6.9 7.6 6.9 7.8 8.6 9.4

7.7 8.2 8.7 9.3 7.4 7.9 8.3 8.8 8.9 9.4 10.0 10.5

4.7 5.5 6.3 7.0 5.5 6.2 6.7 7.4 6.7 7.5 8.3 9.0

7.8 8.3 8.9 9.6 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 9.1 9.6 10.2 10.8

4.6 5.3 5.9 6.7 5.2 5.8 6.5 7.0 6.4 7.3 8.0 8.8

7.9 8.5 9.2 9.8 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.1
9.3

11.2

7.0 7.4 7.7

12.4

LI
8.4 8.9 9.3
9.8

9.S
lOA

12.2

11.0 12.2 13.2 14.1 15.1 9.7

Il.5 12.4 13.2 14.0

8.211.7 9.1 10.0 10.9 12.6 13.4 14.2

7.911.9 8.7 9.6 10.5 12.8 13.6 14.6

7.512.07.212.17.0 8.4 9.3 10.2 13.0 13.8 14.7 8.0 8.9 9.9 13.1 13.9 14.8 7.8 8.6 9.5

The load is 27 tons. Chilled water is cooled from 55 F to 45 F. Condenser water enters at 85 F and leaves at 95 F. The condenser and chilled water fouling factors" are 0.0005. Select a suitable unit.
Solution A unit will be selected from Table 13.2. The fouling factor is a number that describes the c1eanli-' ness of the water. The size of the condenser required will depend on this. Table 13.2 is based on a water fouling factor of 0.0005, as noted, so .

no correction for this will be necessary. If the fouling factor is different, tables from the manufacturer show corrections to the selection. The required conditions are: Capacity = 27 tons Leaving chiIled water temperature = 45 F Chilled water temperature drop = 10 F Entering condenser water temperature = 85 F Condenser water temperature rise = 10 F

1 17.9 19.8 13.5 10.4 14.2 16.9 12.5 9.4 19.0 21.2 14.1 EER @ARI Base 110°F 115'F Rating Tons K.8 11.0 21.4 13.0 15. (Courtesy of Dunham-Bush.0 1 1.0 16.0 20.)-Condensing Units-R22 Ambient Temperature of Suction Temp OF 90°F Tons 95'F 100°F 105°F 345 Model K.1 18.5 19.1 17.0 20.7 11.4 14. These are indicated by boldface type.W.5 11.2 19. which has a capacity of 28.W.7 17.3 15.S 11.3 19. * For capacity ratings at 85°P ambient temperature.5 16. Tons 12.9 20.3 13.2 12.7 17. ** For 50 hertz capacity ratings.9 14.9 12. Note that Table 13.8 24.1 tons at required conditions.0 14.9 16.8 10.4 22.W.1 12.5 21.3 12.1 19.97 x KW.6 13.6 13. derate above table by .5 9.4 23.3 9.8 12.5 15.03 x Tons and .3 14.0 20.S 17.0 14.1 16. multiply the ratings of 90°F ambient by 1.1 15.4 13. if the fouling factor of the condenser increases to 0.8 18.2 indicates both a reduction in refrigeration capacity and an increase in power required.5 21.1 13.8 12. Power input is 25.4 19.7 16.9 22.8 15.85 multiplier.7 11.5 8.3 11.9 9.5 16.9 18.1 KW. Inc.4 10.6 16.4 16.1 K.7 19.0 19.6 11.8 17.0 IS.4 10.3 17.1 11.6 16.5 14.7 11.6 15.6 18.4 15.4 16.5 18. 45° suction temperature. Tons 12.3 14.4 12.3 17.W.1 12.8 10.5 20.1 13.2 24.8 15.7 18. There is a loss of 2 % in refrigeration and an increase of 3% in power.0 21.) The unit chosen for these requirements is a Model pew 030T water chiller.2 15.5 15.7 25.7 9.9 19.8 14.8 13.8 18.1 15.4 16. Condo 30 RCU-015SSt 35 40 45 30 RCU-0l5T 35 40 45 30 RCU-020T 35 40 45 30 RCU-020SSt 35 40 45 10.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TABLE 13.6 15.W.7 14.9 17.0 16.6 19.6 19.9 18.S 10.5 14.0 15.9 21.4 21.2 18.8 14. Tons 13.4 14.1 18.4 17.6 10.(50 Hz.4 17.0 22.7 14.2 11.3 22.S 13.3 12. t All models with the suffix 'SS' denote single DIB-metric accessible Hermetic compressors.8 14. Tons K.2 14.6 20.1 14.1 20.8 14.1 11.0 13.2 15.6 K.001.2 18.7 19.4 12.9 13. 13.5 20.6 14.2 10.9 16.9 16.4 17.9 23.9 14.4 15.5 19.4 20.1 (Continued) Capacity Data.0 15.2 15.W.5 13.5 17.9 19.6 16.4 23.4 19.0 K.4 13.7 17.4 14.0 13.8 14.0 15.9 13.8 18.3 21.5 15.8 17.2 21.8 Notes: ARI base rating conditions 90° ambient.5 10.2 17.5 11.8 17.2 11.7 22.2 20.5 20. resulting in a .

9 56.9 17.7 17.5 31.9 20.0 30.0 20.3 19.2 51.6 41.4 15.5 44.4 30.0 16.6 19.0 18.2 8.6 8. it will often be found that more than one unit will have the capacity needed.9 15.3 9.3 53.6 43.5 45.2 58.6 54.2 14.2 47.5 4Ll 42.7 53.6 14.9 lO.3 15.6 21.9 40.0 20.0 16. 13.8 4S.5 9.6 19.5 lO.7 19.3 17.8 16.7 10.I 52.5 15.I 10.7 10.6 9.6 15.9 18.6 46. This points up the importance of maintaining a clean condenser to conserve energy. Condenser Entering Water Temp.3 11.0 15.5 50.1 9.3 9.9 31.9 11.4 30.9 52. This can be measured by a performance .3 30.0 14.2 15.7 16. This can be found in the manufacturer's catalog.0 9.3 8.6 18.2 9.1 15.2 18.6 32.4 20.0 31.4 9.3 16.6 8. GPM Tons KW KW 42 44 PCWOIOT 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCWOl5T 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCW020T 45 46 4S 50 10.5 43.7 14.1 56. The most desirable choice is the unit that would produce the most refrigeration with the lowest power input.1 16.3 16.3 31. such as dimensions and weight and water pressure drop through the chiller and condenser.0 8.4 IS.7 10.5 8.1 10.8 32.0 32.1 14.2 16.0 9.5 32.6 16.4 9. GPM Tons 95° Condo KW GPM Model of KW Condo Cap. Tons 80" 850 80" Condo Cap.6 33. it is useful to know which will give the "best" performance.7 17.0 19.4 58.9 16.8 34.8 9. GPM Tons KW Condo Cap.2 lO.0 18.4 13.5 11.7 18.0 13.S 16.6 51.8 9.2 14.0 42.7 31.4 17.S 5S. The fouling factor number reflects the effect of dirt on the heattransfer surface.8 17.8 50.8 46.2 14.4 30.0 30.2 14.0 49.5 14.1 13.0 13.2 13.5 17.7 13.7 40. GPM Tons Condo Cap.7 49.1 44.7 17.7 ILl 11. Chilled Water Temp.0 33.6 53.1 16.3 47.5 14.2 lO.7 15.7 30.6 54.0 14.9 29. usually required.4 15.9 56.7 15.3 9.6 17.346 CHAPTER 13 PACKAGED WATER CHILLER RATINGS TABLE 13.9 10.S 57.9 54.4 44.0 9.2 17.5 10.4 17.S 16.3 20.6 39.3 20.6 10.3 13.4 29.S 17.17 ENERGY EFFICIENCY When selecting refrigeration equipment.0 10.9 13.9 9.9 29.8 9.1 16.0 45.8 31.5 16.9 55. of 75° Cap.7 17.7 9.3 9.7 21.3 15.9 29.2 19.9 8.8 32.3 18.3 16.8 45.5 14.7 30.4 18.1 IS.0 IS.8 14.3 8.9 10.4 44.3 8.1 14.6 15.4 13.7 8.2 net increase of 5% in energy use for a given capacity.7 20.1 56.9 ILl 11.3 lO.6 29.0 15.3 17.6 13.7 43.7 45.6 9.7 19.3 4S.3 14.9 16.9 15.8 15.S 16.8 11.4 13.0 41.6 52.1 17.5 57.5 15.1 17.3 14.S 14.6 13.5 8.7 16.3 18.7 8.3 56.9 10.7 51.6 28.0 44.7 9.7 54. In this case.4 29.6 47.7 14.6 19.4 16.5 13.5 17.7 14.6 14.4 10.3 10.0 14.2 Lvg.3 22.5 18.3 42. Additional information about the equipment is .0 17.0 9.1 34.8 46.8 52.0 43.4 44.

9 70.8 27.0 122.4 22.5 78.1 26.8 122.8 115.) .8 72.5 25. GPM Tons 95° Condo KW GPM Model OF 42 44 KW KW KW KW 24.3 70.2 87.1 123.4 41.6 30.1 36.0 35.8 24.1 78.0 EO 61.1 79.3 44.2 21.4 118.3 19.9 69.2 116.6 120.9 26. of 347 75° Cap.5 126.9 24.2 39. GPM Tons Condo Cap.7 36.3 12.1 26. Do not extrapolate.2 82.4 43.3 27.2 79.2 '112.7 24.0 39.2 68.8 28.6 23. (Courtesy of Dunham-Bush.1 40.3 23.2 40.8 117.4 45.8 30.9 24.6 73.0 39.3 112.6 26.6 80.4 23.6 88.8 77.4 35.9 38.1 28.5 83.1 24.8 20.9 24.2 69.7 21.0 38.0 39.1 41.2 24.5 87.1 109.2 121.5 22.9 26.0 24.1 70.6 37.0 41.2 26.4 21.0 21.9 81.9 39.2 23.6 65.6 42.1 24.5 84.4 29.5 21.1 68.9 38.5 29.0 25.2 88.5 26.8 21.7 25.6 22. 4.7 19.0 43. For other fouling factor ratings.3 27.0 85.7 42.001 condenser fouling factor.1 77.6 75.6 82.1 119.5 31.1 25.1 118.3 24.5 4U 118.8 79. GPM Tons Condo Cap.7 40. Condenser water flow rate data are based on tower water with a 10° rise.9 27.8 II I.6 27. Chilled Water Temp.5 25.0 131.8 25.1 67.9 27.2 37.1 127.9 21.6 83.3 26.8 75.7 29.03.3 86.4 85.4 41.0005 fouling factor in the chiller and condenser. 5.5 28. 2.6 85.7 23.3 31.1 44.3 12. Condenser Entering Water Temp.8 19.8 25.2 25.5 26.5 71.9 66. Ratings are applicable for 6° to 14° range.9 43.1 41.7 71.6 PCW040T 45 46 48 50 Note: *Boldface type indicates ARI rating condition.4 117.3 40.7 116. multiply capaciry shown in ratings by .8 21. Notes: I.6 39.2 86.8 37.0 37. Ratings are based on .5 25.4 24.9 20.1 71.1 66.4 23.6 38.4 40.7 44.3 25.5 39.7 27.0 29.4 38.7 21.9 22.7 30.3 39.8 43.6 22.9 65. Tons Condo Cap.1 85.5 25.5 20.4 21.9 23.7 36.0 36.0 79.7 64.2 32.4 22.1 23.0 25.1 23.5 36.9 123. 50 hz.3 lIS.6 108.4 40.1 124.0 36.0 2604 PCW025T 45 46 48 50 42 44 PCW030T 45 46 48 50 42 44 26.4 66.6 25.3 88.9 21.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT TABLE 13.0 26.7 37. Ratings are based on 10°F chilled water temperature range.6 43.8 128.9 26.98 and kW by 1.6 84.8 25.0 23.8 23.6 20.6 115.2 22.6 46.2 35.2 85.1 25.0 83.8 28.8 42.7 73.9 23. 3.4 38.9 22.6 37.3 29. consult factory.4 23.5 70.3 29.0 4004 114. GPM Tons Condo Cap.6 28.0 20.1 37.4 72.2 26.2 (Continued) Lvg.7 20.1 26.8 81.6 26.2 20.3 20.5 24.2 40. units are fuJI capacity except PCW040T which is 5/6 capacity.2 113. Inc.0 26.5 69.8 63.0 24.9 90.9 47.8 38.9 40.0 20. For . Direct interpolation for conditions between ratings is permissible.7 27.7 25.8 120.5 28.0 67.5 75.

