United Nations



United Nations New York, 2003


Foreword Waste-water treatment is becoming ever more critical due to diminishing water resources, increasing waste-water disposal costs, and stricter discharge regulations that have lowered permissible contaminant levels in waste streams. The treatment of waste-water for reuse and disposal is particularly important for ESCWA countries, since they occupy one of the most arid regions in the world. The municipal sector consumes significant volumes of water, and consequently generates considerable amounts of waste-water discharge. Municipal waste-water is a combination of water and water-carried wastes originating from homes, commercial and industrial facilities, and institutions. The present study comprises a comprehensive survey of the various methods and technologies currently used in waste-water treatment, with emphasis on municipal waste-water. The study also addresses the management of treated effluents, including approaches to their reuse and disposal. Case studies of selected ESCWA member countries are presented, highlighting their prevalent water usage, and hence their need for efficient waste-water treatment systems. By incorporating state-of-theart methodologies into their waste-water treatment facilities, ESCWA member countries can significantly reduce water consumption and cut treatment and disposal costs. Studying the economics of different wastewater treatments is an essential pre-requisite to the identification of cost-effective solutions. This study devotes an entire chapter to comparison of the costs associated with the installation and operation of wastewater treatment facilities.


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........................................................ Application of treatment methods ................................. D..................................CONTENTS Foreword ............................................................................................... Application in the waste-water treatment plant ................................................................... Economics of sludge treatment........................................ Effluent guidelines and standards.................................................................................................................. Egypt .................... C................................. Chapter I.... Effluent reclamation and reuse ............................................................................................................................... II............ Lebanon ........................................................................................................................................... C................................................... Artificial intelligence........... Economics of membrane and ion exchange systems.......................... F................................................... Kuwait .......................................................................................... ECONOMICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT ................................................................................................................................ B...................................................................... C............................... Jordan ......... A............ MANAGEMENT OF TREATED EFFLUENT.................................................................. VI.................................. C.................................... NATURE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER .................. A.............. Economics of effluent and sludge reclamation and reuse ...... V..... Conclusions ......................................................................................... Control systems ........................................... E...................................................................................................................... New directions....................................................................... Economics of effluent treatment................................................................... Waste-water treatment methods ................................................................... v .. The water treatment cost estimation process ....................... WASTE-WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES ....................................................................................................................................................... A.................... H......................................................................................................................... E.................................................................................... B............................................. Abbreviations and acronyms ....................................................................................................... B................. Sludge treatment and disposal .............................................................. Economics of effluent discharge ..................... B........................................................................................................................................ Data display readout ............................. Effluent disposal........................................................................................................ A...... B........................................................................... Measuring devices ......................... G.................................................................... WASTE-WATER TREATMENT IN SELECTED ESCWA COUNTRIES ...................................... IV..................................... A..................................................................................... H............................... Economics of natural water treatment systems . New directions and concerns................................. E................... C....... Data acquisition systems ...... D.. G....................... Introduction ................................................................................. Signal-transmitting devices ... Yemen .................... INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IN WASTE-WATER TREATEMENT FACILITIES ............ F.............................. D................................................................ New directions and concerns...................................... D...................... E................................................. Natural treatment systems ............................................................... Page iii ix 1 2 5 5 21 22 27 37 40 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 55 65 67 69 71 74 77 79 79 81 83 85 86 III.............................................. D.........................................

...... Cost comparison of IX versus RO-IX for 50 and 200 m3 .. Costs of anaerobic treatment ...................................................... 2......................................................................................... Types and applications of stabilization ponds.............. Basic flow equalization processes.................................................... Artificial intelligence systems... 39............. 37................................ 28......... 38................................................................. 32.......... Levels of costs estimates .............................................. LIST OF TABLES 1.............................................................. Typical constructions and O&M costs for selected NTSs ...... Benefits of instrumentations and control systems in waste-water treatment ............. 33................ USEPA NPDES and ECEDR for discharges from waste-water treatment plants............... 3..... 16.......................................... Construction and O&M costs of various sludge treatment plants.................................................................. 6........................................................................................................................................................................................... Waste-water disposal methods currently practised in Jordan...................... Sludge treatment cost per ton of dry matter ................................ Characteristics of waste-water treatment plants in Jordan ...... 31..................................................... Sludge incineration methods ............................................. Standard capital cost algorithm . Estimate of staff requirements for 50 and 5 mgd water treatment plants.............................................. Treatment plants scheduled to be upgraded. 42...... 29................ expanded.............. 11...... Waste-water discharge quality in Yemen......... Common anaerobic digesters ......... 4......................... Mechanisms of removal of waste-water constituents by SR systems . 30....................................... Advantages and disadvantages of aerobic sludge digestion........................ and sludge characteristics affecting cost ....................................... Payback periods for nickel................. chemical precipitation....... 8...................................................... Costs of various artificial recharge schemes in India (US$/m3)................................................................................ Characteristics of common disinfecting agents........ Annualized unit costs (USD/m3) for waste-water treatment plant of varying capacities ......................CONTENTS (continued) VII............................................................. Cost comparison of different policies (US$ per pound of phosphorus removed) ................................................... Aerobic composting systems.............. 22. 15.................................................... 26........................................... Comparative costs of zero-liquid effluent technologies................ 17. Typical composition of untreated domestic waste-water ................. 36......................................... 41.................................................................................. 14.......................................................................... Types of sludge drying beds........................................................................................................... 10........ 9............ Estimated capital and O&M costs for an activated sludge plant............................................. Cost comparison of various RO membrane systems............................... Important contaminants in waste-water ........... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................... Standard operation and maintenance cost factor breakdown ............ 35................. 24................... and built... Removal efficiency of plain sedimentation vs....... 20.......................................... 21................ Variations in waste-water flow within a community .................. 13.......... cadmium and chromium rinse waters .... 45............. Annualized unit costs 9USD/kg dry solid) for sludge treatment plants of varying capacities ........................... 34........ Other chemical applications in waste-water treatment and disposal.................... Operational sages within a belt filter press ......................... 5.............. Characteristics of waste-water treatment plants in Yemen ..................................................................................................... 7......................... Extent of waste-water reuse in Jordan.. 18..................................................... 23................... Percentage of total facility cost based on historical cost data ......................................................................................................... 44............................................. 46... Page 88 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 13 14 19 24 29 31 32 33 34 36 37 43 44 47 50 51 51 52 52 54 57 64 65 66 67 69 70 70 71 71 74 76 77 79 80 80 81 82 82 vi ....................................................................................................................... 12............................ 27....................... 19...................... Cost comparison of various natural waste-water treatment processes ..... Screen types .......................................................................................................... Flotation methods...................... 43............. 25...................................................................................... 40...... Mechanical sludge drying methods........................

....................... Sources of waste-water.............. Waste-water reuse master plan in Kuwait....................... Sludge dryer technologies ................................................................................. Sludge incineration technologies .......................................................................................................................................................... 22..................................... A typical granular activated carbon contactor........................................................... 4.. 13............................. 24...... 32....................................... Typical anaerobic sludge digesters ...................................................... Incremental membrane treatment costs for three blending scenarios ............ MF and UF plant capital unit cost as a function of plant capacity . Cutaway view of a trickling filter ........... Typical flow diagram for aerated lagoons................................................ 19........................................ 44............................. Rapid infiltration treatment system ..................................................................... Settling basin with horizontal flow .................... Typical flotation unit..................................... 43................................................................. 23............ 35............................................. 40................................................................ Capital costs of 1-0.................. Unit construction cost of membrane filtration plants .............. 8...................... 36............................................................ 37.......................... RBC system configuration ........................................................................................................ Various treatment levels in a waste-water treatment plant flow diagram ............1 mgd systems........................... 15.... MF and UF treatment unit cost as a function of plant capacity......................................................................... 38...... Typical control system components ................................... 28............................ A once-through chemical treatment system ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Composting process flow diagram................ Schematic of a vacuum filter system............................................ 18..................................................................................................................................................................... 25........ 2........................ 49....... Cost versus permeate flux and feedwater recovery for a 50 mgd NF plant ........... Unit RO filtration O&M cost ........................ 10.................................................................................... Biological phosphorus removal systems .................................... 16............................................................... Implementation status of waste-water treatment plants .............................................. 30................................ Belt filter press . Floating aquatic plants system ............................................................................ Unit RO filtration total water treatment cost............................................ 14....................................................................................................................................................................................................1 mgd systems............................... Typical flow diagram for an activated sludge process ................................. 29................................................................................................. Cost versus NF plant capacity....... Free water surface system ............................ Typical flow diagram for RBC units........... Sludge processing and disposal flow diagram ..........CONTENTS (continued) Page 47........................................................................................ MF and UF system unit cost as a function of plant capacity ....... 41.............. 2 5 8 9 11 12 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 21 23 25 25 26 26 27 28 30 30 31 34 35 36 38 42 45 46 56 58 58 59 60 60 61 61 62 63 63 68 68 83 84 85 vii .. 6............... 42...................................... Unit installed equipment cost of RO filtration plants................................... 20.............. 48............................. Schematic of aerobic sludge digestion ................................................................................................................ 26....................... Typical river diffuser outfall .... 39................ Overland flow system ....................................................................................... MF and UF O&M cost as a function of plant capacity ...................................................................................................................................... Characteristics of major waste-water treatment plants in Kuwait..................................................... 12................................................................. 17................. LIST OF FIGURES 1........ 9........... 34............. Typical flow diagram for trickling filters................ Waste-water treatment unit operations and processes. 5........................................................................................................................................................ 7....................... Subsurface flow system.... Typical flow diagram for stabilization ponds... 21.................. 31........ 3........................................ 33.............................................................................. Examples of control systems................................ 27........................................................... 11...... O&M costs of 1-0........

.... Capdet/Works software ......................................... Sustainability criteria for the assessment of water treatment technologies ........................................................................ Anaerobic digestion ................ Trading for phosphorus control....................................................................... VII....... 91 105 107 109 112 113 117 119 54 64 71 75 75 77 viii ............................................................. Comparison cost-effectiveness of RO or IX systems....................... Common on-line process measurement devices and their application in waste-water treatment ........... 4............................................................................................... IV.............................................. Membrane filtration cost data ..................................................................................... 3.................................................... Cost equations for treatment processes ........................... II........................................ Zero-liquid technology in paper mills .............................................................................................................................. Tables and figures ......................................................................... RO economics for an electroplating facility................ LIST OF ANNEXES I................... 5...................................... The Water spreadsheet tool ................ 2... VI.................. Cost calculation for discharge of a given effluent to sewer .................................................................................................. III...................................................................................... References ........................................................... 6.................................................... V.......................................................................CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF BOXES 1..........

H2O2.6H2O FeSO4.14.7H2O ft GAC GCC gfd H2S ha HRT IX KOH MF mgd MLSS MWTP N Na2S2O5 Na2SO3 NaOH NF NGO NPDES NTS O&M OF ORP P P2O7 PAC PO4-3 PVC POTWs RBC RI RO SBR SCADA SO2 American Association of Cost Engineers Alum American Society of Civil Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers biochemical oxygen demand lime methane chlorine chemical oxygen demand dissolved oxygen equipment cost European Community Environmental Directive Requirements Engineering News Record Environmental Protection Agency food to micro-organisms ratio ferric sulfate ferric chloride ferrous sulfate foot granular activated carbon Gulf Cooperation Council gallon per square foot per day hydrogen sulfide hectare hydraulic retention time ion exchange potassium hydroxide microfiltration million of gallons per day mixed liquor suspended solids Municipal waste-water treatment plant nitrogen sodium metabisulfite sodium sulfite sodium hydroxide nanofiltration non-governmental organization national pollutant discharge elimination system natural treatment system operation and maintenance overflow oxidation-reduction potential phosphorus polyphosphate powered activated carbon orthophosphate polyvinyl chloride publicly owned treatment works rotating biological contactor rapid infiltration reverse osmosis sequencing batch reactor Supervisory control and data acquisition sulfur dioxide ix .3(H2O) ASCE ASME BOD Ca(OH)2 CH4 Cl2.ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AACE Al2(SO4)3. O3 COD DO EC EC EDR ENR EPA F/M Fe2(SO4)3 FeCl3.

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS (continued) SR SRT SS TCC TIC TOC TOD TSS UF UNEP USAID USEPA UV WaTER WEF WWTP slow rate solids retention time suspended solids total construction costs total indirect cost total organic carbon total oxygen demand total dissolved solids ultrafiltration United Nations Environment Programme United States Agency for International Development United States Environmental Protection Agency ultraviolet Water Treatment Estimation Routine Water Environment Federation Waste-water treatment plant x .

Case studies on selected ESCWA member countries (Egypt. waste-water treatment is of particular concern to them. The case studies outline the current status of each country with respect to its waste-water treatment efforts and look at its future plans for the development of waste-water treatment facilities. emphasizing in particular that more efforts are needed in the ESCWA region for the improvement of water reuse through an integrated. chapter 7 contains a number of recommendations. Finally. The ultimate goal of waste-water management is the protection of the environment in a manner commensurate with public health and socio-economic concerns. . Inc. Chapter 2 extensively illustrates various waste-water treatment technologies. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment. The first chapter of this study identifies and briefly describes typical contaminants found in municipal waste-water.. must immediately be conveyed away from its generation sources and treated appropriately before final disposal. consequently. commercial or industrial facilities and institutions. surface water and storm water that may be present. Devices and techniques used for instrumentation and control in waste-water treatment facilities are covered in chapter 4. Lebanon and Yemen) are presented in chapter 6. Technical details on treatment methods and applications and sludge disposal are presented. Chapter 5 is concerned with the economics of waste-water treatment. in addition to any groundwater. and. Jordan. numerous pathogenic microorganisms. third edition (New York: McGraw-Hill. multi-disciplinary water management strategy. 1991). It thus entails environmental and health hazards. chapter 3 goes on to discuss the management of treated effluents and how they are reused and disposed of. Untreated waste-water generally contains high levels of organic material. 1 Metcalf and Eddy. with details on installation and operation costs for several treatment methods.Introduction Municipal waste-water is the combination of liquid or water-carried wastes originating in the sanitary conveniences of dwellings.1 Due to the largely arid nature of the ESCWA member countries. Kuwait. Disposal and Reuse. as well as nutrients and toxic compounds.

Insoluble contents such as solids.F. Sources of waste-water Source: Metcalf and Eddy. Figure 1. Liu and B. Treatment and Reuse. Wastewater Treatment (Boca Raton: Lewis. Wastewater Engineering. fourth edition (New York: McGraw-Hill.. oil and grease. waste-water flow fluctuates with variations in water usage. in addition to the degree of industrialization. also fall into this category. and the extent of meter services. 2 . 2003). 1999). odour. chemical. TABLE 1. Lipták. community size. Waste-water originates predominantly from water usage by residences and commercial and industrial establishments.G. living standards. surface water and storm water (see figure 1). VARIATIONS IN WASTE-WATER FLOW WITHIN A COMMUNITY Community size (population) 1 000 1 000-10 000 10 000-100 000 Variation in waste-water flow (percentage of the average daily flow rate) 20-400 50-300 Up to 200 Source: Adapted from D. and turbidity. Wide variations in waste-water flow rates may thus be expected to occur within a community (see table 1). Waste-water quality may be defined by its physical. temperature. and biological characteristics. Inc. cost of water and supply pressure. water conservation requirements or practices. Solids may be further subdivided into suspended and dissolved solids as well as organic (volatile) and inorganic (fixed) fractions.H. NATURE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER An understanding of the nature of waste-water is fundamental for the design of appropriate wastewater treatment plants and the selection of effective treatment technologies. dependability and quality of water supply. together with groundwater. Consequently. which is affected by a multitude of factors including climate.I. Physical parameters include colour.

total organic carbon (TOC). specific pathogens. hardness. depending on its contaminant concentration. Important contaminants in terms of their potential effects on receiving waters and treatment concerns are outlined in table 3. 20ºC TOC COD Nitrogen (total as N) Organic Free ammonia Nitrites Nitrates Phosphorus (total as P) Organic Inorganic Chlorides Sulfate Alkalinity (as CaCO3) Grease Total coliforms Volatile organic compounds Unit mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mL/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L No/100 ml µg/L Weak 350 250 145 105 100 20 80 5 110 80 250 20 8 12 0 0 4 1 3 30 20 50 50 106-107 <100 Strong 1 200 850 525 325 350 75 275 20 400 290 1 000 85 35 50 0 0 15 5 10 100 50 200 150 107-109 >400 Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy Inc. nitrates and phosphates. sulfates. and total oxygen demand (TOD). Both constituents and concentrations vary with time and local conditions. and anionic entities such as chlorides. Inorganic chemical parameters include salinity. sulfides. Bacteriological parameters include coliforms. TABLE 2. pH.Chemical parameters associated with the organic content of waste-water include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). and viruses. fecal coliforms.. The effects of the discharge of untreated waste-water into the environment are manifold and depend on the types and concentrations of pollutants. acidity and alkalinity. Waste-water is classified as strong. Table 2 shows typical concentration ranges for various constituents in untreated domestic waste-water. TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF UNTREATED DOMESTIC WASTE-WATER Concentration Medium 720 500 300 200 220 55 165 10 220 160 500 40 15 25 0 0 8 3 5 50 30 100 100 107-108 100-400 Contaminants Total solids (TS) Total dissolved solids (TDS) Fixed Volatile Suspended solids Fixed Volatile Settleable solids BOD5. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. 3 . chemical oxygen demand (COD). medium or weak. as well as concentrations of ionized metals such as iron and manganese.

. their biological stabilization can deplete natural oxygen resources and cause septic conditions that are detrimental to aquatic species. including organic and inorganic compounds. Priority pollutants. Pathogenic organisms found in waste-water can cause infectious diseases. 4 .TABLE 3. Dissolved inorganic constituents such as calcium. mutagenic or teratogenic. phenols and agricultural pesticides. carbohydrates and fats. 3rd edition. IMPORTANT CONTAMINANTS IN WASTE-WATER Contaminants Reason for importance Suspended solids (SS) can lead to development of sludge deposits and anaerobic conditions when untreated wastewater is discharged to the aquatic environment. streams or lakes. Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. may be highly toxic. sodium and sulfate are often initially added to domestic water supplies. If discharged into inland rivers. and may have to be removed for waste-water reuse. Inc. Wastewater Engineering. carcinogenic. Heavy metals usually added by commercial and industrial activities must be removed for reuse of the waste-water. They are commonly measured in terms of BOD and COD. Biodegradable organics are principally made up of proteins. Refractory organics that tend to resist conventional waste-water treatment include surfactants.

to intercept large floating or 5 . Today. waste-water treatment methods are broadly classifiable into physical. Physical unit operations Among the first treatment methods used were physical unit operations. secondary. they still form the basis of most process flow systems for wastewater treatment. (a) Screening The screening of waste-water. chemical and biological processes. chemical and biological methods are used to remove contaminants from waste-water. This section briefly discusses the most commonly used physical unit operations. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT METHODS As mentioned earlier. Waste-water treatment unit operations and processes ‰ ‰ Physical unit operations Ö ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ Screening Comminution Flow equalization Sedimentation Flotation Granular-medium filtration Chemical precipitation Adsorption Disinfection Dechlorination Other chemical applications Activated sludge process Aerated lagoon Trickling filters Rotating biological contactors Pond stabilization Anaerobic digestion Biological nutrient removal Chemical unit operations Ö ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ Biological unit operations Ö ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 1. Figure 2 lists the unit operations included within each category. Natural systems are also used for the treatment of waste-water in land-based applications. individual waste-water treatment procedures are combined into a variety of systems. classified as primary. wire mesh. avoid interference with plant operations and prevent objectionable floating material from entering the primary settling tanks. A. removes gross pollutants from the waste stream to protect downstream equipment from damage. in which physical forces are applied to remove contaminants.II. Sludge resulting from waste-water treatment operations is treated by various methods in order to reduce its water and organic content and make it suitable for final disposal and reuse. More rigorous treatment of waste-water includes the removal of specific contaminants as well as the removal and control of nutrients. and tertiary waste-water treatment. Screening devices may consist of parallel bars. Figure 2. rods or wires. This chapter describes the various conventional and advanced technologies in current use and explains how they are applied for the effective treatment of municipal waste-water. grating. or perforated plates. In order to achieve different levels of contaminant removal. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Physical. one of the oldest treatment methods.

suspended material. WEF Manual of Practice No. SCREEN TYPES Size of openings (millimeters) ≥6 Screen category Coarse screens Application Remove large solids. and is either disposed of by burial or incineration. Criteria used in the design of coarse screens include bar size.. for their part. 6 . spacing.3 Fine screens consist of various types of screen media. including slotted perforated plates. The coarse screen category includes manually or mechanically cleaned bar screens and trash racks. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment plants (Volume 1). and Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 4 Liu and Lipták.3 Reduce suspended solids to primary treatment levels Upgrade secondary effluent to tertiary standards Sources: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Bar screens consist of vertical or inclined steel bars distributed equally across a channel through which waste-water flows. and debris. wire mesh. and angle from the vertical. They are usually followed by regular bar screens or comminutors.2. Wastewater Treatment.2-1.4 2 Metcalf and Eddy. 3 Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 76 (Vermont: Book Press Inc. or returned into the waste flow after grinding. rags. 3rd edition.5-6 Reduce suspended solids to primary treatment levels Types of screens ƒ Manually cleaned bar screens/trash racks ƒ Mechanically cleaned bar screens/trash racks o Chain or cable driven with front or back cleaning o Reciprocating rake screens o Catenary screens o Continuous self-cleaning screens ƒ Rotary-drum screens ƒ Rotary-drum screens with outward or inward flow ƒ Rotary-vertical-disk screens ƒ Inclined revolving disc screens ƒ Traveling water screens ƒ Endless band screen ƒ Vibrating screens Very fine screens Microscreens 0. TABLE 4. and primary sedimentation tanks.5 0. Waste-water Engineering. 8 and ASCE Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No. fine screens must be cleaned continuously by means of brushes. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Fine screens 1. They are used ahead of mechanical equipment including raw sewage pumps. The openings may be of any shape. woven wire cloth and wedge-shaped wire. as well as channel width and waste-water approach velocity. scrapers. The efficiency of a fine screen depends on the fineness of the openings as well as the sewage flow velocity through those openings. Due to their tiny openings. 1992).2 The material retained from the manual or mechanical cleaning of bar racks and screens is referred to as “screenings”. Trash racks. or jets of water.. but are generally circular or rectangular.3 The principal types of screening devices are listed in table 4. grit chambers.001-0. Wastewater Treatment. or air forced through the reverse side of the openings. Inc. steam. are constructed of parallel rectangular or round steel bars with clear openings.

(d) Sedimentation Sedimentation. particulate matter in the primary settling basin. minimizing the downstream effects of these parameters. flies and unsightliness. The diverted flow is then fed into the system at a controlled rate. involves the gravitational settling of heavy particles suspended in a mixture. near the head end of the treatment works. involves a combination of a bar screen and rotating cutters. and prior to advanced waste treatment operations. generally between the grit chamber and the primary settling tanks. biological floc in the activated sludge settling basin. a fundamental and widely used unit operation in waste-water treatment. Their use reduces odours. TABLE 5. combined flow Completely mixed. They are installed where the handling of screenings would be impractical. BASIC FLOW EQUALIZATION PROCESSES Process Alternating flow diversion Description Two basins alternating between filling and discharging for successive time periods. 5 Ibid. and chemical flow when the chemical coagulation process is used. Flow equalization may be applied at a number of locations within a waste-water treatment plant.g. or a combined screen and cutter rotating together. levelling parameters in influent stream and providing a constant discharge.5 (c) Flow equalization Flow equalization is a technique used to improve the effectiveness of secondary and advanced wastewater treatment processes by levelling out operation parameters such as flow. pollutant levels and temperature over a period of time. holding basin located before the waste-water facility. Wastewater Treatment. mixed flow An equalization basin to which a significant increase in flow is diverted.5 There are four basic flow equalization processes that are summarized in table 5. prior to discharge into a water body. A basin that completely mixes multiple flows at the front end of the treatment process A large. Illustration Equalization basin Influent Equalization basin Treatment facility Effluent Intermittent flow diversion Completely mixed. This process is used for the removal of grit.(b) Comminution Comminutors are used to pulverize large floating material in the waste flow. Equalization basin Influent Flow 1 Flow 2 Flow 3 Mixed Basin Treatment facility Effluent Treatment facility Effluent Influent Equalization basin Treatment facility Effluent Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. e. 7 . known as a barminutor. completely mixed. Variations are damped until a near-constant flow rate is achieved. A comminutor may have either rotating or oscillating cutters. A different type of comminutor. Rotating-cutter comminutors either engage a separate stationary screen alongside the cutters.

the bottom is conical and slopes towards the centre of the basin. Inc. In rectangular tanks. and thereby keep the suspended material from settling.. square or circular in shape (see figure 3). and there is no wind effect. depending on particle concentration: discrete. The incoming solids agglomerate and remain enmeshed within the sludge blanket. solids contact and inclined surface. Wastewater Engineering. whereby the liquid is able to rise upwards while the solids are retained below.6 In designing a sedimentation basin. the slope is towards the inlet end. Four types of settling occur. Wastewater Treatment. It is common for more than one type of settling to occur during a sedimentation operation. They also provide a larger surface area. also known as high-rate settlers. whereas in centre-feed circular basins. Both types of basins are designed to keep the velocity and flow distributions as uniform as possible in order to prevent currents and eddies from forming. use inclined trays to divide the depth into shallower sections. The bottom surface slopes slightly to facilitate sludge removal. also referred to as a clarifier. it is important to bear in mind that the system must produce both a clarified effluent and a concentrated sludge. horizontal flow.Sedimentation takes place in a settling tank. (iii) Inclined surface basins Inclined surface basins. There are three main designs. so that a smaller-sized clarifier can be used. 8 . 6 Metcalf and Eddy. Figure 3. thus reducing particle settling times. Settling basin with horizontal flow Influent Scum Trough B affle t W ater level Flow E ffluent Sludge pipe (a) Parts of a rectangular basin Water level Drive Skimming blade Scum scraper Effluent weir Influent Sludge pipe Squeejee flow Scum pipe (b) Parts of circular tank Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Many overloaded horizontal flow clarifiers have been upgraded to inclined surface basins. 3rd edition. namely. the flow is laminar. while in circular and square tanks. the water flows radially from the centre towards the outer edges. Here. flocculent. (ii) Solid contact clarifiers Solid contact clarifiers bring incoming solids into contact with a suspended layer of sludge near the bottom that acts as a blanket. Basins are usually made of steel or reinforced concrete. hindered and compression. (i) Horizontal flow Horizontal-flow clarifiers may be rectangular. The flow in rectangular basins is rectilinear and parallel to the long axis of the basin.

The introduction of gas into the liquid phase directly by means of a revolving impeller or through diffusers. usually air bubbles. flotation is used mainly to remove suspended matter and to concentrate biological sludge. The scum is removed by a skimming mechanism while the settled grit is raked to a central sump for removal. Flotation. Inc. The chief advantage of flotation over sedimentation is that very small or light particles can be removed more completely and in a shorter time. Chemicals further the flotation process by creating a surface that can easily adsorb or entrap air bubbles. Once the particles have been floated to the surface. 3rd edition. Figure 4. FLOTATION METHODS Process Dissolved-air flotation Description The injection of air while waste-water is under the pressure of several atmospheres. Inc. where they form a scum blanket. The gas bubbles either adhere to the liquid or are trapped in the particle structure of the suspended solids. causing the dissolved air to come out of solution as minute bubbles which rise with the attached solids to the surface. The saturation of waste-water with air either directly in an aeration tank or by permitting air to enter on the suction side of a waste-water pump. Wastewater Treatment. Wastewater Engineering. Furthermore. various chemical additives can be introduced to enhance the removal process. Typical flotation unit Effluent weir Effluent Diffusion well Recycle suction Retention baffle Sludge collector Settled sludge discharge Pressurized air wastewater inlet Skimmer Float trough Float sludge discharge Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. at atmospheric pressure. 3rd edition.. they can be skimmed out. as currently practised in municipal waste-water treatment. Particles that have a higher density than the liquid can thus be made to rise. 9 . After a short holding time. raising the buoyant force of the combined particle and gas bubbles. allowing the air to be released as minute bubbles. In waste-water treatment. Inorganic chemicals (aluminum and ferric salts and activated silica) and various organic polymers can be used for this purpose.(e) Flotation Flotation is a unit operation used to remove solid or liquid particles from a liquid phase by introducing a fine gas.. TABLE 6. while a typical flotation unit is illustrated in figure 4.7 The various flotation methods are described in table 6. uses air exclusively as the floating agent. Air flotation Vacuum flotation Chemical additives Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. the pressure is restored to atmospheric level. 7 Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. A partial vacuum is applied.

