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May Be Wave Of The Future January-February 2013
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...... May the Lord hold you in the hollow of His hand... Both positions have their answers to the conundrum... Branch Manager 51-16-301 Honmoku Sannotani. Naka-ku Yokohama. parents would do well to ask whether it’s fair of schools to send young people into a world where they suffer from vocabulary inequality........ Field Editor/Business Manager Dunderbacksvagen 20 612-46 Finspong. Italy Telephone: +39 0464 014421 Fax: +39 0464 244529 Bo Svensson.........Chad Elmore Copy Editor ......H.......... Germany Telephone: +49 711 3416 74 0 Fax: +49 711 3416 74 74 GERMAN OFFICE Ian Cameron................. A lot depends on federal and local permitting for building liquefaction facilities............................ Italy Telephone: +39 055 50 59 861 Fax: +39 055 57 11 55 ITALIAN OFFICES Roberta Prandi Via Fitta..... Senior Editor 12777 Jones Road..” Hirsch said.. Kowloon Building 555 Nathan Road Kowloon... United Kingdom Telephone: +44 20 31 79 29 79 Fax: +44 20 31 79 29 70 UNITED KINGDOM OFFICE Roberto Chellini... Michael J... Jack Burke Associate Editor .... Kane Publisher ..Rio Grande du Sul....... Mok......Carla D....... My feeling is that it can be achieved much sooner if market forces are allowed to maintain control. The so-called STEM subjects (science.. Suite 225 Houston......... Advertising Manager 40 Premier Avenue Ashbourne......Brent D.. boost domestic employment and help level our balance of trade...... Osenga Executive Vice President ..... Sweden Telephone: +46 70 2405369 Fax: +46 122 14787 SCANDINAVIAN OFFICE Akiyoshi Ojima.Cambridge.. with our superabundance of energy locked in the oil and gas shales.... 9 73760 Ostfildern..... Editor Mike Rhodes. Suite 220 Waukesha..................Brenda L... We are capable of producing much more gas and oil than we are presently able to consume.... Why is vocabulary so important? E. Lemke Graphic Artist .... is locked in the minds of those setting energy-related policy... Texas Norm Shade . commented on a study that middle class economic woes followed a decline in 12th grade verbal scores. Branch Manager Rm 1405.... Brazil Brent D... Derbyshire.. Burbach Graphic Artist .............Roberto Chellini Editor ... The hard goods industries are concerned that the energy industry is not yet equipped to serve both markets... Michael J. Amanda J................. A temporary spike in energy prices may occur while production infrastructure and takeaway capacity is put in place. Alyssa Loope Energy Independence — When? A PUBLICATION HEADQUARTERS 20855 Watertown Road.A Member Of The Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications Group President & CEO . Publisher Patrick Crow.. why can’t we satisfy both concerns? The reason. former professor of education and humanities at the University of Virginia.... Mike Rhodes Associate Editor .. but only after equipping students with a base of wide general knowledge and vocabulary........ Ohio Mauro Belo Schneider .... in a recent essay in the Wall Street Journal.. Michael J.......... as I see it................ Advertising Manager Gabriele Dinsel. Joseph M... Via Delle Forbici I-50133 Firenze.. Associate Publisher 44.Sheila Lizdas Production Manager ........ Johnson Circulation Manager ....... Haight Associate Publisher .Midland..... Regional Manager/Editor Linda Cameron... Exporting natural gas has its own set of circumstances............... Roberts Graphic Artist .......... Your word for the day: solipsist... First of all... while energy suppliers believe that exporting natural gas now will bring in extra revenue.. DE6 1LH......... natural gas is at bargain prices. How long will it take to build these plants and port transportation capabilities? Some studies say the United States can achieve energy independence by 2030... Haight.... 231-0824 Japan Telephone: +81 45 624 3502 Fax: +81 45 624 3503 JAPANESE OFFICE S...... CT2 . technology..... Texas 77070 Telephone: (281) 890-5310 Fax: (281) 890-4805 CONTRIBUTING EDITORS HOUSTON OFFICE Lisa Hochkofler.... the energy industry is interested in exporting while serving the domestic market.. which fell sharply between 1962 and 1980 and has remained flat ever since.... Advertising Manager Niemöllerstr..... Ryan Graphic Artist . Hong Kong Telephone: +852 3118 7930 Fax : +852 3110 3572 CHINESE OFFICE controversy is boiling between our manufacturing industry and suppliers of energy.... Marisa J..... “When questions of fairness and inequality come up in discussions....... Research has shown that students’ verbal test scores are good predictors of their future income level.. DJ Slater Senior Editor ......... The manufacturing industry is interested in getting low-cost fuels for the production of hard goods and feedstocks for processes........ While math is an indicator of general competence.. understandably......... 21a I-38062 Arco.. Hirsch Jr.Patrick Crow Executive Editor .................... economically..............Catrina Boettner Advertising Manager .... Brezonick Page Joe Kane Compressortech2 Founder COMPRESSOR PUBLICATION STAFF 4 Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications CT2 Founder . Wisconsin 53186-1873 Telephone: (262) 754-4100 Fax: (262) 754-4175 Ellen Hopkins .. on average........................... words are twice as important.... So.D.. while energy suppliers are anxious to boost revenues by exporting surplus natural gas..... Manufacturers believe greater prosperity is assured if hydrocarbons are exported in the form of hard goods and products of processes...... Jerry Karpowicz Digital Content Manager. Brezonick Senior Editor .... Manufacturers claim that exporting now will cause fuel and feedstock costs to go up dramatically.Christa L... The big question is.......... engineering and mathematics) are important.
Insight onsite.™ .
20855 Watertown Road. Canada. Suite 220.A. Challenges Seen For Engine OEMs 50 Microturbines Gaining Wider Foothold As Drivers For Compression 56 Compressor Packagers Optimistic About 2013 62 Atlas Copco Unit Thrives On Diversification Compressortech (ISSN 1085-2468) Volume 18. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Circulation Manager.A.000th Compressor 38 Prime Movers 38 Recent Orders 65 Featured Products 74 Literature 80 Scheduled Downtime 81 Marketplace 82 Advertisers’ Index 84 Cornerstones Of Compression — Pioneering The Lightweight Industrial Gas Turbine Compressor Package Canadian Publication Mail Agreement # 40035419. Waukesha. Follow Compressortech2 at www.compressortech2.indd 1 1/16/13 1:04 PM Cover Designed By Alyssa Loope 2013 Executive Outlook 44 Opportunities. WI 53186 and at additional mailing offices. Copyright 2013 DIESEL & GAS TURBINE PUBLICATIONS.00 per copy worldwide.com. 1 — Published 10 issues/ year (January-February. November.com .00 per year/$10. 2 TECHcorner 66 Field Validation Of A Directed Energy Ignition System Departments 4 Page 4 — Energy Independence — When? 8 Global Perspective — Floating LNG Plants May Be Wave Of The Future 10 Meetings & Events 12 About The Business — Exterran Regains Positive Momentum 14 Monitoring Government — EPA Completes RICE Rule For Engine Emissions 20 Snapshot — Ariel Ships 40. December) by Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications.O.S. May. 20855 Watertown Road. April.S. Niagara Falls. July. ON L2E 6V2. Box 456. March.January-February 2013 COMPRESSOR Issue PumPtech Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications Floating lng Plants May Be Wave Of The fuTure January-February 2013 40. Subscription rates are $85. Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: P.S. WI 53186-1873. No. U. August-September. Waukesha. Compressortech2.A. MEMBER OF BPA WORLDWIDE® PRINTED IN THE U.compressortech2. Periodicals postage paid at Waukesha. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org COMpressOr ariel shiPs Featured Articles 16 Legacy Engines Get Improved Fuel Line Protection 22 ‘Stealth’ Compressor Stations Are Making A Disappearance 40 Condition Monitoring Intensifies With New Technology 64 MAN Expands Oberhausen Compressor Testing Facility 76 Free-Floating Piston Eliminates Rider Band Wear Problems At BASF PUMPtech 28 Multiphase Pumps Simplify Wellhead Oil And Gas Transfer 32 Fit For The Future www. October. June.com JanFeb_Cover. WI 53186-1873 U.
that more and more companies are turning to the global leader in the research. It is not surprising. OF EXHAUST EVERY HOUR.897. And that’s not just hot air either. To handle the resulting emissions demands a catalyst of equal durability.com D a l l a s • H o u s t o n • l o s a n g e l e s • o k l a H o m a C i t y . design. pumping out power hour after hour. one that can remove 6 tons of Carbon Monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen every 1000 hours. Industrial engines rarely rest. then.A 1. That 1. engineering and manufacturing of advanced emission control technologies: DCL International.000 HP ENGINE GENERATES 332.000 hp engine would have filled the USS Macon airship of 1933 with 6 1/2 million cubic feet of helium in just 20 hours. But of course power isn’t the only thing these engines put out. AND THAT’S NOT JUST HOT AIR.000 CU.9759 dcl-inc. FT. 877.
Since Prelude was announced. If technical improvements drive down the costs of FLNG facilities. Business Monitor International has predicted that similar regulatory roadblocks could arise for FLNG projects in other nations — such as Mozambique and Tanzania — that may prefer onshore investments that bolster their economies over the speedy monetization of their offshore gas resources. Petronas of Malaysia has launched studies into FLNG projects for two undisclosed gas fields. if they expect to obtain governmental clearances. the very problems that are contributing to budget blowouts at Australian LNG projects. relative to the benefits of onshore production. However. Using the modular concept — building different components of a FLNG plant concurrently and fitting them together at a later stage — could reduce construction time. French oilfield services company Technip and South Korean offshore construction firm Samsung Heavy Industries will help Shell develop FLNG projects worldwide. but no FLNG project went forward until Shell decided in May 2011 to adopt the new solution to develop the Prelude field off northwest Australia. they could prove to be cheaper than land-based alternatives in the long run. which is being built in South Korea. they are more suitable for the exploitation of marginal offshore gas fields. FLNG projects are gaining traction worldwide. The government of Timor-Leste wants an onshore LNG plant because it would bring local investment and has threatened to revoke the joint venture’s licensing rights. including: the Shell-Inpex Abadi FLNG in Indonesia. pushing its partners in the Browse LNG development in Western Australia toward using a FLNG rather than an onshore LNG plant at James Price Point. The Prelude FLNG. In fact. FLNGs also reduce the incentive for the international companies to transfer skills and technology to domestic markets.Global Perspective By Roberto Chellini Associate Publisher Floating LNG Plants May Be Wave Of could become cheaper than The Future > They land-based alternatives infrastructure to connect these gas resources to onshore facilities. Shell has been a particularly strong advocate. Petrobras has awarded Technip the front-end engineering and design contract for a proposed (but unnamed) FLNG off Brazil. Moreover. They could see a loss of domestic investment as construction and plant development take place abroad. All these factors make FLNG a contender for future LNG developments. Shell and its partners realize FLNG could play a big role in the future of offshore production. Companies must be prepared to explain the benefits of the FLNG approach to the economies of the host nations. ConocoPhillips and Osaka Gas — to favor a FLNG for the Sunrise fields in the Timor Sea. The FLNG pioneers will have much to gain if the technology takes off. or be the choice providers for FLNG services or construction. the Noble Energy-led Tamar FLNG project in Israel. The aim of their longterm agreement is to ensure that they will further exchange insights gained from working on Shell’s Prelude project to bolster their position in the global FLNG market and will “expand this technical offering” to the energy market. They could profit from licensing. and the Pacific Rubiales advanced floating liquefaction and regasifcation storage unit off the Pacific coast of Colombia. Shell has also encouraged its joint venture partners — Woodside Petroleum. the GDF Suez-Santos Bonaparte FLNG in Australia. Last December. That issue has been at the root of an intense disagreement over the development of the Greater Sunrise LNG project. Many other LNG developments could adopt the floating concept. This scene was repeated year after year. governments may not be quite so happy about the growth of FLNGs. many other projects have been planned or proposed. Shell and the Technip-Samsung Consortium strengthened their partnership in FLNG technology that began in 2009. Using a FLNG negates the need to build expensive subsea JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . CT2 8 Compressortech2 V isitors to oil and gas shows over the last decade often could admire mockups of floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) plants at the booths of international oil companies. offering their expertise. Although at present FLNG projects are smaller in scale than onshore liquefaction facilities. is scheduled to start commercial operation in 2018. the ability to build these modules anywhere would help overcome labor cost/shortage issues. reducing the overall cost of the project.
com . The heritage name. still carried by older machines. used under license by Rolls-Royce plc www. the unsurpassed engineering experience of the past makes Rolls-Royce the compressor name of the future. in a business where productivity and dependability mean so much.rolls-royce. pipeline gas compressors is Rolls-Royce. Cooper-Bessemer. echoes the engineering excellence that has earned Rolls-Royce an unparalleled reputation for quality. but the driving force within the world’s best-engineered..It’s all in the name. most efficient. A proud past leads to a new future They may display a proud old name on the outside. Trusted to deliver excellence Cooper-Bessemer is a registered trade name of Cameron Corporation.. Today.
Oklahoma Tel: +1 (405) 325-3891 Web: www. Italy Tel: +39 0544 219418 Web: www.tamu.compressortech2. 6-7 *Gas/Electric Partnership Conference — Cypress.edu/lrgcc/ march March 6-8 Offshore Asia Conference & Exhibition — Kuala Lumpur.com March 17-20 *Middle East Turbomachinery Symposium — Doha. please visit our website at www. Energy and Infrastructure Conference — Tbilisi. Ravenna. United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 2 674 4040 Web: www.org/2013 APRIL April 7-10 *Gas Processors Association . Georgia Tel: +44 207 596 5135 Web: www.iptcnet. Nigeria Tel: +44 20 7978 0000 Web: www.ciooe.giogie. Qatar Tel: +1 (979) 845-7417 Web: www.middleeastturbo.Meetings & Events For a complete listing of upcoming events.offshoreasiaevent.outreach.omc. 20-22 Australasian Oil & Gas Conference — Perth.ou.com.cwcnog.com Feb.aogexpo.cn/2013/en March 20-22 *Offshore Mediterranean Conference — Pala de Andre.offshorewestafrica.it March 24-28 *Sour Oil & Gas Advanced Technology — Abu Dhabi. 24-27 Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference — Norman.au Feb.edu March 19-21 Offshore West Africa — Accra. Malaysia Tel: +44 (0) 1992 656 651 Web: www. Gas.engr. 18-21 Nigeria Oil & Gas Conference — Abuja.domeexhibitions.gaselectricpartnership. Australia Tel: +61 3 9261 4500 Web: www. Ghana Tel: +1 (713) 963-6283 Web: www.com March 26-28 International Petroleum Technology Conference — Beijing Tel: +60 3 2182 3000 Web: www.com. Texas Tel: +1 (713) 529-3216 Web: www.com Feb.com March 19-21 China International Offshore Oil & Gas Exhibition — Beijing Tel: +86 10 5823 6555 Web: www.com March 26-27 Georgian International Oil.com February Feb.
gpaglobal.egcr.gascompressor.gascompressor.org May 14-16 *Sensor+Test — Nuremberg. investing in durable clean air solutions keeps your emissions in compliance year after year. Turkey Tel: +44 207 596 5147 Web: www.org Moon Township.org April 10-11 *Turkish International Oil & Gas Conference 2013 — Ankara.3141 | miratechcorp.baghdadoilgas. Germany Tel: +49 5033 9639-0 Web: www.org April 15-17 North Africa Technical Conference & Exhibition — Cairo Tel: +971 4 390 3540 Web: www.asmeconferences.spe. Kansas Tel: +1 (620) 417-1171 Web: www.oguzbekistan.info April 29-May 3 *Gulf South Rotating Machinery Symposium — Baton Rouge.gsrms. innovative emission solutions™ 800. Louisiana Tel: +1 (225) 578-4853 Web: www.com/2013 June 3-7 *ASME Turbo Expo — San Antonio Tel: +1 (404) 847-0072 Web: www.*Indicates shows and conferences in which Compressortech2 is participating Annual Convention — San Antonio Tel: +1 (918) 493-3872 Web: www.com MAY May 1-4 Baghdad International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition — Baghdad Tel: +90 212 356 00 56 Web: www. that’s an roi everyone can appreciate.640.org/ TE2013 June 4-6 *Power-Gen Europe — Vienna Tel: +44 1992 656 617 Web: www.com April 15 *Gas Compressor Association Expo & Conference — Galveston.turoge.org/events/natc April 16-17 *Gas Compressor Institute — Liberal. Pennsylvania Tel: +1 (412) 372-4301 Web: www.powergeneurope. Texas Tel: +1 (972) 518-0019 Web: www.org May 14-16 *Eastern Gas Compression Roundtable — isn’t always better. Stay clean. Uzbekistan Tel: +44 207 596 5233 Web: www.sensor-test.de May 14-16 Uzbekistan International Oil & Gas Exhibition — Tashkent.com .otcnet.com May 6-9 *Offshore Technology Conference — Houston Tel: +1 (972) 952-9494 Web: www.