For reasons already explained. This will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 15.348 CHAPTER 13 factor called the coefficient of perfonnance (COP). 3. Check machine for damage or refrigerant leaks (leak detecting devices and their use are described in refrigeration service manuals). The COP is thus a useful figure in comparing equipment to minimize energy consumption. we must arrange to cool the heated water after it passes through the condenser. Consult the manufacturer for the proper choice.000 . a steady supply of cooling water must be made available. 1. Allow clearance on all sides of equipment for comfortable maintenance (3 or 4 ft minimum).. and then return it to the condenser. a structural engineer must be consulted. If there is any doubt about whether the floor is adequately strong for the machine or whether a special base is needed. Rubber. Allow adequate clearance in front of control panels for operation and good visibility.18 INSTALLATION OF REFRIGERATION CHILLERS The procedures for installing specific refrigeration equipment are furnished by the manufacturer. to see if an improved performance is possible without sacrificing other bem.200 BTU/hr 85._efi::. Solution BTU/hr Capacity = 28.. Install anchor bolts in floor or base and anchor machine. natural sources of water are usually limited.3 Determine the coefficient of performance for the package chiller of Example 13. electrical. they would soon be forgotten by the student who does not regularly carry out these procedures. Provide vibration isolation supports under compressors and prime movers.200 BTU/hr .19 COOLING TOWERS Operation When water cooled condensers are used in the refrigerationplant. 6.1tons x 12.94 The COP found could be compared with values obtained for other possible selections. Each manufacturer and each piece of equipment has individual features that require detailed installation instructions. It is . 4. 7.r_i"-ge_r_a_t_io_n_c_a-'-p_a_c_ity"-_ __ equivalent power input to compressor The higher the COP of a refrigeration unit.1 KW x 3410 --::-:-KW = 85. The cooling tower is the equipment that accom c pIishes this. COP = refrigeration capacity equivalent power input 337. and control connections so as not to block access to the machine. Example 13.fits. Make water. In this case. If they were repeated here. These instructions are often very lengthy. 13. Locate chillers and condensers with removable tubes to provide adequate clearance on one end to allow removal of the tube bundle and on the other for removal of water box heads. BTU/hr Power Input = 25. It transfers heat from the condenser 13. together with another efficiency measure called the energy efficiency ratio (EER).590 BTU/hr Using the equation for the COP.590 BTU/hr =3. we will discuss here some general points of installation practice that apply to most situations. The COP is defined as: COP = ____r.ton = 337. the less power is required for a given refrigeration requirement.2. 2. 5.. and springs are some types available. not the intent here to either repeat or supersede such instructions. cork. Therefore.

Figure 13. and atmospheric towers are not often used today.18 shows this difference. which break up the water into finer droplets when the water splashes onto the fill. Drift loss results from wind carrying water away with the air. The induced draft fan type has the fan located at the tower outlet. This is done by providing a makeup water supply to the basin. This improves the heat transfer. .REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 349 Figure 13. Air-'*--' . However.16). When the air and water move at right angles to each other. Lower height may be preferable when installed on a roof. the tower is called a counterflow type. This must be done at regular intervals in order to prevent a continual accumulation of minerals that would otherwise occur from the evaporation and drift losses. tower and thereby rising from natural convection. v (b) ~ g Air Types and Construction The atmospheric tower is a type of tower where the air circulation results from air being warmed in the Figure 13.) water to the atmospheric air (Figure 13.17). Blowdown loss results from draining off and discarding a small portion of the water from the basin. The heat required for evaporation is taken from the bulk of condenser water. The cooled water collects in a basin and is then recirculated to the condenser. In addition to the water lost due to the evaporative cooling. thus cooling it. (Courtesy: The Marley Cooling Tower Co. the tower is called a crossflow type. There is not necessarily an operating advantage in practice of one type over another. controlled by a float valve level.17 Forced and induced draft fan arrangements for cooling tower.16 Induced draft cooling tower. Airflow (a) Forced draft fan Airflow Induced draft fan . Water from the condenser is pumped to the top of the cooling tower and sprayed down into the tower. Most of the heat transfer is accomplished by the evaporation of a small percentage of the condensing water into the atmosphere. Mechanical draft towers use fans to create a high air flow rate. The losses require provision for makeup water. The amount of air that will circulate from this effect is quite limited. whereas the forced draft fan type blows the air through (Figure 13. sometimes a crossflow tower will be lower in height (although bigger in length or width) than a counterflow tower for the same capacity. When the air and water move in opposite directions. there are two other causes of water loss. The tower has internal baffles called fill.

noise. Because this pair is used in many absorption systems. we will refer to them in our explanation. the less the capacity of the tower. [here are many pairs of substances that have this . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t ~ t t I 1 1 1 1 Ir t I 1 1 1 1 ~ ~illl. Water is then sprayed into the tank.147 psia. We are all aware of how table salt absorbs water vapor from the air.19. or plastic. affinity for one another.ases will be absorbed by certain other substances. Absorption Refrigeration System Absorption refrigeration machines are often used for large air conditioning systems. What is the refrigerant evaporating temperature? .4 The pressure maintained in the evaporator of a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration machine is 0. t t 1 1 1 1 Y . Redwood is ideal because water will not cause its deterioration. Consider a tank partially filled with a concentrated liquid solution of lithium bromide (concentrated means that it contains very little water) as shown in Figure 13. Example 13. the higher the ambient wet bulb temperature.20 PRINCIPLES [he absorption system uses the principle that some . The structural framework may be wood or steel.350 CHAPTER 13 Air 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Water /1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Air 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Water 1 A' 1 Y 1 1 1 . leaving a very low pressure..flcnd weight than with a vapor compression machine. The space above the liquid is evacuated of any gas.¥i.wa~? Counterflow Crossflow Figure 13. The temperature at which the spray water evaporates will depend on the pressure in the tank. and is thereby chilled. according to the saturation pressure-temperature relations of water. metal. Therefore. as much as possible. Because of the low pressure. or plastic.1 13. This water furnishes the heat needed for the evaporating spray. This rate decreases with higher water vapor content (humidity) in the ambient air. galvanized steel. thus making it difficult to pour. The fill may be wood. The capacity of a cooling tower depends on the rate of water evaporation. if} j .18 Counterflow versus crossflow of air and water in cooling tower. lithium bromide will absorb large quantities of water . Another combination is lithium bromide (LiBr) and water. The absence of a compressor usually has the advantages of less vibration. The tower siding may be wood. some of the water will evaporate.'apor. A row of baffles called eliminators are provided near the tower outlet to catch and prevent excessive loss of water droplets. A coil circulating water is located under the evaporating sprays. requiring heat to do so.

The same coolina water is then used in the condenser. Spray water (the refrigerant) evaporates in a tank where the pressure is very low. The heat is removed by cooling water. and therefore increasing its evaporating temperature above useful refrigeration temperatures.==. which has a lower boiling point than the lithium bromide. .. which is circuc lated through a coil in the absorber. The solution from the absorber is preheated by hot solution returning from the concentrator. The water vapor from the concentrator flows to the condenser. making it less effective. The absorption process generates heat that would raise the temperature of the absorbing solution.19 Diagram illustrating refrigeration by absorption. Another pair of fluids often used in absorption systems is ammonia and water.3. require explanation. as shown in Figure 13. as shown.. completing the cycle. so the liquid water is recirculated by the refrigerani pump. The water vapor quantity will build up in the tank.. This solution is sprayed into the absorber and recirculated by the absorber pump. The condensed water is then returned to the evaporator. The lithium bromide eventually absorbs all of the water it can hold. and no longer is effective. Solution Water is the refrigerant..147 psi a is 45 F. '" The second refinement to the cycle is the inclusion of a heat exchanger between the absorber and concentrator.. The reconcentrated solution is then returned to the absorber..=::::. In this case. however. To solve this problem. However.Water chilled to 44 F Figure 13. . The evaporator operation is as described previously.20. raising its pressure.. where it is condensed to a liquid by giving up heat to water from a cooling tower or natural body of water. which improve the system's efficiency and are shown in Figure 13. diluted solution is pumped to the concentrator (also called generator) by a concellfrator pump. Lithium bromide L. A concentrated solution is stored in a tank called the absorber. Typical operating temperatures and pressures are indicated on the diagram..12 psia water in 351 Refrigerant_-+<==!====.. Two refinements to this cycle. The lithium bromide absorbs and draws water vapor from the evaporator space.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Evaporating water at 40 F.20.::= water Water ___ chilling coil ---t+{======::-t-. To prevent the pressure from building up in the evaporator. the solution gradually becomes too diluted to absorb enough water. Here it is heated to a temperature that will evaporate some of the water. the evaporating (saturation) temperature of water at 0. water .. or a aas flame is used as a source of heat in the '" concentrator. the water vapor must be absorbed by lithium bromide. hot water. The spray water does not all evaporate. 0. The lithium bromide absorbs the water as both solutions make contact.-:-----f---. and a low pressure is maintained there. Steam. We will now explain how the actual system functions. the diluted solution of lithium bromide must be reconcentrated and used again. thereby saving some of the heat needed in the concentrator. From Table A.. thus extracting heat from water circulating in a coiL The water that is chilled in thecoil is distributed to air conditioning equipment as required. In order to have a practical absorption refrigeration system that will operate continuously.

onstructed with four separate vessels as was . and electric controls..::::. compared with about 30 psia for the LiEr system.20 Flow diagram of lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration system. This requires additional equipment (a rectifier) to separate the ammonia from the water.:.I 9 Ib of steam per ton of refrigeration is typical at this temperature. SmalI capacity lithium bromide-water absorption units (3-25 tons) with direct-fired generators are also available. The machine is completely factory assembled. as shown in Figure 13. and solution pumps.352 CHAPTER 13 Refrigerant vapor ~------'r--~Cooling water 103 F Steam or hot water -:=f===:::::~ Ctig (]) ro I-£ 1ij Q. and condensing water temperatures are the factors required to select the proper machine from manufacturers' tables. To economize on construction costs. Refrigerant 115 F Absorber Evaporator 55 F } Chilled water ~:. The machine is carefully evacuated in the factory of air down to an extremely low pressure. Concentrator temperatures'around 240 F result in peak efficiency. (The sketch was made that 'lay for clarity).. concentrator. The heat required in the concentrator is furnished either by low pressure steam. load.::::.:. the four parts are built into two or even one shell. 13. some water boils off with the ammonia in the generator of the aqua-ammonia absorption system. hot water. A steam use rate of 18. Heat source temperatures.. or a gas flame. The pumps are hermetic to prevent any leaks into the system.21 CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE '\bsorption refrigeration machines are not actually .:::. chiIIed water. condensel.:/-_ out 45 F Dilute solution Cooling water 85 F Refrigerant 40 F Absorber pump Refrigerant pump Concentrator pump Figure 13. Selection procedures for an absorption chiIIer are similar to those for reciprocating or centrifugal chillers and therefore wiII not be discussed in further detail. '1 f I L c j . is the absorbent and ammonia is the refrigerant.hown in Figure 13. absorbel. including evaporator.20.2 I. interconnecting piping. Because of its volatility. Another disadvantage of this system is that it operates at much higher pressures in the generator (about 300 psia).::::. They are popular in areas where natural gas is plentiful and inexpensive.

65 is typical for large absorption equipment. but because solar energy is cost-free and not depletable. NY. In this arrangement..t.) Thus. The total energy balance between the absorption or compression machine may then be equal or may even be in favor of the former. Only about onethird of the heat from the fuel in the power plant is converted to electric energy (this is a limitation imposed by the second law of thermodynamics. This would seem to be an unacceptable waste of energy. A large compressor-driven water chiller may have a COP of 3.22 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS The absorption machine has considerable promise for refrigeration in conjunction with solar energy ..) The coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption machines is much lower than systems using mechanical compression refrigeration.0..21 Absorption refrigeration machine... The energy used to drive the compressor is usually electricity generated by a thermal electric utility. That is.. This corresponds to a heat input rate of about 18.. a 50% improvement in energy efficiency. ~- .. this is not important. A two-stage machine available from Japan raises the COP to about 1. explained in Chapter 15. as a heat source. hot water is heated by solar collection panels and then used in the concentrator as the heat source. The energy input rate required is high at the water temperatures solar heaters usually can produce (170-200 F).. (Courtesy: Machinery & Systems Division. Heat from the vapor coming from the first generator is used to provide further vaporization of liquid from the absorber.5 or higher.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 353 r... but the COP does not show the whole situation. The COP of the absorption system may be improved considerably if a two-stage generator (concentrator) is used. Carrier Corp.000 BTUlhr per ton of refrigeration.. A COP of 0. 13. it uses only one-fifth of the energy of an absorption machine. U-tube design Insulated suJiaces "-----Solution pump Figure 13. The low pressure steam used for the energy source is frequently otherwise wasted heat from a process or from a utility company. the energy use advantage of the compression refrigeration system is greatly reduced. Syracuse. Further factors make the absorption machine desirable under certain circumstances.