The cleaning/backwashing phase differs. BOD5 and phosphorus removal as compared to plain sedimentation without coagulation (see table 7). The degree of clarification obtained depends on the quantity of chemicals used and the care with which the process is controlled. anthracite and/or garnet). reliability and cost.. Chemical coagulants that are commonly used in waste-water treatment include alum (Al2(SO4)3. Wastewater Engineering. This can be a significant factor if the waste-water is to be reused. there is usually a net increase in the dissolved constituents of the waste-water. Within the filter bed. In semi-continuous filtration. Inc. Performance evaluation uses jar tests of the actual waste-water to determine dosages and effectiveness. with or without added chemicals. This section discusses the main chemical unit processes. 8 9 Metcalf and Eddy. 10 .8 The operational characteristics of the various forms of granular medium filters commonly used for waste-water filtration are illustrated in annex figure 1 and reported in annex table 1 (see annex I). The waste-water to be filtered is passed through a filter bed consisting of granular material (sand. Coagulant selection for enhanced sedimentation is based on performance. They are always used in conjunction with physical unit operations and biological processes. thereby enhancing the efficiency of suspended solid.(f) Granular medium filtration The filtration of effluents from waste-water treatment processes is a relatively recent practice. the filtering and cleaning operations occur sequentially. (a) Chemical precipitation Chemical coagulation of raw waste-water before sedimentation promotes the flocculation of finely divided solids into more readily settleable flocs. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. That is to say. including chemical precipitation. Ibid. whereas in continuous filtration the filtering and cleaning operations occur simultaneously. disinfection. In general. 2. but has come to be widely used for the supplemental removal of suspended solids from waste-water effluents of biological and chemical treatment processes.3 H2O). depending on whether the filter operation is continuous or semicontinuous. The phenomena that occur during the filtration phase are basically the same for all types of filters used for waste-water filtration. interception. The complete filtration operation comprises two phases: filtration and cleaning or backwashing.9 TABLE 7. CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION Parameter Total suspended solids (TSS) BOD5 COD Phosphorus Bacteria loadings Percentage removal Plain sedimentation Chemical precipitation 40-90 60-90 25-40 40-70 30-60 5-10 70-90 50-60 80-90 Source: WEF and ASCE. Chemical unit processes Chemical processes used in waste-water treatment are designed to bring about some form of change by means of chemical reactions. 3rd edition. impaction. adsorption. suspended solids contained in the waste-water are removed by means of a complex process involving one or more removal mechanisms such as straining. chemical unit processes have an inherent disadvantage compared to physical operations in that they are additive processes. flocculation and adsorption. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF PLAIN SEDIMENTATION VS. in addition to the removal of chemically precipitated phosphorus. dechlorination and other applications.14. sedimentation.

Activated carbon is produced by heating char to a high temperature and then activating it by exposure to an oxidizing gas at high temperature. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. The water is applied to the top of the column and withdrawn from the bottom. The activated char can then be separated into various sizes with different adsorption capacities.7H2O) and lime (Ca(OH)2). The two most common types of activated carbon are granular activated carbon (GAC). while the carbon is held in place. A schematic of an activated carbon contactor is shown in figure 6. Organic polyelectrolytes are sometimes used as flocculation aids. Backwashing and surface washing are applied to limit headloss build-up. the chemical is added and completely dispersed throughout the waste-water by rapid mixing for 20-30 seconds in a basin with a turbine mixer. Inc. The gas develops a porous structure in the char and thus creates a large internal surface area. A once-through chemical treatment system is illustrated in figure 5. coagulation results in a larger mass of primary sludge that is often more difficult to thicken and dewater. Flocculation takes 15 to 30 minutes in a basin containing turbine or paddle-type mixers. 11 . On the other hand. It also entails higher operational costs and demands greater attention on the part of the operator. flocculation and settling.1 mm. adsorption with activated carbon—a solid interface—usually follows normal biological treatment. ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3).6H2O). Metcalf and Eddy. 3rd edition. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4. The advantages of coagulation include greater removal efficiency. which has a diameter greater than 0.10 Suspended solids removal through chemical treatment involves a series of three unit operations: rapid mixing. Wastewater Treatment. (b) Adsorption with activated carbon Adsorption is the process of collecting soluble substances within a solution on a suitable interface. and more consistent performance. Coagulated particles are then brought together via flocculation by mechanically inducing velocity gradients within the liquid.11 The final step is clarification by gravity as discussed in section 0.ferric chloride (FeCl3. Particulate matter present in the water may also be removed. Expanded-bed and moving-bed carbon contactors have been developed to 10 11 12 WEF and ASCE. A once-through chemical treatment system Chemical Feed Flocculation aid Clarification Neutralization Effluent Flash mix Lime sludge Flocculation Alum sludge To sludge disposal Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. First.. the feasibility of using higher overflow rates. Figure 5. Wastewater Treatment. Wastewater Engineering. Liu and Lipták. which has a diameter of less than 200 mesh. and powdered activated carbon (PAC). In waste-water treatment.12 A fixed-bed column is often used to bring the waste-water into contact with GAC. and is aimed at removing a portion of the remaining dissolved organic matter.

alcohols. Waste-water treatment using PAC involves the addition of the powder directly to the biological treatment effluent or the physiochemical treatment process. 3rd edition. Spent granular carbon can be regenerated by removal of the adsorbed organic matter from its surface through oxidation in a furnace. mainly gamma rays. as the case may be. sedimentation. Commonly used means of disinfection include the following: (i) Physical agents such as heat and light. Removal of the powdered carbon may be facilitated by the addition of polyelectrolyte coagulants or filtration through granular-medium filters. heavy metals. filtration. and so on. (ii) Mechanical means such as screening.overcome the problem of headloss build-up. quaternary 12 . In the moving-bed system. Wastewater Engineering. (iii) Radiation. which harbours a number of human enteric organisms that are associated with various waterborne diseases. This process is of importance in waste-water treatment owing to the nature of waste-water. (iv) Chemical agents including chlorine and its compounds. PAC is usually added to waste-water in a contacting basin for a certain length of time. A major problem with the use of powdered activated carbon is that the methodology for its regeneration is not well defined. Figure 6. It is then allowed to settle to the bottom of the tank and removed. bromine. iodine. In the expanded-bed system. ozone. soaps and synthetic detergents. phenol and phenolic compounds. The capacity of the regenerated carbon is slightly less than that of the virgin carbon. spent carbon is continuously replaced with fresh carbon. (c) Disinfection Disinfection refers to the selective destruction of disease-causing micro-organisms. dyes. A typical granular activated carbon contactor Air scour discharge Backwash effluent Regenerated carbon in Carbon column influent Surface wash in Top of carbon bed Carbon slurry motive water in Surface wash agitator Underdrain nozzle Plenum plate Plenum support plate Spent carbon drawoff Carbon column effluent Spent carbon out Backwash influent Plenum area Carbon column drains Air scour in Source: Metcalf and Eddy. the influent is introduced at the bottom of the column and is allowed to expand.

ammonium compounds. altering the colloidal nature of the protoplasm and inhibiting enzyme activity. Wastewater Engineering. In applying disinfecting agents. Dechlorination may be brought about by the use of activated carbon. temperature. The most common chemical disinfectants are the oxidizing chemicals. pellets or 1 per cent solution High High Relatively stable Chlorine dioxide ClO2 Gas Bromine chloride BrCl Liquid Ozone O3 Gas Ultraviolet light N/A UV energy Toxicity to microorganisms Solubility Stability High High Slightly unstable Toxic High High Corrosive Moderate Moderately low cost High High Unstable.R. (d) Dechlorination Dechlorination is the removal of free and total combined chlorine residue from chlorinated wastewater effluent before its reuse or discharge to receiving waters. gas High Slight Stable Sodium hypochlorite NaOCl Solution Calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 Powder. 3rd edition. and of these.. hydrogen peroxide. number of organisms. several factors need to be considered: contact time. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON DISINFECTING AGENTS Characteristic Chemical formula Form Chlorine Cl2 Liquid.13 TABLE 8. 14 15 13 Qasim. 3rd edition. Chlorine compounds react with many organic compounds in the effluent to produce undesired toxic compounds that cause long-term adverse impacts on the water environment and potentially toxic effects on aquatic micro-organisms. concentration and type of chemical agent. and various alkalis and acids. 13 . Wastewater Treatment Plants. Design. Qasim.15 S. must be generated as used Toxic High High Highly corrosive High Moderately high cost High N/A Must be generated as used Toxic High Moderate N/A None Moderately high cost Toxicity to higher forms of life Effect at ambient temperature Penetration Corrosiveness Deodorizing ability Availability/cost Highly toxic High High Highly corrosive High Low cost Toxic High High Corrosive Moderate Moderately low cost Sources: Metcalf and Eddy. It is important to note that dechlorination will not remove toxic by-products that have already been produced. chlorine is the most widely used. Inc. altering cell permeability. Inc. Disinfectants act through one or more of a number of mechanisms.14 Table 8 shows the most commonly used disinfectants and their effectiveness.. intensity and nature of physical agent. and nature of suspending liquid. Wastewater Engineering. 1999). Wastewater Treatment Plants: Planning. must be generated as used Toxic High High Highly corrosive High Moderately low cost High Slight Slightly unstable Toxic High High Corrosive Moderate Moderately low cost High High Unstable. sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) or sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5). Pennsylvania: Technomic Publishing Company. and Operation (Lancaster. Wastewater Treatment Plants. or by the addition of a reducing agent such as sulfur dioxide (SO2). including damaging the cell wall. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Metcalf and Eddy. and Qasim. Qasim.

3. mainly bacteria and protozoa. Wastewater Engineering. Anoxic processes. O3 KOH.(e) Other chemical applications In addition to the chemical processes described above.. convert the colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter into various gases and into cell tissue which is then removed in sedimentation tanks. Biological processes are usually used in conjunction with physical and chemical processes. TOC or COD) and nutrient content (notably nitrogen and phosphorus) of waste-water. particularly bacteria. Table 9 lists the most common applications and the chemicals used. Inc. including trickling filters. new cells. Biological unit processes Biological unit processes are used to convert the finely divided and dissolved organic matter in wastewater into flocculent settleable organic and inorganic solids. various other applications are occasionally encountered in waste-water treatment and disposal. Biological processes used for waste-water treatment may be classified under five major headings: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Aerobic processes. These processes are further subdivided. micro-organisms. and other end products. 3rd edition.ponding control Filter . water. This section will be concerned with the most commonly used biological processes. rotating biological contactors and stabilization control Sludge-bulking control Digester supernatant oxidation Digester and Imhoff tank foaming control Ammonia oxidation Odour control Oxidation of refractory organic compounds Disposal Bacterial reduction Odour control Chemical used Cl2 Cl2. The process consists of delivering clarified waste-water. TABLE 9. depending on whether the treatment takes place in a suspended-growth system an attached-growth system or a combination of both (see annex table 2). H2O2. Anaerobic processes. Combined processes. the activated sludge process. O3 Cl2. which aerobically degrade organic matter into carbon dioxide. NaOH. H2O2. aerated lagoons. overflows. H2O2. Ca(OH)2 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2. The bacteria involved in activated sludge systems are primarily 14 . (a) Activated-sludge process The activated-sludge process is an aerobic. O3 Remarks Added before preaeration Oxidation of organic substances Production of ferric sulfate and ferric chloride Residual at filter nozzles Residual at filter nozzles. continuous-flow system containing a mass of activated micro-organisms that are capable of stabilizing organic matter. In these processes. O3 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2. O3 O3 Cl2. and stormwater Source: Metcalf and Eddy. with the main objective of reducing the organic content (measured as BOD. OTHER CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Application Treatment Grease removal BOD reduction pH control Ferrous sulfate oxidation Filter . Pond processes. used during fly season Temporary control measure Conversion of ammonia to nitrogen gas Plant effluent. H2O2. into an aeration basin where it is mixed with an active mass of microorganisms. after primary settling.

Metcalf and Eddy. Depending on the retention time. 16 17 Liu and Lipták. nitrogen oxidizers.. The main operational problem encountered in a system of this kind is sludge bulking. The principal factors in process control are the following: (a) Maintenance of dissolved oxygen levels in the aeration tanks. Wastewater Engineering. including carbon oxidizers.17 Annex table 3 presents a description of conventional activated-sludge processes and various modifications (see annex figure 2). which also serves to keep the contents of the reactor (or mixed liquor) completely mixed. Bulky sludge has poor settleability and compactibility due to the excessive growth of filamentous micro-organisms. The process also intentionally wastes a portion of the settled sludge to maintain the required solids retention time (SRT) for effective organic removal. (b) Aerated lagoons An aerated lagoon is a basin between 1 and 4 metres in depth in which waste-water is treated either on a flow-through basis or with solids recycling. the mixed liquor passes into the secondary clarifier. (c) Control of the waste activated sludge. After a specific retention time. Inc. Wastewater Treatment. nitrogen and trace elements and wide fluctuations in pH. temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO). include flagellates. The process recycles a portion of the settled sludge back to the aeration basin to maintain the required activated sludge concentration (see figure 7). Most of these solids must be removed in a settling basin before final effluent discharge (see figure 8).16. However. where the sludge is allowed to settle and a clarified effluent is produced for discharge. and aerobes and facultative anaerobes. 15 . which can be caused by the absence of phosphorus. This problem can be controlled by chlorination of the return sludge. An aerobic environment is maintained in the basin by means of diffused or mechanical aeration. Typical flow diagram for an activated-sludge process Screenings Grit Sludge Waste sludge CL 2 or NaOCl Influent Bar Racks Grit Chamber Primary sediment ation Waste sludge Aeration tank Settling tank Chlorine contact chamber Effluent Return sludge Control of the activated-sludge process is important to maintain a high treatment performance level under a wide range of operating conditions. The turbulence created by aeration is used to keep the contents of the basin in suspension. aerated lagoon effluent contains approximately one third to one half the incoming BOD value in the form of cellular mass.Gram-negative species. (b) Regulation of the amount of returning activated sludge. floc formers and non-floc formers. turbine or diffused aeration. The microbiology involved in this process is similar to that of the activated-sludge process. amoebas and ciliates. Waste-water is oxygenated by surface. The protozoa. 3rd edition. differences arise because the large surface area of a lagoon may cause more temperature effects than are ordinarily encountered in conventional activated-sludge processes. for their part. Figure 7.

Inc. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. Wastewater Treatment. An anaerobic environment is thus established near the surface of the filter medium. Metcalf and Eddy. the thickness of the slime layer increases and the oxygen is depleted before it has penetrated the full depth of the slime layer. these micro-organisms die and are washed off by the flowing liquid. A new slime layer grows in their place. Figure 9. In the outer portion of that layer. Wastewater Engineering. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘sloughing’. It consists of a bed of highly permeable medium to which organisms are attached. forming a biological slime layer. it is degraded by aerobic micro-organisms. As the micro-organisms grow. The filter medium usually consists of rock or plastic packing material. As the slime layer increases in thickness. together with any biological solids that have become detached from the medium (see figure 9). 3rd edition.. The collected liquid then passes to a settling tank where the solids are separated from the treated waste-water..18. 16 .19 After passing through the filter. A portion of the liquid collected in the underdrain system or the settled effluent is recycled to dilute the strength of the incoming waste-water and to maintain the biological slime layer in moist condition (see figure 10). the organic matter is degraded before it reaches the micro-organisms near the surface of the medium.Figure 8. Typical flow diagram for aerated lagoons Screenings Return sludge Chlorine contact chamber Sludge CL2 or NaOCl Influent Bar Racks Aerated lagoon Settling tank Effluent (c) Trickling filters The trickling filter is the most commonly encountered aerobic attached-growth biological treatment process used for the removal of organic matter from waste-water. Inc. The organic material present in the waste-water is degraded by adsorption on to the biological slime layer. Deprived of their external organic source of nourishment. 18 19 Liu and Lipták. and through which waste-water is percolated. Cutaway view of a trickling filter Distributor Filter material Filter floor Underdrain Source: Metcalf and Eddy. the treated liquid is collected in an underdrain system.

Wastewater Engineering. and to air. The rotary movement also allows excess bacteria to be removed from the surfaces of the disks and maintains a suspension of sloughed biological solids. increasing overall removal efficiency. A typical arrangement of RBCs is shown in figure 12.Figure 10. In general. and nitrification of secondary effluents. Organic matter is degraded by means of mechanisms similar to those operating in the trickling filters process. each subsequent stage receives influent with a lower organic content than the previous stage. combined carbon oxidation and nitrification. from which they absorb oxygen. A final clarifier is needed to remove sloughed solids. As the disks rotate. 3rd edition. Wastewater Treatment Plants. It also promotes a variety of conditions where different organisms can flourish to varying degrees. which are made of high-density polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). As the waste-water flows through the compartments. Inc. the system thus enhances organic removal. RBC system configuration Primary treatment Secondary clarifier Influent Effluent Solids removal Source: Qasim. RBC systems are divided into a series of independent stages or compartments by means of baffles in a single basin or separate basins arranged in stages. the bacteria are exposed alternately to waste-water. Completely submerged RBCs are used for denitrification. Partially submerged RBCs are used for carbonaceous BOD removal. 20 Metcalf and Eddy. The disks. are partially submerged in the waste-water. so that a bacterial slime layer forms on their wetted surfaces.20 Figure 11. Compartmentalization creates a plug-flow pattern. from which they adsorb organic matter.. 17 . Typical flow diagram for trickling filters Screenings Grit Sludge CL2 or NaOCl Waste sludge Influent Bar Racks Grit Chamber Primary sedimentation Trickling filters Settling tank Chlorine contact chamber Effluent Return effluent (d) Rotating biological contactors A rotating biological contractor (RBC) is an attached-growth biological process that consists of one or more basins in which large closely-spaced circular disks mounted on horizontal shafts rotate slowly through waste-water (see figure 11).

as aerobic. on the basis of the nature of the biological activity that takes place in them. anaerobic. using a completely mixed biological process without solids return. producing ammonia. heat or fermentation) or induced (mechanical or diffused aeration). Aerobic ponds are used primarily for the treatment of soluble organic wastes and effluents from waste-water treatment plants. Typical flow diagram for stabilization ponds Screenings CL2 or NaOCl Influent Bar Racks Stabilization ponds Solids separation facility Chlorine contact chamber Effluent 21 Liu and Lipták. which are subsequently used by algae during daylight to produce oxygen. The bacterial population oxidizes organic matter. Mixing may be either natural (wind. Bacteria then use this supplemental oxygen and the oxygen provided by wind action to break down the remaining organic matter. Figure 13 presents a typical flow diagram for stabilization ponds. Stabilization ponds are usually classified. or aerobicanaerobic (see table 10). Typical flow diagram for RBC units Screenings Grit Sludge CL2 or Sludge NaOCl Baffle Influent Bar Racks Grit Chamber Primary sedimentation Settling tank Drive Motor Chlorine contact Effluent chamber RBC units (e) Stabilization ponds A stabilization pond is a relatively shallow body of waste-water contained in an earthen basin. Waste-water retention time ranges between 30 and 120 days. This is a treatment process that is very commonly found in rural areas because of its low construction and operating costs. carbon dioxide. Aerobic and facultative ponds are biologically complex. are particularly effective in bringing about rapid stabilization of strong concentratons of organic wastes. sulfates. Anaerobic ponds. water and other end products. Wastewater Treatment. Aerobic-anaerobic (facultative) ponds are the most common type and have been used to treat domestic waste-water and a wide variety of industrial wastes. 18 .21 Figure 13. for their part.Figure 12.

and are retained for a period ranging from 30 to 60 days. acidogenesis and methanogenesis. Aerobic-anaerobic ponds may be followed by an aerobic pond. In the standard-rate digestion process. Photosynthesis and surface reaeration provide oxygen for upper layers. typically. conversion of wastes Used for polishing effluents from conventional secondary treatment processes such as trickling filter or activated sludge Treatment of screened untreated or primary settled waste-water or industrial wastes. consisting of hydrolysis of high-molecular-mass compounds. 3rd edition. As above. except without supplemental aeration. Sludge is introduced continuously or intermittently and retained in the reactor for varying periods of time. Aerobic-anaerobic (oxygen from algae) Facultative pond Treatment of screened untreated or primary settled waste-water or industrial wastes. Anaerobic Anaerobic lagoon. and are retained. usually followed by aerobic or facultative ponds. Anaerobic conditions prevail throughout. anaerobic pretreatment pond Pond system Anaerobic followed by aerobicanaerobic Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. A consortium of anaerobic organisms work together to degrade the organic sludges and wastes in three steps. for a period of 15 days or less. TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF STABILIZATION PONDS Type of pond Aerobic Common name Low-rate pond Characteristics Designed to maintain aerobic conditions throughout the liquid depth Designed to optimize the production of algal cell tissue and achieve high yields of harvestable proteins Similar to low-rate ponds but very lightly loaded Application Treatment of soluble organic wastes and secondary effluents Nutrient removal.. Wastewater Engineering. the contents of the digester are usually unheated and unmixed. After withdrawal from the reactor. Complete treatment of municipal waste-water and industrial wastes with high bacterial removal. In the high-rate digestion process. The process takes place in an airtight reactor. The two most widely used types of anaerobic digesters are standard-rate and high-rate. treatment of soluble organic wastes. High-rate pond Maturation pond Aerobic-anaerobic (supplemental aeration) Facultative pond with aeration Deeper than high-rate pond. Bottom layer of solids undergoes anaerobic digestion. Combination of pond types described above. (f) Completely mixed anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion involves the biological conversion of organic and inorganic matter in the absence of molecular oxygen to a variety of end-products including methane and carbon dioxide. Lower layers are facultative. aeration and photosynthesis provide oxygen for aerobic stabilization in upper layers. the contents of the digester are heated and mixed completely. the stabilized sludge is reduced in organic and pathogen content and is non-putrescible. A combination of these 19 . Treatment of municipal waste-water and industrial wastes. Inc. Recirculation frequently used from aerobic to anaerobic ponds. whether continuous or intermittent.TABLE 10.

(g) Biological nutrient removal Nitrogen and phosphorus are the principal nutrients of concern in waste-water discharges. toxicity to aquatic life. In denitrifying systems. nitrification is brought about either in the same reactor that is used for carbonaceous BOD removal. rotating biological contactors and packed towers can be used for nitrifying systems. which can be used as a fuel source. 20 . The optimal pH lies between 7 and 8. Furthermore. Attached-growth denitrification takes place in a column reactor containing stone or one of a number of synthetic media upon which the bacteria grow. Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive organisms and are extremely susceptible to a wide variety of inhibitors such as high concentrations of ammonia and nitrous acid. low DO levels (< 1 mg/L). Its presence suppresses the enzyme system needed for denitrification. however.22 Aanerobic digesters are commonly used for the treatment of sludge and waste-waters with high organic content. and Nitrobacter. Ammonia is oxidized to nitrate with either air or high-purity oxygen. Similarly. (i) Nitrification-denitrification Nitrification is the first step in the removal of nitrogen by means of this process. creation of a public health hazard. which oxidize ammonia to the intermediate product nitrite. Some denitrification systems use the incoming waste-water for this purpose.5-8. if produced in sufficient quantities. 22 Metcalf and Eddy. stem directly from the slow growth rate of methanogenic bacteria. which convert nitrite to nitrate. since the nitrified effluent is low in carbonaceous matter. However. Inc.two basic processes is known as the two-stage process. nitrification in an attached-growth system may be brought about either in the same attached-growth reactor that is used for carbonaceous BOD removal or in a separate reactor. pH outside the optimal range (7. chemical and biological methods. Another advantage of this type of system is the production of methane gas. Denitrification can be achieved through both suspended. Discharges containing nitrogen and phosphorus may accelerate the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs and stimulate the growth of algae and rooted aquatic plants in shallow streams. Nitrification can be achieved through both suspended-growth and attached-growth processes. A nitrogen-gas-stripped reactor should precede the denitrification clarifier because nitrogen gas hinders the settling of the mixed liquor. additional digestion and gas production may occur. 3rd edition.. Suspended-growth denitrification takes place in a plug-flow type of activated-sludge system. which can be safely disposed of in a sanitary landfill after drying or dewatering. Trickling filters. adverse impact on chlorine disinfection efficiency. the system produces a well-stabilized sludge. On the other hand. Denitrification involves the removal of nitrogen in the form of nitrate by conversion to nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions. that same slow growth means that only a small portion of the degradable organic matter is synthesized into new cells. Wastewater Engineering. Nitrogen and phosphorus can be removed by physical. The disadvantages and advantages of a system of this kind. as compared to aerobic treatment. and so on. A slow growth rate requires a relatively long retention time in the digester for adequate waste stabilization to occur. Periodic backwashing and an external carbon source are necessary in a system of this kind. and waste-water that is less suitable for reuse. An external carbon source is usually necessary for micro-organism cell synthesis. and is used to separate the digested solids from the supernatant liquor. In suspended-growth processes. the fact that high temperatures are required for adequate treatment is a major drawback.and attached-growth processes. Biological removal of these nutrients is described below. Biological nitrification is the work of two bacterial genera: Nitrosomonas. Significant concentrations of nitrogen may have other adverse effects as well: depletion of dissolved oxygen in receiving waters.6). DO is a critical parameter. or in a separate suspended-growth reactor following a conventional activated sludge treatment process.

phosphorus is released into the supernatant. The phosphorus-poor activated sludge is returned to the aeration tank. Figure 14. As a result. 10 to 30 per cent of all influent phosphorus is removed during secondary biological treatment. commonly referred to as preliminary. which is subsequently treated with lime or some other coagulant. Settled sludge is returned to the influent end of the reactor and mixed with the incoming waste-water. This stresses the micro-organisms. is also used to achieve a combination of carbon oxidation. polyphosphate (P2O7). nitrogen reduction and phosphorus removal. so that their uptake of phosphorus exceeds normal levels. These processes are based on the exposure of microbes in an activated-sludge system to alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. the unit operations and processes described in the previous section are grouped together in a variety of configurations to produce different levels of treatment. 21 . Typical biological processes used for phosphorus removal are the proprietary A/O process. the proprietary PhoStrip process. and organically bound phosphorus. Biological phosphorus removal systems Influent Anaerobic stages Oxic Oxic stages Return sludge (a) A/O process Effluent clarifier Clarifie Influent Aeration Aeratio basin Direct return sludge Clarifier Clarifie Effluent Waste sludge Sidestream feed sludge Lime Reactor clarifier for chemical precipitation Waste chemical sludge Phosphorus stripped return sludge Supernatant return Anaerobic Anaerobi phosphorus Phosphoro stripper strippe (b) PhoStrip process Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. In the PhoStrip process. The SBR system. a portion of the return activated sludge from the secondary biological treatment process is diverted to an anaerobic phosphorus stripping tank. secondary and tertiary or advanced treatment (see figure 15). Microbes utilize phosphorus during cell synthesis and energy transport. primary.(ii) Phosphorus removal Phosphorus appears in water as orthophosphate (PO4-3).. as described in annex table 3. Inc. There. APPLICATION OF TREATMENT METHODS In waste-water treatment plants. More phosphorus can be removed if one of a number of specially developed biological phosphorus removal processes is used. and the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process (see figure 14). The A/O process is a single-sludge suspended-growth system that combines aerobic and anaerobic sections in sequence. B.

Primary treatment acts as a precursor for secondary treatment. C. 2. 24 S. Less frequently used processes include ion exchange and reverse osmosis for specific ion removal or for dissolved solids reduction. soil. bacteria and viruses. In addition to biological nutrient removal processes. Where sufficient land suitable for the purpose is available. 3rd edition. and flotation for the removal of oil and grease. flocculation and sedimentation. Middlebrooks and R. unacceptably high peak hydraulic or organic loadings. 3rd edition. and. They are frequently well suited for small communities and rural areas. NATURAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS Natural systems for waste-water treatment are designed to take advantage of the physical. plants. 1988). namely treatment by activated sludge. Preliminary treatment Preliminary treatment prepares waste-water influent for further treatment by reducing or eliminating non-favourable waste-water characteristics that might otherwise impede operation or excessively increase maintenance of downstream processes and equipment. followed by filtration and activated carbon. namely screening and comminution for the removal of debris and rags... and biological processes that occur in the natural environment when water. Its is aimed mainly at producing a liquid effluent suitable for downstream biological treatment and separating out solids as a sludge that can be conveniently and economically treated before ultimate disposal. and Metcalf and Eddy. Inc. micro-organisms and the atmosphere interact. or lagoon systems and sedimentation. 4. Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment (New York: McGraw-Hill. unit operations frequently used for this purpose include chemical coagulation. This is typically done through biological processes. fixed-film reactors. and odour control methods. abrasive grit. in certain cases. Secondary treatment The purpose of secondary treatment is the removal of soluble and colloidal organics and suspended solids that have escaped the primary treatment.1. Other preliminary treatment operations include flow equalization. biodegradable organics. Tertiary/advanced waste-water treatment Tertiary treatment goes beyond the level of conventional secondary treatment to remove significant amounts of nitrogen. floating aquatic plants and constructed wetlands.24 23 Metcalf and Eddy. chemical. 22 . Crites. E. Wastewater Engineering. heavy metals. odours. phosphorus. septage handling. These characteristics include large solids and rags.23 Natural treatment systems include land treatment. Inc. grit removal for the elimination of coarse suspended matter.W. Preliminary treatment processes consist of physical unit operations. Wastewater Engineering. Preaeration or mechanical flocculation with chemical additions can be used to enhance primary treatment. these systems can often be the most cost-effective option in terms of both construction and operation. Primary treatment Primary treatment involves the partial removal of suspended solids and organic matter from the wastewater by means of physical operations such as screening and sedimentation.J. Reed.C. The effluent from primary treatment contains a good deal of organic matter and is characterized by a relatively high BOD. All natural treatment systems are preceded by some form of mechanical pretreatment for the removal of gross solids. 3.

Wastewater Engineering. Any surface runoff is collected and reapplied to the system. Inc. and rapid infiltration (RI) systems. Treatment occurs as the wastewater percolates through the soil profile (see table 11). Various treatment levels in a waste-water treatment plant flow diagram Tertiary treatment Secondary treatment Primary treatment Preliminary treatment Offline flow equalization Backwash wastewater Cl2 Influent Screens & communition Grit removal Recycle Waste sludge Backwash water storage Primary settling Biological process Secondary settling Effluent filtration mixer Chlorine Contact chamber Effluent Flotation thickening Sludge processing facility 1. 3rd edition. Land treatment Land treatment is the controlled application of waste-water to the land at rates compatible with the natural physical. chemical and biological processes that occur on and in the soil. water reuse.25. This technology incorporates waste-water treatment. Reed. 23 . 26 25 26 Metcalf and Eddy. (a) Slow rate SR systems are the predominant form of land treatment for municipal and industrial waste-water. Middlebrooks and Crites. overflow (OF). Water is applied intermittently (every 4 to 10 days) to maintain aerobic conditions in the soil profile. Natural Systems. the percolate will enter the underlying groundwater. In most cases. or it may be intercepted by natural surface waters or recovered by means of underdrains or recovery wells. The applied water is either consumed through evapotranspiration or percolated vertically and horizontally through the soil system.Figure 15. including sprinkling methods or surface techniques such as graded-border and furrow irrigation.. The three main types of land treatment systems used are slow rate (SR). It involves the application of waste-water to vegetated land by means of various techniques. crop utilization of nutrients and waste-water disposal.