000 hp (130. Exterran reported a much smaller fleet of 4. however.000 hp (3427 MW) with utilization growing to 84%. and its modernized fleet stacks up better in a market that has lots of competition. By September 2012. respectively. CT2 12 Compressortech2 I t’s no secret that Exterran Holdings Inc. size and configuration.000 kW) was retired in 2009 and 2010. Exterran reported that 83% of its fleet was deployed at the end of 2007. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . But even that business took a big hit in 2009 when the Venezuelan government ex- W. A series of rationalization programs resulted in the retirement or sale of obsolete fleet assets. Exterran is larger than any of its competitors. 2012. A 43-year veteran of the gas compression industry. Although total fleet horsepower deployment is below 2008 levels. with sadness we note the death of Tom Steeper.000 hp (645. Exterran reported its first positive quarterly earnings (before adjustments) in three years. it remained 39% higher than the prior year. resulting in a wide variation in equipment vintage. is buying Enerven Compression LP. A significant number of the units were no longer in demand or were no longer cost efficient. Exterran completed the sale of the expropriated Venezuelan assets to PDVSA Gas. the company added more desirable new compression to its fleet. A private plane he was piloting went down in northeast Texas during a hailstorm the night of Nov.500 kW) fleet makes J-W Power the largest privately owned compression fleet in the U. Exterran’s enhanced financial flexibility recently allowed it to redeem some of its higher cost debt nearly two years ahead of schedule. With persistently low domestic gas prices placing pressure on the leasing business. has been challenged to meet the expectations set in 2007 with the merger of the former Hanover and Universal Compression corporations.074. In August 2012. At the same time. of Broken Arrow. Oklahoma. Some industry sages questioned whether the company would return to successful performance or even survive. Getting this huge enterprise back on its feet continues to be a major undertaking.A. S. 26. When a major market downturn occurred in the latter third of 2008. Size is not always an advantage. in the industry.595. About 865. Hanover and Universal had the largest and second-largest compression rental fleets. The result was that Exterran had an idle rental compression fleet that was at least twice the size of any of its competitor’s total fleets. With many of the older units being released from contracts as the gas market continued to decline. With the merger.960. J-W Power Co. Venezuelan Momentum > Fleet asset sale are behind turnaround propriated its compression assets.000 hp (4444 MW) was much larger than the combined fleets of all the other rental fleet competitors. With about a third of the proceeds already received.S.000 hp (4529 MW). Exterran’s rental fleet of 5. after three years of effort. Norm Shade is president of ACI Services Inc. He was a well-known and respected compressor systems engineer who had a hand in the design and analysis of many packages. founder and president of Engineering and Consulting Services Inc. But it recently has regained positive momentum. it would not be surprising to see more consolidation in this sector. of Cambridge.About The Business By Norm shade Exterran Regains Positive rationalization. Finally. he has written numerous papers and is active in the major industry associations. This led to a large financial write-off and resulted in high-level corporate management changes. but utilization had declined to 79%.S. And with a very strong natural gas market. Exterran found itself with an even larger fleet of 6. and although compression fabrication was down 22% from June. In September 2012. Ohio. utilization fell all the way to 70% by the end of 2009. causing significant write-offs that hurt an already disappointing bottom line. but the current management team appears to be up to the challenge. (the government-owned gas company). Also in the compression rental and fabrication industry. Both Hanover and Universal had grown partly by acquiring competitors. The addition of Enerven’s 175. Prior to the merger. The company has also been the leader in rental compression outside the U. Fabrication backlog was 107% higher than a year earlier.
poppet and channel type. dampened disc. radiused disc. concentric ring. ported plate. guards and other internal components are also held in stock at these locations.compressor valve performance that speaks for itself. performance modeling to analyze existing installation. efficiency. This is combined with an R&D program that is focused on all aspects of valve design detail which includes reliability. ease of installation and maintenance.. which enables quick turnarounds and the capacity for large volume production. Hi-Flo™ radiused disc ring type ported plate poppet unloaders actuators reconditioning spare parts cpi valve design The CPI team of valve compression engineers support operators with rapid response design solutions using sophisticated valve dynamics programs and valve CPI valves are designed.. providing total customer support 24/7.c-p-i. application and operation to propose the optimum valve design. evolving solutions around your world want to find out more? www. Replacement spare part such as seats.com . These designs include Hi-Flo™. The CPI range of compressor valves are designed to meet the full range of application requirements. CPI valves can also be fitted with a range of plug and finger type unloading systems and actuators. manufactured and reconditioned at a number of CPI facilities strategically located around the world.
As it typically does. the Obama Administration rejected EPA’s proposal to toughen the ozone standard from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 60 or 70 ppb. 19 of this year. At the time. However. It said the equipment would be in compliance if the owner or operator of the engine could demonstrate that the catalyst achieves a carbon monoxide concentration level of 270 parts per million at 15% oxygen.’’ EPA estimated that it would cost industry US$840 million in capital costs and US$490 million in annual expenses (both in 2010 dollars) to comply with the RICE NESHAP amendments. use improved oil grades or synthetics. “Commenters indicated that larger engines have increased capabilities compared to smaller size engines. EPA had JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 T . nitrogen oxides. Larger engines have increased oil capacities. The proposed rule required these engines to demonstrate that the catalyst achieves at least a 75% carbon monoxide reduction or a 30% total hydrocarbons reduction.” EPA formally acquiesced and changed the rule to “every 2160 hours” or annually. The key change in the final rule affected stationary spark ignition (SI) engines greater than 500 hp (370 kW). method for demonstrating compliance than testing for formaldehyde. “Commenters also noted that larger engines use better quality. to the relief of operators of compression equipment. These four-stroke engines are typically natural gas powered engines that are used to power equipment for oil and gas production. EPA is scheduled to reconsider the ozone standard sometime this year. and use oil sweetening systems. the administration was concerned that the rule would increase unemployment. In 2011. EPA proposed the revision of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in 2010. CT2 14 Compressortech2 he Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule that. For SI RICE engines in more populated areas. the EPA had proposed that these engines meet certain management practices. The agency explained that would represent a 75% reduction from typical uncontrolled emissions from existing stationary SI RICE engines and is the carbon monoxide standard required for new such stationary engines. and that less frequent maintenance intervals reduce the environmental impacts associated with disposing waste oils and traveling to remote locations. but equally effective. p. That schedule was similar to the one for SI RICE engines smaller than 500 hp. 14. Those practices would have required the engine owner and operator to change the oil and filter and inspect spark plugs. hoses and belts every 1440 hours of operation or annually.Monitoring Government EPA Completes RICE Rule For Engine compression industry’s Emissions > The next worry may be tougher ozone standards BY PATRICK CROW proposed an equipment standard that required the use of nonselective catalytic reduction technology to reduce hazardous air pollution emissions. However. takes a reasonable approach to air emissions from stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) in sparsely populated areas. issued Jan. In response to comments. whichever came first. and volatile organic compounds. October 2012. after digesting objections from several natural gas industry groups (COMPRESSORtech2. The compression industry’s next environmental challenge may be a renewal of EPA’s push to toughen the nation’s ozone standard. It relaxed the proposed rule last year. particulates.1 billion per year from sharp reductions in hazardous air pollutants. and thus shove more areas of the nation into non-attainment status. The agency explained. which allows engines to extend the maintenance interval. They will be in compliance if tests show that the engine is achieving at least a 30% in total hydrocarbon emissions. EPA also gave operators of the SI engines an alternative for meeting the 76% formaldehyde reduction requirement. “That alternative compliance option provides a less expensive and less complex. In sparsely populated areas. EPA added an option. more expensive spark plugs that last longer than 1440 hours. In the final rule. but also in other industrial and agricultural applications. engine operators argued that the maintenance interval for the larger engines should be every 2160 hours of operation or annually. 14). whichever comes first. the agency granted some more concessions in subpart ZZZZ (Quad Z). It calculated benefits of US$830 million to US$2. The agency explained. The compliance deadline is Oct. EPA said the public health benefits would outweigh the costs to industry. carbon monoxide.
The customer’s rig fleet had a number of engines with soft-wrap insulation. large engines business unit manager for the company. said Thermamax made contact with a large drilling contractor at a Houston energy conference. T hermamax. “We then fitted the fuel line covers directly on the two engines. posing safety problems if fuel lines ruptured. “We analyzed the 3-D design data of a very similar 16 engine model in order to design the basis for the new insulation. drilling rig engines. Jaouad Bahaoui. The result was a series of projects using different approaches. has expanded its offering of insulation solutions following a large project for refitting offshore U. depending on the models and ages of the various engines. prevent spraying at the exhaust pipes. Thermamax proposed an evaluation of the situation in order to propose a safer solution for the older engines.Legacy Engines Get Improved Fuel custom designs fuel line Line Protection > Thermamax covers for offshore applications By Roberta Prandi n Thermamax heat shields. conducted in 2011. Germanybased company specializing in temperature design and thermal insulation. shown in silver.” Bahaoui said.” The second project. required the design of fuel continued on page 18 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . The first project was carried out in 2010 on two engines. a Frankfurt. The primary purpose of the new covers was to avoid fuel spraying at the exhaust pipes.S. Several engines had a large number of operat- ing hours.
c o m TURBO MACHINERY CONTROL APPLICATIONS Surge Prevention Controller | Cold Recycle Controller | Station Controller | Gas Turbine Controller | Steam Turbine Controller | Extraction Controller | Power Utility Controller | Process Controller | Valve Management Controller .000 for the air compressors. reliability and performance effectiveness of both gas/air compressors and the process plant KT1/1 as a whole.c c sia. CUSTOMER: Omsk Refinery.CONTINUOUS CONTROL SOLUTIONS (CCS) provides the next generation of control technology and solutions inclusive of design. CCS achieved monthly energy consumption savings of nearly $74. The ACS provides monitoring and participates in the control of the compressor units in all operating modes: Start permissive check Start-up Normal operation Shutdown (both normal and emergency) Anti-surge control and anti-surge protection Control (maintaining) of the main process variable — gas pressure (or flow) Optimized load distribution (load sharing) between the units Automatic sequenced transfer of compressors between “Idle” and “Run” Automatic limiting control (limiting). implementation and commissioning of reliable and patented control systems for TURBO MACHINERY control applications. as well as the reliability and safety of the process plant as a whole. providing: Accurate automatic control of the main process variable Minimized recycling from compressors’ discharge Optimization of the load balancing between compressors running in parallel Bumpless inclusion/withdrawal of off-line compressor into group parallel operation Reduction in equipment maintenance and operating costs through surge prevention Improved operator convenience and process awareness PURPOSE: The Automatic Control System (ACS) provides a significant increase in efficiency. Russia CONTROL PLATFORM: Allen Bradley ControlLogix SCOPE: CCS successfully replaced the existing pneumatically-controlled system and installed its patented Surge Prevention Control and Station Control as part of the Automatic Control System (ACS) of the Catalytic Cracking Unit KT1/1: Three (3) electrically driven double-casing. In particular. two-section centrifugal compressors designed for compression of hydrocarbon “sour” gas Three (3) electrically driven single-section centrifugal compressors designed for compression and supply of process air COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF CCS SOLUTION: The implementation of ACS has significantly improved the reliability and efficiency of the compressor units. including digitally controlled parameter set points Automatic disabling of operator errors w w w.
In particular. “Based on these mea- surements. the new covers on one of the engines apparently prevented an engine room fire on a drilling rig. Thermamax maintains an assembly booklet for every heat shield.” Thermamax completed both the varied and similar projects during 2011 and 2012.indd 1 18 6/5/12 1:11 PM . The fuel fitting covers were in place as well as the shields that prevent spray from reaching the exhaust manifold. on which we created the design for the heat shields and fuel line covers. “During a routine round of the engines.” Bahaoui said. CT2 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 ECOM. but the company opted on a different approach. enabling engineers on offshore rigs to install the shields under the correct procedure. fitting retorqued and remaining cylinders checked. measurements by hand and on-site when the engine cannot be moved. Thermamax said its offshore customers could benefit from the German company’s experience with the requirements of the International Commission for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).” Bahaoui said. we then designed the covers and fitted them directly on the engines. “This is a direct result of our efforts to fit these on all engines that are susceptible to this kind of problem. “All measurements had to be taken directly on the engine on-site and by hand.” the company’s report read. no 3-D data was available for these models. The seal was replaced. The company said the projects finished so far have received positive reports from the field. Like the previous situation.line covers for another engine unit. the third engineer observed fuel leaking from around cylinder number four on generator number four. the customer’s incident report read. “The fitting for the fuel supply line to that head had backed off and allowed the seal to fail. … The fitting of fuel oil splash protection most likely prevented a potentially catastrophic engine room fire. The booklet can be downloaded from the company’s server. This kind of reverse engineering has oftentimes shown to be a very useful method to regain construction data. Bahaoui said that this project was challenging because the assembly of the covers was made directly offshore. test laboratories. 3-D scan technologies for older engines. in-house manufacturing and fitting of the heat shields and a staff available for instal lations worldwide. Another project targeted an engine for which no 3-D data was available because of the age of the model. we made a 3-D model of the engine. “We had these engines shipped to Thermamax’s headquarters in Man nheim. From the scanned 3-D data. Germany. “The engines were then scanned in the com- pany’s special 3-D scanner.” The last project covered two different engine types. Its SOLAS-compliant applications and its internal capabilities include its own design department. The engine was secured and leakage investigated. In that malfunction. This required a special training for the Thermamax assembly team involved.
7 MW) variable frequency drive electric motor.000th Compressor Ariel Corp. planned to package the KBZ/6 unit with a 5000 hp (3. Dearing Compression and Pump Co. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 20 Compressortech2 snapshot .000 (shown above under construction). MarkWest Energy Partners commissioned the package for use at its Majorsville processing facility at Dallas. West Virginia.Ariel Ships 40. has shipped a compressor with serial number 40.
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‘Stealth’ Compressor Stations
Creative designs help assuage aesthetic, acoustic complaints
Are Making A Disappearance
street view: Columbia Transmission’s Rutledge, Maryland, compressor station has the appearance of a farm ...
... all above-ground piping and process equipment are fully enclosed within the buildings
By Norm Shade
he need for natural gas infrastructure resulting from shale developments and pipeline system expansions often requires placing compressor stations close to urban centers or residential areas. Even in rural areas, residents, special interest groups and governments often pressure operating companies to minimize the environmental footprint of their compressor installations. Several companies have successfully responded to this challenge with “stealth” compressor stations that adapt to the environmental requirements of the neighborhood. Stealth compressor stations have building aesthetics that blend with their surroundings. Safety is a prime requirement to minimize possibilities of gas leaks and releases. Minimal noise and zero environmental emissions are essential characteristics. Compressor depressurization JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013
(blow down) must be avoided except when major maintenance is required. Above-ground piping is minimized and avoided completely if possible. And there is minimal exposure of coolers and other equipment to the area outside the facility. The use of oil-less compressors eliminates the need for lube oil storage and disposal, reducing truck traffic into the plant and avoiding the risk of ground and water contamination. Stealth compressor stations are more common in Europe, where the population density is higher than the U.S. However, a few stealth stations have appeared in the U.S. as well. Rutledge station When Columbia Gas Transmission, now a unit of NiSource Gas Transmission & Storage, purchased a rural tract north of Baltimore, Maryland, in the early 1980s as a site for a future 22
compressor station, it did not envision the challenges the station would eventually face. By the 1990s, upscale homes and horse farms surrounded the site, and environmental issues were prominent. Columbia needed the station to supply its customers with additional gas but the community, fearful of the unknown, raised concerns about unacceptable noise, emissions and aesthetic intrusions. Needing a creative solution, Columbia designed the Rutledge, Maryland, compressor station to look much different than a traditional station. From afar, it appears to be a farm with a barn and house. All aboveground piping and process equipment is enclosed within buildings, and the noise level at the plant gate is reported to be under 40 dB(A). The station left nearby wetlands undisturbed and trees help screen the station. Compressortech2
Stealth compressor station design requires a small compressor footprint to allow space for all station piping to be placed inside the compressor building as shown at Inergy’s Stagecoach facility in New York. Minimal noise and no emissions are critical requirements that are satisfied with hermetically sealed compressors.
Columbia decided that electric motor driven centrifugal compressors were required for meeting the stealth requirements of the vicinity. To achieve the required pressure ratio and flexibility, three variable-speed MAN MOPICO RM 40 motor compressors were selected for the Rutledge station. The MOPICO is comprised of a two-pole induction motor with centrifugal compressor impellers mounted directly on both ends of the motor rotor. The motor rotor, supported by active magnetic bearings, is the only moving part. MAN indicates that the MOPICO compressors were the first to incorporate the “sealed case” in a multistage compressor design.