Condensing water temperature too low 3. It should be noted that the cooling tower required for an absorption machine will be considerably larger than that needed for a vapor compression cycle machine. 13. due to the larger quantity of heat that must be rejected from the absorber and condenser combined. Since the absorption machine does not use ozone-depleting refrigerants. Air leakage into the system We will not explain here how each can cause this effect. Investigate possible installation on an upper 13. 3. 2. Provide rubber isolation pads under the machine. 4. I. it is necessary to heat the piping where the blockage has occurred. Solution modulation control uses a controller that mixes the absorber solution to vary its concentration. . if a solution is already near its maximum concentration and if its temperature is then lowered. both are major cost items in high-rise buildings. thereby changing the machine capacity. as opposed to vapor compression machines. Safety controls are provided with" the machine and will not be discussed. this eliminates the need for a boiler stack and much of the piping. The light weight and lack of serious noise and vibration make this a feasible alternative to a basement. it will crystallize (solidify).354 CHAPTER 13 A popular and efficient combination of refrigeration sources for air conditioning is the centrifugalabsorption combination. especially by the operating engineer. This is a serious problem in absorption systems.23 CAPACITY CONTROL Two modern methods of modulating refrigeration capacity to meet load demands are used with absorption machines. Allow ample clearance for tube removal and for service access as needed on all sides. The choice of whether to use an absorption or vapor compression machine (or combination) for an installation is largely a matter of economics. it changes from a liquid to a solid (crystal) form.. Automatic methods of doing this can be provided by the manufacturer. If floor or penthouse. this is an additional attractive feature. as compared with 16 lb/ton for the turbine-driven machine alone. a high pressure steam turbine is used to drive a centrifugal refrigeration machine. Information can be found in manufacturers' manuals. the controller will operate a valve that controls the steam or hot water flow to the concentrator. Therefore. The maximum concentration possible decreases as the solution temperature decreases. Power failure 1 . Both of them use a controller that senses and maintains a constant leaving chilled water temperature. which affects the machine capacity. which is a function of relative fuel costs..25 INSTALLATION 13. about 13 lb/ton.24 CRYSTALLIZATION This is an important phenomenon that needs to be Jnderstood. If crystallization occurs. If the boiler is also located in the same space. condenser) and electrical and control connections so as not to block access to the machine. 2. There are three factors that can result in a drop in temperature of the solution: I. because if it occurs. Install external piping (to boiler. and the low pressure exhaust steam from the turbine is then used as a heat source in an absorption machine. the lithium bromide solution becomes too concentrated. The overall steam rate per ton by using the steam twice can be very attractive. 1 . With heat source control. the crystallized LiEr blocks the piping and the machine stops working. In this arrangement. Some general procedures will be discussed here. Detailed instructions for installation of absorption refrigeration machines are provided by each manufacturer.

it is not.27 ENERGY EFFICIENCY Consideration of how the energy balance principle (Chapter 3) applies to the heat pump will show how it may provide heating with a relatively small expenditure of energy.) Normally the purpose of a refrigeration machine is to absorb heat (in the evaporator) from a cooling load. two of which are open at anyone time to allow flow in the direction chosen. including the air handling unit. One clear advantage of a heat pump is that it can provide heating or cooling from one machine. The heat absorbed in the outdoor coil is the refrigeration effect. especially when electric resistance heating would be otherwise used. the direction of refrigerant flow is reversed after leaving the compressor. The opposite is done for outside air. This is a misleading name. Another advantage that is not apparent without further investigation is that it may have a lower operating cost than separate conventional heating and cooling systems. but of course it serves no useful purpose in this case. The heat that is rejected in the condenser is thrown away to the atmosphere or a body of water. which is still occurring. The heat pump is usually a vapor compression refrigeration machine. with the refrigerant flowing in the direction shown. In summer. Therefore. The heat pump is sometimes called a "reverse cycle" air conditioner. used more on larger equipment. the machine is a heat ·'pump.26 PRINCIPLES The heat pump is a refrigeration system that can be used for both cooling and heating. The heat pump now acts as a heating unit. without reversing refrigerant flow. This has four ports. without any great modifications. (An absorption machine can also be used as a heat pump. the duct arrangement is made so that room air is circulated to the evaporator coil in summer and to the condenser in winter. The cycle is the vapor compression re- frigeration cycle. high energy costs and shortages have created even more intense interest. the room coil serves as the evaporator and the room air is cooled to produce summer cooling. Figure 13. this means that it would have a lower first cost than using separate heating and cooling equipment. the heat pump appears to be a mysterious device that operates on some unusual principle. Heat pumps are often supplied as unitary equipment." The refrigeration effect. the total energy into the system equals the total energy out: where Qc = heat rejected from condenser Qe = heat absorbed in evaporator Qp = heat equivalent of compressor power input . passing over the condenser coil. In the explanation given. is to reverse air flow. In winter. The reversal Of refrigerant flow to switch between heating and cooling is accomplished with a reversing valve. only the refrigerant flow direction and function of the coils are reversed. The room air passing over the room coil therefore receives the heat rejected in the condenser. The evaporator and condenser coils function the same in winter and summer. so that the room coil serves as the condenser and the outdoor coil as the evaporator. is heated. in winter the room air. 13. However. Another arrangement. with all the components assembled as a package by the manufacturer. mayor may not be utilized. When this is done.22 shows how a heat pump performs in both summer and winter. There is no reason why this heat could not be used to satisfy a heating load.23. depending on need.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 355 The Heat Pump 13. which is basically no different in operation or components from that described previously. but this is unusual. Although this has always caused considerable interest in the heat pump. Referring to Figure 13. To those not familiar with refrigeration cycles. In many cases.

356 CHAPTER 13 Reversing valve Air ~. (a) Summer cycle (cooling).N~"'.95 F 105 F Outdoor coil (condenser) Compressor t 80 F --'I---"". (b) Winter cycle (heating). .~ Air 60 F Room coil --"" (evaporator) Flow control device (a) Air 35 F 45 F 70 F Outdoor coil (evaporator) Compressor t Air 100 F Room coil --"" (condenser) Flow control device (b) Figure 13.22 fhe heat pump cycle..

of course. the energy expended is at least equal to the useful heating. since both the load is increasing and the heat pump capacity is decreasing. supplementary heating must be furnished. the amount of supplementary heat required increases. Controls are arranged to activate the resistance heaters in steps as the outdoor temperature drops. Since the evaporator is the outdoor coil. For packaged heat pumps that include evaporator and condenser fans. As the outdoor temperature decreases. At temperatures below the balance point. This lowers the value of the COP slightly.28 SELECTION OF HEAT PUMPSTHE BALANCE POINT As the evaporating temperature decreases. " Qp =------~--~------------- heat rejected from condenser heat equivalent of compressor power Note that the coefficient of performance of a heat pump does not have the same meaning as when the unit is used for refrigeration. because less heat is absorbed in the evaporator. defined as COP = Qc 13. the COP is often defined to include these auxiliary power inputs. Contrast this with any direct heating system. In these cases. This is often accomplished by using one or more electric resistance heaters. an outside temperature of about 30 F is a typical temperature at which the heating capacity of the unit will just match the load. a drop in outdoor temperature causes a decrease in the heating capacity. Figure 13. The significance of this equation is that the useful heating Qc is greater than the energy needed to drive the compressor Qp by the amount Qe> which does not require any energy expenditure. its heating capacity will be inadequate below outdoor temperatures often encountered in many climates.23 Energy use in the heat pump.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 357 Condenser Compressor Evaporator Q. . of course. For residential applications. either electrical or by burning a fuel to generate steam or hot water. The heat pump COP" is useful in illustrating the advantage of heating by using electrical energy to drive a heat pump compressor rather than using the electricity directly in resisiimce heaters. This is called the balance poim. if the heat pump is sized to handle the maximum cooling load. the heating capacity (the heat rejected from condenser) of a heat pump also decreases. A relative measure of the performance of the heat pump is the heating coefficient of performance. For typical heating -cooling load requirements.

000 Sens.000 41.250 5.lX)() 24 ..500 3..200 4.900 5.lXlO 52.tKlO 29.500 32.650 6. 100 5.000 18.400 31.1-.000 27.000 3. 10 0 41.000 39.000 56.300 5.100 5.300 42.800 Cool 20.000 51.700 8.600 5. Matching Flex.000 18. 000 -'1.800 Heat 31. 000 20.000 45.000 21..000 31.900 35.600 3.000 46/){){) 25.5 67 387 350 312 274 234 74 60 53 46 37 30 24 20 380 320 287 260 220 189 170 159 UPFlOW CFH036D7A CFB036A2 115 lOS *95 85 75 30.000 31.750 82 79 76 71.650 8.tXlO 3.000 32.100 62 52 47 42 33 25 18 12 CFH060DJA CFH060A2 lIS 105 *95 85 75 48.000 42.500 6.400 5.800 4.200 21.950 7. CFH024A3 Evap.000 3550 80 77 74 69.500 ·'-300 7.500 23.5 65 388 351 313 276 235 68 59 52 50 40 31. Blower Model No..000 19500 Suction Dischg.500 17.500 5.000 27.800 4.700 4300 3.700 6.500 37.220 81 78 75 71 66 370 335 330 265 225 302 260 250 238 116 2(){1 182 170 318 29(} 280 262 140 220 210 204 318 290 280 262 140 220 210 204 358 320 300 282 250 225 204 188 358 320 300 CFH048DJA CFB048A2 115 105 *95 85 75 39. Ie!'..900 7.450 4.000 18.000 15.500 79 76 73 68 64 390 348 310 270 230 60 .800 3.000 26.150 2. 000 20.900 .000 27.000 4..000 61.200 6.000 53.000 21.000 26.IXlO 27300 29.3lXl 5.000 25.000 31.500 5..400 30.000 27 .lde temp.100 41.000 34.750 6.150 2.' In!'.5 16.000 S7.000 10.000 45.000 25.000 24.100 39.000 56.300 4.950 2. Corp.000 34.000 +1-.H!D8A CFB048A2 [ 15 105 '95 85 75 39. 80 3500 10 282 250 225 204 188 358 .2(){} 6.600 8..200 3.100 8.000 59. 70~ F db (heating).000 32.750 3.000 62.R.700 8.000 42.TABLE 13.320 6'{)00 5.[50 79 76 73 68 64 4" 375 335 295 250 62 52 47 42 33 25 18 12 .300 29.500 5.000 66..000 34.900 42.850 5.000 18500 1·1.500 S.100 6.000 23.J.100 4. (Reprinted with the permission of Fedder.450 7.9lXl 4.800 6.100 3..:!.000 13.lXlO 2.900 7.3 RESIDENTIAL-TYPE PACKAGED HEAT PUMP RATINGS performance data Fedders Flexhermetic Heat Pump Condensing Units are matched to Fedders Evaporator Blower Package Units for complete split system applications.000 59.000 27.500 7.100 6.000 53.3()() 29.650 4.000 42..()(Xl 38..000 48.000 30.000 20.000 225 200 165 135 CFH030A3 " II CFB036A2 115 105 '95 85 75 24.000 16.:!00 4500 3.000 22 .200 79 76 73 68 64 400 360 322 284 240 45 42 34 25 18 F db: 67 0 F wb (coohng).00(l 49.000 24.300 7.000 51.100 79 76 73 68 64 380 350 310 270 230 5.5lX) 3.400 31.750 7..000 31.000 19. Total PSIG Outside Watts Pressures Suction Dischg. Heat Pump Model No.000 42.900 34..000 52.400 4. 750 26.700 9.000 28.300 3.000 1.300 5.lXlO 45.100 3.150 4.000 35..500 10.:!00 6.650 5.000 36..000 ·000 4 .600 5. 14500 BTUthr..900 6.800 5.000 47.000 48.500 32.500 3.500 37.800 4.800 32.800 5 •.000 57.300 42.(){)() 42.950 2. conditIOn!'.100 7.000 44.900 3 ..000 27 .) 0 . dboF 115 105 '95 85 75 Capacities BTUlhr.600 3.000 37. Temp dboF Heat 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 Capacity Total Watts Heat 4. CFB024A2 Outside Temp.000 41.000 3.000 48.6tXl 3.000 26..200 27.100 39. 310 280 263 250 15.000 45.5(Xl 63 54 50 45 37 28 20 10 65 55 50 45 37 30 22 17 409 367 350 330 295 260 225 185 CFHO·f2D7A CFB048A2 115 105 *95 85 75 36.000' 23.t . uoo CFH{).000 5.600 9. PSIG Pressures Cool 4.900 5.6tXJ 7.000 12500 9.500 25 .fXXl 4. Select performance requirements and matched components below.000 61.200 41.100 4.000 6..000 20 ./.l){){) 47.7(Xl 4.300 7.000 32.000 66.200 7.- 51 -45 42 34 25 18 10 60 51 CFH060D8A CFB060A2 liS lOS *95 85 75 48.000 12.620 6..300 3. • A.000 49.700 76 73 70 66 62 400 360 320 285 240 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 10 0 60 50 '45 40 30 '20 .000 21.1.800 38. 000 21.lXlO 35.000 34. 900 3.