3rd edition. (b) Rapid infiltration Rapid infiltration (RI) is the most intensive of all land treatment methods. Middlebrooks and Crites. ion exchange and adsorption occur as the water percolates through the soil. 24 . Chemical precipitation. ammonia volatilization. ion exchange. exposure to other adverse environmental factors Photodecomposition. infiltration through the soil is limited. with subsequent reuse or discharge. Type 1 systems are designed with waste-water treatment itself. in systems of this kind. The RI system is designed to meet several performance objectives including the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (c) Recharge of streams by interception of groundwater. Natural Systems. adsorption. the maximum possible amount of water is applied per unit land area. Application techniques include high-pressure sprinklers. Biological oxidation. rather than crop production. or surface methods such as gated pipes. Sanks and T. radiation. OF is normally used with relatively impermeable surface soils.L. Overland flow systems can be 27 R. Inc. Accordingly. low-pressure sprays. in contrast. The effluent waste-water undergoes a variety of physical. degradation Source: Reed.TABLE 11. Vegetation is not applied in systems of this kind. denitrification. complexation Soil filtration. sorption. Groundwater recharge. precipitation. Physical straining and filtering occur at the soil surface and within the soil matrix. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science. SR systems have the highest treatment potential of all natural treatment systems. predation. 1976). Recovery of water by wells or underdrains. as their main objective. since. in contrast to SR and RI systems. and consequently the amount of water applied in a system of this kind is just enough to satisfy the irrigation requirements of the crop being grown. chemical. volatilization. 28 Overland flow Overland flow (OF) is a treatment process in which waste-water is treated as it flows down a network of vegetated sloping terraces. The RI process uses the soil matrix for physical. MECHANISMS OF WASTE-WATER CONSTITUENT REMOVAL BY SR SYSTEMS Parameter BOD SS Nitrogen Phosphorus Metals Pathogens Trace organics Removal mechanism Soil adsorption and bacterial oxidation Filtration through the soil Crop uptake. are designed mainly with a view to water reuse for crop production. Relatively high hydraulic and organic loadings are applied intermittently to shallow infiltration or spreading basins (see figure 16). assimilation and reduction occur within the top few feet of the soil. chemical and biological treatment mechanisms as it proceeds along surface runoff path. soil storage Chemical immobilization (precipitation and adsorption). Waste-water is applied intermittently to the top portion of each terrace and flows down the terrace to a runoff collection channel at the bottom of the slope (see figure 17). Asano. Type 1 and Type 2. 28 Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. desiccation. and biological treatment. plant uptake Soil adsorption.27.. Type 2 SR systems. SR systems can be classified into two types. Land Treatment and Disposal of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (Ann Arbor. based on design objectives. Temporary storage of renovated water in the local aquifer.

namely free water surface (FWS) systems. transfers oxygen into the water column. reeds and sedges. Land Treatment. bulrush. 29 30 Sanks and Asano. As a rule.1-0. Figure 17.29. and subsurface flow systems (SFS). Rapid infiltration treatment system Evapotranspiration Surface application Zone of aeration and treatment Recharge mound Percolation Infiltration Old water table Source: Metcalf and Eddy. Reed. 2. advanced secondary treatment or nutrient removal. 25 . Middlebrooks and Crites. 3rd edition. The vegetation provides surfaces for the attachment of bacteria films. Two types of constructed wetlands have been developed for waste-water treatment. Constructed wetlands Wetlands are inundated land areas with water depths typically less than 2 ft (0.3 to 2 feet (0.6 metre) or channels with relatively impermeable bottom soil or subsurface barrier and emergent vegetation (see figure 18). and controls the growth of algae by restricting the penetration of sunlight. Wastewater Treatment Plants. depending on user requirements. Inc.29. 30 Figure 16.6 m) that support the growth of emergent plants such as cattail.. Wastewater Engineering. Overland flow system Source: Qasim. preclarified waste-water is applied continuously to be treated as it flows through the stems and roots of the emergent vegetation. Natural Systems. aids in the filtration and adsorption of waste-water constituents. 30 (d) Free water surface systems FWS systems consist of parallel shallow basins ranging from 0.designed for secondary treatment.

8 metres). The floating plants shield the water from sunlight and reduce the growth of algae. Figure 19. Wastewater Engineering. ranging from 1.5-1. Wastewater Treatment. such as hyacinths and duckweeds (see figure 20). sand.0 feet (0.. Systems of this kind are designed for secondary or advanced levels of treatment. (e) Subsurface flow systems SFSs consist of beds or channels filled with gravel. Water depths are greater than in the case of wetland systems. Free water surface system Source: Qasim. Floating aquatic plants This system is similar to the FWS system except that the plants used are of the floating type. 3rd edition.31 31 Metcalf and Eddy.6 to 6. or other permeable media planted with emergent vegetation (see figure 19).Figure 18. metals and trace organics and in removing algae from lagoons and stabilization pond effluents. 26 . Waste-water is treated as it flows horizontally through the media-plant filter. Subsurface flow system Source: Qasim. Supplementary aeration has been used with floating plant systems to increase treatment capacity and to maintain the aerobic conditions necessary for the biological control of mosquitoes. nitrogen. Systems of this kind have been effective in reducing BOD. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Inc. 3.

owing to the offensive constituents present. conditioning. anaerobic digestion. Stabilization Sludges are stabilized to reduce their pathogen content. 2. Water Supply and Sewerage. Thickening. Annex table 4 presents a comparison of major site characteristics. and the expected quality of the treated waste-water from the principal types of natural systems. 27 .25 to 12 per cent solids by weight. This section examines various sludge treatment processes with emphasis on the most commonly used technologies. Water Supply and Sewerage (New York: McGraw-Hill. Sludge is treated by means of a variety of processes that can be used in various combinations. 1. 1991). centrifugation and gravity belts. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Sewage sludge consists of the organic and inorganic solids that were present in the raw waste and were removed in the primary clarifier. wet-air oxidation and vertical tube reactors are used to treat or stabilize the organic material in the sludge. and reduce or eliminate the potential for putrefaction. entailing reduced size requirements for subsequent treatment units. while digestion. McGhee. Wastewater Engineering. The generated sludge is usually in the form of a liquid or semisolid. D. which vary with the source of waste-water and the treatment processes applied.33 Sludge thickening methods are usually physical in nature: they include gravity settling. Technologies used for sludge stabilization include lime stabilization. Floating aquatic plants system Transport of contaminants to plant roots by hydraulic mixing Settled solids Source: Metcalf and Eddy. aerobic digestion and composting.32 Sludge handling. McGhee.J. dewatering and drying are primarily used to remove moisture from sludge. flotation. composting. typical design features. A modest increase in solids content (from 3 to 6 per cent) can decrease total sludge volume significantly (by 50 per cent). containing 0. in addition to organic solids generated in secondary/biological treatment and removed in the secondary clarifier or in a separate thickening process. 32 33 T. heat treatment.Figure 20. eliminate offensive odours. incineration. depending on the treatment operations and processes used. Thickening Thickening is the practice of increasing the solids content of sludge by the removal of a portion of its liquid content. treatment and disposal are complex. A generalized flow diagram showing the various unit sludge treatment operations and processes currently in use is presented in figure 21. These technologies are briefly described in annex table 5 and illustrated in annex figure 3. 3rd edition.

Figure 21. Sludge processing and disposal flow diagram SLUDGE FROM TREATMENT PROCESSES Ø PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS ‰ Sludge grinding ‰ Sludge bending ‰ Sludge storage ‰ Sludge degritting Ø THICKENING ‰ Rotary drum thickening ‰ Gravity thickening ‰ Flotation thickening ‰ Centrifugation ‰ Gravity belt thickening Ø STABILIZATION ‰ Chlorine oxidation ‰ Lime stabilization ‰ Heat treatment ‰ Anaerobic digestion ‰ Aerobic digestion ‰ Composting Ø CONDITIONING ‰ Elutriation ‰ Heat treatment ‰ Chemical conditioning Ø DISINFECTION ‰ Pasteurization ‰ Long-term storage Ø DEWATERING ‰ Vacuum filter ‰ Pressure filter ‰ Horizontal belt filter ‰ Centrifuge ‰ Drying bed ‰ Lagoon Ø DRYING ‰ Multiple effect evaporator ‰ Flash drying ‰ Spray drying ‰ Rotary drying ‰ Multiple hearth drying Ø THERMAL REDUCTION ‰ Multiple hearth incineration ‰ Fluidized bed incineration ‰ Vertical deep well reactor ‰ Flash combustion ‰ Co-incineration with solid wastes Ø ULTIMATE DISPOSAL ‰ Landfill ‰ Land application ‰ Reclamation ‰ Reuse 28 .

The solids loading is much greater. as the thermal activity releases bound water and results in the coagulation of solids. The resulting gas rises to the surface. The first serves for digestion and is fitted with heating and mixing facilities. COMMON ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS Type of digester Standard rate Description This is a single-stage process in which digestion. This process is a modification of the standard rate process. Wastewater Treatment. The exposure of sludge to such conditions results in the hydrolysis of proteinaceous compounds. Thermophilic digestion occurs between 120 and 135 ºF (49 and 57 ºC). This process is preferably used only for the treatment of waste activated sludge. (d) Aerobic sludge digestion Aerobic sludge digestion is similar to the activated-sludge process. Mesophilic conditions are maintained within the reactor. and thus eliminates the risk of sludge putrefaction and odour creation.(a) Lime stabilization In this process. carrying oils and grease with it (see figure 22. As compared to anaerobic processes. It involves the direct oxidation of biodegradable matter and microbial cellular material in open tanks for an extended period of time. produces poorer quality supernatant and generates odours. However. increased bacterial destruction and improved sludge dewatering.760 kN/m2 for approximately 30 seconds. two-stage and separate. The untreated sludge is added to the active digestion zone. This process. leading to cell destruction and the release of soluble organic compounds and nitrogen. Lime is added either prior to dewatering (lime pre-treatment) or after dewatering (lime posttreatment). which is relatively new. c). while the second is used for the storage and concentration of digested sludge and for the formation of a clear supernatant (see figure 22. The high pH environment inhibits the survival of micro-organisms. 29 . (b) Heat treatment This process involves the treatment of sludge by heating in a pressure vessel to temperatures of up to 500ºF (260ºC) at pressures of up to 2. standard high-rate. aerobic digestion affords both advantages and disadvantages (see table 13). (c) Anaerobic sludge digestion This process involves the anaerobic reduction of organic matter in the sludge by biological activity. Hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) are most commonly used for lime stabilization. This process is characterized by a rapid digestion rate. or waste sludge from extended aeration plants or activated-sludge treatment plants designed without primary settling. and the sludge is mixed by gas recirculation. involves the separate digestion of primary and biological sludges. the process is characterized by higher energy requirements. TABLE 12. Standard high-rate Two-stage Separate Thermophilic Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. b). This method features two tanks. lime is added to untreated sludge to raise the pH to 12 or higher. a mixture of waste activated or trickling filter sludge with primary sludge. This process also serves for conditioning. where it is heated by an external source. a). Four types of anaerobic digesters are commonly used for sludge stabilization: standard-rate. pumping or mechanical mixing (see figure 22. These digesters are outlined in table 12 and illustrated in figure 22. The methane produced can be recovered and reused for heating and incineration. Aeration occurs either naturally or by means of mechanical aerators and diffusers (see figure 23). sludge thickening and supernatant formation take place simultaneously.

Typical anaerobic sludge digesters Gas outlet Scum layer Sludge layer Gas Scum removal Gas outlet Gas Sludge inlet Supernatant Actively digested sludge Stabilized sludge Sludge outlet Supernatant removal Active mixing zone Sudge outlet (a) Standard rate Gas outlet Gas Gas outlet (b) Standard high rate Gas Sludge inlet Zone of mixing and actively digested sludge Mixed liquor Supernatant Supernatant Digested sludge Sludge outlet Sludge outlet (c) Two-stage Source: Qasim.Figure 22. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Schematic of aerobic sludge digestion Primary sludge Excess activated or trickling filter sludge Clear oxidized effluent Settled sludge returned to digester Source: Qasim. Figure 23. 30 . Wastewater Treatment Plants.

TABLE 13. Further curing and storage.Supernatant liquor with lower BOD concentrations . humus-like. Composting includes the following operations: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Mixing dewatered sludge with a bulking agent. 31 . Aerating the compost pile by mechanical turning or the addition of air. The resulting end product is stable and may be used as a soil conditioner in agricultural applications.The process is significantly affected by temperature. organic material undergoes biological degradation. Enteric micro-organisms are also destroyed due to the rise in temperature of the compost.Higher power cost associated with supplying oxygen . biologically stable end-product .Lower capital cost Source: Qasim. The three major types of aerobic composting systems are the static aerated pile. Figure 24. and type of tank . Recovery of the bulking agent. Wastewater Treatment.Produces a digested sludge with poor mechanical dewatering characteristics . Final disposal. Wastewater Treatment Plants. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AEROBIC SLUDGE DIGESTION Advantages . During composting.Recovery of most of the basic fertilizer values in the sludge .Volatile solids reduction approximately the same as anaerobic digestion .Production of an odourless. resulting in a 20 to 30 per cent reduction of volatile solids. Aerobic composting is more commonly used than anaerobic composting. Composting process flow diagram Sludge Sludg Mixing Mixin Bulking Bulkin Agent Agen Turning Turnin Market Marke Force Force d aeration d aeratio Curing Curin Drying Dryin Bulking agent Bulking recovery recover Storage Storag Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Disadvantages . windrow and in-vessel systems (see table 14). location.Operation relatively easier .High operating cost (e) Composting Composting is used for both sludge stabilization and final disposal.

The two most commonly used inorganic conditioners are ferric chloride and lime. Windrow In-vessel Source: Adapted from Liu and Liptáak. irradiation and elutriation. The two most commonly applied conditioning methods are the addition of chemicals and heat treatment. 32 . Other conditioning processes include freezing. charge neutralization. causing them to aggregate. It reacts in the sludge to produce calcium carbonate. 3. no mechanical aeration is used. The applied heat coagulates the solids.. Aerobic conditions are maintained by periodic mixing of the compost. 3rd edition. Wastewater Treatment Plants.760 kN/m2 for 15-40 minutes. Conditioning Conditioning involves the chemical and or physical treatment of sludge to enhance its dewatering characteristics. causing desorption of bound surface water. thus creating a granular structure that increases sludge porosity and reduces sludge compressibility. The sludge and the bulking agent are mixed by means of a rotary drum or frontend loaders. deodorized. Organic polyelectrolytes dissolve in water to form solutions of varying viscosity. Air flow. Lime.35 34 35 Qasim. The cured compost is screened for recovery of the bulking agent. The supernatant from the heat treatment unit has a high BOD and may require special treatment before redirection into the mainstream waste-water treatment process.34 (b) Thermal conditioning Thermal conditioning involves heating the sludge to a temperature of 248-464 ºF in a reactor at a pressure of 1.TABLE 14. Wastewater Treatment. Inc. resulting in a sterilized. is ordinarily used with ferric iron salts. Organic polymers are also widely used in sludge conditioning. Wastewater Engineering. Both organic and inorganic chemicals are used for this purpose. so that the absorbed water is released. ferric chloride forms positively charged soluble iron complexes that neutralize the negatively charged sludge solids. Qasim. However. Ferric chloride also reacts with the bicarbonate alkalinity in the sludge to form hydroxides that cause flocculation. AEROBIC COMPOSTING SYSTEMS Type Aerated static pile Description Consists of an aeration grid over which a mixture of dewatered sludge and bulking agent is placed.34 (a) Chemical conditioning Chemical conditioning is associated principally with mechanical sludge dewatering systems. dewatered sludge. and agglomerization by bridging between particles. It reduces the moisture content of incoming sludge from 90-99 per cent to 65-85 per cent by causing solids to coagulate. Composting takes place in a closed container.720-2. temperature and oxygen concentration are mechanically maintained. Windrows are similar to static piles in terms of mixing and screening operations. for its part. breaks down the gel structure and reduces affinity for water. Upon being added. Wastewater treatment plants and Metcalf and Eddy. The electrolytes adhere to the surface of the sludge particles.

which are suitable only for the treatment of digested sludge. Wedge-wire beds Vacuum-assisted Source: Qasim.. These consist of beds constructed from artificial media such as stainless steel wedgewire or high-density polyurethane. The drainage type involves agitation to facilitate dewatering and uses a front-end loader for sludge removal. filter press and belt filter press systems. Qasim.4. TABLE 15. Drying occurs by evaporation and drainage. dewatering and drying is accelerated by the application of vacuum to the underside of porous filter plates. The selection of the appropriate sludge-dewatering technique depends on the characteristics of the sludge to be dewatered. Mechanical equipment is then used to remove the sludge cake. centrifuge. After drying. 3rd edition. The supernatant is decanted from the surface and returned to the plant while the liquid is allowed to evaporate. Wastewater Engineering. The various types of drying beds in current use are described in table 15. (a) Sludge drying beds Sludge drying beds are typically used to dewater digested sludge. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Metcalf and Eddy. cake dewatering and cake discharge (see figure 25). (b) Drying lagoons Sludge-drying lagoons. Wastewater Treatment. Two types are commonly used: a drainage type and a decanting type. When land is available and sludge quantity is small. the sludge is either disposed of in a landfill or used as a soil conditioner. consist of shallow earthen basins enclosed by earthen dykes. The drainage process is controlled by an outlet valve. Inc.37 36 37 Liu and Lipták. Sludge is placed on the bed and allowed to dry. natural dewatering systems such as drying beds and drying lagoons are most attractive. and moisture content requirements of the sludge cake for ultimate disposal. An internal vacuum that is maintained inside the drum draws the sludge to the filter medium. the sections function in sequence as three distinct zones: cake formation. In this system. The sludge cake is removed manually. which is a physical unit operation aimed at reducing the moisture content of sludge. These are similar to conventional beds in terms of their underdraining system. As the drum rotates. 33 . TYPES OF SLUDGE DRYING BEDS Sludge drying beds Conventional sand drying beds Paved drying beds Description Typical sand beds consist of a layer of coarse sand supported on a graded gravel bed with perforated pipe underdrains. Wastewater Treatment Plants. available space. Dewatering A number of techniques are used for dewatering. enhancing the dewatering process. The surface of the drum is covered with a porous medium (cloth belts or coiled springs) and is divided into sections around its circumference. The decanting type uses low-cost impermeable paved beds that rely on supernatant decanting and mixing of the drying sludge for enhanced evaporation. Mechanical dewatering methods include vacuum filter.36 (c) Vacuum filtration The vacuum filtration process consists of a horizontal cylindrical drum that is partially submerged in a tank of conditioned sludge. The sludge is first placed within the basin and allowed to dry.

Gravity drainage zone Low pressure zone High pressure zone Source: Qasim. or an in-line injector Consists of a flat or slightly inclined belt. This section may be vacuum-assisted. Sludge is thickened by the gravity drainage of free water. (d) Belt filter press Belt filter presses use single or double moving belts to dewater sludge continuously. OPERATIONAL STAGES WITHIN A BELT FILTER PRESS Filtration stage Polymer conditioning zone Description Consists of a tank located close to the press.Figure 25. Gravity drainage zone for excess water. Inc. 34 . as they go over and under a series of rollers with decreasing diameters. Schematic of a vacuum filter system Metering Ferric chloride mixing tank Metering pump Filtrate Air to atmosphere Cloth Filtrate tank Filtrate return to primary Water to primary Sludge pump Agitator Filter drum Conditioning tank Sludge cake Conveyor Washings return to primary Sludge inlet Agitator Vat Filtrate pump Water Vacuum pump Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. It prepares the sludge by forming a firm sludge cake that is able to withstand the shear forces within the high-pressure zone. Low pressure zone.. High pressure zone. The resulting sludge cake is removed by scraper blades. This is the area where the upper and lower belts come together with the sludge in between. a rotating drum attached to the press. TABLE 16. The filtration process involves four basic stages (see table 16 and figure 26): (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Polymer conditioning zone. In this stage. 3rd edition. Wastewater Treatment Plants. forces are exerted on the sludge by the movement of the upper and lower belts relative to each other. Wastewater Engineering.

. filtrate clarity and high solids capture. The fixed-volume filter press consists of a series of rectangular plates that are supported face to face in a vertical position.38 5. with a filter cloth hung over each plate. On the other hand. 38 Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. Inc. the system is characterized by high mechanical complexity. so that the liquid is forced through the cloth and plate outlet ports. making the sludge suitable for incineration or processing into fertilizer. The conditioned sludge is pumped into the space between the plates and subjected to high pressure for 1 to 3 hours. The two most widely used filter presses are the fixed-volume and the variable-volume recessed-plate types. The plates are then separated and the sludge is removed. (e) Filter presses In a filter press.. Belt filter press Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Shear and compression dewatering Chemical conditioning Sludge polymer mixer Sludge Gravity drainage Conditioned sludge Wash spray Polymer solution Wash spray Filtrate Dewatered sludge cake Wash water Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. The variable-volume recessed-plate filter press is similar to the fixed-volume type except that a rubber diaphragm is placed between the plates to help reduce cake volume during compression. dewatering is brought about by the use of high pressure to force the water out of the sludge. high chemical costs. 35 .Figure 26. Drying is performed mechanically by the application of auxiliary heat. Advantages of the filter press are high sludge cake concentration. high labour costs and limited cloth life. Mechanical processes used for this purpose are described briefly in table 17 and illustrated in figure 27. Drying The purpose of sludge drying is to reduce the water content to less than 10 per cent by evaporation. Inc. 3rd edition.

Sludge dryer technologies Feed Exhaust Vent fan Air Atomizer Air Cyclone Divider Wet feed Product Product (b) Spray dryer Mixer Oil or gas Cage mill Air heater Air Feed Air heater Blow Product out (a) Flash dryer Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Inc. either by incineration or by wet-air oxidation. Direct-heat dryers bring the sludge into physical contact with hot gases. 36 . Centrifugal forces atomize the sludge into fine particles and spray them into the top of a drying chamber.TABLE 17. Thermal reduction The thermal reduction of sludge involves two main processes: (a) Total or partial conversion of organic solids to oxidized end products. Involves direct or indirect heating. Wastewater Treatment. Liquid sludge is fed into a high-speed centrifuge bowl. the central cell containing the sludge material is surrounded with steam. MECHANICAL SLUDGE DRYING METHODS Dryer type Flash dryer Spray dryer Rotary dryer Description Sludge is pulverized in a cage mill or by means of an atomized suspension technique in the presence of hot air. Multiple-hearth dryer Source: Metcalf and Eddy. Figure 27. while in indirect-heat dryers. Heated air and products of combustion are passed over finely pulverized sludge that is raked continuously to expose fresh surfaces.. (c) Rotary dryer 6. 3rd edition. Wastewater Engineering. primarily carbon dioxide and water.

resulting in evaporation of the water and combustion of the sludge solids. tar and charcoal. Pyrolysis. either by pyrolysis39 or by starved air combustion. as required for final disposal.(b) Partial oxidation and volatilization of organic solids. where it falls to the subsequent hearths and continues downward until sterile phosphate-laden ash is discharged at the bottom. cylindrical.. 4th edition. also known as destructive distillation. is becoming an essential aspect of the design and operation of waste-water treatment facilities.40 to end-products with energy contents. oil.. and consequently the selection of energy-efficient equipment and the design of energy recovery schemes are assuming progressively greater importance. 3rd edition. 41 42 39 Metcalf and Eddy. these computational methods can be used to improve the performance of ongoing operations when integrated into the process control system.. 3rd edition. improved UV disinfection systems.. In addition. 3rd edition. NEW DIRECTIONS AND CONCERNS42 Increasingly. Wastewater Engineering. SLUDGE INCINERATION METHODS Type of incinerator Multiple-hearth furnace Description A steel shell the interior of which is divided into a series of hearths. refractory-lined steel shell that contains a sand bed and fluidizing air orifices to produce and sustain combustion. For example. such as aeration in biological treatment. However. Inc. 37 . TABLE 18. The sludge is fed through the furnace roof by a screw-feeder or a belt and flapgate. consume large quantities of energy. Inc. 40 Starved air combustion combines some of the features of both complete combustion and pyrolysis (Metcalf and Eddy. including gases. Sludge is mixed quickly within the fluidized bed by its turbulent action. Wet air oxidation Fluidized-bed incinerator Source: Metcalf and Eddy. Inc.41 The main objective of this conversion process is the reduction of the volume of solids. too. Wastewater Engineering. The liquid and solid residues are separated by settling or filtration. The principal thermal reduction methods are described in table 18 and illustrated in figure 28. 3rd edition. Sludge may also be treated chemically for use as landfill cover or for landscaping or land reclamation projects. A reactor held at high temperature (200-300 ºC) and high pressure (5-20 kN/m2). Energy management.. Inc. 7. E. Wastewater Engineering. Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. Rotating rabble arms and rabble teeth push the sludge across the hearth to drop holes. advanced computational methods in fluid dynamics are being used for the design of new treatment systems and the optimization of existing ones. A vertical. Sludge and sufficient air pumped into the reactor are oxidized in a liquid phase. Treated and digested sludge may be used as a soil amendment and conditioner. in order to eliminate sources of inefficiencies. Inc. Sludge disposal and reuse There was a time when sludge was commonly disposed of in sanitary landfills and lagoons. sedimentation tanks and chlorine contact tanks are being designed using computational fluid dynamics. the beneficial uses of sludge are attracting more attention nowadays. Wastewater Engineering. Some operations. involves heating of organic matter in an oxygen-free atmosphere (Metcalf and Eddy.

owing mainly due to the improvements that have been made to these systems during the past ten years and their declining capital and operating costs. high rate clarification. the waste-water treatment infrastructure is now old and undersized. Sludge incineration technologies Exhaust and ash Oxygen Influent Pressure tab Sight glass Treated effluent Freeboard for bed expansion Sand feed Burner Sealed cased well Thermocouple Sludge inlet Fluidized sand bed Tuyeres Fuel gun Pressure tap Refractory arch Fluidizing air inlet Windbox Reaction zone Startup preheat burner for hot windbox (a) Fluidized bed (b) Wet air oxidation 38 .As discharge regulations now require lower or even undetectable chorine residues in treated effluents. dechlorination units are being installed. In addition. Ultraviolet radiation is gaining ground as an alternative to chlorination. Technological changes in industry mean that industrial effluents are also changing. membrane bioreactors and membrane filtration. or alternative disinfection methods are being used. A trend towards the development of proprietary treatment processes in response to the privatization of treatment facilities is also observable. Figure 28. there is a growing trend in the direction of facilities designed for even higher levels of treatment and more compact size. expand and upgrade existing facilities. New treatment technologies may be required if these compounds are to be removed effectively. New technologies now in use include vortex separators. In many countries. Future studies and design efforts will address these ageing issues and look for ways to improve the performance and increase the capacity of existing facilities. There is growing awareness of the need to repair. Industrial wastewater now contains larger quantities of heavy metals and new synthetic organic compounds.

Figure 28 (continued) Clean gas to atmosphere Waste cooling air to atmosphere Floating damper Induced draft fan Cyclonic jet scrubber Filter cake screenings and grit Grease skimmings Fly ash slurry Makeup water To disposal Ash pump Ash hopper Cooling air (c) Multiple hearth Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering.. 3rd edition. 39 . and Liu and Lipták. Wastewater Treatment. Inc.

recreational lakes for swimming. while process water quality is dependent on the requirements of the manufacturing process involved. Reclaimed water used as boiler feed water must be softened and demineralized. notably the cost of pumping effluent to irrigated land. process water.45 43 44 45 Qasim. The main consideration associated with this effluent application method is the quality of the treated water and its suitability for plant growth. groundwater recharge. D. non-restricted recreational water use requires the treatment of secondary effluent by coagulation. Qasim. creates problems of scaling. Rowe and I. Industrial use Reclaimed water is ideal for industries using processes that do not require water of potable quality. which is the main factor dictating the selection of the waste-water treatment process sequence. and disinfection to achieve a total coliform count of fewer than 3 per 100 millilitres. for example.44 3. intestinal parasites. corrosion.R. Another highly important consideration is public health and safety hazards resulting from the potential presence of bacterial pathogens. guidelines and policies ensure acceptable discharge of waste-water effluent. waste-water is either reused or discharged into the environment.43 2. and high user costs. Abdel-Magid. Highly treated waste-water effluent from municipal waste-water treatment plants can be reused as a reliable source of water for agricultural irrigation. EFFLUENT RECLAMATION AND REUSE Effluent reclamation and reuse has received much attention lately. These problems are also encountered when fresh water is used. This section describes the various effluent reuse applications with emphasis on effluent quality issues. Irrigation Treated waste-water effluent can be used for the irrigation of crops or landscaped areas. For example. If not reused. Industrial uses of reclaimed water include evaporative cooling water. toxic chemicals. recreational uses.H. non-potable urban reuse or even potable reuse. A major concern in reuse applications is the quality of the reclaimed water. MANAGEMENT OF TREATED EFFLUENT After treatment. the use of reclaimed water in cooling towers. 40 . aesthetic impoundments. owing to growing demand for water and unsustainable rates of consumption of natural water resources. filtration. Wastewater Treatment Plants. fishing. landscape irrigation. Potential constraints associated with the use of reclaimed waste-water for irrigation include the marketability of crops and public acceptance. including landscape maintenance. the higher the treatment level required. Some constituents in reclaimed water that are of particular significance in terms of agricultural irrigation include elevated concentrations of dissolved solids. and boating. protozoa and viruses. snow making and fish farming. Handbook of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse (Boca Raton: Lewis. biological growth. and irrigation and maintenance of the grounds and landscape around the plant. Recreational uses Reclaimed water is widely used for recreational purposes. Environmental regulations.44 The required treatment level for reclaimed water is dictated by the intended use: the greater the potential for human contact.III. but less frequently. 1995). Wastewater Treatment Plants. A. treated waste-water is commonly discharged into a water body and diluted. residual chlorine and nutrients. Each type of reuse is associated with a number of constraints on its applicability. boiler-feed water. 1. fouling and foaming. surface and groundwater pollution in the absence of adequate management. ornamental fountains. industrial recycling and reuse. Concerns vary with the intended irrigation use and the degree of human contact.