Each of the MOPICO centrifugal compressors is rated at 4600 hp (3430 kW) and can accommodate compression ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.9. Each unit can be placed on- or off-line as required to maintain a discharge pressure up to 1000 psig (69 bar) from the station. The units are installed in series and speeds are adjustable from 6000 to 10,000 rpm. “Vibration and noise problems are virtually eliminated by the MOPICO technology and the building design and materials, so neighbors do not hear the station in operation,” said Domingo Fernandez, market manager for integrated sealed technology at MAN Diesel & Turbo North America
Inc. Because the MOPICO utilizes magnetic bearing technology, no lube oil systems are required, eliminating possible leaks and the need to dispose of used lube oil. No seal oil or seal gas is required since the direct connected high-speed electric motor and compressor are hermetically sealed in the gas pipeline. This design approach eliminates dry gas seals and many system flanges, valves, electronic transmitters and numerous tubing fittings and threaded connections that would be potential sources of fugitive emissions. A sidestream of discharge gas cools the motor and magnetic bearings. In addition to avoiding exhaust noise, use of the electric drives eliminates nitrogen oxide and volatile organic compound emissions from the site. Electric motor driven cooler fans are mounted horizontally near the rear of the buildings to direct fan noise continued on page 24
the central compressor station at Inergy’s Stagecoach facility (above) in New York was designed so that the gas dehydration and processing equipment would not be visible. From the road, the compressor facility looks like a modern office building (right).
upward and well away from neighbors. The station has a transmission line and an 11.5 kV to 13 kV, 40 MVA substation. To minimize the environmental impact, the transmission line used a common right-of-way with the pipeline. To minimize the visual impact, transmission poles were kept below treetop level and other components were painted chocolate brown. Time has validated the success of the Rutledge station, which began operation in 1995 and has more than 100,000 operating hours. Stagecoach facility The Central New York Oil and Gas Co.’s Stagecoach gas storage facility, now part of Inergy L.P., is another example of a successful stealth compressor installation. Prior to conversion to a storage field, the Stagecoach field was a substantially depleted gas producing reservoir consisting of three separate pools (two in New York and one in Pennsylvania). The Stagecoach field is 20 mi. (32 km) southwest of Binghamton, New York and
extends to the northern part of Bradford County, Pennsylvania. The first phase of the Stagecoach project was placed in operation in 2002 with a working gas capacity of 13 Bcf (3.68 x 108 m3). This phase had a withdrawal capability of 500 MMcfd (1.41 x 107 m3/d) and injection capability of 250 MMcf/d (0.7 x 107 m3/d) on the last day of injection as the reservoir pressure approached the maximum operating pressure of 3250 psi (224 bar). This capability was made possible by 10 horizontal storage wells and 25,000 hp (18,643 kW) of compression provided by three 8333 hp (6124 kW) MAN HOFIM electric drive centrifugal compressors with magnetic bearings. The HOFIM is the multistage version of the MOPICO. The compressors can be operated in parallel or staged in a two into one series arrangement to handle swings in the pressure. The Stagecoach facility was developed with significant attention to the project’s impact on the community
and environment during construction and operation. It was designed to blend into the surrounding environment to the extent possible. The gas dehydration and processing equipment are not visible from nearby roads. The exposed exterior walls of the building are covered with natural stone. Contoured and landscaped earthen berms conceal much of the first floor of the two story structure. From the road, the compressor building looks like a modern office building. The compact design of the HOFIM compressors allowed space inside the compressor building for all of the station’s above ground piping. “There are many other stealth compressor stations in Europe where the trend is to make compressor stations and gas storage facilities aesthetic with the environment,” Fernandez said. “The MOPICO is the innovative compression technology that allowed this to happen.” He said that since 1989, MAN has sold 96 of the compressor units, accumulating more than 1 million operating hours. CT2
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The majority of multiphase pumps are of the twin-screw variety. liquids and gaseous fuels at the wellhead of an oil field is a costly procedure.Pump Multiphase Pumps tech Simplify Wellhead Oil And provided one of the first Gas Transfer > Leistritz multiphase systems to UAE By Hans-Juergen Schoener Conventional Concept n This illustration shows the flows in a Leistritz highpressure multiphase pump. continued on page 30 28 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . stream to central separation facility. The use of multiphase pumps. sors and storage tanks at the field gath• segregating the production scheme of ering stations. directly to the central processing facility eliminates the requirement for separa• integration of marginal fields or retors. • reducing installation space on the • restoring dead wells by reducing well platforms. This offers numerous low. • eliminating flaring and gas recovery • removing the bottleneck of existing by boosting the unprocessed well flow lines by maximizing throughput. for remote control. n This diagram shows a conventional Pumping the multiphase fluid and a multiphase concept.and medium• reducing unstable flow regimes in pressure wells into a high-pressure manifold/separator. which is a specialty of Leistritz Pumpen of Nuremburg. The possibility of moExisting Pipeline tor-speed variation by means of variable frequency drives (VFD) offers a wide operating envelope. heater treaters. These Pipeline Pump 2 Phase Separator pumps are designed to handle Glycol System Surge Vessel high gas volume fractions (GVF) Multiphase Pump Compressor Valve and to tolerate gas slugs with 100% GVF. specifically in offshore installations. Leistritz twin-screw multiphase pumps are available for flow rates up to 755. but it becomes more complicated and costly when the oil field is offshore and space to install the necessary equipment on a platform is limited and expensive. compresmote tie-backs to existing facilities. eliminating the need to provide compression equipment at wellheads and the installation of two parallel sea lines to transport the products separately. such as: using dedicated multiphase pumps. back pressure. for Leistritz Pumpen GmbH. Germany. self-priming pumps are of double volute design and hydraulically Multiphase Concept balanced. • consequent reduction of operation • maximizing the use of existing proand maintenance interface. duction facilities on a declining field • reducing manpower because multiby adding production from remote phase pumping systems are suited wells. • integration of low. The procedure is relatively easy on land.and medium-pressure wells by advantages. The conventional way is to separate the associated gas from the liquid fraction (hydrocarbons plus water) and convey them in separate pipelines to a gathering point over the surface of the oil field for a first separation process before feeding them into trunk pipelines. The company’s Hans-Juergen Schoener is the manager of Sales — Multiphase Pumps and Systems.000 cfd (5000 Existing Pipeline m3/h) and differential pressures oversimplified illustration up to 2200 psi (150 bar). Pipeline Pipeline H andling products. is gaining popularity because of their ability to handle liquid and the gaseous fuel simultaneously. pumps.
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All tests have been witnessed by representatives of the end customer. Multiphase pumps are essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed well stream. Around the turn of the century. Leistritz engineers proposed the installation of a multiphase pump as a cost-effective technology to transport multiphase January-February 2013 fluid through a single pipeline instead of separating oil. Capacity: 113 m3 Operating Press: 100 bar (max) W04-V-006 Recirculation Tank Capacity: 0. with oil production starting in the mid-1980s.9 . short-term development projects were implemented. UAE multiphase system The oil field featuring the installation of the Leistritz multiphase system is located in a few miles from the United Arab Emirates coastline. timing gears and the mechanical seals are lubricated and cooled by a combined lube and seal oil system. CT2 n The wellhead platform includes this multiphase pump skid. 100 °C Filtration Area: 8736 m2 W04-P-006 Multiphase Pump Suction Pressure: 6.. meeting the NACE MR0175 requirements. The automatic filter protects the pump internals from wear and damages by solids entrained by the multiphase fluid coming from the well. production showed a decline of oil volume associated with an increase of water cut. Due to the H2S concentration and the high chloride content of the pro- duced water. the pump skid and all accessories were tested on the multiphase pump test bed at the Leistritz production shop and at the premises of the selected sub-suppliers. the liquid management system provides a sufficient liquid seal to the area between screw tips and casing liner to guarantee uninterrupted production.. Before shipping. This is a major advantage over conventional separation systems featuring compressors. which are designed to operate solely at a predetermined fixed inlet pressure level.1 barg Discharge Pressure: 37. water and gas at gathering stations and exporting oil and gas through separate pipelines to centralized production facilities. The application presented serious challenges because of the restricted space available on the platform that has impacted the skid design. 32. Multiphase pumps are designed to operate with variable suction pressures. The sour components of the wellhead stream imposed a careful selection of the pump and component materials. In the case of slug flow. The low-pressure wells are connected to the suction line of the multiphase pump. The offshore field was discovered in the late 1960s. which enables liquid/gas mixtures to be transported over long distances without the need for prior phase separation.W04-F-006 Automatic Suction Strainer Nominal Diameter: 6“ ANSI 600 lbs RF Max. all wetted parts of the pump and of the following skid components were made from duplex stainless steel. resulting in a reduction of backpressure for the week wells and a considerable increase in production. balanced mechanical seals in a back-to-back arrangement. To sustain the field’s oil production at the current level. The casing liner is wet resistant coated with Stellite. Pump bearings. which is also accommodated on the pump skid. A new product manifold was installed to separate the flow between the high-pressure flowing wells and the low-pressure flowing wells..4 m3 Operating Press: 100 bar (max) n This is a diagram of the multiphase pump skid installed on the wellhead platform. The multiphase pump skid was successfully commissioned during the third quarter of 2008. multiphase pipelines to higher superficial velocity. The pump shafts are sealed by double-acting.. which consisted of installing electrical submerged pumps and a multiphase pump at selected wellhead platforms. operating pressure: 100 bar Operating temperature: 0 .93 barg Max. 30 Compressortech2 .
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These highpressure stage-casing pumps feature continued on page 34 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . pushing it towards the well. 32 During the process of oil production. In the search for new technologies. which were installed in the mid-1980s and had an average power rating of 1743 hp (1300 kW). companies often overlook the fact that upgrading pump systems offers a major opportunity to reduce the demand for electrical energy. In addition. Its production facility in Siberia had commissioned third-party waterinjection pumps and had upgraded them with Sulzer Pumps technology in order to maintain oil well pressure. A retrofit reduces the environmental footprint of the pumping system as energy efficiency increases. the modification of existing devices requires fewer resources than the construction of completely new machines.Fit For The Pumps improves pump system Future > Sulzer performance with retrofits n The picture shows oil pumps in Western Siberia. Power generation from regenerative sources and low-carbon emissions vehicles are two examples that get broad attention in the public discussion. which is based on Sulzer MD pump range. The facility’s 46 waterinjection pumps. Optimizing the energy use of these pumps significantly contributes to environmental protection. Studies by the manufacturer’s association Europump show pumping systems use nearly 20% of the world’s electrical energy. Sulzer Pumps performed an engineered retrofit that included a change of the casing. In certain industrial plants. Pump tech I ncreasingly. the environmental impact of products and industrial processes is becoming a major topic in many countries around the world. Water injection increases the percentage of oil that can be extracted from a reservoir and keeps the well flowing longer. Many possibilities are being discussed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. needed an upgrade. these pumps inject water back into the reservoir to increase pressure and thereby stimulate production. Water-injection pumps are used to increase oil well pressure. Successful retrofit of water-injection pumps Lukoil Western Siberia is the largest unit of the Russian oil company Lukoil. as well as the environmental impact of new technology. pumps account for 25 to 50% of the energy usage. The injected water increases the pressure in the reservoir and displaces oil from the reservoir.
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316 kg/kWh). and extending equipment life and reliability. just repairing the pump performance at the end of the operational life cycle to a new condition may often not be the best choice. the design of the installation. In addition to the increased efficiency. are balanced. in many of the existing systems. and the pulp and paper industries operate as part of a complex system. energy consumption was decreased substantially. the engineers of Sulzer Pumps achieved an energy savings of 95 million kWh annually. Extending reliability and service life The positive ecological impact of retrofitting is combined with significant economic benefits. whereas the pumps. The retrofit at the Russian oil company led to an annual reduction of power consumption and operating costs. These savings are equivalent to a CO2 reduction of 30.000 tpy (27. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 34 Compressortech2 . power.n The modular design of the retrofitted pumps allows the number of pump stages to be adapted to the actual process conditions.519 lb/hph (0. upgrading the hydraulic design with an engineered retrofit reduces overall cost of ownership even more based on a cost/effect consideration. If the system is properly designed. As the costs for a retrofit are lower than those for a new pump. Normal degradation of pump performance over years of operation or a change in system requirements may disturb this balance and may lead to the need to repair or retrofit the pump. a savings of about 18%. assuming a carbon footprint of 0. Additionally. With this specific adaption of the pumps to the actual process conditions. The best choice for existing systems Existing systems offer great potential to reduce the environmental impact and the overall energy demand of pumps. the mean time between repairs (MTBR) increased from one to at least three and up to six years. the pumps. The number of pumping systems in operation is at least 20 times higher than the number of systems built each year. motors. pumping tasks and operational requirements have changed over time. The overall cost of running pumps throughout their operational life is several times higher than the initial capital expense for new machines. the Russian client also benefits from improved reliability of the pumps.216 T/yr). a modular design that allows changes in the number of pump stages according to the specific client requirements. depending on the final pressure they have to deliver. or controls have not been modified. Repair or retrofit? Sometimes performance degradation continued on page 36 n After the retrofit of the water-injection pumps. Usually. The retrofitted pumps now have 11 to 15 stages. hydrocarbon processing. and the method of operation. As a result of the mechanical upgrade. pumps in oil and gas. Considering the goal of achieving the lowest operational and maintenance costs.
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diffuser. The retrofit solution convinced the client. This power plant came equipped with three units. The following example shows that a retrofit makes it possible to target the root cause of damage. This option restored the original efficiency and extended the operational life of the pumps at a cost lower than a replacement cartridge. The improved cartridge delivered outstanding results. the efficiency of the boiler feed pumps dropped due to wear and erosion.sulzer. Sulzer’s engineers succeeded in boosting the efficiency and in increasing the reliability of the boiler feed pumps. This damage at the seals caused internal leakage from the stage casing to the barrel and within the stage casing. which could not sustain the eroding forces during operation. Over the years. The stage casing and upstream diffuser device were made of cast carbon steel. The seals of the stage casing were metal-to-metal seals. is equipped to repair and upgrade all types of centrifugal pumps. India. the client has to decide between repair (i. and shaft. Sulzer Pumps simplifies the first steps on the way to a tailor-made solution. hairline marks developed. with six boiler feed pumps installed. The pumps were supplied around 1991 and were put into commercial operation from 1996 onwards. CT2 From Sulzer Technical Review 3/2012 forces the pump operator to take immediate action. which were made from 11 to 13 chromium steel.. In such a case. Reliability is essential for this performance-critical equipment. as a failure of the boiler feed pumps in a power station would disrupt the process of power generation. The 655 MW gas-fired power station in the Indian state of Gujarat was commissioned in the 1990s. who placed the first order for a complete cartridge in 2010. By contrast. Following the strong performance of the retrofitted pumps.e. leading to higher reliability and reduced maintenance costs. On its home page. the company offers an online tool that allows customers to identify retrofit solutions that meet their operational requirements: www. the customer subsequently placed an order for one additional cartridge to be upgraded to chromium steel in 2011. Analyzing the causes An inspection at the Indian power station revealed inter-stage erosion and metal-to-metal sealing-face erosion in all pumps.n The Sulzer facility in Navi Mumbai. reproducing the original state of the machines) and retrofit. the other parts of the pump. Using improved material The engineers of Sulzer Pumps offered a retrofit solution that included replacing the stage casings with ones made from chromium steel. Because of continuous operation and liquid flow at high velocity. This decline in performance led to a significant monthly loss. n In making a decision about the exact scope and target of a pump retrofit. Through exposure to pressure and temperature. these grew into large holes.com/retrofit-solution-finder JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 36 Compressortech2 . a company has to consider a variety of boundary conditions. were in superb condition. such as the impeller. Three pumps are working continuously and the other three are in standby.
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PRIME Movers UE Compression Sulzer Pumps Sulzer Pumps will supply 40 pumps to PetroChina for the Guangxi Oil Refinery Project Phase II. UE Compression is a custom packager of gas and air compression systems and is part of Kirby Corp. which has declining gas pressure. Caterpillar Ariel Corp. seven cranes totaling 165 tons (150 tonnes) of capacity. (9100 m2) facility allowed UE Compression to combine its corporate offices. Sulzer Pumps’ scope of supply includes 12 pumps for the residue hydrodesulfurization unit. have formed a 50-50 joint venture to provide well service pressure pumping products for customers in the global oil and gas industry.indd 1 Recent Orders SKF Statoil and Aker Solutions have chosen SKF S2M’s magnetic bearings for the compressors and high-speed motors of the Åsgard subsea gas compression system. which is important because the seabed compressors will only be accessible to remote underwater vehicles. just north of Denver. protection and diagnostic system: RecipCOM RecipCOM Find out more: www. of Houston. The compression plan for the Norwegian Sea project includes a large seabed structure with two compressors from MAN Diesel & Turbo. The Guangxi Oil Refinery Project Phase II is scheduled for operation in October 2013.com/RecipCOM compressor-mechatronics@hoerbiger. It will extend the operating life of the gas field. All of the pumps will contribute to the refinery’s capacity to produce gasoline. The project will refine imported high sulfur crude oil and have a total annual capacity of 10 million tons (9.1 million tonnes). They also have a long JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . Colorado. pumps.ft. CT2 38 1/16/13 1:51 PM UE Compression is operating from a new office and packaging complex at Henderson. and Caterpillar Inc.HOERBIGER’s new monitoring. 18 pumps for the diesel oil hydro-treating unit. The facility has 12 fabrication bays. oil-free design. sales. Compressortech2 SKF said its magnetic bearings have high reliability due to their frictionless.com ItItsees seeswhat whatyou Hoerbiger. service groups and fabrication/ packaging at a single location. scrubbers and coolers. as well as petrochemical products. located in the Guangxi Province in southern China. parts. Ariel. increased weld shop capabilities and a stand-alone blast and paint facility.hoerbiger. jet fuel and liquefied petroleum gas. and 10 pumps for the oil storage and transportation unit and utility unit. The move to the 98.000 sq. diesel. service life.