000 20. Example 13. 67 F WB for cooling.3. The heat pump heating capacity just matches the required building load at an outdoor temperature of 28 F.5 illustrates the selection of a heat pump and the determination of the balance point. resulting in uncomfortable conditions and a shortened life for the compressor and controls.000 BTUlhr.5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Select a heat pump for a residence in Birmingham. F 80 Suppl.000 BTUlhr.000 60. Refer to Figure 13.2 OJ :g c c '" .000 50. .000 40. heating '0 oj .000 30. to 0 BTU/hr (no load) and 70 F. the summer and winter outdoor design temperatures are 94 F and 18 F. 1:: (IJ ::J f- ~ 80. Example 13. Ratings of some small split system packaged heat pumps suitable for residential or similar applications are shown in Table 13.000 70.000 BTUlhr and 18 F.27. A straight line is drawn from the design heating load point.5. Using Table 13.9. The design cooling load is 44. The intersection of these two lines is the balance point. The oversized unit will cycle too often in the cooling cycle. For these reasons.000 10. heat pumps should always be sized for the cooling load. as can be seen in Table 13. The capacity at 94 F is just over 45.000 BTU/hr and the design heating load is 41. however. When selecting a heat pump.000 BTUlhr. Supplementary heaters are required below 28 F.24 Determination of heat pump balance point for Example 13. Figure 13.000 BTU/hr. The ratings in the table are based on a space temperature of 70 F for heating and 80 F DB. at 41. The heat pump heating capacity at the balance point is 33. The heating capacity of the unit is then plotted at different outdoor temperatures.1 KW It is possible to reduce or eliminate. At the design temperature of 18 F. The larger unit will also provide . This line represents the building heating load at different outdoor temperatures.000 BTUlhr x IKW 3410 BTUlhr = 4.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 359 The supplementary heater should always be located downstream of the indoor coil in the ductwork so that the heat does not affect the condensing temperature.heating capacity = 41.000 = 14. a Model CFH048 unit is selected based on the design cooling load. Using the columns of heating capacity versus outside heating temperatures. rather than the heating load.24. and a line is drawn showing these heating capacities. the supplementary heat required is Supplementary heat = hearing load .3.BTUlhr 14. What is the balance point? What is the size of the required supplementary resistance heaters? Solution Using Table A.000 . more heating. standard practice is to select a unit that will satisfy the design cooling load. oj ~ Design heating load Model CFH048 Heating capacity Balance point Building heating load - ~ I " c <D OJ This is the balance point.000 . The intersection of these two lines is about 28 F. if any is required.3.supplementary heating by oversizing the heat pump in the cooling cycle.000 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Outdoor temperature. Alabama. Another line is drawn showing the building heating load at different outdoor temperatures (this is a straight line).0 '0 oj '0 "" oj Q. The supplementary heating is then sized to provide the extra heating capacity below the balance point. The design heating load is 44. a curve is drawn through these points. The inside design temperatures are 70 F in winter and 80 F in summer. This is usually undesirable. a standard ARI test condition.

when used for heating.99 5000 W x 3.5-3. \"". Ii! I I ~ . described in Chapter 18. compare the amount of power saved at an outdoor temperature of 30 F by using a heat pump instead of electrical resistance heating. However.26) = 1. a solar energy collector can be used to supply water at a much higher temperature than normally available in winter for the evaporator. The refrigerants that are most widely used in compressors are in a chemical group called either fluorinated hydrocarbons or halocarbolls.000 BTU/hr IW x----3. With the conventional application of the heat pump. heat transfer. range from 1.0.41 BTUlhr =9970W The savings is 9970 . 34. the heat pump will perfonn even better (be more energy efficient). resist. That is more properly left to refrigeration texts and manuals. Typical actual heat pump COP h values. COP" --~2:1 1.6 For the heat pump used in Example 13.000 BTUlhr. They are nontoxic. At higher outdoor temperatures. which results in a low COP in winter.5-3. compared to resistance heaters? Solution From Table 13.0 To express this in words. The COP" for the heat pump at 30 F is (see Section 13. These refrigerants have been used since the 1930s because of their excellent characteristics.100 E This moderate temperature can be achieved with a relatively inexpensive collector and will result in a low heat pump energy use. This arrangement is called the solar assisted heat pump. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump decreases with a decrease in evaporator temperature (see Chapter 15). however. stable. it will not perfonn as well. That is. at lower outdoor temperatures.3. at 30 F the heat pump requires about one-half the power input that electrical resistance heating does to produce the same' heat output. etc. important .0 times more heat output for the same energy input than by using electrical resistance heating. We do wish to discuss.000 BTUlhr 13.360 CHAPTER 13 Example 13. the equivalent to 34.11). However. (This applies to unitary air-to-air heat pumps when operating at an outside air temperature of 47 E) This means that the heat pump is producing 1. the amount of heat output is the same as the amount of electric energy input (see Equation 15.41 BTUlhr lW The COP of electric resistance heating = 1. They have good physical properties for performance-temperatures. Example 13.5000 = 4970 W.29 SOLAR ENERGY-HEAT PUMP APPLICATION An effective use of the heat pump is in combination with solar energy. oil mixing feature.000 BTU/hr is Resistance heating = 34. this temperature is lower than ambient air temperature. The relationship of the two COP"s is 13. If electrical resistance heating is used. requiring 5000 W of power for the compressor. pressure. specific heat. What is the heating COP of the heat pump at this temperature. the heating capacity of the Model CFH048 heat pump at 30 F is 34. and inexpensive.5.6 illustrates the savings in energy and operating cost by using a heat pump instead of electric resistance heating. It is not our intention here to investigate those matters in great detail. say 75.99 1.30 REFRIGERANTS Heat pump COP" Elect.0.

31 OZONE DEPLETION Refrigerants ODP Despite their excellent properties for use as refrigerants.4 lists some of the refrigerants and their ODP values. and marine life The relative ability of a substance to deplete the ozone layer is called its ozone depletion potential (ODP). Zeotropes or blends are mixtures that do not always behave as a single substance. There are also mixtures of the above substances that are used as refrigerants.0 0. A gradual reduction of production and use of HCFCs is scheduled to result in their phase-out by the year 2030 in the United States. they may not evaporate or condense at a constant temperature (called temperature glide).) 2. CFC-12. These are composed of hydrogen. according to their constituents. The ozone layer has been progressively depleting. especially the CFCs. Table 13. 4. TABLE 13. The production and importation of all CFCs in the United States has ceased as of December 3 I. fluorine. Reduction in immunity against disease. and carbon atoms. Azeotropes are mixtures that behave as a single substance. R-12. It has been found that they cause depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. I. For instance. These are composed of hydrogen. For instance. An increase in cataracts 3. especially in operating and servicing procedures. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).4 OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL (ODP) OF REFRIGERANTS 13. 1995. 3. The ozone layer . All of the halocarbon refrigerants can be divided into three subgroups. and R-502.74 .0 0. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). chlorine. an HCFCICFC mixture. fluorine. Some other countries have scheduled an earlier elimination. a CFC/HFC mixture. Ozone (0 3 ) is an oxygen (0 2 ) molecule with an added oxygen atom. an extremely serious environmental problem exists with those halocarbons that contain chlorine. all parts of the mixture evaporate and condense at the same conditions. Some in this group are HFC-134a (R-134a) and HFC-125 (R-125). and carbon atoms. and HFCs do not cause any ozone depletion (ODP = 0).05 0. Some in this group are HCFC-22 (R-22) and HCFC-123 (R-123).0 0. is one of the most deadly forms of cancer 2. Some in this group are CFC-II. One chlorine atom can destroy 100. As a response to this problem.8 1.0 1. Two frequently used refrigerants in this group are R-500. CFC-II and CFC-12 have the highest (worst) value. Harmful effects on crops. fl uorine.000 ozone molecules. and carbon atoms. (The more familiar identification is R-II. This can complicate their use.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 361 issues about them that affect the practice of work in the HVAC industry. This posed of chlorine. and the United States may revise its schedule. An increase in skin cancer (melanoma). ODP = 1. These are com- from the sun. All CFC use after this date must come from recovery operations. These fall into two classes: azeotropes and blends (zeotropes). Effects of a decreased ozone layer over Earth include I. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Note that HCFCs have a relatively low ODP. timber. and CFC-114.0.D2 0. the major industrialized nations have agreed to control the use and manufacture of CFCs and HCFCs.blocks out much of the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation CFC-ll CFC-12 HCFC-22 CFC-1l3 CFC-1l4 HCFC-123 HFC-134A R-500 1. and R-II4.

HFC-134a is a permanent substitute (ODI = 0). 3. which include I. Ammonia can be toxic and flammable. however. especially in medium to large air conditioning systems that would otherwise use centrifugal refrigeration compressors with CFC-ll or HCFC-22. residential air conditioning. Refrigerants may not knowingly be vented (released) to the atmosphere. Propane is already being used in some new household refrigerators in Europe. R-12. 2.32 REFRIGERANT VENTING AND REUSE The same concern about ozone depletion has led to regulations in the use of both CFCs and HCFCs. 1. 2. Al tern ate refrigerants. 13. A brief description of some major features of the regulations follows. HCFC-22 (R-22). Use of refrigeration systems other than vapor compression. Refrigeration compressor capacity. In large centrifugal and screw compressors. The problems may include: 1. However. This refrigerant is used in centrifugal compressors. Conservation of existing refrigerants in use. but each has well known undesirable characteristics. power requirements. and pressures may be unsatisfactory. such as ammonia. and other CFCs. Other than the vapor compression system. 2. for instance. Clean Air Act. covered under amendments to the U. An interim substitute is HCFC-123. That is. In such cases. Research is underway for a permanent HFC replacement. The specific regulations have been developed by and are enforced by the U. HFC-134a is an alternative. carbon dioxide. and propane. 5. and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration.S. Expansion valves and desiccants may not function properly. because of possible safety problems. Alternate Halocarbon Refrigerants The search for and selection of alternate nonozone-depleting halocarbon refrigerants (HFCs) involve some difficult choices. Research is undergoing on numerous other new refrigerants. This refrigerant is presently used largely in automotive air conditioners and household refrigerators. Its use will continue for some time. There are generally no "drop-in" substitutes. CFC-lJ (R-lJ). 4. and reclaiming refrigerants during service opera- . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). some of which are summarized here: A. Some new refrigerants may be less safemore toxic and more flammable. C. the alternate refrigerant cannot simply be placed in existing compressors. the lithium bromide absorption system is a realistic substitute in some cases. R-22. Other Existing Refrigerants New consideration is being given to previously used refrigerants.S. 3. Requirements for recovery. Manufacturers are now offering compressors that use this refrigerant. Toxicity can be a concern with HCFC-123. These restraints have led to various solutions. different elastic materials must be used. Apparently it is not yet being seriously considered in the United States. polyol ester and alkylbenzene oils may be satisfactory substitutes. and HCFCs in use now. CFC-12 (R-12). They apply to R-II. Some new refrigerants may cause deterioration of rubber seals and hoses. B. This refrigerant is widely used in window units. until this group is phased out. Of course initial and operating costs would also playa factor in making a decision. These do not cause ozone depletion. decreasing gradually. Possible substitutes are the HFC mixtures R-407c and R-4 lOa. Mineral-oil-based lubricants (presently used with CFCs) cannot be used with some new refrigerants.362 CHAPTER 13 These mandated changes have led to a search for viable temporary and permanent solutions. recycling.