Groundwater recharge Groundwater recharge using reclaimed waste-water serves to mitigate water table decline. outfall structures must be designed for adequate dispersal of the effluent in the receiving waters in order to avoid localized pollution. safety and aesthetic concerns. Surface spreading utilizes flooding. A diffuser is a structure that discharges the effluent through a series of holes or ports along a pipe extending into the river (see figure 29). Excessive quantities of organic material may cause rapid bacterial growth and depletion of the dissolved oxygen resources of the water body. Wastewater Treatment Plants. unsaturated zone and aquifer. 1996). 1. Potable reuse The issue of the use of reclaimed water for drinking purposes has been approached with extreme caution because of public rejection and because of health. is disposed of either on land or into water bodies. many constraints remain. shape. Specific mathematical models devised to assess the effect of effluent discharge on receiving bodies and to aid in the design of outfalls will not be discussed here. Direct injection involves the pumping of reclaimed water directly into an aquifer. It takes advantage of the self-purification capacity of natural waters to further treat the effluent. Drawbacks of this method include high effluent treatment cost and the high cost of the necessary injecting facilities. Groundwater recharge methods include surface spreading in basins and by direct injection into aquifers. These factors include flow velocity. including rivers and streams. and store reclaimed water for future use.46. R. 41 . the option of direct potable use of reclaimed municipal waste-water is limited to extreme situations. reversal of current and wind circulation. Droste. The disposal area should be downstream from any location where water is to be withdrawn for human consumption.48 The temperature and salinity of the effluent should also be taken into consideration. At the present time. This can be achieved by using a multiport diffuser that extends across the width of the river.47 5. In addition. depth stratification due to salinity and temperature. and infiltration basins. Discharge into water bodies is the most common disposal practice. many factors are considered for proper mixing and dispersal of effluent. changes in pH or concentrations of some organic and inorganic compounds may be toxic to particular life forms. Depending on the characteristics of the receiving waters. B. Discharge into rivers and streams Waste-water effluent discharge into rivers should be such as to ensure rapid vertical mixing of the effluent over the full river depth and avoid foaming problems. Handbook. The major disadvantage of groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is the increased risk of groundwater contamination. Accordingly.4. waste-water effluent discharge must be based on sound engineering practice if the receiving environment is not to be adversely affected. protect groundwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion.L. Although extensive research is being conducted in this field. EFFLUENT DISPOSAL Treated waste-water effluent. if not reused. This application method improves the quality of the reclaimed water considerably as it percolates successively through soil. 46 47 48 Rowe and Abdel-Magid. constructed wetlands. This section addresses major considerations that need to be taken into account when treated waste-water effluent is discharged into water bodies. lakes. and seas and oceans. However. notably the determination of appropriate quality criteria for such water. ridge and furrow. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment (New York: John Wiley and Sons. Qasim.

0 ft typical Flow Eccentric reducer Eccentric reducer 45 inch bend Bottom of excavated trench Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. governing the performance of secondary waste-water treatment plants. lakes are subject to temperature stratification and less pronounced natural mixing via currents. EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS A significant element in waste-water disposal is the potential environmental impact associated with it. 49 Metcalf and Eddy. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System: Secondary Treatment Standards (2002). Consequently. it is essential to ensure that appropriate mixing occurs when waste-water effluent is discharged into a lake in order to prevent the formation of an anaerobic stratum. Regulations and procedures vary from one country to another and are continuously reviewed and updated to reflect growing concern for the protection of ambient industrial.epa. In shallow lakes. Environmental standards are developed to ensure that the impacts of treated waste-water discharges into ambient waters are acceptable. 42 . Under this programme. enhancing waste-water dilution. Inc. represent the minimum level of effluent quality attainable by secondary treatment in terms of BOD5 and TSS removal. upon discharge. 3rd edition. which apply to all municipal waste-water treatment plants.49 The outfall carries the wastewater to an offshore discharge point through a pipe laid on or buried in the ocean floor. the lower strata in a lake are usually subject to conditions of low temperature and low dissolved oxygen.cfm. 3rd edition. A marine outfall should be designed to ensure sufficient dilution of the effluent before it reaches the surface of the water or is carried inshore by ambient currents. http://cfpub. the effluent forms a rapidly rising water plume which entrains large amounts of ambient water. municipal. 3. and other facilities are required to obtain permits if their discharges go directly into surface waters. Discharge into lakes Being larger and deeper than rivers.. Standards play a fundamental role in the determination of the level of wastewater treatment required and in the selection of the discharge location and outfall structures. Waste-water is of lower density than seawater. These technology-based regulations. 2. Discharge into seas and oceans Oceans are extensively used for waste-water disposal because of their great assimilation capacity. which slow down the decomposition of organic matter. Consequently.Figure 29. 50 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Wastewater Engineering. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit programme in 1972 to control water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters. secondary treatment standards were established by USEPA for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). Inc.50 Table 19 lists the NPDES limitations for secondary wastewater treatment plants and the European Community Environmental Directive Requirements (EC EDR) for discharges from urban waste-water treatment plants. effluents are adequately dispersed by wind-induced currents that ensure appropriate mixing. If the water is not stratified. where the waste-water will be diluted by ambient currents. Wastewater Engineering. The discharge may be through a single-port or a multiport outfall structure that is similar to a river outfall (see figure 30). Typical river diffuser outfall Clean-out port 2. Accordingly. the plume will rise to the surface. C. and consequently.

This has led to an increase in the use of dual water systems52 and satellite reclamation systems.C. These technologies include pressure-driven membranes. Shanahan. ion exchange and air stripping systems. but a number of new technologies have emerged. Somlyódy and P. egg-shaped digesters and powerful heat dryers. Other developments include temperature-phased anaerobic digestion and auto-thermal aerobic digestion processes. 51 52 53 Metcalf and Eddy. D. which destroy volatile solids more effectively and yield enhanced production of class A biosolids. 1998). 43 . Developments in this area have been slower than in the field of waste-water treatment. c/ Removals in relation to influent load. has become a growing source of concern. d/ Limited to sensitive areas subject to eutrophication. however. as water shortages have intensified.: The World Bank Group. Volume reduction with a view to decreased disposal requirements is also an ongoing concern. and L. a/ National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System for secondary waste-water treatment plants. and then reused locally in order to minimize transportation and treatment costs. new technologies offering significantly higher removal rates are being designed and implemented. The current trend is in the direction of more reuse opportunities through the production of class A biosolids. Membrane technologies. Wastewater Engineering Treatment. Inc. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.. waste-water flows are withdrawn from the collection system. b/ European Community Environmental Directive Requirements for waste-water discharges. D.54 Sludge landfilling and incineration continue to decrease due to stricter regulations and increased public awareness. are now being tested for the production of highquality water for indirect potable reuse. especially from new trace contaminants. Dual water systems involve the supply of potable water and non-potable water through two separate distribution networks. including high-solids centrifuges. and are expected to become the predominant treatment technologies in the near future. potential microbial and chemical water contamination. In satellite reclamation systems. In response to these increasing concerns. 4th edition.53 At the same time. has less volume and can be safely reused. 54 Class A biosolids are biosolids in which pathogen concentrations have been reduced to below detectable levels. In the field of sludge reclamation and reuse technologies. and consequently direct potable reuse of reclaimed water is likely to remain impracticable. advanced oxidation. Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Central and Eastern Europe: Present Situation and Cost-Effective Development Strategies (Washington. increased attention is being devoted to the production of sludge that is clean. which were formerly restricted to water desalination applications. NEW DIRECTIONS AND CONCERNS51 A worldwide trend toward acceptance of the concept of reuse is currently observable. carbon adsorption. treated. USEPA. NPDES AND EC EDR FOR DISCHARGES FROM WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS 30-day average concentration 30 mg/L 30 mg/L 6-9 NPDESa/ 7-day average concentration 45 mg/L 45 mg/L Percentage of removalc/ 85 85 EC EDRWDb/ Concentration Percenatge (mg/L) of removalc/ 25 70-90 35-60 70-90 125 75 10-15 70-80 1-2 80 Parameter BOD5 TSS PH COD Total nitrogend/ Total phosphorusd/ Sources: USEPA.TABLE 19.

Gilman et al. 44 . The use of instrumentation and automatic control is growing nowadays. temperature and density55. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT FACILITIES Waste-water treatment processes are characterized by continuous disturbances and variations that cannot be detected by manual measurements with the precision and within the time span necessary for maintaining proper operation of the facility.D. BENEFITS OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT Purpose Process Benefit Improved process performance and better process results Efficient use of energy Efficient use of chemicals Process changes detected in a timely manner Automatic execution of corrective measures Greater ability to control complex processes Immediate malfunction alert signal Diagnosis of problems in a remotely located equipment item before malfunction occurs Status at all times Automatic execution of corrective measures and automatic response to potentially disastrous situations Increase in running time Timely and accurate process information Safer operation Efficient use of labour Capability to solve analytical problems quickly Minimized potential for human error Feasibility of an overview of plant operation Decrease in manual paperwork More complete records that may allow an overview of plant operation and plant behavior. rapid transfer of data to the operator or manager. Virginia: Water Environment Federation. Manual of Practice No. Figure 30 illustrates a typical control system. Signal transmitting device.. chemical and biological composition.IV. Computer and central control room. Instrumentation and automatic control allow continuous monitoring of process variables. 55 H. Instrumentation in Wastewater Treatment Facilities. 1993). and convenience to personnel (see table 20). TABLE 20. and immediate automatic execution of corrective measures when needed. and design of future expansion Increased security Equipment Personnel Source: Qasim. which generally comprises the following components: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Measurement device. Typical process disturbances include process inputs and conditions such as variable flow rates. Control system. equipment performance. owing to the multitude of benefits that they confer in terms of process improvement. Data display or readout. 21 (Alexandria. Wastewater Treatment Plants.

Moreover. measurements may be performed on-line or off-line. Furthermore. indirectly or by inferential means. Wastewater Treatment Plants. etc. A. pressure. MEASURING DEVICES Measuring devices. SIGNAL-TRANSMITTING DEVICES The function of a signal-transmitting device is to transmit a process variable signal from a sensor to a readout device or controller. or electronically by means of voltage and current. signals are transmitted by milliamp direct current or by voltage signals. indicator. electrical hazards have been eliminated by intrinsic safety techniques.. Typical control system components Final control element Manipulated variable PROCESS Disturbances Measuring device Controller Transmitter Display devices: recorder or indicator Source: Qasim. chlorine residual. and they can be maintenance-free. Electronic devices are often comparatively small in size and relatively inexpensive. level. recorders. the length of time the voltage is transmitted is in proportion to the measured data. Gilman et al. oxidation-reduction potential. In tone transmission.57 Electronic signals can operate over great distances without causing time lags. or tone. pneumatically by means of a detector or an amplifier. The signal may be transmitted mechanically. TOC reduction rate.). float or cable. 45 . etc. and they can handle multiple signal inputs. referred to as sensors. This transmission method is particularly advantageous where the gathering points are scattered over a large area and where telephone lines are either not available or prohibitively expensive. In voltage and current transmission. Sensor devices can measure variables directly. continuously or intermittently. by means of the movement of a pen. C. and totalizers on panels or computer 56 57 Qasim. In pulse duration or time-pulse transmission. The most common types of readout devices are indicators. temperature.56. These variables fall into three categories: physical (flow. DATA DISPLAY READOUT Readout devices display the transmitted operation in a configuration that is usable by the operator. pulse duration. include instruments that sense.Figure 30. Radio/microwave transmission has recently been developed and put into practice. standard telephone lines are normally used to transmit signals. Electronic and radio/microwave control systems are becoming more attractive for a number of reasons. chemical (pH. they can be made compatible with a digital computer. Wastewater Treatment Plants. turbidity. specific conductance. sludge growth rate. Instrumentation.57 Some commonly used on-line process measurement devices and their applications are summarized in annex I. dissolved oxygen. B. and so on) and biological (oxygen consumption rate. measure or compute the process variables.).

D. close to the equipment site. D. Facilitated manual control. Figure 31.screens. the status of equipment and status changes (digital measurement) are correlated with a preset value or programme of events. The transmitted signal. transmit data as a range of values measuring flow rate. alarm/normal). Continuous control. B. Operator Valve B. CONTROL SYSTEMS Time control systems used in waste-water engineering fall into three categories: (a) Digital control. Automatic feed-forward control. 58 Qasim. indicates a status change. requires analog measurement for its input and manipulates a final control element as its output. or transmitted as a combination of the two. open/close. Automatic feedback control. converted to digital form. Automatic feed-forward-feedback computer control. or automatically by an internal process-generated event. Automatic control systems may be discrete or continuous. (c) Automatic control. Remote manual control. C. Analog data may be reused and transmitted unchanged. The operation may be initiated manually by the operator. on the other hand. (b) Analog control. concentration and level. Wastewater Treatment Plants. The devices automatically regulate the control variable. Operator Controller Motor Valve Feedback Position indicator E.58 Control loops and control systems may be set up in a variety of configurations. 46 . Operator Control Panel Meter Controller Set point Motor Valve Feedback Position indicator F. Operator Motor Valve C. in contrast. as demonstrated in figure 31. Digital control systems have two positions (on/off. The data display is placed either locally. or at a central operating room for the whole facility. float or pressure switch. E. Operator Control Panel Control Panel Set point Motor Valve D. The control element may be feedback and feedforward control loops and control systems or controllers. using a push button. and F. Analog control systems. Manual control. which originates from a position. In discrete control. Examples of control systems A. limit. Operator Control Panel Meter Controller Logic computer Motor Valve Feedback Position indicator Meter Feed-forward Feedback Note: A.

Modern data acquisition systems. with the result that fewer personnel are required to operate a large treatment facility. and display data transmitted from sensors. the system is capable of solving problems by comparing the inputs to its previous experience and plant historical data ƒ Potential disadvantage that no warning may be given if the process reaches a state that has not occurred previously Fuzzy Control System Neural Networks System Source: Qasim. displaying treatment information. Qasim. reduces energy demand and improves overall system performance ƒ Provides the computer system with learning capabilities ƒ System is supplied with a set of input data and a set of expected results or output data. can provide accurate. . “Instrumentation. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Control and Automation Progress in the United States in the Last 24 Years. 37 (1998). reduces operator workload. impartial documentation of process measurements and operator actions.E. 21-25. record. expert systems. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS Data acquisition systems effectively accumulate. Three systems have been developed for that purpose. important events and alarms in a centralized location. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS Artificial intelligence system Expert System Description ƒ Involves mathematical models that incorporate concepts and facts used by experienced operators for decision-making ƒ Consists of an interactive interface allowing operators to meet their information needs ƒ May be regarded as rudimentary compared to the complexity of the treatment operations ƒ Experts may disagree on proposed rules ƒ Consists of a reasoning system that incorporates qualitative and/or quantitative models of processes and mixtures of automatic control and expert systems techniques. Automatic or manual actuation of final control elements is also performed at the central control room. Neural networks are relatively new and have not yet been extensively developed for use in waste-water management. commonly referred to as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.. F. Garrett Jr. followed by fuzzy control systems. reduces chemical use. air supply. Instrumentation. pump scheduling. 47 . 60 59 Gilman et al.. and so on. Data acquisition systems are located in a central control room. Expert systems were the first to be developed. and neural networks.” Water Science and Technology. SCADA systems can produce the necessary process corrections such as chemical solutions. Wastewater Treatment Plantsn and T.Expresses experts’ operating methods with IF-THEN control rules ƒ Executes data and performs feedback control of the process ƒ Allows smooth control of processes.M.Uses expert systems to control plant operations . ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE New technological advances have made it feasible to use artificial intelligence for the monitoring and control of operations in a waste-water treatment plant.59 Table 21 describes the three systems and their applications. namely.60 TABLE 21. and Gilman et al.. and then learns by adapting its internal recognition formulations ƒ Once trained. fuzzy control systems. format. Instrumentation. In addition to data accumulation and processing.

Wastewater Engineering. Metcalf and Eddy.62 61 62 Gilman et al. and that stricter limits imposed on waste-water discharges will be met. This means that a broader range of compounds will be monitored. help optimize process performance. waste-water characterization is likely to improve in the years to come. most of the resultant decisions are made on an economic basis.. where microbiological techniques. complexity of the process. Inc. channels. the design and operation of waste-water treatment facilities will be greatly enhanced. As process modeling becomes more accurate. Improved characterization of waste-water. tanks. The decision to use instrumentation. pipes and mechanical equipment will frequently have to be substantially altered to accommodate good instrumentation and control practices. 4th edition. automation. reliability requirements. 48 . will also yield more knowledge about the behavior of waste-water constituents and their relationship to process performance. made possible by more sensitive detection methods and advanced analytical techniques.61 There is a wide range of variables that can be monitored within each treatment unit used at the facility. and control in waste-water treatment systems should be made early in the conceptual design phase of a facility. hours of manned operation. Annex table 6 outlines the functions that can be monitored for various treatment processes. H.. APPLICATION IN THE WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANT There are many factors that determine the need for instrumentation and control elements in wastewater systems. These factors include the size of the facility. With devices that can measure values of micrograms and even nanograms per liter. This is especially true for biological treatment processes. as it influences the design of the entire system. including RNA and DNA typing. contaminants that are present only in trace amounts will be accurately detected. and availability of instrumentation maintenance personnel. NEW DIRECTIONS As new and more sophisticated instrumentation is developed.G. Instrumentation. Ultimately. the size and configuration of existing vessels.

operation and maintenance costs. Benefits from sludge and effluent reuse must also be included in the feasibility study. THE WATER TREATMENT COST ESTIMATION PROCESS The process of evaluating and selecting appropriate water treatment technology usually begins with a technical feasibility study that depends on the nature of the application. Levels of cost estimate64 According to the American Association of Cost Engineers (AACE). Water treatment cost estimation requires a thorough knowledge of the mechanical elements involved. The preliminary design cost estimate determines the financial feasibility of the project and provides a cost baseline. Cost-effectiveness evaluation is undertaken only after existing and future conditions have been estimated. 49 . Other authorities have defined a fourth level of estimate. the cost estimation process is described in general terms. Historical data from similar projects usually provides a good order-of-magnitude estimate. which is known as the design-to-cost process. ECONOMICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT The selection and design of waste-water treatment facilities is greatly dependent on the costs associated with treatment processes. preliminary and definitive. effluent and sludge management identified and compared in terms of their effectiveness. American Water Works Association (AWWA) and ASCE. According to S. 1.63 Resources are the capital. 1990). usually according to manufacturers’ specifications. the following three levels of cost estimate are needed throughout the design process: order-of-magnitude. Water Treatment Plant Design (New York: McGraw-Hill. and process alternatives for waste-water treatment. and monitoring costs. The processes used in both projects must be similar. which comes between the order-of-magnitude and preliminary estimates. Wastewater Treatment Plants. In this section. experience and sound judgment are necessary. sludge handling and disposal. R. operation and maintenance. land requirements. sensitivity analysis with respect to estimate inaccuracies must be performed to break the tie. termed the conceptual level estimate. When the costs associated with two or more processes appear to be equal. It is a genuinely multidisciplinary effort. In general. while differences in capacity can be resolved through proper factorization. 63 64 Qasim. waste-water volume and characteristics forecast. This chapter examines cost estimation methodologies for various water treatment technologies and provides illustrative examples of cost estimates as reported in the literature. since there are a number of parameters that cannot easily be quantified. In addition. At this stage. including the major process and work elements required.V. A. a conceptual cost estimate is needed when alterations to an existing plant are under consideration. including capital investment. and all design engineers must take part in the process. and the cost elements usually included in an estimate are indicated. but also social and environmental costs. major facilities and equipment must be identified and sized. ‘a cost-effective [waste-water treatment] solution is one that will minimize total costs of the resources over the life of the treatment facility. A preliminary definition of the scope of work must be identified. Qasim.

including miscellaneous items. As the design process progresses. high contingencies are allowed for estimates with low degrees of confidence. Historical cost data are commonly used for capital cost estimates. contingencies may be expected to occur. the reason for the deviation must be determined. delivery and contingencies. but contingencies will decrease. Water Treatment Plant Design. Of course. Contingencies In almost all projects. if it does. so that the total project cost will remain unchanged. According to table 23. Vendor quotations for all equipment used must be confirmed at this stage. cost estimation factors can be used. Water Treatment Plant Design. This estimate is not expected to vary from the preliminary design estimate by more than 15 per cent. pumps. is used to compare the costs of two plants using the same process but with different capacities.6 65 AWWA and ASCE. For the purpose of conceptual or preliminary design estimates. the total project cost is approximately 525 per cent of the equipment cost. according to the following equation:65 Cost new plant = Cost existing plant x (Capacity new plant / Capacity existing plant) 0. the capital costs of investment include piping. 50 . The cost of the major process equipment must be known. or when historical data are not available. A breakdown according to a standardized format. LEVELS OF COST ESTIMATES (Percentage) Type of cost estimate Order-of-magnitude Conceptual Preliminary design Definitive Level of accuracy + 50 to – 30 + 40 to – 20 + 30 to – 15 + 15 to – 5 Recommended contingency 20 to 30 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 Source: AWWA and ASCE. engineering. The definitive level estimate is commonly used as a contract price for construction contractors. the known project cost will increase. Estimation of capital costs In addition to the cost of the treatment unit and its ancillary equipment. known as the six-tenths rule. installation. such as that given by the Construction Specification Institute. Another rule of thumb. a definitive level estimate can be produced. TABLE 22. Table 22 lists the levels of accuracy and recommended contingency for each level of cost estimate. These data are most useful when they incorporate enough detail to allow cost estimates for different plant sections separately. for example. instrumentation and controls.When the design document is finalized. Great care must be taken to ensure that all cost items have been included. helps produce more accurate conceptual and preliminary cost estimates. 2. Examples of cost factors from two sources are listed in table 23 and table 24. primarily from vendors’ quotations. 3.

0 Land requirements for each new equipment item are based on equipment dimensions. TABLE 24. controls. Detailed Costing Document for the Centralized Waste Treatment Industry.0 4. Water Treatment Plant Design.0 10.TABLE 23.66 5. STANDARD CAPITAL COST ALGORITHM Factor Total construction costs (TCC) Equipment cost (EC) Installation Piping Instrumentation and controls Total indirect cost (TIC) Engineering Contingency Total capital cost Capital cost Technology-specific cost 25 to 55 per cent of EC 31 to 66 per cent of EC 6 to 30 per cent of EC 15 per cent of TCC 15 per cent of TCC TCC + TIC Source: USEPA.0 10.0 70.epa. 51 . treatment chemicals (if used) and residuals management (if needed).0 40. Land requirement equations have been developed for each technology.0 65.0 10. energy. The land requirements are further multiplied by the corresponding land costs to obtain facility-specific land cost estimates. PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FACILITY COST BASED ON HISTORICAL COST DATA (Percentage) Equipment cost Equipment installation Process mechanical piping Instrumentation and control Electrical Buildings Yard improvements Service facilities Engineering and supervision Project management and overhead Total percentage of equipment cost Subtotal percent of project cost for above Additional project cost elements Miscellaneous and unidentified equipment Miscellaneous and unidentified process mechanical Miscellaneous and unidentified electrical/I&C Percentage of total project cost Source: AWWA and ASCE.0 80.0 20.0 420. access areas. Table 25 presents annual O&M costs 66 USEPA. Additionally.0 100. and so on). Land requirements The land requirements include the total area needed for the equipment plus peripherals (pumps. 100.0 35. Detailed Costing Document.0 5. taxes and insurance.0 50. EPA 821-R-98-016 (1998). http://www. a 20-foot perimeter around each unit can be assumed. Preparation of the O&M budget The annual O&M costs include the costs of maintenance. labour.0 5.

for various systems derived by the USEPA from vendors’ information or from engineering literature. Major cost elements of the O&M budget are briefly outlined in the following sections. TABLE 25. STANDARD OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COST FACTOR BREAKDOWN
Factor Maintenance Taxes and insurance Labour Electricity Chemicals: Lime (calcium hydroxide) Polymer Sodium hydroxide (100% solution) Sodium hydroxide (50% solution) Sodium hypochlorite Sulfuric acid Ferrous sulfate Hydrated lime Sodium sulfide Residuals management
Source: USEPA, Detailed Costing Document.

O&M 1998 USD/year 4 per cent of total capital cost 2 per cent of total capital cost $30,300 to $31,200 per man-year $0.08 per kilowatt-hour $57 per ton $3.38 per pound $0.28 per pound $0.14 per pound $0.64 per pound $1.34 per pound $0.09 per pound $0.04 per pound $0.30 per pound Technology-specific cost


Labour budget

Initial staffing cost includes recruitment cost. A continuing staffing cost is also added to the budget to account for employee turnover. The number of staff required and corresponding labour rates must be established. Staff requirements depend on the level of automation, the number of processes and the degree of plant spreadout. Table 26 presents an estimate of staff requirements for two 50 mgd and two 5 mgd conventional water treatment plants that differ in respect of their levels of automation. As will be seen from this table, a large-capacity facility that is fully automated will require a significantly smaller number of operators. Training cost is highest at initial startup, but is expected to continue during the lifetime of the facility, in order to stay ahead of a constantly evolving technology. TABLE 26. ESTIMATE OF STAFF REQUIREMENTS FOR 50 AND 5 MGD WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Position Plant manager Operations supervisor Maintenance supervisor Operator Mechanical technician Electronics technician Instrument technician Laboratory technician Buildings maintenance Grounds maintenance 50 mgd water treatment plant Semiautomatic Fully automatic 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 5 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 5 mgd water treatment plant Semiautomatic Fully automatic 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 1 1* 1* 0 1 1 1 1** 1** 0 0

Source: AWWA and ASCE, Water Treatment Plant Design.

* Position split between electrical and instrumentation duties. ** Position split between janitorial and groundskeeping duties.



Chemical budget

All chemicals must be listed, and quantities for specific operational requirements must be estimated. Price quotes are then obtained from several vendors. A strictly maintained inventory is essential in order to regulate the use of chemicals, particularly those with a limited shelf life, and to avoid possible losses. It is also important to take the cost of providing adequate storage facilities into consideration, since suitable storage conditions will not merely preserve but actually extend the shelf life of chemicals. Adequate measures must be taken for the disposal of expired chemicals and other chemical wastes, and the associated costs must be taken into account. (c)
Utilities budget

The utilities budget includes the cost of power, gas, sewer and telephone, the most significant of these being power. Possible ways of reducing power costs should be considered, such as operating at off-peak rates, if available, and the use of energy-efficient electrical equipment. It is important to note that actual energy consumption may be much higher than the amount calculated for theoretical conditions. Distillation processes, for example, may require temperatures as much as 20°C higher than those indicated by theory in order to accelerate heat transfer in systems with small heat transfer areas, resulting in increased energy consumption.67 (d)
Equipment maintenance budget

This budget will inevitably increase as the waste-water treatment plant ages. It includes replacement costs for equipment, consumables and maintenance tools. When costly equipment is involved, replacement frequencies and cost must be envisaged in full detail, as otherwise the feasibility of the entire project may be jeopardized. In reverse osmosis, for example, membrane fouling rates affect membrane replacement costs and consequently must be estimated with a high degree of accuracy.68 6. Other cost considerations It is essential not to overlook unique project conditions that are not usually reflected in historical data, as these conditions may entail substantial additional costs. The most pertinent of these are geotechnical and site constraints.69 If, for example, the plant is located far from its primary water source, the cost of material transportation may be substantial. In some cases, soil conditions may be less than ideal for construction, with the result that additional foundation support is required. 7. Methods of financial analysis Common methods of financial analysis can be applied once the original capital and operating costs and interest rates are established, including for example, the payback period, the internal rate of return, and the net present value.70 Box 1 illustrates how the payback period method was applied to determine the viability of using RO for treating rinse water in an electroplating facility.

67 G.A. Pittner, “The Economics of Desalination Processes,” Chapter 3 in Reverse Osmosis: Membrane Technology, Water Chemistry, and Industrial Applications, edited by Z. Amjad (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993). 68 69 70

Ibid. AWWA and ASCE, Water Treatment Plant Design. Pittner, “Economics of Desalination”.


Box 1. Reverse osmosis economics for an electroplating facility
An electroplating facility is considering the use of reverse osmosis (RO) for the treatment of rinse water. Benefits are expected through the reuse of rinse water and metals recovered. Table 27 summarizes the results obtained through the payback period method. It can be seen from this table that payback periods depend both on feed flow and concentration. RO treatment of nickel rinse water seems to be economically feasible, with short payback periods, while it is less economical for chromium.