Frac pumps sold through the combined venture will be branded and sold under the Cat name and distributed through the Cat dealer network. 1/16/13 1:52 PM TransCanada TransCanada Corp. Enerven has more than 400 natural gas compression packages totaling JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . mostly in the U. The company has five field offices and a third-party maintenance. Compressortech2 Valerus Valerus opened a location in San Antonio to provide sales support for its Eagle Ford and South Texas operations. in real time and with SIL certified reliability. A monitoring and protection system is the best investment to ensure safe and reliable operation and cut maintenance costs. The office is near a growing customer base in the San Antonio area. and processing and treating facilities as well as operations and maintenance services. RecipCOM’s continuous monitoring of critical equipment parameters – such as vibration. the federal power company. The office will help meet growing demand for midstream gas-processing offerings.2 cm) pipeline will be 329 mi.S. 39 J-W Power J-W Power Co. inefficient operation or breakdowns put the profitability and safety of the entire plant at risk. The Topolobampo Pipeline begins in El Encino. in the state of Chihuahua.indd 2 PRIME Movers The venture. Dependable protection against critical failures Increased operational safety and reliability Easier maintenance planning and lower service costs Lower operating costs and higher productivity can’t RecipCOM was developed in collaboration with a leading process gas company. LLC. The 30 in. interconnecting with other pipelines that are expected to be built as a result of separate bid processes by the CFE. compression. including production. and ends in Topolobampo. The project is expected to be in service in the third quarter of 2016. 175. has acquired substantially all of the assets of Enerven Compression LLC and Worldwide Energy Solutions Co. It offers unmatched expertise in compressor monitoring and protection. indicator pressure and static data – gives early warning of potentially catastrophic failures. J-W Power is a J-W Energy Co. Texas facility. TransCanada expects to invest US$1 billion in the Topolobampo pipeline project. Black Horse. the company said. based in Houston. All three firms are based in Dallas. (530 km) long and have contracted capacity of 670 MMcfd (18. rod position. own and operate the El Encino-toTopolobampo pipeline in Mexico by the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE). tailored to your needs. Mid-Continent and Barnett Shale regions.’s Mexican subsidiary. Ariel and Cat said Black Horse would leverage their engineering and manufacturing expertise to expand ProSource’s product line. Black Horse LLC.000 hp (130 MW). also has acquired ProSource of Houston.RecipCOM’s insights give you: When reciprocating compressors are critical to your process.9 x 106 m3/d). which is supported by a 25year gas transportation contract with the CFE. has received a contract to build. Transportadora de Gas Natural del Noroeste. On every revolution. It also offers sales support for the Three Rivers. repair and refurbishment business. which opened in 2011 and is in the heart of the Eagle Ford shale play. sales and service of natural gas compression packages. in the state of Sinaloa. (76. subsidiary specializing in leasing. will be jointly led by executives from Ariel and from Caterpillar’s marine and petroleum power division. which designs and makes reciprocating pressure pumps for the well service market. Hoerbiger.
suction pressure and active shutdown codes. Only data that is deemed to be an exception. oil pressure. “Is the equipment working or not?” In this case. or for assets in locations that preclude higher bandwidth data transmission. In most other cases a “report by exception” strategy utilizing low-bandwidth satellite terminals is warranted. Industrial operations have become data intensive to a degree that no one could have imagined a decade ago. In these cases. Compressortech2 Doyle Taylor. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . If normal data is transmitted. coolant temperature. low-bandwidth satellite terminals may be the only reasonable alternative because the compressors will be moved frequently and cellular coverage cannot be guaranteed. n There are three levels of condition monitoring for compressors and other equipment. Monico Monitoring president and CEO. it is sent infrequently. or triggers an alarm. slow-moving trends. That phenomenal growth has made the question “What is condition monitoring?” more difficult to answer than ever before. such as run status. This level of monitoring may be appropriate for certain types of assets. 40 This means very little data is transmitted until there is an alarm that warns that a shutdown has occurred or is about to happen. it has a limited number of parameters. In other words. you would monitor only a few parameters. is an engineering graduate of Texas A&M University with 25 years of experience in manufacturing and engineering.Condition Monitoring Intensifies With collection depends on machinery New Technology > Data operation parameters By Doyle Taylor T he term “condition monitoring” can have several different meanings for engines. The basic level of condition monitoring simply determines the current health of the equipment. An example would be rental fleets of natural gas compressors in remote regions far from highbandwidth service areas. compressors and other equipment. would be transmitted. Normal data transmission would be either severely limited or eliminated altogether. and it would be used to spot long-term. Basic health monitoring is really the only low cost alternative here.
indd 1 Compressortech2 4/16/12 4:42 PM . as well as with condition monitoring engineers and technical support. informing operators if their equipment is functioning at top efficiency. They also would cover boost pressures. enables operators to trend over time. Overall.000 SF Manufacturing Facilities on 38 Acres (918) 283-9200 Fax (918) 283-9229 www. allowing them to fine tune maintenance. This principle holds true for monitoring temperature drop over the cooling system as well. available personnel. enabling them to prevent catastrophic failures. establish high set points and then calculate the trend values to estimate when preventive maintenance is needed. Active warning codes can also be monitored to indicate early warning signs of impending shutdown events. The expertise required is not easy to find and is expensive. condition based monitoring is improving the function and efficiency of industrial markets such as oil and gas. Predictive analysis monitoring The next level of condition monitoring is aimed at long-term analysis to predict and prevent unscheduled downtime and catastrophic failure. 286. The full predictive analysis approach also requires exhaustive input from monitoring specialists. The focus of rudimentary condition monitoring is to detect things that could cause an unscheduled shutdown over the next 24 to 48 hours. Using additional data points. They also would show inlet and outlet coolant temperatures. combustion pressure sensors and detailed fault codes. This level of monitoring is normally achieved by a network connection using cellular or broadband communications. vibration sensors. Determining the best approach With reams of information potentially available everywhere. The data transmission is higher in volume with much more frequent updates. Reliability. Much can be predicted by watching certain trends and applying relatively simple calculations. The goal is to build algorithms intended to catch long-term trends that identify failures that could occur during the next seven to 30 days. intake manifold and individual cylinder temperatures. such as the pressure drop across the filters. the bandwidth requirements and other factors. When the contacts are fouled. Without long-term. The parameters to be monitored inJANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 clude exhaust manifold. infrastructure or funding to achieve it. This level can be excellent for managing maintenance costs to avoid weekend and night service outages that must be addressed immediately. then rudimentary condition monitoring might be sufficient. Most owners of industrial equipment would prefer to go to this level of monitoring but they may lack the expertise. Eventually. oil and air filters. Monitoring at this level can be very expensive to develop and maintain because of the quantity of data required. CT2 Experience. “How do you use the data to provide value?” Health monitoring is relatively easy to achieve and also relatively low cost. It is recommended that customers discuss their specific monitoring needs internally. The monitored parameters to determine this would include pressure drops across the fuel. Another example of this type of monitoring is watching transformer output voltage on the spark plugs used in gas engines. Integrity. Full predictive analysis monitoring is the Holy Grail. so it may be the right choice if the operator’s most important concern is whether the machinery is functioning.axh.com 41 AXH. fouled plugs will cause emissions issues and unscheduled shutdowns with the resulting loss of revenue. the transformer has to increase its output in order to maintain combustion. high-fidelity data it may be impossible for operators to detect slight changes in time to prevent catastrophic failures. If the goal is to prevent unscheduled downtime and maximize uptime. compressor cylinder temperatures and active warning codes..Rudimentary condition monitoring The second level of condition monitoring focuses on more than just run status and extends the monitoring into predictive analysis.. the question becomes.
Opportunities. continued on page 46 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 44 . “Usually when the gas price gets that low. as White explained. A s North American natural gas production has trended away from conventional drilling activity toward higher levels of production from unconventional shale plays. said equipment manufacturers have simultaneously been challenged to stay ahead of developments in the natural gas production landscape. Historically. liquids-rich. president of GE’s Waukesha gas engines business in Waukesha. wet-gas plays. He further explained that the drilling/ development focus has shifted from dry gas to more profitable.” White said. the gas compression segment has been subject to the volatility of natural gas prices. and other equipment. and state and federal emission regulations. emissions and “being GE” drives Waukesha gas engines By Patrick Crow n GE’s Waukesha gas engines President Brian White stands in front of a Waukesha Series Four VHP engine. GE’s Waukesha gas engines business specializes in the design and manufacture of natural gas engines to drive compressors. that didn’t happen in 2012. But. Brian White. even as gas prices fell to nearly US$2/MMBtu in April. everything shuts down. Wisconsin. Challenges Seen For Engine OEMs Fuel flexibility. this shift has also presented both opportunity and challenge for the equipment sector. generators. pumps.
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in terms of shale gas technologies. but we provide a low emissions solution when pairing our rich-burn engine with a three-way catalyst.” White said.000 sq.” The disparity between U.” He said GE’s global operations have already broadened the horizon for Waukesha gas engines.” In 2012. The GE ownership has also enabled a yearlong. Outside of the natural gas industry related shifts and trends. gas engines and additional equipment for produced water reinjection operations to increase production in the Rumaila oil field in southern Iraq. a point is reached when combustion becomes incomplete and raw methane slips into the exhaust — something referred to as methane slip. A major goal of the project was to design a high-tech engineering facility to facilitate employee collaboration. “Historically.” White indicated that as regulatory attention begins to focus more on greenhouse gases (GHG).” White said.” he said. the 275GL+. “My background is in the oil and gas drilling business.S. I say. Newcastle. He said that challenge was not unique to his company or to Wisconsin. “The more we are connecting internally within GE. Waukesha’s high horsepower engine.” White sees increased growth opportunities for gas compression globally. drilling technology was initially developed in North America and it JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 will take years for the rest of the world to catch up with the U. GE’s Gas Engines business continually monitors pending changes in state-by-state air quality and environmental regulations. which ultimately means you can maximize site horsepower while staying in compliance. Rich-burn combustion technology allows the engine to operate on a wide range of fuels without fuel treatment. The company also opened a new 46 office in Houston last year. With regard to emissions. “Regulations will likely continue to get tighter and tighter. “has brought the Waukesha gas engines business opportunities to grow faster. reduce methane emissions. by switching to natural gas fueled engines. White said a key challenge for Waukesha gas engines will be to maintain a skilled workforce. “In the future we’re likely to be less concerned about natural gas prices because we will have a better balance of mechanical drive applications as opposed to just pure gas compression drive. U.’ ” White was a Dresser Inc. White said expanding the services business into remanufacturing was not only an opportunity for new business. CT2 Compressortech2 . but there is potential that internationally.K. “Many third parties were supplying remanufactured parts that were not as good as the originals.” White said. and coupled with a threeway catalyst. but also represents the commitment to returning a Waukesha part to original specification quality. not only do we offer customers fuel flexibility.S. corporate vice president of reengineering before joining the Waukesha gas engines business in 2010.” White said. White said GE’s acquisition of Dresser Inc.S. methane is likely to gain more attention because it is 21 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2 — and lean-burn engines could start to face some challenges. “We’ve graduated all of these young people with a four-year degrees who can’t get a job. “There are not enough people pursuing skilled trades or engineering in the U.ft. the more we are realizing new gas engine application opportunities. He said a root cause is the national mindset that equates a four-year college degree with success. ‘Go get a two-year degree as a machinist or a welder and I’ll find you work. diesel fuel and natural gas prices also is proving to be an advantage for the gas engines business. He said engine components would not just be reconditioned.1 million renovation of the 22. was shipped to become part of an integrated package of pumps. (2000 m2) engineering center at the Waukesha plant. combining its compression sales team with other GE operations and expanding the staff fourfold. US$3. White said the company is seeing increased inquiries from equipment operators in marine and stationary power applications seeking to lower fuel costs and their carbon footprint. particularly of engineers and machinists..“The increased production from wetshale plays — shale plays with liquidsrich gas or gas with higher pecentages of natural gas liquids — has led to more demand for Waukesha’s richburn engines. “A characteristic of a lean-burn engine is that as more air is added. We haven’t really seen shale fracturing technology exported yet. With our richburn technology. He holds an electrical and electronics engineering degree from Northumbria University. Another big initiative for the business in 2012 was the launch of Waukesha’s “reUp” parts remanufacturing program. “Rich-burn engine combustion systems have inherently less methane slip than lean-burn engines. they will be returned to their original specifications while incorporating the latest engineering updates and technical improvements.” White said. this could happen pretty quickly.
What’s better than a rider band that resists wear? One that doesn’t have to. FFP� Free Floating Pistons Friction-free. Visit cookcompression. Oil-free. They retrofit to any non-lubricated reciprocating compressor. *FFP is a trademark of Howden Thomassen Compressors BV. They’re compatible with all process gases.com/ffp or contact your Cook Compression representative. Free Floating Pistons eliminate rider band wear during operation. Pressure-sensitive valves and integrated flow nozzles allow the FFP�piston to travel on a thin cushion of process gas www. Cook Compression is the exclusive provider of Howden Thomassen* Free Floating Piston technology in North America. If you stop friction and heat. Wear-free. enabling you to improve compressor availability and avoid the costs of maintenance and downtime.cookcompression. That’s the idea behind FFP� Free Floating Pistons – the remarkable non-lube compressor technology that creates a cushion of pressurized process gas to elevate the piston as it travels in the cylinder. you stop wear. And they’re available in North America only from Cook Compression.com See What’s Happening at Cook Now .
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And oil and gas operators tend to be very loyal.” Jamison said. “In this economy people don’t like to take risks. Shell. Anadarko. shale gas plays have been an unexpected boon for Capstone Turbine Corp. but getting them to try it is another thing.” Jamison said Capstone’s foothold has expanded from the Eagle Ford Shale of South Texas to the Marcellus continued on page 52 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 50 Compressortech2 T . Capstone president and CEO. They’ve been buying the same engines for 50 years and they tend to continue to do that. it was a landslide. said customer education has been the primary challenge for his Chatsworth.. California-based company. Fuel costs for diesel engines have been relatively high.” he said. and we can just keep going down the line. Many oil and gas operators face delays in hooking up electric power for compression in remote shale locations. Talisman. ”Once we got them.Microturbines Gaining Wider Foothold As Drivers For Compression Capstone says micros are aptly suited for new shale plays By Patrick Crow n Darren Jamison he U. Darren Jamison. Marathon. which has more than an 80% market share of the domestic microturbine market.S. “Once customers try our technology they like it. “Pioneer got us Chesapeake.” Jamison said Capstone broke into the shale gas market with orders from Pioneer Natural Resources. But natural gas driven micoturbines have proven to be a viable and preferable option in many places. Getting to these customers is the hardest part.