This entails taking an EPA approved certification test. noncondensable gases. All refrigerant must be recovered before opening the system.34 WATER TREATMENT Water used in condensers. 13. The water can have an acidic character that will cause corrosion of metals. Venting of refrigerants and other violations is punishable by fines up to $25.REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 363 tions or when disposing of equipment are established. At the time of this writing. 4. For HCFC-22. The regulations also specify the equipment and procedures involved. Refrigeration technicians that service or dispose of equipment must be certified. 3. halocarbon refrigerants have a global warming effect. the GWP = 1. because those systems are closed. This is a common problem in cooling towers. and agriculture will be affected.000 per violation day. water chillers. Reclaiming is a complex cleaning process that restores the refrigerant to its original factory purity. For reciprocating compressors. Recycling. Select and operate equipment with highest evaporating (or chilled water) temperature and lowest condensing temperature consistent with . and passing the refrigerant through filter dryers to reduce moisture.35 ENERGY CONSERVATION IN REFRIGERATION Some methods to consider for conserving energy with refrigeration systems are: I.33 GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL In addition to the ozone depletion effect on the environment. Which of the three "Rs" is acceptable in each situation depends on a number of factors that are explained in the EPA regulations. restrictions on emissions are still being considered by the industrialized nations. The greatest global warming effect is from carbon dioxide (C0 2 ). 2.0. ing is measured by the Global Warming Potential (GWP). A firm that specializes in water treatment should be called in to set up a treatment plan when planning a large air conditioning system. Recovery. Earth's atmosphere is apparently being warmed due to the increase of certain gases that are products' of industrial activities. because of the amount produced. For centrifugal compressors. reducing heat transfer. These gases trap solar heat. acidity. and particulates." a bacteria that apparently has been traced in some cases to stagnant water in cooling tower basins. the GWP = 100. Biological growths can occur that may cause deterioration of wood or coat surfaces and reduce heat transfer. Global warming may cause serious changes in the environment. Use refrigeration compressors that reduce power requirements as load decreases. Some halocarbon refrigerants have a very high GWP. Water treatment in chilled water systems is usually a minor problem. where the water is exposed to the atmosphere. There are a number of publications available with this information for the interested student. Recycling is the cleaning of the refrigerant by removing oil. but it should not be neglected. The ability of a substance to contribute to global warm- 13. Large land areas near sea level may flood. The most bizarre example of contamination is "Legionnaires' disease. this would involve use of cylinder unloaders or speed control. this would involve use of speed control or inlet guide vanes. and Reclaiming (RRR) There are regulations concerning the procedures and equipment involved in these practices. there is concern about these refrigerants. For CO 2 . Recovery is the removal of refrigerant from a system and storage in a container. Minerals that exist naturally in water can precipitate as solids and form scale that deposits on surfaces. The refrigerant must be tested to meet this standard. and boilers requires proper chemical treatment. CO2 is a product of all fuel combustion. For this reason. 13.

California. is required in winter? Useful Websites Information on selection and specification of refrigeration chillers and heat pumps can be found at the following Websites: www. Evaporating temperature is 45 F.rheem. South Carolina.mcquay.000 BTUlhr and the design cooling load is 40. if any.000 BTUlhr. Use multiple equipment on larger projects so that each operates close to full load more often. What size electric booster heater. Determine the heating COP. 4. 4.6 A heat pump is to be selected for summer and winter air conditioning of a home in Charleston. for a design cooling load of 46. Describe with a sketch the vapor compression refrigeration system. Condenser water enters at 90 F and leaves at 100 F.5 Determine the design cooling capacity and COP of the heat pump selected in Problem 13. Problems 13.3 Find the capacity.364 CHAPTER 13 maintaining satisfactory space conditions and satisfactory equipment performance. and COP of the unit selected in Problem 13.dunham-bush. Use some form of total energy system (such as combined steam turbine centrifugal-absorption machines).4. 3. 13. Explain what is meant by the term balance point of a heat pump.2 Select a package water chiller for a load of 21 tons. 8. What are the three types of condensers and their features? Describe three types of refrigerant flow devices. 13. The design heating load is 32. What are the causes of water loss in a cooling tower? 5.4 Select a heat pump for a home in Los Angeles. 13. Determine the COP of the unit. 7. Chiller and condenser fouling factors are 0.001. Describe two methods of controlling capacity of reciprocating compressors and of centrifugal compressors. 9. Virginia.2 if the condenser fouling factor is 0. Describe a heat pump defrost cycle. 11.1 Select an air-cooled condensing unit to handle a load of 15 tons of refrigeration for a bowling alley in Richmond. Select a heat pump adequate to handle the summer load. Describe with a sketch the air-to-air heat pump. 5. Find the COP of the unit. What are the four types of positive displacement compressors? Explain the difference between an open and hermetic compressor.com Review Questions I. 13.com www.000 BTUlhr. Use condenser heat for heating needs by recovering heat (Chapter 15). 3.000 BTUlhr and design heating load of 42. 10. Describe with a sketch the lithium bromide -water absorption refrigeration system. KW required. 13. 2. . 6.0005.com www. Chilled water is cooled from 5S to 44 F.

DDC. Explain the types of control action. is that they do not understand the basic principles and how to apply them. you will be able to: I. Identify and describe the elements of control systems with the aid of a diagram. electronic. Without these. 14. however. This by itself often will not enable the service technician to 365 . 7. Sketch control diagrams and describe the oPeration of some basic control systems. 6. 4. Explain the types of valve flow characteristics and damper arrangements. contractors. This is because most information focuses on hardware and how it is connected. The major reason few people know how to deal with controls. probably most designers. 3. the air conditioning system will not produce satisfactory conditions. 5. Explain the purposes of automatic controls. The HVAC controls must be designed and installed to fit the system and must function properly. It is true that modem controls are often somewhat involved and that some of the devices used are complex. Describe how-electric. and pneumatic controls function.1 UNDERSTANDING AUTOMATIC CONTROLS If asked to name the part of the HVAC system that they found most difficult to understand and work with. the body. 2. regardless of how physically healthy it is. Explain c1osed. would be a lifeless mass. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter.and open-loop controls.c H A p T E R Automatic Controls T he automatic controls for an HVAC system can be compared in importance and function with the brain and nervous system of a human. If not. and service people would list the automatic control system.

solar radiation. This type of control is called a safety control. or electronic. The heating and cooling capacity of the HVAC system is selected at the design load conditions. or similar variables in the equipment. however. Safety controls are of the utmost importance. This is true regardless of how large and complex the system is. the controls may be designed to open an outside air damper to provide fresh air. A controlled variable. our emphasis will be on the operating controls. Although controlling and maintaining conditions in the space are the primary function of the automatic controls. Acontroller. to limit the values of temperature. humidity) in the space. we will not "lose sight of the woods for the trees. One of the most important considerations in planning and operating a control system is based on its ability to minimize the use of energy at all times.3 THE CONTROL SYSTEM Reduce Human Labor Needed Controls reduce the amount of human labor needed to operate and maintain the system. If it produces its full output. the spaces will be overheated or overcooled. or pneumatic controls with equal ease. the system capacity is too large. thus reducing labor costs and the chances of errors. and from lights being switched on and off. occupancy. Maintain Design Conditions Controls maintain design conditions (temperature. DOC. Many of the energy conserving control applications are discussed in Chapter IS. reducing labor. Keep Equipment Operation at Safe Levels Controls keep operation 'of equipment at safe levels. Although hardware will be discussed. such as temperature. or pressure. For example. 14. 2. but some of these features will be discussed here. rather than have operating personnel do this manually. These principles can be applied to electric. as follows. Some controls serve a different purpose. Whenever the load (heat gain or loss) is less than the design value. It usually functions as a limiting device. The load varies mainly from changes in outdoor temperature. Controls that serve the purposes already described -maintaining space conditions. Safety controls have been discussed to some extent as part of the coverage of equipment in other chapters. electric. One way to study a control system is to see it as a collection of many control devices. humidity. the controls may automatically change the . electronic. This is a condition that is to be controlled. Although some further references to them will be made here. This' leads to little understanding. or conserving energy-are called operating controls.2 PURPOSES OF CONTROLS The controls can serve four different functions: amount of outside air introduced to the building so that free cooling is obtained from this air when suitable. For example. In this chapter. they serve other functions. a better approach is to recognize that every control system has similar elements." 14. The controls must regulate the heating or cooling output of the system to match that of the load. Often the same controls are providing all of these functions. pressure. we will emphasize the principles of control systems. This is a device that senses a signal from a change in the controlled variable and then transmits an action to a controlled device to correct the changed condition. and are part of the overall automatic control system.366 CHAPTER 14 determine the cause of a malfunctioning system. Nor will it enable the designer to plan the controls to suit the type of HVAC system. Every control system has 'the following elements: I. or whether it is pneumatic. thus preventing damage to property or injury to people. Minimize Energy Use and Costs Controls minimize energy use and costs.

Sketch a functional block control system diagram. 4. A change (drop) in this temperature results from the sudden increase in heat loss to the outdoors. and pressure-stats are examples of controllers. or the electric current of a motor. Figure 14. oil burner. Action I I I Controlled device . Control agent Process plant Change in controlled variable Feedback signal . The temperature controller (thermostat) is the student. Examples are water flowing through a valve. Examples are a cooling or heating coil. A process plant. This is the medium regulated by the controlled device. The process plant is the convector. fan.. damper.2).1 and 14. The outdoor temperature drops very suddenly. 5. He then transmits an action-turns the valve handle. A control agent. A controlled device. 6. fan. This is a device which.3. 4. 5. identify the elements. or the motor driving an oil burner. 2. or compressor. The sequence of action for any control can be shown by afunctional block control diagram (Figures 14. when receiving the action from the controller. The energy source for transmitting the action is the human muscle power. Power source I I Controller Input Signal I ~I ~ JJ I 0 <%) I&.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 367 3. Increased water flow rate results in more heat output from the convector to the room. Example 14. air through a damper. The control agent (medium) is the hot water. 6. regulates the flow or other effect of a control agent. The regulation of the control agent changes the output or operation of equipment called the process plant. A source of power. Opening the valve increases water flow rate through it. The controlled variable'is the room air temperature. Thermostats. causing a correction in the controlled variable conditionthe room air temperature rises. This provides the power to transmit the action from the controller to the controlled device. 3. or refrigeration compressor.. thus completing the desired action.I :/# '- ___ L_ . I. pump. The controlled device is the manual valve. Note that a controller has two functions-to sense a signal and to transmit an action based on the signal.1 A student is studying in a room that has a hot water heating convector with a manual valve. Examples of controlled devices are a valve.. Two examples are compressed air (pneumatic) and electrical power sources. humidistats. The change in performance of the process plant changes the condition of the controlled variable. His body senses the change in the controlled variable. Solution The block control diagram is shown in Figure 14. and explain the sequence of control action. pump. I~ !-. An example of a simple control system will help identify these terms and how the control sequence functions.1 Functional block diagram for a closed-loop (feedback) control system..

always correcting the value of the controlled variable. However. The result of the information being fed back is that the room air temperature changes were continually being corrected by the student. This is an example of feedback. In the manual control system described. : 'J? I!!:! I I~ ~ t f---. which leads to an important concept in controls.-- t I Transmitte action d Controlled device . The same events occur in an automatic control system. This is an example of a closed-loop control system.4 CLOSED-LOOP (FEEDBACK) AND OPENLOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS In Example 14.1 was of a manual control system.368 CHAPTER 14 Power source I Controller Input signal <%5 J I I I '- a. a thermostat senses the changed room air temperature and transmits an action.1 for the example of a room thermostat controlling the convector.1. or gradually.2 Functional block diagram for an open-loop (feed forward) control system. The sensor in the thermostat reacts to any change in the room temperature 14. The room temperature might rise to an uncomfortably high level. this problem is resolved. Students could resolve this by closing the valve. the controller (student) sensed the results of the corrective action (the rise in room temperature) and when this went beyond a satisfactory condition.1. (Controlled Hot water device) Convector (Process plant) (Controlled variabl e) Air temperature Feedback (student sensing) t:l ~I I . electrically operated valve on the convector. which is usually not very reliable or accurate. Muscle (Power) I ! i I I Air temperature (Input signal) Student (Controller) Adjust valve I ____ L __ J (Control Valve agent) . The functional control diagram for a real closed-loop system would be as shown in Figure 14. if the outdoor temperature increases. closing an electric circuit. no mention was made of what might occur after the valve was opened. This is the essence of most automatic controls. Example 14. For example. the student took an opposite corrective action. Feedback is the transmission of information about the results of an action back to the sensor. It might happen quickly if the valve is opened too much. Control agent Process plant Change in controlled variable Figure 14.3 Functional block control diagram for Example 14. for instance. We will now discuss how Figure 14. Note that the system will respond continuously to the feedback signal. An electric power source then opens an automatic. they might have little time left for studying.