Rinse water Nickel Cadmium Cadmium Chromium Membrane Tubular cellulose acetate Spiral wrap polyamide Spiral wrap polyamide Spiral wrap thin film composite Feed concentration (mg/l) 2 035 588 223 1 840 Payback period (years) 5 m3/d 15 m3/d 5 m3/h 1.3 2.1 1.7 3.0 4.8 3.9 5.9 9.4 8.0 7 No net savings 9.9

Source: J.J. Schoeman et al., “Evaluation of reverse osmosis for electroplating effluent treatment”, Water Science and Technology, 25, 10 (1992): pp. 79-93

8. Water treatment cost estimation tools A number of computer tools have been developed to assist the designer in estimating water treatment system cost. These tools are helpful in arriving at first-level estimates, but should be used with caution, since they incorporate many simplifying assumptions. In this section, two examples of software programmes are discussed. The purpose is purely illustrative, and full coverage of these software programmes is not attempted here. (a)
WaTER software71

The United States Bureau of Reclamation, jointly with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has developed a spreadsheet tool called Water Treatment Estimation Routine (WaTER) to facilitate parameter and system cost estimation. This tool is publicly available for download.72 WaTER cost estimates are based on cost curves published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)73 of the United States and a report by S.R. Qasim.74 The spreadsheet calculates dosage rates and costs for the processes listed below: pH adjustment with sulfuric acid; Disinfection with chlorine, chloramine, and ozone; Coagulation/flocculation with alum, ferric sulfate and lime/soda ash using upflow solids contact clarifiers; Filtration enhancement with polymer feed;

71 M.C. Wilbert et al., Water Treatment Estimation Routine (WaTER) User Manual (Denver: United States Department of the Interior, August 1999). 72 73

Available at:

USEPA, Estimating Water Treatment Costs, Volume 2: Cost Curves Applicable to 1 to 200 mgd Treatment Plants, EPA 600012-79-162.
74 S.R. Qasim et al., “Estimating Costs for Treatment Plant Construction”, Journal of the American Water Works Association, August 1992.


The CAPDET model was further developed by Hydromantis and implemented in a software tool. according to local values. Desired plant product flow rate in L/sec. and the O&M cost estimation. The following input information is required for all processes: Planned plant feed flow rate in L/sec. EPA joined forces with the United States Army Corps of Engineers in developing a model. Microfiltration as pretreatment to remove particulate matter. including water influent and effluent quality and the treatment strategy in question.75 The software is graphical. system size. electrodialysis and reverse osmosis. and number of pumps. Additional input in this case includes membrane data from manufacturers’ information sheets. The general input screen is shown in annex figure 4.html. that allows designers to perform preliminary cost comparisons between possible treatment options. The unit processes included in the software are listed in the table in annex IV. 75 Available at: http://www. Annex figure 6 shows the output screen for an RO-NF process. cost data are needed to prove that membrane technologies are truly viable. process-specific input is required. small land requirements and ease of O&M are uncontested. cost indices (such as workforce wages and power cost) can be updated by the user. 55 . (b) CAPDET In 1973. Annex IV also shows some illustrative screens obtained from the demo version. The output of the routine is the capital cost estimate. comparing the costs of an activated sludge system to those of a trickling filter system. and is designed to require only a minimal amount of user input. Pumping: raw water. membrane processes are now able to compete with conventional treatment technologies. Demineralization with ion exchange. It uses design algorithms and cost estimation techniques to produce the process design and cost. including number of modules and vessels.hydromantis. While their performance. A free demonstration copy of this software can be obtained from the Hydromantis website. In addition to the above. backwash and finished water pumping. Cost indices (February 1999 included). B. direct and indirect. as illustrated in annex figure 5 for an RO-NF process. CAPDET. The major disadvantage is that user intervention and data manipulation are required to simulate a plant with multiple processes. Water analysis. ECONOMICS OF MEMBRANE AND ION EXCHANGE SYSTEMS Due to their steadily falling costs and improving performance.- Filtration with granular activated carbon and granular media. In addition. The advantage of this routine is that it facilitates sensitivity analysis with respect to process parameters.

8 per gpd are common. 78 79 77 Elarde and Bergman.and alter long-standing misconceptions. equipment costs ranging between US$ 0. 56 . MF.2 1 0. Data in this figure were obtained from a survey of 25 recently constructed facilities in the US and Canada. Elarde and R. The table in annex E gives the membrane filtration cost data obtained through this survey.2582 During the 1970s and 1980s. clean-in-place equipment.6 0. while economies of scale can be achieved with respect to the cost of the remaining equipment. whereas they witnessed a steadey decline in the United States. It follows that large-capacity systems are characterized by relatively low overall equipment costs.6 1.8 0. 2001). Polishing equipment cost is estimated at 30-50 per cent of RO unit cost. Wagner. becomes insignificant with very large systems (over 2 mgd). “The cost of membrane filtration”. it is estimated at 30 per cent of the cost of an RO unit for moderate pretreatment. because the membrane module cost represents the largest portion of the overall cost (see figure 32). Membrane module cost is proportional to capacity. Chapter 1 in Membrane Practices for Water Treatment. Fitting the data points. Figure 32.R.2 0 0 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman. while the installation cost for the whole system usually amounts to 30 per cent of the RO equipment cost. blowers. however.6946 x [capacity (mgd)] – 0.A. Typical reverse-osmosis costs (a) Equipment cost RO equipment typically includes the following components: membrane module. control equipment and tanks. and gives an overview of IX costs for comparison purposes. As this figure shows. the cost curve must be multiplied by the ratio of the actual flux to 50gpd/sf.4 and US$ 0. pumps. Bergman. “The cost of membrane filtration”.J. edited by S. 1. “The cost of membrane filtration for municipal water supplies”. Unit installed equipment cost of RO filtration plants US$/gpd 1. Duranceau (Denver: American Water Works Association. UF and NF.4 0.77 Pretreatment equipment cost depends on the nature of the water supply. including in particular the dairy industry. membrane module prices held steady in Europe. we obtain the curve defined by the equation:78 Cost (US$/gpd) = 0.79 This drop in price is attributed to the adoption of RO technology by a number of industries in the United States. This trend. 76 J. Membrane Filtration Handbook.76 This section looks at the costs of RO.4 1. Note that the cost curve is based on a flux of 50 gpd/sf. For other flux values.

number of elements and element construction.000–3. 57 .3471 80 81 82 83 Ibid. tubular flat sheet. depending on country. and as a result a dairy system nowadays costs approximately US$ 150-250 per square metre. the following equation is obtained:83 Cost (US$/gpd) = 2. fiber and ceramic membrane systems.81 Table 28 provides a rough cost comparison between spiral-wound.. while a water system typically sells for US$ 70-150 per square metre. However. but are also expected to make services and warranties less accessible and more expensive.In fact. Ibid. Prices vary greatly.700 3. Ibid.80 The price continued to decline through the 1990s. valves. a cost curve plotted against plant capacity is useful as a means of obtaining an order-of-magnitude approximation of construction cost (see figure 33). “The cost of membrane filtration”.400 per m2 to US$ 370 per m2 of membrane area installed. To illustrate: the price of a complete spiral-wound system. COST COMPARISON OF VARIOUS RO MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Complete system cost per m2 of membrane area (US$/m2) 300–500 Membrane replacement cost (US$/m2) Thin film RO: 15-25 Thin film NF: 20-40 Polysulfon UF: 25-50 Specialty element: 35–70 120 130–180 700 N/A Type Spiral-wound Remarks Prices are not expected to drop further in the near future. Similarly. These falling prices will undoubtedly widen the client base. dropped from US$ 1. TABLE 28.000 Price is being kept high for political reasons Used mainly in oil emulsion treatment and whole milk Used only for very special products due to high cost Source: J. configuration and location. Membrane Filtration Handbook: Practical Tips and Hints (Osmonics. a pharmaceutical membrane system costs approximately US$ 200-300 per square metre.000–10. 2001).000 (high end systems) 2.4914 x [capacity (mgd)] – 0. Inc. Elarde and Bergman. The cost curve shows economies of scale up to a capacity of 5 mgd. including membrane. internal piping and tubing.000 > 1. pumps and control equipment. since suppliers’ profit margins are minimal Tubular sheet Plate and frame Fiber Ceramic 300–500 (low end systems) 1. (b) Plant construction cost Construction costs of the surveyed plants82 are very scattered because of differences in pretreatment equipment. When data are fitted. the massive use of spiral-wound elements in the dairy industry at the end of the 1980s was a contributing factor in the sharp fall in the price of these modules. Wagner.

5 0 0 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman.15 per 1. (c) Operation and maintenance costs Excluding labour.2 1 0.6 0.000 gallons of produced water (see figure 34). 84 Ibid.4 1.84 Figure 34.2 0 0 O&M without labor Total O&M assuming 5 op erators 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman. 58 . Unit RO filtration O&M cost US$/1. with capacity in excess of 25 mgd. depending on location. The types of chemicals used include coagulants. and thus economies of scale can be achieved up to 5 mgd.1-0. chemicals and power.8 0. salt.5 1 0. “The cost of membrane filtration”. but do not vary greatly.4 0.5 3 2. “The cost of membrane filtration”. antiscalant and dispersants. (i) Chemicals The cost of chemicals is variable.5 2 1. For very large plants. reducing agents. critical O&M cost elements are primarily membrane replacement. These costs are proportional to plant capacity.000 gpd 2 1.8 1.Figure 33. O&M costs are in the vicinity of US$ 0.6 1. chemical conditioning agents. Unit construction cost of membrane filtration plants US$/gpd 3.

000 gpd 1. thin-film composite RO system with a pump efficiency of 78 per cent and a motor efficiency of 93 per cent requires 4 kWh per 1.000 gallons of product water. while a double pass RO system consumes 8 kWh per 1. depending on the quality of the water input. Power consumption is dependent on source water quality. “The cost of membrane filtration”.200. membrane cost becomes the most important factor (more than 50 per cent of the total cost). and may account for as much as four per cent of equipment costs for seawater RO. seal replacements and piping.000 gallons. costs approximately US$ 1. By way of example. Figure 35. The cost of the chemicals required to clean averages some US$ 50. Cleaning frequencies of more than three years for good-quality water supplies and one month for low-quality water supplies are common. (iii) Membrane cleaning and replacement Membrane replacement accounts for 6-10 per cent of the total water production cost. but for seawater RO. the total cost curve shown in figure 35 is obtained. the price of an 8 x 40 inch thin-film composite module is approximately US$ 1. Membranes are cleaned every six months on average. and thus is a major component of plant cost.(ii) Power RO processes are heavy consumers of power. A single-stage.8 0.6 0.4 0. Maintenance includes the repair and calibration of equipment and pumps.000 gallons of product water. This is attributable to the fact that the system must operate at higher pressures with lower recovery rates. Membrane cost is usually depreciated over a lifetime of 3-5 years. Unit RO filtration total water treatment cost US$/1. Above 5 mgd. The same membrane module. Seawater RO.000 gallons of produced water.2 0 0 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman. (iv) Equipment maintenance Equipment maintenance accounts for approximately two per cent of equipment costs for brackish water RO.2 1 0. The decreasing cost of membrane modules thus holds out the prospect of more widespread use of membrane technology. expressed in US$ per 1. will consume approximately 25-30 kWh per 1. due to corrosion. 59 . The quality of source water and target product water determines what type of membrane equipment must be used. for example. (d) Total plant cost After amortizing equipment and construction costs over 20 years and adding in O&M costs.4 1.700.

Jacangelo and Lainé.5 per 1. storage. 001 0. 001 0. the following equation was obtained for membrane system unit cost (Y) as a function of plant capacity (X) (see figure 36):86 Y (US$/gpd) = 0.M. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration costs Larger-capacity MF and UF plants are becoming economically viable.000 gallons for plants with capacities in excess of 5 mgd.1 1 10 100 Capacity ( mgd) Source: Adham. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”. 60 . including the cost of the membrane system in addition to the cost of all other process equipment. Lainé. disinfection. Fitting the data points. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.38 Figure 36.2. These include electrical supply. Jacangelo and Lainé.01 0.” Journal AWWA.01 mgd.78 X-0. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants.1 1 10 100 Capacity( mgd) Source: Adham. 85 86 87 88 S.5 per 1.85 The treatment unit cost ranged between US$ 0. Jacangelo and J.000 gallons for plants with a capacity of 0.29 X-0. 000 gpd 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. Adham. Membrane system unit costs appeared to be similar for UF and MF. MF and UF plant capital unit cost as a function of plant capacity US$/1.000 gpd) = 1. Fitting the data points. MF and UF system unit cost as a function of plant capacity US$/gpd 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. Jacangelo and Lainé. 01 0.87 the survey concluded that economies of scale were possible. the following equation was obtained for plant capital unit cost (Y) as a function of plant capacity (X) (see figure 37):88 Y (US$/1. May 1996. Ibid. Adham. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”. As regards plant capital cost. J. pumping and wash water recovery systems. according to a recent survey of 74 such plants worldwide.40 Figure 37. and US$ 2. and that both UF and MF were characterized by similar plant capital unit costs for small-scale plants (under 1 mgd).

the following equations were obtained for O&M cost (Y) as a function of plant capacity (X) (see figure 38):90 UF: Y (US$/1.With respect to O&M costs. Jacangelo and Lainé. Jacangelo and Lainé.15 MF: Y (US$/1.000 gpd 3 2. MF plants appeared to have lower costs than UF plants.5 1 0. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.2 0.000 gpd) = 0. A lower treatment unit cost was found for MF than for UF. 61 .000gpd 2 1. and the value obtained was added to the O&M cost to obtain the treatment unit cost.053 Figure 38.26 MF: Y (US$/1. due to the lower O&M cost associated with the former. Ibid. The equations obtained for MF and UF were as shown below (see figure 39):91 UF: Y (US$/1.4 0 0. Jacangelo and Lainé.000 gpd) = 0. presumably because of their lower power consumption and membrane replacement costs.78 X-0. 89 90 91 Ibid.6 1.01 0. MF and UF O&M cost as a function of plant capacity US$/1.001 UF MF 0. Adham. the capital cost was amortized over a 20-year period with a seven per cent interest rate.000 gpd) = 0. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.5 2 1. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.5 0 0.01 0.001 0.8 0.56 X-0.20 X-0. fitting the data points.89 Again.30 Figure 39. Finally. MF and UF treatment unit cost as a function of plant capacity US$/1.1 1 10 100 Capacity(mgd) Source: Adham.000 gpd) = 0.1 1 10 100 UF MF Capacity (mgd) Source: Adham.43 X-0.

(c) Cost versus pretreatment options95 The study investigated the result of the following blending scenarios on system cost: 92 Conventional pretreatment96 followed by NF filtration of 50 per cent of water flow. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. coagulation.278/m3 to US$ 0. S. This reduction occurred in spite of the fact that cleaning frequency increased fivefold. Similarly. Costs are shown plotted against permeate flux and feedwater recovery in figure 40.92 the effects of permeate flux and fouling rates on the capital and O&M costs of NF systems were investigated in order to evaluate cost trade-offs. See figure 41. Serra and Wiesner. Nanofiltration costs In a recent study.152/m3. C. Figure 40. Serra and M. 1998. UF and conventional treatment systems. when the recovery rate was fixed at 75 per cent and the flux was doubled from 10 to 20 gfd. November Ibid. Wiesner. the effect of increasing capacity on plant cost was studied. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. the costs decreased from US$ 0. Cost versus permeate flux and feedwater recovery for a 50 mgd NF plant Source: Chellam. The results of this study are outlined in the following sections. as were the effects of pretreatment with MF.181/m3 as recovery rates increased from 30 to 75 per cent. costs declined from US$ 0. (b) Cost versus capacity94 Economies of scale were observed for NF plants when capacity was increased to 5 mgd. Ibid. plant capacity seemed to have little effect on cost. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems. Chellam. Chellam.3. Higher permeate fluxes and recovery rates were found to be associated with lower membrane lifecycle costs. 93 94 95 96 62 .” Journal AWWA. sedimentation and granular media filtration. For a 50 mgd facility operating at a flux of 10 gfd. Beyond 15 mgd. Serra and Wiesner. (a) Cost versus operating conditions93 Costs were estimated for different cleaning frequencies and various permeate flux and recovery values. Such as flocculation. In addition.181/m3 to US$ 0. for example.

02 0 US$/m3 Conventional treatment.08 0. 1997. Conventional treatment50% NF UF-NF.14 0. Cost versus NF plant capacity Source: Chellam. “Cost of Membrane Softening in Florida. The figure suggests that the addition of MF or UF treatment over conventional pretreatment is not cost-effective based on improvements in NF performance alone. 63 .06 0.2 0. Stage I D/DBP Cost and Technology Document. Furthermore.18 0. May 1996.A. Note: Cost of conventional pretreatment not included.” Journal AWWA. Bergman.12 0. and USEPA. Figure 42. and followed by NF filtration of 50 per cent of water flow. Note: Documents referred to in this figure: R. MF or UF treatment followed by NF filtration of 75 per cent of water flow. Serra and Wiesner. 50% NF UF-NF. Incremental membrane treatment costs for three blending scenarios NF non membrane costs NF concentrate dis pos al cost NF chemical cost UF operating cos t 0. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. Serra and Wiesner.1 0. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. MF and UF were assumed to be characterized by very similar costs. there is little difference in cost between the 50 per cent and the 75 per cent scenarios. Incremental membrane treatment costs for the above options are shown in figure 42.- Conventional pretreatment followed by MF or UF treatment of the entire water flow.04 0.16 0. Figure 41. 75% NF Initial NF membrane cost NF energy cos t NF membrane replacement cost UF capital cost Source: Chellam.

The surface water input to both systems was pretreated with flocculation. 64 . a system that has 100 cubic feet of acid cation resin (cost US$ 45/ft3) and another 100 cubit feet of base anion resin (price US$ 160/ft3) would be expected to cost approximately 7 x (4. maintenance. Because of these wide and also to evaluate the sensitivity of each of these systems with respect to system size and the cost of power. (b) RO followed by IX: 1 x 100% line with RO-degasser-mixed bed polisher for 50 m3/hour and 2 x 50% lines for 200 m /hour. Both systems achieved economies of scale. between six and 25 per cent. Box 2. labour (1. having 2 x 100% streams with cation-degasserlayered bed anion-mixed bed polishers containing uniform particle sized resins. Box 2 presents a case study in which an IX system is compared to a combined RO-IX system in order to determine which is more economically advantageous. The IX system was found to be more dependent on feed TDS than the RO-IX system. it appeared to be more economical to use RO-IX than IX alone. chemicals and water. The characteristics of the two systems were as follows: (a) IX: packed bed counterflow regenerated (using H2SO4) design. Chemicals account for the largest portion of O&M costs. 3 The results of the comparison are summarized in table 29. Costly IX units are usually made of ASME code-stamped vessels. lined with natural rubber.7/m3 70% US$ 0. System recovery was set at 80%.000) = US$ 140.6/m3 72% 200 m3 US$ 0. “Economics of Desalination”. water and waste-water disposal costs. power. Operating costs included chemicals. care is essential in making IX system cost estimates. which are required every three to five years. and the same mixed bed design was used as for the IX system.25-0.5 man-year for both systems). The costs of land. 97 Pittner. On the other hand.dow. such as caustic regenerant. a rule of thumb is to multiply the cost of the resin used in the IX unit by seven. and may require some component replacements during that period. Maintenance costs are estimated at two per cent of capital cost.45/m3 80% US$ 0. excluding anion and cation replacements.5-0. with simple electronic control. Equipment installation cost is estimated at 30 per cent of equipment cost. depending on water quality. TABLE 29. For example. Above a TDS value of 350-400 ppm as CaCO3. They are fully automated and have a useful life of 20 to 30 years. an IX system was compared with one using RO followed by IX polishing mixed beds. since O&M costs represented the largest component of total cost. IX was found to be sensitive to chemical costs. Ion Exchange or Reverse Osmosis? http://www. Energy costs constitute some three to five per cent of total O&M costs. They usually consist of fiberglass vessels and PVC valves. For order-of-magnitude estimates. clarification and sand filtration. Ion exchange costs97 The cost of IX equipment varies widely.500 + 16. while the total plant cost may fluctuate in the vicinity of 250 per cent of equipment cost.4/m3 80% Source: Dow Chemical Company.000.4. COST COMPARISON OF IX VERSUS RO-IX FOR 50 AND 200 M3 IX RO-IX Treatment cost O&M cost as a percentage of total cost Treatment cost O&M cost as a percentage of total cost 50 m3 US$ 0. The RO-IX system cost was dependent on power cost. and would not be recommended if effluent treatment cost was high. Both systems were studied at flow rates of 50 and 200 cubic metres per hour. depending on the standard to which the units are built. Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of RO and IX systems For the purpose of determining which technology was more cost-effective.htm. Less expensive systems-costing one third or less as much as a high standard unit-are expected to operate for five to ten years. buildings and taxes were not included.

2 15.332 Annual O&M costa/ (thousands of USD) 172. 99 98 Somlyódy and P.8 249.3 4. ESTIMATED CAPITAL AND O&M COSTS FOR AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT System components and description Lift station Preliminary treatment Primary sedimentation.575 18. and thus constitutes the main variable in cost equations. ECONOMICS OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT The total cost of effluent treatment is primarily dependent on the influent flow rate to various processes within a waste-water treatment facility. The flow rate.84 QDesign Anaerobic digester. QE = 0.119 9.4 16.89 1 273.16 1 273. a/ Capital and O&M costs are obtained from the cost equations in annex F and adjusted to the 1998 cost.W. 1998 cost = 1996 cost × [(ENR Index 1998 = 5640)/ (ENR Index 1996 = 5572)]. TABLE 30.013 0. administrative offices.557 0. Shanahan. Table 31 presents the annualized unit cost data for the following five treatment processes: C.059 27.6 71. Electricity (8%).89 36.882 4.98 Annex F presents a series of generalized capital and O&M cost equations for common primary and secondary unit operations and processes used in a waste-water treatment plant.1535 35.9 40.717 0. These equations are often used for the comparison and evaluation of alternatives in a treatment facility rather than for actual cost determination.178 8. c/ Capital and O&M costs are assumed to be 30 % higher than in the case of the conventional activated sludge process. Maryland: WPCF.399 0.22 QDesign Biosolids recycle Landfilling of residues Miscellaneous structures.5 51. instrumentation (6%).9 QDesignb/ Anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic systemc/ Final clarifier. ASCE and American Public Works Association. b/ Design average and peak flows are 440 L/s and 1320 L/s respectively. shops.822 0. Table 30 illustrates the application of these equations for the cost estimation of an activated sludge plant. ENR = Engineering News Record.353 1.5 134.7 48.91 QDesign UV disinfection Gravity thickener.89 1 273. and garage Support personnel Subtotal 1.. Financing and Charges for Wastewater Systems (Hyattsville.356 0.83 129.6 62. combiner sludge.C. QE = 1. Municipal Wastewater Treatment.4 276. Waste-water Treatment Plants. cost of activated sludge plant Piping (31%). 65 . 1984). QE = 0.086 2. Keller et al. a/ Service years 15 30 50 30 40 15 50 50 15 20 20 50 Construction costa/ (millions of USD) 5.130 0.95 QDesign Filter press QE = 1. laboratories. The cost equations there presented are updated to 1996 dollar values. is the primary determinant of required equipment size and the associated capital and operations and maintenance costs.229 1. QE = 1. including solid and organic loading.605 million USD An analysis performed in Scandinavia and Denmark99 compared the costs of several waste-water treatment combination alternatives. and site preparation (5%) Subtotal 2 Engineering and construction supervision (15%) and contingencies (15%) Subtotal 3 Total cost of activated sludge plant Source: Qasim.

133. Biological/chemical treatment with nitrogen removal.225 0. leading to a capital recovery factor of 0.167 0. 7 Biological/chemical = simultaneous precipitation in normally loaded activated sludge plant.117 0.292 0.110 0.200 0.125 0.150 0.225 0.142 0.633 - CC 0.125 0.592 0. Municipal Waste-water Treatment.633 Process Mechanical Chemical High load6 Low load7 Biological High load8 Normal load9 Biological/chemical Simultaneous precipitation10 Preprecipitation11 Biological/chemical.050 0.333 0.283 0.083 0.167 0. Biological treatment (high and low load). 1 The annualized capital cost is computed assuming a 12 per cent interest rate and a 20-year life. Mechanical/chemical waste-water treatment.300 0.133 0.108 0.083 0.5 kg/BOD5/kg SS. 102 The annualized cost can be divided by 0. 6 Biological low load = activated sludge with sludge load of 0.d.225 0.180 0. ANNUALIZED UNIT COSTS (USD/M3) FOR WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS OF VARYING CAPACITIES Plant capacity 10.217 0.000 capita O&M TC 0.108 0.250 0.417 0.083 0.175 0.2 kg/BOD5/kg SS. 9 Biological/chemical including N-removal = Predenitrification/simultaneous precipitation in activated sludge plant with total sludge age of 13 days.383 0.333 0. 3 Chemical high load = chemically enhanced mechanical treatment.417 0.383 0.d.075 0.175 0. CC = capital costs.263 0. 8 Biological/chemical = preprecipitation followed by normally loaded activated sludge plant. TABLE 31.250 0.083 0. 2 10.542 0.192 0. Accurate estimates are influenced substantially by site-specific or country conditions such as interest rates.367 0.192 0.225 Source: Somlyódy and Shanahan.(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Mechanical (primary) waste-water treatment.450 0.175 0. Nremoval Predenitrification/ simultaneous precipitation based on activated sludge12 Postdenitrification/ simultaneous preprecipitation based on biofilm process13 2.508 0.258 0.342 0.283 100. Biological/chemical treatment without nitrogen removal.133 0. Biological/chemical including N-removal = Preprecipitation followed by biofilm process with postdenitrification and external carbon source addition. 5 Biological high load = activated sludge with sludge load of 0.000 capita CC3 O&M3 TC3 0. O&M = operations and maintenance costs.433 CC 0.275 0.283 0.200 0.258 0.417 0. TC = total costs.558 0.133 to obtain the initial investment cost.275 0.200 0.233 0.467 0.258 0. 4 Chemical low load = traditional chemical treatment (primary precipitation).160 0.125 0.175 0.250 0.358 0.342 0.102 Transportation costs are not included in the analysis.000 capita O&M TC 0. It should be noted that the cost estimates presented below are used only for comparison purposes.233 0.150 0.250 0. Q = 400 L/capita/day. WWTP = waste-water treatment plant.175 0.167 0. 66 .

with plant harvest. NTS operating costs. These figures provide an order-of-magnitude estimate only.08-0. TABLE 32. depending on treatment goals and objectives. except for on-site systems.12-0. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment.. A discussion of the equations used to determine land area requirements will be found in following section. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. h/ Free water surface type. with rapid infiltration being the least costly. flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. are minimal compared to other treatment methods.14 0.05-0. which decrease with increasing plant size/capacity. This is especially true for rural communities and other locations where large.C.According to table 29. flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. The figures from the first reference. capital cost per m3/d ranges between US$ 450 and US$ 3. f/ Partial mix aeration.07-0. published by the Water Environment Federation. economies of scale significantly affect total costs. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. 100 Reed et al.01-0.100 are shown in table 32. the estimated costs vary in a range of approximately 1 to 3.. no pretreatment. with on-site systems being the least costly. inexpensive sites are readily available. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. D. and cannot be used for project cost estimation. Reed et al. Land cost is not included in the capital cost data. 67 . 1990). vary between US$ 0.1 0.20 0. 1. Furthermore. g/ Pretreatment: screening or settling.10-0. such as energy.10-0. Note: Figures given in 1984 dollars. ECONOMICS OF NATURAL WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS Natural treatment systems (NTSs) offer enormous savings by comparison with conventional treatment processes that produce the same water quality. Manual of Practice FD-16 (Alexandria.10 0. for which the flow rate is 40 m3/d. O&M costs per m3.15 0. crop harvest included. b/ Includes an allowance for pretreatment and storage. a/ For daily flow rates up to 40 m3/d.d) 1 000-3 000 800-2 000 450-900 600-1 000 500-1 000 600-1 200 500-1 000 500-1 000 O&M costs (US$/m3) 0. Virginia: Water Environment Federation. crop harvest included. c/ With pretreatment to primary. As will be seen from table 32. The unit cost of nutrient removal is about an order of magnitude higher than that of BOD alone.16 0. because it is a factor that is heavily country-and site-specific. TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION AND O&M COSTS FOR SELECTED NTSS System On-sitea/ Slow rateb/ Rapid infiltrationc/ Overland flowd/ Facultative ponde/ Aerated pondf/ Hyacinth pondg/ Constructed wetlandh/ Capital cost (US$/m3.03-0.13 0.01 and US$ 0. pretreatment: screening or settling.2. d/ Pretreatment: screening or settling. Capital and O&M costs Capital and O&M costs of NTSs according to two different references are listed in this section.09 Source: S. on the other hand. The systems are characterized by the same flow rate of approximately 400 m3/d.000. no regular harvest. e/ No pretreatment. Natural Systems. flow rate ~ 400 m3/d.

Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. the cost of land is not included in the data.1 mgd systems Rapid infiltration Facultative lagoon Cons tructe d we tlands Aquaculture Ae rate d lagoon Ove rland flow Slow rate Sand filte rs M e chanical plant 0 100 200 300 400 3 500 600 700 800 US$/m . Figure and the figures given are in 1993 US$ per gallon of waste-water treated per day.d 3 2000 2500 3000 Source: UNEP. The cost range reflects a capacity range of 0. 68 .or.1 mgd systems Ae rate d lagoon Facultative lagoon Cons tructe d we tlands Aquaculture Rapid infiltration Sand filte rs M e chanical plant Ove rland flow Slow rate 0 500 1000 1500 US$/m .unep. oxidation ditch. In other words:103 101 UNEP. laboratory and sludge drying beds. and includes the cost of a clarifier. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. These figures show the definitive advantage of NTSs over mechanical systems for water treatment. O&M costs of 1-0. Capital costs of 1-0.Data obtained from a second source. published by UNEP. Available at: http://www. 2.101 are graphed in figure 43 and figure 44. Natural Systems. Figure 43.d Source: UNEP.1 to 1 million gallons per day. pumps.102 Here again. Estimation of land area requirements A preliminary estimate of the land area (A) required for a small-to-medium size system (daily flows less than 20 m3/d) is proportionate to the daily design flow to treatment site (Q) and inversely proportionate to soil permeability (k). building. Note: Figures converted from US$/gpd in original source. The mechanical treatment plant referred to in these figures is an oxidation ditch treatment system. 103 102 Reed et al. Note: Figures converted from US$/gpd in original source..