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Plus. but our total cost of ownership is lower.5823 www. what’s it going to do for production at their actual site. “Typically.” Jamison said.” he said. “As we get bigger into the 4000 to 5360 hp (3 to 4 MW) range.749. hoses. “They love the reliability and the technology of microturbines. The company’s microturbines usually operate in arrays of multiple machines. “You mostly have a bunch of power electronics and one spinning shaft. “With oil and gas that’s what they care about. Summit’s PGS and NGL lubricants is typically Lubricate your compressor not your gas stream be used in refinery applications where catalyst Industrial Products Summit 800. once they start to wear out. lubricants result in lower make-up rates for oil Series in high pressure CO2 applications to eliminate cleaning of downstream piping. their availability is actually pretty good. what’s that 15% down time costing you? “We have discovered that as Capstone gets into bigger applications. Capstone had “close to zero penetration” in the shale gas market. no oil and no cooling system. Unless you have an operator on site. our story gets more compelling.com comes important when customers weigh the higher front-end costs of microturbines against the maintenance costs and downtimes of engines and motors. someone who has paid a million dollars for a piece of equipment is concerned about lifecycle costs.Shale of Appalachia to the Bakken Shale of North Dakota and Montana. Two years ago. “We actually guarantee that cost of ownership for nine years. PGS flooded compressors. 2/14/2012 3:17 PM and life cycle costs are Problem Solving Synthetic Lubricants Carryover Problem? He said gas producers are buying Capstone products for their reliability. The carryover rate for 1/6 the rate for petroleum oils. “You have one moving part.” Jamison said. All NGL lubricants are UOP approved and can poisoning is a concern. The customers are more educated and look more at the long-term costs. running on air bearings. Switch to Summit’s NGL injectors and the formation in EOR applications.” continued on page 54 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 Summit.indd 1 52 1/18/13 9:55 AM . “Our initial cost is higher. that can take some time.” Page He 1 said the education process be- If you’re experiencing elevated carryover rates.” he said. valves. emissions. but if you have to take a site down for three or four hours. “If you look at how many moving parts they have.klsummit. he said emissions Carryover ad_Layout 1 lower. providing both redundancy and reliability. than say a reciprocating engine. their runtime will be in the low. belts.” Jamison said microturbines are much more reliable equipment.or mid-80 percentage range with all the scheduled maintenance and then the unscheduled maintenance.” Jamison said scheduled maintenance costs should be far less important than the downtime costs that result in unscheduled and unpredictable lost production. “The cost upfront is hard. you’ve made up that difference. The company’s US$140 million backlog also is about 60% oil and gas related. The initial cost becomes less of an issue. “If you’re getting 80 to 85% runtime (with another driver). it’s more of an electrical product than a mechanical one. and such. But the operators need to understand it’s a different animal.” Jamison said engines obviously become less reliable over time. it’s time to switch your compressors to Summit’s NGL and PGS Series synthetic lubricants. “Everybody knows with a recip you have a concert of moving parts: pistons. Jamison said that segment now accounts for 60% of its revenue.
Once the section has reached a stable temperature. As our detective story draws to a close.. which is patent pending. This is to avoid the potential of confusing the test results with what the element would achieve in the field. and the cumulative data is interesting. encompassing every catalyst brand in the market. The process has the ability to evaluate catalysts from all manufacturers equally. Depending on the size of the element. 127 • Fax: 715-568-2884 • jrobinson@catalyticcombustion. to which the catalyst formulation is capable of reacting. and then decide if there was enough improvement to risk re-installing and having it fail to perform. rather than an efficiency percentage.CatalyticCombustion. What makes this observation even more interesting is knowing that when these elements were installed on the same make of engine. so getting the most out of that asset and limiting unplanned downtime is an obvious goal. These catalysts were then retested at temperature intervals from 700oF to 800oF. The process. When the owners were contacted. which provides the information needed to make an informed decision. V. The data generated is used to calculate an activity score value between 0 to 21. but wouldn’t it be better to learn what has happened rather than just blindly throw new elements at a problem? For your catalyst questions. Instead. with the score falling dramatically as the temperature was reduced. the concentration of the compound is measured immediately before and after the catalyst using a suitable analytical instrument. the owners verified that the elements had all been operating at temperatures closer to the 700oF level. nearly 50% showed insufficient improvement to consider being re-installed in their original location. it is important to remember that. Part 4 – Case Closed A Handbook for the User The catalysts in your engines are valuable assets required to operate the engine so that gas can be compressed. Catalyst Group • 715-568-2882 Ext. and the process revealed a strong temperature effect on the activity level. Wi 715-568-2882 • GillEttE. there is always a reason for reduced performance that can be identified though the use of the analytical tools available to your catalyst supplier. A significant portion of the remainder showed improvement. Several catalysts were evaluated that showed high scores similar to new catalysts upon pre-wash testing. This new process offers the ability to compare the prewashed score with the figures taken before the catalyst was removed from the engine. there are often costs associated with conducting these tests.com www. isolates a section of the catalyst and seals it so that a flow of hot air can be directed through the isolated section. they maintained that the catalyst was removed due to poor performance. When shown the data. Within the last year. typically 800oF. Yes. The system is allowed to operate for a period of time sufficient for the chemical reaction to come to equilibrium.Quality Catalysts sinCE 1950 BloomER. The balance showed restoration to almost-new condition. From catalysts that were tested before and after washing. Several hundred elements. to the score after it is washed. then. is introduced to the air stream.P. the process is repeated in 3 to 6 different areas to survey the catalyst’s condition. barring an operational issue with the engine or a manufacturing defect in the catalyst. Another observation from the data highlights the role of temperature in the catalyst’s performance.com IN THE NEXT ISSUE …How much is that Platinum in the window? . have been evaluated through this process. but located such that the temperature was 800oF or higher. Robinson Jr. you would certainly act accordingly. contact: John W. This is how your company makes money. a new method of evaluating the activity of a used catalyst without removing a core sample was developed. Wy 715-933-2641 Catalyst Emissions EduCation Program A scheduled series from Catalytic Combustion’s “Catalyst 101” UNDERSTANDING CATALYSTS Part 20 The Great Detective. but not enough to be re-installed in their original location. they all passed with room to spare. How many times have you re-installed a cleaned catalyst only to have it not meet your operating permit levels? If you knew ahead of time that the catalyst’s activity level did not improve after washing. a specific concentration level of a compound. those were moved to locations where the operating permit was not as stringent.
” CT2 Compressortech2 54 1/22/13 9:06 AM .” Jamison said.” Jamison said since 2007 Capstone has averaged growth of 20% yearly. compressed natural gas. providing electric power for the downhole pump. motor loads.” He is optimistic that the company’s growth rate will continue.testo350. or even im prove. He said many of Capstone’s oil and gas customers do just that during the process of completing and hooking up natural gas wells. Compliance testing and tuning – the easy way. and will be followed by a 500 hp (370 kW) version. or something else.” Jamison described Capstone’s mi cro turbines as “somewhat fuel ag nostic” because they can burn natural gas. Capstone’s largest microturbines are 270 hp (200 kW) units.” Jamison said. software issue. propane or diesel — whatever is economical and locally available. These are people who are thinking outside the box.” Jamison said. to try a new approach. small compres sors. also run ning on unprocessed wellhead gas to generate continuous power.indd 1 ing gas off the pipeline and running the (microturbine) machines with that. and other onsite needs of a remote oil or gas devel opment site. “These larger architectures. when a unit goes down. we can know if it’s a fuel fault. “They love our technology.com JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 Testo. That’s where we’re going.” Jamison said. lique fied natural gas. “which is great considering that were right in the middle of the economic downturn in 2008 and 2009. about getting more output from the same architecture and making it more efficient. which is expected to be commercially released in about 18 months. They can be used for compressor stations and manned/un manned offshore platforms. “It’s the same thing you hear from the engine guys. “They will run their microturbines on diesel while they are building the pipeline. provide the low est costs per kilowatt hour and higher efficiency. which often are bundled in groups of five for 1340 hp (1 MW) of power. from an efficiency and architecture standpoint. • Superior performance for state and federal testing • Menu-guided HD display • Powerful on-board & PC data management • Wireless operation – simple data collection • Rugged construction O2 • CO • NOx • SO2 • CO2 800-227-0729 • www. The company is lab test ing its 335 hp (250 kW) architecture. injectors every two and a half years. The microturbines can operate on casing head gas with up to 7% sour content. “We’re working on some other tech nology. clogged air cleaner. “We have a lot of champions out there.He said maintenance is relatively simple: air filters should be changed yearly. they begin tak testo 350. but right now we feel like we have the right suite of products to con tinue forward. “We can remotely dial in for more diagnostics. “With remote monitoring. and the hot section reworked every five years. and once that pipeline is operational. the new products in the 335 to 500 hp (250 and 370 kW) market. judging from the enthusiasm of Capstone’s customers. They can also be repowered to different fuels. and are put ting themselves on the line.
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Several cited the challenge of maintaining skilled workforces. such as Caterpillar 3600 series and Waukesha 275 GL+ engines. ompressor packagers. executives of packaging firms discussed their strategies to adapt to changing gas market conditions. “Two years later. are optimistic about their prospects in 2013. UE Compression also moved to a new 90. All that tells you is the oil and gas business turns on a dime.” Vevurka said his company achieved record revenues yet in 2012. “The oil and gas business booms and busts on a regular basis. continued on page 58 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 56 Compressortech2 C .ft. During interviews with COMPRESSSORtech2. we had our best year ever. enabling the Ariel compressor to use either driver. 2009 was a bleak year for our company as a whole. president of UE Compression.000 sq.” he said. “To give an example. “One division went from US$24 million in 2009 to US$150 million in 2010 to US$275 million in 2011. Colorado. even those who struggled a little last year.Compressor Packagers Optimistic About 2013 Companies cite various strategies to cope with changing markets By DJ Slater n These dual-drive units from SEC Energy Products & Services include both a Caterpillar engine and an electric motor.” said John Vevurka. (8300 m2) facility that will allow it to handle larger packages. based in Henderson. It turned that fast.
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“Our customers are more leery and on the fence about buying new equipment when natural gas is down. New York-based company’s biggest growth markets are natural gas and natural gas liquids. He said the Buffalo. Craig Jackson. which have a power output of 8000 hp (6 MW).n SEC Energy Products and Services has built 29 packages using Caterpillar GCM34-16 engines.9 to 3729 kW). He said the company made money in 2012. Douglas said Compass Compression has turned its focus more toward equipment for gas liquids plays.” he said.” Jackson said. as well as compressed natural gas (CNG) filling station compressors and spheres. Vevurka said he is optimistic about 2013. Cobey Inc. business development manager. Jackson said 2013 looks to be another boom year for Cobey. Pennsylvania. partly because of his company’s fuel gas boosting business for the power industry. said Cobey has benefited from the drop in gas costs.14/ MMBtu this year and US$3.90 in 2014. The plunge in natural gas prices last year created problems for some compressor packagers. Established in 2002. natural gas liquids separation units and power generation equipment. He said a large jump in prices could prompt power generators that had switched from coal to natural gas to reverse their decisions. 58 Fulmer hopes these forecasts hold up so Abby Services can avoid another “okay” year. designs. said new orders declined in 2012. Scott Douglas. engineers and manufactures rotating equipment packages. He said the industry would benefit more from a steady increase in gas prices. Vevurka said he is able to avoid carrying large stocks of parts and products and thus won’t be stuck with a surplus of inventories during a downturn. but not much. fitting well into Cobey’s core competency. “All of these applications utilize packaged compressors and related auxiliaries. Cheaper gas has created favorable economics for CNG vehicle filling stations. Abby Services builds gas compressors and air drilling boosters. As a packager who builds units on an as-needed basis. of Canonsburg. and has a capacity range from 40 to 800 hp (30 to 600 kW). The company specializes in compressor packages dealing with reciprocating. but just not rapidly. wouldn’t mind seeing natural gas prices increase. the payout isn’t there. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 Don Fulmer.” According to the Energy Information Administration. continued on page 60 Compressortech2 . mainly because low gas prices stalled new construction. owner and president of Abby Services Inc. with many of its customers predicting growth in the market. UE compression specializes in custom packages that include reciprocating compressors with a capacity range from 75 to 5000 hp (55. vice president of sales for Calgary-based Compass Compression Services. among other equipment. gas prices are expected to rise to an average of US$3. “If the price is down. Responding to the drilling/development trend away from dry gas to more profitable wet gas prospects.
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“There’s been a shift in what we’re chasing. “The only real activity for compression is shale plays and oil-related plays. Bruce said soft Canadian natural gas prices also prompted the company to look for international opportunities.” Douglas anticipates that Compass Compression can grow its 11% Canadian market share in 2013 by staying nimble and serving new plays. a Switzerland-based compressor packager. “Since gas prices have fallen off in Canada.” Douglas said. The markets we targeted last year were solution gas. “We’ve also seen a lot of growth opportunity in Australia and Russia. “If you look at the overall compression market. rotary screw and rotary vane packages in a capacity range up to 4024 hp (3000 kW). Frank Northup. Liquefied natural gas projects are being developed in Australia while the Russian government is mandating that flared gas be captured and used. “The market’s been tough since 2008. Bruce said. The company assembles centrifugal. “In short.” Douglas said.” said Trent Bruce. Shifting its emphasis to different markets has worked well for Sage Energy Corp. 60 Compressortech2 Innovator in State-of-the-Art Pipe Supports & Clamps Inventor of Flywheel Lock Leaders in Field Machine Work Pioneers in Casting Rapair PRODUCTS: n Pipe Supports & Clamps n Epoxy Grout n Anchor Bolts n Flywheel Locks n Temperature & Vibration Sensors n Spark Plugs SERVICES: n Field Machining n Casting Repair n Crankshaft Machining n Machine Shop n Broken Bolt Removal n Frame Reinforcement n Alignment Services 918-252-7545 www. Enerproject SA. Sage Energy moved into a new facility and closed some of its service branches. which is why he sees 2013 as a better year. “We are becoming more established in these new markets.” While implementing this redirection strategy. also sees Russia (as well as Asian nations) as having good potential for packagers.com email@example.com to 3356 kW) range. OK JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . fuel gas and vapor recovery. general sales manager. propane refrigeration. said 2012 was the best year for SEC Energy since its high-water mark in 2008. 2012 wasn’t a banner year. vice president of sales. An example is SEC Energy Products & Services of Houston.com Tulsa. Some packagers say they’re doing well in the current market environment.. you’ll see it’s been shrinking. the director of sales and marketing. a Calgary-based compressor packager that specializes in reciprocating and rotary screw compressor packages in the 50 to 4500 hp (37. It makes reciprocating compressor packages ranging from 80 to 8000 hp (20 to 5965 kW).” Bruce said.” Bruce said.r-f. said Vito Notari. adding that propane refrigeration and international gas are two examples of strong markets for the company.Recognized Leader rotary screw and vane compressors in the 30 to 8000 hp (22 to 5965 kW) range. we have regrouped and gone after different markets.
so we have to accommodate new rules and regulations with modified designs.TRYCECO. Jackson said. Northup anticipates 2013 will be a “pretty good year.S. though. Vevurka said the company has been in a continuous hiring mode for six months.” Northrup said. and we have a backlog approaching six months out.” One problem that several packagers cited was the difficulty in maintaining a skilled workforce. *U. “Many of our large horsepower units are being built with SCR systems. is that we have a lot of one-off type applications because of the concentration on the richer and sometimes off-spec gas that is being produced today. Hospital grade mufflers. “What we have noticed.” he said.COM/rMAX 2 EMAIL: Compressortech SALES@CECONET. Northup said SEC Energy is putting products on all its packages that once were optional. He added that the industry also has not done well at retaining experienced middle management due to the boom-and-bust nature of the business. Cobey uses internal cross training to develop its employees’ engineering and manufacturing skill sets. UE Compression also has been affected by a shortage in skilled labor.” CT2 Works with these high speed compressors: Ariel White Superior Dresser-Rand and more! DOWNLOAD THE FLYER! *U. Packagers also noted the impact of governmental regulations regarding emissions and sound attenuation. Patent Patent Pending Pending JANUARY-FEBRUARY CALL: 713-663-1668 2013 61 WWW.COM . Since that added capacity would help the company work down its six-month backlog. air-intake silencers and slow-speed.” SEC Energy is doubling its compressor manufacturing capabilities and adding a production equipment shop. handle entrained liquids better and radically reduce valve failure! “Our shop facilities were full all year. “Emissions monitoring is becoming continuous. Northup said SEC Energy gave its shop personnel an across-the-board pay increase and is allowing them more overtime than in prior years. such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. quiet-tip fan blades are standard design.S.IT’S ONE TOUGH VALVE HIGH-SPEED COMPRESSOR VALVES TM* CECO’s CECO’s rMAX rMAXTM* high-speed compressor valves are proven to increase run-time. To help retain experienced staff. To counter the lack of skilled labor. packagers like UE Compression and Cobey have turned to their own training programs to develop the right people and integrate them into the company. Cobey’s Jackson said the lack of qualified labor has been a bottleneck to growing the company’s manufacturing capacity.
which on Feb. Based at Cologne. Germany. based on what they see. Atlas Copco Gas and Process solutions are used primarily in oil and gas processes. which operates within Atlas Copco’s Compressor Technique business area. Gas and Process provides industrial turbomachinery and cryogenic pumps on an international scale. We keep in contact with our customers and determine. It has four production facilities in Europe and the United States and packaging plants in India and China.” Atlas Copco’s Gas and Process Division is part of the Atlas Copco Group. chemical/petrochemical processes. according to President Peter Wagner. “We continually screen the market and ask what we need to do in order to meet upcoming needs. “What we see today is a very flexible world so we position ourselves as a flexible organization.” JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 62 Compressortech2 D . “We are set up in a way that as a company.Atlas Copco Unit Thrives On Diversification Gas and Process Division offers growing spectrum of products globally By brent haight n Peter Wagner iversification is working well for Atlas Copco’s Gas and Process Division.” Wagner said. expansion turbines and cryogenic pumps for the gas and process industry. renewable energy. we stand on multiple legs. in the various sectors of oil and gas. and in the air separation sector. power generation. sales and aftermarket locations. The Gas and Process Division. the division has a global network of production. 21 will observe its 140th anniversary. offering a matching range of aftermarket products. develops and manufactures turbocompressors. with customers in 150 nations. “We are active in industrial gases. upstream and downstream. “The market conditions that affected many companies in the last few years had limited effect on us due to our diverse portfolio and our presences in many different markets. as well as renewable energy and other important markets.” Wagner said. what we’ll do in the market.
facilities and people. “The flow of our compressors has increased. the division has made considerable investments in its products.000 m3/hr [3. “We now see increased activities in the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) nations. there is a need for so many different applications. “One requirement is for us to act quickly and have modular and standardized products. This also includes new products and new larger sized equipment in the compressor and expansion turbine business. for example. Under his leadership.” Wagner said. technologies. product development has been a key area of growth for Atlas Copco.” Wagner became president of the Atlas Copco Gas and Process Division in January 2011. it’s not the only market. “We started to expand our range of compressors in 2004.” Wagner said. We will therefore continue to invest in our products and machines in order to continually improve our quality and efficiencies and to provide efficient products that will drive customer productivity. But as much some things are chang- ing. and our turbine range has grown as well. as well as South and Latin America. on the main air compressor side.” According to Wagner. We’ll keep investing in our products and our machines and our facilities in order to continually improve our quality and efficiencies. growing global demand for energy will continue to drive the market. CT2 .5 MMcfh]. “Another important focus is on efficiency. Today we are four times that.China has been a major focus for the Gas and Process Division and it continues to be a growing market for the entire Atlas Copco organization. we were sized at about 100. one factor is constant. “At that time. “We see great opportunity in the downstream segment.” But while China continues to be strong. “Another area where I expect more activity on the oil and gas side is Africa.” In serving its customers worldwide. said Wagner: Customers always will have their individual requirements for equipment.” Wagner said. “In the Chinese market.” Wagner said.