not because he felt cold.2). If the controller has sensing and transmitting elements that are electronic. Pneumatic systems are popular because the controlled devices easily lend themselves to modulating action (Section 14. The controller regulates the amount of energy transmitted to the controlled device.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 369 (increase or decrease) and sets in motion the corrective action. as follows. however. Pneumatic control systems are often used in large installations. and they are simple. Low voltage control systems transform the power supply to low voltages (usually 24 volts) for control use. Self-powered controls are practical in certain applications. and easy to install. convenience. Electric control systems are often used on small installations because they are inexpensive. and self-powered controls may be used in one control system when desirable. because there is no feedback causing the action. The controller regu- . electronic. and copper or plastic tubing is used to transmit the air. Open-loop controls are used in automatic control systems in certain instances. The component control diagram is drawn the same regardless of type of energy source. it is also useful to prepare a component control diagram showing the connections between components of the control system and HVAC system. Combinations of electric. 14. The power is always transmitted electrically. A common example is the thermal expansion valve (TEV) refrigerant flow control. A dashed line is used to represent the control action. The choice depends on cost. Air compressors are required. The pressure actuates the valve (Chapter 13). and safety.5 ENERGY SOURCES Automatic control systems can be classified according to the source of energy they use. this would be a case of an open loop. A control system without feedback and its effect is called an open-loop (or feed forward) control system (Figure 14. Self-Powered No external source of energy is used. if he had decided to open the valve because he expected colder weather. Electric/Electronic Electric energy is used to actuate the controlled devices. Fluid in a bulb changes pressure in response to the temperature it senses.6 COMPONENT CONTROL DIAGRAM Although the functional block control diagram is helpful in understanding the operation of the control loop. which may come from one of a number of energy sources. The student does not know whether he is opening the valve a proper amount and does not provide any corrective action unless he returns to using his sensory feeling (feedback). In the example of the student who acted as a controller.4 is an example of the simple control system described earlier. Power to actuate the controlled devices comes from the medium being controlled. pneumatic. where a valve to a convector is controlled by a room thermostat. This is the only basic difference between electric and electronic control systems. however. as will be explained later. simple. but are generally not used for the whole control system. Line voltage control systems use electricity at the voltage from the power supply. usually 110 volts. An actual diagram showing all the wiring for an electric system would look much more complicated. This is usually accomplished by an enclosed fluid that will change pressure in response to a temperature change. Although it is necessary Pneumatic Compressed air is used as the source of energy to actuate the controlled devices.7). the system is called electric/electronic. Otherwise the system is called electric. or electronic for convenience. lates the air pressure transmitted to the controlled device. 14. The weakness of this type of control is apparent. Fig" ure 14. this simplifies reading and understanding the diagram.

Room thermostat controls position of valve.370 CHAPTER 14 I---------~ I I I Room thermostat ---+----DG~~---[~c~o~nv~e~ct~o~r]---~ Control'.69 = 4 F. the room temperature will fall to 70 . Example 14. In the system. the operating differential has been reduced. In effect.alve Figure 14. The operating differential is therefore 73 . if the controlled device is a motor. 14.. For example. The response lag is I F in either direction. For example. This can be reduced by building anticipation into the controller. shutting off the controlled device sooner and reducing overheating.4 able. As a resulr. the controlled device is still operated by a two-position type controller. we will use component control diagrams instead of detailed wiring or compressed air piping diagrams in our explanations. it may cause uncomfortable conditions. The thermostat high position (oft) setting is 70 + 2 = 72 F. classified as follows. when a thermostat causes a hot water heating valve to close.5 illustrates the solution. it may be started or stopped (on-oft) by the two-position controller. a situation called cycling or hunting. make it more difficult. It refers to the range of controlled variable values at which action takes place. For instance. i I.2 A heating thermostat is set to start an oil burner on a furnace at a room temperature of 70 F. it is said to have a differential of 2 F. The thermostat has a 2 F differential setting. they do not aid in understanding. Between what values does the room temperature vary? What is the operating differential? Solution Figure 14. there are two differentials: Timed Two-Position Control If the operating differential is too great. but on the contrary. Component control diagram. The controlled device is constructed so that it moves i Jl I . if a thermostat is set to move to one position at 70 F and the other position at 72 F. Operating differential is the range that actually occurs in the value of the controlled vari- Floating Action In floating action. the room temperature will rise to 72 + I = 73 F. the heater warms the tnermostat faster than the room air would. Similarly. Controlliif'differential is the range set on the control device of the variable values at which it transmits action to the controlled device. the convector keeps heating the room for a short time due to the hot water still in the unit.7 TYPES OF CONTROL ACTION There are different types of action that the controller can impart to the controlled device. a small heater may be contained in the thermostat. For that reason. to have detailed diagrams for each installation. 2. As soon as there is'a signal calling for heating. For example. Differential is a term of importance in twoposition control action. the heating or cooling equipment may cycle on and off too rapidly. This differential will often be greater than the controller differential setting because there is a lag in response of the controlled device and medium. With a lag of 1 F.1 = 69 F. If the controller differential is set too small. A control valve that moves only to a fully open or closed position is another example of two-position action. however.:the thermostat reaches its high setting earlier than it would otherwise. Two-Position Action This is also commonly called "on-off' action.

Throttling range is the amount of change in the controlled variable required to move the controlled device from one extreme limit of travel to the other (full open to full closed).2. The sensitivity of a controller is the relationship between changes in value of the control energy and the controlled variable.6.6 Proportional action control. the strength of the signal from the controller varies in proportion to the amount of change in the controlled variable.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 371 Q) :15_ -~ ~ <1l -o~ " >1ii Q) Q) - "o E . Offset is the difference between the set point and the control point. The relationships among these terms are shown graphically in Figure 14. a modulating hot water valve would partially open or close at a position corresponding to the strength of a signal calling for increased or decreased heating. The set point is the desired value of the controlled variable at which the controller is set to maintain. Proportional Action In proportional action. gradually between full open and closed.!=Q) --~-~~~~:~~!~~---I-~~::::gF ____________________l~a~ ___________ Time ___________________ d~~~e. For example. a pneumatic Figure 14. The controlled device in tum moves proportionally to the signal strength. because the response is proportional to the needs. ~~--------~~--------------------. The term proportional band of a controller also means its throttling range. The control point is the actual value of the controlled variable which the controller is maintaining at any given time. This type of action can provide much finer response to load changes than the two position types described previously.~i~ (2 F) differential (4 F) o c O- -----69F Figure 14. The signal from the power source moves the operating part of the controlled device in one direction. There is a neutral zone (also called dead zone) in which no signal is transmitted.~ Q) Control point t ~ e C Time Throttling range 8~------------------------------L-- . There are some important terms used in proportional control that need to be defined. It is also called drift or deviation. as in Example 14. not an all-or-nothing response.5 Two-position control action.-. leaving the controlled device "floating" in an intermediate position until a new signal is received. Proportional-type controllers and control devices are both required. For example. taking a fixed intermediate position at a point relative to the change in the variable.

the desirability of control action proportional to the load changes is achieved without the disadvantage of large offset. continual opening and closing of outside doors with a thermostat located in the room). as will be explained now. the control point is changed automatically back toward the set point. the air conditioning load usually changes slowly in a large building. due to its type of construction.. perhaps due to sudden and frequent load changes (e. Stability and Hunting It may seem from the discussions that PI or PID control action is always the most desirable. Consider what happens when the controlled variable is changing very rapidly. The speed of response of a reset-type device is usually not very fast. _ An example of a good application of PI control action is the chilled water temperature controller on a large water chiller. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PI D) Action This type of control has the same features as PI action plus one more feature. These wide and rapid swings are called hunting. Furthermore. When an offset occurs. Close control of chilled water temperature (small offset) is desirable. " :g . Proportional plus reset action is also called proportional-integral (PI) action.372 CHAPTER 14 controller might have a sensitivity of 1 psi per degree F. the sensitivity should be set to the maximum possible that does not cause hunting-large and continuous changes in the controlled variable. for starting or stopping equipment. reset action is desirable. The sensitivity of most controllers can be adjusted in the field to provide best control. PID control is sometimes used in room thermostats. the large mass of chilled water also reduces the rate of Proportional Plus Reset (PI) Action This type of control combines proportional action with a reset feature. The controller will be signaling rapidly for control action. First.~ Control paint -------- -----------s~~~~----f-Throttling range ~ 8 --___________________________t__ Time e _______ '-_-" _--l . it may not be able to respond quickly enough. This is definitely not so. This means that a change of I F in the controlled variable will change the transmitted supply pressure to the controlled device by 1 psi. thus savmg energy. However. Figure 14. reset may cause instability.g. Shortening the amount of time of offset can reduce the amount of overheating or overcooling. An important feature of a control system is its ability to maintain the control variable at a reasonably steady value. if PI control action is used. because this results in good control of space temperature and humidity. The reset is accomplished by using floating action with proportional action. it should be compared with the previous diagrams. Generally speaking. PI control is not desirable in HVAC systems where the controlled variable changes rapidly.7 shows how the controlled variable behaves with proportional plus reset. For instance. the amount of offset is reduced. control point is moved back to the set point is part of the control action. With proportional plus reset control. Under certain conditions. The rate at which the Figure 14. the proper type of control action depends on the job to be accomplished. That is. The controlled variable will swing widely in value and the control system will become unstable. The effect of this is that the time during which there is offset is shortened. Unfortunately. a twoposition control is the only suitable one. but a small offset could cause hunting. Therefore. This is called stability.7 Proportional plus reset action (PI) control.

9 Remote thermostat with fluid-filled bulb-type sensor. it is called an immersion thermostat. This is a thin wire whose electrical resistance changes with temperature.8). When the sensing bulb is attached directly to the control element. One type of humidity sensing element uses two different materials attached together that absorb water vapor at different rates. Another type of sensor uses a bulb filled with a fluid (Figure 14. it is called a remote ther· mostat. much like a bimetal temperature sensor. Inc. The metals change lengths at different rates when their temperature changes. When a long capillary tube connects the senFigure 14. This sensor is usually inserted in a duct or pipe. thus bending or moving. forcing a bending of the element (Figure 14. Another type of temperature sensor is called a resistance element. A bimetal element sensor is made of two attached strips of different metals. 14. Pressure controllers are also called pressurestats. The bimetallic sensing element is used often in room thermostats. Humidity controllers are also called hl/midistats.11). Figure 14.9). and this pressure acts to move a diaphragm or bellows. The variables most often requiring control in HVAC systems are temperature.8 Bimetal temperature sensor-bends with temperature change. Temperature controllers are also called thermostats. accessible place than might otherwise be possible. It is applicable to both room type and remote thermostats.) sor to the control element. pressure. humidity. and flow. Therefore. Changes in temperature cause the fluid pressure to change. (Courtesy: Honeywell.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 373 change of water temperature. The bimetal strip may be straight or arranged in other shapes (see Figure 14. Numerous types of sensing elements for thermostats are available.8 CONTROLLERS As mentioned previously. The sensing element is often an open tube connected directly to the fluid where pressure is to . This allows location of the control in a more convenient. proportional plus reset action can be used without causing instability. the controller serves two functions: to sense the controlled variable signal and to transmit an action to the controlled device as a result of the signal.