1997). Marketing cost. Note: SP. oxidation ditches. modified aeration activated sludge or trickling filter solids contactor. MA. International Solid Waste Association (ISWA).or. TABLE stabilization ponds.106 Sludge transportation cost. depending on local conditions and plant size. but also according to multiple indices of effectiveness. AL. Quality control of sludge. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia.unep. and the sludge characteristics for different treatment methods. and not for final treatment area sizing. Annex table 7 gives typical land area equations and assumptions applicable for different NTSs. http://www. Table 35 presents an order of magnitude of the treatment cost per ton of dry matter. AS. 69 . E. conventional activated sludge. The selection of the best alternative depends heavily on local conditions and requirements. Table 34 presents a description of the level of construction and O&M costs of a sludge treatment plant.A (m3) = p x Q (m3/d) / k (m3/m2. 7 (Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. Sludge Treatment and Disposal: Management Approaches and Experiences. 106 105 These costs are highly variable.104 ranks various natural treatment systems with respect to cost. This equation can only be used to determine whether a particular site is large enough. Environmental Issues Series No. 104 UNEP. d) where p is a factor reflecting additional area requirements. depending on the system under consideration. COST COMPARISON OF VARIOUS NATURAL WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES Rank (1=best) 1 2 3 4 5 Initial cost MA AS OD AL SP O&M cost SP MA AL AS OD Life Cycle cost MA AS OD AL SP Operability SP AL OD AS MA Reliability SP AL OD MA AS Land area MA AS OD AL SP Sludge production SP AL OD AS MA Power use SP MA AS AL OD Effluent quality SP AL MA OD AS Source: UNEP. if sludge is to be reused. reproduced from UNEP. aerated lagoons. ECONOMICS OF SLUDGE TREATMENT The following cost factors must be considered for sludge treatment:105 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Construction and O&M cost of the treatment plant. Cost of disposal of final by-product. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia. OD. The volume of treated sludge affects both storage and transportation costs. Flexibility and expandability are similar for all types. 3. Conclusion Table 33.

Hygienic High. Municipal Wastewater Treatment. ~ US$ 80–US$ 350. Cost (US$) 8–215 135–325 160–435 245–435 110–325 An analysis performed in Scandinavia and Denmark107 compares the costs of the following three sludge treatment alternatives: (a) Sludge dewatering only. 70 . depending on regulations governing disposal Not applicable Not applicable Source: Compiled from information in reference by the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). The costs of anaerobic digestion are discussed in 107 Somlyódy and Shanahan. The results of this analysis are shown in table 36. which can be very high Very low High (used as fertilizer.TABLE 34. CONSTRUCTION AND O&M COSTS OF DIFFERENT SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANTS. TABLE 35. (c) Sludge dewatering and incineration. or for coincineration with other wastes) ~ US$ 67 per m2 of land. Treatment byproduct also marketable. Sludge Treatment and Disposal. Sludge Treatment and Disposal. Not including land cost. (b) Anaerobic stabilization and sludge dewatering. box 3. SLUDGE TREATMENT COST PER TON OF DRY MATTER Treatment technique Raw sludge use in agriculture/forestry Composting Drying Incineration* Landfilling Source: ISWA. fuel or top soil). * Lower commercial prices are possible where marginal prices are paid for sludge incineration at waste incineration plants. AND SLUDGE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING COST Volume of treated sludge High Marketability/quality of treated sludge Moderate Treatment technique Composting Construction cost Moderate Drying High O&M costs Moderate (Energy costs can be high for forced aeration) High (especially power cost) High Low Incineration Landfilling Very high (justified only for treating large volumes.

Cost factors that should be considered in determining the feasibility of raw sludge reuse in agriculture include:108 (a) Large storage capacity required to store sludge for seeding periods. large tanks are needed to store waste-water. anaerobic digestion has the advantage of lower treatment cost.1 Running cost (cents/kg COD removed) 10 24 16 Digester Completely stirred tank reactor at lager brewery in Wrexham Anaerobic filter in Denmark EC case studies data Year built 1986 1989 1994 Source: S. 108 ISWA.075 0.117 0. F. O&M = operations and maintenance costs. Sludge Treatment and Disposal.217 0. Municipal Waste-water Treatment.900 per cubic metre of bioreactor volume. Surrey: Pira International. the costs of two anaerobic digesters in Europe are compared. dry solids and pathogens that it may lawfully contain. In contrast. TC = total costs.6 2. Cost figures are expressed in US$ per kg of COD removed from waste-water. Nesaratnam.192 0. combined with the fact that the spreading of sludge is seasonal. Box 3.267 0. 1998). These restrictions.292 100. and increase its cost.200 - Plant capacity 10. the use of sludge in agriculture is strictly regulated by legislation setting limitations on the heavy metals. Anaerobic digesters cost approximately US$ 1. (c) Cost of transporting sludge from storage area to farmland. TABLE 37. The law also restricts the types of soil and crops on which sludge may be used. Effluent Treatment (Leatherhead. (b) Farm equipment may not be suitable for spreading raw sludge. COSTS OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT Capital cost (US$/kg COD removed per year) 1.509 Source: Somlyódy and Shanahan. In table 37.TABLE 36. * CC = capital costs. since the process is slower. and thus investment in special equipment is necessary.383 0. and the average obtained for several European case studies is shown. 71 .000 capita O&M* TC* CC 0.000 capita O&M TC 0. due to the fact that it does not require aeration.292 0.6 2.158 0. Agricultural use of untreated sludge The spreading of untreated sludge on agricultural land is considered to be the cheapest disposal method. and this may mean higher capital costs.175 0. ANNUALIZED UNIT COSTS (USD/KG DRY SOLID) FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANTS OF VARYING CAPACITIES Process Dewatering Anaerobic stabilization and dewatering Dewatering and incineration CC* 0. places various constraints on the agricultural use of untreated sludge. However. ECONOMICS OF EFFLUENT AND SLUDGE RECLAMATION AND REUSE 1.108 0. Anaerobic digestion Compared to aerobic digestion.183 0.117 0.

109 72 . from the standpoint of both the municipal waste-water treatment plant (MWTP) and the farmer. since they will usually offset the high cost of reclaimed water. sludge treatment will increase its cost to such an extent that it will be more difficult for it to compete with other. 2.15 . Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production (Washington. especially if a town is faced with the need to expand its drinking water supply system due to growing demand. (b) Be easier to spread on farmland with conventional farm equipment. (c) Have controlled nutrient levels. When treated. (iii) Additional treatment requirements: filtration and chlorination of secondary treated effluent. (a) Standpoint of the municipal waste-water treatment plant From the standpoint of MWTP..C. It is estimated to be of the order of US$ 80 .35 per 1.1 – US$ 0. However. a reduction in demand for drinking water due to reclaimed water use represents a cost saving in itself. (ii) Transportation cost: US$ 0. sludge will: (a) Occupy a smaller volume. D. (d) Be more hygienic to use.000 gallons. which is approximately US$ 0. effluent collection and storage. National Academies Press. Agricultural use of treated effluent and sludge The above disadvantages of using raw sludge can be avoided if the sludge is treated before storage. A study of the cost of reclaimed water use in agricultural lands in Florida yielded the following figures:109 (i) Storage: 2.000 gallons of reclaimed water amounted to US$ 0. effluent transportation to farmland and irrigation management. an attempt will be made to determine the economic factors affecting the use of treated effluent and sludge in agriculture. additional costs are incurred from advanced treatment. (e) Administrative expenses in the form of farmer agreements. Different sludge treatment techniques must thus be compared in order to identify the option that is most advantageous in economic and environmental terms. This value is much higher than the cost of water pumped directly from an aquifer. owing to its homogenous consistency. Only costs associated with the additional level of treatment beyond what is necessary to meet waste-water disposal requirements must be considered. The total cost per 1. The price of a ton of raw sludge used on farmland varies greatly in different countries.(d) Costly periodic analyses of both soil and sludge to ensure that legislative requirements are met.5 million gallons for every 10 million gallons of input waste-water per day.7 – US$ 0. 1996). owing to its reduced water content. For example. National Research Council.roughly comparable to the cost of municipal water. cheaper fertilizers.US$ 215 per ton.9. In this section. Indirect economic benefits must be taken into account.

Strong demand is anticipated for the future.. Monitoring cost to ensure compliance with regulations for sludge use (this cost may be subsidized by the treatment facility). National Research Council.C. In summary. surface water supply facilities also produce adverse environmental impacts. the cost of acquiring land for use as spreading grounds. to the benefit of the end user. Other economic benefits of artificial recharge must be borne in mind when comparing this option with alternatives. which may be summarized as follows: (a) Demand for additional water supply. (b) Farmer’s standpoint110 In considering the option of using reclaimed water and sludge for soil irrigation and fertilization. In addition to their high construction cost. is that there must be sufficient demand for additional water supplies. The fertilizer value of sludge is approximately US$ 15 per dry ton of sludge.With respect to sludge reuse. the cost of drilling injection wells and the cost of transporting the treated waste-water to the spreading grounds must be taken into account. The first condition. the cost of water supply from surface water is expected to increase considerably. Crop price and nutrient requirements. These benefits will reduce the cost of raw food products. In these water-short areas. and hence the economic viability of groundwater recharge depends only on the additional water treatment cost required to improve water quality to acceptable levels for spreading or reinjection purposes. farmers will take the following factors into account: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The price and availability of alternative irrigation water and fertilizers. 73 . Sludge processing costs have been estimated at US$ 266 to US$ 925 per ton. waste-water must be treated before disposal in any case. Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality (Washington. Yield improvements and fertilizer savings have been reported in the literature. D. depending on the process used. sludge handling constitutes about half of a plant’s treatment cost. Ground water recharge111 The economics of ground water recharge are widely variable for different locations. if water demand is high. 3. However. Soil types that are poor in nutrients and organic matter. Seasonality and the need to store reclaimed effluent. (b) Cost of supply from alternative sources. Cost of applying sludge to farmland. 1994). especially in arid and semi-arid regions. as those are found in the ESCWA member countries. (c) Water treatment and injection cost. This is due in the first place to the growing scarcity of water and in the second place to the costs associated with building new surface supply facilities. Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge. such as the increased quantity of water that can be extracted at shallower pumping depth. In addition to the incremental cost of upgrading treated waste-water quality. The cost of waste-water treatment and injection may be regarded as high. In 110 111 National Research Council. which in turn will lower the cost to food processors. Its economic viability depends on a number of factors. National Academies Press. and the cost of recharged waste-water is lower than the cost of obtaining water from other sources. of course. artificial recharge is a viable option.

TABLE 38. COD (mg/l) of the effluent after one hour settlement. treatment and disposal cost of primary sludge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS ARTIFICIAL (US$/M3) RECHARGE SCHEMES IN INDIA Artificial recharge structure Injection well (alluvial area) Spreading channel (alluvial area) Percolation tank (alluvial area) Injection well (limestone area) Spreading channel (limestone area) Initial cost 100 9 2 6 7 Running cost 100 10 7 21 6 Source: UNEP. shows cost estimates for several ground water recharge schemes in India. According to the recommended guidelines for control and charging of trade effluents discharged to the sewer. G. the trade effluent charge (C) is calculated by means of the following formula:112 C = R + (V +Bv) + (Ot/Os) B + (St/Ss) S + M Where C= R= V= Bv = Ot = Os = B= St = Ss = S= M= total cost per cubic metre of effluent discharged to sewer (US$/m3).addition. and then updated in 1986. additional volume per cubic metre if there is biological treatment (US$/m3). Table 38. primary treatment charge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). injection wells in hard rock areas are less expensive because they are shallower and do not clog. artificially recharged water is costly. and thus is not ordinarily used for irrigation. 74 . In general. This is usually done for a fee under an agreement with the municipal water treatment facility. Effluent Treatment. 112 Nesaratnam. Waste-water discharge to sewer For small industries that cannot afford to treat their effluents in-house. total suspended solids (mg/l) content of effluent after one hour of settlement at pH 7. which is taken from a UNEP publication. ECONOMICS OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGE 1. COD of average strength settled sewage (mg/l). artificial recharge guarantees that water is available all year round. As the table shows. the only viable option is to discharge their effluents to the sewer. published by the Confederation of British Industry in 1976. except perhaps in a supplementary capacity during periods of water shortage. Only net socio-economic and environmental benefits might make artificial recharge projects viable. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia. with pH adjusted to 7. reception and conveyance charge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). especially if the tanks are already available. whereas surface water supplies are subject to seasonal fluctuations. treatment and disposal charge per cubic metre where the effluent goes to a marine outfall (US$/m3). The least expensive scheme is percolation tanks. Injection wells feeding an alluvial aquifer appear to be the most costly option. total suspended solids (mg/l) content of average strength settled sewage. biological treatment charge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3).

Four cost elements are included in this formula, reflecting the services offered by the sewage treatment plant, namely: (a) (b) (c) (d) Reception and conveyance; Primary treatment; Biological treatment; Sludge treatment and disposal.

The first two cost elements depend on the volume of the effluent, while the last two are proportionate to the composition of the effluent as compared to average sewage. The formula thus gives an incentive to industry to reduce the volume and improve the quality of discharged effluents. The sum accruing from collected charges is ordinarily used to finance the treatment and regulation of effluent. Box 4 gives an example of the charge paid by a sugar beet factory that discharges its effluent to the sewer, while box 5 describes a technique for reducing effluent discharge as applied in a paper mill, and the costs involved. The disadvantage of this formula is that it involves continuous sampling and analysis to determine the average suspended-solids and COD content. An alternative calculation method is to define charge bands. In other words, standard charges are defined for different ranges of COD and suspended-solids values. This is particularly useful for industries with low effluent volume and invariable effluent composition.
Box 4. Cost calculation for discharge of a given effluent to sewer A sugar beet factory discharges its 10,000 m3 of effluent per year to the sewer. The effluent has an average COD (Ot) of 1,150 mg/l and an average total suspended-solids content (St) of 1,300 mg/l. The following parameters are used by the water service company that is treating the effluent: R = 16.1 cents/m3. V = 25.2 cents/m3. Bv = 4.9 cents/m3. B = 24.8 cents/m3. S = 11.8 cents/m3. Os = 456 mg/l. Ss = 383 mg/l. The charge per cubic metre C (cents/m3) = 16.1 + 25.2 + 4.9 + (1,150/456)24.8 + (1,300/383) 11.8 = 148.8. The total yearly charge is thus equal to 10,000 x 1.488 = US$ 14,880. __________________________
Source: Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment.

Box 5. Zero-liquid technology in paper mills Zero-liquid effluent systemsa/ have been applied in the paper industry. With this technology, the effluent is first physically treated to remove fiber content. Membrane treatment is then applied to reduce dissolved organic and inorganic content. In the third step, mechanical vapor recompression is used to distill the effluent. Finally, the effluent enters a freezecrystallizer. The treated water can then be reused in the pulp mill, while the solid residue is disposed of. An estimate of the construction and operating costs of a system of this kind treating 2,000 m3 of effluent per day is given in table 39. Obviously, freeze crystallization is the most expensive step in the process. In evaluating the economic viability of this type of system, the total cost of the system must be compared to the alternative cost of using additional raw water and the treatment and discharge of additional effluent volume. __________________________
a/ A very brief description of this technology is provided here. For more information on details of the technique, the reader is referred to the original source (Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment).


Physical treatment Physical/biological Physical/biological/membrane Physical/membrane Mechanical vapor recompression Freeze crystallization
Source: Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment.

Operating cost (US$ per m3) 0.16 0.40 0.80 0.96 2.4 3.2

Capital cost (US$) 1 120 000 4 800 000 8 000 000 4 800 000 12 800 000 16 000 000

2. Discharge to controlled waters When industries discharge directly into controlled waters, a charge is imposed that depends on the agreed discharge volume and composition, and also on the type of receiving water. The formula that is commonly used for the annual charge is:113 Charge = R (V x C x W) Where R= V= C= W= the annual financial factor. the volume factor. the content factor. the receiving water factor.

Multiplying V, C and W together yields the number of chargeable units, while R defines the unit charge per year. The sum accruing from collected charges is ordinarily used to finance the costs of regulatory bodies responsible for the receiving water. 3. Pollutant trading Pollutant trading is a relatively recent policy that aims at achieving a mandated environmental target at lower cost. The World Resources Institute defines trading as a flexible strategy that “makes it profitable for sources with low treatment costs to reduce their own effluents beyond legal requirements, generate credits, and sell those credits to dischargers with higher treatment costs”.114 In other words, two or more sources polluting the same area agree together on the treatment level and amount of discharge, such that the sum of their environmental impact complies with the applicable regulations. In this way, a large facility with lower treatment costs treats its effluent to a level beyond what is required under the regulations, thereby giving a margin to smaller facilities with higher treatment costs. Cost reduction is achieved by taking advantage of economies of scale in the treatment process. This method has been successfully applied in other environmental areas, notably air emissions, and several new pilot trading programmes are currently under way in the United States. A difficulty arises when trading is applied between ‘point’ and ‘non-point’ pollution sources, such as a factory and farmland. While pollution from the first source can be readily quantified, non-point discharges, such as those originating from farmland, are usually seasonal and difficult to measure. In these cases, a large margin or ‘trading ratio’ is set, that will allow a safety margin for the area of impact. Box 6 illustrates the cost reductions that can be achieved for phosphorus control through trading as compared to other policies, in three locations in the United States.
113 114

Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment.

P. Faeth, Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading’s Potential to Cost-Effectively Improve Water Quality (Washington, D.C.: World Research Institute, 2000).


Box 6. Trading for phosphorus control Three cases were selected for study, all of them experiencing water quality problems related mainly to phosphorus discharge: the Saginaw Bay watershed, the Minnesota River watershed and the Rock River watershed. The three watersheds are characterized by different numbers of point sources, different sizes and different treatment levels. After analyzing the local conditions pertaining to each of them, the following policy options were defined: (a) (b) (c) Point source performance requirement: whereby all point sources are required to lower their phosphorus level; Conventional subsidy programme for agricultural conservation “best management practices”; Point source performance requirement coupled with trading;

(d) Trading programme coupled with performance-based conservation subsidies: an option combining the second and third scenarios, whereby point and non-point sources contribute equally to phosphorus reduction. Table 40 summarizes the costs of each option as compared to a theoretical ‘least-cost’ option that achieves the requirements with no constraints. This table clearly shows the savings achieved with a flexible trading strategy as compared to conventional programmes. The results were even better when the trading policy involved non-point (agricultural) sources directly.

Point source performance requirement 19.57 23.89 10.38 Conventional subsidies for agricultural conservation practices 16.29 5.76 9.53 Point source performance requirement with trading 6.84 4.04 5.95 Trading programme with performancebased conservation subsidies 4.45 2.90 3.82

Minnesota River Saginaw Bay Rock River

Least-cost solution 4.36 1.75 3.22

Source: Faeth, Fertile Ground. Note: The levels of phosphorus reduction from the base are different for each watershed.

H. CONCLUSIONS New technologies have made growing numbers of water treatment alternatives available. Cost may be a major determining factor, especially in developing countries. Cost estimation is a difficult and even costly undertaking in itself, because of the large number of parameters involved and the fact that those parameters are usually unclear until the design process is well under way. Historical data are very useful in generating preliminary cost estimates. When these data are sufficiently detailed, they are also useful for the purpose of deriving cost equations that reflect system cost variations according to basic system parameters, including capacity. These equations form the basis of several computer software tools for water treatment cost estimation that are now available. As the cost of membrane modules declines, membrane techniques become progressively more viable, especially for large-capacity systems. In fact, all membrane systems yield economies of scale up to five mgd capacity. However, system designers must bear in mind that downmarket membrane systems will generally entail higher maintenance costs and will be difficult to expand and upgrade. A balance must be struck, depending on system requirements and projected lifetime.


In conclusion. 78 . Great cost reductions are possible with systems such as rapid infiltration and aerated lagoons. Pollutant trading is a policy that has been successfully applied in different locations in the United States. ESCWA member countries are encouraged to pursue the construction of such systems. Natural treatment systems are very promising.Effluent and sludge possess high fertilizing value. Failure to consider all these aspects may lead to an inappropriate choice of treatment technology. The environmental benefits associated with reduced demand for surface water may be the deciding factor governing selection of this technique. Under these conditions. This policy has resulted in great reductions in total treatment costs while achieving even higher levels of environmental benefit. cost-effectiveness. Agricultural countries should consider the reuse of effluent and sludge for farmland irrigation. socio-cultural and functional criteria. in addition to the economic criteria referred to above. environmental. such as those outlined in annex VII. cost. labour and willingness to pay. It is also desirable for technology assessment be based on a broad set of sustainability criteria that include. compared to other mechanical water treatment systems of similar environmental effectiveness. thus benefiting twice over. Ground water recharge is a costly undertaking that is feasible only when the cost of other water sources is very high. especially for rural areas and other locations where large areas of inexpensive land are available. The economic assessment of a particular technology must take several criteria into account including: affordability. waste-water reduction and treatment techniques can be highly lucrative. Waste-water discharge to sewer and controlled waters is costly where charges are imposed by regulatory bodies. subsidized and efficiently marketed in order to win wider use and acceptance. Effluent reuse programmes must be regulated. economic criteria often determine which water treatment technology is deployed. Dischargers are therefore encouraged to reduce waste-water volume while improving its quality.

Current waste-water treatment plants The waste-water treatment plants (WWTP) in use in Jordan. Thirteen facilities are conventional mechanical treatment plants and six employ waste stabilization ponds. 79 . representing approximately 35 per cent of the total treated waste-water produced in those countries.2 0. Treated waste-water is widely reused for irrigation. Due to the high average salinity of potable water (TDS = 580 ppm) and the low average water consumption (about 70L/capita/day). Amman. including two that are scheduled to be put into service in the near future. waste-water treatment and reuse practices in selected ESCWA countries will be described. efficiencies and costs. the influent waste-water is characterized by high organic loads and high salinity levels. Najjar and waterlist/html/waterindustry.html.5 million people. Available at: http://www. there are nearly 20 treatment plants around the country. United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia). At the present time. Effluent from these was often discharged to gardens.117 TABLE 41.mwi. and their corresponding treatment methods. JORDAN Since 1930. where primitive physical devices such as septic tanks and cesspits were in use.fluidknowledge.e. particularly in the arid Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.VI. their waste-water loads. Wastewater Reuse. Available at: http://www. 115 Water Authority of Jordan. an average of 700. the waste-water is comparatively low in toxic pollutants such as heavy metals and organic compounds. including 50 per cent of the country’s urban population (see table 41).8 Source: Adapted from Water Authority of Jordan. i. 1. some 2. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT IN SELECTED ESCWA COUNTRIES Most countries in the ESCWA region practise waste-water treatment and reuse. Available at: http://www. As population increased.idrc. Qatar. industrial demand in the six GCC States (Bahrain. A. Malkawi. modern technology was introduced to collect and treat waste-water. WASTE-WATER DISPOSAL METHODS CURRENTLY PRACTISED IN JORDAN (Percentage) District Urban Rural Jordan as a whole Public systems 50 2. resulting in environmental problems such as groundwater pollution. Oman. Wastewater Sector.116.000 cubic metres per day is used to meet irrigation and. Table 42 lists operational treatment plants in Jordan. On the other hand. Background on Water and Wastewater Industry (2000). 116 F.115 In this chapter. to some extent. 118 117 Ibid. a paper presented at the Water Demand Management Forum. Furthermore. Currently. March 2002.8 56 Cesspools 50 95 43. Bataineh. Kuwait. since only 10 per cent of the biological load originates from industrial discharge.2 Others 0 WAJ%20Web%20Page/wastewater. are connected to the waste-water collection waste-water collection in Jordan had been restricted to the town of Salt. M. receive about 82 million cubic metres per year. Wastewater Sector. 56 per cent of the population of Jordan.htm.118 Fluid Knowledge.

074 0.054 0. Plans are under way to upgrade several existing plants in the near future and to construct new ones in other parts of the country. Waste-water Sector. TSS = total suspended solids. Najjar and Malkawi.087 0.190 4 610 Source: Adapted from Water Authority of Jordan. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN JORDAN (Percenatge) Plant As-Samra Aqaba Salt Jerash Mafraq Baqa’a Karak Abu-Nusir Tafila Ramtha Ma’an Madaba Kufranja Wadi Al Seer Fuhis Wadi Arab Wadi Hassan Wadi Musa Irbid Treatment method Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Extended aeration Extended aeration Stabilization ponds Trickling filter Trickling filter Activated sludge Trickling filter Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Trickling filter Aerated lagoon Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge and trickling filter Hydraulic load (m3/day) 170 752 2 000 3 403 2 072 1 847 11 185 1 231 1 617 707 2 340 1 892 4 266 1 889 1 113 1 218 5 985 Organic oad kg BOD5/day 35 768 3 510 8 393 4 043 1 485 1 155 848 4 400 1 680 1 574 1 552 1 700 1 615 3 120 2 388 1 440 18 900 3 060 8 800 Efficiency 80 73 98 96 62 92 92 95 96 71 81 69 96 93 97 98 96 Treatment cost (USD/m3) 0. Table 43 lists plants that are scheduled to be constructed in the next five to ten years.027 0.169 0. BOD5 = biochemical oxygen demand (5 days). TREATMENT PLANTS SCHEDULED TO BE UPGRADED.307 0. including projected capacities and type of treatment.513 0. Wastewater Reuse.099 0.171 0. especially in rural areas.193 0.166 0.058 0.190 0.106 0. TABLE 43. EXPANDED OR BUILT IN JORDAN WWTP As-Samra Aqaba Mafraq Karak Tafila Ramtha Ma’an Madaba Kufranja Wadi Zarqa Naur North Queen Alia Airport Al Jeeza Um Al Basateen North Shuna Wadi Shallala (Irbid East) Torra Type Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge To be decided To be decided Activated sludge To be decided Activated sludge To be decided Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Expected year of operation 2004 2005 2005 2003 2005 Under construction 2005 Under construction 2002 2009 2008 2005 2005 2005 2003 2003 2012 Capacity (m3/d) 267 000 18 000 5 000 5 000 5 000 5 400 5 000 7 600 7 000 146 000 5 200 31 000 5 000 1 000 12 000 15 000 3 100 80 .TABLE 42.248 0. and Bataineh.248 0.

barley.TABLE 43 (continued) WWTP Kofur Asad Al Mazar Al Shamali Mashari’e Dair Abi Sa’id Jerash West Dair Alla South Shuna Type Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Expected year of operation 2007 2010 2003 2013 2009 2004 2003 Capacity (m3/d) 6 000 3 100 3 100 3 100 6 000 6 000 4 300 Source: Adapted from Bataineh.5 150 1 000 24 0. palm trees Olive trees. forage crops Forest. forest. See 119 Water Authority of Jordan.5 million cubic metres per year. In 1999. Wastewater Reuse.000 cubic metres per day.3 million cubic metres. YEMEN In the Republic of Yemen.5 50 7 7 60 25 50 6 1 15 WWTP Abu-Nusir Aqaba As-Samra Baqa’a Fuhis Irbid Jerash Karak Kufranja Ma'an Madaba Mafraq Ramtha Salt Tafila Wadi Al Seer Wadi Arab Irrigated crops Forest. there are currently nine operational treatment facilities. in the King Talal Dam reservoir) and subsequently used for unrestricted irrigation in the Jordan Valley. the quantity of treated waste-water effluent is expected to amount to 265.32 MCM. olive trees. sudan grass. forage crops. B. ornamental trees. ornamental trees Forest.8 per cent of all water available for irrigation (521 million cubic metres). Wastewater Sector. alfalfa Olive and citrus trees Olive and fruit trees Forest. olive trees Forest. olive trees Excess effluent flow King Talal reservoir none King Talal reservoir King Talal reservoir none Jordan River King Talal reservoir Wadi Karak Wadi Kufranjeh none none none none Wadi Shieb Ghor Fifa Jordan River Kafrein reservoir Source: Adapted from Bataineh. By the year 2020. barseem. WASTE-WATER REUSE IN JORDAN Treated effluent (m3/day) 1 587 6 683 149 589 10 626 1 036 4 526 1 969 1 194 1 629 1 704 3 272 1 488 1 852 3 307 702 714 5 611 Planted area (ha) 0. some olive trees. where it is mixed with surface waters (for example. olive trees. Table 44 shows current reuse applications for treated effluent from operating WWTPs in Jordan. Najjar and Malkawi. which amounts to 33. waste-water treatment plants produced 72. olive trees Forest. ornamental trees Private farm Olive trees. Waste-water reuse Treated effluent discharged from the WWTP is used mainly for irrigation. olive trees Forest. Wastewater Reuse. Najjar and Malkawi. treating a total actual flow of about 92. 2. accounting for approximately 25 per cent of total water available for irrigation. olive trees. 81 . Excess effluent is discharged to wadis. alfalfa Forest. sudan grass.119 TABLE 44. forest Forest. flowers Forest. amounting to 13. forage crops.