64 The Multi Purpose Open Air Test Facility Oberhausen (known as Muenster) is divided into two sections. AN Diesel & Turbo has built an open-air test bed at its Oberhausen.MAN Expands Oberhausen Compressor bay enables testing of Testing Facility > Open-air very large compressor trains By Roberto Chellini n MAN’s large open-air test bed at Oberhausen will run its first trials in May.5 million to transform 17. (1600 m2) of open space on the side of this hall into a testing facility. MAN had an in-hall test bay capable of testing compressors driven by electric motors and steam turbines and an open air test bench for a variety of compressor package configurations.8 sq. The increased size and number of compressor casings manufactured by MAN has induced the company to gradually expand the testing facilities at all of its major plants (Oberhausen. The new test bed meets all the requirements necessary for ASME-PTC-10 Type 1 tests with flammable gasses. three medium trains across the two sections. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 M In 2004. MAN Oberhausen restructured its largest hall. in order to facilitate testing of eight large compressor trains made for the Shell Pearl GTL plant in Qatar. each capable of hosting a large compressor train or. The additional test facility at Oberhausen will debottleneck the old open air test bed adjacent to the compressor assembly hall. Germany. Customer tests will start in May 2013. once used for the manufacture of nuclear vessels. Construction began in May 2012 and was completed at the end of year. a control room and steam availability.ft (20 tonnes/ m2) to allow assembly of large and Compressortech2 .200 sq. facility to test large compresssor trains. In early 2012 MAN Diesel & Turbo decided to invest C6.ft. Ground load capacity at the new site is 22 tons/10. At Oberhausen. if requested. Berlin and Zurich). adding crane lifting capacity of 400 tons (360 tonnes).
yellow. Three cooling towers will dissipate the heat from the gas loop during the compressor tests. The steam system has capacity of 66 tph (60 T/hr). Electric power is available at 240V/400V/10kV and 21 MVA.motortech. through a 1 mi. no extra high-voltage clamp is required. cooling speed of 2012° to 1472°F (1100° to 800°C) in 50 minutes. Muenster will be dedicated to compressor trains. EVO will operate the boiler according to MAN specifications. serving the needs of the in-hall test stands. a portable dry block calibrator designed to verify and calibrate sensors. Maximum size allowed is for 33.250 hp (25 MW). heating speed of 212° to 2012°F (100° to 1100°C).de Dry Block Calibrator E Instruments International has released the TCS 1200.6 km) pipeline connection. Features include a temperature range from 302° to 2192°F (150° to 1200°C). that need to be tested for the company’s oil and gas and process industry business units. For engines equipped with special Motortech coils that have the inductive voltage measurement circuits built in.400 hp (10 MW) class third-party gas turbine. allowing for easy transportation of fully assembled compression systems worldwide.e-inst.de . www. High pressure compressors for upstream and midstream applications are tested with the MAN THM and GT6 families. Interchangeable and black body inserts are optional. The spark voltage is monitored in 1 kV increments up to 40 kV by a column of LEDs. www. Steam is available from a dedicated boiler at Energieversorgung Oberhausen (EVO). an inductive clamp is attached to the spark plug wire.mehrer.000 Nm3/hr). The first customer test at Muenster. 3. and only a side flange was needed to connect it to Muenster. red) provide operators with an indication about a spark plug’s condition. (1. the local energy provider. SparkView monitors the high voltage required by the spark plug when firing.14 in. thermometers and process transmitters in the field and laboratories. in 20 minutes.2 mi. Fuel gas from the local pipeline is available at a pressure up to 580 psi (40 bar) and a volume up to 383 cfh (10. Overhead crane lifting capacity is 55 tons (50 tonnes). The plant is only 1.The steam system has been operational at Oberhausen for some years.com continued on page 79 Food & Beverages Chemistry Raw Materials Environment Machine Construction Special Engineering Petrochemistry MEHRER SERVICE ACTIVE SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT WORLDWIDE SHIPPING OF ORIGINAL SPARE AND WEAR PARTS Josef Mehrer GmbH & Co KG Maschinenfabrik · Rosenfelder Str. Heavier single lifts are possible with the aid of a side traveling crane. or third party gas turbines. will check the performance of a high-pressure compression system formed by two barrel casings manufactured in Zurich and driven by a 13. The addition of the Muenster facility gives Oberhausen 25 test stands for internal and customer use. The Muenster test bed is sized for a drive power of 33.2° at 2012°F (1100°C).500 hp (25 MW) class machines. and a four-hole.de · service@mehrer. pressure and speed. planned for May. 35 · 72336 Balingen · Germany Phone +49 (0)7433 2605-0 · Fax +49 (0)7433 2605-41 · www. including screw compressors and single-lift power generation packages. CT2 FEATURED Spark Plug Monitoring PRODUCTS Motortech has launched its handheld device to support gas engine mechanics troubleshooting engine problems or going through preventive maintenance procedures. stability and radial uniformity of ± 0. This string test will be conducted at full load. (2 km) from the canal harbor. On nonshielded gas engines. The LED color ranges (green.heavy machinery. pressure of 870 to 1160 psi (60 to 80 bar) and temperature of 750° to 930°F (400° to 500°C). a 15 minute stabilization time. (80 mm) deep metal block insert.
David Bell is Hoerbiger Altronic’s vice president of aftermarket sales and service. The aftermarket screw-in precombustion chambers were removed at the beginning of the test.com. Bell. spark plug selection and wear.25 x 18. NOx production associated with the directed energy ignition system and alternative spark plug achieved levels as low as 0.4 x 475 mm) 330/270 Altronic L2252DP Champion RW83F High Output Turbocharging And Intercoolers Gas Transmission See Discussion Below High Order Vibration Of Motor Rotor — Vibration Peak At LP Side Q uantifying and qualifying the impact of the directed energy technology (CPU-XL) with respect to engine performance. He has been with the organization for over 28 years and carries undergraduate and graduate degrees from Youngstown State University. and Ron Wachowiak) for participating.lepley@hoerbiger. 3. and international patents. Texas.TECH Field Validation Of A Directed Energy was conducted on large bore natural Ignition System > Program gas-fueled reciprocating engines Editor’s Note: This article is based on a paper given by the authors at the Gas Machinery Conference. david.S. David Lepley. operator and mechanical service technician. Michigan. The authors wish to thank the gas transmission companies and associated station personnel (including Peter Booth. While allowing the unit to reach the necessary 3. Evaluating the technology in both a stand-alone mode and in conjunction with complementary spark plug and fuel delivery technology was also a priority. as is the direct support of the team at Advanced Gas Engine Solutions. Austin. 2012.00 g/kWh) without the need for the currently installed screw-in precombustion chambers. An alternative spark plug (Champion RW-83F) was recommended and installed for use with the new directed energy ignition system. Aaron Carper. Their individual and collective efforts made the data collection.porter@altronic. 30 to Oct. Luigi Tozzi and Emmanuella Sotiropoulou of Prometheus Applied Technologies also is appreciated. Also a graduate of Youngstown State University. lepley@altronic. As noted in Figure 1. David Lepley is Hoerbiger Altronic’s manager of aftermarket services. The test goal for this application was to achieve reliable and stable operation of an Ingersoll Rand KVS-412 gas fueled engine in gas transmission service at an exhaust NOx level below 3. maintenance issues specific to the prechamber prompted the customer to seek out an alternative emissions reduction package that would allow for operation in an open-chamber configuration. The counsel of both Dr. he joined Altronic in 2007. misfire reduction. Joseph Lepley and Michael Porter corner Field Validation Test 1 Engine Model: Brake Horsepower: Fueling System: Bore And Stroke: Rpm: Spark Plug Type: Engine Upgrades: Service: Test Goals: 25897 rpm (431. 66 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . he has been with the company six years and has spent much of that time supporting and managing aftermarket upgrade development programs.00 in. Sept.firstname.lastname@example.org Hz) Ingersoll Rand KVS-412 2000 bhp (1491 kW) Standard OEM System 15. joseph.8 g/bhph (1.com The field validation program included the following data By David E. validation and analysis reviewed in this paper a reality. He has been with the company for 34 years.com. (387. michael.00 g/bhph (4. Following almost 20 years of service as an engine analyzer. He is also a Youngstown State University alumnus. For additional information or answers to questions. Clair. Joseph Lepley is Hoerbiger Altronic’s vice president of engineering and the holder of a number of U. was central to the field validation program.1 g/kWh). contact the authors at: david.com. Michael Porter is the National Pipeline Manager for Hoerbiger Altronic.00 g emissions level codified in the unit permit. He is based out of St.
While also allowing for operation below 3. KIENE’S NEW FULL-OPENING CV-70 SERIES INDICATOR VALVES PROVIDE THESE FEATURES: • Large. (See Figure 2. the combined performance benefit of the directed energy ignition/new spark plug was significant.000 lbs. A follow-on test was made using the existing ignition system (a CPU-2000) and the alternative spark plug. continued on page 68 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 67 Exceed Your Expectations!! Visit our website at www. Graph shows heat rate vs.00 g NOx (4.Given the baseline performance of this engine in an open-chamber configuration with the previous spark plug of 11 g/bhph (15 g/kWh). Straight-Through flow path minimizes channel resonance and maximizes accuracy. drilling.com and grinding on ferrous and non-ferrous material up to 30.com KIENE n Figure 1.HahnMfg.00 g NOx (4. ISO Certified precision boring. We Want To … n Figure 2. DIESEL ACCESSORIES. it was consistently outperformed by the directed energy system relative to NOx production. • Quarter-turn for fast operation Safety Locking Handle option is also available THE CV-SERIES INDICATOR VALVES ARE DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY FOR COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS. • Compact design is safe — no need for separate nipples or adapters. milling.kienediesel. and stability. heat rate. INC. the CPU-2000/new spark plug configuration produced unsatisfactory spark plug service life (<400 hours). air manifold pressure on the test KVS-412 engine. The tested directed energy ignition system/alternative spark plug produced a faster heat release enabling leaner operation at the same or better fuel consumption rates.00 g/kWh). NOx production on the test KVS-412 engine. Graph shows heat rate vs. A follow-on test is planned at this location to evaluate the performance benefit of a passive (unfueled) precombustion chamber spark plug in conjunction with the currently installed directed energy ignition system.249 kJ/kWh).com Website: www. • 2000 PSI. 250° (F) capacity. CALL NOW FOR INFORMATION. with fuel rates as low as 7950 Btu/bhph (11. • Vent Valve safely relieves pressure prior to removing transducer.) KIENE INDICATOR VALVES FOR COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS FOR MAXIMUM ACCURACY. Consistent operation within permit levels below 3. Telephone: 1-800-264-5950 Fax: 630-543-5953 E-mail: info@kienediesel. Additionally. tapping Compressortech2 .00 g/kWh) was maintained.
load on the test KVG-410 engine. full-load horsepower. while the graph to the right an analysis of the engine outfitted with a standard ignition system and associated higher level of misfire.25 x 18. (356 x 356 mm) 300 Altronic L2252IP High-Pressure Fuel Injection Gas Transmission See Discussion High Order Vibration Of Motor Rotor — Vibration Peak At LP Side n Figure 4. In addition to the pronounced misfire reduction. Using the measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) as a surrogate for engine stability.00 in. and/or misfire-prone engines. The dramatic reduction in misfire made possible by the directed energy ignition system enables the practical and sustainable operation of NSCR (three-way) catalysts on lightly loaded. Graph shows heat rate vs. documented engine heat rate was reduced by 50% over the previously installed CD ignition system.Field Validation Test 2 Engine Model: Brake Horsepower: Fueling System: Bore And Stroke: Rpm: Spark Plug Type: Test Goals: Service: Test Goals: 25897 rpm (431. Graph shows carbon monoxide (CO) on the test KVG410 engine. At the lightest load.00 in. Note that CO production/stability is always superior to that of the conventionally equipped system.4 x 475 mm) 330 Altronic L2252DP See Discussion Below Gas Transmission See Discussion Below High Order Vibration Of Motor Rotor — Vibration Peak At LP Side (262 kW). particularly accelerated catalyst failures. Field Validation Test 3 Engine Model: Brake Horsepower: Fueling System: Bore And Stroke: Rpm: Spark Plug Type: Engine Upgrades: Service: Test Goals: Cooper-Bessemer GMVH-10 1700 bhp (1268 kW) High-Pressure Fuel Injection 14. but particularly so at the lightest loads. Compressortech2 . approximately 350 hp JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 68 25897 rpm (431. a dramatic reduction in misfire is illustrated in Figure 4. The customer’s goal in installing and operating the directed energy ignition system was the reduction of light-load misfire. CO was documented to be 75% lower with the directed energy system. Graph shows KVG-410 in-cylinder pressure traces.6 Hz) The customer’s goal for the directed energy ignition system installation was to determine its impact in combined service on an open-chamber engine equipped with a highpressure fuel injection system. Figure 5 illustrates two sets of in-cylinder pressure traces. the more rapid heat release of the directed energy system is evident in both higher peak pressure amplitudes. and shorter durations. n Figure 3. The graph to the left documents the reduced misfire rate of the engine equipped with a directed energy ignition system. the engine suffered from unacceptably high fuel consumption and significant misfire-related maintenance issues. Typically operating at loads at or below 40% of the rated.00 x 14. n Figure 5. At 350 hp (262 kW). (387. Figure 3 illustrates the dramatic impact of the directed energy ignition system on engine heat rate when operating at reduced load.6 Hz) Ingersoll Rand KVG-410 1100 bhp (820 kW) Standard OEM system 15.