which may result in damage to electrical equipment in the circuit. The sensing mechanism tips the tube so that the mercury either completes or breaks the electrical circuit through the electrodes. it must be transmitted by another part of the controller.Bimetal element Bimetal elements usually move slowly.. There are various means of achieving this. Figure 14. The mercury switch has the advantage over open contacts of being enclosed.12). as shown in the thermostat in Figure 14. It may also result IU bounce or chatter of the contacts. An electrical relay is a device that closes or opens one electrical circuit when a signal is received from another electric circuit. incr electrical resistance so that the signal is creasin b . After the signal is sensed by the controller sensing element. A glass tube filled with liquid mercury has two electrodes inserted in it (Figure 14. It may be used with controllers when the signal circuit is at a low voltage and the controlled device is to be operated with a high voltage. r-- Wire leads . An enclosed mercury switch is often used instead of open electric contacts.. A relay is an auxiliary device that is often used with controllers and in other parts of a control circuit.374 CHAPTER 14 Bimetal spiral be controlled. Often the signal is also amplified in order to be strong enough to operate the controlled device. The transmitting element is called a bridge. . I .10 Thermostat with open electric contacts to transmit signal. A coil in the low voltage circuit acts as a magnet when electrically energized. One type of relay uses a solenoid (Figure 14. where the contacts open and close quickly. When the bimetal element bends from temperature change. Flow controllers often use pressure as a sensing signaL The velocity of the fluid where flow is to be controlled is converted to a static pressure by a sensing element such as pitot tube. which could increase the resistance of the electrical contacts. resulting in a slow closing and opening of the electrical contacts. or a mechanical-type linkage. An electric transmitter may consist simply of two electric contacts that are connected to the controlled device. One way is to use a magnet that pulls the contacts quickly. electronic. This may cause pitting of the contacts..11). ~_ Contacts + . The transmitting element may be electric. which is an electric circuit arranged to deliver a voltage proportional to the signaL This voltage is very small and is therefore amplified afterward. or moisture. One type of electric/electronic controller uses a resistance sensing element. it closes or opens an electrical circuit that operates the controlled device..10.11 Thermostat with closed electric contacts in mercuryfilled tube-sensor is spiral-shaped bimetal element. since the circuit opens and closes many more times than normaL This problem is resolved by causing snap actiol! of the contacts. 1 \ t \ Close I and open 1 1 1 Figure 14. dust. not transmitted properly. The fluid pressure may act on a diaphragm or bellows. This type of device is suitable for proportional controL . or pneumatic.. and this signal is used to control flow. and therefore is not subject to dirt. A mercury switch also acts relatively fast and is therefore considered snap action.

it will still control at 74 F. Solid state devices have become very popular for many applications in control systems. The obvious use of this is to conserve energy. For example. the control temperature is set back to conserve energy. A summer-winter thermostat is a dualtemperature thermostat like a day-night type. Pneumatic controllers have the desirable feature of being inherently proportional-type devices. A day-night thermostat is actually two thermostats in one. some air bleeds out and the pressure in the main line decreases."~~ ~ ~ Air to . Bleed nozzle Bimetal flapper / Control air supply ~ =-=::=====A=d=ju='(J=m]:. It may be controlled manually or by the outdoor temperature. This might be used to have an outdoor thermostat reset the control point of a thermostat controlling the hot water temperature in a heating system..controlled device .12). The magnetized iron core pulls a contact armature. increased reliability.13). This reduces the pressure transmitted to the controlled device. This arrangement is called a bleed-type controller. Solid state relays use semiconductors to transmit the signal from the control circuit to the operating circuit. Solenoid-type electrical relay. If the occupant sets the control temperature at 80 F. With pneumatic controls. A nonbleed-type arrangement is also often used. with two different set points. The opposite happens when the signal moves the flap toward the opening.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 375 Spring High voltage ~ CIrcUIt ~ #( Motion of contactor Ill! Low voltage circuit is. which varies with the flapper position. it may be constructed so that the maximum heating set point is 74 F. The amount of air pressure. some of the control air is bled off from the control circuit. and rapid action. causing a changed action. closing contacts in the high voltage circuit. a pneumatic transmitting element adjusts the air pressure that is supplied to the controlled device. the signal from the sensor moves a flapper that covers the opening to a branch of the tube carrying the control air (Figure 14. That Figure 14. compactness.12 Special Purpose Thermostats A limiting thermostat has a built-in maximum or minimum setting of the set point. Figure 14. varies the position of the controlled device. It is usually controlled by a time clock. They have the advantages of no moving parts. It has the advantage of not using as much compressed air. This control function is called reset control (see Section 14. As the flapper moves away from the opening. At night or on weekends.13 Operation of pneumatic thermostat (bleed-type). In one type. A master-submaster thermostat arrangement is where one (master) thermostat controls and changes the set point of another (sub master) thermostat.

bellow5. The difference in performance is shown in Figure 14. L v a l v e . Two-way valves are used to vary flow rate to the heating or cooling equipment by throttling. . 8-10 F) within which the thermostat does not call for heating or cooling. However. Mixing and diverting valves can also be used to control capacity by varying water temperature instead of quantity (Figure 14. the output does not change as much with flow rate variation as it does with water temperature.. 14. For this reason. When heat is called for. and motors are examples of controlled devices in HVAC systems. A quick opening valve is used when almost full flow must occur even with a small change in the controlled variable.18). The operator for pneumatic valves is either a diaphragm.15 Use of three-way valves to control flow rate. and equal percentage.14). The equal percentage valve is usually best for automatic control of water flow rate in coils because more variation in flow rate can be achieved for a g1\'en movement of valve stroke than can be achie\'ed with the other types. In this application. while still maintaining the same total flow rate.14 Three-way valves. This results in better modulation of heating or cooling capacity. It is used.17. or -~ j (~'-::-::-COil-J Mixing valve Cf--- ~ _ C O i l = D + i : e J ~ ) j .376 CHAPTER 14 • Mixing valve • Diverting valve Figure 14. as shown in Figure 14. since considerable throttling of the water flow rate is required to reduce capacity. A diverting valve has one inlet and two outlets. dampers. Modulating electric valves use a motor as a valve operator that moves the valve stem gradually in response to the signal. for example. When a smaller range of throtding capacity is required. flow rate control with a two-way valve is usually less expensive. with an outside air preheat coil. Mixing and diverting valves can also be used to vary flow rates through the unit. the valve should open wide to prevent freezing of the steam in the coil. water temperature control is often preferred. Three-way valves are either of the mixing or diverting type (Figure 14. Control valves may be either two. supply water from the boiler and return water are mixed to provide water at the desired temperature.or three-way devices. The capacity of a heating or cooling coil can be changed either by varying the water flow rate or the Figure 14. Val\'es are classified into three groups: quick opening. and thus is often used on room lerminal units. This may result in significant energy savings in some applications. l c . relays. temperature. A dead band thermostat has a wide differential band (e.9 CONTROLLED DEVICES Valves.15. A mixing valve has two inlets and one outlet. linear.g. a linear flow valve is adequate. On the other hand. Valves have three different characteristics concerning how the flow varies with valve stroke: this depends on the shape of the valve opening.16). Two-position electrically operated valves U5e a solenoid to move the valve stem to an open or closed position in response to the signal (Figure 14.

As with valves.19). The opposed blade arrangement will give better modulation of air flow rate. Two arrangements are available. or terminal units. Electric motors are used for modulating dampers in electric control systems..AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 377 Mixing valve I HW I HW boiler Diverting valve boiler Figure 14.17 Flow characteristics of control valves. / solenoid Wire leads ~valve ~ . Automatic dampers are used as controlled devices for varying air flow. piston that responds to pressure and moves the valve stem (Figure 14. parallel or opposed blade (Figure 14. There are other auxiliary devices used in control systems that will not be discussed here. This is why our approach in this chapter up until now has not been merely to describe control systems. and pistons or diaphragms are used as damper operators in pneumatic systems.18 0. " o ~ Two-position solenoid electric valve. but instead has focused on principles. the pump or fan. or for bypassing (diverting) air. they are of multiblade construction. Parallel blade dampers should be used only for two-position (open-closed) control.16 Use of three-way valves to control supply water temperature.10 CHOICE OF CONTROL SYSTEMS There are countless choices and arrangements of controls for HVAC systems. 100. "'" u " '" moo 0"0 75 50 Figure 14. a description of them will not add to our understanding of control principles. 14. the burner or compressor Figure 14. mixing air.LLc_ Percent of full valve stroke ~ ~ J . There is a choice of from where to control the HVAC system. Except for very small sizes. Control can be provided at the heating/cooling source. For example. Although they are of practical importance.------. the purpose is usually to vary heating or cooling capacity of the equipment. 25 _.----~----~~~~ - a: "e '>='" =:s :> '" '" '0 ~ -a.20). We will now look at some examples of how controls are used.

In Figure 14. the thermostat opens or closes a valve in the gas supply line. with the room thermostat mounted on the unit. ) I t • ~ f . there are choices as to what controlled variable to use for control-the space. the medium. In addition to selecting which part of the HVAC system is to be controlled. the space air is the final temperature being controlled. Control can also be provided by varying air or water flow rates using dampers or val ves.20 '" '" / Multiblade damper arrangements. Larger systems usually have more complex controls to provide better control and to conserve energy. Safety controls are also required and are part of· the control system. 14. is a high-limit thermostat. Examples will be described later. however.19 Modulating pneumatic valve.378 CHAPTER 14 ~ ~ xt 0 Parallel ''"" '" Opposed Figure 14.21 Space control of refrigeration compressor motor. This is the type of control used on a window unit. On many systems. CD I Compressor I L----r{] t l ~ t cl . On many systems. or outdoor air. a safety control that shuts off the burner when the water rises above a set temperature. Not shown.) can be started-stopped or modulated. (Courtesy: Honeywell. and it would therefore seem obvious that control should be here. additional control is provided from thermostats sensing outdoor air or the cooling! heating fluid medium. . A similar arrangement for a hot water boiler is shown in Figure 14. Inc. In a gas-fired boiler.11 CONTROL FROM SPACE TEMPERATURE Control of Burner or Compressor A simple control arrangement is to have a room thermostat control an oil or gas burner or a refrigeration compressor. The student should note that 5ystems have safety controls that are not fully dis~ussed here. a combination of these is used. It is the desire to provide better control and to conserve energy that often determines the choices made.21. Figure 14. but always required. using a room thermostat. a room thermostat T starts and stops a refrigeration compressor motor M of an air conditioning unit.22. Figure 14. The room thermostat T starts and stops the oil burner motor in response to room air temperature. Of course.

Space control of HW boiler burner motor or gas valve.26). A warm air furnace would use a similar control. thus varying the heating or cooling output. chilled water.23 Space control of water flow rate through terminal unit or coil in duct. or refrigerant to a terminal unit or coil in a duct (Figure 14. as seen in Figure 14. it is used in combination for certain purposes that will be explained. from a minimum fresh air requirement to all outside air. However.23) using automatic valves.12 CONTROL FROM OUTDOOR AIR Although the outdoor air temperature rather than space temperature could be used to control space temperature. 14. Control of Flow Rate Through Valves A room thermostat may be used to vary the flow of hot water. This control is used in variable air volume (VAV) systems.25). HW boiler Oil burner motor orgas valve Figure 14.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 379 Control of Mixing Dampers A room thermostat varies the proportions of hot and cold air from two ducts (Figure 14. 2·way valve -r : ~-----0 Terminal unit I Coil • • ~ -- . This is done so that the outside air can be used for cooling when suitable. because it does not provide feedback. 0----.24. This arrangement is used in both dual duct and multizone systems (Chapter 12). Two sets of dampers move together so that one closes as the other opens on call from the thermostat.22 Control of Face and Bypass Dampers The quantity of air flowing over the cooling coil or bypassed around the coil is varied by the opposing motion of the two dampers (Figure 14. Control of Outside and Return Air Proportions Controls on larger systems are often used to vary amounts of outside air. Figure 14. Control may be provided from a mixed air Control of Volume Dampers The room thermostat varies the supply air quantity by controlling a modulating damper D. this is seldom done. as explained previously.