025 Disposal method Uncontrolled irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Sea disposal and irrigation Sea disposal and irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Sea disposal Uncontrolled irrigation - Source: Abdul-Malik. Yemen’s Water Resources and Treated Wastewater (Sana’a: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Yemen. The quality of treated waste-water at selected locations is presented in table 46.03 0. Farmers are working with this water without any form of training or extension services.doc. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN YEMEN Station Sana‘a Ta‘iz Al Hudeidah Aden Ibb Dhamar Hajja Mukalla Rada’a Aden (new) Yarim Amran Design capacity (m3 /d) 50 000 17 000 18 000 15 000 7 000 10 000 5 000 8 000 2 800 60 000 3 500 6 000 Treatment type Activated sludge Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Activated sludge Stabilization ponds Trickling filter Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Actual flow (m3/d) 20 000 17 000 18 000 15 000 7 000 6 000 1 150 6 000 1 500 Treatment cost (USD/m3) 0. Available at: http://www.). The treated effluent is either discharged into the sea or reused in agriculture for controlled and uncontrolled irrigation. Abdul-Malik. and to grow vegetable and fruit crops (Sana’a area). (b) Public health hazards and skin diseases among farmers. TABLE 46. including: (a) Odours and insects at some treatment stations.Table 45. the capacity of the plant and operational circumstances.03 0.03 N/A 0.121 The quality of the treated effluent varies from one area to another.d. Bagel and Zabid) are in the planning stage. The three remaining plants (Beit Al-Faqih. and forage crops as well in some areas (Ta’iz area). There are six new treatment plants.025 0.idrc.25 0.25 0.Y. particularly for the farmers who are the main Controlled irrigation is practised by the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation for green belt building and sand dune fixation or desertification control along the coastal plains. Non-controlled irrigation is commonly practised by farmers in the highlands and wadis to grow corn. Yemen’s Water Resources.Yemen’s Water Resources. N/A: not available. 121 120 Abdul-Malik. The objectionable quality of the treated effluent has created a number of problems. n.03 0. three of which were under construction and expected to come on stream in 2002. 82 .120 TABLE 45. depending on the method of treatment. Yemen’s Water Resources. WASTE-WATER DISCHARGE QUALITY IN YEMEN Parameter BOD (mg/l) COD (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) SS (mg/l) FC colony /100ml Sana’a 24 103 1 852 28 12 000 Aden N/A N/A 1 695 N/A 80 000 Dhamar 102 189 700 580 110 000 Al Hudeidah 106 348 3 110 128 1 366 Yemen standards 150 500 450-3 000 50 <1 000 Source: Abdul-Malik. Q.

Sand filtration Sludge treatment . of which 103 million cubic metres were treated. The characteristics of these plants are presented in detail in table 47.used for irrigation .000 m /d . (d) Plant diseases in crops irrigated with treated waste-water.Secondary aeration using bubble aeration .Screening 1965 . KUWAIT According to statistics reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).Prethickening .Secondary chlorination Sludge treatment . and laws in Yemen have been referring to treated waste-water as a water resource that should be utilized in a safe manner.htm. the quantity of waste-water produced in Kuwait in 1994 was 119 million cubic metres. 83 . 1997). Lately.pumped to the Ardiya plant to be pumped to the Data Monitoring Center Treated sludge is used as fertilizer 122 123 Abdul-Malik.Digestion .Primary aeration using bubble aeration . CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN KUWAIT General description Treatment processes Ardiya Waste-water Treatment Plant Preliminary and primary treatment Commissioned in .Drying in beds Riqaa Waste-water Treatment Plant Secondary treatment Commissioned in .org/docrep/W4356E/w4356e0g.Sand filtration 3 to 180. Available at: http://www. Food and Agriculture Organization.(c) Soil salinity problems.Primary settling Capacity extended in 1985 to 150.122 C.Post thickening .000 m /d Tertiary treatment . while the remainder was discharged into the sea. It supports the implementation of waste-water management activities in the form of targeted projects and programmes.000 m /d . Approximately 52 million cubic metres of the treated effluent were reused for agricultural irrigation. various water-related strategies. TABLE 47. A draft waste-water reuse strategy was under development in 2001. Yemen’s Water Resources.Balancing tanks with chlorination Plans for upgrading .Thickening followed by drying beds Effluent is: .Extended aeration using mechanical 1982 agitation Full capacity = 3 85.000 m3/d Secondary treatment Final disposal Effluent is pumped to the Data Monitoring Center to be reused for irrigation Treated sludge is used as fertilizer .Secondary settling Tertiary treatment .fao.Balancing tanks with chlorination . Irrigation in the Near East Region in Figures (Rome: United Nations.123 Four sewage treatment plants have been in operation in Kuwait since 1987. (e) Animal diseases due to direct contact with the treated waste-water. policies.Aeration tanks .Pre-aeration using floating aerators 3 100.Grit removal Original capacity = .

vegetable areas Subtotal Irrigated area (ha) 1980 2010 70 149 50 20 3 808 401 20 46 4 544 670 589 200 213 7 826 46 9 544 124 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).Discharged into the Gulf Treated sludge is used as fertilizer Sludge treatment . Irrigation Source: Sanitary Engineering Department. covering the period up to 2010. 1992).000 m3/d .Chlorination 1996). tree planting with a view to prime and subsistence environmental protection forestry would be initiated.Secondary chlorination Final disposal Effluent is .A series of oxidation ponds with agitators 10. Available at: http://www.Extended aeration tanks with mechanical 3 70.000 m /d agitation .fao.used for irrigation . For the western and northern sites (Jahra and Ardiyah respectively) the plans suggested that first priority should be given to the development of an integrated system of extensive vegetable production.Settling tank Projects to improve efficiency Tertiary treatment .TABLE 47 (continued) General description Treatment processes Jahra Waste-water Treatment Plant Secondary treatment Commissioned in . Late in 1977. The Kuwait Sanitary Scheme (Kuwait: Ministry of Public Works.Screens 1982 . The second priority should be the development of fresh forage/hay production in rotation with vegetables at other agricultural sites.Aeration tanks .Balancing tanks with chlorination .org/docrep/T0551E/t0551e0b.htm#9. the Ministry of Public Works initiated the preparation of a master plan for the effective use of treated effluent in Kuwait. State of Kuwait.Thickening followed by drying beds Failaka Waste-water Treatment Plant Full capacity = . Once these two major objectives had been attained.Sand filtration . WASTE-WATER REUSE MASTER PLAN IN KUWAIT Land use Western and northern sites Agriculture Forage: dairy enterprise Forage: open market sale Horticulture Extensive vegetables Forestry Maximum production forestry ‘Environmental protection’ at recommended irrigation rate ‘Environmental protection’ forestry at subsistence irrigation rate Others Existing trial site. 84 .Filtration . The general recommendations made under the plan are presented in table 48.124 TABLE 48.Grit chambers Full capacity = . Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture.5. wastewater treatment and human exposure control: Kuwait.pumped to the Data Monitoring Center . FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 47 (Rome: United Nations.

gov. According to a Census of Buildings and Establishments conducted by the Central Administration for Statistics (CAS) in 1996-1997.125 Thirty-five waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) are planned for the near south of Beirut. State of the Environment Report 2001 (Beirut: Government of Lebanon. The remaining buildings (62 per cent) used cesspools and septic tanks or simply released raw sewage directly into the environment. approximately 37 per cent of the nearly 500 000 buildings in Lebanon were connected to a sewer including seven that are under construction. The only large-scale WWTP that is operational at the present time is the Ghadir plant. Since 1997.960 tons.pdf. extensive waste-water works have been built. which provides only preliminary treatment.126 TABLE 49.TABLE 48 (continued) Land use Coastal village sites Forestry ‘Maximum production’ ‘Environmental protection’ forestry Subtotal Failaka Island ‘Environmental protection’ forestry Total Source: Adapted from FAO. IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN LEBANON Location/name Jebrayal Abdeh Michmich Bakhoun Tripoli Becharre Hasroun Amioun Chekka Batroun Jbeil Kartaba Khanchara Harajel Under construction Implementation status Preparatory stage Funding not secured X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Ministry of Environment of Lebanon. Irrigated area (ha) 1980 2010 52 1 673 1 725 176 6 445 787 1 673 2 460 284 12 288 D. and 10 for which no funding has yet been secured (see table 49). An exploratory study is being conducted on the economic feasibility of upgrading the Ghadir WWTP to provide secondary treatment before discharge into the sea. LEBANON Lebanon generates an estimated 249 million cubic metres of waste-water per year. with a total BOD load of 99. 2001). and this has presumably improved the waste-water collection capacity of the country. namely grit and scum removal. 85 . State of the Environment Report 2001. 18 for which funding has been approved and are in the preparatory stage. 126 125 Ministry of Environment. Waste-water Treatment and Use in Agriculture. Available at: http://www.

In the absence of operational waste-water treatment plants. Thirteen small community-level waste-water treatment plants became operational in this way in 2001. only 15 per cent is 127 Ministry of Environment.200 millimetres in diameter which extends 2. producing water that is suitable for irrigation.TABLE 49 (continued) Location/name Kesrouane/Tabarja Dora Ghadir Chouf coastal area Mazraat el Chouf Saida Sour Hermel Laboue Yammouneh Baalbeck Zahle Aanjar Jib Jinnine/Deir Tahnich Karoun Sohmor/Yohmor Hasbaya Jbaa Nabatiyeh Shakra Bint Jbeil Under construction Implementation status Preparatory stage Funding not secured X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Source: Ministry of Environment. is a submersed pipeline 1. however. EGYPT According to 1994 statistics. effluent from coastal communities is discharged into the sea. while effluent from inland communities is disposed of in rivers. 86 . dry river beds. and consequently the waste-water is adequately diluted. mainly due to their dimensions. and of the waste-water that is collected. which are inadequate to accommodate the volume of waste-water generated by the rapidly increasing population. thus.6 kilometres out into the Mediterranean Sea. on open land or underground through dry wells. Delays in the construction of waste-water works in various parts of the country have prompted a number of municipalities and local communities to make their own arrangements with the technical and financial support of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that secure funding throuhg international donors such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). State of the Environment Report 2001.127 E. There are approximately 53 outfalls along the coast. Most outfalls extend only a couple of metres or terminate at the surface of the water. The outlet point is approximately 60 metres deep. Most of these provide secondary treatment. Furthermore. sewer networks in Egypt are confronted with operational problems. most of the collected waste-water is not treated or is treated ineffectually owing to the unsatisfactory state of the existing WWTPs. Twenty-five per cent of the population has no sewerage service at all. The Ghadir outfall. streams. there is no submersed outfall and thus no effective dilution of waste-water. State of the Environment Report 2001.

130 128 S.128 Cairo. aimed at providing Cairo with a sanitation network that would be sufficient to cope with the city’s growing needs.html#fn7. The main treatment plant for the Greater Cairo Waste-water Project is the Gabal El Asfar Treatment Plant. 129 Available at: http://www.bbv-ltd. the Greater Cairo Waste-water Project.hf. Primary sedimentation tanks. It consists of components listed below:129 (a) Inlet pumping /myllyla. the largest city in the Middle East region.pdf. including: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Screens and grit removal. with more than 16 million inhabitants. 19-22 June 1995. (b) On-nitrifying activated sludge process. Chlorination of final effluent. With the new sewerage rehabilitation and extension projects. and was regularly affected by overflows due to damaged pipes and overload. GlobslEIATP. for example. current plans call for 84. there were at least six operating domestic WWTPs serving the Greater Cairo area: three plants discharging through agricultural drains to the Northern Lakes and the Mediterranean and one plant discharging into the Nile. including: (i) Thickening. desert development). and by the 1980s it was already incapable of coping with the growing strains imposed by an ever larger and still rapidly increasing population.128 To resolve this unsanitary situation.adequately treated. 25 per cent is partially treated. many rural areas still lack such facilities. Finland. Cairo. (ii) Digestion and dewatering.000 hectares of land in Egypt to be irrigated with treated waste-water by the year 2000. Myllylä. 87 . a paper presented at the third Nordic conference on Middle Eastern Studies: Ethnic encounter and culture change. (d) Utilization of produced gas in the power plant within the facility. In 1995. All urban waste projects include facilities for treatment up to the tertiary level and will produce water that would be reusable for irrigation purposes. Available at: http://www. while the effluent from the other two plants was used largely for desert irrigation and land reclamation (namely. The sewerage network was built in the early years of the 20th century. (c) Sludge treatment. the Government launched a sewerage extension programme. Of the remaining untreated water. Aeration tanks with surface aerators. Joensuu. 9 m lift with screws up to 3.000 hectares of desert land.ciheam.uib. 2000).com/Projects/WSTD/ 130 Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM). is burdened with continued rapid population growth and spatial expansion. Final clarifiers. (iii) Pumping stations. However. while 60 per cent is carried raw via open canals to the Mediterranean Sea. which has an ultimate capacity of three million cubic metres per day and is designed to serve a population of 3 million people.2 m in diameter.htm. Gabal Al Asfar Treatment Plant. Cairo-A Mega-City and Its Water Resources. Black and ressources/en/rapport2000/ chapter8. will have facilities capable of treating up to 4 million cubic metres per day and producing enough treated waste-water to irrigate 168. Available at: http://www. Annual Report 2000: Development and Agri-food Policies in the Mediterranean Region (Paris: CIHEAM.

governments must address the issue of waste-water reuse as part of an integrated water management strategy. agriculture and municipal affairs. and so on) can sometimes be obtained more readily from similar surveys targeting industrial facilities in Europe and the United States. at the basin level. It is clear from this survey that the ESCWA region would be well advised to strive to improve its waste-water reuse and establish information networks for the transfer and sharing of technology and experience. industry. and consequently it is essential to disseminate knowledge and information about the danger of raw waste-water reuse and issue safe reuse guidelines. there has been growing interest in waste-water reuse as a major component of water demand management. In this context. treatment and disposal technologies and practices as well as the planning and regulation issues that are fundamental to waste-water management. reverse osmosis. the status of waste-water treatment and waste-water reuse in selected ESCWA countries are discussed. A model survey questionnaire covering data of relevance for a comprehensive assessment of waste-water treatment costs is found in Annex III. Developments in waste-water treatment and reuse practices in the ESCWA countries could be facilitated through the creation of an information network. The present study begins with brief descriptions of the various technologies commonly used for waste-water treatment and indications of the estimated costs associated with each. public health hazards are often associated with waste-water reuse. which can serve as a forum for the exchange of information and knowledge about applied research in the realm of waste-water management and practices appropriate to the developing world. ultrafiltration. microfiltration. In view of the fact that actual treatment costs are significantly influenced by site-specific characteristics and country conditions. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Effective waste-water collection and treatment are of great importance from the standpoint of both environmental and public health. this issue could best be approached through field surveys of waste-water treatment plants operating in selected ESCWA countries. with multi-disciplinary coordination among various sectors including environment. including appropriate and affordable waste-water collection. Extensive research activity in this field has led to significant improvement and diversification in the processes and methods used for waste-water treatment and sludge management. public health. It is worth noting that cost estimates for advanced treatment technologies (namely. maintaining current information on research. Most importantly. reuse practices. addressing various aspects of waste-water management. crop water quality and soil and groundwater quality. responding to requests for information from network members. and maintaining and expanding waste-water management information with electronic access Finally. 88 . it would clearly be desirable to mount a data-gathering campaign aimed at addressing the current lack of information about waste-water treatment costs in the ESCWA region. In recent years. presenting relevant information on available training courses. Such a network must be broad in scope. studies or projects undertaken by network members. The following section presents a brief overview of the application of instrumentation and control for process operation and monitoring at wastewater treatment plants. While many ESCWA countries reuse treated waste-water for agricultural purposes. since municipal WWTPs utilizing such state-of-the-art technologies are rarely encountered in ESCWA countries. including: summarizing and disseminating relevant information on research in the field. health. It should be capable of accommodating various activities. governments must regulate and monitor effluent quality. organizing online discussions among network members. Lastly.VII.


90 .

Annex I TABLES AND FIGURES Annex figure 1. Types of filters used for the filtration of treated waste-water

2-3 ft

Sand or anthracite

1-2 ft 1-2 ft

Anthracite Sand Effluent

Effluent Underdrain system
Underdrain system

(a) Conventional mono-medium downflow

(b) Conventional dual-medium downflow
Overflow trough Effluent Grid to retain sand

4-8 ft


6-10 ft


Effluent Underdrain system
Retaining screen for sand


(c) Conventional mono-medium deep-bed downflow Vent to Variable atmosphere water surface Influent

(d) Conventional mono-medium deep-bed upflow
Washwater trough Traveling-bridge backwash mechanism

Variable water surface Influent

Backwash water

10 in


Returning screen for sand Air plenum chamber

sand 11 in

W ashwater Backw ash pump



Underdrain system open to Effluent the atmosphere

Sand support plate

Individual sand cells


(e) Pulsed-bed filter
Backwash water Weir Airline from compressor Effluent Sand washer

(f) Traveling bridge filter

Settling basin

Sand layer 2-3 ft

3-4 ft


Gravel layer

Tile underdrain

(g) Continuous backwash deep-bed upflow filter

(h) Slow sand filter

Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wastewater Engineering, 3rd edition.

Type of filter Conven-tional Semicontinuous, downflow Type of filter bed Monomedium Dual medium Multimedium Monomedium Filtering medium Sand or anthracite Sand and anthracite Sand, anthracite and garnet Sand or anthracite Typical bed depth (in) 30 36 36 Operation during the filtration phase Liquid is passed downward through the filter bed. Rate of flow through the filter may be constant or variable depending on the flow control method. Liquid is passed downward through the filter bed. Rate of flow through the filter may be constant or variable depending on the flow control method. 48-72 Liquid is passed upward through the filter bed. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant. Operation during the cleaning phase When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through the filter. Both air and water are used in the backwash operation. When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through the filter. Both air and water are used in the backwash operation. When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by increasing the flow rate through the bottom of the filter. Both air and water are used in the backwash operation. When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through the filter. Liquid to be filtered continues to enter the filter during the backwash operation. Chemical cleaning is also used.

Deep bed Semicontinuous, downflow

Deep bed Semicontinuous, upflow


Sand or anthracite

Pulse-bed Semicontinuous, downflow




Liquid is passed downward through the filter bed. As the headloss builds up, air is pulsed up through the bed to break up the surface mat and to redistribute the solids. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant.


ANNEX TABLE 1 (continued)
Type of filter Deep bed Continuous, upflow Type of filter bed Monomedium Filtering medium Sand Typical bed depth (in) 48-72 Operation during the filtration phase Liquid is passed upward through the filter bed, the medium of which is moving downward in the countercurrent direction. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant. Operation during the cleaning phase The filter medium is backwashed continuously by pumping sand from the bottom of the filter with an airlift to a sand washer located in the top of the filter. After passing through the washer, the clean sand is distributed on the top of the filter bed. When the allowable headloss is reached, the individual cells of the filter are backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through each of the cells successively. The backwash water is removed through the backwash hood.

Travelingbridge Continuous, downflow

Monomedium Dual medium

Sand Sand

11 16

Liquid is passed upward through the filter bed. Liquid continues to be filtered while the individual cells are backwashed. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant.

Source: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wastewater Engineering, 3rd edition.


proprietary processes denitrification. single-stage. and phosphorus removal POND PROCESSES Aerobic ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Maturation (tertiary) ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Facultative ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Anaerobic ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Source: Metcalf and Eddy. carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal. Wastewater Engineering. Inc. waste stabilization Expanded bed Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal. Two-stage Anaerobic contact process Upflow anaerobic sludge-blanket Attached growth Anaerobic filter process Use Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification. nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal. 3rd edition. carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal. biofilter processes activated sludge. carbonaceous BOD removal Stabilization. ANOXIC AND ANAEROBIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Single or multi-stage processes. single-stage High rate. nitrification Stabilization. nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal. waste stabilization COMBINED AEROBIC.ANNEX TABLE 2. and phosphorus removal Combined suspended Single or multi-stage processes Carbonaceous BOD removal.. nitrification. series trickling filter activated sludge ANOXIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Suspended growth denitrification Attached growth Fixed-film denitrification ANAEROBIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Anaerobic digestion Standard rate. 94 . carbonaceous BOD removal Stabilization. various Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification Nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal. and attached growth denitrification. nitrification Denitrification Denitrification Stabilization. MAJOR BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES USED FOR WASTE-WATER TREATMENT Type Common name AEROBIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Activated sludge process Conventional (plug-flow) Complete mix Step aeration Pure oxygen Sequencing batch reactor Contact stabilization Extended aeration Oxidation ditch Deep tank Deep shaft Suspended growth nitrification Aerated lagoons Aerobic digestion Conventional air Pure oxygen Attached growth Trickling filters Low rate High rate Roughing filters Rotating biological contactors Packed-bed reactors Combined suspended Activated biofilter process and attached growth Trickling filter solids contact.

Contact stabilization uses two separate tanks for the treatment of the waste-water and the stabilization of the activated sludge. Tapered aeration is usually achieved by using different spacing of the air diffusers over the tank length. The combination allows high F/M ratios and low mean cell-residence times with relatively short hydraulic detention times. Tapered aeration is a modification of the conventional plug-flow process. Modified aeration is similar to the conventional plug-flow process except that shorter aeration times and higher F/M ratios are used. Air application is generally uniform throughout the tank length. and oxidation of organic matter occur. Adequate mixing is very important. Greater amounts of air are supplied to the head end of the aeration tank.ANNEX TABLE 3. Aeration volume requirements are typically 50 per cent less than in the case of conventional plug flow. The organic load on the aeration tank and the oxygen demand are uniform throughout the tank length. flocculation. Settled waste-water and recycled activated sludge are typically introduced at several points in the aeration tank. Step feed is a modification of the conventional plug-flow process in which the settled waste-water is introduced at several points in the aeration tank to equalize the food to micro-organism (F/M) ratio. Complete-mix 85-95 Tapered aeration - Step-feed aeration 85-95 Modified aeration 60-75 Contact stabilization 80-90 Extended aeration 75-95 High-rate aeration 75-90 95 . The stabilized activated sludge is mixed with the influent (either raw or settled) wastewater in a contact tank. and the amounts diminish as the mixed liquor approaches the effluent end. The mixed liquor is settled in a secondary settling tank and return sludge is aerated separately in a re-aeration basin for stabilization of the organic matter. adsorption. which requires a low organic loading and long aeration time. DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVATED-SLUDGE PROCESSES AND PROCESS MODIFICATIONS Process or process modification Conventional plugflow BOD removal efficiency (Percentage) 85-95 Description Settled waste-water and recycled activated sludge enter the head of the aeration tank and are mixed by diffused air or mechanical aeration. The process is used extensively for prefabricated package plants for small communities. Process is an application of the flow regime of a continuous-flow stirredtank reactor. BOD removal efficiency is lower than in the case of other activated-sludge processes. Activated-sludge solids are separated in a secondary settling tank. During the aeration period. depending on the oxygen demand. Varying aeration rates are applied over the tank length. thus lowering peak oxygen demand. High-rate aeration is a process modification in which high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations are combined with high volumetric loadings. Flexibility of operation is one of the important features of this process. Three or more parallel channels are commonly used. The extended aeration process is similar to the conventional plug-flow process except that it operates in the endogenous respiration phase of the growth curve.

High-purity oxygen 85-95 Oxidation ditch 75-95 Sequencing batch reactor 85-95 Deep shaft reactor 85-95 Single-stage nitrification Separate-stage nitrification 85-95 85-95 Source: Metcalf and Eddy. Secondary sedimentation tanks are used for most applications. both BOD and ammonia reduction occur in a single biological stage. pH adjustment may also be required. The advantage of this system is that operation can be optimized to conform to nitrification needs. In separate-stage nitrification.8 to 1. The oxygen is diffused into covered aeration tanks and is recirculated. Wastewater Engineering. Oxidation ditches typically operate in an extended aeration mode with long detention and solids retention times. A vertical shaft about 400 to 500 ft (120 to 150 m) deep replaces the primary clarifiers and aeration basin. The resulting mixed liquor is then added to the main plug-flow aeration system. A portion of the gas is wasted to reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide. Inc. High-purity oxygen is used instead of air in the activated-sludge process. In single-stage nitrification. and circulates about 0.25 to 0. 3rd edition. and this eliminates the need for separate secondary sedimentation tanks. The oxidation ditch consists of a ring. 96 . The amount of oxygen added is about four times greater than the amount that can be added by conventional aeration systems.2 ft/s (0. Mixed liquor remains in the reactor during all cycles.ANNEX TABLE 3 (continued) Process or process modification Kraus process BOD removal efficiency (Percentage) 85-95 Description The Kraus process is a variation of the step aeration process used to treat waste-water with low nitrogen levels.35 m/s). The shaft is lined with a steel shell and fitted with a concentric pipe to form an annular reactor.. a separate reactor is used for nitrification. Digester supernatant is added as a nutrient source to a portion of the return sludge in a separate aeration tank designed to nitrify. Mixed liquor and air are forced down the centre of the shaft and allowed to rise upward through the annulus. Screened waste-water enters the ditch. The deep vertical shaft reactor is a form of the activated-sludge process. operating on a feed waste from a preceding biological treatment unit. The sequencing batch reactor is a fill-and-draw type reactor system involving a single complete-mix reactor in which all steps of the activated-sludge process occur. Reactor configurations may be either a series of complete-mix reactors or plug-flow.or oval-shaped channel and is equipped with mechanical aeration devices. is aerated.

ANNEX TABLE 4. Selected activated-sludge processes Aeration tank Influent 1o clarifier Primary sludge Waste sludge 2o clarifier Aeration basin Influent Alternate waste sludge point 2 o Clarifier Effluent Return sludge Effluent Waste sludge (a) Conventional plug flow Aerator Influent Contactor Recycled solids LiquidsSolids separation (b) Complete mix (Q) Oxygen supply Crossover Surface aerators Effluent Influent Influent Effluent Partition (c) Tapered aeration Aeration rotor Influent (d) Contactor using pure oxygen Influent Return sludge Waste sludge Effluent Return sludge Waste sludge Air 2o Clarifier Flotation tank Effluent (e) Oxidation ditch Prim ary sludge W aste sludge R eturn sludge (f) Deep shaft process R eturn sludge W aste sludge Influent 1o C larifier Aeration Tank 2o C larifier Nitrification tank Nitrification E ffluent C larifier (g) Nitrification in separate stage Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták.Annex figure 2. Wastewater Treatment. Floating aquatic plants Storage may be needed for cold weather Depth to groundwater 2-3 ft (minimum) Not critical Not critical 97 . COMPARISON OF THE MAIN NATURAL TREATMENT PROCESSES Characteristic Climatic conditions Slow rate Storage often needed for cold weather and during precipitation Rapid infiltration None (possible modification of operation in cold weather) 10 ft (lesser depths are acceptable when underdrainage is provided) Overland flow Storage often needed for cold weather and during precipitation Not critical Wetland Storage may be needed for cold weather.

. mg/L) BOD Suspended solids ammonia nitrogen as N Total nitrogen as N Total phosphorus as P Required Optional Required <2 <1 < 0. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. Inc. silts and soils with impermeable barriers) Sprinkler or surface Screening Surface runoff and evaporation with some percolation Required Slow to moderate Slow to moderate Application techniques Minimum preapplication treatment Disposition of applied wastewater Sprinkler or surface Primary sedimentation Evapotranspiration and percolation Usually surface Primary sedimentation Mainly percolation Sprinkler or surface Primary sedimentation Evapotranspiration. loamy sands) Overland flow Finish slopes 1-8 per cent Wetland Usually less than 5 per cent Floating aquatic plants Usually less than 5 per cent Soil permeability Slow (clays.. 98 .1 <2 <2 < 0. and Reed et al.5 <3 < 0.5 < 10 <1 < 10 < 15 <1 <5 <4 - - Source: Metcalf and Eddy. less than 40 per cent on forested land Moderately slow to moderately rapid Rapid infiltration Not critical. percolation and runoff Required Surface Primary sedimentation Some evapotranspiration Need for vegetation Expected effluent quality (average. excessive slopes require much earthwork Rapid (sands. Natural Systems.ANNEX TABLE 4 (continued) Characteristic Slope Slow rate Less than 15 per cent on cultivated land.

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON SLUDGE THICKENING TECHNOLOGIES Solids concentration achieved (Percentage) - Thickening method Gravity Description A gravity thickener is similar to a conventional circular sedimentation basin. Dilute sludge is fed to a centre feed well and allowed to settle and compact before being withdrawn from the bottom of the basin. First. This method is most effective with primary sludge. The conditioned sludge then passes to rotating screen drums. As the water drains through. Dissolved air flotation is used for thickening of sludge that originates from suspended growth biological treatment processes. The conditioned sludge is fed into a box. Wastewater Engineering. operating on a batch basis. the sludge is carried to the discharge end of the thickener. while the supernatant is returned to the headworks of the treatment plant. or to the primary settling tank. 99 . . horizontally mounted bowl. which separate the flocculated solids from the water. They involve the settling of sludge particles under the influence of centrifugal forces. where it is skimmed. These carry the sludge to the top. It involves the introduction of air into a sludge solution that is being held at an elevated pressure. 3rd edition. polymer is mixed with thin sludge in the conditioning drum. Two basic types of centrifuges are the solid bowl and the imperforate basket. . tapered at one end..The imperforate basket centrifuge consists of a vertically mounted spinning bowl.The solid bowl centrifuge consists of a long. which distributes it evenly across the width of the moving belt. The solids accumulate against the wall of the bowl and the liquid is decanted.ANNEX TABLE 5. When the solution is depressurized. It is used for the thickening of raw and digested sludges after conditioning by the addition of polymer. A rotary drum thickening system consists of a waste activated-sludge conditioning system and rotating cylindrical screens. Flotation 3. Sludge is introduced continuously and the solids concentrate on the periphery.5-5 Centrifugation 4-6 8-10 Gravity belt Gravity belt thickeners consist of a gravity belt that moves over rollers driven by a variable-speed drive unit. 3-6 Rotary drum 5-9 Source: Metcalf and Eddy. the dissolved air is released as finely divided bubbles. The thickened sludge is pumped to digesters or dewatering equipment. Inc. which gently agitate the sludge and contribute to its densification by releasing trapped gas and waters. Centrifuges are used to thicken and dewater waste activated sludges. The sludge scraping mechanism incorporates vertical pickets.

Inc. 3rd edition.. Common thickening technologies Handrail Turntable base Drive Water level Feed well Center column Center cage Weir Inlet pipe Stilts Center scraper Sludge pipe Squeegees (a) Gravity thickening Gear box Drive sheave Skimmings discharge Feed Feed Centrate overflow Thickened sludge Centrate Cake discharge Dense cake removal (b) Solid bowl centrifuge (c) Imperforate basket centrifuge (d) Gravity belt thickener Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. (e) Rotary drum 100 . Wastewater Engineering.Annex figure 3.