USA 16148 1-800-247-1326 or 724-347-0250 ecgsales@elwd. General observations Beyond the specific performance results and observations noted. PA. USA 16329 Hermitage.74 g/bhph (0. and dropped to 0. Given the already high-performance. the high-pressure. is planned. Further research and testing. fuelinjection system installed on the engine — when used in combination with the directed energy system — produced remarkably consistent peak pressures from cylinder to cylinder and cycle to cycle.66 g/bhph (0. performance improvements were (as expected) more modest. passive. & NO2 (True NOx) • CO Dilution For Auto-Range Measurements To 50. The documented misfire reduction at light load with the directed energy ignition has the potential to offer a significant performance enhancement to a broad base of operators and applications. NO.E-Inst. As demonstrated in Figure 6. E4400 features include: • Up to FOUR Gas Sensors: O2. Additional testing and analysis versus the baseline and other off-design conditions is pending. precombustion chamber spark plug in conjunction with a directed energy ignition system has significant promise on slow-speed applications.89 g/kWh) when operating the directed energy ignition system. Further testing is required in this area. particularly when used in conjunction with enhanced fuel-mixing strategies.com IDEAL ANALYZER TO MEASURE ENGINE EMISSIONS E INSTRUMENTS provides the latest technology in handheld instrumentation with the E4400 analyzer that is ideal for emissions monitoring including quarterly tests as well as tuning and maintenance of rich and lean burning gas & diesel engines. CO.99 g/kWh) when operating the conventional system. Carbon monoxide (CO) was at 0. low-emissions nature of the engine. This result — made possible because of improved combustion stability — identifies a 15% reduction in CO. particularly on previously evaluated units such as the KVS-410.ellwoodcrankshaftgroup. The application of an unfueled. Graph shows in-cylinder peak pressures as recorded on the GMVH 10 test engine. PA.n Figure 6.000 ppm • Field Replaceable & Pre-Calibrated Sensors • Internal Non-Thermal Impact Printer • Long Lasting Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery • PC Software With BlueTooth & USB Communications E Instruments International Phone: 215-750-1212 www. Future application of passive prechamber spark plug technology should yield positive results on the subject engine.com www. the field validation program also has provided a unique opportunity to more fully investigate and understand some of the more important/critical factors continued on page 70 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 69 We Manufacture and Remanufacture the World’s Largest Crankshafts Ellwood Crankshaft Group Irvine.com Built with Quality in Mind Compressortech2 . Field validation conclusions Directed energy ignition has demonstrated a strong capacity to act in a complementary fashion with enhanced fuel-delivery systems to reduce engine misfire.
and to operate in a lean combustion environment for low engine-out exhaust emissions. the peak in delivered current occurs during the early phases of the spark event. Voltage is depicted in yellow (above) and current in blue (below). demonstrated that the capacity of the ignition system to modulate the flow of current throughout the discharge portion of the spark event brought with it specific benefits in flame kernel initiation. Given the nature of the primary energy release out of the ignition system — a storage capacitor is fully emptied into the primary of the ignition coil by a high-speed transistor switching device — the current value quickly decays through the duration portion of the event as it transitions back to a zero current value. the primary developmental goal behind the directed energy technology was to maximize the performance benefit — combustion assurance across a range of standard and off-design engine applications and operating protocols — while at the same time minimizing the initial and ongoing investment associated with any maintenance related to the system or the engine. There are no “silver bullets. Testing has proven. The following two subject discussions were of particular interest to the development team. Misfire reduction In-cylinder combustion assurance has been a key design and development goal of all engine and ignition manufacturers since the introduction of the internal combustion engine over a century ago. the bar for doing so has been steadily raised by the often simultaneous demand for enhanced performance. nonstock configuration. such as those operating in a lean combustion mode for reduced emissions. however. Furthermore. with enhanced fueling systems. high energy on flame kernel development outlined in Figure 8. In conventional CD JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 70 ignition systems. Data initially derived from advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and later verified in laboratory and field testing has confirmed that the application of a high-energy spark event (profile) with an increasing current value contributes significantly to robust flame kernel development and in overcoming the spark plug electrode heat sinking effects. Over that 100-plusyear history. Areas of low fuel density — lean pockets and the heat losses to the spark plug electrode surfaces at the beginning of the combustion event tend to inhibit/quench the kernel. propagation. and maintenance. n Figure 7. Inhibited in its growth and sustenance by the heat draining effect of the electrodes. These challenges have been met by a wide range of combustion chamber modifications. Graph shows the components of a conventional capacitive-discharge spark event. Testing. Note the very small flame kernel development in the “lowenergy” model. Conventional. The high-energy spark event modeled in Figure 8 demonstrates the application of not just a high-energy spark event. the nascent flame kernel could easily be further diminished in growth or extinguished entirely in such conditions prompting a partial or total misfire. Early laboratory and engine test-stand specific testing confirmed that appreciable reductions in engine misfire could be obtained through the application of the directed energy technology in a stand-alone capacity and in conjunction with other combustion enhancement technologies. that an increasing level of current is required later in the spark event process to insure the formation and successful propagation of the in-cylinder flame kernel. Consider the CFD modeling of J-gap electrode-based spark plug demonstrating the impact of a low energy vs.involved in the application of ignition technology in general and directed energy ignition technology more specifically. and at light load. the need to reliable operate on difficult to ignite gaseous fuels. Validation of this data and the associated conclusions in the field on applications with varying performance goals became the next critical step in the process. Each approach has brought with it unique performance advantages and its own set of operating and maintenance-related burdens on the engine and the customer.” As noted in previous publications. such a capability was possible and determined to be more operationally advantageous on engines in an off-design. fueling system innovations. and ignition technologies. capacitive-discharge (CD) spark ignition (Figure 7) reflects the traditional. previously completed and reported. coincident relationship between peak current and peak voltage. A directed energy ignition system essentially allows the operator to tightly control — to shape the curve of delivered secondary current through the ignition coil (transformer) and spark plug electrodes to the air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. but one which is characterized by a delivery of continued on page 72 Compressortech2 .
there is an understandable tendency to see these components — particularly the engine’s spark plugs — as independent elements that can be adjusted. Graph shows the components of a directed energy spark event featuring increasing delivered current. resistor vs. a certain plug configuration is required. the individual components are sometimes seen as a collection of mutually exclusive pieces knowingly operating in concert with each other. including: heat rate. As pointed out by Dr. The reality is that component selection is hypercritical in meeting operating and performance goals. and spark plugs. Field testing has also confirmed that in terms of performance. Spark plug selection for a given engine application encompasses a variety of considerations. or emissions. however. J-gap instead of Dual bar).e. Graph shows computational fluid dynamics (CFD) representations of flame kernel development of a firing event in a cylinder fitted with a J-gap spark plug. Doing so significantly reduces the vulnerability of the flame kernel to late cycle quenching and the resulting loss of work. Electrode configuration. then a properly 72 Compressortech2 n Figure 8. Both low (top) and high (bottom) energy spark events are depicted individually. inclusive of the ignition coils. if a large electrode surface configuration is selected (i. performance. shielded vs. Such a trace is featured in Figure 9. replaced. It is also heavily influenced by the surfacevolume ratio (S/V) specific to the spark plug. Instead of integrating and operating the system as a system. current that increases through the arc and glow phases. and ultimately meeting emissions targets. n Figure 9. it is also the most important. unshielded. or changed largely without any substantive impact on operation.of lean pockets and electrode heat sinking do not produce a cylinder misfire. particularly when used in conjunction with a directed energy ignition system. The sole and singular mission of the spark plug is to effectively deliver the ignition system energy to the air/fuel charge in the cylinder. for a given engine in a given operating environment. and electrode configuration. Spark plug geometry Given the often commoditized nature of the ignition accessories on an engine. Voltage is depicted in yellow (above) and current in blue (below) “Pumping” the current later in the discharge enables the application of additional energy as needed to the mixture to insure that the cooling and potentially extinguishing effects JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . reducing misfire. and in achieving an acceptable spark plug service life. secondary leads. is much more a matter of choice and preference. nonresistor.” Essentially. the ascending current profile illustrated in Figure 9 has consistently demonstrated a capacity to reliably ignite lean or poorly scavenged mixtures where conventional systems or other less current-intensive profiles could not. reach. the spark plug construction and electrode geometry choices have been documented to have had a particularly profound impact in assuring in-cylinder combustion. Throughout the field validation phase of testing the directed energy ignition systems. Combustion of an air/fuel charge within a cylinder is a function not just of achieving the right AFR charge and delivering a properly timed ignition pulse of sufficient energy and duration. In much of the field validation testing done to date. The first four items are largely application specific. Luigi Tozzi in various publications: “The fundamental factor affecting ignitability is the surface-volume ratio which is defined as the ratio between the electrode surface area and the volume of the gap confined between said surfaces.
41 mm). backed with field test data. The rate of displacement of electrode material is well known to be at its maximum during the breakdown phase of the spark event.n Figure 10. (0. (0. high-energy ignition systems — that the introduction of a spark event characterized by the presence of high current would accelerate the erosion of the electrodes on the associated spark plugs.254 mm) gap with a S/V=7. however. The 0. However.016 in. This is a CFD combustion simulation model of a three-prong electrode configuration with two different gap sizes.016 in. An additional illustration. The Dual bar configuration with a S/V=1. The Dual bar and J-gap electrodes are shown in the end on (two top graphics) and from the side (two bottom graphics). Once the flow of current has been established. 0. sized gap between the hot and ground electrodes will produce good combustion initiation within the cylinder. Conventional wisdom generally implies — perhaps fueled by past experiences with alternative. Consider again the high current profile in Figure 9. as is expected. the secondary voltage drops precipitously but the current delivery continued on page 74 n Figure 11. The result is more reliable and consistent air/fuel combustion and a reduced misfire rate. All other factors being equivalent/constant. the spark plug service life of such a configuration (Dual bar) is much lower than that of the J-gap geometry. These are CFD combustion simulation models of Dual bar and J-gap electrode spark plug configurations.41 mm) gap with a S/V= 4.9 mm-1 results in a more developed flame kernel because of the reduced quenching effects than the 0. (0. Figure 11. the message of the model and confirming field test results is clear: exposing a larger amount of the mixture to a spark energy discharge originating from electrodes with low surface/volume ratios produces a larger and more robust flame kernel.2 mm-1 demonstrates significantly faster flame development than the J-gap with a S/V=5 mm-1. This illustrates the clear need for consideration of both ignitability and spark plug durability when selecting the appropriate spark plug for a given application.010 in.010 and 0.8 mm-1.254 and 0. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 73 Compressortech2 . has confirmed that a high current/pumped current spark profile can be operated for improved performance such as that outlined above while simultaneously maintaining or improving upon current spark plug service life. shows an example of a three-prong electrode configuration and the flame kernel development resulting from two different gap sizes. Modeling. Figure 10 is an example of how similar electrode gaps will produce different flame kernel growth because of the S/V differences inherent to the spark electrode geometry differences.
Lepley. October 2011. and Steven B. CT2 literature Monitoring Systems SEMS Summary Pumps Seal-less Pumps Pioneer Petrotech Serv ices Inc. G3. Brooks. www. Photos and specifications are included with each pump series. do not compare unfavorably in their impact on spark plug service life. David T. Prometheus Applied Technologies. www.” ASME-ICE2006-1417. 1984. 2010. “Development of a Long Duration Capacitive-Discharge Ignition System. The featured pumps include the Moyno 2000 G1. New York. R. G4 and CCWA/ WB pumps. Heywood. Joseph M. 2. Sotiropoulou. is offering a bro chure that describes the technological features and benefits of its line of Moyno 2000 pumps. G2.moyno. Lepley. and Joseph M. even an event with current levels that are an order of magnitude in total delivered amperage. B.innomag. 38. LLC. Controlling the application of unreasonably high current levels by predefining the current profiles within the system allows for the maximization of performance while minimizing any negative impact on spark plug service life.increases in value through the glow/duration portion of the event. “Validation and Performance Analysis of a Directed Energy Ignition System on Large Bore Natural Gas-Fueled Engines. Dr. The result is equally clear: an ascending current spark event. LLC. McGraw-Hill. Through this phase. High Power Density. editors: Hillard and Springer.. CPU-2000. 8. Maly. ICE Vol. E.acutech-consulting.” ASME Paper. pump system monitoring.com 74 Moyno Inc. Bell. Prometheus Applied Technologies.” Privately Commissioned Report. 5. References 1. October 2010. Pirko. Keith S. 1988. Brooks. 3.. January 2012. Applications for the product include CO2 injection monitoring. demonstrated that such a high current spark profile can produce service life results that exceed those achieved with a conventional CD ignition system. “Solutions for Improving Spark Plug Life in High Efficiency. which was enacted after the Deepwater Horizon incident on April 20. detailing the components and capabilities of each. “Combustion Performance Test on a Cooper GMV Engine.com Compressortech2 . Furthermore. 7.” Presented at the Gas Machinery Conference. 4. www. 6. Lepley. The literature covers the company’s TB-mag and U-mag series of pumps. “A New Technology Electronic Ignition Which Eliminates the Limitations of Traditional Ignition Systems. 3.pioneerps. Lepley. as well as the HS System.com Innovative Mag-Drive has published literature on its seal-less pumps. “Gas Engine Ignition System Requirements and Performance. a specific field test (Field Test 1). Natural Gas Engines. and David E.” Privately Commissioned Report. Book No. The brochure includes data on the company’s Elite and Premium series monitoring systems. J.” Presented at the Gas Machinery Conference. the erosion of the electrode material is a fraction of that which takes place during the high-voltage breakdown event. G01182.com JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 AcuTech Consulting Group has published a summary on the Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) rule. Bell. The final SEMS rule requires offshore operators to develop and implement SEMS for oil. “Spark Ignition: Its Physics and Effect on the Internal Combustion Engine. Altronic DEIS vs. has published a brochure on its permanent downhole monitoring systems. David E. 2002. Ch. gas and sulfur operations in the Outer Continental Shelf. The brochure includes performance and technical information. well testing and pressure build-up surveys. as well as photographs of the pumps.” Plenum Press. June 2011. Fuel Economy. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. Inc. Joseph M. Keith S. www.
484. has published literature on its oil and gas industry pumps. tripled the size of the company. A diagram of pump series and their features is included. The guide features photos and specifications of each drive system in the TMdrive XL series. avoid peak electric rates. and axial-flow elbow pumps.com for more information. semi-open impeller pumps. A durable. The Dual Drive CA Series. 75 Compressortech2 .com JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 The ETT Dual Drive CA Series is changing the way the industry moves natural gas.eggerturopumps.000 horsepower of Dual Drive compression. a Warren Rupp brand. which included orders for more than 90. ETT’s record-setting growth in 2012. www. The pumps mentioned are natural gas-operated doublediaphragm pumps and air-operated double-diaphragm drillers mud pumps.tmeic.5370 or visit ettdualdrive. THE DUAL DRIVE CA SERIES KEEPS PRODUCTION HIGH AND EMISSIONS LOW.kimray. The company’s offerings include vor tex pumps with a fully recessed impeller.jp Oil & Gas Pumps Sandpiper Pump. as well as a list of applications. The dual-drive-system allows you to balance your operations by running on either an electric motor or a natural gas engine. and continue to run during maintenance or power outages. Egger Turo Pumps is based out of Salt Lake City. gas pipeline and industrial compressors. overrunning clutch seamlessly switches between the drivers allowing you to optimize use of the lowest-cost fuel source. The actuator requires a hydraulic pump.literature Drive Systems Toshiba MitsubishiElectric Industrial Systems Corp.com ETT CA SERIES DUAL DRIVE Solid-Handling Pumps A brochure from Egger Turo Pumps pro vides information on the company’s pumps that can handle solids. which allows users to actuate valves without emissions.1 bar) to actuate. www. (TMEIC) has published a guide on its TMdrive XL series drive systems. To see the Dual Drive CA Series in action call 469. www. www.us POWERING FORWARD Electrohydraulic Actuator Literature is available on Kimray’s electrohydraulic actuator. a natural gas compressor with two drivers runs at an industry-leading 99% runtime.co. It can be used with any size Kimray topworks or spring return topworks requiring 30 psi (2. which include liquefied natural gas.sandpiperpump.
there are trade-offs. the tendency for valve plates to stick. Barry Husband is a staff mechanical engineer for BASF Corp. Texas. The FFP is a fundamental change in cylinder component design. glides on cushion of process gas By Barry Husband and Skip Forman s process requirements become more critical and environmental constraints more stringent. and the need for ongoing maintenance of the lubrication system. Free-Floating Piston Eliminates Rider Band friction-free compressor piston Wear Problems at BASF > Oil-free. conditions within the cylinder can accelerate wear so drastically that run time between maintenance may be reduced to a few hundred hours — even as commercial pressures dictate longer uninterrupted run times. possible process gas contamination.’s technical engineering services at Freeport. repairs are minimal and reliability is excellent. More than 10 years of operating experience with the technology shows that rider band wear is reduced to near zero. allowing operators to recover the costs and downtime associated with frequent rider band replacement. the first FFP was installed in a heavy-duty hydrogen compressor Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 .n Workers install a free-floating piston. such as oil consumption and disposal. operators have increasingly turned to nonlubricated cylinders in their reciprocating gas compressors. The FFP practically eliminates rider band wear. The FFP is compatible with all process gases and can be retrofitted to existing non-lubricated compressors. although piston rings and packing case components typically experience shorter service lives as well. For a growing number of applications. preventing the rider bands from making contact with the cylinder. this design lifts the piston so that it glides back and forth in the cylinder on a cushion of pressurized process gas. it is the shortened life span of rider bands that drives compressor operators to search for answers to accelerated wear. the solution is found in a technology that allows nonlube operation while eliminating friction problems. Cylinders that are not lubricated avoid a number of costly problems. Texas. However. Skip Foreman is Cook Compression’s director of product sales — Americas at The Woodlands. However. A Without lubrication. the primary damage from extreme wear is done to piston rider bands. Developed by Howden Thomassen Compressors. Known as the free-floating piston 76 (FFP). Most often.