24 -- Space control of air flow rate through damper. the outside air (OA) and return air (RA) dampers are modulated to provide cooling from the outside air whenever it is suitable. this system is called ecol!omi~er control. not its temperature. The minimum outside air damper is open during the coldest weather.. When the outdoor air temperature rises to a level at which it has no cooling effect (near room temperature).25 Space control of mixing dampers for multizone and dual duct systems. both conserving energy.29). thermostat that adjusts the outside and return air dampers to provide cool outside air when required.380 CHAPTER 14 . and therefore enthalpy. :b) Dual duct and mixing box. For these reasons.1 (i)-_m~:m'" moO. (a) Multizone unit.!j----l ~ o C C o / To zone " Mixing dampers To zone Cooling coil (a) (b) I I I " I~. as seen in Figure 14. of the outside air may be low enough so that it is useful for cooling.28). thermostat T2 takes over and closes the maximum outside air damper. An immersion thermostat T2 controls the boiler water temperature at its set point through the burner motor.. When outdoor air temperature rises. Controlling these dampers saves operating the refrigeration equipment and also prevents the introduction of excess outside air at high temperatures. ~ . There are days when the humidity. Figure 14. Thermostat Tl operates through a highlimit thermostat T2 .•. As the outdoor temperature rises.. it may reset the water temperature in a boiler (Figure 14. is lower than that of the return air. The controller senses wet bulb tem- perature and therefore enthalpy of the outside and· return airstreams and sets the air proportion so that outside air is used for cooling whenever its enthalpy. Outdoor Temperature Reset A control arrangement that is sometimes included as part of the control system is to have an outdoor thermostat reset (change) the temperature at which a variable is controlled. For example. An arrangement that will offer even better energy conservation uses an enthalpy controller (Figure 14. Heating coil <. mixed air thermostat Tl gradually opens maximum outside air dampers and closes return air dampers to provide outside air in the range of 50-60 F. even though its temperature does not indicate this. D /Damper / " / Figure 14.27. Whether using temperature or enthalpy sensing.

AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 381 ®/ V /' 1------0 1 Bypass damper ing. Min. In the examples described previously. The thermostat modulates the compressor capacity to maintain a constant chilled water temperature. Return air . This is often done on large chilled water HVAC systems. _____ j£J" /" / . Another reason for medium control is that faster response may be achieved by controlling the supply air or water temperature. A water chiller has a refrigeration compressor whose capacity is controlled by an immersion thermostat in the chilled water supply line.13 CONTROL FROM HEATING/COOLING MEDIUM It is often advantageous to control equipment from controllers sensing the conditions in the heating or cooling medium.31. Duct thermostat T.30 operates in a similar manner. Outdoor thermostat T./ ------- T2 0 /' ----I 1 Outside air - Max. outdoor thermostat T.. Another example is shown in Figure 14. Face damper Figure 14. the hot water supply temperature is inversely proportional to the outside temperature. The methods by which compressor capacity is modulated are discussed in Chapter 13. Further space control might be furnished through variable volume or other means. - . In these examples.-------- ! . is the master thermostat and T2 is the submaster thermostat. with separate space control of water flow rate. resets the control point of T2 to reduce overheat- Figure 14. medium control is useful because it is desirable to keep the chilled water temperature at a constant value in order to ensure proper dehumidification. "/' "/' ""/' L---==r"------Mixed air T. controls the air supply temperature to the space through the automatic valve. ""- /' 0 C "/' - 14. such as water flow rate. resets the control point of T2 lower. This of course also results in energy conservation. The duct heating system in Figure 14. the immersion and duct thermostats are controlled from water and sllPply air temperatures.26 Space control of face and bypass dampers. In this way. T. In this application. and overheating in mild weather is reduced. The system usually also includes additional control from space temperature.27 Outdoor temperature control of outside and return air dampers for energy conservation.

An example of a control system for a single zone year-round air conditioning system is shown in Figure 14. One arrangement is shown in Figure 14. the thermostat operates the reheat coil.28 Enthalpy control of outside and return air dampers for energy conservation. . humidity. The psychrometrics of this process are explained in Chapter 7. and medium control are used. however. further energy is conserved. The cooling coil is controlled by the room thermostat as long as room humidity is below the humidistat setting. winter days. The controls operate as follows: I.--1 :0 \ / \ / \ / 0 ""/' /' Outside air -Max. the humidistat takes control of the cooling coil.33. In this case. Often. The cooling coils are often used for both cooling and dehumidifying in a cooling system. By stopping the pump automatically when no heating is needed.29 Outdoor reset of water temperature. combinations of space.This may be done because controls of temperature. some form of reheating after cooling is used. 4. HW boiler Mixed air Figure 14. overheating of rooms is avoided.: By reducing water supply temperature on mild. The outdoor thermostat shuts off the pump when the outdoor temperature rises to a value that requires no building heating. The outdoor thermostat T2 resets the control point of thennostat T J as the outdoor temperature varies. 3.34. 2.14 HUMIDITY CONTROL For humidification in heating systems. outdoor. Min. Two examples of possible control system arrangements will be described. It operates as follows: . The immersion (medium) thermostat T J controls the hot water supply temperature through the burner operation. If the room temperature becomes too low. When the humidity rises above the control point. A hot water heating control system with individually controlled rooms or zones is shown in Figure 14.15 COMPLETE CONTROL SYSTEMS One of the individual temperature control arrangements described previously may serve as the complete control system in a simple heating or cooling· system. or to provide closer control. but no humidity control.J 14. The HVAC system provides summer and winter space temperature control and ventilation. -- "L "/' -- Figure 14.382 CHAPTER 14 Return air Enthalpy controller l -. "and ventilation are all required. Room thermostats T3 control the terminal unit valves to maintain desired space temperatures. Steam or water spray humidifiers located in the ductwork are used.32. This control system provides good temperature control and also conserves energy. calling for cooling. a space humidistat controls a humidifier. providing greater comfort and less energy use. 14. It may also be done to conserYe energy.

} water I. 1-------------------. l-------------r-----------r---I : ~ V g v : @ 0 - V C C ..AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 383 1-----------------Heating coil I I I I ~~ _____ J I I I Fan T2 H C I Figure 14. During the heating season. 2. The air discharge thermostat T J controls the cooling coil (summer) or heating coil (winter) to regulate discharge air temperature.32 Space temperature and humidity control of cooling and heating coils. - J . Figure 14. minimum outside air is used. I I I Compressor : I I Chiller Chilled f----<Figure 14.'j'. The enthalpy controller (or a temperature controller) positions the return air and maximum outside air dampers so that maximum free cooling is achieved during the cooling season.'j'.31 Control of chilled water temperature. H C ..30 Outdoor reset of supply air temperature.

3. A summer-winter room thernostat might be used to control at two different oom temperatures. In each case. I I - - ----T---. The use of :nthalpy control to conserve energy has been exllained previously. . Using the room thermostat to control the discharge thermostat provides faster response of the . The use of digital microcomputers in HVAC control systems has changed this control sequence. The room thennostat T2 acts as a master controller to the submaster T]. the room thermostat resets the control point of the discharge thermostat. The scheme using computers is called direct digital control (DOC). conventional controllers are not used. There are hundreds of other rrangements.---------I . they are com- posed of the basic elements and. We will outline the basic operation and a few advantages of DOC.33 Hot water heating control system example.384 CHAPTER 14 ~ I r--~ Ter~inal '(. In response to a change in room temperature. avoiding the complex tenninology and structure of DOC systems.---@ I I I ---T-----------~ I I I I I I I boiler Figure 14. with a little patience. . In DOC. the student can analyze their operations.---@ I I .34 ear-round air conditioning control system example. however. [!]~ \ / \ / "/ lEJr_r4/ ""- ~ ~ Fin t- v C C ~--~ ~ I I t I Q H C 2- S- f U . the conventional control arrangement is to have each controller sense a signal and then send an action directly to a controlled device.ystem to changes in room temperature. Direct Digital Control (DOC) As we have learned. These examples are given to illustrate how concols can be combined.Y umts . A sensor igure 14.

describe the two types of multiblade damper arrangements. 19.g. a valve) as needed. With the aid of a sketch. control point. describe a mixing valve and a diverting valve. What are the applications of each type? With the aid of a' sketch. With the aid of a sketch.. 14. Explain controller differential and operating differential and why they are different. 10. This signal is also usually conditioned so that it is suitable for the controlled device. but achieves some important advantages. 16. rather than relying on many pieces of hardware and their connections that can get out of calibration and break down. What are the proper applications of each type? With the aid of a sketch. Explain the terms set point. Draw a functional block control diagram and identify the elements. With the aid of a sketch. 13. With the aid of a sketch. describe the three types of flow characteristics of control valves. With the aid of a sketch. 14. and throttling range. offset.g. describe the control of a multizone unit mixing dampers from space temperature. describe temperature economizer control of outside and return air dampers.) The computer then sends out a signal to operate the controlled device (e. 3.2 A three-way mixing valve on a water chiller is controlled by an immersion thermostat to . Label and describe basic elements. Sketch the piping connections of a mixing valve and a diverting valve to control flow rate through a coiL 17. Explain the purposes of automatic controL Sketch a functional block control diagram for an open-loop and for a closed-loop system. What is its purpose? II. 15. Review Questions I. set points) can be made at one central point (the computer) instead of having to be done at each controller. describe proportional plus reset control action. 2. describe proportional control action. Explain what a dead band thermostat is. With the aid of a sketch. and two ways of accomplishing it. describe a hot water heating system control with individual room temperature control and outdoor reset of supply water temperature. 20. 9. describe twoposition control action. 4. What are the two most common energy sources for control systems? With the aid of a sketch... describe space temperature and humidity control of a cooling and heating coiL With the aid of a sketch. 8. With the aid of a sketch. Energy conservation strategies are easily handled in the computer program. Problems 14. describe the control of a boiler burner from space temperature. describe outdoor rest control of HW boiler supply temperature. With the aid of a sketch. 7. This sequence is complex even in our simplified explanation. 18. Explain the term snap action. (The signal from the sensor is usually conditioned by intermediate devices so that it is in a form that the computer can understand. 6.g. 5. With the aid of a sketch. Describe tnree types of thermostat sensors. This results in improved conditions and reduced operation and maintenance work.AUTOMATIC CONTROLS 385 transmits the sensed signal (e.1 A warm air heating system has a room thermostat that controls the furnace oil burner motor. its purpose. describe a yearround single zone air conditioning system that controls space temperature with economizer control for energy conservation. 12. Control changes (e. temperature) to the computer.

A duct thermostat in the supply airstream maintains a minimum discharge air temperature. 14.5 A cooling thermostat is set to control flow through a fan coil unit at a room temperature of 78 F. Draw a functional block control diagram and identify the elements. A room thermostat opens a two-position solenoid val ve at minimum load and then modulates the face and bypass dampers. ~ . :~ maintain constant chilled water temperature..3 A room thermostat controls a two-way modulating valve to a hot water heating coil in a central air conditioning unit. Between what values does the room temperature vary? What is the operating differential? .~ .4 An air conditioning system has a DX cooling coil with face and bypass dampers. The thermostat has a 2 F differential setting. Draw a component control diagram. Draw a component control diagram.386 CHAPTER 14 I. The response lag is 2 F. 14. 14.

Determine the efficiency. and operation. OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter. Some of the energy recovery equipment that has become popular will be described. In this chapter. installation. and new ideas are constantly developing. This requires a thorough analysis of energy use and conservation in HVAC design. our presentation can cover only a small part of this subject. I Some of the energy material covered in other chapters may be repeated here.c H A p T E R Energy Utilization and Conservation n the past. This is done intentionally so that all of the information is presented together. Determine the seasonal heating requirements and fuel costs for a building using the degree day method. little attention was usually given to conserving the energy used by HVAC systems because of the relatively low cost of fuel. or energy efficiency ratio (EER) of energy conversion equipment: 3. It should also be noted that energy use and conservation in HVAC systems are closely related to energy use in lighting and other building systems. The use of computers as a tool in analyzing these problems will be discussed. you will be able to: 1. Costs for energy used in building operations have become such a significant expense that it is necessary that they be kept to a minimum level. On the other hand. Calculate thermal energy conservation values as specified in energy codes. 387 2. The intention of this chapter is to give the student an idea of how to approach the problem of energy conservation in an organized manner to indicate what factors should be considered. we will explain procedures for analyzing energy use. and how to find this information. and efficiency in operation. Our discussion of these subjects will also be limited. energy conservation in design. The scope of techniques for energy conservation is vast. COP. l I . Sharply rising fuel prices and concerns of shortages have changed this situation.

The purpose of our presentation is to show the student the approaches used in sound HVAC energy efficient design. A. 6. Table 15. We will describe the type of calculation procedures involved in the prescriptive method. roof/ceiling. BTUlhr-ff-F Ao = total area of exterior wall. or floor. Actual codes and standards specify different . contractor. roof/ceiling. ered a system whose thermal performance must meet the prescribed standards. or floor Ug = U-value of glass = area of glass Ud = U-value of door Ag Ad = area of door The Uo-values are calculated for a proposed construction and then compared to the allowable values. C. Describe uses of computers in