N Display red light (standby power required) Displays. records and totalizes continuously Meters. P. auxiliary contact Venturi tube in force main Orifice plate with square root extractor and display Pressure indicators Motor monitors Torque monitors Controls pumping rate Liquid level in sump of dry well Monitor gate position Monitors seal water pressure for pump protection Monitors seal and water flow to pump for pump protection Monitors the discharge pressure of the pumps Monitor on-off condition of motor and motor malfunction Leakage and flooding Motor protection against overheating and burn out Sensors for pH. and ORP Display of liquid level in wet well Trips alarm Display green light Displays red light Displays red light Pressure gauges Display green light. BOD. displays. records and totalizes continuously Displays green light Alarm signal Displays red light Displays rotational speed Displays and records Primary sedimentation Level detector Pressure indicator Magnetic flow meter Motor monitor Torque monitor Anaerobic zone Torque monitor Speed regulator Thermocouple Selective ion electrode 101 . H2S.ANNEX TABLE 6. pH. red light for malfunction Displays red light. records and totalizes flow continuously Pressure gauges Display green light Display red light Displays green light Displays red light Displays. CH4. Sampler to deliver water sample in the lab Monitor power outage Monitors influent flow to the plant Measures air flow to each chamber Monitoring of discharge pressure of air blowers Monitor on-off condition of blower motor Monitor spiral conveyer and bucket elevator Controls sludge and scum pumps and air agitator in scum box Monitors discharge from each sludge pump Sludge-pumping rate Monitors on-off condition of each motor Monitors motor torque for sludgeraking mechanism Monitors mixer motor for operation Monitors and controls rotational speed of mixer blades Monitors temperature. trips alarm Displays red light Continuous recording on strip chart. DO. Routine chemical analysis TSS. DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIABLES MONITORED FOR VARIOUS TREATMENT PROCESSES Treatment unit Bar screen Sensing device Limit switch Time clock High-level override by float in stilling well (excessive head loss) Bubbler system in wet well Conductivity switch or float Limit switches Pressure switch Flow switch Pressure indicator Motor monitors Liquid level sensor in dry pit Temperature monitor and/or amperage monitor Sampling and analysis Purpose Monitors gate position Operation of rake Emergency operation of rake Description Displays green light Displays green light Displays red light Pumping station Flow measurement Aerated grit chamber Main circuit breaker. TOC.

torque monitor 102 . records and totalizes flow continuously Displays red light Display red light Displays red light Displays light intensity and UV dose alarm Displays total hours in operation Displays and records the level. records and totalizes flow continuously Displays pump operation Displays.ANNEX TABLE 6 (continued) Treatment unit Anoxic zone Sensing device Torque monitor Speed regulator Thermocouple Selective ion electrode Dissolved oxygen measurement Flow meter. motor monitor. displays. records and totalizes flow Displays sludge blanket level Displays and records Similar to those for primary and final clarifiers Electrical power module Thermocouples Lamp status UV light intensity sensor Totalizer Level control Gravity thickener Magnetic flow meter Venturi meter Ultrasonic sludge blanket detector Ultrasonic density meter Pressure indicator. DO. pH. torque monitor Torque monitor UV disinfection system Parshall flume Displays. differential pressure type Ultrasonic sludge blanket in final clarifier Magnetic flow meter Suspended solids analyzer Purpose Monitors mixer motor for operation Monitors and controls rotational speed of mixer blades Monitors temperature. RAS pumps and blowers Measures flow upstream of UV disinfection facility to control light intensity Monitors electrical power to UV lamp Monitor temperature of UV lamp module Monitors burnt out lamp Measures UV light intensity Totalizes time for each lamp/row/bank Monitors liquid level upstream and downstream of UV banks Flow measurement of feed sludge Flow measurement of dilution water Monitors the sludge blanket level in the gravity thickener Monitors solids concentration in feed and thickened sludge Similar to those for primary and final clarifiers Description Displays red light Displays rotational speed Displays and records Displays and records Display and continuous recording Meters. records and totalizes flow continuously Displays and records TSS. Sounds alarm for low and high levels Displays. records and totalizes flow Pressure gauges Display green light Alarm signal Aerobic zone and final clarifiers Pressure indicator Motor monitors. records and totalizes flow Displays. NO3 Controls aeration rate Monitors air supply to each aeration basin Monitors the sludge level and actuates sludge return pumps Controls return sludge flow Measures MLSS concentration in aeration basin and actuates waste sludge pumps Monitors the discharge pressure of the pumps Monitor on-off condition of each motor Monitors motor torque for sludgeraking mechanism.

flow switch pressure indicator. Wastewater Treatment Plants. and mixing Monitor temperature. H2S = hydrogen sulfide CH4 = methane N = nitrogen P = phosphorus BOD = biological oxygen demand DO = dissolved oxygen ORP = oxidation-reduction potential TSS = total dissolved solids TOC = total organic carbon UV = ultraviolet MLSS = mixed liquor suspended solids Purpose Flow measurement of feed sludge Monitor solids concentration in feed and digested sludge. lab test Float and level indicator Magnetic flow meter Pressure switch. pump operation Displays. pressure indicator. flare status Determination of gas composition and calorific value Measurement of supernatant flow Monitor pump. motor. motor monitor Source: Qasim. and ORP of digester content and the recirculating sludge Monitor liquid level in the digester and level of floating cover Control hot water heating system Measurement of digester gas flow Gas storage pressure Monitors flame in building. flow switch. selective ion electrodes Level indicator Pressure and temperature Orifice meter Pressure gauge Flame detector Chromatograph and calorimeter Venuri meter Pressure switch. record and totalizes flow Similar to those for gravity thickeners Display and record Indicator Display temperature. motor monitor Pressure indicators Belt speed Magnetic flow meter Ultrasonic density meter Static scale Ohm meter. compressor as indicated above Measurement of pressure and shearing forces exerted by belt filters Frequency drive controller for belt speed adjustment Monitors the flow of conditioned feed sludge to each belt filter press Monitors solids concentration in feed sludge Measures weight of sludge cake Determine moisture content of the sludge cake Measure level of polymer solution in storage and feed banks Measures flow of lime and polymer solution Monitor pump. compressor as indicated above Description Displays. motor. records and totalizes Red light and alarm Red light Tabulation of result and data logging Records and totalizes Display red light Filter press Dial display Displays speed Records and totalizes Records and totalizes Records and logs data Record and log data Record and log data Records and logs data Display as indicated above 103 . pH.ANNEX TABLE 6 (continued) Treatment unit Anaerobic digestion Sensing device Magnetic flow meter Ultrasonic density meter Thermocouple.

ANNEX TABLE 7. organic loading < 60 kg/ha. land application. < 2 m deep. 50 day HRT. land application 12 months/yr Cold climate.5 m deep. A A (m2) = 1.5 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 0. organic loading < 150 kg/ha. all year operation Warm climate. 2. 6-day HRT.5 m deep. 50 day HRT. 1 m deep.5 m deep. 6 months/yr Winter storage not required. 0.71 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) -5 Assumptions All year operation possible in all climates Warm climate.d 7-day HRT.2 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 2. land application 12 months/yr Cold climate. water temperatures > 7°C. 30 day HRT.d A (ha) = 1. frequent harvest or vegetation 5-day HRT. annual harvest Secondary effluent input. organic loading < 300 kg/ha. ~ 60 day HRT.d. 104 . organic loading < 50 kg/ha. Natural Systems.d.3 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 9.d Warm climate. organic loading < 90 kg/ha.0 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 8. organic loading < 100 kg/ha. monthly plant harvest 20-day HRT. land application.1 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 3. organic loading < 30 kg/ha.d Cold climate..d 180 day HRT. water temperatures > 10°C.5 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 2. input of facultative pond effluent 7-day HRT. organic loading < 30 kg/ha.5 m deep Very warm climate. 1. LAND AREA EQUATIONS FOR SELECTED NTSS NTS On-site Slow rate Rapid infiltration Overland flow Facultative pond Aerobic pond Partial-mix aerated pond Controlled Discharge pond Facultative hyacinth pond for secondary treatment Hyacinth pond for tertiary treatment Aerated hyacinth pond for secondary treatment Duckweed pond for effluent polishing Free water surface wetland Surface flow wetland Area equation.1 m deep.2 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 2. organic loading < 100 kg/ha.5 x Q (m3/d)/ k (m/d) A (acres) = 19 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 28 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 6 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 9 x 10 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 17 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (ha) = 5. 1.d.9 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 16.8 m deep. 1 m deep. input of screened or settled waste-water. depth< 1m. input of screened or settled waste-water.d.7 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) Source: Reed et al. 1. 6 months/yr Warm climate. < 0. input of screened or settled waste-water. water temperatures > 10°C.

hot-water boilers 105 . liquids Gas. gravity thickener Anaerobic digester. Final clarifier. sludges Clean liquid Liquids. hotwater boiler Sludge lines. sludges Liquids Liquids Clean liquids Pressure 0-200 kN/m2 Pressure 0-350 000 kN/m2 Pressure 0-20 000 kN/m2 Pressure 0-35 000 kN/m2 Liquid head 0-11 m Liquid head 0-56 m Uncurling motion of noncircular crosssectional area of a curved tube Movement of a float riding on surface of liquid Measurement of back pressure in the tube bubbling regulated air at slightly higher pressure than the static head outside Pressure change in air on one side of the diaphragm caused by the liquid pressure on the other side of the diaphragm The sonic pulses are reflected from the target surface Detection of light in a probe by a photocell across the sludge blanket Detection of the ultrasonic signal transmitted between two transducers Current flows in a circuit made of two different metals Absolute pressure of a confined gas is proportional to the absolute temperature Change in electrical resistance temperature-sensitive element of Diaphragm bulb Liquid head 0-15 m Ultrasonic Sludge level Photocell Ultrasonic Temperature Thermocouple Thermal bulb Resistance temperature detector Liquid level in channel or basin Primary sedimentation. Final clarifier. liquids Gas. anaerobic digesters.Annex II COMMON ON-LINE PROCESS MEASUREMENT DEVICES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT Measured variables Flow Primary device Venturi meter Flow nozzle meter Orifice meter Electromagnetic meter Turbine meter Acoustic meter Parshall flume Palmer-Bowlus flume Pressure Weirs Liquid-to-air diaphragm Strain gauge Bellows Bourdon tube Liquid level Float Bubbler tube Measured signal Differential pressure Differential pressure Differential pressure Magnetic field and voltage change Propeller rotation Sound waves Differential elevation of water surface Differential elevation of water surface Head over weir Balance pressure across a metal diaphragm Dimensional change in sensor Displacement of mechanical connected to the indicator linkage Common application Gas. water lines Bearing and winding temperatures of electrical machinery. gravity thickener Primary sedimentation. liquids Liquids.

effluent Ammonia Spectrophotometer Source: Adapted from Qasim. current Loss of ultrasonic signal by the liquid between the ultrasonic transmitter and receiver Voltage produced by hydrogen ion activity Change in potential due to oxidation or reduction Flow of electrical current across the solution Electrical current across the membrane because of reduction of molecular oxygen. effluent Influent. dimensional change in sensor Absorption of gamma rays by the liquid between the radiation source and the detector Voltage. Wastewater Treatment Plants. aeration basin. blower. maintenance of proper DO in aeration basin. pressure transmitted across diaphragm. returned. influent to aeration basin. Signal is temperature-compensated CO2 produced from combustion of sample Electrical output Various types of sensor modules utilizing electrical impulses Decrease in DO level over time CO2 and CH4 production rate Common application Chemicals Density MLSS concentration. CH4 Oxygen uptake rate Anaerobic biological condition Phosphate Carbon analyzer Sensor Sensors Influent to plant. plant effluent Detection of hazardous condition in room or around covered treatment units Aeration basin Anaerobic sludge digester Respirometers using sensor Sensor. thickened and digested sludge solids Variable-speed pump. effluent Dosing alkali to remedy acid production of nitrification Influent. H2S. CO2. combustion Spectrophotometer Electrical signal proportional to degree of coloured compound produced when stannous chloride reacts with a phosphate-molybdate complex Electrical signal proportional to degree of colour formed when nitrite and nitrate react with reagents to form coloured compounds Electrical signal proportional to degree of change that occurs when ammonia gas causes a change in the pH of an indicator solution Influent. plant effluent Speed Suspended solids Tachometer Ultrasonic sensor PH Selective ion electrode Electrode Oxidationreduction potential Total dissolved solids Dissolved oxygen Conductivity Membrane electrode Total organic carbon Chlorine residual Gases: NH3. Anaerobic digester Influent. chemical solution. CO. thickened and digested sludge solids Influent. anaerobic digester.Measured variables Weight Primary device Weight beam. effluent Influent. dewatering. hydraulic load cell or strain gauge Gamma radiation Measured signal Lever mechanism or spring. effluent Nitrate/Nitrite Spectrophotometer Influent. plant effluent Chlorine contact tank. or mixer MLSS concentration. 106 . returned.

Annex III THE WATER SPREADSHEET TOOL Annex figure 4. 107 . General input of the WaTER tool Source: WaTER software.

108 . RO-NF output of the WaTER tool Source: WaTER software. Annex figure 6. RO-NF input of the WaTER tool Source: WaTER software.Annex figure 5.

109 .Annex IV CAPDETWORKS SOFTWARE Unit processes included in CapdetWorks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Screening Grit removal Microscreening Equalization Dissolved air flotation Primary clarification Anion exchange Cation exchange Neutralization Coagulation Carbon adsorption Recarbonation Flocculation Two-stage lime treatment First stage recarbonation Second stage recarbonation Chlorination Ultra-violet disinfection Lagoon Aerated lagoon Activated sludge package plant Complete mix activated sludge Overland flow land treatment • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Plug flow activated sludge Srt-based plug flow activated sludge Sequencing batch reactor Contact stabilization activated sludge Step aeration activated sludge High rate activated sludge Extended aeration activated sludge Oxidation ditch Pure oxygen activated sludge Nitrification-suspended growth Denitrification-suspended growth Trickling filter Nitrifying trickling filter Rotating biological contactor Nitrifying rotating biological contactor Denitrification-attached growth Biological nitrogen removal Biological nutrient removal-2 stage Biological nutrient removal-3/5 stage Intermediate process pumping Counter current ammonia stripping Cross current ammonia stripping Rapid infiltration land treatment • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Slow infiltration land treatment Secondary clarifier Post aeration Filtration User waste-water process Waste-water flow splitter Influent sludge Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Wet oxidation User specified sludge process Sludge flow splitter Gravity thickening Sludge flotation thickening Belt filtration Centrifugation Drying beds Filter press Vacuum filtration Sludge drying lagoon Hauling and land filling Fluidized bed incineration Multiple hearth incineration Source: CapdetWorks help file included in demonstration copy.

Annex figure 7. Annex figure 8. 110 . Activated sludge design and summary cost using CAPDET Source: CapdetWorks demonstration copy. Trickling filter design and summary cost using CAPDET Source: CapdetWorks demonstration copy.

111 . Cost comparison of activated sludge versus trickling filter using CAPDET Source: CapdetWorks demonstration copy.Annex figure 9.

UT Parry Sound. CA Capacity (mgd) 0. WY Youngs River.39 0.5 2. Water Auth. KS Seekonk. OR Marquette..42 0. WI Olivenhain.03 1. OR Warrenton.Annex V MEMBRANE FILTRATION COST DATA Construction cost per gallon of installed capacity (US$/gpd) 2. TX Pittsburg.42 0.27 0.7 0. TX Georgetown. PA Appleton. TX Kenosha.302 0.48 0. Ontario Holladay. TX Canyon Regional.45 1.73 2.90 3. Ontario Gibson Canyon.47 0. TX Bexar Met.5 0.75 1.9 1.32 0.9 0. TX Parsons.46 0.33 1.05 0.38 0.38 2. TX Millersburg. Ontario Loyalist Township.1 2. Ontario Canyon Regional.07 0. “The cost of membrane filtration”.1 2.67 1.57 0. MA Pendleton.03 3.96 Equipment cost per gallon of installed capacity (US$/gpd) 1.72 0.46 0.3 6 6 7 7. WA Little Current.53 0. CA Travis county.49 0. OR Amherstview.8 9 10 14 16 20 24 25 Construction cost (US$) 1 450 000 2 730 000 6 063 000 3 500 000 3 640 000 6 430 000 4 520 000 7 500 000 3 000 000 21 000 000 22 000 000 24 000 000 MF/UF equipment cost (US$) 438 000 525 000 650 000 640 000 980 000 1 800 000 880 000 800 000 980 500 1 260 000 1 540 000 1 380 000 1 590 000 3 000 000 2 500 000 2 525 000 3 500 000 2 300 000 3 170 000 7 000 000 7 777 778 5 400 000 6 800 000 10 000 000 Source: Elarde and Bergman.6 3 3 3 4.4 Equipment cost as percentage of construction cost 36 24 30 25 22 20 56 47 77 32 42 Location Meeteetse. 112 .28 0.42 0.50 0.29 0.50 0.49 0. MI San Patricio.51 0. WI Del Rio.4 2 2 2.

CC = 90Q + 612.376 .CC = 674Q 0. air supply equipment and piping.QE = QDesign × 32.2 g O2 per g of BOD Aeration period is 6 hrs .038 .CC = −0.CC include basin.5m3 / m 2 . grinders for screenings.96Q + 25.CC = 531Q 0.O & M = 4.Clarifier is deigned for an overflow rate of 32.611 . and price of building .d .CC = 72Q + 368. and blower building.609 . gravity grit chamber with mechanical grit handling equipment.O & M = 1.d Ferric chloride addition .Costs apply for circular clarifiers with area > 46.389 .d ActualDesignSurfaceOverflowRate 113 .CC include concrete rapid mix tank with stainless steel mixer.58Q + 36.5 g O2 per g of BOD removed and 4.842 .00002Q 2 + 19.O & M = 93Q 0.69Q + 11. Clarifiers and return sludge pumps are not included.043 .QE = QDesign × 40 24.6m3 / m 2 .295 40 .616 .d ActualDesignSurfaceOverflowRate 50 .O & M = 9.56 m2 Conventional activated sludge with diffused air Activated sludge with nitrification in single stage Final clarifier with aeration basin .32Q + 5.834 40 .Oxygen requirement is 1.Annex VI COST EQUATIONS FOR TREATMENT PROCESSES Process Screening and grit removal with bar screens Screening & grit removal without bar screens Primary sedimentation with sludge pumps Equation .Q E = Q Design × FeCl 3 dose 100 mg / L 20 .392 . .96Q + 25. Parshall flume and flow recording equipment .038 Service life (years) 30 Included elements .Oxygen requirement is 1. liquid containing 35 % FeCl3 and dosage of 100 mg/L.The clarifier is a flocculator type with a design overflow rate of 24.6 g O2 per gram of NH3-N oxidized . Clarifiers and return sludge pumps are not included.6 m3/m2.68Q + 22.29Q + 220.5 m3/m2.56 m2 and diameter < 61 m and for rectangular clarifiers with area < 46.624 .000002Q 2 + 3.777 .O & M = 3.O & M = 0.CC = 0.CC = 2941Q 0. chemical storage for 15 days.CC include flow channels and superstructures. mechanical bar screens.CC include plug-flow aeration tanks and aeration devices.6Q + 44.CC include sludge return and waste sludge pumps .O & M = 0. .

36Q + 24.CC = 2903Q 0. chlorinators.d .2Q + 5733 .00007Q + 56.CC include circular filter units with rotating distributor arms.QE = QDesign × 32.d ActualDesignSurfaceOverflowRate Service life (years) 50 40 Gravity filtration (dual media) .− 3 × 10 −6 Q 2 + 1. and miscellaneous equipment . safety cleaning and monitoring equipment.3 m3/m2. power source and distribution.458 2 35 .O & M = 194Q 0. .058 2 30 .CC = −0.97Q + 15.CC = −0. storage and handling facilities. feed system. synthetic media (1.439 .000001Q + 0.d and a backwash ratio of 36.00001Q + 14Q + 229.Contact time is 30 minutes . and others Activated carbon adsorption Chlorination .CC = −0.CC include chlorine building.656 . piping. and internal piping . mixers and reaction tank.CC = 1170Q 0.O & M = −0. walkway.6m3 / m 2 . lamps.The SO2 dosage is 1 mg/L SO2 per mg/L residual chlorine .O & M = 278Q 0. operations building. carbon regeneration facilities and storage tanks . piping.000001Q + 2. cleaning labour.89Q + 244.00005Q 2 + 44.000003Q 2 + 5.CC include UV modules.8 m3/m2. injector and plug-flow contact chamber .QE = QDesign × Dechlorination using sulfur dioxide ActualChlo rineDosage .038Q + 4585 15 114 . effluent recycle pumps.505 .693 .598 .Costs apply for circular clarifiers with area > 46.791 . feed and backwash pumps. all feed and backwash pumps.55 .77Q + 323.O & M = −0. mg / L 10 mg / L .Organic loading is 0.CC include SO2 storage facility.72 kg/m3 and hydraulic loading is 28.7 m3/m2.Design overflow rate is 32.O&M includes power.The design hydraulic loading 9.702 .85Q + 142.8 m) and underdrains .O & M = −0.56 m2 and diameter < 61 m and for rectangular clarifiers with area < 46. and filter building and pipe gallery .Chlorine dosage is 10 mg/L and contact time is 30 minutes at average flow .d ActualDesignHydraulicLoadingOnFilters 30 Included elements .QE = QDesign × UV disinfection ActualSO 2 Dosage .CC include sludge pumps.CC = 795Q 0.598 .− 3 × 10 −5 Q 2 + 11.813 2 15 .O & M = −0.6 m3/m2.d .56 m2 . clarifier mechanisms. lamp displacement.QE = QDesign × 9.Process High rate trickling filter Clarifier for highrate trickling filter Equation 2 . piping.CC include facilities for backwash storage.0002Q 2 + 156Q + 796.h . mg / L 1mg / LSO 2 .8m3 / m 2 .CC include carbon columns.

6 g O2/g VSS destroyed and mixing requirements of 26.108 kg/m3 and 97.6 kg / m 2 .227 kg / m 3 ActualSoli ds Period Concentrat ion % 40 Two-stage anaerobic digesters .CC = −0.098kg/m3 and solids loading is at a rate of 29.227 kg / m 3 50 Sludge drying beds .− 0. gas mixing and collection equipment.− 0.00002Q 2 + 23.CC include sand beds. sludge inlets.68 .7Q + 208.227 kg/m3 at 4 % solid concentration Gravity thickener .627 .18Q + 4136 .CC = 89Q 0.2Q + 5733 . heat exchanger. and control building . underdrain return and other structural elements .3kg / m 2 .Mechanical aerators provide an oxygen requirement of 1.0000003Q 2 + 0.000003Q 2 + 5.Rate of combined thickened sludge is 0.O & M = −0. yr inDigested Sludge × 3 0.5 % solids .Digested sludge has 0.227 kg / m 4% ActualSoli ds Concentrat ion % Service life (years) 10 Included elements .3 W/m3 .O & M = 0.CC = 177Q 0.QE = QDesign × 29 .00002Q 2 + 21.227 kg/m3 at 4 % solids .108 kg/m3 solids content at 2.QE = QDesign × ActualSoli dsMass .Process Sludge pumping Equation 2 .The sludge solids and solids loading on the beds are 0.67Q + 26.098 kg / m 3 50 .CC include 20-day digestion period and sludge flow of 0.CC include thickener and all related mechanical equipment .d .Costs are based on sludge mass of 0.784 .QE = QDesign × ActualSlud geMass × 3 0.54Q 0.702 .00002Q 2 + 2.6 kg/m2/year Aerobic digester . cell dividers.O & M = −0.CC = −0.O&M do not include polymer or metal addition . underdrains. kg / m 3 0.486 .28Q + 471.d ActualSoli dsMass × ActualSoli dsLoading 0.QE = QDesign × 20 days ActualSoli dsMass 4% × × ActualDige stion 0.00005Q + 44.57Q + 8003 .854 .Thickening is at a rate of 0.O & M = 8. sludge piping.CC include covered digestion tanks.108 kg / m ActualDesi gnSolidsLo ading 20 115 .77Q + 323.QE = QDesign × ActualSoli dsMass 97 .916 .227 kg/m3 with 4 % solids content .3kg/m3.

preventive maintenance.Conditioning chemicals dosage is 4.O & M = 8. Detailed Costing Document. and garage facilities . laboratory work. fencing. concrete pad and storage facility .978Q + 22.108 kg / m 3 QuantityOf Sludge 20 % Landfilled × ActualSoli ds TotalQuant ityOf Concentrat ion % Sludge Pr oduced 20 Included elements .O & M = −0. chemical feed and storage facilities. QE = Adjusted flow rate.− 0. labour and material .567 . & administrative costs Source: Qasim. conditioning and sludge storage tanks.047Q + 76.348 .349 2 50 - .Digested solids quantity is 0.CC include administrative offices.CC include filtration and conveyor equipment. and building.CC = 1438Q 0.Digested primary and secondary sludge is 0.000001Q 2 + 1.− 0.31Q 0. gas.No land costs are incurred Biosolids utilization .790 .O&M include oil.11Q + 25.000003Q + 1.5 % solids .8 g/m3 CaO . clerical work.QE = QDesign × ActualSolidsMassInDigestedSludge 0.108 kg/m3 at 2. sludge loading and unloading apparatus.00005Q 2 + 2.CC include transportation vehicles and application vehicles.255Q 0.108 kg/m3 .2571 . front-end loaders. USD.97Q + 57.031 ActualSoli dsMass inDewatere dSludge × × 0 . machine shops.QE = QDesign ActualSoli dsMass inDewatere dSludge × × 0 . and treatment .108 kg / m 3 QuantityOf Sludge 20 % UtilizedAs Biosolids × ActualSoli ds TotalQuant ityOf Concentrat ion % Sludge Pr oduced 20 Q E = Q Design Miscellaneous structures Support personnel .Process Filter press or belt filter Equation . . Q = QDesign= average design flow through the facility.026 .33Q + 87. Wastewater Treatment Plants and USEPA.CC = 10. 116 . O&M = annual operation and maintenance costs. laboratories.717 . monitoring wells.O&M include labour costs and fuel for equipment operation . CC = capital costs.O&M include utilities and normal upkeep Includes manpower for supervision and administration.481 Service life (years) 15 .− 0.CC include site preparation. leachate collection.O & M = 3165Q 0.000001Q 2 + 0.00005Q 2 + 2.2 g/m3 FeCl3 or 10.− 0.108kg / m3 Landfilling .

kg aeq. Cr. Costs in relation to national/regional budget. operation and destruction of the waste-water treatment system. Indication of sensitivity of the process in terms of malfunctioning equipment and instrumentation. Number of employees needed for operation and maintenance. shock loads. etc. Lifetime of installation. Net present value of the investment costs (specified for land. CO2) Nutrification potential (NP. 117 . C2H4) (ECA. kg aeq. K Organic matter Balance of C. GJ) Global warming potential (GWP. increasing/decreasing capacity. Indication of possibilities for implementation on different scales. Pb. intestinal parasites Resource utilization: Energy Energy used. viruses. seasonal effects etc. maintenance costs and cost for destruction. Expressed in removal of BOD/COD. Indication of maintenance required: frequency/costs and time needed for maintenance. S Organic pollutants Indication of emissions of pesticides and other toxics Pathogens Bacteria. PO4) Ozone depletion potential (ODP. kg teta) Final waste (kg) Toxic final waste (kg) Nuclear final waste (kg) Additional detailed information on emissions during operational phase: Heavy metals Balances of Cu. Zn. Ni. Indications of feasibility of applying sustainable energy sources. R11) Photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP. pathogens and nutrients. The amount of money spent by users on sanitation in relation to their total budget.Annex VII SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Functional Performance Adaptability Durability Flexibility Maintenance required Reliability Economic Affordability Costs Cost effectiveness Labour Willingness to pay Environmental Emissions: Acidification Depletion: Abiotic Biotic Depletion of fossil fuels Global warming Nutrification Ozone Depletion Photochemical air pollution Toxicity: Aquatic Human Terrestrial Waste production Acidification potential Mineral material depletion potential (ADP. materials. Indication of the amount of money the user is willing to pay for (improved) sanitation. Hg. Cd. anticipated changes in legislation. Performance relative to costs. yr-1) Biodiversity Fossil energy carrier depletion potential (EDP. produced and ‘lost’ during installation. Energy ‘lost’ indicates the amount of energy no longer available due to emissions of waste disposal. kg hta) (ECT. organic micropollutants. kg aeq. equipment and labour). Foreign exchange required in relation to national/regional foreign exchange requirements. heavy metals. Indication of sensitivity of the process in terms of toxic substances. kg aeq. m3 aeta) (HT. Ar Nutrients Balances of N P.

Amount of organic matter recycled through biogas production. Indication of embedding of technology in policymaking.Functional Land area Nutrients Organic matter Resource effectiveness Water Social Institutional requirements Cultural Acceptance Expertise Stimulating behaviour sustainable Indication of the cultural changes and impacts: convenience and compatibility with local ethics. replicated and improved locally (in the country) or only by specialized manufacturers. Note: Depletion is listed under emissions. Source: Balkema. Number of engineers needed for installation and operation. Indication of the effort needed to control and enforce existing regulations. Amount of water suitable for reuse. Sustainability criteria. Indication of sludge quality. Indication of possibilities for participation by the end user. Amount of nutrients suitable for reuse. Indication of the feasibility of integrating the waste-water treatment system (partly) in green areas. Indication of possibilities for economic stimulation of sustainable behaviour. Indication of water quality. 118 . Amount of organic matter recycled through sludge reuse. The total land area required. Performance relative to resource utilization. Indication of nutrient quality. as an indication of resource utilization in the installation and destruction phase. Indication of possibilities for technical stimulation of sustainable behaviour. Indication whether a system can be designed and built or can be repaired.

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