26 cm) and 14 in. Suction temperature is 33°F (0.76 bar). (0. While the concept is simple. The gas is then forced out through flow nozzles integrated into the bottom of the rider bands to form a film of pressurized gas (approximately 10 to 50 microns deep) that supports the weight of the piston. while discharge temperature is 155°F (68°C). in 1998. maximum rider band wear was 0. Rider bands were typically worn out after five to six months of operation.014 in. it is elevated clear of the cylinder liner by a thin cushion of process gas. resulting in significant damage.n Arrows show gas flow through the free-floating piston. FFP technology As the FFP travels in the cylinder. The face of the FFP includes a series of pressure-sensitive valves. implementation demands the highest standards of precision engineering. During the compression stroke.’s Freeport. manufacturer and provider of technical support. With FFPs. these valves are pushed open to allow the interior of the piston to fill with process gas under high pressure. BASF officials said the technology is working well and the installation is on target to meet expectations. where licensee Cook Compression is the exclusive FFP representative. (0.36 mm) after 11 months of operation. The technology is rapidly gaining popularity in North America. (0. The lower surface of each rider band continued on page 78 FFP Case Study: BASF Corp. BASF decided to replace its conventional compressor pistons with free floating pistons (FFP).005 in. (48. (35. The FFP pistons were installed in both cylinders of the BASF hydrogen compressor in October 2011. accelerated rider band wear allowed the piston to contact the liner.48 bar) and discharge pressure is 40 psig (2. E ngineers at BASF Corp. about 250 FFP systems have been installed worldwide. plant were searching for ways to increase the service life of rider bands in an Ingersoll Rand HSE-2-NL nonlube compressor in hydrogen service.23 mm). cost and delays. Since that then. CT2 77 Compressortech2 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . Installation procedures for a FFP are essentially the same as with a conventional piston and rod assembly. The unit has continued to run without problems and with only minimal stops for planned maintenance. No special techniques or equipment are necessary. On several occasions. Texas. Suction pressure is 7 psig (0. After four months of continuous run time. rider band service life increased from a maximum of six to 12 months — and the unit has continued to operate normally to date.56°C). An inspection was performed in February 2012. A second inspection in August 2012 revealed maximum rider band wear had increased only 0. BASF is among the world’s largest diversified chemical companies.009 in. The single-stage compressor has 19 in. After consulting with Cook Compression.36 cm) cylinders and operates at 514 rpm.13 mm) to a total of 0.
Some FFP in- n The flow nozzles in the rider bands release pressurized process gas. Contact between the rider band and the cylinder liner is effectively reduced to zero. avoid contamination risks. enhance machine reliability and availability — and in some cases — remove the need for a spare standby compressor. The top of the rider band is machined so that when the piston lifts. enclosure. FFP users have noted that. the cushion layer is maintained. the piston increases the service life of piston rings and packing case components by centering the piston in the cylinder. stallations also report reduced power consumption and decreased noise. which provides a cushion for the cylinder. it will not contact the top of the cylinder. As commercial and environmental concerns continue to encourage the use of non-lube compressors. The FFP keeps the piston centered in the cylinder during operation so that rider bands only contact the cylinder in the brief periods during start up and shut down. By providing an alternative to lubricated cylinders. As long as there is pressure in the system. free-floating pistons allow operators to reduce costs. the use of FFP technology is expected to gain wider acceptance in North America and throughout the world. The volume of gas required is extremely small — less than 1% of the cylinder capacity. CT2 has a profile that assures the gas is distributed accurately to create a bearing layer. forming a sealed . in addition to eliminating rider band wear problems. The rider bands are positioned between the piston rings.n Pressure-sensitive valves are located on the piston. providing a fail-safe mechanism in the event of problems arising elsewhere in the compressor.
has released the model 950XP explosion-proof I/P transducer with natural gas option that has a bleed rate of 2.4 psi (0.2 to 1. a T5 temperature rating. www. sewage treatment facilities and other sites requiring UL-844 standards.S. including three-wire GE LVRTs and gas turbine LVDTs. The SafeSite High Bay is the most recent addition to the company’s line of 100 lm/W products. Such hazardous location applications include: oil. with its high-definition.03 bar). The model has FM. The SafeSite LED High Bay delivers up to 17.1 bar). 50/60 Hz. The industry has until Oct. The S1A offers a choice of four excitation frequencies. a massive amount of measurement data will be recorded automatically and continuously.dialight.08 m3/hr). meaning that it exceeds the new rule’s standards. can handle any measuring task. 2. such as inadmissible coupling backlash or vibration influences from adjacent machinery. wastewater.1% of span. the company said. In case of disruptive interferences. 15. the S1A DIN rail module supports LVDT operation and indicates most common failures. CSA. The seven-axis sensALIGN sensor. the system provides further hints on how to obtain better measurement data. eight analog dc outputs (six dc voltage and two 79 . During shaft rotation. allowing the ability to change output range in the field.2 to 1. the user will receive information on the quality of the measurement. steam valve position feedback. ControlAir said. power generation.8 to 30. It is not affected by vibration and change of mounting position. natural gasdriven pneumatic controllers between the wellhead and natural gas processing plant or oil pipeline to have a bleed rate not greater than 6 cfh (0.com current loop outputs) and RS-485 digital communications. designed to provide fast LVDT setup with built-in null indication and front panel pushbuttons to set zero and full scale. ControlAir Inc. Engineered to work with multiple AC-LVDTs. www. At the same time. 2013 to be in compliance.17 m3/ hr).com Explosion-Proof I/P Transducer Signal Conditioner The U. Designed as a replacement for up to 400W conventional HID lighting fixtures.pruftechnik. The company unveiled its 100 lm/W nonclassified DuroSite LED High Bay in February.8 cfh (0.9 to 27. and ATEX approvals for use with natural gas. http://alliancesensors. 50/60 Hz to 347 to 480 Vac. RVDTs and inductive halfbridge sensors.FEATURED PRODUCTS Alignment System LED lighting fixture. www.com Compressortech2 LED Lights Dialight. debuted an 100+ lumens per watt (lm/W) Class I Div 2 certified JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 Alliance Sensors Group introduced the S1A AC-LVDT signal conditioner. which provide proper lighting for hazardous locations. Environmental Protection Agency published a new rule that requires continuous-bleed. gas. and comes with a tapped exhaust and sealed conduit. The infinite measuring range is capable of handling gross misalignments and measuring long couplings. a provider of LED lighting technology. all of Dialight’s SafeSite High Bay fixtures feature a universal voltage range of 100 to 277 Vac.500 lumens at 172 W.4 to 2.controlair.9 bar) and 5. The 950XP’s internal feedback design results in overall accuracy of 0. position-sensitive detector (HD PSD). the company said.9 to 14.9 psi (0. which is a laser shaft alignment system consisting of the Rotalign Ultra computer and the sensALIGN sensor. Prüftechnik said. provides intelligence in the sensor. A Bluetooth module transfers data directly from the sensor to the operating computer. It is also available with a field selectable option. intelliSWEEP.5 psi (0. and other types of redundant control systems that use LVDT position sensors.com Prüftechnik Alignment Systems GmbH has introduced its latest alignment system — the Rotalign Ultra iS (intelligent System). Suitable applications for the S1A module include turbine control systems. and a corrosionresistant finish. the measurement mode. It is available with preset output ranges of 2.
DJ Slater. The words used in this puzzle are from the compressor packagers article on page 56.compressortech2. Puzzlemaster 7 Well Packaged H Y A T R I G G E R A F T G G B Y T H N A W Y G R E N E X E M A F Y I B S X B T D Y F G S T N V B H N R U M N A T L A V G I P R E S I D E N T Y T I C A P A C E H C U B E L B M I N U U U E T W P L K G B U E Q U I P M E N T Q R T F K G M L A R S Z N I D A M Z G I O E I L E N I O K G T R L T L N V M E F N R Q A A O M G C Y O P P O R T U N I T Y W Y R R R S B A I M S P E C I A L I Z E V O E D T R K P O T M V U W C F O K D V S G R R S E H R K E O D F T I N U V M S U I U M M D T O V G T Y I L P J D G E L L G P S I R N P L R R V T N A T U R A L G A S I O O E A L A I T N E T O P T I L M D N M Z X C N H T B M E Q I M I N E A E K R I U X R E Y K V O R G O O G D R R L J R T M M E J E S A E R C N I E K X E A O X P O R P J B Q D B U S T A E I I V H T W O R G E V I O J T C D L T R H E O S S B V P T Y T Activity Anticipation Attention Backlog Boom Bust Capacity Centrifugal Company Compressor Current Custom Deal Drilling Energy Equipment Flare Forecast Future Government Growth Horizon Increase Inventory Labor Liquid Market Natural Gas Nimble Oil Opportunity Optimism Orders Overall Package Percent Potential President Propane Range Regulations Shale Specialize Spur Strong Struggle Target Terminals Trigger JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 80 Compressortech2 .2 3 4 6 5 Scheduled Downtime Visit www.com for answers.
COM 1600 MISSILE WAY. March 25-28 Official Media Partner COMPRESSOR Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications Shaila D’Sa Dome Exhibitions PO Box 52641 Abu Dhabi. 1&2.F . Hudgins offers competitive salary and benefits including company vehicle.com for Marketplace Rates EXPLOSION PROOF 9:09 AM Contact Mary Graesing for pricing and details AC&DC ENGINE STARTING SYSTEMS • STARTER MOTORS • ALTERNATORS • SWITCHES • CLASS I.sogat. ANAHEIM.indd 1 REGISTRATION IS NOW OPEN! 1:07 PM Energy Corp. T . CA 92801 Phone: 262-754-4100 E-mail: mgraesing@dieselpub. Hudgins. Web Attachments Bragging Rights ( just in case they missed it) Custom Reprints From & Career Opportunity Reciprocating Machinery Analyst for a growing industry leader. Hudgins_classified. GROUP D UNITED STATES ENERGY CORPORATION (714) 871-8185 • (714) 871-9229 FAX WWW. 401(k).org Col x 1 in. paid vacation. and medical.US Energy Corp.F .USENERGYCORPORATION. Fax your cover letter and resume to HR Administrator at (713) 682-1109. DIV . Minimum 5 years experience using current portable and/or online analyzer equipment. is an Equal Opportunity Employer. 2003 7/30/03 3:14 PM Page 1 Marketplace Compressortech2 Perfect For Brochures. please visit 11/20/12 9th International SOGAT Conference SOGAT Workshops: Filtration and Separation Sour Oil & Gas Process Optimisation Acid Gas Injection H2S Safety How to Design a Sulphur Forming and Handling Facility Reducing Liquid Flaring and Oil Wastage during Sour Well Testing and Intervention Optimising the Management of your Catalysts to Improve Sulphur Recovery March 26-28 March 24-25 March 24-25 March 24 March 24 March 24 March 25 March 25 Beach Rotana Hotel. dental. Abu Dhabi March 24-28 2013 SOGAT Exhibition Officially Supported by Organised by Optimized Gas Treating.com Tel: +971 2 674 4040 Fax: +971 2 672 1217 . Incorporated.indd 1 Contact 1/16/13 cjohnson@dieselpub. T. UAE E-mail: email@example.com CT_ReprintAd_BWQuarterPg. 2003 Name: US Size: 1 www. Short-term travel required. vision and life insurance. Inc.
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The 1964 Diesel and Gas Engine Catalogue showed the Saturn rated at 1100 hp (820 kW) with a 22% thermal efficiency for power generation. more reliable. The excess air is mixed with the combustion products to reduce the gas temperature at the turbine first-stage inlet. So with the introduction of the industrialized Saturn gas turbine. which allows for the adjustment of the speed of the driven equipment to match process requirements. requiring a minimum of site preparation prior to installation. Solar Turbines’ product line includes gas turbines up to 30.9 m) wide and 15. and optional package enclosures with ventilation system. control system..5 ft. (2. The power turbine can cover a wide range of rotating speeds. skid with drip pans. Major package components and systems include the gas turbine.410 kg/hr) 970°F (520°C) 15. Solar also began to build its own line of centrifugal compressors for natural gas applications. In the single-shaft version. The cooling air reduces metal temperatures in the combustor and turbine assembly for a longer service life. The unenclosed mechanical drive package measures 6. on skid electrical wiring. The power turbine rotates on a shaft separate from the axial compressor and the gas producer turbine. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 . but it is further expanded in a single-stage reaction turbine. The packages are compact and lightweight. exhaust ducting and silencer. Direct drive Solar C16 compressors range from one to 10 stages in a vertically split barrel design at casing pressure ratings up to 3480 psig (240 bar). four pipeline compressor models. operating at a constant speed. and seven different production compressor models. CT2 83 Compressortech2 and mixed with the compressed air.2 ft.Cornerstones Of Compression Story continued from page 84 Solar Saturn 20 Gas Turbine Current ISO Compressor Set Rating At 15°C And Sea Level Power Heat Rate Exhaust Flow Exhaust Temperature Gas Producer Turbine Maximum Speed Power Turbine Maximum Speed 1590 hp (1185 kW) 10.370 Btu/hph (14. Solar’s leaders realized the Saturn gas turbine also had commercial potential because it was far smaller.7 m) long. The gas turbine requires approximately one-third of the total air it compresses for combustion. fire detection system and combustible gas detection. After this expansion the gas has lost some pressure and temperature.000 operating hours and claimed over half the U. The total driver package weighs 15.370 kW). lube oil system. air inlet filtration and silencer. piping and manifolds.0 m) high. The article reported that the Saturn fleet had already accumulated over 500. including many that are matched with Solar centrifugal compressors to form complete compressor sets for gas production and pipeline applications. such as complete gas compressor sets. and is used to drive compressors or pumps. the hot pressurized gas from the combustor first expands through a two-stage reaction turbine (the gas producer turbine) that drives the eightstage axial compressor. requiring minimal floor space for installation.4 ft (4. (6805 kg) without oil. An auxiliary gear case on the inlet end can be used for accessory drives. and Canadian market for industrial gas turbines in the 700 to 5000 hp (522 to 3729 kW) range. Factory-built Saturn packages are completely integrated and self-contained. starting system. hot pressurized gas from the combustor expands through a three-stage reaction turbine. pump-drive packages and generator sets. In the two-shaft version. the company would have to offer full factory-assembled-and-tested turbomachinery packages.615 lb/hr (23. it burns in a continuous combustion process. This turbine provides power to drive the eightstage axial compressor. fuel system.300 rpm The Saturn’s ratings have evolved over time with technological advances. as well as the driven generator. Solar recognized that to win over customers from reciprocating equipment.000 hp (22.670 kJ/kWh) 51. 6. Today. Once the mixture is ignited during the starting process. the so-called power turbine. rather than bare gas turbine engines. Saturn gas turbines have logged more than 930 million operating hours. lighter in weight.005 lb. compressor drive and other mechanical drive applications. and today’s Saturn 20 has an ISO rating of 1590 hp (1185 kW).000 rpm 22. a subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc. A large number of Saturn packages have been used in power generation applications and a wide range of mechanical drive applications. low-speed reciprocating engines that were traditionally used for industrial applications. and easier to maintain than the large.S. (1.
Solar Turbines was established in 1927 as PruddenSan Diego Airplane Co.5:1 compression ratio. But the firm built only three all-metal airplanes before the Great Depression hit. Solar developed techniques for fabricating high-temperature materials. and even ventured into stainless steel caskets. There. frying pans. Solar was selected to help with development of some of the critical high-temperature components for America’s first jet engines. bulk milk containers and redwood furniture. Renamed Solar Aircraft Co. Pioneering The Lightweight Industrial Gas Turbine Compressor Package > Solar’s Saturn turbine entered market in 1960 By Norm Shade he Saturn gas turbine. The compressed air is directed into an annular combustion chamber. Late in the 1940s. C ornerstones Of Compression n This cutaway drawing shows the Saturn 20 gas turbine. 47 hp (35 kW) gas turbines for powering portable fire pumps. In both versions. it remains in production today in uprated and enhanced configurations. for airplane engine exhaust manifolds. Also during the war. After World War II. The Saturn is available as a single-shaft gas turbine to drive generators and as a two-shaft gas turbine to drive compressors and pumps.S. has been one of the world’s most widely used industrial gas turbines with nearly 5000 units operating in over 60 countries. such as stainless steel. fuel is injected with 12 injectors continued on page 83 Compressortech2 . Navy contract to develop and manufacture small. During this period. making more than 300. Solar Aircraft was a vital defense company during World War II. to remain viable. the young company struggled through the 1930s while making a variety of products. in 1929 (after San Diego’s sunny climate). the company converted production to aircraft and rocket hardware. designed and manufactured by Solar Turbines. First produced in 1960. Solar won a U. This was the start of a decades-long journey to become a world leader JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2013 84 T in industrial gas turbines and turbomachinery packages. The Saturn turbine resulted from a 1950s Navy contract for development of a 1000 hp (750 kW) engine for highspeed boat propulsion. A subsequent Navy contract was awarded to build 400 hp (300 kW) gas turbine units to generate shipboard electrical power. air is drawn into the gas turbine air inlet and compressed by an eight-stage axial compressor producing a 6.000 airplane exhaust manifolds.
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